"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.
By ROBERT RICHARDSON
CHAPTER 2 - PAGES 76-150
CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
Alexander Campbell's industry — Close observation — Failure of Thomas Campbell's health— Voyage to America,
In human life there may be a second childhood, but never a second youth. As in the natural year, the spring mingles its soft breezes with the chill blasts of winter, and the blue red-breast returns to warble from the leafless branches, and the tiny snowdrop blossoms or the crocus unfolds its gay petals amidst cheerless desolation, so, in wintry age, may childish thoughts and childish sports again delight, and dotage assume the guise of infancy, when the eye is weak and the memory defective, and the step unsteady, not from immaturity, but from decay.
But youth, with its unspent energies, its keen perceptions, its earnest hopes, and its unfilled capacities, shall return to man on earth no more.
As though deeply impressed with this conviction, it was in this, the seed-time of life, that, with unwearied industry, Alexander Campbell labored to store his mind with useful learning, and to avail himself of every accessible source of knowledge. He was accustomed to pursue his studies to a late hour in the night, and usually rose at four in the morning to resume them.
Books were his constant delight, and self-education became with him a passion, as there seemed but little prospect of his being enabled to attend the University, owing to his father's large family, now increased with another daugh- 7
INTROSPECTIVE SCRUTINY. 77
ter, named Alicia — making seven children living, three others having died in early infancy. In addition to his duties in the public school, he was induced at this time to become private tutor to the daughters of Hon. William Richardson, giving lessons at certain hours in the day. This caused but little in- convenience, as Mr. Richardson's mansion was near at hand, surrounded with finely-improved grounds, where Alexander's sisters were accustomed often to walk on a pleasant evening to enjoy the beauty of the shrubbery and of the flowers.
Amidst all his labors, however, he still found time for an occasional gunning excursion. On one of these expeditions an incident occurred, which, though trifling in itself, may serve to show how acute and introspective were his powers of observation, and how strong his objective tendencies, since, even in the midst of sportive recreation, he could readily make the operations of his own mind the object of analytic scrutiny.
Having gone out on a Saturday, with two companions, in search of corn-crakes (a migratory land-rail abundant in Ireland), after a long walk their excursion seemed likely to prove unsuccessful. Upon their return they came into a meadow, and it was pro- posed that Alexander should take one end and his companions the other. In a little while one of the latter fired and shot a corn-crake.
Alexander happened to have a gun with a worn pan, which sometimes al- lowed the powder to escape. Upon hearing the shot, he examined and found that there remained in the pan only one single grain of powder of large size. Not expecting to see any more game, however, he did not think it worth while to prime, and proceeded on his way ; but had gone only a few steps when a hare started out of its form almost at his feet. As he was at
78 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
the end of the meadow near to the house of a tenant who had a license to take game, the first thought which struck him was, that he was in full view of the house, and, secondly, that the tenant might regard him as tres- passing. He reflected further, that this man was very strict about the game ; but it then occurred to him that, as he was a teacher in the family of the lord of the manor, he might be regarded as entitled to the privi- lege. He then recollected, however, that he had not primed his gun, and that it was not likely to go off, as there was but a single grain of powder in the pan.
He perceived further, that the hare had but a very little way to go until it would reach a hedge and be hid from view, and that there was hardly time to take aim. But, lastly, considering that it was a risk all round, he concluded to try the experiment, and accordingly, put- ting up his gun, fired and killed the hare before it had gone twenty steps.
After several years spent in teaching at Rich-Hill, the excessive labor and confinement to which his father was subjected in fulfilling his duties to the congrega- tion and to the school began seriously to impair his health. He grew extremely pale, dyspeptic and de- bilitated, and finally, after having for a long time tried various remedies in vain, he was informed by his phy- sician that his life would be the forfeit if he persisted in continuing his unremitting mental toil ; and that an absolute change of present pursuits, and such relief as
DEPARTURE OF THOMAS CAMPBELL. 79
a protracted sea-voyage might afford, were indispensa- bly necessary to his recovery.
This decision was ex- tremely distasteful to him.
He could scarcely endure the thought of leaving his position and his family to undertake a voyage across the Atlantic, as was pro- posed to him by his friends, some of whom were almost constantly emigrating to the New World.
At length, Alexander, seeing the critical state of his father's health, resolved to forward earnestly the proposed measure, and he therefore told his father that he would take the entire charge of the school until all existing engagements were fulfilled, and that he thought it highly important for him at once to visit America and see the country.
As his father still hesitated, he at length told him that it was his own determination to go to the United States so soon as he came of age, and that all the circumstances seemed to him providentially to indicate the propriety of the course recommended, in order that a suitable location might be found for the entire family.
Yielding at length to these representa- tions and to the advice of his warmest friends, and especially of the Acheson family, Thomas Campbell gave his consent, and it was arranged that, in case he should be pleased with the country, he would send for the family ; and, if otherwise, he would himself return to Ireland.
As Miss Hannah Acheson was desirous of going out to her relatives, who had previously emi- grated and settled in Washington, Pennsylvania, she gladly availed herself of the opportunity to place her- self under the escort of her esteemed pastor. Accordingly, a few days afterward, on the first day of April, 1807, Thomas Campbell, having taken an affecting farewell of his congregation, assembled his own family, to the members of which he delivered suitable
80 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL,
counsels and instructions, after which, amid many prayers and tears, he bade them adieu, and set out with his company for Londonderry, the port from which he had concluded to sail. Hastily viewing the fine harbor, and some other points of interest connected with this ancient city, so celebrated in history for its heroic de- fence against James the Second, he took occasion, before embarking, to address a letter to his family, the following extract from which will show how highly, above all the things of the present life, he prized their spiritual welfare :
EMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 81
Such were the affectionate counsels of Thomas Camp- bell to his family, and especially to his son Alexander, whose appreciation of them may be inferred from the fact that he carefully copied them into his note-book, that he might have them constantly before him. Mean- while, his father had embarked on the ship Brutus, Captain Craig, master, bound for Philadelphia ; and on the eighth of April, 1807, the wind being favorable, the vessel set sail, and passing out of Lough Foyle, rounded Malin-Head, the most northern point of Ire- land, where Thomas Campbell gazed for the last time upon his native shores as they faded from his sight in the dim mists of the eastern sky.
There was at this time a large and constant emigra- tion to the United States.
Several families of Thomas Campbell's acquaintance in the vicinity of Rich-Hill had, at this time, already made their arrangements to set out for the United States. Among these may be mentioned the family of the Hodgens, of which some of the younger members had been Mr. Campbell's pupils.
Thomas Hodgens, hav-
ing sold out his land for three hundred guineas, resolved
to emigrate and purchase land in America ; and one of
his daughters being married to James Foster, he urged
82 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
his son-in-law to accompany him. This James Foster was destined to take no unimportant part in Thomas Campbell's future religious movements. He was one of those men who, from a retiring disposition or other circumstances, do not put themselves prominently for- ward, but who exert, nevertheless, an important influ- ence within a limited sphere, and often make that influence widely felt through other minds.
He was a member and the precentor in the church of the Independents at Rich-Hill, and a young man of more than ordinary piety and religious attainments. Possessed of a remarkably retentive memory, and de- voted to the study of the Bible, his mind became a complete treasury of the Word of God, so that he could, with the utmost accuracy, repeat from memory its sacred teachings at his pleasure.
Having become convinced that there was no authority in Scripture for the baptism of infants, he would never consent to its administration in the case of his own children ; but he was not, on this account, less esteemed among the Independents, with whom considerable latitude of opinion was allowed. His extreme conscientiousness, indeed, was so well known, and his character and religious worth so highly appre- ciated, that he was one of the most influential members in the church,
and was often invited to the house of the pastor, Mr. Gibson, where he met, occasionally, some of those eminent preachers who visited Rich-Hill. At one of his visits he met with John Walker, and heard him discuss with Mr. Gibson various religious topics, on which occasion Mr. Gibson seemed to him to be a mere child in the hands of the learned and acute Walker.
He heard Alexander Carson also, and thought him the finest religious teacher to whom he had ever listened.
It was his habit not to speak from a text, but
to enter into the train of thought presented in an entire connected portion of Scripture, so as fully to develop the actual meaning of the passage.
When James Foster was urged to go to America, he hesitated to leave his recently widowed mother, until she herself urged his emigration, lest his wife should pine after her relations. Upon this he was induced to consent, and the whole party having made their ar- rangements, set out about two weeks after the departure of Thomas Campbell, and proceeded to Newry. This town occupies a part of three counties — Lowth, Armagh and Down.
It is connected with Lough Neagh by a canal, chiefly in the bed of the river Bann, and also with Carlingford Bay by a canal, through which vessels reach its fine spacious quay, so that it is a centre of considerable trade. It is built upon the side of a steep hill, at the foot of which is the Narrow Water, an inlet from Carlingford Bay, but not suffi- ciently capacious for large vessels.
Along the margin of this Narrow Water, upon the left, a fine road passes down from Newry, five miles, to Warren Point, which is much resorted to as a watering-place. On the oppo- site side of this narrow inlet, in the county of Lowth, lofty and precipitous hills arise as out of the very water, presenting a magnificent appearance.
Passing down, accordingly, to Warren Point, where the bay is about a mile and a half wide, James Foster and his companions embarked on a vessel bound for Philadelphia. As though to attract the foreigner and detain the emigrant, Nature seems at this point to have grouped together the most enchanting scenery. Looking sea- ward, along the shores of tne widening bay, high hills of beautiful forms rise up from the water's edge on each side. Two miles below, upon the left, nestling between
84 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
two mountains, is the village of Rosstrevor, celebrated for its picturesque beauty and connected with the demesnes of General Ross, who was destined to fall, a few years afterward, in the attack on Baltimore, and in whose honor an elegant monument, in the form of an obelisk, has since been erected a little above the village.
Below Rosstrevor a majestic mountain lifts, to a great height above its green and wooded slopes, a bare and rugged peak, upon whose side appears a perpendicular rock of immense size, distinctly visible from Newry, and to which parties frequently resort to enjoy the mag- nificent view which it affords. On the opposite side of the bay is seen Carlingford Castle, a large and impos- ing structure, often visited by the tourist, and possessing many interesting historical associations.
Still further down, at a distance of about four miles, and on the extreme point where the bay at length opens into the sea, stands the light-house, like a friendly hand stretched out from the shores of civilization and hospi- tality to "welcome the coming" or " speed the going guest."
To all these charming scenes, and the cher- ished associations of their native land, the emigrants were now compelled to bid a final farewell, as the vessel, weighing anchor and steering down the bay, entered the Irish Sea, and taking a southerly course through St. George's Channel, along the coast of Wales, whose lofty mountains became distinctly visible, passed out at length into the broad Atlantic.
A departure to a distant land, with its last farewells to beloved friends and familiar scenes, has in it much of the bitterness of death. Tt brings, at least, home to the heart, the griefs, unce. lainties and fears attendant upon a protracted separation ; and the radical idea in death is separation, of which, to the Irish emigrant and
NEWS FROM A FAR COUNTRY, 85
his family, the trackless ocean, with its seemingly bound- less extent and unfathomed mysteries, becomes at once the emblem and the instrument. These feelings were most fully realized in the family home-circle at Rich- Hill, in which a once honored seat remained vacant, and the venerated form of a beloved father was seen no more.
In all the buoyancy of youthful hope, Alexander Campbell nevertheless addressed himself to his labors, conducting the school energetically according to arrangements, and assisting his mother in the care of the family, managing everything with such vicacity and cheerfulness as to revive the spirits of all, like a plea- sant sunshine after a day of gloom.
After some three months had passed away, he re- ceived with great joy a letter from his father announ- cing his safe arrival at Philadelphia, after a prosperous voyage of thirty-five days, which, at that time, was reckoned a speedy trip. It stated that he had been so highly favored as to find the Anti-Burgher Synod of North America then assembled in the city, and had been very kindly received by the members upon pre- senting his testimonials from the Presbytery of Market Hill and the church at Ahorey.
This letter is dated May 27, 1807, and continues as follows:
86 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
be to believe his goodness. And you, dear Alexander, upon whom the burden lies at present, and must for some little time longer — I hope not longer than we expected at our part- ing — be sure you make it your chief study to do all to please and nothing to offend that great God who has raised such friends and conferred such friendships upon your father, both at home and abroad, and especially when he became a stranger in a strange land. But what do I say
A minister of a member of Christ's Church is a citizen of the world, as far as the Church extends.
My dear Jane, let nothing discourage you. Turn to God ; make his word and will your constant study, and rely upon it that as ' the days wherein you will have seen and years you grief have had,' so the Lord will make you glad, and satisfy you with his tender mercies.
My dear children, let me address you together : if you have any sympathy, any sincere affection for a father who cannot cease to love you and pray for you so long as his heart shall beat or tongue be able to articulate, see that you follow the directions that I gave you at my parting, whether by word or writing.
This letter also, together with others breathing the same affectionate and religious spirit, Alexander rever- entially copied upon the pages of his note-book, in which he had already numerous selections from Young, Johnson, Buffon, Beattie, and other esteemed authors: for it was his custom to write down, for his future use, and in order to impress them the more upon his memory, those passages in the books he read that particularly pleased him.
Merited Confidence — Preparations for Departure — Delays — Embarkation.
This the sense of what we seem to others that moulds I and fashions human character. This may be rough- hewn by Nature, but it is the consciousness of the judgment of others, the praise of those we esteem, the criticism we fear, the model we admire, that will modify its form and determine its features. Hence the opinion which a friend entertains of another's virtues or abilities becomes to him often a standard to which he insensibly labors to conform ; and the confidence reposed in him becomes one of the most powerful motives to deserve it.
In the education of youth, therefore, encouragement and trust are needed, rather than censure or suspicion ; and the "love that believeth all things" and "hopeth all things" will accomplish more than the skepticism which doubts or the austerity that chills the most generous emotions. It was upon this principle — which, indeed is the same which underlies the profound phi- losophy of the gospel itself
— that Thomas Campbell acted both as a parent and as a teacher ; and the frank confidence now reposed in Alexander, in committing to him so important a charge as the management of the academy and the family, became to him not only a flat- tering evidence of his father's high appreciation of his abilities and his principles, but a powerful incentive to him lo show that this confidence was not unmerited.
87 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
He continued his labors, therefore, with that careful punctuality to which he had been accustomed, and con- ducted the school successfully to the close of the term. No other letters being as yet received from America in reference to removal, and his uncle Archibald at this time greatly desiring his assistance, he now went over to Newry and took charge of a number of private classes.
Here he continued, frequently seeing the family at Rich-Hill and providing for their comfort, until the month of March, 1808, when a letter was at length received from his father, urging immediate de- parture, and referring, for general advices, to other letters written in the preceding November, but which, as it now appeared, had failed to reach their destination. He learned, by the letter now received, that his father had been, at his request, assigned by the Synod at Philadelphia to the Presbytery' of Chartiers,
embracing Washington county, in Western Pennsylvania, where some of his former neighbors had already settled, and whither James Foster and his party were bound.
After spending a short time very pleasantly with the Seceder ministers and the acquaintances he had formed in Philadelphia, he had proceeded over the mountains to Washington, Pennsylvania, from which town the letter was dated, January 1, 1808.
James Foster and his friends, it appeared, had landed at Philadelphia five weeks after his arrival there, and, coming on to Wash- ington county, had found him there already engaged in ministerial labor. The following extract from his letter will show how earnest and unceasing were the aspira- tions of this excellent man for entire consecration of heart and life to the service of God,
1 LETTER FROM THOMAS CAMPBELL. 59
90 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
Immediately upon receipt of this letter, the family began to make the necessary arrangements for the contemplated voyage. When nearly ready, however, an unlooked-for visitation occasioned further delay.
That dreaded disease, the small-pox, happened just at this time to visit Rich-Hill. Alexander, with his ac- customed promptitude, at once suggested to his mother the propriety of having inoculation performed upon all 'the members of the household who had not yet had the disease.
This was the method of protection then generally employed, as vaccination had not yet come much into use. The discovery, in fact, had been pub- lished by Jenner only in 1798, and it was several years before its efficacy was fully confirmed, the British gov- ernment not taking it under its protection until 1808.
It happened, however, that before the necessary pre- paration could be made, some of the younger children were found to have caught the infection. Fortunately, most of the cases assumed a mild form, Jane being the only one who had it very severely. She was then in her eighth year, and a beautiful child, extremely fair and blooming, with light flaxen hair; but her beauty was considerably marred and her face deeply marked by the disease.
As soon as all were convalescent, preparations for departure were resumed ; but it was August before they were completed. On the 20th of this month Alexander set out on horseback for Londonderry, to make ar- rangements for their embarkation. The distance being
VISIT TO LONDONDERRY. 91
sixty miles, he was occupied two days in making the trip, greatly admiring, as he passed along, the beauty of the scenery, now enhanced by the contrast of the golden grain-fields with the green meadows and pasture lands. Upon reaching the city, he stopped at an inn belonging to a Mr. William Wilson, merchant, and proceeded to make inquiry in regard to vessels for America.
He took this opportunity to visit also those parts of the city and its vicinity which had been ren- dered interesting by the memorable siege.
The place was shown where Lundy, the treacherous governor, who was disposed to surrender the city, let himself down from the wall by the assistance of a pear tree, and made his escape to the enemy, to avoid being torn to pieces by the citizens.
Upon his departure, Baker and Walker were elected governors, and the most vigorous measures adopted for defence.
For many weeks all the efforts to take the town by storm were gallantly repulsed ; upon which the siege was changed into a blockade, and all the avenues of assistance care- fully secured.
The supplies in the city were short, yet the people manfully held out, even when they had to:
At length, at the end of one hundred and five days, the boom stretched across the Foyle, a mile and a half below, was broken by ships bearing provisions, and the city, -which by no art could have held out two days longer, was happily saved.
Alexander found the walls very high, especially next the sea, and so broad at top that A coach and four could be driven upon them, though.
92 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
at the time of the siege, the defences were in a very poor condition. He was pleased with the wide streets, the old-fashioned houses, and particularly with the fine public square, upon which fronted some of the best houses in the city. He visited the place where the great boom had been stretched across the Foyle, and saw the rugged mass of rock to which it had been attached upon the left bank by a cable a foot thick.
Near by was also the well from which the besiegers drank, and the burial-ground where they laid their slain, and where the spade of the gardener occasionally still turns up some of their mouldering bones. Having completed his examinations, and visited the vessel in which he expected to sail, he made a conditional en- gagement with the captain, and returned home after what was to him a very pleasant excursion.
As the vessel was not likely to sail for some time, and some of his acquaintances were about to visit Dublin, he concluded to accompany them, in order to have a better idea of his own country before leaving it, and to be enabled to compare it with other lands. He set off, accordingly, for the metropolis by stage on the 2nd of September, and arrived safely at half-past six in the evening.
Dublin is a very old city, having been spoken of by Ptolemy, who flourished in the reign of Antoninus Pius, about A. D. 140, and who then called it a city — Eblana Civitas.
From the elegance of its architecture, the number of its public buildings, the magnificence of its quays, docks, and many of its streets, Dublin is regarded by tourists of discrimination as one of the finest capitals in Europe. There are few points,
[It is thought by many that in Latinizing the word Dublin, tlie initial D was accideuitaJ y omitted, and that Eblana should be Deblana]
VISIT TO THE CITT OF DUBLIN. 93
in the approaches by land, which afford a good view of the city ; that from Phoenix Park being perhaps the best. The scenery, however, on entering the bay between Howth and Dalkey Island, is extremely fine. Bold promontories, green sloping pastures, neat villas are seen, and especially among the latter, the elegant seat of Lord Charlemont.
Several beautiful islands present a picturesque appearance, while, behind them, appear the Rochetown hills, and, still further back a varied prospect of villas, woods and pastures, terminated grandly by the distant Wicklow Mountains. Within the city itself there are some charming prospects, especially that from Carlisle Bridge.
On the right is Sackville street, one of the most splendid in the world, terminated by the Rotunda and Rutland Square. On the left, Westmoreland street, with elegant buildings, terminated on one side by Trinity College and on the other by the Bank of Ireland. In front is the river Anna LifFey, which passes through the midst of the city,
with its eight beautiful bridges and spacious quays, parapetted with granite, and extending for two miles and a quarter along the wide open space which passes quite through the city, and in the centre of which the river flows with a lively current. In the distance, the Four Courts are seen on Inns-Quay ; the Phoenix Park also ; while, toward the east, the magnificent Custom-House ap pears, and the fine harbor, crowded, as far as the eye can reach, with vessels of all descriptions.
The morning after his arrival he sallied forth to view the city. As he kept a journal of his visit, his impres- sions may perhaps be best learned from his own words : " The principal things that drew my attention this day were the Linen-Hall, the infirmaries, hospitals and other eleemosynary superstructures. The Linen-Hall is a very ex-
94 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
tensive and elegant building, built in long squares, with doors opening into a very wide common hall. In the rooms there are offices and other accommodations for the merchants. The poor-houses, infirmaries and hospitals are numerous and elegantly conducted. In one of the foundling hospitals I saw about a thousand male and female children dine together in one apartment.
Their repast consisted of white bread, with a portion of bursted barley, which is not their usual repast. One of the children, about twelve years old, gave thanks in a small pulpit before and after dinner ; and before they dispersed the female part sang a part of a hymn.
From the whole I observed the good and happy effects of economy, regularity and good discipline. The next thing that engaged my attention was the cradle, where I admired the care that was taken of the infants of a hundred parents — poor children whose hearts shall never glow with filial affection, who shall never feel the benign eflects of parental love, and whose souls shall never be knit together by the ties of brotherly affection or tender regard.
Yet even these are not forgotten by the Almighty Father.
They have been snatched from the hand of cruel parents, whose awful wickedness might have led them (were not this means appointed for their preservation) to imbrue their hands in their innocent blood. "
Next day, being the Sabbath, we went to Back-lane and heard the Rev. Samuel Craig deliver a very elegant discourse from these words : ' Fear not, little flock ; it is my Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.'
Monday I spent walking up and down for amusement, viewing the canals, bridges, etc., and going out of the city a few miles to where I might have a good prospect. I also visited the Royal Ex- change, and saw the most respectable part of the merchants of Dublin assembled to do business. " Tuesday I went with a party to the Botanic Gardens, where we saw the vegetable wo-ld in miniature. The Gar- dens contain about sixteen acres. Here are the productions of the torrid zone, reared by the most assiduous care under
DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA. 95
glass — the herbs of sandy Africa and all the plants of the Indies. Here are themes sufficient for the naturalist, the horticulturist and the botanist. Wednesday, I paid a visit to the Museiun, where I was greatly delighted with the elegance of the appearance, the vast variety of curiosities that presented themselves to my view. Birds of every species, preserved in full form, drew my attention on one hand ; on the other, the beasts of the forest and the tenants of the main.
Add to these, the great variety of terrene and marine produc- tions ; the works of nature and of art ; the whole tribe of insects ; the medals and coins of other years, and specimens from the mines and minerals of many nations. Same day, I took a walk round the College and the College Green, and conversed with one of the students.
The College is one superb square, and the Green delightful. The public buildings in Dublin are elegantly magnificent : the most superb street is Sackville street, where there was a monument erecting in memory of Lord Nelson. Dublin is a little world in itself.
The inhabitants are numerous, and in general hospitable and geneious. During my stay, I stopped at the house of Mr. Lukey, a respectable and worthy gentleman." On Thursday he returned home and continued his preparations for the voyage, which being completed by the 20th of September, the whole family set out that day for Londonderry, where they arrived safely in four days.
Their ship, the Hibernia, was, however, not yet ready to sail, and they were detained here eight days waiting upon it. At length, on the 28th of September, the vessel weighed anchor in Lough Foyle, with the design of putting out to sea, but, the wind soon proving adverse, cast anchor again. On the ist of October (1808), wind and tide being favorable, she hoisted sail and took her departure, firing off, by way of adieu, the ten pieces of cannon with which she was armed. Toward evening, when near the mouth of the Lough,
96 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
the wind failed and the anchor was cast for the night. Next morning, which was the Lord's day, the wind again favoring, they passed out into the Atlantic, but came to anchor again not far from Innishowen, from which place some of the passengers desired to obtain their supply of whiskey. It began now to appear that the ship, though strongly built and a good sailer, was very poorly manned and managed. The captain, Jacob Jumer, was self-willed and given withal to drink.
The sailors were mostly young and inexperienced.
The mate, Mr. Ryan, was evidently the only good seaman on board, and he and a Dutchman, who was a good hand, seemed to be equal to the half of the crew, which consisted of twelve, including the cook's mate and cabin-boy. A large number of passengers had been taken on board, many of whom were Catholics, having a priest along with them.
Comfortable quarters had been obtained, somewhat apart, for Mrs. Campbell and her family, where they read books, conversed with each other, attended to their usual family duties, and where Alexander conducted their worship regularly morning and evening.
He had now just entered upon his twenty-first year.
He was tall, athletic and well-pro- portioned, with much of that bloom and freshness in his complexion so common in the youth of Ireland.
He had an air of frankness about him, blended with decision and self-reliance, which at once inspired re- spect ; yet he was affable and fond of conversing with others and eliciting information.
The next in age, his sister Dorothy, now in her sixteenth year, was some- what tall and slender, but erect in carriage, with regular features, having an intelligent and thoughtful expres- sion. She was well versed in the Scriptures, having a fine memory and a strong, masculine understanding,
FAMILY ON SHIPBOARD. 97
resembling in this respect her brother Alexander more than any of the family. Next to her was her sister Nancy, about thirteen, more like her father in figure, and of a very quiet and retiring disposition.
Jane was the next in age, and now in her ninth year, had just re- covered from her tedious confinement with the small- pox, which, though it had destroyed the beauty of her complexion, left still a very engaging face, with hand- some features and bright, expressive eyes.
Thomas (Jr.), a boy of over six years, of an extremely active and restless temperament,
with the two younger, Archibald and Alicia, of four and two years respectively, as yet mere children, were their mother's especial care to guard them from the unaccustomed dangers of the ship. All of them, in the novel circumstances in which they were now placed, realized more fully than ever the fam- ily and social ties that bound them to each other, and endeavored to make each other as happy as possible, in the expectation of soon reaching Philadelphia, to which port the ship was bound. But a very different destina- tion awaited her.
At Sea — Scottish Coast — Imminent Peril — Determinations — Rescue — Views of Prayer.
TO abandon for ever one's native land, with all its endearing associations, naturally gives rise to emotions of sadness.
Such were the feelings of Thomas Campbell's family when the vessel, setting sail again on the following morning, gradually left the shores of green Erin in the dim and misty distance. But the remembrance of a beloved husband and father waiting to receive them in the Western World, the hopeful buoyancy of youth, and the strange groups and ever- shifting scenes on board the vessel, soon gave rise to other and more cheerful thoughts.
The wind in the early part of the day was fair, but toward evening, off Malin Head, it became adverse, and increased so much in force that the ship was unable to make head against it, even when close-hauled. It became necessary, therefore, to take in sail and run before the wind all night.
Next morning they found themselves near the coast of Scotland, which, from their position on the previous day, lay only about thirty miles to the north-east. As they approached the shore, it appeared very rocky and dangerous, but the captain succeeded in running the vessel into a very crooked bay which happened to be near. Neither he nor the sailors appeared to know precisely on what part of the
98 PREMONITIONS OF DANGER. 99
[NOTE: WHY call this "premonition like some secular atheist . . . rather than a supernatural act of God, warning his divinely called messenger?
Are we no longer believer's in the Supernatural at all?];
coast they were ; but some time after daybreak pilots came on board and informed them that they were m Lochin-Daal Bay, on the coast of the island of Islay ; adding that this part of the bay was very unsafe, many vessels having been wrecked there.
They therefore advised the captain to proceed on further, to a belter harbor near a small village called Bowmore, which was the chief town of the island. The captain, however, being resolved to go out to sea again as soon as ever the wind would permit, concluded to remain for the present where he was, and accordingly cast anchor.
Here they remained for three entire days, the wind continuing still unfavorable. During this period, Alexander occupied himself in observing the motley crowd of passengers, in conversing occasionally with the more intelligent, and in reading some of the books he had selected for the voyage.
On the evening of the 7th October, the ship still riding at anchor in the bay, and no appearance of any threatening danger, a singular circumstance occurred to him. After having attended to family worship and Scripture recitation as usual, he had reclined upon one of the sofas, and was reading aloud to his sister Dorothea in "Boston's Fourfold State."
Finding, after some time, that she was becoming drowsy, he ceased read- ing, and soon afterward himself fell into a somewhat uneasy slumber. At length he started up with evident
100 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
marks of alarm, and told his mother and sisters that he was confident a great danger was impending, and that he feared they were about to be shipwrecked.
He said he had just had a most vivid dream, in which he thought the ship had struck upon a rock, and that the water came rushing in and nearly filled the vessel. He thought he had been making the most strenuous exertions to save the family and secure their luggage ; and so strong was the impression made upon his mind that he said,
All having at length retired to their berths, the decks and cabins became quiet, and no noise was heard but the dull sound of the waves as they dashed against the sides of the vessel, the whistling of the wind through the rigging, or the creaking of the cables as the ship began to strain upon them more and more.
Finally, about ten o'clock, the wind, veering toward the south, increased rapidly to a severe gale, blowing directly into the bay. In a few moments the passengers were sud- denly aroused by a violent shock, accompanied with the crashing sound of breaking timbers and the rushing of water into the main hold of the vessel.
Instantly all was commotion and terror.
The ship, it appeared, had dragged her anchors, and had been dashed upon a sunken rock, which had penetrated her bottom, while the force of the wind and waves had thrown her almost upon her beam-ends.
As the passengers scrambled to the upper deck, they found the captain calling up all hands to cut away the masts. In the confusion, how- ever, but a single axe could be found.
DECISION IN TIME OF PERIL. 101
With this the sailors commenced to hew at the masts, while some of the passengers who had broadswords assisted with these in cutting away the stays. The masts being at length cut and falling overboard, the ship righted to some extent, fortunately still remaining upon the rock, upon which she seemed to settle more firmly as she gradually filled with water.
All the passengers, with whatever baggage they could rescue, were now crowded upon the upper deck, exposed to the fury of the ele- ments, as wave after wave of immense size ap- proached and broke upon the vessel, sweeping the deck and threatening instant destruction.
The captain now ordered minute-guns to be fired in token of dis- tress, but such was the noise of winds and waves that it seemed impossible that they could be heard on shore. The situation, indeed, appeared to all to be desperate — the violence of the storm continuing, the long and dreary night before them, and no prospect of any human help.
It was now that Alexander, having done all that was possible for the present safety of his charge, abandoned himself to reflection as he sat on the stump of the broken mast, and, in the near prospect of death, felt, as never before, the vanity of the aims and ambitions of human life.
The world now seemed to him a worth- less void, and all its attractions a vain, delusive show. Kingdoms, thrones and sceptres could not, he thought, if offered, excite one wish for their possession. The true objects of human desire and the true purposes of man's creation now appeared to him in all their excel- lence and glory.
He thought of his father's noble life, devoted to God and to the salvation of his fellow- beings, and felt that such a calling, consecrated to the elevation and everlasting happiness of mankind, was, indeed, the highest and most worthy sphere of action
I02 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
in which any human being could engage.
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL "Makes a Deal with God!"
It was then, in that solemn hour, that he gave himself up wholly to God, and resolved that, if saved from the present peril, he would certainly spend his entire life in the ministry of the gospel.
It was at this moment that he, for the first time, fully decided upon adopting the ministry as his profession. Calmly submitting himself to the dispensations of Heaven, he now began to observe the conduct of the other passengers.
Most of them presented the aspect of extreme terror, as they hopelessly gazed at the careering clouds above or into the surrounding gloom, or shrunk away from the fury of the dashing waves. The Catholics, especially, manifested the most abject fear, and now, no longer in a jeering tone, but in all sincerity and humility, besought him to pray for them.
Some of them were telling [praying] their beads and muttering prayers to the saints ; others were calling aloud on the Virgin Mary and the angels to "fall the winds and save our bodies ;" strangely enough, never offering a petition for the salvation of their souls.
Others were busy confessing their sins to the priest, who was grant- ing them absolution and endeavoring to prepare them for what seemed their inevitable fate. Among the passengers, however, there was one un- known female, who, amidst all the dreadful noise and turmoil of the elements and the contagious sympathy of fear, sat quietly by herself, nursing her babe.
This, under the circumstances, appeared to the Campbells very singular, and it indicates their comparative calm- ness that they noticed her particularly, as she sat ap- parently unconscious of the raging winds and waves and the imminence of the danger, sheltering, as best she could, her helpless infant.
EFFORTS FOR RESCUE. 103
Meanwhile, upon the ill-fated Hibernia, the rushing waves and the pitiless tempest continued to beat with unabated fury, and the dismal hours of the long and dreary night passed slowly away. About five o'clock, the captain, with the Catholic priest and some of the crew, resolved to make an effort to get ashore in the long-boat.
They succeeded in launching the boat and getting clear of the ship, but upon nearing the shore the boat upset in the surf, and it was with great diffi- culty that, by swimming and wading, they at length succeeded in reaching the land.
But the captain and most of the sailors had become so much intoxicated by the time they reached the nearest houses that they acted in a rude and boisterous manner, and were un- able to represent properly the exigency of the case, so that it was not until daylight revealed the situation of the vessel that a few inhabitants began to collect upon the beach.
At first, the passengers doubted whether the people who appeared on the barren and rocky coast were disposed to befriend them, or, as is often the case, to act the part of common wreckers, who plunder the un- fortunate. It soon became evident, however, from the signals they made, and their strenuous efforts to launch the boats they gathered from various quarters, that their intentions were to rescue the passengers and crew.
All their efforts to board the vessel by means of their boats proving abortive, in consequence of the force of the wind and waves driving shoreward, the passengers were instructed by signals to tie a rope to an empty cask and allow it to drift on shore, while they retained the other end. The cask being caught on shore, its rope was immediately transferred to the prow of one of the boats, which, by the assistance of those on board
104 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
the ship, was then successfully dragged through the surf, and finally, to their great joy, brought alongside. It was now decided that the women and children should be taken first ashore, but some men seeming resolved to accompany their families, the more resolute passen- gers, drawing their swords, stood at the gangway, and threatened to cut down any man that dared to go until all the weaker portion of the passengers were landed.
The arrangement was then carried out, and as each boat-load reached the shore, the boat was drawn back as before for others. Alexander concluded to remain for the last boat, and while the others were going ashore, perceiving that there was now but little danger of loss of life, he began to think about the property they had on board.
Their trunks and boxes, he found, were floating about be- tween-decks, and among them a large cask in which he had packed the books. He at once determined to save these if possible, but as there was now no tackle or means of hoisting the cask to the upper deck, he managed, with great difficulty and at the imminent risk of his life, to break it open with the axe and throw the books upon the deck.
After all, however, he found it was impossible to convey them ashore at that time, and as he left the ship with the last of the passengers, he was reluctantly compelled to leave them to the mercy of the elements. It was now about two o'clock, and the tide was at the ebb, so that the boat ran upon a rock a good distance from land, and Alexander, with the rest, had to wade ashore with no little difficulty and danger through the surf.
He immediately sought out his mother and the family, and found them assembled safely upon a large rock, where they all rejoiced to- gether at their merciful deliverance, while the rest of
KIND RECEPTION IN ISLAND. 105
the passengers, gathered around in groups, were con- gratulating each other with the liveliest demonstrations of joy. The people of the island were extremely kind, supplying food and drink to warm and refresh the be- numbed and exhausted, and bringing carts to convey to the village the luggage which was from time to time brought ashore, and which they safely deposited in the store-room of a Mr. Hector Simpson, a merchant of the town.
Every arrangement having been made to secure as much as possible of the property from the wreck, the passengers began to disperse to look for lodgings. Alexander repaired with the family to the nearest and most respectable house he saw, and all were very warmly received by the owner, a widow lady possessed of a respectable fortune, and having a family of grown- up daughters.
Having, in this hospitable man- sion, got themselves warmed, dried and refreshed, along with many others of the passengers they pro- ceeded to the town, which was about two miles off, where they obtained lodgings in the house of a Mr. McCallister. Here they meditated with grateful hearts upon the eventful scenes through which they had just passed, and recalling the premonition given by Alexander, were assured by him that the reality, as it occurred, was precisely what appeared to him in the forewarning.
[NOTE: WHY call this "premonition like some secular atheist . . . rather than a supernatural act of God, warning his divinely called messenger?
Are we no longer believer's in the Supernatural at all?];
The appearances of things in his fancy had been verified in the facts, and he had done the very things he supposed himself to have done in his singular dream. Pie was a very firm believer in special provi- dences, and was the more impressed on this occasion as, in his previous history, he had found his presenti ments several times strangely verified.
With him, these were simply facts which he did not pretend to explain upon natural principles, but regarded as indica- tions of God's watchful care and interest in the afiairs of his people. He was busily occupied for some days afterward in obtaining from the wreck, as the weather would permit, such books, clothing and other property as had not been washed overboard or otherwise destroyed, and in dry- ing his books and preparing them to be repacked.
Laird Campbell, of Shawfield, chief owner of the island and member of Parliament, observing his books, invited him very cordially to his house, and treated him more like a relative than a stranger. Here he spent many pleasant hours, as well as at the house of Mr. Simp- son, whose wife was possessed of much intelligence and piety, and for whom he conceived a very high respect.
She was very fond of reading religious books, and seemed to feel a deep interest in the prosperity of Christ's kingdom. Laird Campbell had appointed Mr. Simpson to take charge of the wreck and secure the property of the passengers, to whom he endeavored to render every service in his power.
Alexander got acquainted also with a Mr. Fulton, a very godly man, who taught the principal school, and also kept a Sun- day-school for the benefit of the people. A portion of his time he spent in viewing the island,
THE HEBRIDES OR WESTERN ISLES. 107
which is, in some parts, hilly, but contains a consider- able amount of arable land, which had been improved by the energetic and skillful management of Laird Campbell. Islay has, indeed, been always noted as the most fertile of all the Hebrides, or Isles of the Gael. These extend along nearly the whole western coast of Scotland, and are about two hundred in number, of which at least thirty of the more southern appertain to Argyleshire.
Of these latter, Islay is by far the most important. In former times it was the chief abode of the "Lords of the Isles," who often maintained an au- thority independent of the Scottish Crown, and the ruins of whose castles and strongholds, situated gene- rally on cliffs overhanging the ocean, are seen at various points, as along the coast of Mull and Ardna- murchan.
In the centre of Islay there is a lake about three miles in circumference, called Loch Finlagan, from an island situated in it, in which the great McDonald, King of the Isles, formerly had his resi- dence. Here also was held, we are told, the high court of judicature, consisting of fourteen members, to which there was an appeal from all the courts of the isles, the chief judge receiving, as his fee, the eleventh part of the sum in dispute.
The ruins of the ancient edifices, and the traditions of celebrated chieftains who had lived in Islay, as lords of Innisgael, such as ' ' good John of Islay" and ' ' Ronald of the Isles," who, in his castle of Dunnaverty, protected Bruce in his distress, could not but excite a deep interest in the mind of a youthful traveler, himself not unrelated to the people among whom these relics and histories were fondly cherished. Isles of the Gael. They also ruled over Ross-shire and other parts of the adjacent mainland.
108 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
On the second Lord's day after the shipwreck, the first having been necessarily occupied in attending to the property at the wreck, he visited early in the morn- ing the Sunday-school taught by Mr. Fulton. The children read the Scriptures, repeated psalms and the catechism, after which Mr. Fulton gave an exposition of some Scripture, sung, prayed and dismissed with a benediction. Afterward, he went to hear the Rev. Mr. Mcintosh, the Scots' Church minister of the parish.
He seems at this time to have been growing more and more doubtful in regard to the claims of the clergy, and more careful and critical in observing their pro- ceedings. "
He was entertained," he remarks, "with a specimen of good old Scotch divinity," and was pleased with the "aspect, pronunciation and gravity of the venerable parson."
He preached from the text "Let us come boldly to the throne of grace" in the forenoon, and in the afternoon addressed his audience in Gaelic. At the morning service the laird and his family were present in their pew, situated in the most conspicuous place in the church, and Alexander noticed that the minister made a particular mention of them all in his prayer, with earnest petitions on their behalf.
On the following Lord's day they were absent, as the laird was about to take his seat in Parliament, and Alexander noticed that they were equally absent from the prayers of the parson.
This made quite a forcible impression on his mind, and, as he remarked after- ward in his Christian Baptist, "became a subject of curious reflection."
"I had not, however," he adds, "traveled very far till I found it was a general practice in all parish churches, when the patron was present, to give him a large portion of the opening prayer, but always when absent he was forgotten.
COMPLEMENTARY PRAYERS. 107
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL BECOMES "PSYCHOLOGIST!"
Being but just arrived at the period of reflection, and determined to study men as well as things, I became very attentive to the prayers of not only the parish clergy, but of all others.
Thus the parson A prayed very ardently for his brothers, parsons B and C, when they were present ; but when B and C were absent, A asked for no blessings for them.
I do not know that I ever saw it otherwise in any sect or in any country. I noted this fact in my pocket-book of memorandums, and placed it under the same head with those of the parish ministers for their patrons. I think I headed this chapter, in my juvenile fancy, with the words '
or fruyers addressed to human beings not yet deified. "In the same article he goes on to detail a subsequent similar experience. " In process of time," he remarks,
During fourteen days and nights which I spent in his company, he never once forgot to pray for the proprietor of the house that gave him his supper and bed. In justice to his devotion, I should remark that one evening was spent at an inn, where he asked the liberty of attending upon family worship, and there he also prayed as fervently for his land- lord and landlady as if in a private family.
In justice to the landlord, too, I should observe that he remitted to him his bill in the morning, with an invitation to give him a call when convenient.
(This I also noted down under the head of ' complimentary prayers" In order, however, to prevent misunderstanding, he adds : "I would not be under stood as censuring the practice of one Christian praying for one
MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
another when it is by request, or when, from any considera-
tion, it becomes necessary, or of a whole church praying for
another church, or for one member or for those that are not
members, either in their presence or absence. But this is
quite a different thing from those prayers which we call
complimentary which, if not intended as a mere compli-
ment, most certainly appear so in the above instances at least,
and in many others which might be adduced.)
He always thought it incongruous for any one lead- ing in prayer with others to offer special petitions for one or more of those who are supposed to unite in the prayer,
He therefore carefully avoided the practice which he condemned, and neither he nor his father were in the habit of offering up special peti- tions for any who, at the time, united in the prayer.
By both of them, prayer was regarded as a sacred priv- ilege, to be exercised with a very strict regard to the proprieties of the occasion.
As to their style, it may be well to observe here, while the subject of prayer is under consideration, that Alexander generally used great plainness and directness of expression, while his
MANNER IN PRATER.
thanksgivings and petitions were comprehensive and appropriate to the circumstances.
Alexander Campbell, on the other hand,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL BELIEVED GOD'S KINGDOM HAD COME!
With regard to the Lord's Prayer, both Campbells regarded it as a model rather than a prescribed formula, and thought it, at least in regard to one of its petitions, as being specially de- signed for the time at which it was given.
If, then, the expression "thy kingdom come" happened to be used by Thomas Campbell,
while Alexander Campbell perhaps would say,
Both were griven to amplification.
To some, indeed, Alexander's style of prayer might at first appear too composed and calm ; but his manner was the natural expression of a high intellectual nature, necessarily un- demonstrative, as holding the feelings in abeyance, but not on that account less deep, fervid and sincere.
Jura — lona — Account of Columban — Glasgow — Kind recep- tion by Greville Ewing.
SPECIAL providences are seldom properly compre- hended at the time of their occurrence. Events which are afterward recognized as blessings are, at the time, often thought to be disasters ; and seeming blessings are found subsequently to prove the greatest evils.
When Simeon was detained in Egypt, the patri- arch Jacob said: "Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away : all these things are against me."
But these apparent privations were only the appointed means through which he himself and his house were to be reunited and preserved.
Rachel thought the possession of a child would be the highest joy on earth ; but when Benjamin was born, she found occasion to call him Benoni, "son of my sorrow."
The shipwreck which Thomas Campbell's family had suffered seemed to be a complete disappointment of all their hopes, as it was an entire frustration of their plans and purposes. But there was an important work for Alexander to accomplish, needing special preparation both of heart and mind ; and this seeming calamity was afterward seen to be one of the most important of that train of events by which that preparation was secured.
Already had it led him to a final determina- tion as to his proper field of labor ; and the circumstances
114 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
in which it directly involved him were those precisely adapted to qualify and guide him in that future life-work. While the family were engaged in securing, drying and packing up whatever portion of their property - could be recovered from the wreck, it became an im- portant question with them what course to pursue.
Their passage-money had been at once honorably re- funded by the owners of the vessel, and by going to some shipping-port they might have renewed their attempt to cross the ocean.
But the season was now far advanced, and even if new preparations had been made, which would have required some weeks, Mrs. Campbell and her daughters were unwilling to tempt again so soon the dangers from which they had just escaped.
It became evident, therefore, that their em- barkation for America would have to be postponed until, at least, the stormy winter months were past, and they thought it best to remain, in the mean while, in some suitable place in Scotland. The selection of such a place was not difficult, for, as Alexander Campbell felt an ardent desire to spend some time at the University where his father had been educated, it was at once determined that they would all proceed to Glasgow.
From Bowmore, it was necessary to travel about one hundred and thirty miles by land and water in order to reach Glasgow, owing to the somewhat circuitous nature of the route. Accordingly, all things being in readiness, on Monday, October 24, the most of the baggage was foi warded to Greenock by the Bowmore and Greenock packet, the family concluding to go by a more comfortable and direct way. Before starting, Alexander obtained a letter of introduction from Mr. George Fulton to Rev. Greville Ewing ; one from Mr.
THE ISLAND OF JURA.
Hector Simpson, merchant, to Mr. William Harley, manufacturer ; and one from the Rev. Mr. Mcintosh, the parish minister, to Rev. Mr. McKenzie of Glasgow. A conveyance being obtained for his mother and the younger children, with the remainder of the baggage, he sent them forward to Port Askeg, about ten miles distant, on the eastern side of the island, from which place all were to take a boat to Tarbet.
He, himself, with a companion, walked down in the evening and found all safely arrived, though his mother and one of his sisters had been greatly endangered by a fall from the vehicle on their way. Port Askeg is a small harbor in the narrow sound between Islay and Jura. Near the edge of the high bluff which here forms the coast of Islay, a large building had been erected for the accom- modation of passengers, and from this point a boat sailed, usually twice a week, for Tarbet, about thirty- five miles distant on the way to Glasgow.
On the opposite side of the sound lay the island of Jura, whose shore is shelving and less steep than that of Islay, but the interior of the island seemed to pre- sent nothing except great mountains and rocky cliffs. Having waited in vain, on the following day, for the packet, which was detained by contrary winds, and finding that on the morning of the 26th there was still no sign of it, Alexander, pleased with the majestic aspect of the mountains of Jura, determined to cross over the sound to visit them.
He found the island wild, rude and almost uncultivated, there being but few houses and very little arable land. He ascended some of the lofty peaks called the "Paps of Jura," and was greatly delighted with the bold and romantic scenery presented to his view. Covered mostly with heath, these lofty elevations and rugged slopes furnished a
116 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
scanty pasturage for a species of coarse-wooled sheep recently introduced with great advantage into the High- lands. He admired greatly the flocks of these animals, so clean and white and marked with black spots upon their foreheads, grazing like herds of deer amidst the wild scenery. He viewed with a degree of awe the precipitous cliffs which presented themselves as he toiled up the steep ascent, and contemplated with de- light the rills of limpid water which, issuing near the summits, fell from rock to rock like tiny streams of liquid silver, until they disappeared in the deep and silent glens.
Alexander had an excellent appreciation of the beau- tiful, and especially of the grand, in Nature, and was always pleased with extensive prospects and fine land- scapes. In these respects he diflfered much from his father, who seemed to pay little or no attention to any- thing of this kind. If he were called to see a fine view, he would readily acquiesce in the admiration of those who had directed his attention to it, but the next moment he would be found engaged in what seemed constantly to occupy his mind — the goodness of God and the salvation of men.
Upon Nature around him he seemed ever to look with the eye of a utilitarian, and if directed to the beauty of a flower, would begin to inquire respecting the uses of the plant, and es- pecially if it possessed medical qualities. To cure or alleviate the evils, both physical and spiritual, to which man is subject, to fear God and keep his command- ments, seemed to be his whole concern. The aesthetics which claimed his attention were, so to speak, those of the human soul — the beauty of virtue — the charms of godliness and the attributes of the Creator, glorious in holiness and infinite in all his perfections. But Alexander Campbell -
TASTE FOR MUSIC AND POETRY.
while he was impressed, perhaps as profoundly as his father, with spiritual excellence and beauty, and the sublime revelations of Deltas seemed to super-add to this, from a wider range of thought and feeling, and his more acute perception of the resemblances of things and of their relations, a considerable taste for the beauties of Nature and of Art.
With him, these gave rise, however, to a calm feeling of enjoyment, rather than to enthusiastic admiration, nor was their contem- plation usually unmingled with considerations economi- cal and practical. In regard to the strictly imitative arts, as painting and sculpture, his taste had received no culture, and he made no pretensions to a critical judgment. In music, especially sacred music, he took great pleasure, and was visibly affected by it, often calling, when the occasion permitted, for the singing of psalms and hymns, and, though unable to carry the air alone, uniting in the singing with a clear, musical voice and evident enjoyment.
In regard to poetry, to which he had already paid considerable attention, his taste was more developed, and his judgment even criti- cal, though he was more disposed to exercise it upon the sentiment which in poetry is secondary, than upon the ex-pression which is primary, and much more sensi- ble of defective imagery than of defective rhythm. He was, at this time, quite an admirer of the poems of Ossian.
Whether or not, with Drs. Blair, Gregory and many other Scotch critics, he believed in the genu- ineness of these poems, he was at least much taken with the tenderness and sublimity so characteristic of them, and had been at the pains of copying into his common-place book extended extracts from them. As much of the beauty of these poems is derived from local associations, it were easier to imagine than to
118 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
describe his feelings now, when, upon the summit ol one of the lofty peaks of Jura, he found himself amidst the very scenes described by the poet, where "the mountains showed their gray heads," " the blue face of ocean smiled," and "the white wave was seen tumbling round the distant rock."
In fancy, he might almost hear the "murmur of the streams of Lora," or see in the distance the " halls of Selma" and the groves of " woody Morven," for it was but a few leagues across the arm of the sea which washes the northern shore of Jura to the isle of Mull, with its towering Bein Vore visible to the distant islands, and but a few miles further to the narrow sound, where, upon the mainland toward the right, a district of Argyleshire still retains the name of Morven, and where, amidst the finest and most romantic natural scenery of the Western Isles, and the ruins of ancient castles upon the rocky cliffs, both his- tory and tradition serve to enhance the enjoyment of the present through the associations of the past.
But we cannot suppose his thoughts confined to themes of mere scenic or poetic interest or to those of legendary lore, for close to the isle of Mull, off its western coast, lay the isle of Stafta, with its basaltic pillars and its celebrated Cave of Fingal, and directly opposite the opening of this cave, at a distance of some seven miles, the island of lona, most of all likely to awaken the reflections and to enchain the attention of the youthful and religious student.
This, as Dr. John- son observes, is " that illustrious island which was once the luminary of the Caledonian regions, whence savage clans and roving barbarians derived the benefit? of knowledge and the blessings of religion.
the mind from all local emotion would be impossible, if
it were endeavored, and would be foolish, if it were
Monaster of zona.
possible. Whatever withdraws us from the power of
our senses, whatever makes the past, the distant or the
future predominate over the present, advances us in the
dignity of thinking beings. Far from me and from my
friends be such frigid philosophy as may conduct us,
inditferent and unmoved, over any ground which has
been dignified by wisdom, bravery or virtue.
That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of lona." Here are still to be seen the ruins of an august monas- tery and cathedral, and of three royal chapels, with extensive cemeteries, filled with numerous graves of those now unknown, but who, as Dr. Johnson observes, " did not expect to be so soon forgotten."
For it is in this hallowed earth, to use the language of Scott, " Where rest from mortal coil the mighty of the isles ;" and tradition makes it also the place of sepulture for the kings of Scotland, and even for the monarchs of other lands, brought hither to rest in the consecrated soil of the Holy Isle.
There is not a more charming or interesting portion of history than that which records the life and labors of Columban, who, in the sixth century, rendered the little island of lona a brilliant centre of learning and of pure religion amidst the darkness and idolatry that then brooded over Great Britain, when an imperfect and Popish Christianity, mingling itself with the bar- barous superstitions of Scandinavian mythology, led Redwald, King of East Anglia, to place a Christian altar by the side of the statue of Woden.
Intelligent and noble youths here assembled from various regions ; some, like Oswald, to be educated for the discharge of
120 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
kingly duties ; others to be prepared, by a course of discipline and study, usually of eighteen years' duration, to be ordained as missionaries and instructors, not only to enlighten their own country, but to labor in other fields both dangerous and remote.
After all the con- troversies that have been waged in reference to the history of these Culdees of lona, it is generally ad- mitted that their doctrines and their lives were pure and simple ; that they rejected the Romish ceremonies, doctrines and traditions ;
that, as even Bede admits, though himself indignant at their repudiation of the authority of the Bishop of Rome, "they preached only such works of charity and piety as they could learn from the prophetical, evangelical and apostolic writ- ings ;" that they boldly asserted the exclusive authority of the Scriptures, and that their modes of worship and their forms of church government were primitive and simple.
The labors of that remarkable missionary, Patrick, had prepared the way for those of Columban. Patrick was a Scotchman, born in the fourth century, in the village of Boneven (since called in honor of his memory Kilpatiick), between Dumbarton and Glasgow. He led a wild, thoughtless life till about seventeen, when, M'ith many others, he was carried off to Ire- land by pirates, and sold to an Irish chieftain.
LABORS OF COLUMBAN. 121
Columban was an Irishman, born in the village of Garten, in county Donegal, about A. D. 565. It was while at the monastery of Bangor, which contained three And if I am found worthy, I am ready to give up my life with joy for His name's sake." Me is supposed to have gone to Ireland about 431, and for the rest of his life continued to preach Christ amidst many persecutions and trials through- out Ireland, reclaiming the people from idolatry and barbarism, and estab- lishing monasteries distinguished for strict Christian discipline, for industry, for a knowledge of the Scriptures and the best learning of the age, so that Ireland became, for a time, under these influences, the most enlightened country of Europe, and acquired the title of the " Isle of Saints."
Missionary Patrick himself, afterward, when Popery became fully developed, was canonized and became the tutelar saint of Ireland with the Catholics. Although the devotion and purity of purpose of the eminent men to whom Ireland owed this distinction can hardly be exaggerated, the effects produced by their labors was great, not so much in itself as in contrast with the dark- ness and degradation that prevailed among the people ; and, though their influence undoubtedly enlightened and civilized many, it never pervaded the mass of the population, who remained barbarous and uneducated, and soon afterward fell an easy prey to the superstitions of the Church of Rome.
On this point, Southey remarks, in his Life of Wesley : " Melancholy and anomalous as the civil history of Ireland is, its religious history is equally mournful and not less strange. Even at the time when it was called the Island of Saints, and men went forth from its monasteries to be missionaries, not of monachism alone, but of literature and civilization, the mass of the people continued savage, and was something worse than heathen.
They accommodated their new religion to their own propensities with a perverted ingenuity at once humorous and detestable, and altogether peculiar to them- selves. Thus, when a child was immersed in baptism, it was customary not to dip the right arm, to the intent that he might strike a more deadly and ungracious blow therewith, and under an opinion, no doubt, that the rest of the body would not be responsible, at the resurrection, for anything that had been committed by the unbaptized hand.
Thus, too, at the baptism, the father took the wolves for his gossips, and thought that, by this profanation, he was forming an alliance, both for himself and his boy, with the fiercest beasts of the woods. The son of a chief was baptized in milk; water was not thought good enough, and whisky had not then been invented.
They used to rob in the beginning of the year, as a point of devotion, for the pur- pose of laying up a good stock of plunder against Easter ; and he whose spoils enabled him to furnish the best entertainment at that time was looked upon as the best Christian."
122 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
A thousand monks, that Columban became impressed with the earnest desire to go out amidst difficulties and dan- gers to publish the gospel and to establish Christian discipline among savage nations."
Permission having been granted by the abbot, Colum- ban first fixed upon the island of lona as a suitable place of retirement and seclusion, and with twelve companions established there a monastery and school, which soon became widely celebrated. Though mo- nastic rules were adopted, and Columban inculcated strict obedience to them as evidence of Christian hu-
TEACHINGS OF COLUMBAN.
mility, he seems to have encouraged individual freedom, and to have directed the thoughts of the brotherhood to the greatest attainment of the Christian life — the sur- render of the will to God. " We must willingly surrender," says he, " for Christ's sake, what we love out of Christ.
First of all, if it is neces- sary, our bodily life must be surrendered by martyrdom for Christ. Or, if the opportunity be wanting [lacking] for such blessed- ness, the mortification of the will must not fail, so that they who live henceforth live not unto themselves, but unto him who died for them.
Believest thou that it is not necessary to die to sin?
Such were his sweet lessons in relation to a true union with Christ, nor were his warnings against speculations in religion less remarkable. Speaking against idle subtleties about the Trinity, he says : "Who can speak of the essence of God? How he is everywhere present and invisible, or how he fills heaven and earth and all creatures, according to these words, ' Do not I fill heaven and earth, saith the Lord?' Jeremiah xxiii. 24.
124 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
The universe is full of the Spirit of the Lord. ' Heaven is my throne and earth is my footstool.' God therefore is every- where in his own infinity ; everywhere altogether nigh, ac- cording to his own testimony of himself. ' Am I not a God at hand, saith the Lord, and not a God afar off?'
We there- fore seek after God not as one who is far from us, since we can apprehend him in our own inward souls, for he dwells in as as the soul in the body, if we are not dead in the service of sin. If we are susceptible of this, that he is in us, then we are truly made alive by him, as his living members. ' In him,' says the apostle, ' we live and move and have our being.'
Who shall search out the Most High according to this his unutterable and inconceivable essence.''
Who shall fathom the depths of the Godhead ?
Who shall boast that he knows the infinite God, who fills and surrounds all things ; who penetrates all things, and is exalted above all ; whom no man has seen as he is.'' Let no one then venture to inquire into the unsearchable essence of God ; only believe, simply but firmly, that God is and will be what he was, since he is the unchangeable God.
God is perceived by the pious faith of a pure heart, and not by an impure heart and vain dis- course. Art thou disposed to investigate the unutterable with thy subtleties.'' Then wisdom will be further from thee than it was. Ecclesiastes vii. 24.
Dost thou, on the contrary, apprehend him by faith?
Then wisdom will stand before thy doors." Thus many of the important things that have dis- tinguished the Lutheran and other great religious re- formations were taught and practised in this lonely isle, under the influence of that Divine light which, at sundry times and in various modes, and in different places, has strangely and unexpectedly shone forth amidst the darkness of the nations.
This light, how-
ever, has long since departed from lona. When Dr.
Johnson visited the island in 1773, he found its fertile
but limited area of scarcely three square miles in-
PASSAGE TO TARBET.
habited by a dense but gross and neglected population, without a school for education or a temple for worship, with but two among them who could speak English, and not one who could read or write.
But that light of truth has shone forth in turn in other lands, and the youth who now, from the mountains of Jura, gazed upon the surrounding scenes and thought of former times, was himself destined in a few years, like his countryman Columban, to establish, in a secluded valley of the far-off Western World, a religious reformation based exclusively upon the Bible, and embracing the same striking points of personal trust in Christ and opposition to human speculations which characterized the teachings of Columban;
and to found there, like- wise, a literary institution free from the perverting influences of a sectarian theology, and from which youthful and devoted missionaries have already borne a pure apostolic gospel, even to the shores of California and to the distant regions of Australia.
After spending most of the day upon the rugged mountains of Jura, Alexander rambled over other parts of the island, and called at the residence of the pro- prietor, whose name was Campbell, where he was very kindly and hospitably received.
As evening ap- proached, he recrossed the sound and returned to the inn, where, though greatly fatigued, he slept but little during the ensuing night. Next morning, about ten o'clock, the packet arrived, and soon after the family embarked with the other passengers who were waiting, and, sailing down the sound with a side wind, arrived, after a rough passage of twenty-four hours, at Art-Patrick, ten miles from Tarbet. Here, the wind being ahead, they had to cast anchor.
Laird Campbell had a very handsome seat at this place, and his family, who
126 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
were there at this time, learning that some of the ship- wrecked passengers had arrived in the packet, and were detained by a contrary wind, very kindly sent a large row-boat to convey them to Tarbet. As the boat was very heavily laden, having in it twenty-four pas- sengers with their luggage, Alexander found it neces- sary to row without intermission for the whole ten miles, in order to assist its progress.
From the place of land- ing there was a land carriage of two miles across the peninsula of Canty re, in order to reach the packet. In assisting the passengers out with their luggage, he happened, by a sudden movement of the boat, to be thrown into the water, . . .
. . . but got out without any other inconvenience than a complete wetting, which, how- ever, might have proved very injurious had he not possessed a vigorous constitution, for, as there was not a sufficient number of conveyances to take all the pas- sengers and their baggage, he, in courteously giving place to others, was finally obliged to remain himself, wet as he was, with his own baggage, very uncomfort- ably upon the lone and rocky shore, until a conveyance could return from Tarbet.
He often, in after life, re- ferred to the hours thus spent, when, chilled with the ocean breeze, he paced alone the deserted strand, as among the most dreary he ever passed. But the con- veyance having at length arrived, he was carried to Tarbet, where he got himself dried, and, having ob- tained some supper, went to bed and slept soundly.
The next day, being the Lord's day, October 30th, he spent chiefly in family duties and in reading, and on the following morning they all set out from " the small, uncouth village of Tarbet," as he styles it, in a packet bound for Greenock. The wind being fair, they made about half the distance in eighteen hours ; but the wind
ARRIVAL AT GREENOCK.
now failing, and the captain and sailors becoming drunk, there was a very uncomfortable delay. A Captain Campbell, who was on board with his sisters, growing uneasy, ordered some of the best of the sailors to ferry him ashore. While they were gone the wind rose and was favorable, but having to await the return of the boat, which was long detained, no advantage could be taken of it ; and as it soon after failed again, they had to remain in the same position all night. Next morn- ing all the male passengers went ashore, having re- solved to walk to Greenock, rive miles asisstant.
Here Alexander engaged lodgings, and immediately returned in a boat for his mother and the family ; and after much fatigue and trouble, owing chiefly to the drunken cap- tain, succeeded in getting them all with their luggage safe to Greenock. This he found to be a considerable town, with an excellent harbor filled with ships from foreign ports, as the greater part of the commerce of Scotland was carried on from Greenock and from Glasgow Port, three miles above. Here, too, ended the harassing difficulties of their transportation, which contrast so strongly with the speed and comfort now enjoyed through the agency of steam vessels, first introduced upon the Clyde in 1812, little more than three years afterward.
It was a native of Greenock, James Watt, who, in 1 764, while instrument- maker to the University of Glasgow, there first gave to mankind the steam engine as an effective motive power. This noble invention seems to have been first successfully applied to navigation in the United States by John Fitch, upon the Delaware, 12th of October,
1788, in the " Perseverance," which made a trip from Philadelphia to Burlington, and attained a speed of six and one-third miles per hour against the current. Fulton's successful experiment on the Hudson did not occur until 1807. Fitch used paddle moved by steam, but Fulton introduced the paddle wheel, which is said tn have been previously invented by Mr. Miller of Dalswinton, Dumfrieshire. Scotland.
128 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
Deeming it advisable to reach Glasgow in advance of his mother and sisters, in order to have suitable lodgings in readiness, Alexander, on the 3d of Novem- ber, after having made arrangements for the passage of the family, next day, on the fly-boat plying on the Clyde between Greenock and Glasgow, set out on foot for Glasgow, twenty-three miles distant, where he arrived in the afterpart of the day.
After obtaining some refreshments at an inn, he concluded to present his letter of introduction to Mr. Ewing, in order to obtain his advice as to a suitable place of lodging. Calling, therefore, at his house. No. 4 Carlton place, he was most kindly received and hospitably entertained. Next morning, having received Mr. Ewing's advice and a note from him to the Rev. Mr. John Mitchel, he called and breakfasted with Mr. Mitchel, who rendered him some assistance in finding lodgings, which were at length obtained in Broad street, Hutchinsontown, ready furnished.
Here the family, who arrived safely next morning, were duly installed, designing here to spend the winter, while Alexander would attend the classes at the University, and happy in being once more quietly settled after the dangers, fatigues and trials of the past month.
Glasgow University Classes — Essays — Religious Life — Scripture Meditations.
GLASGOW, in which the Campbell family were now to reside for a time, is the chief city of Scotland as regards wealth, commerce and population. It then contained about one hundred and fourteen thousand inhabitants, and was noted for its extensive manufactures, for which it possessed great facilities, being placed in the midst of a coal deposit averaging fifteen feet in thickness and extending over one hundred and ten square miles.
It is adorned with many public buildings and churches, and its venerable cathedral, the only one that escaped the iconoclastic rage of Knox and his ad- herents, is regarded as the finest specimen of Gothic archi- tecture in Scotland. The college extends along the High street more than three hundred feet, and occupies an area of more than two acres.
In an elegant building is contained the Hunterian Museum, a very valuable collection of specimens in natural history, anatomical preparations and medals. The Town Hall is another fine building, much admired for its magnificent front. South-east of the city, on the banks of the river Clyde, Dr. William Hunter was a native of Kilbride in Lanarkshire, a pupil of Dr. Cullen, and elder brother of the celebrated John Hunter.
He spent a. large fortune upon the collection of this splendid Museum, which now enriches the University of Glasgow. Died in 1783, ten years before his brother John.
vol. L— I 129 i:io MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
the ' winding Clutha" of Ossian, there is a fine park of about one hundred and eight acres, adorned with trees, and with more than three miles of graveled walks for the recreation of the citizens. Many interesting per sonal and historical associations cluster around this ancient city, which is supposed to have existed for more than twelve centuries.
Through the courtesy of Mr. Ewing, Alexander was introduced to the different professors of the University, and on the 8th of November, immediately after the " town sacrament," the time at which the course com- menced, he entered his classes. He had but fairly begun, however, when Mr. Ewing, who seems to have taken a special interest in the family, ascertaining that their place of lodging was incommodious, sought out, of his own accord, a more eligible situation in Youngs- land, Broad street, Hutchinsontown, to which they all removed in the latter part of November.
Here they remained during their stay in Glasgow, spending the time very agreeably, forming a very pleasant acquaint- ance with many persons of respectability, and experi- encing the kindest attentions from a number of choice friends. One of Alexander's first cares, after the family were fairly settled, was to look to the preservation of the books which had been damaged in the shipwreck.
A great many of them he found it necessary to have re-bound ; and, from the list which he made out of them, it appears that they were volumes of the Greek and Latin classics and English literature, but chiefly works on theology. As the University was attended by a large class, often numbering fifteen hundred students, many of whom were from Ireland, Alexander, who was of an emi- nently social disposition, formed a very extensive ac-
quaintance among them, and some warm friendships. Of those with whom he was specially intimate may be mentioned Mr. Moffit, Mr. McFarlane, Mr. Beard, Mr. Dymock, Mr. Cuthbertson, of Scotland; Mr. Whinning and Mr. Gourley, of Ireland ; and Mr. Crisp, Mr. Red- ford, Mr. Cluney, Mr. Grive, Mr. Burder and Mr. Hooper, of England, who were among his classmates. The classes he had entered were those of Professor Young, both public and private, in Greek ; those of Professor Jardine, public and private, in Logic and Belles Lettres, and Dr. Ure's class in Experimental Philosophy.
The necessary preparation for these classes, and the various exercises required, kept him extremely busy, and he devoted himself with uncommon zeal and indefatigable industry to his studies during the session. In addition to the above regular classes, he resumed the study of the French, and gave considerable time to English reading and composition. Retiring to bed at ten o'clock p. m. , he rose regularly at four in the morning.
At six, he attended his class in French ; from seven to eight, a class in the Greek Testament ; and from eight to ten, his Latin classes, returning to bathe and breakfast at ten. In the afternoon he recited in a more advanced Greek class and in Logic, attending also several lectures per week delivered by Dr. Ure, and accompanied with experiments in natural science, in which he was very much interested.
Professors Young and Jardine had been his father's teachers up- ward of twenty-five years before, and had been also favorite professors with the poet Campbell, who had finished his course at Glasgow, his native city, in May, 1796, and who speaks of Jardine in his letters, as the "amiable," the "benign," the "philosophic Jardine." Professor Young, too, the profound grammarian and
133 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
master of elocution, had taken great interest in the youthful poet, and used to read to his class, with enthu- siasm, the elegant metrical versions of the Greek poets presented by his pupil, which constantly received the highest prizes. With these and other renowned pro- fessors Alexander was greatly pleased, and the devoted attention which he gave to their instructions is amply attested by the large number of closely-written volumes which he filled during the session with copious notes of their lectures, and with his own translations from the Iliad of Homer, the Cedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles, etc. , together with numerous essays and exercises in prose and verse, handed in to the professors in his various classes as regular exercises.
A number of juvenile poems, some of which he had composed in Ireland, also appear in one of these vol- umes, having been written, as he states, " for his own improvement, and that he might be enabled to judge of the poetic compositions of others." These, however, do not possess sufficient merit for publication, nor did he himself ever esteem them worthy of it.
They are deficient in rhythm and expression, and " want fire," as was said of some of the early verses of the author of the " Pleasures of Hope" by his elder brother Daniel, to whom he had submitted them for criticism ; and who, suiting the action to the word, twisted up the manuscript and thrust it between the bars of the grate ! There is scarcely any one, of even ordinary taste and education, who does not, in the ardent period of youth, experience something of the "afflatus foettcus" With most, this is, however, but a transient influence, springing from the exuberance of youthful feeling ; and though it may have its use in refining that feeling and creating a love for poetry, it usually subsides amidst the sober pursuits
POWERS OF IMAGINATION. 133
of life. To what measure of success Alexander Campbell might have attained in this species of composition, had he devoted himself to it, it is not easy to say ; but, though some subsequent attempts at versification st;em more promising, it is not likely he would have excelled in it, as the natural tendency of his mind was to wide and general views, rather than to that delicate analysis and minute descriptive detail so necessary in poetry ; and his conscientious reverence for truth and fact, prohibited any lofty flights of fancy or of bold in- vention.
For fiction, indeed, he had no taste whatever ; and though he conceded, in this respect, a certain license to the distinguished poets, he used in after years often to express his wonder that any one could take an interest in works of mere invention, such as romances, when they knew, perfectly well, that not one of the things related had ever happened.
That he himself possessed a good degree of the imaginative faculty is unquestionable ; but in him the understanding and the judgment largely predominated, and his imagination displayed itself, not in poetic crea- tions, but in the far-reaching grasp by which, as an orator he seized upon principles, facts, illustrations and analogies, and so modified and combined them as to render them all tributary to his main design.
It was in -the choice of arguments, in unexpected applications of familiar facts, in comprehensive generalizations, widening the horizon of human thought and revealing new and striking relations, that this faculty manifested Itself; subservient alwa3's, however, to the proof of some logical proposition or to the development of some important truth. His deficiency in the musical faculty, as well as the preponderance of the reasoning powers and of the practical understanding, would, doubtless,
134 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
have inhibited the attainment of any poetic distinction. It is true, indeed, that a man of even ordinary talents, sensibility and reading, may, by appHcation and labor, produce works dignified by the name of poems ; but it is little else than a mechanical process, where the ear arranges words, and the fancy selects imagery to ex- hibit and to adorn prosaic thoughts in a poetic dress.
The true poet must possess, by nature, the most delicate perceptions of beauty and of harmony, and that vivid imagination to which these are allied, and which not only creates, but gives unity and life and action to its productions, so as to make "things that are not" seem "things that are." It is by no means to be regretted, however, that Alexander Campbell did not devote him- self to poetry.
He chose the more congenial pursuit of truth, and a nobler and far more important field of labor, where success was to be rewarded not by mere human applause or the fading garland of the poet, but by the praise of God and the crown of immortality. Since he became afterward distinguished as a prose writer, it may not be uninteresting to the reader to place before him one of his prose essays, written during his stay in Glasgow, that a proper comparison may be made in regard to his style at different periods.
The following essay is selected from among those required by Professor Jardine in Belles Lettres, as it is brief. In a note prefixed to the manuscript volume in which they are contained, it is said that the reason for writing them out thus was to preserve them "for retrospection, that at any future period the author may look back at former states of mind and habits of composition, and may, from thence, judge of improvement, etc." Criti- cism is also strongly deprecated, if the book should happen to fall into the hands of a critic, who is re-
EARLT PROSE COMPOSITION. 135
minded that these essays are the imperfect attempts of a mere student, and that the critic himself was once similarly inexperienced, and should not look with scorn on such efforts for improvement ; and the note closes with the remark "that perhaps in circling months, the day may come that the author will bid defiance to him who should demean himself to criticise the attempts of youth."
From this last sentence he seems to have been conscious of the possession of that undeveloped power which became afterward so conspicuous, and to have anticipated the high distinction to which he would one day attain : " ON THE PURPOSES SERVED IN OUR CONSTITUTION BY THE REFLEX SENSE OF BEAUTY. '
Doubtless the wise Author of our nature has not endowed us with any faculties of mind or body that are not useful to us, and conferred on us for good and wise ends, that we might be capable of admiring the works of creation, and therein behold the wisdom, power, and goodness of the Author ; that we might be enabled to observe the grandness, sublimity and beautiful of all his works, and receive pleasure in contemplating his goodness in thus preparing an habitation for us.
He has endowed us with powers of receiving plea- sures from the beauties of nature and art : these powei's are called natural. Each particular sense differs from another in itself, in the qualities of external objects that make an im- pression on it, in the emotions produced in the mind, and in the final cause ; but as we are to confine ourselves to the pur- poses served in our constitution by the external sense of beauty, we shall proceed to point them out. "
That as man is destined for the enjoyment of perfect beauty hereafter, it was wise and kind in the wise Author of nature to give him a taste for it and a sense to feel it. " The objects that man in his future state of happiness is destined to behold are represented to us in divine revelation
136 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
as perfectly beautiful both in color, proportion and variety : not only the objects man has to behold, but the sounds which he is to hear, are to be harmonious and beautiful to the ear.
Were he then entirely unacquainted with what is beautiful in sight or sound, had he no sense to feel it, nor taste for it, all those descriptions would be of no avail, no inducement to him to excite to virtuous actions, that he might enjoy this happiness for ever ; but that we might be excited by these representations to seek for this happiness, our present con- stitution is so organized as to receive pleasure from the vari- ous qualities called the beautiful in external objects, inso- much that the eye is not satisfied with seeing nor the ear with hearing.
No qualities in objects make such an impression upon the mind, nor excite such a desire for the possession, as the beautiful. " It tends to make this present state more pleasing. From none of the internal senses do we receive so much pleasure as from beauty ; no qualities in objects interest us so much as the beautiful. The very variety of beautiful qualities in the works of creation and of art have given rise to the definition of taste, that it is the power of receiving pleasure from the beauties of nature and of art. "
It produces the most refined pleasure. To prove this let us suppose man to have no sensation of beauty, and then where is his pleasure.'* If he have any, it must be of the most gross kind, sensual, and only pleasing as good or evil. Where would be the beauties of the rising and setting sun, of the radiance of risen day, and all the variety of color in the speckled clouds that stand proportionate on the face of the vast concave of heaven.
Where would be the pleasing trains of imagination that would naturally be associated with such a beautiful scene Not possessed of a sense of beauty, we must behold this otherwise beautiful scene with as much coldness and indifference as we would the dark night or the irregular motions of some ill-shapen object. Not the harmony of human voices nor the warbling melody of the grove would excite one more pleasing emotion than the most ungrateful
COURSE OF READING. 137
sounds or the solemn silence of the moonless night. It proves an incentive to the study of nature, when, delighted with the exterior appearances of the works of nature, we are incited to study the causes and to trace the effects of this beauty ; and in our studies we are lightened by the beauties interspersed, and our mind is everywhere relieved by the occurrence of what is beautiful, and filled with the most pleasing sensations,
" The desire for beauty is not lessened by new gi'atifica- tions : in short, without it all the beauties of spring and of the blooming year, with all the variegated beauties of nature and art, would excite in us no more pleasing emotions than were all nature a mere jargon of discordances and a chaos of con- fusion. Whereas, on the other hand, we find more refined pleasure in the contemplation of the color, proportion and harmony of all the works of creation and the beauties of art than in any other power or capacity with which we are endowed."
During his studies he still found time to indulge his love of reading. He was constantly adding to his store of books as circumstances permitted, and devoting spare moments to perusing them and writing down from them in his commonplace book such passages as he desired particularly to remember. Thus there is a memorandum that from May 1, 1809, he read Dr. Beattie's "Minstrel," "Life and Poems of James Hay Beattie." A work of Stuart's, MacKenzie's "Man of Feeling," Buffon's "Na- tural History," Johnson's "Lives of the Poets," four volumes, Dr. Beattie's " Ethics," and one volume of Goldsmith's "Animated Nature."
Many extracts appear from Johnson's "Lives of the Poets," and still more from Dr. Beattie's " Ethics." Among these, we have much upon the principles of Law and Civil Govern- ment, Right, Obligation, Justice, etc. ; also upon Rea- soring and Evidence, and style of composition, his-
MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
torical, rhetorical, etc. Under the latter head he was particular to record the following qualifications, " as necessary to attain excellence in the composing and pronouncing of sermons :" "
These rules are here inserted, because he seems to have been impressed by their justness, and to have modeled himself by them in his future course as a preacher. In addition to his various classes and literary exer- cises, he seems also to have been engaged in teaching
some private classes, as the poet Campbell had done, and as was the usual resort of those who were not otherw'ise able to defray their expenses. He had a class in Latin, one in English grammar and reading, and one in writing and arithmetic, composed of youths from several families in the city, as those of Mr. Mon- teith, Wardlaw, Burns, etc. While thus diligently engaged, however, in literary pursuits, he by no means neglected his religious interests.
On the contrary, he seems to have been unusually attentive to the state of his own religious convictions and feelings. He was strict in his daily devotions and readings of the Scrip- ture ; and seems, from various records, to have cher- ished constantly a devotional frame of mind and a habit of self-examination. On the last evening of December, as he sat in his apartment, he resolved to occupy him- self in writing and reflecting upon religious subjects until the old year should be closed.
When the New Year (1809) had come in, he then determined that he would keep a religious diary or record of the results of daily self-examination. This sort of religious discipline had formerly been practised by his father, and was at this time very common with religious persons.
Wesley began to keep a diary while at Oxford, but his private diary was not so much a record of self-examination as of the events of the day, and of his own reflections upon men and things, interspersed with views of his own religious condition and changes at different periods. This work, which has been published, is perhaps the best and most valuable autobiography extant, containing, in addition, valuable material for history.
The diary, however, which he commenced in connection with Hervey, Morgan, Whitefield and other members of the so-
140 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
called "Godly Club" at Oxford, was really a record of self-examinations of the most searching character, ex- tending to thoughts, words, motives and actions, in re- ference both to God and man, and, in the elaborate scheme drawn out by Mr. Wesley himself, endeavoring to bring under scrutiny every thought and imagination of the human heart.
Other members of the "Godly Club" continued the practice after they left college ; and Hervey, who became a very popular writer, earn- estly recommended religious persons, each for himself, thus to "compile a secret history of his heart and conduct." That such a practice may be useful to certain minds and in particular circumstances is probable, but it may well be doubted whether its evils would not, in a major- ity of cases, outweigh its advantages.
That the power of self-superintendence and self-examination ought to be daily exercised by all is unquestionable, but so minute a scrutiny into the workings of the human soul, and so elaborate a record of the suggestions, vain and frivolous thoughts and imaginations which flit across the mind, is likely to induce an utter despair of human nature with some, and, with others of a different tem- perament, to foster the pride of self-knowledge, or a presumptuous confidence in man's power of self-renova- tion.
It does not seem designed, nor is it enjoined by the Creator, that man should thus, as it were, apply the microscope to certain parts of his moral nature, and distort these into such unnatural disproportion as would, upon a similar scale of magnitude, convert even the most beautiful physical form into a monster.
As there is a certain distance at which a portrait must be viewed in order to have a true conception of it, so is it with human character, where causes must be considered
UTILITY OF RELIGIOUS DIARIES. 141
along with their results ; motives with actions and the general tenor of life, rather than special moods and casual caprices, which often spring from a physical rather than a moral source.
Man can never know himself aright until he shall be enabled to comprehend the delicate relations which God has established between the various parts of his own nature, as well as between him and exterior things ; and, in default of this know- ledge, he must be content to remain ignorant of much that lies beyond the field of ordinary observation, just as men breathe the life-giving air and conceive it to be pure, forgetful that in the sunbeam they saw it filled with an infinite number of motes and particles, of whose nature or use they could form no conception.
In fact, those minute inquisitions to which reference is made are at all possible only to a few, and therefore can never constitute an imperative religious duty, which must of necessity be of universal obligation. The diary kept by Alexander, partly in short-hand, but chiefly in Latin, records the usual deficiencies in spiritual-mindedness, self-consecration and attention to duty, and the usual longings after a higher spiritual life.
It seems also to have resulted in the conviction of the impossibility of maintaining or of conducting such a scrutiny to a practical or useful end, and to have led him to the appropriate inquiry of the Psalmist, "Who can understand his errors?" and to his equally appropriate prayer to God, "Cleanse thou me from secret faults" — a prayer which is entirely in harmony with the spirit of the New Testament, where the self- examination enjoined presumes not to separate the minute filaments which compose the varied web of human motives and feelings, but confines itself to faith as connected with obedience. Such a scrutiny, while
142 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
it must reveal to every Christian his own inability, and that he offends in many things, will lead him neither to despair of the perfection which God requires, nor to flatter himself with any assurances of self-sufficiency ; but will lead him rather, by prayer, to seek assistance from Him who can ' ' work in him both to will and to do of his own good pleasure," and whose strength is made perfect in human weakness. He will be induced to hope not in self-righteousness, but in the merits of Christ, and to look off to Him whom God has made to him wisdom and righteousness, sanctification and re- demption.
It was in harmony with such reflections that the minute inquiries of the earlier portions of his diary gradually gave place to broader and more ele- vated views, and to appropriate meditations upon cer- tain portions of Scripture. Thus we have, under date of January 15 :
" Thoughts on these words : '
SCRIPTURE MEDITATIONS. 143
"The tongue is said, by a beloved apostle, to be a fire, a world of iniquity ; it defiles the whole body and setteth on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire of hell. But, alas ! sure 'tis the heart, 'tis by the will, the tongue is lifted up ; 'tis then the heart that is the cause of this evil, this awful iniquity.
But how is the heart so deceitful ?
How is it so unknown ?
Again, on the 29th of January :
" 'All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.'
" The word of God, which is contained in the Old and New Testaments, is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. '
The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul ; the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.
144 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
Moreover, by them is thy servant warned, and in keeping of them there is great reward.' Psalm xix. Here is sufficient proof of the authority of the Scrip- tures, so that, from their holiness and superlative dignified majesty, they are the powerful words that can convert the soul that lies in iniquity ; they can convince the most obstinate sinner ; they can humble the most haughty and high-minded, and turn those far from righteousness from the power of Satan to the living God.
" In them we have the blessing of Christ bequeathed unto us fully, freely, earnestly, and particularly to all and every individual sinful man. See 2 Peter i. 4 : ' Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises, that by these you might be partakers of the Divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.' And again,
Luke xxii. 29 : * And 1 appoint unto you a kingdom as my Father appointed unto me.' These are the inestimable pur chases and legacies of our new covenant head ; such purchases as all creation could not produce or such a gift ; all this, and freely without money and without price. From all this we may learn that the Scripture is the true and only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him. "
But that the Scriptures may have the desired effect, we are to read them for this end and in this manner. For this end, that, by the blessing of God and the influence of the Holy Spirit, we may be rendered thereby holy, humble and wise unto salvation ; that we may know of the grand concerns of an eternal scene, and be put in the way to escape eternal wrath and to gain eternal happiness.
And in this manner are we to read them : First, to understand them by a diligent comparing of them, one with another, observing the regu- larity, strength and consistency of each part ; and, second, to receive any benefit from them, we must earnestly pray for the Spirit to apply them and to explain them to our hearts. Acts xvii. 1 1 : ' They searched the Scriptures daily whether these things were so ;' and John v. 37 : ' Search the Scriptures, foi in them ye think ye have eternal life, and these are they which
VIEWS OF TRUE RELIGION. 145
testify of me.' Hence the Word of God, the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy God here and hereafter." So full, indeed, was he of religious thought that he could not forbear giving expression to it, even in those manuscript volumes which he had reserved for merely literary purposes.
Thus, in one consisting of extracts, juvenile poems, etc., we have, under date of March 13, first, a sentence from Luther: "Three things make a minister — faith, meditation and temptation." Then follows this comparison, which was a favorite one with his father : "A man may enter a garden for three pur- poses :
First, to learn the art of gardening ; second, for pleasure ; third, to gather fruit. So may a man read the Bible for three things :
First, to learn to read it or dispute about it ; second, read the historical parts for pleasure ; third, to gather fruit ; this last is the true way." After these, he writes down the following reflections :
"Whatever our conduct may have been, if, convinced by his word of our sad misconduct, we, returning to him, con- fess our sin, sincerely supplicating mercy through the priest- hood of Jesus, heartily adopting his word as the rule of our practice, and constantly calling upon him, by prayer, to enable us by his Holy Spirit, to fulfill it in all things, he will surely pardon all our past sins, give us his Holy Spirit, and graciously forgive our daily shortcomings.
Whilst we thus go on in a daily and diligent study of his holy word, endeavoring to do better and better eveyday, not at all making our own en- deavors the ground of our confidence, but merely and only the mercy of God, through the mediation of Jesus Christ, constantly looking for pardon and acceptance only through his blood ; this is true religion, this is true Christianity ; anything otherwise, anything less or more than this, is delusion."
In reference to family religion, he notes elsewhere :
146 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
Do you think that religion is a mere way of talking of educational art, received by tradition from our forefathers?
God forbid ! It is a substantial thing, solid as the adamant, lasting as eternity, bright and glorious as the Divine Author and object of it. It is the social knowfledge of God, the social love of Jesus, social holiness, meekness, humility, charity, patience, submission, delight in God, that is only worthy to be wished for in a family."
These cherished sentiments, private meditations and personal details of daily life, show how deeply his heart and mind had been impressed by religion, and how his naturally strong and independent judgment began to assert its power to guide his thoughts and determine his convictions. In this latter respect, however, the cir- cumstances around him had so marked an influence, and contributed so largely to modify his religious views and decide his future course, that they well deserve particular consideration.
Religious Movement of the Haldanes — State of Religious Society in Scot- land — Effects upon Alexander Campbell
IN natural science, it is admitted as an axiom that all eflfects have their proportionate causes. Some have thought this untrue in moral affairs, from the difficulty of making any calculations in reference to the actions of voluntary beings, who appear to be governed often by caprice, rather than by reason. The difficulty of tracing human actions to adequate causes is not, however, an argument against the existence of such causes, any more than the difficulty of accounting for the changes in the weather is a proof that such changes are not due to sufficient causes.
Our inability may arise, not from the absence of such causes in human affairs, but from our imperfect knowledge of human nature, and from the complexity and abstruseness of the subject. It is certain that, in most cases, human actions can be traced to moiives entirely sufficient to account for them ; and it is not to be doubted that if we were perfectly familiar with all the springs of human action, and all the influences, physical, moral and spiritual, which act upon man's complex organism, we should be able to reduce to the rule of some fixed law, effects which now seem the result of some inconsistent whim or unaccountable and passing fancy.
The power of surrounding circumstances to mould va
148 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
human character is familiar to all, and it is one of the most interesting points in the lives of those who have become distinguished in any particular field of labor to note the methods by which Divine Providence has thus often prepared their hearts and minds for the sphere for which they were designed, and changed or modified their own purposes and plans until these were in harmony with their appointed life-work.
It was, as formerly stated, the cherished desire of Thomas Campbell that his son Alexander should become a minister of the gospel in the Seceder denomination, to which he belonged ; and in this arrangement Alexander seems to have acquiesced, rather from respect to his father's wishes than from any original purpose of his own. It was not until he encountered the perils of the shipwreck that, as formerly stated, he finally resolved, from his own convictions of duty, to devote himself to the ministry, in pursuance of which determination he was now attending his preliminary course at the University.
Thus far, everything seemed tending toward the end so much desired by Thomas Campbell, who, having received intelligence of the shipwreck, and the consequent delay of the family at Glasgow, had written to them a letter full of affectionate solicitude and consolation, and highly commending all their proposed arrangements.
But Alexander's stay at Glasgow, while it left his main purpose unaltered, was destined to work an entire revolution in his views and feelings in respect to the existing denominations, and to disengage his sympathies entirely from the Seceder denomination and every other form of Presbyterianism.
This change seems to have been occasioned chiefly through his intimacy with Greville Ewing. This gentleman seemed to take a special interest in Alexander
NOTICE OF GREVILLE EWING. 149
and in the family, and performed so many kind offices in their behalf that he became greatly endeared to them. Alexander was frequently at Mr. Ewing's to dinner or to tea, where he formed many agreeable ititimacies with the guests at his hospitable board, and acquired, during this intercourse, an intimate knowledge of Mr. Ewing's previous religious history, and that of his coadjutors, the Haldanes and others.
As the facts thus presented to Mr. Campbell produced a lasting effect upon his mind, it will be necessary to present a brief sketch of them, and of the eminent men con- cerned in the reformatory movement then progressing in Scotland — a movement from which Mr. Campbell received his first impulse as a religious reformer, and which may be justly regarded, indeed, as the first phase of that religious reformation which he subse- quently carried out so successfully to its legitimate issues.
Among those connected with the Haldanes, Mr. Ewing himself stood deservedly high. He possessed very fine personal qualities ; was a man of deep and fervent piety and of varied and extensive learning.
He was particularly well acquainted with biblical criti- cism, and was regarded as a skillful expositor of the Sacred Volume. He was a native of Edinburgh, and had been destined by his father for the mercantile business; but as soon as his apprenticeship expired, having a strong predilection for the ministry, he ap- plied himself with great assiduity to the preparatory studies necessary for obtaining license in the Church of Scotland.
After passing his examinations with great credit, he was licensed to preach at twenty-five years of age, and in 1793 accepted a call from the worship- ers in Lady Glenorchy's chapel in Edinburgh, and was
150 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
ordained as the colleague of Mr. Jones, in connection with whom he preached for some years to an immense concourse of hearers. It was about this time that the brothers Haldane commenced those enterprises which produced such important religious changes in Scotland, and greatly influenced the course of Mr. Ewing's future labors.
These two brothers, Robert and James A. Haldane, were of a distinguished Scottish ancestry, and sons of a very pious mother, who was the sister of the cele- brated Admiral Duncan of the British navy.
Both were thus naturally led, from this relationship, to look to the sea as the theatre of their future achievements. In due time, Robert, the elder, obtained a situation in the navy, and served with honor in the war with France, on board of the Monarch, under his uncle, and afterward in the Foudroyant, under Admiral Jervis.
In the action of the Foudroyant with the Pegase, he was sent on board the captured vessel in a very stormy sea, in which two boats had been previously lost ; and he so much dis- tinguished himself by his prudence and decision in bringing the French commander on board the British vessel that he received the highest commendation from his brother officers and from Admiral Jervis.
Peace being made in 1783, he relinquished the naval profes- sion, and retired to his fine estate near Stirling, called Airthrey, to the improvement of which he devoted himself, with his accustomed energy, for ten years. Bui amid these peaceful pursuits the early religious im- pressions received from his mother revived with un- wonted force. He became a daily student of the Scrip- tures, and devoted himself, with great earnestness, to a thorough examination of the evidences of Christianity, from which he derived great benefit.
About this time.
Please See Chapter Three Below:
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.