"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.
By ROBERT RICHARDSON
CHAPTER 3 - ORIGINAL PAGES 201-300
CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.
(Actual Pages) PAGES 151-225
ROBERT HALDANE. 151
Dr. Innes, the minister of the kirk (Church is "kirk" in Scottish-ancient English) in Stirling, induced him to commence family worship, and it was his delight to converse with Dr. Innes and other preachers on re- ligious themes. It was, however, to a conversation with a pious stone-mason, with whom he once walked some miles through the woods of Airthrey, that he attributed his first clear conceptions of the plan of jus- tification, and of the important truth that
He no sooner thus learned to rely upon him alone, than he was relieved from all the doubts and uncertainties wh'ich had perplexed his mind amidst conflicting religious theories, and came to realize his personal interest in the salvation of the gospel. From this moment he determined to devote his life and his property to the promotion of the interests of religion — a resolution in which his amiable and pious wife heartily concurred.
"Christianity," he well observed, "is every- thing or nothing.
Greatly impressed with the importance of the mis- sionary work in India, then commenced by Mr. Carey, his first idea was to go, with some companions, in order to introduce Christianity among the natives of Bengal. Having induced the amiable Dr. Innes, with whom he was on terms of great intimacy, to be one of the number, he was persuaded by him to propose the matter also to Greville Ewing, the doctor's brother-in-law,
152 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
whose consent having been also obtained, as well as that of Doctor Bogue, of Gosport, England, an old and valued friend of Robert Haldane, he proceeded at once to make arrangements for the enterprise. For each of his coadjutors Mr. Haldane was to supply the neces- sary outfit and passage-money, and also to provide an independent competence for those whose co-operation involved the loss of their means of subsistence ; and he engaged, furthermore, to bestow the sum of thirty-five hundred pounds upon any one of them who might be compelled to return home.
He accordingly determined to sell his beautiful estate of Airthrey, in the cultivation and embellishment of which he had taken so much pleasure, and proceeded to engage a printing establish- ment and all necessary assistants ;
but, upon applica- tion to the East India Company for permission to estab- lish the mission among the Hindoos, this was positively and unexpectedly refused. The most earnest appeals having been made in vain to induce the Company to revoke their decision, Mr. Haldane was compelled, in the course of this year, 1797, to relinquish the enter- prise, after having disposed of his estate.
But this dis- appointment only served to direct his beneficence into other channels. During the previous year Mr. Ewing had become the editor of a periodical called the " Missionary Magazine," published under the auspices of Doctor Charles Stuart, of Edinburgh, who had once been a minister ol the Kirk (Church) of Scotland, but had resigned his charge, become a Baptist, and was then engaged in the prac- tice of medicine.
He was a man of high birth, being a lineal descendant of the Regent Murray, and had renounced worldly distinction, seeking only to promote Christian and benevolent enterprises. The object of
RELIGIOUS APATHY IN THE CHURCH. 153
the Missionary Magazine was to awaken the churches to the importance of missions to the heathen world ; and it was conducted with marked abihty by Mr. Ewing, and caused no httle stir throughout Scotland, not only from the novelty of the subject, but from certain lean- ings toward Independency, which soon awakened the jealousy and hostility of the Kirk. Religion was at this time at a very low ebb in Scotland.
The open infidelity of Hume, Adam Smith and others had infected all ranks, beginning with the classes at the University and penetrating the Church itself. The eminent Pro- fessor Playfair had actually renounced Christianity, and many others who continued to officiate as ministers were imbued with skepticism or Socinianism, while religious apathy seemed to brood over the entire Church, with a few brilliant exceptions. This became strikingly
This condition of affairs may be exemplified by the fact that Doctor McGill, minister of the Established Church in Ayr, published in 1786 a book entitled " A Practical Essay on the Death of Jesus Christ," in which he taught, in the most undisguised and offensive manner, sentiments totally at variance with the Scriptures and with the standards of his own Church. He taught " that Christ was a person of our own order, and that, although he was invested with a very extraordinary office, and endued with extraordinary jjowers, yet he was not God, equal with the Father. He endeavored to explain away the doctrine of the atonement, by affirming that Christ did not die as the substitute of sinners ; that his priesthood and sacrifice were merely figurative ; that his errand into the world was not to purchase salvation for men, but to make a clear and distinct revelation of the rule of our obedience, to exemplify it in his holy life, and to assure sinners of their obtaining pardon upon their repentance, and of their being accepted upon their sincere obedience," etc. It is particularly worthy of note, that this book was per- mitted to circulate extensively, for at least two or three yeais, without any judicial cognizance being taken of its author, either by the Presbytery or Synod to which he belonged, or by the General Assembly ; and that when a complaint was made in 1789, at the meeting of the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, after various postponements and appeals, the whole affair was finally hushed up upon certain vague explanations and apologies made by Doctor McGill, who continued to officiate in the National Church as before — Mc- Kerrow's " History of the Secession Church" p. 359. G*
154 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
evident by the fact that when, at length, the subject of missions was brought up in the General Assembly, upon the resolution offered, "That it is the duty of Christians to send the gospel to the heathen world," this, after debate, was voted down by a large majority — a favorite argument of the opposing party being that there was plenty of ignorance, unbelief and immorality at home to occupy the efforts of all. This remark struck with great force the mind of James Alexander Haldane, who was present at the dis- cussion, and was well aware that no adequate efforts were made, or were likely to be made, by the Church to remedy the evil. This remarkable man had, like his brother Robert, entered upon a seafaring life in the East India trade, in which the family had already an interest. After making several voyages to India, in which he greatly distinguished himself by his courage, seamanship and enterprising spirit, and during which, like the Rev. John Newton, he experienced many re- markable providential deliverances, he at length became captain of the East India vessel called the Mellville Castle. About this time he married a Miss Joass, niece of Sir Robert Abercrombie, and made all necessary preparation for sailing with a large East India fleet, which was expected to start from the Downs, under convoy, in December, 1793. The fleet, however, being unexpectedly detained until the month of May, he be- came, during this interval of leisure, much impressed with the subject of religion. He read religious books and a portion of the Scripture every day, and began to form a habit of prayer. He thought also of becoming a communicant in the Church, and experienced a strong inclination to abandon the sea in order to devote him- self to religious matters, which had now become much
PROGRESS OF J. A. HALDANB. 155
more congenial to his feelings. Receiving from his brother Robert a letter earnestly recommending this step, he decided to adopt it, and selling out his interest in " The Mellville Castle" for fifteen thousand pounds, he returned with his wife to Scotland, and finally settled in Edinburgh. Here his religious impressions continued to deepen. He sought the society of religious persons and continued to read religious books, but was, we are told, particularly devoted to the Scripture, which he considered a certain authority ; and whenever he found it against any of his opinions, he readily gave them up. Continuing his investigations, he began to read the Bible in a still more child-like spirit, without seeking for any interpretation that should agree with his own ideas. But his own account of his progress is so inter- esting, that it is here given in his own words : "I now saw more of the freeness of the grace of the gospel, and the necessity of being born again, and was daily looking for satisfactory evidence of this change. My desire was now set upon frames and feelings, instead of building on the sure foundation. I got no comfort in this way. Gradually becoming more dissatisfied with myself, being convinced especially of the sin of unbelief, I wearied myself with looking for some wonderful change to take place, some in- ward feeling by which I might know that I was bom again. The method of resting simply on the promises of God, which are yea and amen in Jesus Christ, was too plain and easy ; and like Naaman, the Syrian, instead of bathing in the waters of Jordan and being clean, I would have some great work in my mind to substitute in place of Jesus Christ. The Lord gradually opened my eyes. He always dealt with me in the tenderest manner, and kept me from those horrors of mind which, in my ignorance and pride, I had often desired as a proof of my conversion. The dispensations of his providence toward me much favored the teaching which he
156 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
has vouchsafed to afford. The conversations of some of the Lord's people with whom I was acquainted were helpful to my soul ; and, in particular, I may here add that the know- ledge of the Scriptures that I had acquired in early life was very useful to me when my views were directed to the great concerns of eternity. Many things were then brought to my remembraiace which I had learned when young, although they seemed wholly to have escaped while I was living in forgetfulness of God. Instead of those deep convictions which are experienced by some with much horror of mind, the Lord has rather shown me the evils of sin in the suffering of his dear Son, and in the manifestation of that love which, whilst it condemns the past ingratitude, seals the pardon of the believing sinner. In short, I now desire to feel, and hope in some measure that I do feel, as a sinner who looks for salvation freely by grace ; who prefers this method of salva- tion to every other, because thereby God is glorified through [esus Christ, and the pride of human glory stained. I desire daily to see more of my own unworthiness, and that Jesus Christ may be more precious to my soul. I depend on him for sanctification as well as for deliverance from wrath ; and am in some measure (would it were more !) convinced of my own weakness and his all-sufficiency. When I have most comfort, then does sin appear most hateful ; and I am in some measure made to rejoice in the hope of being com- pletely delivered from it by seeing, in all his beauty. Him who was dead and is alive, and liveth for evermore. Amen." Thus it was that both the brothers had been, by a careful study of the Scriptures and a gradual en- lightenment, and not by any sudden impulse or ex- ternal influence, brought under deep religious convic- tions, and, in both, this occurred about the same time, though it seems to have been developed a little earlier in James. Both the brothers were strongly attached to each other, and sympathized with each other in their religious changes and undertakings. After the failure
NOTICE OF JOHN CAMPBELL. 157 of the Bengal mission, and while J. A. Haldane was residing at Edinburgh, he was greatly benefited by his intercourse with the pious Mr. John Aikman, who was then attending the divinity lectures with a view to the ministry. Much was also due to his intimacy with Mr. John Campbell, a man of singular piety, and of re- markable practical and executive powers in benevolent and Christian enterprises. The mental changes he had undergone closely resembled those of the brothers Haldane, in whose memoirs, by a son of J. A. Hal- dane, Alexander Haldane, Esq., the following brief but interesting notice of Mr. Campbell occurs : "For many years he had known and believed the truth; but his views of Christ had been rather sought in the reflec- tion of the inward work of the Holy Spirit in his heart than in the finished righteousness of Christ ; and he had neither peace nor joy in believing. It was a subjective rather than an objective faith. Doubts, fears and actual backslidings had often shaken his hope, and driven him almost to despair, even at the time he was esteemed by other Christians and regarded as a pattern. At last, to use his own earnest words in a letter published by Mr. Newton, ' the cloud which covered the mercy-seat fled away — Jesus appeared as he is ! My eyes were not turned inward but outward. The gospel was the glass in which I beheld him. In the time of my affliction, the doctrine of election appeared irritating and confounding ; now it appears truly glorious and truly humbling. * * * I now stand upon a shore of comparative rest. Believing, I rejoice. When in search of comfort, I resort to the testi- mony of God. This is the field which contains the pearl of great price. Frames and feelings are, like other created comforts, passing away. What an unutterable source of consolation it is that the foundation of our hope is ever immutably the same ! — the sacrifice of Jesus as acceptable as ever it was ! To this sacrifice I desire ever to direct my eye, 14
158 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
especially at the first approach of any gloom or mental change.' " After my deliverance," continues Mr. Campbell, " my ideas of many things were much altered, especially about faith. I perceived that this principle in the mind arises from no ex- ertion in the man, but the constraint of evidence without. The Spirit takes the things of Christ, and discovers their reality and glory in such a manner to the mind of man that it is not in his power to refuse his belief. It is no mighty matter, nor is it any way meritorious, to believe the sun is shining when our eyes are dazzled with its beams. The internal evidences of the truth of revelation had ten thousand times more effect upon my mind than all its external evidence. There is a divineness, a glory and excellence in the Scrip- tures, perceived by enlightened minds, which they cannot so describe as to make it intelligible to an unregenerate person. Formerly the major part of my thoughts centred upon either the darkness I felt or the lightness I enjoyed. Now they are mainly directed to Jesus — what he hath done, suftered and promised." This John Campbell had a large iron-monger shop, overlooking the Grass-Market of Edinburgh ; and is described as "a little man, active, with an intelligent, benevolent countenance, a quick, dark eye, and a mind far superior to his position." Earnest, single-hearted, prayerful and devoted to his heavenly Master, this in- defatigable and laborious man was eminently distin- guished for his successful efforts in behalf of religion and humanity. " He became in Edinburgh," continues the biographer whose sketch we here condense, " the living model of a city mis- sionary, a district visitor, a Scripture reader, a tract distribu- tor, a Sabbatli-school teacher, and a Sabbath-school founder, long before Christians had learned to unite themselves to- gether in societies to promote these objects. His warehouse
FOUNDING OF SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 159 was then the only depository in Edinburgh for religious tracts and periodicals, and became a sort of house of call, or point of reunion, for all who took an interest in the kingdom of Christ. Mr. Campbell was the chief founder of the first tract society in the world, at Edinburgh. In 1797 he formed there a Sabbath-school society, independent of clerical super- intendence, and opened a number of Sabbath evening schools, which were so successful that, in company with James A. Haldane, he visited Glasgow, Paisley, Greenock, and other places, to set before the friends of religion the duty an! advantages of adopting the same plan. A week's journey led to the establishment of sixty Sabbath-schools ; and no long time elapsed till there was not a single town in Scotland which was not provided with those most useful seminaries.* He was also one of the first directors of the Scottish Mission- ary Society ; the founder of the Magdalen Asylum for the reformation of unfortunate females ; and a stated visitor of the jail and Bi^idewell, whose unhappy inmates, though aban- doned by almost every one else, he endeavored to awaken to a consideration of the one thing needful. In a large village of colliers, called Gilmerton, near Edinburgh, he found so much ignorance and irreligion that he endeavored to induce * Sunday-schools had been first introduced at Gloucester, by Robert Raikes, some twenty years previously, and had been extended to many other towns in England ; and he is justly regarded as the founder of the general system of Sunday-school instruction. It is related, however, by Dr. Fahne- stock, in his history of the German Seventh-day Baptists in the United States, that Ludwig Hcecker, who taught the common school at their village of Ephrata, in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, soon after his arrival in 1739, projected the plan of holding a school in the afternoons of the Sabbath, and commenced it, in connection with some of the other brethren, in order to gi ve instruction to the indigent children who were kept from regular school by employments which their necessities obliged them to be engaged in durmg the week, as well as to give religious instruction to those of better circum- stances. This continued for more than thirty years, until the battle of Brandywine, when the school-room was given up for a hospital for a con- siderable time, and the school was not afterward resumed. According to this account, the first Sabbath-school had been established in the United States about forty years before Ra'kes opened his school in Gloucester.
160 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, preachers of different denominations to visit it, but without effect. Not being as yet himself in the habit of public speak- ing, he at length induced a young preacher, Mr. Rate, from Dr. Bogue's academy at Gosport, to preach a few times. The interest produced was so great, and Mr. Aikman and J. A. Haldane were so much impiessed with the importance of continuing the meeting after Mr. Rate's departure, that they both finally consented to address the people." It was here at Gilmerton that James A. Haldane delivered his first sermon on the sixth of May, 1797, greatly to the satisfaction and edification of those pre- sent. Large crowds continued for some time to flock to these meetings to hear Mr. Aikman and the sea- captain, and great good resulted from their earnest and affectionate appeals. The clergy, however, soon began to manifest their hostility to lay-preaching ; and the parish minister took means to deprive them of the house in which the meetings were held. A spacious loft was then obtained, which proving too small, the meetings were then held in a large barn. Shortly after this, the two preachers becoming greatly impressed with what they heard of the coldness and immorality of many of the ministers in the north of Scotland, resolved to travel through this region and preach to the people in the streets of the towns aird villages. They based their right to preach to the people, as they announced in a printed notice of their design, "upon the indispensable duty of every Chris- tian to warn sinners to flee from the wrath to come, and to point out Jesus as the way, the truth and the life. Whether a man," they continued, "declare those im- portant truths to two or two hundred, he is, in our opin- ion a preacher of the gospel, or one who declan s the glad tidings of salvation, which is the precise meaning LABORS OP % A. HALDANB. ibl of the word preach. In harmony with this view, we find that, in the beginning, when the members of the Church at Jerusalem, numbering then from eight to ten thousand, were all scattered abroad except the apostles, they went everywhere preaching the Word." Setting out, accordingly, on their tour in a light open carriage, accompanied a part of the wa}'' by Mr. Rate, they visited almost every place in the north of Scotland and the Orkney Islands, distributing tracts, preaching in the open air to great multitudes, and producing a very remarkable awakening, both among preachers and people. From the success of this remarkable tour, and the abundant evidence he met with of the truth of the declaration made in the debate on foreign missions in the General Assembly, and with which his mind had been so much impressed at the time, that "there were enough of heathen at home," J. A. Haldane, with some others, established at Edinburgh a society for pro- pagating the gospel at home, January ii, 1798. In their first address they declare : "It is not our desire to form or to extend the influence of any sect. Our whole intention is, to make known the evangelical gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. In employing itinerants, schoolmasters or others, we do not consider our- selves as conferring ordination upon them or appointing them to the pastoral office. We only propose, by sending them out, to supply the means of grace wherever we perceive a deficiency." The funds needed for the operations of the society were chiefly supplied by Robert Haldane, and its principles and plans were earnestly and ably recom- mended through the pages of the "Missionary Maga- zine." Mr. A. Haldane, the biographer, remarks : " Of that publication, the editor, Mr. Ewing, had not then vou L— L 14 *
162 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
left the Established Church, although his position was be- coming every day more untenable. On the 24th December, 17971 he delivered an eloquent and powerful sermon in de- fence of field-preaching, which produced a great sensation, ^nd served still more to alarm the Moderates. The occasion of this sermon was a request to preach on behalf of the Edinburgh Sabbath-evening schools, which had been. rapidly increasing under the influence of the new impulse. Mr. Ewing undertook to prove that the unfettered preaching of the gospel was one of those characters of universality which distinguish the Christian from the Jewish dispensation ; and he ably contended that, in the closing words of the Apoca- lypse, the whole system of revelation and the whole mystery of God seem to be resolved into the provision made for the universal propagation of the gospel. The Holy Spirit and the Church unite their voice and continually cry to sinners. Come. This precious invitation is so necessary to be known, and known without a moment's delay, that every one that heareth is commanded to repeat it. Like a multiplying and never-dying echo, *■ the joyful sound' must be on all sides transmitted from one to another, and in this accepted time, in this day of salvation, he that is athirst may come, and whosoever will may take the water of life freely." In the spring of 1798, Mr. Rate was sent out by the society to itinerate in Fifeshire, and Mr. Cleghorn and William Ballantine, who had been Seceders and had studied theology under Dr. Bogue, were sent to the North to labor, where the great awakening had taken place during the recent tour of J. A. Haldane and INIr. Aikman. During the summer Mr. J. A. Haldane and Mr. Aikman, who did not depend on the society, but acted independently, made a preaching tour in the south and west of Scotland, attended with much oppo- sition on the part of the clergy and the magistrates, with many striking incidents and great effect in arous- ing many souls to the importance of religion. While ROWLAND HILL IN SCOTLAND. 163 dt Langholm, in the county of Roxburgh, they were taking a walk along the banks of the Esk, when they observed an English clergyman conversing with the minister of the parish, and were much struck with his appearance. He was of a tall, commanding figure, had a piercing eye, an aquiline nose, and a countenance beaming with intelligence, and with an expression de- noting a natural vein of humor. After their return to their inn, they were surprised by a call from this gentleman, who, having heard of them, was desirous of making their acquaintance. He proved to be the celebrated Rowland Hill, who was now on his first visit to Scotland, having been invited by Robert Haldane to come and make a tour in Scotland, and especially for the purpose of opening the religious services in a large building called the Circus, lately rented by Robert Hal- dane, in Edinburgh. Next morning, while the two friends remained to prosecute their tour, Mr. Hill pro- ceeded to Edinburgh, to the residence of James A. Haldane, in George street, adjoining the house, No. 14, in which Henry Brougham, the future Lord Chancellor, then resided. He preached in the Circus July 29, and subsequently at several points in the open air, near Edinburgh, and also at Stirling, Crief, Dundee, Perth and Kinross, whither he was accompanied by Robert Haldane, greatly adding to the religious excitement which existed. Returning to the capital, he preached again in the Circus, and set off on Monday morning with Robert Haldane to preach in the church-yard of the old Cathedral at Glasgow.* Going back to Edin- * In the account of his tour which Mr. Hill afterward published, he speaks thus of the meeting at Glasgow : " The scene was solemn. The old Cathedral stands externally in perfectly good repair, and much is it to the honor of the city that it should so stand, as it is the only one left in a perfect 164 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. burgh, he preached again in the Circus and on Calton Hill to some fifteen or twent}^ thousand persons ; and afterward made another short tour through Fifeshire, accompanied this time by James A. Haldane, who had returned from his itineracy. Coming back to Edin- burgh, Mr. Hill preached there again to immense audi- ences twice on 2d September, soon after which he set out for home, accompanied by Robert Haldane, who went with him to Gloucestershire on his way to Gos- port to visit his old friend Dr. Bogue. Shortly before this, Robert Haldane had taken hold of a project, which originated with John Campbell, to obtain from Africa thirty or thirty-five children, and, after educating them in Great Britain, to send them back to their native country as missionaries. They were to be children of the chiefs or principal men among the tribes, and of sufficient age to be able to retain their native language. For the accomplishment of this enterprise, Robert Haldane pledged the sum of seven thousand pounds. Accordingly, in June, 1799, Mr. Macaulay, the Governor of Sierra Leone, arrived with twenty boys and four girls, and John Campbell was immediately despatched to London to bring them to Edinburgh, where Mr. Haldane had already pre- state of preservation in that part of the kingdom. Underneath were the remains, I may venture to say, of millions, waiting for the resurrection. Here I stood on a widely extended space, covered or nearly covered with the living — ^all immortals ; five thousand, I should suppose, at least. What solemn work to address such multitudes ! Who is sufficient for these things .'' I attempted to illustrate that passage Isaiah Ix. 19: 'Thy God, thy glory.' Could we but explain to sinners and make them feel that God, a God in Christ, is their glory, and that it is their privilege to glorify God in return, we should have more than abundant recompense for all our little toil in a work so glorious." It may be here added that, near the spot where Mr. Hill then preached, is the vault, within the walls of the Cathedral, where the mortal remains of Robert Haldane now repose. LIBERALITY OF R. HALDANE. 165 pared, for their reception, a large house in the King's Park, afterward used as the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and described by Walter Scott in his "Heart of Mid- Lothian," as that of the "Laird of Dumbiedykes." Being detained, however, in order to be inoculated for the small pox, Mr. Macaulay, with some other Directors of the Sierra Leone Company, began to hesitate about placing the children under Mr. Haldane's exclusive care, on account, as was believed, of the liberality of his religious views. Mr. Haldane, however, very pro- perly refusing to consent to any change in the original arrangement, and the children having created great interest in London, funds were at length otherwise pro- vided, and the children were, after some years, sent back to Africa, carrying with them many of the arts of civilized life, though, unfortunately, their training had not been that which Mr. Haldane proposed to give, far more attention having been paid to their secular than to their religious education. The whole affair, however, serves to place in a strong light the Christian enterprise and munificent liberality of Robert Haldane. It was during the progress of this affair, that he became interested in several other important enter- prises. He had already found it difficult to obtain a regular supply of ministers to preach at the Circus building he had rented in Edinburgh ; and he had con- ceived the idea of having a number of pious young men educated for the ministry. He had also, while on his travels with Mr. Hill, determined to erect, in the chief towns of Scotland, large buildings for preaching, after the Whitefield model, called Tabernacles. Upon his return to Edinburgh, he conferred with his brother, and the matter was broached to Mr. Innes and Mr. Ewing. The latter entered fully into his plans ; and 1 66 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. on 29th November, delivering his last disccurse in Lady Glenorchy's chapel, he, on ist December, re- signed his charge and left the Church of Scotland. A few days afterward, about twelve of those chiefly in- terested in the preaching at the Circus, and in the Society for propagating the gospel at home, including the two Haldanes, Mr. Ewing, Mr. Aikman, Mr. John Campbell, George Gibson and John Richie, met for consultation, and after prayer and deliberation, resolved to form themselves into a Congregational Church. Mr. Ewing drew out a plan for its government, and J. A. Haldane was invited to become the pastor. His earn- est, faithful and successful labors hitherto in the evan- gelical field which he had chosen ; the remarkable scriptural knowledge he had acquired, and his prayer- fulness, kindly and unwearied attention to the sick, and eminent social and personal qualities, rendered him admirably fitted for this position ; and although he modestly regarded himself as better suited to mere evangelical labor, he nevertheless, when the call was persisted in, yielded to it as the voice of Providence. The avowed object in forming this church was to enjoy the benefit of Christian fellowship on a scriptural plan, to observe the ordinances, and avoid that con- tracted spirit which would exclude from the pulpit, or from occasional communion, any faithful preacher of the gospel or sincere lover of Christ. It was consti- tuted in January, 1799, and about three hundred and ten persons at once united in it, consisting not only of those who had become awakened under the preaching of J. A. Haldane, Rowland Hill and others, but of many old members of the Established Church. J. A. Haldane was duly ordained on 3d February, 1799, -he service being conducted by Messrs Taylor of Yoik
STUDENTS FOR THE MINISTRT. 167
shire, Garie of Perth, and Greville Ewing. Mr. Hal- dane answered at length to the questions propounded, giving an interesting account of the views and motives which had led him to engage in preaching, and ac- cepting the charge in dependence on the grace of Jesus Christ, though stipulating that he might still occa- sionally labor as an itinerant, to which he thought he had been especially called. James A. Haldane thus became the first minister of the first church formed among the new Congregationalists of Scotland ; and continued most faithfully and successfully to discharge the duties then assumed, for fifty -two years, up to the time of his triumphant death, February 8, 185 1, in his eighty-third year. As soon as J. A. Haldane had consented to officiate at Edinburgh, his brother Robert, in furtherance of his plans, proceeded to Glasgow, and purchasing, at a cost of three thousand pounds, a very large building in Jamaica street, which had been used as a circus, con- verted it into a tabernacle for a congregation, over which Mr. Ewing was to preside. From Glasgow he went in company with Mr. Ewing to Stirling, to pro- pose to Mr. Innes a similar arrangement with regard to Dundee. To this Mr. Innes finally consented,* and accordingly broke oflT his connection with the Church of Scotland. A number of students for the ministry having been by this time collected, the first class was placed under the care of Mr. Ewing, who remained in Edinburgh during the winter, and removed to Glasgow in May following. The class commenced with twenty- tour, all of whom were Presbyterians. * It is related by the biographer of the Haldanes, that the hesitation of Mr. Innes to leave the Church of Scotland terminated when he was ordered to assist personally in the ordination of a minister who was a profane swearer, and charged as such in the open congregation. l68 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. "Some of us," says Mr. Monroe, one of the number, "be- longed to the National Establishment, others to the Relief, and not a few were Burghers and Anti-Burghers. The only qualifications for admission to the seminary were genuine piety, talents susceptible of cultivation, and a desire to be useful to our fellow-sinners by preaching and teaching the words of eternal life. The grand object proposed by the zealous originators of the scheme was, to qualify pious young men for going out literally to the highways and hedges to preach the gospel, unconnected with the peculiarities of any denomination."* " The students were all maintained," re- marks Mr. Haldane's biographer, " at Mr. Haldane's expense, according to the scale, for each married and unmarried stu- dent, drawn up at the time by those well acquainted with such matters. Before their admission, they underwent a strict examination as to their abilities and qualifications. But next to the importance of engaging in the work on purely Chris- tian principles, nothing was more strongly impressed upon their minds than the assurance that there was no design to elevate them in their social position, and that it was not in- tended to make gentlemen of such among them as were mechanics, but catechists and preachers ; and that after their term of study was over, they must not look to their patron for support, but to their own exertions and the lead- ings of Providence. "t In June, 1800, J. A. Haldane took another touf in company with John Campbell, visiting Ayr, Port-Pat- rick, Aran and Kintyre, preaching every day in the open air to large numbers. On this trip they were * Mr. Maclay, who went out afterward as a missionary to America, and became a popular Baptist minister in New York, was one of this first class. t The Dundee Tabernacle was not opened till the 19th of October, 1800, but, during the interval, Robert Haldane collected another class of about forty missionary students and catechists, whom he placed under Dr. Innes, to be transferred in the second year of their studies to Mr. Ewing at Glas- gow. Another class of students was placed imder Dr. Bogue at Gosport % A. HALDANE-S VISIT TO IRELAND. 169 held for some time under arrest by the Highland chiefs, at the instigation of the clergy. But notwithstanding the opposition, great good was effected, and a marked religious reformation was accomplished, especially in Kintyre. With regard to Robert Haldane, he not only largely maintained the religious enterprises previously spoken of, but published at his own expense myriads of re- ligious tracts, and distributed Bibles and Testaments, when as yet there were no tract or Bible societies. He had formed, also, many Sabbath-schools ; and inviting Andrew Fuller to Scotland, aided largely, by his own liberality, example and influence, in promoting the Ser- ampore translation of the Scriptures. He also some- times labored in preaching, until he was compelled to refrain from public-speaking on account of a spitting of blood. Soon after his brother became pastor of the Circus Church, he erected, at the head of Leith Walk in Edinburgh, a spacious place of worship called the Tabernacle, capable of holding four thousand persons, entirely at his own expense. Not long afterward, owing to the vast size of the congregation, Mr. Aik- man, co-pastor with J. A. Haldane, concluded to build, at his own cost, a chapel, in the old town of Edin- burgh, where he continued to preach to a part of the congregation. In May, 1801, James A. Haldane made a trip to the south, and preached in Dumfries and the neighboring towns and villages. He then crossed over to Ireland, in September, where he was very kindly received, being allowed to preach in the parish church of Porta- down. At Coleraine, he first became acquainted with Dr. Alexander Carson, who had been a classmate of Greville Ewing in Scotland, and had lately left the 16 17© .MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Presbyterians, and become an Independent. At Omagh, he was kindly received by James Buchanan, who, afterward coming to America, was, for many years, British Consul at New York, and became one of Alex- ander Campbell's warmest personal friends, and an earn- est advocate of the religious reformation urged by the latter. It was while on this tour that J. A. Haldane visited and preached at Rich-Hill, as formerly related.* It was about this time (1802) that the studies of the * From Mr. A. Haldane's memoir the following notice of a trip to the Highlands is here condensed, for the sake of certain facts which it presents : "In the summer of 1802 he visited Derbyshire, England, preaching with much acceptance at many points. In the summer of 1803 he made a tour into the Highlands. About this time some of the students from the semina- ries who had been sent out as missionaries began to produce considerable effect in Ireland and elsewhere. Among them, a Mr. Farquharson, a young man of zeal and piety, but whose natural capacity seemed hardly to warrant his continuing in academical studies, was sent away from Dundee to Breadal- bane, at the end of his first six months, to see if he could not be of use as a Scripture-reader in that district, where the poor uneducated Highlanders had neither Bibles nor the preaching of the gospel. At first, he experienced great opposition, and but three families would receive him. But he went from village to village during the winter, reading the Bible and speaking a few words to all who would listen. At length, in 1802, through the efforts of this humble youth, a remarkable awakening occurred, showing what may be accomplished by the Divine word, read or spoken, even by those least gifted, if they possess true piety and zeal. To this point James Haldane first directed his course, in company with John Campbell. " At this time many persons in the district were sick with a contagious fever, but Mr. Haldane did not hesitate to visit and pray with them. Among others he visited a Mrs. Sinclair, whose husband, though much opposed to any departure from the Established Church, was so much impressed with Mr. Haldane's piety and kindness, that he became quite favorable, and his son, Donald Sinclair, after his father's death, always opened his house to Mr. Haldane and other ministers of the connection, when they were in that part of the country. Preaching for some time through the Highlands, where Mr. Haldane's name was ever after regarded with veneration, they proceeded to John O'Groat's house, from whence they passed again into the Orkneys, and thence returned to Edinburgh. Soon after he undertook another tour with Mr. Campbell to the north of England, preaching on his return al Greenock, Paisley and at Glasgow." EDUCATION OF MISSIONARIES. \*J\ second class of Mr. Ewing's missionary students ended. The Glasgow Seminary was then closed, and another one was opened in Edinburgh, on a larger scale, under the instruction of Mr. Aikman and John Campbell in theology, and Thomas Wemyss as classical tutor, the whole being under the immediate superintendence of the brothers Haldane. Subsequently, John Campbell retired, and was succeeded by William Stevens, once an actor, but then a popular and powerful preacher. He came from Aberdeen to assist in the tabernacle at Edinburgh, and remained there until he became a Baptist, upon which he removed to Rochdale in Eng- land, where he continued to preach for many years until his death.* * The course of study of these classes generally extended over two years, with a vacation of six weeks in every year, and embraced the English gram- mar and rhetoric, the elements of Greek and Hebrew, Latin (in the case of the last three classes), lectures on systematic theology, and essays upon pre- scribed subjects. Each student, in rotation, delivered sermons before the class, the tutor making his remarks. One day in each week each student was required to speak, in rotation, from a passage of Scripture appointed for that purpose, the tutor making concluding observations. The students were supported, had medical attendance when needed, their education and class books were given them, and they had access to a large and well-selected library — all at the expense of Mr. Robert Haldane. In addition to the seminaries already mentioned, others were established. One at Elgin under Mr. Ballantyne, one at Granton under Mr. Mcintosh, and one under Rev. Mr. Hamilton at Armagh in Ireland ; subsequently there was another at Paris under the care of MM. Francois and Henri Olivier. Both the Haldanes also contributed afterward to the support of theological students taught by Mr. Carson of 1 ubbermore in Ireland, many of whose theological works were published at the expense of Robert Haldane. He made efforts also to introduce Bibles and tracts into Italy and Germany, but was unable to suc- ceed. In all, about three hundred young men were educated and sent out from the seminaries, and, though many of them were sent out with rather meagre attainments, owing to the urgent demand for laborers, there were choice spirits among them, who pushed on their private studies with vigor, and made attainments in actual scholarship superior to many students of the University, and became eminently useful, both as preachers and as writers. 172 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. In the summer of 1804 James A. Haldane again visited England, and passed from thence over to Dublin, and preached a number of times at the Bethesda Epis- copal Chapel, where Mr. Mathies and the learned John Walker of Trinity College then officiated. Mr. Walker had not left the Church of England at this time, but sympathized largely in the efforts of the Haldanes and concurred to a considerable extent in their religious views. Thus it was that, during this eventful period, many individuals, not altogether coinciding in their views upon all points, were nevertheless co-operating with each other in the effort to spread simpler views of the gospel, and awaken men to a true sense of religion. Through the intercourse, personal or epistolary, which existed among them, their knowledge of the Bible, which was practically regarded by them all as the only true guide in religion, was greatly increased, and their views of many questions were changed or modified. Among all these efforts, however, none were so scrip- tural, so simple, and so consistent as those of the brothers Haldane ; and it was mainly in consequence of this that theirs were most successful. It is not to be doubted, however, that without the liberality of Robert Haldane, the views and principles he endeavored to promote would have required many more years to obtain the circulation and influence they then possessed. Before Alexander Campbell's visit to Glasgow, Robert Haldane had already expended about sixty thousand pounds for the spread of the gospel at home ; and the innumerable ministries thus set on foot, together with the incessant and effective labors of his brother James Alexander, added to his own personal efforts, all brought to bear within a few years upon religious society, pro- LABORS OF R. HALDANE. 1 73 duced a most powerful impression, which was felt throughout almost the whole Protestant world.* * Among the results of the personal labors of Robert Haldane, none were more remarkable than those which proceeded from his visit to Geneva a few years later, and immediately after the peace in 1816. He had long desired to do something for the effective promotion of the gospel in France, and left home for this purpose, but, finding no opening at Paris, he was, from what he heard of the state of religion at Geneva, induced to visit that city. The love of doctrinal speculation, engendered by the Calvinian system, had here issued in an almost complete abandonment of those simpler evangelical truths with which Calvin himself began his reformation. The pastors and the professors of the divinity-school had, indeed, with scarcely an exception become Arians and Socinians. "They taught," says Mr. Haldane in his letter to Mr. Bickersteth, " neither law nor gospel fully, and their doctrine did not seem to affect the consciences of their hearers." A few exceptions there were among them, and especially a Mr. Moulinie, who held the divinity of Christ, but was otherwise poorly informed in the gospel, and with whom Mr Haldane could make but little progress. Discouraged, he visited the other cantons, and, at Berne, succeeded in awakening the mind of a young minis- ter, M. Galland. At Lausanne, he was induced to return to Geneva, through the persuasion of a zealous English lady, a Miss Grant, whom he met there, and in order that he might see a young minister six miles from Geneva, M. Gaussen, of whom he had heard a favorable account Finding still no appa- rent opening at Geneva, he was about to proceed to Montauban, when he was providentially brought into communication with a student who had been deputed by Mr. Moulinie to show Mrs. Haldane a model of the mountains. " With this student, Mr. James," says Mr. Haldane, " I immediately entered into conversation respecting the gospel, of which I found him profoundly ignorant, although in a state of mind that showed he was willing to receive information. Next morning he came with another student, Charles Rieu, equally in darkness with himself. I questioned them respecting their per- sonal hope of salvation, and the foundation of that hope. Had they been trained in the schools of Socrates or Plato, and enjoyed no other means of instruction, they could scarcely have been more ignorant of the doctrines of the gospel. They had, in fact, learned more of the opinions of the heathen philosophers than of the doctrines of the Saviour and his apostles. To the Bible and its contents their studies had never been directed. After some conversation, they became convinced of their ignorance of the Scriptures, and exceedingly desirous of information. I therefore postponed my intended departure from Geneva." The two students above named soon brought six others, with whom Mr. Haldane had frequent and long conversations. Others continuing to come, Mr. Haldane ajneed to meet them regularly three times a week for religious IS* 174 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Notwithstanding his unbounded liberality, however, Robert Haldane was not permitted to escape the slanderous insinuations by which Satan usually tries to impair the influence of those who seek to promote the interests of the kingdom of God. Thus he was charged with making money by renting the seats in the taber- nacles. But the truth was, the income arising from the rent of the seats in the tabernacles went to the support of the preachers and of the seminaries. Thus Mr Ewing was to have two hundred pounds annually, Mr. Haldane agreeing to make up this amount if there should be any deficiency in the amount derived from seat-rents, and allowing him two hundred pounds ad- instruction ; and taking up the Epistle to the Romans, he expounded to them this important portion of the word of God during the whole winter, and until the dose of the session in the following summer, having in his class nearly all the students of theology, and instructing in the evening, and often till late at night, other students attending at Geneva, as well as a number of the resi- dent citizens of the place, of both sexes, who desired to be informed re- specting the gospel. Meanwhile, the pastors and professors in the Faculty began to preach openly against Mr. Haldane's views, and to insist upon their own. They taught that the Saviour was the first of created beings ; that the gospel was useful, but not indispensable to salvation, and various other speculations, Arian, Socinian and Arminian. Mr. Haldane, on the other hand, collecting their arguments, proved to the students their fallaciousness, and showed that their tenets were entirely inconsistent with the Scriptures. The controversies thus maintained naturally gave rise to great excitement, and to sundry persecutions on the part of the clergy. Notwithstanding all these oppositions, however, great good was effected. Many of the students, and among them, M. Malan, F. Monod, Henri Pytt, and Merle D'Aubigne, were called not only to comprehend the true nature of Christ's salvation, but to suffer for his name such privations and indignities as the clergy could inflict ; the latter, D'Aubigne, being refused ordination and compelled to leave his native city, in order to finish his studies at Berlin ; and it is largely to these labors of Robert Haldane at Geneva that the continent of Europe was blessed with that religious awakening by which, through the subsequent ministrations of the above-named students, with those of Adolphe Monod, Tholuck, Julius Muller and others, a mighty barrier has been erected against that flood of Rationalism which threatened to obliterate all the teachings nf the Lutheran Reformation.
MR. E WING'S DrS AGREEMENT. 1 75 ditional while he was teacher of the seminary. Not- withstanding all, however, groundless complaints were not wanting on the part even of some who co-operated with Mr. Haldane in his religious enterprises. Thus even Mr. jEtving, with his large and wealthy con- gregation, seemed to think that Mr. Haldane should make a present of the Glasgow Tabernacle to the church, and both were quite dissatisfied when he, who had his own views with regard to the best appropriation of his means, would only agree to give one thousand pounds of the purchase-money, desiring to devote the other two thousand pounds to the printing and circula- tion of the Scriptures. It was during Mr. Campbell's residence at Glasgow that the unhappy difficulty be- tween Robert Haldane and Mr. Ewing, arising partly from this affair, created a good deal of public excite- ment. After hearing the matter, however, at Mr. Ewing's, Mr. Campbell was very decided in his con- viction that Mr. Ewing was in the wrong. The latter had previously become dissatisfied because Mr. Hal- dane, being not well pleased with certain divergencies from his views of religious reform which began to be entertained by Mr. Ewing, had removed the Glasgow Seminary from under his care to Edinburgh ; 3'et on Mr. Haldane's part, these divergencies, which had re- spect chiefly to church order and church ordinances, seemed to occasion no diminution of Christian regard for Mr. Ewing, with whom he still desired to remain or terms of religious fellowship.
176 DOCTRINAL VIEWS. 177 to imitate the example of the former, he felt that he might, at least, follow that of the latter in preaching the gospel without charge. Hence it was that, when he commenced his public ministry, he resolved that he would preach the gospel without fee or reward. To the purpose then formed he steadfastly adhered through- out his subsequent life, not only demanding nothing for his services as a preacher, but defraying his own traveling expenses, fn all his many tours through the greater part of the United States, as well as in Canada and in Europe. As it respects the doctrines taught by the Haldanes, he found that they did not fully approve the views of Glas, Sandeman and of Walker, which were at that time much discussed, and with which he had himself become somewhat acquainted. The Haldanes regarded the writings of Glas and Sandeman as exhibiting, here and there, noble views of the freeness of the gospel and the simplicity of faith ; but to their system, as a whole, and especially to the intolerant spirit manifested by them and their followers, both the brothers were always strongly opposed. With regard to faith, they regarded Sandeman's view, that it was the mere assent of the understanding to testimony, and that faith in Christ did not differ from faith in any other historical personage, as frigid and defective. They regarded it as resting, indeed, upon the evidence furnished by the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures, but as embracing not only the understanding but the heart ; and both of them have remarked that "trust or confidence in Christ seemed substantially to express the meaning of the term." This simple and comprehensive view was that which Mr. Campbell, in his subsequent religious histor}'', himself adopted, and continued to advocate during his
VOL. I. — M 178 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
entire life. Amidst his numerous controversies, indeed, he was often obliged, in contending against the populai errors upon the subject, to insist upon the absolute necessity of evidence, and to assert, most truthfully, that where there was no evidence, there could be no faith ; yet he ever regarded true faith in Christ as implying a willingness to submit to his authority, and as consisting in a heartfelt, personal trust in Him as the Son of God and the appointed Saviour of mankind. The object of the Haldanes had not been the inculca- tion of new tenets. They wished rather to awaken the community from their apathy to greater religious zeal, and had no idea, in the beginning, of separating from the Church of Scotland, with whose doctrines, as ex- hibited in the Westminster Confession, they substantially agreed. They had, however, simpler views of the gospel, and labored especially to impress upon men the divinity, dignity and the glory of Christ, and the all-sufficiency of the work of salvation which he ac- complished ; and to enforce the great principle of justi- fication by faith. Thus far, their reformation was a revival of that of Luther and Calvin, from whose spirit and teaching Protestants in general had at that time greatly departed. When finally compelled, through the opposition and intractability of the clergy, to form a separate congregation, they were unexpectedly led to enter upon a new chapter of church reform, and from the teaching of the Scriptures, to which they were accustomed to refer as the only authority, to adopt the independent or congregational form of church govern- ment. It was to Mr. Ewing, whose mind was much engaged with this particular subject, that this change was mainly due. He had advocated it before in the Missionary Magazine, and in his religious sentiments DISCC/SS/OJVS OF CHURCH ORDER. 179 generally he was much more favorable to the views of Glas and Sandeman than were the Haldanes. Indeea, his introduction of the works of Sandeman into the sem- inary at Glasgow gave umbrage to the Haldanes, who protested against it, and it was one of the reasons for the transfer of the seminary to Edinburgh. When the new churches were first formed, it was adopted as a principle that ecclesiastical usages should be conformed to the practice of the apostolic churches. Hence, while the Scottish National Church attended to the Lord's Supper only twice a year, Mr. Ewing first introduced, at Glasgow, the practice of celebrating it every Lord's Day. This was soon after adopted by the Edinburgh church, and the rest of the new churches. Mr. Ewing next proposed a weekly church-meeting, besides the Lord's Day meeting, which was to be for social wor- ship and mutual exhortation. Various publications were at this time made upon the subject of church order, as Mr. Ewing's "Rules of Church Government ;" "Reasons for separating from the Church of Scotland," by Dr. Innes ; a pamphlet by Alexander Carson, con- taining his reasons for separating from the Presby- terians, and a volume by James A. Haldane, published in 1805, entitled "Views of the Social Worship of the First Churches," which quickly ran through two edi- tions. To these publications, replies were made by the Rev. Mr. Brown of Langton and others, which occa- sioned other pamphlets from J. A. Haldane, Mr. Ewing and Mr. Carson. Thus the subject of church order came to occupy a large share of attention, and gave rise to much discussion and disagreement among the members of the churches. It was about this time that William Ballantine published his "Treatise on the Elder's Office," which brought matters to a crisis, and
180 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, was the means of producing a widespread division in the new churches. In this treatise he insisted upon a plurality of elders in every church, and upon the great importance of mutual exhortation on the Lord's Day, as the means of obtaining them. Mr. Ballantine had first been officiating in Thurso, but afterward in the Tabernacle at Elgin, where he had under his charge one of the classes of missionary students supported by Robert Haldane. The adoption of his views by the Haldanes, and the debates which they occasioned, caused great disaffection amongst the churches ; and when J. A. Haldane, during the spring previous to Alexander Campbell's visit to Glasgow, informed his congregation at Edinburgh that he could no longer conscientiously baptize children, and, in the month of April, was himself immersed, the division, which had been for some time imminent, immediately occurred in the church at Edinburgh. Some of the members went back to the Established Church ; some to Mr. Aikman's church in College street, while a considerable number concluded to becorne a separate church, and rented a room to meet in. The remainder, about two hundred In number, remained with J. A. Haldane, agreeing to make the question of baptism a matter of forbearance. It was not, indeed, so much the change in J. A. Hal- dane's views of baptism, as the doctrine urged by Ballantine and others that it was not only the privilege but the duty of the members in general to speak in the church on the Lord's Day, that was the real cause of division. This practice, which had been introduced several years before, under the title of "church order," had been found largely productive of church disorder, and threatened to destroy completely the pastoral office. Many debates and dissensions, and some local schisms.
CONGREGATIONAL DISSENSIONS. 181
as at New Castle and London, had, indeed, already been produced by thus allowing incompetent members (for in these cases the most ignorant are generally the most forward) to undertake the office of public teachers and exhorters — an office which, in the primitive Church, could safely be exercised, under apostolic direction, only by those possessed of spiritual gifts. These dissensions, and the division which took place immediately after J. A. Haldane's immersion, were earnestly deprecated by both the brothers, and sin- cerely regretted by many pious men in all the religious parties, who regarded, approvingly, the remarkable success, thus far, of the effort to awaken a deeper re- ligious interest among the people. The division spread rapidly from Edinburgh through all the churches of the connection ; and, as the pecuniary assistance of Robert Haldane could no longer be consistently continued to those who were opposed to his views of church reform, and who, with Mr. Ewing and the leaders of the seceding party, refused to have visible communion any longer with those who adhered to the Haldanes, this great effort to establish Congregationalism in Scotland was deprived of that support which had hitherto so largely contributed to its success. Accordingly, the cause of Independency from this time languished, whilst the prominent religious parties, who had, at length, become awakened to more correct views of the gospel, and to greater earnestness, began to exert a better influence ; and, under the leadership of Chalmers and others, to preach the gospel in greater purity, and to adopt various successful methods of promoting religious knowledge. This disruption among the Independents connected with the Haldanes had taken place during the year 16
182 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
preceding Mr. Campbell's attendance at the Glasgow University, and the questions involved were still fre- quent subjects of discussion at Mr. Ewing's. The Hal- danes, who regarded the preaching of Christ crucified as the great essential matter, and wished all differences about church order and church ordinances to be matters of forbearance, continued to persevere in the course they had adopted. Believing that there should be a plurality of qualified elders in every church, Robert Haldane had consented to act for a time, with his brother James, in the church at Edinburgh. In the course of a few months, he himself abandoned pedo- baptist views, and was immersed. The same change took place also with various other leading men in the connection. John Campbell had long since been im- mersed, and was now acting as pastor at Kingsland Chapel, near London, where he continued to labor for thirty-six years, with the exception of five years which he spent as a missionary and explorer in Africa. Mr. Innes, also, who came to Edinburgh, soon after the disruption, to preach for a portion of the members who had broken off' from the Tabernacle, in a few months, likewise, changed his views on the subject of baptism, and was immersed.* The same change had occurred • The incident which hastened the decision of Dr. Innes, who was already unsettled on the subject of baptism, is thus related by one familiar with the facts : " While he was pastor of the church at Barnard's rooms, one of the deacons, having occasion to be on the top of a building, fell to the ground and was taken up dead. The widow of this man made application to Dr. Innes to have her child sprinkled. The woman, however, was not a Chi is- tian, and Dr. Innes told her that he would not baptize the child, as the fathei was dead, and she made no profession of religion. The woman replied that he had baptized all the children, not on her account, but because of their father, and that this child was as much entitled to be baptized as the others. Dr. Innes, never having had a case like this before, concluded to bring it before the church for their consideration, and told the woman to await theii CHANGES TiSr REGARD TO BAPTISM. 183 with William Stevens, who, as before related, had suc- ceeded John Campbell as teacher in the Edinburgh Seminary. The acute and critical Dr. Carson, also, had experienced the same change of views on the sub- ject, and now occupied the same position as the Hal- danes, believing that immersion only was baptism, but in his church at Tubbermore not making it a term of decision. When the subject was introduced, about one-half of the church were for baptizing the child, and the other half were opposed to it During the discussion, the fourteenth verse of the seventh chapter of First Corinth- ians, was again and again recited as proof for admission of the child to bap- tism. One side insisted that this child was as ' holy' as the other children who had been baptized in the lifetime of the father. To this it was replied, that the holiness of the child was dependent on the life of the father, and that his death put an end to it ; that as the child nmv was no longer ' holy,' and the mother an unbeliever, it would be a profanation of the ordinance to apply it to such a child. The other party replied that it was not on account of the believing husband that the child was entitled to baptism, but accord- ing to the text under discussion, which said that 'the unbelieving wife was sanctified by the husband,' it seemed clear that the holiness of the child was to be ascribed to the wife, for the text said, 'else were your children unclean, but now are they holy.' Why ? Because the unbelieving wife was sanctified. To this it was replied again, that if both holiness and sanctification were derived in that way, then the unbelieving woman was as much entitled to be baptized as the child. " During this curious discussion, one in the church said that as sanctifica- tion and holiness proceeded from nothing this side of the throne of God, and that as nothing they could say could either sanctify the woman before them or make the child ' holy,' they would act a wise part by giving up the sub- ject altogether. This was a matter that could not be settled by the meeting of one evening, and another appointment being made, the crowd that came together were entertained for hours with a general discussion on the subject of infant baptism. The text in Corinthians was given up as having nothing to do with baptism, and Dr. Innes announced at the close that he could no longer baptize infants — that a Baptist church had the advantage of them, inasmuch as nobody made application to it that did not profess conversion, and was thus able to answer for himself; that during the discussion not one example or precept for infant baptism had been adduced. As much stress was laid on the Abrahamic Covenant in that controversy. Dr. Innes pub- lished a work on the subject, 'Eugenio and Epinetus, or Conversations on Infant Baptism.' which gave great satisfaction to many an inquirer." i8a memoirs of ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. communion. A great number of the Glasite Indepen- dents had, indeed, a number of years previously, adopted immersion, and becoming very strict in their views of communion and of church disciphne, had given rise to the Scotch Baptists, who found in Archi- bald McLean a very able champion of their principles. It was the works of McLean that had revolutionized the views of William Jones, the author of the History of the Waldenses, who was baptized at Chester in 1786, and who was at this time (1809) presiding over the Scotch Baptist Church in London. A similar change of views in regard to baptism had occurred among a party of Independents, gathered together at Glasgow by the "Benevolent Magistrate," the father-in-law of Robert Owen — David Dale,* who had died at Glasgow * Mr. Dale was a native of Ayrshire, and had received careful religious training in boyhood, and being thus instructed at home in the principles of Divine truth was, from his youth, noted for seriousness and piety. On quitting the paternal roof, he first became a hand-loom weaver at Paisley, where he was connected with the congregation of Dr. Wotherspoon. Manifesting great zeal in all matters connected with the interest of the gospel, he became the intimate friend of Dr. Wotherspoon, and, when the doctor removed to America, was his regular correspondent. Removing to Glasgow in 1761, he after a time established a prosperous business in the linen-yarn trade. The introduction of the cotton manufacture depriving him, at length, of this branch of trade, he became agent for Sir Richard Arkwright & Co. for the sale of cotton yarns. Soon afterward he engaged in the manufacture of yarns, first as partner and then as sole proprietor of the cotton mills at New Lanark. Here he erected neat houses, with a garden attached to each, for the workmen, and put in force regulations to promote their health and morals and secure the education of their children, and his system proved so effec- tive that the " Lanark Mills" became an object of curiosity to travelers. Besides this, Mr. Dale became one of the magistrates of Glasgow, and in the time of the dearth in 1800 he signalized himself, as is related by his biographer, by the scheme he originated and carried into execution of im- porting a large cargo of foreign corn at his own expense, and selling it to the people at prime cost, and, in many instances, giving it gratis. In consequence of this public-spirited and seasonable act, he obtained the name of the " Benevolent Magistrate." THE BENEVOLENT MAGISTRATE. 185 about two and a half years before Mr. Campbell took up his sojourn there. This eminent man, who, by his genius and enterprise, had accumulated great wealth, which he devoted largely to Christian enterprises, had been brought up in the Church of Scotland, but was gradually led to reject creeds and other human com- positions, as possessed of any authority in matters of faith and duty, and to appeal to the Scriptures alone. He was led to this view through the influence of Mr. Barclay, a Scotch clergyman, who founded the sect ol the Bereans, so called because, after the example of the When he became an Independent, and adopted weekly communion, he, with a number of friends, hired a room in which they met for worship, there being no religious body at that time in Glasgow coinciding with them in sentiment. In 1769 one of his friends built a meeting-house, and a church was organized by the election of a number of elders, one of whom was Mr. Dale. His modest nature shrunk from so great a responsibility, and it was only after a protracted mental struggle, which seriously affected his health, that he was at length prevailed upon to undertake the duties of the office. The successive divisions which subsequently occurred in the church greatly annoyed and grieved him, but " Mr. Dale continued," says his biographer, " unshaken in his attachment to the Independent form of church govern- ment He prosecuted his ministry amongst the remaining members, to whom he was instant in season and out of season. His flow of worldly prosperity had no influence either in contracting the range of his benevolence or deadening the vitality of his religious affections. His charity was exten- sive and unostentatious ; and whilst he, of course, directed his first attention to those of his poorer brethren in the church — the household of faith — he was a liberal supporter of all, and an active director in many of the philan- thropic and missionary institutions of his day. During several of his later years he felt the weight of increasing infirmities, although he was not con- fined until within a few weeks of his death. Feeling his end approaching, he sent for some leading members of his church, whom he exhorted to remain steadfast in their Christian profession, and gave them the dying testimony of his faith in the gospel, asked their forgiveness if at any time he had given them offence, and prayed for a blessing on them ; after which, as the elders of Ephesus did to Paul, they 'fell upon his neck and kissed him, sorrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should see his face no more.' Exhausted with this parting scene, he rapidly sank, and the following day, the 17th of April, 1806, he departed, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, deeply regretted by all parties." 16* l86 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ancient Bereans, they professed to build their religious system on the Scriptures alone. This party first as- sembled as a separate society in Edinburgh, in 1773. Mr. Dale was led by his new principles to adopt Inde- pendency, and he became finally the pastor of the church thus formed at Glasgow. Contention soon after arose about points of church order and discipline ; such as the regular use of the Lord's Prayer, rising to sing, the audible utterance of "amen" by the worshipers, etc. A portion of the church broke off and joined the Glas- ites, and Mr. Dale continued with the remainder, who advocated mutual forbearance in regard to things nol clearly revealed, and who continued for some time in harmony. But difTerences of opinion again manifested themselves — First, In regard to the right of elders to contract second marriages, which some alleged was forbidden by Paul's precept, that the elder was to be "the husband of one wife," but which Mr. Dale re garded as merely a prohibition of polygamy ; Second In respect to a community of goods, which was strenu- ously advocated by the poorer members, but which Mr. Dale held was only a temporary and partial practice of the primitive Church, and nowhere commanded ; and. Third, Respecting infant baptism, which a large num- ber protested against as unscriptural. These latter, among whom was Mrs. Dale, being unable, through conscientious scruples, to yield this latter point, a new secession occurred, Mr. Dale continuing with the re- maining members, and devoting the remainder of his life and his great wealth to missionary and philanthropic purposes. It may appear somewhat singular that, at this period, none of the questions connected with infant baptism and immersion which had thus caused so many divisions INTIMACY WITH GREVILLE EWING. 187 in Scotland, and in regard to which Mr. Campbell became afterward so distinguished, engaged, at this time, his attention in the least. This may be accounted for, however, by the fact that immersion was not made a term of communion by the Haldanes, and was never urged upon any, being left as a matter of choice to private and individual consideration. In the next place, Mr. Ewing and his coadjutor, the amiable and accom- plished Dr. Ward] aw, who had left the Burghers and was now an Independent minister, residing in Glasgow, and who was often at Mr. Ewing's, were both vehe- mently opposed to immersion, and earnest advocates of infant baptism, in favor of which they both subse- quently wrote treatises, which were severely criticised and confuted by Mr. Ewing's former classmate at the University, Alexander Carson of Tubbermore. Under the circumstances, therefore, this particular subject was not likely to become a matter of discussion at Mr. Ewing's, in his family or among his guests, and Mr. Campbell's attention seems to have been entirely con- fined to the main purposes of the reformation under- taken by the Haldanes, and to those principles of Independency and church order in which Mr. Ewing was particularly interested. Mr. Ewing frequently invited parties of students to his house along with Alexander, who was greatly impressed with his piety and learning during these interviews, as well as from hearing his lectures and discourses, which he took the opportunity of doing frequently on Sunday evenings, having to attend service in the day-time at the Seceder church. Mr. Ewing still preached in the spacious building which had been used as a circus. The pulpit was in the centre of the building, and Mr. Ewing's audience generally consisted 1 88 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of from one thousand to two thousand persons, though the building would have held a much greater number. Mr. Ewing was a very fine lecturer, and very popular both as a man and as a preacher, as was also Mr. Wardlaw, who frequently officiated. Between them and the Seceder preacher, Mr. Montre, there was a considerable contrast, for the latter, though a good man, and influential and even popular in his party, was a prosy speaker. His church was large, and during his attendance, Alexander noted down various criticisms and remarks upon his delivery, with which he seems to have been by no means pleased. He therefore availed himself of all the opportunities that presented themselves for "occasional hearing," and thus heard Mr. Ewing frequently, sometimes Mr. Mitchel at Anderston, as well as Dr. Balford at George's Square, and Dr. Wall at the Salt Market, with all of whom he formed an agreeable personal acquaintance. He heard also a number of probationers in all the churches. The opportunity which he thus enjoyed at Glasgow, of hearing preachers of different denominations, and the intimacy he enjoyed with them, tended greatly to foster his native independence of mind, and to release him from the denominational influences of his religious education — an effect which was, doubtless, facilitated by the fact that his revered father, to whose religious sentiments he was accustomed to pay the utmost defer- ence, was now separated from him by the wide Atlantic. It was, however, by the facts relating to the Haldanes, so often recounted to him by Mr. Ewing and others, that, as formerly intimated, the change in his religious views was chiefly due. He was particularly impressed with the persistent opposition of the clergy of the various establishments to every overture for reforma- CONSCIENTIOUS MISGIVINGS. 189 tion ; with the unscrupulous methods they often resorted to to hinder the progress of the truths they refused to admit, and the disposition they constantly manifested to exercise the power which they possessed in an arbitrary manner. He became, therefore, gradually, more and more favorable to the principles of Congregationalism entertained by Mr. Ewing, which secured an entire emancipation from the control of domineering Synods and General Assemblies, and which seemed to him much more accordant with primitive usage. At the same time, he did not feel himself at liberty to abandon rashly the cherished religious sentiments of his youth, and the Seceder Church to which his father and the family belonged, and in which he had thought it his duty to be a regular communicant. He was in this unsettled state of mind as the semi- annual communion season of the Seceders approached, and his doubts in regard to the character of such relig- ious establishments occasioned him no little anxiety ot mind concerning the course proper for him to pursue. His conscientious misgivings as to the propriety of sanctioning any longer, by participation, a religious system which he disapproved, and, on the other hand, his sincere desire to comply with all his religious ob- ligations, created a serious conflict in his mind, from which he found it impossible to escape. At the time of preparation, however, he concluded that he would be in the way of his duty, at least, and that he would go to the elders, and get a metallic token, which every one who wished to communicate had to obtain, and that he would use it or not, afterward, as was sometimes done. The elders asked for his credentials as a mem- ber of the Secession Church, and he informed them that his membership was in the Church in Ireland, and that 190 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. he had no letter. They replied that, in that case, it would be necessary for him to appear before the session and to be examined. He accordingly appeared before them, and being examined, received the token. The hour at which the administration of the Lord's Supper was to take place found him still undecided, and, as there were about eight hundred communicants, and some eight or nine tables to be served in succession, he concluded to wait until the last table, in hopes of being able to overcome his scruples. Failing in this, how- ever, and unable any longer conscientiously to recog- nize the Seceder Church as the Church of Christ, he threw his token upon the plate handed round, and when the elements were passed along the table, declined to partake with the rest. It was at this moment that the struggle in his mind was completed, and the ring of the token, falling upon the plate, announced the instant at which he renounced Presbyterianism for ever — the leaden voucher becoming: thus a token not of com- munion but of separation. This change, however, was as yet confined to his own heart. He was yet young, and thought it unbecoming to make known publicly his objections, and as he had fully complied with all the rules of the Church, he thought it proper to receive at his departure the usual certificate of good standing. At the close of the University session in the month of May, as there was no prospect of obtaining for some time a suitable vessel to transport the family to America, he was urged by some of his Glasgow friends to go to Helensburgh as tutor for their families, who were to spend the summer at this agreeable watering- place. He accordingly went thither in the beginning of June, and having obtained pleasant lodgings, taught a number of families, among which were those of Mr. SOyOURN AT HELENSBURGH. 191 Monteith, Mr. R. Burns, Mr. Wardlaw, Mr. Buchan- non and others. Helensburgh seemed to him a very beautiful, healthful place, and a fine seaport. It lies in Dumbartonshire, nearly opposite Greenock, on the north shore of the Clyde, which here forms an estuary some six miles in width. The most of his acquaintances here were ladies, the male members of these families being occupied in Glasgow during the greater part of the week. Here, freed from the routine and confine- ment of the college course, he spent some time very delightfully in the midst of a highly cultivated and refined society, and in instructing the young ladies an( others who were his pupils.* His only regret was, that, from the demands made upon his time in teaching, as well as by necessary social calls and the evening walks of parties of ladies, for whom the escort of the youthful tutor was constantly in requisition in order to visit the shady groves and to enjoy the fine prospects from various points in the neighborhood of the village, he had but little time for the reading he desired to ac- complish. He by no means, however, neglected his religious improvement, as various pious reflections and annotations upon passages of Scripture, written down during this period, evince. His naturally lively tem,- perament, tempered by religious sobriety, his fine powers of conversation, and his agreeable manners rendered him a pleasant companion to all ; and the happy associations which he enjoyed at Helensburgh, for a brief period, seem to have thrown over this por- tion of his life a charm which he felt quite reluctant to dissolve, when, after a five weeks' residence, a favor- able opportunity of emigrating, in a ship from Green- * Among his young lady pupils are mentioned the names of the Misses Hutton, Buchannon, Keltin, Mitchel, Montusha and Burns. rpa MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ock, presented itself, and he had to return to Glasgow in order to make preparations for the voyage. Before leaving Helensburgh, however, being requested by one of his friends, a Mr. K g, to write something for him as a memento, he endeavored to express his feel- ings in the following lines : *' On a beautiful vale adjacent to the seaport village where I often spent the evening hours. " Where, gently pointing to the eastern skies, Grove-clad Camcascan hills high-tow'ring rise, Thence, from a spring, Drummora gently flows, And, as it wends its way, still larger grows, Till in a murmuring brook it swiftly glides And hides its treasures in the ceaseless tides. Along its winding course a valley lies. Where, all around, in gay luxuriance rise The spreading trees, the lowly plant and flower ; The hazel copse, the shrub, and woodbine bower — There, in its golden beauty, smiles the broom. And, close beside, the myrtle in full bloom. There the young elm and beech, in shady rows. With other shrubs, entwine their pliant boughs, And form the cool retreat, the sweet alcove, The seats of pleasure and the haunts of love ; And there how oft at even have I seen The fair ones sporting through their alleys green ! And heard them sweet address each herb and flower ; Tell this one's beauties, that one's genial power ; With deep botanic skill on every leaf descant, And all their virtues in poetic numbers chant ! How, at their coming, did the grove rejoice ! The birds, to charm them, strain their mellow voice ! The flowers, to please them, with each other vie 1 The trees, to shade them, lift their heads on high 1 How did the hills return their accents sweet And in soft echoes all their joy repeat ! How did the brook that murmured harsh below, Now change its movement and more gently flow ! Thus would they sit, near yon translucid spring, Tell their glad tales and then alternate sing. Here cheerful sport, till evening dews were feared. And moonbeams trembling in the brook appeared ; DEPARTURE FROM GLASGOW. I93 Then would they homeward bend their winding way, And through the groves in many a gambol play. Fair spot ! and wilt thou not like me soon changt ? And in thy bowers the fair ones cease to range ? Will not thy flowers, that with each other vie Beneath thy shades, soon droop their heads and die ? For me, no more I'll wander through thy glades, Seek thy close coverts, and thy cooling shades. No more within thy shady bowers I'll spend my lonely evening hours ; And now, you groves and vales and lucid well, And all you beauteous seats of mirth, farewell !" These lines afford a fair specimen of his skill in versification, and while they betray the absence of that delicacy of ear which readily detects redundant or defective measure, they, at the same time, exhibit poetic fancy and feeling. It required about a fortnight in Glasgow to make the necessary preparation for the voyage, and then a further delay was occasioned because the ship in which he had taken passage conditionally, the Latonia, Cap- tain McCray, master, from New York and bound there, was, with all other vessels in part, detained by an order from government, until a warlike expedition then fitting out, the destination of which was to be kept secret, should have time to leave the coast. At length, on the 31st of July, with much regret, he took leave of his many warm friends at Glasgow, whose memory he continued to cherish through life, especially that of Mr. and Mrs. Ewing, with whom he was most intimate. He regarded Mrs. Ewing as a very pious and excellent Christian lady, and in after years often spoke with much sympathy of the sad accident by which, in 1828, she was suddenly deprived of life.* Passing down to ♦ In the summer of the year referred to, Mr. and Mrs. Ewing, with a party of friends, had gone to visit the falls of Clyde. Their carriage being over- vou I. — N 17 194 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Greenock b}- the Flyboat with his mother and the family, they arrived there so late at night that it was with some difficulty they could find lodgings ; but hav- ing at length succeeded, two days more were spent at Greenock in completing their preparations, and at length, everything being on board, the vessel weighed anchor on the 3d August, 1809, and they prepared to bid adieu to Scotland, in which, from the time of the shipwreck, they had spent just three hundred da3^s. turned, they were all precipitated down a steep declivity, and Mrs. Ewing sustained so much injury that she survived only a few days. Mr. Ewing never wholly recovered from the shock of this bereavement, which was soon followed by other severe afflictions. Not long after, a stroke of paralysis deprived him of his physical though not of his mental powers, and in a few days " he fell asleep" so gently that, in the words of Dr. Wardlaw, who preached the funeral sermon, " it could hardly be called death — it was the imperceptible cessation of life, a breathing out of his spirit, delightful emblem of his entering into peace." CHAPTER XII. Departure — Incidents at Sea — The Ocean — The New VVoild — Df. Maiuii -• Journey over the Mountains — Reunion. THE Frith of Clyde is, in many respects, ill adapted for the purposes of navigation, especially as it regards vessels depending on sails. Its channel is narrow ; it is exposed to squalls ; rendered dangerous by shallows, and can be safely navigated only when the wind blows from certain directions. The ship Latonia, however, after stopping till next day, August 4, 1809, at the bank below Greenock, weighed anchor for the last time, and although the wind was by no means the most favorable, being from the N. W., managed to get out of the Clyde, and into the Channel. It was not until Saturday, the 5th, that a fair and gentle breeze from the right quarter carried the vessel, in a few hours, out of the North Channel, and past the dimly-seen northern coast of Ireland, so that on the following day, which was Sunday, about twelve o'clock, they were fairly out of sight of land on the bosom of the Atlantic. Alexander was now for three da3^s confined by sea- sickness, and had no sooner recovered sufficiently to appear again on deck than he learned to his surprise that the ship had sprung a leak. The sailors were greatly dismayed and depressed, believing that it would be with great difficulty and much extra labor that they would be able to make land again, and fearing that, as 105 196 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. there were only eight hands on board, beside the mate, the cook and the cabin boy, they would be unable to manage the vessel. Under these circumstances, Alex- ander went down into the cabin and entreated the captain, who was at this time unwell, to give orders to put back, but the latter, too well aware of the uncer- tainty of the wind and the perils of the Scottish coast, determined to continue the voyage. The pumps accord- ingly were set to work, with great difficulty, owing to the tar which had found its way into them from the pre- vious cargo, and earnest efforts were made to counteract the leak. On the following day, Monday, the 7th, there was a very heavy gale, and the sea ran so high that, amidst the tossings of the ship, the leak was almost for- gotten, and the passengers retired at night, uncertain as to what might be their fate before morning. About mid- night, however, the wind fell, and Alexander, together with the other male passengers, went to work to assist the sailors at the pumps, when he found by experiment that it would require ten minutes out of every hour, or four hours of hard work out of the twenty-four, to keep the water from gaining. During the following week the wind proved very favorable, blowing gently from the N. and N. E., and as the vessel sped along its way, Alexander look gical interest in observing the denizens of the mighty deep, which frequently appeared around the vessel. Efforts were made to catch the black-fish by means of small harpoons, but without success. On one occasion the captain, while leaning over a rope to strike at a por- poise, was so unlucky as to drop his watch into the sea. This week they spoke a vessel bound from Trinidad to Dublin, and on Saturday, August 19, found themselves in long. 34° lat. 42°. They spoke also a vessel out DANGERS AT SEA. 197 fifteen days from Boston, bound to Liverpool. On the Tuesday of the following week they had a very severe gale with the wind from N. N. E., accompanied with sudden squalls, one of which, about eleven o'clock, carried away the foretopmast. The ship ran before the wind all day, rolling heavily for want of the fore- sail ; but the wind then subsiding, the sailors were employed for two days in fitting up a mast in the room of the one lost. From this time until the 26th their progress was delayed by head-winds and calms. On the Sunday during this period Alexander witnessed, to him, the novel sight of a burial at sea. As the parents of the deceased, a child of one Andrew McDonald, a passenger on board, had desired a coffin, contrary to the custom of interment at sea, and sufficient weight had not been placed in it to sink it when committed to the deep, it floated ofT astern, and was painfully watched for a considerable time while it remained in view. Toward the close of this week the weather became again rough. " On Friday night," he says in his journal, "a dreadful storm arose, and the lightning flashed from pole to pole. We were very apprehensive of danger, but He who rules all things made the wind cease about twelve o'clock." Again he records: "Saturday night, 26th. An awful lightning contmued for a consider- able time, although accompanied with no noise of thunder. The glare would continue sometimes for a quarter of an hour without intermission. This ap- peared to us very ominous, but on Sabbath morning, 27th, the wind began to rise in a fearful manner from the south, and immediately the most terrific squall ever seen by any individual on board ensued. A thick, small rain accompanied it, and the spray blew over the 17* 198 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. vessel to such a degree that one could not discern another at half the ship's length." The fury of the storm continued to increase until every one on board apprehended certain destruction, and the most experi- enced seamen said they thought every moment would be their last. The mizzenmast was ordered to be cut down, but it was found impossible to effect it. The sails that had not been furled were all torn to pieces ; the foretopmast was again carried off, and the main- topmast would probably have shared the same fate had they not succeeded in taking it down. Soon after, the quarter-railing was broken off by a heavy sea, and the tiller-rope having given way, the ship became un- manageable for a time, until they succeeded in replacing it. After nine o'clock, to the great joy of all, the storm began to abate, the wind veering to N. W. ; the sea, however, continued to run for a long while "moun- tain high." They were happy to find that the hull of the ship had sustained no material damage, though the bowsprit was cracked half way through at its thickest part. "Such," he adds, "was that dreadful storm, and such its effects, but thanks be to that God who raises the winds and quells the tumults of the seas, that it did not prove fatal to us all ; and may He out of His great mercy, bless it as a fatherly reproof to us all, and in- struct us by it to be in a habitual preparation for death when He calls for us." In view of his deliverance on this occasion, he renewed his vows of fealty to His service, and again solemnly consecrated his life to the ministry of the gospel. On the following morning about eight o'clock, the sea still running high, they discerned a ship to the northward, steering toward the west. Observing the wrecked appearance of the Latonia, she soon came
DENIZENS OF THE DEEP. 199
alongside to offer assistance. She proved to be the Francis, Captain Taylor, who, happening to be an acquaintance of Captain McCray, kindly gave him a spare foresail, which was greatly needed. Soon after, the Francis passed out of sight, the Latonia being unable, for want of canvas, to keep her company. For several days afterward they had unpleasant weather, with occasional squalls and head-winds. At length, on the 4th of September, the wind became fair, and the ship was borne along at the rate of from six to eight miles an hour for several days. During this period, Alexander was much interested in the various aquatic animals, which now presented themselves in greater numbers. On one occasion, he was surprised with the appearance of a number of whales some thirty feet long, spouting up the water to a considerable height. He was delighted with the'beau- tiful dolphins which appeared around the ship, and was greatly entertained in seeing them frequently pursue the flying-fish, and sometimes with so much eagerness as to leap a considerable distance out of the water in order to seize them. These flying-fish he found to be from six to twelve inches in length, of a light color and furnished with pectoral fins, nearly as long as the body, by means of which they could project themselves from the water to a considerable distance, often striking against the sails and sides of the ship. The porpoises, who were almost constant attendants, he found to vary Irom three to seven feet in length, having a tapering snout and a comparatively small mouth. On some occa- sions, he amused himself in fishing, and with hook and line succeeded in catching a large dolphin, but in at- tempting to get it on board, the line broke and he failed to secure his prize. The captain, who was also
200 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, fond of the sport, struck a porpoise with a small har poon, which, liowever, by the rapid movement of the vessel, soon lost its hold, and was drawn in, bent like a piece of wire. On Tuesday, 12th September, they were hailed by an English vessel of twenty guns, from St. Croix to London. On Friday, 15th, they spoke the Brutus from New York, thirteen days out, and about this time got out of the Gulf Stream, in which they had been sailing for some days, and whose temperature Alexander was surprised to find so much higher than that of the sur- rounding ocean. On Tuesday, 19th, they spoke the ship Venice, bound from New York to Lisbon, and were informed that a non-intercourse bill had been passed, and that the English Ambassador had arrived at New York. Continuing their course with occasionally light Winds, they judged from the change in the color of the water from a bluish to a greenish hue, and from floating masses of rock weed and eelgrass, that they were not very far from land ; but, upon sounding, found no bottom at one hundred and twenty fathoms. On Saturday, 23d, a river bird, the kingfisher, appeared and flew, with weary wing, around the vessel, attempt- ing to alight upon the rigging. This evidence of near- ing land was hailed with great joy by the passengers and crew ; and was compared by Alexander in his journal to the "soul-reviving return of the dove to Noah's ark with the olive branch plucked ofif;" to the "return of spring;" to "good news from a distant land;" to the "dawn of day to the benighted traveler," and to the "cheering sound of liberty to the captive slave," so irksome his long confinement upon shipboard had become to his active temperament. On Monday, 25th of September, they were delayed by head-winds, OCCUPATION ON SHIPBOARD. 201 and upon sounding, found bottom at sixty fathoms. The captain to-day succeeded in harpooning a por- poise, which was brought on board. Alexander, ever observant and curious in the investigation of facts, found it to be four feet long and sixteen inches through, and that the fat parts of it, when boiled, produced about one gallon of oil. He also found that the liver and some of the fleshy parts were tender and palatable when cooked, and not much unlike fresh pork. To- ward evening, Black Island and No Man's Land be- came visible from the mast head, and upon sounding they found twenty-eight fathoms, when they wore ship, and sailed S. S. W. On Monday, they found them- selves off Sandy Hook, but the wind being unfavorable, it was not until Tuesday morning, September 26th, that they were enabled to approach the coast, w^hen, for the first time for fifty-one days, they obtained from the deck a distinct view of the land and of the trees upon the distant hills, a most joyful sight to the weary and storm- tossed voyagers. Notwithstanding, however, all the perils and discom- forts to which he had been subjected during the voyage, Alexander had found many sources of enjoyment. He had pursued his private studies and his usual readings and religious exercises with the family, as regularl}^ as the circumstances would permit. He sought every op- portunity of gaining information from the officers and passengers on the ship, and, when not thus engaged on deck, was never weary of contemplating the grandeur of the ocean. Filled with the loftiest conceptions of the Divine Majesty, he contemplated with awe the sublime displays of power exhibited in its boundless extent, its innumerable tenantry, its mighty waves and howling tempests, and, in the midst of his novel ex-
202 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. periences, gave expression to his feelings in the fol- lowing poem, under date of August i6, which he entitled " The Ocean." " Ere yet, in brightness, had the radiant sun In Eastern skies the course of day begun, Ere yet the stars in dazzling beauty shone, Or yet, from Chaos dark, old earth was won ; When darkness o'er the deep extended lay, And night still reigned, unbounded yet by day ; When awful stillness filled the boundless space, And wild confusion sat on Nature's face, Old Ocean then in silent youth did stray, And countless atoms on its bosom lay. Th' Almighty spoke ; its waters trembling fear'd They yawned ; and straight in haste dry land appear'd. The land he bounds ; and to the waters said, Here, Ocean, let thy haughty waves be stayed. They swelled ; and angry at their bounds, they luai. And pour their rage against the peaceful shore See Ocean's varied face, its wat'ry fields ; The dreadful terrors which it constant yields ; See liquid valleys sink, and mountains rise. Behold them, angry, tow'ring to the skies ; In pride they rear their hoary heads, and rage, And soon they sink, like man's declining age. See yonder azure wave, in beauteous trim, Rise from the mighty deep, and slowly swim ; From gay green youth to hoary age it tends. Then to the depths below it quick descends ; And where, ere while, it reared its lofty head The spot's unknown, another's in its stead. Next look where skies and seas converging tend ; See waters joined to waters without end ; See next thyself, borne on the mighty flood, Supported on the floating fragile wood. Behold thyself, the central point, and learn The Almighty's power and goodness to discern. Think on the depths, unfathomed yet below. Where living myriads wander to and fro ; In liquid caves their young ones sport and play. And through cerulean waves they wanton stray. Think of the countless species there that roam,
THE OCEAN. 203 The diffrence scant, and yet each knows its own. But as on earth they practice right and wrong, In seas, the weak fall victims to the strong ; And thus 'tis ordered through the scaly brood, That they by strength should win their daily food. Swift from the depths then let thy thoughts ascend, O'er Ocean's rolling waves thine eyes extend, When night comes on, and darkness veils the skies ; When black'ning clouds, and howling storms arise : When dismal horror broods upon the deep, And awful terrors wake the mind from sleep, See, from the poles, the forked lightnings fly. And paint in solemn glares the black'ning sky : Then, from the south, begin the dreadful blasts, Hark I how they roar amidst the groaning masts : See hemp and canvas to their force give way, And through the air in shreds and fragments stray. Lo ! expectation, wit, and judgment fail, Man's counsel and his arm no more avail. Despair and horror fill the aching breast, No time to think, and for the soul no rest. But while man, trembling, waits his dreadful fate, And thinks what unknovm scenes him soon await. At His command, who bids the tempest fly. The storm subsides, hope gladdens every eye ; The clouds clear off, and tranquil calm pervades, Save where the wat'ry mountains rear their heads ; But soon they sink when angry tempests cease, And all is changed to gentle, joyous peace. Now joy fills every breast and every eye, Speaks in each look, and dispels every sigh. Then, at th' approach of beauteous smiling mom, The sun's glad beams the sky and sea adorn. In heaven's high arch, tipp'd with the morning ray, The checker'd clouds smile at th' approach of day ; The radiant sun then lifts his glad'ning face, Unnumbered charms attend him in his race, The trembling waves reflect his golden rays. And, in the deep, what dazzling beauties blaze ! And see, when in the western wave he hides. In heaven's grand vault, the moon in beauty rides. All o'er the deep her silver radiance sheds. And in her light the stars soon hide their heads. Fair daughter of the lonely silent night ! Thou climb'st thv course alone, in radiance bright,
204. MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL,. Thy difTrent forms, thy varied face, how few On Ocean wide, thy dazzling beauties view ! And for that few, dost thou still wander here. Through the long night, their friendless souls to cheer 7 Thy face recalls the mem'ry of the past. In visions sweet, too pleasing far to last. Thou paint'st in lovely forms, in beauteous mien, Each happy hour we spent, each lovely scene. Whose sweet remembrance wakes the soul to joys, While fancy free the vacant heart decoys. Thus while we wander through the mighty deep Some foreign clime, some distant shore to seek. These mighty scenes our wand'ring minds engage. Too great to tell, or for th' historic page. But let us still that Power, that Goodness love, That rules o'er all below and all above ; Each of His creatures move at His command In the great sea, or on the spacious land." Soon after they had first obtained a clear view of the American coast, the wind fell, and the vessel could make no progress ; but at two o'clock on Wednesday morning a fine breeze from the N. sprung up, and carried them along the southern shore of Long Island at the rate of six or seven miles an hour. About day- light the Highlands of Neversink became visible, and soon after the Light House. Taking in a pilot oft Sandy Hook, they passed through the Narrows, and reached the Quarantine ground about eight o'clock, where they cast anchor. Next morning, Thursday, September 28, the vessel was boarded by the health officer, and was required to remain but one day, which was spent on shore in washing and cleaning up, in company with the passengers of the ship Protection, Captain Bairnes, amongst whom Alexander recognized several of those who had been shipwrecked with him in the Hibernia the year before. In the evening, they returned on board, and on the following morning at ten o'clock cleared out of Quarantine, and in the afternoon
DR. JOHN M. MASON. aoj of Friday, September 29, 1809, cast anchor in the harbor of New York. Next day (Saturday) Alex- ander spent in searching for lodgings, but did not succeed in obtaining any that were suitable. On the Lord's Day, he went into the city again, in order to hear Dr. Mason preach in the forenoon.* The next day, October 2, and the two succeeding days, Alexander spent in viewing the city, with whose commercial enterprise and activity he was much im- pressed, and in making the necessary arrangements for departure. On Thursday morning, October 5, he started with the family for Philadelphia, and arrived there on Saturday morning, October 7. With the fine buildings, regular streets and clean appearance of * This Dr. John M. Mason was the son of the eminent Dr. John Mason who had been sent in 1761 by the Anti-Burgher Secession Synod as a mis- sionary to America. He died in New York in 1792, and was succeeded by his distinguished son, Dr. John M. Mason, who was an eloquent and popular preacher, and a man of rich and varied scholarship. He became somewhat distinguished as a theological writer. His first work, which was on the more frequent observance of the Lord's Supper, excited considerable interest The Scottish churches had been accustomed to observe the Lord's Supper not more than twice a year, and in some cases only once. Connected with its observance there were so many additional services — as the preparation sermon ; the fast on the preceding Thursday, and the thanksgiving day on the following Monday, etc., often occupying an entire week — that frequent communion was quite impracticable. The eminent John Erskine, ir 1749, had called the attention of the Church of Scotland to this evil, in his " Essay to promote the more frequent dispensation of the Lord's Supper ;'' but the movement he initiated resulted only in diminishing slightly the number of sermons delivered at communion seasons. Renewing the effort, Dr. Mason endeavored to induce the Church to cease the observance of extra days and services, to which they had become so much attached that they regarded it as almost a profanation of the Lord's Supper to celebrate it wthout them. Dr. Mason's " Letters" on the subject had the effect of producing the desired change in many congregations, and as his views on this and various other subjects harmonized with those of Alexander and his father Thomas Camp- bell, they both entertained towards him warm feelings of regard and S3rm- pathy. Alexander, therefore, saw and heard him now for the first time with great interest 18
206 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. this city he was much pleased. But little time, how- ever, was allowed him for observation, for having made arrangements with a wagoner, John Hunter, to convey the family to Washington, on Monday at four o'clock they resumed their journey westward — an undertaking at that time, of no small magnitude, the distance to Washington being about three hundred and fifty miles, over a rough road crossing the various lofty ridges of the Allegheny mountains. Proceeding accordingly, sometimes riding in the wagon which conveyed also their luggage, and some- times walking by way of change, the travelers pursued their way, observing the various novel objects along the road with an interest constantly renewed. The first portion of the road being tolerably good and level, they progressed the first day about thirty miles, and finally reached a tavern, where, as evening was ap- proaching, they concluded to rest for the night. Adja- cent to the tavern was an extensive, unbroken forest, which particularly excited Alexander's interest by its magnificence and its novelty, for Ireland is almost des- titute of woods, and thus far in America their way had led them through, comparatively, a cleared and culti- vated portion of the country. After all had supped, and arrangements were made for the night, Alexander con- cluded to take a ramble through the woods, which were already assuming here and there their autumnal tints. As, in former years, he had bathed in the bright streams of his native isle, oppressed then with a con- sciousness of the civil and religious misrule and dis- cord, the hatred, the bigotry, superstition and revenge which brooded over the land, he now in the country of his adoption, for the first time, with new feelings of delight and an indescribable sense of relief, plunged
A RAMBLE IN THE FOREST. 207
into the depths of an American forest. In the exalta- tion of his youthful feelings he seemed to have reached a land of enchantment. The moon, already high in heaven and nearly at the full, seemed to mingle its sil- very beams with the sun's golden radiance reflected from the western sky. The mighty trees, in all their wild luxuriance, stood around him, forming aloft, as it were, a new heaven of verdure ; while, beneath, he trod upon the soil of a new world — the land of liberty and of Washington, whose liberal institutions had long been the object of his admiration. All nature around him seemed to sympathize with his emotions. The balmy air, fresh from the wild mountain slopes, the new varie- ties of birds, which from almost every tree seemed, to his fancy, to chant their evening song in praise of the freedom of their native woods, the approaching shades of evening, veiling the distant landscape in a gentle haze, — all seemed to speak of liberty, security and peace. He was far from being an enthusiast, but, on this occa- sion, all the bright hopes and glowing fancies of his youthful nature seem to have been aroused. Keenly susceptible as he was to impressions of grandeur, and tending still, in the habitual workings of his mind, to religious thought, as he ranged through the deep, untrodden glades, or paused beneath the canopy of verdure which the wild vine had woven as the woof upon the spreading warp of branching oaks, his heart overflowed with gratitude and reverence. There is, indeed, something amidst the deep forest, as yet untracked by human footsteps, that is well calcu- lated to arouse such feelings, as has been remarked even in ancient times. Hence the forests of oak be- came the temples of the Druids, and it is Seneca who says to his friend Lucilius :
208 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. " If you come to a grove, thick planted with ancient trees which have outgrown the usual altitude, and which shut out the view of the heaven with their interwoven boughs, the vast height of the wood, and the retired secresy of the place, and the wonder and awe inspired by so dense and unbroken a gloom, in the midst of the open day, inspire you with the conviction of a present Deity."* Whether or not this effect be due to the causes sug- gested by the Roman moralist, or to others yet un- defined, may indeed be questioned. It may be that the mind, comparing unconsciously the gigantic growths around with the lowly herbage of the cultivated fields, receives a strong impression of Divine power. Or it may be that, gazing down the natural vistas, where tree succeeds tree in the distant perspective, ending in the faint and reduced image's of others still more re- mote, there is created an impression of the Infinite in the seeming fact of unlimited distance. For the idea of this seems to be most strikingly conveyed when gradually retreating parts of some vast, complex object are contemplated. Out at sea, the view of a shoreless ocean does not so much impress the mind with the sense of vastness as it confounds the perceptions by deceitful appearances. The line of the horizon does not seem to be very far away. The whole watery waste is comprehended in a single view, and what is seen seems to have no tendency to suggest that which reflection teaches must be yet unseen. It is when, amidst a group of islands, the surface is meted out in distances, or when, nearing the coast, its headlands become visible, that a better idea is formed of the vastness of the ocean, and that the shores which bound it to the eye serve only to enlarge it to the mind. It is • Seneca, Epist 41.
YOUTHFUL IMPRESSIONS. 209
SO, likewise, when we view the heavens. By day, the whole expanse above is seen at a glance, as one over- arching vault of ether. It is at night, when star beiiind star glitters in the firmament, and the still more distant clusters tax the vision to separate star from star, and the yet more remote nebulae lead the mind back still farther into the infinite regions of space, that it can form a much more pleasing and forcible conception of the illimitable. As the ladder of the patriarch's vision aflTorded, by its successive steps, the means of ascend- ing to the heavens, so nature seems in her various provinces to furnish to the mind those gradations by which it is enabled to reach the higher realms of the unseen, and commune with congenial themes connected with eternity and futurity. But, however those feel- ings may be accounted for which arise in the sensitive mind amidst the grandeur and the solitude of the forest, it is certain that the youthful emigrant manifested on this occasion the marked impressibility of his nature ; and, reveling in the thronging fancies of his expand- ing and far-reaching mind, became so engrossed with his own thoughts that he was unconscious of the lapse of time, and discovered to his surprise, when the effer- vescence of his feelings had somewhat abated, that it was quite late, and that the night had long since closed its curtains around him. Returning to the hotel, he found that all its inmates had retired to rest, a light having been left for him upon the table. Upon attempting to fasten the door, he was surprised to find it without lock or bolt, and with nothing but a latch, as he perceived was also the case with the door of his sleeping apartment. Coming direct from the Old World, where nocturnal outrages were frequent, and every house had its bolts and bars,
VOL. I. — o iS * 3IO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL,
he was much impressed with such a token of fearless security, and congratulated himself still more in having reached a country where the fabled golden age seemed to be restored, and where robbery and injustice ap- peared to be undreaded and unknown. In attempting to account for this, to him, unwonted security, his ex- perience in the Old World led him to refer it, in a large measure, to the absence of Catholicism ; and, after his devotions, he gradually fell into slumber amidst grate- ful reflections upon the goodness of Providence in bringing him to a land under the benign influence of the free institutions, the equal rights, the educational advantages, and the moral and religious elevation secured to all in a purely Protestant community. He had, indeed, long been convinced that life, pro- perty, character, as well as religious liberty, were all in greater jeopardy in Papal than in Protestant states, and had been wont to regard the Protestant North of Ire- land and the Papal South of the same island as truth- ful and unambiguous exponents of the fruits and tend- encies of the two respective religious systems. The tree of liberty, he thought, could onl}'^ flourish in Pro- testant soil and in a Protestant atmosphere ; and sub- sequentljs as he passed along through the interior, and found all houses and places in the same happy state of security, and every door opening merely with a latch, like the wicket of Goldsmith's hermit, he became more and more confirmed in his opinions. He found, how- ever, after a while, when his judgment became more mature, and he had opportunity for more extended observation, that the best human government fails to secure immunity from private wrongs, and that the nocturnal pilfering, which in Ireland he had been accustomed to hear charged upon the lower orders of THE ALLEGHANIES. 211 the Catholic population, might sometimes occur even in Protestant America. He soon learned too, by personal experience, that sectarian bigotry and c>erical intoler- ance had changed their climate, and not their spirit, in crossing the Atlantic, and that no government or party or people is exempt from those errors and moral delin- quencies which belong to a common humanity. Setting off again early next morning, they pursued their wa^s and fovmd the country to become more broken and uncultivated. Full of youthful spirits, and inter- ested or amused by everything he saw, Alexander cheered up his mother and sisters with his genial pleasantry, and endeavored to lighten the fatigues of travel. Entering at last the mountainous region which occupies the central part of Pennsylvania, they were delighted with the grandeur of the views which it afforded, and the wild and romantic character of the country. For hours, the road led them through deep forests, and up the steep mountain sides, which were covered with various species of oak, and with the birch, the chestnut and the beech ; or, here and there upon the rocky cliffs, with clumps of pine and cedar. Occa- sionally, they passed by clearings, even upon the very summits of the mountain ridges, where they found the soil to produce abundant pasture beneath the dead timber, which, having been simply girdled, stretched its bare and decaying branches like gigantic and im- ploring arms toward the heavens. Upon the skirts of these clearings they admired the rich undergrowth of the surrounding woods, amidst which the mountain-ash displayed its magnificent corymbs of scarlet berries ; or again, descending the western slopes, they found the undergrowth to consist chiefly of the broad-leafed laurel, with its beautiful dark evergreen foliage, sheltering the aia MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. lowly mountain-tea and other plants of new and various forms. Or again, they traversed extensive districts more rugged and barren, and poorly timbered with dwarfed and stunted black-oak or the tall and gloomy hemlock. Nothing, however, was fitted to afford more delight, especially to the females of the party, than the rich colors with which autumn had tinged many of the forest trees. Here the bright golden hue of the hickory, and the beautiful orange tints of the maple, were con- trasted with the dark green of the unchanging pine. Here the scarlet oak (^^uercus coccined) and the bril- liantly tinted tupelo, shone resplendent amidst surround- ing verdure, and the ampelopsis, or American ivy, covered closely with its digitate leaves of crimson the lofty trunks of decaying trees. Thus their slow and toilsome progress over the numerous and lofty ridges of the Alleghanies and across the intervening valleys was cheered and enlivened by the strangeness and the beauty of the objects which presented themselves along the route. Birds of gay and varied plumage, which had been unknown amidst the solitude and silence of the primeval forest, flitted from tree to tree along the borders of the cultivated districts. The active squirrel mounted to the topmost branches in quest of nuts ; vari- ous wild animals were suddenly started from the thick- ets along the way ; and sometimes, amid the deeper recesses of the mountains, might still be seen in the distance a few timid deer, hastening to the security of their accustomed haunts. Reaching sometimes the summit of one of the moun- tains early in the morning, they would see these vast parallel and unbroken ridges trending toward the S. W. as far as the eye could reach, and forming, upon all sides, the distant horizon with their dark uplifted sum- THE WAT- SIDE INN. 313 ants, tbmly seen through the bluish haze, Avhich, at this S'*ason of the year, usually prevails. Beneath, the deep valley into which the road seemed about to descend, would be in its lower part concealed by the thick mist which had formed during the night, and which lay sleeping on its bosom like accumulated masses of the purest snow. Sometimes, upon descend- ing, they would find a wide and rich valley of undu- lating land interposing itself for many miles between the m(mntain chains, and divided into cultivated farms, with here and there a thriving town or village. As the hotels along the route were usually located in the valleys, they would frequently, in the arrangement for the day's travel, reach the top of one of the mountains in the afternoon, when, the mists having been long since dissipated, the deep and rugged gorges winding amongst the mountains became visible to a great dis- tance, occasionally opening into a cleared and fertile cove, where the sunlight would be seen occasionally flashing from a pure and rapid stream of water, and where, sheltered in a quiet nook, by the side of the road, they would find the inn which was to be their resting-place for the night. These inns, at this period, along the chief thorough- fares of travel between the East and West, were, many of them, very spacious and comfortable buildings, and abundantly provided with all necessary comforts for the traveler. They were sometimes frame buildings, with long, capacious porches in front and rear. Others were built with a species of blue limestone, which, contrast- ing with the white mortar between the blocks, and the white window frames and green Venetian shutters, pro- duced a pleasing eflfect, and formed solid and substan- tial structures. On the opposite side of the read were 214 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. usually placed the spacious stables, sheds, and othei outbuildings required for the accommodation of team- sters ; and, near at hand, was the immense wooden trough, into which poured constantly, from a hydrant, a stream of pure water, carried under the ground in wooden pipes from a spring upon the side of the neighboring hill. As the hotel stood back some dis- tance from the road, abundant room was left, in the wide recess, thus formed for the wagons and other vehi- cles, from which the horses were disengaged. The interior of the hotel itself was usually plain, but com- modious — a bar-room, connected with a dining-room, and this with the kitchen, on one side of a wide hall ; and, upon the other, the parlors for the better sort of guests. These were sometimes entirely covered with carpeting of domestic manufacture. At other times, only the middle portions were thus covered, the rest of the floor being strewed with white sand, arrangr^d in curving lines and forming various patterns, according to the taste of the tidy hostess. In some cases, the white sand was used as an entire substitute for carpet- ing, and gritted unpleasantly beneath the feet. Above stairs were usually the comfortable sleeping apart- ments. At this period, hotels of this character could be found every ten or twenty miles, but since the es- tablishment of railroads and the tunneling of the moun- tains, their glory has departed, and they are now "few and far between," and doing but little business, since passengers can travel at their ease, seated on the soft plush or velvet cushions of luxurious cars, and over as great a distance in an hour as could be accomplished by the old road-wagon in a day. It was the evening of about the tenth day of their journey when, the Campbell family had stopped to rest UNEXPECTED INTERVIEW. il5 for the night at such an inn as has been described. At a similar inn, some 'ifteen miles westward, and at the same hour, there was seen to alight a tall young man, dressed in black, who, having attended to the wants of his jaded horse, entered the hotel, and took his seat in the parlor with some other travelers who had previously arrived. He was considerably above the medium height, erect and graceful. His face was somewhat round, with delicate features, a fair complexion and an ain]>le forehead, with clustering locks of brown hair. He was scarcely seated, when there was another arrival of two rather elderh^ men, also from the West, who had with them a couple of led horses equipped as for females. One of the men was tall, broad-shouldered and athletic, with black hair, piercing eyes and bushy eyebrows. The other was about the middle stature, fair, and of an exceedingly engaging countenance and manner. Entering Ihe parlor, the latter gracefully saluted the company, and courteously begged to inquire if any of them had come from the eastward, and had passed, during the day, a wagon containing a family of emigrants. He informed them, with the greatest frankness, that his name was Thomas Campbell, and that he was from Washington, Pennsylvania, on his way to meet his family, who had recentl}' arrived at New York from Scotland, and were now on their way from Philadelphia, and from whom he had been sepa- rated about two years. His friend, Mr. John McElroy, had been so kind as to accompany him with led horses, as a means of relief to his wife and daughters from the confinement of the wagon. His appearance and cour- teous bearing at once secured marked respect, and he received from some of those present such information as led him to hope that he would, in all probability. 2l6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL meet his family during the course of the next day. The tall young man who had previously entered was particularly struck with Thomas Campbell's dignified appearance and demeanor. He noted the intelligence that beamed in his countenance, and perceived by his conversation that he was a person of superior education and refinement. When the company were called in to supper, they found that the landlady, who was addicted to the use of spirituous liquor, had become intoxicated. She had decked oflT her table fantastically with flowers, and was evidently disposed to be very annoying to her guests by her impertinence and garrulity. These were, however, delighted to witness the readiness with which Mr. Campbell comprehended the situation of aflfairs, and the grace and dignity with which he repressed the demonstrations of ebriety on the part of the hostess. Advancing to the table, he said, "With your leave, gentlemen, I will give thanks for these blessings ;" which he proceeded to do in grave and solemn terms, and during the repast maintained and directed the conversa- tion so as to reduce the landlady to a respectful silence. The tall stranger soon perceived that Mr. Campbell was a minister of the gospel ; and though he was him- self a minister, and felt singularly attracted toward Mr. Campbell, and desired to enter into conversation with him, he put so modest an estimate upon his own attain- ments that he could not summon courage to do so, and thought it best for him to remain in the background. Retiring, accordingly, soon afterward to rest, he set oft' upon his eastward journey early in the morning, and, after riding about ten miles, met the wagon and the family, which, from the account of the evening before, he knew to be Mr. Campbell's. As 'le bowed to them FAMILY RE-UNITED. 217 and passed on, he particularly noticed Alexander, but he little thought, at the time, that with this youth and his father, whom he had thus casually met, he himself would be in a few years an earnest fellow-laborer in promoting the interests of a new and important religious reformation. Yet so it was that Providence, which often foreshadows the events of human life, had given him, as it were, a silent introduction in advance to those who were hereafter to modify greatly his religious lite. For this tall stranger was no other than Adamson Bentley, a young but influential Baptist preacher of Ohio, who, being engaged also to some extent in the mercantile business, was now on his way to Philadel- phia to purchase a stock of goods, and who became afterward the chief instrument of introducing the primi- tive gospel into the Western Reserve. Not long after Mr. Bentley had left the inn, Thomas Campbell and Mr. McElroy resumed their journey, and, soon after Mr. Bentley had passed the wagon, they came in sight of it, and presently felt assured that it was the object of their search. Quicken- ing their pace, they soon approached so near that Mr. Campbell was recognized by the family, to their great joy and astonishment, as they did not expect to see him until their arrival at Washington. The meet- ing of the mother and children with the husband and father, from whom they had been so long separated, was very afilecting. With ardent love beaming in his benignant countenance, Thomas Campbell kissed and embraced them all with the utmost tenderness, remark- ing how much the children had grown and improved since he left them. When Jane was presented to him, so much changed in appearance by the effect of the small-pox that he would not have recognized her, he 19 ai8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. said, in a tone of the kindest sympathy, as he took her into his arms, "And is this my little white-head?" a phrase of endearment amongst the Irish, and kissing her affectionately, gave thanks to God for her recovery, and for the kind Providence which had at length brouglit them all once more together. After introducing his kind friend, John McElroy, and spending a little time in mutual inquiries and congratu- lations, they all proceeded on their wa}^ westward, the led horses furnishing an agreeable change occasionall}^ from the confinement of the wagon and the fatigue of walking. It was not long until they surmounted the most western of the mountain ranges, the Chestnut Ridge, and descended into the rich plateau of undulating land which, stretching for hundreds of miles toward the west, formed the upper part of the great Valley of the Mississippi, and which is watered by the Ohio and its numerous tributaries. They were delighted to enter this fertile region, which was to be their future home, and to bid adieu to the rugged mountains which seemed to recede from them toward the east, and formed, with their dark masses, the line of the horizon, sending down at short intervals rapidly-descending spurs, like enor- mous buttresses, which, extending out a considerable dist-mce into the plain, lost themselves at length in its gentle undulations. This plateau was tolerably thickly settled, and the remainder of their route led them through cultivated farms, and through groves of oak, walnut, ash and locust, and across or along the numerous smaller streams which flow into the Monon- gahela river. Reaching this river at length, they crossed it by the ferry at Williamsport, and entered the county of Washington, and, in the evening, found themselves near the residence of the Rev. Samuel RECITALS OF THE PAST. 219 Ralston, a Presbyterian preacher of considerable influ- ence, and President of the Trustees of Jefferson Col- lege at Canonsburg. Being acquainted with him, Thomas Campbell called over to see him, and to intro- duce his son Alexander, and they were hospitably entertained during the night by Mr. Ralston. Next day they reached the town of Washington, where, in a field adjoining, a house had been provided, in which they were once more to find a resting-place and to form an unbroken family circle. During the three days in which they had thus been journeying along in company, Mrs. Campbell had related to her husband the various incidents which had occurred in the history of the family since his departure from Ireland ; and Alexander and the other children had likewise detailed their several experiences, dangers and deliverances during their separation from him. He, in turn, gave them a particular account of what had befallen him in America, and of what he had learned of the character of the country. With the latter he expressed himself greatly delighted, both as to climate, natural resources and inhabitants, but espe- cially as regarded the freedom of the government and the security and protection it afforded to all. He then went on to detail his religious trials and the persecutions he had undergone at the hands of the Seceder clergy, on account of his efforts to effect a reformation and to promote Christian union on the basis of the Holy Scrip- tures. As he described the contumely which had been heaped upon him ; the slanders circulated ; the deter- mined opposition to the slightest overture in favor of relaxing the strict usages of the party ; the unjust pro- ceedings of the Presbytery and the Synod, and the evil feelings of jealousy, animosity and envy that manifestly 220 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. instigated their sectarian opposition, he expressed his sincere conviction that, had they possessed the power, he would have suffered martyrdom at their hands, or, as he expressed it, that " nothing but the law of the land had kept his head upon his shoulders." Alexander could not but feel indignant at this recital, and felt more and more the correctness of the conclusion to which he had himself already come in regard to hierarchical establishments and the rule of the clergy. He was greatly surprised, however, when informed by his father that the latter had actually dissolved his connection with the Seceders, as he could no longer feel justified in sanctioning their proceedings by remaining with them ; and that he had been for some time past preaching independently to audiences made up of individuals of different parties, who were willing to listen to his over- tures for Christian union upon the basis of the Bible alone. Alexander was greatly rejoiced at this announce- ment, and could not but admire the ways of Providence, which had thus, through a bitter experience, delivered his father from the shackles of partyism, so that, instead of fearing opposition from him to the views to which he had himself been definitely brought while in Glasgow, he found him already, though by a somewhat different method, led practically to the very same conclusions. To overcome the force of Thomas Campbell's early predilections, and his strong attachment to the people amongst whom he had so long and so faithfully labored, required, indeed, a much more potent agency than could be derived from mere observation of the practical workings of the system in regard to others. It needed that he should have himself a personal experience of the effects of that stern and tyrannous spirit of sectarianism which had concealed from him its true disposition beneath PROVIDENTIAL PREPARATION. 221 the smile of approval, until his gradually increasing desire for Christian union led him to contravene its arbitrary decrees. It was then that he discovered to his surprise its real character, and was compelled suddenly to turn away with aversion from the religious body which he had loved and espoused. Thus it was that Providence had removed out of the way the only obstacle which could have prevented him from sympathizing fully in the liberal and independent views which his son had imbibed in Scotland, and had thus prepared the minds of both the father and the son for that important work in which they were henceforth destined to co-operate. The train of circumstances which had given this preparation to the father, and, in divorcing him from his connection with the Seceders, had suddenly placed him in a position to give practical effect to his long-cherished views of a much-needed religious reformation, were, as has been stated, detailed to Alexander and the family along the way. This relation was necessarily given at intervals, and intermingled with various in- quiries, explanations and digressions which it is un- necessary to recapitulate. As, however, a particular account of these events is essential to the purposes of these memoirs, and to a proper understanding of the circumstances in which Alexander was shortly to be placed, it will be given in a connected form in the following chapter . 19 • CHAPTER XIII. Spirit ot Party — Failure to comprehend Christian Liberty — Persecutions — Principle of Reformation — Overtures for Christian Union. IT has been already mentioned, in a preceding por- tion of the narrative, that Thomas Campbell had found the Seceder Synod in session at Philadelphia upon his landing (May, 1807), and, upon presenting his credentials, had been cordially received, and at once assigned by it to the Presbytery of Chartiers in Western Pennsylvania. Upon his arrival at Washing- ton, he was most happy to renew his acquaintance with the amiable family of the Achesons, and with a number of old friends who had previously emigrated from Ire- land. One day, a woman, learning that a preacher from the North of Ireland had come to Washington, called at the house at which he stayed to see him, and introduced herself as the wife of James Hanen. She, and her husband and family, lived in the neighborhood of the town, and had come in from Ireland in 1805, two years before. She immediately recognized Mr. Campbell, and told him that on a former occasion in Ireland she had walked six miles, from where she lived in county Down, to Newry, to attend at the com- munion services in the Seceder Church, and distinctly recollected having noticed him there as one of the officiating clergymen. He was much pleased with the intelligence and acuteness of his warm-hearted country- 222 SECTARIAN JEALOUSY. 223 woman, and soon afterward went out to visit her and her family, who became much attached to him, and followed him subsequently in his views of reformation, James Hanen and wife being two of the first seven immersed on a proles'^ion of the primitive faith. In a few weeks, James Foster and Thomas Hodgens, with their families, arrived, and settled upon a farm near Mount Pleasant, sometimes called "Hickorv," a small village about ten miles north of Washington. Mr. Campbell thus found himself pleasantly situated in the midst of old friends and neighbors, who knew his worth, and were hence disposed to take pleasure in attending his ministrations, and in impressing their own high estimate of Mr. Campbell's qualifications and personal character upon their neighbors and acquaint- ances of difi'erent religious parties. With these, Mr. Campbell soon became popular, as his many excellen- cies and his liberal religious spirit became generally known. The Seceder congregations, who were not very numerous, were much pleased at having so important an accession to their ministry, and as they saw more and more of Mr. Campbell's earnestness, piety and abilit}^ they came to regard him as the most learned and talented preacher in their ranks. He had not, however, been very long thus engaged in his regular ministrations among the churches before some suspicions began to arise in the minds of his ministerial brethren that he was disposed to relax too much the rigidness of their ecclesiastic rules, and to cherish for other denominations feelings of fraternity and respect in which they could not share. They were therefore induced, after a time, to keep a wary eye upon his movements, though it was strongly sur- mised by some that, as they were cast into the shade
2A MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
by Mr. Campbell's greater abilities and popularity, their course was dictated less by their jealousy of their party interests than by personal feelings of envy — a passion which, it has been found, may dwell even in clerical bosoms. It happened that, about this time, he was deputed to visit a few scattered members of the flock who were living some distance up the Alleghany above Pittsburg, and to hold amongst them, in con- junction with a young minister, a Mr. Wilson, wlio accompanied him, a communion, or, as it was termed, a "sacramental" celebration. This part of the country was then thinly settled, and it was seldom that minis- terial services were enjoyed by the various fragments of religious parties, which, having floated ofl" from the Old World upon the tide of emigration, had been thrown together in the circling eddies of these new settlements. It happened that, on this occasion, Mr. Campbell's sympathies were strongly aroused in regard to the destitute condition of some in the vicinity who be- longed to other branches of the Presbyterian family, and who had not, for a long time, had an opportunity of partaking of the Lord's Supper, and he felt it his duty, in the preparation sermon, to lament the existing divisions, and to suggest that all his pious hearers, who felt so disposed and duly prepared, should, without respect to party diflerences, enjoy the benefits of the communion season then providentially afforded them. Mr. Wilson did not, at the time, publicly oppose these overtures, but finding, from these proceedings and from his conversations and discussions with Mr. Campbell, that the latter had but little respect for the division walls w^hich the different parties had built up with so much pains, his sectarian prejudices became fully aroused. He felt it his duty, therefore, at the next Trials in church courts. ais meeting of the Presbytery, to lay the case before it in the usual form of "libel," containing various formal and specified charges, the chief of which were that Mr. Campbell had failed to inculcate strict adherence to the Church standard and usages, and had even ex- pressed his disapproval of some things in said standard and of the uses made of them. Under the circumstances, the Presbytery readily took up the accusation, and formally propounded various questions to Mr. Campbell, in order to elicit fully his private views. Placed thus upon the defensive, and ardently desirous of maintaining Christian good feeling and union with the people amongst whom he labored, Mr. Campbell was somewhat guarded and conciliatory in his replies. But it was not to be ex- pected that he who had been always so much opposed to religious partyism, and who, in Ireland, and still more in the free air of America, had lifted up his voice against it, and in favor of the Bible as the only true standard of faith and practice, should, on this occasion, fail to reiterate his convictions, and to insist that, in the course he had pursued, he had violated no precept of the sacred volume. His pleadings, however, in behalf of Christian liberty and fraternity were in vain, and his appeals to the Bible were disregarded, so that, in the end, the Presbtyery found him deserving of censure for not adhering to the " Secession Testimony." Against this decision Mr. Campbell protested, and the case was then, in due course, submitted to the Synod at its next meeting. Meanwhile, Mr. Camp- bell was apprised that many of his fellow-ministers had become inimical to him through the influence of those who conducted the prosecution ; and knowing well that it was impossible for him, with his views of the Bible
VOL. I. — P 226 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
"LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"
EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,
PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED
Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON
Annotated by NewtonStein
VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES
CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.