ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,
CAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGE

”CAMBRIDGE!”

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ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MEMOIRS, ORIGINAL,

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



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ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'MOSES' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
THANK YOU, GOD BLESS, PRAY for US, TELL OTHERS,
PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
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    Fellow Christian for Christ!


    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!" (For "FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)


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    Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:

    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:
      (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);
      (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";
      (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more: SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"
      (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;
      (E) Serving 200+ Nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3,

    [1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

      ** Preachers, Teachers, Pastors and Evangelists;
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      ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and Worship Leaders;
      ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
      ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained!
      ** Every person - having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry" - to reap the benefits thereof: In Finances, Influence, Credentials, etc; Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

      For all Ordination needs, please see:
      Ministerial Ordination Process:
    [2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

    [3] Chaplaincy Training, Certification with Endorsement for Employment: Jail, Hospital, Schools, Courts, Police-Fire Dept: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Training: Multiple Certifications

    [4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

    [5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible Teachers; Online "Free!" Degree Programs

    [6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

    [7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

    [8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

    [9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

    [10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

    [11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

    [12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

    [13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

    [14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

    [15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE?

    The goal is NOT to test your MEMORY!!!

      The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the WORD of GOD as you read it!

      All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.
    "Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL
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CHRISTIAN COALITION VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDECHRISTIAN VOTER STARCHRISTIAN CATHOLIC VOTER GUIDE
ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS CONSULT "CHRISTIAN VOTER GUIDES!"
Voting Righteousness is God's Command!
(CLICK VOTER LOGO ABOVE)
(Then Click "YOUR STATE" for "YOUR CANDIDATES!")

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2016!
DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER[2]TED CRUZ OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[3]RAND PAUL WITH FLAG, POINTING UP photo[4]RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO[5]BEN-CARSON-PHOTO[6]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[7]JOE BIDEN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag[8]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Flag
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

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BRIEFS: USA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2012!
DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag [4]SARAH-PALIN-TIME-COVER.[5]WILLIAM OWENS[6]PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO[7]ann-romney-photo-1.jpg[8]MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]LANCE ARMSTRONG on BICYCLE PHOTO[2]CHEERLEADERS for JESUS and BIBLE VERSES PHOTOS[3]BENGHAZI BURNING AMERICAN EMBASSY PHOTO[4]AMERICAN AMBASSADOR STEVENS DRAGGED THRU STREETS[5]ARAB SPRING, AMERICAN FLAG BURNING PHOTO[6]TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO[7]ORLY TAITZ.jpg[8]TRINITY BROADCASTING LOGO
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orly Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Preacher! [7]Birther? [8]TBN Down?
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BRIEFS: CURRENT EVENTS! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO[2]MICHELLE-OBAMA-PHOTO[3]STACY DASH[4]JACK-SCHAAP-PHOTO.[5]BISHOP-EDDIE-LONG-PHOTO[6] VALERIE JARRETT WITH OBAMA PHOTO[7] HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[8]COACH JERRY SANDUSKY PHOTO
Dinesh D'Souza, Ms. Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
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BRIEFS: MUSLIMS COMING TO GET US!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES for INFO)
[1]BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT[2]OSAMA-BIN-LADEN-PHOTO[3]MAHMAUD-AHMADINEJAD-PHOTO[4] VALERIE JARRETT OBAMA'S PUPPET MASTER PHOTO[5]HUMA ABEDIN with HILLARY PHOTO[6]BARACK-OBAMA ARABIC WRITING PHOTO[7]BARACK-OBAMA BOWING TO KISSING HAND, SAUDI KING[8]HUMA ABEDIN with MUSLIM HEADRESS PHOTO
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Muslim! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim? [7]Saudis Worship? [8]Muslim Sisters!
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BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg KENNETH HAGIN SR-PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg BOB GRAY TEXAS-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, K. Hagin, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell, B. Gray,
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tenn. Temple, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola U, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO 
GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S ASIAN-INDIAN LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
dgs-dhinakaran-photo.jpg DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO  Paul dhinakaran-photo.jpg
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
SANTITA-JACKSON-PHOTO.jpg GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO MIA LOVE PHOTO
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
SKULL and BONESSODOMY SHORTENS MALE LIFESPAN BY DECADES!!!SKULL and BONES
SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS
LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES
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BRIEFS: AMERICANS HOME SCHOOLED!
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 THOMAS A EDISON PHOTO TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" TIM TEBOW TEBOWING in JETS UNIFORM PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT OVAL in SQUARE
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
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BRIEFS: MOST LISTENED TO MINISTERS
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
(CLICK PICTURES)
PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1 RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" JOYCE MEYER BEST WHITE PHOTO D-JAMES-KENNEDY-PHOTO TIM TEBOW-PHOTO
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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NewtonStein:
Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!
Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)
GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSS GRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"
Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERY AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
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SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!
"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!
Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!
WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?
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"CAMBRIDGE!"
CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"
FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!
Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?
"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION
CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:
      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"
-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        MEMOIR WEBPAGES:

        1. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html
        2. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-1a-Pages-1-100.html
        3. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-2b-Pages-101-200.html
        4. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-3c-Pages-201-300.html
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        9. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-8h-Pages-701-800.html
        10. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL--CHAPTER-9i-Pages-801-900.html
        11. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-MEMOIRS--ORIGINAL-INTRODUCTION-CHAPTER-10j-Pages-901-1000.html
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        14. http://Ministers-Best-Friend.com/ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL--TOP-100-WEBPAGES-ABOUT-HIM-RESTORATION-MOVEMENT.html


        MEMOIRS

        OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED.

        By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        CHAPTER 9 - ORIGINAL PAGES 801-900

        CINCINNATI. STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

        ACTUAL PAGES 600-675

        VOL-2 PAGES 76-150:

        76 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. ordinary means ; and without any commentator or religious teacher, his Confession of Faith declares that, though you were unlearned^ you may attain unto a knowledge of the things necessary to be known, believed and observed for salvation ; because all those things are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other. In the same Confession, and in the same chapter, section 9, you will find the following most excellent sentiment : ' The infallible rule of interpreta- tion of Scripture is the Scripture itself; and, therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scrip- ture which is not manifold, but one, it may be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.' This article embraces one of the best rules of interpretation we have seen. The sense of every passage of Scripture is one, not two or three or manifold. How many thousands of volumes of sermons and interpretations of Scripture would it send to the flames or to the moths if it were duly recognized and acted upon.? There is but one meaning in every passage of Scrip- ture, and that one meaning must be always found from its context. This golden rule of interpretation recognized and acted upon, and controversy about the meaning of Scripture becomes fair and easily managed. To these articles we shall appeal in all matters of disputation about the meaning of Scriptures adduced in this controversy. I feel myself happy to think that my opponent must admit them or abjure his allegiance to the Presbyterian Church." By means of these two principles, that Scripture is comprehensible even by the unlearned, and that its sense is not manifold, but one, he subsequently exposed various attempts of Mr. McCalla to impose fanciful and unauthorized meanings upon various passages of Scrip- ture. Taking, furthermore, as a text the declaration of the Confession (chap, xxviii.) that "Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ," and defining " sacrament" as meaning a " holy ordinance," he announced his method thus : MISREPRESENTATIONS. 'J*i "We will go, then, to the New Testament and not to the Old^ to ascertain the nature, design and subjects of this ordi- nance. " II. We shall appeal to the words of Jesus Christ for the institution of baptism, as our text says it is an ordinance of Jesus Christ ; we shall have nothing to do with Moses in this matter, however useful he may be in others. No doubt our opponent will feel his creed honored and will acquiesce in our method as correct." He then produced from the New Testament the law of baptism, which requires faith as a prerequisite, and adduced a number of cases showing that in the practice of the primitive Church believers only were baptized, as the law required. He then gave place to his opponent to produce the records of infant baptism from the New Testament. Instead of attempting this impossible task, however, Mr. McCalla began to read from Robinson various ex- tracts about the baptism of cats and colts, showing how infant baptism had been derided in different ages by those whom he called its " adversaries." In the midst of this tirade he was called to order by Bishop Varde- man for his frequent application of the terms " accuser" and " adversar}^" to Mr. Campbell, and for representing the Baptists as " accusers" and " adversaries." " Mr. McCalla must know," said he, " that these are the names given in Scripture to Satan, who is called the ' adver- sary and ' the accuser of the brethren.' He thought that Mr. McCalla should treat his opponent as a gentleman and as a Christian, although he differed from him on the questions under discussion. He hoped, therefore, that he would sub- stitute the term opponent^ or any term less acrimonious and more consistent with candor and justice, in place of those offensive terms." 7* 78 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. The matter being referred to Major Roper, and he having expressed the hope that Mr. McCalla would dis- pense with the use of such terms as appHed by him to the Baptists, Mr. McCalla consented to desist from using them. He then went on to make a distinction between Divine commands as express and 7iot express, striving to show that many things were divinely com- manded which were not express, but were to be learned and taught from the import of sundry declarations in which there was much scope given to the rational facul- ties of man, and which were to be ascertained by a minute attention to many circumstances. " For instance," said he, " there is no express declaration of the unity of God to be found in the Old Testament — no ex- press proof in so many words ; yet we know this proof to be a part of Divine revelation as certainly as though it were ex- pressly declared in so many words. Nor is there any express command against dueling in all the word of God ; yet we are as certain that God has prohibited this mischievous prac- tice as though it were expressly prohibited. Nor is there any express command against gaming in the Bible, and what Christian is there who does not know that it is divinely pro- hibited.'' There is no express law authorizing Christians to eat pork., and does not every Christian eat pork with a good conscience, with as much liberty as though God had expressly said, Te may eat pork I Nor is there any express command for independent church government for which many so earn- estly contend as divinely appointed. There is no express law for the obsen-ance of the first day of the week as the Christian Sabbath, for female communion, and many other points zealously contended for by the Baptists and Paedobaptists. In the same manner we affirm that although there is no ex- press command for infant baptism, though it is not mentioned in the Old Testament, yet we can find a Divine command for it there. When we propose to produce a Divine command ARGUMENT FROM JUDAISM. 79 for infant baptism, you are not, my friends, to expect that we shall produce in so many words a command for parents to have their children baptized." He then laid down several propositions, asserting that Abraham and his seed were constituted a true and visible Church of God — That the Christian Church is a branch of the Abrahamic — That Jewish circumcision before Christ and Christian baptism after Christ are one and the same seal, though in different forms, etc. Thus, as Mr. Campbell then showed, the Divine command for infant baptism which Mr. McCalla had in the begin- ning positively and ostentatiously promised to produce, after first becoming attenuated into one " not express,"" had finally resolved itself into the old shadowy inference drawn from circumcision. He did not fail to remark also on Mr. McCalla's singular assertion that there was no express affirmation of the unity of God in the Bible. "He would place," exclaimed he, "the unity of God and infant baptism upon the same obscure footing ! No express revelation of either ! Did he ever read, ' Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord.' But in fact there can be nothing more absurd than to place the ' eating of pork' and the ' baptizing of infants' upon one and the same footing, or the prohibition of gaming and dueling upon the same basis with the sprinkling of infants." Upon the propositions which he had laid down, Mr. McCalla had prepared beforehand a large quantity of manuscript, from which he now continued reading day after day, paying little or no attention to the arguments and refutations which Mr. Campbell from time to time presented. There being little needing reply in Mr. McCalla's labored disquisitions upon the Jewish and Christian churches, etc., Mr. Campbell then occupied 8o MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. a portion of the time allotted to him in presenting his views of the Christian Church ; the calling of the Gen- tiles, the nature of Messiah's reign, and other grand topics which placed in bold relief the essential differ- ences between the Jewish and Christian institutions, triumphantly overturning the chief foundations of Paedo- baptism, and delighting the audience by new and com- prehensive exhibitions of the Divine dispensations and their gradual increase in spiritual light, from the star- light patriarchal age to the moonlight age of Moses, and then to that of the twilight and the brilliant day-star of John the Baptist, ushering in the glory of the Sun of Righteousness, the promised Messiah. It would be unnecessary to detail minutely the pro- gress of this discussion, which continued during seven days. Suffice it to say that Mr. McCalla continued reading from his manuscript most of the time, and that Mr. Campbell, having in vain sought to induce him to reply to his arguments, went on finally, in advance, to establish his own propositions, making short replies occasionally to Mr. McCalla. It would not, however, be proper to omit Mr. Campbell's exposition of the de- sign of baptism, from which he deduced an argument against infant baptism, as he had done in the debate with Walker, but which he now renewed with a definite- ness and fullness which marked the progress of his own convictions upon this important subject. Thus, on the second day of the discussion, he said, "Our third argument is deduced from the design or import of baptism. On this topic of argument we shall be as full as possible, because of its great importance, and because per- haps neither Baptists nor Psedobaptists sufficiently appreciate it. I will first merely refer to the oracles of God, which show that baptism is an ordinance of the greatest importance and DESIGN OF BAPTISM. 8l of momentous significance. Never was there an ordinance of so great import or design. It is to be but once adminis- tered. We are to pray often, praise often, show forth the Lord's death often, commemorate his resurrection every week, but we are to be baptized but once. Its great significance can be seen from the following testimonies : The Lord saith, ' He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved.' He does not say, He that believeth and keeps my commands shall be saved, but he saith, ' He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved.' He placeth baptism on the right hand of faith. Again, he tells Nicodemus that ' unless a man be born of water and of the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.' Peter, on the day of Pentecost, places baptism in the same exalted place. ' Repent,' says he, ' and be baptized, every one of you, FOR the remission of sins.' Ananias saith to Paul, ' Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling upon the name of the Lord.' Paul saith to the Corinthians, ' Ye were once fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, effeminate, thieves, covetous, drunkards, rioters, extortioners, but ye are washed in the name of the Lord Jesus,' doubtless referring to their baptism. He tells Titus, ' God our Father saved us by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit.' See again its dignified importance. Peter finishes the grand climax in praise of baptism : ' Baptism doth now also save us by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.' " Again he remarks : " I know it will be said that I have affirmed that baptism saves us. Well, Peter and Paul have said so before me. If it was not criminal in them to say so, it cannot be criminal in me. When Ananias said unto Paul, * Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling upon the name of the Lord,' I suppose Paul believed him and arose and was baptized, and washed away his sins. When he was baptized, he must have believed that his sins were now washed away in some sense that they were not before. For, if his sins had been already, in every sense, washed away, Ananias' address would have led him into a mistaken view of himself, both before and after baptism. Now, we confess that the VOL. II. — P 82 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. blood of Jesus Christ alone cleanses us who believe from all sins. Even this, however, is a metaphorical expression. The efficacy of his blood springs from his own dignity and from the appointment of his Father. The blood of Christ, then, really cleanses us who believe from all sin. Behold the good- ness of God in giving us a formal token of it, by ordaining a baptism expressly ' for the remission of sins.' The water of baptism, then, formally washes away our sins. The blood of Christ really washes away our sins. Paul's sins were really -pardoned when he believed, yet he had no solemn pledge of the fact, no j'^rwza/ acquittal, no formal purgation of his sins until he washed them away in the water of baptism. " To every believer, therefore, baptism is ix formal and per- sonal remission., or purgation of sins. The believer never has his sins formally washed away or remitted until he is baptized. The water has no efficacy but what God's appoint- ment gives it, and he has made it sufficient for this purpose. The value and importance of baptism appear from this view of it. It also accounts for baptism being called the ' tvashing of regeneration^ It shows us a good and valid reason for the despatch with which this ordinance was administered in the primitive Church. The believers did not lose a moment in obtaining the remission of their sins. Paul tarried three days after he believed, which is the longest delay recorded in the New Testament. The reason of this delay was the wonder- ful accompaniments of his conversion and preparation for the apostolic office. He was blind three days ; scales fell from his eyes ; he arose then forthwith and was baptized. The three thousand who first believed, on the selfsame day were baptized for the remission of their sins. Yea, even the jailer and his house would not wait till daylight, but the ' same hour of the night in which he believed he and all his were bap' tized.^ I say this view of baptism accounts for all those other- wise unaccountable circumstances. It was this view of bap- tism misapplied that originated infant baptism. The first errorists on this subject argued that if baptism was so neces- sary for the remission of sins, it should be administered to in- DESIGN OF BAPTISM. 83 fanu, whom they represented as in great need of it on account of their ' original sin.' Affectionate parents, believing their children to be guilty of ' original sin,' were easily persuaded to have them baptized for the remission of 'original sin,' not for washing away sins actually committed. Faith in Christ is necessary to forgiveness of sins, therefore baptism without faith is an unmeaning ceremony. Even the Confession of Faith, or at least the Larger Catechism, says that baptism is a sign of the remission of sins. How then can it be adminis- tered to those without faith } Is it with them ' a stg'n and seal of engrafting into Christ, of remission of sins by his blood and regeneration by his Spirit,' as the answer to this question declares ? " One argument from this topic is, that baptism being or- dained to be to a believer a formal and personal remission of all his sins, cannot be administered unto an infant without the greatest perversion and abuse of the nature and import of this ordinance. Indeed, why should an infant that never sinned — that, as Calvinists say is guilty only of ' original sin^ which is an unit — be baptized for the remission of sins?" .... Thus the design of baptism and its true place in the economy of the gospel had gradually become clearer, and its importance proportionally enhanced, in his esti- timation, since the debate with Walker. Often, during the intervening period, had this particular point been the subject of conversation between him and his father, as well as with Walter Scott, and of careful Scripture examinations, and these utterances in the McCalla de- bate presented the views they had beforehand agreed upon as the true and obvious teachings of the New Testament. Thomas Campbell had, indeed, in the second or September number of the "Christian Bap- tist," in an article intended for the first number, but delayed for want of room, briefly stated them in treat- ing of " the primary intention of the gospel," which he 54 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. shows to have been a complete reconciliation of the sinner through the atonement of Christ, and that the effect of this was the belief of a full and free pardon of all his sins received in baptism. Thus, in 1823, the design of baptism was fully understood and publicly asserted. It was, however, reserved for Walter Scott, a few years later, to make a direct and practical appli- cation of the doctrine, and to secure for it the conspicu- ous place it has since occupied among the chief points urged in the Reformation. Upon the third day, the weather having become colder, the debate was thereafter held in the Baptist meeting-house in the village. Upon the last day a somewhat amusing passage occurred. Mr. McCalla had dwelt at length upon the alleged dangers and in- delicacies of immersion, insisting that it was pernicious not only to the subject, but to the administrator. " The administrators," he said, "were exposed to sickness, and it must unavoidably be injurious to them to be plunging into cold water at all seasons, and continuing in it so long as they often did ; and miraculous escapes were not to be expected." To this Mr. Campbell replied : " Benjamin Franklin, when minister in Paris, dined witli a number of French and American gendemen. A learned French abbe, at dinner, entertained the company with a learned disquisition on the deteriorating influence of the American climate on the bodies of all animals, alleging that the human body diminished in size and energy, and that even the mind itself shared in the general deterioration. Dr. Franklin made no reply ; but after dinner, having told the company with what pleasme he had heard the learned dis- quisitions of the philosopher, he moved that the company be divided, observing that the fairest way of testing the correct- ness of the abba's theory was to place all the Americans on CHALLENGE RENEWED. 85 one side of the room and the French on the other. The motion was carrieil, and behold a company of little, swarthy, insignificant Frenchmen on one side, and a row of little giants on the other! 'Ay,' says the Doctor, 'see, here is a striking proof of the correctness of your theory I' Now let us take the philosopher's way of testing the correctness of the theory of my opponent. There sits on the bench a Baptist and a Paedobaptist teacher, both well advanced in years ; the former has, we are told, immersed more persons than any other person of the same age in the United States ; the other, from his venerable age, may be supposed to have sprinkled a great many infants. Now, see the pernicious tendency of immersion on the Baptist, and the happy influence of sprink- ling on the Paedobaptist !" As Mr. Birch, the Presbyterian moderator, was a small and somewhat sickly-looking person, and Bishop Vardeman was of magnificent proportions, being up- ward of six feet in stature, weighing three hundred pounds and of a remarkably florid aspect, possessing uncommon and undiminished energy and vigor, though fifty years of age, the striking contrast thus presented, and the ironical illustration it furnished, greatly amused the audience at the expense of Mr. McCalla and his argument. This debate during its continuance took a very wide range, and as Mr. McCalla's discomfiture was manifest notwithstanding his adroitness, the effect of the discus- sion upon the community was very decided, and many were convinced by it that infant baptism was merely a human tradition. Mr. Campbell, accordingly, near the close, thought it proper to give the Paedobaptists an- other opportunity to redeem the credit of their cause. He accordingly renewed his challenge, and as his esti- mate of the clergy had by no means been improved by his experience with Mr. McCalla, he engaged also to 86 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. prove that the clergy were unauthorized as a distinct order in the Church. On the seventh day, Mr. McCalla stipulated for the last speech, which Mr. Campbell conceded, on condition that Mr. McCalla would make no misstatements of facts ; but he nevertheless attempted to excite the prejudices of the people against Mr. Campbell by charging him with being an enemy to all morality, to the observance of the Sabbath, and to the good cause of sending the gospel to the heathen. He then concluded by giving his challenge — viz., '* that he would never discuss this question again until an opponent would come from the regions discovered by Captain Simmes, and until a moderator would come from Holland weighing five hundred pounds." After haranguing the people a few minutes on these topics he sat down. Mr. Campbell then made these closing remarks : "Mr. McCalla, in stipulating, before he began to speak, that I should not reply, appeared to have been actuated by good policy, but bad motives. His last effort was to blast my reputation, as the only expedient left to heal the wound inflicted on his pride and on his cause, and thus to weaken the convictions of truth on the minds of the audience. I said that I was no enemy to morals, but that I had remonstrated against those little, persecuting, fining, confining, anti-repub- lican confederations called moral associations ; that I ad- vocated the best means, as I conceived, of sending the gospel to the heathen, and was conscientiously opposed to the present popular, moneyed, speculating schemes of hiring missionaries ; that I religiously regarded the first day of the week to the Lord, not as the Jewish Sabbath, but according to the spirit and scope of the religion of our Lord. But, said I, if any present wish to become better acquainted with my views or. all these topics, as I make no secret of them, they can be made fully acquainted with them by perusing a monthly pub- ECLAIRCISSEMENT. 87 lication, entitled the ' Christian Baptist,* which I have lately commenced publishing. I hoped the congregation would know how to appreciate the last accusations of Mr. McCalla, who had now descended to that vile slander which was the dernier resort of those who neither possessed nor could wield the sword of truth." As Mr. McCalla, for a considerable time prior to the discussion, had greatly annoyed the Baptists by assail- ing occasionally their distinctive tenets, his defeat gave them great satisfaction and raised Mr. Campbell very highly in their estimation. It was not Mr. Campbell's aim, however, to advocate the peculiarities of the Bap- tists, or to seek popularity among them by fostering their favorite but defective views of the gospel and its institutions. True to his own special mission, he made no concealment of the principles of the Reformation, or of the great truths which these had already developed ; and accepted the discussion in the beginning rather in order to introduce these than merely to defend the bap- tism of believers. As a large number of Baptists were present at the discussion, and many of their most in- fluential preachers, he felt that a favorable opportunity was afforded of leading them foi-ward to more enlarged and correct views of Christianity, and of promoting the great object of his life, the union of Christians upon the Bible alone. Believing himself, also, comparatively unknown in Kentucky, and having purposely withheld the " Christian Baptist" from this State, he hoped to ob- tain a more impartial heanng for the views he wished to present. Hence during the debate it was a point of great interest with him to develop the design of baptism, which was quite a novelty to the Baptists. He sought, also, to lead them to a more rational mode of reading, interpreting and using the Bible than that to w^hich 88 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. they had been accustomed under the textuary system, and to more extended and correct views of the nature and polity of the kingdom of Christ. During the pro- gress of the discussion, finding the denominational spirit growing stronger and stronger, and being almost overwhelmed by a profuse outpouring of Baptist com- pliments, he had thought it best on the evening of the fifth day to state candidly and fairly to the principal Bap- tist preachers the exact position which he occupied. Being all assembled in a room at Major Davis', where he stayed, he introduced himself fully to their acquaint- ance in the following manner, as related by himself: " ' Brethren, I fear that if you knew me better you would esteem and love me less. For let me tell you that I have almost as much against you Baptists as I have against the Presbyterians. They err in one thing and you in another ; and probably you are each nearly equidistant from original apostolic Christianity.' I paused ; and such a silence as ensued, accompanied by a piercing look from all sides of the room, I seldom before witnessed. Elder Vardeman at length broke silence by saying : ' Well, sir, we want to know our errors or your heterodoxy. Do let us hear it. Keep nothing back.' I replied, ' I know not where to begin ; nor am I in health and vigor, after the toils of the day, to undertake so heavy a task. But,' said I, ' I am commencing a publication called the Christian Baptist^ to be devoted to all such mat- ters, a few copies of which are in my portmanteau, and, with your permission, I will read you a few specimens of my heterodoxy.' They all said, ' Let us hear — let us hear the worst error you have against us.' I went up stairs and un- wrapped the first three numbers of the ' Christian Baptist' that ever saw the light in Kentucky. I had just ten copies of the first three numbers. I carried them into the parlor, and sitting down, I read, as a sample, the first essay on the clergy — so much of it as respected the ' call to the ministry as then taught in the ' kingdom of the clergy,' and especially EFFECTS OF THE DEBATE. 89 among the Baptists. This was the first essay ever read from that work in Kentucky. After a sigh and a long silence, Elder Vardeman said, ' Is that your worst error, your chief heterodoxy? I don't care so much about that, as you admit that we may have a providential call, without a voice from heaven or a special visit from some angel or spirit. If you have anything worse, for my part I wish to hear it.' The cry was, ' Let us hear something more.' On turning to and fro, I next read an article on ' Modern Missionaries.' This, with the ' Capital Mistake of Modern Missionaries,* finished my readings for the evening. " On closing this essay. Elder Vardeman said : * I am not so great a missionary man as to fall out with you on that subject. I must hear more before I condemn or approve.' I then dis- tributed my ten copies amongst the ten most distinguished and advanced elders in the room, requesting them to read these numbers during the recess of the debate, and to communicate freely to me their objections. We separated. So the matter ended at that time." At the close of the debate the Baptist preachers were so much pleased with the results, and so tolerant of what they found in the " Christian Baptist," that they re- quested Mr. Campbell to furnish them with the printed proposals for its publication, in order to extend its cir- culation, and urged him to make an immediate tour through the State. This his engagements forbade, and he could only comply with their wishes so far as to visit and preach at Mayslick, Bryant's Station, in the vicinity of Elder Vardeman's residence, and at Lexington, pro- mising to make a tour, if possible, during the ensuing autumn through a considerable portion of the State. As Mr. McCalla's character for ability was well esta- blished and equally well sustained by his Presbyterian brethren, the result of the discussion was less damaging to his reputation than to the cause he advocated, which, 8» 90 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. throughout the entire West, never recovered from the blow which it then received. Mr. McCalla, neverthe- less, labored for some time afterward to change public opinion by preaching upon the subject in various parts of Kentucky, endeavoring, at the same time, to prejudice the minds of the people in advance against the report of the debate, which it was understood Mr. Campbell intended to publish. From his closing remarks in the discussion and his mock challenge, intended as a sar- casm upon Elder Vardeman's portly figure, he was evidently conscious of his own failure, and naturally sought to obviate the results as far as practicable. However unsuccessful in this, his persevering zeal in behalf of the Paedobaptist cause was fully appreciated by his friends, in evidence of which he received the de- gree of Doctor of Divinity, and, after a time, removed to Philadelphia. Unlike his opponent, who seemed to be entirely satis- fied with his controversial experience, Mr. Campbell was by this debate rendered still more favorable to public discussion. " This," said he afterward, " is, we are convinced, one of the best means of propagating the truth and of exposing error in doctrine or practice. We now reap the benefit of the public debates of former times, and we have witnessed the beneficial results of those in our own time. And we are fully persuaded that a week's debating is worth a year's preaching, such as we generally have, for the purpose of disseminating truth and putting error out of countenance. There is nothing like meeting face to face, in the presence of many witnesses, and ' talking the matter over ;' and the man that cannot govern his own spirit in the midst of opposition and contradiction is a poor Christian indeed." As to the effect of the debate upon Mr. Campbell's VISIT TO LEXINGTON. 9I reputation and influence, these were very largely ex- tended by it. So many preachers from a distance had been present during the discussion, and so many lawyers and other persons of intelligence capable of appreciating Mr. Campbell's extraordinary dialectic power, that his talents became at once generally recognized throughout the State. This result was also largely promoted by his short visit to the interior immediately after the discussion. At David's Fork Church, in Fayette county, one of the four to which Elder Vardeman ministered, Mr. Camp- bell was astonished at the vast concourse assembled to hear him, and, as the presence of a large audience always roused him to his best efforts and seemed to waken up his latent powers, the people were still more surprised at the extraordinary abilities manifested by the speaker. Among other points, Mr. Campbell was to visit Lex- ington, which, in a literary point of view, was, at this period, regarded as the "Athens of the West." Tran- sylvania University was now in a most flourishing con- dition under the presidency of Dr. Horace Holley, a fine classical scholar, and greatly admired as an orator in a community passionately fond of oratory, and which possessed such men as Clay, Crittenden, Barry, Rowan, S. P. Sharp and Ben. Hardin. As Dr. Holley was a man of popular manners and liberal principles, the University had risen rapidly in public esteem, and was filled with students from the South and West in all its departments — its school of medicine, which then num- bered among its professors Charles Caldwell and B. W. Dudley, being regarded as second only to the Philadel- phia medical institutions. Lexington could also, at this time, boast of one of the ablest literary periodicals of the West, edited by William Gibbs Hunt. 9* MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Mr. Campbell was to preach in the capacious meeting- house used by the Baptist church in charge of Dr James Fishback. The doctor was a man of superior talents, elegant manners and remarkably fine personal appearance, being far above the ordinary height, well- proportioned and with dark hair and regular and expressive features. He had fine didactic powers — was a close reasoner, and independent and somewhat original in his way of thinking. He had been once a successful practitioner of law, but abandoned this for the study of medicine, which, however, he soon left for the Presbyterian ministry. Becoming afterward con- vinced that immersion was the proper action denoted by "baptism," he did not hesitate to unite with the small and contemned Baptist church at Lexington, which, by means of his zeal, energy and ability, soon became one of the largest, most active and prosperous churches in the West. He had published, some time before, a work on the human mind, which displayed unusual power of thought, and was considered a valuable contribution to mental science. He thus occupied a very high position, not only among the Baptists, but in the intelligent and cultivated society of Lexington, before which Mr. Campbell was now to appear, a comparatively unknown stranger, from an obscure creek called BuflTalo among the silent hills of Western Virginia. At the hour of meeting, the house was crowded to its utmost capacity. When Mr. Campbell rose, he appeared pale and exhausted, owing to the dyspepsia from which he had not yet fully recovered, and was unable to stand entirely erect during the delivery of his discourse. This was based on the first chapter of Hebrews, and led the speaker to dwell upon the divine glory of the Son of God — a theme upon which he was always surpassingly IMPBESSIONS AT LEXINGTON. 93 eloquent. It lasted two hours, during which the audi- ence sat in rapt attention. Dr. Theodore S. Bell, now a distinguished physician of Louisville, but then a youth, was present, and thus speaks of it : " I never had heard anything that approached the power of that discourse, nor have I ever heard it equaled since. Under the training of my mother, one of the most thorough scholars in the Bible that I ever knew, and of Dr. Fishback, although I then made no pretensions to Christianity, I was almost as familiar with the Bible as with my alphabet. But that speech on Hebrews lifted me into a world of thought of which I had previously known nothing. It has been forty- five years since I heard that pulpit discourse, but it is as vivid in my memory, I tliink, as when I first heard it." The impression made upon the entire audience was very marked. They recognized at once in Alexander Campbell the mightiest intellect that had ever visited their city. The freshness of his thoughts, the extent and accuracy of his biblical knowledge, and his grand generalizations of the wonderful facts of redemption opened up trains of reflection wholly new, and pre- sented the subject of Christianity in a form so simple and yet so comprehensive as to fill every one with admiration. Nor were they less struck with the perfect ease with which he developed and illustrated the most profound and enlarged conceptions, seemingly by an inexhaustible interior power, unaided by the slightest gesture or any of the arts of elocution. Nor did his unassuming, humble and unobtrusive deportment in the social circles of the most eminent citizens whom he met, especially in the elegant mansion where Dr. Fish- back and his amiable Christian lady dispensed a munifi- cent hospitality, make a less favorable impression ; so that from this time forward Mr. Campbell was esteemed 94 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, by the people of Kentucky as great among the greatest of her public men, and without a rival in the depart- ment to which he had devoted his powers. The con- sideration which he thus received from the intelligent citizens of Kentucky, their genial hospitality and frank and simple manners, so accordant with his own, made a deep impression upon him, and he was wont always to speak in the most feeling terms of the kindness and love shown him by the people of Kentucky, whom he often visited in after years, and among whom the reformatory principles soon became very widely dif- fused. Prior to the discussion with McCalla, Mr. Campbell, however, was by no means so little known in Kentucky as he imagined. His published debate with Walker had been read by some of the Baptist preachers there, as Wm. Vaughan, Vardeman and others, with great satisfaction, and they had been wont ever afterward to speak of Mr. Campbell in the highest terms. It was these encomiums which as early as the years 1820 and 182 1, had made a most favorable impression in refer- ence to Mr. Campbell upon the mind of a young min- ister, recently from England, P. S. Fall, who had already acquired distinction among the Baptists of Kentucky, and was destined to exert no inconsiderable influence upon the fortunes of the Reformation. His refined manners and unblemished character gave him a high standing in society, while his cogent reasoning, clear enunciation and remarkably correct use of words rendered him popular as a preacher. During 1822, while preaching for a church which he had gathered at Louisville, he met with Mr. Campbell's Sermon or Law, and was led by it to clearer views of the distinc- tion between the law and the gospel. This distinction STUDT OF THE SCRIPTURES. 95 he clearly traced in a discourse delivered to a large audience at Frankfort in the winter of 1823, and which proved quite unpalatable to some Baptist preachers present, with whose theology it conflicted. Continuing his efforts, however, Mr. Fall became the first resident Baptist minister in Kentucky to take his stand openly in favor of the principles of the Reformation. Upon his return home from the McCalla debate, Mr. Campbell made immediate preparation for its publica- tion from his own notes and those taken at the time by Sidney Rigdon, and, notwithstanding Mr. McCalla's effort to discredit it before its appearance, its general accuracy was fully attested by those who had heard the discussion. With some animadversions on the publica- tions of Messrs. Ralston, Walker and others, it formed a volume of over four hundred pages, containing a large amount of interesting matter in regard to the sub- ject in controversy. Mr. Campbell observed in his Preface: "If the whole of this work were a forgery, it combats every argument advanced by the Pasdobap- tists, and if the arguments impugned in this volume are refuted, the reader may rest assured there are no others to exhibit." This discussion, indeed, thus reported and circulated, proved to be the severest blow that Paedo- baptism had ever received in any part of the world. At the same time, Mr. Campbell continued to urge his plea for Reformation through the pages of the " Christian Baptist" and in his public addresses with undiminished vigor. Many persons, released from clerical rule, were incited to religious inquiry and were induced to commence the study of the Scriptures for themselves. To these, Mr. Campbell endeavored to render all possible aid, by directing attention to the differences between ancient and modern Christianity, 96 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. and by furnishing useful hints as to the proper method of studying the word of God. " Such readers of this paper," said he, " as believe that Jesus is the Messiah^ the Son of God, and consequently wish to understand his word, to do and to enjoy his will, we address, in a subserviency to our grand design, in the follow- ing words : " That you may relish and understand the Nev\' Testament is our earnest desire. We will, therefore, suggest to you a plan of reading the blessed volume, which reason, common sense, and the experience of all who have tried it, recom- mend and enforce. We will only premise one sentence, viz. : that as God kindly revealed himself, his will, and our salva- tion in human language, the words of human language which he used for this purpose must have been used by his Spirit, in the commonly received sense among mankind generally ; else it could not have been a revelation, for a revelation in words not understood in the common sense is no revelation at all. You will then take, say, a New Testament and sit down with a pencil or a pen in your hand. Begin with Matthew's gospel ; read the whole of it at one reading or two ; mark on the margin every sentence you think you do not understand. Turn back again, read it a second time in less portions at once than in the first reading ; cancel such marks as you have made which noted passages which on the first reading appeared to you dark or difficult to understand, but on the second reading opened to your view. Then read Mark, Luke and John in the same manner, as they all treat on the same subject. After having read each evangelist in this way, read them all in succession a third time. At this time you will be able, no doubt, to cancel many of your marks. Then read the Acts of the Apostles, which is the key to all the Epistles ; then the Epistles in a similar man- ner. Always, before reading an epistle, read everything said about the people addressed in the epistle which you find in the Acts of the Apostles. This is the course which we would take to understand any book. You will no doubt see, STUDY OF THE SCRIPTURES. 97 from what you read, the necessity of accompanying all your readings with supplications to the Father of Lights for that instruction which he has graciously promised to all that ask him, praying that ' the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him ; the eyes of your under- standing being enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the work- ing of his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places.' Eph. i. 17-20. 'That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith, that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.' Eph. iii. 17, 19. " In pursuing this plan, we have no doubt, in getting even three times through the New Testament, that you will learn much more of the Christian religion than a learned divine could teach you in seven years. It will add, however, con- siderably to your advantage should you find two, three, ten or a dozen similarly disposed, who will meet and read and converse and pray with you, and you with them, once a week, or should you be a member of a church, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. Do, we entreat you, make the experiment, and if it prove not so useful as we have hinted, remind us of it; tell us your disappointment, and then we will be deservedly worthy of blame. Beware of having any commentator or system before your eyes or your mind. Open the New Testament as if mortal man had never seen it before. Your acquaintance with the Old Testa- ment will incalculably facilitate your proficiency in the New. The time requisite will be redeemed time. It will not inter- fere with your ordinary duties. Oh remember that this know- ledge is better than all acquisitions ! that happy is the man VOL. II. — G 9 y8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that ' findeth wisdom and the man that getteth understanding ; for the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold. She is more pre- cious than rubies, and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her. Length of days is in her right hand, and in her left, riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, and happy is every one that retaineth her.' " Prov. iii. 13, 18. Such directions were really needed at this period by the religious community, as few amongst them deemed themselves authorized or competent to derive religious instruction directly from the Bible. Men had converted religion into the science of theology. Each party had its own theories, which its own clergy were appointed to inculcate, and in harmony with which the Scripture must be constantly explained. " Divinity" had become one of the " learned professions," and as the client pre- sumed not to judge the law for himself, but relied upon the opinion of his lawyer, or the patient upon that of his physician, so the laity ventured not to determine the meaning of the Scripture for themselves, but depended upon their clergy for its interpretation. As each sect, however, had a different theory, and by consequence a different interpretation of the Bible, many were disposed to say to each as Mary Queen of Scots said to John Knox, in referring to his teachings and those of the priests : " You interpret the Scriptures in one way, and they in another; whom shall I believe, and who shall be judge ?" Mr. Campbell's response to such inquiries was simply the noble reply which the uncompromising Reformer made to the queen : "You shall believe God," said Knox, "who plainly speaketh in his word; and further than the word teacheth you, you shall believe OUTGROWTHS OF BIGOTRr. 99 neither the one nor the other. The word of God is plain in itself, and if there appear any obscurity in one place, the Holy Ghost, who is never contrary to him- self, explains the same more clearly in other places, so that there can remain no doubt but unto such as are ob- stinately ignorant." — McCrie^s Life of fohn Knox^ p. 228. As the "Christian Baptist" began now to be more extensively circulated, and the Scriptures more carefully studied, many minds became freed from the religious systems and theories of the times. In Pittsburg, after the meeting of the Redstone Association in 1823, a greater degree of intimacy took place between Walter Scott and Sidney Rigdon, and their respective congre- gations, so that, in 1824, a union was consummated be- tween them. A few members of the Baptist church who refused to unite were then recognized by the com- mittee of the Association as the only legitimate Baptist church in Pittsburg. These results of the principles urged by Mr. Campbell greatly provoked his opposers, who renewed their efforts to excite the public against him. Taking advantage of the prejudices thus created, an impostor, called Thomas T. Counceil, claiming to be a Baptist preacher, and with forged credentials in his pocket in the name of Messrs. Frey, Wheeler, Luse and Brownfield, traveled about through Western Penn- sylvania, railing against Mr. Campbell and urgently soliciting contributions. Another individual, who made himself quite notorious about this time, was Lawrence Greatrake, a regular Baptist preacher, of a restless spirit and strong passions, who occupied himself in itinerating through the country, wherever he could ob- tain a hearing, either in Baptist or Pasdobaptist congre- gations, breathing forth misrepresentation and abuse of lOO MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Mr. Campbell and his teachings. The bitter spirit, how- ever, by which he was characterized, rendered his reck- less assertions doubtful to thoughtful and impartial hearers, and served rather to further the Reformation by exciting their curiosity to read Mr. Campbell's writings or to hear him for themselves. As to Mr. Greatrake, he continued his itinerant labors for a considerable time, and published a scurrilous pamphlet against Mr. Camp- bell ; but afterward, falling into disgrace, became an apostate, and finally, in passing through a piece of woods on his way to a place of shelter, was suddenly crushed to death by a falling tree. In the Association on the Western Reserve, mean- while, the new views were making rapid and compara- tively peaceful progress. Hence when, in September, 1824, Mr. Campbell was sent, in conjunction with John Drown and George Young, as a messenger from the church at Wellsburg, now consisting of forty members, to propose a union with that body, he was very kindly received. The meeting this year was held at Hubbard, in Trumbull county. Adamson Bentley, who had been moderator at the previous meeting, preached the intro- ductory sermon from John iii. 16, 17. Thomas Miller was then chosen moderator, and E. Leavitt clerk. Upon the minutes it is entered as the sixth item : "At the request of the Church of Christ at Wellsburg it was re- ceived into this Association." In conformity with the rules of the Association, Mr. Campbell presented on this occasion a written statement of belief which he had prepared, and which was duly received and entered upon the records. The simple declarations of this docu- ment, and its constant reference to the Scriptures, form quite a contrast with the detailed enumerations of theo- logical and speculative questions always found in the PROGRESS OF TRUTH. lOl church creeds of this period. In the character of the queries sent up from the churches to this meeting the working of the reformatory principles may be readily traced, and their progress may be still more distinctly observed in the answers appended, which, however, were postponed to the next meeting of the Associa- tion, and are here added from the minutes of that year (1825) : " Queries from Nelson Church. — i. Will this Association hold in its connection a church which acknowledges no other rule of faith and practice than the Scriptures? Answer : Yes, on satisfactory evidence that they walk according to this rule. 2. In what manner were members received into churches set in order by the apostles? Answer: Those who believed and were baptized were added to the churches. 3. How were members excluded from the church ? Answer : By a vote of the brethren. " ^uery fro7)i Ne~jj Lisbon Church. — Is it scriptural to license a brother to administer the word and not the ordi- nances? Answer: We have no such custom taught in the Scriptures. ''^ ^uery from Randolph Church. — Can Associations in their present modifications find their model in the New Testa- ment? Answer: Not exactly. " ^uery frofn Youngstoivn Church. — Was the practice of the primitive Church an exact pattern to succeeding ages, and is every practice designed for good to be receded from which was not the practice of the primitive saints in their peculiar circumstances? Answer: It is the duty and high privilege of every Christian to aim at an exact conformity to the example of the churches set in order by the apostles, and to endeavor to imitate them in all things imitable by them." The attention of these churches had thus evidently been strongly directed to the primitive Church as the 9* 102 ^fE^roTRS of Alexander Campbell. true model for succeeding ages ; the spirit of inquiry had been awakened ; there was manifestly a searching of the Scriptures, under the impression that these were intelligible to the common mind ; and a disposition to call in question such religious customs and opinions as were destitute of Divine authority. CHAPTER IV. Visit to Kentucky — Experimental Religion — Virginia and Kentucky Bapiisi preachers — " Christian Baptist" — Work of the Spirit — Ancient order of things — Tour in Virginia — R. B. Semple — Christian communion — Pro- gress of truth. SOON after his return from the meeting of the Mahon- ing Association in September, 1824, Mr. Campbell paid his promised visit to Kentucky. During his tour, which occupied nearly three months, he visited a large portion of the State, addressing everywhere large audi- ences, and greatly extending his influence and acquaint- ance with the Baptists. The notions he had entertained concerning them as a people in the early part of his ministry had been greatly changed by his intercourse with them, so that he had learned to esteem them very highly, and to regard them as much nearer the primi- tive pattern than any other religious denominat-.n. He regarded their conceptions of the Church of Christ as essentially correct, and thought it would not be difiicult to eliminate from the Baptist churches such erroneous theories and usages as had gained admission. It was with these convictions that he now visited the Baptists of Kentucky, in order to impart to them, as well as to the community at large, those clearer views of the gospel to which his own mind had been conducted by the careful study of the Sacred Oracles. These, to some extent, he had already presented during the past year in the successive numbers of the " Christian Baptist," 103 ro4 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. which had been read throughout Kentucky with great avidity, and had produced considerable excitement among the churches. Some individuals were favorably impressed with the plea for reform ; others remained in perplexity and doubt, while not a few were disposed to cling tenaciously to their cherished opinions. All were ready to admit that a bright star had risen in the East among the Baptists, but whether it would guide them nearer to Jesus, or, like a passing meteor, leave them in greater darkness, none seemed as yet able to determine. When at length, in the March number of the first volume, with that truthful candor so characteristic of him, Mr. Campbell discussed the subject of " Experi- mental Religion," showing the expression itself, as well as the popular notion connected with it, to be unscrip- tural, a great number became offended, and many mis- representations of his real sentiments were circulated abroad. He was charged with " denying the necessity of being born again by the Spirit of God ;" with " con- fining all grace to the apostolic age;" with being "an enemy to heart-religion," etc. It will not appear strange, indeed, to one familiar with human nature, that such impressions should have been made in the existing condition of religious society by so direct an assault upon one of the most favorite notions of the time. Theological systems had then entire control of the public mind. Through these alone men were accustomed to look at the Scripture, which in all cases received its law of interpretation from the particular .theory which had been previously adopted. The various points of Calvinism or of Arminianism, and the metaphysical speculations of ingenious theological writers, such as John Gill and Andrew Fuller, were then the great themes of public discourses and of private RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES. 105 converse. Among the theories in vogue there was no one so generally popular as that which attributed con- version to " the direct and irresistible power of the Holy Spirit." Such were the views entertained of man's utter depravity and inability that he was supposed to be incapable even of receiving the gospel, or of believ- ing aright the testimony of God without a special opera- tion of the Spirit, which was supposed to be withheld or granted according to the sovereign will and pleasure of God. It was conceived to be the great and chief work of the Hol}'^ Spirit in the salvation of men thus to create the soul anew by an overwhelming power, a sud- den and mysterious spiritual baptism, wholly apart from the influence of the word of God, which, like the sinner himself, was supposed to be " dead" until specially ap- plied and made effective by the Spirit. The minds of men were thus directed, not to the evidences and assur- ances furnished by the word of God, but to the varying moods of the mind and the fitful feelings of the heart. On these, when adjudged by some fanciful standard to be genuine, they were led to rely, and hence to such inward impressions was naturally transferred the office which baptism subserved in the primitive Church, and of which it had been divested in the modern ; and every one who had a "religious experience," as it was termed, was accustomed to refer to it as the assurance of his pardon and acceptance with God, as well as his title to church membership and Christian fellowship. It can be easily seen, therefore, how a free criticism upon that which, in the popular view, constituted the very essence of true religion, must necessarily give offence and create misapprehension. Mr. Campbell, however, desired simply to vindicate the claims of the word of God, which he believed to be Io6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. set entirely aside by the doctrine in question, and to in- duce men to " look off to Christ," rather than to trust in their own frames and feelings. Like the Haldanes and their pious coadjutor, John Campbell, he had learned to rest on the promises of God, and desired that all should enjoy the permanent and blessed assurance thus afforded. He occupied, indeed, a very different point of view from the preachers of the time, and his mind ranged in a much wider sphere. As, before the time of Bacon, the facts of nature were explained or perverted to suit the theories of philosophers, so now the facts and teachings of the Bible were applied and interpreted to suit the various systems of theology. Lifting himself above all human theories and specula- tions, Mr. Campbell strictly applied the inductive method to the Bible, and made its facts and revelations the great basis of religious thought and the sure founda- tion of all religious trust. His method of discoursing was hence totally unlike that of other preachers. In discussing the great themes of salvation, he manifested a breadth of view, a depth of biblical knowledge, a freshness of thought and a grandeur in his combinations of facts and arguments which imparted instruction and delight. At his bidding, the facts of Scripture seemed to acquire new force and meaning ; a connected train of scriptural truths and illustrations opened up unex- pected and lofty views of the Divine plan of redemption ; while, ascending to higher planes of thought, he left far beneath him the controversies and difficulties of all human systems, as the eagle soaring aloft in the sun- light leaves far below him the stormy clouds that darken the mountain's brow or ovei spread the valley with gloom and desolation. Under the circumstances above detailed. Mr Camp* INCONSISTENT DOCTRINB. 107 bell's tour among the Baptist churches in Kentucky gave rise to a great diversity of feeling. This may be best conceived, however, from the impressions he made on some prominent individuals who subsequently acted an important part in favoring or opposing the Reformation. Among the former, John Smith deserves particular mention. He was a Baptist preacher, who without education, and amidst many difficulties and trials, had raised himself, by his extraordinary natural abilities, to great and merited distinction. He pos- sessed a practical sagacity, a largeness of heart and mind and a clearness and quickness of insight such as are rarely found. To these he added an unfail- ing memory, a remarkable talent for genial humor and unequaled skill at repartee, so that his witty replies became familiarly known throughout the State. He possessed withal great candor, a deep and fervent love of truth, and had a mind so constituted that he could not feel satisfied with any doctrine or system if it ap- peared to him in any way inconsistent with itself. Hence, it was that although he had adopted the Cal- vinian theory held by the Baptists, and was thoroughly conversant with the points of controversy debated with Arminians, he never could fairly reconcile in his own mind, in their practical aspects, some of the tenets which his system obliged him to teach. On one occa- sion in 1822, at Spencer Creek meeting-house, while in the midst of a warm exhortation, he was suddenly so struck with one of these inconsistencies of doctrine, be- tween the freeness of the gospel and the Calvinian theory, that he stopped short, and after a pause, ex- claimed to the surprised audience, '* Something is wrong among us, but how to get it right I know not 1" Well assured, however, that no such contradictions could loS MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. exist in the Scriptures, he from this time devoted him- self to a more careful examination of the word of God, in order to discover, if possible, where his theological system had departed from it. He had heard of Mr. Campbell's debate with Walker, and had desired to attend the McCalla debate, but was hindered by sickness in his family. Being presented with a prospectus of the " Christian Baptist" by Buck- ner H. Payne of Mount SterHng, and finding that Mr. Campbell intended to discuss certain questions which had given him much trouble, he at once subscribed for it, and read the numbers with much interest, though greatly doubting many of the positions which were taken. When the essay on " Experimental Religion" appeared, he hardly knew what to think of it, but, though some of his Baptist friends were much dis- pleased and withdrew their subscriptions, he was so fascinated by Mr. Campbell's perspicuous and lively style of writing that he continued to take the paper. When he heard of Mr. Campbell's arrival in Kentucky in 1824, and learned that he designed to visit Flem- ingsburg, he thought it proper to go and meet him there and conduct him to Mount Sterling, where he himself then lived, and where Mr. Campbell had his next appointment. On entering the town, he met with Wil- liam Vaughan, who had been with Mr. Campbell for eight days and nights, during his tour through Mason and Bracken counties, and had heard him preach every day. The introduction that followed, and the succeeding incidents, may be best given as related by John Smith, himself, to his friend Albert Allen of Fayette county : " ' Well,* said I to Elder Vaughan, ' what are his religious views on doctrinal points? Is he a Calvinist or Arminian, an Arian or a Trinitarian ?' PERSONAL IMPRESSIONS. 109 *•' His answer was, ' I do not know ; he has nothing to do with any of these things.' " I answered, / could tell when I heard him, what he was. " ' How?' said he. *' I replied, he is a man oi sense., and, if he takes a position and does not run out into any of these isms., I can tell where he would land if it was run out. I asked again, 'But do you think he knows anything about heartfelt religion.''' " ' God bless you, Brother John !' said he ; ' he is one of the most pious, godly men I was ever in company with in my life.' '"But do you think he knows anything about a Christian experience.^' " ' Why, Lord bless you ! he knows everything. Come, I want to introduce you to him.' " We went to the house. Says Brother Vaughan, ' Brother Campbell, I want to introduce you to Brother John Smith.* '''Ah,' said he, 'is this Brother Smith,? Well, I know Brother Smith pretty well, although I have never seen him before.' " I then felt as if I wanted to sit down and look at him for one hour, without hearing a word from any one. I wanted to scan him who had been so much talked of, and who had, in the ' Christian Baptist,' and in his debates, introduced so many new thoughts into my mind. Time had now come, however, to start to the meeting-house, and we all started. On reaching there, the house being small, we found prepara- tions had been made for seating the congregation on logs and planks in the rear of the house. A small stand of planks, laid on blocks against the wall, had been erected for the speaker. These accommodations, however, were not suffi- cient for the immense crowd, and many had to stand up. I took my seat on one end of the plank on which he stood, de- termined now to find out to what istn he belonged in point of doctrine, for I was full of doubt and suspicion. " He commenced in the usual way, and read the allegory of Sarah and Hagar in the fourth chapter of Galatians. 10 no MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. After a general outline of the whole epistle, and how it ought to be read, in order to a correct understanding of the apostle's meaning, he commenced directly on the allegory. I watched all the time with my whole mind to find out to what ism he belonged, but he seemed to move in a higher sphere than that in which these isms abounded. In a simple, plain and artless manner, leaning with one hand on the head of his cane, he went through his discourse. No gesture or any kind of mannerism characterized him, or served to call off the mind from what was being said. " The congregation being dismissed, I said to Brother Vaughan, ' Is it not a little hard to ride thirty miles to hear a man preach thirty minutes?* " ' Oh,* said he, ' he has been longer than that. Look at your watch.* " On looking, I found it had been two hours and thirty minutes^ and simply said, ' Two hours of my time are gone and I know not how, though wide awake.* " Returning to Brother Reynolds', Brother Vaughan asked me, ' Did you Jind out whether he was a Calvinist or an Ar- minian ?' " 'No ; I know nothing about him, but, be he devil or saint, he has thrown more light on that epistle and the whole Scrip- tures than I have heard in all the sermons I ever listened to before.' Soon after dinner, in company with four or five other preachers, among whom were Brothers Payne, Vaughan and old William Moss, we started for Brother Cannon's, who lived some three or four miles off, on the road to Mt. Sterling. " Going along, I threw myself in company with Brother Campbell, to ride with him. In the commencement of our conversation, I made a remark to him like this : ' Brothei Campbell, I do not wish to meet any man in judgment, hav- ing entertained an unfavorable opinion of him without good grounds, and I will now say to you what I have never said to any man before — that, religiously speaking, I am sus- picious of you, and having an unfavorable opinion of you, I am willing to give the reasons why.' EXPERIENCE VALID. Ill " ' Well, Brother John,' said he, ' if all my Baptist brethren would treat me as candidly as you have done, I would think more of them, as it would afford me an opportunity to ex- plain my views.' " But before I could reply, he laughed and said, 'I expected when I saw you, to know all you thought of me ;' and then told me he had heard that during the Bracken Association, held in Carlisle last September, a number of preachers went to a certain house for dinner, and were abusing me terribly for the attack I had made upon the clergy, when you said that ' the clergy needed so much of such abuse that you were willing to be whipped almost to death to get the others killed.' " I told him I had so said, and did it sincerely, too. I then mentioned the strange piece before alluded to, on ' experi- mental religion,' and suggested that something must be hid- den behind that, as I knew he understood as well as any one what the ' populars' meant by experimental religion, and was not so ignorant as the piece would seem to intimate. " ' My father,' said he, ' gave me a scolding for publishing that piece too soon, as he thought the people were not ready for it. But I have a series of essays on hand on the work of the Holy Spirit, which will explain the whole matter, and this was only thrown out to call the attention of the clergy.* " On the next morning we parted company with the bal- ance of the preachers, and Brother Campbell and myself started for Mt. Sterling. Much interesting conversation took place on the way, and conduced much to my correct under- standing of his views. I will not attempt to relate all that passed. One little incident I will relate. Having crossed Licking River and riding slowly up the bank, I asked Brother Campbell to tell me his experience. He readily did so, and in turn asked a relation of mine, which was given. "After hearing his experience, I would cheerfully have given him the hand of fellowship. It was one which any Baptist church would have cheerfully received, and was almost substantially such as mine. He took occasion to say 112 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. that he had never discarded the existence of such experiences on the part of the sinner, but objected to the use made of such things, as determining the proper prerequisites of bap- tism, and went on to explain the necessity of taking the word of God^ rather than our feelings, as guides in such things. *' Many other questions were asked by me, and explained by him, till we reached Mt. Sterling. Here I heard from him three discourses, and going on as far as North Middle- ton, I parted with him. " This, to me, interesting sojourn with Brother Campbell, led to the removal of many obstacles and to the solution of many difficulties of a religious kind, and left me persuaded of better things of him than when we first met. But it was not until after a year of careful examination of the Scriptures that I was fully convinced of the scripturality of his views, and commenced the advocacy of the Bible as a sufficient rule of faith and practice." From this narrative it will be seen that Mr. Camp- bell was not opposed to "religious experiences," but to the use made of them as substitutes for that assurance which is derived from the word of God — that simple trust in Jesus which the gospel requires. He believed, as Moses Stuart, of Andover, said upon his deathbed, that " feelings in religious experience are deceptive;" and, like that eminent man, sought to rescue the Bible from its slavery to theological systems, to restore its free meaning as the true reliance of the soul, and to direct the attention to the life as the proper evidence of faith and the true test of fealty. He was convinced, to use the language of the great and good Dr. Way- land, that " the moral sense of men and the Bible were, by the power that originated both, adapted to each other." Hence, he believed with the latter "that if Ihe truths of the word of God were brought near to PRIMITIVE FAITH. 1 13 the soul, the effect must be felt," and in harmony with this belief, like the primitive laborers, he "ceased not to preach and to teach Christ," being divinely assured that " faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." Whatever metaphysical theories men might adopt as to the operations of the mind, he could see no propriety in the attempt to make conversion, in all its details, conform to such human systems, in order to secure an acceptance which, in the beginnings was ac- corded to all those who " hearing, believed and were baptized."* •The account which Dr. Wayland gives of his own religious struggles is so striking a commentary on the views advocated by Mr. Campbell, and so strongly confirmatory of their correctness, that it is here subjoined : "I had marked out for myself," said he, "a plan of conversion in accordance with the prevailing theological notions. First, I must have agonizing convictions, then deep and overwhelming repentance, then a view of Christ as my Saviour, which should fill me with transports, and from all this would proceed a new and holy life. Until this was done, I could perform no work pleasing to God, and all that I could do was abomination in his sight. For these emotions, then, I prayed, but received nothing in answer which corresponded to my theory of conversion. I devoted I know not how much time to prayer and reading the Scriptures, to the exclusion of every other pursuit This, how- ever, could not be continued always. I recommenced my usual duties, making this, however, my paramount concern. I attended religious meetings and derived pleasure from them. I read only religious books. I determined that if I perished, I would perish seeking the forgiveness of God and an interest in the Saviour. "At the time when I thus resolved to seek in earnest the salvation of my soul there was in none of the churches of Troy any religious interest. It was a period of unusual indifference to religion. But while I was in this con- dition a very extensive revival commenced. I was deeply interested in it, and attended all the meetings, hoping to hear something that would tend to my spiritual good. I found that I loved the doctrines of the Gospel, that I earnestly desired the salvation of souls, and felt a love for Christians such as I never felt before. But I could not believe that the light which had gradually dawned upon my soul was anything more than was taught by the precepts of men. Everything in religion seemed to me so reasonable that all which I felt seemed to arise from the mere logical deductions of the intellect, in which the heart, the inmost soul, had no part. I met with the young converts, and VOL. II.— H 10 * 114 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Continuing, during his tour, to meet his daily appoint- ments, and occupied at night often to a late hour with crowds of anxious inquirers who sought religious in- with them engaged in devotions, but could not believe that the promise of the Gospel was intended for me. " I remember at this time to have had a long and interesting conversation with the Rev. Dr. Mattison, a Baptist minister from Shaftsbury, Vermont. It was of the nature of an earnest argument, in which he endeavored to prove that I was a regenerate person, and I as strenuously contended that it was quite out of the question- I could not deny that there had been a change in me, but the change had been so reasonable and so slight in degree that I could not be a child of God. Yet the conversation did me good. In looking back upon this period of my life, I perceive that much of my doubt and distrust was owing to the pride of my own heart. I had formed my own theory of conversion, and I did not like to confess that I was wrong. I wished to have a clear and convincing experience, so that I might never doubt of myself nor others doubt concerning me. I desired to be the subject of a striking con- version, and was not willing to take, with humility and gratitude, whatever it should please God to give me. He in mercy disappointed me, and made me willing to accept his grace in any manner that he chose to bestow it. " Whenever I now have occasion (as I often have) to converse with per- sons in this state of mind, I do not argue much with them. I set before them the love of God in Christ, the fullness and freeness of the offer of salva- tion, and the sincerity of God in revealing it to us, and I urge them at once to submit themselves to God ; not to be willing merely to do it, but to do it. If they will do this, I know that God will accept them, and that the evidence that he has done so will soon be manifest. I also urge them, without de- lay, to begin at once to serve God, to do what they know will please him, to do good to others, to make sacrifices for Christ, to ask with Paul, 'Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?' and do it." Dr. Wayland finally, upon hearing a sermon from Luther Rice upon the text, " The glorious gospel of the blessed God," became convinced that " the sentiments of his heart were in harmony with the Gospel," and was thence- forward freed from the mental perplexities created by theology. How applicable here the remarks made by Mr. Campbell in the "Christian Baptist " (vol. iii., N0.7)! — " The numerous speculations on the different kinds of faith have pierced, with many sorrows, innumerable hearts. In all the varied exhibitions of Christianity much stress is laid on faith. And as soon as it is affirmed that he that believeth shall be saved, and that care should be taken that faith should be of the right kind, the attention of the thoughtful is turned from the truth to be believed to the nature of faith. The fears and agonies which are experienced are not unfrequently about believing right. The great concern is about true faith. This person is looking in himself for KENTUCKT BAPTISTS. 1 15 formation or counsel, Mr. Campbell spent, during more than two months, at least ^^z'^ hours per day in these arduous labors. He formed thus a very extensive ac- quaintance, both with the people and with the state of religion among them, which corroborated more and more his sense of the importance of a return to the sim- plicity of the primitive faith. Yet he found the Baptists of Kentucky a highly-intelligent people, deeply inter- ested in the subject of religion, and having amongst them many pious and devoted preachers, some of whom were eminently distinguished for their abilities. The pioneers of the Kentucky Baptists had come from the eastern part of Mr. Campbell's own State, Virginia ; from whence, indeed, the greater part of the early set- tlers in Kentucky had emigrated, carrying with them their princely hospitality, their indomitable energy and their love of civil and religious freedom. David Thomas, what he has been taught are the true signs of regeneration, or of the faith of regeneration. He is distressed to know whether his faith is the fruit of re- generation, or whether it is mere historic faith. Unable to find such evidences as he is in quest of, he is distracted, he despairs, he agonizes. He tells his case. He is comforted by being told that these are the pangs of the new birth. He draws some comfort from this consideration, which increases or decreases as these pangs are supposed to be genuine or the reverse. Thus he is tossed to and fro in awful uncertainties, which are more or less acute according to his moral sensibilities. By and by he hopes he is regenerate, and a calm ensues, and he is joyous because he fancies he has been regen- erated. Thus his comforts spring not from the Gospel, but from his own opinion of himself "Another, under the same system, receives no comfort, because he has not found the infallible signs in himself of being a true believer. He despairs — he is tormented. He concludes he is one of the reprobates. He is about to kill himself What about ? Not because there is no Saviour, no forgiveness, no mercy. Not because the Gospel is not true, but because it is true, and he cannot find in himself the true signs of genuine conversion. Thousands have been ruined, have been shipwrecked, here. This the Bible never taught This case never occurred under the apostles' teaching. It is the genuine ofi^pring of the theological schools. It is the experience of a bad education." 1 1 6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. who, about 1750, planted the first regular Baptist church in Virginia, had emigrated to Kentucky when he was nearly seventy years of age, and had become, in June, 1799, the second pastor of the church at Wash- ington, where, a quarter of a century later, Mr. Camp- bell had held his debate with Mr. McCalla. David Thomas was of Welsh parentage, but a native of Penn- sylvania, and had been highly educated, receiving the degree of A. M. from Rhode Island College, now Brown University. Abundant in his labors, amidst many per- secutions, he had established the Baptist cause along the shores of the Shenandoah and Rappahannock, from the Potomac to James' River, from the unsettled wilderness of the West to Richmond. Following some of his children to Kentucky, he found here his friend and former fellow-laborer, John Gano, and being sent as one of the first messengers from the newly-formed Braken Association to that of Elkhorn, he there found the eloquent David Barrow, known for his sufferings in Virginia — John Shackelford, also, who had been there imprisoned for his faith, together with the Craigs, and John Taylor and the influential Dudley. Most of these early laborers had long since gone to their reward — the mortal remains of David Thomas, who became blind during the later years of his ministry, and was known as the "Blind Preacher," reposed a few miles from Nicholasville — but their names were held in grateful remembrance, and the doctrines and usages they had advocated still retained their hold of the Baptist com- munity. Among the preachers from Virginia still living in Kentucky at the time of his visit, Mr. Campbell formed an agreeable acquaintance with Jacob Creath, Sr., who was born in Nova Scotia, Feb. 27, 1777, but emigrat- JACOB CREATH. 117 ing to North Carolina when ten years of age, united with the Baptists at twelve and commenced preaching at eighteen. He was ordained at Roundabout meet- ing-house, in Louisa county, Virginia, by John Poin- dexter and Wm. Basket, in 1798, and was a member of the Dover Association with Robert B. Semple and Andrew Broaddus, but emigrated to Fayette county, Kentucky, in 1803, succeeding John Gano as pastor of the Town Fork Church. He was a man of fine per- sonal appearance, regular features, an ample forehead and remarkably keen and penetrating dark eyes. He had a musical yet strong and commanding voice, and, though quite uneducated, possessed such command of language and such fertility of fancy and illustration that he had been pronounced by Henry Clay to be the finest natural orator he had ever heard.* Another * Elder Creath occupied quite a conspicuous and influential position, and had been a few years previously intimately connected with one of those un- happy schisms which have occasionally occurred among the Baptists when associations have transcended their proper limits and interfered with the dis- cipline of churches. "A difficulty having arisen in relation to a matter of business between Elder Creath and Jacob Lewis, a member of his congrega- tion, the friends of each party took sides, and the contention spread and created parties in the Association. At this crisis, Elijah Craig, preacher at East Hickman, was induced by some personal grudge to publish a pamphlet so severe and acrimonious against Creath that the latter convoked a counci- of eighteen churches, who met by their messengers at Town Fork meeting- house, July 28, 1807. This council, after hearing testimony, acquitted Creath of all the charges made against him. The Town Fork Church then preferred charges against Craig before the Hickman Church, which, after hearing the whole case, took part with Craig and justified his charges against Creath. As the contention was carried on in a bitter spirit, it spread from church to church, and when the Elkhorn Association met, as Town Fork and Hickman churches had refused to fellowship each other, and both were members of the Associa- tion, the case came up for decision. On this occasion Elder Creath delivered an address so powerful as to carry a majority of the Association with him, and the arguments of Ambrose Dudley, who replied to him, failed to prevent a de- cision in his favor. Upon this, church after church decided to leave the Asso- ciation, but as in most of these there were minorities who approved the decision ll8 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. preacher of considerable influence was his nephew, also from Virginia, Jacob Creath, Jr., a man of less mildness of disposition, but of earnest purpose and fearless in his advocacy of what he believed to be the truth. Mr. Campbell during this tour became acquainted also with Silas M. Noel, a Baptist Doctor of Divinity, who seemed at first to coincide with him in views, but soon after became a virulent opposer. The Warders, the Wallers, the Paynes and Thomas Bullock, long moderator of the Elkhorn Association, with many other influential Baptists, were introduced to him and heard him courteously. While at Georgetown he formed the acquaintance of Barton W. Stone, already noted as well for his eminent Christian virtues as for his efforts to effect in Kentucky a religious reformation almost identical in its leading principles and aims with that in which Mr. Campbell was himself engaged. The two laborers in the same great field formed at once a warm, personal attachment to each other, which continued through life, and tended greatly to promote a subse- quent union between the two yet distinct bands of reformers. One of the political papers, «* The Monitor," at Lex ington, where Mr. Campbell was to preach, had re- cently published the third Epistle of Peter, which had greatly exasperated the clergy, and they had endeavored to close the ears of the people against Mr. Campbell by publishing in return a portion of Mr. Greatrake's de- and determined to adhere to Elkhorn, divisions occurred in these churches, each party claiming to be the original church. Such parts of them as seceded from Elkhorn then formed the Licking Association, which, adopting stricter views and opposing missions, declined all fellowship with Elkhorn." At the time of Mr. Campbell's visit this division still existed, and Elder Creath remained still connected with the Elkhorn Association, in which he wielded a large influence. yAMES CH ALLEN. 119 famatory pamphlet. This, however, only excited the more the curiosity of the people to hear, and brought together an immense audience, comprising the best edu- cated and most intelligent persons in all that section. Among them was a young man, about the medium height, with dark hair and eyes and thoughtful aspect, who, on account of the crowd, stood up just before the pul- pit, looking up at the speaker and drinking in his words with such avidity that a discourse of two hours seemed to him to have lasted only a few minutes. This was a student of Transylvania University, who was a Baptist and preparing himself for the ministry. He had read several numbers of the "Christian Baptist," and was a good deal prejudiced against Mr. Campbell on ac- count of what he had said against the clergy and other matters ; but the discourse to which he then listened, which was in reference to Christ as the Rock (Matt, xvi.), so enlarged his vision with respect to Christianity that all his prejudices were swept away as by a torrent, and he became quite captivated with the principles of the Reformation. This youth was James Challen, who subsequently, by his faithful and valuable labors, ren- dered most efficient aid to the cause. Mr. Campbell having an appointment at Versailles and one also two miles in the country, Mr. Challen attended on the latter occasion. A pretty large audi- ence was present, and Jeremiah Vardeman was with Mr. Campbell in the pulpit. The text was, " Now the end of the commandment is charity," etc. i Tim. i. 5. Entering at once into the very of heart of his subject, as was his wont, Mr. Campbell presented such a mag- nificent view of the simplicity and glorious purposes of the Christian institution as perfectly entranced his auditors. At the close. Elder Vardeman dismissed the I20 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. people, remarking, "We have heard strange things to- da}'. My advice to you is. Search the Scriptures and see if these thinps be so." On the way to dine with a gentleman living in the vicinity, Mr. Challen was riding in company with El- ders Vardeman and Creath, conversing about the strange light that had risen among them, when Mr. Campbell, on a fleet horse, overtook and passed them. Elder Vardeman then remarked : " I once thought I could preach, but since 1 have heard this man I do not seem, in my own estimation, to be any larger than my little finger." As he said this he held up his hand, and the comparison drawn from the contrast between the enormous bulk of the gigantic elder and his little finger, was at the time and ever afterward, when referred to, a source of great amusement to his companions. Upon reaching Louisville in November, Mr. Camp- bell called at the residence of P. S. Fall, with whom he had had some correspondence, but no previous per- sonal acquaintance. "After a slight repast," says Mr. Fall, "he attended our regular Friday night meeting. The services were opened by me, by singing the hymn, ' The law by Moses came,' etc., and prayer. Brother Campbell, a total stranger, was then asked to address the audience. My school-room was well filled, and five Presbyterian ministers, Dr. Gideon Blackburn, his two sons and two sons-in-law, were present. Brother Campbell read a portion of the epistle to the Hebrews and spoke nearly two hours, every person present giving him the utmost attention. His method of reading the Scriptures, of investigating their truths and of exhibiting their statements, was so entirely new and so perfectly clear as to command the respect if not the approval of all that listened. Dr. Blackburn was asked to offer prayer at the close, which he did. On our return to the house, Brother Campbell remarked : PROPER USE OF SCRIPTURE. I2l 'Dr. Blackburn does not understand the Christian religion.' He was asked how he knew. ' Oh,' said he, ' his praying clearly declares that.* " On Lord's day morning he addressed a large congrega- tion in the old court-house, on the subject of spiritual gifts. This discourse was listened to with the same admiration as the other by all who had the power to discriminate between proving doctrines already assumed and sitting at the feet of our Lord and his ambassadoi's to hear their words. "At night, agreeably to the invitation of Dr. Blackburn, he addressed, in the Presbyterian church on Fourth street, a large and attentive audience upon the evidences of the Mes- siahship. He had contracted a bad cold and sore throat in his rambles about the city on Saturday, and spoke with much difficulty, but he enchained the attention of the audience by his masterly exhibition of the claims of our Lord to the homage of mankind. These discourses, all that were deliv- ered at that time, opened up to the thoughtful a new field of exploration, and developed a method of studying the Scrip- tures so thoroughly superior to the textuary system that it commended the truth to every man's conscience in the sight of God. It was seen at once that it was the duty of the speaker and the privilege of the hearer to ascertain simply what the divine Word says^ and why it is said. We had been accustomed to make the Scriptures a book of text-proofs of our doctrines. We now saw that we had everything to learn, but nothing to prove in using God's word. On the former plan we knew as much when we came to the Bible as when we left it. We might have been more fully con- firmed in what we had accepted as scientific religious truth, but this was all. For the connection in which every proof- text stood we had not much use, and thus a great portion of God's word was not only neutralized, but rendered absolutely worthless. Upon the new plan we had use for every word the Holy Spirit had spoken. We supposed ourselves to know nothing when we approached the sacred books, and were to be mere listeners and thereby learners. We had no 11 122 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. proof-texts before us, implying a preoccupied mind, but ac- cepted simply the statements of divine truth in the connection in which the Holy Spirit had placed the words and sentences he had uttered. We now became followers of our Lord and of his apostles, of the churches of God, and of those who through faith had inherited the promises, i Thess. i. 6 ; ii. 14; Heb. vi. 12." After this visit, Mr. Fall continued to advocate earn- estly the Reformation. Visiting soon after, by request, the Enon Baptist Church in Cincinnati, he there deliv- ered several discourses upon the themes then under dis- cussion, which excited great interest not only among the Baptists there, but with other parties, and led to various interesting private discussions with their minis- ters. During this visit, Mr. Fall was invited to dine with Jacob Burnet, Esq., the mayor of the city, and witnessed the baptism of his son David S. Burnet, who soon after, entering the ministry at the age of sixteen, became known as the "boy-preacher." He was quite low in stature, but erect in carriage. His head was large and finely formed ; his eyes prominent, full and sparkling, his features regular with a mouth somewhat large, but firmly set, while in his bearing he was re- markably self-possessed, dignified and courteous. Giv- ing himself wholly to the cause of the Reformation, after a few years he became one of its most distin- guished and successful advocates, delighting large audiences by his elegant and copious diction, and his able presentations of the principles of the gospel, which he widely disseminated, not only in Cincinnati, but through many of the States, from Maryland and Vir- ginia to Kansas. About three weeks after his return from his Kentucky tour, Mr. Campbell was presented (Dec. 16, 1824) with WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 123 another daughter, who was named Margaretta, being the eighth child in less than thirteen years. During the ensuing year (1825) he devoted himself with renewed earnestness to the " Christian Baptist," the circulation of which was rapidly extending. Among the promi- nent subjects then under discussion may be mentioned *' The work of the Holy Spirit in the salvation of men." This theme Mr. Campbell had already introduced during the preceding year, and continued now to treat in a manner altogether novel. Utterly disregarding all theo- logical theories and all speculations in reference to the work of the Holy Spirit, he confined his inquiries to the office which the Spirit of God occupies in the salvation revealed in the New Testament. Without calling in question directly any of the popular notions of the operations of the Spirit, he presented alone the simple teaching of the Scriptures, showing occasionally where these had been perverted and misapplied in order to sustain modern errors. Dealing alone with facts and express Scripture statements, he traced the work of the Spirit in -revealing all that was known of God, and in attesting and confirming, by prophecy, by miracle and by supernatural gifts, the mission of Christ and of the apostles, thus providing the infallible testimony by which alone faith can be produced. Stating that these mani- festations of Divine wisdom and power were confined to the apostolic age, and to a portion of the saints then living, he shows, further, that "the influences of the Spirit as the Spirit of all goodness were felt and realized by all the primitive saints, and are now felt by all true believers." He was ever cautious and reticent as to his views of the manner in which the Holy Spirit accomplished his work. He rejoiced in the promise that God would " give his Holy Spirit to them that ask 124 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. him ;" he believed in the reality of this gift as the true seal of the covenant and the source of the fruits that adorn the Christian life, but he forbore to offer any opinion or to propound any theory as to the manner in which the Hol}'^ Spirit exerted its power, except so far as this could be seen in the moral Jitness or adaptation of the truth itself revealed by the Spirit, when this was presented to men and sincerely believed. What special or added influences might be exerted he presumed not to say, though he clearly admitted the existence of such influences. " I am not to be understood," said he, speaking of con- verting influences (C. B. for April, 1825), " as asserting that there is no divine influence exercised over the minds and bodies of men. This would be to assert in contradiction to a thousand facts and declarations in the volume of revelation ; this would be to destroy the idea of any divine revelation ; this would be to destroy the idea of any divine government exercised over the human race ; this would be to make prayer a useless and irrational exercise ; this would be to deprive Christians of all the consolations derived from a sense of the superintending care, guidance and protection of the Most High. But to resolve everything into a ' divine influence * is the other extreme. This divests man of every attribute that renders him accountable to his Maker, and assimilates all his actions to the bending of the trees or the tumults of the ocean occasioned by the tempest. " There are many things which are evident, yet altogether inexplicable. . . . Until we know more of God than can be revealed or known in this mortal state, we must be content to say of a thousand things, a thousand times, we cannot under- stand hovj^ or why^ or -wherefore they are so. But he would be a foolish husbandman who, going forth with precious seed to cast upon his field, would cease to scatter it because a philosopher had asked him some questions about its germina- tion and the influences requisite to its vegetation which he ANCIENT ORDER OF THINGS. 125 could not explain. As foolish would a hungry man be who would refuse to eat bread because he could not explain the process of digestion, nor tell how it conduces to the preserva- tion of life. And just as foolish he who refuses to meditate upon the revelation of God, and to practice its injunctions, because there are some whys or wherefores for which he cannot give a reason." He thus sought to confine the attention to that which was immediately necessary to faith, and to avoid unprofit- able discussions respecting remote or accessory causes. During this year Mr. Campbell began to publish a series of articles entitled "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things," in which he urged, first, the abandon- ment of everything not in use among the early Chris- tians, as creeds and confessions, unscriptural words and phrases, theological theories, etc. ; and second, the adoption of everything sanctioned by primitive practice, as the weekly breaking of the loaf, the fellowship, the simple order of public worship and the independence of each church under the care of its bishops and deacons. This " ancient order " had, as yet, been intro- duced only into the churches at Brush Run, Wellsburg and Pittsburg, though the church at Louisville, over which Mr. Fall presided, was induced this year to re- place its covenant and confession of faith by the New Testament as the only and all-sufficient law of life, and to break the loaf and attend to the contribution for the poor at every Lord's day meeting. As most of the active members of the church at Pittsburg were from Scotland and Ireland, and sympathized largely with the views of church order adopted by some of the Haldaneans, the practice of mutual exhortation and teaching on the Lord's day was here fully carried out, with much the same effect as occurred in Scot- 11* ia6 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. land upon its first introduction by William Ballantine. Debates and dissensions arose frequently between members, while that watchful surveillance, amounting almost to inquisitorial scrutiny, which each thought it his duty to exercise over others occasioned numerous cases of discipline, by which the public religious meet- ings were disturbed and the cause discredited. These things were warmly disapproved by Mr. Campbell and Walter Scott, who, although they fully admitted the perfect equality of all members, and their liberty to speak in the church at proper times and under proper regulations, insisted that a proper direction should be given to the gifts of all, and that none should teach publicly except those capable of edifying the church. The new-born spirit of liberty, how-ever, was for a while not to be repressed ; the less competent proved often the most forward, and, converting a mere privilege into a duty, felt it incumbent on them to occupy much of the time allotted to the Lord's day meeting, to little profit. About this period Mr. Scott was one day ac- companying Mr. Campbell on his way from Pittsburg home, and they attended together the meeting of the church at the Cross Roads, in which the order of the Pittsburir Church had been to a considerable extent adopted. A number of the members having read vari- ous Scriptures and spoken at length, Mr. Scott was finally called on to say something. With this invitation he at once complied, by boldly taking the ground that it was unscriptural to have so many teachers, that the liberty conceded was carried to license, and that each member should be confined, according to the Scripture analogy of the human body, to the particular function for which he was best fitted. At the close of his re- marks he inquired with emphasis, in the broad Scotch SUPPORT OF ELDERS. 1 27 he sometimes used, " What, my brethren ! is the Church to be a' mouth?" "But," said James Foster to him after meeting, " what will you do with the apostle's de- claration to the Church, i Cor. xiv. 31 : ' Ye may all pro- phesy, one by one, that all may learn and all may be comforted ?' The answer given to this inquiry was not fully satisfactory to James Foster, who earnestly desired that everything should be conducted strictly according to Scripture precedent, and who leaned considerably to the views of the Scottish Independents. Mr. Campbell, however, fully concurred in the just- ness of Mr. Scott's admonitions on this occasion, being exceedingly desirous that everything should be con- ducted according to the ultimate or higher law given by the apostle: "Let all things be done to edification." He entirely approved of mutual exhortation and instruc- tion, but thought it best that a general permission to speak should be confined to private or social meetings of the church, and that at the Lord's day meetings, when the public were expected to attend, only those should be set forward who were best able, from their knowledge of the Bible and their natural gifts, to speak acceptably and profitably to the assembly. To dis- charge this duty properly required, he thought, careful previous study and preparation. In overthrowing cleri- cal power, he sought to check the tendency to an ex- treme in the direction of individual independency. He endeavored, therefore, to secure to the elders or bishops of the church not only their proper position and authority, but also the pecuniary support enjoined in Scripture. This, accordingly, he took care again to urge in his " Essays on the Ancient Order of Things." "The bishop of a Christian congregation," said he, "will find much to do that never enters into the mind of a modern 128 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. preacher or minister. The duties he is to discharge to Christ's flock in the capacity of teacher and president will engross much of his time and attention. Therefore, the idea of re- muneration for his services was attached to the office from the first institution. This is indisputably plain, not only from the positive commands delivered to the congregations, but from the hints uttered with reference to the office itself. Why should it be so much as hinted that the bishops were not to take the oversight of the flock ''J^or the sake of sordid gain^ if no emolument or remuneration was attached to the office.'' The abuses of the principle have led many to oppose even the principle itself." (" Christian Baptist," vol. iii.. No. 9, p. 360.) In the case of the church at Pittsburg, however, it was some time before this portion of the " ancient order of things" was practically recognized, and before the disorders incident to the transition state were fully cor- rected. During this year (1825) Sidney Rigdon re- turned to Ohio, and the church there continued under the care of Walter Scott, who was still engaged in school-teaching, and had some time before been united in marriage to a highly-esteemed member of the church, a Miss Whitsett, who had formerly been a Covenanter. In 1826, however, he removed to Steubenville, Ohio, where he opened a school and lectured to the small Baptist church there. After his departure from Pitts- burg, the contentions in the church increased, and un- ruly and vain talkers, as in the primitive ages, occa- sioned discord and strife. Repudiating the clergy and the pope, each member became not only his own pope, but disposed to assume this office in regard to others ; and it was not until after many dissensions, which greatly hindered the spread of the truth in this region, that Samuel Church, leaving the Independent congrega- tion under Mr. Tassey, united with the disciples at DISCUSSIONS OF PRIMITIVE ORDER. 129 Pittsburg, and succeeded finally in reducing them to order. Another custom, zealously adopted by the church in Pittsburg, which also extended to other churches, was the use of the " holy kiss" as the proper Christian saluta- tion. To this Mr. Campbell was opposed, alleging that the Scripture injunction, "Salute one another with a holy kiss," merely indicated the feelings and motives which were to govern the use of the mode of salutation then com- mon in the East, and which were equally applicable to whatever kind of salutation obtained in other countries, n which he thought Christianity designed to make no change. The practice, accordingly, was after some time abandoned. The washing of feet was also a cus- tom observed by the Pittsburg Church, not, however, as a church ordinance, but privately, as an act of brotherly aflfection, humility and hospitality. In this Mr. Camp- bell agreed, although he did not think that proper occa- sions for such a duty could often arise in Europe or America, as they did in regions where men wore sandals, and where washing of the feet was a common and daily observance. The introduction of the primitive order of Christian worship, and especially of the weekly observance of the Lord's Supper, engaged at this time much attention among those Baptist churches which had adopted the principles of the Reformation. Several of them in Ohio and the western part of Pennsylvania, rejecting the Philadelphia Confession, decided to take the Bible as the only standard of faith and practice. A meeting was held also at Warren, Ohio, at the close of May, composed of preachers and brethren from different parts of the country, in order to discuss the " ancient order of things." Mr. Campbell attended this meeting, and VOL. n. — I 130 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. was gratified to find that so much zeal, candor and harmony obtained throughout the investigation, and that most of those present were very desirous of seeing the primitive order fully restored. In his essays on this subject, Mr. Campbell had con- fined himself entirely to the interior affairs of the Church, and had not dwelt upon the instrumentalities to be em- ployed in sending the gospel abroad. He seemed, indeed, for a short time to have favored the views of those who thought the mere internal order of the Church itself sufficient for the conversion of the world, but he soon became sensible of the correctness of his former view, that the practice of committing this work to evan- gelists or s-pecial messengers of the Church was essential to success. When questioned, soon after, by one of his correspondents on this subject, he said : "'That the work of an evangelist or a preacher is re- quisite, not to the order of a Christian Church, but to the ■present state of the new dispensation,' is a position on which I will not contend with you. The Holy Spirit saith, ' Let him that heareth saj, Come,' and why should I say to him that heareth, ' Do not say, Come; hold your tongue.* No : forbid it, Heaven ! ' JLet him that heareth say. Come,' is a license which the Holy One gave when he was closing the canon, sealing up the law and the testimony. And, thanks be to his name, he left no tribunal on earth to contravene this decision. While then there are any who have not come to the fountain of life, and when any one who has heard and come and tasted and findeth such an opportunity to say, Come, let him say it in word and deed." C. B., vol. iv., p. 37. In the summer, he made a short visit to Eastern Vir- ginia, where he was kindly received, and where he formed an acquaintance with Robert B. Semple, Andrew Broaddus and other eminent Baptist ministers. The few SEVER TTT CENSURED. l^l discourses he delivered during his visit made quite a strong impression. The leaders of the Baptists in Eastern Virginia, however, though struck with Mr. Campbell's great abilities, were by no means prepared to receive his reformatory views. They earnestly de- sired, on the other hand, to win him over to their own sentiments and usages, in order that his influence might enure to the benefit of the Baptist cause. After his return home, he received a kind letter from Bishop Semple, objecting to the spirit in which the *♦ Christian Baptist" seemed to be conducted, and to some of the sentiments attributed to Mr. Campbell, intimat- ing that he seemed to be a Sandemanian or a Halda- nean both in his views and spirit. " Among the Haldaneans," said he " ( judging from writ- ings), a gentle spirit is rarely to be found. Harsh and bitter sarcasms are the weapons with which they fight their oppo- nents. This, too, I am the more disposed to think applies to them as a sect, because I have known some of their party, who have appeared in private conversation to be mild and gentle indeed and every way pleasant, but when brought out in writing or public speaking, seemed to have another kind of temper. If you will bear with me, it seems to me that this is the case with the editor of the ' Christian Baptist.* As a man, in private circles, mild, pleasant and affectionate — as a writer, rigid and satirical beyond all the bounds of Scripture allowance." Bishop Semple was a most estimable man, and stood deservedly high in influence and reputation. Being of a very mild and amiable temperament, Mr. Campbell's strictures seemed to him quite too severe. In reply, the latter reminded him that while the general spirit of the New Testament was mild, its denunciations of those who corrupted the gospel were severe, and that Christians l$2 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. were even enjoined in certain cases to rebuke with sharpness. He also remarked that the class of subjects discussed in the "Christian Baptist" necessarily gave a general character to the work, whose limited size prevented him from introducing, as fully as he desired, such other topics as might exhibit the Christian spirit to a better advantage. Utterly denying that he was a follower of Sandeman or any other human leader, and expressing the opinion that there "lived not upon the earth a more pious, godly, primitive Christian than James Haldane, of Edinburgh, and few, if any, more intelligent in the Christian Scriptures," he thus spoke of the charge of want of forbearance alleged by the Bishop against the Haldaneans : " You say, ' those people have many excellent things among them — things you would gladly see among us.' So say I. You think ' they are very defective in forbearance.' This may be still true, for anything I know ; but one thing I do know, that several congregations in this connection are far more ' forbearing' than the Baptists of Virginia ; for several of them receive unbaptized persons to the Lord's table on the ground of forbearance. The congregation in Edinburgh in connection with James Haldane, and that in Tubermore in connection with Alexander Carson, two of the most promi- nent congregations in the connection, do actually dispense with baptism on the ground of ''forbearance.^ I believe there are some others who carry ''forbearance' thus far These people have been much slandered at home and abroad by an interested priesthood, and I do know that many things reported of them are false. They say that when a Psedobap- tist gives evidence that he is a Christian, and cannot be con- vinced that infant baptism is a human tradition, he ought to be received into a Christian congregation as a brother, if he desires it, irrespective of this weakness. They were once more tenacious of their peculiar views than at present. FORBEARANCE. 133 " But on the subject of forbearance, I have to remark that there is not a greater misapplication of a word in our lan- guage than of this one. In strict propriety, it does not apply at all to the subject in relation to which it is commonly used. No man can be said to forbear with another except in such cases as he has done him an injury. Now when Christians difler in opinion on any subject, unless it can be made to ap- pear that the opinion of B is injurious to A, the latter can- not forbear with the former. There is no room or occasion for forbearance, for A is not injured by the opinion of B. To say that Christians must exercise forbearance with one another because of difference of opinion, is admitting that they have a right to consider themselves injured, or that one Christian has a right to consider himself injured because of another man's difference in opinion. It is precisely the same mistake which is committed by those who ask the civil au- thorities to tolerate all or any religious opinions. The mere asking for toleration recognizes a right which no civil au- thority possesses, and establishes a principle of calamitous consequences — viz., that opinions contrary to the majority or the national cieed are a public injury, which it is in the power of government to punish or tolerate according to their intelligence and forbearance. Civil rulers have no right to tolerate or punish men on account of their opinions in matters of religion. Neither have Christians a right to condemn their brethren for difference of opinion, nor even talk of forbearing with one another in matters of opinion. The Scriptures speak of the forbearance of God, and teach that Christians should forbear with one another in cases of injury sustained, but never, that I can see, on account of matters of opinion. A person might as well be said to forbear with his natural brother because he was only ten years old or five feet high or because he had gray eyes, as to forbear with a Christian brot.ier because he differed from him in some of his opinions. I know that we all use the term forbearance in a very un- warrantable sense, and that it is difficult to find a term ap- propriate to communicate correct ideas on this subject. To 12 134 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. bear with or allow a brother to exercise his own judgment is no doubt all that you can intend by the term, and this is cer- tainly inculcated in the apostolic writings. And I am willing to carry this principle to its greatest possible extent, though, as you say, ' there is and must be a stopping-place.' So long as any man, woman or child declares his confidence in Jesus of Nazareth as God's own Son, that he was delivered for our offences and raised again for our justification — or, in other words, that Jesus is the Messiah, the Saviour of men — and so long as he exliibits a willingness to obey him in all things so far as his knowledge extends, so long will I receive him as a Christian brother and treat him as such." The novel position which Mr. Campbell now occu- pied in relation to the religious community, and es- pecially to the Baptists, exposed him to criticisms and attacks from all quarters. Charges of Socinianism and heterodoxy were diligently circulated among the Bap- tist churches in different places, in order to deprive him of influence and create a feeling of hostility. These, when brought to his notice, Mr. Campbell promptly re- pelled, and candidly and manfully avowed his real sen- timents. In regard to the Baptists, indeed, he had always exercised the greatest frankness, concealing neither his views nor his purposes While he desired to lead them on to clearer views of the gospel, and was cheered by many tokens of success, he was yet well aware that his position among them was precarious, and that there remained yet much to do in order to overcome existing denominational prejudices. Of his wishes and designs in relation to the Baptists he thus openly speaks to a correspondent from Missouri : " I do intend to continue in connection with this people so long as they will permit me to say what I believe ; to teach what I am assured of, and to censure what is amiss in their views or pi'actices. I have no idea of adding to the catalogue REGARD FOR THE BAPTISTS. 135 of new sects. ... I labor to see sectarianism abolished and all Christians of every name united upon the one foundation upon which the apostolic Church was founded. To bring Baptists and Paedobaptists to this is my supreme end. But to connect myself with any people who would require me to sacrifice one item of revealed truth, to subscribe any creed of human device, or to restrain me from publishing my senti- ments as discretion and conscience direct, is now, and I hope ever will be, the farthest from my desires and the most in- compatible with my views. And I hope I will not be ac- cused of sectarian partiality when I avow my conviction that the Baptist society have as much liberality in their views, as much of the ancient simplicity of the Christian Church, as much of the spirit of Christianity about them, as are to be found among any other people. To say nothing of the things in which they excel, this may be said of them without preju- dice to any. And that they have always been as eminent friends of civil and religious liberty as any sect in Christen- dom will not, I presume, be denied by any. But that there are among them some mighty Regulars who are as intoler- ant as the great pontiff' of good order and regularity, no person will deny. But that there is in the views and prac- tices of this large and widely-extended community a great need of reformation and of a restoration of the ancient order oj" thi?igs^ few will contradict. In one thing they may appear, in time to come, proudly singular and pre-eminently distin- guished. Mark it well. Their historian, in the year 1900, may say, ' We are the only people who would tolerate, or who ever did tolerate, any person to continue as a reformer or restorer among us. While other sects excluded all who would have enlarged their views and exalted their virtues, while every Jerusalem in Christendom stoned its own pro- phets, and exiled its own best friends and compelled them to set up for themselves, we constitute the only exception of this kind in the annals of Christianity — nay, in the annals of the world.' I think it not a very precarious perhaps that this may yet be said of this ancient and singular people. But 136 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. should it come to pass that neither they nor any other people could say that of themselves, then, most assuredly, if ever there be a united and a happy state of the Church upon this earth — if ever there be a millennium — the Baptist society, as well as every other, will have to be immersed in that general catastrophe which awaits every sect which holds a principle incompatible with this millennial state of the Church." (C. B., vol. iii., p. 320.) While Mr. Campbell thus felt and expressed a special regard for that religious community which, in his judg- ment, approached most nearly to the apostolic standard, and desired to continue in communion with it, he constantly maintained his own independent position. When accused of inconsistency as a restorer of primi- tive Christianity in having communion with the Baptists, who had not adopted the ancient order of things, he thus plainly expressed his views of what is called " full communion :" "When I unite in prayer with a society of disciples, I have full communion with them in certain petitions, confessions and thanksgivings, but requests may be presented, confessions made and thanksgivings offered in which I have not full com- munion. The same may be said of any other social act of worship. All that I intend by the phrase is, that I will unite with any Baptist society in the United States in any act of social worship, such as prayer, praise or breaking bread in commemoration of the Lord's death, if they confess the one Lord, the one faith, the one hope and the one baptism ; pro- vided always that, as far as I can judge, they piously and morally conform to their profession. ... I consider every act as only expressing approbation of the thing represented, and of them in so far as they conform to it. Therefore, I frankly and boldly declare to them, as Paul did to the Corinth- ians, the things in which I praise them, and the things in which I praise them not. And I know of no way, of no course that any Christian can pursue consistently with the CHRISTIAN COMMUNION. 137 New Testament, consistently with his serving God and his own generation, but this one. Therefore, I advocate it and practice it." Referring to the more rigid views to which he was led in 181 1 on the subject of religious fellowship, he continues : " I have tried the pharisaic plan and the monastic. I was once so straight that, like the Indian's tree, ' I leaned a little the other way.' And however much I may be slandered now as seeking ' popularity* or a popular course, I have to rejoice that to my own satisfaction., as well as to others', I proved that truth and not popularity was my object ; for I was once so strict a separatist that I would neither pray nor sing praises with any one who was not as perfect as I supposed myself. In this most unpopular course I persisted until I dis- covered the mistake, and saw that on the principle embraced in my conduct there never could be a congregation or church upon the earth." (C. B., vol. iii., p. 373.) Mr. Campbell thus thought there was great incon- sistency among professors of religion in regard to the subject of communion. He did not think tWs con- fined to a participation in the Lord's Supper, but that there was also Christian communion in uniting in prayer or praise, or other acts of religious worship. " There is," said he, " a certain place, called TTie Family Altar. Baptists and Paedobaptists of different name often meet at this ' family altar,' and there unite all in one com- munion. In their monthly concerts for prayer, etc., there is another ' altar,' at which all sects sometimes meet, and all have full communion in prayer and praise. But if, on the next day, the Lord's table was furnished, they would rather be caught in company with publicans and sinners than sit at the side of those with whom they had full communion in prayer and praise a few hours before. Their consciences would shudder at the idea of breaking bread in full com- 138 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. munion with those with whom, yesterday or last night, they had full communion in adoring, venerating, invoking and praising the same God and Redeemer. ... It must be con- fessed, too, that the New Testament presents baptism as prior to social prayer and praise, as indispensably preceding these as the Lord's Supper." . . . These passages afford a clear insight into the state of Mr. Campbell's convictions at this time in regard to the vexed question of communion. Remembering the earnestness and faith in which the church at Brush Run sought to know and to do the will of God, while yet mistaken in regard to baptism, his feelings led him to wish to have communion with any similar churches, though they might be yet Pasdobaptist. Nevertheless, he remained fully satisfied that the New Testament pre- sented baptism as "indispensably preceding" social communion in religious acts. Thus he was placed in a strait between his conviction on the one hand that there were saints of God in all parties, and on the other that obedience to the ordinances of the Gospel was necessary to church membership. His feelings led him to recog- nize all as Christians who gave evidence of faith and piety, while his views of the Gospel restricted him to formal communion with those only who had publicly professed to put on Christ in baptism. In practice he was governed exclusively by his conscientious convic- tions, and was thus often obliged to do violence to his feelings ; nor was it until after some years that a some- what different view of the subject finally relieved him from the practical difficulties connected with this com- munion question. Mr. Campbell was, upon the whole, during this year (1825) greatly encouraged by the progress of the views he advocated. PROGRESS OF TRUTH. 139 " We are happy to find," said he, after his return from a tour (C. B., iii., 267), "that, in spite of the reigning doctors of tradition, the people are gradually awakening to a sense of their religious rights and privileges. We find a large majority of most religious communities are quite unsettled in their views of religious principles and practices. They have lost the greater part of that confidence which was the characteristic of every sect some quarter of a century ago. Many who thought their Church almost infallible readily admit that she not only may, but that she frequently does, err. And there is a spirit of inquiry marching forth, before which, most assuredly, the rotten systems of tradition and error must and will fall." These anticipations were strongly corroborated by passing events. John M. Duncan, pastor of the Pres- byterian church in Tammany street, Baltimore, about this time published a book " On the Rise, Use and Un- lawfulness of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Church of God." He boldly controverted the doctrine taught by Dr. Miller of Princeton a short time before, in a pamphlet advocating creeds, and declared his view to be that " God alone is lord of the conscience, and that his Bible is the only rule of faith and practice ; or, if the reader pleases, that church courts and human creeds are not entitled, in any shape or form, to control the human conscience." This able and conclusive work, of Mr. Duncan created considerable excitement, which was in no wise lessened when he and Charles McLean, pastor of the Presbyterian church in Gettysburg, both declined the jurisdiction of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, on the ground of their objections to creeds and confessions of faith. The Synod of Balti- more then declared their congregations ^^ vacant;" but these, with great unanimity, took part with their pastors, who continued to minister to them as usual. Not long 140 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. afterward, for similar reasons, the Presbyterian church on Thirteenth street, Philadelphia, renounced the authority of creeds and Presbyterian church courts, and with their pastor, Mr. Chambers, continued to meet as before, receiving numerous accessions. In several Baptist associations which Mr. Campbell visited during the fall he was also much pleased to observe the progress of liberal views and the good spirit which prevailed. On the Western Reserve, all things seemed to be moving on favorably, and in the Stillwater Association, which had been shortly before formed of churches in the counties of the same State contiguous to the Ohio river, he found most of the messengers disposed to adopt the reformatory views. The case was far dif- ferent in the Redstone Association, to which James Philips, a Welsh Baptist preacher, was sent as a mes- senger from Stillwater, and denied admission because of his open opposition to creeds. The Redstone Asso- ciation, indeed, under the leadership of Mr. Brownfield and others, refused at their meeting to receive the mes- sengers from any churches which did not in their letters expressly recognize the Philadelphia Confession of Faith. They undoubtedly had the constitution of the Association in their favor, for in this there was a clause requiring the churches to recognize the Philadelphia Confession. This, however, had not been adopted by the majority of the churches of the Association individ- ually, and had remained heretofore entirely inoperative. In Kentucky a spirit somewhat similar to this marked the course of the Long Run Association, meeting in Bullitt county. P. S. Fall, who, from ill health, had given up his charge in Louisville, and was now in Frankfort, had been clerk of this Association, to which the Louisville Church belonged in 1824, and had been SPIRIT OF IN^UIRT. 141 appointed to write the circular letter for 1825, and to de- liver the introductory address. This address, which was on the " Opening of the Reign of the Messiah," was so novel in its subject, and so different from the usual theological disquisitions in its style, that it excited much remark. The Circular Letter, however, which maintained that " the Scriptures of the New Testament were the only and all-sufficient rule of faith and man- ners," was regarded with still greater suspicion, and met with much hostilit}^ After having been violently as- sailed and placed in the hands of a committee for inves- tigation, by whom some slight verbal changes were made and an explanatory sentence added, it was again read and discussed in the Association, and finally rejected by the casting vote of the moderator, Elder George Waller. On his return to Frankfort, Mr. Fall read the letter to Dr. Noel and Jacob Creath, Sr., who both warmly approved it, the former remarking, " If I had been there, it should have passed." The opposition, however, of a few leaders among the Baptists, who feared innovation, and desired to maintain the usages of the party, had but little effect in arresting the progress of the reformatory principles among the churches. At the very meeting of the Long Run Asso- ciation which rejected the circular letter advocating the Bible as the only rule of faith and manners, the queries presented by some of the churches were quite signifi- cant of approaching change. Among those referred to the churches for investigation were the following : "I. Is there any authority in the New Testament for religious bodies to make htiman creeds and confessions of faith the constitutions or directories of such bodies in matters of faith or practice? "2. Is there any authority in the New Testament for 142 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. Associations? If so, what is it? If not, why are they held? ''3. Are our Associations, as annually attended, of general utility?^'' Such inquiries indicated that the New Testament was beginning to be recognized among the Kentucky churches also as the true religious standard, and that there was a waning faith in the existing order of things. Soon afterward, in the beginning of 1826, Mr. Fall removed to Nashville at the earnest invitation of the church in that city. Some of its members were already deeply interested in the proper method of studying the New Testament. Others had become alarmed at a rumor that Mr. Fall was abandoning the Baptist faith. Dr. John C. Ewing, however, the clerk of the church, wrote to him (Aug. 28, 1825): "You need have no apprehensions on this ground, and you will find enough here to support you who are tied to no doctrines but those that are indubitably scriptural." He accordingly removed to Nashville, and in addition to his labors in the church, which soon became entirely favorable to the reformatory principles, took charge of a female acad- emy — an occupation for which he was eminently fitted, and in which he became highly distinguished both here and at Frankfort, to which he returned after some years. CHAPTER V. The new version — Its reception — Andrew Broaddus — Spiritual influence — R, B. Semple — Disruption at Redstone — Brush Ran Church — Tour to Nashville — Stillwater Association — Mahoning Association — Death of Mrs. Campbell — Religious movements. A SECT is characterized by a marked stagnation of religious thought. The theological system of each party surrounds it with fixed boundaries which afford no outlet to free investigation. A special orthodoxy, like the hardened shell of a mollusk, prohibits any further growth or development, and the sect is walled in by an incrustation derived from itself, from which there is no escape except by casting off the entire covering. The feelings, views and aims of each party acquire a monot- onous uniformity within the narrow precincts to which its creed confines them. Even the word of God fails to impart a single free ray of knowledge through the opaque investiture which forbids its entrance, and which opposes itself equally to light from without and growth from within. Hence it is that advances toward higher and nobler views of religion are never made by the partisan or the bigot, but by men who have been eman- cipated from spiritual thraldom, and who are either disconnected from all sects or but loosely attached to any. Such men have appeared at various periods in the history of the Church, and it has been through their instrumentality that broader and better conceptions of divine truth have been presented — that there has been 143 144 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. from time to time an enforced readjustment of parties, and upon the whole a certain amount of progress toward simpler and truer views of the gospel. Such reformers, however, have been usually so far in advance of their times that they have been neither coun- tenanced nor comprehended by the people with whom they happened to be associated. But an instinctive and unerring sympathy has ever united such independ- ent thinkers with each other, and however separated they may have been by time and space or accidental differences, they have recognized each other as fellow- laborers in God's husbandry, and have admired and cherished the products of each other's toil. Thus Mr. Campbell loved the memory of the great and good, and availed himself of whatever influence and authority a calmer judgment or an advancing knowledge on the part of religious society had conceded to their works, to continue the structure they had partly reared and carry forward the common purpose of religious reformation. Hence it was that having for several years highly es- teemed the character of George Campbell, of Aberdeen, and his admirable critical dissertations upon the gospels, as well as his new version from the Greek text, and being greatly pleased with the free renderings and annotations of Macknight on the Epistles, and of Dod- dridge on the Acts of the Apostles and Revelations, he concluded to compile from these three sources a com- plete translation of the New Testament, with the addi- tion of such hints and aids as might be conducive to a true comprehension of the sacred writings. To this work he therefore devoted every spare mo- ment during the winter of 1826. Having collected all translations of any note, he carefully examined every word, comparing the various renderings, and adding NEW TRANSLATION. 145 such notes and observations as would serve to elucidate the text and assist the English reader. He had formed previously a very inadequate idea of the amount of labor thus involved, but from his great interest in the subject it became to him a labor of love, or, as he termed it, " a delightful and profitable employment," a " happy necessity" of reading, comparing and examining all the various translations for the purpose of understanding more fully the blessed volume. In accordance with his plan, he reserved to himself the right of placing in the text the rendering of one translator in preference to that of another if it seemed more clear and accurate, placing, however, the rejected version in the margin or appendix, so that the reader might have both before him. He also expressly announced in his prospectus that he would introduce " one improvement" in order to render the version complete. " Sundry terms," said he, "are not translated mib English, but adopted into those translations from long usage. These terms are occasionally translated into English by Campbell and Macknight, but not always. We shall uniformly give them the meaning which they have affixed to them wherever they occur, and thus make this a pure Eng- lish New Testament, not mingled with Greek words, either adopted or anglicized." This work appeared in the spring, in one volume octavo, of some five hundred and fifty pages, well printed on good paper and in large type, with general and special prefaces, hints to readers, and notes, consti- tuting the most important aid to the study of the New Testament ever published in so compact and cheap a form. Mr. Campbell well knew how much a new ver- sion would tend to promote the private reading and examination of the Scriptures, and to overcome that TOL. II. — K 13 146 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. slavish attachment to particular words and phrases which were supposed to favor party tenets. He earn- estly desired to bring individual minds into contact with the word of God, free from all sectarian bias and from the influence of the phraseology of favorite proof-texts, which seemed to carry conviction rather from their familiar sound, than from their actual meaning or their relevancy. In short, he wished to foster that spirit of inquiry which had been aroused, and to present to the people at large a version of the New Testament free from antiquated and transferred terms, and accurately expressed in modern English, in order that no veil might be interposed between men's understandings and the sacred teachings. He believed, furthermore, that as the translation was the work of Congregational and Presbyterian " divines," it would have thus a passport to public confidence which no Baptist version could possess. The " one improvement," however, which he made, as announced in his prospectus, was of such a nature as to make it difficult to decide whether most to admire in it his ingenuity, his frankness or his intrepidity. Each one of the translators had declared that the word rendered baptism meant immersion, yet in deference to usage they continued the anglicized Greek term. Tak- ing them at their word, Mr. Campbell simply gave the English meaning, which they had authorized, for this word and its cognates, so as to avoid ambiguity and make the work complete as a translation. He wished the version to express freely and fully the idea to be conveyed, just as it did to those to whom, in the original Greek, it was first addressed ; and he could not consent conscientiously to furnish for corruptions, against which he had so successfully battled, the covert of untranslated RECEPTION OF THE NEW VERSION. 147 words in which they had so long sought shelter. He therefore boldly and fearlessly placed in the text the English of the words in question, and evinced at once his supreme love of truth and his superior moral cour- age in being the very first to furnish to the English reader a version of the New Testament com-pletely rendered into his own vernacular. From the moment- ous issues involved in simply rendering these words into English, all others had shrunk in dismay, and though conscientiously compelled, as scholars, to admit their true signification, they dared not venture, by man- fully adopting it, to condemn unchristian practices at which they had themselves connived. There is, ac- cordingly, perhaps, no act of Mr. Campbell's life which exhibits in bolder relief the noble independence of his character than this " one improvement" which he made in thus completing the translation of the New Testa- ment as given by Doctors Campbell, Macknight and Doddridge. As was to be expected, the Paedobaptists were far from being pleased with a work which gave such a clinching to the arguments with which Mr. Campbell had already transfixed their favorite tenet ; for the sacred volume itself now spoke in plain English, and every subterfuge was swept away. As the translation was, however, substantially that of their own great men, they were unable to make any effective opposi- tion. On the other hand, the Baptists as a people were not much better satisfied with the " improvement" which Mr. Campbell had made, since, while it sanctioned their exclusive practice of immersion, it took away from them the cherished Scripture authority for their name as a denomination. In this version^ John was no longer '*the Baptist," but simply "the immerser," and tbey 148 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. felt reluctant to lose from their -party so famous a cha- racter and so honored a title. In some of their peri- odicals, therefore, those among them who were indis- posed to change, began to oppose the reformatory movement, and to create suspicion and hostility by misrepresentations of Mr. Campbell and appeals to denominational prejudices. Foremost among these were sundry correspondents of the " Baptist Recorder," edited at Louisville by Messrs. George Waller and Spencer Clack. Others, in the "Western Luminary," assailed the new version with great bitterness, endeav- oring to make the impression that Mr. Campbell had made many alterations in the text in order to favor his own views, etc. One writer asserted that he had made at least eighty variations from Dr. George Campbell's translation on the single subject of baptism, because he found that Mr. Campbell had, according to his pros- pectus, changed the word baptism and its cognates wherever they occurred into immersion and immerse, etc. Here it was simply the repeated change of a single word or the repetition of one change, but the desire was to make the impression that there were eighty distinct and different alterations. Mr. Campbell observed in reply that the writer " had told eighty lies in telling one truth, as if a man should say he had seen eighty pigeons when he had only seen one pigeon eighty times." Again, because he had in Acts xx. 28, adopted the reading of Griesbach — "Church of the Lord," instead of " Church of God," in harmony with his plan to place the most approved reading in the text, giving the others in the appendix, it was insinuated that he was an Arian, though the orthodoxy of Griesbach, the author of the change, was never called in question. Such was the general character of the pitiful and pigmy HINTS TO READERS. 149 efforts to discredit and oppose the reformatory princi- ples which were now making themselves very widely felt and were changing the sentiments and the practice of entire religious communities.* In hardly any case did the opposition assume a frank and manly character. On the contrary, it was almost invariably carried on by means of misrepresentation and calumny ; by anony- mous and irresponsible writers, and by editors who carefully excluded from their columns Mr. Campbell's exposures of the sophistries and perversions they had eagerly published against him. The cause, neverthe- less, advanced with rapid strides; the circulation of the " Christian Baptist" was month by month extending itself; new editions of the earlier volumes were de- manded, and before the end of October nearly the whole of the first edition of the New Testament was disposed of, a number of copies being taken both by Baptist and Pgedobaptist preachers of liberal views, and the work being highly praised by many persons of learning and critical discernment. The " prefaces" to the different parts of the work, and especially the " Hints to Readers," were much commended. These were, indeed, extremely valuable, as they gave a con- nected view of the design of each of the sacred books and of the circumstances under which these were written. * One of the singular facts connected with the opposition about this period, was the burning of the new version of the Testament by Elder Edmund Waller, a brother of one of the editors of the " Baptist Recorder." Having kept the book for some six months, he then prayed ten days to know whether he should burn it or not, and upon mature reflection came to the conclusion to do so ; so that having a good fire one day, and his family being out, he shook the leaves well and burned it to ashes with a clear conscience. Such an incident reveals more fully than any description could do, the state of mind engendered by religious bigotry, which, according to circumstances, can celebrate its auto-da-fS as well in burning the New Testament as in commit- ting a heretic to the flames. 13* 150 MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. It was quite a novel discovery to most readers to find that these writings had really each a special purpose — the Gospels, to show that Jesus was the Son of God ; the Acts, to relate the planting of the Christian Church ; and the Epistles, to develop the duties of the Christian life. They were surprised to see that in each there was a consecutive train of reasoning or array of facts, so greatly had men's minds been mystified and their un- derstandings confounded by the textuary system and the speculations of theology. People now felt that they could understand the divine revelations without the aid of priests, and became everywhere engaged in the diligent study of the word of God. Among those Baptist ministers who approved the new version, and who especially commended the " Hints to Readers," was Andrew Broaddus, one of the most talented and eloquent preachers of Eastern Virginia. He was a man of highly-cultivated intellect and of liberal spirit, though of a somewhat fastidious and timid temperament. Some months after the appearance of the letter from Bishop Semple, who, notwithstanding the courtesy of Mr. Campbell's reply, seemed disposed to decline further correspondence, Mr. Broaddus had sent a communication for the "Christian Baptist," in which he expressed his approval of Mr. Campbell's views of the Christian religion as a dispensation, and his general agreement with the sentiments in the "Sermon on the Law" as to the Mosaic institution. In regard to the " Christian Baptist," he said : ' I find in it much to approve something to doubts and something, too, from which I must dissent. Possibly, how- ever, my dissension may be owing (in part at least) to the want of a full and correct understanding of your sentiments. I said, much to approve; I might use a stronger term and say, much to admire.



        ...


        MEMOIRS

        Of

        ALEXANDER CAMPBELL

        =================

        "RESTORATION LEADER!"

        =================

        EMBRACING A VIEW OF THE ORIGIN,

        PROGRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF

        THE RELIGIOUS REFORMATION WHICH HE ADVOCATED

        ========================

        Originally By ROBERT RICHARDSON

        Annotated by NewtonStein

        VOLUME-I, 1,000 PAGES

        CINCINNATI - STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

        Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1897, by ROBERT RICHARDSON, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West Virginia.

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    (All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    THE MOST IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" - EVER!

      The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR."   1 Pet 5:8 SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10
        QUESTION: Do you Believe the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world TO CONDEMN the world, but that THE WORLD though Him might BE SAVED! John 3:16 John 3:17 SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be NOT ignorant of this ONE THING, ...The Lord is... NOT WILLING that ANYshould perish, but that ALL should come to REPENTANCE. 2 Pet 3:9
        QUESTION: Do you Believe Father God Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47 SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32
        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26 SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7 SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10
        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe,
          God the Father,
            God the Son, &
              God the Spirit
                Achieve Goals, NOT Satan;
                  Please "CLICK" below!
      "I Believe GOD ACHIEVES HIS GOALS for the World!"

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      CONSERVATIVE RANKING OF ALL 50 STATES

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      UNITING CONSERVATIVES into "ONE NATION UNDER GOD!"


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      No other spiritual exercise,
      pays greater spiritual dividends than MEMORIZING Scripture!
      (Dr. Charles "Chuck" Swindoll, Radio-TV-Preacher)
      "I am convinced,
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      The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares
      "These things have I WRITTEN unto you who BELIEVE,
      THAT YE MAY KNOW that ye have Eternal Life." 1 John 5:13
      So How Can We Know?
      Dearest Visitor!
      People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
      We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
      "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
      THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVE ETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13
      Let's Break it Down!
      "These things have I WRITTEN" (Absolute, Unchanging)
      Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
      THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
      That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
      Eternal Life!" (You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
      "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5
      YOU invite Christ in; HE GUARANTEES: "I WILL NEVER LEAVE'!" IT'S SETTLED!
      FACT!
      You know..."IF" you believe...that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
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      FACT!
      Do you BELIEVE, You have ETERNAL LIFE NOW, for SURE?
      PLEASE CLICK...IF YOU BELIEVE WE CAN "KNOW"
      I BELIEVE, ETERNAL LIFE CAN BE KNOWN FOR SURE, IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13
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      Isaiah 40:31

      Worth Studying For? Believing For? Eating For? Obeying For?

      rotating star "YES!"rotating star

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      What Happens?
      MEDIPEDIA™

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      [23] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Dietary-Secret-to-ANTI-AGING-HORMONE(Very Brief!)
      [24] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
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      [26] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE-HEALTH-SECRETS-HALLELUJAH-DIET Author Suffers Stroke, Age-67
      [27] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH SECRETS, HEALTH FOR LIFE, General Sprint Routine
      [28] “MEDIPEDIA™" - BIBLE HEALTH SECRETS, Do Homosexuals Die 30-Years Younger?
      [29] “MEDIPEDIA™" - Kidney Stones Calculi DISSOLVED by VITAMINS
      [30] “MEDIPEDIA ™" – LEG-CRAMPS, MAGIC-CURE? A BAR of SOAP?
      [31] “MEDIPEDIA™" – More Physical Causes of Low Male Sperm Count
      [32] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Possible Cancer Answers and Alternative Solutions
      [33] “MEDIPEDIA™" - PRO-BIOTICS: How Valuable Are They?
      [34] “MEDIPEDIA™" – REVIEW and CRITIQUE of High-Blood Pressure Research
      [35] “MEDIPEDIA™" – SKIN CANCER INFORMATION: Some Home Remedies
      [36] “MEDIPEDIA™" – TREMORS, PARKINSONS - Shakiness and Natural Solutions
      [37] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ANTI-AGING SECRETS, ARCHIVES: How Did STEVE REEVES TRAIN?
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      [39] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Amazing Benefits of DESSICATED LIVER SUPPLEMENTS
      [40] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING, Wrinkles: Causes and Cures
      [41] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Calorie Reduction
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      [43] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Amazing Benefits of Natural Skin Peels
      [44] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Bible Baldness
      45] “MEDIPEDIA™" - ASTHMA THERAPY: Natural and Complementary Methods
      [46] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Can You Really HEART ATTACK PROOF Yourself by Diet
      [47] “MEDIPEDIA™" – ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Dietary-Secret-to-ANTI-AGING-HORMONE(Very Brief!)
      [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
      [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
      [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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      *COPYRIGHT NOTICE*

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      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better know and serve you, our readers?

      At this time, I do NOT believe Jesus is the Saviour!
      I DO believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!
      I do NOT believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' - IF one has Eternal Life;
      In 'THREE MINUTES'...you can "Know for Certain!" if your NOW HAVE Eternal Life! (or not!) 1 John 5:13
      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:
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      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!" Eph 2:8-9, Tit 3:5


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      Ministers-Best-Friend.com is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers - and dedicated Christians who serve the LORD JESUS.

      As such, we provide web-space to a number of Ministries - notably "NewtonStein!" (a Creation-Based Science Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA, HISTIPEDIA, ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, POLITIPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, MEDIPEDIA, ETC.;

      All Absolute-Bible-Believing, and each has their specific calling and ministry to reach Muslims, Jews, Scientists, teach Biblical Medicine and Health, Godly Government, Church Leadership, sharing American Godly History, and the HAND OF GOD in World History over the Ages!

      Obviously, all branches of Christianity do not agree doctrinally - or politically - and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, event, leader, nation or situation: Thus there are well over 10,000 denominations in the world!

        (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST "GNAT STRAINING!" - and "CAMEL SWALLOWING!")

      We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. . . or anything!

      Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion NOT be made known for various reasons.

      These are offered to you as wise people of God - True Christian Patriots - WHATEVER YOUR NATION - to discern for your own judgement and edification unto Our LORD JESUS CHRIST.

      Finally, we trust, hope, and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "God's WILL ONLY, being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN!" (Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2). . . . . .(IS THIS YOUR PRAYER, DAILY GOAL FOR YOUR CHURCH, CITY, STATE, NATION, and THE WORLD???)

      In the NAME of Jesus Christ, Our Lord and Saviour, KING of all Kings, LORD of all Lords, REIGNING SUPREME, COMING AGAIN!

      Be Blessed!

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      [4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
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      [6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”
      [7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)
      [8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)
      [9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World”
      [10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?
      [11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?
      [12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)
      [13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)
      [14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”
      [15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers
      [16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?
      [17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?
      [18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!
      [19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!
      [20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!
      [21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!
      [22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts
      [23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?
      [24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?
      [25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page
      [26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!
      [27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page
      [28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry
      [29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!
      [30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?
      [31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero
      [32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?
      [33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?
      [34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?
      [35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians
      [36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!
      [37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."
      [38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;
      [44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"
      [45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!
      [46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?
      [47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights
      [48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!
      [49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"
      [50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

      ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

        *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

        . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

        Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

        Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

        Pray for us, please!

        MBF


      *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

        Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

        FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

          JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

          And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

        FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

        FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

        FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

          (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


        FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

        FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

        FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

        FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

        FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

        FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

      Go thou and teach likewise!


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