"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.
By ROBERT RICHARDSON
CHAPTER 11 - ORIGINAL PAGES 1,001-1,100
CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
ACTUAL PAGES 751-825
VOL-2 PAGES 226-300:
VOL. II. — P CHAPTER VII.
Skepticism — Natural Theology — Socialism — Robert Owen — Second marriage — Mahoning Association — Basis of union — Prominent fellow-laborers — Their unselfish devotion to the cause.
MR. CAMPBELL had, from the first, courted free discussion in the pages of the "Christian Baptist." As he sought for truth alone, he felt that he had nothing to lose in giving his opponents equal space with himself, and publishing all they had to say against the views he taught. This liberality afforded a stand- ing contrast with the narrow course pursued by the sectarian editors, who, while they allowed him to be grossly misrepresented in their various periodicals, denied to him the opportunity to correct the false im- pressions made upon their readers. In all this, how- ever, their course was consistent with sectarian policy. They had adopted certain articles of belief as unques- tionably true, and did not wish to have any misgivings created in regard to them. They had begun with cer- tainties, and very naturally felt unwilling to end with doubts. Mr. Campbell and those with him, on the other hand, had begun with doubts, in order that they might end with certainties. Conservation was the aim of the former, but progress that of the latter. The religious faith and practice of the former were stereo- typed and fixed, and to them change involved danger, if not destruction ; those of the latter were yet in pro-
INFIDELS AND SKEPTICS. 227 cess of formation, and to these change only implied an increased knowledge of truth and an augmentation of power. The discoveries already made from the sacred oracles had revealed to Mr. Campbell the sad defections of the Christian world and the means by which the Church could be restored to its original efficiency. It was not strange, therefore, that he should strive to awaken religious society from its sleep of error, nor was it singular that sectarians, p'eacefully slumbering on the couch of orthodoxy, should dislike to be disturbed. They accordingly, in general, re- fused fair discussion, and sought to evade unwelcome issues, either by misrepresentation or by a more politic silence. These methods, however, were peculiarly dis- tasteful to one of Mr. Campbell's open temperament, who seemed to realize in his very inmost nature the truth of what is so well said by Sir William Drum- mond at the close of his "Academical Questions:" '"'■He who will not reason is a bigot; he who cannot is a fool, and he who dare not is a slave." The fearless and straightforward course which he adopted made a very favorable impression, not only, as has been seen, on many who were identified with the various religious parties, but on a very large class outside of them, who had found so many contradictions, and, as they thought, absurdities in the creeds, and so much inconsistency in the conduct of the various re- ligious parties, that they had fallen into difficulty and doubt in regard to the truth of religion itself. A great many of those denominated " skeptics" and " infidels'* were doubtless such from a depraved will, which re- fused to weigh impartially the Christian evidences, and yielded a credulous assent to things far more difficult to believe than miracles. A still larger portion, how-
228 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ever, consisted of men of clear discernment and sincere purposes, and who were often even conspicuous for virtue, and apparently anxious to obtain relief from a state of uncertainty, which they felt to be both irksome and discreditable. These were not wholly without religious impressions, but while they could not fail to admire the character of Christ and the morality of his teachings, they felt themselves unable to receive the tenets of any of the different sects, which they thought inconsistent with reason. Others again there were, by no means inconsiderable in number, who, under the influence of religious teaching, had earnestly sought for those special " experiences" in which so many trusted for their hope of salvation, and, having failed to obtain them, had come to doubt the truth of religion altogether. All these different classes felt quite at- tracted to Mr. Campbell when they found that he admitted them to present their difficulties freely in the " Christian Baptist," and that they were not subjected to denunciation and abuse. They felt also particularly interested by the fact that he boldly opposed the clergy and their theological systems, and that he thus seemed in some measure to occupy their own ground. Still, as they had no idea of Christianity except as it was presented in these modern systems, they were not a little surprised that Mr. Campbell could expose them as he did and yet continue a believer, and they wished to have an explanation of the mystery. To their eyes, he seemed to have enveloped the bush of Christianity in flames, and they desired to draw near that they might see "this great sight, why the bush was not burned." With Mr. Campbell, however, Christianity as pre- sented in dogmatic theology was something very dif^ OBSTACLES TO BELISF. 329 ferent from the gospel of Christ. In his view, this consisted in a few simple facts, resting upon incontro- vertible evidences, and not in speculations, theories and perplexing opinions. Skeptical objections, based, as they usually were, upon these, he could at once dispose of as wholl}' irrelevant, while his own im- pregnable fortress of simple truth presented no vul- nerable point of attack. He was so far, therefore, from dreading the results of controversy with the skeptical that he took a peculiar pleasure in it, not only because he sympathized with their difficulties, but because infidelity was one of those subjects which he had thoroughly investigated. His complete mastery of all the possible trains of skeptical thought, and the comprehensiveness and penetrating power of his mind, unequaled in logical acumen, in ability to detect false arguments and discover true ones, and which could perceive in an instant the relations of proposition and proof, gave him an extraordinary power in such dis- cussions which naturally sought every suitable oppor- tunity to exert itself. He was, accordingly, often en- gaged in them both publicly and privately, and was constantly receiving and answering the inquiries of unbelievers. He had received in July, 1826, a letter from a young man who had been a Methodist, but failing to realize, after a long travail, the spiritual change he had been taught to expect, became at length doubtful as to the truth of revealed religion. This letter Mr. Campbell published, and went on in a series of admirable repli- cations, designed for the benefit of skeptics in general, to meet and remove the supposed obstacles to belief suggested by his correspondent. In these articles he began to apply a principle which 20 230 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. turnished him with a most potent and original argument in favor of divine revelation. This principle was in direct opposition to the one assumed in works of natural theology, and its enunciation by Mr. Campbell greatly surprised and confounded the skeptics, who had been accustomed to contend against the opposite, and were surprised to find Mr. Campbell going even quite be- yond them in his opposition to the claims of natural theolog}'. Assured that skeptics, universally, were in- debted to revelation for their ideas of God, and per- ceiving that they then mingled these with reasonings and imaginations of their own, he boldly took the ground that no one from nature alone could ever ac- quire the notion of God. He admitted that when the idea was once given by revelation, its truth could be shown and illustrated by the natural world, but he de- nied that the proposition could have ever been suggested by nature, or, in other words, that man left to the exer- cise of his five senses, could ever have derived from an}'^ material source the idea of a spiritual Being — a Supreme Creator. Mr. Campbell had long been convinced that in schools of theology of every kind the Bible had been systematically deprived of its true glory and authority, and human reason, under the guise of natural the- ology, substituted in its place. The popular notion that nature revealed the idea of God he thought originated in men's beginning to reason with the idea already in their minds, and finally imagining that they had acquired it by reasoning. " AH that the Book of Nature teaches," said he to anothei correspondent in reference to this subject, " is, that ever)^ animal and vegetable is dependent on its own kind for its production. The whole volume does not afford a model or A NEW ARGUMENT. 231 archetype for an idea of any animal or plant being dependent on any other of a different nature and kind for its production. You leap over the distance from earth to heaven in your rea- soning; or rather you fledge yourself with the wings of fiiith, and find in the Bible the idea of all things being dependent on a Being unlike any other, who produces no being like himself, contrary to your analogy from the Book of Nature, and who produces all beings, both unlike himself and one another. You flew so nimbly and so easily over this mighty gulf that you were not conscious that you had got out of the region of earth-born ideas altogether, and were farther than all space from the Volume of Nature which you sat down to read. . . . " But I have a few facts, which, on your principles, are in- explicable — on mine, they are easily understood : " I. Not one of the .terms peculiarly expressive of the idea of a God, such as spirit, eternity, immortality, etc., are to be found amongst any people antecedent to their being possessed of oral or written revelation. " 2. No nation or individual without written or oral revela- tion can be found with a single idea of any item in the deist's creed. "3. All the deaf and dumb who have been made to hear and speak, or who have been taught to communicate their ideas, have uniformly and universally declared that an idea of a God, or anything under that name, never entered their minds. This is decisive proof that the knowledge of God enters the human mind by the ear., or by communication, verbal or written. " 4. Not one of the idolatrous nations pretend to have de- rived their religion from reason." The views, then, which he propounded, based upon a careful induction from the above fiicts, were, as stated in his own language, as follows : "■I.I contend that no man, by all the senses and powers of reason which he possesses, with all the data before him which the material universe affords, can originate or beget in 232 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. his own mind the idea of a God in the irue sense of that word. " 2. But I contend, so soon as the idea of Deity is sug- gested to the mind, everything within us and without us, at- tests, bears testimony to and demonstrates the existence and attributes of such a Being. " If the first position can be established, it follows that there cannot be a rational deist on earth. If the second position be established, there cannot be an atheist amongst all the compos meniis of the human race." The novelty of these views, the growing reputation of Mr. Campbell and the peculiar circumstances of the times naturally directed the attention of a large por- tion of the community to the individual who dealt so unceremoniously with the dogmas of theology. The qualities which gave him this conspicuity, however, were but indications of his fitness for the further work which Providence had assigned to him. Heretofore, he had been occupied in delivering Christianity from its professed friends, but he was soon to be called to defend it from its open enemies. Hence, if, like Saul, he stood higher than any of the people, it was in ordei that men might " see him whom the Lord had chosen, that there was none like him among the people." The times, indeed, loudly demanded such a champion. Infidelity had of late been pouring into the United States from Europe like a flood, and the period was at hand when the Lord was to " lift up a standard" against it. The remarkable success which had attended the arrangements of David Dale, at the New Lanark Mills, in Scotland, for the improvement and happiness of the working-classes ; the ingenious and captivating theories of communism broached by Charles Fourier, in France, and the plausible philosophy of the "social system" NEW CO-OPERATIVE SYSTEMS. 233 earnestly advocated by Robert Owen, the son-in-law of Mr. Dale, had begun to create a strong public feel- ing, in many places, in favor of the formation of co- operative societies. Enthusiastic foreigners, filled with ardent hopes of effecting a complete renovation of human society, flocked to the United States whose free institutions and fresh uncultivated plains furnished, they thought, the most favorable conditions for their experiments. Communities were speedily organized and territory secured. At Kendal, in Stark county, Ohio ; at New Harmony, in Indiana, and at various other points, operations were actually commenced, and men of ability were zealously and actively employed in commending in lectures, pamphlets and other publica- tions the plans and principles of these new associations. At this period success seemed everywhere to attend these movements. The impressible and enterprising American mind soon imbibed the spirit of the system, and projects were everywhere set on foot for the for- mation of " societies" and " phalanxes" of various de- scriptions. To mere economical and co-operative arrangements for the promotion of social welfare no just objection, indeed, could be made. Mr. Campbell had himself, at a former period, engaged in a project of this kind, and looked with approval on the management and prosperity of such industrial communities as he had found at Zoar in Ohio and elsewhere. These, however, had either confined themselves to the regulation of mere tem- poral concerns, leaving the religious sentiments of indi- viduals entirely free, or else had embodied religion as an essential part of their scheme. But the case was wholly different with most of the new co-operative sys- tems now proposed. Their adherents seemed to think 20 * 234 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that religion was directly in their way in their efforts to remodel society, and they therefore strove, by every means in their power, to destroy its influence. This was especially true of the movement directed by Robert Owen, from which everything of a religious character was to be totally excluded. Upon these principles a considerable society had already been formed at New Harmony, in Indiana, to which were flocking the- orists and skeptics of every grade, and where a periodi- cal was published advocating with considerable ability and still greater assurance their principles of infidelity and of socialism. Mr. Campbell had for some time contemplated these movements at a distance. When he found, however, on a nearer view, that they were armed against religion, he at once ran up to his masthead the banner of the cross and prepared for action. In order to develop the strength of opponents whom he felt assured it was his destiny to meet, he published five 'essays headed, *' Robert Owen and the Social System," and " Deism and the Social System." In the first of these he thus spoke of Mr. Owen and his enterprise : " Mr. Owen has attracted much attention in this country, as well as in Britain, from the singularity of his views and the benevolent nature of his efforts for the amelioration of society. He has afforded evidence of ' mental independence' never per- haps surpassed before. His talents, education, fortune and extraordinary zeal in the prosecution of his favorite object entitle him to a very liberal share of public respect. It is, I believe, very generally admitted that he is perfectly disinter- ested as far as respects pecuniary gain in all that he has done and is doing for the establishment and development of the social system. He has not been treated, however, with over much courtesy by many editors, both political and religious, who have animadverted upon his principles and his plans. ''NEW HARMONY GAZETTE." 235 For my own part, I have felt some degree of sympathy for him, and of mortification, too, at the nibblings of his op- ponents. . . . "The benefits resulting from a co-operative system have been apprehended in theory, and proved by experience before we heard of Mr. Owen in this country. A social system of co-operation may be grafted on any system of religion, true or false ; but that a social system of co-operation can at all exist without religious obligation has never yet been proven ; but this appears to be the experiment now on hand at New Harmony, Indiana. In this Mr. Owen has afforded the most convincing proof of ' mental independence.* The annals of the world fail to present one single league or confederation for any purpose that was not perfectly ephemeral without religion of some kind or other. I have no notion of getting angry with Mr. Owen, or of belaboring him with harsh epi- thets for hazarding an experiment of this sort. It is true, in- deed, that I regret that any person born in th^ eighteenth cen tury, and educated in the kingdom of Scotland, should have profited so little by the circumstances around him, and should have learned so little from all that has gone before him, as to suppose that a being such as man is could be happy in any circumstances without the hope of immortality beyond the grave." Having made this prediction of failure, which in a very few years was completely fulfilled, he in the next number thus refers to the "New Harmony Gazette," which he styles " the focus of the lights of skepticism :" " The conductors of that journal are amongst the most assiduous, devoted and persevering skeptics of the nineteenth century. The Bible, some way or other, stands in their way, and seems to be inimical to some favorite scheme or darling hypothesis of the builders of the city of Mental Independence. At all events, we have not seen a number of that paper in which there is not either a popgun or a blunderbuss dis- charged at revelation." 2jU MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Amongst other preparations for the anticipated en- gagement, he now lays down certain preliminary state- ments, such as — " I. That he defends the Bible and no man's system of religion, nor the arguments of others in behalf of the Bible. 2. That revelation, properly speaking, is an exhibit of super' natural things which could not be known by any other means, so that whatever can be known by reason or the senses is not a subject of revelation." He then puts to the skeptics the following questions, promising to take his proper share of the burden of proof: " Is there a God who created all things? And if answered in the affirmative, upon what evidence is this known? Is there a spirit in man which will survive the body or live after the animal life is extinct, and upon what evidence is this known? Is there a future state of felicity or of torment, and if so, upon what evidence is this known?" To these inquiries the '• Gazette" some time afterward gave the following answer: "We can reply to these propositions neither in the affirmative nor in the negative, for we possess no positive knowledge on any of these subjects. A God, the soul, heaven and hell, if such existences and places do really exist, can never, from their nature, become cognizable by the senses of man. I, therefore, cannot conceive how we shall ever be able to acquire information regarding their nature or existence." This answer Mr. Campbell published with the following remarks: "With all the improvements in philoso- phy for eighteen centuries the world is no wiser with respect to God than it was when Paul lived. He then declared that neither Greece nor Rome nor Egypt, by all their philosophy, knew God. Even to this day the God that was unknown in Athens is unknown in New Harmony and to all who have no other light than what philosophy affords. And here is another and a striking proof: the people of the city of ' Mental Independence' are said to have the best library on this Con- tinent, and with all the advantages of social converse in the best-improved condition of human nature, having voluntarily extinguished the light of supernatural revelation, have now A PROBLEM FOR SKEPTICS. 237 candidly and honestly avowed that whether there is a God at all, a spirit in man that will survive his mortal body, a heaven or hell, is to them unknown and unknowable. This is the identical conclusion to which I knew most certainly, by all the knowledge of philosophy which I possess, they would be constrained to come. For, as I have frequently said, there is no stopping-place between Deism and Atheism ; and they are lame philosophers who, taking philosophy for their guide, profess to hold with Herbert, Hume, Gibbon and Paine that there is a God, an immortal soul, a heaven or a hell. I give great praise to the New Harmony philosophers for their can- dor and their honesty in frankly avowing the conclusion which all the lights they have authorize them to maintain. I say they are good philosophers. They have reasoned well." Having thus obtained a clear statement of the posi- tion occupied by the New Harmony philosophers, he in a subsequent number presented to them the following : "A Problem : jFor the Editor of the ''Harmony Gazette^ and his doubting brethren : " You think that reason cannot originate the idea of an Eternal First Cause, and that no man could acquire such an idea by the employment of his senses and reason ; and you think correctly. You think also that the Bible is not a super- natural revelation — not a revelation from the Deity in any sense. These things premised, gentlemen, I present my problem in the form of a query again : " The Christian idea of an Eternal First Cause uncaused, or of a God, is now in the world and has been for ages im- memorial. You say it could not enter into the world by reason, and it did not enter by revelation. Now, as you are philosophers and historians, and have all the means of know- ing, how did it come into the world?" The surprise of the skeptics at finding Mr. Campbell to concur in the conclusions of their own philosophy was greatly increased when they found their argument thus turned against themselves, and that upon their own 238 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. principles they became at once involved in a palpable difficulty from which there was no escape. They had boasted greatly of their " mental independence," and imagined themselves to occupy a sphere of thought quite above that of the religious portion of the com- munity, but in coming into contact with Mr. Campbell, they found themselves confronted by a " mental inde- pendence " much greater than that in which they boasted, and they were quite at a loss how to meet his unexpected assaults. Caring nothing for arithmeti- cal defences of the size and contents of Noah's ark, or for geological explanations of the Mosaic account of creation, in order to refute the usual puerile cavils of skepticism, he had attacked at once the rationale of their system. Overleaping the outworks, he had ad- vanced at once upon the citadel, and the "New Har- mony Gazette," after this taste of his quality, seemed, for a lime, indisposed to renew the contest. Mr. Campbell, however, had no idea of allowing the advocates of the "social system "to continue the dissemi- nation of its principles unchallenged or unopposed,' and only awaited a favorable opportunity to come to close quarters with some of the larger vessels of the opposing foe. In February, 1828, he received a letter from an individual at Canton, Ohio, bewailing the evil effects produced upon the community there by the lec- tures of a socialist — a Dr. Underbill. "•For two months or more," said this correspondent, "he has been indefatigably engaged in preaching that sort of moral philosophy which the ' New Harmony Gazette' con- tains. He is going from place to place, and great numbers, I understand, are converted to his new doctrine. Though there is considerable alarm among the preachers about here none but a Roman priest undertook to contradict him — with ROBERT OWEN'S CHALLENGE. 239 very little effect, however. Since that time the Deists and free-thinkers of this place are getting quite bold, and even the apprentices of the workshops and boys in the streets begin to reason away and rail at religion. I am ashamed for my brethren, the English preachers, who stand back when that man speaketh, and only talk when he is not within hear- ing. Does not this show as if Christianity could not be de- fended against its enemies, or that its priests were too luke- warm to undertake its defence.'' It grieves me the more since Dr. Underbill has challenged, boldly, every one who would be willing to question his views, and has publicly called for opponents to his sentiments." He then asks if Mr. Campbell will not come and meet him. Mr. Campbell replied that it was not consistent with his views of propriety to go out of his way to meet so obscure an individual as Dr. Underbill, but that if his master, Robert Owen, chose to enter the field of debate, he would meet him. He said he thought such a dis- cussion was needed, but that he " would not draw a bow save at the king of the skeptics of the city of men- tal independence." He well knew how to "bide his time," and that the inferior position which he thus as- signed to Dr. Underbill would have the best effect in checking his success, and inducing the doubting to await ihe issue of a discussion, freely proffered, so soon as a more formidable antagonist should appear on the side of skepticism. Nor had he long to wait. Twenty- three days, indeed, before the date of the above letter, Mr. Owen himself, who had been for some time lectur- ing in New Orleans, had given a formal challenge to the clergy of that city to discuss with him the claims of religion, but the news of this had not yet reached Beth- any. No sooner, however, had Mr. Campbell received the intelligence, and learned at the same time that there Ho MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. had been no response from any of those addressed, than he at once published Mr. Owen's challenge and his prompt acceptance of it. " I have long wondered," said he, " why none of the pub- lic teachers of Christianity have appeared in defence of the last blessed hope of man. This skeptical age and country is the proper soil, and the youth of this generation the proper elements for Mr. Owen's experiments. I have felt indignant at the aspect of things in reference to this libertine and law- less scheme. Mr. Owen, a gentleman of very respectable standing as a scliolar and capitalist, of much apparent be- nevolence, traveling with the zeal of an apostle through Europe and America, disseminating the most poisonous sen- timents as Christians conceive, finding myriads in waiting to drink, as the thirsty ox swalloweth water, whatever he has to offer against the Bible and the hope of immortality, passes unchecked and almost unheeded by the myriads of advocates and teachers of the Christian religion. If none but Christian philosopiiers composed this society, it might be well enough to let Mr. Owen and his scheme of things find their own level. But while a few of the seniors disdain to notice or affect to disdain his scheme of things, it ought not to be for- gotten that thousands are carried away as chaff' before the wind by the apparently triumphant manner in which Mr. Owen moves along. " Impelled by these considerations and others connected with them, we feel it our duty to propose as follows : Mr. Owen says in his challenge before us : ' I propose to prove, as I have already attempted to do in my lectures, that all the religions of the world have been founded upon the ignorance of mankind ; that they are directly opposed to the never- changing laws of our nature ; that they have been and are the real source of vice, disunion and misery of every descrip- tion ; that they are now the only bar to the formation of a society of virtue, of intelligence, of charity in its most exten- sive sense, and of sincerity and kindness among the whole CHALLENGE ACCEPTED. 241 human family, and that they can be no longer maintained except through the ignorance of the mass of the people and the tyranny of the few over that mass.' " Now, be it known to Mr. Owen, and to all whom it may concern, that I, relying on the Author, the reasonableness and the excellency of the Christian religion, will engage to meet Mr. Owen any time within one year from this date, at any place equidistant from New Harmony and Bethany, such as Cincinnati, Ohio, or Lexington, Kentucky, and will then and there undertake to show that Mr. Owen is utterly incompe- tent to prove the positions he has assumed, in a public debate, before all who may choose to attend ; to be moderated or controlled by a proper tribunal, and to be conducted in per- fect good order from day to day, until the moderators or the parties, or the congregation or a majority of them, are satis- fied, as may afterward be agreed upon. I propose, moreover, that a competent stenographer, perfectly disinterested, shall be employed to take down the speeches on the occasion ; that for his trouble he shall have the exclusive right of printing and distributing said debate throughout the United States, and thus give all a right to hear or read whether Mr. Owen with all his arguments, benevolence and sincerity, is able to do what he has proposed. After stating these prominent items, I leave everything else open to negotiation or private arrangement. " To quote the words of Mr. Owen, ' With feelings of per- fect good-will to you, which extend also in perfect sincerity to all mankind, I subscribe myself your friend in a just cause,' Alexander Campbell. " Bethany, Va., April 25, 1828." Before learning the acceptance of his Orleans chal- lenge by Mr. Campbell, Mr. Owen had noticed the offer made in the Canton correspondence, and on the 14th of May addressed a letter to Mr. Campbell, con- senting to meet him, and proposing a sort of general assembly of the skeptics and the clergy for the purpose VOL. II.— Q 21 242 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of a full discussion. This Mr. Campbell declined as not likely u result beneficially, and informing Mr. Owen that he had already accepted his Orleans chal- lenge in the exact terms in which it was expressed, said that nothing now remained but to adjust the pre- liminaries. "I have," said he, in conclusion, "from a little experience in public discussions, no doubt but that I shall be able to maintain perfect good-humor throughout the whole, and I have reason to believe that your philosophy has improved your good-nature so far as to make you an acceptable disputant." A few weeks afterward, accordingly, Mr. Owen paid Mr. Campbell a visit in order to make the necessary arrangements. Mr. Campbell found him to be a very affable and pleasant gentleman, possessed of much interesting information. Mr. Owen, on his part, was much pleased with what he saw of Mr. Campbell, and appeared greatly delighted with the beautiful hills and landscapes to which Mr. Campbell called his attention during their pleasant walks in the vicinity of Bethany, and which, he assured Mr. Campbell, persons of taste in England would go many miles to see. In one of their excursions about the farm, they came to Mr. Campbell's family burying-ground, when Mr. Owen stopped and addressing himself to Mr. Campbell, said : " There is one advantage I have over the Christian — / am not afraid to die. Most Christians have fear in death, but if some few items of my business were settled, I should be perfectly willing to die at any moment." "Well," answered Mr. Campbell, "you say you have no fear in death ; have you any hofe in death?" After a solemn pause, " No," said Mr. Owen. "Then," rejoined Mr. Campbell (pointing to an ox standing near) , ' ' you are on a level with that brute. MAHONING ASSOCIATION. 243 He has fed till he is satisfied, and stands in the shade whisking off the flies, and has neither ho^e nor fear in death''' At this Mr. Owen smiled and evinced some confusion, but was quite unable to deny the just- ness of Mr. Campbell's inference. As he was now on his way to Europe, and did not expect to return before the beginning of winter, he desired to have the time of the discussion fixed for the second Monday of the following April. This being regarded as a suitable season, and Cincinnati being agreed on as the place of meeting, the amiable philosopher, with the kindest feelings, bade his host farewell. Shortly after his departure, Mr. Campbell was united in marriage with Miss S. H. Bakewell, whom he chose not only in deference to his first wife's earnest wish, but in accordance with his own deliberate judg- ment, the wisdom of which the future amply con- firmed. On the 24th of the preceding January, his eldest daughter, Jane, had been married to Mr. Albert G. Ewing, a gentleman of high standing and intelli- gence, residing at Nashville, Tennessee. And as they were at this time on a visit to Bethany, they concluded to accompany Mr. Campbell and his bride to the meet- ing of the Mahoning Association, at which Mr. Camp- bell was to deliver the introductory discourse. This meeting, which was held at Warren, was well attended and was an occasion of great interest. One year before, the Association had appointed Walter Scott as evangelist, little expecting the events which were so soon to follow, and on which many now looked back with thankfulness and wonder. The friends of pro- gress felt that a decisive victory had been gained, and that the primitive method of administering the gospel had indeed reappeared in the Church, restoring to it *44 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. its pristine power to convert the nations. This power had already been demonstrated by the addition of nearly one thousand persons to the churches within quite a limited area, as well as in various signal triumphs over sectarian opposition and in the fraternal union of preachers and people of dissevered parties. They rejoiced that the reformatory principles for some years discussed among them had led to such grand results, and, feeling more and more assured of their importance, were well disposed to carry them out in every particular. This disposition was soon to be tested in relation to a very important feature of the proposed reform — the scriptural basis of Christian union. The occasion for this was the case of Aylett Raines, who, though publicly identified with the movement, still retained, as was generally understood, his Restorationist opinions. The opponents of the cause had not failed to reproach its adherents with tolerating these errors, as they had not required a public renunciation of them, and there were many in the Association who were quite sensitive upon the subject, and doubted whether under such circumstances Mr. Raines could be received. As Mr. Campbell was aware of this state of feeling, he took as the subject of his introductory discourse the four- teenth chapter of Romans, dwelling particularly upon the injunction in the first verse : " Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations," or, as in the rendering adopted in the new version from Thompson, "without regard to differences of opinions." On the following day the case of Mr. Raines was formally brought before the Association by Jacob Os- borne, who wished to have the matter definitely settled. BASIS OF UNION TESTED. 345 Thomas Campbell immediately rose and remarked that such a question was only calculated to create discord among the brethren. " Brother Raines," said he, " has been with me during the last several months, and we have freely unbosomed ourselves to each other. He is philosophically a Restorationist and I am a Calvinist, but notwithstanding this difference of opinion between us, I would put my right hand into the fire and have it burnt off before I would hold up my hands against him. And from all I know of Brother Raines, if I were Paul, I would have him, in preference to any young man of my acquaintance, to be my Timothy." To this warm commendation, Mr. Raines at a subse- quent opportunity responded that " if he were Timo- thy, Thomas Campbell should be his Paul." Alex- ander Campbell then made some remarks, again de- fining the difference between faith and opinion, stating that Mr. Raines' views on the subject of the restoration of the wicked after a certain amount of punishment could be regarded as nothing but an opinion, since there was not a passage anywhere in the writings of prophets or apostles affirming it. It could never be considered a matter of belief, since there was no testi- mony to render it such. He therefore proposed that Mr. Raines should express his willingness to preach the gospel as the apostles preached it, and to retain his opinions as private property in harmony with the principles of the Reformation. If he would do this, he assured all present that in a short time all such opinions would fade away out of his mind, and he would see such a freeness and fullness in the gospel that he would not want men saved if they would not obey it. Walter Scott then expressed his entire con- currence in the views given, after which Mr. Raines 21 • 246 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. made the declaration proposed by Mr. Campbell, and the question being put " Whether there was any law of Christ by which a brother could be condemned who deported himself as Mr. Raines proposed to do?" the Association decided by a very large majority that there was not. Thus the case was settled, though some of those in the minority felt still so disturbed at the recep- tion of Mr. Raines that nothing but his prudence and careful avoidance of any effort to teach his speculative opinions prevented a schism which at the time might have been attended with disastrous consequences. On this occasion Mr. Campbell gave a very remark- able proof of his entire freedom from the exacting spirit which then governed religious parties. So far, indeed, was he in advance of the time that some of those asso- ciated with him thought he had in some measure com- promised the principle of the Reformation itself which required assent to the plain teaching of Scripture, and so much dissatisfied were some who had come to the meeting with a view of uniting with the reformers that they declined doing so. He recognized in Mr. Raines, however, one who sincerely believed the gospel, and who by no means doubted or denied the reality and certainty of the future punishment of the wicked. The only point of difficulty was the duration of that punish- ment, in regard to which Mr. Raines had adopted a theory to the effect that the benevolence of God would ultimately eliminate from the universe all traces of sin, its punishment included — a view similar to that held by the illustrious Origen and the celebrated John Foster, as well as by other individuals amongst the "orthodox." As Mr. Raines believed that God Would reward the right- eous and punish the wicked according to their works, Mr. Campbell considered this to be the substance of FAITH AND PHILOSOPHT. H7 the divine communications on the subject, and that con- jectures or theories as to anything beyond this were mere opinions or speculations. As Mr. Raines' agree- ment to hold these views in private as mere opinions was an admission of their doubtfulness and their want of Scripture authority, and his engagement to teach only what the Scripture revealed was all that the principles of the Reformation demanded, the course pursued was obviously correct. It gave an example, however, of a freedom of thought of which the religious community had never dreamed, and presented in a very striking light the Hberality of the basis of Christian union advo- cated b}' Mr. Campbell. The wisdom of his position in this case was fully borne out by the results. Mr. Raines became not only one of the ablest and most successful advocates of the cause, but it was not long until his favorite theory gave place to humbler views of man's ability to resolve the mysteries of the future ; and in order to complete the history it may be here stated that in 1830 he wrote thus to Mr. Campbell : " I wish to inform you that my ' restorationist' sentiments have been slow]}' and imperceptibly erased from my mind by the ministry of Paul and Peter and some other illustrious preachers, with whose discourses and writings, I need not tell you, you seem to be intimately acquainted. After my im- mersion I brought my mind, as much as I possibly could, like a blank surface to the ministry of the new institution, and by this means 1 think many characters of truth have been im- printed in my mind which did not formerly exist there. . . . I hope during the remainder of my days to devote my ener- gies, not to the building up of sectarian systems, but to the teaching of the Word." This purpose Mr. Raines has fully accomplished in a faithful and most efficient ministry of more than forty years, and recently thus refers to the cherished re- 248 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. niembrance of " the great kindness and magnanimity with which," says he, " the Campbells and Walter Scott treated me after my baptism, and before I was convinced of the errone- ousness of my restorationist philosophy. They used to say to me: 'It is a mere philosophy, like Calvinism and Arminian- ism, and no part of the gospel.' They made these isms of but little value, and therefore not worth contending for, and they did not put themselves in conflict with my philosophy, but rather urged me to preach the gospel in matter and form as did the apostles. This all appeared to me to be reasonable, and I did it ; and one of the consequences was, that the philoso- phy within me became extinct, having no longer the coals of contention by which to warm or the crumbs of sectarian righteousness upon which to feed." Thus has it ever been that while the false value attached to the inferences and deductions of human rea- son has originated and perpetuated religious strife and division, a sincere submission to the plain teachings of the word of God has promoted the cause of truth, unity and peace. Immediately after Mr. Campbell's discourse on Fri- day, it was agreed that the usual forms of the Associa- tion should be dispensed with, in order to hear from Mr. Scott a report of his year's labor. This was heard with great interest, and the question of his reappoint- ment coming up afterward, some discussion arose as to restricting his labors within the bounds of the associated churches, and also in regard to his request that the Association would appoint as his fellow-laborer Wil- liam Hayden, for whom he had formed a warm attach- ment, and who would, he thought, be eminently useful in this capacity. Some were for having the itineracy confined within the limits of the churches, but Mr. Scott wished to be at liberty to go to any point where there seemed to be a favorable opening. After much WILLIAM HA YDEN. 349 discussion, he arose finally and said with much ear- nestness of nji^nner: "Give me my Bible, my head and Brother William Hay den, and we will go forth to convert the world." Sidney Rigdon then moved that " the Association give to Walter Scott his Bible, his head and Brother William Hayden," which was at once agreed to. William Hayden lived at this time in Canfield. He was about the middle stature, thickset and athletic, with a complexion naturally rather dark and much tanned by exposure ; intelligent light gray eyes ; light hair ; a mouth somewhat large ; his countenance ex- pressive of both firmness and kindly feeling, and often wreathed with a winning smile. He was then in his thirtieth year, having been born June 30, 1799, in Rosstrevor township, Westmoreland county, Pennsyl- vania, from which, four years afterward, his father with the family removed to Youngstown, in Ohio, then quite a new country. Religious questions had engaged his attention at a very early period of life. Before he was twelve he had been first a deist and then an atheist in his sentiments, and had involved himself in great mental perplexity. Possessing good reasoning powers, however, and anxious to discover the truth, he was at length re- lieved by the reflection that " if nothing had eternally or -primarily existed, nothing could have been origi- nated, and that hence a cause uncaused ivas self-evi- dent" His belief in a God having been thus restored, he was led to the Scriptures by the consideration that, " as God had created us, ive were not too insignifcant for him to govern and Judge tis." Delighted with the character of Christ as portrayed in the New Testament, and conscious of his need of salvation, he, for a long 250 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. time, attended religious meetings, and sought conver- sation with religious persons. He was at length thoroughly aroused by Christ's declaration, Matt. xii. 36, 37 : "I sa}' unto you, that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned." Being induced to accept the divine mercy in Christ, he was baptized by Elder Joshua Woodworth, May 19, 1816, and united with the Baptist Church, to which his parents already belonged. He became a reader of the " Christian Baptist" soon after its publication, and rejoiced in that freedom of thought and of investigation which it inculcated, and which was so congenial to his own mind. He still, however, fondly entertained the popular views of con- version and when he heard Walter Scott preach in the fall of 1827, his direct method of calling sinners to obedience seemed to him rash and dangerous. Some time afterward, hearing that Mr. Scott was to preach in a school-house near Simon Sacket's, he rode eight miles to hear him. The room was densely crowded. Mr. Scott's first words were : " There is not a man in this house who believes that God means what he says." William Hayden was astounded, and was on the point of rising to say that he was at least one who believed it, when the assured manner of the speaker led him to pause. Mr. Scott went on to show that men come to the Bible with their heads full of religious systems and theories, and that in consequence they were inhibited from taking the Scriptures in any sense inconsistent with these. They dared not take the plain common- sense view of the teaching of the Bible, or the true and obvious meaning of its words, lest their religious system yOHN HENRT. 251 should be endangered. That system gave in ever>' case the law of interpretation, and the true sense wag neither understood nor believed. He vindicated the authority of God's words as against every system, and exalted their sufficiency, their truthfulness, their trust- worthiness, showing the propriety of relying upon the divine declarations alone, in which the terms of salva- tion were presented to us for our immediate acceptance. As he thus discoursed and developed the sad results of the prevailing systems which had closed the ears and the hearts of the people against the plain words of Scripture, William Hayden felt that he was right, and that he himself heretofore had been thus blinded, and had not really believed " that God meant what he said.** A complete revolution was at once effected in his mind as he meditated upon the truths he had heard. The Bible was to him now a new book. The gospel was a simple development of God's love, adapted to every creature, and furnishing to every one who believed it a direct and practical assurance of acceptance. To preach was no longer a mockery, pretending to offer salvation to all, yet announcing that this was nevertheless reserved for a definite pre-ordained number known to God alone. On the contrary, the gospel was now seen to be truly the power of God to every one who believed if, and he felt that he could now offer it upon its own simple terms, as such, to sinners. He was at this time teaching a school in Austintown, and in February, Adamson Bentley came and held some meetings, at which a number were induced to submit to the gospel. Among these was his particular friend, John Henry, born in Chartiers township, Washington county, Pennsylvania, October i, 1797, and removed to Ohio in 1803, where he was raised a strict Presbyterian. 252 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. He was a man of very singular powers and universally esteemed. Like William Hayden, he possessed fine musical talents, great kindness of disposition, an inde- pendent spirit and the gift of language. Earnest, truth- loving, enterprising and fearless, his accession greatly aided William Hayden amidst the violent opposition which the cause had then to encounter, and encouraged him in his first efforts at public speaking. John Henry himself, some time afterward at a baptism, when evil- disposed persons derided and created a disturbance, was impelled to burst forth into an indignant and efTective remonstrance, which revealed to him his own latent power over an audience and led him to devote himself to public speaking. Having a remarkable memory and readiness of utterance, though without discipline of mind or the graces of elocution, he could, nevertheless, enchain the people for hours by his rapid and thorough expositions of scriptural themes, quoting and applying every passage in the Bible relating to the subject, giving chapter and verse without a moment's pause, with pointed and keen criticisms upon the errors of the popular teaching, and brief but pertinent exhortations to duty. He hence became, after a time, one of the most reliable and effective preachers on the Reserve. The accession of John Henry and his intrepid advocacy of the cause soon led to the formation of a church at Austintown of one hundred and ten members, which was organized by Scott, Bentley and Raines, William Hayden being placed over it. The arrangement which had been made by the Asso- ciation in appointing the latter a fellow-laborer with Walter Scott proved to be a most effective one. The two evangelists, earnestly co-operating and wholly de- voted to the work, seemed to carry everything before INFANT BAPTISM EXAMINED. 253 them. Crowded audiences were everywhere in attend- ance in meeting-houses, private dwellings, barns or shady groves ; many came from a desire to listen to the charming singing of William Hayden, and were brought over to the truth preached. Throughout this whole region sectarian conversions were soon almost entirely suspended. Preachers who ventured to oppose the " ancient gospel " lost their influence and were for- saken by many of their adherents, who united with the Christian churches. A great number also, who had been bewildered by the inconsistent doctrines of the sec- tarian world and had become skeptical, were led to be- lieve and obe}'^ the gospel, while a number of gifted individuals were raised up even from the humblest walks of life to become efficient and devoted preachers, and to render their powerful assistance to those already in the field. One of these, Jona^ Hartzel (born October 19, 1803, in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, from whence the family removed to Deerfield, Ohio, in 1805), had been brought up a Presbyterian. Some time in 1826, his wife, who was a pious Methodist, said to him, unex- pectedly, "What Scripture have you for infant baptism? If you have any, I ask for it; for I have no confidence in my baptism." He replied, "Alice, I can satisfy you on that subject ;" and, opening the Bible, he turned to the proof-texts to show that it came in place of circum- cision ; then to the household baptisms and the saying, " Suflfer little children to come unto me," etc. ; but, upon considering these passages, his logical mind could find no proof in them, and, greatly mortified and disap- pointed, he put the subject off" for the time. Too honest with himself, however, to controvert the teachings of the Bible, he was, after some further inquiry, fully convinced 22 354 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that infant baptism had no divine authority. He then said, "We have been misled by our religious guides. We have been deceived in a plain case, and if so in reference to baptism, perhaps we have been led into error on other subjects of equal or greater importance. We have taken our religion on trust. We have read the Scriptures to confirm our creeds. We must now read the Bible to form our religious sentiments for our- selves, and go whithersoever it may lead us." This change of views caused great grief to the rela- tives on both sides, who expostulated and argued, but Mr. Hartzel and his wife read the Scriptures, and soon found that " faith came by hearing," and that salvation was thus brought within their reach.
The controversy grew warmer. Mr. Hartzel argued from Acts ii. 38, "that as baptism was for remission of sins, and to be preceded by faith and repentance, it could have no re- lation to infants."
Hearing some months afterward that Mr. Campbell taught baptism for remission, he became a subscriber to the " Christian Baptist," which he had occasionally read, and was delighted with the grand purpose it held in view — a return to the primitive gospel — a restoration rather than a reformation — the preach- ing and teaching of Christianity as it was before there were any reformations or any occasion for them. Fol- lowing out their convictions, Mr. Hartzel and his wife were immersed on the second Lord's day in June, 1828, and in August of this same year, at the annual meeting, he saw Mr. Campbell for the first time, and at once identified him amongst the crowd of preachers by his simple, self-possessed manners, his unclerical appearance and unassuming deportment. When he heard him speak, he was charmed with the artlessness of his de- livery and with the singular power of his discourse, and PUBLIC LABORERS. ^55 was impressed at once with the conviction that he was one of those remarkable men raised up b}' Providence for the accompHshment of important ends. As it was the custom of the churches now rapidly forming every- where to adopt at once the primitive order and depend for mutual edification upon the gifts of the members, those of Mr. Hartzel did not remain long concealed. Possessing a vigorous mind, a remarkably clear per- ception of logical relations, a sincere love of truth and a fine command of language, he soon became distin- guished as an effective and able preacher. In person he is tall and erect, grave in manner, in complexion somewhat swarthy, with regular features, intelligent dark eyes, full and handsome lips, and in speaking has a slightly German pronunciation and arrangement of words. Many others there were who at this period were brought forward by the pressing demand of the times from amidst the pursuits of husbandry and other ordi- nary vocations to assume the position of preachers of the gospel. However useful to this office the refine- ments of education, the cause could not now wait for the slow processes of scholastic discipline or the tedious preliminaries of a college course. These advantages, indeed, were far from being essential, since the gospel, now freed from theological speculations, was found to be adapted to the humblest capacity, and to require nothing but a simple, earnest and faithful presentation in order to the conversion of sinners. Hence, quite a number of individuals of little culture but earnest faith, inspired by the love of truth and of humanity, entered into the field of public labor, and many of them, having fine natural abilities, greatly promoted the progress of the gospel. To those already mentioned of this class 256 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. may be added a few others who at this period were prominent advocates of the cause. Of these was Cyrus Bosworth, distinguished less as a preacher than as a counselor, and as a man of resolute and decided cha- racter, exercisinjj a commandincj influence. He was a native of Roxhury, Plymouth county, Massachusetts, born April 12, 1791. He came to Warren in 1813 and engaged in teaching, but afterward carried the express mail along the forest paths of this newly-settled region, and was the first messenger to convey to Pittsburg the news of Peny's victory on Lake Erie. He served afterward as a member of the Ohio Legislature and as sheriff of Trumbull county. He embraced the gospel soon after it began to be preached by Walter Scott, and continued until his death, April 4, 1861, to take an un- abated interest in the things of the kingdom of God. His brother iMarcus, three 3xars younger, removed to Ohio from Roxbury and settled in Braceville, Trum- bull county, in 1816. Soon after, he experienced a re- ligious awakening among the Presbyterians, but having imbibed Baptist views in early life, could not be per- suaded that sprinkling was baptism, though he searched the Scriptures diligently and listened to the arguments of several preachers. He and his wife were finally immersed by Thomas Miller in 1819, and he became a deacon of the Baptist church formed during the follow- ing year at Braceville. From his zeal, piet}' and speaking abilities he was soon after recommended to engage in the ministry, and while attending the " min- isters' meetings " became acquainted with Mr. Camp- bell and with the principles of the Reformation, which he cordially embraced. Being ordained in October, 1827, he gave himself ardently to the work, and when Walter Scott visited Braceville, preaching baptism for EARLY ADVOCATES OF REFORM. 257 remission of sins, he, after careful examination, fully adopted this as the plain doctrine of Scripture. He was a man of average height, light complexion and sandy hair, extremely plain and familiar, but unassum- ing in his manners. As a speaker, he was not boister- ous or vehement, but had a rapid delivery, and was so full of feeling that he could not discourse on the themes of salvation without shedding abundance of tears and deeply affecting his audience. He was a very success- ful preacher, and, as a man, universally beloved, abounding in pra3^er, in hospitality and in all good works. Appointed by the Association in 1829 to itin- erate in connection with W. Scott, A. Bentley and W. Hayden, he was the means of converting many, and continued his labors until June 10, 1847, when, in the triumphs of faith, he yielded up his spirit into the hands of the Lord he had so faithfully served. Another of those who were actively engaged at this early period of the Reformation was Symonds Rider, a native of Hartford, Connecticut, born November 20, 1792, and settling at Hiram, in Portage county, Ohio, in 1814, where he still lives and has ever been an up- right and prominent citizen. He was at an early period much devoted to the Scriptures and particularly solicit- ous in regard to the subject of conversion. Having marked and carefully considered all the passages rela- ting to this subject, he concluded that if he ever met a preacher who presented the gospel just as he read it in the New Testament, he would yield to it. In June, 1828, he heard Thomas Campbell preach in Mantua, and finding what he heard in perfect accordance with what he read, he came forward promptly at the first invitation and was baptized by Reuben Ferguson, who had recently been a Methodist preacher. Being a man TOL. II.— R 22 * 258 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of earnest and sincere purpose and a cogent reasoner, Mr. Rider attained considerable distinction as a public speaker, and still remains elder of the flourishing church at Hiram. To these may be added E. B. Hubbard, also still living, who, born in Duchess county, New York, Feb- ruary 28, 1792, removed to Deerfield, Ohio, in 1802. Uniting with the Methodists there, he nevertheless re- garded creeds and all legislation on the part of religious bodies as invasions of Christ's prerogative, and finally, in conjunction with S. McGowan, C. P. Finch, a Methodist preacher, and some others, learned from the Scriptures the true basis of organization for the Church, which they endeavored to carry out into practice amidst a storm of opposition. Hearing then of a similar society in Braceville, Hubbard and Finch were deputed to visit it. Being much gratified with what they saw and heard, Marcus Bosworth was invited to visit Deerfield, which he did in June, 1828, in company with Mr. Bentley, and held a meeting at which seven were im- mersed, and the church was fairly established. Mr. Hubbard soon engaged in preaching, and has rendered effectual service to the cause by his faithful and long- continued labors. In this connection the name of John Whitaker de- serves mention. Of Quaker lineage, he became awak- ened under the preaching of the Christian Connection, but soon afterward, hearing Walter Scott, entered fully into the clearer light, and became quite an able preacher, powerful both in argument and in exhortation. As a man he was eminently social and hospitable, and, though grave in his deportment, possessed a large fund of genuine wit. Of those from among the Baptists there were also JOHN RUDOLPH 259 many besides the individuals formerly mentioned who distinguished themselves by their efforts in behalf of the primitive faith and order. Among these, William Collins was noted for excellent preaching abilities and extensive usefulness. He had been educated at Hamil- ton Seminary, New York, and afterward settled at Chardon, Ohio, where he labored for many years, and was deservedly popular, dying a few years since, much regretted. He was succeeded by Ebenezer Williams, formerly mentioned, who, after his conversion from Restorationism, continued to be a faithful and consist- ent advocate of the truth, dying recently in the fullness of hope. He was a man of great candor, clear, logical and convincing in his discourses, and greatly esteemed by all who knew him. Among others from the Bap- tists, too, may be mentioned John Applegate, who, after a two years' struggle, became at length convinced of the truths he had heard in 1828 from W. Scott, at Austintown, being greatly helped forward by Jesse Hall, the worthy deacon of the church in Hubbard, where he lived, and who had at an early period em- braced the Reformation. Mr. Applegate has labored much for the cause amidst his arduous struggles to rear a numerous family upon a little farm, and his humble, consistent, godly life and remarkably cheerful spirit have made him a great benefaction to the Church. Others, also, there were who, though less regularly engaged in public ministries, or acting merely as elders or deacons of the congregations, contributed much to the furtherance of the gospel. Prominent among these was the venerable John Rudolph, of Garrettsville, in Port- age county, who was distinguished for his piety, his firmness and many excellences, and possessed great personal weight. He was especially remarkable for 36o MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. his uncommon gift in social prayer, in which he mani- fested a humility, suitableness and fervenc}' rarely equaled and impossible to describe. He was a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, hospitable, just, sober, yielding up after a hard struggle his favorite Baptist theories, and heartily embracing the simpler views of the gospel which were brought to his attention. His two sons, John and Zebedee, entered also at an early period into the ranks of the Reformation, and have continued faithfully devoted to the interests of the truth — the former acting as deacon in the church at Garrettsville, and the latter, with more than usual scholarly attainments, self-acquired, rendering efficient aid in the congregation at Hiram. Nor were there wanting some who were won over from positive infidelity to the public advocacy of the primitive faith. Among these Amos Allerton, of Deer- field, was conspicuous. He was a man of great per- sonal strength and courage, tall, bony, straight as an arrow, and somewhat rough in manners and appearance, but a high-minded, honorable man, tender-hearted, re- markably quick in discernment, and withal conscientious and contemning everything mean or selfish. He was, nevertheless, a bold, fearless infidel, and when he heard the rumor, among many others equally absurd, that Mr. Scott was taking the people by force and dipping them, he declared that such things should not be done in Deer- field. Mr. Scott soon came to fill an appointment there on a week-day, and Allerton attended, publicly avow- ing his intention to interfere to prevent any imposition upon the people. At the sight of Mr. Scott's feeble frame, his flashing dark eyes, his intellectual features and humble, reverential bearing, he found himself in- sensibly softened, and soon began to take a deep interest FELL O W - LA B ORERS. 26 1 in the subject presented. On this occasion Mr. Scott had an audience densely crowded, and being animated with more than usual power, he surpassed himself. For three full hours he held the people enchained by his clear developments and vivid descriptions of the patri- archal, Jewish and Christian dispensations, pausing for a few moments between each division while a song was sung by Sister Davis, a fine singer from Wales. Having completed his magnificent oration, and given a compre- hensive view of the entire subject of religion in the light of the Bible, he called upon the audience for obedience to the gospel. The instant the invitation was given, Captain Allerton started from his seat and strode toward the preacher, while the people who knew his views and expressed purposes trembled for the results. But when the strong man was seen to bow himself in humble sub- mission to the claims of the gospel, which he had now for the first time learned to understand and appreciate, an intense emotion pervaded the entire assembly, and the eyes of many were suffused with tears. Such was the effect when this " tall oak of Bashan," as Mr. Scott termed him, was felled, that eleven others immediately came forward, and a flourishing church was established at Deerfield, in which Mr. Allerton soon became one of the most efficient members, preaching and baptizing many, noted for his fluency in speech and wisdom in council, and, though variable in the excellence of his public efforts, often more brilliant than others who evinced greater uniformity in the character of their public addresses. All these were warm personal friends of Mr. Camp- bell, and much endeared to him by their earnest labors, their self-sacrificing spirit and their zeal for the restora- tion of the pure and simple apostolic gospel. Under 362 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the circumstances then existing, it required no small amount of moral courage to oppose the popular religious systems and to brave the public obloquy and social estrangement which resulted. To undertake the public advocacy of the cause demanded then a noble disinter- estedness and an unselfish devotion. The things said and written against a salaried clergy, as well as the newly-discovered simplicity of the gospel, had almost entirely suspended all contributions for the ministry, and the recently-formed churches had as yet adopted no co-operative system or regular plan of operations. Hence the individuals who felt impelled to use their efforts for the spread of the truth were obliged to do this not only without the prospect of any present remuneration, but to the neglect of their own affairs and the expenditure of their own limited means. On one occasion one of them, having a series of appointments to meet, and being without a horse to ride, borrowed one from a neighbor, for the shoeing of which he was to pay two dollars. Having filled his engagements and received nothing but compliments, he had, upon his return, to work four days for the blacksmith in order to pay the debt he had incurred. These noble men were, however, the praise of the churches and the glory of Christ. The advance- ment of the cause seemed to depend upon their free efforts and their aggressive onslaughts upon the cor- ruptions of sectarianism. Denouncing textuary preach- ing, written sermons and theological theories, they em- ployed universally direct extemporaneous methods of address, and taught the people the Scriptures in their connection, accomplishing a mighty work in the libera- tion of multitudes from the thraldom of human systems, and in establishing permanently on the Western Re- serve the claims of the primitive gospel. CHAPTER VIII. Debate with Robert Owen — Its results — A new periodical — Effects of Mr. Campbell's labors— Domestic life — Millennial views. AMIDST his arduous labors during the winter of 1829, Mr. Campbell had but little time to prepare for the approaching debate with Mr. Owen. In addition to his editorial duties and his immense correspondence, as well as his ministerial and other engagements, he had on hand a new edition of the Testament in a more portable form, demanding great attention. Thrice- armed, nevertheless, in the justice of his cause, con- scious of his ability to expose the false principles of the social system, and "relying," as he said, "upon the Author of the Christian religion " for aid and guidance, he experienced no fear as to the result. It was not, however, his chief or ulterior object merely to show the weakness of Mr. Owen's system. In view of the many different forms of skepticism prevailing, and of the false views entertained respecting Christianity itself, his pur- poses took a much wider range, and he resolved to de- monstrate, from his own point of view, the divine origin of the Bible and the simplicity, truthfulness and saving power of the apostolic gospel. It cannot be denied that Mr. Owen was in many re- spects an extraordinary man, and that he performed at this time no unimportant part in the world's affairs. Born at Newtown, Wales, in 1769, he was so precocious 263 a64 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that, according to his own account, he was a teacher in a school at tne age of seven and under-master at nine. He maintained himself as a shopman for some years, and seems to have had something so impressive about him that he was treated with uncommon consideration and liberality. At the age of eighteen he became a partner in a cotton-mill where forty hands were em- ployed. Ark Wright's machinery having been recently introduced. He was prosperous, and was raised from one lucrative position to another, so that, after David Dale of Glasgow established the New Lanark mills, Mr. Owen, who had now become his son-in-law, was placed finally at the head of the establishment, upon which some two thousand persons depended for support. Entering fully into all the benevolent projects of Mr. Dale for the happiness and improvement of the working classes, he displayed an uncommon skill in the economy of association and in systematizing the details of sub- sistence, clothing, education, leisure and amusements, and in the management of the mill, the farm, etc. ; so that everything requiring the exercise of the adminis- trative faculties was of a rare quality of excellence. In the course of ten years, while many expected his ruin from his novel schemes, he bought out his partners at New Lanark for $420,000. In four years from this time he and his new partners had gained $600,000, and he bought them out for $570,000 — facts no less remark- able than conclusive as to his uncommon ability in the conduct of affairs. Such was the success of his industrial, social and educational plans that his fame was soon widely ex- tended, and many intelligent theorists in political econ- omy came to him to learn his method. Inspired with the belief that his plans would revolutionize human INFANT-SCHOOL STSTEM. 26$ society, he became a propagandist. He published various tracts and submitted his schemes to the govern- ments of Europe and America. He visited foreign countries to communicate personally with leading men, . and presented an explanatory memorial to the Congress of sovereigns at Aix la Chapelle in i8i8. While in Austria, Prince Metternich invited him to a succession of interviews, and employed government clerks for many days in registering conversations and copying documents relating to the " Social System." The arbi- trary governments of Europe found much in his schemes of organization to suit their purposes, and even the Prussian system of education is supposed to owe much of its discipline, as well as its rigid and sedulous appli- cation in practice, to the views of Robert Owen. As there could be no question in regard to the disinterested- ness of his motives or the benevolence of his intentions, his zeal and activity gained many friends and extended his influence abroad. At home Southey eulogized him, and in America the government of Mexico offered him a district one hundred and fifty miles broad, including the then unknown gold region of California, in order that his experiments might be tried upon a grand scale. It was to see about this grant that he visited Mexico, under the auspices of the British Cabinet, about two months before the time appointed for his debate with Mr. Campbell. Mr. Owen is entitled to whatever credit belongs to the establishment of the infant-school system. Many had previously conceived the idea, but he was the first to carry it into practice at New Lanark, where he managed to surround the children with such " happy circum- stances" that everything seemed to succeed to his wishes ; and so great was the hope created of the re- 23 266 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. demption of the infant population of the towns that, when Brougham reported to his parliamentary friends and others what he had seen at New Lanark, they con- jointly set up an infant school in Westminster, Mr. Owen agreeing to send James Buchanan, the teacher of the school at New Lanark, to superintend it. These experiments showed that infantile education could go on well under the mild system adopted ; but the fact was also in due time developed that mortality among the children was increased in proportion to their removal from the natural influences of the family and those healthful impressions produced upon each other by minds in different stages of development. Hence the fearful mortality from brain disease among the inmates of infant schools led to their abandonment after some years. As Mr. Owen's plans were designed exclusively for the promotion of man's material interests, and made no provision whatever for his spiritual wants, religion soon became a disturbing element in the practical working of his plans, and the diversity of men's beliefs a barrier in the way of his " Social System." He thought it, there- fore, necessary to success to put religion wholly out of the way, so that men might be free to devote their entire time and faculties to the business and the enjoyments of the present life. Believing the United States, where no State religion existed, to be best suited to his experi- ments, he purchased, in 1824, the property belonging to the Rappites, in Indiana, consisting of the village of New Harmony and thirty thousand acres of land, where he soon collected a community of several thousand per- sons, and where, under the influence of zeal and talent, the co-operative system seemed for a time to realize the highest hopes of its advocates. Mr. Owen himself, INTEREST OF THE PUBLIC. 267 constitutionally sanguine, was so confident of the suc- cess of his piinciples as to assert that, in the course of three years, the city of Cincinnati would be depopulated by the migration of its citizens to New Harmony. A very short time, however, was sufficient to dispel this illusion, and before the period fixed in his prediction had expired this seemed more likely to be fulfilled in regard to New Harmony itself, through the discords and disappointments which were constantly occurring, and which drove off many to distant cities. These ominous occurrences failed, nevertheless, to disturb the equa- nimity or the confidence of Mr. Owen, and since the religions of the world, in his superficial view of human society, seemed to be the occasion of much of the dis- cord and division that everywhere prevailed, and "to contain in them," as he said, " the seeds and the germs of every evil that the human mind can conceive," he became more and more averse to them. He was hence mduced, in his New Orleans challenge, to assail them publicly, having been specially moved thereto by cer- tain articles which appeared in the newspapers proceed- ing from some of the clergy, and giving an erroneous view of his principles and plans. In consequence of the acceptance of his challenge by Mr. Campbell, he was now about to appear in Cincinnati (which, in utter disregard of his prediction, had persisted in increasing rather than diminishing its population), in order to prove that religion was the greatest bar to the supreme happi- ness of the world. The importance of the subject and the reputation of the disputants had created an intense and widespread interest in the discussion, so that when the time arrived many persons were in attendance, some of whom had come even from New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, 268 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Tennessee and Mississippi. Application was made to Dr. Wilson ibr the use of his meeting-house, which was the largest in the city, but this having been refused, the Methodist society cheerfully granted their largest house for the purpose. Mr. Owen chose as moderators, Rev. Timothy Flint, Col. Francis Carr and Henry Starr, Esq. Mr. Campbell selected Judge Burnet, Col. Samuel W. Davis and Major Daniel Gano. These six chose Rev. Oliver M. Spencer, and Judge Burnet was appointed chairman. It was agreed that each dis- putant should speak alternately half an hour or less, out not more except by consent of the moderators. Charles H. Sims, stenographer, was appointed to take down the speeches in order to their publication for the benefit of the parties, and matters being thus adjusted the discussion began on Monday, April 13th, and con- tinued, with the intermission of one Lord's day, until the twenty-first. This debate — ^if debate it may be called where the parties hardly ever came into logical conflict — was heard with great attention by a large and highly intelligent auditory. At the commencement, the press was so great that many were unable to obtain seats, and were forced after a day or two to return to their homes. It was computed that on each successive day to the close there were not less than twelve hundred persons pres- ent, and the good order and decorum which constantly prevailed in this large assembly, and the solicitude manifested to understand the subjects presented, were never, on any occasion, excelled. Mr. Owen began by explaining the cause of the meeting, and giving a brief account of his European experiments, in the course of which he professed to have discovered certain "laws of human nature," a knowledge of which would, he TRIUMPHS OF CHRISTIANITY. 269 thought, abolish religion, marriage and private pro- perty, the three "formidable prejudices which," as he stated, " ignorance of these laws had made almost uni- versal," and to which he attributed the vice and misery of mankind. Mr. Campbell, in his opening speech, the only one he prepared beforehand, after apologizing for bringing the evidences of the Christian religion into debate, as though they were yet matters to be contested, which he could not admit, referred to the unkind and denunciatory style in which skeptics were generally treated by the advocates of Christianity, and to the rapid increase of infidelity in the land, owing, as he thought, to the lives of Christian professors, the sectarian spirit of the age and the absurd tenets and opinions taught as Chris- tianity. He then stated that he had agreed to the dis- cussion, not with the hope of convincing Mr. Owen, but for the sake of the doubting, wavering and unset- tled public who were in danger of being carried off as with a flood by the infidel theories so diligently incul- cated, and that he was prepared to show that there was all the reason which rational beings could demand for the sincere belief and cordial reception of the Christian religion. Passing thence to the early struggles of Christianity, he dwelt eloquently on its glorious tri- umphs over the nations by means of its evidences and its divine principles of self-denial, humility, patience and courage, and upon the love, purity and peace, the joys and hopes, which it imparted, and contrasted these with the rewards of disbelief, sensual indulgence and everlasting death. Glancing at some of the material- istic schemes and their degrading principles, he pre- sented some general ideas of the plan he would pursue if he were at liberty to choose a method co-extensive 270 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. with the whole range of skepticism, and closed with an impressive admonition to the audience in regard to the ineifable importance of the great questions now pending : " It is not," said he, " the ordinary affairs of this life, the fleeting and transitory concerns of to-day or to-morrow ; it is not vvliether we shall live all freemen or die all slaves ; it is not the momentary affairs of empire or the evanescent charms of dominion — nay, indeed, all these are but the toys of childhood, the sportive excursions of youthful fancy, con- trasted with the questions. What is man? Whence came he? Whither does he go? Is he a mortal or an immortal being? Is he doomed to spring up like grass, bloom like a flower, drop his seed into the earth and die for ever? Is there no object of future hope ? No God — no heaven — no exalted society to be known or enjoyed ? Are all the great and illus- trious men and women who have lived before we were born wasted and gone for ever? After a few short days are fled, when the enjoyments and toils of life are over, when our relish for social enjoyment and our desires for returning to the fountain of life are most acute, must we hang our heads and close our eyes in the desolating and appalling prospect of never opening them again — of never tasting the sweets for which a state of discipline and trial has so well fitted us? These are the awful and sublime merits of the question at issue ! It is not what we shall eat, nor what we shall drink, unless we shall be proved to be mere animals ; but it is, Shall we live or die for ever? It is, as beautifully expressed by a Christian poet : * Shall spring ever visit the mouldering urn ? Shall day ever dawn on the night of the grave ?' " This address made a very marked impression upon the audience, many of whom, from their exaggerated notion of Mr. Owen's abilities, had greatly feared for the fortunes of Christianity. The powerful grasp of the subject already indicated in Mr. Campbell's remarks. A DEFECTIVE CODE. ip his manifest consciousness of power, and his eloquent and truthful words, thrilled every Christian heart; all fears were banished, and the unbidden tear was seen to trickle from many eyes. Mr. Owen in his next address commenced the read- ing of a manuscript of nearly two hundred pages foolscap folio, which he had prepared, and to which he continued to adhere throughout the discussion. In this he had laid down twelve positions, which he termed "facts," upon which he relied as the entire ground- work of that " Social System" by which he expected to renovate the world. Upon these "facts," chiefly mere commonplace truisms, affirming the power of " organization" and " circumstances" to mould and modify human character, and which left entirely out of view man'is spiritual nature, and contemplated him as a mere " eflect of causes irresistible in their influ- ence," and as consequently undeserving of praise or censure, he descanted during the entire time of the discussion. In vain did Mr. Campbell complain that his twelve "facts" had no logical application to the propositions which Mr. Owen was pledged to sustain. In vain did the moderators suggest and insist that he should confine himself to one of the five propositions contained in his challenge until that particular subject was exhausted. Nothing could divert him from his "twelve laws of human nature," and the exposition of the happy results which would necessarily follow their universal adoption. The^e "laws" he evidently conceived to be a complete demonstration of all the propositions in his challenge. He endeavored to show that man according to these "laws" is " a being en- tirely different from what he has been supposed to be by any religion ever invented, and that none of these 372 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. religions appl}^ in any degree to a being formed as man is." Taking it for granted that these " laws" were an exact summary of everything existing in human nature, a complete and exhaustive compend of all the principles of human action, he concluded that all religions were "founded in error, because their dogmas were in direct opposition to these self-evident truths and the deductions made from them." Mr. Campbell, in his endeavor to bring Mr. Owen to close quarters, expressed his willingness to admit the alleged " facts," with the exception of the assertion that " the will has no power over belief," and then went on to show that these " facts" had reference to the mere animal man, that his intellectual and moral endowments were not considered in them at all, and that, as they presented no proper analysis of the powers or capa- bilities of the human mind, they were incomplete, and formed a very false and unsafe basis for any system. He showed that the "twelve facts" were just as ap- plicable to a goat as to a man, and that a theory based on only a part of man was defective and at variance with reason and human experience. Taking the posi- tion of Locke, Hume and Mirabeau, that all our origi- nal ideas are the results of sensation and reflection, he inquired how man could have any idea the archetype of which did not exist in nature? Yet man possessed the idea of a God producing something out of nothing, he had the conception of an immaterial spirit, a Great First Cause and many other supernatural ideas, such as that of a future state, and those connected with the words priest, altar, sacrifice, etc. He therefore called upon Mr. Owen to show how upon his principles man could have obtained these ideas, and presented to him the problem formerly addressed to the editors of the LAWS OF HUMAN NATURE. 273 "New Harmony Gazette," requesting to know "how the idea of '<xVi. eternal First Cause, uncaused, came into the world." Mr. Owen replied, " By imagination." Mr. Campbell then affirmed that, upon all established principles of mental philosophy, imagination could originate nothing, but could merely combine or ar- range in new forms the images already derived from the various sources of human knowledge, and called upon Mr. Ow^en to furnish a proof of the incorrectness of this position by imagining a sixth sense. "That all religions were founded in ignorance," as Mr. Owen asserted, was not, he urged, if admitted as true and regarded in a proper light, a disparagement of religion, since schools and colleges were based on the ignorance of society, as was also human testimony to unknown facts or books to instruct the uninformed. As to the power of the will over belief, he showed the fallacy of Mr. Owen's assertion that it had none, for, admitting that belief was often unavoidable from the nature of the testimony presented, yet the will had much, and often everything, to do with the obtaining and proper consideration of the evidence necessary to conviction. To Mr. Campbell's refutations, Mr. Owen, however, had nothing to oppose but his " twelve laws of human nature," the "gems," as he termed them, of his " casket," whose brilliancy he thought would easily excel and out- shine that of all the lights of reason, logic and revela- tion. The parties seemed thus to be proceeding in two parallel lines which could never meet ; and though Mr. Campbell took occasion to present views of human nature subversive of his opponent's system, and to point out the many inconsistencies in which it involved its author — as, for instance, in regard to his own attempt to control those " circumstances" which he alleged were vol,. II. — S »74 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. supreme in human affairs — the imperturbable philoso- pher continued to read and to expound his " divine laws," and to detail the admirable commercial, educa- tional, governmental and economical arrangements which he had projected for his ideal communities. It soon became evident, indeed, that Mr. Owen could not reason, that he had no just perception of the relations between proposition and proof, and that it was vain to expect from him any logical discussion of the points at issue. As soon, therefore, as he had on Friday, 17th, completed the reading of his manuscript, and conceded to Mr. Campbell the privilege of speaking uninter- ruptedly, the latter went on to complete the course of argument he had already begun in defence of Chris- tianity ; and in a speech which, in all, occupied twelve hours, gave a view of its nature and evidences, which, for cogency of argument, comprehensive reach of thought and eloquence, has never been surpassed, if ever equaled. In this masterly effort he surprised Mr. Owen and the skeptics present by disengaging Chris- tianity from the sectarian dogmas and doctrinal contro- versies and absurdities which had created so much infidelity, and to which Mr. Owen himself had attrib- uted the origin of his own disbelief. Having already explored and exposed the false principles on which the various systems of infidelity were founded, and shown the impossibility of maintaining upon them any form of civilized society, he exhibited, in contrast, the grandeur, the power and the adaptability of the gospel to man as he is in all the relations of life and conditions of human society. He showed that Christianity was based upon the noblest and most philosophic views of human nature — not seeking to make men happy or reformed by legal enactments or vain theories, but by implanting in the HOPE NECESSARY TO HAPPINESS. 275 human heart, through the discovery of the divine phil- anthropy, that principle of love which fulfills every moral precept. Presenting the gospel as a series of connected facts, resting upon indubitable testimony of witnesses and of prophecy, he dwelt upon its simplicity, and took occasion to expose the folly of human authori- tative creeds and the evils which had attended them, and to exhibit the distinctive views of the gospel which he taught, and its simple and expressive institutions, which gave to the penitent believer the assurance of pardon and admitted him to a holy and divine fellow- ship. He avowed his belief in the approach of a happy era for humanity, when more than all the peace, fra- ternity and prosperity anticipated in Mr. Owen's vision would be realized — not, however, by means of idle human schemes, but by the divine philosophy of making the tree good that its fruit might be good, and by the healing of all divisions through the universal spread of the primitive Christian faith. He exposed the incon- sequence of Mr. Owen, who imagined that by asserting man's subjection to circumstances he had proved relig- ion false, and reminded him that Calvinists supposed all things unchangeably decreed and fixed, yet found this no barrier to the belief of the Christian religion. Making his appeal to consciousness, however, he showed that man had the power to will, to examine into the matters that interested him, to decide in refer- ence to them and to act upon his decisions ; and illus- trated this by Mr. Owen's proceedings in regard to the Mexican territory and other cases. Recurring to the partial view of human nature presented in his " twelve laws," he proved from the experience of mankind that the complete gratification of temporal wants fails to confer happiness ; that man has higher aspirations, 376 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. wliich must be met, and which cannot be satisfied with sublunary pleasures. He dwelt upon the hope of im- mortality as that alone which could sustain man amidst the cares and disappointments of life, where pleasure was found to consist in the pursuit rather than in the attainment of the objects of desire, and justly urged that to place man in the position imagined by Mr. Owen, where he would have nothing to wish for or pursue, would be to cut him off from the most fruitful sources of happiness. He exposed also the futility of the idea that a society could permanently exist without the sense of obligation or responsibility, which on Mr. Owen's scheme must be totall}' banished, as the doctrine of " no praise, no blame," was to be taught in it from the cradle to the grave, and everything was made to rest upon the mere charm of social feeling. Such a society was perfectly Utopian and unintelligible, since to form any community there must be stipulations, account- ability, allegiance, protection ; and hence an education which taught all from infancy that actions were equally right because equally the result of circumstances, and that men had no obligations to each other, was directly calculated to make men not only unfit for society, but dangerous to its peace and welfare. He finally went on to show that in all its benevolent features Mr. Owen's plan was a mere plagiarism from Christian enterprise. Mr. Dale had given him his first ideas of the co-operative system, with its various arrange- ments for the improvement of the working classes, and Moses and Solomon had dwelt upon the advantages of bringing up children " in the way they should go." It was, however, to the French Revolution he was in- debted for his infidelity, and to the theories of Dr. Graham and others for his system of free love. In the
TRIBUTE TO RELIGION. 276 whole matter there was really nothing new. It was but a reproduction, with a change of form, of the views of others, and he denied that the scheme had ever been in operation at New Lanark, where the people in the aggregate were religious, and where there were Pres- byterian and Independent churches well attended, Mr. Owen himself having contributed to build the latter. As to New Harmony, Mr. Owen, he thought, would hardly derive from the issue of his experiment there any argument for his scheme. After all his reading, studying, traveling and vast expenditures, nothing as yet had been produced but the " twelve fundamental laws of human nature." New Harmon3s the land of promise to which multitudes flocked with eagerness, had witnessed the dissolving of the charm, and the social builders were disbanding under the influence of the awful realities of nature, reason and religion. This result he thought chiefly due to the abolition of the marriage contract and the appointment of nurses to take charge of the infants of the community. In this con- nection he referred touchingly to the joys of the mother in having the care of her own offspring. " The smiles of her infant," said he, " the opening dawn of reason, the indications of future greatness or goodness, as they exhibit themselves to her sanguine expectations, open to her sources of enjoyment incomparably overpaying the solicitudes and gentle toils of nursing." He showed that the S3'stem, instead of being accordant with human nature, was at war with it, and " aimed a mortal blow at all our ideas of social order and social happiness.'' Having thus dissected Mr. Owen's philosophy and exhibited the truth and excellence of Christianity, he concluded his long address with the following tribute to religion : 24
275 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. "Religion — the Bible! 'What treasures untold reside in that heavenly word !' Religion has given meanings design to all that is past, and is as the moral to the fable, the good, the only good of the whole — the earnest now of an abundant harvest of future and eternal good. Now let me ask the living before me — for we cannot yet appeal to the dead — whence has been derived your most rapturous delights on earth ? Have not the tears, the dew of religion in the soul, atforded you in- comparably more joy than all the fleshly gayeties, than all the splendid vanities, than the loud laugh, the festive song of the sons and daughters of the flesh ? Even the alternations of hope and fear, of joy and sorrow, of which the Christian may be conscious in his ardent race after a glorious immor- tality, afford more true bliss than ever did the sparkling gems, the radiant crown or the triumphal arch bestowed by the gratitude or admiration of a nation on some favorite child of fortune and of fame. " Whatever comes from religion comes from God. The greatest joys derivable to mortal man come from this source. I cannot speak of all who wear the Christian name, but for myself, I must say that worlds piled on worlds, to fill the universal scope of my imagination, would be a miserable per contra against the annihilation of the idea of God the Su- preme. And the paradox of paradoxes, the miracle of mira- cles and the mystery of mysteries with me, was, is now, and evermore shall be, hoiv any good man could wish there was no God! With the idea of God the Almighty departs from this earth not only the idea of virtue, of moral excellence, but of all rational enjoyment. What is height without top, depth without bottom, length and breadth without limitation — what is the sublimity of the universe without the idea of Him who created, balances, sustains and fills the world with good- ness.? The hope of one day seeing this Wonderful One, of beholding Him who made my body and is the Father of my spirit, the anticipation of being introduced into the palace of the universe, the sanctuary of the heavens, transcends all com- parison with all sublunary things. Our powers of concep-
EVIDENCE OF A CREATOR. 279 tion, of imagination, and our powers of computation and ex- pression, are alike baffled and prostrated in such an attempt. " Take away this hope from me, and teach me to think that I am the creature of mere chance, and to it alone in- debted for all that I am, was, and ever shall be, and I see nothing in the universe but mortification and disappointment. Death is as desirable as life ; and no one creature or thing is more deserving of my attention and consideration than an- other. But if so much pleasure is derived from surveying the face of nature, from contemplating the heavens and the systems of astronomy, if there be so much exquisite enjoy- ment from passing into the great laboratory of nature and in looking into the delicate touches, the great art, the wonderful design even in the smaller works in the kingdom which the microscope opens to our view, what will be the pleasure, the exquisite joy, in seeing and beholding Him who is the Foun- tain of Life., the Author and Artificer of the whole uni- verse 1 But the natural and physical excellences and material glories of this great fabric are but, as it were, the substratum from which shine all the moral glories of the Author of eternal life and of the august scheme which gives immor- tality to man ! No unrestrained freedom to explore the pene- tralia of voluptuousness, to revel in all the luxury of worms, to bask in the ephemeral glories of a sunbeam, can compen- sate for the immense robbery of the idea of God and the hope of eternal bliss. Dreadful adventure ! hazardous ex- periment! most ruinous project — to blast the idea of God! The worst thing in such a scheme which could happen, or even appear to happen, would be success. But as well might Mr. Owen attempt to fetter the sea, to lock up the winds, to prevent the rising of the sun, as to exile this idea from the human race. For although man has not, circum stanced as he now is, unaided by revelation, the power to originate such an idea, yet when it is once suggested to a child it can never be forgotten. As soon could a child anni- hilate the earth as to annihilate the idea of God once sug- gested. The proofs of his existence become as numerous as
280 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
the drops of dew from the womb of the morning — as innu- merable as the blades of grass produced by the renovating influences of spring. Everything within us and everything without, from the nails upon the ends of our fingers to the sun, moon and stars, confirm the idea of his existence and adorable excellences. To call upon a rational being to prove the being and perfections of God is like asking a man to prove that he exists himself. What! shall a man be called upon to prove a priori or a posteriori that there is one great Fountain of Life ! a universal Creator ! If the millions of mil- lions of witnesses which speak for him in heaven, earth and sea will not be heard, the feeble voice of man will be heard in vain." Upon the Lord's day which intervened during the delivery of this address he preached by request to a very crowded audience in the house in which the debate was held, and on Monday evening, when he concluded his long speech, Mr. Owen rejoined, and while com- plimenting Mr. Campbell very highly for learning, industry and extraordinary talents, as well as for a man- liness, honesty and fairness which he said he had here- tofore sought in vain, he made no attempt to invalidate his arguments, but occupied himself in vague declama- tion against religion, renewed laudations of the twelve "jewels" of his " casket," and glowing pictures of the happy " circumstances " to be produced by their means. This speech he concluded on Tuesda}' in the forenoon. In the afternoon Mr. Campbell replied in a severe ex- posure of the inanity of Mr. Owen's effort to overthrow religion and establish his " Social System," by mere assertion without proof and by ridicule instead of argu- ment. He admitted that sectarian divisions and dis- cords furnished weapons to skepticism, but denied that Christianity, even in its most corrupt form, justly merited the imputations of Mr. Owen. UNEXPECTED APPEAL. 2J5l To this speech Mr. Owen responded by bringing up again his "twelve laws" to the consideration of the audience and descanting upon them for an hour, after which Mr. Campbell in a very happy manner exposed " the twelve laws" to contempt, and showed their utter inadequacy as laws of human nature. Mr. Owen then continued in a final speech his disquisitions upon his favorite " gems," and after courteously thanking and complimenting the audience and moderators for their patience and attention, closed by taking his leave " with the best feelings toward all." Mr. Campbell, having now to terminate the discussion, gave a recapitulation of what had been accomplished, and after comparing the triumphs of skepticism with those of Christianity, before dismissing adopted an unexpected and ingenious method of eliciting the sentiments of the assembly. "I should be wanting to you, my friends," said he, "and to the cause which I plead, if I should dismiss you without making to you a very important proposition. You know that this discussion is matter for the press. You know that every encomium which has been pronounced upon your ex- emplary behavior will go with the report of this discussion. You will remember, too, that many indignities have been offered to your faith, to your religion, and that these re- proaches and indignities have been only heard with pity, and not marke.d with the least resentment on your part. Now I must tell you that a problem will arise in the minds of those living five hundred or a thousand miles distant who may read this discussion, whether it was owing to a perfect apathy or indifference on your part as to any interest you felt in the Christian religion., that you bore all these in- sults without seeming to hear them. In fine, the question will be, whether it was owing to the stoical indifference of fatalism., to the prevalence of infidelity., or to the meek' ness and forbearance which Christianity teaches., that you 24*
282 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. bore all these indignities without a single expression of disgust. Now, I desire no more than that this good and Christian-like deportment may be credited to the proper ac- count. If it be owing to your concurrence in sentiment with Mr. Owen, let skepticism have the honor of it. But if owing to your belief in or regard for the Christian religion, let the Christian religion have the honor of it. These things premised, my proposition is, that all the persons in this as- sembly nvho believe in the Christian religion., or who feel so much interest in it as to wish to see it pervade the world, will please to signify it by rising up." [Here there was an almost universal rising up on the part of the audience.] " Now," continued Mr. Campbell, when all were again seated, " I would further propose that all persons doubtful of the truth of the Christian religion or who do not be- lieve it, and who are not friendly to its spread and prevalence over the world, will please signify it by rising up." [Upon this, three persons only rose amidst the large assembly.] This appeal to the audience was, under the circum- stances, one of those master-strokes which serve to reveal the penetration and sagacity of Mr. Campbell. He had perceived that Mr. Owen was of a tempera- ment so sanguine as to regard every one who treated him with respect and interest as his disciple, and to be constantly under the wildest illusions of hope as to the prevalence of his views. He determined, therefore, for Mr. Owen's sake as well as that of* the cause he pleaded, that he would deprive him of any false esti- mate he might have formed of the impression made upon the intelligent audience by his labored exposition of the " Social System" during the eight days' debate, and prevent him or his friends from building false judg- ments and false hopes upon ignorance of results. The prompt and public expression of sentiment given by the audience was a mortifying disappointment to
Mr. EFFECTS OF THE DEBATE. 283 Owen, in spite of all his efforts to conceal it, while to the friends of religion it was a most acceptable testi- mony to the power of truth as well as to the ability of its defender. It need scarcely be said that this debate elevated Mr. Campbell to a very high position in the estimation of the entire religious community. For a time, party feeling seemed to be held in abeyance, and all were disposed to acknowledge their obligations to the de- fender of the common faith. The immediate effect of the discussion, too, was quite marked. Thomas Camp- bell, who had accompanied his son from Bethany and remained in the city for some time, and with whose urbanity, kindness and many excellences Mr. Owen was greatly impressed, baptized quite a number of con- verts, and subsequently many persons of intelligence, who had been skeptical in their views, acknowledged that all their doubts were removed by Mr. Campbell's arguments during the debate. Among these may be mentioned Dr. M. Winans of Jamestown, Ohio, a man of great acuteness of intellect and power of concentra- tion, who became afterward one of the most able sup- porters of the Reformation, and whose short but pithy articles in Mr. Campbell's periodical gave great pleas- ure to its readers. The beneficial effects of the dis- cussion were, however, incomparably extended by its publication, with interesting appendices and addenda. Mr. Owen, being about to return to Europe, sold his interest in the work to Mr. Campbell, who published a large edition of it, which was rapidly disposed of. An edition was some years afterward printed in London by Groombridge, in one octavo volume of five hundred and forty-five pages, which obtained an extensive cir- culation ; so that wherever the English language was
284 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
spoken, Mr. Campbell's able defence of Christianity became known, and exercised its power of confuting and exposing the fallacies of the prevailing skeptical philosophies. Innumerable were the letters of grati- tude and congratulation which he received from those who read the discussion and who were recovered from infidelity or confirmed in faith. The courtesy with which he had always treated the skeptical, and the manliness of his course in relation to Mr. Owen, gained for him the respect and confidence of all who labored under doubts and difficulties in regard to the truth of religion. They flocked everywhere to hear him ; they often invited him to address them where they existed in organized societies ; they heard his facts and reason- ings with interest and attention ; and it may be safely affirmed, that no individual was ever known to have been the instrument of converting so many skeptics to the truth of Christianity as Alexander Campbell. As to Mr. Owen himself, it cannot be said that any change was effected. He was observed, indeed, to- ward the close of the debate, to qualify his previous de- nunciations of Christianity by the phrase, "as at present taught ;" for Mr. Campbell had presented such a view of it that he could not offer a single objection ; and it was remarked also that after the debate he was willing to admit there were "difficulties on both sides." But he seems to have returned to England under the same hal- lucinations which had heretofore governed his life. He still hoped to banish evil from the world and to renovate society, imagining at every moment that his plans were going to be tried in some particular country, and that all other countries would immediately be brought over to his views. Shortly before the debate, Mr. Campbell had con-
EDITORIAL LABORS. 285 eluded to discontinue the " Christian Baptist." He feared that the name Christian Baptists would be given to the advocates of the Reformation, and he wished to commence a new periodical of larger size and of some- what different character. Desiring to begin this with January, 1830, and not having yet completed the out- lines of his plan of the " Christian Baptist," he pro- posed to issue the seventh volume of the latter work concurrently with the sixth, so as to furnish both within the year. He was still engaged with his "Essays on the Ancient Gospel and Ancient Order of Things," and had in course of publication a very interesting series of articles on the primitive, the patriarchal, the Jewish and the Christian dispensations, which had a powerful effect in dissipating the confusion of thought which prevailed in reference to religion, and leading to clear and con- sistent views of the Bible. All these he desired to finish, so that a complete and connected view of the different subjects might be embraced in the " Christian Baptist" before its close. He felt at this time greatly encouraged by the success which had attended his editorial labors. For every day of the past six years he had received a new subscriber, and the principles he advocated were extending their influence in all directions. " I have devoted myself to this cause," said he on the fourth of July, 1829, "and will, God willing, prosecute it with per- severance. The prospect of emancipating myriads from the dominion of prejudice and tradition, of restoring a pure speech to the people of God, of expediting their progress from Babylon to Jerusalem, of contributing efficiently to the arrival of the millennium, have brightened with every volume of this work. To the King, eternal, immortal and invisible, the only wise God, our Saviour, we live and die. To him
286 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. we consecrate the talents, information, means and every influ- ence he has given us, and we trust the day will come when all shall see, acknowledge and confess that our labors in the Lord are not in vain." This expectation he had abundant reason to cherish. In Kentucky his views had now been received by many of the Baptists, and had already awakened a bitter op- position on the part of those who were determined to maintain the usages of the party. This opposition, led by Dr. Noel, S. H. Clack, Edmund Waller and others, had already introduced proscription and division into some of the churches. Thus, when G. W. Elley, in 1828, convinced of existing errors, ventured, in Eighteen- Mile Church, near Westport, to depart from the conse- crated method of textuary preaching, and to urge a re- turn to the primitive practice of weekly communion, the usual devices were at once employed to excite prejudice against him and deprive him of influence as a public teacher. Finding the majority of the church averse to any reformation, and that they unjustly denied to him the rights accorded even by Baptist rules, he was in- duced, with others, to free himself from a thraldom to which he could not conscientiously submit, and con- tinued from this time to advocate publicly, with zeal and efliciency, the restoration of the primitive faith and manners. In other parts of the State the reformatory principles seemed to be adopted with great readiness. Thus, in 1828, the Boon Creek Association went so far as to decide that the word of God did not authorize any form of constitution for an association, and that their constitution should be abolished. They then resolved the Association into a mere annual meeting for worship and hearing voluntary reports from the churches. In Christian county also several churches openly rejected
REMISSION OF SINS. 2S7
Baptist theories and usages. One of these, at Noah Spring, of thirty-three member's, resolved to meet for weekly communion, appointing a worthy member, A. Linsey, as elder, and baptizing converts for the re- mission of sins. Throughout the State, indeed, the Baptist churches were gaining numerous accessions. Mr. Campbell's debates had brought the subject of be- lievers' baptism prominently before the minds of the people, and the new interest lately thrown around the institution by the discovery of its immediate relation to Ine formal remission of sins had added immensely to tne influence of immersionists, even where they did not fully embrace Mr. Campbell's teaching, but especially where they favored it. Thus, between November, 1827, and May, 1828, Jeremiah Vardeman immersed about five hundred and fifty persons in Kentucky, and during June and July, in Cincinnati, one hundred and eighteen more. John Smith, between Februar}' and the third Lord's day in July, 1828, immersed six hundred and three. Under the labors of Walter Warder about three hundred were added in the course of a few months to the church at Mayslick, and a very large number else- where under the preaching of William Morton, Jacob Creath and others. Jeremiah Vardeman, indeed, even from the time of the McCalla debate, had preached baptism for remission of sins with great zeal and effect. In November, 1826, he told Mr. Campbell that he had much more pleasure in immersing persons then than formerly, before he was aware of the meaning of the ordinance. He then went on to relate a rencontre he had had with the Catholics shortly before, on the ques- tion of remitting sins. " The Right Rev. Mr. , from Bardstown," said he, " had the audacity to come over into my bounds, and right in
288 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the field of my labors began to hold forth the rank doctrine of Catholic absolution. He contended that he and his brethren had the power of forgiving sins, and attempted to prove it all by Scripture. Well, thought I, my good sir, I will return the compliment. A few weeks after, I sent an appointment to Bardstown, and had it publicly announced that I was going to prove that the Baptist ministry had as much power of remitting sins as the Catholic ministry." This he endeavored to do from the language addressed to Peter: " Whosoever sins you remit, they are remitted," and by showing that Peter fulfilled this in announcing to believers baptism for remission. Mr. Campbell greatly disapproved the practice of making such issues, and of using such strong and un- guarded expressions as the " power of remitting sins" and " washing away sins in baptism." "These," said he, " have been most prejudicial to the cause of truth, and have given a pretext to the opposition for their hard speeches against the pleadings of Reformers." The habitual use of such expressions he thought also cal- culated to lead men to overlook or disparage that faith in the sacrifice of Christ from which alone baptism de- rived its efficacy. On this account, in baptizing per- sons, he used only the simple formula, " Into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and forebore adding to it, like Mr. Scott and others, the expression "for the remission of sins." "When any doctrine," said he (Mill. Harb. for 1832, p. 299), " is professed and taught by many, when any matter gets into many hands, some will misuse, abuse and pervert it. This is unavoidable. We have always feared abuses and extremes." In Nashville, Tennessee, the ancient order of things had been introduced without much difficulty, and the church was peacefully progressing. In the eastern part SILAS SHELBURNB. 289 jf Virginia great interest had been excited by Mr. Campbell's discussions with Bishop Semple and An- drew Broaddus, and a number of intelligent Baptists had become fully convinced of the need of reform. Prominent among these was Thomas M. Henley, of Essex, one of the most earnest, candid and pious preachers of that portion of the State, and a warm personal friend of Mr. Campbell, on whose account and for his own fearless advocacy of the cause of Reforma- tion he had had already much to endure from his former friends and associates. With him were associated also other preachers of considerable ability, as Dr. John Duval, of King-and-Queen, Peter Ainslie, M. W. Web- ber, John Richards and Dudley Atkinson, together with many private members of intelligence and influence. In the southern part of the State, also, a considerable impression had been made. Abner W. Clopton, who was one of the most popular Baptist preachers in that part of the country, had been at first pleased with Mr. Campbell's writings, but taking umbrage at his views of" experimental religion" and some other matters, be- came bitterly opposed, and endeavored by every means in his power to arrest the progress of the reformatory principles and to maintain the Baptist customs. Many, nevertheless, of his associates in the Meherrin Associa- tion took part with Mr. Campbell. Chief among these was Silas Shelburne, a preacher of very great influence and piety, born June 4, 1790, and son of James Shel- burne, a Baptist minister of note, of whom a very inter- esting account is given in the life of Dr. Archibald Alexander of Princeton. After deep religious convictions, Silas Shelburne had been baptized in June, 1816, and immediately began to exhort in the Church. Soon after he was ordained by
VOL. II.— 290 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Elders James Shelburne, William Richards and James Robertson, and continued to travel and preach with his father until the death of the latter, when he was called to the care of the churches to which his father had ministered. The membership of these churches greatly increased under his labors, but he felt their need of some better plan of religious edification, as he could visit them but once a month. Having read the "Christian Bap- tist" from its commencement, he was impressed with the importance of the ancient order of things there described, and began by urging the churches to meet to attend to the Lord's Supper at least once a month. This being agreed to, he after a time proposed that elders should be appointed in each of the churches, and that they should assemble every Lord's day for reading, exhorta- tion, prayer and attendance on the table of the Lord. This was opposed, but he succeeded in getting six con- gregations organized with elders, and in gaining over to his assistance some other preachers, as P. Barnes, D. Pettey, James M. Jeter and Paschal Townes. These endeavored to introduce better views into the churches, continuing to preach, as usual, faith, repentance and baptism in order to the knowledge of salvation, but maintaining that the heart was changed by the Holy Spirit through the belief of the truth. A violent oppo- sition soon arose against these efforts to change Baptist usages and theories, but the thirteen churches compos- ing the Meherrin Association failed to press matters to any final decision, so that Silas Shelburne and his asso- ciates continued for some time to labor as usual. In the summer of 1826, a Baptist preacher, traveling as a missionary under the auspices of a female mis- sionary society in Richmond, Virginia, when near the Natural Bridge happened to meet with a few numbers
SPREAD OF TRUTH. 291
of the *« Christian Baptist" and the McCalla Debate, which he read with some surprise at the views presented. At first such was his dissatisfaction that he resolved to attempt their confutation, but upon more careful exam- ination found himself unable to deny their scriptural correctness. This was Francis Whitefield Emmons, who was born at Clarendon, Vermont, February 24, 1802, and united with the Baptist church at S wanton, Vermont, April, 1816. After a good preparatory edu- cation, he was licensed to preach by the Second Bap- tist Church at Hamilton in 1821, and after completing the three years' course of study in the literary and theological seminary there in 1S24, entered Columbian College, D. C. during the same year, and while there edited for a short period the " Columbian Star.'' After his missionary tour in Virginia he became, in 1827, a student of Brown University, where he graduated. After editing the "American Baptist Magazine" for a short time, at Salem, Massachusetts, he preached for the church at Eastporl, Maine, over which he was or- dained as pastor in 1829, at Providence, Rhode Island. While at Brown University he had become more and more impressed with the need of the reformation urged by Mr. Campbell, and hence ordered three complete sets of the " Christian Baptist" with the debates, New Tes- tament, etc., which were received at Eastport in 1829. One set of each of these works was taken by Elder W. W. Ashley, of Eastport, who after reading them preached and taught as never before. Passing after a time into Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Mr. Ash- ley disseminated there the principles of the Reforma- tion and baptized for the remission of sins. Several preachers were convinced through his instrumentality, and churches established according to the primitive
292 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. order. One of the remaining sets of the same publi- cations was sent by Mr. Emmons to Jonathan Wade, missionary in Burmah, and was received and read by him and other missionaries there with profit, E. Kin- caid, upon his return to the United States some years after, assuring Mr. Emmons " that he had been much interested in the reading, that the work had helped him much and by directing him to the living Word, had enabled him to preach to the Karens the ancient gospel better than he otherwise would have done." The influence of Mr. Campbell had been felt also among the independent churches in Europe. Of these there were a number in Ireland. One of them, as formerly stated, existed in Rich-Hill. Another, of con- siderable size, called the Tabernacle Church, had been formed in the city of Armagh. One of the members of this church, Robert Tener, becoming much inter- ested in reading the accounts of the labors of foreign missionaries, was particularly struck with the fact that all the converts who professed faith were baptized. The idea at once occurred to him that he, as a believer, ought to be baptized. Knowing nothing whatever of the Baptists, he at once went to the minister of the Tabernacle, Mr. Hamilton, and told him he wished to be baptized. Mr. Hamilton asked why he desired this, as he had been already baptized in infancy. Mr. Tener replied that he had no knowledge of the fact, and that as he had only recently come to understand and believe the gospel, he could discern no difference between him- self and the heathen in Otaheite, who were baptized after they believed. Mr. Hamilton then told him there was a sect called Baptists who thought so, and gave him some of their writings, together with some Pasdo- baptist works, to read. The reasonings of the Paedo- CHURCHES IN IRELAND. 293 baptist writers, and particularly the plausible argumen- tation of William Ballantine, who had published a treatise defending infant baptism, had the effect of settling Mr. Tener down for a time in the conviction that they were right. Removing, however, soon after to Dungannon, ten miles distant, he resumed his investi- gations, and after a careful examination of the Scrip- tures, became fully satisfied that he ought to be im- mersed. About this time (1810) a Robert Smyth, who had just returned from one of Robert Haldane's semi- naries, engaged in the inquiry with him and with one or two others, was likewise convinced. Smyth said he knew of no Baptist in the entire North of Ireland ex- cept one old Englishman near Keady. " Then," said Mr. Tener, " go to him and be baptized, and then bap- tize me, my wife and William Smyth." This having been done, the four at once began to meet regularly to keep the ordinances in a lai-ge room used by Mr. Tener as a storehouse for linens. Here, in spite of petty persecutions and the indignation of the clergy, they continued to meet and to receive additions, but their number, being constantly reduced by emigration, seldom exceeded forty. This was the first church formed in Ireland on the plan of requiring a simple faith in Jesus as the Son of God and immersion into his name. It happened that in 1825, Richard, a son of Robert Tener, was a clerk in the Bank of Ireland, at -Newry, and Mr. Campbell having sent over during that year some copies of his debates and some numbers of the "Christian Baptist" to his relatives there, the latter, who were still Seceders, after reading some of them, told Richard Tener that these books would just suit his father, and that he had better send him some of them. Upon receiving them, Robert Tener and those with
294 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
him, though surprised and delighted to find that many of the views to which they themselves had been led by the Scripture had been advocated by Mr. Campbell in America, were yet at first quite dissatisfied with some of the things he taught. The clearer conceptions of the latter in regard to the different divine dispensations, the distinction between faith and opinion and the design of baptism, were, however, after some time perceived to be entirely just and scriptural, and the church at Dungannon came to be in general accord with Mr. Campbell. About the year 1827, a commercial traveler, Peter Woodnorth, of Liverpool, a zealous Christian, called on the brethren at Dungannon, who talked with him freely upon these religious matters, in which they took great interest, and gave him some of Mr. Campbell's works. On his return to England he delivered to the Independ- ent churches in Liverpool, Nottingham and Manchester the things he had learned, which were thus for the first time introduced into England. In the year 1829, under date of November 5, William Tener, a son of Robert Tener, an intelligent and estimable youth, opened a correspondence with Mr. Campbell, and spoke in the beginning of his letter as follows as to the effect pro- duced by his writings : " Very dear Brother : Although personally a stranger to you, rhave enjoyed an acquaintance with your writings for a length of time. From them I have received great advantages. Many opinions which I formerly held very sti'enuously I found upon examination were unfounded ; and many truths of which I was ignorant have been brought before my mind through the instrumentality of that ably-edited periodical, the ' Christian Baptist.' Many of my friends in this your native land have reason to bless God that ever they saw it ; and though their prejudices were great against you at first, they yielded to the
A FAITHFUL HELPMATE. 295
influence of all powerful truth. Many of us (for I class my- self among them) were so prejudiced that when we read a few pages of the ' Christian Baptist,' we resolved on reading no more, conceiving your opinions to be heterodox, thus con- demning you unheard. When we gave you a hearing, how- ever, we found that your sentiments were in general accord- ance with the revelations of the King of kings and Lord of lords." Thus it was that through various instrumentalities the principles advocated were widely diffused abroad, every- where more or less opposed, but everywhere developing the power of truth and modifying the state of religious society ; and Mr. Campbell found himself to be the cen- tre of a constantly widening circle of influence, and, under Divine Providence, an acknowledged guide to a large and intelligent community zealously engaged in the work of reformation. Before his return home from the Owen debate his family had been increased by the birth of a daughter, who was named Margaret Brown, after his first wife. He had had for some time, and continued to have, quite an extensive household, to take charge of which required no small degree of courage on the part of his second wife, who had not, like the first one, been brought up in the country and familiarized with the details of farm-life. All these she had to learn, and during Mr. Campbell's long absences to observe his directions for the cultiva- tion of the fields and to engage laborers, which she did with so much judgment that Mr. Campbell always re- turned to find things in order, and never was known to utter a word of complaint or find the least fault with the arrangements made. In addition, she had to discharge the duties of a mother to her predecessor's little daugh- ters, and to manage the affairs of the family, complicated
296 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
by the almost incessant visits of strangers, some of whom often remained for long periods. The presence of sickness, too, during the winter succeeding her mar- riage, when there were no less than thirteen cases of measles in the family, had greatly added to Mrs. Camp- bell's cares ; but being an excellent nurse, and devoting herself assiduously to the duties she had undertaken, she succeeded in managing and arranging everything so happily as greatly to relieve Mr, Campbell and leave him free to pursue his accustomed labors. About this time Walter Scott, being on a short visit to Pittsburg, rode out to see his former pupil, young Mr. Richardson, who was now engaged in the practice of medicine, some thirteen miles from the city. During the interview he related many interesting incidents con- nected with his labors on the Reserve, which excited much surprise on the part of the doctor, who had as yet remained quite uninformed in respect to the character of the religious movement in which Mr. Scott was now engaged, and was still a member of the Episcopal Church, though at the time in communion with the Presbyterian Church in his immediate neighborhood. The statement that the Christian institution was quite distinct from the Jewish, and had a definite origin on the day of Pentecost (Acts ii.), and that penitent be- lievers were then commanded to be baptized for the remission of sins, seemed to him as a new revelation, accustomed as he had been to the confused ideas of the different parties on these subjects. Upon searching out the import of the word baptism after Mr. Scott's de- parture, he soon found it to be immersion, and perceived that from trusting to human teachers he had been pre- viously deceived in regard to it. Resolving, therefore, from thenceforth to be directed by the Bible alone, he
FRUITS OF OBEDIENCE. 297
began a careful re-examination of it. Reflecting that whatever might be urged about " apostolic succession," there could be no flaw in the credentials of the apostles themselves, and that they at least knew how to preach the gospel, he was convinced that had he and the whole world been present when Peter said, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, for the remission of sins," all would have been equally bound to obey, and that the case was in nowise different now with those to whom this word of salvation came. There could be no danger of deception or mistake in trusting to the words of one who "spake as the Holy Spirit gave him utterance," and he therefore felt it to be his duty to submit to the divine requirements. Setting out accordingly, he, after a three days' journey, found Mr. Scott holding a meeting at a barn in Shalersville, on the Reserve, which he reached about two o'clock on the Lord's day, just after the audi- ence had been dismissed. Six persons had come for- ward and were preparing for baptism at the farm-house, and the doctor, pressing through the crowd, greatly sur- prised and delighted Mr. Scott by informing him that he had come to be baptized. After the immersion the meeting was resumed, and William Hayden addressed the people, his discourse being the first the doctor heard from any preacher in the Reformation ; nor had he, before going down that day to the banks of the softly- flowing Cuyahoga, ever witnessed an immersion, hav- ing beeri led by the word of God alone to take a solitary journey of one hundred and twenty miles in order to render the obedience which it demanded, and to find in that obedience the fulfillment of the Divine promises, and a happy relief from the illusive hopes and fears, based on frames and feelings, which for several years had constituted his religious experience.
298 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL,
Soon after his return he became instrumental in form- ing a church, which led to the organization of a second one in a short time in Washington county, where several of the old Brush Run members still resided, and where the children of Thomas Campbell's ancient friend, John McElroy, now used their influence to promote the cause. Prominent among these was James McElroy, who not only defended the cause with intelligence and zeal, but contributed liberally of his means to sustain Walter Scott in the evangelical field. In his efforts he was earnestly seconded by his devoted brother John, as well as by his intelligent sister Susan, who as early as 1817 had, amidst the peculiar trials of that period, led the way in obedience to the primitive gospel. Subsequently she had been for a considerable time an inmate of Mr. Campbell's family, and then the wife of Jacob Osborne, whose sudden and untimely death by haemoptysis in the spring of this year (1829), in the midst of eminent use- fulness on the Western Reserve, was much regretted. The advocacy of the reformatory principles by these intelligent disciples, characterized by an unyielding ad- herence to the simple teachings of the word of God, contributed much to promote the cause — James McElroy rendering efficient aid to Walter Scott in forming a church at Dutch Fork, and also to William Hayden in constituting another at Braddock's Field, where, at the meeting held, four entire households were baptized, without an infant in one of them. After a time, the church with which the McElroys were connected, near Hickory, was dispersed, many of the members removing to Knox county, Ohio, where they soon established two flourishing churches at Jelloway and Millwood. A few months after his union with the church, Dr. Richardson removed to Wellsburg, from which point he
DOMESTIC LIFE. 299
had the opportunity of often visiting Bethany and en- joying the society of those who assembled around Mr. Campbell's hospitable board. Here he frequently met the revered Thomas Campbell and the beloved Walter Scott, with other pious laborers. Here the sincere Joseph Bryant, who lived on an adjacent farm which Alexander Campbell had lately purchased, together with other members of the old Brush Run Church, was often found. Here, too, Mrs. Bryant, with her fund of Scripture inquiry and original thought, as well as other pious females, added charms to the social circle and a lively interest to those religious conversations and biblical researches which formed the chief enjoyment of all. However eminent and admired in all his relations to the public, it was at home, amidst his family and friends, that Mr. Campbell always appeared in the most amiable and pleasing light. It was delightful to witness with what unstudied courtesy he welcomed his visitors, and with what genial pleasantry he placed every one at his ease, so that no one could long feel like a stranger. Without apparent effort he constantly kept up the charm of social converse, adapting the theme to the feelings and circumstances of the company, and always seeking, if possible, to impress some scriptural lesson by an apt and often witty application of a text, or to commu- nicate some truth or information both interesting and useful. He seemed to be always at leisure to entertain his guests, and that, too, with a mind so full of gayety and free from preoccupation that no one could have sus- pected for a moment the immense business constantly resting upon him, and which he was regularly and daily despatching with an energy and a facility peculiar to
300 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
himself. His habit of rising very early — usually at
three o'clock — gave him much valuable time well suited
for composition, and at the hour when the house-bell
rung for morning worship he would come over from
his study, having prepared, often, enough of manuscript
to keep his printers busy during the day. When break-
fast was over, after arranging the affairs of the morning
and kindly seeing off any parting visitors, he would call
for his horse or set off on foot, perhaps, accompanied
by some of his friends, to view the progress of the
printing or the farming operations, and give instructions
to his workmen. Delighting greatly in agriculture and
its collateral pursuits, he was familiar with all their de-
tails, and, while ever eager to gain new thoughts from
others, the most skillful farmers and breeders of stock
often found in his company that they had themselves
something yet to learn. After dinner he usually spent
a little time in correcting proof-sheets, which he often
read aloud if persons were present, and then he would
perhaps have a promised visit to pay to one of the
neighboring families in company with his wife or some
of the guests. Otherwise he would often spend some
hours in his study if engaged upon any very important
theme, or occupy himself in his portico or parlor in
reading or conversation.
It was the evening that was always specially devoted
to social and religious improvement. At an early hour
the entire household, domestics included, assembled in
the spacious parlor, each one having hymns or some
Scripture lessons to recite. After these were heard,
often with pertinent and encouraging remarks from
Mr. Campbell, the Scriptures were read in regular
sequence, with questions to those present as to the pre-
vious connection or the scope of the chapter.
"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.