ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
CAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGE

”CAMBRIDGE!”

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ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



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ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'MOSES' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
THANK YOU, GOD BLESS, PRAY for US, TELL OTHERS,
PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
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    Fellow Christian for Christ!


    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!" (For "FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)


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    Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:

    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:
      (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);
      (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";
      (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more: SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"
      (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;
      (E) Serving 200+ Nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3,

    [1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

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      ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and Worship Leaders;
      ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
      ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained!
      ** Every person - having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry" - to reap the benefits thereof: In Finances, Influence, Credentials, etc; Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

      For all Ordination needs, please see:
      Ministerial Ordination Process:
    [2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

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    [4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

    [5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible Teachers; Online "Free!" Degree Programs

    [6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

    [7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

    [8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

    [9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

    [10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

    [11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

    [12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

    [13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

    [14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

    [15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE?

    The goal is NOT to test your MEMORY!!!

      The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the WORD of GOD as you read it!

      All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.
    "Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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CHRISTIAN COALITION VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN CATHOLIC VOTER GUIDE
ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS CONSULT "CHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDES!"
Voting Righteousness is God's Command!
(CLICK VOTER LOGO ABOVE)
(Then Click "YOUR STATE" for "YOUR CANDIDATES!")

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2016!
DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER[2]TED CRUZ OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[3]RAND PAUL WITH FLAG, POINTING UP photo[4]RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO[5]BEN-CARSON-PHOTO[6]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[7]JOE BIDEN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag[8]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2012!
DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag [4]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER.[5]WILLIAM OWENS[6]PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO[7]ann-romney-photo-1.jpg[8]MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]LANCE ARMSTRONG on BICYCLE PHOTO[2]CHEERLEADERS for JESUS and BIBLE VERSES PHOTOS[3]BENGHAZI BURNING AMERICAN EMBASSY PHOTO[4]AMERICAN AMBASSADOR STEVENS DRAGGED THRU STREETS[5]ARAB SPRING, AMERICAN FLAG BURNING PHOTO[6]TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO[7]ORLY TAITZ.jpg[8]TRINITY BROADCASTING LOGO
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orly Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Preacher! [7]Birther? [8]TBN Down?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]STACY DASH[4]JACK-SCHAAP-PHOTO.[5]BISHOP-EDDIE-LONG-PHOTO[6] VALERIE JARRETT WITH OBAMA PHOTO[7] HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[8]COACH JERRY SANDUSKY PHOTO
Dinesh D'Souza, Ms. Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
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BRIEFS: MUSLIMS COMING TO GET US!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]OSAMA-BIN-LADEN-PHOTO[3]MAHMAUD-AHMADINEJAD-PHOTO[4] VALERIE JARRETT OBAMA'S PUPPET MASTER PHOTO[5]HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[6]BARACK-OBAMA ARABIC WRITING PHOTO[7]BARACK-OBAMA BOWING TO KISSING HAND, SAUDI KING[8]HUMA ABEDIN with MUSLIM HEADRESS PHOTO
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Muslim! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim? [7]Saudis Worship? [8]Muslim Sisters!
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BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg KENNETH HAGIN SR-PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg BOB GRAY TEXAS-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, K. Hagin, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell, B. Gray,
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tenn. Temple, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola U, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO 
GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S ASIAN-INDIAN LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
dgs-dhinakaran-photo.jpg DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO  Paul dhinakaran-photo.jpg
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
SANTITA-JACKSON-PHOTO.jpg GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO MIA LOVE PHOTO
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
SKULL and BONESSODOMY SHORTENS MALE LIFESPAN BY DECADES!!!SKULL and BONES
SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS
LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES
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BRIEFS: AMERICANS HOME SCHOOLED!
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 THOMAS A EDISON PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" TIM TEBOW TEBOWING in JETS UNIFORM PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT OVAL in SQUARE
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
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BRIEFS: MOST LISTENED TO MINISTERS
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
(CLICK PICTURES)
PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1 RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" JOYCE MEYER BEST WHITE PHOTO D-JAMES-KENNEDY-PHOTO TIM TEBOW-PHOTO
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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NewtonStein:
Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!
Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)
GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSS GRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"
Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERY AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!
"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!
Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!
WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"
FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!
Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?
"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION
CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:
      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
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        MEMOIRS

        OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.

        By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        CHAPTER 14 - ORIGINAL PAGES 1,301-1,400

        CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        ACTUAL PAGES 976-1025

        VOL-2 PAGES 451-525:

        And

        LABORS IN THE SOUTH. 451 still worse, I am of opinion that their condition can never be improved under the institutions of those regions. It is of the essence and of the tendency of those institutions to concentrate all power, wealth, learning and respectability in the hands of an elect few, peers of the realm, princes and nobles of the land, ' lords of the fowl and the brute.' The good citizens at the South, amongst whom are many good and choice spirits, are not to blame for these institutions. They did not create them. They are themselves the creatures, not the creators, of these institutions. They are born and educated under them, and cannot be blamed for the vices of a domi- nant majority when they do not countenance them. It is of the essence of our national creed that the minority shall sub- mit to the majority in all things temporal and political — things spiritual and eternal are always excepted." After speaking at various points in South Carolina and Georgia, and enjoying the kind hospitalities and aid of many warm friends, he proceeded to Mont- gomery, Alabama, where he was met by the amiable and talented James A. Butler, one of the most active Reformation preachers in the State. After speaking at various points, he at length reached Mobile, where he remained three or four days, and then sailed on board the " Giraffe," by way of the Gulf and Lake Pontchar- train, for New Orleans. His general impression of the state of things in the regions he visited may per- haps be best learned from the following letters written while upon his tour : " Steamboat ' Tapaloosa,' Alabama Rtver, January 16, 18391 " My dear Brother Richardson : I have been daily re- solving for two months past that the next vacant hour would be occupied in writing a few words to Brother Richardson. But vacant hours are with me rare almost as angel visits. It has been with me a sermon of three months* continuance, interrupted only by the stages of a journey of some three 45> MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. thousand miles. My public addresses have been in Virginia thirty-four, in South Carolina twenty-three, in Georgia twenty, in South Alabama ten, besides some hundred fireside ser- mons, almost as laborious as those in public assemblies. I am a wonder to myself in enduring fatigue ; often almost done out, yet as fresh in the mortMUg as ever. I perform daily ablutions, either sponging or rantizing the whole person, fol- lowed up by friction sweats; which lustrations, being per- formed about the dawn of day, greatly invigorate and fortify against colds and the accidents of new lodgings and a very variable climate. " No accident worth stating has yet overtaken us. That Eye that slumbers not has watched our down-sittings and up- risings, and guarded, as well as guided, all our paths. No shield like that of Jacob's God, no munition like the Rock of Ages ! We have had a stream of consolation following us all the way, as well as a bright cloud animating our onward course. We have the prayers of many Christians and the benediction of them that love the city of our God. "My present tour reminds me of those in i823-*24-25, when I was widely scattering the seeds of reformation in the West. The first principles of things — the objections of the captious, the scruples of the conscientious, the problems of the curious and the ambushes of the enemies — all require and receive a degree of attention. We have to dispossess demons and exorcise unclean spirits, as well as to proclaim the ac- ceptable year of the Lord. The chief priests, the scribes and the rulers of the people are generally in league against us. But there are some more noble than in Thessalonica, who hear the word with teachableness. Upon the whole, opposition is strong, well disciplined and co-operative. Still, the truth is omnipotent and many minds are leavened by its power, and though but a few have yet turned out courageously to avow their purposes, some have, and many more will. We are getting into the confidence of the best part of the Baptist com- munities, which are very numerous in the South. " But alas for the South ! None are more enslaved to men UNPROPITIOUS CONDITIONS. 453 than slave-owners. A few demagogues in religion and politics first make the people, and then represent them. ... In religion, two or three little popes govern all the associations and con- ferences — they think — and the people pay them for it. " I have aimed at disabusing the public ear and propitiating a favorable hearing of all the main points at issue, and have generally succeeded. A few preachers are well disposed to examine ; one or two have boldly asserted their independence, and I doubt not but others will follow. Upon the whole, things are as hopeful as such a latitude and such institutions and manners and customs will permit. But alas for the South ! " I expect to be in New Orleans about the 22d, and will leave there about the 29th for Jackson, Louisiana, and then peregrinate Louisiana and Mississippi up to Vicksburg, thence to Louisville, through Kentucky by land to Maysville, thence to Bethany, Deo volente^ where I may arrive some time in March. Lavinia joins me in kind regards to yourself and Sister Richardson. . . . Affectionately, as ever, your brother in the hope of eternal life, A. Campbell." "Mobile River, January 17, 1839 — Steamboat 'Tapaloosa.' " Beloved Brother Coleman : Time has not passed so smoothly since I saw thee last. ' There is no place like Vir- ginia,' says Lavinia, and I am almost of the same opinion. Disciples of Christ are not numerous in the South. . . . We are disabusing the public mind of false impressions and present- ing definite views of first principles. The Baptists are exceed- ingly opposed through the decrees of their Associations, who have forbid the opening of their meeting-houses to me and the brethren. Still we find some among them who will hear and open their houses. Favorable impressions have been made in all places, and a few converted. But our population in the South is much more ignorant than in Virginia. We have a few educated intelligent men, as we have a few rich and powerful ; but the majority are poor, ignorant and unedu- cated. . . . Such persons are not interested in clear, distinct perceptions ; they are fond of mystic doctrines, man-worship 454 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. and enthusiastic feelings. The brethren are of the best clasa of citizens and of very respectable attainments. But it will require many sermons and labors, or much reading, to achieve much in these regions. They want preachers, they want houses and thev want a more concentrated population to work upon. Farms are large — from one thousand to ten thousand acres — consequently not much society. Many negroes, every- thing dear, traveling very high — twice the Virginia rates. . . Still, I would not have you to think that little has been done, or that little can be done, in this benighted region. But it will require much effort. Several preachers are already much prepossessed ; one has come out for Reformation, and others, I think, are on the way. ... I sketch this in a crowd in the cabin of the steamboat. Since you parted with me at Peters- burg we have traveled nearly two thousand miles. I expect to be at New Orleans on the 23d, and then to commence my tour in Louisiana and Mississippi. I expect to arrive in Kentucky in March, and at Bethany about the beginning of April, when I shall expect to hear from you and soon to see you. " Lavinia joins with me in her kindest and most Christian regards to yourself. Brother and Sister Goss, Brother Poin- dexter, and indeed all our special acquaintances in Charlottes- ville. May the love of God, the favor of Jesus Christ and the communications of the Holy Spirit be with your spirit, my dear brother ! In all affection, yours in the Lord, " A. Campbell." "New Orleans, January 23, 1839. " My Dearly Beloved Selina : Through the unceasing kindness of our Father in heaven we are safely arrived in this great commercial emporium of the South and South-west. But we have brought a poor article to this market ; few bid- ders and no buyers inquiring for drafts on the Bank of Heaven. Bonds drawn on the richest bank in the universe and at the cheapest price are unacceptable and uninteresting to this community. ' Buy wine and milk without money and without price.' TRUSTING IN GOD. 455 " I am to offer my wares and merchandise this evening at the Congregational meeting-house of Mr. Clapp. It is an- nounced in all the city papers. This city appears much more orderly and decent than I expected, and has some very fine buildings. But the population is of all castes but the right one, and everything is more in demand than the things of heaven. " O Mammon ! Mammon ! Riches, honor, fame, whatever thou art that captivates the human mind from God and Christ and heaven, thou art an insidious, murderous foe ! A de- lusion, false and cruel ! And such is the infatuation of sin that men will hear their worst enemy rather than their best friend. How much need for the petition, * Lord, abandon us not to temptation !' " We are all homesick enough, but as much as I de- sire to see my dear Selina and my children and friends — and I never more longed to see them all — I must, like the sol- «^ier enlisted in the war of his country and king, faithfully «erve my term and get an honorable discharge. I have under- taken a certain mission and I must perform it all. " We had a very pleasant passage from Mobile to New Orleans. We unfortunately lost much of the pleasure of the voyage through the Gulf of Mexico, having passed through the most of it during the night. I always sleep sound by land and by sea, and although we almost ran aground on a shoal m the night, and had a good deal of backing out and noise, I did not hear anything of it, but slept sweetly for seven hours, from nine to four. " On Monday we shall leave here for Jackson, Louisiana, where Brother Shannon and the University of this State are located. I know not what stay I will make in these two States of Mississippi and Louisiana, but presume I cannot leave before the end of February, and then I shall pass through Kentucky from Louisville to Maysville, and thence to Bethany, Virginia, if the Lord will. "Our times are in His hand who rides upon the whirl- wind and directs the storm. The will of the Lord alone shall 456 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Stand for ever. May we, my dear wife, all be submissive to his holy and righteous will. To understand and practice the Christian religion is heaven begun and anticipated on earth, and to make others happy in the same way is to promote our own peace and joy and bliss ; for while the sons of the flesh are hated and hating, deluded and deluding, sinned against and sinning, the Christian is beloved and loving, enlightened and enlightening, blessed and blessing in all his Christian efforts to do good. " I am announced in the city papers as about to deliver an address on the ' Christian System' this evening, and shall arrange my thoughts in the following order: "Preliminary Observations. — i. If the Christian relig- ion be divine, it must be a system. For God works systemati- cally, hence nature is a system of systems. But Christianity is divine because it is good and true^ and like all God's sys- tems it is posiiive^ simple, natural, authoritative and adapted to the happiness of its subjects. 2. Man is the subject of the Christian system — not man as he was, but man as he is. Man may be contemplated as he was, as he is and as he shall be. The Christian religion, while it alludes to man as he was and as he shall be, treats man as he is. 3. But man as he is is the subject of many systems and sciences, physical, political, legal. Christianity treats man as he is morally, or in his re- lations to an intellectual and moral system, and treats with him as he is, that it may make him what he ought to be. *' Then we shall consider the Christian System : i. The Author of it. 2. The subject of it. 3. The end of it. 4. Its elements. 5. The acceptability it effects for man with God. Something like this seems to press upon my mind this evening. " My dear Selina, I need not enjoin upon you the re- ligious and moral training of our dear children. I am aware that you love me, and love them on my account as well as or your own. They are dear pledges of our mutual love and esteem, and therefore I have all confidence in your maternal as well as conjugal affection. I only say that while I see me •ad moral evils of the present time in the training of children, TRAVELS AND LABORS. 457 and the sad course of this generation, I am, like Joshua, more and more resolved that as for me and my house we shall serve the Lord. Remembei me affectionately to my father, to all my children, to all my brethren who ask for me, and to all my household. Yours ever, A. Campbell." At New Orleans, Mr. Campbell received many polite attentions from Mr. Clapp, pastor of the First Congre- gational Church there, who granted him freely the use of his meeting-house. After delivering five lectures, which were heard with great interest by large audi- ences, he ascended the Mississippi and spoke in the Episcopal church at St. Francisville, and thence pro- ceeded to Jackson, the seat of one of the State colleges, whose president was James Shannon, a fine scholar and an earnest disciple, who had already established a church there. From this point he thus wrote : " Jackson, Louisiana, February 8, 1839. " My Dear Selina : I am now safely lodged at the resi- dence of our good brother Shannon, president of the Louis- iana College. We have been bound to the house by a four days' rain and snow. Through the continual goodness of our heavenly Father we are thus far preserved from all evil. " ' Oh how great is his goodness which he has laid up for them that love him, for them that trust in him before the sons of men 1 He shall hide them in the secret of his presence from the pride of man. He shall keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues.* " We are now about one hundred and fifty miles above New Orleans, and had expected, but for the rain, to have been to- night with Mrs. Johnson, concerning whom you heard so good a report from Dr. McCall. We met with many ac- quaintances in New Orleans, amongst whom were Brother Hurlbut, of Pittsburg, and Sister Nancy Owen, from Ten- nessee, Mr. Richard Talbot, and others of equal interest and reputation. I found and left them all well. I expect to be S9 458 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. in Natchez in about a week, and in Vicksburg in some two or three weeks. " I have spoken here to very large and attentive audiences several times, and expect to leave to-morrow, if it does not rain, for Woodville, Mississippi. I think much good has re- sulted from my labors here, as well as in other places that I have visited. We are slaying the prejudices of the people and propitiating the ears of thousands to the truth. In all places we have disarmed prejudice and awed opposition into silence, or made it do homage to the truth. We are, how- ever, rather grubbing and pioneering than planting, and sow- ing rather than reaping. " I only want the consolations of your presence, my dear Se- lina, to fill up the measure of my earthly happiness, and to see my dear family partaking with me in the good things of the heavenly religion of our Saviour and benefactor. Amidst all the company which I have around me — and it is most accept- able and often greatly interesting — there is none that can fill the place of the mother of my dear children and the partner of all my fortunes, good or evil. Strange relation 1 Wonder- ful union ! Certainly it is a divine institution ! God said it is not g^ood for man to be alone. Alone in the midst of society I often am, merely because I am not all here. For the man is not without the woman, and the woman is not without the man in the Lord ! " God in the midst of a deep sleep— a type of death — created out of man's side a woman. The devil in the disguise of a ser- pent deceived and seduced her. The woman's son and Lord in the guise and covering of a son of man caught the enemy in his own craftiness, and being killed, killed him ; by being captured, captivated captivity ! Well now, the heavenly Father during the deep sleep of the second Adam created out of his opened side, whence blood to atone and water to cleanse issued, a bride for his son. So that Jesus is the Hus- band of the Church, and she, the bride, is bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. So that he loved her and gave him- self for her, that he might have a pure, chaste, virtuous bride COMMUNINGS OF AFFECTION. 459 as his companion and his delight for ever. May we, my dear sister-wife, bring forth meet fruits, that when he appears we may appear at his marriage supper, and that we may be in full dress, without speck or wrinkle or any such thing. "My most affectionate regards to all at Bethany, as if named one by one ; while I remain, as ever, your loving and beloved husband, A. Campbell. " The Lord bless you all 1" After speaking eight times at Jackson, Mr. Campbell visited Woodville and Consolation, and then went on to Natchez and other points in Mississippi, scattering with a liberal hand the seeds of righteousness and piety everywhere along his route. From Natchez he passed up the river to Louisville, having become exceedingly desirous to reach again his loved ones at Bethany, from whom he had been now absent more than five months. However firm his will, and however exacting his own sense of obligation to spread abroad the knowledge of the truth, no one felt more deeply the privations of ab- sence or held in more constant or affectionate remem- brance those who were dear to him. Their names seemed to be ever upon his heart, and the special inci- dents or circumstances which were associated with their memories seemed to be indissolubly linked with all his private musings. He forgot no family anniversaries, he omitted no opportunity of recurring to events fitted to deepen family aflfection or enliven social intercourse. Hence it was that, upon his tours, his letters to his family and friends were numerous and often of con- siderable length. From his remarkable talent for the despatch of business he availed himself of every spare moment for such communings, on steamboats, in hotels and other stopping-places, while at the same time he constantly kept up his regular series of essays and com- 460 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. munications in the " Harbinger," averaging, with its extras, more than fifty printed pages per month. It was thus, in harmony with his constant practice and his desire to impart happiness to all connected with him, that, on the anniversary of his first marriage, which occurred while he was in Louisville, he addressed the following letter to Mrs. Campbell : " Louisville, March la, 1839. " My dear Selina : This day, twenty-eight years ago, I gave my hand, and my heart accompanied it, to your amiable and excellent predecessor in the holy bonds of matrimony. Heaven lent me that precious gift more than sixteen years, of the value of which I never did form an over-estimate. But more than eleven years since He called her to himself from this land of cares and fears and griefs and woes unnumbered, and more than ten years ago appointed you to fill her place in my affections, and to be her successor in all the endearments and trials of the conjugal and maternal relations. " I have, my dear Selina, found you worthy of all the affec- tion and esteem which were due to her who desired to bless both you and me by nominating you to be her successor. I have, from ten years' intimacy, superadded to an acquaintance of ten years more, found you to be in understanding and in feeling, in piety and in social excellence, all that is desirable .n woman ; and, permit me to add, though I have seen many an amiable and excellent woman since I gave you my heart and my hand for life, I have never thought that I saw one more deserving of my afliection and esteem than yourself. " Now, my dear, you may be assured that if, either by my long absence from you or any apparent neglect that at any time I may, in my absent, studious hours or seasons, have ex- hibited toward you, it would seem as if I did not truly and worthily appreciate your society and your excellences, I would have you know that it was the offspring of the frailties of human nature — which, you know, in its best estate, is always vanity— or the imperious calls of duty, to which, you know, I SUPERNATURAL FACTS. 461 am not altogether deaf or inattentive. You are my fellow- soldier, my true yoke-fellow, my partner in all my labors in the cause of religion and humanity, and therefore, as you share in my toils and self-denials, I pray that we may equally partake in the eternal rewards and enjoyments. " I do not intend ever to leave you so long again, as I do not think that it will be my duty. Meanwhile, I trust, as the Lord has kindly borne with all my frailties — and I am aware they are neither few nor little — and has led me by his right hand in the times and places of danger, that he will still send his angel before me and keep me in all my ways, and restore me to your bosom and that of my beloved family in due time. " Meanwhile, my beloved Selina, constantly, as I know you do, pray to the Lord for me that I may be humble, spirit- ually-minded, wholly devoted to the Lord, and that my labors may be accepted by him and blessed. . . . " Farewell, my dear, and remember me affectionately to all. Yours ever, in nature and in the Lord, A. Campbell." From Louisville, accompanied by William Morton, he went on to Shelbyville, where he spoke three times, and was happy to meet again with J. Taffe, his former agreeable traveling companion, who, along with aBrother Gates, of Louisville, highly esteemed by Mr. Campbell, accompanied him to Frankfort, where he was met by his esteemed fellow-laborer, P. S. Fall, whom he styles in his journal " the first Reformer in Kentucky." Leav- ing Frankfort, he visited, in company with Messrs. Taffe and Gates, many other points between that city and Ma3^sville, renewing his intercourse with many warm friends. Spending in all fourteen days in this State, during which he spoke fifteen times, he closed with an address, on March 25th, to the Maysville Lyceum on ** Supernatural Facts," which was afterward published at the request of the society. In less than an hour after this address he embarked on board a steamer for 39* 463 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Wellsburg, and arrived at Bethany on the 28th of March, having spent about six months on this tour, speaking about once for every day and baptizing some forty persons. While he was absent his sister Alicia died of con- sumption, January 16, 1839, at Matthew McKeever's near West Middletown, and was buried near her mother in the cemetery at Bethany. She had been for some years the wife of M. S. Clapp, and cheerfully yielded her gentle spirit into the hands of her Redeemer. In the ver}' same year, on the 9th of July, Mr. Campbell was called to suffer the loss of his second daughter, Eliza Ann, who had been some time before married to Dr. John C. Campbell, a lawyer and a gentleman of high intelligence and standing in Wellsburg. She had be- come a member of the church at fourteen years of age, and met the approach of death with the utmost calmness and resignation. In concluding the notes of his late extended tour, Mr. Campbell remarked in regard to the general condition of society : " On a survey of all we saw and heard on the whole sub- ject of religion and morality — both theory and practice — we must say that much is wanting, very much is wanting, in order to correct and scriptural views of the gospel and its institu- tions ; and still more, in order to moral and Christian excel- lence of character before God and man. This is truly a de- generate age as respects Christian purity and Christian enjoy- ment. There is, too, everywhere more of a readiness to in- form the creed than the heart, to rectify the understanding rather than the affections, and to exhibit sound tenets rather than godly lives ; good works are much more wanting than good notions ; devotion to God more than submission to a party ; personal and family religion more than plans and be- nevolent operations on paper for the Asiatics and Africans. SCHEME OF EDUCATION. 4^3 . . . Millions are consumed upon the lusts of men for thou- sands that are laid up on deposit in the Bank of Heaven. But time fails. I must speak of this hereafter. ' O Lord, revive thy w^ork in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known ; in wrath remember mercy I* " These reflections were connected with an important purpose. During Mr. Campbell's entire course there was no subject which more deeply interested him than that of education. But at no former period of his life had he been so deeply impressed with the great want of an educated and efficient ministry to supply the demands of the Reformation, now so widely spread. It was not possible, however, that education or any other subject could undergo his scrutiny without being expanded in harmony with the massive proportions of his own intel- lectual nature ; and having for some time longed to pre- sent to the public the result of his reflections upon this topic, he, after his return, began to develop in a series of essays a grand system of education, designed to em- brace all ages and to develop man in all the attributes of his complex being. This plan was to begin at the nursery, and to have family, school, college and church education adapted to the entire physical, intellectual, moral and religious constitution of man. He proposed, therefore, ist, a Family Institution for the purpose of furnishing accommodations for those in attendance at the primary school, and especially for the development of the domestic character, as well as for furnishing a model of family government and econ- omy. This was to be under the control of two persons, a -patron and 2. matron, and to be a home for lads under fourteen, where these could be subjected to a system of kind parental discipline, carefully instructed in the facts, precepts and promises of the Bible, and trained 464 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. up in the paths of morality and religion. Knowing that all the powers of human nature were to be strengthened and improved by exercise, the muscles, the perceptive and the reflective powers, the moral senti- ments, the feelings and the affections were to be every day employed and exercised on objects and in actions suitable to their nature and functions. For these ends he contemplated a very extensive course of instruction adapted to children, connected in a good measure with their amusements, and embracing the elements of natural history, agriculture, etc. In the second place, education in the School, was to be conducted on the same general principles, and to em- brace a complete course of preparation for college, it being constantly kept in view that the formation of moral character^ the culture of the heart, was to be made the sufreme end, all other purposes being held subordinate. In the third place, in the College, he proposed a liberal course of studies, giving somewhat more promi- nence than usual to the physical sciences, and contem- plating the most liberal provisions for thorough instruc- tion, so as to prepare young men to enter upon the study of the learned professions. In this department, however, as in the others, moral and religious training was to form a principal feature and the Bible was to be made one of the regular text-books, so that no one could receive the honors of the institution without being thoroughly acquainted with the Sacred Oracles, which were to be taught regularly every day — not with the de- sign of evolving from them any system of doctrines, but for the purpose of familiarizing the mind with Bible facts and institutions. In the fourth and last place, the Church with which PLAN OF TALLBTRAND. 465 the institution was to be connected, embracing all who were really members, would present to the entire insti- tution and to the world a practical conformity to the requirements of religion, and thus exemplify the truths and excellences of the gospel of Christ. This grand scheme of education was no sooner pre- sented than it was hailed with delight by well-wishers to humanity, and by eminent educators of various creeds, who were struck with its completeness and its novelty, and who had learned to anticipate the success of every enterprise undertaken by Mr. Campbell. History could refer to the genius of Prince Talleyrand alone for con- ceptions so grand and a scheme so exhaustive. It was at the period of the French Revolution, and on the evening of the day when the destruction of the Bastile had filled the palace with terror and the Assembly with surprise, that Talleyrand was appointed one of eight members to draft a constitution. It was at this singular juncture in human affairs, when popular frenzy, as it were with vokanic power, upturned the very foundations of society, and amidst frightful deso- lations threw up from the depths of human nature many precious gems of original and unrecognized polit- ical and social truth, that the Constituent Assembly, con- sidering that the best means of giving stability to its re- forms was to cultivate the understanding of the people, committed to Talleyrand the most extraordinary task ever undertaken by an individual, in charging him to produce a plan of public instruction which should pre- pare the coming generations for the lofty destiny sup- posed to await them. The report which he presented in consequence to the Assembly has deservedly attached to his memory the highest renown. Previously, education had been en- TOii. II. — 2 £ 466 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. tirely in the hands of the clergy, but the author, break- ing away at once from all conventionalities, established usages and narrow systems, proceeded boldly to con- sider the whole subject of education in its origin, its ob- ject, its organization and its methods. The subject was thus treated, for the first time, with an immediate view to national ends. Education was contemplated as required not only for all ages, but as addressed to the understanding, the powers of which were to be de- veloped ; to the soul, whose moral instincts were to be awakened ; and to the body, whose activities and strength were to be improved. For these purposes he proposed to establish primary schools in every canton for ele- mentary instruction. From these, pupils were to be transferred to secondary schools in the chief towns of every district, where a thorough common school educa- tion was to be imparted to fit all for the ordinary busi- ness of life. Special schools were then projected for each department, in which instruction was to be given in the useful arts and professions. Finally, a great Na- tional Institute was to be established in the capital for the purpose of the most profound researches in science and literature, in order to advance human knowledge and to centralize the national mind as the legislature centralized the national will. This magnificent scheme, which embraced the development of man's physical, intellectual and moral nature, and which even gave to moral culture a special prominence with a view to render all good and useful citizens, was, nevertheless, strikingly defective in assigning to moral principle no other origin than the understanding and no other sanc- tion than mere utility. According to the spirit of the times, morality was based entirely on temporal motives, and no reference to any religious sentiment was ad- BASIS OF MORAL CULTURE. 467 mitted. The plan, however, was not carried into exe- cution, owing to the convulsions of the succeeding period, and remained a barren project until revived by Guizot, to some extent, after the Revolution of 1830. The system projected by Mr. Campbell, who de- pended entirely upon the resources of his own capacious mind and enlarged experience and observation, pre- sented the same great objects and the same compre- hensive classification, but it differed radically from all preceding measures in making the Bible the basis of all moral culture. The relations of the great principles taught in the Bible to human rights and political and social freedom had for some time been partially recog- nized, but no one had assigned to it its proper position in respect to moral science, which had, as yet, found no better foundation than philosophy, and the study of which even was postponed to the latest period. Mr. Campbell was convinced that a very great chasm was suffered to exist in the ordinary course of education be- tween the primary school and the college. The almost total neglect of moral culture during this period left, he thought, pupils quite unprepared to engage in the studies and encounter the temptations of college life. He argued that there could not be any proper prepara- tions for college without such a development of the moral faculties and such instruction as would enable students to take correct views of life and of society, and justly to recognize the obligations and responsibilities resting upon them. This preparation, imparted only in exceptional cases in home education, he thought should be assiduously communicated to a//, and that a proper foundation should thus be laid for all subsequent attain- ments. This moral education, in his view, could be derived from no other source than the Bible, whose 468 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. lessons alone furnished the proper basis for such an at- tainment, which he did not conceive to consist in mere instruction in the principles or in the philosophy of morality, but in the foi'mation of character. This, which had heretofore formed no part of the purpose for which schools were established, he thought should be made the chief object, believing it quite possible to form the human character by early discipline and instruction, to implant proper motives, direct the feelings in a proper course, and fix in the mind moral and religious principles. His conceptions, indeed, in regard to these points, corresponded closely with those of the eminent De Fellenberg, who for many years had been en- deavoring, under many difficulties, to put his ideas into practice at Hotwyl, but of whose views Mr. Campbell does not appear to have known anything until after he had published his own. Impressed with the great deficiency of competent teachers for schools and for the churches, Mr. Camp- bell had many years before conceived the plan which he now submitted, but he had delayed making it public, as a literary institution called Bacon College had been somewhat unexpectedly started by the brethren at Georgetown, Kentucky, and he did not wish to divert the resources of the friends of education there from the enterprise in which they were engaged, until its success was assured. Bacon College being at length removed to Harrodsburg, under favorable conditions, and his observations during his late extensive tours having awakened him more fully to the pressing wants of the community and the churches, he thought the time had fully arrived for the execution of his designs. In his earnest desire, therefore, to promote the highest interests of society, and to appropriate his own time and abilities ORGANIZATION OF BETH ANT COLLEGE. 469 to the most beneficent ends, he resolved to consecrate much of what remained to him of life in preparing for the coming generation better-instructed teachers than had been formed by the old methods. " Having now," said he, " completed fifty years, and on my way to sixty, the greater part of which time I have been engaged in literary labors and pursuits, and imagining that I possess some views and attainments which I can in this way render permanently useful to this community and posterity, I feel in duty bound to offer this project to the consideration of all the friends of literature, morality and unsectarian Bible Christianity. I am willing to bestow much personal labor without any charge in getting up this institution, and also to invest a few thousand dollars in it ; provided only our breth- ren — the rich and opulent especially — and those who have children to educate, will take a strong hold of it, and deter- mine to build up an establishment that may be made to them- selves, their children and many others a lasting and a com- prehensive blessing." During the winter of 1840, a charter having been obtained for Bethany College through the attentions of John C. Campbell, Esq., who had formerly been a member of the Legislature, Mr. Campbell announced his determination to proceed at once with the arrange- ments necessary for the institution, and invited donations from those disposed to assist. The first donation, $1000, was made by Philip B. Pendleton, of Virginia, as a legacy. On the nth of May, 1840, the trustees held their first meeting. At the second meeting, September i8th, Mr. Campbell was elected president of the col- lege, and requested to prepare a scheme of the course of education to be adopted. On this occasion he pre- sented to the Board a bond for a deed of land for the use of the institution, and the trustees, after appointing a building committee, and making some other arrange- 40 47° MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ments, adjourned to the next year. Meanwhile, Mr. Campbell, with his usual promptitude, proceeded on his own responsibility to erect a large brick building for the accommodation of students. At the second annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, May lO, 1841, four professors were appointed, viz. : W. K. Pendleton, who had married Mr. Campbell's daughter, Lavinia, during the previous month of October, An- drew F. Ross, Charles Stewart and Robert Richard- son. Notice was also ordered to be given that the col- legiate department would be open for the reception of students on the 21st of October following. CHAPTER XV. Reformation in South-west Virginia — The atonement — Bethany College- Converting influence — Church organization — Tours. ON the 13th of June, 1840, Mr. Campbell attended an interesting general meeting held at Charlottes- ville, Virginia. Fifty-six churches were heard from or represented, and the principal preachers of Virginia were present. The object was to consider the state of the cause and the means of spreading the gospel and promoting education. During the meeting, which lasted seven days, there was much good preaching, great har- mony and warm Christian feeling, and much interest and hospitality were shown by the citizens of Char- lottesville. The Baptists too were particularly friendly, and several of their preachers, together with the chap- lain of the University, came to hear Mr. Campbell. While there, he delivered a written address to the " Charlottesville Lyceum" on the question, " Is moral philosophy an inductive science?" which was published by the " Lyceum." He also, by request, addressed the ** Jeffersonian Society" of the University. At this meeting he became first personally acquainted with Chester BuUard, who among the mountains of South-west Virginia, had been for some years laboring in the cause of religious reformation, without any par- ticular knowledge of the movement conducted by Mr. Campbell. His parents were Baptists, and his mother 4n 472 MEMOIR OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. a remarkably pious woman. His early childhood was spent in Montgomery county, near the source of the Roanoke river, three miles from Christiansburg. Re- markable even then for his religious and devotional tendencies, he experienced much mental distress as he grew up in vain endeavors to obtain that assurance of acceptance which he had been taught to look for, and which he supposed himself to receive at length at a Methodist meeting when about seventeen years of age. The Methodists at this time had just begun to make their appearance in the country, which was filled with irreligion, there being then in Christiansburg no meet- ing-house, and out of a population of four hundred per- sons but two ivotnen and one man who were professors of religion. In the midst of this society it was to con- stant family prayer and reading of the Scriptures that young BuUard owed the maintenance of his religious life, for preaching was very seldom heard in the vi- cinity. After his supposed conversion, finding himself unable to subscribe to the doctrines of the Methodist dis- cipline, he remained disconnected from any party. Deeply anxious, however, on the subject of religion, devoted to the Bible and possessing much independence of mind, he learned that true religion consisted in the knowledge and love of God, and that after faith and repentance baptism was required. About this time his eldest brother happened to be traveling in Pennsylvania, and after supper, at a public house, found, upon re- tiring early to his room from the ungenial company at the inn, a number of the " Christian Baptist" lying on the table. This he read before going to rest, and was so much pleased that he advised his brother-in-law, upon his return to Montgomery county, Virginia, to subscribe for it, telling him that the editor was a half JOSEPH THOMAS. 473 century ahead of the age. This was done, and the last volume of the " Christian Baptist" and first of the "Harbinger" were duly received, but for want of in- terest in the matters treated, most of the numbers were thrown aside unread. In the same year (1831), Mr. Bullard concluded to study medicine with Dr. D. J. Chapman, near the Sul- phur Springs, in Giles county. Here, amid some of the most picturesque and romantic scenery of the Amer- ican continent, near where Sinking Creek, passing four miles under Thomas' Hill, empties itself into New River, and where the latter, more than a hundred feet deep, washes the lofty and magnificent cliffs of " Thomas* Hill," Mr. Bullard pursued his medical studies, whilst religious thoughts still predominated. Earnestly de- siring baptism, but unable to obtain it at the hands of the Baptists, as he did not sufficiently approve of their tenets to unite with them, he felt himself quite isolated. That year, Landon Duncan, the assessor of the county, a man of grave and thoughtful aspect, nearly six feet in height, with dark complexion, black hair and eyes, and a firm, decided manner, happened to call in the dis- charge of his official duties. Falling into a religious con- versation with him, Mr. Bullard freely communicated to him his feelings and his wishes, and though he frankly expressed his dissent from some of the views held by Mr. Duncan, the latter agreed to baptize him. Landon Duncan had, when young, united with the Baptists, and was ordained August, 1813. After some time, however, he adopted the sentiments of the "Chris- tian Connection," chiefly through the influence of Joseph Thomas. This Joseph Thomas was a somewhat remarkable man, born in North Carolina, from whence he removed 40 • 474 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, with his father to the summit of the lofty hill in Giles county, where he became deeply imbued with religious feeling, and began while yet a young man to recommend religion to his neighbors. Associating with O'Kelly and the southern branch of the Association in North Carolina, he desired to be immersed, when O'Kelly persuaded him that pouring was more scriptural, to which he submitted after stipulating that a tubful of water should be poured upon him. Becoming after- ward fully satisfied that immersion alone was baptism, he was immersed by Elder Plumer in Philadelphia. This brought him into communication with Abner Jones, Elias Smith and others of the Eastern branch of the Christian Connection. He now devoted himself wholly to preaching and became noted for the extent of his travels through the United States, making from his home, then at Winchester, Virginia, frequent tours through the Northern, all the Middle and most of the Southern and Western States. In person he was tall, straight as an Indian, with fair skin and gray eyes, beautiful nose and mouth, a lofty forehead, long chest- nut locks parted over the middle of the head and falling upon his shoulders. He often traveled on foot dressed in a long white robe, from whence he was called the "White Pilgrim," and frequently, in imitation of Christ, retired to lonely places for fasting and prayer. San- guine and ardent in his temperament, full of enthusiasm and of poetic feeling, he made a strong impression upon the people, few being able to forget the wild beauty and sublimity of his eloquence. He had a daughter married to John O'Kane of Indiana, formerly men- tioned, and was not ignorant of the reformatory views urged by Mr. Campbell, but he declined to adopt them, being greatly absorbed in religious frames and feelings, PROGRESS OF LIGHT. 475 and continued the mourning-bench system, remaining in connection with the Eastern branch of the "Chris- tian Connection," and dying finally of the small-pox amidst his itinerant labors in New Jersey, about the year 1850. Chester Bullard, after his baptism by Landon Dun- can, at once engaged in public labors, delivering his first discourse on the evening of the day on which he was baptized. Avoiding those speculative points with which Landon Duncan and those with him were much occupied, he presented simple views of the gospel and the freeness of Christ's salvation, and showed that faith came by hearing the word of God, and that he that believed and was baptized should be saved. It was a considerable time, however, before he succeeded in making enough converts to form a church, which was finally organized near the source of the Catawba River in 1833. By degrees, most of those in connection with Landon Duncan gave in their adhesion, and James Redpath and others beginning to aid in the public ministry, a number of churches were organized in that part of Virginia. About that time (1839) ^^' Bullard happened to take up and read Mr. Campbell's Extra on Remission, which he met with at the house of his brother-in-law. Surprised and delighted with the new views it gave of the gospel, he immediately sought out all the numbers of the " Christian Baptist" and " Har- binger," and was overjoyed to find how clear and con- sistent were Mr. Campbell's views, and how different from the slanderous misrepresentations which had been so industriously circulated throughout the country from the press and the pulpit. He immediately began to circulate his writings, preaching with great success the reformatory principles, and happy in finding himself 47 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. unexpectedly associated with a host of fellow-laborers in the same cause. Hearing that Mr. Campbell was to visit Charlottesville, he determined to meet him, and after his happy interview with him there, kept up with him afterward constant Christian fellowship and communication, pursuing his earnest labors most suc- cessfully through South-west Virginia, where he con- tinued to be the chief support of the cause. In closing his notice of the meeting at Charlottesville, Mr. Campbell made an allusion to the '* Dover Decrees," and a friendly reference to Andrew Broaddus, which elicited from the latter a kind letter, in some sense justi- fying the action of the Association as seemingly neces- sary at the time. " This, however," he went on to say, " furnishes no reason for an everlasting separation. If we have erroneously con- strued your views, and in our zeal for the great truths of the gospel have wrongfully put you under the ' ban of the em- pire,' or if you in your zeal for exploding long-cherished errors have unconsciously struck at important truths, or if there should have been on both sides something erroneous — something of misconstruction on the one hand and rashness on the other — why, for aught I can see, there might yet be hope of reconciliation and union ; and a union on a firm scriptural basis none would greet more cordially than myself. " Of late I am free to say (I mean for several years past) while I have seen in the ' Harbinger' much to approve, I have met with nothing for which my fellowship in the gospel would be forfeited. I cannot say the same for some things which you have put forth in former times, and a retraction of such things would, I think, be proper and necessary. I re- gret, my dear sir, that you should be separated from us, and much would I rejoice in seeing your talents enlisted in the one great cause. That the Church needs a progressive refoi- mation I have no doubt, and to all efforts for this object on a scriptural basis I would say, ' God speed.' MISCONCEPTIONS. 477 " Before I conclude I have another remark to offer. There must be some truths which are vital and fundamental. Among these you and I both reckon that great truth, atonement or expiation by the blood of Christ. Now, I find in your dis- cussion with a venerable correspondent you have to remind him that he has forgotten to state this among the designs of Christ ! How could we recognize members, not to say ministers., who leave out of their building this corner-stone? Verbum sat. Yours in the blessed hope, " Andrew Broaddus." To this Mr. Campbell replied as follows : " My Dear Sir : I thankfully and cordially reciprocate every good feeling expressed in your letter before me, and shall en- deavor with similar frankness, candor and courtesy to respond to it. Charged, as I have sometimes been, with the desire of making a new party, I am glad, on every reti"ospection of my course and of the opposition offered to it, that neither friend nor foe has yet been able to adduce a single fact indi- cative of such a wish on my part. On the contrary, when the history of this effort at reformation shall have been faith- fully written, it will appear, we think, bright as the sun, that our career has been marked with a spirit of forbearance, mod- eration and love of union, with an unequivocal desire for pre- erving the integrity, harmony and co-operation of all who teach one faith, one Lord and one immersion. . . . " But our views and objects have been mistaken by many of our Baptist brethren and friends; and among the melan- choly monuments of it are the Dover Decrees and similar lets of exclusion from other quarters. That our brethren lave been to blame for some indiscretions, as well as some jnguarded expressions in giving rise to these acts of exclusion and proscription, I am frank to admit. Indeed, the first of these anathemas, the Beaver Decrees, in 1829, I have always believed were occasioned by some violent movements on the part of our brethren in the Western Reserve, Ohio, in the height of a great excitement. Extremes beget extremes, and when the ball of ultraism is put in motion, there is no fore* 478 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. telling its place of resting. . . . Our views and aims are now fully developed, and the consequence is, that the Baptist peo- ple and others wonder at themselves, and say that we have changed and are not so heterodox as formerly. They have heard with more candor, and, like the passengers approach- ing the shore, they regard us as nearing their prow and fast approximating to their views. Well, this gives us pleasure, as it proves that had they understood us at first as at last, they would not have given us to the enemy." He then adds : " That the Baptist society needs a ' pro- gressive reformation,' I must, with you, candidly and cordially avow as my opinion, and that we all ought to be up and doing, I as firmly believe. As to our views of reformation, wherein they are founded in truth your people cannot resist them. They cannot keep them out of their churches. They will pervade all Christendom in this age of reading and dis- cussion. If any of our views of reformation are not founded in truth, we wish to see them exploded, refuted and put down. In no supposable event have we anything to fear from inti- macy with your churches or pastors. Our errors we desire to lose, and our truth no man will take from us. " Could the friends of truth and union agree to meet on the Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible, acknow- ledge one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one body of Christ and one Spirit — could they leave the conscience free where God has left it free, and not bind their private opinions upon one another, and could they open their pulpits, their ears and their hearts to a free intercommunion of preachers and peo- ple, and occasionally celebrate the Christian festival together, and devote themselves more to the study of the Bible and to Christian holiness of life — what a blissful time we should soon have ! What a prelude and pledge of a better state of things ! They might gladly suffer the world to call them Christians, Disciples, Baptists, Reformers, as they pleased ; they would have the peace, the joy, the feast within, and would advance on the bulwarks of Satan, conquering 3nd to conquer." THE ATONEMENT. 479 He remarks further : " Your reference to vital and funda- mental principles I approve. But with regard to that ' ven- erable correspondent' we must not judge too soon. I view it as an oversight rather than an intentional omission, that he left out the expiatory designs of the Messiah's death. Men long addicted to speculative controversy on Trinitarian and Uni- tarian hypotheses are sometimes scared past Mount Zion, Mount Calvary and the Mount of Olives. Some good men shudder with such horror at the idea of ' placating an offended Deity,' or ' satisfying dishonored justice,' or ' reconciling an angry God,' that they are afraid to use the words ' expiation,' ' sin-offering,' ' atonement,' lest they should resemble the chil- dren of Ashdod. For my part, I am not so timid. I believe that that venerable correspondent will come out with a full declaration of faith that Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures, and that ' without the shedding of his blood' God could not, in honor or in truth, have forgiven one transgression. But let him have his own time and his own manner of communicating his conceptions." The " venerable correspondent" referred to here was B. W. Stone, with whom Mr. Campbell was then dis- cussing the subject of the atonement. Mr. Campbell had proposed to him to furnish four pages per month for the " Harbinger" in discussing, in a friendly way, the terms "sin," "sin-offering," "atonement," "reconcil- iation," etc. Anxious to promote sound scriptural know- ledge, and fearing that in the minds of some there still lingered speculative and defective conceptions upon these subjects, he thought benefit would result from such an examination scripturally conducted. Without entering into the details of this discussion, much of which is devoted to sin-offering under the law and criticisms upon Hebrew terms^ it may be remarked that there seemed to be an entire agreement as to the effect of the atonement upon the believing sinner. Elder 480 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Stone, after expatiating at length on the designs of the death of Christ, says : " It has been proved that his blood purges, cleanses, sanc- tifies, washes and purifies from sin — that by it sin is put away, borne away — that by it we are justified, pardoned, redeemed, ransomed, bought, purchased from sin — by it we are pro- pitiated or saved from enmity, and at-one-ed to God. By it — I need not repeat all I have written in this and the former numbers — all these effects are the work of God in and for u* by the means of the sacrifice of Christ, and obedient be- lievers alone are the subjects of them." As it respects, however, the effects of the atonement upon God in relation to his divine justice or government, Elder Stone was not so clear. He seemed to think there was a want of Scripture evidence for much that was affirmed on that subject. " I do not wish to be understood," said he, " to deny that such effects are produced on God, his law and government by sin-offering, but that I cannot believe them for want of divine evidence." " I deny not," said he again, '' that something might have been done to produce this effect on God, as just mentioned, yet that something I find not re- corded, and I dare not be wise above what is written. There has been and yet is a great deal of conjecture and speculation afloat on this unrevealed something, which I do consider re- pugnant to the plain Scriptures of divine inspiration. Yet he that believes the declaration of God from his mercy-seat Jesus Christ, that he can be just in justifying the ungodly that believe in Jesus, and acts according to divine direction, that person will not be condemned, though he may not un- derstand how God can be just when he justifies the believer." Freely accepting the full revelation of Scripture upon the effects of the death of Christ in respect to man, Mr. Stone was cautious of dogmatizing in reference to its effects upon the divine government ; a point in re- lation to which so little is really said in the Bible, and which is involved in the incomprehensible mysteries of REMEDIAL SYSTEM, 48^ the divine nature. He seemed afraid to make any positive advance in this direction, and Mr. Campbell accordingly labored at considerable length to show that the Scriptures were sufficiently explicit upon that part of the subject also if examined with candor ; and after a clear presentation of it in various aspects he thus sums up some of his conclusions : "The death of Christ was for the redemption of trans- gressions, and although he died as the Lamb of God to take away the sin of the world, yet only that portion of mankind who have faith in his blood do actually derive pardon and life through his death. But it was as much for the redemp- tion of transgression passed under the law as for the redemp- tion of transgressions under the gospel that Christ died ; consequently there was no real pardon of any real sins in the Jewish sacrificial system. ' The law made nothing perfect.' '* The redemption that is through the death and blood of Jesus is necessary — that is, it is of right demanded ; »for to exact death unless justice demanded it would be to do un- justly. It was necessary that God might be just in forgiving sin. Thus Paul to the Romans and to the Hebrews repre- sents redemption from sin through the blood or death of Christ. This redemption or deliverance is what is usually, though improperly, called ''the merits^ or 'worth' of his death. Certainly it is the efficacy of his death ; for on this redemption justice rests its plea while consenting with mercy in forgiving sin. God has then set forth the person and blood of his Son as the mercy-seat, that he might be truly just and appear so before the universe, in forgiving sins com- mitted against him as the Lawgiver of all lawful and moral intelligences. " If I am tedious here. Brother Stone," he continues, " it is because I delight to be tedious upon this basis of the basis of the whole remedial system. I pretend not to fathom the ocean, nor do I aim at comprehending the wonderful ways of the infinite Intelligence, but when God speaks I must TOL. II.— 2 F 41 482 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. listen, and when he explains himself it is a sin not to en- deavor to understand him. He has spoken often and through various persons on this transcendent theme. If it be ortho- doxy or heterodoxy, I care not; but I believe that man is fallen ; that the wages of sin is death; that death has passed through all generations of man because all have sinned ; that sacrifice has its origin here ; that God sent man out of Eden not clothed with silk or cotton or in the bark of trees, but in the skins of slain beasts ; that all the blood of all slain ani- mals never took away the deep stain of the least human sin against God's law ; that the Jewish sacrifices and all divinely- ordained sacrifices were but the types of the sin-offering of my Lord and King ; that the new covenant has in it a real re- mission of all sins, because mediated by Emmanuel and sealed by his own blood ; that God as King cannot now be just in forgiving sin, having as Lawgiver said. The soul that sinneth shall die, but through the death of his Son. I moreover be- lieve that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanses us from all sin — not our tears and our penitence, but his blood ; and that blood must be seen, believed and acquiesced in according to God's own appointed way. Hence the command, ' Believe, repent, and be baptized^br the remission of sins' " I admire your scrupulosity about Bible terms and Bible ideas. I venerate the man that venerates the word of God. God himself honors with special tokens of his love the man that trembles at his word. You know I have never been solicitous of reputation at the hands of a downy and stall-fed orthodoxy. I never have courted such popular applause. Well, then, I am not to be suspected of any leaning that way. But after placing myself in every attitude favorable to an impartial consideration of all these great points, I do, while deprecating much of the unauthorized though consecrated jargon on trinity, unity, atonement, sacrifice, etc., etc., and lamenting the fragmentary caricatures, rather than expositions of the true doctrine by weak and conceited expositors of that school ; nevertheless, the true and proper divinity or godhead of my Lord Messiah and the real sin-expiating value and effi- DISCUSSION BENEFICIAL. 483 cacy of his death, and of his death alone, based upon his peer- less worth and divine majesty, are the rock of my salvation — the basis of all my hopes of immortality — the very anchor of my soul amidst the shaking of the earth, the upheaving of the ocean and all the tumults and debates of the people. "A religion not honoring God the Father of all — not rely- ing upon the person, mission and death of the Word incar- nate — not inspired, cherished, animated and inflamed by the Holy Spirit dv^elling in my soul, is a cheat, a base counter- feit, and not that athletic, strong and invincible thing which armed the martyr's soul against all the terrors that earth and hell could throw around the Redeemer, his cause and people." The article to which the above passage is a part of the reply closed the discussion, B. W. Stone deeming it unnecessary to continue it. Mr. Campbell greatly desired to pursue the subject farther, hoping to bring Elder Stone to a more clear and definite statement of views. He acquiesced, however, in Elder Stone's wish to close the discussion, in reference to which he remarks : " I am persuaded it will not be without advantage to the cause of Reformation that so much has been written on the subject in the way of discussion — with one, too, who has spent so many years in debates and discussions on that or some kindred branch of the same subject. " All admit the excellency of the character of Elder Stone, however they may regard him as muddy and confused on some aspects of that all-important question. For my own part, I much desired that, as he had ceased from all teaching and preaching of his former speculations on this and other subjects, for which the commencement of his career, some forty years ago, was distinguished, he would also in writing have given a permanent and full exposition of those points more in harmony with the developments and objects of the current reformation. Some of our readers have thought he has done so, while others are of a contrary opinion. For my part, I can and do make great allowance for early and long- 484 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. established habits of thinking and speaking on all religious questions, and therefore regard Brother Stone as confiding in the sacrifice and death of Christ as indispensable to salva- tion, and though by no means acquiescing in some of his inter- pretations of the meaning and designs of the Messiah's death, I can bear with a difference of opinion on a subject so vital, which many would regard as an insuperable obstacle to Christian communion. " Men may and do hold the Head^ Christ, and his death and mediation indispensable to salvation, who, nevertheless, have very inadequate conceptions of some of the aspects of these transcendent subjects. And as we are not saved by the strength and comprehension of our views, but from obeying from the heart the apostolic mould of doctrine, more stress ought to be laid upon moral excellence than upon abstract orthodoxy, especially when all the facts and documents of Christianity are cordially believed and cherished. Our bond of union is one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one body, one spirit, one hope, one God and Father of all. And as many as walk by this rule, peace be on them and mercy, and upon the whole Israel of God !" This friendly discussion of the atonement with B. W. Stone proved, as Mr. Campbell expected, highly beneficial, and served to clear up the subject in the minds of many who had belonged to the " Christian Connection," some of whom candidly admitted that they had never before so fully understood it. Scarcely had the discussion closed when B. W. Stone was stricken with paralysis. From this, however, he afterward to some degree recovered, and, maintaining still much of his mental vigor, continued to labor on with his usual earnestness for the cause of the Bible. On the 1 2th of October, 1840, another addition was made to Mr. Campbell's family, and as this was the tenth daughter he named her Decima. At the stated OPENING OF BETHANY COLLEGE. 485 time Bethany College opened, with about one hundred students in attendance. As professors and students of various grades in all the departments were incommo- diously crowded together in the boarding-house called the " Steward's Inn," the only building yet erected, a good deal of confusion marked the early period of the session. The circumstances, indeed, were very unpro- pitious for a fair experiment, especially as the students were strangers to each other and to the faculty, and had not been subjected to the moral training and discipline of the family department which, according to Mr. Camp- bell's scheme, was an important preparation for college. With his usual activity and energy, however, he ad- dressed himself to the work of moulding the minds of the j-^ouths present in conformity with the great princi- ples developed in the Bible. The sacred volume was at once made the text-book for the whole college, and he proceeded to develop every morning to the entire class, as he alone could do it, the great facts which it presented. His wonderful power of presenting these facts in their most extended relations, his simple yet comprehensive generalizations, opening up new fields of thought and enlarging the horizon of knowledge, en- chained the attention of even the youngest members of the class, and Sacred History became at once the favorite study. Mr. Campbell taught also the classes in Intellectual Philosophy, Evidences of Christianity, Moral Science and Political Economy, and in the church upon the Lord's day all had the opportunity of hearing those grand developments of the Divine teach- ings and institutions which he presented and of witness- ing the simple forms of primitive order and discipline. His urbanity and kindness and his genial manner gave him great personal influence with the students, and, with 41 • 4S6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the earnest co-operation of the facuUy, the affairs of the college prospered, so that in the month of May a very favorable report was made of a growing and decided improvement in all the departments of the institution. " A good moral influence," said he, " seems to be now in the ascendant, and a general determination on the part of the students to maintain a high standard of moral excellence and decorum in all the details of social intercourse." ..." If there be any one point in the science of morals more than any other universally accredited and enforced, it is that the fear and reverence of the Lord, sometimes called piety, constitute the only infallible foundation of morality and good manners." In the beginning of the following session an influx of new students, unruly and untrained, led to a renewal of disturbances. The prompt exercise of discipline, however, on the part of the faculty at once restored order, and from this time forward the labors of the insti- tution proceeded most successfully in the new college building erected during the summer. It was thought expedient, in April of this year (1841), by some of the disciples in Kentucky to hold a public meeting at Lexington, to which all religious parties were invited in order to discuss the question of Christian union : ist, As to its desirability ; 2d, As to its practica- bility. The meeting, at which Mr. Campbell was pres- ent, was largely attended, though but few of other de- nominations were there, Dr. Fishback being the only Baptist minister who took an active part in the meeting. The discussion of the important subject was continued for several days, and the following resolution was at last passed unanimously : " Resolved^ That the Bible, and the Bible alone, is a suffi- cient foundation on which all Christians may unite and build MEANS OF REGENERATION. 487 together, and that we most affectionately invite all the relig- ious parties to an investigation of this truth." On the iith of September of this year, Mr. Campbell was bereaved of another beloved daughter, Maria, the wife of R. Y. Henley, who from childhood had been noted for her seriousness, piety and amiability. Inherit- ing a delicate constitution, she was snatched away from her affectionate husband and several small children in her twenty-sixth year, but with patient resignation and well-founded trust yielded her meek spirit into the hands of her Saviour. About this time Mr. Campbell held a brief corre- spondence with Elder J. M. Peck on the subject of spirit- ual influence. At the close of the discussion of this sub- ject with S. W. Lynd, he had expressed his willing- ness to discuss the question with any Baptist doctor, and publish the controversy in a volume of one hundred and fifty or two hundred pages for general circulation, as an end of the matter. This proposition was accepted by J. M. Peck of the " Baptist Banner," but after a few communications the disputants seemed to come unex- pectedly to so close an agreement that the discussion was closed. Mr. Campbell had said : " The truth is the instrument, the tneans^ and the Spirit of God is the cause or agent of regeneration. Such are my views on this great subject. And, my dear sir, if you always make the word the instrument of regeneration, you may always expect me to concur with you in saying that it is but the instrument, and not the first cause of a great spiritual change." Mr. Peck expressed his high gratification with these distinct statements, regretting that Mr. Campbell had been so long misunderstood on this topic for want of such a declaration. Mr. Campbell then called his atten- 488 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. tion to the fact that the proposition which he had from the very beginning labored to sustain was precisely what he had now expressed — viz. : that "in conversion the Holy Spirit operated through the truth, and not without it," as the Baptists had taught. As Elder Peck declined to affirm this dogma of the Baptists, and en- deavored to show that Mr. Campbell had misunder- stood them on this subject, there appeared to be no longer any question in dispute, and Mr. Campbell thus closed his last letter : " I believe and teach now, as I did thirty years ago, that the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit are three divine names, indicative of perfect equality in all that is represented by the term God in its highest, holiest and supreme import, and that this same divine nature is severally and personally ascribed to them by all in heaven and all the intelligent on earth, in all the great works of creation, providence and redemption. " Without this distinction in the divine nature, without the mystery of divinity exhibited in the personal relations of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the mystery of redemption had been impossible in conception, design and execution. God the Father so loved the world as to give his only begotten Son for its ransom ; ' The Son so loved the world as to give himself up to the death for us all ;' and the Spirit has so loved us as to make his abode in our hearts as the children of God ; and thus the whole ' Godhead" is fully revealed, admired, adored in the mystery of man's redemption. " With regard to the operation of the Spirit through the Word on sinners and on saints, while we strongly affirm the fact of his sanctifying, reviving, cheering and saving efficacy through the word of prophets and apostles, we ought to teach no new terms, phrases or dogmata — preach good news to sinners and teach holiness to the converted — teach the Chris- tians to pray for the Spirit in all its holy influences, and to lift up their voices to the Lord for all his promised aids. Thus the love of God will be poured out into their souls by POWER IN THE GOSPEL. 489 his Holy Spirit that d\\ elleth in them, and they will learn to love his children and to rejoice in hope of the coming glory. To learn that such are your views, designs and practices will greatly add to the esteem I entertain for you, and will greatly encourage me in pleading for the sincere and perfect union of our Father's dear children in order to the conversion of the world. *' Sincerely and affectionately yours, A. Campbell." In regard to this vexed subject of " spiritual influence** there had really never been any just cause of contro- versy. The dogmatic popular affirmation that the Holy Spirit was "poured out" upon unbelievers to work in them regeneration and faith, which in Mr. Campbell's view rendered the word of God of no effect, had led him to assert the claims of the latter as God's power to salvation. He did not deny that ♦' influences" of various kinds might accompany that word, but on these he declined to enlarge, and was careful to distinguish them from converting ^ower^ which he conceived to reside exclusively in the word or gospel itself, just as the vegetative power or life resides in the seed sown in the earth, and not in any of the circumstances, such as the sowing, the heat or the moisture, which attend its development. As the healing power of the physician is in his medicine, so Mr. Campbell regarded God's healing power as contained in the gospel, and forbore to confound with it those influences by which sinners are induced to receive it, just as he distinguished the healing power of the physican from any of the influ- ences which might induce the patient to take the medi- cine he prescribed. He believed in spiritual ministries of various kinds, and that invisible beings, as he had said in his discussion with Mr. Waterman, "by an ac- quaintance with our associations of ideas, our modes of

        490 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. reasoning, our passions, our appetites, our propensi- ties and, by approaching us through these avenues, could lead us backward* or forward, to the right or to the left, as their designs might require. This is pos- sible and compatible with our views of spiritual influ- ence. It is more than possible — it is probable. I might advance farther and say it is certain ; for it has been done." These " accompanying influences," how- ever, of whatever nature they might be, material or spiritual, human or divine, Mr. Campbell regarded as no part of the gospel, and as adding to it no power. It was shown by Dr. Richardson about this time, in a series of essays upon " Converting Influence," signed by some one of the letters of the word Luke^ that while the agencies which induced men to receive the gospel added no power to it absolutely ^ they cer- tainly did so in a relative point of view, so that -prac- tically the same effect was produced. He argued that there were many different obstacles which prevented the gospel from reaching the heart of the sinner, such as ignorance, love of the world, etc., and that the instru- mentality in each case must be adapted to the nature of the obstacle to be removed. Paul said (2 Cor. iv. 3, 4), " If our gospel be hid, it is hid by the perishing things by which the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them." Adopting the apostle's figure, it was shown that while opening the shutters and thus permitting the sun to shine upon a person in a dark room certainly added no additional power to the sun's rays, it \i2iA prac- tically the same effect as if these had become so in- creased in power as to penetrate the shutters. There was thus no need of supposing any absolute increase

        LABORS INCREASED. 491

        of power to be imparted to the gospel, since all that was required for the proper exercise of its power was, that the obstacles which hindered it should be removed. In order to the accomplishment of this, there was abundant room for both divine and human agency, as well as for prayer and persevering effort in behalf of the uncon- verted. Ignorant as men necessarily are of the mys- teries of spiritual being, there was no occasion to ques- tion that spiritual ministries of various kinds might be employed in guiding men's minds to a saving appre- ciation of the gospel, and that such ministries, though superhuman, might not be necessarily supernatural ox miraculous, but, on the contrary, perfectly in accord- ance with the nature of the spiritual agent, as well as with that of the mind itself. As these varied instru- mentalities, however, added absolutely no new power to the gospel itself, Mr. Campbell was evidently correct in continuing to affirm, with Paul, that the gospel was ' ' the power of God unto salvation to every one that be- lieveth." It was also evident that he acted wisely and in harmony with the reformatory principles in declining to discuss the nature of the influences which might ac- company the word, as this evidently belonged to the class of untaught questions. The establishment of the college had greatly increased Mr. Campbell's labors, since, in addition to his former engagements, he had now the regular instruction of classes to attend to, as well as the affairs of many of the students, who were constantly applying for counsel and assistance. His promptitude, however, and wonderfully active temperament, seemed to render everything easy to him, and he never appeared to lose his buoyancy of spirits or to be unable to render his usual hospitable and personal attentions to his numerous friends and visitors.

        492 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL,

        His hope, however, of being released from the pain of protracted absences from home, and of being allowed to devote his remaining years to a constant supervision of the college, was not destined to be realized. The need of means to erect the necessary buildings and to estab- lish the institution permanently, demanded the active services of a soliciting agent, and such was the desire of the churches and the public abroad to see and hear Mr. Campbell that they soon learned to make it a con- dition of their donations that he would visit them in person. During one of these trips in the summer of 1842 he again visited Kentucky and a portion of Ohio. At Lexington he found the church erecting the largest meeting-house in the State, and in a very prosperous condition under the care of Dr. L. L. Pinkerton. He found, also, that Dr. Fishback, who had previously been but partially connected with the cause of the Ref- ormation, had now given himself and his influence wholly to it. " The anxiety to hear," said Mr. Campbell in his notes of the tour, " and the interest taken in the cause of Reformation, never were greater than at present. The crowds that in all places overfilled the most spacious buildings, and the pro- found attention shown in the city and in the country amongst all ranks and classes of society, show that the cause of Re& ormation has not been preached or heard in vain amongst this intelligent and magnaninious community. Within forty miles of Lexington, during two months immediately pre- ceding my arrival, not less than one thousand persons had been immersed. In Madison, Lincoln and Garrard, they were obeying the gospel by hundreds. Even in Danville, the metropolis of Presbyterian influence, while I was laboring in Woodford and Fayette a few days, some forty or fifty persons obeyed the Lord. In the Green River country, too, the march

        SPIRIT OF INVESTIGATION. 493 of the gospel is onward. One brother informed me that he has within a few months, in the south-western portion of that district, immersed some three hundred and fifty. The success of Brothers Johnson, Rice and EUey in another por- tion of that district is, as usual, rapid and irresistible. People of all creeds and no creeds, of all manner of prejudices and antipathies, fraternize and amalgamate under the broad banner of apostolic Christianity." Deeply impressed, however, with the importance of a full exhibition of a Christian character, he adds : " But ah ! how much is wanting to bring the churches up to the standard of Christian piety and morality I In personal, domestic and con- gregational piety, in the discharge of all the relative duties in the practice of the moral and social excellences of our re- ligion, how far yet behind the models which the apostolic records deliver to us !" The rapid increase of the churches generally, but especially in Kentucky, where the membership was already estimated at forty thousand, impressed Mr. Campbell more and more with the responsibilities of his position, and with the vast importance of a clear understanding on the part of the churches in regard to the whole subject of organization and co-operation. He continued, therefore, his able series of essays on this topic, in which, with his usual freedom of thought and earnest desire for truth, he proposed to determine by a careful induction the true plan of scriptural organ- ization. The spirit in which he ever sought for higher attainments in divine knowledge is well indicated in the following passage from these essays : " It is always more or less detrimental to the ascertainment of truth to allow our previous conclusions to assume the posi- tion of fixed and fundamental truths, to which nothing is to be at any time added, either in the way of correction or en- largement. On the contrary, we ought rather to act under

        494 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the conviction that we may be wiser to-day than yesterday, and that whatever is true can suffer no hazard from a careful and candid consideration. In this view of the subject I am accus- tomed to examine all questions — literary, moral or religious ; because I am, from much reflection and long observation, con- strained to regard it as the only safe and prudential course." Candidly admitting the many evils connected with a want of proper government on the part of the churches, the irresponsibility of preachers to the Church and of churches to the Christian community at large, he en- deavored to show that in the beginning all ministers were called either by the Lord in person, by his people or by his providences, and that it was essential to the dignity and efficiency of the ministerial office that those only should be authorized and sent out by the churches who had given full proof of their qualifications. While these essays were in progress of publication, he received a series of short, courteous and extremely well-written articles, reviewing them and insisting upon the importance of a wise, comprehensive and efficient church organization. These articles were signed A C n, and proposed that the field from which the facts required for a just induction were to be gathered, should embrace not merely the statements of Scripture, but the well-attested practice of the age immediately subsequent to the apostolic. It was urged in them that only the germs of the proper organization could be found in the Scripture, and that this alone did not furnish sufficient data for a complete system of church organization. In his very interesting and able reply Mr. Campbell demands the authentic documents by which the assumed deficiency of Scripture is to be supplied and the question settled, declaring that he had searched antiquity in vain for them. DIOCESAN EPISCOPACY. 495 *' The Bible alone," said he, " must always decide every question involving the nature, the character or the designs of the Christian institution. Outside of the apostolic canon, there is not, as it appears to me, one solid foot of terra firma on which to raise the superstructure ecclesiastic. The foun- dation of apostles and prophets is that projected and ordained by the Lawgiver of the universe. On this, and on this only, can we safely found the Church of Jesus Christ, whether we contemplate its doctrine, its discipline or its government. Nothing less authoritative and divine can fully satisfy the conscientious of all parties, or withstand the assaults of the adversaries of our most holy faith. Whenever we close the apostolic records and open the volumes of the " primitive Fathers," the converts and successors of the apostles, as they are reverentially designated, we find ourselves on a sea of uncertainties, without a single haven in our horizon or in our chart." Mr. Campbell's view, then, was that the •' germs" of church organization, as his correspondent termed them, furnished by the Scriptures were entirely sufficient, and that the facts and principles developed in the Scriptures needed only to be applied according to the exigencies of time and circumstances. He thought, therefore, it would be best to stop where and when the Bible stops, and to regard everything beyond its teachings as mat- ters left to human prudence or mere questions of expe- diency. It was doubtless the benevolent intention of Mr. Campbell's correspondent (who was readily recognized as one of the most pious prelates of the Episcopal Church in the West) , in laying before the readers of the " Harbinger" the claims of diocesan episcopacy, to win over to his system of church organization this large and rapidly-increasing body of Reformers, who, as they themselves admitted, were suffering from many of the 496 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL evils connected with a want of proper systematic ar- rangement and co-operation. Such an overture could not have proceeded more appropriate!}^ or with better prospect of success from any other individual than the amiable prelate referred to, for whom Mr. Campbell had himself the highest personal respect, and who com- manded largely the sympathy of the Reformers from his having expressed openly his conscientious convic- tion that immersion alone was baptism, and who was known to cherish moreover an earnest wish for a Chris- tian union of all parties, which he seriously thought could be most happily consummated by combining the immersion of the Baptists, the zeal of the Methodists and the apostolic succession of the Church of England. Mr. Campbell, however, preferring to this fanciful ec- clesiastic patchwork, the baptism, the zeal, the truth and love of the primitive disciples and the real and true apostles of Christ, showed clearly that in the nature of the case the latter could have no successors, and that it was long after the apostolic age before one bishop pre- sided over more than one church. The effect of this interesting discussion confirmed the view previously held by the Reformers, that bishops and deacons were the only regular officers of the Christian Church. Mr. Campbell admitted, indeed, that, especially where the elders were numerous, there was formerly, and should still be, one who acted as president of the eldership — not, indeed, as being superior in rank, but merely as primus inter ^ares. He, at this period, in common with many other intel- ligent Reformers, was fearful of a tendency in the Church to extreme views of independency, and was much alive to the great need of proper co-operation. " The New Testament," says he, " teaches itself, both by BIBLE SOCIETIES. 497 precept and example, the necessity of connected and concen- trated action in the advancement of the kmgdom. It lays down some great principles and applies them to the emergen- cies that arose in the primitive times: " ist. It inculcates the necessity of co-operation, and speci- fies instances. 2d. It inculcates the necessity of two distinct classes of officers in every particular community. 3d. It in- dicates the necessity of a third class of public functionaries, and gives examples of diverse ministries. 4th. It exemplifies the utility and the need for special deliberations and of con- ventions in peculiar emergencies. 5th. It allows not persons to send themselves or to ordain themselves to office, but everywhere intimates the necessity of choice, selection, mis- sion and ordination. 6th. It inculcates a general superin- tendency of districts and cities by those who preside over the churches in those districts ; that is, it makes it the duty of a Christian ministry, by whatever name it may be called, to take care of the common interests of the kingdom in those places and districts in which it is located and resident. 7th. It claims for every functionary the concurrence of those portions of the community in which he labors, and holds him respon- sible to those who send, appoint, or ordain him to office." In harmony with his views of duty, as there was no organization among the Reformers for the circulation of the Bible, Mr. Campbell had contributed to both of the American Bible societies, in each of which he was a member and life-director, and he urged the churches to send liberal contributions to William Colgate of New York, treasurer of the American and Foreign Bible Society, which had now undertaken to provide pure versions of the Scriptures for the world. In the fall of 1842, Mr. Campbell visited the cities of Richmond, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York in the interests of the college, and obtained important ad- ditions to its philosophical and chemical apparatus, TOL. II.— 2 G 42 * 49^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. bought a thousand volumes for its library and received donations and subscriptions to the amount of $5000. Upon this tour he attended the annual meeting of the churches in Lower Virginia at Richmond in the latter part of October, and that of the upper portion at Char- loitesville in the first week of November. He found the cause of the Reformation making much better progress than formerly, owing to the faithful labors of the evan- gelists and elders of the churches and the good influ- ence of the " Christian Publisher," conducted at a con- siderable sacrifice by R. L. Coleman, aided by the elo- quent but retiring J. W. Goss. A number of additions were made at these meetings, at the close of which Mr. Campbell traveled eastward with R. L. Coleman, who agreed to accompany him as far as Philadelphia. So- journing with the intelligent G. Austin and his amiable family at Baltimore, he delivered several addresses there, and was much pleased with the earnestness, gravity and Christian affection which were manifested by the Church in 'the worship on the Lord's day. Mr. Coleman remaining for a few days at the request of the brethren to continue the meetings, Mr. Campbell pro- ceeded to his appointment at Philadelphia, where he was rejoined by Mr. Coleman on the following Monday. Here he greatly embarrassed the latter by announcing, at the close of his discourse in the evening, that Mr. Coleman had arrived and would speak alternately with him during the evenings of the week. Mr. Coleman, accordingly, spoke the next evening, but having a very modest estimate of his own ability, and feeling that the people would desire to hear Mr. Campbell, he took the cars for home, and left Mr. Campbell, as he said, " to alternate with himself." In Philadelphia the church, now numbering about VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE. 499 one hundred and fifty, was meeting in a comfortable house at the corner of Fifth and Gaskill streets. An- other church of some seventy or eighty members had also been organized on Race street, where Mr. Camp- bell delivered one discourse. At New York he spoke twice in Washington Hall, Broadway, to the citizens, and once to the brethren. He spent also a pleasant evening with Mr. Buchanan, the British Consul, and his excellent family. Mr. Buchanan was noted for his general benevolence and his faithful discharge of his office, which he was about to resign, in order to remove to Canada, near the Falls of Niagara. He was much attached also to the ancient order of things, and, though somewhat precise in some of his views, remained through life a steadfast friend of religious reformation. While in New York, Mr. Camp- bell called at the Bible-rooms to visit Elder Babcock, and took great delight in examining the various versions of the Old and New Testaments, and especially the celebrated version of the whole Bible into the Burmese, made by the eminent missionary, Elder Judson. Of this he says : "What a mercy, thought I, on glancing over its pic- turesque pages, God has vouchsafed to these fifteen or twenty millions of benighted souls in whose vernacular the WORD OF LIFE is sent abroad ! The gospel is thus preached, being read^ to that ancient people. How many, through that infinite future yet before us, may have reason to bless God that Judson was sent to their shores and permitted to learn their language, that he might make known to them the ways of salvation !" On his return from New York he spent several days at Baltimore and Philadelphia, and then, taking the cars to Cumberland, and the stage from thence to Wheeling, reached home in safety, and continued 500 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. punctually to fulfill his college duties during the re- mainder of the session. Near its close (May ii, 1843) his family was increased by the birth of another son, named William, who was the last of his own immediate family of fourteen children, of whom only seven were at this time living. CHAPTER XVI. Overtures for a discussion with the Presbyterians — N. L. Rice — Incidents of the debate— Its character and results— Mr. Campbell's labors. WHILE on his visit to Kentucky in the fall of 1842, Mr. Campbell received intimations that the Pres- byterians there had become quite favorable to a public discussion of the points of difference between them and the Reformers. While at Richmond, in Madison coun- ty, he was assured by the Rev. J. H. Brown that arrange- ments would be made for such a discussion, and in September, after his return home, he received a letter from Mr. Brown informing him that a committee would be appointed for the purpose at the Synod which was to convene at Maysville on the 13th of the following month. At this meeting, accordingly, John C. Young, R. J, Breckinridge, N. L. Rice, J. F. Price and J. H. Brown were selected, Messrs. Brown and Rice being a sub- committee of arrangements. Subsequently, Rev. J. K. Burch, who had been Mr. McCalla's moderator twenty years before, was substituted for R. J. Breckinridge. Mr. Campbell chose as his committee President James Shannon, Dr. J. Fishback, A. Raines and John Smith. A long correspondence ensued touching the affair, and it was not till the month of August in the next year (1843) that the matter was finally arranged. Mr. Camp- bell had hoped to have for his opponent President Young, of Centre College, a gentleman distinguished 601 502 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. for his urbanity and amiability, as well as for his literary and theological attainments, and whose position would, he thought, give more weight to the discussion. Presi- dent Young's health, however, having failed, Mr. Brown informed Mr. Campbell in July that Rev. N. L. Rice, of Paris, in Bourbon county, had been chosen instead of him. This selection was not very agreeable to Mr. Campbell, as in several discussions in which Mr. Rice had already engaged with the Reformers he had manifested a prejudiced and hostile spirit, which Mr. Campbell thought quite unfavorable to a calm, Chris- tian-like and satisfactory investigation of the questions at issue. As he was chosen, however, on the part of the Presbyterians, he was constrained to acquiesce. The propositions to be discussed were the following : *' I. The immersion in water of a proper subject into the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spfrit is the one only apostolic or Christian baptism : Mr. C. affirms. — II. The infant of a believing parent is a scriptural subject of baptism : Mr. R. affirms. — III. Christian baptism is for the remission of past sins: Mr. C. affirms. — IV. Baptism is to be adminis- tered only by a bishop or ordained presbyter : Mr. R. affirms. — V. In conversion and sanctification the Spirit of God oper- ates on persons only through the Word of truth : Air. C. affirms. — VI. Human creeds, as bonds of union and com- munion, are necessarily heretical and schismatical : Mr. C. affirms." The debate commenced on Wednesday, the 15th of November (1843), in the Reform church at Lexington. Judge Robertson was selected by Mr. Rice as modera- tor — Colonel Speed Smith by Mr. Campbell. These selected as president Honorable H. Clay, who kindly consented to act. No question was to be discussed more than three days unless by agreement. Each de CHARACTER OF THE DEBATE. 503 bater was to furnish a stenographer and to have the privilege of making verbal or grammatical changes in his report. The net available amount resulting from the publication of the debate, it was agreed, should be equally divided between the two Bible societies. This public debate, the last in which Mr. Campbell was ever engaged, continued during sixteen days, and excited extraordinary interest. The well-known ability of Mr. Campbell, the reputation which Mr. Rice had already acquired for readiness in debate, and the fact that both disputants seemed to have the endorsement of the religious communities to which they respectively belonged, naturally gave to the discussion a high de- gree of importance. At first it was contemplated that several on each side should take part in it. Mr. Camp- bell, however, preferring single combat, it was simply stipulated that the discussion should be conducted in the presence of Dr. Fishback, President Shannon, John Smith and A. Raines on the part of the Reformation ; and President Young, J. K. Burch, J. F. Price and J. H. Brown on the part of the Presbyterians. It would be out of place to attempt to furnish here even an epitome of the facts and arguments adduced in a debate which, when published with the preliminary correspondence, made a volume of nine hundred and twelve closely-printed octavo pages. Of its general character, it may be safely affirmed that it fully met public expectation, presenting a vast amount of interest- ing information, and as clear an exposition of the errors as well as of the truths involved as had ever been pre- sented. The difference in the intellectual character, and, consequently, in the method, of the two disputants became quite evident from the very beginning. In the discussion of the very first proposition, Mr. Campbell's 504 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL tendency to comprehensive views, and his skill in dis- engaging the grand fundamental principles of things, became manifest in his endeavor to establish the gene- ral law that " where words denote s-pecific actions their derivatives through all their various flexions and modi- fications retain the specific meaning of the root." This law he then applied to the word ^anrco {bafto)^ show- ing that its two thousand flexions and modifications in retaining the radical syllable ha-p retained also the radi- cal idea dip connected with it. " The same," said he, " holds good of its distant neighbor pabu) {raino)^ I sprinkle. It has as many flexions and nearly as many derivatives as bapto." ..." These all exhibit the radical syllable rain or ra«, and with it the radical meaning ^tinkle. Now, as it is philologically impossible to find bap in rain or rain in bap^ so impossible is it to find dip in sprinkle or sprinkle in dip. Hence the utter impossibility of either of these words representing both actions. It is dif- ficult to conceive how any man of letters and proper reflection can, for a moment, suppose that bapto can ever mean ' sprinkle^ or raino ' dip.* " Nor was his ready perception of the resemblance of relations less marked in the illustration he used in order to render the point evident to the apprehension of his hearers. Referring to the custom of the ancient gram- marians to represent verbs and their derivatives by a tree with its root, stem and branches, he said, " Agriculturists, horticulturists, botanists will fully com- prehend me when I say that in all the dominions of vegetable nature, untouched by human art, as the root so is the stem, and so are all the branches. If the root be oak, the stem can- not be ash nor the branches cedar. What would you think, Mr. President, of the sanity or veracity of a backwoodsman who would aflirm that he found in the state of nature a tree whose root was oak, whose stem was cherry, whose boughs SIGNIFICATION OF WORDS. 505 were pear and whose leaves were chestnut? If these gram marians and philologists have been happy in their analogies drawn from the root and branches of trees to illustrate the derivation of words, how singularly fantastic the genius that creates a philological tree whose root is bapto^ whose stem is cheo, whose branches are rantizo and whose fruit is kath- arizo I — or, if not too ludicrous and preposterous for English ears, whose root is dip^ whose trunk is pour^ whose branches are sprinkle and whose fruit \s purification T Mr. Campbell's opponent, on the other hand, mani- fested throughout that he moved in a very different sphere of thought, and was disposed to look at subjects in their details, rather than in their general features. Hence, while Mr. Campbell dealt in comprehensive rules, Mr. Rice occupied himself with exceptions. While the former sought to establish principles, the latter tried to overthrow them by burrowing beneath the basis on which they were erected. While the one en- larged the comprehension of his hearers and illumi- nated every subject that he touched, the efforts of the other served only to contract their understandings and to involve the subject in darkness and confusion. Thus his reply to the above argument of Mr. Campbell was to deny the general rule asserted, and to adduce the words  'prevent" and " conversation" as having changed their original meaning while retaining the radical syllables. Mr. Campbell stated, however, that these were words of generic and not of specific import, and therefore not legitimately within the rule, though even in these the radical syllable still retained its specific meaning. Mr. Rice affected also to rely greatly upon the fact that ^aizToi (bapto) and ^oKTd^o) (^baptidzo) were sometimes translated wash, and labored to make it appear that this was  primary meaning. But Mr. Campbell showed 

        506 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. them to be so used by a metonymy of the effect for the cause, according to the well-known general principles applying to all words. Mr. Rice affirming that the most reliable New Testament lexicons gave ivash as the primary meaning, this Mr. Campbell refuted, but upon its being again and again reiterated, brought forward the celebrated New Testament lexicon of Stokius, who says of the word: " I. Generally it ob- tains the sense of dipping or immersing, without respect to water or any liquid whatever. 2. Specially, and in its proper signification, it signifies to dip or immerse in water. This is the New Testament sense. 3. Tropi- cally, and by a metalepsts, it means to wash, to cleanse, because a thing is usually dipped or immersed that it may be washed, that it may be cleansed. Its general sense is to dip. Its proper sense, to dip in water. Its figurative sense, to wash, to cleanse." Mr. Rice's con- fusion was such upon this exposure that he was quite unable to conceal it from the audience, and he in vain endeavored to escape from the dilemma by some evasive assertions in regard to tropes. He also endeavored to place Mr. Campbell in a similar dilemma in reference to an assertion he had made that no translator, ancient or modern, ever ren- dered [■ianzco {bapto), or any of that family of words, to sprinkle. Mr. Rice, in reply, brought up a passage (Rev. xix. 13) which reads, in the common version, *' He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood," the Greek word for " dipped " in every early manuscript known being in this place deSafi/xsvoD (debammenon) . Mr. Rice showed that in the ancient Syriac version the passage was rendered so as to read in English, " He was clothed with a vesture s-prinkled with blood." He adduced also the ^ ulgate, which rendered the passage TRUTHFUL INDUCTION. SOfJ in the same manner. In addition he adduced Origen, who, in quoting the passage almost verbatim, used ^avre^io {rantizo) instead oi ^aizxoi {baj>to). He further confirmed the correctness of the rendering sprinkle by referring to the sixty-third chapter of Isaiah, to which the passage in question evidently has relation, and where the conqueror says, "Their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments." This, it must be confessed, seemed quite a strong case, but so firmly was Mr. Campbell persuaded that neither bapto nor its derivatives could justly, in any case, be rendered sprinkle, that he ven- tured to assert, what indeed had been formerly con- jectured by Dr. Gale that, in this place, there must have been in the manuscript from which Origen quoted, and from which the Syriac version was made, a differ- ent reading {^errantismetion, instead of bebammenon)^ which Jerome, the author of the Vulgate, had adopted. Although no manuscript then known gave this reading, Mr. Campbell inferred that there must have been such a reading from the fact that, in all the three translations adduced, it occurred in the same passage, the last oc- currence of the word in the book. The corresponding passage in Isaiah also confirmed him in the opinion that the idea of sprinkling had been derived from the language of the prophet by Origen and the version from which he quoted. He insisted, therefore, that, with so much probability of a diflferent reading, Mr. Rice was logically bound to show that the word bebam- menon was actually in the manuscript quoted by Origen, as well as in the one from which the Syriac version was made. This being impossible, Mr. Rice's argument was shown to be logically inconclusive. It was not, however, merely to rebut his opponent's reasoning that Mr. Campbell took this ground. In all 5o8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. his writings and discussions he failed not to manifest that spirit of truthful investigation which had guided him from the beginning. Mr. Rice, seemingly in- capable of appreciating either Mr. Campbell's position on the disputed passage, or of imitating the truth-loving spirit of investigation which it implied, continued for some time to make the most of his supposed discovery of an exception to Mr. Campbell's universal rule, and to bring up the matter again and again. ^'Although Mr. Campbell has said and published," said he, "that no translator, ancient or modern, ever rendered any of this family of words to sprinkle^ I have proved that the translators of the venerable Syriac, the old Ethiopic and the Vulgate (all of whom, according to him, were immersionists) did so translate bapto. But he says, ' There must have been a different reading.' Where is the evidence? Is there any one copy of the New Testament found in all the searching for old manuscripts which presents a different reading ? There is not one! Why, then, contend for a different reading? Simply because the claims of immersion demand it." Such was Mr. Rice's charitable estimate of his op- ponent's integrity that he supposed him capable of contending for a different reading not in the interest of truth, but merely "because the claims of immersion demanded it." Providence, however, has already sin- gularly verified the postulate assumed by Mr. Camp- bell, and exposed the fallacy through which "sprinkle" was sought to be interpolated as a proper or possible rendering of bafto. On the 4th day of February, 1859, the learned Tischendorf, who was engaged in Oriental researches, happened to be sojourning at the monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai. Returning from a walk in company with the steward, the latter, upon reaching his chamber, placed before the traveler, for CONFIRMATION OF TRUTH. 509 his examination, a basket of ancient manuscripts. Among these, to his surprise and delight, he found a complete copy of the New Testament on vellum, which proved to be one of the very oldest and most authentic manuscripts in the world, rivaling even the famous Codex Vaticantis. This precious apograph, published in 1865 by Tischendorf, gives in Rev. xix. 13, Ttept^s^Xr}- [jihoi; ifjArcoi^ nepipspa/u/iivou dcpazt, clothed with a ves- ture sprinkled over with blood — perirerammenon being here used instead of bebammenon, the word found in other MSS. Thus, Mr. Campbell's position that there was a different reading was shown to be entirely correct, the \i' ord ^ertreramtnenon, from raino, to sprinkle, and pert, over, signifying "sprinkled over," being employed, thus proving the accuracy of the Syriac version, and rescuing bebamtnenon from the hands of those who sought to impose upon it a false rendering to suit their purposes.* * This interesting fact serves to show how consistent truth is ever with itselfi and it illustrates also the principle so often acted on in scientific and legal investigations, that by means of known facts unknown facts may be dis- covered. From the fact that various readings of Scripture existed, that the word " sprinkled" was used in the related passage of Isaiah, and especially because it would have been a singular anomaly if bapto could in any case be rendered sprinkle, it was truly inferred that in the original manuscript the word used, Rev. xix. 13, was not bebammenon, but one that really signified to sprinkle. In like manner, Leverrier, from certain disturbances in the move- ments of the planets, conjectured that there must exist, at a certain distance beyond the most distant planet known, another heavenly body of a certain magnitude, whose attractions could alone explain these perturbations; and this conclusion was no sooner reached than a German astronomer, directing his telescope to the quarter of the heavens indicated, found there the planet Neptune, previously unknown, but precisely answering all the conditions of the problem. It should be remarked also that, in all such cases, while the verification of the conjecture adds to the sum of human knowledge, it pos- sesses also the reflex power of imparting an absolute confirmation to the data from which the fact had previously been deduced. Hence, while the result, in the case of Rev. xix. 13, exposes the falsity of the assumption upon which 43* 5IO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, It cannot be justly denied that throughout the dis- cussion Mr. Rice manifested acuteness and ingenuity in bringing forward whatever could yield the slightest support to his cause, or that his efforts produced occa- sionally a marked impression on the audience. Hav- ing a musical voice and a pleasant countenance, with brilliant black eyes and hair, a confident and positive manner and an agonistic style of gesticulation, he was well fitted to command attention. Having also a large portion of the audience in favor of his propositions, he received from them numerous manifestations of sympa- thy and approval, which were supposed by many to have been even preconcerted for the purpose of manu- facturing public opinion. If such were the purpose of the actors in the case, there is not the slightest evidence that Mr. Rice instigated such proceedings, though his manner and language during the discussion were plainly calculated to encourage manifestations of applause and merriment, which it was his duty to repress as especially unbecoming in the discussion of serious subjects. His remarkable fluency of speech, superior talent for man- aging minute details, his consummate art in presenting false issues and evading the true ones, gave him great influence over the minds of those unskilled in the de- tection of fallacious reasoning. He seldom indeed ap- peared to rise to the dignity of the subject, and both his arguments and his expressions were often of an ad captandum character. The characteristic and worst features of his speeches were, however, the ^personal bearing and the hostile spirit which he imparted to them. He had gathered upon his table many volumes Mr. Rice insisted that sprinkle was one of the meanings of baj<to, it also de- monstrates the truth of the premises from which Mr. Campbell argued, show- ing that in no case can bapto or any of its derivatives be so rendered. DISPUTANTS CONTRASTED. 51I of Mr. Campbell's works, and seemed to take an es- pecial pleasure in quoting and referring to his writings, so as to make him appear inconsistent or place him in an unfavorable light before the audience, rather than in discussing the propositions upon their own merits. This course gave to the entire discussion a certain degree of asperity and acrimony, and fostered on the part of the audience those personal and denominadonal feelings and prejudices which should rather have been allayed. These feelings indeed ran very high at times, and gave rise to amusing incidents. Two ladies in the gallery were earnestly engaged in maintaining the merits of their respective disputants. "Ah," said one of them to the other as a closing and convincing argu- ment, " you can easily see that Mr. Rice is by far the most learned man. Just see how many books he has upon his table, while Mr. Campbell has hardly any." " But you don't appear to know," retorted the other, ♦' that the books on Mr. Rice's table were written by Mr. Campbell." On another occasion, after dismission, a Mr. Irwin of Madison county, a warm friend of Mr. Campbell, was complaining of poor health, and re- marked that he had not eaten anything for a number of days. " Ah," said Colonel Speed Smith, jocularly, " you have been feeding on camel" (Campbell). " Not so," said the Presbyterian preacher, Mr. Brown, who was also from Madison, " I believe he has been living on rice (Rice) during these days." "If so," rejoined Colonel Smith, " he has been living on extremely light diet" The disputants indeed, throughout, presented quite a contrast as to their weight of metal and modes of warfare. The one was like the light-armed Saracen 512 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. circling round and round his opponent upon his fleet courser, and stealthily endeavoring to wound him with his arrows. The other was the mailed Crusader upon his powerful charger, calmly receiving the missiles upon his shield or seeking to prostrate his enemy with a blow of his battle-axe. Or, as was pictured at the time in an Episcopal paper, the "Protestant Churchman," " Mr. Campbell was like a heavy Dutch-built man- of-war, carrying many guns of very large calibre ; whilst Mr. Rice resembled a daring and active Yankee privateer, who contrived, by the liveliness of his move- ments and the ease with with which he could take up his position for a raking fire, to leave his more cumbrous adversary in a very crippled condition at the close of the fight." This " crippled condition," however, was merely a slight damage in the sails and rigging, if we may continue a figure which most incorrectly represents Mr. Campbell as deficient in alertness or mobility of mind, a quality in which he excelled. Mr. Rice, who had rummaged Mr. Campbell's writings, in order to cull from thence whatever could serve his purpose, did not fail to make good use of those philosophical distinc- tions and disquisitions in relation to '* moral, spiritual and physical power," etc., which Mr. Campbell had employed in some of his discussions, and which had opened a door to speculation and misrepresentation in the discussion of the proposition relating to the influ- ence of the Holy Spirit. Mr. Rice therefore adduced these expressions and reasonings for the purpose of involving Mr. Campbell in inconsistency and proving his doctrine to be erroneous. His effort, however, only caused Mr. Campbell to appear to greater advantage, since it elicited from him the following noble acknow- ledgment : HENRY CLAY CAPTIVATED. $1% " I do not shrink from the discussion of anything I have ever written on this subject. Yet it would be more than human, more than mortal man has yet achieved, if in twenty years' writing, and in issuing one magazine of forty-eight octavo pages every month, written both at home and abroad, in steamboats, hotels and in the houses of my private friends and brethren, I should have so carefully, definitely and con- gruously expressed myself on every occasion on these much controverted subjects as to furnish no occasion to our adver- saries to extract a sentence or a passage which, when put into their crucible and mixed with other ingredients, might not be made to appear somewhat different from itself and myself and my other writings. To seal the lips of caviling sec- tarians and captious priests is a natural impossibility. The Great Teacher himself could not, at least he did not, do it."* Mr. Campbell's opening address of an hour in the debate on the influence of the Holy Spirit, has been greatly and deservedly admired for its beauty of diction, its clearness of statement and its power of argument. It was remarked that Henry Clay, who had been very careful to avoid, previously, the slightest appearance of favoring either disputant, was so captivated by it as, for a time, to forget himself. A gentleman well acquainted with him noticed that, soon after Mr. Campbell began, * Somewhat similar was the language of Luther when, before the emperor and princes, he was called upon to say whether he would recant or defend the doctrine he had taught. After refusing to retract anything he had written on faith and good works and against popery, he added : " In the third and last place, I have written some books against private individuals who have under- taken to defend the tyranny of Rome by destroying the faith. I freely confess I may have attacked such persons with more violence than was consistent with my profession as an ecclesiastic. I do not think of myself as a saint, but neither can I retract those books, because I should by so doing sanction the impieties of my opponents. ... As I am a mere man and not God, I will defend myself after the manner of Jesus Christ, who said, ' If I have spoken evil, bear witness against me.' John xviil 23. How much more should I, who am but dust and ashes and so prone to error, desire that every on* should bring forward what he can against my doctrine 1" TOL. II.— 2 H SH MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. he became unusually attentive, and that, as the subject became unfolded and successive arguments were pre- sented, he leaned forward and began to bow assent, waving his hand at the same time in that graceful, ap- proving manner peculiar to him. While the gentleman was observing this with some surprise, as he had never before, except upon one occasion, found Mr. Clay to be so carried away by a public speaker, the latter, suddenly recollecting himself, drew himself back and looked around to see if any one had noticed him thus off his guard. The address, as it appears in the printed debate, affords abundant evidence of its power. A high dig- nitary in the Episcopal Church, writing soon after in the " Protestant Churchman," thus spoke of it and of the disputants : " With the exception of a few unguarded expressions, and that he affirms a universal where only a general can be proved, Mr. Campbell's affirmative argument on the point that ' the Holy Spirit in conversion and sanctification operates only through the Word * is one of the most splendid specimens of eloquent reasoning I ever remember to have read. So, also, apply to over-expanded creeds — the Westminster Con- fession, for instance — what he recklessly charges upon all creeds, and more thrilling or magnificent declamation can hardly anywhere be found than that interwoven in the closing debate." After referring to other specimens of Mr. Camp- bell's lofty and powerful argumentation, he adds, " Mr. Rice is wholly incapable of this sort of thing. His imagination is as barren as the surface of granite." In the affirmative of the proposition that *' the infant of believing parents is a scriptural subject for baptism,** Mr. Rice assumed the usual position of the identity of the Jewish and Christian institutions or churches, and, forbearing to insist upon the argument that baptism came in room of circumcision, dwelt upon the com- FALSE IMPRESSIONS. $1% mission to the apostles as requiring them to disciple the nations by teaching and baptizing, asserting that teach- ing did not necessarily precede baptism, and that the commission was fulfilled if children were baptized first and taught afterward ! With all his arts of sophistry, however, he could not succeed in making even a plausible defence of a proposition which, as Mr. Camp- bell showed, had not a particle of scriptural evidence to sustain it. Nor was he at all more successful in the at- tempt to prove the fourth proposition, that ''baptism is to be administered only by a bishop or ordained pres- byter," for which, indeed, he did not pretend to produce a single scriptural authority. It was in the discussion of the last proposition in reference to " human creeds as bonds of union and communion " that he labored with the greatest assiduity, and, it must be admitted, with the greatest temporary eflfect. Ingeniously availing himself of the cases in which considerable difference of sentiment had been tolerated amongst the Reformers, and of Mr. Campbell's candor in acknowledging occa- sionally in his writings the existing deficiencies amongst his brethren, he managed, by exaggerating these and by means of incorrect statements, imaginary cases and feigned issues, to create, for a time, the impression upon some even who had been opposed to creeds that they were by no means so injurious or unnecessary as had been supposed.* In his attempt to excite religious fears * Mr. Rice descanted largely upon the case of Dr. Thomas as an evidence of the looseness of belief among the disciples, and of the necessity for a creed in order to the detection of errorists, although the repudiation of Dr. Thomas and his speculations by the Reformers was in reality a clear proof of the sufficiency of the Scriptures for " reproof" and for " correction," as well as for " instruction" in " righteousness." He magnified also certain differences in opinion between Mr. Raines and Dr. Fishback with regard to the degrees of human depravity. He seemed particularly desirous, however, of attaching

        5l6 MEMO/US OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL and prejudices upon this subject he was greatly aided by the circumstance that Mr. Campbell's view of the true grounds of Christian union was so far in advance of the age as not to be yet really and fully understood by the community in general. In repelling, therefore, the false imputations and consequences upon which Mr. the stigma of Unitarianism to B. W. Stone and those with him who had engaged in the reformatory movement B. W. Stone, now near the close of his life, having been informed by A. Kendrick that Mr. Rice had publicly charged him with being a " Unitarian who made the Saviour a mere man — a created being," and who " openly de- nied the divinity of Christ," answered Mr. Kendrick as follows in reference to the matter : " Now I reply for the last time (so I now think) that at no time in my long life did I ever believe these doctrines ; I never taught them either publicly or privately, from the pulpit or the press. I am bold to say no man ever heard them from me, or read them in any of the essays I have written and published on the doctrine of Christ ... It is well known to all that know me that I differed from the Presbyterians on the speculations in their Confession of Faith on the Trinity when I was a Presbyterian. Yet was I unanimously ordained by the Presbytery and held in communion by them. I was never charged with these things until I withdrew from them." After recapitulating briefly his belief in the distinction between the Father and the Son in the words in which the Scripture reveals it, he goes on as follows : " Just before he ascended, the Son prayed to the Father to glorify him with himself with the glory he had with him before the world was. This with many other texts proves that the Son, or Logos, existed in glory with the Father before the world was — before all created things in the universe ; without him was not one thing made that is made. " This glorious being is the Son of God, the only begotten Son of God, and therefore divine : the children of men are human, because begotten and bom of human parents ; so is the Son of God divine, because begotten of the divine Father. ... I believe the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world, that whosoever believeth on him might not perish, but have ever- lasting life. I believe that all power and authority in heaven and earth are given unto him, and that he is able to save to the uttermost all that come to God by him ; that in him are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge ; that it pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell — the fullness of the Godhead, the fullness of the Spirit, the fullness of grace and salvation. When we see him we see the Father — his image, his character, his glory and per- fection. Let me lose life before I would detract from my Lord one ray of hiB glory. To him that sitteth on the throne and to the Lamb be everlasting praise ! Amen ! B. W. Stone."

        OBJECTION TO CREEDS. 517

        Rice was pleased to descant, Mr. Campbell took occa- sion to state again, in various forms, the real principles of the Reformation and to maintain their correctness and their necessity for Christian union. '* We all see," said he, " that Christendom is at present in an agitated, dislocated condition — cut up or frittered down into sects and parties innumerable, wholly unwarranted by right reason, pure religion, the Bible, the God of the Bible. Be- fore the high and holy and puissant intelligences of the earth and heaven this state of things is most intolerable. I have for some five-and-twenty years regarded creeds as both the cause and effect of partyism and the main perpetuating cause of schism, and have remonstrated and inveighed against them. Not like many who oppose creeds because they first oppose their peculiar tenets, we opposed them on their own demerits, and not because they opposed us. In this particular at least, if on no other account, we differ from the great majority of those who oppose them : because old parties were sustained by them, because they made new parties, and because they were roots of bitterness and apples of discord, we opposed them. " In lieu of them all we tendered the book that God gave us. We regard the Lord Jesus Christ as King, Lord, Law- giver and Prophet of the Church, and well qualified by the power of the Holy Spirit to give us all a perfect volume — one in substance and form exactly adapted as he would have it for just such a family as the great family of man, if we be- lieve the Lord Jesus was wiser and more benevolent than all his followers in their united wisdom and benevolence, and that he could and would give them such a book as they needed. It is both the light of salvation and the bond of union amongst the saved. We abjure creeds simply as sub- stitutes — directly or indirectly substitutes — for the book of in- spiration. In other respects we have no objection whatever to any people publishing their tenets or views or practices to the world. I have no more objection to writing my opinions

        5l8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. than to speaking them. But, mark it well, it is the making of such compends of views, in the ecclesiastic sense, creeds (that is, terms of communion or bonds oj" union) — I say again, as ecclesiastic documents, as terms of exclusion and reception of members, we abjure them. . . . Our sin, in the eyes of all devoted to them, is, that we substitute for them the new covenant as our church covenant, and the apostolic writings as our Christian creed, believing all things in the law and in the prophets. "We preach in the words of that book the gospel as pro- mulgated by the apostles in Jerusalem. We use in all im- portant matters the exact words of inspiration. We command all men to believe, repent and bring forth fruits worthy of reformation. We enjoin the same good works commanded by the Lord and by his apostles. We receive men of all denominations under heaven, of all sects and parties, who will make the good confession on which Jesus Christ builded his Church. We propound that confession of the faith in the identical words of inspiration, so that they who avow it ex- press a divine faith and build upon a consecrated foundation — a well-tried corner-stone. On a sincere confession of this faith we immerse all persons, and then present them with God's own book as their book of faith, piety and morality. This is our most obnoxious offence against the partyism of this age. " On this ground many of us have stood for many years. We have fully tested this principle. Men, formerly of all persuasions and of all denominations and prejudices, have been baptized on this good confession and have united in one community. Amongst them are found those who have been Romanists, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Bap- tists, Restorationists, Quakers, Arians, Unitarians, etc., etc. We have one faith, one Lord, one baptism, but various opin- ions. These, when left to vegetate without annoyance, if erroneous, wither and die. We find much philosophy in one of Paul's precepts, somewhat mistranslated : ' Receive one an- ot-her without regard to difference of opinion.* We indeed

        TRUE BASIS OF UNION. 519

        receive in our communion persons of other denominations who will take tipon them the responsibility of their partici- pating with us. We do indeed in our affections and in our practice receive all Christians, all who give evidence of their faith in the Messiah, and of their attachment to his person, character and will." — Debate., p. 783. Of the philosophy of this basis of union he thus remarks : " We long since learned the lesson that to draw a well-defined boundary between faith and opinion, and, while we earnestly contend for the faith, to allow perfect freedom of opinion and of the expression of opinion, is the true philosophy of church union and the sovereign antidote against heresy. Hence in our communion at this moment we have as strong Calvinists and as strong Arminians as any, I presume, in this house — certainly many that have been such. Yet we go hand in hand in one faith, one hope, and in all Christian union and co-operation in the great cause of personal sanctification and human redemption. It is a pleasure to see such persons holding in abeyance their former opinions — conclusions and opinions the results of an earlY education and the effects of youthful associations — sacrificing all their predilections and partialities for the sake of the pure and holy principles of a religion that was fully and perfectly taught before the age of Luther, of Calvin or of any of the Reformers of popery or any other superstition, living or dead. They see not those specks while Heaven's bright sun of righteousness and truth shines into their souls in all its glorious effulgence. " It is not the object of our efforts to make men think alike on a thousand themes. Let them think as they like on any matters of human opinion and upon ' doctrines of religion,' provided only they hold the Head Christ and keep his com- mandments. I have learned not only the theory, but the fact, that if you wish opinionism to cease or subside you must not call up and debate everything that men think or say. You may debate anything into consequence, or you may, by a dig- nified silence, waste it into oblivion." — Debate., p. 797. Mr. Rice, wholly unable, from his point of view, to

        520 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        admit such results, continued to complain of the latitudi- narianism of such principles. Mr. Campbell replied : "• The gentleman complains that our foundation is too broad, too liberal. It is indeed broad, liberal and strong. If it were not so, it would not be a Christian foundation. Chris- tianity is a liberal institution. It was conceived in view of the ruin of the world. God looked upon not the thousand millions of one age, but the untold millions of all ages. And he looked with the inconceivable compassion of a divine Father, rich in mercy and plenteous in redemption. He laid help for us on the shoulders of a divine Man, ' who meted out the heavens with a span, comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance ;' the great Philanthropist whose wide charities and tender compassions embrace all ages, all races, all generations of men. He knows no differences of castes, ranks, dignities. Before him kings and their subjects, the nobles of the earth and their slaves, the tyrants and their vassals, lose all differences. Their circumstantial grandeui and their circumstantial meanness are as nothing. He looks upon them all as men — fallen, ruined men. He made one splendid sacrifice for all, and has commanded his gospel to be preached from pole to pole and from Jerusalem to the utter- most parts of the earth. He bids all nations, languages and tribes of men a hearty welcome to the rich provisions of his bounteous table, made large enough and well supplied with the richest provisions of his unwasting fullness. Surely, then, that ought to be a large house on a broad foundation that has in it a table for saved men from every nation under heaven. " He has commanded a simple story to be told, leveled to the apprehension of all. It is expressed in plain, clear and forcible terms. The great cardinal principles upon which the kingdom rests are made intelligible to all, and every one who sincerely believes these and is baptized is, without any other instrument, creed, covenant or bond, entitled to the rank and immunities of the city of God, the spiritual Jerusalem, the residence of the great King. This is precisely our foundation.

        SIMPLICITy OF PRINCIPLES. 521 Strong or weak, broad or narrow, it is commensurate with the Christian charter. It embraces all that believe in Jesus as the Christ of all nations, sects and parties, and makes them all one in Christ Jesus." — Debate,^, 808. Having thus shown the Bible to be the true and only guide in religion, and vindicated the sufficiency of the simple gospel which it reveals as the basis of Christian union apart from all mere human opinions, he subse- quently developed, in a still more comprehensive view, the grand fundamental resting-point of the entire structure : " The strength of the whole edifice is in its foundation, and the still more interior secret of the strength of our system is that IT IS DIVINE. It is the foundation which God has Laid in Zion. It is not both divine and human. It is wholly divine. Does any one ask me what it is? I wish I had a summer's day and my wonted strength to develop its glorious features to j'our view. A full revelation of it would disarm our opponents and take from them more than half their argu- ments. I tell you, my Christian friends, the Christian faith is quite a simple but most comprehensive and potent document The five books of Moses, together with the prophets, com- pose the Jews' religion. The Christian believes all these too, and studies them well ; but Christianity was born after Christ. There were Jews and Gentiles innumerable before Christ was born. But we speak not of the Jewish nor of the patriarchal ages. The Harbinger has done his work. He prepared a people for the Lord and introduced the sublime and glorious age of Messiah the Prince ; but Christianity is more than John preached. The principles of Christianity, like the grand laws of nature, are simple and few, but omnipotent to all the ends of its Author. What sublime and awful wonders are revealed in heaven to the eye of the philosopher by the operations of the centrifugal and centripetal forces I Silently and unobtrusively these laws, for ages, have swayed creation's ample bounds, kept the universe to its place and guided all the mighty

        522 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        masses, in their unmeasured circuit of miles unmeasured, through all the fields of occupied space. That regularity, harmony, beauty and beneficence spread over those empyreal regions where the march of revolving worlds overwhelms the adoring saint and fills his soul with admiration of the divine Author of the universe, all spring from and are the mysterious result of a happy combination of these two stupen- dous principles. " So is it in our most holy faith. There are but two grand principles in Christianity — two laws revealed and developed, whose combination produces similar harmony, beauty and loveliness in the world of mind as in the world of matter. But, leaving the development of these for the present, I must at once declare the simplicity of this divine constitution of remedial mercy. It has but three grand ideas peculiar to itself, and these all concern the King. I am sorry that this sublime and mysterious simplicity does not appear to those who set about making constitutions for Christ's kingdom. This confession of omnipotent moral power, because the off^ spring of infinite wisdom and benevolence, must be learned from one passage. Matt. xvi. ; 'Who am I, do men say?* We must advance one step farther :

        'Who am I, do you say?* Peter in one momentous period expressed the whole affair — THOU ART THE MESSIAH, THE SON OF THE LIVING GOD.

        The two ideas expressed concern the per- son of the Messiah and his office. The one implied concerns his character, for it was through his character, as developed, that Peter recognized his person and his Messiahship. Now let us take the shoes from off" our feet, for we stand on holy ground ; and let us hear him unfold unto Peter his in- tentions : ' Blessed art thou, Simon, son of Jonas ! Flesh and blood hath not revealed this unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. But I say unto thee, Thou art Peter (or stone), and on THIS ROCK I will build MY Church, and the gates of hell (hades) shall not prevail against it.' It will stand for ever. ' I will give unto thee (thyself alone, Peter) the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whose sins soever you remit*

        A REFORMER NEEDED. 523

        they are remitted, and whose sins soever you retain, they shall be retained.' Here, then, is the whole mystery of the Christian institution — the full confession of the Christian faith. All that is peculiar to Christianity is found in these words ; not merely in embryo, but in a clearly-expressed out- line. A cordial belief and clear conception of these two facts will make any man a Christian. He may carry them out in their vast dimensions and glorious developments to all eternity. He may ponder upon them till his spirit is trans- formed into the image of God — until he shines in more than angelic brightness in all the purity and beauty of heavenly love. Man glorified in heaven, gifted with immortality and rapt in the ecstasies of infinite and eternal blessedness, is but the mere result of a proper apprehension of and conformity to this confession. I am always overwhelmed in astonish- ment in observing how this document has been disparaged and set at naught by our builders of churches. It seems still to be ' a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence.' Yet Jesus calls it the rock. It is in the figure of a church or a temple, the foundation, a rock. When all societies build on this one foundation, and oa it only, then shall there be unity of faith, of affection and of co-operation ; but never, never till then. Every other foundation is sand. Hence, they have all wasted away. Innumerable parties have perished from the earth ; and so will all the present built on any other foundation than this rock." — Debate^ p. 821. Amidst the sad divisions of religious society, pro- duced and perpetuated by substituting a doctrinal for a personal faith, and the orthodoxy of the head for that of the heart, when men relied upon nice philosophical distinctions, metaphysical theories and theological or ecclesiastical systems rather than upon gospel facts, there needed a mind like that of Alexander Campbell, of expansive generalizing power and wide reach of thought, capable of seizing upon the grand principles of things and disengaging from the rubbish of partyism

        524 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        the truth on which the Church of Christ was founded. Nor was it surprising that a discovery at once so simple and so grand should fail to be comprehended and ap- preciated at once by those who were accustomed, like Mr. Rice, to justify sectarianism and find abundant space for all their religious thought within the narrow limits of a party. Time had to be allowed, that men might be schooled to larger views and learn by degrees the important lesson that " God's ways are not as man's ways, nor his thoughts as man's thoughts." Even now, after the lapse of more than half a century, the thought- ful among religious communities are only beginning to perceive and to admit that if Christian union is ever to be established, it must be based upon the simple primi- tive and personal faith advocated and first publicly ac- knowledged by Mr. Campbell in 1812. Whatever was the judgment of the discerning and impartial with regard to the discussion and the dispu- tants, it is certain that the Presbyterians, as Mr. Rice himself had done throughout the debate, boasted of a complete victory on their side.* Carried away by Mr. Rice's confident and assuming manner, and the present effect which it seemed to have upon the unthinking and * A similar course of boasting had been pursued by the Presbyterians in the case of the Jenning's Debate, and gave rise to the following incident : While Nashville was ringing with Presbyterian acclamations, an aged citizen accosted one of the boasters in the following style : " You Presbyterians have gained, you say, a glorious victory. I do not understand how you as- certain a victory. Do tell me how you know when you beat I will tell you how in old times we judged of victories when I was in the Indian wars. After the battle was over we counted the scalps, and those who could show the largest number of them were said to have conquered. Now, then, since Mr. Campbell had been here, he has immersed some thirty, among whom were some of the most intelligent citizens of Nashville. How many have you added to your church oy this debate ?" " I have not heard of any," said bis Presbyterian friend. " Pray, then, my dear sir, tell me how you know when you have gained a great victory."

        DISAPPOINTED HOPE. 525

        prejudiced, they overlooked the fact that a boastful and supercilious manner was incapable of being transferred to print, like the argumentative speeches which Mr. Campbell had wisely designed for the future readers of the discussion. They seemed also to have failed to notice the ominous fact that when Mr. Campbell preached during the period of the discussion quite a number came forward for baptism, and among them a very intelligent Lutheran preacher.* The assurance of triumph, however, felt by the Presb3'terians cannot justly be attributed entirely to Mr. Rice's confident manner and bold assertions. He certainly acquitted himself much better than his friends expected, and showed a readiness in reply and an ingenuity and a plausibilit}' in the arguments he employed quite beyond public expectation — a circumstance which naturally tended to create an exaggerated notion of his ability. The sincerity of the Presbyterians in their convictions of success was well shown in the eagerness with which the Rev. J. H. Brown purchased for $2000 the copy- right of the printed debate, and in the efforts which for a time were made by them to circulate i^. It was soon found, however, that the effect of the * This gentleman, Mr. William McChesney, who possessed undoubted testimonials of his standing with the Lutherans, gave afterward to Mr. Campbell the following account : " I could have sprinkled a child the day before the debate commenced with a good conscience. All my early educa- tion and associations were placed on a scale with Pxdobaptism during the debate. I went there willing to ascertain the truth. I was a little prejudiced against you, and more than a little against the Reformation. I listened with candor and attention. After the whole ground had been gone over, I was satisfied that nothing but immersion would do, and that infant baptism could not be maintained from the Scriptures. I felt deeply interested in the whole matter. If Mr. Rice could have met all your arguments satisfactorily to my mind, and have sustained his own propositions, he would have received my warmest thanks. He failed, however, in my estimation— completely failed in both."




        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUMES-I & II, 2,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

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    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed to His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    And Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
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    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview
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    What Is
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    Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
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    THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE ...
      ...AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Invincible - Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable-and-Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" it cannot be ‘The Eternal, Incomparable Word’ of the Great and Living God!
    God's Eternal Guarantee!
    "Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
    But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
    -- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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    "God's Goals"

    For This World!

    Does God Achieve His Goals?
    OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

    (All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    THE MOST IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" - EVER!

      The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR."   1 Pet 5:8 SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10
        QUESTION: Do you Believe the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world TO CONDEMN the world, but that THE WORLD though Him might BE SAVED! John 3:16 John 3:17 SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be NOT ignorant of this ONE THING, ...The Lord is... NOT WILLING that ANYshould perish, but that ALL should come to REPENTANCE. 2 Pet 3:9
        QUESTION: Do you Believe Father God Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47 SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32
        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26 SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7 SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10
        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe,
          God the Father,
            God the Son, &
              God the Spirit
                Achieve Goals, NOT Satan;
                  Please "CLICK" below!
      "I Believe GOD ACHIEVES HIS GOALS for the World!"

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      CONSERVATIVE RANKING

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      State, Conservative Percentage, Liberal Percentage, Difference +/-
      CONSERVATIVE RANKING OF ALL 50 STATES

      [SOURCE: GALLUP Polling Company, 2011-12].

      UNITING CONSERVATIVES into "ONE NATION UNDER GOD!"


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      No other spiritual exercise,
      pays greater spiritual dividends than MEMORIZING Scripture!
      (Dr. Charles "Chuck" Swindoll, Radio-TV-Preacher)
      "I am convinced,
      that one of the GREATEST things we can do is to memorize Scripture."
      (Dr. Billy Graham, "World's Greatest Evangelist")
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      What EVERY CHAPTER in the WHOLE NEW TESTAMENT is about!
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      The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares
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      Dearest Visitor!
      People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
      We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
      "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
      THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVE ETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13
      Let's Break it Down!
      "These things have I WRITTEN" (Absolute, Unchanging)
      Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
      THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
      That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
      Eternal Life!" (You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
      "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5
      YOU invite Christ in; HE GUARANTEES: "I WILL NEVER LEAVE'!" IT'S SETTLED!
      FACT!
      You know..."IF" you believe...that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
      For sins of all humanity! (Including your own!)
      FACT!
      Do you BELIEVE, You have ETERNAL LIFE NOW, for SURE?
      PLEASE CLICK...IF YOU BELIEVE WE CAN "KNOW"
      I BELIEVE, ETERNAL LIFE CAN BE KNOWN FOR SURE, IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13
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      GOD SAYS: "The SOUL that sins shall AGE, DECAY and DIE!"
      Genesis 2:17 Ezekiel 18:4, 13, 18, 20
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      Psalm 103:5

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      "NONE of These DISEASES"

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      Isaiah 40:31

      Worth Studying For? Believing For? Eating For? Obeying For?

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      [27] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH SECRETS, HEALTH FOR LIFE, General Sprint Routine
      [28] “MEDIPEDIA™" - BIBLE HEALTH SECRETS, Do Homosexuals Die 30-Years Younger?
      [29] “MEDIPEDIA™" - Kidney Stones Calculi DISSOLVED by VITAMINS
      [30] “MEDIPEDIA ™" – LEG-CRAMPS, MAGIC-CURE? A BAR of SOAP?
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      [32] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Possible Cancer Answers and Alternative Solutions
      [33] “MEDIPEDIA™" - PRO-BIOTICS: How Valuable Are They?
      [34] “MEDIPEDIA™" – REVIEW and CRITIQUE of High-Blood Pressure Research
      [35] “MEDIPEDIA™" – SKIN CANCER INFORMATION: Some Home Remedies
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      [37] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ANTI-AGING SECRETS, ARCHIVES: How Did STEVE REEVES TRAIN?
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      [39] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Amazing Benefits of DESSICATED LIVER SUPPLEMENTS
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      [41] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Calorie Reduction
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      [43] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Natural Skin Peels
      [44] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Bible Baldness
      45] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ASTHMA THERAPY: Natural and Complementary Methods
      [46] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Can You Really HEART ATTACK PROOF Yourself by Diet
      [47] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Dietary-Secret-to-ANTI-AGING-HORMONE(Very Brief!)
      [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
      [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
      [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better know and serve you, our readers?

      At this time, I do NOT believe Jesus is the Saviour!
      I DO believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!
      I do NOT believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' - IF one has Eternal Life;
      In 'THREE MINUTES'...you can "Know for Certain!" if your NOW HAVE Eternal Life! (or not!) 1 John 5:13
      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:
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      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!" Eph 2:8-9, Tit 3:5


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      [3] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization: DO THE MATH, (Brief!)
      [4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
      (But Did He Really Mean It?)
      [5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)
      [6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”
      [7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)
      [8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)
      [9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World”
      [10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?
      [11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?
      [12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)
      [13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)
      [14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”
      [15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers
      [16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?
      [17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?
      [18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!
      [19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!
      [20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!
      [21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!
      [22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts
      [23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?
      [24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?
      [25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page
      [26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!
      [27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page
      [28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry
      [29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!
      [30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?
      [31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero
      [32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?
      [33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?
      [34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?
      [35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians
      [36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!
      [37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."
      [38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;
      [44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"
      [45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

      ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

        *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

        . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

        Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

        Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

        Pray for us, please!

        MBF


      *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

        Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

        FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

          JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

          And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

        FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

        FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

        FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

          (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


        FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

        FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

        FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

        FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

        FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

        FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

      Go thou and teach likewise!


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      CAMBRIDGE DARK DARK BLUECAMBRIDGE LIGHT LIGHT BLUECAMBRIDGE WHITE WHITE WHITECAMBRIDGE LIGHT LIGHT BLUE CAMBRIDGE DARK DARK BLUE
      Welcome to the "Ministers-Best-Friend!" ..... home of Cambridge Theological Seminary ..... the "World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!" .....of "Bible Churches United for Christ! ..... in a season of GLOBAL increase ..... WE PROVIDED THE PAPERWORK TO START 778 NEW CHURCHES "PER MONTH" IN 2011 (World-Wide)..... averaging 421 a month in USA ..... 62 a month in CHINA ..... 46 & 32 respectively, in RUSSIA & INDIA ..... the "CAMBRIDGE CONFEDERATION now with 16,518 Ordained Ministers ..... 14,687 Local Churches ..... and 6,709,878 Members ..... 'ADDED' since AD-2,000, now in 192 "KNOWN NATIONS" (and Territories) ..... and 17 "UNKNOWN NATIONS" of Islamic origin ..... "WHY the increase in this time of Global Economic Depression?" ..... ONLY GOD KNOWS .... but we believe His Blessing is because ..... we are striving our best to BLESS HIS MINISTERS ..... His "Called-Servants" ..... in every way we can!
      DEAR FRIEND ..... PLEASE take a FEW SECONDS ..... NOTE our "15 PROGRAMS BELOW ..... in which we may be able to ENHANCE YOUR MINISTRY CREDENTIALS ..... you may DESIRE to use them later ..... THANK YOU ..... MAY GOD BLESS YOU .....PLEASE PRAY for US ..... PLEASE TELL OTHERS ..... PRAY-FOR-US ...... and COME BACK OFTEN!
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