ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
CAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGE

”CAMBRIDGE!”

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ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,

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THE HOME OF
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN(Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives)AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



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ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'MOSES' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
THANK YOU, GOD BLESS, PRAY for US, TELL OTHERS,
PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
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    Fellow Christian for Christ!


    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!" (For "FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)


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    Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:

    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:
      (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);
      (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";
      (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more: SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"
      (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;
      (E) Serving 200+ Nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3,

    [1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

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      ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and Worship Leaders;
      ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
      ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained!
      ** Every person - having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry" - to reap the benefits thereof: In Finances, Influence, Credentials, etc; Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

      For all Ordination needs, please see:
      Ministerial Ordination Process:
    [2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

    [3] Chaplaincy Training, Certification with Endorsement for Employment: Jail, Hospital, Schools, Courts, Police-Fire Dept: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Training: Multiple Certifications

    [4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

    [5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible Teachers; Online "Free!" Degree Programs

    [6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

    [7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

    [8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

    [9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

    [10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

    [11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

    [12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

    [13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

    [14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

    [15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE?

    The goal is NOT to test your MEMORY!!!

      The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the WORD of GOD as you read it!

      All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.
    "Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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CHRISTIAN COALITION VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN CATHOLIC VOTER GUIDE
ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS CONSULT "CHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDES!"
Voting Righteousness is God's Command!
(CLICK VOTER LOGO ABOVE)
(Then Click "YOUR STATE" for "YOUR CANDIDATES!")

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2016!
DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER[2]TED CRUZ OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[3]RAND PAUL WITH FLAG, POINTING UP photo[4]RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO[5]BEN-CARSON-PHOTO[6]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[7]JOE BIDEN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag[8]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2012!
DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag [4]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER.[5]WILLIAM OWENS[6]PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO[7]ann-romney-photo-1.jpg[8]MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]LANCE ARMSTRONG on BICYCLE PHOTO[2]CHEERLEADERS for JESUS and BIBLE VERSES PHOTOS[3]BENGHAZI BURNING AMERICAN EMBASSY PHOTO[4]AMERICAN AMBASSADOR STEVENS DRAGGED THRU STREETS[5]ARAB SPRING, AMERICAN FLAG BURNING PHOTO[6]TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO[7]ORLY TAITZ.jpg[8]TRINITY BROADCASTING LOGO
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orly Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Preacher! [7]Birther? [8]TBN Down?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]STACY DASH[4]JACK-SCHAAP-PHOTO.[5]BISHOP-EDDIE-LONG-PHOTO[6] VALERIE JARRETT WITH OBAMA PHOTO[7] HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[8]COACH JERRY SANDUSKY PHOTO
Dinesh D'Souza, Ms. Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
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BRIEFS: MUSLIMS COMING TO GET US!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]OSAMA-BIN-LADEN-PHOTO[3]MAHMAUD-AHMADINEJAD-PHOTO[4] VALERIE JARRETT OBAMA'S PUPPET MASTER PHOTO[5]HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[6]BARACK-OBAMA ARABIC WRITING PHOTO[7]BARACK-OBAMA BOWING TO KISSING HAND, SAUDI KING[8]HUMA ABEDIN with MUSLIM HEADRESS PHOTO
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Muslim! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim? [7]Saudis Worship? [8]Muslim Sisters!
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BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg KENNETH HAGIN SR-PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg BOB GRAY TEXAS-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, K. Hagin, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell, B. Gray,
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tenn. Temple, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola U, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO 
GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S ASIAN-INDIAN LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
dgs-dhinakaran-photo.jpg DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO  Paul dhinakaran-photo.jpg
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
SANTITA-JACKSON-PHOTO.jpg GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO MIA LOVE PHOTO
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
SKULL and BONESSODOMY SHORTENS MALE LIFESPAN BY DECADES!!!SKULL and BONES
SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS
LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES
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BRIEFS: AMERICANS HOME SCHOOLED!
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 THOMAS A EDISON PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" TIM TEBOW TEBOWING in JETS UNIFORM PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT OVAL in SQUARE
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
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BRIEFS: MOST LISTENED TO MINISTERS
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
(CLICK PICTURES)
PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1 RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" JOYCE MEYER BEST WHITE PHOTO D-JAMES-KENNEDY-PHOTO TIM TEBOW-PHOTO
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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NewtonStein:
Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!
Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)
GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSS GRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"
Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERY AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!
"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!
Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!
WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"
FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!
Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?
"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION
CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:
      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
        4. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-3c-Pages-201-300.html
        5. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-4d-Pages-301-400.html
        6. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-5e-Pages-401-500.html
        7. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-6f-Pages-501-600.html
        8. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-7g-Pages-601-700.html
        9. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-8h-Pages-701-800.html
        10. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-9i-Pages-801-900.html
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        12. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-11k-Pages-1001-1100.html
        13. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL-INTRODUCTION-CHAPTER-12k-Pages-1101-1200.html
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        18. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/CHRISTIPEDIA-TM-2-ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--RESEARCHERS-VERSION--1000-PAGES-ALL-ON-ONE-PAGE.html
        19. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--INDEX-PAGE.html
        20. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html


        MEMOIRS

        OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.

        By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        CHAPTER 12 - ORIGINAL PAGES 1,101-1,200

        CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        ACTUAL PAGES 825-900

        VOL-2 PAGES 301-375:

        DOMESTIC LIFE. 301

        These being briefly considered, he would call upon Mrs. Campbell, who had a good voice, to lead in singing a psalm or spiritual song, in which he himself would heartily join, and then kneeling down would most reverently and earnestly present before the throne of grace their united thanksgivings and petitions for divine guardianship and guidance. Such was the customary order, but the details were often varied to suit the occasion. Family worship was not allowed to become a mere routine. He knew well how to maintain its interest, by making it a means of real instruction and enjoyment ; and, by encouraging familiar inquiry on the part of the young, he managed to bring forward and to impress indelibly the most charming practical lessons from the sacred writings, having always something novel and agreeable to impart zest and interest to exercises which in many cases are apt to become monotonous by frequent repetition. In these praise- worthy endeavors to bring up children in the nurture of the Lord, much was due also to the judicious ar- rangements and hearty co-operation of Mrs. Campbell, who, like her predecessor, made all things subservient to the desired end, and in her husband's absence her- self officiated at the family altar when there happened to be no brother present accustomed to the duty. To her, also, Mr. Campbell, as had been his custom with his former wife, was in the habit of reading his essays and other articles for publication, playfully reminding her of the preacher who was wont to read his sermons to his housekeeper before delivering them, in order to judge by their effect upon her what would likely be their reception by his congregation. Mrs. Campbell always took this smilingly, as a standing bit of pleas- antry, well knowing the high respect her husband had 26 303 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. for her judgment. He was well aware of his own satirical vein, and wished to have pointed out anything which might possibly give unnecessar}^ offence, listen- ing attentively to any criticisms Mrs. Campbell was encouraged to make, and not unfrequently adopting her suggestions and softening what appeared to be too tart. He greatly respected those delicate sympathies which women possess, and Mrs. Campbell had an excellent taste, being a lady of considerable reading and culture, of a very serious and religious turn, fond of Young's " Night Thoughts," and the grave poetical and prose English authors ; not at all addicted to gayety, but on the contrary, though cheerful under the sur- rounding happy circumstances, possessing a constitu- tional tendency to melancholy, which needed only the presence of calamity for its development. Mr. Campbell greatly desired that the work he was about to issue should exhibit a milder tone than the '* Christian Baptist." He thought the religious world was now sufficiently aroused from its apathy, and that the spirit of inquiry already set on foot would ulti- mately effect the deliverance of the people from clerical domination. From the rapid spread of the reformatory principles, the union of so many of different parties in the primitive faith, and the evident check given to the progress of the infidel schemes of Mr. Owen and others, he was also much impressed by the conviction that the millennial period anticipated by the Church was nigh at hand. He felt assured that a reformation such as he advocated, which proposed to go back to the very beginning and restore the gospel in its original purity and fullness, could leave no room for any other religious reformation, and must of necessity be the very last effort possible to prepare the world for the MILLENNIAL HARBINGER. 303 coming of Christ. He did not presume to fix upon any very definite period for this event, Scripture analo- gies inclining him to the opinion that it would occur at the commencement of the seventh Chiliad, ansvi'ering to the seventh day or Sabbath when God rested from the work of creation. He did not deem it accordant with the principles of the Reformation to assume dog- matically any position in reference to this point or any other of the vexed questions of eschatology, dimly seen through the veil of prophetic imagery, but as this particular subject was then one of great interest with many, especially with Walter Scott and the other preachers on the Western Reserve, and he intended to discuss to some extent the Scriptures relating to it, he concluded to call his new periodical "The Mil- lennial Harbinger." He intended to embrace in this work a wider range of subjects, and to show " the inadequacy of modern systems of education," and the injustice yet remaining, " under even the best political governments," in regard to various matters connected with the public welfare. CHAPTER IX. Political experience — Beaver anathema — Extra on remission of sins — Annual meetings — Journey to Nashville — Discussion with Mr. Jennings. SOON after the debate with Robert Owen, Mr. Camp- bell became unexpectedly involved in a political can- vass for the office of delegate to a convention called to amend the constitution of the State of Virginia. Dis- content had long existed, especially in that portion of the State west of the Blue Ridge, in relation to the basis of representation, the right of suffrage and some other matters. As representation was based in part upon slaves, and these were held chiefly in the eastern section of the State, the white population of the western portion, though nearly equal in number to that of the east, found themselves under the control of a majority disposed, they thought, to legislate too exclusively for the interests of their own section. Moved at length by the remonstrances of the western members, or fearful that the rapidly-increasing white population of the west would soon outstrip that of the east and secure political power, the Legislature, during the session of i827-'28, passed an act to take the sense of the voters on calling a convention. A large majority being found in favor of it, a deep interest immediately spread through the commonwealth ; and the most eminent men in the country were sought out as delegates, the east expect- ing to secure such arrangements as would enable it to S04 STATE CONVENTION. 305 retain its supremacy ; and the west hoping to gain over a sufficient number of votes to remodel the constitution upon different principles. Four delegates were to be selected from the district in which Mr. Campbell resided. Among the distin- guished politicians of the western section, Philip Dod- dridge, of Wellsburg, stood pre-eminent. He was a man of remarkable abilities, and had been repeatedly a representative in the public councils. All eyes rested upon him as the political champion of the west, and he was at once nominated. Up to this time, Mr. Campbell had been before the public only as an educator and a religious teacher. He had never sought nor held any civil office, and had no desire whatever to engage in political affairs. So strongly, however, were the public impressed by his commanding talents and his success in contending against clerical power that a very general desire was expressed to take him up also as a candidate for the convention. Many of those most forward in this were among those opposed to Mr. Campbell in re- ligious sentiments, but from their confidence in his abili- ties they were the first to propose him and the most eager to induce him to accept the position. So entirely, however, was he devoted to religious reformation, and so averse to everything connected with political strife, that it was not without some reluctance and misgiving he finally consented to become a candidate. It was urged upon him that it was not a canvass for an office of emolument, but an occasion of the utmost import- ance to the State of which he was a citizen, as the organic law was to be amended and the control of the eastern and great slave-holding portion of the State to be resisted. His religious friends urged, on their part, that as the position was one of great dignity and quite VOL. n.— U 26 * 3o6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. above the ordinary sphere of politics, it would not com- promise him in any respect as a religious teacher, but would probably give him greater influence in this re- spect, and afford him an opportunity of extending the principles of the Reformation by personal intercourse with the eminent and influential persons in the State with whom he would be placed in communication. Influenced by these considerations, he finally consented, with the express stipulation on his part that he would not be required or expected to engage personally in the canvass. It was also expressly understood that Mr. Doddridge, whose influence was almost unbounded, fully approved of Mr. Campbell's nomination, and would gladly accept him as his colleague. No sooner, however, had the canvass commenced, than Samuel Sprigg, a distinguished lawyer of Wheeling, in the adjoining county, and a warm personal friend of Mr. Doddridge, offered himself as a candidate in opposi- tion to Mr. Campbell, and it was soon discovered that Mr. Doddridge was lending his powerful influence to promote Mr. Sprigg's election. Upon this, Mr. Camp- bell addressed some letters to Mr. Doddridge, exposing and severely censuring the course he had thought proper to pursue, and announcing his determination, under the circumstances, not to retire from the field, as Mr. Sprigg's friends probably hoped he would do, but to leave the issue entirely with the people. On account of this unexpected opposition, and as Mr. Sprigg was engaged in addressing the public at various points, Mr. Campbell's friends urged him to forego his purpose of remaining silent during the canvass, and insisted that it would be necessary for him also to make some speeches, especially in the more distant parts of the district, where he was less known. Yielding to SPEECH IN MONONGALIA. 307 these representations, he filled several appointments during the few weeks previous to the day of election, at which time he made it a point to be present at one of the most doubtful and important precincts in Monongalia county, where Mr. Sprigg was also to address the voters at the polls. On this occasion Mr. Sprigg spoke first, and took occasion to descant upon the unfitness of per- sons of the ministerial profession for such duties as were to devolve upon the members of the convention, and upon the importance of sending delegates whose lives had been spent in the investigation and practical appli- cation of the principles of civil government and consti- tutional law. He expounded also the engrossing sub- ject of representation, as founded upon the basis of the white population exclusively, or upon the compound ratio of white population and slaves, announcing him- self in favor of the former as essential to the political equality of the western portion of the State. Upon these subjects he continued to speak so long that but little time was left for Mr. Campbell before the opening of the polls. Under the circumstances, Mr. Campbell manifested that superior knowledge of human nature, and that fine appreciation of existing conditions, which, had he chosen to devote himself to political matters, would have enabled him to obtain almost any ofiice within the gift of the people. Knowing that the audience were somewhat wearied with the political disquisitions to which they had been listening, he, upon rising, re- marked that he could not think of detaining the people much longer from the polls, and then proceeded to re- but, in a few pointed remarks, the arguments which had been used by his opponent against the political competency of ministers of religion, and in favor of 3o8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the supposed claims of lawyers upon the confidence of the community. He then briefly expressed himself as in favor of having representation based entirely upon the white population, and depicted the evils growing out of the existing system, where men enjoyed political power in proportion to the number of persons they held in bondage. Admitting the propriety of requiring from candidates an expression of their principles, and per- ceiving that the audience consisted almost entirely of farmers, he went on to say that the principle which would guide him was one of a very plain and simple nature. "As you well know, my friends," said he, "each portion of our widespread country has its own peculiar interests, and in my judgment this simple fact should govern the entire course of its legislation. If the people of Virginia were a manufacturing community, then its legislation should be directed to the fostering and protecting of manufactures. If we were a commercial people, then the interests of commerce should demand our special attention. But, gentlemen, our State, having no large cities, contains almost exclusively an agricultural population, and I hence argue that the interests of the farmer should be chiefly considered in whatever changes may be proposed in the organic law. Agriculture is, with us, the commanding interest of the State ; and while my opponent has been descanting upon the white basis and the black basis, you will permit me to observe that agriculture is with us the true basis of prosperity and of power, and that the honest farmer, who by his daily toil increases the wealth and well-being of the commonwealth, becomes its truest benefactor." Extolling this virtuous and most important call- ing, showing in eloquent terms the dignity of labor, and an- nouncing himself as having been for years a practical farmer, holding with his own hands the plough, he gradually enlisted the warmest sympathies of his audience, declaring that should they think proper to send him to the convention, while he RESULT OF THE CANVASS. 309 would by no means neglect the special interest which the west had in a just and equal representation, his aim would be to secure such arrangements as would best subserve the great cause of agriculture. " 'Tis the interest of the farmer, ' said he, *' that should be consulted. It is his welfare es- pecially that should be promoted, since it is the farmer who has to bear at last the burdens of the government. Allow me," said he, in concluding, " to illustrate this by what I no- ticed when a lad on a visit to the city of Belfast. In viewing the city, I recollect that my attention was particularly engaged by a large sign over one of its extensive stores. This sign contained four large painted figures. The first was a picture of the king in his royal robes, with the crown upon his head, and the legend issuing from his mouth, ' I reign for all.* Next to him was the figure of a bishop, in gown and sur- plice, with the inscription, ' I pray for all.' The third was a soldier in his regimentals standing by a cannon and uttering the words, ' I fight for all.' But the fourth figure, gentlemen, was the most noteworthy and important of all in this pictorial representation of the relations of the difterent parts of human society. It represented a farmer, amidst the utensils of his calling, standing by his plough and exclaiming, ' I pay for all !' " When the shouts and cheers which greeted this con- clusion had subsided, the polls were opened. As the law then required each one to announce publicly the name of his candidate, in order to have his vote re- corded, nothing for a long time was heard but " Camp- bell," " Campbell," and it really seemed as if the choice was about to be unanimous. At last one individual came forward and gave the name of " Sprigg ;" upon which Mr. Sprigg arose and pleasantly remarked, with a bow, " I thank the gentleman for his vote, for I was really beginning to think you had all forgotten that I am a candidate." When the votes of the different counties were re- 3IO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. turned, it was found that Mr. Campbell and Philip Doddridge were elected, along with Charles D. Morgan and Eugenius M. Wilson, both of Monongalia, to represent the district consisting of Ohio, Tyler, Brooke, Monongalia and Preston counties. The convention, composed in all of ninety-six delegates, met at Rich- mond on the 5th of October, 1829, and was the most august assembly ever convened in the State, numbering among its members, James Madison and James Monroe, former Presidents of the United States, together with Chief-Justice Marshall and such eminent personages as John Randolph of Roanoke, Judge Upshur, Benjamin W. Leigh and Philip S. Barbour. Many persons from a distance attended to listen to the debates, and among them the talented T. F. Marshall, of Kentucky. The preliminary arrangements having been completed, com- mittees appointed, etc. — Mr. Campbell being on that of the judiciary — it was not long until the existing issues between the east and the west were brought forward. After the discussion had proceeded for some time, and Mr. Doddridge and others had spoken, Mr. Campbell delivered an able speech against the proposition to ap- portion representation in the House of Delegates accord- ing to the white population and taxation combined, for which the east strenuously contended, and which on account of the tax on slaves would have had the effect of perpetuating the political power of the slaveholders. It would be out of place here to enter into the merits of these discussions, or to institute a comparison between the arguments of Mr. Campbell and those of others. Suffice it to say that he endeavored to establish four points : i. That the principles upon which such a propo- sition was founded rested upon views of society unphi- losophic and anti-republican. 2. That such a basis of DEBATES IN CONVENTION. 31I representation was the common basis of aristocratical and monarchical governments. 3. That it could not be made palatable to a majority of the freeholders of Vir- ginia ; and 4. That the white population basis would operate to the advantage of the whole State. In discuss- ing these points he entered upon the subject of human rights, and exposed briefly but pointedly the fallacies of those who wished to establish such an inequality in the right of suffrage. He here incidentally manifested the natural tendency of his mind to reach beyond merely arbitrary and conventional arrangements and to contemplate things in relation to some grand general principle. " While, sir," said he, "■ I am on the subject of such a state of nature, or viewing man as coming into society, may I not take occasion to observe that man exhibits himself as possess- ing the right of suffrage anterior to his coming into the social compact. It is not a right derived from or conferred by society, for it is a right which belongs to him as a man. Society may divest him of it, but it cannot confer it. But what is the right? It is that of thinking, willing and express- ing his will. A vote is nothing more nor less than the ex- pression of a man's will. God has given to man the power of thinking, willing and expressing his will, and no man ever did, as a free agent, enter into any society without willing it. And, we may add, no man could enter into a social compact without first exercising what we must call the right of suf- frage. It is a right natural and underived., to the exercise of which every man has by nature as good a reason as another." Again, in referring to an argument of Judge Upshur, he re- marked : " This gentleman starts with the postulate that there are two sorts of majorities — numbers and interests ; in plain English, men and money. I do not understand why he should not have added also majorities of talent, physical strength, scientific skill and general literature. These are 312 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. all more valuable than money, and as useful to the State. A Robert Fulton, a General Jackson, a Joseph Lancaster, a Ben- jamin Franklin is as useful to the State as a whole district of mere slaveholders. Now^ all the logic, metaphysics and rhetoric of this assembly must be put in requisition to show why a citizen having a hundred negroes should have ten times more political power than a Joseph Lancaster or a Robert Fulton with only a house and garden. And if scien- tific skill, physical strength, military prowess or general litera- ture in some individuals is entitled to so much respect, why ought not these majorities in a community to have as much weight as mere wealth.'' We admit that fifty men in one dis- trict may have as much money as five hundred in another, but we can see no good reason why the superabundant wealth of those fifty should be an equivalent, or rather a coun- terpoise, against four hundred and fifty citizens in another." During the sittings of the convention, Mr. Campbell delivered several speeches, and sought earnestly to secure for the west the changes which were demanded. After man}- days' debating, however, it appeared evi- dent that the eastern majority was determined to per- petuate its rule, and that no satisfactory adjustment or compromise could be effected. The constitution, accord- ingly, which was at length drawn up and submitted to the convention January 14, 1830, and which retained those provisions to which the west was opposed, was finally adopted by a majority of fourteen votes. While in attendance as a delegate, Mr. Campbell never suffered his religious position to be obscured or compro- mised for a moment. The great matters concerning the kingdom of Christ were far dearer to him than any earthly interests, and he accordingly, during his stay at Richmond, was careful to make his position as member of the convention contribute as much as possible to his influence as a religious teacher. In his private inter- INFLUENCE AT RICHMOND. 313 course with distinguished persons and in the social circle, he neglected no proper opportunity to press the claims of religion, and on every Lord's day addressed large audiences upon the great themes of the primitive gospel. Many of the members of the convention at- tended his meetings, and were greatly impressed with his remarkable powers, the novel simplicity of his re- ligious views, and the vast range of thought and scrip- tural knowledge which he displayed. As illustrating the impression which he made, it may be stated, that as ex-President Madison was returning home from the convention, he stopped during the first night with a rela- tive, Mr. Edmund Pendleton, of Louisa, and early next morning, as he and Mr. Pendleton were walking on the portico, the latter, who was somewhat favorable to the principles of the Reformation, asked Mr. Madison what he thought of Alexander Campbell. Mr. Madison in reply spoke in very high terms of the ability shown by him in the convention. " But," continued he, " it is as a theologian that Mr. Campbell must be known. It was my pleasure to hear him very often as a preacher of the gospel, and I regard him as the ablest and most original expounder of the Scriptures I have ever heard." Mr. Campbell's political position tended greatly to in- fluence and to secure, even from those who were prej- udiced against him, that consideration which his abili- ties and his native dignity of character merited. His sojourn and preaching in Richmond also contributed in no small degree to promote the spread of his views of religious reformation amongst the community there, and led to the formation of some warm friendships. Many came from a distance to see and hear him, and to con- fer with him on religious subjects. One, a young phy- sician, who had been the subject of deep convictions, 27 SH MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, and had become enlightened by reading the ** Christian Baptist," traveled more than a hundred miles for these purposes and to be baptized by Mr. Campbell at Rich- mond. Many interviews were sought also by the citi- zens, and profitable conversations held, among which was one of unusual interest with the ruler of the Jewish synagogue, the venerable Mr. Judah, published in the " Mill. Harb.," vol. i., p. 561. Among the persons there introduced to him was R. L. Coleman, a young Baptist preacher from Albemarle county, for whom Mr. Campbell conceived a special re- gard, and who became afterward one of the chief sup- porters of the cause in Eastern Virginia. Mr. Coleman was born three miles from Scottsville, May 13, 1807, and was the son of Joseph Coleman, a Calvinistic Bap- tist. The death of his mother when he was nine years of age made a very deep and permanent impression upon him, and led him to religious reflection and much prayerfulness. He was thus preserved from many youthful snares, and, though naturally of a fearless, sensitive and ardent temperament, was enabled to resist the influence and example of those who were wild and dissipated. When he had reached the age of sixteen, the death of his eldest brother greatly deepened his re- ligious impressions, and he resolved that he would en- deavor to become a Christian, devoting himself to read- ing religious works and attending religious meetings. Being under the impression that the Methodists were the most zealous and successful preachers, he first visited their meetings, and day after day, at the mourners' bench, sought the benefit of their prayers, in hopes of receiving that assurance of salvation he had been taught to expect. Failing in this, however, while many of his acquaintances, who had been careless and unconcerned. THEORY AND PRACTICE. 31;; professed to be converted, he, after a year or two, ceased to attend these meetings, which left him still uncomforted and unhappy, and remained at home to read the Bible and pray. Such, at this time, were his mental anxieties and constant watchfulness that his health failed and his spirits were greatly depressed. Finally, however, he became satisfied, from reading the Bible, that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of God, that he had come into the world and died for sinners, and that he was both willing and able to save them. He felt, also, that he was a sinner, and that he was not onl}- willing to be saved, but that he would give the world, if it were in his pos- session, to become a Christian. While sitting under a tree and reflecting upon this subject, the question pre- sented itself to him — Why am I not saved? He saw that Christ needed not to be made willing to save him by the intercession of preachers, for he said, " He that is willing to come unto me, I will in no wise cast out ;" but, though he fully believed this, and also knew that he was willing to be saved, he had no assurance that he was saved, and remained unable to give any reason why he did not enjoy this assurance. He was satisfied that his heart was changed, that he loved God and the people of God ; and that he took pleasure in praying to God and desired to serve him, but still had no assurance that his sins had been forgiven. As he had now been for about three years diligently engaged in seeking for this, as the usual preliminary to a public profession, he felt that he could do no more, and determined to offer him- self before the Baptist church as a candidate for bap- tism. He was unable to say that he had received any assurance of forgiveness, but when he had related to the church the exercises of mind which he had ex- perienced, he was adjudged to be a fit subject for bap- 3l6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. tism. Next morning, when he went down to be bap- tized, his mind remained still dark and gloomy in relation to the assurance of pardon which had so long engrossed it ; but he was no sooner buried in baptism than he arose from the water with entirely new views and feelings. Perfected by obedience, his faith had become effective ; the darkness of his mind was at once illuminated ; he realized that his sins had been washed away in the blood of Christ, and that of this he had re- ceived, in baptism, the assurance he had so long sought in vain. From that moment his former anxieties and fears for ever disappeared. Mr. Coleman was not at this time at all acquainted with Mr. Campbell's views. From rumor he had been led to regard him as a sort of semi-infidel, and little thought that in his own experience he had been just illustrating some of the very things which Mr. Camp- bell was laboring to impress upon the religious com- munity — viz. : the error of waiting for special spiritual operations, and of depending on variable frames and feelings for the hope of acceptance, rather than upon the word of God and the obedience of faith. Shortly after this, a young Baptist preacher, Gilbert Mason, visiting that part of Virginia, insisted on Mr. Coleman accompanying him on some of his preaching excursions, and by degrees induced him to offer public prayer, and, after some time, to give an exhortation. Finally, he prevailed upon him to take a text and deliver a sermon. Much pleased with his effort, Mr. Mason persuaded him to renew it, until at length he so far overcame his diffidence that he consented to assist other preachers at their meetings. After traveling about for some time in this way, he was urged by two Baptist preachers, Elders John Goss and Porter Cleaveland, to unite with SUCCESSFUL LABORS. 317 them in keeping up alternately a monthly Baptist meet- ing in Charlottesville, where no church had as yet been formed. Having acquiesced through their persuasion and his desire to do good, an appointment was made for him, which afterward upon reflection he greatly regretted, being distressed at the idea of having to appear before the superior community of Charlottesville and the literary and distinguished persons belonging to the University of Virginia. Compelled, however, by his promise, he set out for his appointment oppressed with many anxieties and fears, and seeking for help in earnest prayer. At length, as he rode along, the thought occurred to him, " I am willing to be a fool for Christ's sake," when in an instant his anxiety dis- appeared and he became perfectly tranquil in resigna- tion to the will of God. Entering the house, he found the congregation large, and feeling relieved from all considerations of self, he stood up in the pulpit without perturbation, and in the enjoyment of unusual freedom began to address the congregation from the text, " How shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation?" In appearance he was tall and prepossessing, graceful in his manner, copious in diction, abundant and apposite in his quotations of Scripture ; and the people soon be- came deeply interested as the young preacher dwelt with feeling and earnestness upon the important query to which he had directed their attention. So highly pleased were all with the discourse that he was invited to speak again in the evening, but declined doing so. The other preachers failing to carry out their arrange- ment for monthly preaching, this now devolved upon Mr. Coleman, who subsequently, with the aid of Mr. Mason, held a meeting of some days, baptizing a number and constituting a Baptist church of some 27* 3lS MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. sixty members. Under his labors the church there continued to prosper, so that in two or three years its membership had increased to two hundred, and he was duly ordained its pastor in May, 183 1, by Elders John Goss and Porter Cleaveland. As he had now become one of the most popular preachers in the Baptist ranks, he was kept constantly in the field, happy in being able to speak to his fellow-creatures on the great subject of salvation and to enjoy the society and fellowship of those who professed to love the Lord. Such was his zeal and ardor that, though delicate in health, he labored more abundantly than many who were vigorous, preaching not only at Charlottesville, but in Scottsville, Lynchburg, through the valley from Staunton to the Warm Springs, and over the Alleghany to Pocohontas. Previous to the meeting of the con- vention, he had been reading Mr. Campbell's writings, and it was with great pleasure that, upon visiting Rich- mond, he for the first time saw and heard him deliver- ing in the First Baptist Church a discourse of three hours' duration upon the covenants, based upon Ex. xix. and xx., and Heb. viii. Greatly impressed with his masterly development of the subject and his accurate and profound knowledge of the Scriptures, he became more and more convinced of the need of the reforma- tion in religious society for which the speaker so elo- quently pleaded, and, with his usual candor, expressed his approval of it and endeavored to maintain its prin- ciples among his Baptist friends. Mr. Campbell, on his way home from the convention, filled an appointment for preaching in Upper Essex meeting-house, where he had a very agreeable meeting with many of his acquaintances in this portion of the State. He enjoyed particularly the pleasure of an inter- STATEMENT OF MOTIVES. 3^9 view with the venerable Bishop Semple, who came to hear him, and with whom he spent the evening in re- ligious and social converse at the hospitable abode of Thomas M. Henley. After prayer and praise they re- posed upon the same couch, and in the morning, after Mr. Campbell had baptized a young disciple from King William, they parted with the kindest wishes. " What I admired most of all," said Mr. Campbell, in speaking of the incident, " was the good temper and Christian courtesy of this venerable disciple, who, though unable to rise above all his early associations and the long-received opinions which a long course of reading and teaching had riveted upon his mind, yet did not lose sight of the meek- ness and mildness, the candor and complaisance which the religion of Jesus teaches, and without which, though a man's head were as clear as an angel's intellect, his religion is vain." This interview was succeeded by a somewhat extended cor- respondence in the "Harbinger" with Bishop Semple, which, though kindly in spirit, did not produce agreement in opinion. Reaching home on the first of February, having been absent since the twenty-second of September, Mr. Campbell found many letters awaiting reply. Among them was one from William Tener of Londonderry, in his answer to which, after referring to his attendance at the convention, he says, in relation to the motives which had influenced him in becoming a candidate for the convention : "But you may ask. What business had I in such matters? I will tell you. I have no taste or longings for political mat- ters or honors, but as this was one of the most grave and solemn of all political matters, and not like the ordinary affairs of legislation, and therefore not incompatible with the most perfect gravity and self-respect, I consented to be elected, and especially because I was desirous of laying a foundation for the abolition of slavery (in which, however, I was not 320 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. successful), and of gaining an influence in public estimailon to give currency to my writings, and to put down some cal- umnies afar off that I was not in good standing in my own State." The constitution adopted by the convention proved, as Mr. Campbell expected, quite unpalatable to the people of the west. When the vote was to be taken on its ratification in Brooke county he was present, and, by request of the citizens, gave a brief exposition of its main features, expressing the hope that the people would reject it on account of the anti-republican principles upon which it was based, and quoting the case of one of the counties, largely slaveholding, which would have gained representation by its adoption, but which had, nevertheless, by its delegates, "voted (or principle and against ^ow^r." This brief address produced a marked effect, and was much admired for its sententious brevity and point ; and when the voting was over it was found that in Brooke alone, of all the counties in the State, the rejection was unanimous , three hundred and seventy votes being polled against, and not one in favor of it. In several other counties, however, there was a near approach to unanimity, as in Logan, where, out of two hundred and fifty-seven votes, there were but two for ratification, and in Ohio county, where, out of six hun- dred and forty-six, only three were found in its favor. It contained, indeed, in its unequal provisions, the seeds of its own destruction, and it was not many years until the eastern portion of the State found it expedient to agree to a new convention and to concede many of the reforms which had been urged by Mr. Campbell and the other western delegates. During Mr. Campbell's temporary connection with these political affairs important religious movements FAULTS IN REFORMERS. 32 1 were in progress, seriously affecting the relations of the reforming churches to the Baptist community. His kind personal feelings for many of the Baptist preachers, and his strong desire to continue in religious connection with a people whom he greatly esteemed, had induced him to bear with many deficiencies in their system, in hopes of leading them forward to better views. It was now becoming evident, however, that the increasing bitterness of those who were opposed to the Reformation and the high-handed measures they were disposed to adopt, would soon result in division. Mr. Brantly, Abner W. Clopton, Spencer H. Clack and others were writing with great acrimony in the Baptist periodicals, and giving such misrepresentations of Mr. Campbell's views as were well fitted to awaken and intensify pre- judice and opposition. In Kentucky, John Taylor, an aged Baptist preacher, was preparing to circulate what he called a " History of Campbellism," giving the most distorted views of the teaching and purposes of the pro- posed Reformation, well calculated to create the most bitter hostility in the minds of the uninformed. In various places, indeed, exclusions and divisions had already occurred with individual churches, and a grow- ing spirit of alienation was making itself evident. In the spring of this year (1830) the Third Baptist Church at Philadelphia excluded a number, who immediately formed an independent church, adopting the ancient order of things. But it was in Kentucky, and in cer- tain portions of Virginia, where the principles of the Reformation had been most widely diffused, that the greatest difficulties occurred. It is not to be supposed that in these the Reformers were always faultless. As Mr. Campbell had formerly said, " When any doctrine is professed and taught by many, when any matter gets TOL. II. — V 322 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. into many hands, some will misuse, abuse and pervert it." Thus some excited prejudice unnecessarily by de- claiming against church covenants, creeds, etc., to the legitimate use of which Mr. Campbell never had ob- jected. Uninformed persons, here and there, gave just offence by dogmatical and crude assertions, nor did a conceit of superior knowledge and an overbearing disposition fail to quench in some that spirit of Christian love and moderation so necessary to success in any at- tempt to correct the religious errors of mankind. It cannot be truthfully denied, however, that the Reformers in general were conspicuous for the forbearance and patience with which they endured the misrepresentations and injuries of their opponents, who, in their hasty zeal to save from the flames of progress whatever they sup- posed to belong to the Baptist cause, destroyed by their rashness, in various instances, those precious things which had been so long and so nobly cherished by the Baptists as a people — the rights of conscience, church independency and Christian liberality. In the existing state of feeling a slight impulse only was needed in order to precipitate results. This came from an insignificant and unexpected quarter. It had happened that two or three fragments of churches on the Western Reserve, as at Youngstown and Palmyra and the church at Salem, which refused to go into the Reformation, had united themselves with a small Asso- ciation on Beaver Creek. Here, by the aid of a Mr. Winter, and one or two other preachers who were vio- lently opposed to Mr. Campbell, they induced the Association to publish a circular anathematizing the Mahoning Association and Mr. Campbell as "disbe- lieving and denying many of the doctrines of the Holy Scripture," of which alleged heresies they went on to AUTHORS OF DIVISION. 3^3 present a portentous list. This document was circu- lated with great diligence, republished in the Baptist papers with commendation, introduced by Dr. Noel into the minutes of the Franklin Association in Ken- tucky, and its preamble quoted as an introduction to decrees by the Appomattox Association in Virginia, denouncing Mr. Campbell's writings and all persons holding the views expressed in the Beaver publication. These proceedings at once brought matters to a crisis, and induced the Baptists almost everywhere to separate the Reformers from their communion. A spirit of dis- cord and intolerance seemed to sweep over the land, creating everywhere embittered feelings and high- handed and arbitrary decisions on the part of churches and associations. Unable to allay the fury of the storm, Mr. Campbell contemplated its movements with composure, and however much he regretted the ex- tremes into which the Baptists were hurried through the misrepresentations and exaggerations of a few bigoted partisans, he entertained no fears for the re- sults, which he plainly foretold and calmly awaited. After characterizing the Beaver anathema as " a tissue of falsehoods," and exposing, by irrefragable docu- ments, the immoral character of Mr. Winter, one of its chief prompters, he asks : "Who is making divisions and schisms.'' Who is rending the peace of the churches.? Who are creating factions, swell- ings and tumults.? We who are willing to bear and forbear, or they who are anathematizing and attempting to excommu- nicate ? Let the umpires decide the question. For my own part, I am morally certain they who oppose us are unable to meet us on the Bible ; they are unable to meet us before the public ; and this I say, not as respects their talents, acquire- ments or general abilities, but as respects their systems. 324 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Thousands are convinced of this, and they might as well bark at the moon as to oppose us by bulls and anathemas. If there be a division, gentlemen, you will make it, not I ; and the more you oppose us with the weight of your cen- sure, like the palm tree we will grow the faster. I am for peace, for union, for harmony, for co-operation with all good men. But I fear you not ; if you will fling firebrands, arrows and discords into the army of the faith, you will repent it, not we. You will lose influence, not we. We covet not persecution, but we disregard it. We fear nothing but error, and should you proceed to make divisions, you will find that they will reach much farther than you are aware, and that the time is past when an anathema from an association will produce any other effect than contempt from some and a smile from others." These anticipations were fully realized. The rent extended much farther than its originators expected or desired. Many who had been apparently undecided declared for the Reformers, who were found to consti- tute the larger and the more intelligent portion of many churches, and who, having the sympathy and confi- dence of the people in general, and the aid of many eminent and influential preachers, were able, after their separation, to sustain and carry on to still greater ad vantage the reformation in which they were engaged. Among the distinguished preachers who about this time came publicly forward in support of the Reforma- tion was Jacob Creath, Sr., who had heretofore been somewhat cautious and tardy in defining his position. To his surprise, as he advanced, he met Jeremiah Var- deman coming back. " Hey," said he, "Jerry, what's the matter?" " Oh," replied Vardeman, " if this thing takes, we shall all starve. The Baptists are not too liberal as it is." The diminished contributions from the churches, growing chiefly out of their unsettled and dis- JEREMIAH VARDEMAN. 325 cordant condition, and falsely attributed to the teachings of the Reformers, had been employed as a successful argument to retain in the Baptist ranks one who was a reformer in sentiment, and who had done much to pro- mote the cause of the Reformation in Kentucky. And as is usual in such cases, he thought it necessary to signalize his renewed zeal for the Baptist cause by urging the most extreme measures, as at the meeting of the Elkhorn Association in August, where through his influence the churches at Versailles, Providence and South Elkhorn were excluded without examination or committees of inquiry, apparently with a view of cut- ting off a few obnoxious individuals, as the Creaths and Josephus Hewit, who publicly advocated the primitive faith and order. It was on this occasion that Jacob Creath, Sr., delivered a speech to the Association in defence of the rights of the churches, which by Thomas Campbell and other competent judges present was re- garded as almost unequaled for eloquence and power. No arguments, however, were of any avail. The majority in the Association, forty-two out of seventy- one, had resolved upon its course, and, much to its dis- credit with the public, proceeded to cut off the above- named churches, without erriploying any of the usual restorative measures indicated in the Scriptures or sanc- tioned by Baptist usage. As to Jeremiah Vardeman, his public life in Kentucky closed with these unfortunate proceedings, which at once spread division throughout the churches of the State. Removing immediately to Missouri, where he died in the course of a few years, he seems not to have retained much of his former influ- ence. His name was always mentioned, however, by Mr. Campbell with affectionate regard, and often with the remark, " I knew him well, and if I had been in 28 326 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Kentucky at the time, Jeremiah Vardeman would never have been persuaded to abandon the cause of the Re- formation." As to Jacob Creath, Sr., from this meet- ing of the Elkhorn Association in 1830 he devoted himseh" wholly to the establishment of the reformed views in Kentucky, in which he was eminently success- ful, converting many sinners and in some cases l?ring- ing over nearly whole Baptist churches, and by his prudence and mildness doing much to allay the asperity and embittered controversies which existed at this period. Released from the continued opposition and jealousy of prejudiced brethren, and the trammels of Baptist cus- toms and Calvinistic theories, this faithful laborer re- joiced in the freedom and fullness of the simple gospel, and along with many other able preachers, as William Morton, John Smith, Jacob Creath, Jr., etc., soon or- ganized a large number of reforming churches, many of which, especially in towns, adopted weekly com- munion, while in the country others still continued the Baptist custom of meeting monthly, when only they could have the services of a preacher. It was during this year, and about a month before the meeting of the Elkhorn Association just referred to, that Mr. Campbell issued his famous "Extra on the Remission of Sins," in which he presented also the scriptural meaning of regeneration, shortly before dis- covered by Dr. Richardson, and presented by him to the readers of the " Harbinger" in some essays signed " Discipulus." Entering largely into the whole subject of conversion, Mr. Campbell showed that baptism did not, any more than natural birth, change the nature of the thing born, but its relations, and was simply the means of introducing the new being into a new state. Making some clear distinctions between state and cha- ASSOCIATIONS. 3>7 racter, and between the principle of faith and the ac- tions which it produces, he gave, in this remarkable production of sixty pages, written within two weeks, such a presentation of the nature of primitive Christianity, and of the simplicity, completeness, efficiency and ex- cellency of the gospel, as had never been exhibited since apostolic times. A very large edition of it was printed, and being extensively distributed, its effect upon the community was very observable. The simplicity of the gospel and the design of baptism had been already variously presented and illustrated, both in Mr. Camp- bell's previous publications and in the discourses of the numerous able preachers who were now advocating primitive Christianity ; but an exposition of the gospel plan of salvation, so connected, so clear and compre- hensive, had never before been presented to the public. About this time the lawfulness of associations became a question of interest with the Reformers. The conduct of the one at Redstone, and the recent anathema issued by that at Beaver, with similar proceedings attempted in Kentucky and Virginia, had exhibited in a prominent light the tendency of such bodies to the exercise of arbi- trary power. Many began to fear that such abuses were inherent in the very nature of such organizations, and that they might, however prudently managed for a time, become unexpectedly engines of mischief. As there was no positive command for them, others among the disciples regarded their existence as incompatible with the principle they professed of adhering closely to Scripture precept and precedent. Hence, when the Mahoning Association met this year (1830) at Austin- town, there was found to exist an almost universal con- viction that some public expression on the subject was demanded by the interests of the cause. Mr. Camp- 328 MEMOIRS OF ALEXAl^DER CAMPBELL. ^ell, who was present, entertained no doubt that churchea had a right to appoint messengers to a general meeting, to bear intelligence to it and bring home intelligence from it, or transact any special business committed to them. He thought such meetings might be made very useful to promote the general advancement of the cause and the unity and love of the brotherhood, and was in favor of continuing the Association, or something like it, which would, he thought, be needed- He censured, indeed, the inconsistent conduct of which associations had been guilty in attempting to impose their decisions upon churches, but felt no apprehensions on this score in regard to the Mahoning Association, where the churches were so fuliy enlightened and so completely on their guard against encroachments on their rights. A large majority was, however, found to be opposed to everything under the name or character of an associa- tion, and it was finally resolved, unanimously, that the Mahoning Association, as " an advisory council" or " an ecclesiastical tribunal" exercising any supervision or jurisdiction over particular congregations, should never meet again. It was then resolved into a simple annual meeting for worship, and to hear reports of the progress of the gospel, and such a meeting was accordingly ap- pointed for August of the next year, at New Lisbon. This closing session of the Association at Austintown was a season of great enjoyment. During its continu- ance more than thirty persons were baptized. The news from the churches was of the most cheering cha- racter, upward of one thousand converts being reported during the year, although out of the ten preachers in the field, not one had been constantly engaged, nearly all being farmers and compelled to labor for their families The entire contributions for itinerant services during the THE ANNUAL MEETINGS. 329 year had scarcely exceeded five hundred dollars, evin- cing the spirit of self-sacrifice which prevailed among the preachers and the efficiency of the simple gospel as the power of God for salvation, even when presented by men of the most ordinary literary attainments. In the same month in which the Mahoning Associa- tion resolved itself into a simple annual meeting, the same course was adopted by the Stillwater Association, assembled at Cadiz. Two years before, at its meeting three miles from Morristown, charges had been brought by some of the preachers opposed to the reformatory movement, against Cyrus McNeely, because he had without ordination baptized an individual who presented himself at the Cadiz Church where he presided. Mr. Campbell and his father and James Phillips were all present in the Association when the case was brought up, and defended the course of the Cadiz Church as being not only scriptural, but according to regular Bap- tist precedent. Elijah Stone, Mr. Pritchard and other opposed preachers, formerly of Redstone, could make no effective reply, and finding themselves baffled, with- drew from the Association and formed another one, which, from its littleness, was appropriately called Zoar. The Stillwater Association met the following year at Well's Creek, above Steubenville, and in 1830, having at Cadiz, as before stated, resolved itself into an annual meeting, has continued ever since to meet in this ca- pacity regularly on the Friday before the third Lord's day in August. The system of annual meetings thus introduced was afterward generally adopted by the churches in various districts throughout the different States. These meetings have been occasions of happy reunions between preachers and members of different churches, and have been usually attended with large 28* 33° MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ingatherings. In no case has any attempt been made to resume the powers exercised by Baptist associations. The assembled messengers, instead of sitting as a court of inquiry to ascertain the standing of churches as to orthodoxy, have occupied themselves much better in laboring to convert sinners to Christ and in exhorting one another to love and good works. During the spring of 1830, Mr. Campbell paid a short visit to Cincinnati and contiguous parts of Ken- tucky, attending a very interesting meeting at Mayslick, and in the month of October he undertook a more ex- tended tour through Ohio and Kentucky, to Nashville, Tennessee. Traveling in a gig, in company with Samuel Parmley, of New York, he passed through Zanesville, where he preached, and continued thence through other towns to Wilmington, Clinton county. The whole Baptist church here, with the exception of one member, had embraced the ancient gospel, and within the previous five months about two hundred per- sons had been added to the churches in that region under the labors of Aylett Raines, Arthur Crihfield and Samuel Rogers, whom Mr. Campbell much rejoiced to meet. Mr. Crihfield was a man of considerable ability, though superficial in his attainments. He seemed much devoted to the cause, and afterward edited for some years a periodical which he called "The Heretic De- tector." In this, growing heady and opinionative, as is common with those who consider other people's faults to the neglect of their own, he lost for a time the confi- dence of the brotherhood. This, however, by an aban- donment of his censorious and imprudent course, he subsequently in a good degree regained, for he was a sincere-hearted believer, and falling after some years into a decline, gave ample evidence, not only of his SAMUEL ROGERS. 33 1 confidence in the truth, but of his regret for the improper spirit in which he had essayed to defend it. Samuel Rogers, for whom Mr. Campbell had a very high regard, had been laboring for some time in the cause of religious reformation. His history is instruct- ive, and may be best given in his own brief but ex- pressive words : "I was born in old Virginia, November 6, 1789; moved to Kentucky in 1793; settled in Clarke county, Kentucky, until 1801. Moved then to Missouri, called Upper Louisiana, then under Spanish rule. My mother, a pious Methodist, sewed up her Bible in a feather bed to keep the priests from finding it. This was the only Bible I ever saw until I was grown. My father urged my mother to leave her Bible, as it might give her trouble in this new territory, but she said she must have it to read to her children, and she did read it to us much, and by her piety and counsels tried to impress its truths upon our minds and hearts. As I was the eldest child, this was all the preaching I heard until a grown man. " After my mother had taught me to write my name and spell a little, I was sent to school three months. At the end of this time, I graduated with honor, having learned to read, write and cypher to the rule of three. This was about all our teachers knew themselves. My mother's readings, prayers and counsels gave me early a high regard for her religion. Though my proud heart often rebelled, yet a mother's voice would bring me back to sober reflection again. I heard a Methodist preach the first discourse I ever listened to : soon after, I heard a Baptist. I liked the free salvation of the Methodist, but disliked his baptism. I liked the baptism of the other, but disliked his Calvinism. I returned to Kentucky about nineteen years old, and found a great stir occasioned by the late strange revivals under B. W. Stone and others. Many abused Stone, while others praised him ; I, however, went to hear him for myself, and was much pleased. He called on all to come to Christ, and invited all to lay aside 332 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, their creeds and take the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice. I was pleased with his preaching : it sounded like the truth — like the religion I had read of. Whatever may have been said of the errors of Stone and those people, it was evident they were spiritually minded, and the most prayerful people of their times. I was baptized by Stone, 1812. The war came on, and the Church became greatly demoralized ; and I among the rest was by no means exempt from its un- happy influences. However, after the war, through the preaching of Stone and others, we all got to work again, re- newing our covenants with God, and a glorious revival fol- lowed. I became an exhorter by necessity. We held little meetings from house to house, and often had to send for a preacher to baptize our converts. The preachers told me I was called of God to preach. I had not thought of being a preacher, but being convinced by their arguments that I was divinely called, I was ordained by Stone at Caneridge fifty- two years ago. He then gave me a Bible, saying : ' Preach its facts, obey its commands and enjoy its promises.' I was greatly troubled about my call. I contended that if I was called, as were the apostles, I ought to have their credentials and be able to prove my apostleship. I attempted to draw from dreams and visions and vague impressions, some super- human aid ; often went on long tours upon a mere impression of the mind, taking it as a call. I thought I ought to perform miracles. My mind was often in a wretched state. About this time I got the ' Christian Baptist,' and found relief. I believe I should have gone crazy but for Alexander Camp- bell. I was not slow to embrace his view, but knew it to be truth the very moment I saw it, and at once and in haste adopted it. This was about 1825. I had traveled thousands of miles, preached all over the wilds of Ohio, Indiana, Il- linois, Missouri — swam rivers, exposed myself to every dan- ger, saying, ' Wo is me if I preach not the gospel !' I was ardent, impulsive, enthusiastic, and my labors were greatly blessed. But a heavy gloom hung over me when I would think of my call and compare it with that of the apostles. ORDINANCES OBSERVED. 333 " Bless the Lord ! Alexander Campbell came to rtiy relief. His debate with Walker, and then his debate with McCalla, waked up the people, and to me it was like the rising up of the sun after a long gloomy night. I heard him at Wilming- ton, Ohio, on his first visit. I compared him to Ezra of old, that great reformer who restored to Israel the lost law of God. Stone had given me the book, but Campbell taught me how to read it in its connection. I took his first periodical, the ' Christian Baptist,' and since that time have taken and read everything he ever published. I owe him more than any man since apostolic times. He preached no new gospel and brought in no new God, but taught us to worship intelligently the God whom we had ignorantly worshiped, and to go back over the heads of all human teachers to the great Fountain of truth for our faith and practice. "Alexander Campbell taught as no other man, but with a clearness and simplicity that carried at once conviction to the mind of every man of common sense. He gave me the New Testament he published, with preface and appendix. I have it yet. It is the best of all new translations ; his preface and appendix are invaluable. " I have sacrificed my whole life for this cause — received almost nothing for twenty-five years of the time. Baptized my thousands — I think seven thousand, as near as I could tell — but have a beautiful home ready for me on the other side of Jordan. I am in my eightieth year, preach yet much, my voice as good as ever ; can speak in the open air so as to be heard by one thousand people. Amen." While at Wilmington, Mr. Campbell was much pleased to find that the churches in that vicinity had adopted the ancient order of things, and were walk- ing in the ordinances and commandments of Christ. Under the labors of Samuel Rogers, the church at Antioch was the first congregation in Clinton county that met for these purposes. Nothing ever gave Mr. Campbell greater happiness than to find those who had 334 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. made af profession of the gospel leading pious lives and carefully observing the means of grace. These were with him always matters of far more interest and im- portance than the making of converts. Having delivered a discourse at Wilmington from Acts iii. 12-26, one young man came forward and was immersed for the remission of sins by Samuel Rogers, On the fifth of November he went on to Cincinnati, where, at this time, there was a congregation of nearly three hundred members,, prospering under the labors of James Challen. Here he spoke twice on Lord's day, four persons coming forward for baptism. On Monda}'^ he spoke at Mill Creek, and in the evening of the same day at Covington, Kentucky, where the Baptists gen- erally had embraced the Reformation. Samuel Parm- ley, here embarking on a steamboat to descend the Ohio, Ephraim A. Smith of Danville, Kentucky, noted for his humility, zeal and devotion, and a particular friend of Mr. Campbell, became his fellow-traveler. Preaching in Cynthiana, Kentucky, in Leesburg and in Georgetown, he went on to the Crossing's meeting-house, where he also had an appointment. Here he received a pressing invitation from Richard M. Johnson, whom he designates in his journal as " the author of the Sun- day Mail Report,"* to speak at his house in the evening. • Mr. Campbell here calls Colonel Johnson "the author of the Sunday Mail Report " by courtesy, since, as chairman of the committee, he was of course the reputed author. He was probably led the more to do this as he did not wish the authorship to be attributed to himself, as had been done. When his friends said to him, " People say you are the author of that Report," he would laughingly reply, " People say a great many things that are not true," and so pass the matter by. While, from a variety of circumstances, it is difficult to think that Mr. Campbell was not particularly concerned in getting up this document, if not by furnishing the original sketch, at least by suggesting the course of argu- ment or sending a copy of his discussions with Prest Wylie and others upon L. /. FLEMING. 335 but having to meet appointments at Frankfort, he was compelled to decline. At Frankfort he was very kindly received at the house of Governor Metcalf, whose wife was a member of the church. After preaching in the academ}^ and baptizing a lady who presented herself, he went on to the neighborhood of Versailles and spent the night at T. Bullock's, where J. Creath, Jr., was holding a meeting, and where he found Josephus Hewit and L. I. Fleming. The latter was a ver}^ devoted and pious Christian, for whom Mr. Campbell had a warm attachment, and with whom he had become acquainted on his first visit to Kentucky in 182 j. He was a na- tive of Woodford county, born near Midway, October 15, 1798. His mother was a pious woman, and from early boyhood he was noted for his devotional spirit. He united with the church in Georgetown under the ministry of B. W. Stone, from whom he received the chief part of his education. He soon began to aid at the chief questions involved, it is due to the truth of history to say that some claim the actual authorship for Rev. Obadiah Brown, a Baptist minister at whose house, in Washington, Colonel Johnson boarded. Mr. Brown, when a young man, had filled the office of chaplain to Congress, but, by degrees, became much engaged with politics and politicians, having considerable in- fluence over General Jackson, and affording him valuable assistance in the difficulties of his stormy administration. He was regarded by those who knew him best as a man of very great ability, and is said to have been in the habit of aiding Colonel Johnson both by his advice and in the preparation of documents. It is stated by a highly respectable Baptist minister of Albe- marle county, Virginia— W. P. Parish, who was at the time a partner of Mr, Brown in the stage and mail-carrying business— that he charged Brown with being the author, and that, after some evasive replies, he understood him finally to admit the fact, expressing, however, the desire that Colonel Johnson should have the credit of it. From these facts, some of which have come to the knowledge of the writer since the publication of the first volume, and for which he is indebted to R. L. Coleman of Virginia, the reader can form his own conclusions as to the authorship of this famous Report, which, at least, embodied the views which Mr. Campbell was known to entertain on the subject 336 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. meetings as a public speaker, but was especially dis- tinguished by his habit of visiting from house to house in order to promote the interests of Christ's kingdom. He was so humble and unassuming, and so universally recognized as one of the most pious of men, that he was everywhere gladly welcomed. He had a peculiar faculty of making himself at home wherever he went, attending to his horse, cutting wood, making fires and aiding familiarly in everything in which he could be of service. Nor did he enter less readily into the religious matters of the household, being everywhere " a sweet odor of Christ," and availing himself of every oppor- tunity to impart some spiritual benefit. Ever preferring others to himself, he literally " went about doing good," and, indifferent to his own comfort, seemed to live only for the promotion of piety and humanity. Mr. Campbell, after preaching in Versailles, where he found J. Creath, Sr., and John Smith, went on toward Lexington, and lodged with B. A. Hicks, where he had an interestinji conversation with Brethren B. W. Stone and F. R. Palmer upon religious reformation. Ar- riving in Lexington on Saturday, he stopped at the house of his friend Joseph Ficklin, and after dining with Dr. Woods, president of Transylvania University, repaired to Dr. Fishback's, where, in the presence of a large compan}^ he spent about four hours very agreeably in answering questions proposed by the doctor concerning the Reformation. Next day he addressed a very large audience in Lexington, from John iii., and as this discourse exhibits strikingly his power of tracing analogies, and his usual comprehensive range of thought, the notes of it are here given from his journal : " After attempting to show Wi^j/ John, and none of the other ADDRESSES AT LEXINGTON. 337 evangelists, narrated the interview with Nicodemus, we pro- ceeded to speak of the kingdoms of nature, grace and glory, as usually defined. The constituents of a literal kingdom were first detailed. The propriety of the application of the term kingdom to nature, grace and glory was next vindicated. Then the analogies between these three kingdoms were traced in the prominent characteristics of a kingdom : i. The crea- tion of each by a word of God. 2. The design of each to pro- duce beings correspondent with its constitution — natural be- ings — gracious beings — glorious beings. 3. The adaptation of the means employed to each of the ends proposed, natural life, spiritual life, eternal life. 4. The three births., or the modes of introduction into each kingdom. The first birth, natural ; the second birth, gracious ; the third birth, glorious. The first birth of and from the fiesh., the second of and from the water and the Spirit., the third of and from the grave. 5. The three salvations : ist. From natural dangers ; God is thus the Saviour of all men in the kingdom of nature. 2d, The salvation of the soul from the guilt, pollution and the power of sin in the kingdom of grace. 3d, The salvation of the body from the grave, or the glorification of soul and body at the resurrection of the just and in the kingdom of glory. 6. The impossibility of being a citizen or subject of any one of these kingdoms, without being born into it. 7. An illus- tration of the whole subject, drawn from the use and mean- ing of the outer court, holy place and most holy, in the tabernacle. In the conclusion, we emphasized on the king- dom of heaven, or of grace ; the import of being born of water and spirit, or the necessity of regeneration in order to admis- sion into the kingdom of grace. These were items in the series of illustrations presented on this occasion. After the discourse. Squire Hickman, once a Deist, cured by our writ- ings, presented himself for immei'sion." In the evening of that day he addressed, by special invitation, the medical class of Transylvania University on the following questions : i. Has God ever spoken to man? 2. In what language has he spoken? 3. If in VOL. II.— W 29 338 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. human language, how is it to be interpreted? 4. What has he said to us in his last message by his Son? From Lexington, proceeding southward through Athens, Nicholasville, Harrodsburg and Danville — at which latter place eleven persons presented themselves for baptism after his discourse, he continued on his way through Columbia, Glasgow and Bowling Green to Nashville, preaching at various points, and accompanied now by J. Creath, Jr. On Friday, loth December, he delivered an address at Nashville upon the character- istics of the apostasy and the mystery of iniquity, in con- trast with primitive Christianity ; and as most of the clergy of the city were present he gave out an appoint- ment for the following evening, when he proposed to attend to any inquiries or objections which persons might have to offer. When the time arrived, after some inquiries had been noticed, which were proposed through J. Creath, in regard to faith and repentance, the pastor of the Presbyterian church in Nashville, Obadiah Jen- nings, rose and controverted Mr. Campbell's views of faith as merely " natural faith," advocating a faith pro- duced by a "supernatural operation." This was the same Mr. Jennings who had been active many years before in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in those fining associations called moral societies, which had attempted to enforce by law Presbyterian views of the Sabbath, and which Mr. Campbell had so successfully resisted. Mr. Jennings was a zealous Presbyterian, and doubt- less conscientious and sincere in his efforts to sustain the theological opinions of his party. He had relin- quished the successful practice of law at Steubenville for the ministerial office, to which he had zealously devoted himself, having been pastor of the Steubenville congre- JENNINGS DEBATE. 339 gation for six years, and then succeeding Rev. Matthew Brown in the congregation at Washington in the spring of 1823. In 1828 he removed to Nashville. He pos- sessed respectable abilities, but was not a popular preacher, being wont to write his sermons and speak from notes, but this practice did not appear to be neces- sary to him, as he was much more effective and fluent when compelled to speak extemporaneously. To his first address Mr. Campbell replied, and Mr. Jennings then rejoined in a speech of considerable length, after which, alleging indisposition, he retired, and Mr. Camp- bell, after a few concluding remarks, dismissed the assembly. Next day he delivered a discourse on Eph. iv., after which ten persons came forward and were immersed in the Cumberland river in presence of an immense crowd. At the close of his sermon in the evening, three others came forwaid, who were immersed next morning by J. Creath. On Monday evening, Mr. Campbell preached again, and then left the city to visit Franklin and Co- lumbia, Tennessee, in company with P. S. Fall. Re- turning again to Nashville on the 2ist, he delivered another lecture there on Friday evening, at which Mr. Jennings was present. Having learned that the latter designed to make further objections if opportunity were afforded, Mr. Campbell then gave another invitation to objectors and inquirers, appointing to hear them next day (Christmas) at ten o'clock. When the hour had arrived, he proposed that in order to prevent any misappropriation of time, some one should preside over the meeting, and that only twenty minutes should be allowed at one time to each speaker. Dr. Felix Robinson having been requested to preside, Mr. Jennings soon rose, and after inveigh- 340 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ing against the proposed " Reformation," attempted a defence of the sects against the censures of Mr. Camp- bell, charging Mr. Campbell himself with making divis- ions. Mr. Campbell in reply showed that the prin- ciples he advocated were anything but sectarian, since they required that everything for which there was clear scriptural authority should be received, and that all opinions should be held as private property. Mr. Jennings then attempted to sustain the doctrine of a special divine call to the ministry, and in the course of the day touched upon a great many other points, charging Mr. Campbell with fraternizing with Arians, criticising at considerable length the new version, etc., and finally proceeding to deliver strictures upon Mr. Campbell's views of the " New Birth." Mr. Jennings had very adroitly availed himself of the privilege which Mr. Campbell, from his fearless confidence in the power of divine truth, had given to objectors. Having provided himself witti abundant materials in the numerous misrepresentations which had been circulated against Mr. Campbell and his views, he flitted from one subject to another, dwelling upon each just long enough to infuse the venom of the sting of sectarian hostility, and carefully evading any direct collision. Declining to assume the affirmative of any proposition which he himself believed, he said that "he had attended with a view to discuss, not Presbyterian- ism or Calvinism, but Campbellism." He determined to avail himself, accordingly, to the utmost, of an advan- tage which, had it not been conceded by Mr. Camp- bell, would have been justly regarded as ungenerous, since there is nothing, however true or sacred, against which plausible objections may not be oflfered, and that, too, in a much shorter time than is required for their RE GENERA TION. 341 refutation. After Mr. Campbell had indulged Mr. Jen- nings thus during the day in making these assaults, he at length proposed to remain another day at Nash- ville, provided Mr. Jennings would select some one topic and confine himself to its discussion. To this Mr. Jennings assented, and gave as the subject, "To be born again ; what is it, and what the effects thereof?" still carefully avoiding to commit himself to any definite affirmation. When the time for discussion arrived, Mr. Campbell objected to this as merely a topic, and not a logical proposition, and after considerable delay, Mr. Jennings finally agreed to the following : '* To say that to be born again and to be immersed is the same thing, is false and cannot be supported by the word of God." Although Mr. Campbell regarded this as an awkward proposition, he consented to discuss it, provided Mr. Jennings, to save time, would concede that the term regeneration in Tit. iii. 5 was equivalent to being born again, in his sense of the expression. By this time it was one o'clock, and the moderators, Messrs. Hayes, Foster and Payne, adjourned to three o'clock. Mr. Jen- nings then spoke first, descanting on the uncharitable- ness of Mr. Campbell's view that the terms immersion and regeneration were applicable to the same act. Mr. Campbell, in repl}', appealed to the congregation against such attempts to arouse prejudice, and which had noth- ing to do with the proof of the proposition, and showed by the article on the " Decrees" from Mr. Jennings' Confession of Faith how ill it became him to talk about the charitableness of systems. Mr. Jennings, continuing in the same strain, was called to order by Mr. Payne, the presiding moderator, who was a Methodist. With regard to the merits of this discussion upon re- generation, it is evident that it was mainly a debate 29* 34^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. about the meaning of a term, and that Mr. Jennings, in conceding in the beginning that " regeneration" and "being born again "were equivalent expressions, vir- tually yielded the whole question. Mr. Campbell showed that, while in the process of regeneration a begetting by the word of truth (James i. i8 ; i Pet. i. 23-25) was necessarily involved, the person thus be- gotten and quickened by the Spirit could be justly and scripturally regarded as born again only in the act of immersion, through which he formally entered into a new state and assumed publicly the relation of a child of God. As, naturally, a child is born of its father only in being born of its mother, so, spiritually, bap- tism became to the believer the new birth — the " wash- ing," "bath" or "laver" {j.ouzpov) of regeneration, after which alone he could be scripturally recognized as born of water and spirit, and legitimately in the king- dom of heaven. Hence, by the earl}^ Christian writers, baptism was itself termed regeneration. Mr. Camp- bell did not really regard baptism as the whole -process of regeneration, as Mr. Jennings sought to make appear, but insisted as strongly as any one upon a previous im- partation of spiritual life through faith as indispensably requisite. As this, on the otner hand, constituted in Mr. Jennings' view the whole of regeneration, and he desired to reduce baptism to a mere emblem of " spir- itual operations," it was evidently neither his policy nor his aim to understand or to represent Mr. Campbell correctly. The spirit of captiousness and perversion in which he carried on the discussion is indeed fully exhibited in the pretended report of it which he pre- pared, and which was published after his death by his nephew, S. C. Jennings, who was also a bitter oppo- nent. This work, abounding in gross personalities, full PROVIDENTIAL CARE. 343 of misrepresentations and injurious insinuations, and bristling on every page with the most vindictive hos- tility, served only to show the power of bigotry to pre- sent one so amiable and irreproachable in a moral and social point of view, as was Mr. Jennings, in a light so totally different as a religious partisan. During Mr. Campbell's stay in Nashville, more than thirty persons became obedient to the faith, and the cause of the Reformation was greatly strengthened. Bidding an affecting adieu to his friends there, on the 28th of December he set out for home, accompanied by his daughter Eliza Ann, who had been spending some time with her sister in Tennessee, Mrs. Ewing. Passing through Kentucky as rapidly as the state of the roads and weather would permit, he addressed large audiences at his different appointments on the way to Maysville, and was much pleased with the general prospects of the cause, finding that the feelings of the great mass of the non-professing community were on the side of the Reformers on account of the injustice and illiberality which had characterized the proceedings of their opponents. On Wednesday, the 26th of January, he crossed the Ohio river through the floating ice, and passing through Ohio, arrived at home on the evening of the 3d of February. " Thus," adds he in his journal, " under the kind and indulgent care of our heavenly Father, we finished a tour of fourteen hundred miles by land in one hundred days, without a single accident worthy of a name. . . . We found the same kind care and merciful providence had been extended over our family which had accompanied us by day and night, through all the dangers and toils of a winter journey through a great variety of country and circumstances." CHAPTER X. Morinonism — Its exposure — Co-operation — Evangelists — Infidelity — Work of the Holy Spirit — Divisions — Meeting-houses — Worship — Slavery. TOWARD the close of this year (1830) the de- lusion of Mormonism began its course in Northern Ohio. Chief amongst its promoters appeared Sydney Rigdon, who was believed, upon good evidence, to have been also its originator. Captivating as a public speaker by his fluency and his exuberant fancy, he had de- pended upon these superficial endowments for popularity and success. In private he had been found petulant, unreliable and ungovernable in his passions, and his wayward temper, his extravagant stories and his habit of self-assertion had prevented him from attaining influ- ence as a religious teacher among the disciples. He was ambitious of distinction, without the energy and in- dustry necessary to secure it, and jealous of the repu- tation of others, without the ability to compete with them. Floating upon the dde of popular excitement, he was disposed to catch at anything which, without demanding labor, might serve for his advancement, and was natu- rally led to seek in deception the success which he found denied to indolence. It appears that, while living in Pittsburg, he was con- nected with one of the printing-offices, and obtained access to the manuscript of a romance written by a former Presbyterian preacher — a Solomon Spaulding — 344 PRECONCERTED IMPOSTURE. 345 who, adopting the style of the Bible history, had, for his amusement, given a fanciful account of the nations inhabiting Canaan before the time of Joshua, and de- scribed, with great minuteness, their modes of life, wars, migrations, etc. He attributed also in it the settling of North America to the ten lost tribes, and, giving to his work the title of "Lost Manuscript Found," was wont to read portions of it frequently to his friends- Having copied or obtained possession of this manu- script, Rigdon seems to have secretly occupied himself during* several years in altering and arranging it to suit his purposes ; and discovering, at Palmyra, New York, as early as 1827, a suitable coadjutor in the person of Joseph Smith, a pretended fortune-teller and discoverer of hidden treasure, noted for his idleness and love of everything marvelous and mysterious, he arranged with him the plan of future operations. Accordingly, in 1830, it was duly announced that Smith had by an express revelation dis- interred certain golden plates, on which were inscribed, in the "reformed Egyptian character," important di- vine communications, giving an account of the ten lost tribes, the origin of the North American Indians and revelations designed to usher in " the latter days." These plates Smith professed to have the power to decipher and translate by means of translucent pebbles which had been provided for the purpose, and by the aid of polygraphic angels ; and a book in manuscript was speedily produced, called the "Book of Mormon," an edition of which was at once printed at the expense of a Martin Harris, who was so credulous as to believe in Smith's pretensions, and who alone, of those concerned, was able to defray the expense of publication. Meanwhile, Rigdon had been for some time diligently engaged in endeavoring, by obscure hints and glowing 346 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. millennial theories, to excite the imaginations of his hearers, and in seeking by fanciful interpretations of Scripture to prepare the minds of the churches of North- ern Ohio for something extraordinary in the near future. He sought especially in private to convince certain influ- ential persons that, along with the primitive gospel, supernatural gifts and miracles ought to be restored, and that, as at the beginning, all things should be held in common. From his want of personal influence, however, he failed in disseminating his views, except to a very limited extent. In Mentor, where he resided, he was quite unsuccessful, but was more fortunate in Kirtland, the adjoining town, where a flourishing church became much disturbed and unsettled by his plausible theories and brilliant declamations. Immediately upon the publication of the " Book of Mormon," Smith organized his dupes and abettors at Palmyra into the " Church of Latter-Day Saints," and sent forth his "apostles" to convert the people. Two of these, Cowdery and Pratt, soon made their appearance in Mentor, and were received as old acquaintances by Rigdon, who at once publicly endorsed their claims, and, with several others, was immersed into the new faith, which he immediately endeavored to propagate at Palmyra. The people there, however, knowing too well the character of Smith to believe that he could be charged with a heavenly message, treated the whole affair with contempt and ridicule. It became necessary, therefore, to change the basis of operations to some re- gion where Smith was unknown, and the point selected was Kirtland, where the minds of the people had already become to some extent prepared by Rigdon, and where about one-half of the members of the church ivere soon led away into the delusion and filled with the FORTUNES OF MORMONISM. 347 wildest fanaticism. Mormon '* elders" and '* apostles" were speedily sent forth, who traversed Northern Ohio and gained many proselytes among the ignorant and superstitious, and some even among persons of intelli- gence, who had been filled with vague expectations of a speedy millennium. It is unnecessary to relate particularly the progress of this gross delusion or the history of its leaders, who, after erecting a temple and establishing a bank at Kirt- land, found it necessary to emigrate to Independence, Missouri, from whence, largely increased in numbers, they were soon driven to Illinois, where they erected another temple and built the city of Nauvoo. Nor is it necessary to detail their introduction of polygamy, their establishment of a grand and successful system of mis- sions throughout the world, their fortunes in Illinois, where open war with the citizens was prevented only by the voluntary surrender of Smith and others to the civil authorities at the instance of the governor ; or the subsequent death of Smith at the hands of a mob in the prison to which he had been committed for safe-keep- ing. Suffice it to say, that upon his death Rigdon and Brigham Young disputed the right to the succession, and Young prevailing, Rigdon was expelled from the community and retired into the interior of New York, where he has since lived in obscurity. Meanwhile, under the guidance of their new and far more compe- tent leader, the Mormons sought an almost inaccessible region amidst the mountains of Utah, beyond the boun- daries of civilization, where, by incredible industry and the marvelous power of communism in promoting ma- terial interests, they have created, as if by magic, in the midst of an arid waste sown with salt, a magnifi- cent city, through whose streets streams of pure water 348 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. conveyed from the mountains impart freshness and ver- dure to rows of beautiful shade-trees, and irrigate ex- tensive orchards and fruitful gardens, and where on every side are seen commodious residences and vast public edifices reared by the hands of skillful artisans decoyed from the Old World by the wiles of no less skillful emissaries. Here is presented the strange spec- tacle of a social, political and religious absolutism in the midst of a free republic, and of an open, legalized licentiousness in the bosom of a Christian nation, which, extending itself around this corrupt community, grad- ually encircles it as a rapidly-growing tree encloses with its young wood a cureless canker in its heart. From the first moment of its appearance, Mr. Camp- bell endeavored to stay the progress of this impost- ure and to expose the villainy of those concerned in it. Having obtained a copy of the " Book of Mormon," he published both in the Harbinger and in a separate tract of twelve pages a brief analysis of its contents and character, laying bare its flagrant falsehoods and its contemptible absurdities. The timely appearance of this tract, the active opposition of the intelligent preachers on the Reserve, and a visit which Mr. Camp- bell paid in June to Northern Ohio, where he spent twenty-two days, delivered eighteen discourses and baptized twenty-seven persons, greatly contributed to expose this shameless imposition soon after its first ap- pearance, and to put a stop to its progress in the re- forming churches, among which, indeed, with the excep- tion of the one at Kirtland, it was far less successful than with the Methodists and other popular denomina- tions, with whose views of special spiritual operations and communications it possessed a greater affinity. The schismatic and partisan spirit which in Kentucky FALSE ACCUSATIONS. 349 and elsewhere had induced the Baptists to exclude the Reformers from their communion, was still steadily extending itself through the denomination. In Eastern Virginia, a conference of eight churches belonging to the Dover Association had been called in December, 1830, at which a report of a committee of nine was adopted, setting forth the alleged errors of " Campbell- ism," and recommending a declaration of non-fellow- ship with all who should persist in them. As both R. B. Semple and A. Broaddus were on the committee, it is to be presumed that this report presents as clear and intelligible a statement of the supposed differences be- tween Mr. Campbell's views and those of the Baptists as could be given, and it is interesting as showing how strangely party-spirit can blind the eyes and warp the judgment of good men, and lead them to misconceive and misrepresent the plainest matters. " In ^rinci' ■ples^'' the report says, '* the eiTors alluded to may be classed under four heads — viz., the denial of the influ- ence of the Holy Spirit in the salvation of man — the substitution of reformation for repentance — the substitu- tion of baptism for conversion, regeneration or the new birth — and the Pelagian doctrine of the sufficiency of man's natural powers to effect his own salvation." " This," said Mr. Campbell, in his notice of the report, " is the bill of indict7nent^ to every item of which we plead not guilty. . . . The four obnoxious ' principles,' " he after- ward remarks, " are reducible to two. The whole matter in brief is the denial of their mystic influences of the Holy Spirit and immersion for the remission of sins. . . . That God has ''his oivft time'' for converting every person is a favorite point with many. . . . And because we differ from them in this one opinion., they have, if we do not repent of it, assigned us our portion with infidels and hypocrites. I say one opinion., for none of the other charges will at all, in 30 350 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. any conceivable latitude of interpretation, apply to us. We do not substitute reformation for repentance, except they mean the term and not the thing. But we prefer the term ' reformation * to their distinction between 'legal and evan- gelical repentance.' Neither do we substitute baptism for conversion. And as for the Pelagian notion of ' man's natu- ral powers to eflect his own salvation,' it is a chimera of their own heads. We never said nor thought such a thing." As Mr. Campbell had the highest respect for Messrs. Semple and Broaddus, and could make all due allow- ance for their prejudices, he did not entertain or express the least unkindness on account of their misrepresenting him as above and thus holding him up to public odium. On the contrary, he said : " I sympathize with you, believing you to be the most hon- orable of my opponents, and to be conscientious as far as any men can be who appeal to proscriptive decrees. I know you appear to fear that vital religion is endangered by our repre- sentations of the ancient gospel. We know that the reverse is the fact. Our greatest objection to your philosophy is, that it substitutes an imaginary work of grace upon the heart for that love and peace and joy and purity which a clear percep- tion of, and an unfeigned submission to, the ancient gospel can alone produce and maintain. "We plead for faith, repentance, reformation, a new heart and universal obedience ; and ascribe to grace and the blood of Jesus, to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, everything which the Scriptures teach, in their own words and sentences, in the fullest import and meaning of them, but each in its proper place." When the report above referred to was submitted to the church at Bruington, to which Bishop Semple min- istered, Dr. Duval, in the presence of an unusually large assembly convened upon the occasion, exhibited so forcibly and eloquently the injustice done by it to CO-OPERATION OF CHURCHES. 35 J Mr. Campbell and his friends, that although Messrs. Todd, Semple, Broaddus and others used all their talents and authority to induce the church to receive it and enter its " resolutions " upon their church book, they were un- able to prevail. Bishop Semple then insisted that those who would not vote with him should take letters of dis- mission and join some other church. This the majority declined to do. He then proposed a postponement, and finally a modification of the resolutions, but the meeting closed without any final action. Next day Bishop Semple and A. Broaddus preached, after which Re- formers and anti-Reformers broke the loaf together, when the good old bishop's heart relented ; he shed many tears and they had quite " a fine time." Such A^ere the conflicts engendered in the hearts of many be- tween the expansive Christian love which the gospel itself inspired and the narrow aims and policies of the spirit of sectarianism — the former prompting to union with all who trusted in Christ, the latter inducing those possessed by it to recoil from every one who questioned the authority of those human opinions and theories which were the boast and the reliance of orthodoxy. While these matters were in progress, Mr. Campbell was discussing in the " Harbinger" various subjects of interest having an immediate relation to the existing state of affairs. Among these the co-operation of churches in sustaining preachers of the gospel occupied much attention. As the few overtasked preachers already engaged were poorly supported and wholly un- able to supply the demands of the cause, Mr. Campbell strongly urged that the churches should be arranged in districts, as he endeavored to show was the case in primitive times, in order that, by mutual aid, they might sustain a sufficient number of evangelists in the field. It 352 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. 'vas some time, however, before such arrangements could be properl}' carried out, as but few preachers could be obtained who were able to devote themselves wholly to the work, and vague notions of the "freeness" of the gospel, as well as a misapplication of his remarks on " hirelings" in the " Christian Baptist," and of his example in preaching without charge, still repressed the exercise of the liberality needed to sustain an effective ministry. The subject being brought to the attention of the annual meeting at New Lisbon, in August, 183 1, a plan of co-operation by counties was devised and suggested to the churches, care being taken to distinguish it as a matter of mere expediency, " to be adopted, continued or discontinued, as experience might dictate." Mr. Campbell, indeed, in his recommendations to the churches, never presumed in the slightest degree upon his personal influence or authority. He was well aware of the existence among the churches of a spirit of independency and a jealous regard for their liberties, which his own writings had created, and which would not brook even the appearance of dictation ; and while he sought on various occasions to guard against an ex- treme in this direction, he rejoiced to see the churches so much on their guard against that oppressive religious thraldom from which they had been released, and which he never betrayed the slightest desire to re-establish. In the absence of specific directions in Scripture re- specting the appointment and regulation of evangelists or preachers of the gospel, Mr. Campbell regarded these matters as left to the dictates of human prudence. Recognizing the Church as the authorized tribunal in such cases, he thought no one justified in assuming the office of a public laborer without the sanction of a con- gregation, and esteemed it proper, where several DEFENCE OF THE GOSPEL. 353 churches existed in the district, that these should, as far as practicable, participate in the selection, recom- mendation and ordination of preachers whose field of labor necessarily included many churches, and whose conduct and standing might seriously affect the interests of the cause at large. Each evangelist, also, was re quired to have his membership in some particular con- gregation, to which he was amenable for the faithful performance of his duties, official or unofficial. During this period Mr. Campbell continued his able defences of the gospel against the cavils of infidelity, in a series of letters to Humphrey Marshall, a bold and self-sufficient infidel of Kentucky, who had published some animadversions on the debate with Owen, and whose imaginary " Bible Contradictions" Mr. Campbell disposed of with great skill and point. He also de- fended with great power the divine mission of Jesus of Nazareth against the objections of L. H. Cohen, a rabbi of the synagogue in Richmond, Virginia.* * This Mr. Cohen was a man of considerable ability, very zealous for the Jews' religion, and supposed to be a descendant of Aaron, his father having acted as high-priest and being succeeded in this office by his son. In youth he had conceived a sudden and violent passion for the granddaughter of Sir Charles Burdette, of London, an orphan, whom he met accidentally in Phila- delphia. Her father, Malcolm Campbell, a Scotchman, had been a member of the Presbyterian Church, while'her mother was an Episcopalian. Mr. Cohen's father, hearing of the engagement, was much distressed, and exacted from his son, in presence of the elders, a binding oath that he would marry none but a Jewess. Perceiving the difficulties which surrounded her affianced husband. Miss Campbell was induced to become a proselyte to Judaism, but after her marriage experienced great depression of mind in consequence, and finally returned to the Christian profession, on account of which her hus. band separated from her. She was a lady of literary tastes, and published a number of fugitive pieces of poetry in a little volume, which furnished also a touching history of her life and trials, and of the religious transports and death of her son, Henry Luria, who, as well as several others of her children, embraced the faith of Christ Her sad narrative affords a striking illustra- tion of the unhappy effects resulting from religious disagreements, especially vol.. II,— X .'JO * 354 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. As the work of the Holy Spirit in the salvation of man continued to be one of the chief matters of con- troversy with the Baptists, he, about this time, wrote his " Dialogue on the Holy Spirit," in which he pro- posed to develop the subject with special reference to the systems of the sects. In this he was led to employ abstractions and philosophical distinctions in relation to in the marriage relation. Among other matters, the volume contains two letters, addressed to her by Mr. Campbell, from one of which the following is an extract : " My dear Mrs. Cohen : Your letters to Mrs. Campbell and myself were duly received. I am glad to learn that you are about to publish a narrative of your son's conversion from Judaism to Christianity. It will be no doubt a very interesting work. It will afford me pleasure to notice and commend it in the ' Harbinger.' I have heard my wife often speak with much pleasure of her having met you on the Ohio river and forming a very agreeable and interesting acquaintance with you, such as I once enjoyed in forming the acquaintance of your husband in Richmond. . . . " Unfortunately, sects and schisms, and consequently controversies, strifes and alienations, have, more or less, through all Christendom, paralyzed the Church of Jesus Christ and greatly prevented the spread and power of the gospel of the great Messiah. As did the Jews, so do the Gentiles, more or less, render ineffectual the word and teachings of the Holy Spirit by their traditions. Christ's gospel is no theory, no philosophy, no mere dogmata, no opinionisms. It is a glorious and yet a simple development of the most sig- nificant, splendid and grace-abounding facts, precepts and promises that ever were or ever can be submitted to the human understanding, the conscience and the affections of men. Paul, the great apostle to the Gentiles, as did Peter, the great apostle to the Jews, on the first Pentecost after Christ's ascension and glorification as Lord of ajl, Jew, Gentile and Samaritan, pre- sented the facts of Christ's death as the only sin-offering; together with his burial, resurrection, ascension and coronation as Lord of the universe, as the foundation alone sufficietit and all-sufficient for the salvation of Jew and Greek and Samaritan ; and whosoever desires pardon, peace and eternal life may indeed enjoy all the blessings which the largest heart and the most ar- dent soul in the world can enjoy or entertain. But upon these glorious facts and realities I need not enlarge. You doubtless appreciate them. It is a personal, living faith in a Divine Redeemer ; and it is this alone which can meet the essential wants and cravings of enlightened reason. Mrs. Campbell unites with me in kindest regards to you. In all benevolence, " Yours most respectfully, "Alexander Campbeu," THE WORD-ALONE THEORY. 355 •* moral and physical power," etc., with a view, as he said, to make himself understood, but which only opened the way to new misunderstandings. As these distinctions were unknown to Scripture, and some of the conclusions built upon them seemed peculiarly liable to misconcep- tion, Thomas Campbell quite disapproved of the Dia- logue as a full and just presentation of the subject, and it was from respect to his judgment that Mr. Campbell subsequently omitted it from a volume labeled " Chris- tianity Restored," in the first edition of which it had been inserted, along with some of the Extras of the *' Harbinger." In this Dialogue he had, indeed, applied his reasonings specially to the case of conversion, and had clearly stated in it that while the Holy Spirit operated upon sinners by the demonstrations and evidences of the gospel, he took up his abode in the saints. "The Spirit of God," said he, '* the author of these proofs, by them opens men's minds to hear, to obey the gospel. Those who obey the gospel are in that gospel declared to be sons of God, and as such receive the Holy Spirit, promised through faith." The principles from which he reasoned had, however, a much more extensive ap- plication than to the case of conversion, and, like all human philosophy in religious matters, were calculated to create difficulties rather than to remove them. Hence, while his opponents raised a clamor against him as de- nying "the operations of the Holy Spirit," some of those who were professed advocates of the Reformation were led to construct a word-alone theory which virtu- all}^ dispensed with the great promise of the gospel — the gift of the Holy Spirit to believers. These persons were found chiefly among those who had been pre- viously skeptical, and who were habitually disposed to rely upon reason rather than to walk by faith ; and their S5^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. crude and erroneous doctrines were well calculated to bring a reproach upon the Reformation. They were disposed to resolve religion entirely into a system of moral motivity ; to disbelieve the actual indwelling of the Holy Spirit in believers ; to deny special provi- dences and guidings, and, by consequence, the efficacy of prayer. Taking Locke's philosophy as the basis of their system, and carrying his " Essay on the Human Understanding" along with the Bible in their saddle- bags, they denied even to its Creator any access to the human soul except by " words and arguments," while they conceded to the Author of evil a direct approach, and had more to say in their discourses about " the laws of human nature " than about the gospel of Christ. It was to check the effects of such speculations, wholly inconsistent with the reformatory principles, but well suited to a superficial and unspiritual religionism, that Walter Scott at this period wrote and published his " Discourse on the Holy Spirit." In this he en- deavored to show that " Christianity as developed in the Sacred Oracles is sustained by three divine missions — the mission of the Lord Jesus, the mission of the apostles and the mission of the Holy Spirit;'''' and fur- thermore that as the personal mission of Christ was to the Jews, and that of the apostles to the world, that of the Holy Spirit was to the Church. DwelHng upon these points, he showed that in each case, as propriety required, the mission terminated upon its proper object ; Christ confining his ministry to " the lost sheep of the house of Israel," the apostles going out into the world to disciple the nations, and the Holy Spirit, sent on the day of Pentecost, remaining in the Church or body of Christ, dwelling in all its members, and acting through them in comforting the saints and convincing the world DISCOURSE ON THE HOLT SPIRIT. 357 of sin, righteousness and judgment. Exposing the incorrectness of the popular notion that the Spirit was sent to the -world, as being in direct contravention of Christ's declaration that the world could not receive him, he insisted upon the absolute need of the indwell- ing of the Holy Spirit in every believer in order to real :ind permanent union with Christ, and to the production of those fruits through which Christ was glorified among men. Finally, he showed that while the personal mis- sion of Christ to the Jews and that of the apostles to the world were limited in duration, the mission of the Holy Spirit to the Church was -permanent in its nature, since the Comforter was to abide with it for ever. " There is no member of the body of Christ," said he, "in whom the Holy Spirit dwelleth not; for it will hold as good at the end of the world and in eternity as it does now, and it holds as good now as it did on the day of Pentecost and afterward — that ' if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.'" This discourse, being widely circulated in pamphlet form, had a powerful effect in imparting clearness and definiteness to the views of the Reformers upon this important subject. It was the first time it had been publicly brought forward in so particular a manner, and the clear scriptural evidence presented in the discourse was generally received as decisive of the questions in- volved. This result was much aided by Mr. Camp- bell's warm commendation of the sentiments which it contained. " Brother Walter Scott," said he—" who in the fall of 1827, arranged the several items of faith, repentance, baptism, re- mission of sins, the Holy Spirit and eternal life, restored them in this order to the Church under the title of Ancient Gospel, and successfully preached it for the conversion of the 358 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. world — has written a discourse on the fifth point (viz., the Holy Spirit), which presents the subject in such an attitude as cannot fail to make all who read it understand the views entertained by us, and, as we think, taught by the apostles in their writings. We can recommend to ail the disciples this discourise as most worthy of a place in their families, because it perspicuously, forcibly and with a brevity favorable to an easy apprehension of its meaning, presents the subject to the mind of the reader. Our opponents, too, who are continu- ally misrepresenting, and many of them no doubt misconceiv- ing, our views on this subject, if they would be advised by us, we would request to furnish themselves with a copy, that they may be better informed on this topic, and, if they should still be conscientiously opposed, that they may oppose what we teach, and not a phantom of their own creation." It was because Mr. Campbell opposed the popular notions of special illuminations and mystic influences of the Holy Spirit upon the heart, that he became ob- noxious to the charge of undervaluing the exercises of the heart. In a very courteous review, published this year, of the Extra on remission, Andrew Broaddus remarked : " The great error which lies at the bottom of Mr. Camp- bell's theory, of the actual forgiveness of sins in baptism, appears to consist in afi undervaluing of the exercises of the hearty and attaching to external cofiduct or action the ifnportance which really belongs to those exercises." " I doubt not," said Mr. Campbell, in reply, " that Mr. Broaddus thinks this is all correct, and yet a more unjust representation of my views was never penned. I cannot blame Mr. Broaddus for censuring in strong terms a view of Christianity against which such a charge could fairly lie. I would join with him and denounce such a representation of Christianity as leaves the heart of man not only out of view, but in the background. How often have we said that the greatest objection wc have against the whole sj'stem we PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. 359 oppose is because of its Impotency on the heart? But Mr. Broaddus thinks that his system is the only one which takes the heart of man into good keeping, and consequently he that dissents from him leaves the heart out of view." " Once for all," said he again, " let it be distinctly noted that we appreciate nothing in religion which tends not directly and immediately, proximately and remotely, to the purifica- tion and perfection of the heart. Paul acts the philosopher fully once, and if we recollect but once, in all his writings upon this subject. It is in his first Epistle to Timothy : ' Now the end of the commandment, or gospel, is love out of a pure heart and of a good conscience and of faith unfeigned.' . . . We proceed upon these as our axiomata in all our writings, reasonings, preachings : first, unfeigned faith ; second, a good conscience; third, a pure heart ; fourth, love. The testimony of God apprehended, produces unfeigned or genuine faith ; faith obeyed, produces a good conscience. This Peter de- fines to be the use of baptism, the answer of a good con- science. This produces a pure heart, and then the consum- mation is love — love to God and man." Mr. Campbell believed that as in nature the position of the earth in reference to the sun is changed in order to the production of summer fruits, so in religion the internal state of the sinner in reference to God is changed through the faith and obedience of the gospel, so that the heavenly influences might produce their proper effects. '"Jesus," said he, "gives us the philo- sophy of his scheme in an address to a sinner of that time : ' Your sins,' says he, ' are forgiven you ; go, and sin no more.' He first changes the sinner's state, not ' external but internal,' and then says, ' Go, and sin no more.'' He frankly forgave the debt. The sinner loved him." These remarks were elicited chiefly by the course pursued by Mr. Broaddus in his review. This was 360 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. largely composed of disquisitions upon "real" and " relative" change, upon " state," " quality," etc., and was permeated throughout by that entire misconception of Mr. CampbelTs teaching already adverted to, as neglecting the heart and having nothing in view but external and formal changes. Mr. Campbell showed in his reply that no changes are more real than such as are relative, and that the term " state" was as appli- cable to internal as to external conditions, to the latter of which Mr. Broaddus erroneously supposed Mr. Camp- bell to confine it. In his overweening estimate of religious " experiences," and his effort to represent Mr. Campbell as advocating a mere outward work or opus operatmn in religion, Mr. Broaddus was led to speak of baptism as "an external or bodily act," and to controvert the view taken by Mr. Campbell that through it the " state" of the sinner was changed. In reply, Mr. C. expresses his surprise that the Baptists should have so long contended with Pasdobaptists and broken fellowship with them about a matter which in their view was of so little importance. Entering then into the heart of the subject, he thus ably exposes the shallowness of the philosophy opposed to him : " I. There are no acts of worship or of religion ordained by Jesus Christ that are at all to be regarded as outward or external bodily acts. ' God is a Spirit, and they who worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.' Vocal prayer and praise, though they are exercises of the larynx, the tongue and the lips ; the bending of the knee, or the stand- ing erect or falling upon the ground ; the eating of bread, the drinking of wine, or any other exertion of one or more or all of our organs, mental or corporeal, are not to be re- garded as acts of religion except they are exercises of the understanding and the heart ; and no man of any sense pleads for these, as bodily acts, as of any importance whatever. REVISION OF NEW TESTAMENT. 361 " 2. But the spirit of man cannot think at all without the body ; it cannot think if the brain be not exercised ; it cannot speak unless the tongue be moved ; it cannot feel but by the nerves ; it cannot move but by the organs of the body. How unreasonable, then, to separate or to regard human action in reference to the particular organ which operates ! Immer- sion is as spiritual an act when proceeding from faith in God's promise as any act in which a person is either active or passive. Faith is as much a bodily act as immer- sion. No man without the exercise of his senses can be- lieve anything. ' Faith comes by hearing^ says a master in Israel." Thus ever, upon his stronger pinions, Mr. Campbell rose above the highest altitude of his ablest opponents, and from his loftier point of observation was enabled to take wider and better views of truth and duty. His confutation of Mr. Broaddus' " Extra Examined" was throughout triumphant, and became the means of con- vincing many of the truth of the positions he advocated. In October of the year 183 1 his family was increased by the birth of a son, who was named Alexander. His domestic happiness continued uninterrupted, and at no period were his public labors more incessant. During the 3'ear he had been about half the time from home, laboring in word and doctrine, and had immersed about two hundred persons. Everywhere the principles he taught were undergoing the most active scrutiny, and gaining the confidence and the support of unsectarian and intelligent minds. His various publications were constantly gaining a wider circulation, and his incessant activity was still adding to their number. A pocket edition of the New Version of the Testament was about this time projected. Being subjected to a careful revis- ion, in which he received important aid from F. W. Emmons, who had then taken up his abode in Wells- 31 362 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. burg, it was subsequently stereotyped and published in a small and portable form. The intolerance with which, in many cases, the Re- formers were treated by the Baptists served to illustrate more fully the tendencies and spirit of the sectarianism which Mr. Campbell sought to overthrow, and tended to justify more fully his efforts in the estimation of the people. It was impossible to explain satisfactorily, on Christian principles, the necessity of division where there were so many points of agreement, and the un- prejudiced were unable to recognize as just reasons those distinctions which appeared so vast as seen through the magnifying glass of sectarian bigotry, but so minute and trivial in the eyes of Christian love. Mr. Camp- bell, however, by no means attached the blame to the Baptists as a people, but attributed the whole difficulty to a few individuals, who were bent on maintaining the supremacy of their own favorite theories, rather than the freedom and the clemency which the Baptists were wont to cherish. These ancient characteristics, however, were at times still exhibited among them, even by Mr. Campbell's opponents, as may be seen in the following instance : Toward the close of this year (1831), Thomas Camp- bell had set out upon a visit to the churches in Eastern Virginia. Upon arriving at Fredericksburg on a Friday, he was invited by Elder G. F. Adams, the pastor of the Baptist church there, to preach on the following Lord's day. Bishop R. B. Semple, coming into town on Saturday, was introduced to him, and next morning had another interview with him and accompanied him to meeting. Here the bishop listened to his discourse, and at its close added a few remarks. In the after- aoon also he gave a short exhortation when the Lord's JEALOUSIES AND DIVISIONS. 363 Supper was administered, and afterward returned home, bestowing his parting benediction on Thomas Camp- bell, who was to preach again at night. In the kind and courteous recognition thus granted by Bishop Semple to Thomas Campbell it is not to be supposed that he intended to compromise in any degree his cher- ished religious sentiments, or to sanction what he still honestly thought to be defects in Mr. Campbell's teach- ing. After so much religious disputation, however, it was, under the circumstances, a very pleasing incident, showing that the supposed differences were not such, after all, in the estimation of Bishop Semple, as to pre- clude fraternal communion. Providence, too, seemed to give to this incident a peculiar significance, for in a few days Bishop Semple was seized with pleurisy, which terminated, on Christmas day, 183 1, his long and useful life ; and it hence so happened that the last discourse he ever heard was from the lips of the godly man to whom the Reformation owed its origin, and that it was likewise with Thomas Campbell he enjoyed his last communion upon earth — an antepast, it is to be hoped, of that higher Eucharistic feast where the pious, redeemed from all their prejudices and errors, shall sit down together with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of God. The jealousies and misconceptions created by Mr. Campbell's opponents among the Baptists continued nevertheless to produce their natural effects, and soon after Thomas Campbell's arrival at Richmond the pastor of the Baptist church there, and those with him, re- quested all favorable to the Reformation to withdraw and become a separate people. To this sixty- eight members finally assented and formed a distinct church, which met first in the Capitol on the fourth of March,

        364 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. 1832, on which occasion Thomas Campbell preached to a large assemblage with great acceptance. He con- tinued for some time successfully his labors in Rich- mond, where he was at length confined by a serious and protracted illness, during which he received the kindest attentions from his friends and the medical visits of the eminent Dr. Cullen, who conceived a warm at- tachment for his patient, and would receive nothing for his valuable services. Separations between the Baptists and the Reformers occurred in various other portions of the State, and these were still farther extended by the action of the Dover Association in the fall, excluding six of the most prominent Reform preachers in their body, and recommending the churches to separate all "Reformers" from their communion. The preamble and resolutions adopted on this occasion, couched in terms to which Andrew Broaddus himself objected, con- tained so many incorrect and unjust statements that they occasioned no little bitterness of feeling between the parties, and tended to increase public sympathy for the worthy individuals, as well as for the cause they were designed to discredit. The consequence was a general division between the Baptists and Reformers, and a rapid increase on the part of the latter, who now met regularly without hindrance to keep the ordinances, and enjoyed the labors of a number of excellent and devoted preachers. A meeting-house was soon erected in Richmond, as well as one in Bowling Green, in Essex and at other points. These were plain, substantial buildings, conveniently arranged, and without any of those expensive and unnecessary ornaments in which vanity and pride so often expend the wealth which ought to be devoted to charitable and religious uses. Such, indeed, has in general been the character of the

        CHURCH EDIFICES. 365

        meeting-houses built by the Reformers. Mr. Campbell himself, who was extremely simple in all his tastes and habits, was decidedly opposed to everything which savored of show or ostentation in houses, dress or equipage. On the character of church edifices he about this time made the following remarks : " It is most devoutly to be wished that all who plead for reformation would carry out their principles in the plainness, convenience and cheapness of the buildings which they erect for the assemblies of Christians. No greater satire could be inscribed on marble against the religion of Jesus Christ than are many of the houses called churches, wherever the people have the means of gratifying the spirit which is in them. There is no difference between the Baptists and other sects in this particular. Opulent communities amongst them have stately edifices, with lofty steeples and ponderous bells. There are some Baptist cathedrals on which more than forty thou- sand dollars have been expended for the sake of showing that the Baptists would be as respectable as any other sect if they had it in their power. The spirit of baptized and sprinkled Calvinism, whether in the Presbyterian or Congregational form, is one and the same, if a thousand arguments could prove such a proposition. Large, convenient and permanent houses may be built for generally half the sum usually ex- pended on the same number of square feet. The Qiiakers are more exemplary in this respect than any other sect. But even their plan could still be improved. Let there only be a regard to convenience and durability ; let all that is merely to gratify the lusts of the eye and the pride of life be left to them who seek to gain influence over the children of the flesh by re- ducing Christianity to the taste and fashion of this world, and we can build two, three and sometimes four meeting-houses for the price of one of the same dimensions. '' Under the present political influences which govern society it is necessaiy to have Synagogues or meeting-houses large enough for the accommodation of the disciples who can

        366 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        meet in any one place, and such of the community as may desire to attend their meetings. But for the sake of the humble Founder of this our religion and the Author of our hope before God, let not the walls of the house nor anything in it reproach our profession." Similarly, he loved to see the utmost simplicity in the order and worship of the house of God. He delighted in the public reading of the Scriptures, the plain and earnest exhortations of the brotherhood, and in solemn psalms and hymns of praise. He had no relish for anything formal or artificial, such as the repetitions in fugue tunes or the establishment of singing choirs. As to the use of musical instruments in worship, he was utterly opposed to it, and took occasion at a later period to remark in regard to it that it was well adapted to churches "founded on the Jewish pattern of things" and practicing infant sprinkling. " That all persons," said he, " who have no spiritual dis- cernment, taste or relish for spiritual meditations, consolations and sympathies of renewed hearts, should call for such aid is but natural. Pure water from the flinty rock has no attractions for the mere toper or wine-bibber. A little alcohol, or genuine Cogniac brandy, or good old Madeira is essential to the bev erage to make it truly refreshing. So to those who have no real devotion or spirituality in them, and whose animal nature flags under the oppression of church service, I think that in« strumental music would be not only a desideratum, but an es- sential prerequisite to fire up their souls to even animal de- votion. But I presume to all spiritually-minded Christians such aids would be as a cow-bell in a concert." M. H., Series iv., vol. i., p. 581. Shortly before the time of Thomas Campbell's visit to Richmond a slave insurrection in Southampton county, attended with the brutal slaughter of more than sixty persons, nearly half of whom were mothers and EMANCIPATION OF SLAVBi>. 36^ children, had spread a feeling of alarm and insecurity through that portion of the State exposed to a similar calamity, and every one seemed anxious that something should be at once done to avert impending dangers. The subject of slavery, previously referred to only in the most guarded manner, was now everywhere freely and unreservedly canvassed, and various plans were proposed for its removal, its injurious effects upon the political and social interests of the State being strongly urged in the Richmond papers and in the Legislature. Although far removed from the troubled district and free from the immediate evils of the slavery institution, Mr. Campbell thought it his duty as a citizen to use his influence in favor of emancipation, and to express his sentiments upon the institution itself. ^''Slavery" said he, " that largest and blackest blot upon our national escutcheon, that many-headed monster, that Pan- dora's box, that bitter root, that blighting and blasting curse under which so fair and so large a portion of our beloved country groans — that deadly Upas, whose breath pollutes and poisons everything within its influence — is now evoking the attention of this ancient and venerable commonwealth in a manner as unexpected as it is irresistible and cheering to every philanthropist — to every one who has a heart to feel, a tear to shed over human wretchedness, or a tongue to speak for degraded humanity. . . . We have always thought, and frequently said, since we became acquainted with the general views and character of the people of Virginia, that there was as much republicanism in Virginia, even in the slaveholding districts, as could be found among the same number of inhab- itants in any State in the Union. And, moreover, we have thought that if the abolition of slavery was legititnately to be laid before the people of this commonwealth, as it now is, ihere would be found even among slaveholders a majority to concur in a national system of emancipation.

        368 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        " Ui vler this conviction we had digested a plan for the final abolition of slavery in this State, which we intended to sub- mit in the Convention which framed the present constitution ; and indeed this was a chief inducement to reconcile us lo a seat in that body. But in the moi^e matured judgment of many members of that convention with whom we conferred, and who were as alive to the subject as we could be, it was thought impolitic and inexpedient at that time to urge this subject farther than to guard against the insertion of a single word in the constitution recognizing the existence of this evil. The subject is then constitutionally within the power of the Legislature to take any measures, at any time, which in its wisdom it may think expedient." As the plan recommended by Mr. Jefierson, which was to colonize beyond the limits of the United States all slaves born after a certain period, was then under discussion, along with other methods of getting rid of the evil, Mr. Campbell on his part proposed this plan : That the ten millions of dol- lars previously appropriated annually to the payment of the national debt then just extinguished, should thenceforth be applied to the colonization of the colored race, as stated in these terms : "enacted That from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, the sum of ten millions of dollars shall be annually appropriated to the col- onization of all people of color, either slaves or free persons, in , until the soil of our free and happy country shall not be trod by the foot of a slave, nor enriched by a drop of his sweat or blood ; that all the world may not believe that we are a nation of hypocrites asserting all men to have cer- tain natural and inherent rights, which in our practice we deny ; and shedding crocodile tears over the fall of Warsaw, and illuminating for the revolution of the Parisians, while we have millions of miserable human beings at home held in involuntary bondage, in ignorance, degradation and vice, by a republican system of free slaveholding." He add? • "Virginia can, and she will, rid herself of this

        THE PUBLIC INTERESTS. 369

        curse ; and we say the sooner she does it,the better for herself, morally, politically, religiously and every other way. But should the nation take it up, how gloriously would the cause triumph ! And as sure as the Ohio winds its way to the Gulf of Mexico, will slavery desolate and blast our political existence, unless etlectual measures be adopted to bring it to a close while it is in the power of the nation." Thus it was that Mr. Campbell, ever mindful of the best and highest interests of society, omitted no oppor- tunity of employing his abilities and his influence in behalf of every measure likely to promote them. Prompt but not rash, conservative but not stationary, his plans were usually characterized no less by novelty than by prudence, and his thoughts upon political as well as upon religious and other subjects were marked by that breadth of view, that truthful simplicity and practical sagacity which ever distinguish superior minds. TOL. II. — Y CHAPTER XI. Union with the " Christians " — Faith and opinion — Distinguished fellow- laborers — Eastern tour — Skeptics of New York — Editorial labors — Pro- gress of truth. THE tendency of religious theories to create division, as seen in the last chapter, was now to be con- trasted with the power of the Scriptures to promote union. The good feeling between the "Reformers" and the preachers and members of the "Christian Con- nection," which a common advocacy of the Bible had produced some years before on the Western Reserve, had gradually extended itself to other parts of Ohio, and especially to Kentucky, where the "Christians" constituted a large and respectable body, estimated at from ten to twelve thousand members. It was natural that a warm mutual sympathy should arise between the two people whose religious views and aims in many respects corresponded, and that the high personal re- gard existing between Mr. Campbell and B. W. Stone, L. Fleming and other preachers of the "Connection," as well as between man}'^ of the private members of the two communities, should lead to mutual intercourse and to a better understanding upon religious subjects. The agreement which was found to exist in all im- portant matters had already given rise to desires and even plans for union, but each of the communities still pre- served its separate organization, and, in some respects, 3t0 DISTINCTIVE DIFFERENCES. 371 its distinctive character. B. W. Stone favored a more free communion. "As well," said he, " might we forbid unimmersed persons to pray, to praise, to teach, as to forbid them to commune. . . . What authority have we for inviting or debarring any pious, holy believer from the Lord's table? Though it is done by many, we see no divine authority for it." Mr. Campbell had formerly expressed sentiments precisely similar, but a fuller comprehension of the relations of baptism to regeneration and the remission of sins had latterly in- clined him to stricter views. He dreaded even the appearance of setting aside any divine institution, or of assuming to judge of men by their supposed sin- cerity rather than by their actual obedience to the word of God. Again, B. W. Stone thought that the name *' Christian" was given by divine authority and ought to be the distinctive title of every follower of Jesus. This was also the view of Thomas Campbell (C. B., vol. ii., p. 12), but his son did not concur in this, nor concede the correctness of the criticism on the word (^Xpr^fiaziaac) upon which it chiefly rested. He admitted indeed that the name Christian was pro- per and appropriate, and only wished that all were worthy of it. He preferred "disciple," however, as a more humble appellation and of earlier and more fre- quent use in the New Testament. Much of Mr. Camp- bell's repugnance to the denominational name Christian was due to the fact that the anti-Trinitarian specula- tions of those who had already adopted it, had sub- jected them to charges of Arianism, a heresy to which he had a peculiar antipathy. These charges indeed he had found by intercourse with Mr. Stone and others to be unjust, and he had become latterly well satisfied that the " Christians" generally in Kentucky were dis-

        373 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. posed to abandon all speculation about the modus of the divine existence : " In Kentucky," said he, " and the South-west generally, this is getting out of fashion, and many of the congregations called ' Christians* are just as sound in the faith of Jesus as the only-begotten Son of God, in the plain import of these terms, as any congregations with which I am acquainted. With all such I, as an individual, am united, and would re- joice in seeing all the immersed disciples of the Son of God called ' Christians,' and walking in all the commandments of the Lord and Saviour. We plead for the union, commu- nion and co-operation of all such ; and wherever there are in any vicinity a remnant of those who keep the commandments of Jesus, whatever may have been their former designation, they ought to rally under Jesus and the apostles and bury all dissensions about such unprofitable subjects as those long- vexed questions about trinity, atonement, depravity, election, effectual calling, etc. If it had not been for this most unrea- sonable war about Arian or Unitarian orthodoxy, the name Christian would not have been traduced in the land as it has been, and much might have been done to promote the union of all who love our Lord Jesus Christ sincerely. With all such I am united in heart and in hand, and with all such I will, with the help of God, co-operate in any measure which can conduce to the furtherance of the gospel of Christ. Indeed I feel myself, as an individual (for here I only speak for myself), at perfect liberty to unite in every act of relig- ious worship with any sect of Baptists in America — not as a sect, but as disciples of Jesus Christ — if their moral and Christian behavior be compatible with the gospel, irrespect- ive of all their speculations upon the untaught questions of their creeds." 'Y\i\xs faith, and not opinion, was ever with Mr. Camp- bell the basis of Christian union. He advocated fel- lowship with all v/ho received the teachings of the Scripture in their simple and obvious meaning, and

        MEANS OF UNION. 373

        whose conduct corresponded with these teachings. There was no need of strained interpretations, spe- cious glosses or textual perversions where no theologi- cal theory was to be sustained, but all could learn the truth by taking the Bible in its proper connection, and construing it in harmony with the established laws of language. When, from the necessity of the subject^ as in the case of the inscrutable myteries of the divine nature, a boundary was reached beyond which the human mind was unable to pass, there its investigations must be reverently stayed in humble adoration. Within these boundaries even, a just regard was to be paid to time and opportunity as to the extent of Christian attainment. The simple truths of the gospel could be received by babes in Christ, and upon these truths all could be united in one body, in which progress was indicated not by schism but by growth, and every part of which, "fitly joined together," thus made increase " unto the edifying of itself in love." All, if not taught, must at least be teachable ; all must seek wisdom, but not to be " wise above what is written ;" and in all cases obedience must keep pace with knowledge of the divine will. Such were alike the guiding principles of both com- munities, and any apparent differences in progress were more complementary than antagonistic. Both Mr. Campbell and Mr. Stone were alike devoted to the great end of uniting the true followers of Christ into one communion upon the Bible, but each regarded the method of its accomplishment from his own point of view. Mr. Campbell, contemplating the distinct con- gregations with their proper functionaries as the highest religious executive authority on earth, was in doubt how A formal union could be attained, whether by a general

        374 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        convention of messengers or a general assembly of the people. Barton W. Stone, on the other hand, looking at the essential spirit of the gospel, exclaimed, " Oh, my brethren, let us repent and do the first works, let us seek for more holiness, rather than trouble ourselves and others with schemes and plans of union. The love of God, shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost given unto us, will more effectually unite than all the wisdom of the world combined." This great truth was not long in being exemplified, and that, too, by methods which, like the natural inovements of the body, were the most direct and simple, and which will be fully seen in the brief notices which it is necessary now to take of some of the individuals who chiefly aided in accomplishing the desired end. Among these may be particularly mentioned John Rogers, a younger brother of Samuel Rogers, already spoken of. Born in Clark county, Kentucky, Decem- ber 6, 1800, he was taken in 1801, with the rest of the family, to the West, and spent his early years on the plantation owned by his father not far from St. Louis, then called Pancour. In 1809 the family returned to Kentuck3% and setded near Concord in Nicholas county, where considerable religious excitement still lingered. After the baptism of his brother Samuel in 181 2, his attention became strongly directed to religion, so that in the following year, during meetings held in Millers- burg in Bourbon county, by B. W. Stone and others, and where Walter Warder and J. Vardeman also were preaching, he earnestly sought for some time that " re- ligious experience" which was supposed to be conver- sion, and which apparently had been obtained by some of his associates who joined the Baptist Church. Being exhorted to pray on, and still hoping for some inexplic-

        CALL TO THE MINISTRY. 375

        able, palpable or sensible manifestation by which he would "know his sins forgiven," he passed through various states of feeling, and was finally, in December, i8i8, baptized by B. W. Stone, and united with the Christian Church. As he gave evidence of piety and speaking abilities, his brother Samuel obtained his re- lease from his apprenticeship to the cabinet business, to which he had already devoted three years, and he engaged soon after in preaching in Ohio and else- where, working occasionally at his business in order to defray expenses, and encountering all the toils and hardships of the pioneer Christian preachers, traveling on foot and preaching almost daily with little pecuniary compensation, but considerable success in turning sin- ners to Christ. Having procured a horse, he worked again at his trade in Wilmington, Ohio, to obtain cloth- ing and a saddle and bridle, and preached for a con- siderable time in that portion of the State. He accom- panied afterward his brother Samuel on two long tours through Missouri, making a great many converts, and after his return visited various parts of Virginia. During all this time he was greatly troubled in regard to his " call to the ministry," it being strongly held by the " Christians" that there must be a sensible, special and unmistakable " call" to preach, and that no one should " take this honor to himself" or presume to administer the ordinances unless thus " called of God." As John Rogers had not been the subject of any special visita- tion, but felt impelled to labor simply from an earnest desire to serve the cause of Christ and to bring men to a knowledge of salvation, he often felt inclined to doubt his authority. These doubts, however, were subse- quently transferred to the clerical theory which had created them.





        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

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      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47 SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32
        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26 SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7 SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10
        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe,
          God the Father,
            God the Son, &
              God the Spirit
                Achieve Goals, NOT Satan;
                  Please "CLICK" below!
      "I Believe GOD ACHIEVES HIS GOALS for the World!"

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      CONSERVATIVE RANKING OF ALL 50 STATES

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      UNITING CONSERVATIVES into "ONE NATION UNDER GOD!"


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      The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares
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      Dearest Visitor!
      People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
      We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
      "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
      THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVE ETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13
      Let's Break it Down!
      "These things have I WRITTEN" (Absolute, Unchanging)
      Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
      THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
      That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
      Eternal Life!" (You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
      "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5
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      FACT!
      You know..."IF" you believe...that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
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      PLEASE CLICK...IF YOU BELIEVE WE CAN "KNOW"
      I BELIEVE, ETERNAL LIFE CAN BE KNOWN FOR SURE, IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13
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      Worth Studying For? Believing For? Eating For? Obeying For?

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      45] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ASTHMA THERAPY: Natural and Complementary Methods
      [46] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Can You Really HEART ATTACK PROOF Yourself by Diet
      [47] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Dietary-Secret-to-ANTI-AGING-HORMONE(Very Brief!)
      [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
      [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
      [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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      *COPYRIGHT NOTICE*

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      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better know and serve you, our readers?

      At this time, I do NOT believe Jesus is the Saviour!
      I DO believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!
      I do NOT believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' - IF one has Eternal Life;
      In 'THREE MINUTES'...you can "Know for Certain!" if your NOW HAVE Eternal Life! (or not!) 1 John 5:13
      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:
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      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!" Eph 2:8-9, Tit 3:5


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      PLEASE READ DOCTRINAL DISCLAIMER:

      Ministers-Best-Friend.com is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers - and dedicated Christians who serve the LORD JESUS.

      As such, we provide web-space to a number of Ministries - notably "NewtonStein!" (a Creation-Based Science Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA, HISTIPEDIA, ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, POLITIPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, MEDIPEDIA, ETC.;

      All Absolute-Bible-Believing, and each has their specific calling and ministry to reach Muslims, Jews, Scientists, teach Biblical Medicine and Health, Godly Government, Church Leadership, sharing American Godly History, and the HAND OF GOD in World History over the Ages!

      Obviously, all branches of Christianity do not agree doctrinally - or politically - and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, event, leader, nation or situation: Thus there are well over 10,000 denominations in the world!

        (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST "GNAT STRAINING!" - and "CAMEL SWALLOWING!")

      We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. . . or anything!

      Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion NOT be made known for various reasons.

      These are offered to you as wise people of God - True Christian Patriots - WHATEVER YOUR NATION - to discern for your own judgement and edification unto Our LORD JESUS CHRIST.

      Finally, we trust, hope, and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "God's WILL ONLY, being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN!" (Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2). . . . . .(IS THIS YOUR PRAYER, DAILY GOAL FOR YOUR CHURCH, CITY, STATE, NATION, and THE WORLD???)

      In the NAME of Jesus Christ, Our Lord and Saviour, KING of all Kings, LORD of all Lords, REIGNING SUPREME, COMING AGAIN!

      Be Blessed!

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      [3] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization: DO THE MATH, (Brief!)
      [4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
      (But Did He Really Mean It?)
      [5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)
      [6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”
      [7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)
      [8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)
      [9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World”
      [10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?
      [11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?
      [12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)
      [13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)
      [14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”
      [15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers
      [16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?
      [17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?
      [18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!
      [19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!
      [20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!
      [21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!
      [22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts
      [23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?
      [24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?
      [25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page
      [26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!
      [27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page
      [28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry
      [29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!
      [30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?
      [31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero
      [32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?
      [33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?
      [34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?
      [35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians
      [36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!
      [37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."
      [38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;
      [44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"
      [45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

      ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

        *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

        . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

        Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

        Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

        Pray for us, please!

        MBF


      *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

        Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

        FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

          JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

          And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

        FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

        FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

        FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

          (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


        FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

        FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

        FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

        FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

        FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

        FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

      Go thou and teach likewise!


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      Welcome to the "Ministers-Best-Friend!" ..... home of Cambridge Theological Seminary ..... the "World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!" .....of "Bible Churches United for Christ! ..... in a season of GLOBAL increase ..... WE PROVIDED THE PAPERWORK TO START 778 NEW CHURCHES "PER MONTH" IN 2011 (World-Wide)..... averaging 421 a month in USA ..... 62 a month in CHINA ..... 46 & 32 respectively, in RUSSIA & INDIA ..... the "CAMBRIDGE CONFEDERATION now with 16,518 Ordained Ministers ..... 14,687 Local Churches ..... and 6,709,878 Members ..... 'ADDED' since AD-2,000, now in 192 "KNOWN NATIONS" (and Territories) ..... and 17 "UNKNOWN NATIONS" of Islamic origin ..... "WHY the increase in this time of Global Economic Depression?" ..... ONLY GOD KNOWS .... but we believe His Blessing is because ..... we are striving our best to BLESS HIS MINISTERS ..... His "Called-Servants" ..... in every way we can!
      DEAR FRIEND ..... PLEASE take a FEW SECONDS ..... NOTE our "15 PROGRAMS BELOW ..... in which we may be able to ENHANCE YOUR MINISTRY CREDENTIALS ..... you may DESIRE to use them later ..... THANK YOU ..... MAY GOD BLESS YOU .....PLEASE PRAY for US ..... PLEASE TELL OTHERS ..... PRAY-FOR-US ...... and COME BACK OFTEN!
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