ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
CAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGE

”CAMBRIDGE!”

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ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



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ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'MOSES' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
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PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
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    Fellow Christian for Christ!


    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!" (For "FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)


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    Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:

    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:
      (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);
      (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";
      (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more: SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"
      (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;
      (E) Serving 200+ Nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3,

    [1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

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      ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and Worship Leaders;
      ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
      ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained!
      ** Every person - having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry" - to reap the benefits thereof: In Finances, Influence, Credentials, etc; Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

      For all Ordination needs, please see:
      Ministerial Ordination Process:
    [2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

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    [4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

    [5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible Teachers; Online "Free!" Degree Programs

    [6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

    [7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

    [8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

    [9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

    [10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

    [11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

    [12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

    [13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

    [14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

    [15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE?

    The goal is NOT to test your MEMORY!!!

      The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the WORD of GOD as you read it!

      All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.
    "Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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CHRISTIAN COALITION VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN CATHOLIC VOTER GUIDE
ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS CONSULT "CHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDES!"
Voting Righteousness is God's Command!
(CLICK VOTER LOGO ABOVE)
(Then Click "YOUR STATE" for "YOUR CANDIDATES!")

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2016!
DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER[2]TED CRUZ OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[3]RAND PAUL WITH FLAG, POINTING UP photo[4]RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO[5]BEN-CARSON-PHOTO[6]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[7]JOE BIDEN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag[8]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2012!
DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag [4]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER.[5]WILLIAM OWENS[6]PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO[7]ann-romney-photo-1.jpg[8]MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]LANCE ARMSTRONG on BICYCLE PHOTO[2]CHEERLEADERS for JESUS and BIBLE VERSES PHOTOS[3]BENGHAZI BURNING AMERICAN EMBASSY PHOTO[4]AMERICAN AMBASSADOR STEVENS DRAGGED THRU STREETS[5]ARAB SPRING, AMERICAN FLAG BURNING PHOTO[6]TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO[7]ORLY TAITZ.jpg[8]TRINITY BROADCASTING LOGO
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orly Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Preacher! [7]Birther? [8]TBN Down?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]STACY DASH[4]JACK-SCHAAP-PHOTO.[5]BISHOP-EDDIE-LONG-PHOTO[6] VALERIE JARRETT WITH OBAMA PHOTO[7] HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[8]COACH JERRY SANDUSKY PHOTO
Dinesh D'Souza, Ms. Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
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BRIEFS: MUSLIMS COMING TO GET US!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]OSAMA-BIN-LADEN-PHOTO[3]MAHMAUD-AHMADINEJAD-PHOTO[4] VALERIE JARRETT OBAMA'S PUPPET MASTER PHOTO[5]HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[6]BARACK-OBAMA ARABIC WRITING PHOTO[7]BARACK-OBAMA BOWING TO KISSING HAND, SAUDI KING[8]HUMA ABEDIN with MUSLIM HEADRESS PHOTO
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Muslim! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim? [7]Saudis Worship? [8]Muslim Sisters!
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BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg KENNETH HAGIN SR-PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg BOB GRAY TEXAS-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, K. Hagin, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell, B. Gray,
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tenn. Temple, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola U, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO 
GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S ASIAN-INDIAN LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
dgs-dhinakaran-photo.jpg DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO  Paul dhinakaran-photo.jpg
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
SANTITA-JACKSON-PHOTO.jpg GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO MIA LOVE PHOTO
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
SKULL and BONESSODOMY SHORTENS MALE LIFESPAN BY DECADES!!!SKULL and BONES
SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS
LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES
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BRIEFS: AMERICANS HOME SCHOOLED!
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 THOMAS A EDISON PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" TIM TEBOW TEBOWING in JETS UNIFORM PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT OVAL in SQUARE
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
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BRIEFS: MOST LISTENED TO MINISTERS
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
(CLICK PICTURES)
PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1 RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" JOYCE MEYER BEST WHITE PHOTO D-JAMES-KENNEDY-PHOTO TIM TEBOW-PHOTO
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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NewtonStein:
Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!
Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)
GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSS GRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"
Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERY AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!
"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!
Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!
WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"
FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!
Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?
"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION
CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:
      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOL-I:

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
        4. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-3c-Pages-201-300.html
        5. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-4d-Pages-301-400.html
        6. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-5e-Pages-401-500.html
        7. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-6f-Pages-501-600.html
        8. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-7g-Pages-601-700.html
        9. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-8h-Pages-701-800.html
        10. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-9i-Pages-801-900.html
        11. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL-INTRODUCTION-CHAPTER-10j-Pages-901-1000.html
        12. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/CHRISTIPEDIA-TM-2-ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--RESEARCHERS-VERSION--1000-PAGES-ALL-ON-ONE-PAGE.html
        13. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--INDEX-PAGE.html
        14. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html


        MEMOIRS

        OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "LATER RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.

        By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        CHAPTER 2 - PAGES 501-6000

        CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        PAGES 376-450


        376 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        After speaking then at large of the blessings conferred through Christ upon the redeemed in the ministry of angels, the gift of the Holy Spirit and the promises of the future, he closes thus: "From this subject learn, i. To thank God for the method of communicating grace that he has chosen. 2. Let us honor Christ as the Father hath honored him, in commit- ting our all into his hands. 3. Let us seek that God will reveal his Son in us." In a sermon delivered on the yth of April of this year (I811), from Romans x. 4, he thus speaks of faith : " Great dissertations have been in the world about faith — its nature, kinds, properties, etc. All these descriptions un- able to produce it in the mind of a sinner. No arguments whatever can produce it. Truly of this we may say it is the finger of God. Describing the disease and its remedies will not heal the disorder. "No description of faith is given in the Bible, but the evidences and efiects of it are there clearly delineated. It is there represented to us as ' coming to Christ,' ' receiving Christ,' ' flying for refuge,' ' trusting in Christ,' etc. The simplest definition of it is, a hearty reliance upon the Lord "Jesus Christ for that salvation which he came into the world and died upon the cross to procure for lost sinners. The sin- ner who, from his heart relies upon and trusts in Jesus, is a believer, and he, and none but he, shall be saved. "■5. This faith we are constantly led to understand is of the operation of God, and an effect of Almighty power and regenerating grace, i John v. i : ' Every one that believeth that Jesus is*the Christ, is born of God.' " Different kinds of faith are spoken of in the Scriptures, and many vague definitions of it among men. It consists in an act of the understanding and the will ; but principally of the will. Illustrate, first, in the case of Rebecca's espousals. Secondly, from its being a command which can only be obeyed by the -will. EXTERNALS IN RELIGION. 377 ' All the promises contained in the sacred Scriptures are aadressed to the understanding, and through it to the will. They appear to the ufiderstandhig true, to the ivill as good." It will be apparent from this, that while he had taken a simple and just view of faith as a "trusting in Christ" — "a hearty reliance upon him for salvation," etc., he still retained at this period the opinion that this "trust- ing" was "from the operation of God and the effect of almighty power and regenerating grace." This view, as will be seen hereafter, was much modified in subse- quent years ; and though he always retained the idea of a Divine interposition, he came to regard this as a providential agency, rather than as a direct operation of the Spirit, as held by the popular parties. His view of what have been called "the externals" of religion may be gathered from a sermon delivered while on his tour in Ohio, on the 20th May, from Gal. vi. 15, 16: '■'' God says neither circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth anything. The doctrines here taught seem to be three : I. That all things merely formal and external in religion, being alone, will not avail the possessors. II. That a new CREATXJRE is the only thing of value or esteem in the judg- ment of God, and advantageous to man. III. That this is a rule in our judgment of things spiritual that will always keep us right, and tend to promote peace and harmony in the Church." He then adds, in reference to Doctrine I.: "All things merely formal and external in religion, being alone, ^hall not avail the possessors. i. The moral-virtuous life which some lead will not avail them one day, they not being ne-w creatures. 2. The orthodox creeds and formal attend- ance on religious duties by men, they not being new crea- tures, will one day prove to be of no importance." In rela- tion to Doctrine II., he then takes the position that "being a 32 • 37^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. new creature is the only thing essentially necessary to our enjoyment of God. The only thing on earth of value and importance in God's eyes, and the only thing that will avail us." He then defines a new creature as " one who is made a partaker of the Divine nature — one who is justified, sanctified, adopted and an heir of glory — one who is crucified to the world, to the flesh, and who denies himself. And this is the way we are to know him, Rom. viii. Such a one is of more value in God's eyes than the whole world. All things are yours, Rom. viii. 32." He then, in illustrating Doctrine III., closes by stating, "That judging thus of things we shall never err: " I. In our daily practice. 2. In our zeal for orthodoxy. 3. In this way we shall have peace for our souls. 'Peace be on them that walk by this rule.* 4. Let us walk in this way. ' O house of Jacob, come ye and let us walk in the light of the Lord.' " It will be seen from these quotations, that the views entertained by Alexander Campbell in regard to the important points of Christian doctrine discussed, did not conflict with those held by the parties denominated "Orthodox," and that the religious movement in which he was engaged had not for its object the propagation of any new opinions, or the establishment of any new party upon some particular theory of religion or of church government ; but that, while it rejected no truths received by the good and pious in religious society, it sought to make its appeal always directly to the Divine testimony, and to be guided, in all its advances, by the light which this afforded. CHAPTER XVIII. Pleaching Tours in 1811 — Ordination — Change of Views in Regard to Bap tism — True Basis of Union — Progress in Knowledge. AFTER his return from his first preaching tour, in June, 181 1, Alexander Campbell resumed his regular labors at the usual places of meeting in Wash- ington county, and at the houses of friends in the vicinity. In the month of August, he revisited Ohio, preaching at Cadiz, St. Clairsville and other points. In September, he again preached at Steubenville and in its neighborhood several times, and in October, spoke once at David Carson's and six times at Cadiz, and also at Wheeling and at Newelstown. In December, he preached again at Cadiz, on the 8th and loth of the month ; at St. Clairsville on the 15th, and, on the 29th, at Smithfield, giving his last sermon for the year 1811 at Charlestown, on the 30th, from 2 Cor. v. 21. He thus extended his acquaintance and convinced many pious and excellent individuals, who afterward became advocates of the principles of the reformation. It was his custom, at the end of every year, to devote some time to a careful review of the manner in which it had been spent, and to a serious and searching self- examination, as well as to the forming of new resolu- tions and arrangements for the coming year. On the 25th of December of this year (1811), after a solemn review of his past labors, he set himself to consider various important practical questions, such as the best 379 33o MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. course of regular Scripture reading and memorizing, and the hours which he could most appropriately set apart for devotional exercises. After deciding to com- mit to memory, first, the epistles to Timothy and the Hebrews, he reflected upon another question which seems particularly to have pressed upon his mind at this time, and which was, whether or not it was his duty to be ordained to the ministry of the Word. With him, ordination implied a formal, public and irrevocable consecration of life to the preaching of the gospel, and his present circumstances seemed naturally to demand that this question, already several times decided in his own heart, amidst hours of peril and adversity, should be again debated before the bar of conscience, against the seductive but silent pleadings cf a comfortable home, and the quieter and more profitable pursuits of agriculture. Eminently blest in his connubial relations, and placed in a position which opened up to one of his active temperament the most flattering prospects of worldly advancement, the time had come when his resolution was to be tried by some of the severest tests to which it could be subjected. While meditating upon the subject, he was at the pains to note down, in order, the motives which should govern his decision ; and, in reconsidering the eventful past, he took occasion to review the whole question in the light of the Divine guidings and the providential dispensations he had ex- perienced. Among the entries made on this occasion which reveal his heartfelt devotion to the service of God, and that conscientiousness which was so striking an attribute of his character, are the following : " Special instances of Divine power which I consider to bind me under obligations to be specially devoted to Him. with my whole mind, soul and body. CONSECRATION OF LIFE. 38i " I. In being born of religious parents, and of course religiously educated. "II. In receiving an education, in some respects, to qualify me for that office, and tliis education providential in the fol- lowing respects : i. In my grand design at first being, not to preach the Gospel, but to shine in literary honors and affluence. 2. In my design being frustrated, and my mind turned to desire that office. 3. In my being introduced, quite contrary to expectation, to the University of Glasgow, and the literary advantages there. " III. In resolving, when in imminent danger at sea, to serve God in this way, on two occasions of extraordinary deliverance. " IV. In my situation being such, upon my arrival in this country, that I could not prepare myself for any other office. " V. In the particular persecutions that befell my father, which shut up any prospects of support in the exercise of that office, yet in my giving it the preference. " VI. In my favorable and easy circumstances for that purpose. " VII. In giving me a choice companion, congenial to my inclination of serving Him. " VIII. In giving me some desire after his salvation. " IX. In giving me some desire after the salvation and reformation of mankind. " X. In giving me tolerably good talents for edifying others. " XI. In giving me a call from the Church to preach the Gospel. "XII. In my desire to suffer hardships and reproach in that good work." These memorabilia of the heart are interesting and touching, showing the calm deliberation that marked Alexander Campbell's purpose, and the noble and dib interested motives that determined his choice. He must renounce the ambitious ho^es of youth to follow 382 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. the indications of Providence, and disregarding the fascinations of wealth and fame, must yield to the im- pulse by which he was, as he says, " turned to desire" the humble ministerial office. He cherishes the remem- brance of the special deliverances he had experienced hi his past history, which, he feels, impose upon him the obligation of entire consecration to the service of God. Even the easy and happy circumstances at present sur- rounding him, and his natural and acquired gifts how- ever humbly estimated, seem, in his view, intended of Heaven to facilitate the work to which he is called by the intimations of Providence and the voice of the Church. Lastly and especially, is he convinced that necessity is laid upon hirri to preach the gospel, by his consciousness that it has been given to him not only to be willing, but even " to desire to suffer hardship and reproach in that good work." It is here we find the true spirit of a reformer, who will sacrifice everything for God and truth, and who, indifferent to mere per- sonal considerations, will yield only to the dictates of conscience and of duty. As it respects the ceremony of ordination, it will have been perceived, from his view of " lay preaching," that he did not regard it as essential to the exercise of the functions of the ministerial office. With Greville Ewing and the Haldanes, he was fully satisfied that it was " the indispensable duty of every Christian to warn sinners to flee from the wrath to come ; to point out Jesus as the way, the truth and the life," and, after the example of the first Church at Jerusalem, to "preach the word," as Providence might afford opportunity. He distinguished, however, between the simple recital of the story of the cross, as a duty incumbent on all, under proper circumstances, and the entire devotion of the VIEWS OF ORDINATION 383 life of an individual to the particular work ot preach- ing the gospel. In the latter case, he believed there were special and unmistakable indications afforded to the individual of his appropriate calling, and that it was his duty, in obedience to these, to consecrate him- self solemnly' to the work, and to be formally set apart by ordination. This he believed to be equally proper in the case of other officers or functionaries in the Church. In a sermon which he preached about this period, from Titus i. 5, in which he takes a view of the offices, office-bearers and ordinations under the Jewish and Christian dispensations, and particularly of the pastoral office in the Church of Christ, he thus refers, under "■ Head II." to ordination : "(i.) John the Baptist was sent of God especially. John i. 6. (2.) Our Lord (iTroi^M) ordained twelve, Mark iii. 14, and that was by choosing them. John vi. 70 ; Luke vi. 13. (3.) The ordination of an apostle ( naOai) Acts i. 22. (4.) The ordina- tion of deacons (KararjTnaoji^v) Acts vi. 3. (5.) Philip preached and baptized, having nothing more than the ordination of a deacon. (6.) The ordination of Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiii. 1-4; xiv. 23, [xupoTovfiaavTti)^ ' With lifting up of the hands had chosen them ;' 2 Cor. viii. 19 ; Acts x. 41. Under ' Head V.,' he says: (i.) You see that ordination is not a mere unmeaning thing, but consists in the choice of the people, which must be hearty, and that it might be evidenced, the elders or rulers impose their hands. (2.) Why do we con- tend for uninterrupted succession in ordination, seeing it is not the persons called bishops who have the power, but the people.'' (3.) How comes it that we contend so much about having persons of superior authority to constitute, when in- feriors have ordained superiors.? Acts xiii. 1-3 ; i Cor. xii. 28. (4.) How many persons preached and baptized without ordina- tion.? Acts viii. 1-4.." 584 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. The following observations which he, at this time, wrote down on the blank pages of one of his manu- script volumes of juvenile essays, will exhibit his views still more fully in regard to ordination and church gov- ernment : " General observations on Church Government^ derived from the Scriptures. " In the Church of Christ, at its erection, there were dif- ferent officers or builders appointed, such as apostles, pro- phets, etc. ; but in the Church, as to be regularly governed, taught and regulated to the end of the world, there are but two classes of officers, or two kinds of offices, viz. : ' Bishops and deacons.' We have the qualifications of these given separately and distinctly, but for an}^ other office of human invention or appointment, we have not one word in the Word of God as to the qualifications. " Observe., i. That there are but two offices in the Church. See Phil. i. i. The Greek word for bishop is episcopos ; hence the word episcopacy. The meaning of the word ' episcopos* is overseer. The Greek word for deacon is ' diakonos* which signifies a servant. 2. One of these offi- cers (the bishop) was to superintend the spiritual concerns of the people — to rule them, to teach them, to feed them. In one word, see his qualifications, i Tim. iii. 1-7. le was to work in his office, not like the English bishops, who only superintend. See verse i, 2. He must teach also and rule, or take care of the Church, verses 4 and 5. 3. See the quali- fications of the deacon, i Tim. iii. 8-14, and also Acts vi. 1-7. rhey w^ere only to attend to secular things. " Objections answered, i. Have we not the office of an elder spoken of in the Word of God .'' Yes ; but it is used in the Bible as equivalent to the word bishop. See Acts xx. 17. Paul there called the elders of the Church and gave them an advice. See verse 28 : ' Take heed to the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers^ or bishops^ as we showed the word bishop to mean an overseer ; and it .'s the CHURCH OFFICERS. S^S same word here that is elsewhere translated ' bishop.' The apostles called themselves elders. See John, Second Epistle, first verse, and Third Epistle, first verse, but particularly see I Pet. V. 1-4. The elder's office here spoken of is the same as the bishop's, verse 2. They were to feed the flock : the)i were to take the oversight or the episcopacy., as it is still the same word which denotes the bishop's office. And, more- over, the apostles, who called themselves elders, held also the office of bishop. See Acts of the Apostles i. 20, where theii office is said to be a bishopric. If need be, see a still more conclusive proof. Tit. i. 6, where the apostle authorizes him to ordain elders; and then verses 6, 7, 8, 9 give Titus the qualifications of an elder under the term bishop, and show him that the elder must have the qualifications of a bishop. They were called bishops on account of their office, and elders on account of the advanced period of their lives, they being generally old men. The Greek word translated elder is pres- buteros — whence comes presbytery. "■As to the number of elders in the separate churches : It appears that there was a plurality of elders or bishops in every church. And we may suppose that there were more or less on account of the largeness of the church. In the Church of Christ at Philippi we read of ' bishops' — a plurality of them as well as of deacons. Acts xx. 17, we read of a plurality of elders, or, as they are called, bishops, verse 28, in the Church at Ephesus. And in Acts xiv. 23, we read that there were a plurality of elders ordained in every church; and James, In his General Epistle to the Churches, tells them if any one be sick, to call for the elders of the Church, v. 14. And in the Church at Jerusalem, Acts xv. 4, we read of elders in the Church as well as the apostles who resided there ; Tit. i. 5. Thus do we prove that there was a presbytery or elders in every Church. " Respecting Ordination. Acts xiv. 23, we read that two persons were employed to ordain, namely, Paul and Barnabas. Acts xiii. 3, we read that Paul and Barnabas were ordained by imposition of hands. But it is uncertain whether it wa» VOL. I. — Z 33 386 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. by one or more, as the word ' their' is not in the original. Acts ix. 17, "we read that Ananias only laid his hands on Paul. I Tim. iv. 14, we read of the laying of the hands of the pres- bytery on Timothy: and we read also, 3 Tim. i. 6, that Paul only had laid his hands on him ; and also we learn that Timothy and Titus were authorized to ordain elders or bishops, which is sufficient for an example, as the laying on of hands in the apostles' time was to communicate peculiar gifts sometimes to the person on whose head they laid their hands, and sometimes for the purpose of setting apart to some particular office, such as that of elder or bishop. We find in the rules for governing the Church, given by the apostle to Timothy and Titus, that every minister of the gospel, regu- larly ordained, has power to ordain bishops or elders. See i Tim. V. 22 ; 2 Tim. ii. 2 ; Tit. i. 5, each of which show that Tknothy and Titus had, as an example to the Church, -power to ordain ' faithful men who should be able to teach others also.' But we find many ministers, many eminent preachers, preaching for a long time without any ordination at all. See Acts viii. 4, and xi. 19, 20, 21." Such, in brief, were Mr. Campbell's views of church oovernment, church officers and ordination in the latter part of the year 181 1. A plurality of elders and dea- cons in every church for the administration of its affairs, and preachers of the gospel or evangelists for the spread of the truth among men, constituted the simple arrangement as to fimctionaries. Each church was independent, and had the exclusive authority to select its own officials, who were, when approved, to be set apart by a formal ordination. These views he con- tinued to maintain unchanged through life. As to the form or ceremony of ordination, he did not regard it as conferring any authority, but as a public testimony that the persons ordained possessed the necessary au- thority. In other words, he conceived it to be a solemn KNOX AND CALVIN UNORDAINED. 3S7 mode of setting persons apart, and of committing them to God in the discharije of the duties of the office to which they had already been chosen or elected by the church. Hence he utterly repudiated the claim of apostolic succession; of priestly supremacy, and the communication of any official grace by superiors to inferiors ; or that the clergy had any inherent power in them as it respects ordination. In another place, in reply to the question, why do you preach without au- thority, he says, "Who has authority? Who gave the Presbytery authority to license men? Who gave the Presbytery authority to make laws for the Church? Who gave the Presbytery authority to decide religious matters by vote? Who gave the Presb}'tery authority to choose ministers?" * * * * For these views of authority and of ordination he had abundant support, not only in the Scriptures, but in the opinions and practice of the great Reformers. Calvin, without any ordination, began to preach at Orleans, by the invitation of some of the citizens.* Knox began to preach in the Castle of St. Andrews, where the conspirators who had slain Cardinal Beatoun were besieged by the Scottish Regent. He was in- duced reluctantly to do this from the urgent call made upon him by the refugees there assembled. This re- luctance, however, did not proceed from the fact that he had not been ordained since he had abandoned Popery. "We must not Imagine," says his biographer. Dr. McCrie, " that the reluctance which he discovered to comply with the call which he had received, proceeded from consciousness of * D'Aubigne — " Reformation in the Time of Calvin," vol. ii. chap. xiv. p. 19. 388 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. its invalidity through the defect of certain external formalities which had been usual in the Church, or which, in ordinary cases, may be observed with propriety in the installation of persons into sacred offices. These, as far as warranted by Scripture or conducive to the preservation of order, he did not contemn ; and his judgment respecting them may be learned from the early practice of the Scottish Reformed Church, in the organization of which he had so active a share. In common with all the oi'iginal reformers, he re- jected the order of episcopal ordination as totally unauthor- ized by the law of Christ ; nor did he regard the imposition of the hands of presbyters as a rite essential to the validity of orders, or of necessary observance in all circumstances of the Church. The Papists, indeed, did not fail to declaim on this point, representing Knox and other reformed ministers as destitute of all lawful vocation. In the same strain did many hierarchical writers of the English Church afterward learn to talk, not scrupling, by their extravagant doctrine of the absolute necessity of ordination by the hands of a bishop, who derived his powers by uninterrupted succession from the apostles, to invalidate and nullify the orders of all the reformed Churches except their own— ^a doctrine which has been revived in the present enlightened age, and unblush- ingly avowed and defended, with the greater part of its absurd, illiberal and horrid consequences. The fathers of the English Reformation, however, were very far from entertain- ing such contracted and unchristian sentiments. When Knox afterward went to England, they accepted his services with- out the smallest hesitation. They maintained a constant cor- respondence with the reformed divines on the Continent, and freely owned them as brethren and fellow-laborers in the ministry. And they were not so ignorant of their principles, nor ^o forgetful of their character, as to prefer ordination by Popish prelates to that which was conferred by Protestant presbyters. I will not say that our reformer utterly disre- garded his early ordination in the Popish Church, although, if we mav credit the testimony of his adversaries, this was USURPATION PROGRESSIVE. 389 his sentiment ; but I have little doubt that he looked upon the charge which he received at St. Andrews, as principally constituting his call to the ministry."* That the "authority" in religious matters rested with the congregation, was indeed the view of nearly all the early reformers ; and it is curious to notice how soon, in the progress of affairs, this important truth became obscured and lost. Individual assumptions soon be- came precedents ; precedents soon established customs ; and customs soon resolved themselves into laws, to which, in the different denominations, there was ex- acted an obedience more strict than to those of Holy Writ. It is curious, also, to see how^ even good men will, when occasion serves, avail themselves of ambi- guities and sophisms, in order to maintain or to extend this usurped authority. Thus Wesley, though himself but a presbyter of the Church of England, proceeded to ordain Thomas Coke a bishop, under the plea that a presbyter and a bishop had the same meaning in Scrip- ture. This, indeed, was true, but, not according to the episcopal canon by which Dr. Coke was already a presbyter, and could not receive the higher rank and authority of bishop from one who was merely a co- ordinate. Yet this excellent man. Dr. Coke, so re- markable for his zeal and his abundant labors, assumed really the functions exercised by an Episcopal bishop, in ruling over many churches, and in consecrating Francis Asbury as bishop in America, through whom the official grace is supposed to have passed to others in succession. It is thus in religious as in civil affairs, that assumed power becomes at length confirmed au- thority ; that the rights of the many are gradually * Life of John Knox, p. 48. 33* 3yo MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. usurped by the few, and that mankind become at length ruled by priests and kings, whose authority it is made heresy or treason to dispute. Hence it was, that nothing excited so much enmity toward Alexander Campbell as the views he proposed touching the au- thority and the doings of the clergy. It was, in fact, his continued opposition to their claims, and his earnest effort to restore the Church to its primitive position of freedom, that brought upon him, in his future life, his most bitter persecutions. From the moment, indeed, that he presumed to question their authority to legislate for the Church, they continued to wage, against him and his principles, a continual war of misrepresentation and invective. In despite of their efforts, however, his future labors in regard to this question were crowned with remarkable success, so that no man probably ever accomplished more in emancipating mankind from their thraldom to religious leaders and the assumptions of priestly power. After having thus maturely and carefully considered the question of ordination, as was his wont in relation to all subjects of practical importance, he decided that it was his duty to be ordained, and he was accordingly solemnly set apart to the office of the ministry, with the usual forms, on the first day of the new year, 1812. Of this fact the following certificate was presented in court, when, toward the close of the year, it became necessary for him to apply for legal authority to perform the mar- liage ceremony : " We do hereby certify that Alexander Campbell, after » due course of trials preparatory to the work of the holy ministry, was, accoi-ding to the principles of this Church regularly chosen and ordained a minister thereof, upon the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and twelve. INFANT BAPTISM RECONSIDERED. 39I " Given under our hands at our cliurch meeting held at John Dav/son's, this ist day of September, 181 2. "Thomas Campbell, '' Senior minister of the JFirst Church of the Christian Association of Washingtoit. 7iiecting at Cross-roads and Brush Run, Washington county, Pennsylvania. •• George Sharp, William Gilcrist, James Foster, John Dawson. '' Deacons of the said Church. " Brooke county, December Term, 1812. "The foregoing was produced in court, and ordered to be recorded on page 122 of deed book F. Teste "John Connell, Clerk B. C. C." Having acted in a ministerial capacity heretofore in entire harmony with his principles, and being now duh'- ordained, he continued, during the winter, to labor as usual with unwearied diligence in the sacred calling to which he had thus formally and conscientiously devoted his life. On the 13th of March, 181 2, his first child was born, a daughter, who was called Jane, after his mother. In recording the fact, he was so particular as to set down the very hour of her birth, 3 o'clock P. M. Soon after this event, a considerable change took place in his views in regard to baptism. His wife, with her father and mother, was still a member of the Presbyterian Church, and, as the child grew, it is natural to suppose that the question of infant baptism became to him one of immediate practical interest. It is certain, at least, that up to this period he does not appear to have given ^o the subject of baptism a sufficiently careful attention. The unitv of the Church, the overthrow of sectarianism and the restoration of the Bible to its primitive position, had been the leading objects with him, and with his 39* MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. father; and, regarding the question of baptism as one comparatively of small importance, they seem to have left it, in a good degree, undecided in their own minds. On the 3d of February, 1810, and again on the 19th May, 181 1, as well as on the 5th of June following, Alexander had delivered a sermon upon Christ's com- mission to the apostles, Mark xvi. 15, 16, in which his position in regard to baptism at those periods is dis- tinctly stated, and in which he said in reference to it : "As I am sure it is unscriptural to make this matter a term of communion, I let it slif. I wish to think and let think on these matters." His failure, thus far, to recognize the truth in relation to this vexed question, was another instance of the truth of the adage, which is perhaps nowhere so often veri- fied as in the affairs of religion, that " a man may look at a thing without seeing it." The subject had been more than once before him, and constituted a part of the text of the sermon above referred to, which he had preached several times ; yet owing to the particulai stand-point from which he had been taught to regard baptism, he had entirely failed to recognize its actual importance. As there is one angle of incidence in which light is absorbed by an object, and another in which it is reflected from it, and as an object assumes various appearances according to the relative position of the observer, so it is in regard to things contemplated by the mind. Viewed from the stand-point of his early education, infant baptism was a rite justified, inferen- tially at least, and not to be neglected. Viewed from the platform of the principles of the reformation urged by his father and himself, it possessed no Divine au- thority, yet as an ancient usage, and for the sake of peace, it seemed to them expedient to allow its continu- IMPORTANCE OF BAPTISM. ' 393 aiice in the case of such members as conscientiously believed it proper. Most of the members of the Church, furthermore, supposed themselves to have been in their infancy already introduced into the Church by its means, and even after Alexander discovered it to be unau- thorized, he seems to have concurred, for the time, in the plausible sophism proposed by his father which begged the very point at issue, " that it w^as not now necessary for them to go, as it were, out of the Church merely for the purpose of coming in again by the regu- lar and appointed way." Under the influence of these conflicting and involved opinions, Alexander Campbell seems to have suspended his former investigations, and to have forborne giving to this subject that impartial and continued attention neces- sary to the discovery of truth. From the embarrassing circumstances of his position, he, as he states in the above sermon, concluded to " let it slip" — to pass it by as a matter of little relative importance, and to allow the question to remain as it was. From the occasional and incidental discussions of the subject, however, that occurred among the members of the Brush Run Church, there seems to have been a gradually increasing conviction, on the part of many, that baptism was a matter of much more importance than they had sup- posed, and Alexander himself began to share in this conviction. He began to perceive that an ordinance of which, in the commission to the apostles, Christ had deemed it necessary to speak particularly, and which he had there connected directly with the salvation of the gospel, in the declaration that "he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved," could not be one of those unimportant matters of opinion which might be allowed "to slip." Admitting that infant baptism was 394 - MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. without warrant, the question began to assume quite a different aspect, and was no longer, " May we safely reject infant baptism as a human invention?" but, " May we omit believers^ ba^ttsm, which all admit to be divinely commanded?" If the baptism of infants be without warrant, it is invalid, and they who receive it are, in point of fact, still unbaptized. When they come to know this in after years, will God accept the credulity of the parent for the faith of the child? Men may be pleased to om\t faith on the part of the person baptized, but will God sanction the omission of baptism on the part of the believer, on the ground that in his infancy he had been the subject of a ceremony which had not been enjoined? On the other hand, if the practice of infant baptism can be justified by inferential reasoning or any sufficient evidence, why should it not be adopted or continued by common consent, without further dis- cussion? Such were some of the reasonings which, at this time, pressed upon the mind of Alexander Campbell. Being exceedingly conscientious, and sensible of the responsibilities appertaining to the new relation in which he stood, as a father, he was led to think much more earnestly upon the whole subject, so that he might not be found wanting in any duty that was really required of him. Recalling to mind the litde discussion with Preacher Riddle of the Associate Reformed Church, in regard to the principles of the " Declaration and Ad- dress," in which Mr. Riddle said ''there was no direct authority in the Scriptures for infant baptism," he deter- mined that he would, at least, make an effort to settle his mind finally upon the subject. Abandoning, then, all uninspired authorities, he applied himself to the Scriptures, and searching out critically the signification CONVICTIONS OF DUTT. 395 of the words rendered ba^ttstn and baptize in the original Greek, he soon became satisfied that they could mean only immersion and imvicrse. From his further investigations, he was led finally to the clear conviction that believers, and believers only, were the proper sub- jects of the ordinance. He now fully perceived that the rite of sprinkling to which he had been subjected in infancy was wholly unauthorized, and that he was con- sequently, in point of fact, an unbaptized person, and hence could not, consistently, preach a baptism to others of which he had never been a subject himself. As these points were for some time matters of anxious inquiry, he frequently conversed upon them with his wife, who also became much interested in them, and finally came to the same conclusions with himself. As he was not one who could remain long without carrying out his convictions of duty, he resolved at once to obey what he now, in the light of the Scriptures, found to be a positive Divine command. Having formed some acquaintance with a Matthias Luce, a Baptist preacher, who lived above Washington, he concluded to make application to him to perform the rite, and, on his way to visit him, called to see his father and the family, who were then living on the little farm between Washington and Mount Pleasant. Soon after aniving, his sister Dorothea took him aside, and told him that she had been in great trouble for some time about her baptism. She could find, she said, no authority what- ever for infant baptism, and could not resist the convic- tion that she never had been scripturally baptized. She wished him, therefore, to represent the case on her behalf, to her father. At this unexpected announce- ment, Alexander smiled, and told her that he was now upon his way to request the services of Mr. Luce, as 396 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. he had himself determined to be immersed, and would lay the whole case before their father. He took the first opportunity, accordingly, of presenting the matter, stating the course he had pursued and the conclusions he had reached. His father, somewhat to his surprise, had but little to say, and offered no particular objec- tions. He spoke of the position they had heretofore occupied in regard to this question, but forbore to urge it in opposition to Alexander's conscientious convictions. He finally remarked, " I have no more to add. You must please 3^ourself." It was suggested, however, that in view of the public position they occupied as religious teachers and advocates of reformation, it would be proper that the matter should be publicly announced and attended to amongst the people to whom they had been accustomed to preach ; and he requested Alex- ander to get Mr. Luce to call with him on his way down, at whatever time might be appointed. Wednesday, the 12th day of June, 181 2, having been selected. Elder Luce, in company with Elder Henry Spears, called at Thomas Campbell's on their way to the place chosen for the immersion, which was the deep pool in Buffalo Creek where three members of the Association had formerly been baptized. Next morn- ing, as they were setting out, Thomas Campbell simply remarked that Mrs. Campbell had put up a change of raiment for herself and him, which was the first intima- tion given that they also intended to be immersed. Upon arriving at the place, as the greater part of the members of the Brush Run Church, with a large con- course of others, attracted by the novelty of the occa- sion, were assembled at David Bryant's house, near the place, Thomas Campbell thought it proper to present, in full, the reasons which had determined his course. SCRIPTURAL BAPTISM. 397 In a very long address, he accordingly reviewed the entire ground which he had occupied, and the struggles that he had undergone in reference to the particular subject of baptism, which he had earnestly desired to dispose of, in such a manner, that it might be no hin- derance in the attainment of that Christian unity which he had labored to establish upon the Bible alone. In endeavoring to do this, he admitted that he had been led to overlook its importance, and the very many plain and obvious teachings of the Scriptures on the subject • but having at length attained a clearer view of duty, he felt it incumbent upon him to submit to what he now plainly saw was an important Divine institution. Alex- ander afterward followed in an extended defence of their proceedings, urging the necessity of submitting implicitly to all God's commands, and showing that the baptism of believers only, was authorized by the Word of God. In his remarks, he had quoted, among other Scrip- tures, the command of Peter to the believers on the day of Pentecost: " Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit ;" and had dwelt at length upon the gracious promises of God to all who should obey him. When he had con- cluded, James Hanen, who, with his wife, had also con- cluded to be baptized, took his child from its mother's arms, and requesting her to walk aside, asked her what she thought of the declaration of Peter, "You shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit," and how she under- stood it. Mrs. Hanen, being well acquainted with the Scriptures, soon gave a satisfactory reply, and both were accordingly baptized along with the rest, consisting of A-lexander Campbell and his wife ; his father and mother, 34 39^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. and his sister — in all seven persons. Alexander had stipulated with Elder Luce that the ceremony should be performed precisely according to the pattern given in the New Testament, and that, as there was no account of any of the first converts being called upon to give what is called a "religious experience," this modern custom should be omitted, and that the candidates should be admitted on the simple confession that "Jesus is the Son of God." These points he had fully dis- cussed with Elder Luce during the evening spent at his house when he first went up to request his attendance, and they had been arranged as he desired. Elder Luce had, indeed, at first objected to these changes, as being contrary to Baptist usage, but finally consented, remarking that he believed they were right, and he would run the risk of censure. There were not, there- fore, upon this occasion, any of the usual forms of receiv- ing persons into the Church upon a detailed account of religious feelings and impressions. There was, indeed, no Baptist church-meeting to which any such " experi- ence" could have been related. Elders Luce and Spear, with Elder David Jones of Eastern Pennsylvania, being the only Baptists known to have been present. All were, therefore, admitted to immersion upon making the simple confession of Christ required of the converts in the apostolic times. The meeting, it is related, con- tinued about seven hours. Before it commenced, Joseph Bryant had to leave, in order to attend a muster of vol- unteers for the war against Great Britain, which, it was reported. Congress had declared on the fourth day of the same month, June, although the declaration was not formally made until the i8th. After attending the muster, he returned home in time to hear an hour's -preaching and to witness the baptisms. Such were

        MENTAL CONFLICTS AND ADVANCES. 399

        the leading incidents of this eventful occasion, which gave to the reformatory movement an entirely new phase, and was productive of the most important con- sequences. It will be easily perceived, that the conclusions which were thus practically carried out, had been reached only through a series of severe mental struggles. The difficulties in the way of Thomas Campbell, especially, had been very great, not only from the predilections arising from his early education, and the fact that he had been for about twenty-five years a pasdobaptist minister, but from the very natural desire he had felt, since he commenced his efforts to secure Christian union, to avoid everything likely to frustrate this desi- rable object. He had no idea, indeed, in the beginning, that to take the Bible alone would really lead to the abandonment of infant baptism ; and although this re- sult was, at an early period, plainly predicted by others, he constantly cherished the hope that the practice might, consistently with his principles, be allowed as a matter of forbearance. Subsequently, he had consented to immerse three members of the Association, and seemed to have become satisfied that scriptural baptism implied the burial of the person in water. But he still ap- peared to cling to the opinion that the ordinance was of far less importance than Christian unity, and that the various questions connected with it might be left to the decision of each individual, so that he hesitated to adopt positively any view of the subject that would render his overture less acceptable to the religious public. Whilst his own mind remained in this state of incertitude, many of those connected with him had advanced beyond him, but were restrained from carry- ing out their convictions by the respect which they felt 400 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. was due to his position. When, however, his favorite son and daughter announced to him their conclusions, he found it necessar}' to come himself to a decision, which, upon his own principle of being guided exclu- sively by Scripture, he felt could not be different from theirs. This was a necessity which he had evidently longed to avoid, since he was aware it would at once erect an impassable barrier between him and the psedo- baptist community in which he had labored, and frus- trate all his hopes of winning it over to his views of Christian union. It was his love of truth ; his own conscientious convictions, and his desire to please God rather than men, that could alone have enabled him thus to yield up his cherished hopes, and to see the road, which had at first seemed to him so broad that all religious parties could walk therein together, gradually diminish into a comparatively narrow path. That road, however, had appeared broad at first merely because its limits were not as yet properly defined ; and al- though he found it narrowed, when, under the Divine instructions, its boundaries were more distinctly traced, he had an increasing assurance that it was the way that "leadeth unto life." It is perhaps useless to speculate as to what might have been the result of the reformatory movement initiated by Thomas Campbell, had he continued to insist upon the loose views he had previously enter- tained upon the subject of baptism. It is extremely doubtful if his well-meant efforts could ever have made any considerable impression upon the religious com- munity at large, so completely wedded as it was. at this period, to sectarianism. The religious denomina- tions could never have been persuaded to discard their speculations, traditions or ecclesiastical usages, and to RELATIVE CHANGE OF POSITION. 401 tfit down together harmoniously to learn the truth from the Bible alone. Such a spectacle as this, indeed, like the example of the Bereans of old, would have been most cheering and hopeful. But it is not upon any general principle, or even by the adoption of a few particular truths, that a real Christian union can be established. This demands at least a willingness to receive the whole truth, and involves a spiritual unity with Him who is the Way, the Truth and the Life ; for that alone which unites the human soul to Christ can unite Christians to each other. A mere conglomera- tion, then, of the religious parties upon the admitted principle that the Bible is the only rule of faith and practice, would by no means have secured a religious peace. It could have been, at best, but a temporary truce amidst permanent hostilities, unless the spirit of partyism could have been replaced by the spirit of Christ, and there existed a sincere determination to follow the truth whithersoever it would lead. It is probable, therefore, that, in the existing state of things, the mild and gentle overtures of Thomas Campbell would have been disregarded in the future, as they had been thus far in the past ; and that the little band which had rallied round the standard of peace, would have been, after a time, dispersed or blended with the existing parties. There needed, at this crisis, one to take the lead, who was of a more adventurous spirit, and who, realizing better the real posture of affairs, could recognize the truth that peace could be reached only through victory. From the moment that Thomas Campbell concluded to follow the example of his son in relation to baptism, he conceded to him in effect the guidance of the whole religious movement. As for himself, it was evident VOL. I. — 2 A 34 * 40a MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that he had previously accomplished his special mis- sion in propounding and developing the true basis of Christian union. Considering his antecedents, he had made an astonishing progress in this noble work, not only unaided, but in the midst of hinderances and ob- stacles which, to thousands in similar circumstances, would ha^ e proved wholly insurmountable. But it was difficult foi him to advance beyond the general princi- ples laid down in the "Declaration and Address" to the practical and unforeseen results which those princi- ples involved. Had it not been for the decision and the untrammeled views of his son at this juncture, and especially for that marked quality of conscientious mental independence which he seems to have largely inherited from his mother, the reformation would not probably, as already intimated, have advanced a single step beyond the general results attained in vindicating the claims of the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice. Hence it was, that Thomas Campbell's long discourse at the baptism, while it was a rehearsal of his own anxious struggles, and a faithful testimony to his steady adherence to the Divine light by which he had been led, and by which he had thus far success- fully led others, was, at the same time, virtually the surrender of that guiding light into the hands of a successor. From this hour, therefore, the positions of father and son were reversed, and each tacitly occupied the position allotted to him. Alexander became the master-spirit, and to him the eyes of all were now di- rected. He felt that Providence had placed him in the advance. He must lead the way, for conscience, enlight- ened by the Word of God, impelled him irresistibly forward. On neither side, however, was there the slightest feeling of rivalry or ambition. On the con- ACCESSIONS AND DEFECTIONS. 403 trary, as before, it was still a constant and affectionate co-operation. Alexander's habitual deference for his father's extensive and accurate knowledge of the Bible, and his unalterable filial regard, led him constantly to confer with him in respect to Divine things ; while his father, apparently conscious that his chief mission had been accomplished, gladly recognized, in his admired and greatly beloved son, a superior ability to appre- ciate, grasp, promulgate and defend the cause which he had so long labored to promote. He delighted, accordingly, to hold council with his son, and to discuss with him the momentous matters in which they were engaged, so that no new truth was ever adopted or dis- seminated without having undergone the careful scrutiny of the minds of both, and frequently of those of others also who formed part of the household or of the social circle. At the next meeting of the church of Brush Run, which was on the Lord's day succeeding the baptism of the seven, thirteen other members, and among them James Foster, requested immersion, which was accord- ingly administered by Thomas Campbell, each one making the simple confession of Christ as the Son of God. On subsequent occasions, some others came for- ward in like manner, so that the great majority of the church speedily consisted of immersed believers, upon which, the other individuals who had been in the Asso- ciation abandoned the cause, being unwilling to follow the reformatory movement any further. Among the latter was General Acheson, who, indeed, for some time previously, seemed to have lost his interest in the move- ment he had at first so warmly espoused. Thus it was with these reformers as it had been with the Haldanes and their coadjutors. The truth respecting baptism 404 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. forced itself at length upon the convictions of most of those who were active in these respective reformations, in spite of educational prejudices and the difficulties of their position. And thus it was also with the church at Brush Run, as it had been with the Haldanean church at Edinburgh — immersion, apt emblem of sepa- ration from the world, occasioned a separation among those who had been previously united in religious fellowship. Upon the whole, then, it will be seen that a very great progress had now been made, and that a very great change had been effected, at least in the external aspect of this little community of reformers. Immer- sion had been unanimously adopted as the only true scriptural baptism ; infant baptism had been finally and absolutely rejected as a human invention, and the simple confession of Christ, made by the early converts to Christ, was acknowledged as the only requirement which could be scripturally demanded of those who de- sired to become members of the Church. As all these matters were determined by the plain authority of Scrip- ture, they have ever since continued to be prominent features of this religious movement. During their course, thus far, this band of reformers had recognized themselves to be, not a sect, with its truths and errors equally stereotyped and equally immutable, but a ■party c/* -progress — as learners in the school of Christ. " Whereto they had already attained," they endeavored '* to walk by the same rule and to mind the same things." In seeking for " the old paths" they had, thus far, found each new truth to lead them to another still more obvious, as a single track often guides the tra- veler, lost in the forest, to a pathway, which in turn conducts him to one still wider and more easily pursued. FULL IMPORT OF BAPTISM UNKNOWN. 405 The necessity felt for unity brought them to the Bible alone ; this led them to the simple primitive faith in Christ; and this, in turn, had now guided them to the primitive baptism as the public profession of that faith. The full import and meaning of the institution of bap- tism was, however, still reserved for future discovery. CHAPTER XIX. Faith — Primitive Confession of Faith — Nature of the Christian Faith — Conversion. THE best and highest reason that can be given for any action is, that God commands it. Whatever it may have in itself of manifest suitableness or of probable utility, will, if it become a motive to its per- formance, but detract to that extent from the obedience of faith. This seeks to be assured only that it is God's will, and shines forth in a purer and holier light when the command seems strange, incomprehensible and even most unreasonable, as when Abraham laid Isaac his son upon the altar of sacrifice. The blood of the paschal lamb upon the Hebrew lintels ; the mercy- seat covering the law of human duty ; the ashes of a red heifer sprinkling the unclean, nay, the whole rigid ceremonial of the Mosaic law, may be given as exem- plifications of ordinances and commandments, as unex- plained as they were imperative, and as adequate to secure prosperity and life and pardon, as the obedience they demanded was simple and unquestioning. As the child who refuses to obey his father until the latter first explains to him the particular reasons for his commands, shows that he acts not from love and trust, but that he disbelieves and doubts, and prefers the con- clusions of his own feeble understanding to reliance upon superior wisdom, so the individual who must knovr the 406 INSTITUTIONS OF THE GOSPEL. 407 philosophy of God's commandments, and satisfy himself as to their propriety before he will obey them, believes not in God, but in himself. As it would have been beneath the dignity of the Divine Lawgiver to make obedience to his laws contingent upon man's approba- tion of their fitness,- so has he ever, in perfect harmony with his own character and the truest interests of man- kind, simply delivered his commands and prohibitions, with their rewards and penalties. In all cases, it was sufficient for the true believer, in abstaining from any act, to know that God had forbidden it, and in keep- ing a Divine command to feel that "obedience" was "better than sacrifice," and " to hearken than the fat of rams." Even under the New Institution, where the veil that concealed the meaning of the Jewish ritual is taken away, and the worshiper can look understandingly to Christ as the end and antitype of that which was abolished, it is not permitted that Reason should take the place of Faith, or that human views of expediency should usurp the province of Divine wisdom. An in- stitution under w-hich the just can live only by faith must render conspicuous that simple and confiding trust without which it is impossible to please God. Hence it is, that in abolisliing the worldly sanctuary and the ordinances of the Mosaic economy, adumbrative of the future, the New Institution confines itself, in its severe simplicity, to three institutions commemorative of the past. The Lord's day, the Lord's Supper and Baptism have indeed of themselves a fitness to indicate or pic- ture forth the facts which they commemorate, or the new relations into which the believer enters ; but they are so divinely adapted to the purposes intended that, while they trench as little as possible upon the domain 4o8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of sense, they guide the thoughts of the believer to the gospel facts, and fix his faith upon the person and work of Christ. Unlike corrupt systems, such as Romanism, which usurp th6 name and place of Christianity, and seek, by imposing ceremonies and sensuous imagery, to captivate the imaginative and awe the superstitious, the gospel, in its simple administration, repudiates all dramatic effect and all subordinate mediation, in order to bring by faith the penitent sinner into spiritual fellowship with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. The same simplicity which belongs to the institutions of the gospel appertains to the gospel faith itself, which is far from being what scholastic theology or vain enthusiasm would make it — a mysterious and undefined spiritual operation, or an instantaneous and miraculous illumination ; but which is simply a trusting in Christy a sincere belief in the testimony and truth of God. This faith, again, with that appropriate directness which marks the entire gospel, reveals itself in a willingness to keep God's commandments, and a readiness to make before the world the acknowledgment of the Messiah- ship of Jesus, not only orally in the " good confession" of the primitive Church, but in the entire subsequent devotion of the life. That the simple avowal that Jesus is the Son of God constituted the confession of faith of the primitive Church, is abundantly evident both from Scripture and ecclesiastical history. Neander, in his ^^ Planting of the Christian Church,^'' vol. i., p. i6i, says: " In baptism, entrance into communion with Christ seems to have been the essential point : thus persons were united to the spiritual body of Christ, and received into the communion of the redeemed, the Church of Christ Gal. iii. 27 ; i Cor. THE PRIMITIVE CONFESSION. 409 XII. 13. Hence, baptism, according to its characteristic marks, was designated ' into the name of Christ,' as the acknow- ledgment of Jesus as the Messiah, was the original article of faith in the apostolic Church, and this was perhaps the most ancient formula of baptism, which was still made use of in the third century. The usual form of submei'sion at baptism, praclised by the Jews, was transferred to the Gentile Chris- tians. Indeed this form was the most suitable to signify that which Christ intended to render an object of contemplation by such a symbol — the immersion of the whole man in the spirit of a new life." "In primitive times," says Gavin Struther, D.D., of the Relief Church. Glasgow, in his admirable essay on the preva- lence and insidiousness of party spirit, " the confession of faith in use was very short. ' If thou believest with all thy heart,' said Philip to the Ethiopian eunuch. ' there is nothing to hinder thee to be baptized.' And he replied, ' I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.' On this confession of his faith he was baptized. The first uninspired compends of Christian doctrine were short, plain and comprehensive. The early Christians recognized a few leading principles as essential to vital religion, and on other matters allowed every member to think for himself; but the Church of Rome heaped up article upon article, till her creed became long and full of wire-drawn distinctions. The Churches of the reformation having to testify against many corruptions, were led, in the first instance, to give a lengthened enumeration of the articles of their faith ; and then, after they were attacked, to defend those articles by a regular process of Scripture reasoning and logical argumentation. As their ' Confessions' swelled in size, they did not improve as ' helps to the weak,* which was at first their main intention. Covering, as they soon did, the whole ground of ' didactic and polemic theology,' unlettered men could with difficulty fathom the meaning of their numer- ous propositions. Like modern acts of Parliament, they became abstruse from their very minuteness of detail, and thus generated endless controversies, and produced many 35 4IO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. divisions by a labored attempt at shutting out every possible mistake and error." — Essays on Christian Union^ p. 426. In view of existing circumstances and subsequent results, it was, indeed, a memorable occurrence when, on the I2th day of June, 1812, in presence of the assem- bled multitude, Alexander Campbell first stood forth to make the primitive confession of the Christian faith. The day was beautiful, and the clear heavens shone beneath in the bright waters of the swift-flowing Bufl:alo as it wound through the secluded valley, and bathed the massive roots of leafy elms or of the majestic Western plane, which, with marbled trunk, lifted its cream-white branches toward the skies. There, in the conscious- ness of emancipation from civil and religious thraldom and amidst the freedom of nature, yet in the very heart of a sectarian community, the yet youthful reformer uttered the simple acknowledgment of the Messiahship of Jesus as the divinely-required prerequisite to bap- tism — a confession now for the first time heard since the earlier ages of the Church. It was upon this con- fession alone, as he had informed Elder Luce, that he would consent to be baptized. " I have set out," said he, "to follow the apostles of Christ and their Master, and I will be baptized only into the primitive Christian faith." This was, truly, a remarkable stipulation, and its practical and public fulfillment gave an interest and an importance to the occasion which can hardly be too highly estimated. It was not only a formal and open condemnation of the elaborate doctrinal creeds and false theories of conversion so popular amongst the religious parties, but it was the restoration of the Christian faith to its original simplicity and to its proper object. This feature, thus first introduced, and which, in fact, became at once the great characteristic of the reformation, de- FAITH PERSONAL, NOT DOCTRINAL. 41 J serves to be carefully considered, along with the circum- stances which led to its adoption. The primitive confession is, indeed, the exponent of the nature of the primitive faith. From the Scriptures nothing can be plainer than that faith rests upon Christ himself as its proper object. The faith that saves is a believing on or into Christ (l^c Xpiarov) ; a receiving Christ himself — a trusting in Christ, in all the grandeur of his personal character, and in all the glory of his official relations, as prophet, priest and king. The question, therefore, in regard to faith, was not, in the beginning, " What do you believe?" the eager and sole inquiry of modern religious parties; but *'/« whom do you believe?" It was the question addressed by Christ himself to one who sought to know the truth: *'Dost thou believe on the Son of God?" And the answer was "Who is he. Lord, that I may believe on him?" For this direct personal reliance, indicated in the primi- tive confession, and exhibited as true faith everywhere in Scripture, men have unhappily substituted a trust in the accuracy of their doctrinal knowledge — a confidence in the orthodoxy of particular tenets ; as if correctness of religious opinion could secure the Divine favor, or had in itself a mysterious saving efficacy. Doubtless, when it was asked, "Who is he, that I may believe on him?" it was implied that some instruction was to be given ; as also, when the inquiry was made, " What think ye of Christ?" that a correct apprehension was demand- ed. But it is to be remembered that the knowledge thus required had still reference to a person; to the character and relations of Christ himself as the Son of God and the appointed Saviour of the world. Hence the gospel was to be preached among all nations for the obedience ol faith. Hence the gospel was the power of God to 412 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. salvation to the believer, for this gospel was simply glad tidings concerning Christ — the accredited and joy- ful news of salvation through a once crucified but now gloriously exalted Redeemer, to whom all authority on earth and in heaven had been committed. The simple facts which that gospel embodies, and the prophecies and miracles to which it refers, in attestation of the claims of the Messiah and the completeness of the redemption he has achieved for men, are comprehensi- ble by the humblest capacity, so that such a gospel is indeed fitted to be preached to every creature however illiterate or humble, and constitutes a ground of faith, totally different in character and results from those recondite speculations about the Divine essence, and those abstract theories of the plan of salvation, Divine sovereignty, human inability, etc, etc., which form the burden of modern religious creeds. The distinction here referred to had been, to some extent, recognized in the very beginning of the re- formatory movement. It was substantially implied in the "Declaration and Address," when it was said that "inferences and deductions from Scripture premises," usually called "doctrines," were not to be made "terms of communion" — that such deductions properly be- longed, not to the Christian faith, "but to the after and progressive edification of the Church, and ought not therefore to have any place in the Church's confession.' Again, in the 8th Proposition it was affirmed, "That as it is not necessary that persons should have a particular Knowledge or distinct apprehension of all divinely- revealed truths to entitle them to a place in the Church ; neither should they, for this purpose, be required to make a confession more extensive than their knowledge ; but that, on the contrary, their having a due measure of scriptural self- RELIGIOUS CORRESPONDENCE. 413 knowledge respecting their lost and perishing condition by nature and practice, and of the way of salvation through Jesus Christ, accompanied by a profession of their faith in, and obedience to, him, in all things, according to his word, is all that is absolutely necessary to qualify them for admission into his Church." I'he distinction thu3, at this early period, implied in the principles adopted by Mr. Campbell and his father, does not seem, however, to have been fully apprehended by either for a considerable time afterward. Alexan- der, it is true, as appears from one of his discourses already referred to (page 376), seems in the spring of 181 1 to have taken a simple and just view of faith as a "trusting in Christ," a "hearty reliance upon him for salvation." Subsequently, he read and reflected much upon faith, and occupied himself in considering the various conflicting theories upon the subject, both as it regards the nature of faith itself, and the manner in which it is produced. During the fall of 181 1, and the winter of 1812, he carried on an interesting correspon- dence with his father upon various religious topics, among which a large space is allotted to this particular subject. This correspondence he carefully transcribed, giving to his father the pseudonym of Philologus, and assuming himself that of Philomathes. A few extracts from this correspondence will serve to exhibit their views of this important matter at that time. In the first letter, dated October 17, 181 1, Philo- mathes speaks of a work by Thomas Taylor, published in 1661, upon "The Necessity and Efficacy of Faith in Prayer," and quotes him as saying, "True saving faith may exist in the minds of persons apt to doubt, or, in other words, true faith is not always accompanied by certainty in the mind that the things we desire by 35* 414 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. prayer shall be obtained, but the prayer of faith is sometimes accompanied with doubting." The letter is then devoted to the discussion of the correctness of this position, that saving faith may coexist with doubt, and also of a distinction which is made between the "faith of reliance" and the "faith of assurance," during which a number of cases are cited from the Scriptures. To this Philologus, the father, replies at considerable length, in part as follows : " The subject you have introduced must, on all hands, be acknowledged to be one of leading importance. Next to the revelation of salvation for guilty men, that by which we are made partakers of it, and by which alone we must live, and be actuated while in this world, as legitimate expectants of the heavenly felicity, is to us of all things most important, for it is written, ' The just by faith shall live.' " With characteristic caution, he then first considers the source from which true knowledge must be obtained and the spirit in which it must be sought : " Allow me, then, on entering upon this subject, to defer an immediate reply to your quotation and statements respect- ing your author's views of the subject, reserving this for the sequel. Whatever respect we may have for our own or others' opinions upon Divine subjects, yet in every com- mencement to consider or discuss these things, on set pur- pose, for our own or others' advantage in the knowledge and belief of the truth, it behooves us to have immediate recourse to the Sacred Oracles, that we may stand upon sure ground ; be the better educated in the truth ; have its impression deepened in our minds, and behold it with still greater ad- vantage. Thus shall our certainty of the truth and attach- ment to it increase with our labors ; and thus shall we be delivered from being servile followers and copyists either of ourselves or others. Having ' The Truth' for our motto, and DEFINITION OF FAITH. 415 ' What is tt'zith?' for our simple, single and upright inquiry, let it not be apprehended that such a procedure can justly implicate the lovers and students of sacred truth in the charge of ignorance or instability. It will rather evince the sim- plicity and purity of their hearts from the noxious inmates of pride, self-confidence and vain presumption of infallibility, to which the contrary practice may, with too great an appear- ance of justice, be imputed. The apostle's maxim, however, fully justifies what I plead for : ' If any man thinketh that he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.' Besides, what does such a practice amount to, but what in similar cases is just and natural, namely, to behold or contemplate things in the light? 'In Thy light shall we see light,' and ' he that doeth truth, cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest that they are wrought in God.' Of course, he that speaketh truth in like manner — that his words may be made manifest that they are of truth.' He now goes on to dwell upon faith as being "• the belief of the truth," and gives a general definition of " the truth" as comprehending everything that God has revealed of himself concerning his being and perfec- tions, his works and will, and the present and future state of his creatures. Taking thus, in the first instance, the whole Divine Testimony as the subject-matter of faith, he further remarks that the Divine veracity is the ground, foundation or reason of our faith, and "God in Christ the only proper and qualified object of it." " For as such," he adds, " he revealed himself from the beginning, and as such only is he the subject of supernatural revelation, and as such only can he be justly considered by all them that truly believe it ; for, as such, is he held forth to have been ' from everlasting,' from the ' beginning or ever earth was,' though not so revealed till after the fall, and then, at first, but obscurely. But no sooner did he reveal himself in relation to the redemption and recovery of fallen man, than 41 6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. he did so by the means or mediation of Jesus Christ. And, since then, in the process of the revelation with which he hath favored the Churcli, he hath declared himself acting or proceeding in and by Jesus Christ, in the creation of all things and in all his managements. See Prov. viii. 22 : ' The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way before his works of old ;' and 30 : ' Then I was by him as one brought up with him ; and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him.' See also John xvii. 5: 'And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.' 2 Tim. i. 9 : ' His own purpose and grace which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began ;' and again, ' He hath created all things bv Jesus Christ ;' and again, ' He is the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, upholding all things by the word of his power ; by whom also he made the worlds.' ' By whom he will judge the world.' Acts xvii. 31. So that in no instance is God revealed to us but as in Christ. * * * * But, God in Christ, or God, laying and executing all his purposes of creation, sustentation, gubernation, redemp: tion and judgment, in and by Jesus Christ, is the adequate, comprehensive and adorable object of the Christian faith. * * " The full and firm persuasion, then, or hearty belief of the Divine testimony concerning Jesus, comprehensively considered as above defined, is that faith, in its proper and primary acceptation, to which the promises and privileges of salvation are annexed. See Peter's confession and the re- cognitions of John in his First Epistle : ' Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God ;' ' Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona,' etc., etc. ; ' Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God ;' ' Who is he that overcometh the world but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God.''' * * * * ' Philologus." Continuing the subject in a second letter, he enters minutely and somewhat philosophically into the con- sideration of some of the effects of faith ; but, correct- SOURCE OF TRUE FAITH. 417 ing himself and expressing his dislike of metaphysical distinctions and definitions, he concludes with some .deductions from the whole premises, among which are the following : " I. That he who would harmonize as a teacher or preachei with the intention and scope of the Divine economy, should be careful to exhibit in a distinct and faithful manner the whole testimony of God concerning himself, his works and will, and the present and future conditions of his creatures. Especially, a pure simple gospel view of God as in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself; of Chi^ist in his person, offices and performance ; of the Holy Spirit in his offices and works, and of die absolute unconditionality of salvation, in respect to any entitling or previous recommendatory qualifica- tions whatsoever, as requisite to qualify the sinner for par- taking of the offered salvation, or to lay a foundation for his confidence toward God through Jesus Christ ; even to the exclusion of faith itself in its secondary import, that is, con- sidering it as an act or exercise of confidence in Christ, his office and work ; such confidence being the native and proper result of a true knowledge and belief of the truth or truths exhibited in the Divine testimony. '•'• 2. That he that would be saved should hearken diligently to the testimony of God, by the knowledge and belief of which alone, testified to all who hear it for their salvation, he may be delivered from the wrath to come, the guilt and bondage of corruption, and have access into the glorious liberty of the children of God, in the possession of that confidence which casts out all fear. An effect this, which no systematic theory can either produce or promote, and of course makes no part of the preacher's business. See i Cor. ii. 12. • *.««*«« " 5. From the aforesaid investigation, I further infer that all the distinctions, directions and cautions about kinds and acts of faith, thrust upon the public attention by preachings and VOL. I. — 2 B 4l8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. writings, polemical and practical, are little, if anything, better than fallacies and amusive speculations, tending to divert and distract the mind from the truth — the great subject of salva-_ tion — turning many aside after vain jangling, and greatly deceiving others. For what other end serve the distinctions about ' historical faith ;' ' miraculous,' ' temporary' and ' saving faith ;' ' the faith of reliance,' ' assurance,' ' an act of faith ;' the ' direct' and ' reflex' acts of faith ; ' appropriating faith,' 'the faith of adherence,' etc., etc., if not to perplex or amuse.'' Have we anything like this in the Scriptures } ' So ive preach and so ye believed,' say the apostles, and so the matter ends. The Scripture, it is true, lays a great stress upon faith, and in many places reproves hypocritical pretensions to faith, and also exhibits evidences of genuine faith, and also exhorts to self-examination on that subject, but how } Is it by the intervention of those metaphysical, I might say barbarous, distinctions of modern times.? No such thing. The Scrip- tures exhibit no such theory. They consider the subject through a different medium. ' Show me thy faith by thy works' is the Scripture test, to distinguish the true from the false, the genuine from the counterfeit professor, and not the light, airy, cheap way of metaphysical distinction. It is true, the ground that we have assumed and the plan we have pre- scribed to ourselves, which is simply returning to the original standard, and taking up and treating all religious matters as we find them there, would, if strictly adhered to, for ever extricate us from all the labyrinths of later inventions and practices ; but it will take some pains, and much watchfulness and caution, to bring ourselves to this. We are children of yesterday, moderns in the newest sense of the word; and, therefore, will find it no easy matter to look back over t le heads of eighteen hundred ages, and to think, speak and act, m matters of religion, as if contemporaries with the apostles and members of the primitive Church. Lastly, I infer, from the whole premises, that the great reason why the doctrine of faith has been so perplexed and obscured, is the legal ten- dencv of the human heart, that constant self-flattering bia.s THE POWER OF TRUTH. 419 which leads us to look for something in ourselves to distin- g^jish us in the sight of God from others, were it but a sin- gle act of faith — some felt formal confidence, or ' appropriat- ing act,* as they caL it ; something in ourselves as entitling or interesting. Whereas no one does, nor indeed can, take any merit to himself for believing a testimony where the truth is conspicuous from the strength of the evidence. To withhold belief in such a case is utterly impossible to rational nature. Therefore, no thanks to the believing subject, except for being rational, or for hearing a testimony, which, when brought to his ears unsought, he could not avoid hearing — if these things merit thanks. But, methinks, I hear it queried by the proud, self-preferring heart, can such an involuntary, unavoidable faith, such a bare belief of the naked truth, save me.? Yes, surely, if the truth thus believed be sufficiently interesting to influence the conduct of the believer. If otherwise, let him know assuredly that the merit of believing it will not save him. Moreover, if it be sufficiently influential to affect his conduct, no thanks to him for that ; for, who, in his senses, having drunk a poisoned bowl, would not, when duly certified of h's fatal mistake, gladly receive an antidote.'' Where is boasting, then.? It is excluded. By what law.? Of works? Nay, but by the law of faith. We see, then, upon the closest investigation of the subject, that every kind and degree of boasting is, and must be, for ever excluded by the law or tenor of the New Covenant, which communicates its special and saving blessings only and wholly by faith. I conclude this subject by observing that the forbidding, discouraging sense of our deep unworthiness, which we are prone to entertain in reference to God, is not to be regarded as interfering with our confidence toward him through Jesus Christ, as if we were at any time, or in any case, ever to be conscious of any- thing else, or better than the deepest unworthiness in refer- ence to God and his salvation. * * * * "Upon the whole, it is not theory, but a believing experi- ence of the power of truth upon our own hearts, that will qualify us either to live or preach the gospel of a free, uncon- A.tO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ditional salvation through faith, and we may as well look to the north in December, for the warming breeze to dissolve the wintry ice, as to extract this believing experience of the power of the truth out of the most refined and exquisite theory about the nature and properties of faith, or of justifi- cation, or of any other point of the Divine testimony, ab- stracted from the testimony itself, as exhibited and addressed to us in the Scriptures. Let us, once for all, be convinced of this, that we may addict ourselves to study, believe and preach our Bibles, and then shall we study, live and preach to profit. * * * * And may the Lord direct you in all things, and make you one of his own preachers, and then, like his renowned apostle, you will pour contempt upon the wisdom of this world in all its most imposing forms, which comes to naught; then will your maxim be, 'Not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but in the words which the Holy Ghost teacheth.' " Farewell. "November 29, 1 8i I. Philologus." Such were the views of faith entertained by Thomas Campbell, and in which his son Alexander always substantially agreed. Thus the whole Divine testimony was to be received as -the only source of spiritual light and truth. But that testimony was essentially a revela- tion of God in Christ reconciling a guilty world. Christ being the way, the truth, and the life, to believe on him, to trust in him, was to attain the great purpose of all the Divine communications. A complete acquaint- ance with the Bible, however, though necessary to a full understanding of the Divine character and will, was not required in order to produce faith in Christ ; this being more immediately dependent upon the gospel as preached by the apostles and exhibited in the New Testament. As all the promises and types of preced- ing institutions were verified in Christ, who was the. VIBW OF FAITH MODIFIED. 421 end of the law for righteousness to the believer, and as the great work of salvation which he accomplished was embraced in a few grand, comprehensive facts, adapted to the humblest understanding, a knowledge of these was sufficient in the first instance as the basis of faith, however this might be subsequently evolved and enlarged by an increased knowledge and experience. Thus, as in every seed there is a germ of the future plant, so in the simple gospel there was contained essentially the entire plan of redemption. And, as in the germ of every seed there are two points, one of which always develops itself downward to form the root, while the other as invariably extends itself up- ward to form the stem ; so t'nC revelation of Christ in the gospel spreads its rootlets throughout the entire Old Testament, reaching to the first promise in the garden of Eden ; while, in the New, it rises, in all the excellency and glory of the work of redemption, until it reaches the very heavens. Hence it was, that the primitive faith, a simple trust in Christ, embodied in it all the power of the Christian life, and that a simple confession of this faith was all that was demanded in the apostolic age in order to discipleship. Such in sub- stance was the view of faith which Mr. Campbell had now adopted ; and such was the primitive confession of that faith which he now, by his example, first restored to the world. With regard to this simple trust in Christ, embracing both the understanding and the heart, it will be seen by the minutes of his discourse (p. 376) that he at least, up to the spring of 181 1, retained the opinion that this "trusting" was a special result of "Divine power and regenerating grace." This view, during the reflections and readings of the following year, was somewhat 36 423 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. modified, and he came to regard the Divine testimony itself as the only means through which faith was com- municated. The false reasonings and unscriptural dis- tinctions of the theological works he had been reading upon the subject, seem to have engendered in his mind a fixed dislike to the notions popularly entertained, and to have led him to prefer the simpler view that faith WeiS the direct result of the Divine testimony — a view which is expressly given in that testimony itself, when it declares that '■'■ faith comes by hearings and hearing hy the word of God" It will not appear strange that, with the Scriptures before him, Mr. Campbell should come to such a con- clusion, nor that, from his stand-point, the metaphysical distinctions made by popular theological writers in re- gard to faith should seem to him utterly groundless, if not absurd. During the correspondence with his father, above referred to, he thus writes to him under date of March 28, 181 2, about two and one half months before his baptism : "My attention for some time past has been directed to that grand controversy, not yet decided, betwixt Messrs. Hervey, Sandeman, Cudworth and Bellamy, concerning the apostolic gospel. An old and a most important controversy. As the performance of Mr. Bellamy in this dispute has been much extolled by one numerous party of the contenders, I have given it a tolerably close and somewhat critical reading. In this letter, then, I propose giving you a brief review of the sentiments advanced by this champion in his Dialogues and Essays.* * Joseph Bellamy, D. D., was a native of Connecticut, born in 17 19, and graduated at Yale College in 1735. He was a man of eminent abilities, ardent piety and great power as a preacher. He became, also, a theological teacher and writer, and died March 6, 1790, in the fiftieth year of his min- istry, aged seventy-one. As a theologian he stands next in reputation to President Edwards.— R. REGENERATION BEFORE FAITH. 423 "It appears to have fared with Mr. Bellamy as with many other polemics ; while endeavoring to abolish the sentiments of his opponents, he establishes another scheme^ more absurd in its nature and not less destructive in its consequences. If I were to make any remarks on the style and method of Mr. Bellamy, I would say that his method of treating the matter in debate is puerile. His style is extremely uncouth, abound- ing with barbarisms and tautology. You can hardly conceive a more visible and impressive contrast than that which sub- sists between the diction and style of Mr. Hervey and his respondent. It is not, however, with his style, but with his sentiments, I have to do according to my expressed intention. To proceed then : the outline of Mr. Bellamy's gospel which he opposes to Messrs. Hervey, Sandeman and Cudworth, is obviously such as the following, when reduced to its simplest parts : "i. A man must be regenerated previous to the first act of faith. 2. He must, before he believes the gospel to be true, approve of the law as holy, just and good, and love it on this account. 3. Then through the law as a glass he must dis- cover the glory of God, and love him on account of his own glorious excellences. 4. Afterward, he must discover the wisdom of God in the gospel way of salvation, and, with all these qualifications, he then believes the gospel to be true ; all this previous to the first act of faith, which he says is a ' holy act,' for his faith implies holiness, repentance, conver- sion and reconciliation ; and yet he maintains that repentance is before forgiveness. That you may read his sentiments with your own eyes, please consult pages 14, 16, 17, 19, 58, 79,81-103: Essays, 122, 125, 147. " Respecting his first prerequisite. Regeneration, page 17 : ' Regeneration must be before faith,' John (i. 12, 13). I would inquire what is the meaning of regeneration.? Is it not the communication of spiritual life to the soul, wliich principle of spiritual life is the beginning of eternal life.'' ' If any be ■'n Christ, he is a new creature ;' all ^ old things are passed Away.' 'All things are become new' when a man is regene- 4-24 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. rated, he is then possessed of a new life, he is noiv alive and shall never die. I think this proposition would sound some- what stiange in the ears of a Christian, ' That a man may be possessed of eternal life and yet disbelieve the gospel.' Mr Bellamy virtually maintains this ; for if regeneration be the communication of spiritual and eternal life, and if this be previous to faith, then a man may live and die and enjoy eternal life without faith. But, according to Mr. Bellamy's idea, legeneration is one of the most unaccountable things in the world. It is an eftbct produced without any cause. But we are assured, from the New Testament, that the Word of God is the means of regeneration — not a means which man uses in order to salvation, but a means which God uses. ' Of his own will begat he us wiik the word of truth.' James i. i8. ' Being born again not of corruptible seed,' but by ' incor- ruptible' seed, by ' the Word of God.' i Peter i. 23. ' Who- soever is born of God doth not commit sin, for his seed remaineth in him.' i John iii. 9. 2 John 2 : ' For the truth's sake which abideth in us.' From these Scriptures we learn, in this figurative style, that God begets us of his own will — with incorruptible seed, the word of truth, and the effect is a new creature. One question determines this point. Is it the Word of God, believed or disbelieved, that regenerates us.? If disbelieved, all unbelievers are regenerate ; if believed, then Mr. Bellamy's scheme falls to the ground. Mr. Bellamy lays a great stress on John i. 12, 13: 'Them that believe on his name which were born,' etc. He supposes that John is describing religion as he does, in order^ which is first, second and third ; but I apprehend that this passage is descriptive of character — not of the order of salvation. ''Mr. Bellamy's second prerequisite, page 17. You and I must approve the law as just, holy and good, glorious and amiable, with application to ourselves, before we can with all our hearts believe the gospel to be true. As Mr. Bellamy is very verbose and his performance most tautological, I might refer you to a hundred places where the sentiments I animadvert on are stated and confirmed in his own way. THEORIES UNPROFITABLE. 4»5 Sre the above references. This sentiment is unfounded in Dxvine revelation, nay, the contrary is obviously inculcated. lo the man who disbelieves the gospel, ' the law worketh wrath.' The carnal mind is enmity against it and is not sub- ject to it, ' neither indeed can be.' Paul only had attained to aoprove and love the law through the gospel.' The law is not that which reconciles us to God, but God in Christ reconciles us to himself. Those enemies whom he hath reconciled were reconciled through the death of Christ. Surely it is only the man who believes the Divine Record and trusts in the death of Jesus Christ, that can be considered as having been recon- ciled through the infinite goodness of God. * ♦ « * " What must the orthodoxy of those be who hold Mr. B. as a model defender of the Christian faith ? I should not have wearied your patience reading, or tired myself transcrib- ing, these extracts, were it not to give you an idea of the state of that Church which receives, admires, recommends and contends for this performance as almost canonical. I have only mentioned some of the most exceptionable parts of Bel lamy's pei-formance, but those I have mentioned give an idea of his system, which, at least, is semi-Arminian. I have read about one half of Cudworth this week. Will give you my sentiments respecting his performance in my next. I am weary of controversy. I reap some advantages, but not enough to counterbalance the disadvantages. The simple truth is the best defence of the truth, which, while it enlightens the understanding, sanctifies the heart. Philomathes." Thus it was that Mr. Campbell came to regard the extravagant notions of conversion popularly enter- tained, and the perplexing definitions of faith given by theological writers, as wholly unscriptural and unwor- thy of regard. Disposed lo rely only upon the Scrip- ture, and to limit his convictions by its express lan- guage, he could not perceive much utility in mere theories on any religious subject. The inquiry, with him, was always, What say the Scriptures? and to 36 * 42t> MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. their teachings his understanding and his heart ever responded, as the chords of a well-tuned harp to the touch of a musician. He saw clearly that faith was the belief of the truth, that it rested upon the Divine testi- mony, and that, whatever theology might say or theorists pretend, its quality was to be determined, not by theo- logical definitions or by frames and feelings, but by the Scripture test, a willingness to keep God's command- ments. His view of converting faith came to be, therefore, substantially that entertained by J. A. Hal- dane and John Campbell, mentioned on pp. 155-157. It taught him to look off to Jesus rather than to trust to the varying inoods and emotions of the mind, and to rest his hope upon the merits and faithfulness of Him who is unchangeably the same, rather than upon any inward impressions or transient feelings. As matters of fact, he was not disposed to deny that in many cases a peculiar vividness of conviction and excitement of feeling accompanied belief, and, under certain circum- stances, became unusually striking. Both he and his father had formerly had such " experiences," as they were called, and he always felt an interest in the recital of such matters by others, as evidences of their earnest- ness and sincerity, but he objected that men were dis- posed to rely on these rather than on the Word and Testimony of God, and to neglect and disparage assur- ances derived from the belief and obedience of the truth, while seeking in themselves, often in vain, for those evidences which modern systems demanded. The more he read and examined these systems, the more he became convinced that they had departed from the simplicity of the gospel, and had substituted human speculations and theories for the plain teachings of the Bible. It became therefore largely the labor of his CONVERTING INFLUENCES. 4^7 future life to dethrone these theories from the power they had usurped over men's minds, and to restore the Word of God to its proper authority. Whatever might be urged in favor of " appropriating faith," or of the commonly-received theories upon the subject, he came to regard such definitions and speculations as of no practical utility. Whatever harm they could do, he felt assured they could do no good, inasmuch as it was admitted by all that a cordial reception of them in their most orthodox form tended, in no degree, to procure those special spiritual operations which men were taught to expect. There were, indeed, some difficult questions con- nected with the subjects of conversion and faith, which he does not, at this period, seem to have considered, except in a very general way. One of these was : Why, if faith comes by the word of God, is it not produced in all who hear that word? Why is it that, when the gospel is preached, a few particular individ- uals only believe and obey it? And again. Why is it that it is proper to pray for the conversion of individ- uals or of the world at large, unless it be agreed that some special influence or interposition is to be expected in answer to prayer?* No one admitted the propriety of such petitions or offered them more sincerely than Mr. Campbell, and to deny that there was an influence of any kind to be expected and exerted in any case in aid of the gospel, would have involved a practical in- consistency. He did not, therefore, deny the import- ance or existence of such aid, but its nature he appears to have left undetermined in his mind, preferring to leave all such matters with God. He did not conceive * These questions will be found elucidated in a subsequent part of these Memoirs. 42^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. it to be the duty of an evangelist to preach a theory of conversion, but to "preach the Word," and to leave the event entirely with God. Of this he remained abso- lutely certain, that it was right and safe always to adhere closely to the Scriptures, and to teach and ob- serve such things only as matters of faith and duty for which there could be produced a Divine warrant. It was therefore perfectly in harmony with his principles that, at his baptism, he refused to sanction, by relating an experience, any of the popular theories of faith, and that he determined to adhere closely to Scripture prece- dent and the admitted practice of the primitive Church, by making only the simple, but all-comprehendin'g confession of the Messiahship of Jesus. CHAPTER XX. Spirit oi Persecution — Sabbath-keeping — Union with Baptists — Home- labors — Discussion on Religious Fellowship. THE conversion of the church at Brush Run into a society of immersed believers was quite a marvel and an offence to the religious communities of the neighborhood. Displeased as most of them already were by Mr. Campbell's previous opposition to existing usages, this decisive step, which separated him at once from all psedobaptist sympathy, greatly intensified the prejudices which the clergy had succeeded in exciting against him. That a party of individuals who had been nearly all members of orthodox churches should, without extrinsic influence, but simply from their own investigations, take upon themselves to repudiate pub- licly and finally infant baptism, and to adopt immersion as the primitive institution, and this, too, in the very heart of a pasdobaptist community, under the control of a watchful and active ministry, was regarded as a most presumptuous proceeding, and one well calculated to subvert the entire order of religious society. There were no heresies so flagrant which such a party might not embrace. There were no extremes so wild to which they might not run, as they refused to be guided or restrained by those who were the chosen leaders of the people. Hence the "drum ecclesiastic" of each differ- ent party was beaten, with more than usual vigor, in 429 430 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. vehement efforts to demonstrate to the awestruck audi- tory the terrible consequences of such departures from the views and practices of "great and good men," and from the standards of the established Churches. Throughout this region of country, the power of the clergy was, at this time, almost supreme, and those who questioned it were at once put under the ban of religious society, being regarded as disorganizers, and even treated as outlaws in the spiritual kingdom. It may readily be supposed that under these circumstances the members of the Brush Run Church were blessed with no small amount of persecution, and that this was carried as far as the laws and social regulations would permit. As an illustration of the state of feeling which then existed, the following incident may be related. As Alexander Campbell was one evening returning from an appointment, he perceived a violent storm likely to overtake him, and called at the house of a Seceder lady to request shelter. The lady, who came to the door, desired, in the first instance, to know his name, and being informed that it was Alexander Camp- bell, she at once informed him that she could not admit him into her house. He was, therefore, obliged to pass on homeward, and to brave the fury of the tempest and the dangers from the timber falling across his way, which was chiefly a mere bridle-path through the woods. He did not, however, cherish the slightest unkind feeling toward the lady who had acted thus inhospitably. On the contrary, he used to say in after years, when relating the circumstance, that he had always entertained the highest respect for her, as he was confident she had acted from a sense of religious duty, and that she must have been a pious and very conscientious woman, to have been able thus to repress TRIALS AND PERSECUTIONS. 4.3I her natural feelings of kindness, lest she should sin by receiving into her house one whom she was taught to regard as a false religious teacher. The bitter prejudice thus excited by clerical influ- ence continued to manifest itself in various ways and for a number of years. Misrepresentations of all kinds were freely circulated amongst the people ; friendships were broken off; the ties of family relationship were weakened, and the discord of religious controversy invaded the quietude of the most secluded habitations. Christ had declared in the beginning that he came not to send peace on earth, but a sword — "to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother- in-law." The members of the Brush Run Church now fully experienced the truth of this declaration, as they found that obedience to the Divine word raised up foes in a man's own household, and that, in order to be worthy of Christ, each one must take his cross and follow him. The opposition, however, by no means confined itself to private intercourse, or even to the pulpit, but manifested itself in business relations, in the withdrawal of custom from members whose callings were dependent upon pubHc patronage, and in slights at public gatherings whenever it was supposed an in- dignity might be safely offered to any member present. Such opportunities were sometimes afforded at appoint- ments for preaching, and particularly on baptismal occasions. It happened, more than once, that while Thomas Campbell was baptizing individuals who came forward from time to time to unite with the church, sticks and stones were thrown into the water from amidst the crowd assembled ; imprecations also would sometimes be heard, and even threats of personal vio- 43* MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, lence. The administrator, however, always remained perfectly calm, and performed his office with a dignity and a solemnity which secured the respect of, at least, the better portion of the audience. Such demonstra- tions of enmity are not known to have occurred at any of Alexander's appointments. There was something so commanding in his appearance, in the clear em- phatic tones of his voice, and something so expressive of power and determined will in the eagle glances of his eye, that he seemed to hold his audience, prejudiced as they were, under a sort of spell, and no one was ever found bold enough to venture upon any annoy- ances. One of the chief things circulated about the reformers at this time was, that they paid no respect to the Sabbath day. This, if believed to be true, could not fail to ap- pear a heinous offence in the eyes of the Presbyterians, who composed almost the entire population of this part of the country, and who regarded it as one of the most important duties to keep, in a very solemn manner, the first day of the week, which they conceived to be a sort of Jewish Sabbath, asserting that the Sabbath day was changed from the seventh day to the first. As the Scripture contained no record of such a change, and gave no authority for it, the reformers, of course, could not admit i-t ; and the simple denial of this fact at once exposed them to the charge of paying no respect to the Sabbath, while, in point of fact, they paid as much respect to the first day of the week as their neighbors. Because, however, they would not call it " the Sab- bath," nor regard the Jewish law in relation to the Sabbath, or seventh day, as applicable to the first day of the week, a prodigious clamor was raised against them, as violating one of the most sacred of the com- OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH. 433 mandments. It is true, that they who thus judged, did not themselves keep the first day of the week according to the Jewish law regulating the Sabbath, which de- clared that whosoever should " do any work on that day should surely be put to death." (Ex. xxxi. 15), in harmony with which precept, when a man was found gathering sticks upon that day, he was taken out of the camp and stoned to death. Num. xv. 36. On the con- trary, they assumed the privilege not only of changing the day, but of performing then also whatever they might choose to regard as " works of necessity or mercy." Thus they thought it right to travel more than a "Sabbath-day's journey" to meeting ; to grind grain in a very dry time for the community on "Sabbath" after a shower ; to take special care of their flocks and their herds on that sacred day, etc., etc.* * Among those who stood very high in the Presbyterian Church, some curious cases are recorded, which illustrate the diversity of opinion and practice which arises, when every man is allowed to interpret the law accord- ing to his own views. It is related that James A. Haldane, when a lad, made a tour, along with one of his school-fellows, George Ramsey, through the North of England, accompanied by his teacher. Dr. Adam, rector of the High School of Edin- burgh, and author of the "Roman Antiquities''' and other valuable works. They traveled on horseback, and were also accompanied by the Rev. Dr. Macknight, the well-known commentator, whose practical disregard of the Lord's day made a deep impression on his fellow-travelers. In speaking of this, the author of the " Memoirs of the Haldanes" says : " Although Dr. Adam was not an enlightened man in spiritual things, and then attended the very moderate teaching of the minister of St. Cuthbert's Chapel-of-Ease, yet he had been accustomed to reverence the outward symbols of religion. But when they had crossed the border and arrived in an Episcopalian country, Dr. Macknight persuaded his learned friend that, being now out of the bounds of Presbytery, and under no obligation to countenance prelatical wor- ship, it would be very absurd to allow their journeying plans to be deranged by the intervention of the Sabbath. This convenient doctrine at first sur- prised, but at last proved very palatable to the young travelers. For a time, Dr. Adam felt very much ashamed when they entered a town or village when the church-going bells were calling the people to the services of the sane- VOL. I. — 2 C 37 434 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. No one, however, more approved or admired the quietude and becoming solemnity with which this day was generally observed in Presbyterian communities, nor did any one render a more sincere respect to it than Mr. Campbell, for this term, in order to avoid confusion, will be hereafter, in these Memoirs, appropriated to the son, his father being designated as such, or by his name, Thomas Campbell. He made it a rule through life not to travel on the Lord's day, except to an ap- pointment for a religious meeting, and constantly held the day as one to be sacredly appropriated to religious duties. He entirely discountenanced the practice of Sunday visiting, and urged everywhere the importance of keeping the day in joyful memory of the resurrec- tion of Christ, and with such services as tended to promote Christian edihcation and enjoyment. About this period, he thus wrote to a person w ho had been circulating the report that the Brush Run Church did not observe the first day of the week sacred to the Lord. " This," said he, " is a misrepresentation, for there is no sect known to us, and especially amongst our neighbors, that pay a more sacred regard to this im- portant day than we, though we do not convert it into a tuary. But these scruples were soon overcome by the doughty commentator." It must not be understood, however, that Presbyterians in general sanctioned Dr. Macknight's views in regard to Jewish observances, or that such cases as those referred to, would at all fairly represent the opinions they held with regard to the first day of the week, or Sabbath, as they made it a point to call it And such cases were just as far from representing the sentiments oi the practice of Alexander Campbell and those associated with him. For. although he regarded the positive and ceremonial institutions of the Jewrish law to have been fulfilled in Christ, and that the antitype of the Sabbath was found in the heavenly sabbatism of the New Institution in which men cease from their own works, having found rest and righteousness in Ch'-ist, he, on that very account, felt but the more disposed to reverence and honor the day which was commemorative of the fact that Christ rose again for our justification. RELIGIOUS ENJOYMENT. 435 Jewish Sabbath. The morning of the day we freely consecrate to the Lord in reading, meditation, prayer, with other necessary duties. During the day we as- semble to commemorate the death, resurrection and works of Christ — to pray, to praise, to comfort and edify one another, and to converse only on such things as stand connected with our Church relations and rela- tive duties, and if ever anything of a worldly nature is introduced, it is not of choice, but of necessity, as aris- ing out of our circumstances and mutual relations, and all alluding to our existence as a Church. In the even- ing of the day we conclude as we began. So that there are no professing Christians of any denomination, even those who call the Lord's day a Sabbath, who pay a more rational, scriptural and sacred regard to the Lord's day than w<?." The misrepresentations and petty persecutions, how- ever, to which the members of the church at Brush Run were subjected, only served, as is usually the case, to convince them more fully of the correctness of their course, and to attach them more strongly to one another. They had "obeyed the truth through the Spirit, unto unfeigned brotherly love," and felt that they had been "regenerated by the Word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever." The doubts that had previously dis- turbed their minds on the subject of baptism were now dispelled, and they enjoyed the peculiar gladness which belongs to the bright hours of the earlier period of both the natural and the spiritual life. Having been unable, for want of means, to finish the interior of the meeting- house, they were, nevertheless, accustomed to meet in it regularly, and continued to do so, even without fire, during the inclemency of winter. They visited often at each other's houses, often spending a consider- 43^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. able portion of the night in social prayer, in searching the Scriptures and singing hymns of praise. Their affections seemed to be elevated above the love of the woild by the love of Christ, and the deeply implanted prejudices of a sectarian education and training, ap- peared to have died away beneath the overshadowing influence of Divine truth. As was naturally to be expected, the adoption of immersion which had brought the church of Brush Run into so much disfavor with the Pasdobaptist com- munity, only served to give to it more acceptance with the Baptists. Of these, indeed, there were but few in the particular region of country between Washington and the Ohio river. East of Washington, however, along the Monongahela river, and throughout the rich valleys at the western base of the Alleghany mountains, they were tolerably numerous, and had formed an association of churches, called "Redstone," from an old Indian fort of that name on the Monongahela, about sixty miles above Pittsburg, where the town of Brownsville is now situated. In addition to his ac- quaintance with Messrs. Luce and Spears, Mr. Camp- bell had, from time to time, formed that of other mem- bers belonging to the Association, who often urged that the Brush Run Church should connect itself with this religious body. Determined, however, to preserve its independence as a church, and knowing that, notwith- standing the claim of independency put forth in theory by the Baptist churches, they were very much under the control of the clergy, who constituted the ruling element in the Associations, the proposed measure was regarded for some time as one of doubtful expediency. Another obstacle was, that the churches composing the Association had adopted the Confession of Faith set IMPORT OF BAPTISM. 437 forth by a Baptist Association at Philadelphia, Sep- tember 25, 1747, and which contained a fair proportion of the unscriptiiral theories and speculations usually found in such standards. The practice of immersion indeed, instead of sprinkling, seemed to constitute al- most the only important difference between the Baptists and other sects ; and although the Brush Run members had adopted immersion, and were hence reputed to be Baptists, they felt that there was a wide difference between them and the Baptist communities in regard to the great principles of religious liberty and progress, as well as to the necessity of returning to the faith and practice of the primitive Churches. In their conformity to these, they had advanced far beyond the Baptist stand-point, even before the adoption of immersion, which, with the simple baptismal confession they had chosen, did not bring them to the position held by the Baptists, but, in reality, had placed them still farther in advance. It was after a long and difficult progress, that the Bible had guided them to the primitive baptism, and they would have been obliged to retrace almost all their steps in order to place themselves on Baptist ground, as it was then measured and staked out by the masters of assemblies. Besides, immersion itself was not to the church of Brush Run precisely what it was to the Baptist Church. To the latter, it was merely a commandment — a sort of front door by which regularity and good order required people to enter the Church. With the former, it was a discovery which had the effect of readjusting all their ideas of the Christian institution. It was to them the primitive confession of Christ, and a gracious token of salvation, and although they did not fully, as yet, comprehend, as afterward, its entire purport, its relations were so far understood 37* «f38 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. as greatly to enlarge and simplify their conceptions of the entire gospel. Upon these points, however, and upon the circumstances which led to a conditional union with the Redstone Association during the fall of 1813, it is proper to hear Mr. Campbell himself, who gives the following account, Harbinger for 1848, p. 344 : "After my baptism, and the consequent new constitution of our church of Brush Run, it became my duty to set forth the causes of this change in our position to the professing world, and also to justify them by an appeal to the Oracles of God. But this was not all ; the position of baptism itself to the other institutions of Christ became a new subject of examination, and a very absorbing one. A change of one's views on any radical matter, in all its practical bearings and effects upon all his views, not only in reference to that simple result, but also in reference to all its connections with the whole system of which it is a part, is not to be computed, a priori, by himself or by any one else. The whole Chris- tian doctrine is exhibited in three symbols — baptism, the Lord's supper, and the Lord's day institution. Some, nay, very many, change their views in regard to some one of these, without ever allowing themselves to trace its connections with the whole institution of which it is either a part or a symbol. My mind, neither by nature nor by education, was one of that order. I must know now two things about everything — its cause and its relations. Hence my mind was, for a time, set loose from all its former moorings. It was not a simple change of views on baptism, which happens a thousand times without anything more, but a new commencement. I was placed on a new eminence — a new peak of the moun- tain of God, from which the whole landscape of Christianity presented itself to my mind in a new attitude and position. "I had no idea of uniting with the Baptists, more than with the Moravians or the mere Independents. I had unfor- tunately formed a very unfavorable opinion of the Baptist preachers as then introduced to my acquaintance, as narrow. SECTARIAN MINISTRY. 42^9 contracted, illiberal and uneducated men. This, indeed, I am sorry to say, is still my opinion of the ministry of that Association at that day ; and whether they are yet mucn improved I am without satisfactory evidence. "The people, however, called Baptists, were much more highly appreciated by me than their ministry. Indeed, the ministry of some sects is generally in the aggregate the worse portion of them. It was certainly so in the Redstone Asso- ciation, thirty years ago. They were little men in a big office. The office did not fit them. They had a wrong idea, loo, of what was wanting. They seemed to think that a change of apparel — a black coat instead of a drab — a broad rim on their hat instead of a narrow one — a prolongation of the face and a fictitious gravity — a longer and more emphatic pronunciation of certain words, rather than scriptural know- ledge, humility, spirituality, zeal and Christian affection, with great devotiovi and great philanthropy, were the grand desiderata. "Along with these drawbacks, they had as few means of acquiring Christian knowledge as they had either taste or leisure for it. They had but one, two, or, at the most, thiee sermons, and these were either delivered in one uniform st) le and order, or minced down into one medley by way of variety. Of course, then, unless they had an exuberant zeal for the truth as they understood it, they were not of the calibre, temper or attainments to relish or seek after mental enlarge- ment or independence. I, therefore, could not esteem them, nor court their favor by offering any incense at their shrine. I resolved to have nothing especially to do with them more thai with other preachers and teachers. The clergy of my acquaintance in other parties of that day were, as they be- lieved, educated men, and called the Baptists illiterate and uncouth men, without either learning or academic accom plishments or polish. They trusted to a moderate portion of Latin, Greek and metaphysics, together with a syn jpsis of divinity, ready made in suits for every man's stature, at a reasonable price. They were as proud of their classic lore 44o MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, and the marrow of modern divinity, as the Baptist was of his ' mode of baptism,' and his ' proper subject' with sovereign grace, total depravity and final perseverance. " I confess, however, that I was better pleased with the Baptist people than with any other community. They read the Bible, and seemed to care for little else in reLgion thai. ' conversion' and ' Bible doctrine.' They often sent for us and pressed us to preach for them. We visited some of their churches, and, on acquaintance, liked the people more and the preachers less. Still I feared that I might be unreason- able, and by education pi-ejudiced against them, and thought that I must visit their Association at Uniontown, Pennsyl- vania, in the autumn of 1812. I went there as an auditor and spectator, and returned more disgusted than I went. They invited me ' to preach,' but I declined it altogether, ex- cept one evening in a private family, to some dozen preachers and twice as many laymen. I returned home, not intending ever to visit another Association. *' On my return home, however, I learned that the Baptists themselves did not appreciate the preaching or the preachers of that meeting. They regarded the speakers as worse than usual, and their discourses as not edifying — as too much after the style of John Gill and Tucker's theory of predestination. They pressed me from every quarter to visit their churches. and, though not a member, to preach for them. I often spoke to the Baptist congregations for sixty miles around. They all pressed us to join their Redstone Association. We laid the matter before the Church in the fall of 1813. We dis- cussed the propriety of the measure. After much discussion and earnest desire to be directed by the v.'isdom which cometh from above, we finally concluded to make an overture to that effect, and to write out a full view of our sentiments, wishes and determinations on that subject. We did so in some eight or ten pages of large dimensions, exhibiting our remonstrance against all human creeds as bonds of communion or union amongst Christian Churches, and expressing a willingness, upon certain conditions, to co-operate or to unite with tiia» HOME STUDIES AND LABORS. 441 Association, provided always that we should be allowed to teach and preach whatever we learned from the Holy Scrip- tures, regardless of any creed or formula in Christendom A copy of this document, we regret to say, was not preserved ; and, when solicited from the clerk of the Association, was refused. " The proposition was discussed at the Association, and, after much debate, was decided by a considerable majority in favor of our being received. Thus a union was formed. But the party opposed, though small, began early to work, and continued with a perseverance worthy of a better cause. There was an Elder Pritchard of Cross Creek, Virginia ; an Elder Brownfield of Uniontown, Pennsylvania ; an Elder Stone of Ohio, and his son Elder Stone of the Monongahela region, that seemed to have confederated to oppose our influ- ence. But they, for three years, could do nothing. We boldly argued for the Bible, for the New Testament Chris- tianity, vex, harass, discompose whom it might. We felt the strength of our cause of reform on every indication of oppo- sition, and constantly grew in favor with the people. Things passed along without any very prominent interest for some two or three years." A very imperfect idea would be formed of the energy and activity of Mr. Campbell during these years, if his public religious and ministerial labors were alone considered. From the time that he came to reside at Mr. Brown's, he had continued to render much assist ance in the labors of the farm. This physical exercise however, which he greatly enjoyed, did not materially interfere with the regular course of study which he wa-« accustomed to prescribe for himself. When his horses, weary with the plough, were resting for a little in the shade, he would take from his pocket the New Testa ment he always carried, and spend the time in commit- ting a portion of it to memory, or in tracing out thf 44- M£MO/RS OF ALEXAJS'DER CAMPBELL. order and method of a discourse upon some important theme. Being always a very early nser. many quiet hours were appropriated to important siudies before the household was astir ; and when, at meal-times, coming in warm and somewhat fatigued, he would recline care- lessly uDon the little settee with rockers, which served as a cradle for his children, he was almost certain to have a book in his hand and occupy himself in reading aloud to his wife or otiiers present, or in conversing with them respecting the author and the subject of which he treated. His selection was such that the subject was never a tri\-ial one, but always something impro\'ing, some elevating theme connected \%"ith human dut}' or human happiness, upon which he would himself at inter\'als interestingly descant. So particular was he, that in one of his MS. books he entered down a list of the works he read from the time he came to Mr. Brown's, March 25. iSii. up to the 15th of August, 1812. As the reader mav wish to know the rancre of his readintj during this time, the list is griven below.* The number Owen on the Holy Spirit 3 vols. 1218 ppt Owen on the Death of Death, i voL 320 pp. Walker's Address to the Methodi<5ts. 40 pp. Walkers Charity Sermoru i voL 1 12 pp. Walkers Letters to Knox, ist voL 300 pp. da da da 2d voL 300 pp. Qaolquhun's Address, i voL 124 pp. Law on Christian Perfection. 472 pp. Address on the Christian Name. 30 pp. Lanjr's Philemon to Onesimns. 1 voL 432 pp. Hervey's Meditations, i toL 400 pp. Panl Wright's Biography, i voL 200 pp. Mldiaelis' Litrodnctoiy Lectures to the New Testament. 326 pp. Mason on Self- Knowledge. 90 pp. Sandeman's Letters on Theron and Aspasia 2 vols. 3C0 pp. Sandeman on Marriage. 52 pp. RESPECT FOR GOOD MEN. 443 of pages in all these volumes thus read, he also noted down as amounting to eight thousand three hundred and fift}*-four. Nor is it to be supposed that this read- ing was cursory or superficial, for he not only read these works with care, as is evinced by various notes and references, but made extensive extracts of such poitions as he desired particularly to remember. Thus, from "Owen on the Holy Spirit," there are copied no less than thirty-eight foolscap pages, ver}- closely written in the small but clear handwriting peculiar to him, for he had been well drilled in the art of penmanship by his tather, w-ho was an accomplished penman, and who wrote a hand so elegant that at a very short distance the eye could not distinguish it from copper-plate en- graving. For Dr. Owen he had the highest admiration, and speaks of him, in introducing the extracts, as " that eminent servant of God." He entertained the same sentiments in reference to John Newton, and through Booth's Essay on the Kingdom of Christ 120 pp. Bellamy's Dialogues and Essays. 320 pp. Cudwonh against Sandeman and Bellamy. 300 pp. Haldane on Baptism. icx> pp. McClean's pamphlets — A reply to Mr. Fullers Appendix to his book on "The Gospel \Vorthy of Acceptance," 154 pp. Wardlaw's Lectures on the Abrahamic Covenant, revised. 132 pp. Belief of the Gospel, Saving Faith. 36 pp. Sermons on Public Fasts. 48 pp. Defence of Believer's Baptism. 93 pp. Haldane's Tour through the Highlands.

        100 pp. Branagon's Concise View of Religious Sects. 324 pp. Booth Against Free Communion. 70 pp. Prophetic Conjectures on the French Revolution by various antliOTS, with other events. 96 pp. Bechens on the Signs of the Times, or the Overthrow of the Papal Tyranny in France. 40 pp. AnonjTnous Dialogues on Duty. 50 pp. The Pioneer. 312 pp. Kelly's Sermon on Perseverance. 20 pp. Kelly's Defence of his book " Union."

        80 pp. 444 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. life could never hear the name of either mentioned without expressing his high appreciation of him. He also thought much of some things in the writings of John Walker, from whose " Address to the Methodists in Ireland" he extracts the following passages as worthy of special attention : " I. The writer who takes the sacred Scriptures alone foi the standard of his faith, and takes the ivhole of them, must expect opposition and dislike more or less from all sects and parties. " 2. The more clearly we maintain and exhibit the sim- plicity of the real Gospel of Christ, the more we shall be disliked and despised by the world. " 3. The gospel which proposes a foundation for the sin- ner's hope altogether oztt of himself, and calls him to live a life which he is to live not by himself, but ' by the faith of the Son of God,' is on this account peculiarly offensive to the world. " 4. It is no part of the work of grace to mend the corrupt nature. That nature is as bad, as wholly evil, in a believer as in an unbeliever ; as bad in the most established believer as in the wickedest ; as bad in Paul the apostle, just finishing his course and ready to receive the crown of righteousness, as in Saul of Tarsus, a blasphemer and a persecutor of the Church of Christ. " 5. What are we to understand by being sanctified or made holy? I answer in a word — separated unto God, so as to be brought into a particular relation unto him, appro- priated to his use and service. This is the literal meaning of lynp. For this reason, persons, places and things have been said to be sanctified, in the Bible. See Lev. xx. 24, 26 ; De'it. vii. 6 ; xiv. 2 ; believers are * chosen^ out of the world, his peculiar people, a holy nation, from the babe in Christ to the Father, i Pet. i. 2 ; ii. 9. Consider i Cor. i. 30 : ' Of him,' etc. ' Believers are in a new state in Christ yesus Not of themselves but ' of him* — of God. Then Christ is WALKER ON PARTY NAMES. 445 made unto them wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, re demption. Their sanctification and justification equally result from being in Christ. " In consequence of this union^ the Spirit of holiness, the Spirit of life and power, descends and dwells in them, pro- ducing in them the fruits of holiness^ even that cluster of heavenly affections, Gal. v. 22, 23. And these fruits are pro- duced because they are kept ' abiding in Christ^ walking in him. Col. ii. 6. And they are kept thus continually in Christ, by the Spirit keeping them under a continual conviction of their need of him as poor sinners, who have in themselves neither righteousness nor strength, and testifying to their hearts that in him they have righteousness and strength in whom alone all the seed of Israel is justified and shall glory, saved in the Lord with an everlasting salvation (see Isa. xlv. 17, 24, 25), testifying of his offices and character. They are kept by the '• power of God through faith unto salva- tion^ * * « * " I. The doctrine of a sinner's justification as the free gift of God in Christ yesus to every one that believeth, is the essential difference between the gospel and ail human systems. " 2. This doctrine, Luther said, is the turning-point of a falling or a standing Church ; and it may be truly said to be the turning-point of true religion or false religion. ♦ * * "4. On Repentance. " That repentance which is unto life is not anything preced- ing faith or unconnected with it, but it is that nev) mind of which we are made partakers when we are given to believe with the heart in Jesus. " There may be a pregnant sorrow for sin, when there is 110 true repentance." " On Party Names. *' I. I observe that the Scriptures positively testify against the practice of Christians calling themselves by their earthly leaders. If I were to choose any man by whose name I would 38 44^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBKLL. call myself, I would be apt to select Paul and call m'\ self a Paulite. But against this Paul himself would pro*eP» * and shal'. I call myself a Calvinist, or a disciple of Calvin^ Nor would I ever wish to descend from the high charactev of a servant of Jesus Christ, to that of a champion for the opinions of any man." " Against Arininianism. " 2. I am persuaded that all that are saved^ are saved from a proud rebelliousness of heart, and subdued to a thankful acquiescence in the revealed way of salvation ; glad to be saved by mere mercy^ and convinced that if it were not mere mercy, they could not be saved at all. " 3. I would observe that to charge God with cruelty for not extending the same grace and saving mercy to others, is in effect to deny the existence of his mercy altogether. The very idea of mercy is that it is gratuitous — that is not the gift of mercy which may not be justly withheld ; and that cannot justly be withheld, which it would be cruelty to with- hold. " 4. Alas ! What a different book would the Bible, be if systematic divines, if uninspired men of any sect or party, had the compilation of it !" For the learning, sincerity and talents of John Walker, Mr. Campbell entertained a very high respect, but it was a respect somewhat mingled with pity that his labors should have resulted in so little real benefit to religious society. He had heard him preach at Rich- Hill, as related (page 60), and was greatly impressed Ly his acquirements and his acuteness, and used often, in conversation, to speak of the facts in his history ; of the trouble he gave the Episcopalians, while among them, by inveighing against their worldly conformity ; Df his subsequent union with the Methodists on account of their plainness of dress and manners, and of his .speedy abandonment of this connection from his dis- FELLOWSHIP WITH UNBELIEVER^. 447 satisfaction with their x\rminian doctrines, upon which he wrote his celebrated "Letters to Alexander Knox," which many regarded as the finest exposition of the gospel plan of justification which had appeared since Paul's Epistle to the Romans. For a time, Mr. Walkei had sympathized with the Haldanean movement ; but, adopting peculiar notions of separatism, and refusing to hold religious fellowship even in appearance with those who differed from him, he established an impassa- ble barrier between the few followers he here and there obtained, and all the surrounding religious bodies.* Mr. Campbell himself seems, during the winter of 181 2, to have given some consideration to this question of religious fellowship, and as he was then carrying on the correspondence, already spoken of, with his father upon various topics, he took occasion to introduce for discussion the position which believers occupy in rela- tion to unbelievers in social or public religious exer- cises. Under date of February 26, 181 2, he submit** to his father the following queries : *' I. What is prayer, and how many kinds are there? 2 Is it scriptural and lawful for believers and unbelievers foimally to join in prayer and praise as acts of religious wvubhip.'' The matter to be ascertained is," he remarks, " the propriety of social acts of religious worship in promis- cuotiiS assemblies or in families where some are unbelievers. * Oi" those who adopted Mr, Walker's views, there were a few in the neighbtiihood of Newry, who, in after years, used to meet occasionally in that plate. Mr. Ross of Rosstrevor, successor of General Ross, was one of them, ana, being a public man, was accustomed on such occasions to deliver a religious address to the people. But at these meetings there were no public exercises, such as prayer or singing, by uniting in which any of the audience could assume even the appearance of religious fellowship. It may readily be supposed, that a course of this kind, to which the divided and distracted state of religious society could alone have given origin, had the etTect of gicatly limi';ing the progress of Mr. Walker's opinions. 44S MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. After expressing his desire that this matter should be ex- amined impartially, and without paying any respect to such " advantages or disadvantages in a temporal sense as might accrue from this or that practice," he says: "When I survey the religious world and read the New Testament, the more clearly I am convinced that superstition, enthusiasm, for- mality and will-worship, prevail to the ruin and disgrace of scriptural and ancient Christianity. And as ti'uth can never be injured by being examined, to call all doctrines and re- ligious practices, in this generation, in question, appears an immediate and indispensable duty." After speaking then of the corruptions of Christianity in the perversion of the ordi- nances of baptism, the Lord's Supper, the Lord's day, preach- ing, etc., he inquires if it is not probable that the ordinances of prayer and praise have likewise been pei-verted. " How many disciples of Moses," he exclaims, " are yet to be found in the professed school of Jesus Christ ! and how few among the teachers of the New Testament seem to know that Christ's ministers are not able ministers of the Old Testa- fnent^ but of the New I Do they not, like scholars to their teacher, run to Moses to prove forms of worship, ordinances, discipline, and government in the Christian Church, when asked to account for their practice? On this subject, I think we may rest satisfied, that since the great Prophet has come, whom to refuse or disobey is death, who is a faithful son over his own house, that all worship and forms of worship, ordinances, discipline, and government belonging to the Christian Church, must be learned exclusively from the New Testament. And every appeal made to Moses or the pro- phets to confirm any form of worship, ordinance, or any part of Christian discipline or government is sending Christ the Sof to Moses the servant to be instructed. It is a perverse impeachment of the wisdom, goodness and care of the Church's head." Passing, afterward, to the subject of family- worship, he submits to his father the question whether there is COMMUNION OF BELIEVERS ON..r. 449 scriptural authority for making this observance, as some had done, a term of communion, and whether it is proper in a family composed in part of unbelievers? To these inquiries his father replies at considerable length in two letters, dated the 2d and I2th of March, in which he considers particularly this question of religious fellowship : " That Christianity," he remarks, " in the present pro- fession and practice, is greatly corrupted, is a plain matter of fact. Whoever will seriously consider the present state of things in the professing world and compare it with the spirit and tenor of the apostolic writings, and with the state of things there exhibited, will plainly perceive, nay, will sensi- bly feel, a remarkable and striking difference." Dwelling then upon the gospel as it was first introduced, and as designed to replace all other religions, he continues : "As the object of this new religion, if I may so call it, which superseded all others, and made them null and void upon its appearance, was the one God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who was thus distinguished (see i Cor. viii. 5, 6), and only rightly worshiped in and through him who was indeed one with him and with the Holy Spirit in Divinity, but distinct from him and Lorded by him as to his relation to humanity, or as the Word made flesh, Acts ii. 36 ; so with respect to religious fellowship or relationship, the subjects of this new religion had their respects or religious regards entirely turned to and solely confined to each other, considering none but themselves as fellow-subjects of the grace of God, or as brethren in religion. Hence their religious esteem and inter- course in all religious acts and exercises were precisely and •lecessarily limited to each other, and of course must of necessity still be the same, for there is still but one body, one Spirit, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, and of course but one law of love pervading and uniting all within the manifold limits of this unity and under its manifest influences. Now every pretence to extend com- voL. I.— 2 D 38 ♦ 4So MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. munion in the acts and exercises of religion beyond the limits of this special unity, as well as every attempt to set it aside, wheresoever manifest, by separating or causing to separate those whom God has thus united in himself by his Son Jesus Christ through the Spirit, in the one baptismal profession of faith and holiness, is no less absurd than anti-sci iptural. These, and these alone, constitute the one visible professing body of our Lord Jesus Christ upon earth, and are the spe- cial subjects of all-saving grace and of fellowship in all gospel ordinances, in and by which that grace is manifested^ maintained and protnoted. " Now all are, in the first instance, manifested and dis- tinguished by the one faith, of which the one baptism or submersion in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, is the proper, instituted and expressive symbol, and also the first formal and comprehensive act of the obedience of faith. But this faith may be manifested without this baptism, and where it is received must always be manifested (I mean by a scriptural and intelligent pro- fession) before it. And now that the world has for a long time been misled about this baptism, and in the way of administering it to children, which are utterly incapable and always unqualified subjects — the one faith, manifested by an intelligent and consistent profession, is the immediate, proper, and formal reason of religious communion in all the instituted ordinances of gospel worship, beyond which it cannot be lawfully or profitably extended ; and this instituted worship can be nowhere performed upon the Lord's day, where the Lord's Supper is not administered. Wherever this is ne- glected, there New Testament Church-worship ceases. * * " Now as all private and particular meetings of Christians for particular purposes, naturally and properly include only such as are concerned in the proper and specified cause of such meetings, therefore none but they can have any proper or assignable cause of access to such meetings, and as the public meetings of the Church for edification are open to all (see I Cor. xiv. 23, 24, 25), there can be, therefore, no prosti-


        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOL-I:

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

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      God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47 SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32
        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26 SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7 SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10
        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe,
          God the Father,
            God the Son, &
              God the Spirit
                Achieve Goals, NOT Satan;
                  Please "CLICK" below!
      "I Believe GOD ACHIEVES HIS GOALS for the World!"

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      Dearest Visitor!
      People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
      We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
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      Let's Break it Down!
      "These things have I WRITTEN" (Absolute, Unchanging)
      Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
      THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
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      "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5
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      Worth Studying For? Believing For? Eating For? Obeying For?

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      45] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ASTHMA THERAPY: Natural and Complementary Methods
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      [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
      [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
      [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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      *COPYRIGHT NOTICE*

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      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better know and serve you, our readers?

      At this time, I do NOT believe Jesus is the Saviour!
      I DO believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!
      I do NOT believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' - IF one has Eternal Life;
      In 'THREE MINUTES'...you can "Know for Certain!" if your NOW HAVE Eternal Life! (or not!) 1 John 5:13
      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:
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      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!" Eph 2:8-9, Tit 3:5


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      PLEASE READ DOCTRINAL DISCLAIMER:

      Ministers-Best-Friend.com is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers - and dedicated Christians who serve the LORD JESUS.

      As such, we provide web-space to a number of Ministries - notably "NewtonStein!" (a Creation-Based Science Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA, HISTIPEDIA, ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, POLITIPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, MEDIPEDIA, ETC.;

      All Absolute-Bible-Believing, and each has their specific calling and ministry to reach Muslims, Jews, Scientists, teach Biblical Medicine and Health, Godly Government, Church Leadership, sharing American Godly History, and the HAND OF GOD in World History over the Ages!

      Obviously, all branches of Christianity do not agree doctrinally - or politically - and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, event, leader, nation or situation: Thus there are well over 10,000 denominations in the world!

        (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST "GNAT STRAINING!" - and "CAMEL SWALLOWING!")

      We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. . . or anything!

      Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion NOT be made known for various reasons.

      These are offered to you as wise people of God - True Christian Patriots - WHATEVER YOUR NATION - to discern for your own judgement and edification unto Our LORD JESUS CHRIST.

      Finally, we trust, hope, and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "God's WILL ONLY, being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN!" (Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2). . . . . .(IS THIS YOUR PRAYER, DAILY GOAL FOR YOUR CHURCH, CITY, STATE, NATION, and THE WORLD???)

      In the NAME of Jesus Christ, Our Lord and Saviour, KING of all Kings, LORD of all Lords, REIGNING SUPREME, COMING AGAIN!

      Be Blessed!

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      [4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
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      [5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)
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      [11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?
      [12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)
      [13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)
      [14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”
      [15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers
      [16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?
      [17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?
      [18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!
      [19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!
      [20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!
      [21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!
      [22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts
      [23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?
      [24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?
      [25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page
      [26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!
      [27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page
      [28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry
      [29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!
      [30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?
      [31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero
      [32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?
      [33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?
      [34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?
      [35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians
      [36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!
      [37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."
      [38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;
      [44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"
      [45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

      ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

        *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

        . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

        Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

        Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

        Pray for us, please!

        MBF


      *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

        Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

        FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

          JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

          And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

        FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

        FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

        FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

          (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


        FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

        FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

        FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

        FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

        FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

        FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

      Go thou and teach likewise!


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      Welcome to the "Ministers-Best-Friend!" ..... home of Cambridge Theological Seminary ..... the "World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!" .....of "Bible Churches United for Christ! ..... in a season of GLOBAL increase ..... WE PROVIDED THE PAPERWORK TO START 778 NEW CHURCHES "PER MONTH" IN 2011 (World-Wide)..... averaging 421 a month in USA ..... 62 a month in CHINA ..... 46 & 32 respectively, in RUSSIA & INDIA ..... the "CAMBRIDGE CONFEDERATION now with 16,518 Ordained Ministers ..... 14,687 Local Churches ..... and 6,709,878 Members ..... 'ADDED' since AD-2,000, now in 192 "KNOWN NATIONS" (and Territories) ..... and 17 "UNKNOWN NATIONS" of Islamic origin ..... "WHY the increase in this time of Global Economic Depression?" ..... ONLY GOD KNOWS .... but we believe His Blessing is because ..... we are striving our best to BLESS HIS MINISTERS ..... His "Called-Servants" ..... in every way we can!
      DEAR FRIEND ..... PLEASE take a FEW SECONDS ..... NOTE our "15 PROGRAMS BELOW ..... in which we may be able to ENHANCE YOUR MINISTRY CREDENTIALS ..... you may DESIRE to use them later ..... THANK YOU ..... MAY GOD BLESS YOU .....PLEASE PRAY for US ..... PLEASE TELL OTHERS ..... PRAY-FOR-US ...... and COME BACK OFTEN!
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