ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
CAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGE

”CAMBRIDGE!”

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ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



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ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'MOSES' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
THANK YOU, GOD BLESS, PRAY for US, TELL OTHERS,
PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
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    Fellow Christian for Christ!


    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!" (For "FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)


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    Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:

    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:
      (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);
      (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";
      (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more: SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"
      (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;
      (E) Serving 200+ Nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3,

    [1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

      ** Preachers, Teachers, Pastors and Evangelists;
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      ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and Worship Leaders;
      ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
      ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained!
      ** Every person - having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry" - to reap the benefits thereof: In Finances, Influence, Credentials, etc; Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

      For all Ordination needs, please see:
      Ministerial Ordination Process:
    [2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

    [3] Chaplaincy Training, Certification with Endorsement for Employment: Jail, Hospital, Schools, Courts, Police-Fire Dept: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Training: Multiple Certifications

    [4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

    [5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible Teachers; Online "Free!" Degree Programs

    [6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

    [7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

    [8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

    [9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

    [10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

    [11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

    [12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

    [13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

    [14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

    [15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE?

    The goal is NOT to test your MEMORY!!!

      The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the WORD of GOD as you read it!

      All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.
    "Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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CHRISTIAN COALITION VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN CATHOLIC VOTER GUIDE
ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS CONSULT "CHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDES!"
Voting Righteousness is God's Command!
(CLICK VOTER LOGO ABOVE)
(Then Click "YOUR STATE" for "YOUR CANDIDATES!")

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2016!
DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER[2]TED CRUZ OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[3]RAND PAUL WITH FLAG, POINTING UP photo[4]RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO[5]BEN-CARSON-PHOTO[6]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[7]JOE BIDEN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag[8]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2012!
DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag [4]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER.[5]WILLIAM OWENS[6]PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO[7]ann-romney-photo-1.jpg[8]MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]LANCE ARMSTRONG on BICYCLE PHOTO[2]CHEERLEADERS for JESUS and BIBLE VERSES PHOTOS[3]BENGHAZI BURNING AMERICAN EMBASSY PHOTO[4]AMERICAN AMBASSADOR STEVENS DRAGGED THRU STREETS[5]ARAB SPRING, AMERICAN FLAG BURNING PHOTO[6]TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO[7]ORLY TAITZ.jpg[8]TRINITY BROADCASTING LOGO
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orly Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Preacher! [7]Birther? [8]TBN Down?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]STACY DASH[4]JACK-SCHAAP-PHOTO.[5]BISHOP-EDDIE-LONG-PHOTO[6] VALERIE JARRETT WITH OBAMA PHOTO[7] HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[8]COACH JERRY SANDUSKY PHOTO
Dinesh D'Souza, Ms. Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
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BRIEFS: MUSLIMS COMING TO GET US!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]OSAMA-BIN-LADEN-PHOTO[3]MAHMAUD-AHMADINEJAD-PHOTO[4] VALERIE JARRETT OBAMA'S PUPPET MASTER PHOTO[5]HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[6]BARACK-OBAMA ARABIC WRITING PHOTO[7]BARACK-OBAMA BOWING TO KISSING HAND, SAUDI KING[8]HUMA ABEDIN with MUSLIM HEADRESS PHOTO
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Muslim! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim? [7]Saudis Worship? [8]Muslim Sisters!
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BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg KENNETH HAGIN SR-PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg BOB GRAY TEXAS-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, K. Hagin, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell, B. Gray,
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tenn. Temple, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola U, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO 
GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S ASIAN-INDIAN LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
dgs-dhinakaran-photo.jpg DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO  Paul dhinakaran-photo.jpg
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
SANTITA-JACKSON-PHOTO.jpg GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO MIA LOVE PHOTO
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
SKULL and BONESSODOMY SHORTENS MALE LIFESPAN BY DECADES!!!SKULL and BONES
SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS
LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES
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BRIEFS: AMERICANS HOME SCHOOLED!
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 THOMAS A EDISON PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" TIM TEBOW TEBOWING in JETS UNIFORM PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT OVAL in SQUARE
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
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BRIEFS: MOST LISTENED TO MINISTERS
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
(CLICK PICTURES)
PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1 RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" JOYCE MEYER BEST WHITE PHOTO D-JAMES-KENNEDY-PHOTO TIM TEBOW-PHOTO
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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NewtonStein:
Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!
Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)
GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSS GRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"
Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERY AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!
"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!
Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!
WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"
FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!
Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?
"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION
CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:
      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
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        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
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        MEMOIRS

        OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.

        By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        CHAPTER 7 - ORIGINAL PAGES 601-700

        CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        ACTUAL PAGES 451-525

        RELIGIOUS FELLOWSHIP.

        451 tution of religious exercises by the accidental presence of unbel evers, seeing they are not intentionally as members, or as the proper and qualified subjects of such exercises, al- though they may happen to be present, and also to be con- vinced and converted by the appointed means of public edifi- cation. And, as for the Lord's Supper, which only respects disciples, and to which none else have right of access but only such, it belongs so peculiarly to the church and to it alone, that it would appear that none else but disciples had access to the meetings which were held for this particidar purpose ; so that there was no need for tokens to distinguish church members from strangers who belong not to the church ; and, indeed, it would be hard to conceive under what pretence such could be admitted. * * * * " Upon the whole, it appears that the Christians had their public, their special and their private or particular meetings — their public meetings for public edification, their special meetings for special edification, and their more private or particular meetings pro re nata. * * * * But all the while, it is as obvious as the light that shines, that professed believers, acknowledged Christians, and none but they, are the proper, intended and specified subjects of all religious communion and fellowship in all the ordinances of gospel worship, nor can they scripturally intend, much less extend., that communion beyond themselves or those of their own number. See 2 Cor. vi. 14-18. Though they may and will consult and intend the conversion and salvation of their per- ishing fellow-creatures by the means appointed for that pur- pose in their public meetings. See i Cor. xiv. 23-25. Thus far concerns the order, intention and proper subjects of the ordinances of gospel worship, public, special and particular. " The next question that occurs upon this interesting and important subject, is like that of the Pharisee of old : 'Who is my neighbor, my brother in religion, the qualified object of my regard, my fellow-Christian .?' " In attempting to answer this, I would cautiously avoid the Pharisaic self-preferring disposition, and therefore would reply, 452 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. in the first instance, any fellow-sinner of the human race, how vile soever he may have been, who makes an intelligent pro- fession of the truth as it is in Jesus, as comprehensively specified in the eighth proposition of the overture in our Address ; and so long as he continues to manifest the reality of his profession by his temper and conduct, still to consider him in the same light. Than the above, I know no other distinction between mankind with respect to salvation, and this, while I believe the Scriptures, I must believe to be the only and all-sufficient ground for Christian love, and there- fore I must heartily acquiesce in what is declared in the ninth proposition. This, however, may be thought at first view to be a very generalizing principle ; I could wish with all my heart that it was, that it would embrace the whole Christian — I mean professing — world ; but upon a close inspection and strict application, I fear it will be found to embrace but comparatively few — yea, very few — of the great majority of the religious professors. Do they, or can they all, indeed, upon a close examination, manifest a conviction by the word and truth of God that they are originally and actually in the awful, woeful, lost and perishing condition in which the word and truth of God declares them to be.'' And in connection with this, such a scriptural view of the person and mediation of Jesus Christ as both satisfies God and the convinced con- science, gives rest and peace to the heart from the just appre- hension of impending wrath, and disposes the soul to the holy obedience of faith and love.'' Do they or can they profess such faith, such hope and such love upon the good, assignable scriptural reasons with which a true knowledge and belief of the Divine testimony furnishes every mind that truly understands and believes it.'' I fear not; and I would say that, without this clearly and scripturally ascertained in connection with a corresponding practice (in so far as prac- tice can be taken into consideration under the various circum- stances in which the various applicants may be found), there is no just scriptural ground of religious fellowship. * * * " In order, then, to direct and determine our practice in CHRISTIAN RECOGNITION. 453 existing circumstances, when all the world are called Chris- tians, and the great majo-ity seem to persuade themselves that they are so in some sense, and therefore are in a condi- tion with respect to Christ and salvation vastly different from the heathen world, both as to persons and circumstances, we believe, as we have a right to hope, that there are Chris tians in all the denominations of professors where the great fundamental truths of the gospel are acknowledged, although we have no reason to believe that the majority of professors are such. Therefore, when any number of persons assemble on the Lord's day for the avowed purpose of public worship, there we may reasonably hope that there are some believers, and however this be, the persons thus assembling, in so far avow themselves to be voluntary subjects of the gospel dispensation ; nor is it our place to determine, what in many cases we can- not, who of them are or are not Christians, or whether or not they may not be all so, seeing that in the point of view in which they present themselves to our considerations, as also in the course of the service, they manifest themselves to par- take with us in the acts of religious worship. There can be no doubt, then, in such a case, but we are to consider and address them as the professed worshipers of the true God through Jesus Christ. I do not say as unfeigned and believ- ing worshipers, for, even in the most perfect Church, we would scarcely be justifiable in considering all as such. This conclusion proceeds upon the supposition that Christ has a people amongst the visible professors of his name, and that these may be expected to be found where the great funda- mental truths of the gospel are publicly professed ; nay, that wheresoever this is the case, there the professors, if sincere, of course must be his people. But this, as I said above, is scarcely to be expected in the most perfect Churcli that ever did or shall exist. See the seven Epistles to the seven Asiatic Churches. Moreover, every irregularity, error or mistake does not unpeople a professing people. Therefore I conclude that where we bear an open faithful testimony against the existing evils of a professing people who acknowledge the 454 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. great fundamental truths of the gospel, we are warranted to join in all public acts of religious worship with such of them as voluntarily attend upon our ministrations, and thus countenance our instructions both by their voluntary attend- ance and manifest concurrence with us in those religious acts." ♦ * * » Such were the sentiments of Thomas Campbell upon the subject of religious fellowship in March, 1811, and in these his son Alexander substantially agreed. When, about three months after the above correspond- ence, the church at Brush Run became a body of im- mersed believers, these views became more clearly and sharply defined, no one being afterward recognized as duly prepared to partake in religious services, except those who had professed to put on Christ in baptism. From his lively sense of the prevalent corruptions of the gospel and its institutions, and his conscientious scruples in regard to yielding to these any countenance or toleration, Mr. Campbell, even down to his later years, would occasionally, amongst private friends, contend strenuously for principles almost as exclusive and rigid as those of Walker. His benevolent feelings, however ; his Christian courtesy and his sympathy for those whom he regarded as sincere but mistaken, did not permit him to carry out such principles. Both he and his father had great consideration for the uninten- tional mistakes and errors in which religious society had become involved, and in this feeling, the members of the church at Brush Run, for the most part, partici- pated. However clear their convictions had become as to the primitive method of confessing Christ, and the primitive faith and order of the Church, they had too fresh a recollection of their own struggles and difficul- ties m attaining to the views they held, and too deep a BAPTIZED BELIEVERS INVITED. 455 sympathy with the pious but priest-ridden members of other communities, to refuse to recognize them as being intentionally at least, followers of Christ. As they could not, however, make any compromise with the corrupt systems and practices of the day, and were prevened by their principles from recognizing frater- nally any one who had not publicly complied with the requisitions of the gospel, they were necessarily inhib- ited from inviting any except the actual members of the church to take a part in religious exercises. This was specially true with regard to the Lord's Supper, which they continued to celebrate weekly, and of which none but baptized believers were invited to partake. It was not, however, the custom of the church, nor has it ever been that of any of the Churches of the Re- formation, to " fence the tables," as sectarians express and practice it ; or to withhold the symbols from any pious person who might be present and feel disposed to unite in commemorating the death of Christ. CHAPTER XXI. Diffusioi- of Truth — Agricultural Pursuits — Sectarian Jealousies — Redstone Association — Sermon on the Law — Letter on the Trinity. IN some communities, the diffusion of either truth or error is extremely slow. The local circum- stances ; the character of the original settlers ; the chief occupations ; above all, the religious views and habits of thought at first prevailing, and the sympathies which belong to the people of every district mutually asso- ciated and allied, often give to it a certain unity of sentiment which resists innovation and is opposed to change. Such was the case, in a marked degree, in regard to the region to which Mr. Campbell and his father had hitherto devoted their reformatory labors, so that these, however earnest and disinterested, seemed as yet to produce comparatively but little visible effect. Individuals, indeed, occasionally, became impressed by the truth, and in defiance of the opposition of relatives and acquaintances, and sometimes under peculiarly touching circumstances, would present themselves for baptism. Most of the accessions, however, for some time, were from among newly-arrived immigrants, who, while the impression of change was yet fresh upon them, and they were yet uncommitted to any religious party in the neighborhood, were more disposed to hear and to consider the plea for primitive Christianity. Among these m ly be mentioned Joseph and William 456 CASE OF AUTOBAPTISM. 457 Mathews, brothers of Mrs. Hanen, who, arriving about this period, soon became members, and continued ever after active and intelligent advocates of the cause. During the progress of affairs, there were not want- ing some curious cases showing to what measures men will sometimes resort in order to stifle their convictions, or to make a compromise between their wishes or pre- judices and their consciences. Among instances of the latter, there was a certain John Moore, a Seceder, who, in spite of a violent opposition from his wife, had become a member of the Christian Association, but withdrew about the time im- mersion was adopted, and became a bitter enemy of the Brush Run Church. His secret misgivings, how- ever, would not allow him to rest satisfied with his position. Being, after a time, convinced that infant bap- tism was invalid, he was ashamed to apply for immer- sion to those he had forsaken, or even to acknowledge publicly his adoption of views he had so recently decried. Amidst his mental conflict, he was finally brought to the strange conclusion that he could be him- self the administrator ; so that, repairing one day to a stream of water in a secluded place, where he thought no human eye could see him, he went through the usual forms and immersed himself. This, indeed, is not, even in the United States, the only instance of an individual becoming, both religiously and etymologi- cally, a self-baptist ; and though such cases yield a Btrong, because unwilling, testimony to the force of truth in regard to the action termed baptism, they at the same time betray the sad w^eakness of the human understanding, that can suppose a thing which is not possible in fact to be nevertheless true in Jigtire, and that, in the expressive symbolism of this ordinance, 39 458 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. one who is dead can bury himself, and raise himself again by his own power, to live in newness of life. This latter result certainly did not follow in the case of Mr. Moore, whose conduct becoming known, as he could not keep his own secret, rendered him, by the public discredit it brought upon him, only the more dis- satisfied with himself and the more embittered against the reformation and his former associates. Not long after the Brush Run Church had united with the Redstone Association, Thomas Campbell, who warmly approved this union, as it took away from the church the odium of forming a new religious body, became convinced that but little more good could be effected by his labors in Western Pennsylvania. As his attachment to places, never very strong, was not permitted to interfere, for a moment, with the higher claims of religious usefulness, he began to think of changing his place of residence. Having formed some acquaintance with the young and rapidly growing State of Ohio,* and hearing favorable accounts of the region around Cambridge, in Guernsey county, about ninet}- miles distant, he visited it in the spring of 1813, and finally concluded to sell his little property in Washing- ton county, and to purchase another near Cambridge. As his eldest daughter, Dorothea, had become the wife of Joseph Bryant, January 13, 1813, and, in the fol- lowing November, his daughter Nancy, next in age, married a young man by the name of Andrew Chap- man, it was arranged that his sons-in-law would ac- company him, and assist in the management of the * The State of Ohio had been admitted into the Union only about ten years before (in 1802), with a population of forty thousand. According to the census of i860, the number of inhabitants had increased to more than two millions and a quarter. PROPOSED h'EMOVAL. 459 farm and of the seminary he proposed to establish in Cambridge. He removed his family, accordingly, at the close of the year, soon after the church of Brush Run had been received into the Redstone Association, and succeeded in establishing a flourishing school at Cambridge. Alexander, meanwhile, remained at Mr. Brown's, and to him and James Foster the care of Brush Run Church was now committed ; James Foster having been ordained elder, with imposition of hands by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, Mathias Luce, and Charles Wheeler. On the 13th of September of this year (1813), another daughter had been born to Mr. Campbell, and called Eliza Ann. He himself continued occupied as usual in the labors of the farm, and in filling his ap- pointments for preaching in the neighborhood, and occasionally at considerable distances from home. A knowledge of the principles of the reformation became thus more widely extended, especially among the Bap- tist churches of the Redstone Association and the Still- water Association in Ohio, and a number of the more intelligent members became favorable to them. Indi- viduals, too, during his labors at home, occasionally presented themselves for baptism. Among these, were his wife's father and mother, who had come forward after considerable investigation and reflection. A few in Charlestown, also, chiefly females, had become obe- dient to the faith, and others here and there through the country. Most of these were too widely scattered to take membership in Brush Run Church, which, owing to removals, scarcely preserved its original num- ber. Seeing the difficulty of making a decided im- pression upon the community around them, and mfected somewhat with the prevailing spirit of migration, many 460 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of the members of the church began to take into serious consideration the question of removing in a body to a more suitable place. On the 13th of April, 1814, a meeting was called for the purpose of considering the matter. The scattered condition of the membership, by which many were prevented from attending meeting regularly ; the opposition they encountered on account of their religious views ; the difficulty of obtaining schools and suitable teachers for their children ; the oppressive labors required in order to obtain support for themselves and families, were all found to be weighty reasons for seeking to better their condition. After due consideration, a removal was deemed desirable, and it was concluded that the most eligible situation would be the neighborhood of some flourishing town, not more than two hundred miles west, so as not to get too near the Indian border. It was thought that such a town would not only afford better opportunities for public usefulness, but furnish employment for such as were artisans, while the remainder, who were farmers, could follow their vocation in the vicinity, while all could have the benefit of a school for their children under their own direction. A committee was accordingly appointed to explore the country in order to find, if possible, a suitable situation. This committee con- sisted of George Archer, Richard McConnel, Abraliam Altars, John Cockens, and Alexander Campbell, who immediately visited a considerable portion of Ohio ; and having found Zanesville and its vicinity to be possessed of the greatest advantages, all of which were minutely detailed in the wri ten report presented to the chun h upon their return, it was unanimously resolved, at a meeting held June 8, 1814, that the report be accepted, and that the removal should take place as soon as AGRICULTURAL LABORS. 461 they could individually make the necessary arrange- ments. It happened, however, that John Brown, for whose judgment Mr. Campbell had great deference, was not much in favor of the project, and did not like to have his daughter and son-in-law remove to so great a dis- tance. Having also a desire himself to adopt some mode of life less laborious than farming, he determined to make Mr. Campbell a present of the fine farm on which he lived. He therefore frankly gave him a deed, in fee simple, of the entire premises, and removing at once with his wife to Charlestown, engaged there in the grocery business, becoming a member in the Bap- tist church on Cross Creek, three miles above. This generous conduct on the part of Mr. Brown, and re- spect for his wishes, occasioned, as a matter of course, an entire change in the proposed arrangements so far as respected Mr. Campbell, who was now compelled to remain where he was. The other members of the church then, being unwilling to remove without him, relinquished, for the present, their purpose of going to the West. Meanwhile, Mr. Campbell being thus provi- dentially furnished with the means of carrying out his cherished wishes as to public usefulness, immediately set to work with his accustomed energy, to put the farm into good repair, and to make such changes as would enable him to be more abroad. These necessary duties occupied much of his time during the remainder of 1814 and the greater part of the year 1815, but were never allowed to interfere with his regular appointments for preaching. During this period, he was exceedingly laborious ; and on one occasion is said to have put up in one day, with his own hands, one hundred panels of rail-fence. His being thus personally engaged in the ^9 * 462 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. labors of the farm did not fail to commend him very highly to the good feelings of the neighboring farmers, who might otherwise liave been disposed to regard with that jealousy which the leveling spirit of republicanism engenders, one who had been brought up to a different vocation, and who, from his abilities and acquirements, occupied necessarily a higher sphere. They were surprised, however, if not gratified, to find themselves surpassed at their own business by the scholar and preacher, whose plainness and simplicity charmed them, while his urbanity and hospitality placed him upon the most familiar and friendly terms with them all. No one could be more observant of the duties of social life, or more careful to maintain the most agreeable relations with all his neighbors, than Mr. Campbell. For this purpose, as well as from his naturally companionable disposition, it was customary for him to make, in com- pany with Mrs. Campbell, frequent friendly visits to them, to take a lively interest in their welfare, and to render to them all the services in his power. Full of the vivacity and wit belonging to the Irish character, and ever cheerful as the morning light, his presence diffused an agreeable charm over the social life of the neighborhood, and seemed to arouse the isolated house- holds, scattered amongst the hills, to an unusual degree of hospitality and friendly intercourse. Even the relig- ious prejudices with which some had been imbued in the surrounding community, consisting chiefly of Pres- byterians and Methodists, melted away under the genial influence of personal acquaintance ; for, notwithstanding the diversity of their religious sentiments, they were unable to withhold from Mr. Campbell the honor and regard which his piety, his commanding abilities and his agreeable manners inspired in all around him. T. CAMPBELL AT PITTSBURG. 463 While Mr. Campbell was thus actively engaged, his father was closely confined to the duties of his seminary at Cambridge. In the midst of these labors he received, toward the close of 1815, a letter from General Acheson of Washington, informing him that his brother, David Acheson, had been seized with a serious illness, attended with a mental disturbance which rendered the patient difficult to manage ; and as it was thought that the pre- sence of an old and valued friend like Thomas Camp- bell would have a salutary effect, he entreated him to come, if possible, to Washington. In obedience to this summons and to the dictates of his affectionate feelings, he at once left his school in charge of his assistants and came to Washington, where he remained a number of weeks, rendering all the assistance in his power until Mr. Acheson's disease finally proved fatal. While here, he happened to hear of a favorable opening for a school in Pittsburg, and, what was to him of far more importance, of a favorable prospect of greater religious usefulness than he had found at Cambridge, where the prejudices of some, and the worldliness and gayety of the majority of the people, seemed to have completely closed their minds against his overtures for reformation. Having visited Pittsburg, therefore, and made the ne- cessary arrangements, he removed his family to that place, where a flourishing school was soon obtained through the assistance of James Irwin, N. Richardson and other warm personal friends, who w^re happy to secure for their children the advantage of the strict European method of instruction pursued by Mr. Camp- bell. Joseph Bryant assisted for some time in the school, while Mr. Chapman opened another in the suburbs, but soon after returned to Washington county, where a farm had fallen to him by inheritance. 464 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. On the 20th of November of this year (1815), Alex- ander Campbell's family was increased by the addition of another daughter, who was named Maria Louisa. About this time he proposed to the few members of the church residing in Charlestown that a meeting-house should be erected in the town, which was entirely with- out any public place of worship, all meetings having been heretofore held in the court-house. He, further- more, volunteered his services for three or four months in soliciting a portion of the necessar}^ means. The matter being agreed to, he left home on Tuesday morn- ing, 1 2th of December, 1815, and, arriving at Pittsburg on the 14th, spent the evening socially in company with his father, at the house of Mr. Richardson, who gave twent}' dollars to the building of the house, being the first contributor. Next morning, he set out in the stage for Philadelphia, where he arrived on the following Saturday. Passing over nearly the same region of country which he had traversed upon first arriving in the United States, six years before, he now viewed the mountains and valleys of Pennsylvania with less of the ardor of youth- ful feeling, and with more of the vision of the political economist. The quality of the lands, the character of the farm improvements, the dwelling-houses, barns and fencing, the vast mineral riches of the State, now occu- pied a prominent place in his journal, although the beauty of the country, the magnificent prospects from the mountains, and the handsome, flourishing villages along the route were not unnoticed. He was especially delighted with the fine farms and farm-buildings, the rich groves of locust and the fertility of the land in Lancaster county, and formed still higher conceptions of the immense resources of the country of his adop- LOVE FOR REPUBLICANISM. 465 tion. Upon first taking up his residence at Mr. Brown's, in 181 1, he had at once taken the necessary steps in order to naturalization, and, after the expiration of the two years of residence required b}^ law, had been ad- mitted as a citizen of the United States. No one could be more attached than he to the government and its institutions, though he was not at all a politician >n the ordinary sense of the word. During the war with Great Britain, which, after continuing two years and eight months, had been terminated by the treaty of Ghent, on the i8th of the preceding February (1815), party spirit had run very high, and the state of the country at the peace gave rise to various exciting ques- tions of foreign and domestic policy, which occasioned great political agitation. Mr. Campbell, however, always avoided taking any active part in politics, and though, on all proper occasions, he frankly expressed his views on all public measures, he always took care to maintain the reserve and dignity belonging to his ministerial office. His appreciation of the blessings enjoyed under a republican government may be learned from a letter which he addressed, immediately upon his arrival at Philadelphia, to his uncle Archibald at Newry : "Philadelphia City, December 2?,, 1815. " Dear Uncle : More than seven years have elapsed since I bade farewell to you and my native country. During this period of years my mind and circumstances have undergone many revolutions. * * * * " I cannot speak too highly of the advantages that the people in this countiy enjoy in being delivered from a proud and lordly aristocracy ; and here it becomes very easy to trace the common national evils of all European countries to their proper source, and chiefly to that first germ of oppres- VOL. I. — 2 E 466 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, sion, of civil and I'eligious tyranny. I have had my horse shod by a legislator, my horse saddled, my boots cleaned, my stirrup held by a senator. Here is no nobility but virtue ; here there is no ascendance save that of genius, virtue and knowledge. The farmer here is lord of the soil, and the most independent man on earth. * * * * ]sjo consideration that I can conceive of, would induce me to exchange all that I enjoy in this country, climate, soil and government, for any situation which your country can aftbrd. I would not ex- change the honor and privilege of being an American citizen for the position of your king." As his uncle was still an elder in the Seceder Church at Newry, he devoted a portion of the letter to the sub- ject of the religious changes he had undergone. After speaking of family matters, he says : ''My father still resembles one of our planets in emigrating from place to place. He has lived in Washington and in the country ; in Cambridge, ninety miles west, and now in Pitts- burg. He is teaching a school in Pittsburg, worth, say, seven hundred dollars, and will be worth much more in a short time. As to our religious state, news, progress and attain- ments, I expect my father has written or will immediately write you. I shall therefore drop but a few hints on this subject. For my own part, I must say that, after long study and investigation of books, and more especially the Sacred Scriptures, I have, through clear convictions of truth and duty, renounced much of the traditions and errors of m) early education. I am now an Independent in church gov- ernment ; * * * * of that faith and view of the gospel exhibited in John Walker's seven letters to Alexander Knox, and a Baptist in so far as respects baptism. * * * * What I am in religion I am from examination, reflection, conviction, not from ' ipse dixit^ tradition or human authority ; and having halted, and filtered, and stumbled, I have explored every inch of the way hitherto, and I trust, through grace, ' I am M hat I am.* Though mv father and I accord in senti- PREACHING IN PHILADELPHIA. 467 merit, neither of us are dictators or imitators. Neither ot us lead ; neither of us follow. The poor Seceders in this coun- try seem to have lost all power of religion and of truth. * * * * Remember me affectionately to all my old friends and relations. I will name none, as I cannot name all. I remember them, I pray for them, I long for their felicity. • • " Your affectionate nephew, "Alexander Campbell." As, in uniting originally with the Baptists, Mr. Camp- bell had made no secret of his religious principles, but had distinctly avowed them in the written communica- tion of the Brush Run Church to the Redstone Asso- ciation, so, in his intercourse with them as a people, and in his public discourses, he failed not on all proper occasions to urge upon them his views of reformation. Being invited by one of the Baptist preachers in Phila- delphia to occupy his pulpit, he delivered a sermon so totally different in its matter and style from the usual sermons among the Baptists, that the congregation was quite wakened up by its novelty, and the preacher him- self hardly knew what to make of it. Meeting Mr. Campbell next day, and the subject coming up, he expressed his dissatisfaction, upon which Mr. Campbell suggested that perhaps he did not fully understand him, and that the time allowed had not been sufficient to enable him to deliver himself fully in regard to the questions treated. At this, the preacher's face cleared up a I'ttle, and he requested him to make another ap- pointment, which he did. As the second discourse, however, did not, any more than the first, descant on the favorite theories of Gill and Fuller, but presented, in a still stronger light, the truths of the simple gospel, the effect upon the Baptist preacher was worse than before, so that he could scarcely treat Mr. Campbell afterward 468 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. with common civility, and took good care not to afford his congregation another opportunity of hearing the latter, which many of the members were very anxious to enjoy. After leaving Philadelphia, he visited Trenton and other towns in New Jersey, and went thence to New York, where he called upon a number of influential Baptists. Among others, he visited William Colgate, who was then beginning to establish himself in busi- ness. When he called, Mr. Colgate came out in his apron from his work, and during the interview Mr. Campbell was greatly charmed, not only with the interest in religion which Mr. Colgate manifested, but with the peculiarly frank and cordial manner in which he tendered for the house in Wellsburg a donation, which, for his circumstances at the time, was quite a liberal one. Upon leaving the house, Mr. Campbell remarked to a friend who accompanied him, that he had no doubt Mr. Colgate would one day become a wealthy man. "I am convinced," said he, "that the Lord will abundantly bless and prosper one who dis- penses his income on the principles that govern Mr. Colgate ;" and the event, in after years, fully proved the correctness of his anticipations. On his return, he visited Washington City, and having formed many pleasant acquaintanceships during his tour, and, among others, one with the eminent Dr. Staughton, for whom he always entertained a very high regard, he returned home after an absence of some months, having suc- ceeded in obtaining about one thousand dollars. With this sum, and additional assistance in Charlestown and its vicinity, a lot was obtained at the upper end of the main street of the town, which runs parallel with the river lor more than half a mile, and a comfortable brick REDSTONE ASSOCIATION. 469 meeting-house was soon erected, with the usual high pulpit, whose curta'ns and cushions were prepared and tastefully arranged by Miss S. H. Bakewell and Miss Amelia Miller, the whole being under the special direc- tion of John Brown, who took great interest and ren- dered efficient aid in the work. The erection of this house, it was afterward dis- covered, gave great offence to Elder Pritchard, minister of the Cross Creek Baptist Church, three miles above, who had already, in the Redstone Association, signal- ized his hostility to Mr. Campbell, and who seemed to think that the building of the house in Wellsburg was designed to weaken his influence and to diminish his congregation. This sectarian bigotry and petty per- sonal jealousy became still more manifest at the meet- ing of the Association, which, according to appoint- ment, convened at Cross Creek, on the 30th August of this year (1816).* * The list of the Association is as follows, the names of the churches being in italics, with number of members annexed ; the names of preachers in small capitals, and those absent marked with an asterisk : Uniontown, 34, William Brownfield.* — Big Wkiteley, 60, Benjamin Stone, Joseph Han- nah, John Haines. — Peter's Creek, 4,-j, David Philips, Joseph Philips, Esq., James McCreary, Esq., Ephraim Estep. — George''s Creek, 67, John Patton, James Seymour, Robert Hannah. — Turkey Foot, 33, John Cox. — Forks oj Cheat, 10, James Seymour. — Little Redstone, 26, Joseph Thomas, Joseph Red, Francis Burgess.^J/a//if Creek, 33, Henry Spears,* Frederick Cooper, Thomas Cloud. — Big-Redstone, 52, James Frey. — Indian Creek, 39, John Smith.* — Connelsville, 35, James Estep, Jacob Newmyer. — Head 0/ Whitely, 57, James Patton, Obadiah Sams, Peter Dillon. — Ten Mile, 96, Mathias Luce, Ezra DeGarmo, Henry Russell. — Foi'ks of Yough, 14, Joseph Reed. — Horse Shoe, 25. — Sandy Creek, 15. — Plumb Run, 19, Henry Spears,* Joseph Hill. — Merritfs T-r'jun, William Brownfield,* David Wilson, Lacy Hibbs. — George's Hills, 29. — King's Creek, 16, Nicholas Headington, Thomas Bil- derback, John Magers. — Dunkird Creek, 42, William Jobs, William Thomas. — Bula, 50. — Cross Creek, 44, John Pritchard, John Brown, Esq., Charles King, sen. — Short Creek, Virginia, 43, John Pritchard, N. Evans, Joseph Hedge, George C. Young. — Pigeon Creek, 24, Mathias Luce. — Batis Fork, 40 470 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Mr. Campbell, who well knew the spirit of the Bap- tist clergy opposed to him, said to his wife on their way to the meeting, "I do not think they will let me preach at this Association at all." Some of the preachers, however, were favorable to Mr. Campbell, and there was so much anxiety on the part of the people to heai him, that on Saturday, when preachers were to be selected for the following day, Mr. Campbell was at once nominated with others. Elder Pritchard now in- terposed, and observed that he thought they ought to conform to the rule adopted by the Baptists in Mary- land, which was, that the church where the Association assembled should have the privilege of selecting the preachers for the Lord's day, and that these should be chosen from amongst those who came from a distance. *'This place," said he, "is near Mr. Campbell's home, and the people can hear him at any time." The name of Elder Stone was therefore substituted for that of Mr. Campbell, who returned to Charlestown in the evening, with no expectation of hearing anything more of the matter. Next morning, however, David Phillips of Peter's Creek, one of the oldest and best preachers in the Association, came down to see him, and told him that the arrangement made would not do, and that he had been deputed by a large number to insist that Mr. Campbell should preach that day. The latter said he had no objections to preach, but that he would not violate the rule of the Association. Elder Phillips 30, William Stone, Daniel Thogmorton, Nath. Petit. — Short Creek, Ohio, 22, Elijah Stone, Thomas Healy. — WilPs Creek, 13, Manassah Evans, Jere- miah Grey, S. Vait. — Flat Run, 62, N. Skinner, Richard Truax, Jacob Martin, sen., Esq. — Salt Lick, 18, James Slcinner. — Pittsburg, 8, B. B. Newton. — Washington, 26, Charles Wheeler, Hugh Wilson, Enoch Dye, Christo- pher Hanover. — Brush Run, 28, Alexander Campbell, James Fosrut, George Sharp. — Total membership, 1139. SERMON ON THE LAW. 47: withdrew greatly disappointed, but soon after returned to say that Elder Stone was taken ill, and again urged Mr. Campbell to preach, who then said he would do so, if Elder Pritchard would himself tender him the invitation. Elder Phillips said this should be done ; and, accordingly, when Mr. Campbell rode up to Cross Creek, the first person he met at the bridge was Elder Pritchard, who said, "I have taken the very earliest opportunity to see you in order to say that you must preach to-day." " Have you seen Elder Phillips?" said Mr. Campbell ; "Yes," said he. "Then," repHed Mr. Campbell, "I will preach." Being called upon thus rather unexpectedly, he asked leave to follow Elder Cox, who delivered the first discourse from Matthew xxiv. 14. On this occasion, which proved to be quite a memo- rable one, there was a large concourse present, gathered around the stand, or seated within hearing beneath the shade of the beautiful leafy elms and towering plane trees, which line the borders of the creek, as it winds through the picturesque valley enclosed by lofty hills. When Elder Cox concluded, Mr. Campbell rose, and delivered a discourse founded on Romans viii. 3 : "For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sin- ful flesh, and for sin. condemned sin in the flesh." This was the famous ^^ Sermon on the Laiv^'' which created such excitement subsequently in the Baptist community. Even during its delivery, as soon as Elder Pritchard and some other opposed preachers perceived its drift, they used every means openly to manifest their dissatis- faction. A lady in the congregation having fainted. Elder Pritchard came into the stand, called out some of the preachers, and created great disturbance in the 472 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. congregation, as if with a design of preventing the people from hearing. After this commotion subsided, however, Mr. Campbell soon regained the attention of the audience, which he kept to the close. At the inter- mission, Mr. Pritchard called out Elders Estep, Wheeler and others, and said to them: "This will never do. This is not our doctrine. We cannot let this pass without a public protest from the Association." Elder Estep replied: "That would create too much excite- ment, and would injure us more than Mr. Campbell. It is better to let it pass and let the people judge for themselves." This prudent counsel prevailed, and il was found a much safer and more congenial mode of opposition, to circulate amongst the churches, after the Association adjourned, vague and calumnious charges of Antinomianism against Mr. Campbell, and, by this means, to excite additional prejudice against him. It was on account of these misrepresentations that he thought it best, soon afterward, to publish his dis- course in pamphlet form, as the best means of refu- tation. As this "Sermon on the Law" may be found in full in Mr. Campbell's works {Mil. Harb. for 1846, p. 493), it will not be necessar}"- here to do much more than indicate its general purport, which was simply to show that Christians are under law to Christ, and not to Moses. His "Method" was — "i. Ascertain what ideas we are to attach to the phrase *the law' in this and similar portions of the sacred Scrip- tures. 2. Point ou*' those things which the law could not accomplish. 3. Demonstrate the reasons why the law failed to accomplish these objects. 4. Illustrate how God has re- medied these relative defects of the law. 5. In the last place, deduce such conclusions from these premises as must THE TWO GREAT COMMANDMENTS, ^"/^ obviously and necessarily present themselves to every unbiased and reflecting mind." Discarding theological and employing scriptural de- finitions and divisions, he shows that "the law" signifies the whole Mosaic dispensation ; and while he condemns the modern distinctions of moral, judicial and ceremo- nial law, as calculated to perplex the mind, he takes care to guard against the supposition that he has any intention of weakening the tbrce of moral obligation, or dispensing with the great and immutable principles upon which the Mosaic law itself was based, but which that law did not originate ; his object being to show that the law of Moses, while it embodied some of the appli- cations of these principles, was a distinct and peculiar institution designed for special ends and for a limited time. Upon the great principles referred to he speaks as follows : " There are two principles, commandments or laws that are never included in our observations concerning the law of Moses, nor are they ever, in Holy Writ, called the law of Moses: — These are, 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, soul, mind and strength ; and thy neighbor as thyself.' ' These our Great Prophet teaches us are the basis of the law of Moses and of the prophets. ' On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.' Indeed the Sinai law and all Jewish laws are but modifications of them. These are ot universal and immutable obligation. Angels and men, good and bad, are for ever under them. God, as our Creator, cannot require less ; nor can we, as crea- tures and fellow-creatures, propose or expect less, as the standard of duty and perfection. These are coe^ al with angels and men. They are engraven with more or less clear- ness on every human heart. These are the groundwork or basis of the law, written in the heart of heathens, which constitute their conscience or knowledge of right or wrong 40 * 474 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. By these their thoughts mutually accuse or else excuse one another. By these they shall be judged, or, at least, all who have never heard or seen a written law or gospel. Let it then be remembered that in the Scriptures these precepts are considered the basis of all law and prophecy ; conse- sequently, when we speak of the law of Moses, we do not include these commandments." Under the second head, in pointing out the things which the law could not accomplish, he says : " In the first place, it could not give righteousness and life. Righteousness and eternal life are inseparably connected. Where the former is not, the latter cannot be enjoyed. What- ever means puts us in possession of the one, puts us in pos- session of the other. But this the law could not do. ' For if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.' Gal. iii 21. 'If righteousness came by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.' These testimonies of the apostle, with the whole scope of Divine truth, teach us that no man is justified bv the law — that righteousness and eternal life cannot be received through it. * * * * "2. In the second place, the law could not exhibit the malignity or demerit of sin. It taught those that were under it that certain actions were sinful — to these sinful actions it gives descriptive names : one is called theft, a second murder, a third adultery. It showed that these actions were offensive to God, hurtful to men, and deserved death. But how ex- tensive their malignity and vast their demerit, the law could not exhibit. This remained for later times and other means to develop. " 3. In the third place, the law could not be a suitable rule of life to mankind in this imperfect state. It could not to all mankind, as it was given to and designed only for a part It was given to the Jewish nation and to none else." Under the fourth head, he shows that God had reme- INADE^UACr OF THE LAW. 475 died all these defects by the gospel, by sending his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh to make "reconciliation for iniquity," so that all the spiritual seed of Abraham might find " righteousness and eternal life, not by legal works or observances, in whole or in part, but through the abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness which is by him." * ♦ * * " Hence it is," he adds, " that Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. Nor is he, on this account, the minister of sin — for thus the righteous- ness, the pei"fect righteousness, of the law is fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Do we then make void the law or destroy the righteousness of it by faith } God forbid : we establish the law. " A second thing which we obser\'e the law could not do, was to give a full exhibition of the demerit of sin. It is ac- knowledged that the demerit of sin was partially developed in the law, and before the law. Sin was condemned in the deluge, in the confusion of human speech, in turning to ashes the cities of the plain, in the thousands that fell in the wilder- ness. But these and a thousand similar monuments besides, fall vastly short of giving a full exhibition of sin in its malig- nant nature and destructive consequences. But a full dis- covery of its nature and demerits is given us in the person of Jesus Christ. God condemned sin in him — God spared not his own Son, but delivered him up. It pleased the Lord to bruise him, to pour out his soul as an offering for sin. When we view the Son of the Eternal suspended on the cursed tree — when we see him in the garden and hear his petitions — when we hear him exclaim, ' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?' in a word, when we see him expiring in blood and laid in the tomb, we have a monument of the demerit of sin, which no law could give, which no temporal calamity could exhibit." In showing further under this head how the failure 4''6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of the law as a rule of life was remedied, he refers to Christ's perfect example and teachings, and to the trans- figuration, when Moses the giver and Elias the restorer of the law appeared along with him, and a voice from the Father said, " This is my beloved Son in whom T am well pleased, hcai' ye kim.^'' "We find all things," he savs, " whatsoever the law could not do, are accom- plished in him and by him — that in him all Christians might be perfect and complete — ' for the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came b}^ Jesus Christ.'" From the above premises, he deduces, under the last head, various conclusions, as, i. The essential difference between law and gospel. 2. That Christians, accord- ing to Paul, were '"not under the law, but under grace," showing, here, that the apostle met the ver}- charge of Antinomianism or of licentious tendency in this doctrine, in his answer to the question : " Shall we therefore sin because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid. How shall we that are dead to sin live any longer therein." " Now," adds he, " whether the ancient way of guarding the New Testament or gospel against the charge of Antino- mianism or a licentious tendency, or the modern way, is best, methinks is easily decided amongst true disciples. Not so easy, however, amongst learned rabbis and doctors of the law. « « « u Whatever was excellent in the law," he further remarks, " our Legislator has repromulgated. But shall we say we are under the law as a rule of our Christian life, be- cause some of its sublimest moral and religious precepts have been repromulgated by Him who would not suffer one tittle of it to pass till he fulfilled it.'' As well might we affirm that the British law which governed these States when colonies is the rule of our political life, because some of the most excellent laws of that code have been re-enacted by our legislators." LAW-PREACHING UNAUTHORIZED. 477 He then, in the third place, presents another conclu- sion, which was particularly grating to the ears of the Baptist theologians, viz. : that there is no necessity for ■preaching the law in order to prepare men for re- ceiving the gospel. " This conclusion," says he, " perfectly corresponds with the commission given by our Lord to the apostles, and with their practice under their commission. ' Go,' said he, ' into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.' ' Teach the disciples to observe all things whatsoever / commanded you.' Thus, they were constituted ministers of the New Testament, not of the Old. Now the sacred history, called the Acts of the Apostles, affords us the most satisfactory information on the method in which the apostles preached under their commission, which, with the epistolary part of the New Testament, affords us the only successful, warrant- able and acceptable method of preaching and teaching. In the Acts of the Apostles we see the apostles and first preachers paid the most scrupulous regard to the instructions they received from the Great Prophet. They go forth unto all nations, proclaiming the gospel to every creature ; but not one word of law-preaching in the whole of it. We have the substance of eight or ten sermons delivered by Paul and Peter to the Jews and Gentiles, in the Acts of the Apostles, and not one precedent of preaching the law to prepare their hearers, whether Jews or Gentiles, for the reception of the gospel. "This conclusion corresponds, in the next place, with the nature of the kingdom of heaven or Christian Church, and with the means by which it is to be built and preserved in the world. The Christian dispensation is called the ministra- tion of the Spirit, and, accordingly, eveiything in the salva- tion of the Church is accomplished by the immediate energy of the Spirit. Jesus Christ taught his disciples that the testi- mony concerning himself was that only which the Spirit would use, in converting such of the human family as should 47^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. be saved. He would not speak of himself, but what he knew of Christ. Now he was to convince the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment ; not by appl3'ing the law of Moses, but the facts concerning Christ, to the consciences of the people. The Spirit accompanying the w^ords which the apostles preached, would convince the world of sin ; not by the ten precepts, but because they believed not in him — of righteousness because he went to the Father — and of judgment because the prince of the world was judged by him. So that Christ, and not law, was the Alpha and Omega of their ser- mons ; and this the Spirit made effectual to the salvation of thousands. Three thousand were convinced of sin, of right- eousness, and of judgment, in this precise way of hearing of Christ, on the day of Pentecost ; and we read of many after- ward. Indeed, we repeat it again, in the whole history of primitive preaching we have not one example of preaching the law as preparatory to the preaching or reception of the gospel." After answering various questions, and considering certain texts of Scripture misapplied by the law-preach- ers, he adds the two following conclusions : " A fourth conclusion which is deducible from the above premises is, that all arguments and motives drawn from the law or Old Testament, to urge the disciples of Christ to bap- tize their infants ; to pay tithes to their teachers ; to observe holy days or religious fasts, as preparatory to the observance of the Lord's Supper ; to sanctify the seventh day ; to enter into national covenants ; to establish any form of religion by civil law — and all reasons or motives borrowed from the Jewish law, to excite the disciples of Christ to a compliance with or an imitation of Jewish customs, are inconclusive, repugnant to Christianity, and fall ineftectual to the ground ; not being enjoined or countenanced by the authority of Jesus Christ. " In the last place, we are taught from all that has been said, to venerate in the highest degree the Lord Jesus Christ ; BAPTIST ANIMOSITY. 479 to receive him as the great prophet, of whom 'Moses in the law, and all the prophets did write :' to receive him as ' the Lord our righteousness,' and to pay the most punctilious regard to all his precepts and ordinances. ' If we continue in his word, then are we his disciples indeed, and we shall know the truth, and the truth shall make us free : and if the Son shall make us free, we shall be free indeed."* After a few practical reflections, the discourse closes with the petition : " May he that hath the key of David, who opened and no man shutteth, and shutteth that none can open, open your hearts to receive the truth in the love of it, and incline you to walk in the light of it, and then you shall know that the ways thereof are pleasantness, and all the paths thereof are peace ! Amen." This sermon, though containing in reality nothing but plain Scripture teaching in reference to the law and the gospel, was so bold an assault upon the theology and style of preaching current at that time amongst the Baptists, that it created an extraordinary sensation ; and those unfriendly to Mr. Campbell succeeded, as he says, "in bringing it up for trial and condemnation at the next Association at Peter's Creek, in 1817." Upon this unexpected movement, he proposed to go at once into an investigation of the subject, and it was then partially discussed, but finally, by the eflTorts of his friends and a considerable stretch of charity on the part of two or three old members, the question was dis- missed, on the ground that the Association had no jurisdiction in the case. Nevertheless, subsequently, through the cry of heresy and various modes of de- traction and misrepresentation diligently employed, his opponents managed to close, to a large extent, the ears 4S0 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of the Baptists in this region against Mr. Campbell's views, and to hinder his efforts to introduce amon<T them a more accurate and scriptural presentation of the gospel. Recurring to the meeting of the Association on Cross Creek, when this ''Sermon on the Law" was deliv^ered, there were some other occurrences worthy of mention. In the minutes of the meeting for Saturday, August 31, it is stated as follows : '■'Met agreeably to adjournment. "5. The meeting was opened by singing and prayer, b}' brother John Patton. "•6. Appointed brother Luce, moderator, and brother Wheeler, clerk. " 7. A letter was presented by brother T. Campbell, from a number of baptized professors in the city of Pittsburg, request- ing union as a church to this Association. "8. Voted, that as this letter is not presented according to the constitution of this Association, the request cannot be granted. "9. Voted, that brother T. Campbell be invited to take a seat in this Association. " 10. Voted, that a connuittee be appointed to wait on the persons mentioned in the seventh article, to investigate the subject of their letter. Brethren D. Philips, Luce and Pritcli- ard are the committee to attend in Pittsburg, on the wSaturdav preceding the first Lord's day in November. "11. The circular letter prepared by brother T. Campbell was read and accepted without amendment." Thus it appears that the few members who had been gathered together in Pittsburg by Thomas Campbell, and who were accustomed to meet regularly for wor- ship in his school-room on Liberty street, were denied admission as a church because their letter was "not presented according to the constitution of the Associa- CIRCULAR LETTER BY T. CAMPBELL. 481 tion," which required a creed or statement of articles of behef from every church, and could not accept in place, of it a simple declaration of adherence to the Scrip- tures. Nevertheless, a committee was appointed to investigate the subject of their letter, or, as was doubt- less intended, to bring these simple disciples into regu- lar Baptist "order." From the table of names of churches, etc., composing the Association, it seems that besides those associated with Thomas Campbell in Pittsburg, there was at this time a little society of eight members there, represented b\^ B. B. Newton, as mes- senger, who, having furnished the required written statement of belief, had been received without difficulty. It appears, further, that Thomas Campbell presented, on this occasion, the circular letter which he had been appointed to prepare at the meeting the year before. The subject given to him was the "Trinity," upon which the Baptist preachers were very anxious to elicit the views entertained by the reformers. This circular letter, it seems, was so entirely satisfactory that even the keen vision of the most orthodox enemies in the Association could find no ground of objection, and it was accordingly accepted, we are told, "without amend- ment," and printed at the close of the minutes as the letter of the Association. In it, this profound subject IS treated in a highly interesting manner, and mainly in the simple and express terms of Scripture. In con- descension, however, probably to the modes of thought and speech current amongst the party with which he was now associated, the author employs some of the terms of scholastic divinity, such as essence, triune and person, but the word "Trinity" does not once occur in the document. The use of such terms was not in harmony with the principle of the Reformation, which VOL. I. — 2 F 41 4^2 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. required that Bible things should be spoken of in Bible words — not in "the words that man's wisdom teacheth," but in those which the Holy Spirit has employed. Under the circumstances, however, it gives evidence of a remarkable advance toward soundness of speech on the part of one long accustomed to the language of the schools, and who now addressed a people to whom its terms would have been much more familiar, and doubtless much more acceptable, than those employed in Holy Writ. This letter, also, in its general style and tone, fur- nishes a marked contrast with the spirit of the "Sermon on the Law" — a contrast indicative of that which existed in the characters of their respective authors. The father, full of affectionate sympathy and over-sensitive in re- gard to theT feelings of others, could not bear to inflict the slightest pain, and would rather withhold than confer a benefit w^hich could be imparted only by wounding the recipient. The son, with more mastery of his emotional nature, could calmly contemplate the entire case, and, for the accomplishment of higher good, could resolutely inflict a temporary suffering. The former was cautious, forbearing, apologetic ; the latter, decided, prompt and critical. The one displayed the gentle spirit of Melancthon, the other the adventurous boldness of Farel and the uncompromising spirit of Knox. Both were alike anxious to promote the great interests of humanity ; but while the father relied per- haps too much upon emollients to remedy the spreading cancer of sectarianism, the son, with less reverence for consecrated errors, but equal love for men and greater sagacity and skill, preferred the knife of the surgeon Both were equally desirous of winning men away from the idols of religious bigotry, but while the one sought SUBJECT OF THE TRINITY. 485 to persuade with gentle words, the other would seize with powerful grasp the image at the shrine, and break it in pieces before the eyes of its worshipers. The dif- ferent methods which each thus employed had doubtless their advantages, and their union tended to effect greater good than could have been produced by either singly. It is certain, however, as formerly intimated, that had it not been for the bold assaults, the incisive logic and the determined spirit of the son, the reformatory move- ment initiated by the father would speedily have dis- appeared from view, as the wave created in the river by the passing steamer quickly subsides into the general current. As the circular letter above referred to presents the views of both upon the most profound subject in the Bible, as it forms a part of the history of the times and of the persons described, and illustrates how entirely sufficient the Scriptures themselves are for the elucida- tion of the most difficult questions, so far as these can be at all comprehended by the human mind, it deserves to be rescued from the oblivion which would soon en- gulf the few remaining copies. It will therefore be found in the Library edition of this work, Appendix [A]. CHAPTER XXII. Difficulties anc Hinderances — Buffalo Seminary — Slavery — A Suitable Coadjutor. THERE is no labor which seems at first more barren of resuhs than that of the sower. After many days of toil, the field on which the labor has been lavished exhibits less verdure than at first, and, in a time of drought, may long remain without one single springing blade to give hopeful promise of the future. It is equally so in the moral and religious world. He who endeavors to plant the seeds of truth in human hearts must await with patience their development, and must not fail or be discouraged if the precious germs he has scattered should, under unfavorable conditions, long remain undeveloped and concealed. The spring-time will surely come at last ; the living truth will assert its power, and, in its heavenward growth, furnish the cheering prospect of the harvest. Such patience of hope has been required, in no small degree, of all v/ho have undertaken the reformation of mankind, and v/ho have broken up the fallow ground of pernicious error in order to the production of blessed fruits. Nor was it demanded less of those who, under various discour- agements, were now seeking to revive the cause of primitive Christianity. Among these discouragements, not the least were those they met with from the people with whom they 484 SECTARIAN JEALOUSIES. \^S had formed a fraternal connection ; and it was here they learned to verify a fact which has been often noticed, that religious controversies and divisions originate oftener in personal pique and rivalry, in disappointed ambition or selfish interest, than in conscientious conviction. Thus it was, that a Mr. William Brownfield of Union- town, who had been very conspicuous in the Redstone Association before the admission of Mr. Campbell, taking up the idea, which was probably correct, that he was afterward not as much attended to as formerly, was the very first to institute opposition to Mr. Camp- bell, and continued to the end to manifest toward him tl f bitterest hostility. In all his efforts he was indeed successfully opposed, and, though zealously seconded by Elder Pritchard and a few others, never could succeed in gaining his point. Mr. Campbell was a "power" in the Association not to be overcome. His superior abilities and knowledge of the Bible, and, above all, his advocacy of truth, exercised a controlling influence over the minds of so many intelligent and pious members that the poisoned shafts of his enemies were sped in vain, and he was able to maintain his ground in spite of all opposition. The bickerings and controversies occasioned by the novel doctrines of the "Sermon on the Law," which increased the prejudices of many, were indeed unplea- sant hinderances to the efforts of Mr. Campbell and his father to lead the Baptist churches with which they were connected into the clear light of the primiti\e gospel. The oldest things of Christianity had now become the newest, and were looked upon with suspi- cion, even by many conscientious and truth-loving minds, as being yet the conclusions of only a few individuals, and opposed by the logic of overwhelming numbers. 41 * 486 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. At this time, in fact, those who could be reckoned as actual advocates of the Reformation, and who, with the exception of the Brush Run Church, were scattered among the Baptists in Ohio, Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, did not amount to more than one hundred and fifty persons, and among these there were none who were accustomed to take a public and efficient part abroad except Thomas and Alexander Campbell, the labors of James Foster being chiefly confined to the Brush Run Church. About this period, indeed, a Mr. George Forrester, a Haldanean preacher and an immersionist, came to Pitts- burg from Scotland, and, near the same time, a Mr. Jones, a Baptist from England, of somewhat liberal views. Mr. Forrester opened an academy in Pittsburg and preached occasionally, but he had much of the stern and opinionative disposition of the Scotch Bap- tists, and failed to make any impression upon the public, while Mr. Jones soon migrated to the West. Not long afterward, a Mr. John Tassey also, who had been educated for the ministry in one of the seminaries established by R. Haldane, emigrated with his family from Ireland, and engaged in the mercantile business in Pittsburg. He succeeded in gathering together a few individuals as an Independent church, meeting for weekly communion, and became their pastor. With this little organization there united a young man already distinguished for his piety and benevolence, named Samuel Church, who had himself been immersed, and was entirely in sympathy with Mr. Campbell's views of reformation, but who, preferring the Independent order of worship to that of the Baptists, chose to remain for some years connected with Mr. Tassey. The latter was not in favor of immersion, and though a man ol BAPTISTS IN KENTUCKY. 487 some ability and of excellent character, was, like Mi. Forrester, somewhat contracted in his views, neither of them possessing that enlarged conception of the gospel plan of salvation to which Mr. Campbell had attained. It was thus, however, that several phases of the Haldanean movement were at this time, on a small scale, represented in Pittsburg, but though they aided in some respects in preparing the ground, none of them were capable of rendering any great assistance to Mr. Campbell. About this time, too, Mrs. Bryant's health having failed, and the school in Pittsburg having become too great a burden to Thomas Campbell, he concluded to remove to Kentucky, in hopes of finding among the numerous Baptist churches there, a wider field of useful- ness. Accordingly, in the fall of 1817, he took his family to Newport, where he left them for a few months, while he spent the time in visiting the Baptist churches bordering on the Ohio, and in examining into the state of the community. He found the Baptists in Kentucky, who were the most numerous of any religious party, to be a cordial, frank, hospitable people, and of much more liberal views and feelings than prevailed in the religious bodies with which he had heretofore been associated. He regretted, however, to discover that they had become accustomed to a style of preaching which addressed itself almost entirely to the feelings, and failed to impart real scriptural knowledge, and that the stud}^ of the Bible and family training were to a great extent neglected. This, indeed, was true of the denomination generally in the United States, though in the more Northern States metaphysical and theological theories often occupied the place of those heart-stirring and rhetorical appeals by which the preachers of the 48^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. South sought to awaken the torpid sensibilities of their hearers, and renew that emotional excitement which was regarded as the evidence, if not the very essence of religion. Thomas Campbell accordingly engaged, with great zeal, in an effort to remedy the defects he had observed, and to induce strict attention to family duties and the daily study of the Scriptures. Having, in the course of his travels, visited Burlington in Boone county, a town of three hundred inhabitants, he was much pleased with the generous and hospitable character of the citi- zens, and finding it to be a suitable place for the estab- lishment of a seminary, he concluded, at the earnest solicitation of the principal families, to remove his family thither, and take charge of an academy as soon as the new building, already in progress for this pur- pose, should be completed. As soon as this w^as done, there being no house of public worship in the place, he commenced in his school-room a course of lectures upon the Scriptures, to which the public were invited, and which w^ere, in general, well attended. His father's departure had thus left to Mr. Campbell the entire public advocacy of the cause of reformation, now struggling in its infancy in West Pennsylvania and Virginia. He did not, however, shrink from the labor thus devolved upon him ; but, ever prepared for the conflict, whether with foes within or foes without, he continued to itinerate occasionally among the churches of the Redstone Association and some of those in Ohio, gradually enlightening the minds of the people, and occasionally baptizing individuals who believed the gospel and were willing to confess Christ according to the primitive model. Among these was, in the fol- 'owing year (1818), James Foster's mother, who had DIFFICULTIES AND TRIALS. 489 shortly before come from Ireland with her brother, John Wilson, and his family, and settled with them upon a farm, near Hickory in Washington county. At the same time, John Wilson and wife also were baptized, and were added to the Brush Run Church, which was as yet the only church in the Reformation, and which, meeting alternately at the cross roads and at Brush Run, gave rise to the impression, on the part of some, that there were two churches. It was, however, but single organization, and met at the two places mentioned merely for the convenience of some of its members, who were widely scattered. The difficulties with which Mr. Campbell had to contend at this time might well have appalled a less intrepid spirit. On one hand, he had to meet the stern opposition of the entire pagdobaptist community, while, on the other, he was harassed by the plots and misrep- resentations of his enemies in the Redstone Associa- tion ; and, though he found in the Association a suffi- cient number of friends to vote down the charges of heresy which the faction, headed by William Brown- field, brought up annually against him, and had still more friends among the people composing the churches, they were destitute of that unity and concert of action which his enemies were careful to preserve. In addi- tion to all this, public opinion was altogether in the hands of the clergy, and was consequently entirely opposed to him. His task was, therefore, extremely difficult. When public opinion is favorable to any enterprise, it is like the oil which is applied to the bear- ings of a machine, so that the force needed to put the whole in movement is but slight in comparison with what is required if there is no such preparation. With Mr. Campbell, indeed, was the determined will and the 49° MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. necessary force, but when a favorable public sentiment was not only wanting, but was replaced by one decidedly hostile, his task was like the attempt to launch a ship where the ways were inclined in the wrong direction, Kio\. from the vessel but toward it. His reformatory labors, nevertheless, could not be suspended, for they were labors of duty and of love, and he must continue to pursue them in hope that time and patience would secure a more favorable adjustment. As an instance of the nature of the opposition waged by the clergy, the conduct of Mr. Findley, minister of the Union Church at Middletown, may here be mentioned. Hav- ing accidentally met Mr. Campbell at the house of Mrs. Parkinson, they happened to fall into a little discussion upon baptism and some other subjects. Mr. Findley forthwith took pains to spread the report in the neigh- borhood that he had confuted Mr. Campbell on the points they had argued — a report which, from their prepossessions, he knew the public would be ready to believe. He trusted, however, too much to public pre- judices and too little to truth on this occasion, and quite mistook the person whom he thought thus to injure. Mr. Campbell at once put into the Washington Re- porter a brief and pointed note to Mr. Findley, charg- ing him with circulating a false report, and offering to discuss publicly with him at Middletown the subject of baptism and the true observance of the Lord's day, (the points in regard to which he had said he had refuted Mr. Campbell), or any other topic he might desire. This was dated February i6, 1818. In a sub- sequent brief replv, Mr. Findley declined the challenge, endeavoring to conceal his timidity under an assuming and contemptuous style, which he mistook for clerical dignity. To this Mr. Campbell replied on the 23d of BUFFALO SEMINARY. 49I March in a sharp rejoinder, and informed Mr. Findley that he would hold a meeting in Middletown on the second Thursday of April, in order to correct Mr. Find- ley's misrepresentations and to defend openly the views he advocated. He held the meeting accordingly, and had a very large and attentive audience, from which Mr. Findley took good care to be absent ; but his pusil- lanimous behavior in retiring within the shdl of his orthodoxy at the approach of danger, lowered him considerably in the estimation of the people, while Mr. Campbell's fearless defence of his views made, to the same extent, a favorable impression. On January 17th of this year (1818), his family was increased by the birth of a daughter, who was named Lavinia. Aware of the great importance of obtaining the assistance of instructed and cultivated minds in the work to which he was devoted, and feel- ing very sensibly the want, in his own neighborhood, of better methods of education than those which then prevailed, he determined in the beginning of this year to open a seminary, chiefly for young men, in his own house, and to take the charge of it himself. He hoped to be able thus not only to confer a benefit upon the neighborhood m giving to the youth a better education than they could otherwise obtain, but also to have the opportunity of preparing some young men for the minis- try of the Word. By boarding them in his own familv, directing their studies and imbuing their minds with a knowledge of the Scriptures, in the daily recitations and lessons of instruction which he carefully kept up at the morning and evening devotions of his household, he thought that the desired object might thus be gradu- ally attained. As his father had been highly appre- ciated m Pittsburg as an educator, and he himself had 492 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. now become well known for energy and talent, he had no difficulty in obtaining as many pupils as he desired. A number of leading men in Pittsburg sent their sons. One or two came from a distance in Ohio ; a son of Dr. Joseph Doddridge from Charlestown, and the remainder from the neighborhood, consisting of young men who wished to study the languages in order to prepare them- selves for professional pursuits, and of others, both male and female, who desired merely to obtain a good Eng- lish education, and who attended as day-scholars from their homes. Devoting himself to his work with his usual zeal and assiduity, he endeavored to establish the strict method to which he had been accustomed. He soon found, however, that his materials were not the most suitable. Some who were almost grown young men, and who, on account of their insubordination, could hardly find admittance into any of the schools of Pittsburg, attempted at first to create a rebellion against the strict rules which had been announced, but Mr. Campbell, seizing unexpectedly the ringleader with a strong hand, gave him so severe a castigation before the school with a whip he had provided, that he was completely subdued, and from that time the master's authority was perfectly established. This academy, called "Buffalo Seminary," continued to flourish for a number of years.* Mr. Campbell's vivacity, punctuality, decision and activity, banished the dullness which too often prevails in such institu- tions, and inspired the pupils with such an interest in their studies and such an ambition to excel, that that they made remarkable progress, and the reputation * The charges at the Seminary were,, for board and lodging $1.50 pe» week, and for tuition $5.00 per quarter, for any or all the branches usualiv taught in academies, including Hebrew and Frencli. BUFFALO SEMINARY. 493 of the school became so great that there was no longer room for all who applied for admission. Although thus successful, even beyond his expectations in some respects, Mr. Campbell did not find the institution to meet entirely his wishes in that particular which was to him the most desirable. From the religious instruc- tion given, he could still hope much for the future of those who had been placed under his charge ; but he did not find among them much inclination toward the ministerial office. Some who acquired a good classical education entered afterward into the professions of law and medicine, and ever cherished the highest gratitude to Mr. Campbell for his attention to their improvement. But he had a much higher object in view than merely to prepare young men for secular pursuits, and greatly desired to see some of them disposed to consecrate their lives to the cause of truth. At this time, however, the circumstances were very unfavorable for such a result. The Reformation was as yet but imperfectly developed or established. It was generally regarded as an innovation and a novelty in the settled order of religious society. No youths had as yet grown up under its influence, and there was no preparation of heart and mind for the work which it required. Besides this, to engage in its defence was to incur obloquy, reproach and persecution, without even the prospect of a moderate pecuniary support. It is not surprising, then, that few seemed disposed to turn their attention in this direction. Nevertheless, there were not wanting some among the pupils, who, animated with zeal, and long- ing for the higher rewards and blessings of a religious life, devoted themselves ardently to the study of the Scriptures and became afterward useful advocates of the Reformation. Among these may be particularly 42 494 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, mentioned Jacob Osborne of Ohio, who, endeared to all by his piety, intelligence and love of the truth, passed away in early manhood to his eternal reward, though not until he had witnessed with joy, upon the Western Reserve, the first remarkable triumphs of that ancient gospel which he had himself previously con- tributed to develop and sustain. While Mr. Campbell was thus diligently engaged in his seminary, his father had established a flourishing school in Burlington, Kentucky, and had obtained the warm esteem of the entire community, who were never weary in rendering acts of kindness to him and to his family. Pupils from some of the best families in the State were sent to Burlington to enjoy the benefit of his instruction. His daughter Jane, now about eighteen years of age, assisted him in the school, and soon be- came distinguished for her ability as a teacher, render- ing the school quite popular, so that it became highly remunerative. Such was the friendly and social char- acter of the people, and such their appreciation of Thomas Campbell and his excellent family, that the latter had never before been placed in circumstances so agreeable, and there seemed every probability that this would be their permanent home. It happened, however, upon a Lord's da}', in the summer of 1819, in the afternoon, that Thomas Camp- bell noticed a large number of negroes of both sexes amusing themselves in a grove near by, to which they sometimes resorted on Sundays. After observing for some time their proceedings, his sympathy for this servile part of the population, whose peculiar condition he had long regretted, became so much enlisted in their behalf, that he walked out to the grove and invited them all to come into his school-room, in order tliat he AN UNEXPECTED CHANGE. 495 might read the Scriptures to them. Obeying the sum- mons with alacrity, they soon assembled, and, after reading to them various portions of Scripture, he went on to give them such instructions and exhortations as he thought would be useful to them. Afterward, he occupied some time in giving out hymns, and as they sung these with their sweet melodious voices, and seemed greatly to enjoy this exercise and the instruc- tions he had given them, his own heart was filled with inexpressible delight, and he dismissed them with the expectation of repeating the lesson upon the first favor- able opportunity. Next da}', however, one of his friends called upon him to say that the course he had adopted the day before was quite contrary to the laws of the State, which forbade any address to negroes except in the presence of one or more white witnesses. With regard to what had already occurred, he assured him that no notice would be taken of it, as it was pre- sumable he had not been acquainted with the law ; but he advised him, as a friend, not to repeat the act, lest some persons in the community should put him to trou- ble. At this announcement, Thomas Campbell was thunderstruck. He had been totally ignorant of the existence of such a law, for he had never been accus- tomed to give any attention to political or civil affairs. "What!" thought he, "is it possible that I live in a land where reading the Scriptures and giving religious instruction to the ignorant is a penal offence? Can the Word of God be thus bound and the proclamation of the gospel be thus fettered in a Christian land? Is it possible for me to remain in a place, where, under any circumstances, I am forbidden to preach a crucified Saviour to my perishing fellow-beings?" His resolution was at once taken. Whatever it might cost, he would 49^ MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. leave Kentucky and go where the preaching of the gospel was untrammeled. In this resolution, thus sud- denly and decisively taken, he became the more con- firmed when he reflected that, by remaining, some of his family would, in all probability, form permanent alliances with the people, and become themselves thus involved in a state of things which was utterly repug- nant to his feelings, and for which, as he was quite uninformed in regard to the circumstances which gave origin to that particular law, he could at the time find no justification. His family were greatly surprised and griev^ed when he announced his resolution. They had become so much attached to the place and the people from whom they had received such unwonted kindness, that to aban- don their Irish home had not been a greater trial than the one to which they were now to be subjected. Their regrets were fully reciprocated by the entire community, but the most flattering inducements and the most earnest entreaties were employed in vain to induce Thomas Campbell to change his resolution. When he could not be persuaded to remain himself, he was entreated at least to allow his daughter Jane to stay and conduct the seminary ; but he remained inflexible, being deter- mined to extricate his family from a set of circumstances for the existence of which he was not disposed to attach blame to any one, but which he felt to be quite incom- patible with his own sense of Christian duty. He, therefore, immediately wrote to his son Alexander in- forming him of his intention, and began to settle up his business in order to a removal. Alexander, in reply, immediately proposed to him to come and assist him in the Buffalo Seminary, and having agreed to this, he removed as soon as his arrangements were completed. MIDDLETOWN AND VIC IN IT r. 497 and again settled his family in Washington county, Pennsylvania, near the village of West Middletovvn, so termed, because it was half way between Washington and Charlestown, the name of which latter place was, about this time, changed to Wellsburg. The country about Middletown has the general character of the upland of this region. The village is placed upon a high and narrow ridge, along which passes the public highway to Washington, forming the only street. Upon the left, looking eastward, the ridge rapidly declines into a deep and somewhat narrow valley, which stretches away for several miles with its rich fields and green meadows, through which a bright and gurgling stream- let wends its way. Upon the right, the ridge for a short distance widens, and then gradually sinks into the valley of Brush Run, which, toward the south-west, presents a charming prospect of wooded slopes and cultivated farms, losing itself at length in the distant deeper gorges of the clear and rapid Buffalo. Westward of the town, the ridge, after rising into a lofty and conical hill, spreads itself out into a gently undulating country, which reaches to the steep declivities of Cross Creek. It was in the upper part of the Brush Run valley, upon a farm about two miles from the village, that Thomas Campbell now placed his family, who, from this time, continued to reside in this vicinity. He, himself, spent the most of the time at his son Alexander's, about seven miles distant, in assisting to conduct the school ; and he resumed the pastoral care of the Brush Run Church which he had planted about ten years before. It might be thought that as slavery existed in Vii- ginia as well as in Kentucky, Thomas Campbell, in becoming an assistant in a Virginia seminary, had not altered his circumstances in regard to this institution. VOL. I. — 2 G 42 * 498 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. It is to be remembered, however, that he had placed his family, in regard to which he felt the chief anxiety, in Pennsylvania, and that the Brush Run Church met in the same State, only a few miles distant from his son's residence. It is to be noted, also, that in this part of Virginia, bordering upon the free States of Penn- sylvania and Ohio, slavery had in fact an existetice merely nominal. There were very few slaves, and these remained with their masters simph' because they were pleased to do so, as escape was easy. The people of these border counties had but little interest in the institution, and thouffh willin"; to maintain the laws of the State in regard to it, many violations of these were tacitly allowed. The few slaves ibund in this region were, with scarcely an exception, treated as kindly as the free laborers, and although the law forbade teach- ino- them to read, no one was molested for doincr it, and a freedom of speech was allowed in reference to slavery which would not have been tolerated in the interior. The following extracts from a work published soon after (in 1824) at Wellsburg, the county seat of Brooke, in which Mr. Campbell resided, may serve as an illustration of this : and now that the institution has for ever passed awav, they must appear to the thought- ful mind singularly prophetic. The author. Dr. Joseph Doddridge, was the Episcopal minister in Wellsburg, a brother of the eminent lawyer, Philip Doddridge, and a warm personal friend of Mr. Campbell, whom he frequently visited. In speaking of the aborigines, and discussing the question of difference of color among men and its results, he say.s : "An African is bl.nck. has a woolly head and a flat nose; he is therefore not entitled to the rights of human nature I AMERICAN SLAVERY. 49q But he is a docile being, possessed of but little pride of inde- pendence, and a subject of the softer passions, who, rather than risk his life in the defence of his liberty, will ' take the pittance and the lash.' He is therefore a proper subject for slavery ! " The Indian has a copper-colored skin, and therefore the rights of human nature do not belong to him ! But he will not work, and his high sense of independence and strong desire of revenge would place in danger the property and life of the oppressor who should attempt to force him to labor. He is therefore to be exterminated, or at least despoiled of his country, and driven to some remote region where he must perish ! " Such has been, and such still is, to a certain extent, the logic of nations possessed of all the science of the world ! — Of Christian nations ! — How horrid the features of that slavei v to which this logic has given birth ! The benevolent heart bleeds at the thought of the cruelties which have always accompanied it. Amongst the Mohammedans, as soon as the Christian slave embraces the religion of his master, he is free ; but among the followers of the Messiah, the slave may indeed embrace the religion of his master, but he still remains a slave, although a Christian brother. " It is a curious circumstance that while our missionaries are generously traversing the most inhospitable reprions, and endeavoring with incessant toil to give the science of Europe and America, together with the Christian revelation, to the benighted pagans, most of the legislatures of our slave-hold- ing States have made it a highly penal offence to teach a slave a single letter. While, at great expense and waste of valuaole lives, we are endeavoring to teach the natives of Africa the use of letters, no one durst attempt to do the same thing for the wretched descendants of that ill-fated people, bound in the fetters of slavery in America. Thus our slavery chains the soul as well as the body. Would a Musselman hinder his slave from learning to read the Alcoran .'' Surely he vvould not. 500 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. " We are often told by slaveholders that they would will- ingly give freedom to their slaves if they could do it with safet}' : — if they could get rid of them when free ; but are they more dangerous when free than when in slavery ! But admitting the fact that, owing to their ignorance, stupidity and bad habits, they are unfit for freedom, we ourselves have made tliem so. We debase them to the condition of brutes, aud then use that debasement as an argument for perpetuating their slavery. " I will conclude this digi'ession with the eloquent language of President Jefferson on tlie subject : ' Human libert}' is the gift of God, and cannot be violated but in his wrath. Indeed I tremble for my country, when I reflect that God is just and that his justice cannot sleep for ever ; that, considering num- bers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation is among the possible events : it may become probable by supernatural interference. The Almighty has no attribute which can take sides with us in such a contest.' " Again, in speaking of the cruel scourging of the negroes which he had witnessed while at school in Mar}'] and, he says : " The recollections of the tortures which I witnessed so early in life, is still a source of affliction to my mind. Twenty-four hours never pass during which my imagination does not present me with the afflicting view of the slave or ser\'ant writhing beneath the lashes of his master, and cringing from the brine with which he salted his stripes. " During my stay of three years in the region of slavery, my only consolation was, that the time would come in which the master and slave would exchange situations ; that the former would receive the punishment due to his cruelty, while the latter should find rest from his toils and sufferings in the kingdom of heaven. The master I regarded as Dives who after ' being clothed in purple and fine linen and faring sumptuously every day,' must soon ' lift his eyes in liell. OPINIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA. $01 being in torment.' The slave was Lazarus, v/ho after closing his suffering in death, was to be ' carried by the ^^ngels into Abraham's bosom.' " From this afflicting state of society, I returned to the backwoods, a republican, without knowing the meaning of the term, that is, with an utter detestation of the arbitrary power of one man over another. " On reading this recital, the historian will naturally reflect, that personal, real or political slavery has, at all times, been the condition of almost the whole human race — that the his- tory of man is the history of oppressors and the victims of oppression. Wars, bastiles, prisons, crosses, gibbets, tortures, scourges and fire, in the hands of despots, have been the instruments of spreading desolation and misery over the earth. The philosopher regards these means of destruction and their extensive use in all ages as indices of the depravity and ferocity of man. From the blood-stained pages of history he turns with disgust and horror, and pronounces an involun- tary anathema on the whole of his race. " But is the condition of the world still to remain the same.'' Are the moral impressions of our nature to be for ever sacri- ficed at the shrine of lawless ambition ? Is man, as hereto- fore, to be born only to destroy or be destroyed. Does the good Samaritan see no rational ground of hope, of better things for future ages .'' We trust he does, and that ages yet to come will witness the fulfillment of his benevolent wishes and predictions." Such were the fearless utterances which were at this period heard and approved by many in this portion of Virginia. As to Mr. Campbell's own sentiments on the subject of slavery, knowing that the relation of master and servant was recognized in the New Testa- ment, and the respective duties of the parties distinctly described, he thought it by no means inconsistent with Christian character to assume the legal rights of a master, or to transfer those rights to another, as he 502 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. accordingly did in one or two instances. As he did not, however, any more than his father, approve of the abuses of power connected with the institution, those under his charge had the opportunity of learning to read and of receiving religious instruction ; and, fur- thermore, perceiving the institution as it existed in the United States to be peculiarly liable to abuses, he was always in favor of emancipation, and gave practical effect to his principles in setting free the two or three slaves he had under his control, as soon as they were sufficiently grown to provide for themselves. As both father and son concurred in these views, and were determined to keep themselves free from all personal responsibility in regard to slavery, they felt themselves perfectly free to pursue their reformatory labors in any part of the country. And as Thomas Campbell had now placed his family where they could never become practically entangled in any of the evils connected with the institution, he felt himself entirely at liberty to aid his son in his labors in Virginia. Thus the two original public advocates of the Reformation were, greatly to their mutual happi- ness, enabled once more to renew their immediate co- operation with each other, and to lighten each other's burdens. Providence, however, was already preparing for them the assistance for which both had longed. A powerful auxiliary was about to enter the field, wliose genius was destined to promote, in an eminent degree, the interests of the cause, and to modify, in some im- portant respects, the practical advocacy of the reform atory movement. During the previous year, there had arrived at the port of New York a young Scotch Presbyterian, of good family and an excellent education, named Walter Scott, who had been induced to seek his fortune in the ARRIVAL OF WALTER SCOTT. 503 New World. After forming some acquaintances in New York, having a strong desire to go to the West and see the country, he, with a companion of about the same age, set out for Pittsburg. On account of the limited state of their finances, they found it necessary to perform the journey on foot, but they felt emboldened to attempt the task by that youthful buoyancy of spirit which hopes to surmount safely all obstacles, and to which no undertaking seems impracticable. As the}' journeyed on, their fatigue was often forgotten in their contempla- tion of the beautiful and varied landscapes along the way, for Mr. Scott possessed a fine taste for the beauties of nature, and was a great admirer of extensive pros- pects and wild mountain scenery. But what particularly cheered up the weary pedestrians was his lively humor, for, though of a deeply conscientious and reverential spirit, he had nevertheless a keen wit and a quick per- ception of the ludicrous, and saw so many oddities in the log-cabins and dresses and manners of the people, and so many to him novel and ridiculous objects, that he kept himself and his companion in almost perpetual merriment. For this unwonted levity, however, he took himself seriously to task, after his arrival at Pitts- burg, when sober thoughts revived, deeming it quite incompatible with that gravity and solemnity which be- longed to the Presbyterian profession. At Pittsburg, he soon became acquainted with his countryman, Mr. Forrester, by whom he was very kii.dly and hospitably received, and in whose school he became for a time an assistant. Mr. Forrester, in con- versing with him frequently upon religious subjects, and directing his attention to the Scriptures, soon satis- fied him that infant baptism had no place in the Bible ; and after a struggle with his educational prejudices, he 504 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. at length yielded to his convictions and was immersed. Soon after this, Mr. Forrester, going into other busi- ness, relinquished the school to him, which, under his strict and skillful management, continued to prosper. At this time, he formed an acquaintance with Mr. Rich- ardson, at whose house he spent occasionally a pleasant, social evening, and who formed quite an attachment to the young Scotchman, who seemed to combine the freshness, simplicity and enthusiasm of a child with the accomplishments of a scholar, and whose polite manners and pleasant conversation rendered him ever a welcome guest. To- him Mr. Richardson committed also the education of his oldest son, Robert, then thir- teen years of age, who had been some time before a pupil of Thomas Campbell, and who, commencing with Mr. Scott the study of the ancient languages, was, by judicious words of encouragement, inspired, not only with an earnest desire for learning, but with the warmest affection for his teacher. The seed of the Word which had been implanted in the heart of Walter Scott had fallen into no ordinary soil. His earnest nature soon became wholly absorbed in the study of Divine things. Every moment that could be spared from necessary duties was devoted to the Bible, which had become to him a new book, open- ing up to his astonished mind a world of wonders, of which, amidst the misty atmosphere of sectarianism, he had hardly dreamed. Especially was he enraptured with the simplicity of the gospel, so different from the involved and complex theological systems of the day, and with the clear and unambiguous teachings of the Scriptures, as compared with those of modern religious theorists. Possessing an extraordinary power of anal3^sis and classification, he was soon enabled to arrange the RETURN TO NEW YORK. 505 Scripture teaching under its appropriate heads or sub- jects, and to resolve the Divine plan of redemption into its constituent elements. Having, at the same time, an ardent fancy, he saw in the simple facts of the gospel, and in its expressive ordinances, a power which he believed capable of breaking down all the barriers of religious partyism and carrying salvation to the ends of the earth. Becoming more and more occupied with religious thought, and burning with zeal to impart to others the light which had illuminated his own mind, the confinement and drudgery of the school became, after a few months, so irksome that he was constrained to abandon it ; and, "conceiving that he could be most useful in the city of New York, in connection with the congregation meeting there, and which was composed of individuals holding the sentiments of the Haldanes and of the Scotch Baptists, he, with that precipitation which often characterized his movements, set out once more for that city. From the remarkable success which had attended his labors in the school, its patrons were much grieved at his departure. Mr. Richardson, especially, who most highly appreciated the value of such a teacher, and whose son, in the warmth of his aflfection, ardently hoped for his return, determined to make at least an effort for the purpose, and accordingly proposed to a few of his intimate friends to unite with him in making up a good salary, and in endeavoring to persuade Mr. Scott to return and become a private tutor for their families. This having been readily arranged, he at once wrote to Mr. Scott and urged the matter upon him. To this letter he soon received a reply, full of kind expressions and affectionate remembrances, and intimations of disappointed hopes and cloudy prospects 43 5o6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. in New York, from which it could, upon the whole, be gathered that he would accept the position offered him , and, accordingly, about two weeks afterward, Mr. Scott himself appeared at Mr. Richardson's, dusty and travel-worn, having again walked the whole distance on foot, coming this time, by way of variety, through Washington City. Being welcomed with all the warmth of Irish hospitality, he at once became an inmate of Mr. Richardson's family, and an apartment was as- signed him in his spacious house, where he could daih* assemble his pupils, amounting in all to about fifteen — a number which was not to be increased, his patrons believing that by confining his attention to a few, the rapidity of their progress and the thoroughness of their instruction would more than compensate for the in- creased expense. In this respect their anticipations were more than realized, and, under this arrangement, results were attained which had never before been reached by any school in the city. Mr. Scott possessed a peculiar tact as a teacher, having a quick perception of character, and knowing well how to excite the dili gent, rouse the slothful and punish the disobedient Though kind in his feelings, he pursued the strict system of discipline to which he had been accustomed in Europe, and which required perfect order and accu- rate recitations, or, as an alternative, the '■'■ argumentwh bacculimun ."'" The exuberance of his youthful hopes having been pruned by his late experience, he now pursued his educational labors with great satisfaction, and renewed with unabated interest his religious asso- ciation with Mr. Forrester and his little congregation, to which body a sudden calamity soon after obliged him to assume a more important relation. Late on a pleasant summer evening, a hasty messen- CENTRAL TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 507 ger arrived to tell him that Mr. Forrester had been drowned. He had gone, it appeared, to the Alleghany, at the upper part of the town, to bathe, and ignorant of the fact that in that place there was an old wharf, now concealed beneath the water, he, unfortunately, in wad- ing out into the stream, unexpectedly stepped off this structure and found himself suddenly in deep water. Being unable to swim, and no efficient help being at hand, he was speedily drowned, and it was so long before the body could be recovered that all attempts at reanimation were fruitless. This sad event was a great affliction to one of Mr. Scott's affectionate and sympa- thetic nature, and upon him now devolved the task of comforting and assisting the bereaved widow and orphans, as well as of watching over and instructing the church which Mr. Forrester had formed. This to him, however, was a labor of love, and he devoted himself more ardently than ever to the study of the Bible. He was accustomed daily to commit portions of it to memory, and long after midnight would often be found still deeply engaged in his earnest inquiries. Above all things, he seemed to be impressed with the Divine glory of the Redeemer in all his personal and official relations. In the exercise of his analytical power, he soon discovered that the testimonies of Mat- thew, Mark, Luke and John were written for one great specific object, and that this was to prove the proposition that '■'■Jestis is the Christy the Son of God ^* and that this constituted the central truth and the great essential element of Christianity. He had thus, by a different process, reached the same stand-point which Mr. Campbell had attained in eliminating from the Christian faith everything that was foreign to its nature. Upon this theme, Mr. Scott delighted to dwell. For a 50& MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, considerable time he delivered, as his first efforts at public speaking, interesting lectures upon it to the little church, which was accustomed to assemble in the court- house. The beauty of the character of Christ seemed to be the subject of his continual meditation and the model for his daily life. As, from the confinement and labor attendant upon his arduous duties, he grew thin and pale, Mr. Richardson's son, Robert, who was now friend and companion, as much as pupil, would some- times invite him to walk out of an evening to his father's garden in the vicinity of the city ; but his mind could not be divorced, even amidst such recreations, from the high theme which occupied it. Nature, in all its forms, seemed to speak to him only of its Creator ; and al- though, gentle and affectionate as he was, he sought ever to interest himself in the things that interested others, his mind would constantly revert to its ruling thought, and some little incident in their ramble, some casual remark in their conversation, would at once open up the fountain of religious thought which seemed to be ever seeking for an outlet. Thus, for instance, if his pupil would present him with a rose, while he ad- mired its tints and inhaled its fragrance, he would ask in a tone of deep feeling: "Do you know, my dear, why in the Scriptures Christ is called the Rose of Sharon?" If the answer was not ready, he would reply himself: "It is because the rose of Sharon has no thorns," and would then go on to make a few touch- ing remarks on the beautiful traits in the character of the Saviour. Then, in the exercise of his powers jf accurate perception, and his love of analysis and object- teaching, descanting on the special characteristics of the flower, and calling attention to the various elements which by their assemblage, produced such a charming INTRODUCTION TO WALTER SCOTT. 509 result — the graceful curving lines that bounded the petals and the foliage, so much more beautiful than the straight and parallel edges of the blades of grass or maize ; the winding veinlets, the delicate shadings of carmine and their contrast with the green foliage, the graceful attitude assumed by the flower, as, poising itself upon its stem armed with thorns, it shone resplendent in queenly beauty, he would pass, by a natural and easy transition, to dwell yet again upon the infinite power and glorious perfections of the Creator — the Word that "was God," that "was in the beginning with God," and "without whom nothing was made that was made." Nor did he neglect even amidst the dail}-^ duties of the school-room to lead the minds of his pupils to similar contemplations, so that they might be induced to "look through nature up to nature's God." The revelations of God in the Bible, however, formed his chief delight, and in accordance with his feelings, he took especial pains to familiarize the students of the ancient tongues with the Greek of the New Testament, for which pur- pose he caused them to commit it largely to memory, so that some of them could repeat, chapter by chapter, the whole of the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John in the Greek language. It was also his invariable practice to require memorized recitations of portions of the ancient classic authors, as well as written translations of them. These tasks, irksome to those of feeble memory, and exacted perhaps, in some cases, with too much rigor, tended nevertheless to improve the pupils in taste and accuracy, and to store their minds with charming passages for use in future life. Mr. Campbell's confinement at home, on account of his duties in the seminary, had, for a long time, pre- vented him from visiting Pittsburg, and now that his 43* 5IO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. father's presence enabled him to do this, it can easily be imagined with what pleasure he formed the acquaint- ance of Mr. Scott, and found in him a congenial spirit, coinciding with him in regard to the distinguishing features of the reformatory movement, and prepared by education, natural abilities and piety to become such a fellow-laborer as he had long desired. They conceived for each other, therefore, at once, the warmest personal esteem — an esteem which was based perhaps less upon those points in their respective characters in which they agreed, than upon those in which they differed. For although their mutual reverence for Divine things, their earnest desire for religious reformation, their zeal and piety, their devotion, their Christian faith and love, cer- tainly united them strongly to each other, these were qualities possessed also by others, and constituting with them all in common the bond of fellowship and union. But the different hues in the characters of these two eminent men were such as to be, so to speak, comple- mentary to each other, and to form, by their harmonious blending, a completeness and a brilliancy which ren- dered their society peculiarly delightful to each other. Thus, while Mr. Campbell was fearless, self-reliant and firm, Mr. Scott was naturally timid, diffident and yielding ; and, while the former was calm, steady and prudent, the latter was excitable, variable and precipi- tate. The one like the north star was ever in position, unaff*ected by terrestrial influences ; the other, like the magnetic needle, was often disturbed and trembling on its centre, yet ever returning or seeking to return to its true direction. Both were nobly endowed with the powers of higher reason — a delicate self-consciousness, a decided will and a clear perception of truth. But, as it regards the other departments of the inner nature, in MENTAL AND PERSONAL CONTRASTS. 51 1 Mr. Campbell the understanding predominated, in Mr. Scott the feelings ; and, if the former excelled in imagination, the latter was superior in brilliancy of fancy. If the tendency of one was to generalize, to take wide and extended views and to group a multitude of particulars under a single head or principle, that of the other was to analyze, to divide subjects into their particulars and consider their details. If the one was disposed to trace analogies and evolve the remotest correspondences of relations, the other delighted in comparisons and sought for the resemblances of things. If the one possessed the inductive power of the philoso- pher, the other had, in a more delicate musical faculty and more acdve ideality, a larger share of the attributes of the poet. In a word, in almost all those qualities of mind and character, which might be regarded differ- ential or distinctive, they were singularly fitted to supply each other's wants and to form a rare and delightful companionship. Nor were their difTerences in personal appearance and physical constitution less striking or less susceptible of agreeable contrast. For while Mr. Campbell was tall, vigorous and athletic, Mr. Scott was not above the average height, slender and rather spare in person, and possessed of little muscular strength. While the aspect of the one was ever lively and cheerful, even in repose, that of the other was abstracted, meditative, and sometimes had even an air of sadness. Their features, too, were very different. Mr. Campbell's face had no straight lines in it. Even his nose, already arched, was turned slightly to the right, and his eyes and hair were comparatively light. Mr. Scott's nose was straight, his lips rather full but delicately chiseled, his eyes dark and lustrous, full of intelligence and softness, and without the peculiar eagle- 5« MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. glance so striking in Mr. Campbell, while his hair, clustering above his fine ample forehead, was black as the raven's wing. Such were some of the prominent contrasts of these two eminent advocates of reformation, who were hence- forth destined to share each other's labors and trials, to promote each other's discoveries of truth, and to emulate each other in their efforts to restore the pure primitive apostolic gospel to the v/orld. CHAPTER XXIII. • "ivil and Religious Freedom — " Moral Societies" of Washington County- Spiritual Despotism — Vindication of Human Rights. IT is a mistake to suppose that religious freedom is the result of civil liberty. The reverse of this is true, that civil liberty springs from religious freedom. Such republics as those of Greece and Rome were pos- sible under a religious system that conceded universal toleration, and where every one was permitted freely to worship, after his own fashion, his own divinity; but could have no existence under the religious despotism of the Persian fire-worship or that of the Egyptian Osiris. When the gospel was first introduced, its refusal to tolerate any species of idolatry became, therefore, among the Greeks and Romans, its chief offence. They could not endure the exclusive claim of a religious autocracy which seemed but the harbinger of civil bondage, and were unwilling to exchange the outward license of polytheism for the spiritual freedom which Christ offered to bestow. They had but little conception, indeed, of that freedom of the soul from ignorance and sinful bondage, and that liberation of the conscience from a sense of guilt, which the gospel afforded, and had failed, as yet, to comprehend that glorious liberty which, like that of the sparkling waters of the streamlet or the motions of the "viewless air," can be enjoyed only in a strict conformity to the laws vou I. — 2 H 513 SH MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. of God. It was not until Christianity had sufficiently proved its tendency to make men gentle and obedient; patient and forbearing ; willing to concede to all their just rights, and employing in beiialf of their cause no influence but persuasion, that it became acceptable and prevalent throughout the Roman empire. It was noi long, however, until, through the ambition and envy of rival bishops, there arose a contest for precedence and power. Shackles were imposed upon men's minds by decrees of councils ; the rights of private judgment were refused, and what there was of civil libertj' per- ished when civil government became at length the subservient instrument of spiritual tyranny. Amidst the increasing gloom which gradually en- veloped the nations, there was soon revealed, according to prophecy, that bold and undisguised form of religious absolutism, termed the Papacy. It was said of the Romans, as Tacitus relates, that in subduing the nations "they made a desolation and called it peace." Thus, in like manner, the Papal power, in endeavoring to extirpate its opposers as heretics ; in denying to the people all liberty of thought, and in obliterating every landmark of the mind's own possessions, created, wherever it moved, that fatal and mortuary peace that springs from moral and spiritual desolation. In this respect Catholicism has, indeed, ever been truly Roman. Nor is the analogy less striking as to the extent of its empire and the efforts it has made to crush out every struggle for civil liberty, except in the few and doubtful instances where policy demanded a certain degree of concession to surrounding circumstances. The history of the world proves that the same spirit prevails, more or less, in every religious national establishment, and in every religious representative assembly, and thai it RELIGIOUS AND CIVIL LIBERTY. %\S will inevitably display itself when any one of them is allowed to exercise power in political aflairs, Proposi- tions to remove civil disabilities, or to enlarge the pre- cincts within which the masses are confined, never proceed from the bishops of England or from the clergy in any land where they are permitted to have a voice in civil affairs. On the contrary, the\- are found ever to resist reforms, and, from an instinctive antipathy, to detest liberal ideas. Hence it was that Great Britain never truly possessed herself of the great principles of civil liberty until the hierarchical powers were over- thrown, and the Independents, under Cromwell, learned from their religious freedom the lesson of universal emancipation. Hence, too, as it was the Independent and former Puritan, Roger Williams, who first secured the constitutional grant of liberty of conscience, so it was this inestimable boon which ultimately gave to this favored land the truest and noblest conception and enjoyment of the rights of man. In all cases it will be found that " soul-freedom" as Roger Williams used to term religious liberty, preceded and gave origin, form and character to every effort for the attainment of civil freedom ; and as the latter is speedily lost when the rights of conscience and of private judgment are denied, it behooves all lovers of liberty to watch, with jealous eye, the movements of religious bodies which claim the right to dictate articles of faith, and to repel with promptitude their attempts to acquire political influence or to obtain control of legal power. Such attempts have been made more than once already, even in this country, and it is of these that the course of the narra- tive now renders it necessary to speak. It has been already mentioned that Presbyterianism had almost entire control of the population in Western Sl6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Pennsylvania, and especially in Washington county. It was naturally to be expected, therefore, that the spirit of the prevailing religion would find expression more or less in the local laws and regulations, and that these in turn would reveal the character and real tendency of this religion. Too inattentive to the proba- bility of this latter result, and too confident in the pos- session of power, the adherents of the dominant party in Washington county had commenced, in 1815, a system of espionage and of arbitrary coercion, with respect to the people, which seemed to revive the spirit of the old Puritan codes,* and which at the present day no Western community would for a moment endure. This system it was attempted to establish through the agency of what were called "moral societies," organ- ized for the reputable purpose of "suppressing vice and immorality," which seemed, in the estimation of the founders of these societies, to form two different categories. But the nature of these organizations, and the plausibility of the reasons by which it was at- tempted to justify them, will be best seen from their own records. Thus, it is related that on the 4th day of April, 1815 — " At a meeting of a number of the citizens of the borough of Washington, to take into consideration the expediency of forming an Association for the suppression of vice and im- morality, James Brice was called to the chair and Obadiah Jennings was appointed secretary. Whereupon it was re- solved to form an Association for the suppression of im- * Reference is here made to the rigid municipal regulations of the Pilgrim Fathers, and not to what are termed the " Blue Laws of Connecticut," which never had any actual existence, but were first published in London in 1781 as a satire upon the severity of the Puritans, by a tory Churchman named Samuel Peters, who had been expelled from New England. ADDRESS OF MORAL SOCIETr. $l*J morality." Certain rules were theri adopted as the constitu tion of the "Washington Moral Society." In this constitu- tion, it is made the duty of every member " actively to pro- mote the objects of the Association by giving information against any one known to be guilty of profane swearing, Sabbath-breaking, intoxication, unlawful gaming, keeping a disorderly public house, or any other active immorality pun- ished by the Commonwealth." It was further enjoined upon each membci to " assist and encourage his fellow-members in their duty.'' Regular meetings were also to be held on the first Monday of May, August, November and February at the Presbyterian meeting-house in the borough of Wash- ington, six members forming a quorum. It is recommended also that "similar associations be formed in the different parts of the county." After the constitution, an "Address" was adopted, which, after setting forth, at length, the evils of " intemperance, Sabbath-breaking, swearing," etc., proceeds as follows : " The Society are desirous of calling the attention of their fellow-citizens more particularly to the aforesaid vices, not only because they are deemed amongst the most criminal and destructive, but also because they are more generally permitted to pass with impunity than many others of a less malignant character. At the same time, it is confidently believed that there is a sufficient amount of moral influence in the community, if combined and vigorously directed, to afford an effectual corrective. We would suggest the import- ance of forming similar associations in every part of our country. Some have recently been formed in this county, and the good effects are already visible. Can any one dou'it the light or question the propriety of such associations ? Is it not the indispensable duty of every member of society to promote its welfare, and prevent, according to his ability, everything which would be destructive of its interests and prosperity }" It then goes on to speak of the increase of im- 44 'iS MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. morality, and among other things mentions the fact that while in 1802 there were only fifty-five taverns in Washington county, there were then one hundred and fifteen, a ratio of increase much greater than that of population. Under the influence of these moral societies, estab- lished throughout the county, a strict watch was at once set over the behavior of every individual ; local laws were passed in reference to the vices named, and the magistrates were stimulated to a rigid enforcement of them. The societies were, indeed, in their incep- tion, simply organized bands of informers^ though, emboldened by the submission of the people, their members soon began to make arrests without civil pro- cess or legal authority. As they pursued their voca- tion with enterprising zeal, many violations of the laws were detected and exposed, and every member of the community soon found himself to be under a sort of inquisitorial scrutiny that was as strict as it was novel, and as distasteful to the feelings of many true friends of morality as it was incompatible with the spirit of republican freedom. For a considerable time, how- ever, the moral societies had everything their own way. Murmurs and complaints, indeed, there were, but no one had the hardihood to oppose, publicly, proceedings which were professedly in the interest of morality, and which, in manv instances, no doubt secured the out- ward observance of its rules. No one that had the least regard for his popularity would venture to oppose the strict enforcement of the laws ; and although many were sensible that there was certainly an undue exer- cise of power, or some false principle involved in such proceedings, there seemed to be no one capable of detecting it, or willing to bring down upon himself the OPERATIONS OF MORAL SOCIETIES. 519 odium of the clergy and of the dominant religious party. Nevertheless, the burden imposed upon the people seemed to grow heavier the longer it was borne, and a good deal of discontent began to manifest itself. Those who had been fined through the moral sciieties, began to scrutinize more closely the conduct of the members composing them, and, in many cases, soon found that these self-constituted custodians of the public morals were themselves guilty of offences simi- lar to those which they condemned in others. The nature and operation of these societies, as well as the piet}' and consistency of their members, will, however, be better understood by a recital of actual occurrences. On one occasion, a Mr. Martin, near Washington, had employed a teamster to convey some produce for him to Pittsburg. Returning on Saturday, they were unable to make the whole distance, and were obliged to put up for the night within a short distance of Canonsburg. Setting out early next morning, on their way homeward, on entering the borough of Canons- burg, they were at once stopped and informed that they would not be permitted to travel on the "Sabbath." At once acquiescing, they put up the horses, and re- mained at the hotel until the next morning after break- fast, when they again set out. After leaving the vil- lage, they were overtaken by the constable, who de- manded of the wagoner the fine for traveling on the "Sabbath." This the wagoner refused to pay, and, after some altercation, it appeared that the constable had not with him any writ to enable him to make an arrest. He then said he would go back to town for it, and would overtake him before he got to Washington. As soon as he was gone, the wagoner got a friend on the way to drive the wagon for him, and disappeared. 520 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, When the constable overtook the team at Washington, he was greatly enraged at being thus baffled, and making considerable noise, a crowd collected and began to dispute with him as to his ability to collect the fine under the circumstances. He insisted that he could and would collect it ; and as he became more and more excited, one of the bystanders said to another privately, "Suppose you banter the constable to bet ten dollars on the collection of this fine. I will then go and inform upon you both, and you will both be fined, and as half the fine goes to the informer, I will receive the full amount of your fine, which I will hand over to you, so that you will lose nothing, and we shall have some sport." His triend, agreeing to this, immediately pro- posed to bet with the constable, who, in the excitement of the moment, at once accepted the offer. "Now," said the originator of the plot to him, "you have vio- lated the law yourself, which is against betting as well as against Sabbath-breaking ; and it will be my duty to go and inform upon you both." At this, the constable, finding he was caught, became quite crest-fallen, and knowing that he would lose his office and his popu- larity if the matter were made known, besought all present to say nothing about it, and promising if they would consent to this and come into the tavern, he would "treat them all round," and give up prosecuting the case against the wagoner ; all which was agreed to amidst great merriment. On another occasion, one of the members of the Moral Society at West Middletown, David M , returning from meeting on the " Sabbath day," noticed at Wilson's tavern, two and a half miles from the town, a bucket belonging to him which his teamster had for- gotten there the day before. Taking up the bucket, he MORAL TENDENCr OF SOCIETIES. 521 concluded to carrj' it home with him, and on the way was reminded by one of his friends that he was violat- ing the law by carrying a burden on the " Sabbath day." Upon his return home, the circumstance naturally gave rise to serious reflection on his part, and, amongst his pious " Sabbath" musings, he considered how he should extricate himself from the dilemma in which he had become involved, and which was likely to bring reproach upon his character as an orthodox and orderly member of the church. At length, the happy thought occurred to him that if he would go and inform ufon himself^ such an instance of self-sacrifice, disinterested zeal and respect for principle, would not only clear his escutcheon from every stain, but elevate him even higher than ever in the esteem of the faithful. This bright idea was accompanied — or, as some might be so un- charitable as to think, preceded — by another reflection of uncommon weight, which was, that as half the fine went to the informer, he would save two dollars by informing upon himself. Accordingly, he at once resolved to do it, and going next morning to the magis- trate at an early hour, lest any one should anticipate him in the performance of what he felt was his peculiar duty, gave the information in due form and tendered half the fine as a full and efficient expiation for the offence he had committed. The magistrate, however, could not see the matter in that light, not being able to discover that the law had made any provision for so ex- traordinary a case ; and so, reminding the pious culprit that the money went to the support of preachers, com- pelled him to pay the whole fine. From such facts (and similar cases were not unfrequent) the moral tendencies of these societies will be sufficiently evident. It will be also seen that they had not for their object to repress or

        522 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, punish crimes which men commit to the injury of others, and to which the attention of the civil magistrate had been heretofore confined ; but that they took under their especial care those vices which affect individuals them- selres. and of which the civil authority had not pre- \nously been accustomed to take cognizance, unless when, as sometimes in the case of drunkenness, they caused a disturbance of the public peace. It will be further noticed that they attempted to engraft upon the ci\'il code their peculiar religious views in regard to the " Sabbath," and to compel by lazv the whole com- munity' to submit to the Judaizing opinions which thev had themselves imbibed from their religious teachers. As Mr. Campbell frequently visited his mother and the familv. no\v livingr near Middletown. he soon became well acquainted with the facts and principles developed during the operation of these •• Moral Societies," but, though indignant at such invasions of personal and public freedom, he. for some time, forbore to notice them, as he lived in an adjoining State, where such things had no existence. As matters grew worse, however, and no one in Washington countv seemed willincf or able to undertake the matter, he determined at length to interfere, and on the 27th of April. 1820, he published an article, under the signature of Candidus, in which he criticised an address previously issued by the " Moral Society of Middletown." In this piece he first satirized, in his peculiar way, the moral state of Middletown, which was thought to demand such reme- dies, and then exposed the conduct of some leading members of the Moral Societ}-, who were themselves guilt}' of raffling, taking part in " shooting matches'" for gain, etc. He then attacks the principle on which

        PRINCIPLES EXAMINED. 523

        the societies acted, viz. : that jitting men for their vices zvoitld make them moral. "When thev pay dear for their sins," says he, "■ they will. from principles of az'ar/ce, become morally correct! * * * * And what becomes of the fines? Oh ! they are given to some pious clergyman to be applied to the education of young men for the ministry. Go on, therefore, in your mis- deeds, ye profane, for the more you sin the more preachers we shall have." * « * * As may be readily supposed, this article created quite a sensation. The Society at Middletown immediately appointed a committee to make a reply to it, which was published in the Reporter, and which, instead of de- fending the principles of the Society, raised against Candidus the cry of " a friend to immorality," etc., and attempted to browbeat and intimidate him. To this effusion, however, the latter very promptly replied, dis- avowing the improper motives attributed to him, and fully admitting and asserting the claims of moralit}-. He boldly claims the right, however, to " animadvert on those who, unsolicited, mount the judgment-seat and presume to deal rash judgment round the land on every- one they suppose able to pay for his transgressions." He then goes on to show that such moral societies are " anti-evangelical, anti-constitutional and anti-rational," and says he has as good a right to sit in judgment on them as they have on their fellow-citizens. His first position, that they are anti-evangelical, he then goes on to prove by showing that the Bible gives no authority wnatever for them. In another article, on the 5th of June, he continues the argument, showing that moral societies are anti-evangelical, because " Christians are not at libert}' to interfere with men of the world in any-

        524 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.

        thing pertaining to God and conscience." He takes the ground, also, that if all members of society anywhere are Christians, they must go by the discipline given in the New Testament. These assaults brought out a host of writers on be- half of the societies, and the paper was for some time crowded with articles, mostly of very poor quality, and filled with invectives against " Candidus." By way of variety, an essay then appears in defence of "Can- didus," signed "V. A. Flint," corroborating the state- ments of " Candidus" in regard to the practical opera- tions of the societies. In doing this, he details the case of a poor old Revolutionary soldier, who, at an election in Taylorstown, indulged too freely in liquor, and was consequently fined by the Society-members. The old man, being exasperated at having to pay the fine, began to swear, and continued thus to vent his passion for a considerable time, during which the custodes morum in attendance coolly kept an exact account of the particular number of oaths. As there vs^as a fine for every oath, the aggregate amount finally became so great that, in order to pay it, the old man had to part with the entire store of corn on which his family depended for subsistence during the winter. On the I2th of June, there appears a weak piece against Candidus, and in the same paper another article by V. A. Flint in his defence. On the 19th, Candidus con- tinues his exposition of principles. He shows that " the only system of pure morality is that of the Bible, especially of the New Testament, and that it must point out the only sure and efficient means of promoting it." Reaching down to the great basis on which all moralit}' rests, the will of the Divine Law-giver, he shows that a violation of this will in any one point is the violation

        PROCEEDINGS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. 525

        of the whole law, as it is a rejection of the authority on which the whole rests. He quotes the declaration of James : "He that said Thou shalt not commit adultery, said also, Thou shalt not steal;" and, "if a man keep the whole law and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all." He then remarks that the law enforced by the societies " values the profanation of the ' Sabbath' at four dollars ; profanation of the Divine name at less than one dollar; drunkenness at so much, etc.," and asks why, in view of the true principles of morality, is each sin valued at a different price, and why any of them are valued at a fixed price, etc. At this juncture, a letter appears from Mr. Findley, attributing the author- ship of Candidus to Mr. Campbell, and endeavoring to cast aspersions upon his character. In the next paper, is a letter from Mr. Campbell, over his own signature, addressed to Mr. Findley, demanding the proof of his assertions, to which Mr. F. made no reply. It was just at this time that Mr. Campbell became engaged in an oral debate on baptism with Mr. John Walker, a minister of the Secession, and which was held at Mount Pleasant on the 19th and 20th of June. This debate, and the subsequent preparation of it for the press by Mr. Campbell, interrupted for a time, on his part, the discussion in regard to the Moral Societies. Returning to the charge, however, in the latter part of July, he resumes the train of argument he had in- troduced, which, in order to avoid breaking the connec- tion, will be here pursued to the close. In his article on the 31st August, Candidus argues the unconstitu- tionality of the proceedings of the Moral Societies, because the Constitution gave the right to all to worship God according to their consciences, expressly declaring that "no one can be compelled to erect, attend, or support any place of worship or to maintain any minis- try against his consent," and that the observance of the Sabbath, or of any other day, is purely a right of con- science.



        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
        4. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-3c-Pages-201-300.html
        5. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-4d-Pages-301-400.html
        6. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-5e-Pages-401-500.html
        7. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-6f-Pages-501-600.html
        8. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-7g-Pages-601-700.html
        9. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-8h-Pages-701-800.html
        10. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-9i-Pages-801-900.html
        11. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL-INTRODUCTION-CHAPTER-10j-Pages-901-1000.html
        12. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/CHRISTIPEDIA-TM-2-ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--RESEARCHERS-VERSION--1000-PAGES-ALL-ON-ONE-PAGE.html
        13. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--INDEX-PAGE.html
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      The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares
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      Dearest Visitor!
      People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
      We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
      "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
      THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVE ETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13
      Let's Break it Down!
      "These things have I WRITTEN" (Absolute, Unchanging)
      Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
      THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
      That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
      Eternal Life!" (You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
      "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5
      YOU invite Christ in; HE GUARANTEES: "I WILL NEVER LEAVE'!" IT'S SETTLED!
      FACT!
      You know..."IF" you believe...that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
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      FACT!
      Do you BELIEVE, You have ETERNAL LIFE NOW, for SURE?
      PLEASE CLICK...IF YOU BELIEVE WE CAN "KNOW"
      I BELIEVE, ETERNAL LIFE CAN BE KNOWN FOR SURE, IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13
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      GOD SAYS: "The SOUL that sins shall AGE, DECAY and DIE!"
      Genesis 2:17 Ezekiel 18:4, 13, 18, 20
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      [26] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE-HEALTH-SECRETS-HALLELUJAH-DIET Author Suffers Stroke, Age-67
      [27] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH SECRETS, HEALTH FOR LIFE, General Sprint Routine
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      [29] “MEDIPEDIA™" - Kidney Stones Calculi DISSOLVED by VITAMINS
      [30] “MEDIPEDIA ™" – LEG-CRAMPS, MAGIC-CURE? A BAR of SOAP?
      [31] “MEDIPEDIA™" – More Physical Causes of Low Male Sperm Count
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      [33] “MEDIPEDIA™" - PRO-BIOTICS: How Valuable Are They?
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      [40] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING, Wrinkles: Causes and Cures
      [41] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Calorie Reduction
      [42] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of FASTING
      [43] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Natural Skin Peels
      [44] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Bible Baldness
      45] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ASTHMA THERAPY: Natural and Complementary Methods
      [46] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Can You Really HEART ATTACK PROOF Yourself by Diet
      [47] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Dietary-Secret-to-ANTI-AGING-HORMONE(Very Brief!)
      [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
      [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
      [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better know and serve you, our readers?

      At this time, I do NOT believe Jesus is the Saviour!
      I DO believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!
      I do NOT believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' - IF one has Eternal Life;
      In 'THREE MINUTES'...you can "Know for Certain!" if your NOW HAVE Eternal Life! (or not!) 1 John 5:13
      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:
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      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!" Eph 2:8-9, Tit 3:5


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      Ministers-Best-Friend.com is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers - and dedicated Christians who serve the LORD JESUS.

      As such, we provide web-space to a number of Ministries - notably "NewtonStein!" (a Creation-Based Science Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA, HISTIPEDIA, ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, POLITIPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, MEDIPEDIA, ETC.;

      All Absolute-Bible-Believing, and each has their specific calling and ministry to reach Muslims, Jews, Scientists, teach Biblical Medicine and Health, Godly Government, Church Leadership, sharing American Godly History, and the HAND OF GOD in World History over the Ages!

      Obviously, all branches of Christianity do not agree doctrinally - or politically - and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, event, leader, nation or situation: Thus there are well over 10,000 denominations in the world!

        (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST "GNAT STRAINING!" - and "CAMEL SWALLOWING!")

      We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. . . or anything!

      Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion NOT be made known for various reasons.

      These are offered to you as wise people of God - True Christian Patriots - WHATEVER YOUR NATION - to discern for your own judgement and edification unto Our LORD JESUS CHRIST.

      Finally, we trust, hope, and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "God's WILL ONLY, being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN!" (Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2). . . . . .(IS THIS YOUR PRAYER, DAILY GOAL FOR YOUR CHURCH, CITY, STATE, NATION, and THE WORLD???)

      In the NAME of Jesus Christ, Our Lord and Saviour, KING of all Kings, LORD of all Lords, REIGNING SUPREME, COMING AGAIN!

      Be Blessed!

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      [13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)
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      [19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!
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      [27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page
      [28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry
      [29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!
      [30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?
      [31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero
      [32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?
      [33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?
      [34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?
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      [36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!
      [37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."
      [38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;
      [44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"
      [45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
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      [49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
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      ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

        *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

        . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

        Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

        Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

        Pray for us, please!

        MBF


      *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

        Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

        FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

          JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

          And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

        FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

        FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

        FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

          (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


        FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

        FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

        FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

        FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

        FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

        FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

      Go thou and teach likewise!


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      Welcome to the "Ministers-Best-Friend!" ..... home of Cambridge Theological Seminary ..... the "World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!" .....of "Bible Churches United for Christ! ..... in a season of GLOBAL increase ..... WE PROVIDED THE PAPERWORK TO START 778 NEW CHURCHES "PER MONTH" IN 2011 (World-Wide)..... averaging 421 a month in USA ..... 62 a month in CHINA ..... 46 & 32 respectively, in RUSSIA & INDIA ..... the "CAMBRIDGE CONFEDERATION now with 16,518 Ordained Ministers ..... 14,687 Local Churches ..... and 6,709,878 Members ..... 'ADDED' since AD-2,000, now in 192 "KNOWN NATIONS" (and Territories) ..... and 17 "UNKNOWN NATIONS" of Islamic origin ..... "WHY the increase in this time of Global Economic Depression?" ..... ONLY GOD KNOWS .... but we believe His Blessing is because ..... we are striving our best to BLESS HIS MINISTERS ..... His "Called-Servants" ..... in every way we can!
      DEAR FRIEND ..... PLEASE take a FEW SECONDS ..... NOTE our "15 PROGRAMS BELOW ..... in which we may be able to ENHANCE YOUR MINISTRY CREDENTIALS ..... you may DESIRE to use them later ..... THANK YOU ..... MAY GOD BLESS YOU .....PLEASE PRAY for US ..... PLEASE TELL OTHERS ..... PRAY-FOR-US ...... and COME BACK OFTEN!
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      Gabriel B! - B Fischer!
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      J. Dobson! - D.James K!
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      Who Is?