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The "Greatest English Dictionary" Ever!
By American Founding Father Noah Webster: 1828


The Greatest English Dictionary



These Men Founded Christian Universities!
B.Jones, Roberts, L.Roberson, Falwell, K.Hagin, J.Hyles, A.Horton, Robertson, P.Chappell, B.Gray;

B.J.U. O.R.U. Temple, Liberty, RHEMA, Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola, Regent, W.Coast B. Texas B.C.

WHEATON COLLEGE Rejected by IAIA Accreditation! WHY?

    What Is
    The WORD of GOD?
    Statement On Holy Scripture;

    The ‘Lens’ Through Which All Knowledge Is Understood;


      "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

      "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

        Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

        DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

          "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
      Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


        As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

      And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

        Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
      Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

      God's Eternal Guarantee!

      "Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
      But GOD'S WORDS Shall NOT Pass Away!"

      --Jesus the Messiah, AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)


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        Many sincere prayers are prayed, for you to avail this opportunity;

        This "Doctor of Divinity" is NOT available to non-Christians;
        This "Doctor of Divinity" is NOT awarded to Homosexuals;
        This "Doctor of Divinity" is NOT awarded to those rejecting Authority of God's Word
        This "Doctor of Divinity" is awarded in the tradition of Dr. Billy Graham, Dr. Jerry Falwell and Dr. D. James Kennedy, etc.
        (For list of 100 such well-known ministers, see)
        Well-Known Ministers using/used our "Doctor of Divinity" Degree-&-Title-Premise

[1] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!” Some Sobering Questions; (Very Brief!)

[2] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – "God’s Goals” v. “Satan’s Goals” – WHO WINS? (Very Brief!)

[3] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization DO THE MATH, Part-1 (Very Brief!)

[4] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
(But Did He Really Mean It?)

[5] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)

[6] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”

[7] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[8] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[9] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World” by NewtonStein

[10] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Conservative Politics?

[11] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?

[12] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Why Jesus did not come back in 2009! (Do you Know?)

[13] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)

[14] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”

[15] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers

[16] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?

[17] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?

[18] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!

b>[19] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!

[20] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!

[21] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!

[22] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts

[23] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?

[24] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?

[25] CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page

[26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!

[27] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page!"

[28] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry!

[29] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!

[30] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?

[31] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Every True Minister Is A Hero!

[32] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?

[33] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?

[34] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?

[35] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians;

[36] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

[37] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century"

[38] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!


[40] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Our GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in the Bible: Called “Civil” and “Human” Rights

[41] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[42] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[43] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;

[44] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

[45] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!


[47] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Our GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in the Bible: Called “Civil” and “Human” Rights

[48] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[49] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[50] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"


To See Webster's Bible Version, Correcting the KJV Bible, 6-PARTS:
Come Back Here;

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: Preface to His KJV REVISION, PART-1

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-2

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-3

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-4

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-5

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, SUMMARY




Cambridge Greatest English Dictionary™

Approx 3,000 Pages;
Approx 71,000 Entries;
Multitudes of Scriptural References;


Webster's English Dictionary: 1828

By Noah Webster: Greatest Linguist Who Ever Lived!

Noah Webster Mastered Twenty or more Different Languages:
Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:


To Check a Word in Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary,
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(Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary)


(See Cambridge-Cruden's Bible CONCORDANCE)


To Check a Word in Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary
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To Check a Word in Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia
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To See Webster's Bible Version, Correcting the KJV Bible, 6-PARTS:
Come Back Here;

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: Preface to His KJV REVISION, PART-1

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-2

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-3

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-4

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-5

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, SUMMARY


To Read About Noah Webster
Come Back Here;

Webster's Great Treatise on Origins of Language: Preface to Dictionary!

Noah Webster: The Father of American Scholarship!

Noah Webster: Brief Bio of a Founding Father!


Webster's 1828 Original Dictionary, BELOW;

With Annotations By NewtonStein;

Of Cambridge Theological Seminary™

Choose Letter Here;



Greatest English Dictionary

Noah Webster: The Greatest Linguist Ever!

A Master of Twenty or more Different Languages:

Noah Webster Believed the goal of government was to "CHRISTIANIZE AMERICA!"

Letter "C" Below


Young Noah Webster fought as a foot-soldier for General George Washington!

    Noah Webster - along with being an American Founding Father (just a little too young to be in on the "Declaration of Independence" and "U.S. Constitution", etc., but he fought as a young soldier with General George Washington, gladly risked his life for the new nation - and later served as a Judge under President Washington, and even later as a Legislator.

    Noah Webster earned a Doctorate in the process, and wrote his first booklet while still fighting the Revolutionary War!

    Not only was he a 'genius' of the first class, Noah Webster was also dedicated like few others. Encouraged by many of the most famous Founding Fathers - including General Washington - he began to Master Latin, Hebrew and Greek Languages as he prepared to to write the First American Dictionary.

    Along the way to this lofty goal, Noah Webster became aware that many root-word English etymologies pointed to Latin, . . . and that many Latin root-word-etymologies pointed to Greek, . . . and many Greek etymologies pointed to the Hebrew Language: the Language God taught or programmed Adam and Eve to speak.

    A quick study of the Hebrew Bible by Noah Webster showed Languages diverged at the Tower of Babel, and that those who separated there went east as well as north, south and west.

    Noah Webster became obsessed with languages, how they spread, evolved became diverse . . . yet maintained their Hebrew Roots . . . and similarities to the Hebrew Alphabet and language!

      >> "IF" the Hebrew Bible were literally true - and Webster had been taught that it was, having no reason to believe it wasn't! -

      >> But "IF" it were absolutely and literally true, "THEN" ALL languages of the world MUST be derivatives of the Hebrew Language God taught to Adam and Eve,

      >> Or at least derivatives of the derivatives!

      ** "IF" this could possibly be true . . . "THEN" there should be many clues: from verb tenses, to etymologies, to similarities on various kinds, to phonics, to alphabets, to alphabetical structures, to even the "order of the letters" of alphabets, etc.

    Noah Webster's heart pounded with energy and drive as undertook this grand and glorious quest! God had been so bold as to CHALLENGE His people to "PROVE ME NOW!" (Mal 3:10-16)

    Noah Webster was compelled to take up the Divine Challenge!

    Noah Webster then began to study ALL the great languages of the world and mastered over 20 of them! Noah Webster was a man of his word, a man of commitment and his goal was to search for clues - if they existed - to try to find even ONE CLUE if such a clue did exist.

    It could have been a 40-year quest that filled Noah Webster's head and his heart to PROVE or DISPROVE God's Word . . . but since Webster's premise was correct and God certainly stood by His challenge . . .

    . . . the evidence of ALL languages being derived from Hebrew so was IMMEDIATE and ABUNDANT that the "great challenge" rapidly became a simple "Research Project" as ALL evidence in ALL categories proved that indeed . . . the Tower of Babel event had occurred and all languages were born from Original Hebrew.

    That abundant evidence includes most of the major alphabets beginning with a letter "A" - NOT "Z", "X" or "Q" etc., then following the Hebraic sequence of letters (A)in order, (B)in number, (C)in structure, (D)in phonics, (E)in consonants, (F)in vowels, in (G)direction of writing, etc.

    Can you even imagine the odds of hundreds and hundreds of language and dialect alphabets of twenty-plus letters following the same pattern and sequential order?

      The odds are thousands of millions of billions of trillions - to the nth power - to "1" against it.

    However, the evidence is there, bigger than history, and it all begins with "A". Most of the major languages begin with "A" as well, just like the Hebrew parent language.

    There are thousands of pages of evidence . . . and the world has NO EXPLANATION for this great situation that history, archeology, languages and linguistics all support.


      Now - that being said - if you are a student in college or a scholar or researcher yourself . . . keep in mind that MODERN HEBREW is not the ORIGINAL HEBREW.

      The modern Hebrew spoken in Jerusalem in AD 2000 is NOT the Hebrew of Christ's day (just as the Greek spoken in Athens in AD 2000 is not the Greek of AD 33, which was called 'Koine' Greek).

      Furthermore, the Hebrew of AD 33 was not the Hebrew Language of King David's day, and that Hebrew Language was not the 'Pure-and-Perfect' Hebrew of Eden.

      Thus the true original language is LOST to humanity, and the modern, Classic and Ancient Hebrew languages we do have must be studied as derivatives . . . and the research to be looking for how ALL derivatives are related!

      This is not at all impossible, but definitely more difficult than if modern Hebrew were the dialect spoken in Eden.

      In fact, languages change so much, most readers would struggle reading a true King James 1611 version. In it, there is NO letter "J" . . . and all "J" words in it start with "I" . . . including Jesus ("Iesous") . . .

        [SIDE NOTE: Please don't reveal this information to the KJV ONLY people . . . as they have staked their whole salvation on using the 1611 King James Bible as the ONLY inspired and true one . . .

        . . . and they do not even know they have never seen one . . . or used one . . . the version most use is either 1769 or 1885.

        The original KJV had ALL of the books of the BIBLE JESUS and PAUL USED - the Septuagint - which has all the books of history that the Catholic and other Orthodox Bibles have.

        FACT! ALL KJV versions up to the 1715 version had all the notes of the Puritan's Geneva Bible, . . . and all the Books of the BIBLE JESUS USED - and that of the Catholic Bible - remained until 1885!

        That's over 274 years of all the BOOKS of the BIBLE JESUS USED!

        Thus in all probability - all the KJV only people you know - (and we have many in our family who love and adore King James INCLUDING THIS EDITOR), . . . so NOT know that KING JAMES was one of the first homosexual Kings and most rabid homosexuals and child molesters of all time, . . .

        . . . plus King James was a killer of Bible Puritans and burned of Baptist preachers at the stake!

        Websearch any of these items . . . the ignor-ant people who ignore truth remain ignor-ant!

        Thus most modern KJVer's are NOT using the 1611 but a very modern updated version!

        So much for what many Bible Preachers know!]



    With his life time commitment to this great quest, as a slightly younger American Founding Father of whom ALL of the most famous ones admired greatly, of greatest genius, his dictionary and studies in linguistics have NEVER come close to being equaled!

    Most new dictionaries today from Oxford and Cambridge are simply "computer hacks" cutting and pasting and ALL of them combined from the last 100 years couldn't begin to equal the understanding of Noah Webster . . . and his one LONG and DEDICATED LIFE!

    Noah's Websters 1828-1841 Dictionary remains the Premier Dictionary of the English Language.

      FACT: Since he lived and studied DURING the Era of the Declaration and US Constitution, and the 1769 to 1885 KJV Bibles, Webster's Original Dictionary is the ONLY Dictionary the properly interprets words for these Bibles and Founding father Documents!


    When the Founding Fathers wrote of a family - they meant a real man and a real woman (not transvestites, hermaphrodites, cross-dressers, gender-sex-changed persons, gender confused persons, bisexuals, gays of all kinds, child molesters/abusers or -animal molesters/abusers);

    A family in early USA was a real man who had always been a man - just one; married to a real woman who had always been a woman, just one; who had children together . . . whom they did not molest, and neither did they sexually abuse their animals and consider them part of the marriage or family as with kooks and quacks today

    The OPPOSITE of all of which is considered part of a "marriage" and "family" today!


    Amazingly, in Noah Webster's Original Dictionary, his introduction presenting just a smattering of all the linguistic evidence proving the Bible, Hebrew language, and the Tower of Babel was about 500 pages long!

    FACT! This was longer than any preceding dictionaries!

    If you do not have a Webster's Original Dictionary - YOU MUST GET ONE - SOON! Your children, grandchildren, Christian School or Church family may depend on it!

    Preach it to your people!

    Give them and your school students A GREAT TOOL TO PROVE THE WORD OF GOD TRUE to their atheist teachers and college professors!


To Read About Noah Webster
Come Back Here;

Webster's Great Treatise on Origins of Language: Preface to Dictionary

Noah Webster: The Father of American Scholarship!

Noah Webster: Brief Bio of a Founding Father!


Noah Webster on Letter "C"

"C" is the third letter in the English alphabet, and the second articulation or consonant, is a palatal, nearly corresponding in sound with the Greek x, 'kappa', and with the Hebrew 3, 'kaph'.

It bears a middle place in pronunciation, between the aspirate n, and the palatal J. It is a Roman character, borrowed from the Greek x, or from the oriental 3, which was used in languages written from right to left, and when inverted and the corners rounded, becomes C.

In the old Etruscan, it was written 3, with the corners rounded, but not inverted ; in Arcadian, C, as now written. That its sound in Latin was the same, or nearly the same, as that of kappa, may be known from the fact, that the Greeks, while the Latin was a living language, wrote kappa the Roman C. Perhaps the same character may be the basis of the Arabic

As an abbreviature, C stands for Caius, Carolus, Caesar, condemno, &c., and CC for consulibus.

As a numeral C stands for 100; CC for 200 ; &c.

In music, C after the cliff, is the mark of common time.

In English, C has two sounds, or rather represents two very different articulations of the organs ; one close, like K, which occurs before a, o and u ; the other, a sibilant, precisely like s, which occurs before e, t and y.

The former is distinguish ed in this vocabulary by G, which may be called ke. In Russ. C is precisely the English s, as it was in the old Greek alphabet.

CAB, n.

    [Heb. Ch. 3p kab.] An oriental dry measure, being the sixth part of a seah or satum, and the eighteenth of an ephah ; containing two pints and five sixths English and American corn measure.

CABAL', n.
    [Fr. cabale, a club, society or combination ; It. cabala, knowledge of secret things ; Sp. cabala, secret science ; cabal, perfect, just, exact; Heb. Sap to take, receive, accept ; Ch. to cry out, 'to bawl ;

    also to take or receive ; also to be dark, to obscure ; Syr. to accuse, oppose, or censure, to cavil ; Eth. to accept, to pour out ; Sam. to accept, and to darken ; Ar. to admit or accept, as agreeable ; to come ;

    to be surety ; to give bail. See Class BI. This word seems to include the significations of several biliteral roots. Qu. W. cafael, to get or obtain ; or gavaelu, to hold. The primary sense of the root seems to be to catch or seize by rushing on, or in general, to press, to drive ; hence the sense of collection, combination and accusation.]

    A number of persons united in some close design ; usually to promote their private views in church or state by intrigue. A junto. It is sometimes synonymous with faction, but a cabal usually consists of fewer men than a party, and the word gene- rally implies close "union and secret intrigues. This name was given to the ministry of -Charies II., Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale, the initials of whose names compose the word.

    2. Intrigue ; secret artifices of a few men united in a close design. Dryden.

    [See the preceding word.

    It is from the sense of reception.]

    Traditiou, or a mysterious kind of science among Jewish Rabbins, pretended to have been delivered to the ancient Jews by revelation, and transmitted by oral tradition serving for the interpretation of difficult passages of scripture.

    This science consists chiefly in understanding the combination of certain letters, words and numbers, which are alledged to be significant. Every letter, word, number and accent of the law is supposed to contain a mystery, and the calialists pretend even to foretell future events by the study of this science. Encyc. Buck.

CABAL', v.i.
    To unite in a single party to promote private views by intrigue ; to intrigue ; to unite in secret artifices to effect some design. Dnden.

    The secret science of the cabalists.

    A Jewish doctor who professes the study of the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions.

    2. In French commerce, a factor or agent. Encyc.

    Pertaining to the study of the cabal;

CABALIST'ICAL, Of the Jewish cabala, or mysterious science of Jewish traditions; containing an occult meaning.

CABALIST'ICALLY, cidv. In the manner of the cabalists. Herbert.

CAB'ALIZE, V. i. To use the maimer or language of the cabalists. [JVot much used.]

CABAL'LER, n. One who unites with oth- ers in close designs to effect an object by intrigue ; one who cabals.

CAB'ALLINE, a. [L. caballinus, from cabctltus, a horse ; Russ. kohila, kobiela, a mare ; Ir. capall ; Fr. cheval, a horse ; ca- vale, a mare ; It. cavallo ; Sp. cahaUo.']

Pertaining to a horse ; as caballine aloes, so called from its being given to horses as a purge. Encyc.

CABAL'LING; Uniting in a cabal; intriguing in a small part;

CAB'ARET, n. [Fr. allied probably to cabin.]

A tavern ; a house where liquors are retailed. Bramhall.

CAB'BAGE, n. [It. cappuccio ; Corn, kavatsh ; It. gabaisde, gabaiMe. This word is probably from tiie root of caput, a head ; It. capuccio, a head ; Sp. cabexa ; Fr. caboche, a head. Hence D. kabuis-kool, head-cole, or headed-cole. In Fr. choux-cabus, is cabbage-headed, or cabbage-head. See Cap, Core.]

A geiuis of plants, called in botany Brassica, of several species ; some of which are cul- tivated for food. The leaves are large and fleshy, the pods long and slender, and the seeds globular. The kinds most culti- vated are the common cabbage, called with us the drum-head, the Savoy, the broccoli, the cauliflower, tlie sugar-loaf, and the cole-wort.

Dog's cabbage, a name given to the Thelygo- num ct/nocrambe. Fatn. of Plants.

Sea-cabbage, n. The sea-beach kale, or sea- colewort, a genus of plants, called crambe. They are herbaceous esculents, with |)er- ennial roots, producing large leaves like those of cabbage, spreading on the ground, Encyc.

CAB'BA6E, 11. i. To form a head in gro"w- ing ; as, a plant cabbages. Johnson.


CAB'BAgE, d. t. [D. kabassen, to steal ; ka bos, a hand basket ; Old Fr. cabasser.]

To purloin or embezzle, as pieces of cloth after cutting out a garment. Arbuthnoi.

CAB'BAuE-NET, n. A small net to boil cabbage in. Shenstone.

CAB'BAGE-TREE, n. The cabbage-palm, a species of Areca, the oleracea, a native of warm climates. This tree grows with a straight stem to the highth of 170 or 200 feet. Its branches grow in a circular man- ner, and the lowermost ones spread hori- zontally with great regularity. The fibers of the leaves are used for making cordage and nets.

On the top grows a substance called cabbage, lying in thin, snow-white, brittle flakes, in taste resembling an almond, but sweeter. This is boiled and eaten with flesh, like other vegetables. When this is cut out, the tree is destroyed. Encyc.

CAB'BA0lE-WORM, n. An insect.


CABTAI, n. An animal of South America resembling a hog, living on the margins of lakes and rivers, and feeding on fish. It is a species of Cavy, called also thick- nosed tai)ir. Diet, of JS/'at. Hist. Encye.

CAB' IN, n. [Fr. cabane, a cabin, a cottage ; caban, a cloke ; It. capanna, a cottage ; Sp. and Port, cabana, a hut or cottage; Ir. cabnn ; W. caban, from cab, a hut, cot, or booth made in the form of a cone, with rods set in the ground, and tied at the lop ; Gr. xartavr,, from xanij, a stable or inclosed place.]

1. A small room ; an inclosed place. Spenser.

2. A cottage ; a hut, or small house. Swift.

3. A tent ; a shed ; any covered place for a temporary residence. _ Fairfax.

4. An apartment in a ship for officers and passengers. In large ships there are several cabins, the principal of which is occupied by the commander. In small vessels, there is one cabin in the stern for the acconmodation of the officers and passengers. The bed-places in ships are also called cabins. Encyc. Mar. Diet.

CAB IN, I', i. To live in a cabin ; to lodge.

Shak. CAB'IN, V. t. To confine in a cabin. Shak. CAB'IN-BOY, n. A boy whose duty is to

wait on the officers and passengers on board of a ship.

CAB'INED, pp. Inclosed ; covered. MUton.

CAB'INET, js. [Fr. cabinet; It. gabinetto ; Sp. gabinete. See Cabin.]

1. A closet ; a small room, or retired apart- ment. Bacon.

2. A private room, in %vliicli consultations are held. Drydt

3. The select or secret council of a |)rince or executive government ; so called from the apartment in which it was originallv held.


4. A piece of furniture, consisting of a chest or box, with drawers and doors. A pri- vate box. Swift.

5. Any close place where things of value are reposited for safe keeping. Taylor.

G. A hut ; a cottage ; a small house. Obs.


CAB'INET, V. t. To inclose. [Little tised Howcl.


CABINET-COUNCIL, n. A council held with [irivacy ; the confidential council of a prince or executive magistrate.


2. The members of a prii-y council ; a select number of confidential counselors. Gay.

CAB'INETED, pp. Incloscd in a private apartment, or in a cabinet.

CABINET-MAKER, n. A man whose ocupation is to make cabinets, tables, bureaus, bed-steads, and other similar furniture.

CABIN-MATE, n. One who occupies the same cabin with another. Beaum.

CABIRE'AN, n. [See the ivords below.] One of the Cabiri. Faber.

CABIR'IAN, i [Oriental "I3J to be strong

CABIR IC, > a. or powerful, to be great ;

CABIRIT'IC, ) whence it signifies man, a lord, and in some languages, a giant. It is common to all the Shemitic dialects. Perhaps L. vir, with a prefix.]

Pertaining to the Cabiri, certain deities greatly venerated by the ancient Pagans, in Greece and Phenicia. The accounts of these deities are confused and contra- dictory. Some authors limit their num- ber to four; some to three ; others to two ; while Sanchoniathon makes them to bi; eight. They were worshiped with jiarti- cular honors in the isle of Samothrace ; and their worship and mysteries are said to have been introduced into Greece by the Pelasgians. They were supposed to have a particular influence over the sea and maritime affairs.

In truth, the name which signifies frea/, or the mighty ones, seems to have been ap- plied to the supposed beings that presided over the more striking operations of na- ture. Herod, ii. 51. Pans. ix. 25.

Bryant. Faber. Asiat. Researches.

CABLE, n. cabl. [Sp. Fr. cable; D. Dan. G. kabel ; Arm. chabl ; Ir. rabla or gabla ; Russ. kabala, a bond ; Heb. Ch. Syr. Ar. ^33 a chain ; as a verb, to tie or bind ; or S3n to tie or make fiist, and a rope. If the first letter of the oriental word is a prefix, this coincides with bait, a package, that is, a tie.]

A large strong rope or chain, used to retain a vessel at anchor. It is made usually of hemp or iron, but may be made of other materials. Cables are of different sizes, ac- cording to the bulk of the vessel for which they are intended, from three to twenty inches in circumference. A cable is com- posed of three strands : each strand of three ropes ; and each rope of three twists. A ship's cable is usually 120 fathom, or 720 feet, in length. Hence the expres- sion, a cablets length.

Stream cable is a hawser or rope, smaller than the bower cables, to moor a ship in a place sheltered from wind and heay seas.

To pay out, or to veer out the cable, is to slack- en it that it may rini out of the ship.

TTj serve the cable, is to bind it round with ropes, canvas, &c., to jirevent its being worn or galled in the hawse.

To slip the cable, is to let it run out end for end. Mar. Diet.

CA'BLED, a. Fastened with a cable.



OAB'LKT, n. A little cable. Mar. Did.

€A'BLE-TIER, n. The place where the ca- bles are coiled away. Mar. Did.

CABO'CHED, ? „ In heraldiy, having the

CABO'SHED, \\\\ "■ head cut close, so as to have no neck left. Did.

CABOOSE', n. [G. kahv.se, a little room oi hut ; Dan. kahjse, a cook's room in a ship Qu. Ch. 033 to hide or cover, or Heb. Ch. W22 a kiln or furnace. In Dutch, kombuis is an oven, furnace or cook's room.] |

1. The cook-room or kitchen of a ship. In] smaller vessels, it is an inclosed fire-place, hearth or stove for cooking, on the main deck. In a ship of war, the cook room is caUed a galley. Mar. Did.

•2. A box that covers the chimney m


A fish which is said to void excrements when pursued. Others say, a fish which eaten produces lax bowels.

Skinner. Johnso CACK'LE, V. i. [D. kaakekn, to chatter ; Ger. gackern, to cackle, to gaggle ; D. g-o^-

felen, to chatter ; Eng. gaggle and giggle , >an. kagler, to cluck, as a hen ; Sp. cacar- ear, to cackle or crow.] 1. To make a particular noise, as a goose oi a hen. Dryden. Shak.

2 To laugh with a broken noise, like the cackling of a goose; to giggle, which is a "■•ord from the same root. Arbutknot.

talk in

3. To prate ; to prattle ; to tattle ; '. inci.\\\\ a silly manner. Johnson.

a ship. CACK'LE, n. The broken noise of a go. Encyc\\\\ or hen.

.LI. A.„., .„- €ACK'LING, ppr. Making the no.se of

Dryden Johnson

CAB'RIOLE, } „ [Fr. cabriolet, from ca- €AB'R10LET, ^ hnole, a goat-leap; L..


Johnson noise of a ved by the

goose or lien. €ACK'LING, n. The broke goose or hen. Rome was cackling of a goose. €A€0€HYM'I€, ?„ [See Cacoehymy.] €A€0€HYM'I€AL, ^ "' Having the fluids of the body vitiated, especially the blood. Encyc. of xaxos,

, xoxoj;v/iii<

A "fg ; a one horse chair, a light carriage €AB'URE, n. A Brazilian bird of the owl

kind, of the size of a thrush, of a beautitu

umber color, spotted with white.

DictofJVat. Hist.

€AB'URNS, n. Small Unes made of spun |^^^,ocHYMY, n. [G yarn, to bind cables, seize tackles, and he €At ^^^ ^^^^^^ ,^,^^l like. „, , -^"vy<^- U vicious state of the vital humors, espe

€Ae>AO or €0'€OA, «. The chocolate- pj^,,^ ^fj^g blood, arising from a disorder tree, a species of the Iheobroma, a native ^ secretions or excretions, or from

of the West Indies. This tree grows about .,„;„„ Encyc.

twenty feet high, bearing pods which are Uv^qj5j.,j^iON n. [Gr. xaxoj, evil, and oval and pointed. The nuts o^^seeds are p^^^ ^_^ ^ ^^^^^^;^^ ^L^ ^^i, ^^■^■^_ ghak €A€OE'THES, n. [Gr. xaxo^flna ; xaxo,,


€ADE, n. [L. cadus ; Gr. xoSoj, a cask; xaiim, a purse or Uttle cask ; allied per haps to W. cadw, to hold, to keep.] jA baiTcl or cask. A cade of herrings is the quantity of five hundred ; of sprats, a thousand. Encyc.

ICA'DE-OIL,n. In the materia medico, an oil used m Germany and France, made of the friut of the oxycedrus, called in those countries, cada. Encyc.

€ADE-WORM, n. The same as caddis. €A'I)ENCE, ? [Fr. cadence; Sp. Port. eA'DENCY, ii cadencia ; L. cadens, from cado, to fall ; W. cwyzaw ; Corn, kodha ; Arm. kuedha, or kueza ; Ir. cadam, cudaim : It. cadere ; Sp. caer ; Port, cahir ; Fr. cheoir.] 1. A fall : a decline ; a state of sinking.

Milton. 3. A fall of the voice in reading or speaking, as at the end of a sentence ; also, the fall- ing of the voice in the general modulation of tones in reciting. In reading or speak- ing, a certain tone is taken, which is called the key, or key-note, on which most of the words are pronounced, and the fall of the voice below this tone is called cadence.

Encyc. The ordinary cadence is a fall of the last syllable of a sentence only.

3. The general tone of reading verse. The cadence of one line must be a rule to that of the next ; as the sound of the former must slide sently into that which follows.


4. Tone ; sound : as, hoarse cadence. Milton

numerous, and lodged in a white pithy substance. hncyc.

€A€COONS', n. A plant called in botany Flevillea. ^ .^"'^f ■

CACH'ALOT, n. A cetaceous hsli, the physeter or spermaceti whale. The prin- cipal species are, the black headed with a dorsal fin, and the round-headed, with- out a fin on the back, and with a fistula in the snout. From this whale is obtained the spermaceti. Encyc.

CA€HE€'Tle, I „ [See Cachcry.] Hav CACHEC'TIeAL, <, ' ing an ill habit of body ; of a deranged or vitiated state of the body without fever. Core.

€\\\\€HEX'Y, n. [Gr. xaxiba, from xaxoi, ill.

and f|i5, habit, from f jru, to have. A vicious state of the powers of the hotly ; a deranged state of the consthution, without fever or nervous disease. Encyc. Coxe. €A€HINNA'TION, n. [L. cachimiatto.

Loud laughter. [Uttle used.] CACH'OLONG, n. [said to be from Cach, the name of a river in Bucharia, and cho- lon, a Calmuc word for stone.] A variety of chalcedony, which is a subspe cies of quartz, usually milk %vhite, some times grayish or yellowish white; opak. or slightly translucent at the edges. Its fracture is even, or conchoidal with large cavities, sometimes dull, sometimes pearly or glossy. It often envelops common chal- cedony ; the two minerals being united by insensible shades. It also associates with flint and semi-opal. Cleavelanxl.

€ACK, V. i. [L. caco.] To ease the body by stool. ^ PV''^

GACK'EREL, n. [said to be from L. cnco.J

icious, and >;9o5, manners.]

1. A bad custom or habit ; a bad disposition,

2. In medicine, an incurable ulcer. Co.re. CAeOPH'ONY, 71. [Gr. xaxof, ill, and $wr^,

voice.] L In rhetoric, an uncouth or disagreeable sound of words, proceeding from the meet- ing of harsh letters or syllables. Encyc. 2. In medicine, a depraved voice ; an altered state of the voice. Coxe. Encyc.

13. In music, a combination of discordant

sounds. €AD'AVER, n. [L.] A corpse. CADAVEROUS, a. [L. cadaver, a dead

carcase.] 1 Having the appearance or color of a dead human body ; pale ; wan ; ghastly ; as a cadaverous look. 2. Having the qualities of a dead body.


€AD'DIS, n.

of tape or ribin. 2. A kind of worm

of straw. €AD'DOW, ji. A cliougl

Qu. L. cadus, a cask.] A kind ,;„. Shak

grub found in a case Johnson. a jack daw.

Jlay. CAD'DY, n. A small box for keeping tea. €ADE. a. [Qu. W. cadw, to keep or guard

or Ar. ili" to lead or govern, to h

led, to be submissive.] Tame ; bred by hand ; domesticated ; as

cade lamb. €ADE, 11. t. To bring up or nourish by hand,

or with tenderness ; to tame.

[5. In music, repose ; the termination of , harmonical phrase on a repose o"" on perfect chord. Encyi -

Also, the manner of closing a song ; ein bellishment at the close. Bushj.

G. In horsemanship, an equal measure or ])ro portion observed by a horse in all his mo- lions. ^^ Encyc.

j7. In heraldry, the distinction of families.

€A'DENCE, V. t. To regulate by musics: measure. SmiH.

CA'DENCED, pp. or a. Having a partici, lar cadence ; as well cadenced music.


CADE'NE, n. A species of inferior car|irt imported from the Levant. Encyr.

CA'DENT, a. [L. cadens.] FaUing down ; sinkin" Johnson.

CADEN-ZA, n. [It. See Cadence.] The fall or modulation of the voice in singing.

CADET', n. [Fr. cadd ; It. cadetto ; Sp. cadde. In French properlv the second son. Gebelin. But in general, the younger or brother, or the youngest.]

1. The younger or youngest son. Brown.

2. A gentleman who carries arms in a regi ment, as a private man, with a view to ac- quire military skill, and obtain a commis- sion. His service is voluntary, but he re- ceives pay, and thus is distinguished from a volunteer. Encyr.

,3. A young man, in a miUtary school. CADEW, n. A straw worm. [See Cutl-

CADgE, v. I. To carry a burden. [JVW in

CADG'ER, n. One who brings butter, eggs


and poultry to tlie market, from the coun- try; a huckster. Johnso7i [I believe not it^ed in the U. States.]

€A'DI, n. [Ar. JvjLi' a governor, from

2,\\\\.3 to lead, rule or govern ; Eiig. guide.

Hence Mcaide.]

In the Turkish dominions, a judge in civil affairs ; usually the judge of a town or village, for the judge of a city or province is called Mould. Encyc.

€AUlL'LAe, n. A sort of pear. Johnson.

€ADME'AN, f Relating to Cadmus, a re-

CAD'MIAN, J puted prince of Thebes, who introduced into Greece, the sixteen simple letters of the alphabet — a, «, y, *, i, I, X, %, fi, V, 0, rt, p, 0, r, V. These are called Cadmean letters. Bn/ant.

This personage may be a fabulous be ing, or if such a person ever existed, he may have been named from his knowledge of letters, for in the ancient Persian, ka deem signified language ; Ir. cuadham, tc tell or relate ; ceadach, talkative ; ceadal, i story. Or he may have been named from his eminence or antiquity, Dip kadam, to precede ; Arabic, to excel ; vvlicnce the sense of priority and antiquity ; or his name may denote a man iioni tlie East.

•CAD'MIA, n. An oxyd of zink which col- le< ts on the sides of furnaces where zink is sublimed, as in brass founderies. Tliis substance is readily volatilized on char- coal, by the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe, and it burns with the usual beautiful combus- tion of zink. Pulverized, mixed with char- coal powder, wTapped in sheet copper, and heated with the compound blowpipe, it readily forms brass. Sitliman.

eAD'MiUM, n. A metal discovered by M. Stromeyer, in 1817, in carbonate of zink, at Hanover. Its color is a fine white, with a shade of bluish gray, resembling that of tin. Its texture is conqiact, its fracture hackly, and it is susceptible of polish. It is ductile and malleable, and when fused, crystalizes in octahedrons. It melts be- low a red heat, and suffers no change in air. Ure. Clcnveland.

€ADU'CEUS, n. [L.] In antiquilij, Mercu- ry's rod ; a wand entwisted by two ser- pents, borue by Mercury as an ensign of quality and office. On medals, the Cadu- ceus is a symbol of good conduct, peace and prosperity. The rod represents pow- er ; the seri)ents, wisdom ; and the two wings, diligence and activity. Encyc.

CADU'CITY, n. [L. caducus, from cado, to fall.] Tendency to fall. [LHUe used.]


€ADU'€OUS, a. [L. supra.] In botany,^' falling early ; as caducous leaves, which fall before the end of sinnmer, A caducous calyx falls before the corol is well unfold- ed. Martyn.i

CiE'CIAS, n. [L.] A wind from the north-j east, [and in Latin, according to Ains-l worth, from the north-west.] Jifilton.'

CvESARIAN. [vSce Cesarian.]

C.ESURA. [See Cesura.]

CAF FEIN, !i. A substance obtained from an infusion of unroasted coffee, by treating it with the muriate of tin. Urc.

Vol. I.


CAF'TAN, n. [Persic] A Persian or Turk ish vest or garment. Johnson

CAG, n. [Fr. caque ; Dan. kag ; alUed probably to cage, that which holds.]

A small cask, or barrel, differing from the barrel only in size, and containing a few gallon.s, but not of any definite capacity It is generally written Keg.

eA(ilE, n. [Fr. cag-e; D. kouio and kooi See Cag.]

1. A box or inclosure, made of boards, or with lattice work of wood, wicker or wire, for confining birds or beasts. For the confinement of the more strong and fero cious beasts, a cage is sometimes made of iron. Encyi

2. An inclosure made with pallisades for confining wild beasts. Johnson

.3. A prison for petty criminals. Johnson

4. In carpentry, an outer woi-k of timber, in closing another within it ; as the cage of a wind mill or of a stair case. Encyc.

€AgE, v. t. To confine in a cage ; to shui up, or confine. Donne.

eA'GIT, n. A beautiful green parrot of the Phili))pine isles. Diet. o/JVat. Hist.

€AG'UI, n. A monkey of Urazil, of two

species, one of them called the pongi, the

otiier not more than six inches long.

They are called also jacclius and oedipus.

Encyc. Did. ofJVaf. Hist.

CMC or CAIQUE, n. [Fr.] A skiff belong- ing to a galley.

CAIMAN. [See Cayman.]

CAIRN, n. [Welsh, earn.] A heap of stones.

CA'ISSON, or CAISSOON', n. [Fr. from caisse, a chest. See Case.]

1. A wooden chest into which several bombs are put, and sometimes gunpowder, to be laid in the way of an enemy, or under some work of which the enemy intend to possess themselves, and to be fired when they get possession. Encyc.

2. A wooden frame or chest used in laying the foimdation of tlie pier of a bridge.


.3. An atnmunition chest, or waggon.

CA'ITIFF, 71. [It. caHJDO, a captive, a slave, a rascal ; caitivare, to master, to enslave. This word is from the L. captimis, a cap- tive, from capio or capio, to take. The sense of knavery is from the natural con nection between tlie degradation of a slave and vice.]

A mean villain ; a despicable knave : it im-

pUes a mixture of wickedness and misery


CAJ'EPUT, n. An oil from the East Indies, resembling that of cardamoms, obtained from the Melaleuca leucodendron. Enci/c.

CA.IO'LE, V. t. [Fr. cajoler, enjoler; Arm. cangeoli. See Gull.]

To flatter ; to soothe ; to coax ; to deceive or delude by flattery. Hudibras.

CAJO LER, n. A flatterer ; a whecdler.

CAJO LERY, n. Flattery ; a wheedling to delude. Burke.

CAJO'LING, ppr. Flattering ; wheedling ; deceiving.

CAJO'TA^". A Mexican animal resembling a wolf and a dog. Clavigero.

CAKE, 71. [D. kock ; G. kuchen ; Dan. kage :

Sw. kaka: Ch. ■]y3: Pers. ^\\\\^;Svr.



(.a OS- The sense seems to be, a mass or lump.]

A small mass of dough baked ; or a com- position of flour, butter, sugar, or other in- gredients, baked in a small mass. The name is apjilied to various compositions, baked or cooked in different shapes. 12. Something in the form of a cake, rather flat than high, but roundish ; as a cake on a tree. Bacon.

3. A mass of matter concreted ; as a cake of ice. Dryden.

In jVeu) England, a piece of floating ice in a river or lake.

4. A hard swelling on the flesh ; or rather a concretion without such swelling.

CAKE, V. t. To form into a cake or mass. CAKE, V. i. To concrete, or form into a

hard mass, as dougli in an oven, or as

flesh or any other substance. Addison. CAKE, V. i. "To cackle. [Xot used.] Ray. CAL'ABASH, n. [Sp. cn/aia:a, a pumpkin,

a gourd, a calabash ; Port, calahaca. Qu.

Gr. xa.-f.7tri, a water-pot or pitcher.]

1. A vessel made of a dried gourd-shell or of the shell of a calabash tree, used for con- taining hquors, or goods, as pitch, rosin and ihe like. Encyc.

2. A popular name of the gourd-plant, or Cucuibita. Fam. ojf Plants.

CALABASH-TREE, n. A tree of two spe- cies, known in botany by the generic name Crescenlia. The cujete has narrow leaves, but a large round or oval fruit. The lati- folia has broad leaves. The shell of the fruit is used for cups, bowls, dishes and other utensils. Encyc.

CALA'DE, Ji. The slope or declivity of a rising manege-ground. Encyc.

CALA'lTE, n. A name given to the tur- quois ; which see.

CALAMANCO, n. [Fr. eallimanque, cal- mande ; D. kalmink ; G. kalmank ; Sp. cal- amaco. Qu. Sp. »naca, a spot.]

A woolen stuff', of a fine gloss, and checker- ed in the warp. Encyc.

CAL'AMAR, n. [Sp. id.; It. calamaia, an ink-horn, and this animal.]

An animal, having an oblong body and ten legs. On the belly are two bladders con- taining a black fluid, which the animal emits when pursued. It is called also sea-sleeve and cuttle-fish.

Sp. Diet. Diet. ofXat. Hist.

CAL'AMBAC, n. [Sp. calambuco.] Aloes- wood, xyloe-aloes, a drug, which is the product of a tree growing in China and some of the Indian isles. It is of a light spungy texture, very jwrous, and the pores so filted with a soft fragrant resin, that it may be indented by the fingers and chew- ed like mastich. It is also called tambac. The two coarser kinds are called lignum aloes, and calambour. Encyc.

CAL'AMBOUR, »i. A species of the aloes- wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac. This wood is used by cabinet-makers and inlayers. Encyc.

CALAMIF'EROUS, a. [calamus and fero.] Producing plants having a long, hollow, knotted stem. Chambers.

CAL' AMINE, or CAL'AMIN, n. Lapis cal- aniinaris, or cadmia fossiUs; an ore of zink, much used in the composition of




Ijrass. This term is applied botli to tliej siliceous oxytl and the native carbonate of ziiik. They can scarcely be distinguished by their external characters. They are generally compact, often stalactilic, and sometimes crystalized. Most of the ca- lamines of England and Scotland are said to be carbonates. Encyc. Ckaveland.

CAL'AMINT, ji. [L. calaviintha ; Gr. xa- jMftivdtj; fiwSa, mentha, nienta, mint]

A plant, a species of Melissa, or bauni, an aromatic plant, and a weak corroborant. Encyc.

Waler-calamint is a species of Mentha, or mint.

CAL'AMISTRATE, v. t. To curl or frizzle the hair. [JVot used.] Cotgrave.

CALAMISTRA'TION, n. The act of curl- ing the hair. [JVbi used.]

€AL'AMIT, n. [L. calamus, a reed.] A mineral, probably a variety of Tremolite. It occurs in imperfect or rounded prisma- tic ci^stals, longitudinally striated, and sometimes resembling a reed. Its struc- ture is foliated ; its luster vitreous, and more or less shining.

Cleaveland. Werner,

CALAM'ITOUS, a. [Fr. calamiteux. See Calamity.]

1. Very miserable ; involved in deep dis tress ; oppressed with infelicity ; wretched from misfortune ; applied to men.

Johnson. Calamy

2. Producing distress and misery; making wretched ; applied to external circumstan- ces ; as a calamitous event. Milton.

3. Full of misery ; distressful ; wretched ; applied to state or condition. South.

CALAM'ITOUSLY, adv. In a manner to bring great distress.

€ALAM'ITOUSNESS, n. Deep distress; wretchedness; misery ; the quality of pro- ducing misery.

CALAM'ITY, n. [L. calamitas. Qu. Ar.

*,Xr kalama, to wound ; Heb. Ch. dSo to

make ashamed. Under this root, the Syr iac has calamity. The sense of the verb is, to strike, to beat down. But the origin of the word is uncertain.]

Any great misfortune, or cause of misery generally applied to events or disasters! which produce extensive evils, as loss of crops, earthquakes, conflagrations, defeat of armies, and the like. But it is ap|)lie( also to the misfortunes which bring great distress upon individuals. Milton. Prior. The deliberations of calamity are rarely wise Burke

€AL'AMUS, n. [L. from Gr. xaxa^o;, a stalk or stem, a reed, stubble ; Eth. and Ar

^Xi" calamus scriptorius, a writing reed or pen. The verb in Arabic signifies to cut or pare. But qu., for it would seem to be allied to culmus.]

1. The generic name of the Indian cane called also rotang. It is without branch es, has a crown at the top, and is beset with spines. Encyc.

2. In antiquity, a pipe or fistula, a wind i strument, made of a reed or oaten stalk,


•3. A rush or reed used anciently as a pen to write on parchment or papyrus. Encyc. A sort of reed, or sweet-scented cane, used by the Jews as a perfume. It is a knotty root, reddish without and white within, and filled with a spungy substance. It has an aromatic smell. Brown. Calmet. The sweet flag, called by Linne Scorns. Encyc.

€ALAN'DRA, n. A species of lark, with a thick bill, the upper part of the body of a reddish brown, spotted with black, with a body thicker than the sky-lark.



French name of a species of insect of tlie

beetle kind, very destructive in granaries.


eALAN'GAY, n. A species of white parrot. Ash.

CALASH', n. [Fr. caleche ; D. kales; Sp. calesa ; Russ. koliaska.] A light chariot or carriage with very low wheels, used for taking the air in parks and gardens. It is open, or covered with mantlets of cloth, that are let down at pleasure. Encyc.

9. A cover for the head sometimes used by ladies.

€AL€'AR, n. In glass works, a kind of oven, or reverberating furnace, used for the calcination of sand and salt of potash, and converting them into frit. Encyc.

€AL€'ARATE, a. [L. calcar, a spur ; calx, the heel; Ir. calg, a sting or goad.]

Furnished with a spur ; as a calcarale corol, in larkspur ; a calcarate nectary, a nectary resembling a cock's spur. Martyn.

€AL€A'RIO-SUL'PHUROUS, a. [See Calx and Sulphur.]

Having lime and sulphur in combination, or partaking of both. Kirwan.

CAL€A'RIOUS, a. [L. calcarius. See Calx.] Partaking of the nature of lime ; having the qualities of lime ; as calcarioxis earth or stone. Encyc. Kirwan

€AL€AVAL'LA, n. A kind of sweet wine from Portugal. Mason

€AL'CEATED, a. [L. calceatus, from cal ceus, a shoe.]

Shod ; fitted with or wearing shoes.


€AL'CEDON, n. [See Chalcedony.] Witl jewelers, a foul vein, like chalcedony, in some precious stones. Ash.

€ALCEDON'l€, ) re i-.i. ; j t

€ALCEDO'NIAN, \\\\ "• ^^^^ Chalcedony.]

Pertaining to or resembling chalcedony.

Encyc. Kinvan.

€ALCEDONY. See Chalcedony, the more correct orthography.

CALCIF'EROiJS, a. [of co7.r,hme, and /ero, to produce.] Producing calx or lime.

€AL'CIFORM, a. [of calx, Ihne, and forma. form.] In the form of calx.

€ALCIMU'RITE, n. [of co/r, lime, and mu- ria, salt water.]

A species of earth, of the muriatic genus, oi a blue or olive green color, of the consist- ence of clay. It consists of calcarious earth and magnesia tinged with iron.


€ALCI'NABLE, a. [See Calcine.] That may be calcined ; capable of being redu- ced to a friable state by the action of fire. Encyc.

CAL'CINATE, v. t. To calcine. [See Cal. c^ne.] Bacon.

CALCINA'TION, n. [from calcine.] The operation of expelling from a substance by heat, some volatile matter with which it is combmed, or which is the cementing principle, and thus reducing it to a friable state. Thus chalk and carbonate of lime are reduced to lime by calcination, or the expulsion of carbonic acid.

2. The operation of reducing a metal to an oxyd, or metallic calx. This in modern chimistry is called oxydation.

€AL'CINATORY, n. A vessel used in cal- cination.

€AL'CINE, ti.f. [Ft. caleiner ; It. calcinare ; Sp. calcinar ; from calx. See Calx.]

1. To reduce a substance to a powder or to a friable state, by the action of heat ; or to expel from a substance some volatile matter, combined with it, or forming its cementing principle, as the carbonic acid from limestone, or the water of crystali- zation from salts.

2. To oxydize, as a metal ; to reduce to a metallic calx.

3. To dissolve ; to destroy the principles which unite. Denham.

€AL'CINE, V. i. To be converted into a powder or fi-iable substance, or into a calx, by the action of heat. JVetcfon.

CAL'CIUM, n. [from L. calx.] The metallic basis of lime. Davy.

€AL€OGRAPH'l€AL, a. [See Calcogra- phy.] Pertaining to calcography.

€AL€OG'RAPHY, n. [L. calx, chalk, and Gr. 7pa$u, to engrave.] An engraving in the hkeness of chalk.

€AL€-SINTER, n. Stalactitic carbonate of lime. Ure.

€AL€-TUFF, n. An alluvial formation of carbonate of lime. Ure.

€AL€'ULABLE, a. [See Calculate.] That may be calcidated, or ascertained by cal- culation.

€AL€'ULARY, n. [L. calculus, a pebble.] A congeries of little stony knots dispersed through the parenchyma of the pear and other fruits, formed by concretions of the sap. Encyc.

€AL€'ULATE, v. t. [Fr. calculer ; It. calcu- lare ; Sp. calcular ; Lat. calculo ; from

calculus, a pebble. Ar. Syr. ^ jJiXi' gravel.]

To compute; to reckon; to add, subtraci, multiply or divide any sums, for the pur- pose of finding the amount, difference, or other result. Thus, to calculatethe expen- ses of erecting a house, is to estimate and add together the several sums which eacl- part of the materials and the work \\\\\\\\i\\\' cost.

2. To ascertain by the use of tables or niuii- bers ; as, to calculate an ecUpse.

.3. To form tables upon mathematical prin ciples, as logarithms, ephemerides, &c.

4. To compute the situation of the planets at a certain time, for astrological pur- poses ; as, to calculate the birth of a person.


5. To adjust by computation ; to fit or jire- pare by the adai)tation of the means to the end; as, to calculate a system of laws for a free people.


CAL€'ULATE, v. i. To make a coniputa tion ; as, we calculate better for ourselves than for otiiers.

Ill popular use, this word is often equivalent to intend or purpose, that is, to make ar- rangements, and form a i)lan ; as, a niai) calculates to go a journey. This use of the word spring's from the practice oi' com- puting or estimating the various circum- stances which concur to influence the mind in forming its determinations.

€AL€'ULATED,jo/>. Computed ; reckoned ; suited ; adapted by design.

€AL€'ULAT1NG, ppr. Computing; reck- oning ; adapting by design ; adjusting.

€AL€ULA'TION, n. The art, practice or manner of computing by numbers. The use of numbers, by addition, subtraction, nudtiplication, or division, for the purpose of arriving at a certain result. Thus coin- putations in astronomy and geometry for making tables of numbers are called cal- culations. Eniyc.

2. The result of an arithmetical operation ; computation ; reckoning. Hooker.

3. Estimate formed in the mind by compar- ing the various circumstances and facts which influence its determination.

€AL€'ULATIVE, a. Pertaining to calcula- tion ; tendin" to calculate. Burke.

CALCULATOR, n. One who computes or reckons ; one who estimates or considers the force and effect of causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects.

€AL€'ULATORY, a. Belonging to calcu- lation. Johnson.

€ALC'ULE, n. Reckoning; computation. Ohs. Howel.

CALCULOUS, a. [Supra.] Stony ; gritty ;

hard like stone ; as a calculous concretion


2. Affected with the gravel or stone ; as a ralculous person. Sharp.

CAL€'ULUS, n. [L. See Calculate.] The stone in the bladder or kidneys. The cal- culus ill the bladder is called lithiasis; in the kidneys, nephritis. Encyc.

'i. In mathematics ; Differential calculus, is the arithmetic of the infinitely small differ- ences of variable quantities ; the method of diflferencing quantities, or of finding an infinitely small quantity, which, being ta- ken infinite times, shall be equal to a giv- en quantity. This coincides with the doc- trine of fluxions. Encyc.

'■i. Exponential calculus, is a method of differ- encing exponential quantities ; or of find- ing and summing up the differentials or moments of exponential quantities; or at least of bringing them to geometrical con- structions. Encyc.

4. Integral calculus, is a method of integra- ting or sunnning up moments or differen- tial quanlities ; the inverse of the differen- tial calculus. Encyc.

,■). Literal calculus, is specious arithmetic or algebra. Encyc.

CALDRON, n. cawl'dron. [Old Fr. chaul- dron, now chaudron; Basque, galda, to lieat ; galdarea, a great kettle ; It. caldaia, or caldaro, a caldron ; caldo, heat and hot ; Sp. calda, heat ; caldear, to heat, to weld iron; caldera, a caldron; Port. c(ddeira, i caldron ; L. caldarium, id : calda, hot wa


ter; calidus, hot; from caleo, to be hot. This is from the root of Eng. scald.]

A large kettle or boiler, of copper, or otlier metal, furnished with a movable handle or bail, with which to hang it on a chim- ney hook. Addison

CALECIIE, [See Calash.]

C A LE DON IAN, «. Pertaining to Caledonia, 111 ancient name of Scotland. The ter nination in, signifies a country, and was Killed by (lie Humans. Caledon signifies iriilmlily, the hill or town of the Gaels, or Vdds, tiie primitive inhabitants.]

CALEUO'NIAN, n. A native of Caledonia, >w Scotland.

CALEEA'CIENT, a. [See Cole/action, Cal

A'CIENT, n. That which warms

f/u.] Warming ; heating, ALEF A'CIENT, n. Th or heats,

CALEF ACTION, n. [L. calefaclio, from calefacio, to make warm. See Calefy.]

The act or operation of warming or heating ; the production of heat in a body by the action of tire, or by the communication of liriil liiiin nilirr bodies. Encyc.

'i. Till' suite of being heated. John.ion.

CALI'lKAfl'lVE, I [See Calefaction.]

CALEFACTORY, S "' That makes warm or hot ; that communicates heat.

C.'VL'EFY', v. i. [L. calejio, to become warm, or hot ; from caleo &iu\\\\/io ovfacio.]

To grow hot or warm ; to be heated.


CAL'EFY, v. I. To make warm or hot.


CAL'ENDAR, n. [L. calendarium, an ac- count book. See Calends.]

1. A register of the year, in which the months, weeks, and days are set down in order, with the feasts observed by tli church, &-C. ; an almanack. It was so named from the Roman Calendce, the name given to the first day of the month, and written, in large letters, at the head of' each month. [See Calends.] Encyc.

■2. A list of prisoners in the custody of the sheriff". Eng.

An orderly table or enumeration of jier- sons or things. Encyc.

Calendar-montli, a solar month as it stands Almanacks.

CAL'ENDAR, v. t. To enter or write in a calendar.

CAL'ENDER, v. t. [Fr. calendrer ; Sp. cal enlar, to heat, to urge or press forward ; from caleo, to be hot.]

To press between rollers, for the purpose of making smooth, glossy and wavy; woolen and silk stuflTs and linens.

CAL'ENDER, n. A machine or hot press, used in manufactories to press cloths, for the purpose of malting them smooth, even- and glossy, laying the nap, watering tliemi and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of two thick rollers or cylinders, placed between boards or planks, the low- er one being fixed, the ujiper one mova- ble, and loaded with a great weight. Encyc.

CAL'ENDRER, n. The person who calen- ders cloth.

CAL'ENDS, n.plu. [L. caZeiirfoe, from calo, Gr. xoTifu, Eng. to call. See Call]

Among the Romans, the fii'st day of each month. The origin of this name is differ- ently related. Varro supposes it to have originated in the practice of notifying the'


time of the new moon, by a piicfft who called out or proclaimed the fact, to the peo]ile, and the number of the calends, or the day of the nqnes. Others alledge that the people behig convened, the pontifex proclaimed the several feasts or holidays in the month ; a custom which was dis- continued in the year of Rome 450, when the fasti or calendar was set up in public places, to give notice of the festivals.

Encyc. AdanVs Ram. Ant.

CAL'ENTURE, n. fSp. calentura, heat, a fever with irregular pulse ; calentar, to heat ; from L. caUo, to be hot. Russ. kalyu, to heat, to make red or red hot.]

A violent ardent fever, incident to persons in hot clhnates, especially natives of cooler climates. It is attended with delirium, and one of the symptoms is, that the person affected imagines the sea to be a green field, and sometimes attempting to walk in it, is lost. Enajc. Coxe.

CALF, n. c'aff, phi. calves, jiron. c'avz. [Sax. cealf; Sw. kalf; Dan. kalv ; D. kalf; and the verb kalven, to calve, to vomit ; G.kalb; kalben. The primary sense is is- sue, from throwing out. Hence the word is applied to the protuberant part of the leg, a push, a swell.]

1. The young of the cow, or of the bovine genus of quadru])eds.

2. In contempt, a dolt ; an ignorant, stupid person ; a weak or cowardly man.


3. The thick fleshy part of the leg behind; so called from its protuberance. Wiseman.

4. The calves of the lips, in Hosea, signify the pure offerings of prayer, praise and thanks- giving. Broivn.

C^ALF-LIKE, a. Resembling a calf. Shak. C^ALF-SKIN, n. The hide or skin of a

calf: or leather made of the skin. CAL'IBER, n. [Fr. and Sp. calibre.]

1. The diameter of a body ; as the caliber of a colunm, or of a bullet. Encyc.

2. The bore of a gun, or the extent of'its bore.

Caliber-compasses, calibers, or callipers, a sort of compasses made with arched legs, to take the diameter of round bodies, as masts, shot, &c. The legs move on an arch of brass, on which are marked the in- ches and half inches, to show how far the points of the compasses are opened asun- der. Encyc.

Caliber-rule, Gunner's Callipers, an instru- ment in which a right line is so divided as that the fii'st part being equal to the diameter of an ii-on or leaden ball of one pound weight, the other parts are to the first as the diameters of balls of two, three, four, &c. pounds, are to the diame- ter of a ball of one pound. It is used by engineers, to determine, from a ball's weight, its diameter or cahber and I'lce versa. Encyc.

CAL'ICE, «. [L. calix; Fr. calice ; Sax. ca- lic, a cup ; Gr. xi'?.i|. It is usually written chalice ; but incorrectly.]

A cup ; appropriately, a communion cup, or vessel used to administer the wine in the sacrament of the Lord's supper. It is used by the Roman Catholics in the mass.

CAL'ICO, n. [said to be from Calicut, in India.] Cotton cloth. In England, wliite or imprinted cotton cloth is called calico.




In tlie United States, calico is printed cotton cloth, having not more than two colors. I have never heard this name given to the imprinted cloth. Calico vras originally im])orted from India, but is now nianufactHreil In Europe and the United States.

<;AL'I€0-PRINTER, 11. One whose occu- pation is to print calicoes.

CAL'ID, a. [L. calidus, {romcaleo, to be hot.] Hot; burning; ardent. Johnson.

GALIDITY, n. Heat. Brown.

CAL'IDU€T, 11. [L. caleo, to be hot, color, heat, and duco, to lead.]

Among the Ancients, a pipe or canal used to convey heat from a furnace to tlie apart- ments of a house.

CA'LIF, n. written also caliph and kalif.

[from Ar. i_iX-L calafa, to sue Hence a calif is a successor, a title j


5opm oi rersia. jL,ncyc.

i The office or dignity of i, > n. a calif; or the govern-

5 ment of a calif. Harris.

to the successors of Mohammed.] A successor or vicar; a repre-sentative of Mo- hammed, bearing the same relation to him as the Pope pretends to bear to St. Peter. Among the Saracens, or Mohammedans, a calif is one who is vested with supreme dignity and power in all matters relating to religion and civil pohcy. This title is borne by the Grand Signior in Turkey, and by tlie Sophi of Persia. Encyc.

€A'LIFATE, - - .. . .

CALIPHATE. KA'LIFATE, CALIGA'TION, n. [L. caligalio, dimne

from caligo, to be dark.] Darkness ; dim- In medical authors, caligation or caligo, is an opakeness or cloudiness of the anterior surface of the crystahne lens, causing dim- ness of sight ; impaired sight from obstruc- tion to the passage of light, or cataract.

Coxe. Encyc. eALI(5TNOUS, a. Dim ; obscme ; dark. CALlG'INOUSNESS,n.Dimness;obscurity. €ALIGRAPH'Ie, a. [Infra.] Pertaining to elegant penmanship. Jfarton.

€ALiG RAPHY, ) [Gr. xaxa, fair, and €ALLIG'RAPHY, ^ yp"$w, to write ; xax-

Fair or elegant writing, or penmanship.


CA'LIN, n. A compound metal, of which the

Chinese make tea canisters and the like.

The ingredients seem to be lead and tin.


CAL'IVER, n. [from caliber.] A kind "of]

handgun, musket or arquebuse. Shak.

€A'LIX, n. [h.calix;Gr.xvXit]

1. A cup.

2. Tlie membrane which covers the papillae in the pelvis of the human kidney. Coxe.

But it seems to be erroneously used for calyx, which see.

€ALK, V. t. cauk. [Qu. the connection of this word with the Sp. calafetear ; It. rnlafa- tare ; Port, calafetar ; Arm. calefcli ; Fr calfater, to smear with cement or mortar ;

Ar. (_JiXa kalafa, to stop the seams of ships with fine moss, &c., and pay them over with pitch ; Sam. id. It may be corrupted from this word ; if not, it may be from the Dan. WJ:, calx, lime or mortar; but seems not probable. The Germans and

Danes have borrowed the Spanish and French word to express the idea. Skinner deduces the word from Fr. calage, tow.]

1. To drive oakum or old ropes untwisted, into the scams of a ship or other vessel, to prevent their leaking, or admitting wa- ter. After the seams are filled, they are covered with hot melted pitch or rosin, keep the oakum from rotting. '. In some parts of America, to set upon horse or o.\\\\ shoes armed with sharp points of iron, to prevent their slipping on ' that is, to stop from shpping.

CALK, n. cauk. In JVew-Eugland, a sharp pointed piece of iron on a shoe for a horse or an ox, called in Great Britain calkin : used to prevent the animal from slipping

CALK'ER, n. cauk'cr. A man who calks; sometimes perhaps a calk or pointed iron on a horse-shoe.

CALK'ED, /)/). cauk'ed. Having the seams stopped ; furnished with shoes with iron points.

CALK'IN, n. A calk.

CALKTNG, ppr. cauk'ing. Stopping the seams of a ship; putting on shoes with iron points.

CALK'ING, n. cauk'ing. In painting, the covering of the back .side of a design with black lead, or red chalk, and tracing lines through on a waxed plate or wall or oth- er matter, by passing lightly over each stroke of the design with a point, which leaves an impression of the color on the plate or wall. Chambers.

CALK'ING-IRON, n. cauk'ing-iron. An in- strument like a chisel, used in calking ships.

CALL, V. t. [L. calo ; Gr. xa\\\\f« ; Sw. kalla ; Dan. holder ; W. galw, to call ; D. kallen, to talk ; Ch. lh2 in Aph. to call, to thun- der ; Heb. to hold or restrain, which is the Gr. xuxiiu, L. cavla ; Syr. Sam. Eth. to hold, or restrain ; Ar. to keep ; L. celo. The primary sense is to press, drive or strain. We find the like elements and sig- nification in San. giellan, or giillan, to yell ; Dan. g-aZer, to crow. Class Gl. Tlie W. galiv is connected in origin with gallu, to be able, to have power, may, can, Eng. could, the root of gallant, L. gnllus, &c.]

In a general sense, to drive ; to strain or force out sound. Hence,

1. To name ; to denominate or give a name.

And God called the light day, and the dark- ness he called night. Gen. i.

2. To convoke ; to summon ; to direct or order to meet ; to assemble by order or public notice ; often with togetluer ; as, the king called his council together ; the presi- dent called together the congress.

3. To request to meet or come.

He sent his servants to call them that were bidden. Math. xxii.

4. To invite.

Because I have called and ye refused. Prov. i.

5. To invite or summon to come or be pres- ent ; to invite, or collect.

Call all your senses to you.

6. To give notice to come by authority ; to command to come ; as, call a servant

7. To proclaim ; to name, or publish the

Nor parish clerk, who calls the psahi


8. To appoint or designate, as for an office, duty or employment.

See, I have called byname Bezaleel. Est


Paul called to be an aposUe. Rom. i.

9. To mvite ; to warn ; to exhort. Is. xxii. 12.


10. To invite or draw into union with Christ : to bring to know, beUeve and obey the gospel. Rom. viij. 28.

11. To own and acknowledge. Heb. ii. li.

12. To invoke or appeal to.

I call God for a record. 2 Cor. i.

13. To esteem or account. Is. Iviii. 5. Mat. iii. 15.

To call down, to invite, or to bring down.

To call back, to revoke, or retract ; to recall ; to summon or bring back.

To call for, to demand, require or claim, as a crime calls for punishment ; or to cause to grow. Ezek. xxxvi. Also, to speak for ; to ask ; to request ; as, to call for a din- ner.

To call in, to collect, as to ccdl in debts or money ; or to draw from circulation, as to call in clipped coin ; or to summon to- gether ; to invite to come together ; as, to call in neighbors or friends.

To call forth, to bring or summon to action; as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind.

To call off, to summon away ; to divert ; as, to call off the attention ; to ccdl off workmen from their employment.

To call up, to bring into viewer recollection; as, to call up the image of a deceased friend ; also, to bring into action, or dis-

, cussion ; as, to ccUl up a bill before a legis- lative body.

To call over, to read a list, name by name ; to recite separate particidars in order, as a roll of names.

To call out, to summon to fight ; to challenge ; also, to summon into service ; as, to call out the iTiilitia.

To call to mind, to recollect ; to revive in memory.

CALL, V. i. To utter a loud sound, or to ad- dress by name ; to utter the name ; some- times with to.

Tlie angel of God called to Hagar. Gen. xxi.

2. To stop, without intention of staying r to make a short stop ; as, to call at the inn. This use Johnson supposes to have origin- ated in the custom of denoting one's pres- ence at the door by a call. It is common, in this phrase, to use at, as to call at thp. inn ; or on, as to call on a friend. This applica- tion seems to be equivalent to speak, D. kallen. Let us speak at this place.

To call on, to make a short visit to ; also, to solicit payment, or make a demand of a debt. In a theological sense, to pray to or worship : as, to call on the name of the Lord. Gen. iv. To repeat solemnly.


To call out, to utter a loud voice ; to bawl ;

a popular use of the phrase.

CALL, 11. A vocal address, of summons or ' invitation ; as, he will not come at a call.

2. Demand ; requisition ; public claim ; as, listen to the calls of justice or humanity.

3. Divine vocation, or suunnons ; as the call of Abraham.

4. Invitation ; request of a public body or society ; as, a clergyman has a call to settle ill the ministry.

A summons (iom heaven ; impulse.




St. Paul believed he had a call, when he per- secuted tlie christians. Locke. ('). Autliority; command. Denham.

7. A short visit ; as, to make a call ; to give one a call ; that is, a speaking to ; D. kallen. To give one n call, is to stop a motnent and speak or say a word ; or to have a short conversation with.

8. Vocation ; employment. In this sense ccdlmg is generally used.

9. A naming ; a nomination. Bacon.

10. Among hunters, a lesson blown on tlic horn, to comfort the hounds. Encyc.

11. Among seamen, a whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to their duty. Encyc.

12. The English name of the mineral called by the Germans tungsten or wolfram.


13. Among/oio/er*, the noise or cry of a fowl, or a pipe to call birds by imitating their voice. Encyc. Bailey.

14. In legislative bodies, the call of the house, is a calling over the names of the uieni bers, to discover who is absent or for othe purpose ; a calling of names with a view to obtain answers from the jiefsons named.

eALL'ED, pp. Invited ; summoned ; address- ed ; named ; appointeil ; invoked ; assem- bled by order ; recited.

-CALL'ER, n. One who calls.

CAL'LET, I A trull, or a scold. [JVot

€AL'LAT, I "• used.] Shnk

CAL'LET, V. i. To rail ; to scold. [ATot ii use.]

eALL'ING, ppr. Inviting ; summoning ; na ming ; addressing ; invoking.

€ALL'ING, n. A naming, or inviting ; i reading over or reciting in order, or a call of names with a view to obtain an answer, as in legislative bodies.

2. Vocation ; profession ; trade ; usual occu- pation, or emplovment.

Pope. Simjl. 1 Cor. vii. 20,

3. Class of persons engaged in any profession or employment. Hammond,

4. Divine summons, vocation, or invitation,

Give all diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2 Pet. i. €AL'LIOPE, n. cal'Uopy. In Pagan my tliology, the muse that presides over elo

qiience and heroic poetry. CAL'LIPERS. [See Caliher.) CALLOS'ITY, n. [Fr. callosite ; L. callositas

See Callous.] Hardness, or bony hardness ; the hardness of

the cicatrix of ulcers. Coxe.

CAL'LOUS,a. [L. crtito,hardness ; calleo, to

be hard, to know or be skilled ; Eng.

could, which see.]

1. Hard ; hardened ; indurated ; as an ulcer or some part of the body. Wiseman.

2. Hardened in mind ; insensible ; unfeehng, I Dryden.

CAL'LOUSLY, adv. In a hardened or un- feeling manner. CAL'LOUSNESS, n. Hardness, induration applied to the body ; insensibility, applied ; to the mind or heart. Cheyne. Bentley. I CAL'LOW, a. [Ir. calbh ; L. calvus, bald

G. kahl ; D. kaal ; Fr. chauve ; Pers. V^

kal ; Russ. golei, bald, naked ; goleyu, tc

be stripped.]

« Destitute of feathers ; naked ; unfledged ; as

hi a young bird. Milton

CAL'LUS, n. [L. callus, from calleo, to be liard ; Sans, kalla, stone.]

Any cutaneous, corneous, or bony hardness, but generally the new growth of osseous matter between the extremities of fractur- ed bones, serving to unite them ; also, a hardness in the skin ; a hard, dense, insen- sible knob on the hands, feet, &c.

Encyc. Coxe.

CALM, a. cam. [Vr. calme ; Sp.calma; It. cahna ; D. kalm. Q,u. Gr. ;to».aco ; It. calare, to decrease or abate ; Sp. calar, to sink.] Still ; quiet ; being at rest ; as the air. Hence not stormy or tempestuous ; as a calm day.

2. Undisturbed ; not agitated ; as a ccdm sea.

3. Undisturbed by passion ; not agitated or excited ; quiet ; tranquil ; as the mind temper, or attention.

CALM. ». Siilliioss;tranquillity;quiet;frce (loin iVuiii iMciiion, agitation, or distm-b- jiiice ; (ijij)liiit to the elements, or to the mind and jiassiuns. Sotdh.

G'ALM, V. I. To still ; to quiet; as the wind, or elements ; to still, appease, allay or pacify, as the mind, or passions.

Dryden. Atterhury.

CALMER, ji. The person or thing that calms, or has the power to still, and make quiet ; that which allays or pacifies.

CALMING, vpr. Stilling; appeasing.

e'ALMLV, adv. In a quiet manner; with- out disturbance, agitation, tumult, or vio- lence ; without passion ; quietly.

e^ALMNESS, n. Quietness; stillness; tran- quillity ; applied to the elements.

2. Quietness ; mildness ; unruffled state ; ap- plied to the mind, passions or temper.

CALMY, o. Calm ; quiet ; peaceable.

Spenser. Cowley.

€AL'OMEL, n. [Qu. Gr. xaXoj, fair, and ftfXof, black, or JEthiops mineral.]

A preparation of mercury, much used medicine. It is called the submuriate or protocliloride of mercury, and is prepared in various ways, by sublimation or precipi- tation, and al-so in the dry way. The fol- lowing are the directions given in the last London Pharmacopaia. Take of muriated quicksilver one pound, and of purified quicksilver, nine ounces ; rub them togeth- er till the globules disappear ; then sub- lime, and repeat the sublimation twice more successively. Webster.

€ALOR'I€, n. [L. calor, heat.] The prin- ciple or matter of heat, or the simple ele- ment of heat. Lavoisier.

Caloric may be defined, the agent to which

the phenomena of heat and combustion

are ascribed. Ure..

Caloric expands all bodies. Henry.^

€ALOR'I€, a. Pertaining to the matter of heat.

€ALORIF'l€, a. That has the quality of |iroduriiig heat ; causing heat; heating.

eALORlM'ETER, n. [L. co/or, heat, aiid Gr. fitrpov, measure.]

An apparatus for measuring relative quanti- ties of heat, or the specific caloric of bod- ies ; or an instrument for measuring the heat given out by a body in cooling, from the quantity of ice it melts, invented by Lavoisier and Lapla

€AL'ORIMOTOR, J!, [caloric and L. motor,


A galvanic instrument, in which the calorilic influence oreffects are attended by scarcely anv electrical power. Hare.

€ALb'TTE, I [Fr. caloUe.] A cap or

€ALO'TE, I"- coif, of hair, satin or other stuff, worn in popish countries, as an eccle- siastical ornament.

2. In architecture, a round cavity or depress- ion, in form of a cup or cap, lathed and plastered, used to diminish the elevation of a chapel, cabinet, alcove, &:.c., which would_ otherwise be too high for other pieces of the apartment. Harris. Encyc.

CALOY'ERS, or€ALO(iERI, n. Monks of the Greek church, of three orders ; archari, or novices ; ordinary professed, or mierochemi ; and the more perfect, called megalochemi. They are also divided into cenobites, who are employed in reciting their offices, from midnight to sunrise ; anchorets, who retire and live in hermita- ges ; and rec/u»e*, who shut themselves up in grottos and caverns, on the mountains, and live on alms furnished to them by the monasteries. Encyc.

€ALP, n. A subspecies of carbonate of lime, of a bluish black, gray or grayish blue, but its streak is white, called also argillo-fer- ruginous limestone. It is intermediate between compact limestone and marl.

Kirwan. Cleaveland. Phillips.

CAL'TROP, n. [Sax. coltrappe, a species of thistle, rendered by Lye, rhamnus, and carduus stellatus. The French has chausse- trape. The Italian calcatreppolo is from calcare, to trea

1. A kind of thistle, the Latin trilmltis, with a roundish prickly pericarp ; on one side, gibbous, often armed with three or four daggers ; on the other side, angular, con- verging with transverse cells. It grows in France, Italy and Spain, among corn, and is very troublesome, as the prickles run into the feet of cattle.

Fam. of Plants. Miller.

2. In military affairs, an instrument with four iron points, disposed in a triangular form, so that three of them beingon tlie ground, the other points upward. These are scat- tered on the ground where an enemy's cavalry are to pass, to inijiede their prog- ress by endangering the horses' feet.

Encyc. Dr. Addison.

€AL'UMET, n. Among the aboriginals of America, a pipe, used for smoking tobacco, whose bowl is usually of soft red marble, and the tube a long reed, ornamented with feathers. The calumet is used as a sym- bol or instrument of peace and war. To accept the calumet, is to agree to thetemis of peace, and to refuse it, is to reject them. The calumet of jjcace is used to seal or ratify contracts and alUances, to receive strangers kindly, and to travel with safety. The calumet of war, differently made, is used to proclaim war.

€ALUM'NIATE, v. t. [See Calumny.] To accuse or charge one falsely, and know- ingly, with some crime, offense, or some- thing disreputable ; to slander.

CALUM'NIATE, v.i. To charge falsely and knowingly with a crime or offense; to propagate evil re))orts with a design to injure the reputation of another.


CALUMNIATED, pp. Slandered ; falsely and maliciously accused of what is crimi- nal, immoral, or disgraceful.

■CALUMNIATING, ppr. Slandering.

CALUiMNIA'TION, n. False accusation of a crime or offense, or a malicious and false representation of the words or actions of another, with a view to injure his good name.

CALUM'NIATOR, n. One who slanders ; one who falsely and knowingly accuses another of a crime or offense, or malicious- ly propagates false accusations or reports.

€ALUM'NIATORY, a. Slanderous.


CALUM'NIOUS, a. Slanderous ; bearing or implying calumny ; injurious to reputation.

CALUM'NIOUSLY, adv. Slanderously.

€ALUM'NIOUSNESS, n. Slanderousness. Bp. Morton.

CAL'UMNY, n. [L. calumnia ; Tr. calomnie ; It. calunnia. If m is radical, this word may be allied to calamity, both from the sense of falling upon, rushing, or throwing on. If m is not radical, this word may be the Gothic holon, to calumniate, Saxon holan, to rush upon. The word is found in Ir. guilimne, calumny, guilimmghim, to calumniate or reproach].

Slander ; false accusation of a crime or of- fense, knowingly or maliciously made or reported, to the injury of another; false representation of facts reproachful to an- other, made by design, and with knowl- edge of its falsehood ; sometimes followed by on.

Neglected calumnij soon expires.

.Murphy's Tacitus.

PAL'VARY, n. [L. calvaria, from calva, a skidl or scalp ; Ir. calb, the liead ; Sp. cal- vario, calva ; It. calvo.]

I. A place of .skulls; particularly, the place where Christ was crucified, on a small hill west of Jerusalem. In catholic countries, a kind of chapel raised on a hillock near a city, as a place of devotion, in memoi'y of the place where our Savior suffered.

1. In heraldry, a cross so called, set upon steps, resembling the cross on which our Saviour was crucified.

C'ALVE, V. i. cav. [from calf; Sax. calfian.] To bring forth young, as a cow.

'i. In a metaphorical sense, and sometimes by way of reproach, a,i when applied to the hu- man race, to bring forth ; to produce.

CALVES-SNOUT, n. A i)lant, snap-drag- on, antirrhinum.

CAL'VER, V. t. To cut in slices. [jYot in use.'] B. Jonson.

€.\\\\L'VER, V. i. To shrink by cutting, and not fall to pieces. [Not in use.] Cotton.

CAL'VILLE, n. [Fr.] A sort of apple.

CAL'VINISM, n. The theological tenets or doctrines of Calvin, who was born in Pic- ardy in France, and in 1536, chosen pro- fessor of divinity, and minister of a church in Geneva. The distinguishing doctrines of this system are, original sin, particular election and reprobation, particular re- demption, effectual grace in regenerat' or a change of heart by the spirit of God, justification by free grace, perseverance of the saints, and the trinity.

■CAL'VINIST,n. A follower of Calvin ; one who embraces the theological doctruies ofi Calvin.


€ALVIN1ST'I€, ) Pertaining to Cal-

CALVINIST'IeAL, S "• vin, or to his opin- ions in theology.

€'ALVISH,a. [iromcalf] Like a calf. [More rly, catfish.] Sheldon.

eALX, n. '(Aa. calxes or calces. [L. caij; Sax. cealc, a stone, calculus, and chalk ; D. kalk ; G. kalk ; Sw. kalck; Dan. kalk ; Fr. chaux. The same word signifies chalk, lime, mor- tar, and the heel, and from that is formed calculus, a little stone. TheVord then sig- nifies primarily, a lump, or clod, or hard mass, and is allied to callus. If calx is from ;tax,tS, the usual orthography was not observed by the Latins. See Calculate.]

Properly liine or chalk ; but more appropri- ately, the substance of a metal or mineral which remains after being subjected to violent heat, burning, or calcination, solu- tion by acids, or detonation by niter, and which is or may be reduced to a fine pow- der. Metallic calxes are now called oxyds. They are heavier than the metal from which they are produced, being combined with oxygen. Coxe. Encyc.

Calx nativa, native calx, a kind of marly earth, of a dead whitish color, which, in water, bubbles or hisses, and without burn- ing, will make a cement, like hme or gypsum.

Calx viva, quick-lime, is hme not slaked.

€ALYC'INAL, f Pertaining to a calyx ;

CAL'YCINE, 5 "• situated on a calyx.


CAL'Y€LE, n. [L. calyculus. See Calyx.]

'n totally, a. row of small leaflets, at the base of the calyx, on the outside. The calycle of the seed is the outer proper covering or crown of the seed, adhering to it, to fa- cihtate its dispersion. Martyn.

€ALY€'ULATEor €AL'Y€LED, a. Hav- ing a calycle at the base on the outside ; used of the calyx.

€ALYP'TER, n. [Gr. xa.Xv7ttr,f, a cover.]

The calyx of mosses, according to Linne ; but not properly a calyx. It is a kmd of vail, or cowl, which covers or is suspended over the tops of the stamens, like an extin- guisher. Mine.

The calyptra of mosses is an appendage of the capsule or female flower. It at first closely invests the capsule, and its summit is the stigma. As the capsule approaches maturity, the calyptra is detached below, and appended to the stigma hke a hood.

Cyc. Smith.

CA'LYX, ti. plu. calyxes. [L. calyx ; Gr. j£oJ,u|, a flower not opened, a husk or shell. It has been confounded with xvy^, calix, a cup.]

The outer covering of a flower, being the termination of the cortical epidermis or outer bark of the plant, which, in most plants, incloses and supports the bottom of the corol. In Linne's system, it compre- hends the perianth, the involucrum, the ament, the spath, the glume, the calyptra, and the volva. But in general it signifies the perianth, and the leaves are generally green. Milne. Martyn. Encyc

The opinion of Linne that the calyx is the continuation of the epidermis is now con- sidered erroneous. Ed. Encyc. Smith.

€ALZOONS', 71. [Sp. cakones.] Drawers, [Not English.] Herbert


€AM'BER, 7^. [Fr.cambrer, to arch, to Vault, to bend, from L. camera, a vault, a cham- ber.]

Among builders, camber or camber-beam is a piece of timber cut archwise, or with an obtuse angle in the middle, used in plat- forms, where long and strong beams are required. As a verb, this word signifies to bend, but I know not that it is used.

A cambered-deck, is one which is higher in the middle, or arched, but drooping or de- chning towards the stem and stern ; also, when it is irregular.

jeAM'BERING, ppr. or a. Bending ; arched ; as, a deck lies cambering.

€AM'BIST, n. [It. cambista, from cambio, exchange ; Sp. id.]

A banker ; one who deals in notes, and bills of exchange. Christ. Obs.

[cambric, n. A species of fine whhe linen,

I made of flax, said to be named from Cam- bray in Flanders, where it was first manu- factured.

iCAME, ^ref. of co;ne, which see.

CAME, n. A slender rod of cast lead, of which glaziers make then- turned lead.


CAM'EL, 71. [Ucameltis; Gr. xa/xTfljir, T>. Dan. kameel ; G. kamel ; Heb. Syr. Eth.

SaJ ; Ch. nSdJ ; Ar. y^^ The Arabic verb, to which this word belongs, signifies to be beautiful or elegant, to please or to behave with kindness and humanity. In Sa.x. gamele, or gamol, is a camel, and an old man ; gamol-feax, one that has long hair; gamol-ferhth, a man of a great mind. In W. the word is cammarc, a crooked horse.]

1. A large quadruped used in Asia and Af- rica for carrying burdens, and for riders. As a geiuis, the camel belongs to the order of Pecora. The characteristics are ; it has no horns ; it has six fore teeth in the under jaw ; the canine teeth are wide set, three in the upper and two in the lower jaw ; and there is a fissure in the upper lip. The dromedary or Arabian camel has one bunch on the back, fimr callous pro- tuberances on the fore legs and two on the hind legs. The Bactrian camel has two bunches on the back. The Llama of South America is a smaller animal, with a smooth back, small head, fine black eyes, and very long neck. The Pacos or sheep of ChiU lias no bunch. Camels constitute tlie riches of an Arabian, without which he could neither subsist, carry on tr»

2. In Holland, Camel, [or Kameel, as Coxe writes it,] is a machine for litlitig ships, and bearing them over the Pampus, at the mouth of the river Y, or over other bars. It is also used in other places, and particu- larly at the d ock in Petersburg, to bear vessels over a bar to Cronsta

Coxe. Encyc.

CAM'EL-BACKED, a. Having a back like

a camel. Fulkr




Came'leon mineral. [See Chameleon.] A com pound of pure potash ami black oxyd of manganese, fused together, whose solution in water, at first green, passes spontane ously through the whole series of colored rays to the red ; and by the addition of potash, it returns to its original green.

Ure. CAM'ELOPARD, n. [camelus and pardalis.] The giraff, a species constituting the genus Camelopnrdalis. This animal has two straight horns, without branches, six inch- es long, covered with hair, truncated at the cnil and tufted. On the forehead, is a tubiMcle, two inches high, resembling another horn. The fore legs are not much longer than the hind ones, but the should- ers are of such a vast length, as to render the fore part of the animal much higher than the hind part. The head is like'th of a stag ; the neck is slender and elegant, furnished with a short mane. The color of the whole animal is a dirty white mark- ed with large broad rusty spots. Tl animal is found in the central and eastern parts of Africa. It is timid and not fleet. £?ic^c. €AM'EO, CAMA'IEU, or €AMAY'EU, n [It. cammeo; Vr. camayeu ; Sp. and Port camafeo.] A peculiar sort of onyx; also, a stone on which are lomid various figures and rep reseiitations of landscapes, a kindoflusus naturae, exhibiting pictures without paint ing. The word is said to be the oriental camehuia, a name given to the onyx, when they find, in preparing it, another color as who should say, another color.

The word is applied by others to those precious stones, onyxes, carnelians and agates, on which lapidaries employ their art, to aid nature and perfect the figures The word is also applied to any gem which figures may be engraved.

The word signifies also a painting ... which there is only one color, and where the lights and shadows are of gold, wrought on a golden or azure ground, When the ground is yellow, the French call it ciraee ; when gray, grwaUle. Tliis work is chiefly used to represent basso- relievos. These pieces answer to the Hovoxfuifiata, of the Greeks.

Encyc. Cliambers. Imnier. Camera obscura, or dark chandler, in optics, an apparatus representing an artificial eye, in which the images of external ob- jects, received through a double convex glass, are exhibited distinctly, and hi their native colors, on a white rnatter, placed ■within the machine, in the focus of the glass. €AM'ERADE, n. [L. camera, a chamber.] One who lodges or resides in the same apartment ; now comrade, which see. €AMERALIS'TI€, a. [Infra.] Pertaining

to finance and public revenue. CAMERALIS'TICS, n. [G. cameralht, a financier. In Sp. camarista, is a minister of state ; camarilla, a small room. The word seems to be from L. camera, a cham- ber.]

The science offinance orpublic revenue, comprehending the means of raising and iisiiosingofit. Grimke.

CAM'ERATE, v. t. [L. camera, from camera. a chamber, properly an arched roof.]

To vault ; to ceil. [Little tised.]

CAM'ERATED, a. [L. cameralus, from camera.} Anhed ; vaulted.

€AMERA'TION, n. An arching or vaulting,

€A3I'IS, n. [It. camtce.] A thin dress. [JVo/ English,]

€AMISA'DE, n. [Fr. from chemise, a shirt ; It. camicia ; Sp. camisa.]

An attack by surprise, at night, or at break of day, when the enemy is supposed to be in bed. This word is said to have taken its rise from an attack of this kind, in which the soldiers, as a badge to distin- guish each other by, bore a shirt over their arms. Encyc.

€AM'ISATED,o. Dressed with a shirt out- wards. Johnson.

CAM'LET, n. [from camel, sometimes writ- ten cameloL]

A stuff" originally made of camel's hair. It is now made, sometimes of wool, sometimes of silk, sometimes of hair, especially that of goats, with wool or silk. In some, the warp is silk and wool twisted together, and the woof is hair. The pure oriental camlet is made solely from the hair of a sort of goat, about Angora. Camlets are now made in Europe. Encyc.

€AM'LETED, a. Colored or veined.


€AM'MO€, n. [Sax. cammoc, or cammec] A plant, petty whin or rest-harrow, On- onis.

€AM'OMILE, n. [Fr. camomUle ; Arm, cramamailh ; D. kamille ; G. id.; Dan. kam- eel-blomster ; L. clmmwmelon, which seems to be the Gr. a;"^*', earth, and i";>.oi', an apple.]

A genus of plants, Anthemis, of many spe cies. It has a chaff"y receptacle ; the calyx is hemispheric and subequal, and the florets of the ray are more than five. The common sort is a trailing perennial plant, has a strong aromatic smell, and a bitter nauseous taste. It is accounted caniiina- tive, aperient, and emollient.

CAM'OUS, I [Fr. camiis ; W. ,

€AMOyS', I "■ crooked.]

Flat; de|>ressed; applied only to the nose, &nA

little used.-] €AM'OUSED, a. Depressed ; crooked.

B. Jonson €AM'OUSLY, adv. Awry. Skelton.

€AMP', n. [L. campus; Fr. camp a.r\\\\A champ ;

Arm. camp ; It. Sp. Port.

camp. The sense is, an open level field or plain. See Champion and Game.]

1. The ground on which an army pitch their tents, whether for a night or a longer time.

3. The order or arrangement of tents, or disposition of an army, for rest ; as, to pitch a camp. Also, the troops encamped oir the same field.

|;i. An aimy. Hume.

CAMP, V. t. or i. To rest or lodge, as an army, usually in tents; to pitch a camp; to fix tents : but seldom used. [See Encamp.]

CAMP -FIGHT, J!. In lata ivriters, a tr\\\\ii\\\\hy duel, or the legal combat of two champi- ons, for the decis'on of a controversv. [Ciimp in W. is a game, and campiaw is to contend.]

CAMPA'IGN,? ,„„,„„, [,Vy.campagaf. CAMPA'IN, \\\\"- '""V""'- It. campaina ;

Sp.compaiia ; Port, campanha ; from camp.

This should be written campain, as Mit-

ford writes it.]

1. An open field ; a large open plain ; an extensive tract of ground without consid- erable hills. [See Champaign.]

2. The time that an army keeps the field, either in action, marches, or in camp, with- out entering into winter quarters. A cam- paign is usually from spring to autumn or winter ; but in some instances, armies make a winter campaign.

CAMPA'IGN, I', t. To serve in a campaign.


CAMPAIGNER, n. One who has served

CAMPA'NA, n. [L.] The pasque-flower. CAMPAN'IFORM, a. [L. cam;)ana, a bell,

and forma, form.] In the shape of a bell ; applied to flowers.

Botany. CAMPANULA, n. [L.] The bell-flower. CAMPAN'ULATE, a. [L. campanula, a little

hell.] In the form of a bell. Botany.

CAMPE'ACHY-WOOD, from Campeachy

in Mexico. [See Logu-ood.]

CAMPES'TRAL, ) [L. campestris, from CAMPES TRIAN, I "' campus, a field.] Pertaining to an open field ; growing in a

field or open ground. Mortimer.

CAM PIIOR, n. projierly cafor. [Low L.

c amphora ; Fr. camphre ; It. canfora; Sp.

alcanfor ; Port, canfora ; D. and G. kamfer ;

Ar. -JL,^ kafor, kaforon, from .j «=, kafara, Heb. Ch. Syr. "ea kafar, to drive off", remove, separate, wipe away ; hence, to cleanse, to make atonement. " It seeitis to be named from its purifying effects, or from exudation. It will be seen that the letter m in this word is casual.]

A solid concrete juice or exudation, from the laurus caniphora, or Indian laurel-tree, a large tree growing wild in Borneo, Suma- tra, &c. it is a whitish translucent sub- stance, of a granular or foliated fracture, and somewhat unctuous to the feel. It has a bitterish aromatic taste, and a very fragrant smell, and is a powerful diapho- retic. Enctjc. Lunier. Jlikin.

CAMPHOR, V. t. To impregnate or wash with camphor. [Little used.]

CAM'PHORATE, n. In chimistry, a com- pound of the acid of camphor, with differ-

CAM'PHORATE, a. Pertaining to camphor, or impregnated with it.

CAMPHORATED, a. Impregnated with caniphiT.

CAMPHORIC, a. Pertaining to camphor, or partaking of its qualities.

CAMPHOR-OIL. rSee Camphor-tree.]

CAMPHOR-TREE, n. The tree from which camphor is obtained. According to Mil- ler, there are two sorts of trees that pro- duce camphor; one, a native of Borneo, which produces the best species ; the other, a native of Japan, which resembles the bay-tree, bearing black or purple berries. But the tree grows also in Sumatra. The stem is thick, the bark of a brownish color, and the ramification strong, close




anfl extended. The wood is soft, easily worked, and usefiil for domestic purposes. To obtain camphor, the tree is cut down, and divided into pieces, and the camplior talien out ; it being found in small whitish flakes, situated perpendicularly, in irregu- lar veins, in and near the center of the tree. It is then repeatedly soaked and washed in soapy water, to separate fron it all extraneous matter. It is then passed through three sieves of different textur to divide it into three sorts, head, belly and foot camphor. Camphor oil is camphor, before the operations of nature have re- duced it to a concrete form ; and concrete camphor may be reduced to oil, by the ni- tric acid. .Ssiat. Res. iv. 1,

CAMPIL'LA, n. A plant of a new genus, used by dyers. Jlsiat. Res.

CAMP'ING, ppr. Encamping.

■CAMP'ING, n. A playing at football.


CAMPION, ji. A plant, the jjopular name of the lychnis.

CAM'US, I [L. ctimisa.] A thin dress,

CAM'IS, ^ "• [JVol Eng.] Spenser.

CAN, n. [D. kan ; Sax. can7ia ; G. lumne ; Dan. kande ; Svv. kanna ; Corn, hannaih ; Sans, kundha ; probably from holding, containing, W. cannu or ganu, to contain, gan, capacity, a mortise, Eng. gain, in carpentry. Hence W. cant, a circle, a hoop, a fence round a yard, a hundred, L centum, Teut. hind, in hundred. See Cent and Hundred, and Can, infra.]

A cup or vessel for hquors, in modern times made of metal ; as a can of ale.

€AN, V. i. pret. could, which is from another root. [See Could.] [Can is from the Sax. cennan, to know, to bear or produce ; Goth kunnan. Sax. cunnan, to know, to be able ; cunnian, to try, to attempt, to prove ; cind, cyn,gecynd, kind ; L. genus ; D. kunnen, to know, to understand, to hold, to contain, to be able, like the Fr. savoir ; Dan. kan, to be able ; kiender, to know ; Sw. kan- na, to know ; kunna, to be able ; G. kennen to know ; kiinnen, to be able. Hence cun- ning, that is, knowing, skilful, experien- ced ; G. ftoimen, a being able, ability, knowl- edge ; kund, pidilic ; kunde, knowledge, acquaintance. The Teutonic and Gothic words unite with the Greek ytmuo, to get, as a male, and to bear, as a female, which is connected witli yixo^t, to be born or produced. Can, cennan, and ycwau, are probably the same word ; and the Sax. gin- nan, in the compounds, aginnan, heginnan, onginnan, to begin, is from the same root The primary sense is, to strain, to stretch to urge or thrust with foi-ce, whicli gives the sense of producing, and of holding, containing, which is t!ie primary sens knotving, comprehending ; and straining gives tiie sense of power. The Sax. cun- nian, to try, is to strain. See Ken. Ar

• Lf to be, the substantive verb ; also, to become, to be made, to endure ; also,

to create, to generate, to form ; jij

to know ; Heb. and Ch. ]D, to fit or pre- pare, to form or fashion : whence right.

fit ; as we have right, Sax. reht, L. recius,l from rego, to rule, that is, to strain, stretch, make straight ; Syr. _a to begin to be, and its derivatives, to plant or estabhsh,! to create, to be prepared; Eth. Tl®^! kuu, to be, to become, to be made ; Ch.i Sam. as the Hebrew. See Class Gn. No.! aa 38. and 58. 42. 45. &c. Can in English I is treated as an auxiUary verb, the signl of the infinitive being omitted, as in the jihrases, / can go, instead of, / can to go ,-! thou canst go ; he can go.] |

To be able ; to have sufficient strength: or physical power. One man can hft a weight which anotlier can not. A horsei can run a certain distance in a given time.

2. To have means, or instruments, whichj supply power or ability. A man can buildi a house, or fit out a ship, if he has the re- quisite property. A nation cannot prose- cute a war, without money or credit. I will lend you a thousand dollars, if I can.\\\\

3. To be possible.

Nicodemus said, How can these things be .' John ili.

4. To have adequate moral power. A man can indulge in i)leasure, or he can refrain. He can restrain his appetites, if he will.

5. To have just or legal competent power, that is, right ; to be free from any restraint of moral, civil or political obligation, or from any positive prohibition. We can use a highway for travel, for this is per- mitted hy law. A man can or cannot hold an office. The Jews could not eat certain kinds of animals which were declared to be unclean. The House of Commons in England can impeach, but the House of Lords only can try impeachments. In general, we can do whatever neither the laws of God nor of man forbid.

How can I do this great wickedness and sin against God. Gen. xxxix.

I cannot go beyond the word of the Lord, my God, to do less or more. Numb. xxii. C. To have natural strength, or capacity ; to be susceptible of; to be able or free to un- dergo any change, or produce any effect, by the laws and constitution of nature, or by divine appointment. Silver can be melt- ed, but cannot be changed into gold.

Can the rush grow witliout mire ? Job viii.

7. To have competent strength, ability, for- titude, patience, &c., in a passive sense. He cannot bear reproof. I cannot endure this impertinence.

This is a hard saying ; who can hear it .' John vi.

8. To have the requisite knowledge, experi- ence or skill. Young men are not admit- ted members of college, till they can trans- late Latin and Greek. A]i astronomer can calculate an echpse, though he can not make a coat.

9. To have strength of inchnation or tnotives sufficient to overcome obstacles, impedi- ments, inconvenience or other objection.

I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. Luke xiv.

I cannot rise and give thee — yet because of his importunity, he will rise and give him. Luke xi.

10. To have sufficient capacity ; as, a vessel

can not hold or contain the whole quuu-

tity. €AN, V. t. To know. [JVot in use.] Spenser. CAN'-BUOY, n. In seamanship, a buoy in

form of a cone, made large, and sometimes

painted, as a mark to designate shoals.

&c. Mar. Diet.

eAN'-HQOK, n. An instrument to sling a

cask by the ends of its staves, formed by

reeving a piece of rope through two flat

hooks, and splicing its ends together.

Mar. Diet. €ANA'DIAN, a. Pertaining to Canada, an

extensive country on the north of the

United States. €ANA'D1AN, n. An inhabitant or native of

Canada. €ANA'IL, 71. [Fr. canaille ; Sp. eanalla ; Port.

canalha ; It. canaglia.] The coaiser part of meal ; hence, the lowest

people; lees; dregs; offscouring. CAN'AKIN, n. A little can or cup. Shak. CANAL', n. [L. canalis, a channel or kennel :

these being the same word differently

written; Fr. canal; Arm. can, or canol;

Sp. Port, canal ; It. cancde. See Cane,

It denotes a passage, from shooting, or


1. A passage for water ; a water course : properly, a long trench or excavation in the earth for conducting water, and con- fining it to naiTOW limits ; but the term may be apphed to other water courses. It is chiefly applied to artificial cuts or passages for water, used for transporta- tion ; whereas channel is applicable to a natural water course.

The canal from the Hudson to Lake Erie is one of the noblest works of art.

2. In anatomy, a duct or passage in the bodj of an animal, through which any of the juices flow, or other substances pass ; as the neck of^ the bladder, and the aUmenta- ry canal.

3. A surgical instrument ; a splint. Coxe. €ANAL-C0AL. [See Cannel-coal.] CANALICULATE, \\\\ [L. canalicula- CANALIC'ULATED, ^ "• tus, from canal- iculus, a little ]>ipe, from canalis, canna, a pipe.]

Channelled ; furrowed. In botany, having a deep longitudinal groove above, and con- vex underneath ; applied to the stem, leaf, or petiole of plants. J\\\\Iart}/n.

€/ "


2. An old dance. Shakspeare has tiscd the word as a verb in a kind of cant phrase.

€ANA'RY-BIRD, n. A singing bird fi-om the Canary isles, a species of Fringilla. The bill is conical and straight ; the body is yellowisli white ; the prime feathers of the wings and tail are greenish. These birds are now bred in other countries.

CANA'RY-GRASS, n. A plant, the Phala- ris, whose seeds are collected for canary- birds.

C.\\\\N'CEL, V. t. [Fr. canceller ; Port, can- cellar ; L. cancello, to deface, properly to make cross bars or lattice-work, hence to make cross fines on writing, from can- celli, cross bars or lattice-work ; Gr. xi^xUf ; Syr. Ch. Spjp kankel, id.]

1. To cross the lines of a writing, and de- face them ; to blot out or obliterate.

or petiole of plants. Marti/n.

;ANA'RY, n. Wine made in the Canary




'*. To annul, or destroy ; as, to cancel an ob ligation or a debt.

CAN'CELATED, o. [L. cancellalus, can ceUo.] Cross-barred ; marked with cross lines. Grew. Martyn.

CANCELA'TION, n. The act of delacnig by cross lines ; a canceling.

CAN'CELED, ;//>. Crossed ; obliterated annulled.

CAN'CELING,;);>r. Crossing; obliterating annulling.

CAN'CER, n. [L. cancer; Sixx.cancre; Fr. cancre; D.kanker; S}!. cangrejo, cancro It. cancro, canckero ; Gr. xayxn- This seems to be the same word, though ap- plied to the shell ; xofxivoi, a cancer, is i different word. From the Greek, the Latins have concha, Eng. conch. But n is not radical ; for this is undoubtedly the W. cocos, Eng. cockle, Fr. coquille, coque, It. coccia. These words are probably from the same root as Sp. cocar, to wrinkle, twist, or make wry faces ; Ir. cuachaim, to fold ; Eng. cockle, to shrink or i)ucker ; verbs which give the primary sense. It is to be noted that cancer and canker are the same word ; ca?i*er being the original pro- niuiciation.]

1. The crab or crab-fish. This genus of ani- mals have generally eight leg.s, and twd claws which serve as hands ; two distant eyes, supported by a kind of peduncles, and they are elongated and movable. They have also two clawed palpi, and the tail is jointed. To this genus belong the lobster, shrimp, cray-fish, &c.

% In astronomy, one of the twelve signs of tlie zodiac, represented by the form of a crab, and limiting the sun's course north- ward in summer ; hence, the sign of the summer^ solstice.

3. In medicine, a roundish, hard, unequal, scirrous tumor of the glands, which usu- ally ulcerates, is very painful, and gene- rally fatal.

€AN'CERATE, v. i. To grow into a can- cer ; to becoTne cancerous. L'Eslrangc.

CANCERA'TION, n. A growing cancer- ous, or into a cancer.

•eAN'CEROUS, a. Like a cancer; having the qualities of a cancer. Wiseman.

€AN'CEROUSNESS, n. The state of being cancerous.

C.\\\\N'CRIFORM, a. Cancerous.

2. Having the form of a cancer or crab. I'AN'CRINE, a. Having the quahties of a


lAN'CRITE, n. [ft-om cancer.] A fossil or l»iriiied crab. Fourcroy.

< \\\\.\\\\ DENT, a. [L. candens, from candeo, to be white or hot. See the verb, to cant~

Very hot ; heated to whiteness ; glowing with heat.

€AN'DI€ANT.a. Growing white. Diet.

i,'AN'DID, o. [L. Candidas, white, from can- deo, to be white ; W. canu, to bleach. Set Cant] White. Drydcn.

[But in this sense rarely used.]

9. Fair ; open ; frank ; ingenuous ; free fi-om undue bias; disposed to think and judge according to truth and justice, or without partiality or prejudice ; applied to persons.

3. Fair ; just ; impartial ; applied to things; as a candid view, or construction.

€AN'DIDATE, n. [L. candidatiis, from can didus, white ; tliose who sought offices in

Vol. I.

Rome being obliged to wear a white gown.]

A man who seeks or aspires to an offii one who offers himself, or is proposed for l)referment, by election or appointment usually followed by for; as a candidate for the office of sherift'.

2. One who is in contemplation for an office, or for preferment, by those who have power to elect or appoint, though he does not offer himself

3. One w^ho, by his services or actions, will or may justly obtain preferment or re- ward, or whose conduct tends to secure it ; as a candidate for praise.

A man who is qualified, according to the rules of the church, to preach the gospel, and take the charge of a parish or reli- gious society, and j)roposes to settle in the ministry. U. States.

5. One who is in a state of trial or probation for a reward, in another life ; as a can- didate for heaven or for eternity.

eAN'DIDLY, adv. Openly ; frankly ; with- out trick or disguise; ingenuously.

€AN'U1DNESS, n. Openness of mind; fraid

€AN'DIED, pp. or a. [from candy.] Pre- served with sugar, or incrusted with it ; covered with crystals of sugar or ice, or with matter resembling them ; as candied raisins.

GAN'DLE, 71. [L. Sp. It. candela ; Fr. chan- delle ; Sa.\\\\. candel ; Pers. knndil ; Arm. cantol ; W. camvyll ; Ir. cainneal ; from L. candeo, to shine, to be white, or its root. The primary sense of the root is, to shoot, to throw, to radiate. See Cant and Ownt.]

1. A long, but small cylindrical body of tal- low, wa.x or spermaceti, formed on a wick composed of linen or cotton threads, twisted loosely ; used for a portable light of domestic use.

3. Alight.

3. A fight; a luminary. In scripture, the candle of tlie Lord is the divine favor and blessing. Job xxix. 3. ; or the conscience or understanding. Prov. xx. 27.

Excommunication by inch of candle, is when the offender is allowed time to repent, while a candle burns, and is then excom- municated.

Sale by inch of candle, is an auction in which persons are allowed to bid, only till a small piece of candle burns out.

Medicated candle, in medicine, a bougie.

Rush-candles are used in some countries ; they are made of the pith of certain rushe.i, peeled except on one side, and dipped in grease. Encyc.

€AN'DLE-BERRY TREE, n. The Mynca cerifera, or wax-bearing myrtle ; a shrub conunon in North America," fi-om the ber- ries of which a kind of wax or oil is pro- cured, of which candles are made. Th« oil is obtained by boiling the berries in water ; the oil rising to the surface is skimmed off, and when cool, is of the con- sistence of wax, and of a dull green color. In jiopular language, this is called bay- berrii tallow.

CAN'DLE-BOMB, n. A small glass bubble, filled with water, placed in the wick of a candle, where it bursts with a report.

CANDLE-HOLDER, n. [candle ani hold.]


A person that holds a candle. Hence, one that remotely assists another, but is oth- erwise not of importance. Shak.

CAN'DLE-LIGHT, n. [candle and light.] The light of a candle ; the necessary can- dles for use. MolinevT.

CAN'DLEMAS, n. [candle and mass. Sax. massa ; candle-feast.]

The fea.st of the church celebrated on the second day of February, in honor of the purification of the Virgin Mary ; so called fiorn the great miniber of lights used on that occasion. This feast is supposed to have originated in the declaration of Sim- eon, that our Savior was "to be a light to lighten the Gentiles." On this day, the Catholics consecrate all the candles and tapers which are to be used in their churches diu'ing the whole year. In Rome, the ])ope performs the ceremony himself, and distributes wax candles to the cardinals and others, who carry them in procession through the great hall of the

{lope's palace. The ceremony was pro- libited in England by an order of coun- cil in 1548. But candlemas is one of the four terms for paying and receiving rents and interest ; and it gives name to a law term, beginning Jan. 15, and ending Feb. 3. Encyc.

CAN'DLE-STICK, «. [candle and stick; Sax. candel-sticea.] An instrument or uten- sil to hold a candle, made in different forms and of different materials ; origi- nally a stick or piece of wood.

€AN'bLE-STUFF, n. [candle and «/»/.] A material of which candles are made, as tallow, wax, &c. Bacon.

CAN'DLE- WASTER, n. [candle and waste.] One who wastes or consumes candles ; a hard student, or one who studies by can- dle-fight; a spendthrift.

B. Jonson. Shak.

€AN'DLES-ENDS, n. Scraps ; fragments. Beaum.

CAN'DOe, n. A plant or weed that grows in rivers. Walton.

€.\\\\N'DOR, n. [L. candor, from candeo, to be white.]

Openness of heart ; frankness : ingenuous- ness of mind ; a disposition to treat sub- jects with fairness ; fi-eedom from tricks or disguise; sincerity. Watts.

CAN'DY, V. t. [It. candire, to candy, to pre- serve ; candito, candied ; Fr. candir. This seems not to be the Latin condio, for the Italian has also condire. Possibly it may be from L. candeo, to be white. But in Ar.

j^^'i kand, kandon, is the saccharine mat- ter of the sugar cane, or concrete sugar, and it is tlie same in Persian; Sans. khand.]

1. To conserve or dress with sugar ; to boil in sugar.

2. To form into congelations or crj-stals.


3. To cover or incrust with congelations, or crystals of ice. Dryden.

€AN'DY, V. i. To form into crystals, or be- come congealed ; to take on the form of candied sugar.

€.\\\\N' DYING, ppr. Conserving with sugar.

CANDYING, n. The act of preserving


simples in substance, by boiling then in

sugar. Encyc.

€AJV'DY-TUFTS, n. A plant, the Ibeiis.

Fam. of Plants. 2. A Cretan flower. Tale.

CANE, n. [L. canna ; Gr. xowro ; Fr. canne ;

W. cawn ; Sp. caha ; Port, cana or canna ;

It. canna; Arm. canen ; Heb. Ch. Syr.

Ar. nJp- In the Arabic, a word of this

family signifies a subterraneous passage for water, or canal. It probably signifies a shoot.]

1. In botany, this term is applied to several species of plants belonging to different genera, such as Arundo, Calamus, Sac- charum, &c. Among these is the 6am- boo of the East Indies, with a strong stem, which serves for pipes, poles, and walk- ing sticks. The sugar cane, a native of Asia, Africa and America, furnishes the juice from which are made, sugar, melas- ses and spirit. [See Sugar Cane.]

2. A walking stick.

3. A lance, or dart made of cane. Dryden

4. A long measure, in several countries of Europe ; at Naples, the length is 7 feet Hi inches ; in Thoulouse in France, 5 feet 8^ inches ; in Provence, &c., 6 feet 5J inches

€ANE, V. t. To beat with a cane or walk ing stick.

GA'NE-BRAKE, n. [cane and brake.] A thicket of canes. Ellicotl.

GA'NE-HOLE, n. [cane and hole.] A hole or trench for planting the cuttings of cane, on sugar ])lautations. Edivards' fV. Indies

€A'NE-TRASH, n. [cane and trash.] Re- fuse of canes, or macerated rinds of cane, reserved for fuel to boil the cane-juice.

Edwards' }V. Indies

CANES'CENT, a. [L. canescens.] Growing white or hoary.

CANIC'ULA, I [L. canicula, a little dog,

CA'NieULE, S "• from cayiis, a dog.]

A star in the constellation of Canis Major, called also the dog-star, or Sirius ; a star of the first magnitude, and the largest and brightest of all the fixed stars. From the rising of this heliacally, or at its emersion from the sun's rays, the ancients reckoned their dog-days.

€ANI€'ULAR, a. [L. canicularis.] Pertain ing to the dog-star.

CANINE, a. [L. caninits, from canis, a dog. Pertaining to dogs ; having the properties or qualities of a dog ; as a canine appetite, insatiable hunger ; canine madness, or hy drophobia.

Canine teeth are two sharp pointed teeth in each jaw of an animal, one on each side, between the incisors and grinders ; so na- med from their resemblance to a dog's teeth.

■eA'NING, n. A beating with a stick or cane.

CAN'ISTER, n. [L. canistrum; Gr. xaraypov, xavrii or xowtw ; Fr. canastre ; Port, canas- tra ; Sp. canasta.]

Properly, a small basket, as in Dryden ; but more generally, a small box or case, for tea, coffee, &c. €ANK'ER, n. [L. cancer; Sax. cancere or cancre ; D. hanker ; Fr. chancre ; It. cai chero. This is the Latin cancer, with tl Roman pronunciation. See Cancer.] 1. A disease incident to trees, which causes the bark to rot and fall.


2. A popular name of certain small eroding ulcers in the mouth, particularly of child- ren. They are generally covered with a whitish slough. Cyc.

3. A virulent, corroding ulcer ; or any thing that corrodes, corrupts or destroys.

Sacrilege may prove an eating canker.

Mterbury. And tlieir word will eat as doth a canker. 2 Tim. ii.

4. An eating, corroding, virulent humor;

5. A kind of rose, the dog rose. Peacham. Shak

6. In farriery, a running thrush of the worst kind; a disease in horses' feet, discharging a fetid matter from the cleft in the middle of the frog. Encyc.

CANK'ER, V. t. To eat, corrode, corrupt, consume, in the manner that a cai fects the body. Herbert.

2. To infect or pollute. Addison.

CANK'ER, V. i. To grow corrupt ; to de- cay, or waste away by means of any nox- ious cause ; to grow rusty, or to be oxy- dized, as a metal. Bacon.

CANK'ERBIT, a. Bitten with a cankered or envenomed tooth. Shak

CANK'ERED, pp. Corrupted.

Crabbed ; uncivil. Spciiser

CANK'EREDLY, arfy. Crossly; adverselv.

CANK'ER-FLY, n. A fly that preys on

fruit. Walton

CANK'ER-LIKE, a. Eating or corrupting

ranker. CANK'EROUS, a. Corroding like a canker. Tliomsoru CANK'ER-WORM, n. A worm, destruc tive to trees or plants. In America, tliis name is given to a worm that, in some years, destroys the leaves and fruit of ap pie trees. This animal springs from ai egg deposited by a miller, that issues from the ground. CANK'ERY, a. Rusty. CAN'NABINE, a. [L. cannahinus. from can- nabis, hemp.] Pertaining to hemp ; hemp- en. CAN'NEL-COAL, CAN'DLE-COAL, n. A hard, opake, inflammable fossil coal of] a black color, sufliciently solid to be cut and polished. On fire it decrepitates ant! breaks into angular fragments. It is some- times used for hikholders and toys.

Ckaveland CAN'NEQUIN, n. White cotton cloth from the East Indies, suitable for the Guinea trade. Encyc.

CAN'NIBAL, n. A human being that eats human flesh ; a man-eater, or anthropoph- agite. Bacon. Bentley. CAN'NIBALISM, n. The act or practice 6f|

eating human flesh, by mankind.

2. Murderous cruelty ; barbarity. Burk

CAN'NIBALLY, adv. In the manner of a

cannibal. Shak

CAN'NON, n. [Fr. canon ; Arm. canon or

canol ; D. kanon ; G. kanone ; Sp. canon

Port, canham ; It. cannone. Probably from

L. canna, a tube. See Cane.]

A large military engine for throwing balls,

and other instruments of death, by the

force of gunpowder. Guns of this kind

are made of iron or brass and of differ

ent sizes, carrying balls from three or four

poiuids, to forty eight povinds weight. In


some countries, they have been made of much larger size. The smaller guns of this kind are called field pieces.

CANNONA'DE, n. The act of discharging cannon and throwing balls, for the purpose of destroying an army, or battering a town, ship or fort. The term usually implies an attack of some continuance.

CANNONA'DE, v. t. To attack with heavy artillery ; to throw balls, or other deadly weapons, as chain-shot or langrage, against an enemy's army, town, fortress or ship : to batter with cannon shot.

CANNONA'DE, v. i. To discharge cannon ; to plav with large guns.

CAN'NON-BALL, n. A ball, usually made of cast iron, to be thrown from cannon. Cannon bullet, of the like signification, is not now used. Cannon balls were origi- nally of stone.

CANNONEE'R, \\\\ A man who manages

CANNONIE'R, ( cannon; an engineer.

CAN'NON-PROOF, a. Proof against can- non shot.

CAN'NON-SHOT, n. A ball for cannon; also, the range or distance a cannon will throw a ball.

CANNOT, [can and not.] These words are usually united, but perhaps without good reason ; canst and not are never united.

CAN'NULAR, a. [L. cawna, a tube.] Tubu- lar; having the form of a tube. Encyc.

CAN6E, n. canoo'. [Fr. canot ; Sp. canoa ; It. canoe or canon ; from L. canna, a tube or cane, or the same root.]

1. A boat used by rude nations, formed of the body or trunk of a tree, excavated, by cutting or burning, into a suitable shape. Similar boats are now used by civihzed men, for fishing and other purjioses. It is impelled by a paddle, instead of an oar.

2. A boat made of bark or skins, used by

CAN'ON, n. [Sax. Fr. Sp. Port, canon ; It. canone ; L. canon ; Gr. xawi-. Dr. Owen deduces the word from the Heb. rup a cane, reed or measuring rod. In Eth. ^'I'l kanan, signifies to set, to establish, to form a rule, whence canon, a rule. But this verb is probably from the noim. The word is from one of the roots in Class Gn, which signifies to set, or to strain. The Welsh unites it with the root of can, L. cano, to sing, W. canon, a song, a rule, a canon, from canii to sing, L. cano. The sense of canon is that which is set or es- tablished.] . In ecclesiastical affairs, a law, or rule of doctrine or discipline, enacted by a coun- cil and confirmed by the sovereign; a^ de- cision of matters in religion, or a regula- tion of policy or disciphne, by a general oi provincial council. A law or rule in general.

3. The genuine books of the Holy Scrip tures, called the sacred canon, or genci.il rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration.

A dignitary of the church; a person who possesses a prebend or revenue allotted for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church.

A cardinal canon is one attached to a church, incardinatus, as a priest to a parish.

DomiceUary canons, arc young canons.




not in orders, having no riglit in any par- ticular cliapters.

Expedahve canons, having no revenue or prebend, but having the title and dignities of canons, a voice in the chapter and a place in the choir, till a prebend should full.

Foreign canons, such as did not officiate in their canonries ; opposed to mansionary T)r residentiary canons.

Lay, secular or Itonorary canons, lay men admitted out of honor or respect, int( SDtxiB chapter of canons.

Regular canons, who hve in monasteries or in coniinunity, and who, to the practice of their rules, have added the profession of vows.

Tertiary canons, who have only the third part of the revenue of the canonicate.

Encyc. 5. In monasteries, a book containing the

rules of the order. G. A catalogue of saints acknowledged and canoniy.ed in the Romish Church.

7. The secret words of the mass from the preface to the Pater, in the middle of whirl the j)riest consecrates the host. The peo- ple are to rehearse this part of the service, on their knees, and in a voice lower than can be heard. Romish Church.

8. In ancient music, a rule or method for de- termining the intervals of notes, invented by Ptolemy. Encyc.

9. In modem tnusic, a kind of perpetual fugue, in which the different parts, begin ning one after another, repeat incessantly the same air. Busby

10. In geometry and algebra, a general rule for the solution of cases of a like nature with the present inquiry. Every last step of an equation is a canon.

11. In pharmacy, a rule for con]j)ounding medicines.

12. In surgery, an instrument used in sev up wounds.

Canon-law, is a collection of ecclesiastical laws, serving as the rule of church govern ment.

CANON-BIT, n. That part of a bit let into a horse's mouth.

€AN'ONESS, n. A woman who enjoys a prebend, affixed, by the foundation maids, without obliging them to make any vows or renounce the world. Enci/c

C.\\\\NON'l€AL, a. [L. canonicus.] Pertain ing to a canon ; according to the canon or rule.

Canonical books or canonical scriptures, are those books of the scriptures which admitted by the canons of the church, to be of divine origin. The Roman catholic church admits the Apocryphal books to be canonical ; the Protestants reject them.

Canonical hours, are certain stated times of the day, fixed by the ecclesiastical laws, or appropriated to the offices of prayer and devotion. In Great Britain, these hours are from eight o'clock to twelve in the forenoon, before and after which mar- riage cannot be legally performed in the church. Encyc.

Canonical obedience, is submission to the canons of a church, especially the submis- sion of the inferior clergy to their bishops, and other religious orders to their superi- ors.

Canonical punishments, are such as the church may inflict, as excommunicatiou, degradation, penance, &c.

Canonical ltfe,'\\\\9 the method or rule of living prescribed by the ancient clergy who liv- ed in community, a course of living pre- scribed for clerks, less rigid than the mo- nastic and more restrained than the secu- lar.

Canonical sins, in the ancient church, were those for which capital punishment was inflicted ; as idolatry, murder, adultery, heresy, &.C.

Canonical letters, anciently, were letters which passed between the orthodox cler gy, as testimonials of their faith, to keep up the catholic communion, and to distin guish them from heretics.

Canonical epistles, is an appellation given to those epistles of the New Testament which are called general or catholic.


CANONICALLY, orfr. In a manner agree- able to the canon.

CANON'ICALNESS, n. The quality of be- ins canonical.

€ANON'ICALS, 71. plu. The full dress of the clergy, worn when they officiate.

€ANON'l€ATE, n. The office of a ca


CAN'ONIST, n. A professor of canon law one skilled in the study and practice of errlesiastical law.

€ANONIS'Tle, a. Having the knowledge of a canonist.

€ANONIZA'TION,7!. [See Canonize.) The act of declaring a man a saint, or rather the act of ranking a deceased person in the catalogue of saints, called a canon. This act is preceded by beatification, and by an examination into the life and mira- cles of the person ; at^er which the Pope decrees the canonization.

Addison. Encyc.

2. The state of being sainted.

CAN'ONIZE, V. t. [from canon.] To de- clare a man a saint and rank him in the catalogue, called a canon.

€AN'ONRY, I An ecclesiastical bene-

€AN'ONSHIP, I "• fice, in a cathedral or collegiate church, which has a prebend or stated allowance out of the revenues of the church commonly annexed to it. The benifice filled by a canon. A prebend may subsist without a canoiiry ; but a can-I onicate is inseparable from a prebend. ! Ayliffe. Encyc]

€AN'OPIED,a. [See Canopy.] Covered witi a canopv. Milton

€AN'OPY, n. [Gr. *ururt»or, a pavihon oi net spread over a bed to keep off gnats from xMvu-i-, a gnat.]

1. A covering over a throire, or over a bed ; more generally, a covering over the head, So the sky is called a canopy^ and a cano- py is borne over the head in processions.

2. In architecture and sculpture, a magnifi- cent decoration serving to cover and crown an altar, throne, tribunal, pulpit, chair or the like. Encyc.

eAN'OPY, V. t. To cover with a canopy.

Dry den.

eANO'ROUS, a. [L. canorua, from cano, to

sing.] Musical ; tuneful. Broum.

CANO'ROUSNESS, n. Musicalness.

CANT, V. t. [L. canto, to sing ; Sp. cantar.

Port, id., to sing, to chant, to recite, to creak, to chirp, to whistle ; It. cantare, to sing, to praise, to crow ; Fr. chanter : Arm. cana ; from L. cano, to sing. The primary sense is to throw, thrust or drive, as in can ; a sense retained in the phrase, to can* over any thing. In singing, it im- plies a modulation or inflexion of voice. In Welsh, can, with a different sound of the vowel, signifies a song and white, L. cano, canus, and canco. These are from the same root and liave the same radical sense, to throw or shoot as rays of light, to shine, probably appUed to the sun's morning rays. W. canu, to sing ; Sans- crit, gana ; Persic, kandam.]

1. In popular usage, to turn about, or to turn over, hy a sudden push or thrust ; as, to cant over a pail or a cask. Mar. Diet.

2. To toss ; as, to cant a ball.

3. To speak with a whining voice, or an af- fected singing tone.

[In this sense, it is usually intransitive.]

4. To sell by auction, or to bid a price at auction. Swijl.

CANT, n. A toss; a throw, thrust or push with a sudden jerk ; as, to give a ball a cant. [This is the literal sense.]

2. A whining, singing manner of^ sjieech ; a. quaint, affected mode of uttering words cither in conversation or preaching.

3. The whining speech of beggars, as in asking alms and making complaints of their distresses.

4. The peculiar words and phrases of pro- fessional men ; phrases often repeated, or not well authorized.

5. Any barbarous jargon in speech.

6. Whining pretension to goodness. Johnson .

7. Outcry, at a public sale of goods ; a call for bidders at an auction. SwiJl.

This use of the word is precisely equiv- alent to auction, auctio, a hawking, a crj'- ing out, or in the vulgar dialect, a singing out, but I beUeve not in use in the L. States.

CANT, n. [D. kant, a corner.] A nich ; a corner or retired place. B. Jonson.

Cant-timbers, in a ship, are those which are situated at the two ends. Mar. Diet.

CANTA'BRIAN, a. Pertaining to Canta- bria, on the Bay of Biscav, in Spain.

CAN'TALIVER; n. [cantfe and eaves.] In architecture, a piece of wood, framed into the front or side of a house, to suspend the moldings and eaves over it. Encyc

CAN'TAR, \\\\ An eastern weight ; at

CAN'TARO, J "• Acra in Turke>, 603 poimds ; at Tunis and Tripofi, 114 pounds. In Egypt, it consists of 100 or 150 roto- los ; at Naples, it is 25 pounds ; at Genoa, 150 ; at Leghorn, 150, 151, or 160. Encyc. At Alicant in Spain, the cantaro is a li- quid measure of 3 gallons. In Cochin, a measure of capacity, of 4 rubies ; the rubi, 32 rotolos. '

CANTA'TA, n. [Italian, from cantare, to sing ; L. canto.]

A poem set to music ; a composition or song, ' ' " ■ if- ly intended for a single voice.

intermixed with recitatives and airs, chief

CANTA'TION, a. A singing. [.Vo< used.]

CANTEE'N, 71. [It. cantina.] A tin vessel

used by soldiers for carrying liquor for

di-ink. Chambers


tJAN'TELEUP, 11. A variety of muskmel-j

eANT'ER, V. i. [Arm. canlreal or cantrenS to run, to rove or ramble, from tossing or leaping, canting. See Cant]

To move as a horse in a moderate gallop, raising the two fore feet nearly at the same time, with a leap or spring.

CANT'ER, V. t. To ride upon a canter.

€ANT'ER, »;. A moderate gallop.

2. One who cants or whines.

CANTERBURY BELL, n. A species of Campanula. [See Bell-Flower.]

CANTERBURY TALE, n. A fabulous sto ry ; so called from the tales of Chaucer

€A"NT'ERING, ppr. Moving or riding with a slow gallop.

CANTHAR'IDIN, n. [Infra.] Tliat pe- culiar substance existing in the Meloe ves icatorius, or cantharides, which causes vesication. Thomson.

€ANTHA'RIS or plu. CANTHARIDES, n. [Gr. xorSaptj.] Spanish flies; a species of Meloe. This fly is nine or ten hues in length, of a shining green color, mixed with azure, and has a nauseous smell. It feeds upon the leaves of trees and shr preferring the ash. These flies, when bruised, are imiversally used as a vesica- tory, or blistering plaster. The largest come from Italy, but the best from Spain.

CANTH'US, n. [Gr. xwSoj; D. kant, a corner.]

An angle of the eye ; a cavity at the extrem ities of the eyelids ; the greater is next to the nose ; the lesser, near the temple.


CAN'TICLE, n. [Sp. and It. canlico; L. canticwn, from canto. See Cant]

\\\\. A song. Ill the plural, canticles, the Son of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament.

% A canto ; a division of a song. Obs.


CAN'TILLATE, v. t. [L. cantillo. See Cant.] To chant ; to recite with musical tones. M. Stuart

CANTILLA'TION, n. A chanting ; recita- tion with nmsical modulations.

(JANTTNG, ppr. Tlu-owing with a sudden jerk ; tossing.

'I. Speaking with a whine or song-like tone

CANT'INGLY, arfv. With a cant.

CAN'TION, n. A song or verses. [JVoi used.] Spe7}

CAN'TLE, n. [Arm. chantell ; Fr. chanteau, whence echantillon ; Eng. scantling.]

A fragment ; a piece ; a portion. 06s.

CAN'TLE, V. t. To cut into pieces ; to cut out a piece. Obs. Dri/den.

CANT'LET, n. A piece ; a little corner ; a fragment. Dryden

CAN'TO, n. [It. canto, a song ; L. cantus. See Cant.)

A part or division of a poem, answering to what in prose is called a book. In Ital- ian, canto is a song, and it signifies also the treble part, first treble, or highest vo- cal part.

CAN'TON, n. [It. eantone, a corner-stone, and a canton ; Sp. canton ; Port, canto. a corner ; Fr. canton, a corner, a part of al country, a district ; Arm. canton ; D. kant ;, G. kante ; Dan. kandl, a eorner, point,' edge, border. The Welsh unites canton^


with canl, a hundred, L. centum. Sax. hund, for cantrev is a circuit or division of a coun- try, from canl, a hundred.]

1. A small portion of land, or division of ter- ritory ; originally, a portion of territory on a border ; also, the inhabitants of a canton.

3. A small portion or district of territory, constituting a distinct state or government ; as in Switzerland.

3. In lieraldry, a corner of the shield.

4. A distinct part, or division ; as the cantons of a painting or other representation.

Burnet. CAN'TON, V. t. [Sp. acantonar.] To divide into small parts or districts, as territory : to divide into distinct portions.

Locke. Addison

2. To allot separate quarters to each regi- ment of an army or body of troops.

Marshall. Encyc.

CAN'TONAL, a. Pertaining to a canton ; divided into cantons.

CAN'TONED, pp. Divided into distinct parts, or quarters ; lodged in distinct quar- ters, as troops.

CAN'TONING, ppr. Dividing into distinct districts ; allotting separate quarters to each regiment.

CAN'TONIZE, V. t. To canton, or divide into small districts. Davits.

CAN'TONMENT, n. A part or division of a town or village, assigned to a particular regiment of troops ; separate quarters.


CAN'TRED, I [L. centum.] A hundred

CAN'TREF, \\\\ "■ villages, as in Wales.


CAN'VAS, n. [Fr. canevas, canvas, and chanvre, hemp ; Arm. canavc^; Sp. caha- mazo ; Port, canamo ; It. canavaccio, canvas and canapa, hemp ; D. kanefas, canvas, and hennep, hemp; G. kanefass, canvas, and hanf, hemp; Dan. canefas ; L. cannabis hemp ; Gr. xanaSts ; Ir. canbhas, canvas, and cniiaib, hemp ; Russ. kanephas. It i; from the root ofcanna, cane ; perhaps adi minutive.]

1. A coarse cloth made of hemp, or flax, used for tents, sails of ships, painting and other purposes.

2. A clear unbleached cloth, wove regularly in little squares, u.sed for working tapestry with the needle.

3. Among the French, the rough draught or model on which an air or piece of music is composed, and given to a poet to finish. The canvas of a song contains certain notes of the composer, to show the poet the measure of the verses he is to make.

4. Among seamen, cloth in sails, or sails general ; as, to spread as much canvas as the ship will bear.

CANVAS-CLIMBER, n. A sailor that goes] aloft to handle sails. Shak

CAN'VASS, I', t. [Old Fr. cannaba.sser, to boat about or shake, to examine. Junius Skinner.]

1. To discuss; Uterally, to beat or shake out, to open by beating or shaking, like the L. discutio. This is the common use of the word, as to canvass a subject, or the policy of a measure.

2. To examine returns of votes ; to search or scrutinize ; as, to canvass the votes for

CAN'VASS, v. i. To seek or go about to


solicit votes or interest ; to use efforts to obtain ; to make interest in favor of; fol- lowed by for; as, to canvass for an oflice, or preferment ; to canvass for a friend. CAN'VASS, n. Examination; close inspec- tion to know the state of; as a canvass of

2. Discussion ; debate.

3. A seeking, solicitation, or efforts to ob- tain.

CAN'VASSED, pp. Discussed ; examined.

CAN'VASSER, n. One who solicits votes, or goes about to make interest. Burke.

9. One who examines the returns of votes- for a public oflicer.

CAN'VASSING, ppr. Discussing ; examin- ing ; sifting ; seeking.

CAN'VASSING, n. The act of discussing,

makii 1 cam or abounding with canes. Milton.

ig interest. CA'NY, a. [from cane.] Consisting of cane

CAN'ZONE, n. [It. a song. See Cant.] A song or air in two or three parts, with pas- sages of fugue and imitation ; or a poem to which music may be composed in the style of a cantata. When set to a piece of instrumental music, it signifies much the same as cantata ; and when set to a sona- ta, it signifies allegro, or a brisk move- ment. Bailey. Busby.

CAN'ZONET, n. [It. canzonetta.] A httle or short song, in one, two or three parts. It sometimes consists of two strains, each of which is sung twice. Sometimes it is a species of jig. Encyc. Busby.

CAP, n. [Sax. cceppe, a cap, and a cape, a cloke ; D. kap ; G. kappe and haube ; Dan. kappe, a robe or coat ; Sw. kappa, id ; It. cappa, a cap, a cloke ; W. cap ; Fr. chape, chape.au; Arm. ehap or cap. The sense is probably that which is put on. Class Gb. No. 70. also 31.36.]

1. A part of dress made to cover the head.

2. The ensign of a cardinalate. Shak.

3. The to]), or the uppermost ; the highest.

Thou art the cap of fools. Shak.

4. A vessel in form of a cap. Wilkins.

5. An act of respect, made by uncovering the head. VEstrange.

Cap of cannon, a piece of lead laid over the vent to keep the priming dry ; now called an apron.

Cap of maintenance, an ornament of state,, carried before the Kings of England at the coronation. It is also carried before the mayors of some cities.

In ship-building, a cap is a thick strong block of wood, used to confine two masts to- gether, when one is erected at the head of another.

CAP, v. t. To cover the top, or end ; to spread over ; as, a bone is capped at the joint with a cartilaginous substance. The cloud-capped towers. Shak.

2. To deprive of the cap, or take off a cap.

To cap verses, is to name alternately verses beginning with a particular letter ; to name in opposition or emulation ; to name al- ternately in contest. Johnson.

CAP, v. i. To uncover the head in reverence or civility. [.Vo* used.] Shak.

Cap-a-pie, [Fr.] From head to foot ; all over ; as, armed cap-a-pie.

Cap-paper, n. A coarse paper, so called fi-om




being used to make caps to hold commod ities. Boyle

Cap-aheaf, n. The top sheaf of a stack grain ; the crowner.

CAPABIL'ITY, n. [See Capable.] The quality of being capable ; capacity ; capa bleness. SItak. Lavoisier, Trans.

CA'PABLE, a. [Vr. capable, from L.capio, take. See Class Gb. No. 68. 69. 75. 83.]

1. Able to hold or contain ; able to receiv sufficiently capacious ; often followed by of; as, the room is not caj3a6/e o/ receiv ing, or capable of holding the company.

2. Endued with power competent to the ob- ject ; as, a man is capable of judging, oi he is not capable.

3. Possessing mental powers ; intelligent able to understand, or receive into the mind ; having a capacious mind ; as a ca- pable judge ; a capable instructor.

4. Susceptible ; as, capable of pain or grief.


5. Qualified for ; susceptible of; as, a thin" is capable of long duration ; or it is capable of being colored or altered.

6. Qualified for, in a moral sense ; having legal power or capacity ; as, a bastard is not capable of inheriting an estate.

7. Hollow. UVot now used.] CA'PABLENESS, n. The state or quality

of being capable ; capacity ; power of un- derstanding ; knowledge. Killingbeck.

CAPAC'IFY, V. t. To qualifv. [Unusual.] Barrow. Good.

€APA'CIOUS, a. [L. capax, from capio, to take or hold.]

1. Wide ; large ; that will hold much ; as a capacious vessel.

2. Broad ; extensive ; as a capacious bay or harbor.

.'!. Extensive ; comprehensive ; able to take a wide view ; as a capacious mind.

CAPA'CIOUSNESS, n. Wideness ; large ness ; as of a vessel.

2. Extensiveness ; largeness ; as of a bay.

3. Comprehensiveness ; power of taking f wide survey ; applied to the mind.

CAPACITATE, V. t. [See Capacity.] To

make capable ; to enable ; to furnish with

niitiirnl power ; as, to capacitate one for

understanding a theorem. !2. To endue with moral qualifications ; to

quaUfy ; to furnish with legal powers ; as,

to capacitate one for an office. CAPACITATED, pp. Made capable;

qualified. CAPACITA'TION, n. The act of making

capable. CAPACITY, 71. [L. capacitas, from capax,

capio ; Fr. capaciti.]

1. Passive power ; the power of containing, or holding ; extent of room or space ; as the capacity of a vessel, or a cask.

2. The extent or comprehensiveness of the mind ; the power of receiving ideas or knowledge.

Let instruction be adapted to the capacities of youth.

3. Active power ; ability ; applied to men or things ; but less common, and correct.

The world does not include a cause endued with such capacities. Blackmore.

4. State ; condition ; character ; profession ; occupation. A man may act in the capa- city of a mechanic, of a friend, of an attor-

ney, or of & statesman. He may have natural or a political capacity.

5. Ability, in a moral or legal sense ; qual ification ; legal power or right ; as, a man or a corporation may have a capacity to give or receive and hold estate.

6. In geometry, the solid contents of a body,

7. In chimistry, that state, quality or consti- tution of bodies, by which they absorb and contain, or render latent, any fluid as the capacity of water for caloric.

.'ISON, n. [Sp. caparazon ; Port


caparazam, a cover put over the saddle of]

a horse, a cover for a coach ; Fr. capara

gon.] A cloth or covering laid over the saddle oi

furniture of a horse, especially a sumptcr

horse or horse of state. Milton

CAPAR' ISON, V. t. To cover with a cloth

as a horse. Dryden

2. To dress pompously ; to adorn with rich

dross. Shah

CAP'CASE, n. A covered case. [Little

used.] Burton

CAPE, n. [Sp. Port, cabo; It. capo; Fr

cap ; D. haap ; Dan. kap ; L. caput ; Gr

xf^aJj; ; Sans, cabala, head. It signifie;

end, furthest point, from extending, shoot


1. A head land; properly the head, point or termination of a neck of land, extending some distance into the sea, beyond the conunon shore, and hence the name is a))- plicd to the neck of land itself, indefinitely, as in Cape-Cod, Cape-Horn, Cape of Good Hope. It differs from a promontory in this, that it may be high or low land but a promontory is a high bold termina tion of a neck of land.

2. The neck-piece of a cloke or coat. CAP'ELAN, n. A small fish, about six in

ches in length, sholes of which appear ofl" the coasts of Greenland, Iceland and New foundland. They constitute a large part of the food of the Greenlanders. Pennant

CAPEL'LA, n. A bright fixed star in the

left shoulder of the constellation Auriga.


CAP'ELLET, n. A kind of swelling, like a wen, growing on the heel of the hock on a horse, and on the point of the elbow. Encyc

CA'PER, i>. i. [Fr. cahrer, to prance ; cabri- ole, a goat-leap, a caper ; It. capriola, a wild goat, a caper in dancing ; Sp. cabrio- la ; L. caper, a goat. But probably caper is from the root of capio, which signifies not merely to seize, but to shoot or reach forward, or to leap and seize. Hence it is probable that this word coincides in ori- gin with Dan. kipper, to leap, whence Eng. to skip.)

To leap; to skip or junrp; to prance; to



CA'PER, n. A leap ; a skip ; a spring ; as i

dancing or mirth, or in the frolick of

goat or lamb. CA'PER, n. [Fr. capre ; Arm. capresen ; Sp.

Port, alcaparra ; It. cappero ; L. capparis ;

D. kapper; G. kaper ; Syr. kapar ; Ar.

j.x^3 kabaron. The Ar. verb signifies to increase.] The bud of the caper-bush, which is much used for pickling. The buds are collected

betbrc tlie flowers expand, and preserved ill vinegar. The bush is a low shrub, gen- erally growing from the joints of old walls, from fissures in rocks and amongst rubbish, in the southern parts of Europe. Enciic.

CA'PER-BUSH. [See Caper.]

CA'PER-CUTTliVG, n. A leaping or dan- cings in a frolicksome manner. Beaum.

CA'PERER, n. One who capers, leaps and skips about, or dances.

CA'PERING, ppr. Leaping ; skipping.

CA'PIAS, n. [L. capio, to take.] In law, a writ of two sorts ; one before judgment, called a capias ad respondendum, where an original is issued, to take the defendant, and make him answer to the plaintiff; the other, which issues after judgment, is of divers kinds; as a capiasad satisfaciendum, or writ of execution ; a. capias pro fine; a capias utlagatum ; a capias in withernam. Blackslone.

CAP'IBAR, n. An animal partaking of the form of a hog antl of a rabbit, the cabiai.

CAPILLA'CEOUS, a. [L. capillaceus,ba\\\\ry.] Hairy ; resembling a hair. [See Capillary.]

CAPILLA'IRE, n. [Fr.] A kind of^sirrup, extracted from maiden-hair. Mason.

CAPIL'LAMENT, n. [L. capillamenlum, from capiltus, hair, probably ahttle shoot.]

1. The filament, a smaU fine thread, like a hair, that grows in the middle of a flower, with a little knob at the top ; a chive.

2. A fine fiber, or filament, of which the nerves are composed.

CAP'ILLARY, a. [L. capUlaris, from capU- lus, hair.]

1. Resembling a hair, fine, minute, small iu diameter, though long : as a capillary tube or pipe ; a capillary vessel in animal bodies, such as the ramifications of the blood ves- sels. ^'Irbuthnot.

2. In botany, capillary plants are hair-sha- ped, as the ferns ; a term used by Ray, Boerhaave and Morison. This class of plants corresponds to the order of Filices, in the Sexual method, which bear their flower and fruit on the back of the leaf or stalk. Milne.

This term is applied also to leaves which are longer than the setaceous or bristle-sha- ped leaf, to glands resembling hairs, to the filaments, to the stjde, and to the pap- jius or down affixed to some seeds.


CAP'ILLARY, n. A fine vessel or canal.


CAPILLA'TION, n. A blood vessel like a hair. [JVot in xise.] Brotim.

CAPIL'LIFORM, a. [L. eapillus, a hair, ai\\\\A forma, form.]

In the shape or form of a hair, or of hairs.

CAP'ITAL, a. [L. capitalis, from caput, the head. See Cape.]

1. Literally, pertaining to the head ; as a capital bruise, in Milton, a bruise on the head. [This use is not comnwn.]

2. Figuratively, as the head is the highest part of a man, cliief ; principal ; first in impor- tance ; as a capital city or town ; the cap- ital articles of religion.

. Punishable by loss of the head or of hfe ; incurring the forfeiture of life ; punishable with death ; as, treason and murder are capital ofl'enses or crimes.




4. Taking away life, as a capital punishment or affecting life, as a capital trial.

5. Great, important, though perhaps not chief; as, a town possesses capital advan tages for trade.

6. Large ; of great size ; as capital letters, which are of different form, and larger than common letters.

Capital stock, is the sum of money or stock which a merchant, banker or manufact- urer employs in his business ; either the original stock, or that stock augmented. Also, the sum of money or stock whith each i)artner contributes to the joint fund or stock of the ])artnership ; also, the com- mon fund or stock of the company, wheth- er incorporated or not.

A capital city or town is the metropolis or chief city of an empire, kingdom, state or province. The application of the epithet indicates the city to be the largest, or to be the seat of government, or botli. In many instances, the capital, that is, the

largest city, i

the seat of government.

CAP'ITAL, n. [L. capitellum.] The upper- most part of a column, pillar or pilaster, serving as the head or crowning, and pla- ced immediately over the shaft, and imder the entablature. Encyc.

By the customary omission of the noun, to which the adjective, capital, refers, il stands for,

1. The chief city or town in a kingdom or state ; a metropolis.

9. A large letter or type, in printing.

3. A stock in trade, in manufactures, or in any business requiring the expenditure of money with a view to profit.

€AP'ITALIST, n. A man who has a capi- tal or stock in trade, usually denoting a man of large property, which is or may be emjjloyed in business. Burke. Stephens.

€AP'ITALLY, adv. In a capital manner; nobly ; finely.

2. With loss of life ; as, to punish capitally. CAP'ITALNESS, n. A capital offense.

[Little used.] • Shertvood.

€AP'ITATE, a. [L. capitafus, from caput,

a head.] In botany, growing in a head, applied to a

flower, or stisma. Martyn. Lee.

CAPITA'TION, n. [L. capitatio, from caput,

the head.]

1. Numeration by the head ; a numbering of persons. Brown.

2. A tax, or imjjosition upon each head or person ; a poll-tax. Sometimes written Capitation-tax. Encijc.

CAP'ITE. [L. caput, the head, abl.] In English law, a tenant in capite, or in chief, is one who holds lands immediately of the king, caput, the head or Lord Paramount of all lands in the kingdom, by knight's service or by soccage. This tenure is called tenure in capite ; but it was abol- ished in England, by 12 Cliarles II. 24.


eAP'ITOL, n. [L. capitolium, from caput, the head.]

1. Tlie temple of Jupiter in Rome, and a fort or castle, on the Mons Capitolinus. In this, the Senate of Rome anciently as- sembled ; and on the same place, is still the city hall or town-house, where the conservators of the Romans hold their meetings. The same name was given to

the principal temples of the Romans ir their colonies. Encyc.

2. The edifice occupied by the Congress of the United States in their deliberations. In some states, the State-house, or house in which the legislature holds its sessions a government house.

€APITOLIAN, a. Pertaining to the capi I in Rome. D'^nville

€AP'ITOLINE, a. Pertaining to the capitol in Rome. The Capitoline Games were annual ^ames instituted by Camillus in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus, and in com- memoration of the preservation of the capitol from the Gauls, and other games instituted by Domitian and celebrated ev- ery five years. Encyc.

CAPIT'ULAR, > [L. capitulum, a head

CAPITULARY, I "• or chapter.]

An act passed in a chapter, either of knights, canons or religious. The body of laws or statutes of a chap- ter, or of an ecclesiastical council. This name is also given to the laws, civil and ecclesiastical, made by Cljarlemagne, and other princes, in general councils and as semblies of the peo])le. Some indeed have alledged that these are supplements to laws. They are so called, because they are divided into chapters or sections. Encyc.

3. The member of a chapter. CAPIT'ULARLY, adv. In the form of an

ecclesiastical chapter. Swift.

€APIT'ULARY, a. Relating to the chap- ter of a cathedral. Warton.

eAPIT'ULATE,t).i. [bomcapitulum, supra.]

1. To draw up a writing in chapters, heads or articles. Shak.

[But this sense is not usual.]

2. To surrender, as an army or garrison, to an enemy, by treaty, in which the terms of surrender are specified and agreed to by the jjarties. The term is applicable to a garrison or to the inhabitants of a be- sieged place, or to an army or troops in any situation in wiiich they are subdued or compelled to submit to a victorious enemy.

€APITULA'TIOi\\\\, ii. The act of capitula- ting, or surrendering to an enemy upon stipulated terms or conditions.

2. The treaty or instrument containing the conditions of surrender.

3. A reducing to heads. [M>t much used.] In German polity, a contract which the

EmiJeror makes with the electors, in the names of the princes and states of the em- pire, before he is raised to the imperial dignity.

€APIT 'ULATOR, n. One who capitulates. Sherwood.

CAP'ITULE, n. A sunnnarv. [Mot in use.] Wickliffe.

CAPi'VI, n. A balsam of the Spanish West- Indies. [See Copaiba.]

€AP'NOM\\\\NCY,n. [Ov. xarcvo;, smoke, and ftairsia, divination.] Divination by the ascent or motion of smoke. Spenser.

CAPO'CH, n. [Sp. capucho, a hood; Fr. capuce.] A monk's hood.

CA'PON, n. [Sp. capon ; Port, capam ; It. cap- pone ; Fr. chapon ; L. capo ; Ir. cabun ; D. ka- poen ; G. kapaun ; Arm. cabon ; Svv. Dan. kapun ; Gr. xaxuv. Qu. the root of Fr. couper.] A castrated cock ; a cock-chick- en gelded as soon as he quits his dam, or as soon as he begins to crow.

CA'PON, V. t. To castrate, as a cock. Birch..

CAPONiVIE'RE, n. [Fr., Sp. caponera, It. capponiera, a little cut or trench, and it seems to be allied to capon, Sp. caponar, to cut or curtail.]

Infortification, a covered lodgment, sunk four or five feet into the ground, encompassed with a parapet, about two feet high, serv- ing to support several planks, laden with earth. It is large enough to contain 15 or 20 soldiers, and is placed in the glacis, at the extremity of the counterscarp, and in dry moats, with embrasures or loop holes, through wliich the soldiers may fire.

Harris. Encyc.

CAPO'T, n. [Fr., probably from L. capio, to seize.]

A winning of all the tricks of cards at the game of piquet. Johnson.

CAPO'T, V. t. To wm all the tricks of cards at picquet.

CAP'PER, n. [from cap.] One whose bu- siness is to make or sell caps.

CAP'REOLATE, «. [L. capreolm, a tendril, properly a shoot, from the root of capra, a goat.]

In botany, having tendrils, or filiform spiral claspers, by which plants fasten them- selves to other bodies, as in vines, peas, &c. Harris. Martyn.

CAPRICE, n. [Fr. caprite ; Sp. Port, ca- pricho ; It. capriccio, a shaking in fever, rigors ; also, whim, freak, fancy. I sus- pect this word to be formed, with a pre- fix ca, on the root of freak, break ; deno- ting primarily a sudden bursting, breaking, or starting. So we see in Italian, inaglio, and camaglio, a mail. In early English writers, it is written, according to the Spanish, co^ric/io. If formed from the root of capio, caper, the primary sense is the same.]

A sudden start of the mind ; a sudden change of opinion, or humor ; a whim, freak, or particular fancy.

CAPRP'CIOUS, a. Freakish ; whimsical ; apt to change opinions suddenly, or to start from one's purpose ; unsteady ; changeable ; fickle ; fanciful ; subject to change or irregularity ; as a man of a ca- priciuus temper.

CAPRI-'CIOUSLY, adv. In a capricious manner ; whimsically.

CAPRI"CIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being led by caprice ; whimsicalness ; un- steadiness of purpose or opinion.

2. Unsteadiness ; liableness to sudden chan- ges ; as the capriciousness of fortune.

CAP'RICORN, n. [L. capricornus, caper, a goat, and cornu, a horn.]

One of the twelve signs of the zodiac, the winter solstice ; represented on ancient monuments, by the figure of a goat, or a a figure having the fore part like a goat and the hind part like a fish. Encyc.

CAPRIFICA'TION, n. [L. caprificatio.]' \\\\ method of ripening figs by means of a gnat or insect that pricks the bud. Encyc.

CAP'RIFOLE, n. [L. caprifulium.] Hon- eysuckle ; woodbine. Spenser.

CAP'RIFORM, a. [L. caper, a goat, and

forma, form.] Having the form of a goat.

Eclectic Review.

CAP'RIOLE, n. [Fr., now cabriole ; Sp. Port. cabriola ; It. capriola, a caper.]

In the 7nanege, capriole* are leaps that a




horse makes in the same place without ailvaiiciijg, ill such a manner that when he is at the highth of the leap, he jerks out witii his hind legs, even and near. It differs from the croupade in this, that, in a croupade, a horse does not show his shoes, and from a balotade, in which he does not jerk out. Farrier's Did.

€AP'UIPED, a. [L. caper, a goat, and pes. foot.]

Having feet like those of a goat.

CAP'SICUM, 71. Guinea pepper. Chambers.

€APSI'ZE, V. t. To upset or overturn ; a seaman's phrase. Mar. Diet.

€AP'STAN, n. sometimes written cap- stern. [Fr. cabestan ; Sp. cabestrante ; Port. cabrestante, from cabresto, Sp. cabestro, a halter ; L. capistrum ; Sax. cmpster, or cab- estr, a halter. The Spanish has also calria, an a.\\\\le-tree, and cabrio, a rafter. Capstan is probably from L. capio, to hold, with some other word.]

A strong massy column of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced to receive bars or levers, for winding a rope round it, to raise great weights, or perform other extraordinary work, that requires a great power. It may be let down through the decks of a ship, and so fixed that the work is per- formed by a horizontal motion. Mar. Did.

€AP'iuLi^V, \\\\ «• """"- '"^« ^ '■'"^«'-

2. Capsular ligament, is that which sur- rounds every movable articulation, and contains the synovia like a bag. Hooper.

€AP'SULATE, ) Inclosed in a capsule,

CAP'SULATED, i "' or as in a chest or box. Botany.

€AP'SULE, n. [L. caps^da, a little chest, perhaps from capio, to take.]

The seed vessel of a plant; a dry membra- naceous hollow pericarp, opening differ- ently in different plants. It is composed of valves or outer covering, partitions, the columella or central pillar, and cells. Marlyn. Milne.

CAP'TAIN, n. [Fr. capilaine ; Sp. capitan: Port, capitam ; It. capilano ; from L. caput, the head. In the feudal laws of Europe, the term was applied to tenants in capite, who were bound to attend their prince in his wars, at the head of soldiers, and from this practice the name had its origin, or from their command.]

J. l/uerally, a head or chief officer; appro- priately, the military officer who com mands a company, "whether of infantry, cavalry, artillery or matrosses.

3. The commander of a ship of war, or of a merchantman. But the latter is often called a master.

3. The commander of a military band, a sense that occurs in the scriptures ; as a captain of fifty.

4. A man skilled in war or military affairs ; as, Lord Wellington is a great captain.

5. A chief commander. Shak. But in this sense rarely used, but in composition.

Captain-general, is the commander in chief of an army, or of the militia. The gover- nor of a state is Captain- General of the militia. U. States.

Captain- Lieutenant, is an officer, who with the rank of captain and pay of lieutenant, commands a company or troop. Thus

the colonel of a regiment being the cap- tain of the first company, that company is commanded by a Captain-Lieutenant.

Captain- Bashaw, or Capudan Bashaw, in Turkey, is the High Admiral.

CAP'TAIN, a. Chief; valiant. Shak

CAP'TAINCY, n. The rank, post or com mission of a captain. H'ashington

2. The jurisdiction of a captain, or comman- der, as in South America.

CAP'TAINRY, n. The power or command over a certain district ; chieftainship.

Spenser. Johnson

CAP'TAINSHIP, n. The condition or posi of a captain or chief commander. Shak.

2. The rank, quahty or post of a captain. In lieu of this captaincy is now used.

3. The command of a clan, or government of a certain district. Davies

4. Skill in military affairs. CAPTA'TION, n. [L. captatio, from capto,

to catch.]

The act or practice of catching favor or ap- plause, by flattery or address.

King Charles.

CAP'TION, n. [L. captio, from capio, seize.]

1. The act of taking, or apprehending by judicial process. [Little used.]

2. A certificate signed by commissioners in Chancery, declaring when and where the commission was executed. Ash.

3. A preamble.

4. In Scots law, a writ issued at the instance of a creditor, commanding an officer take and imprison the debtor, till he pays the debt.

CAP'TIOUS, a. [L. captiosus, from capto, to catch.]

1. Disposed to find fault, or raise objections ; apt to cavil, as in popular language, it ' said, apt to catch at ; as a captious man.

2. Fitted to catch or ensnare ; insidious; as ptious question. Locke.

3. Proceeding from a caviling disposition as a captious objection or criticism.

CAP'TIOUSLY, adv. In a captious manner

with an inclination or intention to object

or censure. Locke

CAP'TIOUSNESS, n. Disposition to find

faidt ; inchnation to object ; peevishness.


CAP'TIVATE, V. t. [L. captivo, from capti-

vus, a prisoner, from capio, to take ; Fr,

captiver ; Sp. cautivar ; Port, cativar ; It.


To take prisoner ; to seize by force ; as an enemy in war.

Shak. Locke. B. Trumbull. 2. To subdue ; to bring into bondage

King Charles. I. To overpower and gain with excellence or beauty ; to charm ; to engage the affec- tions ; to bind in love. Addison . To enslave ; with to ; as, captivated to error Locke CAP'TIVATE, a. Taken prisoner. Shak. CAP'TIVATED, pp. Made prisoner

harmed. €AP'TIVATING, ppr. Taking prisoner;

engaging the affections. 2. a. Havinc power to engage the affe eAPTIVA'TION, n. The act of taldng a

prisoner; a taking one captive. €AP'TIVE, n. [Fn captif; Sp. cautiio ; It.

eattivo, whence Eng. caitiff; L. captivuf, from capto, to seize.]

1. A prisoner taken by force or stratagem in war, by an enemy ; followed by to ; as a captive to the victor.

2. One who is charmed or subdued by beauty or excellence ; one whose affections are seized, or who is held by strong ties of love.

3. One who is ensnared by love or flattery, I or by wiles. 2 Tim. ii, 26.

4. A slave. Anciently captives were ensla- ved by their conquerors. But in modem times, they are not made slaves in christian countries ; and the word captive, in a lite- ral sense, rarely signifies a slave.

CAP'TIVE, a. Made prisoner in war ; kept in bondage, or confinement ; as captive souls. Dryden.

2. Holding in confinement ; as captive chains.

CAP'TIVE, V. t. To take prisoner ; to bring into subjection. Obs. Dryden. Prior.

CAPTIVITY, n. [Fr. captiviU ; L. captivi- tas, from capto to seize.]

1. The state of being a prisoner, or of being in the power of an enemy by force or the fate of war. Dryden.

[2. Subjection to love. Addison.

3. Subjection ; a state of being under con- trol.

Bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. 2 Cor. x.

4. Subjection ; servitude ; slavery. But I sec another law in my members — bring- ing me into captivity to the law of sin. Rom.

To lead captivity captive, in scripture, is to subdue those who have held others in sla- very, or captivity. Ps. Ixviii.

CAP'TOR, 71. [L. capio, to take.] One who takes, as a prisoner or a prize. It is ap- propriately one who takes a prize at sea.

CAP'Tl'RE, n. [L. captura ; Fr. capture; from L. capio, to take.]

1. In a general sense, the act of taking or seizing; as the capture of an enemy, of a ship, or of booty, by force, surprise or stratagem.

2. The thing taken ; a prize ; prey taken by force, surprise or stratagem.

3. Seizure; arrest; as the ca/)t«re of a crim- inal or debtor.

CAP'TL'RE, V. t. To take or seize by force, surprise or stratagem, as an enemy or his properly ; to take by force under the au- thority of a commission ; as to capture & ship.

CAP'TURED, pp. Taken as a prize.

CAP'TlRIiN'G, ppr. Seizing as a prize.

CAPT'CCIO, 71. [It.] A capuchin or hood.

CAPU'CHED, a. Covered with a hood. [Little used.] Brown.

CAPUCHlN, n. [Fr. capucine, from capuce, a hood or cowl.]

1. A garment for females, consisting of a cloke and hood, made in imitation of the dress of capuchin monks. Johnson.

2. A pigeon whose head is covered with feathers.

CAPUCHINS, n. Monks of the order of St. Francis, who cover their beads with a capuce, capuchon, a stuff-cap or cowl. They are clothed in brown or gray, go bare-footed, and never shave their faces. £71 eye.




eAP'UCINE, n. A species of monkey, the

sagoo or sai. €AP'IJLIN, n. The Mexican cherry. CAR, €AER, CHAR, in names of places, is

sometimes the Celtic Caer, a town or city,

as in Caermarlhen. CAR, Ji. [W. car; Ir. carr, carra, or cairt ;

Arm. qarr ; D. and G. karre ; Sw. khrra ;

Dan. karre ; Sp. It. Port, carro ; L. carrus, or

nirrus; Fr. char, whence chariot; Sax.

cra:t, a cart. The sense is probably taken

from running on wheels. See Current]

1. A small veliicle moved on wheels, usually drawn by one horse. Johnson.

2. In poetical language, any vehicle of dig- nity or splendor ; a chariot of war, or of tri- umph. Milton. Prior.

3. The constellation called Charles's wain or the bear. Dryden.

CAR'ABINE, I [Fr. carabine ; Sp. carabi-

€ARBINE, y^-na; It. id.]

A short gun or fire arm, carrying a ball of 24 to the pound, borne by light horsemen, and hanging by a belt over the left shoul- der. The barrel is two feet and a half long, and sometimes furrowed.

CARABINEE'R, n. A man who carries a carabine ; one who carries a longer car- abine than others, which is sometimes used on foot. Encyc.

CAR' AC, ) [Port, carraca ; Fr. caraque ;

CAR'ACK, S "'Sp. carraca; aUied to It. car- ico, a burden, cargo.]

A large ship of burden ; a Portuguese In- diaman.

C-\\\\R'ACOL, n. [Fr. caracole, a wheeling about ; Sp. caracal, a small cone, a wind- ing staircase, a snail ; It. caracollo, a wheeling.]

1. In the manege, a semi-round, or half turn which a horseman makes, either to the right or left. In the army, the cavalry make a caracol after each discharge, iii order to pass to the rear of the squadron.


2. In architecture, a staircase in a helix or spiral form. Encyc.

CAR'ACOL, V. i. To move in a caracol : to wheel.

CAR'ACOLY, n. A mixture of gold, silver and copper, of which are made rings, pen- dants and other toys for the savages.

CAR'AT, n. [It. carato ; Fr. carat ; D. ka- raut; G. karat; Gr. xipattov, a little horn, a pod, and the berry of a pod, used for a weight of four grains. From tlie Greeks, it is said, the Arabians borrowed their isj.a karat, a weight used in Mec ca, equal to the twenty-fourth of a deua rius, or denier. See Castell, Col. 3448, and Ludolf, 199.]

1. The weight of four grains, used by gold smiths and jewelers in weighing precious stones and pearls. Encyc.

2. The weight that expresses the fineness of gold. The whole mass of gold is divided into 24 equal parts, and as many 24tl parts as it contains of pure gold, it is cal led gold of s-o many carats. Thus gold o twenty-two parts of pure metal, is gold of twenty-two carats. The carat in Great Britain is divided into four grains ; among the Germans into twelve parts ; and among the French into thirty-two.


3. The value of any thing. Obs. B. Jonson.

karau, to stretch along, to follow, to pro- ceed from place to place. Sp. caravana ; Fr. caravane. Pers. as Ar.]

A company of travellers, pilgrims or mer- chants, marching or proceeding in a body over the deserts of Arabia, or other region infested with robbers.

CARAVAN' SARY, n. A place appointed for receiving and loading caravans ; a kind of inn, where the caravans rest at night, being a large square building, with a spa- cious court in the middle. Encyc.

CAR'AVEL, I [Sp. caravela ; It. caravello ;

C'ARVEL, S F»- caravelle.]

1. A small vessel on the coast of France, used in the herring fishery. These vessels are usually from 25 to 30 tons burden.

2. A light, round, old-fashioned ship.

Johnson. CAR'AWAV, 71. [Gr. xopoj, xapw ; h. caros, Fr. carii ; Sp. alcaravea or alcar-

ahueya; D.kerwe; Ar. Lj, ^.J" karawia.]

A plant of the genus Carmn, a biennial plant, with a taper root like a jjarsnip, which, when young, is good eating. The seeds have an aromatic smell and a warm pun- gent taste. They are used in cakes, in- crusted with sugar, and distilled with spirituous liquors. Encyc.

CARBON, n. [L. carbo, a coal ; Sp. carbon ; It. carbone ; Fr. charbon. Qii. Gr. xap$w, to dry, or the root of c/iar, Russ. charyu, to burn.]

Pure charcoal ; a simple body, black, brittle, light and inodorous. It is usually the re- mains of some vegetable body, from which all its volatile matter has been expelled by heat. When cr}'stalized, it forms the diamond ; and by means of a galvanic apparatus, it is fomid to be capable of fusion.

CARBONA'CEOUS, a. Pertaining to char- coal. [See Carbonic]

C'ARBONADE, ? [from carbo, supra.] In

CARBONA'DO, S "' cooke/y, flesh, fowl or the like, cut across, seasoned and broiled on coals. Obs. Shak.

C^ARBONADE, ? „ , To cut or hack. Obs.

CARBONA'DO, (, "■ '■ Shak.

C'ARBONATE, n. In chimistry, a compound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a base ; as the carbonate of hme ; a carbon- ate of copper.

C'ARBONATED, a. Combined with car- bon. Lavoisier.

CARBON'IC, a. Pertaining to carbon, or obtained from it. The carbonic add is i saturated combination of carbon and oxy gen. It has been called Jixed air, aerial acid, mephitic gas, and cretaceous acid, or acid of chalk. It is found, in some places, in a state of gas ; it exists in the atmos- phere, and is disengaged from fermenting liquors, and from decomposing vegetable and animal substances. It is heavier than

air, and subsides into low places, vaults and wells. Hooper

CARBONIFEROUS, a. [carbo and fero, to bear.] Producing carbon, or coal.

Kirwan, Geol

CARBONIZATION, n. The act or proce^?

of carbonizing. CARBONIZE, V. t. To convert into carbon by combustion or the action of fire ; to ex- pel from wood or other substance all vola tile matter. CARBONIZED, pp. Converted into carbon

or cliarcoal. CARBONOHY'DROUS, a. [carbon and Gr. ii&uf, water.] Composed of carbon and hydrogen. C^ARBONOUS, a. Carbonous acid is carbon not fully saturated with oxygen.

Lavoisier. C*ARBUNCLE, n. [L. carbunculus, a little coal, from carto.]

An anthrax ; an inflammatory tumor, or painful gangrenous boil or ulcer.

Coxe. Hooper.

2. A beautiful gem, of a deep red color, with a mixture of scarlet, called by the Greeks anthrax, found in the East Indies. It is found pure, and adhering to a heavy ferru- ginous stone, of the emery kind. It is usually a quarter of an inch in length, and two-thirds of that in diameter, of an angu- lar figure. When held up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes exactly of the color of a burning coal. Encyc.

The carbuncle of the ancients is suppo- sed to have been a garnet. Cleaveland.

3. In heraldry, a charge or bearing consistuig of eight radii, four of which make a com- mon cross, and the other four, a saltier.


C'ARBUNCLED, a. Set with carbuncles ; spotted.

CARBUNC'ULAR, a. Belonging to a car- buncle ; resembling a carbuncle ; red ; inflamed.

CARBUNCULA'TION, n. [L. carbuncula- iio, from carbunculo, to burn to a coal, to blast. See Carbon.]

The blasting of the young buds of trees or plants, by excessive heat or cold. Harris.

C^ARBURET, n. A combination of carbon with a metal, earth or alkali. Lavoisier.

A combination of carbon with a simple in- flammable or a metal. Webster.

CARBURETED, a. Combined with car- bon, or holding carbon in solution ; as carbureted hydrogen gas.

Carbureted hydrogen consists of one prime equivalent of each. Ure.

Carbureted hydrogen gas is called hydro-car- bonate, being resolvable into carbonic acid and water, by combustion with oxygen.


Carbureted is applied to gaseous compounds. Thus we say carbureted hydrogen, instead of carburet of hydrogen. Silliman.

CAR CA JO, n. The glutton, a voracious carnivorous animal.

C^ARCANET, n. [Fr. carcan, a chain ; Ii. carcame.] A chain or collar of jewels.

Shak. Hakewell.

C^ARCASS, Ji. [Fr. carcasse ; It. carcame ; Norm, carkoys, a mast, and a carcass. Qu. Gr. xa^ixr^niov.]

1. The body of an animal ; usually the body when dead. It is not applied to the living body of the human species, except in low or ludicrous language.

2. The.decaying remains ofabidky thing, as of a boat or ship.

3. The frame or main parts of a thnig, unfin




ished or without ornament. This scorns to be the primary sense of the word. [See the next word.] Hale.

€'AR€ASS, n. [\\\\x. carcassa; Sp.carcajc; Fr. carcaase ; D. karkas.]

An iron case or hollow vessel, about the size of a bomb, of an oval figure, filled with combustible and other substances, as meal-powder, salt-peter, sulphur, broken glass, turpentine, &c., to be thrown from a mortar into a town, to set fire to build- ings. It has two or three apertures, from which the fire blazes, and the light some- times serves as a direction in throwing shells. It is equipped with pistol-barrels, loaded with powder to the muzzle, which explode as the composition biu-ns down to them. This instrument is probably named from the ribs of iron that form it, which resemble the ribs of a human carcass.

Encyc. Mar. Diet.

e>ARCELA{iE, n. [L. career.] Prison fees. [Mot w use.]

C^ARCERAL, a. Belonging to a prison.

CARCINO'MA, 71. [Gr. xopxirw^ta, from xafxu'ou, xopxH'05, a cancer.]

A cancer ; also, a lurgesence of the veins of the eye. Core.

CARCINO'MATOUS, a. Cancerous ; like a cancer, or tending to it.

e-ARD n. [Fr. cartt ; Sp. Port. It. carta : L. charla ; Gr. X'^'^ni \\\\ D. kaart ; G. kniie ; Dan. kort ; Ir. cairt ; perhaps from bark, L. cortex, Ir. coirt or cairt, or the same root.]

1. A paper or pasteboard of an oblong figure, on which are painted figures or points ; used in games.

2. A blank piece of paper, or the like paper with some writing' upon it, used in messa- ges of civility, or business.

3. The paper on which the points of the compass are marked.

Reason the card, but passion is the gale.


CARD, V. i. To play much at cards ; to gain. Johnson.

CARD, n. [D. kaard ; G. kardetsche ; Dan. karde ; Sw. karda ; Fr. carde ; Arm. en- cardoner ; Sp. earda, teasel, and a card ; Fort, carda, a card, and cardo, a thistle ; L carduus ; It. cardo, a thistle and a card ; L. caro, w card ; Ir. cir, a comb. It seems that card, and L. carduus, are the same word, and probably the plant, teasel, is the original word, or both are from ;i common root. The French carde is a card, and the stalks of the artichoke. AHichoke is so written for cardichoke.]

An instrument for combing, opening and breaking wool or flax, freeing it from the coarser parts, and from extraneous matter. It is made by inserting bent teeth of wire in a thick piece of leather, and naihng this to a piece of oblong board, to which a handle is attached.

CARD, V. t. To comb, or open wool, flax.

1 lienip, &c., with a card, for the purpose of

cleansing it of extraneous matter, separa

ting the coarser parts, and making it fine

and soft for spinning.

C'ARDAMI\\\\E,n. [Gr.] The plant, meadow cresses, or cuckow flower.

C'ARDAiVlOM, ji. [Gr. jtapSa^uKoi'.] A plant of the genus Jlmoinum, and its seeds, a tive of India. The seeds of this plant,

Vol. 1.

which grow in a pod, have a warm a

matic flavor, and are used in medicine.

Eneye. CARDED,;);?. Combed; opened; cleansed

with card.s. CARDER, 71. One who cards wool ; also,

one who plays much at cards. Woiton.

€'ARDIA€, } ih.cardiacus;V,r.xafhi- CARDIACAL, S axoj, from «op«io, the


1. Pertaining to the heart.

2. Exciting action in the heart, through the medium of the stomach ; having the quality of stimulating action in the system, invig- orating the spirits, and giving strength and cheerfulness. Med. Diet.

CARDI.'VC, n. A medicine which excites action in the stomach, and animates the spirits.

€'ARDIAL(iy, n. [Gr. *opSta, the heart, and a>.yoj, pain.]

The heart-burn, a violent sensation of heat and acrimony in the upper or left orifice of the stomach, seemingly at the heart, but rising into the oesophagus. It is called also the cardiac passion.

CARDINAL, a. [L. cardinalis, said to be from carrfo, a hinge.]

Chief, principal, jirecminent, or fundamen- tal ; as the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be justice, prudence, temper- ance and fortitude.

€'ARDINAL, »i. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Pope's council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops ; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassock, a rocket, a short purple mantle and a red hat. Encyc. Spclman.

2. A woman's cloke.

Cardinal-fower, a plant of the genus IjO- belia, of many species. They are fibrous- rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, orna- mented with oblong, oval, sjiear-shaped simple leaves, and sjjikes of beautifiil mo- nopetaloiis flowers of scarlet, blue and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the siphil- itica, as a remedy in the venereal disease. Encyc.

Cardinal nitvibers, are the numbers, one,tuo, three, &c., in distinction from frst, second, third, &c., which are called ordinal num- bers.

Cardinal points, in cosmography, are four intersections of the horizon with the

meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir.

Cardinal signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer and Capricorn.

Cardinal icinds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.

CARDINALATE, > The oflice, rank oi

€>ARDINALSHIP, J "• dignity of a cardi nal.


€'ARDINALIZE, v. t. To make a cardinal

I [lAttle used.] Hheldon.

C^ARDING, ppr. Combing, as flax, woo), &c.

2. The act of plaving at cards. [Little used.]

CARDlNG-MAcHlNE, n. A machine late- ly invented, for combing, breaking and cleansing wool and cotton. It consists of cylinder!-, thick set with teeth, and moved by die force of water, steam, &.c.

€ ARDIOID, n. [Gr. xopJ.a, heart, and €i«oj, form.]

An algebraic curve, so called from its resem- blance to a heart. Chambers.

€'ARDITE, n. Fossil or petrified shells of the genus Cardium. Jameson.

CARD-MAKER, n. [card and maker.] A maker of cards.

CARD-MATCH, n. [card and match.] A match made by dipping pieces of card in melted sulphur. Addison.

€ARDOON', n. [Sp. carrfon ; U carduus.] A species of Cynara, resembling the arti- choke, but larger. Chambers.

e^ARD-TABLE, n. The table appropriated to the use of gamesters, or used for jilay ing cards on.

€ARE, n. [Sax. car, cara ; Goth, kar, kara : Ir. car ; L. cura. In Welch, cur is care, anxiety ; also, a blow or beating, a throb ; citrau; to beat, strike or throb, to fight ; curiau; to trouble, vex, pine, or waste away. In L. euro signifies to care, and to cure. Ill Sp. curar is to jirescribe medi- cine ; to salt or cure, as flesh ; to season, as timber ; to bleach, as cloth ; intransi- tively, to recover from sickness; and re- ciprocally, to take care of one's self. In Italian, curare is to cure, attend, protect, defend, and to value or esteem. In French, ciirer is to cleanse ; " curer les dens," to pick the teeth ; cure is a benefice. The primary sense is, to strain, or stretch, as in care, attention, and curious is stretching forward ; but the sense of separating, or driving off", is comprehended, which gives the French sense, and the sense of prying into is included in curious. The sense of healing is from that of care, or making sound and strong. The Welch sense of beating is from driving, thrusting, coinci- ding with straming. See Carl and Cure.]

1. Concern ; anxiety ; sohcitude ; noting some degree of pain in the mind, from ap- prehension of evil.

They shall eat bread by weight and with care. Ezek. iv.

2. Caution ; a looking to ; regard ; attention, or heed, with a view to safety or protec- tion, as in the phrase, " take care of your- self."

A want of care does more damage than a want of knowledge. Franklin.

3. Charge or oversight, implying concern for safety and prosperity ; as, he was under the care of a physician.

That which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches. 2 Cor. xi. |4. The object of care, or watchful regard and attention ; as, " Is she thy care .'"

Dryden. CARE, V. i. To be anxious or solicitous ; to be concerned about.


( thou not that we perish ? Mark

2. To be inchned or disposed ; to have regard




io ; \\\\vith/or before a noun, and to before a| verb. " Not caring to observe the wind." •' Great masters in painting never care for drawing people in the fashion." In this sense the word imphes a less degree of concern. The different degrees of an.xiety expressed by this word constitute the cliiei differences in its signification or applica- tions.

CA'RE-CRAZED, a. [care and craze.] Bro- ken or disordered by care, or solicitude ; as a care-crazed mother. Shak.

GARE-DEFY'ING, a. Bidding defiance to care. Shenstone.

CA'RE-TUNED, a. Tuned by care ful. Shak.

€A'RE-WOUNDED, a. Wounded with care. May.

eAREE'N, V. t. [Fr. carener, from carene, the side and keel of a ship, L. carina ; Sp carenar ; Port, querenar ; It. carenare.]

1. In sea language, to heave or bring a ship to lie on one side, for the purpose of calk ing, repairing, cleansing, or paying over with pitch, the other side. Mar. Did

CAREE'N, V. i. To incline to one side, as a ship under a press of sail. Mar. Diet.

€AREE'NED, pp. Laid on one side ; in- clined.

CAREE'NING, ppr. Heaving down on one side ; inclining.

CAREE'NING, n. The act of heaving down on one side, as a ship.

€AREE'R, 11. [Fr. carriere ; i .

Port, carreira ; It. carriera. It is from the root of car, andL. curro, from the sense of running.]

1. A course ; a race, or running ; a rapid ruiming ; speed in motion.

Wilkins. Prior.

3. General course of action or movement: procedure; course of proceeding.

Continue and proceed in honor's fair career. Dry den.

3. The ground on which a race is run.


4. In the manege, a place inclosed with a barrier, in which they run the ring.


5. In falconry, a fliglit or tour of the hawk, about 120 yards. Encyc.

CAREE'R, 17. i. To move or run rapidly. When a sidj) is decked out in all her canvas, every sail swelled, and careering gayly over the curling waves, how lofty, how gallant she ap- pears ! Irving CAREE'RING, pp. Running or moving

with speed. GA'REFUL, a. [See Core.] Full of care ; anxious ; solicitous.

Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things. Luke x. % Provident ; attentive to support and pro- tect ; with of or for.

Thou hast been careful for us witli all care 2 Kings iv.

What could a careful father more Iiave done Dryden In present usage careful is generally fol lowed by of; as, careful q/" health.

3. Watchful; cautious; giving good heed as, be careful to maintain good works be careful of your conversation.

4. FiUing with care or solicitude ; exposing to concern, anxiety or trouble ; full of cares.

Raised to a careful height. ^hak.

eA'REFULLY, adv. With care, anxiety, or solicitude.

Though he sought it carefully with tears. Heb. xii.

2. Heedfidiy ; watchfully ; attentively ; as, consider these precepts carefully.

If thou carefully hearken to the Lord. Deut.

3. In a manner that shows care. En\\\'y, how carefully does it look. Collier.

4. Providently; cautiously. Johnson. CA'REFULNESS, n. Anxiety ; solicitude.

Drink thy water with trembling and with care fulness. Ezek. xii.

Heedfulness ; caution ; vigilance, in guard- ing against evil, and providing for safety.

€A'RE"LESS, a. [care and less, Sax. leas, Goth. laus. See Loose.] Having no care ; heedless ; negligent ; unthinking ; inattentive ; regardless ; mindful ; followed by of or about ; i careless mother; a mother careless of or about her children, is an unnatural parent,

2. Free fi'om care or anxiety ; whence, undis- turbed ; cheerful.

Thus wisely careless, innocently gay.

Pope Dune or said without care ; unconsidered ; as a careless throw ; a careless expression Not regarding with care ; unmoved by; unconcerned for ; as, careless of money careless q/" consequences. Contrived without art. Bp. Taylo,

CA'RELESSLY, adv. In a careless manner or way ; negligently ; heedlessly ; inatten- tively ; without care or concern.

CA'RELESSNESS, n. Heedlessness ; inat- tention ; negligence ; manner without care.

CAR'ENTANE, n. [Fr. quarantaine, forty.]

A papal indulgence, multiplying the remiss- ion of penance l)y forties. Taylor

CARESS', V. t. [Fr. caresser ; Arm. chengza, to caress, and to cherish ; W. caredigaw ; It carezza, flattery, a caressing ; careggiare to coax, flatter, esteem ; Sp. caricia, i caress ; acariciar, to caress, cherish, fondle Port. id. It may be from the common roo of L. cartis, Fr. cher, cherir, W. car. But some difficulties attend this hypothesis.]

To treat with fondness, affection, or kind ness ; to fondle ; to embrace with tender affection ; as a parent a child. Soiith.

CARESS', n. An act of endearment ; any

t or expression of afiection ; an embra

ng with tenderness ; as conjugal caresses.


CARESS'ED, pp. Treated or embraced with affection.

eARESS'ING,^pr. Treating with endear- ment, or affection.

CA'RET, n. [L. care<, there is wanting, from careo, to want.]

In writing, this mark A, which shows that something, omitted in the line, is interlined above, or inserted in the margin, and should be read in that place.

C'ARGASON, n. A cargo ; which see.


CARGO, n. [W.fa)g,aload,c«j-^«, to loai from car, a vehicle ; Port, cargo, Sp. ra ga, a load, burden, charge ; Sp. cargo, load ; cargazon, id. ; cargar, to load, i charge ; It. carico, a load or charge ; caric- are, to load, to charge ; Fr. cargaison. cargo ; charge, a charge or load ; charger.

to load, burden, charge ; Arm. carg. See Charge.]

The lading or freight of a ship ; the goods, merchandize, or whatever is conveyed in a ship or other merchant vessel. The la- ding within the hold is called the inboard cargo, in distinction from horses, cattle and other things carried on deck. The person employed by a merchant to proceed with, oversee and dispose of the lading, is called a supercargo.

ARGOOSE, n. A fowl belonging to the genus Colymbus, called the crested diver. The cheeks and throat are surrounded with a long pendant ruff, of a bright tawny color, edged with black. The breast and belly are of a silvery white. It weighs two pounds and a half

CA'RIATED, (7. Carious. [ATotused. Sec Carious.]

CAR'IBOO, n. A quadruped of the stag kind.

CAR'ICA, 71. The papaw, a tree bearing a fleshy fiuit of the size of a small melon.

CAR'ICATURE, n. [It. caricatura, formed from carica, a load, caricare, to load. See Cargo.]

A figure or description in which beauties are concealed and blemishes exaggerated, but still bearing a resemblance to the object. Encyc.

CAR'ICATURE, v. t. To make or draw a caricature ; to represent as more ugly than the life. Lyttelton.

CAR'1C.\\\\TURIST, n. One who caricatures others.

CARICOG'RAPHY, n. [earex, sedge, and ypaijiu, to describe.]

A description of the plants of the genus Carex or sedge. Dewey, Joum. of Science.

CAR'ICOUS, a. [L. caAca, a fig.] Resem- bling a fig ; an epithet given to tumors that resemble a fig, such as occur often in the piles. Encyc.

CA'RIES, n. [L.] The corruption or morti- fication of a bone ; an ulcerated bone.


CAR'ILLON, ji. [Fr.] A little bell. Also, a simple air in music, adapted to the per- formance of small bells or clocks. [See Carol.] Busby.

CAR'INATE, \\\\ [L. carinatvs, from ca-

CAR'INATED, <, "' rina, a keel.]

In botany, shaped like the keel of a ship ; having a longitudinal prominency on the back like a keel ; applied to a calyx, leaf or nectary. Martyn.

CARIN'THIN, n. A mineral from Carin- thia, regarded as a variety of hornblend. Cleaveland.

CARIOS'ITY, n. [See Caries.] Mortifica- tion, or ulceration of a bone. Wiseman.

CA'RIOIIS, a. Mortified; corrupted; ul- cerated ; as a bone. Wiseman.

C'ARK, n. [W. care, care, restraint; earcar, a prison, L. career ; Sax. cearc, care ; cearcian, to cark, to creak, to grumble. The primary sense is, to strain.]

Care ; anxiety ; concern ; solicitude ; dis- tress. Obs. Sidney.

C'ARK, V. {. To be careful, anxious, solicit- ous, concerned. Obs. Sidney.

C'ARKING, pp. Distressing ; perplexing ; giving anxiety. Obs.

CARLE, n. carl. [Sax. carl, a male, whence Carolus, Charles. The word signifies pri-




jnarUy, strong, robust. Whence the Eng lisli, carl-cat, and carl-hemp ; house-carl, a domestic servant ; Ger. kerl, a fellow ; kerl- hajl, masculine, stout. See ChurlJ]

1. A rude, rustic, rough, brutal man. Ohs. [See Churl.-\\\\

2. A kind of hemp. Tusaer. €'ARLE, V. i. To act like a churl. [JVot in

use.] Burton

CARLINE, or €AR'OLlNE, n. A silver coin in Naples.

C'ARLJNE, ) [Fr. carlingue, or escar-

e-ARLING, \\\\ "• lingue.]

A piece of timber in a sliip, ranging fore and aft, from one deck beam to another, di rectly over the keel, sei-ving as a founda- tion for the body of the ship. On thei rest the ledges, on wliich the planks of the deck are made fast. Encyc. Mar. Diet.

Carline-knees are timbers in a ship, lying across from the sides to the hatchway, and serving to sustain the deck. Encyc.

€'ARLINE-TII1STLE, n. A genus of plants growing in the south of France, and one a native of Great Britain.


CHARLOCK, n. A sort of isinglass from Rus- sia, made of the sturgeon's bladder, and used in clarifying wine. Encyc.

CAR LOT, n. A countryman. [See Carle. JVol used.] Shak.

CARLOVIN'GIAN, a. Pertaining to Char- lemagne ; as the Carlovingian race of kings.

€*ARMAN, n. [car and man.] A man whost employment is to drive a cart, or to con- vey goods and other things in a cart.

€*ARMELIN, > Belonging to the order

CARMELITE, $ °- of Carmehtes.


CARMELITE, n. [from Mount Carmel] A mendicant friar. The Carmelites Ii; four tribes, and they have now thirty-eiglit provinces, besides the congregation ii Mantua, in which are fifty-four monaste ries, under a vicar general, and the con gregations of barefooted Carmelites in It- aly and Spain. Thoy wear a scapulary, or small woolen habit, of a brown color, thrown over the shoulders. Encyc

2. A sort of pear.

CARMIN'ATIVE, a. [Fr. carminatif; Sp, carminative, from carminar, to expel wind backward, from L. carmino, to card tease.]

Expelling wind from the body ; warmin antispasmodic.

CARMIN'ATIVE, n. A medicine, which tend.s to expel wind, or to remedy colic and flatulencies.

CARMINE, n. [Fr. carmin ; Sp. carmin Port, carmim; It. carminio ; from the same root as crimson ; Port, carmesim, crimson Sp. carmesi, crimson and cochineal jiow- iler ; It. chennisi, crimson, and chermes.

niizon, a berry, and an insect, used m dye

A powder or pigment, of a beautiful red oi crimson color, bordering on purple, and used by painters in miniature, though rarely, on account of its great price. It is

prepared by dissolving cochineal in an al kaJine lye, and precipitating it by ulum. Encyc. hitcholson CARNAuE, n. [Vr. carnage; Sp. caniiceria, carnage, aud shambles ; It. carnaegio, flesh-meat, and carnaccia, carrion ; Port. camagem ; from L. caro, flesh.]

1. Literally, flesh, or heaps of flesh, as ii shambles.

2. Slaughter ; great destruction of men havoek ; massacre. Hayward.

€'ARNAL, a. [Fr. chamel ; L. camalis, from caro, flesh.]

1. Pertaining to flesh ; fleshly ; sensual ; op- posed to spiritual ; as carnal pleasure.

2. Being in the natural state ; unregenerate.

The carnal mind is enmity against God, Rom. viii.

3. Pertaining to the ceremonial law ; as car- nal ordinances. Heb. ix. 10.

4. Lecherous; lustful; libidinous ; given to sensual indulgence. Shak

Carnal-knowledge, sexual intercourse.

CARNALIST, »i. One given to the indul- gence of sensual appetites. Burton

C^ARNALITE, n. A worldly-minded man Jinderson.

CARNAL'ITY, n. Fleshly lust, or desires, or the indulgence of those lusts; sensu ality. South.

2. Crossness of mind or desire ; love of sen- sual pleasures. Tillotson

CARNALIZE, i-. t. To make carnal ; to de- base to carnality. Scott.

CARNALLY, adv. In a carnal manner; ac- cording to the flesh ; in a manner to grat- ify the flesh or sensual desire. Lev. xviii 20. Rom. viii. 6.

CARNAL-MINDED, a. Worldly-minded. More

CARNAL-MINDEDNESS, n. Crossness of mind. Ellis.

CARNA'TION, n. [Fr. carnation, the naked [lart of a picture, flesh color ; It. incarna- tino ; carnagione, complexion ; Sp. car- naza ; Vort. carnaz ; from L. caro, flesh.]

1. Flesh color ; the parts of a picture which are naked, or without drapery, exhibiting the natural color of the flesh. Encyc.

2. A genus of plants, Diunthus, so named from the color of the flower. Among these are the clove-gilliflower, sweet ham, IiMhan pink, &c.

CARNA'TIONED, a. Made like carnation

color. CARNE'LIAN, n. [Fr. cornaline; Sp.come

A siliceous stone, a variety of chalcedony, of a deep red, flesh-red, or reddish white color. It is tolerably hard, capable of a good polish, and used for seals.

Encyc. Cleaveland.

Carnel-icork, in ship-buiUling, is the putting together the timbers, beams and planks, as distinguished from clin(!h-work. Encyc.

€>ARNEOUS, a. [L. carneus, from cdro. ^ flesh.]

Fleshy; having the qualities of flesh. Ray.

CARNEY, n. A disease of horses, iu which the mouth is so furred that tliey cannot eat. Chambers

€ARNlFl€A'TION, n. [Infra.] A turning to flesh. _ Chambers.

CARNIFY, v.i. [from L. coro, caraw, flesh.]

To form flesh ; to receive flesh in growth.


CARNIVAL, } [Sp. Port, carnaval ;'Vi.

CARNAVAL, i; "• camaval ; It. carr.ovale : from L. caro, flesh.]

The feast or season of rejoicing, before Lent, observed, in Catholic countries, with great solemnity, by leasts, balls, operas, con- certs, &r. Encyc.

CAHNIVORAC'ITY,)!. [Infra.] Greediness of appetite for flesh. Pope.

CARNIVOROUS, a. [L. caro, flesh, and voro, to eat.]

Eating or feeding on flesh ; an epithet ap- plied to animals which naturally seek flesh for food, as the lion, tiger, dog, wolf, &r.

CARNOS'ITY, n. [Fr. carnosite, from L. caro, flesh.]

A little fleshy excrescence in the urethra, the neck oflho bladder, &c.

C^ARNOrs, a. Fleshy. [Sec Carneous.]

CAR'OB, n. [Sp. algarroba ; It. carruba.] The carob-tree, Ceratonia siliqua, a native of Spain, Italy, and the Levant. It is an evergreen, growing in hedges, and produ- cing long, flat, brown-colored pods, filled with a mealy, succulent j'ulp, of a sweetish taste. In times of scarcity, these pods arc eaten by poor people, but they are apt to cause griping and lax bowels.

Miller. Eneyr.

CARO'CHE, n. [It. carrozza. See Car.-[ A carriage of pleasure. Burton.

CARO'CIIED, a. Placed in a caroche.


CAR'OL, H. [It. carola ; W. carawl ; Arm. coroll, a dunce ; VV. cor. Corn, karol, a choir.]

A song of joy and exultation ; a song of de- votion ; or a song in general.

Dryden. Spenser. Baton. MUton.

CAR'OL, V. i. [It. carolare ; W. caroli ; Ayw- carolli, to dance, to sing love songs.]

To sing ; to warble ; to sing in joy or fes- tivity. Prior. Shak-

CAR'OL, V. t. To praise or celebrate in song. Milton.

CAROLI'NA, n. [from Carolus, Charies IL] The name of two of the Atlantic States

in North America, called North Carohna and South Carolina.

CAR'OLING, 71. A song of praise or devo- tion. Spe7tser.

CAROLIN'IAN, a. Pertaining to Carolina.

CAROLIN'IAN, n. A native or inhabitant of Carolina.

CAR'OMEL, ?i. The smefl exlialed by su- gar, at a calcining heat. Ure.

CAROTID, a. [Gr. xapunSn.] The carotid arteries, iu the body, are two arteries, the right and left, wliich convey the blood from the aorta to the head and brain. The ancients sujiposed drowsiness to be seated in these arteries. Gr. xopoj.

CAROUS'AL, n. s as z. [See Carouse.] A feast or festival. Johnson.

But in America it signifies a noisy drink- ing bout, or reveling.

CAROUSE, V. i. carouz'. [Fr. carrouse, hard drinking. I know not the real original of this wonl. In Pers. j j. T karoz signifies hiliarity, singing, dancing. In Germ. rauschen signifies to rush, to fuddle. In Ir. craosal is drunkeimess, from craos, ex- cess, revelling.] 'To drink hard : to guzzle. In the U. States,



as bacchana-

it signifies also to be noisy lians. CAROUSE, n. carouz'. A drinking match ; a hearty drink or full draught of liquor ; i noisy drinking match. OAROUS'ER, n. A drinker; a toper; a noi- sy reveler, or bacchanalian. CAROUS'ING, ppr. Drinking hard; rev

eling. €'ARP, V. i. [L. carpo, to seize, catch, pick It. carpire ; Sp. Port, carpir, to tear or scratch. See Carve.] Literally, to snap or catch at, or to pick. Hence, to censure, cavil, or tind fault, par- ticularly without reason, or petulantly ; followed by at.

No, not a tooth or nail to scratch And at my actions carp and catcli. Herbert. CARP, n. [Fr. Port, carpe; Sp. carpa; It, carpione ; Arm. carpen ; Russ. karp ; D, karper ; G. karpfen ; Dan. karpe ; Svv. karp ; Low L. carpio, from carpo, to sieze.] A fish, a species oi cypnnus, an excellent fisli for ponds. These fishes breed rapidly grow to a large size, and live to a greai age. Encyc

C^ARPAL, a. [L. carpus, the wrist.] Per- taining to the wrist. Enaic CARPA'THIAN, a. Pertaining to the Car pates, a range of mountains between Po land, Hungary and Transylvania. C^ARPENTER, n. [Fr. ckarpentier ; Sp, carpintero; Port, carpenteiro ; It. carpen- tiere, a cart-wright, or coach-maker; L, carpentarius, from carpentuni, a chariot.] An artificer who works in timber ; a framer and builder of bouses, and of ships. Those who build houses are called house-carpen- ters, and those who build ships are called ship-carpenters. In New England, a distinction is often madi between the man who frames, and the man who executes the interior wood-work of a house. The framer is the carpenter, and the finisher is called a joiner. This distinction is noticed by Johnson, and seems to be a genuine English distinction. But in some other parts of America, as in New-York, the term carpenter includ— both the framer and the joiner; and truth both branches of business are often performed by the same person. Tlic word is never applied, as in Italy and Spain, to a coach-maker. C^ARPENTRY, »i. The art of cutting, fi-am- ing, and joining timber, in the construc- tion of buildings ; divided into house-car pentry and ship-carpentry. CARPER, n. One who carps; a caviler. CARPET, n. [I know not the origin of this word.]

1. A covering for floors, tables, stairs, &c. This covering is usually made of wool, wrought with a needle, or more generally in a loom, but is sometimes made of other materials. The manufacture is of Asiatic origin, but has been introduced into many parts of Europe, and into the U. States.

2. Level ground covered, as with grass ; as a grassy carpet ; a carpet of green grass.

To be on the carpet, is to be under considera- tion ; to be the subject of deliberation. The French phrase, to be on the tapis, is used - the Uke sense.

Carpet-knight, in Shakspeare, is a kmght

who enjoys ease and security, or luxury and has not known the hardships of the field.

Carpet-monger is used in a like sense.

C^ARPET, V. I. To cover with a carpet; to spread with carpets. Bacon. Derham.

CARPETED, pp. Covered with a carpet.

C^ARPETING, n. Cloth for carpets; car- pets in general.

€ ARPET-WALK, n. A walk on smooth turf Evelyn.

CARPING, ;)/>r. Caviling ; captious ; censo- rious. }Vatt^.

CARPING, n. The actof caviHng; a cavil; unreasonable censure.

CARPINGLY, adv. Captiously ; in a carp- ing manner. Camden.

CARPMEALS, n. A kind of coarse cloth made in the North of England. Phillips.

C>ARPOLITE, n. [Gr. xajMo;, fruit, and ■KiBoi, stone.]

Petrified fruits, of which the most remarka ble arc nuts converted into silex.

CARPOL'OtilST, n. [Gr. xaprtoj, fruit, and Xeyu, to speak.] One who describes fruits

CARPOL'OGY, n. [Supra.] A description of fruits. Cyc

CARPUS, n. [L.] The wrist, but not at English word.

€AR'RAWAY,n. A kind of apple. Mason.

CARTJABLE, a. That may be carried. [JVot in use.] Shenvood.

CAR'RIAGE, n. [Fr. charrlage, from char- rier, to carry ; It. carreggio, or carriaggio. See Carry.]

1. The act of carrying, bearing, transporting, or conveying ; as the carriage of sounds.


2. The act of taking by an enemy ; conquest : acquisition. Obs. Knolles.

3. That which carries, especially on wheels ; a vehicle. This is a general term for a coach, chariot, chaise, gig, sulkey, or otli vehicle on wheels, as a cannon-carriage on trucks, a block-carriage for mortars, and atruck-camage. Appropriately the word is applied to a "coach ; and carts and wag- ons are rarely or never called carriages. The price or expense of carrjing.

5. That which is carried ; burden ; as bag- gage, vessels, furniture, &c.

And David left his carriage in the hands of the keeper of the carriage. 1 Sam. xvii, [Little used.] Spenser

6. In a moral sense, the manner of carrying one's self; behavior ; conduct ; deport- ment ; personal manners. Bacon. Dryden.

Measures ; practices ; management.


CAR'RIBOO. [See Canboo.]

CAR'RICK-BEND, n. A particular kind of knot.

CAR'RICK-BITTS, n. In a ship, tho bitts which support the windlass. Mar. Diet

CAR'RIER, n. [See Carry.] One who car- ries ; that which carries or conveys ; also a messenger.

2. One who is employed to carry goods for others for a reward ; also, one whose oc- cupation is to carry goods for others, call ed a common carrier ; a porter-

•3. A pigeon that conveys letters from place to place, the letters being tied to the neck.

CAR'RION, n. [It. carogna ; Sp. carrona ; Fr. charogne ; Arm. caroan ; D. karonje.]

The dead aud putrefying body or fieeh of


animals ; flesh so corrupted as to be un- fit for food. Dryden. Pope,

2. A worthless woman ; a term of reproach. Shak.

CAR'RION, a. Relating to dead and putre- fyuig carcasses ; feeding on carrion, as a carrion-croii: Shak.

CARRONA'DE, n. [It is said to be fiom Cairon, in Scotland, where it was first made.]

A short piece of ordnance, having a large caliber, and a chamber for the powder, like a mortar. This species of cannon is carried on the upper works of ships, as the poop and forecastle, and is very useful in close engagements.

Mar. Diet. Encyc.

CARROON', n. In London, a rent received for the privilege of driving a cart. Ash.

3. A species of cherry. Tooke, Russ. CAR'ROT, n. [It. carota; Fr.carotte; Low

L. carota.]

An esculent root, of the genus Daucus, cul- tivated for the table and for cattle.

CAR'ROTY, a. Like a carrot iu color ; an pithet given to red hair.

CAR'ROWS, n. In Ireland, people who wan- der about and get their living by cards and dice ; strolling gamesters. Spenser.

CAR'RY, It. t. [W. cariatv, from car, a dray, drag, or wagon ; Fr. charrier ; Arm. char- reat or charreein ; Sp. af:arrear ; Dan. kiiirer; Sw. kibra ; G.karren. These verbs signify primarily to carry on a cart or car, and are evidently from the noun. But the EngUsh carry coincides also with the Latin gero, our vulgar keri-y ; for the sense of behavior can hardly proceed from the mo- ving of a wheel-carriage, nor indeed can some other senses of this word. But the pruiiary sense, in both cases, is to move.} To bear, convey, or transport, by sustain- ing and moving the thing carried, either

by bodily strength, upon a beast, hide, or in any kind of water-craft. In general, it implies a moving from the speaker or the place present or near, to a place more distant, and so is opposed to bring and fetch, and it is often followed by from, away, off, out.

He shall carry the lambs in his bosons Is. xl.

When he dieth, he shall carry nothing awa> Ps. xlix. 2. To convey ; as, sound is carried iu the air. ;. To effect ; to accomplish ; to prevail ; to gain the object ; as, to carry a point, meas- ure, or resolution ; to carry a prize ; to cany a fortified town by force of arms ; sometimes followed by it.

Whose wills will carry it over the rest.

Locke. Burke.

4. To hear out ; to face through. If a man carries it off, there is so much mon- ey saved. L'Bstrange.

5. To urge, impel, lead or draw, noting mor- al impulse.

Pride or passion will carry a man to great lengths.

Men are carried away with imaginary pros- pects. See Eph. iv. 14. Heb. xiii. 9. To bear ; to have.

In some vegetables, we see something that carries a kind of analogj' to sense. IJale.

To bear ; to show, display or exhibit to view.


The aspect of every one in the family Ci satisfaction. Mc

8. To'iinply or import.

To quit former tenets carries an imputation ofignorance. Locke.

9. To contain or comprise.

He thought it carried something of argument in it, to prove that doctiine. fVatts.

10. To extend or continue in time, as to carry a historical account to the first ages of the world ; but usually with a parti- cle, as to carry up or carry back, to carry\\\\ forward.

11. To extend in space, aa to carry a line or a boundary ; or in a moral sense, as to carry ideas very far.

12. To support or sustain.

Carry camomile on sticlcs. Bacon

13. To bear or produce, as trees.

Set them a reasonable depth, and they will carry more shoots upon the stem. Baco?i

14. To manage or transact, usually with on as, to carry on business.

15. To carry one's self, to behave, conduct oi demean.

He carried Ai/nse/f insolently. Clarendon Sometimes with it ; as, he carried it high

16. To remove, lead or drive.

And he carried away all his cattle. Gen, xxxi.

17. To remove ; to cause to go.

And the kin^ of Assyria did carry away Israel to Assyria. 2 Kings xviii.

18. To transport ; to afTect with extraordi- nary impressions on the mind. Rev. xvii.

19. To fetch and bring.

Young whelps learn easily to carry.

Ascham iO. To transfer ; as, to carry an account to

the ledger.

War was to be diverted from Greece by being

carried into Asia. Mitford.

To carry coals, to bear injuries. Mason

To carry off, to remove to a distance ; also, tc

kill, as to be carried off'hy sickness. To carry on, to promote, advance, or help

forward ; to continue ; as, to carry on a

design ; to carry on the administration of

grace. U. To manage or prosecute ;

husbandry. 3. To prosecute, continue or pursue ; as, to

carry on trade or war. To carry through, to sujiport to the end ; to

sustain or keep from failing, or being sub- dued.

to carry on

Grace will carry a man through all difficul- '"^f- Hammond.

To carry out, to bear from within ; also, to sustam to the end ; to continue to the end.

lo carry away, in seamanship, is to break : to carry sail till a spar breaks ; as, to carni away a fore-topmast.

€AR'RY, V. i. To run on rotten ground, ot on frost, which sticks to the feet, as a hare.

n rr, , , , , Johnson.

i. To bear the head m a particular manner, as a horse. When a horse holds his head high, with an arching neck, he is said carry well. When he lowers his head too much, he is said to carry low.

3. To convey ; to propel ; as, a gun or mor tar carries well ; hit this is elliptical.

CARRYING, ppr. Bearing, conveying, re movnig, &c.

CAR'RYING, n. A bearing, eonveviue, re- moving, transporting. ' "


Carrying trade, the trade which consists in the transportation of goods by water froi country to country, or place to place.

We are rivals with them in navigation and the carrying trade. Federalist, Jay.

Carrying ivind, among horsemen, is a toss- ing of the nose, as high as the horse's ears. Encyc. €AR'RY-TALE, n. A tale-bearer. [JVot ««^

€'ART, n. [W. cart; Sax. crat, crat ; Ir. cairt ; Russ. karet. See Car.]

1. A carriage with two wheels, fitted to be drawn by one horse, or by a yoke of oxen, and used in husbandry or commercial cit- ies for carrying heavy commodities. In Gieat Britain, carts are usually drawn by horses. In America, horse-carts are used mostly in cities, and ox-carts in the coun- try.

2. A carriage in general.

r>ART ,. / T ^'""^''- ^^'"■

1/ AK I, v.t. lo carry or convey on a cart ;

as, to cart hay.

2. To expose in a cart, by way of punish- ment.



|€;ARTEL, v. i. To defy. Ohs. B. Jonson.

CARTER, n. The man who drives a cart, or whose occupation is to drive a cart.

€ARTE'S1AN, a. carlizhun. Pertaining to the philosopher Des Cartes, or to his phi- losophy, which taught the doctrine of vor- texes round the sun and planets.

CARTE'SIAN, „. One who adopts the philosophy of Des Cartes.

CARTHAGINIAN, a. Pertaining to an- cient Carthage, a celebrated city on the Northern Coast of Africa, about twelve miles from the modern Tunis. It was founded by the Phenicians, and destroyed by the Romans.

act of carrying in a cart, or the price paid for carting.

C'ART-BOTE, n. In English law, wood which a tenant is entitled for making and repairing carts and other instruments of husbandry



^. Borne or exposed in a ca sE, n. A horse that draws

CARTING, 2W- Conveying or exposing in

a cart. CARTING, n. The act of carrying in a cart, CART-JADE, n. A sorry horse; a horse

used in drawing, or fit only for the ca

CART-LOAD, 71. A load borne on a cart; as much as is usually carried at once on a cart, or as is sufficient to load it.

C>ART-ROPE, n. A rope for binding hay, or other articles on a cart.

C>ART-RUT, n. The cut or track of a cart- wheel. [See Route.]

CART-TIRE, n. The tire, or iron bands, to bind the wheels of a cart.

CART- WAY, n. A way that is or may be passed with carts, or other wheel carria-l ges.

CART-WHEEL, n. The wheel of a cart

e^ART-WRIGHT, n. An artificer who' makes carts. I

Carte-blanche. [Fr. white paper.] A blank! paper, signed at the bottom with a per- son's nanie, and sometimes sealed with his seal, given to another person with per- mission to superscribe what conditions he I'leases Encyc.

CARTEL, n. [It. carteltoi Fr. Sp. Port, car- tel ; from L. chartula.]

1. A writing or agreement between states at war, for the exchange of prisoners, or for some mutual advantage; also, a vessel em- ployed to convey the messenger on this occasion.

A letter of defiance or challenge ; a chal- lenge to single combat. This sense thej word has still in France and Italy; but with us it is obsolete. Cartel-ship, is a ship employed in the ex-l change of prisoners, or in carrying propo-! sitions to an enemv. ■

CARTHA6IN'IAN, n. An inhabitant or

native of Carthage. C-ARTHAMUS, n. The generic name of

Bastard Saffron. [See SaMower.] CARTHUSIAN, n. carthiAun. One of an order of monks, so called from Char- treuse, the place of their institution. Thev are remarkable for their austerity. They cannot go out of their cells, except to church, nor speak to any person without 'e»vf. Enmic.

CARTILA6E, n. [h. caHilago ; Fr. car'til- age. I suspect this and the English gris- tle to be the same word ; the r being trans- posed, carti7 for cratil.] Gristle ; a smooth, solid, elastic substance, softer than bone, of a pearly color and homogeneous texture, without cells or cavities. It is invested with a particular membrane called perichondrium, which in the articular cartilages, is a reflexion of the synovial membrane. Cyc. tVistar. CARTILAGINOUS, a. Pertaining to or resembling a cartilage ; gristly ; consisting of cartilage. Ray.

2. In ichthyology, cartilaginous fishes are those whose muscles are supported by cartilages instead of bones, or whose skel- eton is cartilaginous. Many of these are viviparous, as the ray and shark, whose young are excluded from an egg hatched within them. Others are oviparous, as the sturgeon. Some of them have no eill- covers, but breathe through aiiertures^ on the sides of the neck or top of the head ; others have gill-covers, but destitute of bony rays. Encyc. Ed. Encyc

CARTOON', n. [It. cartone, paste-board;

Sp. Fr. carton ; from L. charta, pajier.] In painting, a design drawn on strong paper, to be afterward calked through and trans- ferred on the fresh plaster of a wall, to be painted in fresco. Also, a design colored for working in Mosaic, tapestry &c.

CARTOITCH', „. [Fr. caHouche; Sp,^caHu. cho ; Port, cartuxo ; It. cartuccia, a cart- ridge, a bit of paper, from carta, paper 1

1. A case of wood, about three inches thick at the bottom, girt with marlin, holding about four hundred musket baUs, and sii or eight iron balls of a pound weight, to he hied out of a howitz, for defending a pass. A cartouch is sometimes made of a globular form, and filled with a ball of a pound weight ; and sometimes for gun« being of a ball of a half or quarter of a pound weight, tied in the form of a bimoh of grapes, on a tompion of wood and coat- Enqic.

cd over.




!J. A portable box for charges. [See CaH- ridge-box.]

3. A roll or scroll on the cornice of a column. Coles.

CARTRIDGE, n. [a corruption ofcartoiich.] A case of pasteboard or parchment, hold- ing the charge of powder or powder and ball, for a cannon, mortar, musket or pis tol. The cartridges for small arms, pre pared for battle, contain the powder and ball ; those for cannon and mortars are made of paste-board, or tin. Cartridges, without balls, are called blank cartridges.

CARTRIDGE-BOX, n. A case, usually of wood, covered with leather, with cells for cartridges. It is worn upon a belt thrown over tlie left shoulder, and hangs a little below the pocket-hole on the right side.

CARTULARY, n. [Fr. cadulaire ; Sp. car- tulario ; from carta, paper.]

A register-book, or record, as of a monas- tery. Blackstone writes it chartulary ; and primarily it signifies the officer who has the care of charters and other public papers.

€AR'U€ATE, n. [L. caruca.] As much land as one team can plow in the year.

Eng. Law. Kelham.

CAR'UNCLE, n. [L. canmcula, from caro, flesh.]

1. A small fleshy excrescence, either natural pr morbid. Coxe.

2. The fleshy comb on the head of a fow eARUNC'ULAR, a. In the form of a ca- runcle.

CARUNC'ULATED, a. Having a fleshy

excrescence, or soft fleshy protuberance.


CARVE, V. t. c'arv. [Sax. ceorfan, cearfan ; J), kerven ; G.kerben; Ttan.karver; L.car-

po. See Ar. <_.»;




and Ch. 313. Class Rb. No. 26. 27. 30.]

1. To cut into small pieces or slices, as meat at table.

2. To cut wood, stone or other material into some particular form, with an instrument, usually a chisel; to engrave; to cut fig- ures or devices on hard materials.

3. To make or shape by cutting ; as, to carve an image.

4. To apportion ; to distribute ; to provide at pleasure ; to select and take, as to one's self, or to select and give to another.


5. To cut ; to hew. Shak. To carve out, is to cut out, or to lay out, by

design ; to plan. CARVE, V. I. c'arv. To cut up meat ; fol- lowed sometimes by for ; as, to carve for all the guests.

2. To exercise the trade of a sculptor.

3. To engrave or cut figures. C>ARVE, n. A carucate. [JVot in use.] CARVED, pp. Cut or divided ; engraved ;

formed by carving.

CARVEL, n. [See Caravel]

2. Tlie urtica marina, or sea blubber.

e ARVER, 71. One who cuts meat at table ; a scidptor ; one who apportions or distrib- utes at will, or one who takes or gives at pleasure. Dryden. Shak.

2. A large table knife for carving.

CARVING, p;)!-. Cutting, dividing, as meat ;

cutting in stone, wood or metal ; appor tioning ; distributing.

CARVING, n. The act of cutting, as meat ; the act or art of cutting figures in wood or stone ; sculpture ; figures carved.

CARYA'TES, ) In architecture, fig

CARYAT'IDES, J "• ures of women dress ed in long robes, after the Asiatic manner serving to support entablatures. The Athe nians had been long at war with the Cary aiis ; the latter being at length vanquishec and their wives led captive, the Greeks, to perpetuate this event, erected trophiei which figures of women, dressed in the Caryatic manner, were used to support entablatures. Other female figures were afterwards used in the same mariner, but they were called by the same name.


They were called Caryatides, from Carya, a city in the Peloponnesus, which sided with the Persians, and on that account was sacked by the other Greeks, its males but- chered, and its females reduced to slavery, Cyc.

€ARYAT'l€, a. Pertaining to the Caryans or Caryatides.

CARYOPHYL'LEOUS, a. [Gr. xopw.., a and ^i

CARYOPH'YLLOID, n. [Gr. xopuo^vWioi-, clove-gilliflower. Infra.]

A species of mica, the scales of which are concentric and perpendicular. Obs.

Cronstedt. JSticholso,

CASARCA, n. A fowl of the genus Anas, called also ruddy-goose, larger than a mallard, found in Russia and Siberia.


CASCABEL, n. [Port, cascavel; Sp. cas- cabel, a little bell, a button or knob at the end of a cannon.] The knob or pumuie- lion of a cannon. Mar. Diet.

CASCA'DE, n. [Fr. cascade; Sp. cascada . It. cascata, from cascare, to fall.]

A waterfall ; a steep fall or flowing of wa- ter over a precipice, in a river or natural stream ; or an artificial fall in a garden. The word is applied to falls that are less than a cataract.

CASCAL'HO, n. [Port.] In Brazil, a de- posit of pebbles, gravel and sand in which the diamond is usually found.

Port. Diet. Cleaveland.

CASE, Ji. [Fr. caisse ; Sp. Port, caxa, a box- er chest ; It. cassa ; D. kas ; Dan. kasse. The French caisse is the Sp. caxa. The Spanish caxeta, a gasket, seems to be a de- rivative o(caxa, and if so, the fact indicates that caxa is from air oriental root, signif;v- ing to tie or bind, and that the word ori- ginally denoted a bag made of skin, like a bottle, or a basket made of osiers puer- woven, like fsc, fscus. Qu. Syr. Ja3 casha, to bind or tie.]

1. A covering, box or sheath ; that which incloses or contains ; as a case for knives ; a case for books; a watch case; a printer's case ; a pillow ca^e.

2. The outer part of a building. Addison.

3. A certain quantity ; as a cose of crown glass.

4. A building unfurnished. [JYot used.] CASE, V. t. To cover with a case ; to sur-

round with any material that shall inclose or defend.

2. To put in a case or box.

3. To strip off' a case, covering, or the skin. [Unusual.] Shak.

CASE, n. [Fr. cas ; It. caso ; Sp. Port, caso; Ir. cos ; L. casus, fi-om cado, to fall.]

1. Literally, that which falls, comes, or hap- pens; an event. Hence, the particular state, condition, or circumstances that be- fall a person, or in which he is placed ; as, make the case your own ; this is the case with my friend ; this is his present case.

2. The state of the body, with respect to health or disease ; as a case of fever ; he is in a consumptive case ; his cose is des- perate.

To be in good case, is to be fat, and thiii phrase is customarily abridged, to be in case ; applied to beasts, but not to men, ex- cept in a sense rather ludicrous.

3. A question ; a state of facts involving a question for discussion or decision ; as, the lawyer stated the case.

4. A cause or suit in court ; as, the case was tried at the last term. In this sense, case is nearly synonymous with cause, whose primary sense is nearly the same.

5. In grammar, the inflection of nouns, or a change of termination, to express a differ- ence of relation in that word to others, or to the thing represented. The variation of nouns and adjectives is called declen- sion ; both case and declension signifying

falling or leaning from the first state of the word. Thus, liber is a book ; libri, of a book ; libro, to a book. In other words, cose denotes a variation in the termination of a jioun, to show how the noun acts upon the verb with which it is connected, or is acted upon by it, or by an agent. The cases, except the nominative, are called ob- lique cases.

In case, is a phrase denoting condition or supposition ; literally, in the event or con- tingency ; if it should so fall out or happen.

Put the case, suppose the event, or a certain state of things.

Action on the case, in law, is an action in which the whole cause of complaint is set out in the writ. Blackstone.

CASE, i;. i. To put cases. [JVot in itse.]


GA'SED, pp. Covered with a case.

CASE-HARDEN, v. t. To harden the outer part or superficies, as of iron, by convert- ing it into steel. This may be done by putting the iron into an iron box, with a cement, and exposing it, for some hours, to a red heat. Encyc.

CA'SEIC, a. [L. caseus, cheese.] The caseic acid is the acid of cheese, or a sub- stance SO" called, extracted from cheese.


CVSE-KNIFE, 11. A large table knife, often kept in a case.

CA'SEMATE, ji. [Fr. casemate; It. casa- matta ; Sp. Port, casamata ; from casa, a house.]

1. In fortification, a vault of mason's work in the flank of a bastion, next to the curtain, somewhat inclined toward the capital of the bastion, serving as a battery to defend the face of the op|)Osite bastion, and the moat or ditch. Chambert^




'i. A well, with its subterraneous branches, dug in the passage of the bastion, till the miner is heard at work, and air given to the mine. Harris.

€A'SEMENT, n. [It. casamento, a large house.]

1. A hollow molding, usually one sixth or one fourth of a circle. Encyc.

2. A little movable window, usually within a larger, made to turn and open on hinges.


CA'SEOUS, a. [L. caseus, cheese.] Like cheese ; having the qualities of cheese.

€AS'ERN,?i. [Fr. caserne ; Sp. caserna, from casa, a shed or house.]

A lodging for soldiers in garrison towns, usually near the rampart, containing each two beds. Encyc.

GASE-SHOT, n. Mu.sket balls, stones, old iron,&c., put in cases, to be discharged from cannon.

€A'SE-WORM, n. A worm that makes itself a case. John

eASH, 11. [Fr. caisse; Sp. Port, caxa, a chest, box, coffer. See Case.]

Money ; primarily, ready money, money chest or on hand, in bank or at commai It is properly silver and gold ; but since the institution of bank.s, it denotes a' bank notes equivalent to money. To pay in cash is opposed to payment in goods, commodities, or labor, as in barter.

CASH, V. t. To turn into money, or to ex- change for money ; as, to cash a note oi an order.

a. To |)ay money for ; as, the clerks of i bank cask notes when presented.

Mercantile usage.

eASII, V. t. To discard, [for cashier. JVot iised.]

GASH-AeeOUNT', n. An accoimtofn ey received, paid, or on hand.

CASH'-BQQK, n. A book in which is kept a register or account of money.

€ASH'-KEEPER, n. One entrusted witl tlie keeping of money.

€ASII'EW-NUT, n. A tree of the West In(lics,.4nacorrfium, bearing a kidney-simp ed nut. The fruit is as large as an orange and full of an acid juice, which is often used to make punch. To the apex of this fruit grows a nut, of the size of a hare's kid the shell of which is hard, and the kernel, wliich is sweet, is covered with a thin film Encyc

C.'VSHIE'R, n. [Fr. caissier ; It. cassiere ; Sp. caxero ; Port, caxeiro ; from caxa a box, whence cash.]

One who has charge of money ; a cash-keep- er. In a banking institution, the cashier is the officer who superintends the books, payments and receipts of the bank. He also signs or countersigns the notes, and superintends all the transactions, under the order of the directors.

C.ASHIE'R, V. t. [Fr. cosscr, to break ; It. cassare, to annul, blot out, erase.]

1. To dismiss from an office or place of trust, by annulling the commission ; to break, as for mal-conduct, and therefore with re proach ; as, to cashier an officer of the army.

2. To dismiss or discard from service or from society. Mdison. Dryden. SwiJI.

3. To reject ; to annul or vacate.

Locke. South.

•CASHIE'RED, ;*/?. Dismissed; discarded; annulled.

€ASHIE'RER, n. One who rejects, dis cards or breaks ; as a caskierer of mon- archs. Burke.

€ASHIE'RING, ppr. Discarding ing from service.

eASH'OO, n. The juice or gum of a tree in the East Indies.

€A'SING, ppr. Covering with a case.

€A'SING, n. The act or operation of pi; tering a house with mortar on the outside, and striking it while wet, by a ruler, with the corner of a trowel, to make it resem- ble the joints of free-stone. Encyc.

2. A covering ; a case.

€'ASK, n. [Sp. Port, casco ; Fr. ca-iquc ; Arm. casquen, casqed ; L. cassis. See Case]

.\\\\ head-piece ; a helmet ; a piece of defensive armor, to cover and protect the head and neck, in battle.

€'ASK, n. [Sp. Port, casco.] A close vessel for containing hquors, formed by staves heading and hoops. This is a general term comprehending the pipe, hogshead, butt, barrel, &c.

CASKET, n. [dim. of cask. See Case.] A small chest or box, for jewels or oth small articles. Shak.

2. In seamen's language, a small rope, fast- ened to gromets or little rings upon tin yards, used to fasten the sail to the yard in furling. Encyc.

This is usually written gasket.

€>ASKET, V. I. To put in a little chest.


CAS'PIAN, a. [Caspice, a word applied to a pass in the range of Mount Taurus. Plin. 5. 27. D'AnvUle.]

An epithet given to a large lake between Persia and Astracan, called the Caspian Sea.

€ASS, V. t. [Fr. casser, L. quasso.] To quash ; to defeat ; to annul. [JVbl nni used.] Raleigh

eASS'ADA, ) A plant, of the genus Ja

CASS'AVI, y'' tropha, of different species. The roots of the manihot or bitter cassa da, and of the janipha, are made into i kind of bread which serves for food to tlie natives of Africa and the West Indies, and they are also roasted and eaten hke potatoes. They yield also a great quan tity of starch, which the Brasihans export in small lumps under the name of tapioca.

CASSAMUNA'IR, n. An aromatic vegeta- ble brouccht from the East. Todd.

€AS'SATiE, V. t. [Fr. casser. See Cashier.] To vacate, annul, or make void. 06s.


€ASSA'TION, Ji. The act of annulling. In France there is a coui't of Cassation.

CASSIA, n. cash'ia. [Fr. casse ; It. sia ; Or. and L. id. Qu. Heb. mp.]

A genus of plants of many species, among which are the fistula, or purging cassia and the senna. The former is a native of Egypt and both Indies ; the latter is a nativeof Persia, Syria and Arabia. The latter is a shrubby plant, the leaves of! which are much used in medicine. The purging cassia is the pulp of the pods, and is a gentle laxative.

Cassia is also the name of a species of Lau-

rus, the bark of which usually passes un- der the name of cinnamon, difiering from real cinnamon chiefly in the strength of its qualities. From a plant of this kind was extracted an aromatic oil, used as a perfume by the Jews. Ex. xxx. Ps. xlv, 8. Eiicyc.

CAS'SIDONY, n. [Fr. cassidoinc] A spe- cies of plant, GnaphaUum, cotton-weed, cudweed or goldylocks; also, Lavandula stachas or French lavender.

Encyc. Fam. of Plants.

CAS'SIMER, n. [Sp. casimira.] A thin twilled woolen cloth. Encyc.

CASSiNO, JI. A game at cards. Todd.

CAS'SIOBURY, n. A species of plant, of the genus Cassine, of which the most remark- able species is the Yapon of the Southern States of America. The berries are of a beautiful red color.

Fam. of Plants. Encyc.

The Yapon is now arrang-ed in the genus Ilex. Cyc.

CASSIOPE'IA, n. A constellation in the Northern Hemisphere, situated near to Cephcus, as the fabulous Cassiopeia was wife to Ceplieus, king of Ethioiiia. It con- tains fiftv five stars. Encyc.

CASSITE'RIA, n. [L. cassiteron, tin.] A kind of crystals which appear to have an admixture of tin. The color is brown or whitish. Encyc.

CAS'SOCK, )i. [Sp. casaca ; It. casacca ; Fr. casaque.]

A robe or gown worn over the other gar- ments, particularly by the clergy. Encyc.

A close garment, now generally that which clergymen wear under their gowns.


CAS'SOCKED, a. Clothed with a cassock. The cassock'd huntsman. Cowper.

CASSONA'DE, n. [Fr.] Cask-sugar ; sugar not refined. Encyc.

CAS'SOWARY, n. [Sp. camel] A large fowl of the genus Stnithio, nearly as large as the ostrich, but its legs are thicker and stronger in proportion. The wings are so small as not to appear, being hid under the feathers. The head is armed v/ith a helmet of horny substance, consisthig of l)lates one over another. It runs with great rapidity, outstripping the swiftest racer. Encyc.

It is now arranged in a separate genus, Cas- uarius. Ciivier.

C^AST, It. /. pret. and pp. cast. [Dan. kas- ter ; Sw. kasta. Qu. Arm. cafz, pp. eagzet, to send, to throw. See Class Gs. No. 1. 5G. In Dan. et blind kast, is a guess, and to cast is the radical sense of guess. In Norman, gistes signifies cast up, and this seems to be the participle of gesir, to lie down ; to he down may be to throw one's self down. This verb coincides in sense with the W. cothi, to throw off.]

1. To throw, fling or .send : that is, to drive from, by force, as from the hand, or from an engine.

Hagar cast the child under a shrub. Gen. xxi. Uzziah prepared slings tocos* stones. 2 Ch. xxri.

2. To sow ; to scatter seed.

If a man should cast seed into the ground. Mark iv.

3. To drive or impel by violence.

A mighty west wind cast the locusts into (he sea. Ex. x:


4. To siicil or throw off; as, trees cast their fruit ; a serpent casts his skin.

5. To throw or let fall ; as, to cast anchor. Hence, to cast anchor is to moor, as a ship, the effect of casting the anchor.

t). To throw, as dice or lots ; as, to cast lots. 7. To throw on the ground, as in wrestling. Shak. S. To throw away, as worthless.

His carcase was cast in the way. 1 Kings xiii. y. To emit or throw out.

This casts a sulphurous smell. Woodward 10. To throw, to extend, as a trencli or rampart, including the sense of digging raising, or forming.

Thy enemies shall cast a trench about thee Luke xix. n . To thrust ; as, to cast into prison. 12. To put, or set, in a particular state.

Both chariot and horse were cast into a dead

sleep. Ps. Ixxvi.

1.3. To condemn ; to convict ; as a criminal,

Both tried and both were cast. Dryden.

14. To overcome in a civil suit, or in any


ise ; to reject ;


to throw into

contest of strength or skill ; as, to cast the defendant or an antagonist.

15. To cashier or discard.

16. To lay aside, as unfit for as a garment.

17. To make to preponderate one scale, for tlie purpose of giving it su perior weight ; to decide by a vote tha gives a sujjeriority in numbers ; as, to cast the balance in oneV favor ; a casting vote or voice.

18. To throw together several particulars, to find the sum ; as, to cast accounts. Hence to throw together circumstances and facts to find the result ; to compute ; to reckon ; to calculate ; as, to cast the event of war.

To cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself. Bacon.

19. To contrive ; to plan. Temple.

20. To judge, or to consider, in order to judge. Milton.

21. To fix, or distribute the parts of a play among the actors. Mdison.

23. To throw, as the sight ; to direct, or turn, as the eye ; to glance ; as, to cast a look, or glance, or the eye.

23. To found ; to form into a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal into a mold ; to run ; as, to cast camion.

Thou shah east four rings of gold for it. E


24. Figuratively, to shape ; to form by model. ffatts.

25. To commimicate ; to spread over ; as, to cast a luster upon posterity ; to c splendor upon actions, or light upoi subject.

To cast aside, to dismiss or reject as u

less or inconvenient. To cast away, to reject. Lev. xxvi. Is.

V. Rom. xi. Also, to throw away ;

lavish or waste by profusion ; to turn to no

use ; as, to cast nway life. Addison.

Also, to wreck, as a ship. To cast by, to reject ; to dismiss or discard

with neglect or hate, or as useless.

Shak. Locke To cast down, to throw down ; to deject oi

depress the mind.

Wliy art tliou cast doivn, O my soul. Ps

xlii. To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as froiu


an inclosed place ; to emit, or send abroad ; to exhale.

To cast off, to discard or reject ; to drive away ; to put off; to put away; to disbur- den. Among huntsmen, to leave behind, as dogs ; to set loose, or free. Among seamen, to loose, or untie.

To cast out, to send forth ; to reject or turn out ; to throw out, as words ; to speak or give vent to.

To cast up, to compute ; to reckon ; to cal- culate ; as, to cast up accoimts, or the cost. Also, to eject ; to vomit.

To cast on, to refer or resign to. South.

To cast one's self on, to resign or yield one's If to the disposal of, without reserve.

To cast young, to miscarry ; to suffer abor- tion. Gen. xxxi.

To cast in the teeth, to upbraid ; to charge : to twit. So in Danish, " kaster en i nces- en," to cast in the nose.

€'AST, V. i. To throw forward, as the thoughts, with a view to some dctermina tion; or to turn or revolve in the mind; to contrive ; sometimes followed by about. I cast in careful mind to seek her out.

Spenser. To cast about how to perform or obtain.

Bacon. Bentley.

2. To receive form or shape. Metal will east and mold. Woodward

3. To warp ; to twist from regular shape. Stuff is said to cast or warp, when it alters its

flatness or straightness. Moxon

Note. Cast, hke throw and warp, im- plies a winding motion.

4. In seamen^s language, to fall off, or incline, so as to bring the side of a ship to the wind ; appUed particularly to a ship riding with her head to the wind, when her an- chor is first loosened.

€'AST, ?i. The act of casting ; a throw ; the thing thrown ; the form or state of throw ing ; kind or manner of throwing.

2. The distance passed by a thing thrown or the space through which a thing thrown may ordinarily pass; as, about a stone' cast. Luke xxii.

3. A stroke ; a touch. This was a cast of Wood's politics. Swift

4. 3Iotion or turn of the eye ; direction, look or glance ; a stjuinting.

They let you see by one cast of the eve.

Addison. A throw of dice ; hence, a state of chance or hazard.

It is an even cast, whetlier tlie army should

march this way or that way. Sotlth.

Hence the phrase, the last cast, is used to

denote that all is ventured on one throw,

or one effort.

G. Form; shape.

A heroic poem in another cast. Prior.

A tinge ; a slight coloring, or shght degree of a color ; as a cast of green. Hence, a slight alteration in external appearance, or deviation from natural appearance.

The native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er witli the pale cast of thought.

3. Manner ; air ; mien ; as, a peculiar cast of countenance. This sense itnplies, the turn or manner of throwing ; as, the neat cast of verse. Pope.

ft. A flight; a number of hawks let go at once. Sidney.

10. A small statue of bronze. Encyc.


11. Among founders, a tube of wax, fitted into a mold, to give shape to metal.

12. A cylindrical piece of brass or copper, slit in two lengthwise, to form a canal or conduit, in a mold, for conveying metal.

13. Among plumbers, a little brazen funnel, at one end of a mold, for casting pipes without sodering, by means of which tiie melted metal is poured into the mold.


14. [Sp. Port, casta.] A breed, race, line- age, kind, sort.

15. In Hindoostan, a trihc or class of the same rank or profession ; as the cast of Bramins, or priests ; of rajahs, or princes ; of choutres, or artificers ; and of parias, or poor people. Or according to some wri- ters, of Brajiiin* ,- of cwHen/, or soldiers; of shuddery, or merchants ; and of wyse, or mechanics. Encyc.

The four casts of the Hindoos are the Brahmins or sacred order ; the Chehteree or soldiers and rulers ; the Bice, Vaissya, or husbandmen and merchants ; and the Sooders, Sudras, or laborers and mechan- ics. Cyc. Ed. Encyc.

16. A trick. Martin. €ASTA'LIAN, a. Pertaining to CastaUa, a

cool spring on Parnassus, sacred to the muses ; as Castalian fount. Poetry.

€AST'ANET, n. [Sp. castaneta, castahuela ; Port, castanheta ; Fr. castagnette ; It. cas- tagnetta. This word seems to be from castana, a chestnut, so named from the re- semblance to two chestnuts.]

An instrument of music formed of small con- cave sliells of ivory or hard wood, shaped like spoons, placed together, fastened to the thumb and beat with the middle fin- ger. This instrument is used by the Span- iards, Moors and Bohemians, as an accom- paniment to their dances, sarabands and guitars. Span. Diet. Encyc.

>ASTAWAY, n. [cast and away.] That which is thrown away. A person abandoned by God, as unworthy of his favor ; a reprobate. 1 Cor. ix. 27.

€'ASTAWAY, a. Rejected; Useless; of no value. Raleigh.

COASTED, pp. for cast, is not in use.

€AS'TELLAN, n. [Sp. castellan; Fr. chatelain. See Castle.]

A governor or constable of a castle. In Po- land, tlie name of a dignity or charge ; a kind of lieutenant of a province, command- ing part of a palatinate under a palatine. The castellans are senators, of the lower class, sitting, in the diets, on low seats be- hind the palatines. Encyc.

€AS'TELLANY, n. [See Castle.] The lordship belonging to a castle ; or the ex- tent of its land and jurisdiction. Phillips.

€AS'TELLATED, a. Inclosed in a building, as a fountain or cistern. Johnson.

2. Adorned with turrets, and battlements,

€ASTELLA'TION, m. The act of fortifying a house and rendering it a castle.

€'ASTER, n. [from cast.] One who throws or casts ; one who com|)Utes ; a calcula- tor ; one who calculates fortunes.


2. A small phial or vessel for the table ; as a set of casters.

3. A small wheel on a swivel, on which fur- niture is cast, or rolled, on the floor.


eAS'TIGATE, V. t. [L. casligo, from easlus, chaste. Qu. Etli. 7 Ul 8 gasts, to chas ten, correct, chide. The French use chillier, from castus, chaste ; Arm. castiza ; Sp. Port, castigar; It. castigare.] To chastise ; to punish by stripes ; to correct ; to chasten ; to check. Shak.

CASTIGATED, pp. Punished; corrected, €AS'TIGATING, ;9;w. Punishing; correct- ing ; cliastising. €ASTIGA'TION, rt. Punishment ; correc- tion ; penance ; discipline ; emendation ; restraint. Boyle. Hale

2. Among the Romans, a mihtary puni.sli- ment inflicted on offenders, by beating witli a wand or switcli. Enciic.

€AS'TlGATOR, n. One who corrects. " CAS'TIGATORV, a. Tending to correc- tion ; corrective ; punitive. Bramhall. €AS'TIGATORY. n. An engine formerly used to punisli and correct arrant scolds, culled also a ducking stool, or trebucket. Blackstone. €AS'TlLE-SOAP, n. A kind of pure, refi- ned soap. CASTIL'IAN, a. Pertaining to Castile

Spain. CASTIL'IAN, 71. An inhabitant or native (

Castile in Spain. C'ASTlTiG, ppr. Throwing; sending; con puting ;^ calculating ; turning ; giving :.y ; deciding ; running, < ) a mold to give shape. [Sc


throwing intc

Cast.] COASTING, n.

ding. 3. That which

The act of casting or foini

cast in a mold ; any vessel formed by casting melted metal into a mold, or in sand.

3. The taking of casts and impressions of figures, busts, medals, &c.

€'ASTING-NET, n. A net which is cast and drawn, in distinction from a net that is set and left. J[fau

CASTING-VOTE, ? The vote of a pre-

C-ASTING- VOICE, I "• siding ofiicer, in an assembly or council, which decides a qnestion, when the votes of the assembly

U. States. Coxe ■When there v had the casting

t'AS'TLE, n. kas'l. [Sax. castel; L. castell um; D.kasteel; Arm. gastell ; Norm, chax- tel ; Fr. chateau ; Port, castello ; It. id ; W cast, envelopment, from cos, a being sepa- rated or insulated, hatred, envy, a cas- tle ; castell, a castle, whence castellu, to surround; casitl,a cloke, a chasuble. The Welch cds gives the primaiy sense, which is to separate, to drive ofl' ; hence, tt) de fend. It is probably from this root the Latins had casa. We observe in the Welch, cds signifies, separated, a castle, and hatred, envy; also, hateful, odious: and casnawr, a hater, a persecutor ; casnori, to persecute, to chase. Hence we see the radical sense of hatred is a driving off.]

1. A house fortified for defense against an enemv ; a fortress. The term seems to


2. Tiie house or mansion of a nobleman prince.

3. In a ship, there are two parts called by this name ; the forecastle, a short deck the fore part of the ship, above the upper deck ; and the hindcastle, at the stern.

Castle in the air, a visionary project ; a scheme that has no sohd foundation.

€AS'TLE, V. t. In the game of chess, to cover the king with a castle, by a certaii move. • Encyc.

€AS'TLE-BUILDER, n. One who forms visionary schemes.

CAS'TLE-BUILDING, n. The actof build- uig castles in the air.

GAS'TLE-CROWNED, a. Crowned with a castle.

CAS'TLED, a. Furnished with castles ; as a castled elephant. Druden.

GAS'TLE-GUARD, n. A feudal tenure, or knight service, which obhged the tenant to perform service within the realm, without limitation of time. Lyltelton.

■CAS'TLERY, n. The governmeiit of a castle. Blount.

€AS'TLET, n. A small castle. Leland.

€AS'TLE-WARD, n. An imposition laid upon subjects dwelling within a certain distance of a castle, (or the purpose of maintaining watch and ward in the castle.


CAS'TRATE, v.t. [h. castro ; Vr. chalrtr, for chastrer ; Sp. Port, castrar ; It. cas-

trare ,- Ar. ^ ^ ^ , Etlj. .i, f^ (]) to castrate : "cut out or off. Class Gs. No.

Encyc. €"ASTLING, n. An abortion or aboitivc.

Brovm. €'ASTOR, n. [h. castor ; Tr.Sp. Von. id.;

Gr. xafup. See Ar. Class Gs. No. 42.] 1. A beaver, an amphibious quadruped, witl a flat ovate tail, short ears, a blunt nose, small fore feet, and large hind feet A reddish brown sub.stance, of a strong penetrating smell, taken from bags or cod in the groin of the beaver ; a powerful antispasmodic. Mcholson.

3. In astronomy, a moiety of the constellation

Gemini, called also Apollo. Castor and Pollux, in meteorology, a fiery meteor, which, at sea, appears sometimes adhering to a part of a ship, in the form of one, two and even three or four balls. When one is seen alone, it is called Helena, which portends that the severest part of the storm is yet to come. Two appear- ing at once are denominated Castor and Pollux, or Ti/ndaridw, and portend a ces- sation of the storm. Chainbers €'ASTORIN, I An animal principle dis €'ASTORINE, ( "• covered in castor, and prepared by boiling castor in six times its weight of alcohol, and filtering the liquor From this is deposited the Castorin.

ff'ebster''s Manual. €ASTOR-OIL, n. The oil of the Ricinus, Palma Christi, a plant of the West Indi. which grows to thehighth of twenty feet, in one season. The oil is obtained" from the nuts or seeds by expression or decoc- tion. That obtained by decoction is pre- ferred, as less liable to become rancid, being free from the mucilage and acrid matter, which is mixed with the oil when expressed. It is a mild cathartic. Encyc. CASTRAMFTA'TION, n. [L. caslrametor, to encamp, casira, camp, and metior,

include the house and the walls or other ' measure or snrvey.]

works around it. In old writers, the word The art or a< t of encamnin"- ■ the mnrkin

.soused for a town or village fortified. l| laying out of a cam™' V^Ay/te:; ^;-;sVf"douTt?urp?opriet;:

Ch. xyn 1

41. 42. J

1. To geld ; to deprive of the testicles ; to emasculate.

2. To take away or retrench, as the obscene ])arts of a writing.

3. To take out a leaf or sheet from a book, and render it imperfect.

€AS'TRATED, pp. Gelded ; emasculated : purified from obscene expressions.

CAS'TRATlNG,;,pr. Gelding; taking away the ob.sccne parts of a writinff

CASTRA'TION, n. The act of gelding; the act or practice of making eunuchs ; the act of takmg away the obscene parts of a wri- ting ; the act of taking out a leaf or sheet of a book. In botany, the cutting off of the anthers, or tops of the stamens of flowers before the ripening of the pollen.

eASTRA'TO, n. [It. See Ca.itrate.] A malft person emasculated for the purpose of im- proving his voice for a singer. Swi/}

€AS'TREL or KESTREL, „. A kind of' hawk, resembling the laniier in shape and the hobby in size.

€ASTREN'SIAN, a. [L. ca.Hrensis, from castra, a camp.] Belonging to a camp.

€AS'UAL,a. cnzh'ual. [Fr. casuel; Sp. Port. casual ; It. casuale ; from L. casus, a fall See Case and Accident]

1. Falling; happening or coming to pass without design m the person or persons affected, and without being foreseen, or expected; accidental; fortuitous; coniinc by chance ; as, the parties liad a casual rencounter.

2. Occasional ; coming at certain times vy-ithout regularity, in distinction from sta- ted, or regular ; as casual expenses.

3. Taking place, or beginning to exist with- out an efficient iriteUigent cause, and with- out design.

Atheists assert that the existence of thines is casual. nwt-'ht

€AS'UALLY, adv. Accidentally ; fortuit- ously; without design ; by chance.

€AS'UALNESS, n. Accidentalness ; the

I quality of being casual.

€AS'UALTY, n. Accident; that which comes by chance or without design, or

I without being foreseen ; contingency.

j2. An accident that produces unnatural death ; and by a metonymy, death, or other misfortune, occasioned by an acci- dent.

,3. In Scots law, an emolument due from a

[ vassal to his superior, beyond the stated yearly duties, upon certain casual events.

€AS'UIST, n. fit. Sp. Port. ra.mist^"Tr. castiiste ; from L. casus, a ease.]

One who studies and resolves cases of con- science.

The judjrment of any casuist or learned divine is not sulEcient to give hun confidence.


eAS'UIST, V. i. To play the part of a casu-

'*•• Milton.

^^^}7,fZ\\\\^\\\\i la Relating to cases of

€A?-L IS^TIGAL, J ' conscience, or to ca-




€AS'UISTRY, n. The science or doctrine of] cases of conscience ; the science of resol ving cases of doubtful propriety, orof de termining the lawfuhiess or unlawfulness of what a man may do, by rules and prin ciples drawn from the scriptures, from the laws of society, or from equity and natural reason. Pope.

Casus faderis. [L.] The case stipulated by treaty ; that which conies within the terms of compact. Lmw of Mitions

€AT, n. [Ir. cat ; Fr. chat ; D. kat ; Dan. kat ; Sw. katt ; G. kater, or katze ; L. catus ; Vulgar Greek, xam, or ya-toi ; It. gatto Port, and Sp. gato ; Lap. id.; Pol. kot ; Rus3.kots; Turkish teii; W.cath; Corn kath ; Arm. gaz or kaz ; Basque cafua.

In Ar. jj^^' kitta, is a male cat. Class Gd

No. 56.]

1. A name applied to certain species of car- nivorous quadrupeds, of the genus Felis. The domestic cat needs no description. It is a deceitful animal, and when enraged extremely spiteful. It is kept in houses, chiefly for the purpose of catching rats and mice. The wild cat is much larger than the domestic cat. It is a strong, ferocious au' mal, living in the forest, and very de; tructive to poultry and lambs.

The wild cat of Europe is of the same species with the domestic cat ; the cata mount, of N. America, is much larger and a distinct species. Ed. Encyc.

U. A ship formed on the Norwegian model, having a narrow stern, projecting quar- ters, and a deep waist. It is strong built, from four to six hundred tons burthen, and employed in the coal trade.

3. A strong tackle or combination of pulleys, to hook and draw an anchor perpendicu larly up to the cat-head of a ship.

4. A double tripod having six feet.

Cat of nine tails, an instnnnent of pimish ment, consisting of nine pieces of line or cord fastened to a piece of thick rope, and having three knots at intervals, used to flog ofienders on board of ships.

CAT' AMOUNT, n. Cat of the mountain^ the wild cat.

eAT'-BL9CK, n. A two or three fold block with an iron strop and large hook, used to draw up an anchor to the cat-head.

Mar. Diet.

€AT'S'-EYE, n. Sun-stone, a subspecies of] quartz, called in Latin acidus cati or onyco palus, from its white zones or rings "likf onyx, and its variable colors like opal. It is very hard and semitransparent, and from certain points exhibits a yellowish radia tion, or chatoyant appearance, somewhat resembling a cat's eye. Encyc. Cleaveland.

tAT'-EYED, a. Havuig eyes like a cat.


€AT'-FISH, n. A species of the Squalus, oi shark. The cat-fish of the N. American rivers is a species of Cottus, or bull-head,

CAT'S'-FOOT, n. A plant of the genus Glechoma, ground ivy, or gill.

CAT'-GUT, n. The intestines of sheep or lambs, dried and twisted together, used strings for violins and other instruments, and for other purposes. Great quantities are imported from Lyons and Italy.

CAT'-HARPINGS, n. Ropes serving

brace in the shrouds of the lower masts behind their respective yards, to tighten the slirouds and give more room to draw in the yards, when the ship is close hauled. Mar. Diet.

€AT'-HEAD, n. A strong beam projecting horizontally over a ship's bows, carrying two or three sheaves, about which a rope called the cat-fall passes, and communi- cates with the cat-block. Mar. Did.

CAT'S'-HEAD, n. A kind of apple.

eAT'-HQQK, n. A strong hook fitted to the cat-block. Mar. Diet.

€AT'-MINT, n. A plant of the genus Ne- peta, so called because cats eat it.

€AT'S'-PAW, n. Among seamen, a light air perceived, in a calm, by a ripphng of the siu'face of the water ; also, a particular turn in the bight of a rope, made to hook a tackle on. Mar. Diet.

2. A dujje ; the instrument which another

€AT'-SALT, n. A sort of salt beautifully granulated, formed out of the bittern or leach-brine, used for making hard soap.

€AT'SILVER, n. A fossil, a species of mica,

€AT'-TAIL, n. [cat and tail.] A species of] reed, of the genus Typha, the downy sub- stance of which is used for stuffing mat- tresses, &c. Bailey.

9. A substance growing on nut-trees, pines, &c. Bailey.

€ATABAP'TIST, n. [Gr. ;tora and /Jart- Tcj'ijs.] One who opposes baptism.


€ATA€AU3'TI€, a. [Gr. xataxavais, a burn- ing.] Catacaustic curves, in geometry, are that species of caustic curves, which are formed by reflection.

Bailey. Encyc.

€ATA€HRE'SIS, n. [Gr. xaraxmaii, abuse, from xora, against, and j^poo^tu, to use.]

An abuse of a trojie or of words ; a figure in rhetoric, when one word is abusively put for another, or when a word is too far wrested from its true signification ; as, a voice beautiful to the ear.

Smith. Bailey. Johnson

A catachresis is a trope which borrows tlif name of one thing to ex])ress another, or a harsh trope ; as when Milton, speaking ol Raphael's descent from heaven, says, he " sails between worlds and worlds." Here the novelty of the word sails enlivens the image. So in scripture we read of the " blood of the grape." Deut. xxxii.

€ATA€HRES'TI€, ? Belonging tc

€ATA€HRES'TI€AL, ^ "• a catachresis forced ; far-fetched ; wrested from its nat- ural sense. Johnson. Bronin

€ATA€HRES'TI€ALLY, adv. In a forced er. Evelyn.

€AT'A€LYSM, n. [Gr. x

A deluge, or overflowing of water; particu larly, the flood in Noah's days. [Lillle used.] Hall.

€AT'A€OMB, n. [probably from Gr. xara.. and xviiSoi, a liollow or recess.]

A cave, grotto or subterraneous place for the burial of the dead. It is said to have been originally applied to the chapel of St. Se bastian in Rome, where the ancient Ro- man Calendars say, the body of St. Peter was deposited. It is now applied to a niunber of subterraneous sepulchers, about

three miles from Rome, in the Appian way ; supposed to be the cells and caves in which the primitive christians concealed themselves, and in which were deposited the bodies of the primitive martyrs. These are visited by devout people, and relics are taken from them, baptized by the Pope and dis])ersed through Catholic countries^ Each catacomb is three feet broad and eight or ten high ; along the side walls are sepulchral niches, closed with thick tiles or pieces of marble. Catacombs are found also at Naples and in other places. Encyc.

€ATA€OUS'Tl€S, n. [Gr. xafaxovu, to hear.]

That part of acoustics or the doctrine of

sounds, which treats of reflected sounds.

But the distinction is deemed of little use.


€ATADIOP'TRIC, > [Gr. xaxa, and

€ATADIOP'TRl€AL, <, "' «w«To,«u,to set- through.] Reflecting light.

€AT'ADUPE, n. [Gr. xoro, and ^ourttu, to sound.]

A cataract or waterfall. [JVo< in use.]


€ATAGMAT'l€, a. [Gr. xafay^, a frag- ment.]

That has the quahty of consolidating broken IJarts ; promoting the union of fractured bones. Wiseman. Core.

€AT'AGRAPH, n. [Gr. xaro, and ypa$«, tc describe.]

The first draught of a picture ; also, a profile , Chambers.

€ATALE€'TI€, a. [Gr. xara, and J-fyu.]

Pertaining to metrical composition, or to measure. Tyrwhitt.

Cataleetic verses, are such as want either feet or syllables. Cyc.

€ATALEP'SIS, ) [Gr. xaTa?n;4.i5, a seiz-

€AT'ALEPSY, S "' ing, from xaToXa^Sa.w, to take, seize, or invade.]

A sudden suppression of motion and sensa- tion, a kind of apoplexy, in which the pa- tient is speechless, senseless, and fixed in one posture, with his eyes open, without seeing or understanding. The word is applied also to a retention of the breath or of the humors, and to the interception of the blood by bandages. Encyc. Coie.

€ATALEP'TI€, a. Pertaining to catalepsy.

€AT'ALO(iIZE, r. t. To insert in a cata- logue. [.Vo< used.] Coles.

€AT'ALOGUE, n. kaValog. [Gr. xara>.oyos ; xara and >.oyo;, according to words.]

A list or enumeration of the names of men or things disposed in a certain order, often in alphabetical order; &» 'A catalogue of the students of a college, or of books, or of the stars.

€AT'ALOGUE, v. t. [as above.] To make a list of. Herbert.

€ATAL'PA, n. A large tree of Carolina and the South, which in blossom has a beauti- ful appearance. It belongs to the genus Bignonia, or trumpet flower.

Drayton. Encyc.

€ATAL'YSIS, n. [Gr. xaran.ats.] Dissolu- tion. [Little n.ted.] Taylor.

CATAME'NIAL, a. [Gr. xoi-a.ujjuof; xara and ^ifv, a montli.]

Pertaining to the catainenia, or menstrual discharge?.




CAT'AMITE, n. [L. catamitus.] A boy kept for unnatural purposes.

eAT'APASM, n. [Gr. xarartanfw..] A dry powder for sprinkling the body. Coxe.

€AT'APELT, or CAT'APULT,n. [Gr. xafa- niMrji ; L. cataputta ; xara and net-ri;, a target, or more probably from naXKu SaXKu,, to tlirow or drive, L. pello.]

A military engine used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for throwing stones, darts and arrows upon an enemy. Some of these would throw a stone ot a hundred pounds weight. Mitford.

eATAPEL'TIC, a. Pertaining to the cata- pelt. As a noun, the catapelt.

CATAPHON'ICS, n. [Gr. xaro, and 4)qi/5j, sound.]

The doctrine of reflected sounds, a branch of acoustics. Encyc.

CAT'APHRACT, n. [h. cataphrada ; Or xoTeufpaxfos, from xaroujipaoou, to arm or fortify.]

1. In the ancient military art, a piece of heavy defensive armor, formed of cloth or leather, strengthened with scales or links, used to defend the breast, or whole body, or even the horse as well as the rider. Encyc.

2. A horseman in complete armor. Milton CAT'APLASM, Ji. [Gr. xoran>^*f«i, from

xararfKaaaoy, to anoint, or to spread i plaster.]

A poultice ; a soft and moist substance to be applied to some part of the body, to excite or repel heat, or to relax the skin, & When mustard is an ingredient, it is called a sinapism. Encyc.

€AT'APUCE, n. The herb spurge. Obs.


CAT'ARACT, n. [L. cataracia ; Gr. * paxri;5, from xaropa^sco, to break or fall with violence, from paaau, pa|u, to strike or dash.]

1. A great fall of water over a precipice ; as thatof Niagara, of the Rhine, Danube and Nile. It is a cascade upon a great scale.

The tremendous cataracts of America thun dering in their solitudes. Irving

2. In medicine and surgery, an opacity of the crystaline lens, or its capside ; a disorder in the eye, by which the pupil, which is usually black and transparent, becomes opake, blue, gray, brown, &,c., by which vision is impaired or destroyed. Encyc.

CAT'ARRH, n. cater. [L. catarrhus ; Gr, xarappooj, from xaroppfu, to flow down.]

A defluxion, or increased secretion of mucus from the membranes of the nose, fauces and bronchiiB, with fever, sneezing, cough, thirst, lassitude and loss of appetite, and sometimes an entire loss of taste ; called also a cold, coryza. An epidemic catanl is called Influenza.

Hooper. Coxe. Encyc.

CAT'ARRHAL, \\\\ Pertaining to catarrh

€AT-ARRHOUS, S produced by it or at- tending it ; as a catarrhal fever.

€ATAS'TERISM, n. [Gr. xaT'offpid^os, from xafaytpifw, to distinguish with stars, or to place among the stars ; xora and ajjjp, a star.]

A constellation, or a placing among the stars.

€ATAS'TROPHE, { [Gr. xarafpo^^,, an

CATAS'TROPHY, \\\\ "• end or overthrow- ing, from xaracpfifu, to subvert ; xata and fP't"-]

1. The change or revolution which produces

the final event of a dramatic piece ; or the unfolding and winding up of the plot, clearing up difliculties, and closing the play. The ancients divided a play into the protasis, epitasis, catastasis, and catas- trophy ; the introduction, continuance, heightening, and development or conclu sion. Johnson. Encyc.

2. A final event ; conclusion : generally, an unfortunate conclusion, calamity, or dis- aster.

€AT'CALL, n. [cat &iu\\\\ call.] A squeaking instrument, used in play-houses to con- demn plays. Johnson. Pope

CATCH, V. t. pret. and pp. catched or caught [Sp. coger, to catch, coinciding in ele- ments with Gr. xi;tfu. The orthography of caught determines the radical letters to be Cg. The popular or conunon pronun- ciation is ketch.]

1. To seize or lay hold on with the hand carrying the sense of pursuit, thrusting forward the hand, or rushing on.

And they came upon him and caught him. Acts vi.

2. To seize, in a general sense ; as, to calch a ball ; to catch hold of a bough.

3. To seize, as in a snare or trap ; to ensnare ; to entangle.

They sent certain of the Pharisees and of \\\\h Herodians, to catch him in his words. Mark xii

4. To seize in pursuit ; hence simply to overtake ; a popular use of the word.

He ran, but could not catch his companii

5. To take hold ; to communicate to.

The fire caught the adjoining building.

6. To seize the affections ; to engage and attach to ; as, to catch the fair. Dryden

7. To take or receive by contagion or infec- tion ; as, to catch the measles or small pox

8. To snatch ; to take suddenly ; as, to catch a book out of the hand.

9. To receive something passing.

The swelling sails no more Catch the soft airs and wanton in the sky.


To calch at, to endeavor to seize suddenly.

To catch at all opportunities of subverting the

state. Addison

To catch up, to snatch ; to take up suddenly,

€ATCH, V. i. To communicate ; to spread

by infecting; as, a disease will catch from

man to man.

2. To seize and hold ; as, a hook catches.

CATCH, n. Seizure; the act of seizing.

2. Any thing that seizes or takes hold, as a hook.

3. The posture of seizing; a state of prepa- ration to catch, or of watching an oppor- tunity to seize ; as, to lie upon tJie catch.


4. A sudden advantage taken. Dryden.

5. The thing caught, considered as an object of desire; profit; advantage.

Hector shall have a great fafcA. Shak.

6. A snatch ; a short interval of action. It has been writ by catches. Locke.

7. A little portion. We retain a catch of a pretty story.


8. In music, a fugue in the unison, wherein to humor some conceit in the words, the melody is broken, and the sense is inter- rupted in one part, and caught and sup- ported by another, or a different sense is given to the words : or a piece for three

or more voices, one of which leads ana the others follow in the same notes.

Encyc. Bushy.

€ATCH'ABLE, a. That may be caught. [.Vol well authorized.]

€ATCH'ER, 71. One who catches; that which catches, or in which any thing is caught.

€ATCH'-FLY, n. A plant of the genus Lychnis ; campion.

CATCH' ING, ppr. Seizing; taking hold ; ensnaring ; entangling.

CATCH'ING, a. Communicating, or that may be communicated, by contagion ; in- fectious ; as, a disease is catching.

CATCH'PENNY, n. [catch and penny.] Something worthless, particularly a book or pamphlet, adapted to the popular taste, and intended to gain money in market.

€ATCH'-POLL, n. [catch and poU, the head.] A bailifTs assistant, so called by way of reproach.

CATCHUP, > A liquor extracted from

CAT'SUP, I "■ mushrooms, used as a sauce.

CATCH'-WORD, n. Among printers, the word placed at the bottom of each page, under the last line, which is to be inserted as the first word on the following page.

CATE, n. [See Cates.]

CATECHET'ICAL, a. [See Catechise.] Relating to oral instruction, and particu- larly in the first principles of the christian religion.

2. Relating to or consisting in asking ques- tions and receiving answers, according to the ancient manner of teaching pupils.

Socrates introduced a catechetical method of arguing. Addison.

CATECHET'ICALLY, adv. By question and answer ; in the way of oral instruc- tion.

CAT'ECHISE, V. t. s as :. [Gr. xarrjxi^u, and xatrixf^, to sound, to utter sound, to teach by the voice ; from xai-a, and ixi'^, to sound, whence eclw. Hence xaT'j;;|Tjfftj, xaTtjx^e^io;, catechise, catechism, instruction.]

1. To instruct by asking questions, receiving answers, and offering explanations and corrections.

2. To question ; to interrogate ; to examine or try by questions, and sometimes with a view to reproof, by eliciting answers from a person, which condemn his own conduct.

3. Appropriately, to ask questions concerning the doctrines of the christian religion ; to interrogate pupils and give instruction in the principles of rehgion.

CATECHISED, ;>;>. Instructed.

CAT'ECHISER, n. One who catechises ; one who instructs by question and ati- swer, and particularly in the rudiments of the christian religion.

CAT'ECHISING, ppr. Instructing in rudi- ments or principles.

CATECHISM, JI. [Gr. xar^zw^f.] A form of instruction by means of questions and answers, particularly in the principles of rehgion.

An elementary book containing a summa- ry of principles in any science or art, but appropriately in religion, reduced to the form of questions and answers, and some- times with notes, explanations, and refer- ences to authorities.


CAT'ECHIST, n. [Gr. xatrix^-^m.] One who instructs viva voce, or by question and answer ; a catechiser ; one appointed by the church to instruct in the principles of religion. Cz\\\\TE€HIS'TIC, \\\\ Pertaining to a €ATE€H1S'TI€AL, S catechist, or cat- echism. CAT'ECHU, n. Terra Japonica, a dry ex- tract, or brown astringent substance, ob- tained by decoction and evaporation from a species of Mimosa in India. It consists chiefly of tannin. Thomson. Ure

eATECHU'MEN, n. [Gr. xaf»;j;(n.j«fva, phv ces where hearers stood to be instructed, or buildings adjoining a church where the catechist taught the doctrines of religion.] One who is in the first rudiments of Christ- ianity ; one who is receiving instruction and preparing himself for baptism. These were anciently the children of believing parents, or pagans not fully initiated in the principles of tlie christian religion. They were admitted to this state by the imposi- tion of hands, and the sign of the cross. ^ Encyc.

CATE€HUMEN'I€AL, o. Belongmg to

catechumens. CATECHU MENIST, n. A catechumen.

Bp. Morton. CATEGOR'ICAL, a. [See Category.] Per

taiuing to a category. 'I. Absolute ; positive ; express ; not relative or hypothetical ; as a categorical proposi tion, syllogism or answer. CATEGOR'ICALLY, adv. Absolutely ; di rectly ; expressly ; positively ; as, to affi categorically. CAT'EGORY, n. [Gr. xattiyopia, from x> rjyofiu, to accuse, show, demonstrate ; xara and ayopeu, to speak in an assembly to harangue or denounce, from ayopa, a fo rum, judicial tribunal or market.] In logic, a series or order of all the predicates or attributes contained under a genus. The school philosophers distributed all the objects of our thouglits and ideas into fenera or classes. Aristotle made ten categories, viz. substance, quantity, qual


situation and habit. J^nci/c

CATENA'RIAN, } [L. catcnaiius, from

CAT'ENARY, S catena, a cham.]

Relating to a chain ; like a chain. The cate

narian curve, in geometry, is formed by ;

rope or chain hanging freely between two

points of suspension, whether the jjoints

are horizontal or not. Harris. Encyc.

CAT'ENATE, v. I. [L. caicno, a chain ; G_

kette ; Sans, ketta, whence ketlenu, to bind.;

To chain, or rather to connect in a series of

CA'TER, n. A provider. [See Caterer.]

Old Eng. achator. Chaucer.

CA'TER, n. The four of cards or dice ; so

written for Fr. quatre.

CA'TER-COUSIN, n. A quatre-cousin, a

remote relation. Shak.

CA'TERER, n. [from cater. In Chaucer,

achator, a purchaser or caterer, is evidently

from acheter, to buy.]

A provider, buyer or purveyor of provisions.

Chaucer, Cant. Tales. 570. South.

€A'TERESS, n. A woman who caters; a

female provider of food. CAT'ERPILLAR, n. [The etymology of this word is uncertain. Perhaps it may be from Fr. chatte pelue, hairy cat.] The colored and often hairy larva of the lepidopterous insects. This term is also applied to the larvas of other insects, such as the Tenthredo, or saw-fly ; but is more generally confined to the lepidopters. Cat- erpillars are produced immediately from the egg ; they are furnished with several pairs of feet, and have the shape and ap pearance of a worm. They contain the embryo of the perfect insect, inclosed within a muscular enveloj), which is thrown off, when the insect enters th( nymph or chrysalis state, in which it re mains for sometime as if inanimate. It then throws off its last envelop, and emerges a perfect insect. Caterpillars generally feed on leaves or succulent veg- etables, and are sometimes very destruc- tive. Ed. Encyc. Kirby. eAT'ERPILLAR-EATER, n. A worm bred in the body of a caterpillar, which eats it. Encyc. €AT'ERWAUL, v. i. [probably from cat

A wawl. It. guaiolare, Eng. wail." To cry or wawl, as cats in rutting time ; to

make a harsh ofl'ensive noise. CAT'ERWAULING, n. The cry of cats; a

harsh disagreeable noise or cry. CA'TERY, n. The place where provisions

are deposited. . .

GATES, n. Dehcious food or viands ; dainties CATH'ARIST, n. [Gr. xopaSoj, pure.] One ho pretends to more purity than otlier-


€ATH'EDRATED, a. Relating to the au- thority of the chair or ofiice of a teacher. mdtlock.

cATH^ARTle, I „ [Gr. xa9aprixo<, from

CATH'ARTICAL, S "oSaf^tvu, xaOatpu, to purge, xa9af>oi, clean, xara and atpu, to remove.]

Purging ; cleansing the bowels ; promoting evacuations by stool ; purgative.

CATH'ARTIC, n. A medicine that pro- motes alvine discharges, and thus cleanses the stomach and bowels ; a purge ; a pur

links or ties.


CATENA'TION, n. Connection of links, union of parts, as hi a chain; regular con- nection. [See Concalenation.]

CAT'ENULATE, a. Consisting of little links or chains.

CA'TER, V. i. [In It. cattare is to get ; a tare, to beg or borrow. In Fr. acheter is to buy ; Norm, acat, a buying. The Fi gueter, for quester, to beg, seems to be a different word. See Caterer.]

CATH'ETER, n. [Gr. xoSfrijp, from xaei/rnti,

to thrust in ; xara and ir)ni., to send.] In surgery, a tubular instrument, usually made of silver, to be introduced into the bladder, to draw oft" the urine when the natural discharge is suppressed ; also, a sound to search for the stone, or a bougie made of silver or elastic gum.

Encue. Coxe. €ATH'ETUS, n. [Gr. xaSfroj. See Caih--

ter.] In geometry, a line or radius, falling perpen- dicularly on another line or surface ; as the two sides of a right-angled triangle.

Encyc. Cathetus of incidence, in catoptrics, is a right line drawn from a point of the object, perpendicular to the reflecting line. Cathetus of reflection, or of the eye, a right Une drawn from the eye, per])endicular to the reflecting plane. CatKetus of obliquation, a right line drawn perpendicular to the speculum, in the point of incidence or reflection. In architecture, a cathetus is a perpendicu- lar line, supposed to pass through the middle of a cylindrical body. Encyc.

CATH'OLI€, a. [Gr. xa9o?.ixo5, xora and oTitxos, from o?u)5, the whole ; L. catholicus ; Fr. catholique ; Sp. catolico ; It. cattolico.] Universal or general ; as the Catholic church. OriginaUy this epithet was given to the Christian church in general, but is now appropriated to the Romish church, and in strictness there is no CathoUc church, or universal Cliristian communion. The epi- thet is sometimes set in opposition to her- etic, sectary or schismatic.

2. Liberal ; not narrow minded, partial or bigoted ; as a catholic man.

3. Liberal ; as catholic principles. Catholic epistles, the epistles of the apostles

which are addressed to all the taithlul, and not to a particular church.

CATH'OLIC, n. A papist.

CATH'OLICISM, n. Adherence to the Catholic church.

a. Universality, or the orthodox faith ot the whole church. Pearson.

3. More generally, liberality of sentiments. This is the renowned seat of Catholicism.

E. D. Griffin.

CATH'OLICIZE, v. i. To become a catho- lic. [Little used.]

CATH'OLIeLY, adv. Generally; m a catholic manner. Sir L. Cary.

CATH'OLICNESS, n. Universality.


^..i..,»..^- , - The quality of

I promoting discha-rges from the bowels.

'cATIIE'DRAL, n. [L. cathedra ; Gr. xa9 (6pa, a chair or seat, from xara and fSpa, a seat.] . .

The see or seat of a bishop ; the principal church in a diocese.

[CATHE'DRAL, a. Pertaining to the church which is the bishop's seat, or head church of a diocese ; containing the see of a bishop ; as a cathedral church ; cathedral To provide food ; to buy or procure provis-| service. ,u„,,,.„i .

ions ; followed by /or; as, to caier /or the|3. Resembling the "isles of a cathedral ,|

the sparrow.

Shak.ii as, cathedral walks.


CATHOL'ICON, n. [Gr. xoeoj.ixox lo^a, uni- versal remedy.]

A remedy for all diseases; a universal rem- edy ; a remedy supposed to be eflicacious in purtrin" away all humors ; a panacea ; a kind'of soft purgative electuary so called.

ICAT'ILINISM, n. The practices of Cati- line, the Roman conspirator ; conspiracy.

CAT'KIN, n. [from cat and kin.] In bota- ny, a species of calyx or rather of inflores- cence, from a common chafly- gemma- ceous receptacle, or consisting of many chaffy scales ranged along a stalk, slen- der as a thread, which is the common r.- ceptacle, as in' hazle, birch, oak, willow,

c A r




tAT'-LlKE. o. Resembliuj; a cat. Shak.

CAT' LING, n. A clismcmbering knife, used by sm-geons. Hams.

2. The down or moss growing about wal- nut trees, resembling the hair of a cat.


3. Catgut. Uu. Shak. CATO'JNIAN, a. Pertaining to or resem-

Wing Calo, the Roman, who was remark- able for his severity of manners ; grave : severe ; infle.tible. CATOP'TER, ( [Gr. xato^tfov. See CATOP'TRON, 5 "• Caloptrix:s.\\\\ An opt cal glass or instrument. Did.


Relating to catoptrics, or vision by reflec- tion.

€ATOP'TRICS, n. [Gr. «orortrp«os, from xatontfiov, a mirror, trom xoro, against, and onroixtu, to see.]

That part of optics which explains the prop- erties of reflected light, and particularly that which is reflected from mirrors or polished bodies. Encyc.

€ATOP'TROMANCY, n. [Gr. xatonrpo- fiavTsia ; xarojtrpor, a mirror, and fxay-rfia^ divination.]

A species of divination among the ancii'iii: which was performed by letting dowri mirror into water, for a sick person to Inn at his face in it. If his countenance aj peared distorted and ghastly, it was an ill omen ; if fresh and healthy, it was favor- able. Encyc.

€AT'-PIPE, n. [See Catcall]

€AT'SUP, n. [See Catchup, Ketchup.]

CAT'TLE, n. sing, or ptu. [Norm, catal, chastel, and chatters, goods, commodi- ties, movables ; Arm. chelal, beasts ; Port, gndo, cattle. In Syr. and Ch. ru and n"J sig- nify a flock, herd, possession, goods. But Spelman alledges that the word chattel is contracted from capitatia, capiat, from ca put, a word used in the middle ages for all goods, movable and immovable, swering nearly to the use of Gr. xifaMiiof, Acts xxii. 38. TtoXKov xi^axoum, " with a great price or sum I obtained this free- dom." Qu. Sp. caudal, wealth, property, capital sum.]

Beasts or quadrupeds in general, serving for tillage, or other labor, and for food to man In its primary sense, the \\\\vord includes camels, horses, asses, all the varieties of domesticated horned beasts or the bovine genus, sheep of all kinds and goats, and perhaps swine. In this general sense, it is constantly used in the scriptures. See Job i. 3. Hence it would appear that the word properly signifies possessions, goods. But whether from a word originally sig- nifying a beast, for in early ages beasts constituted the chief part of a man's prop erty, or from a root signifying to get oi possess, Gr. xTao/iae, It. cattare, or from capitalia, it is not easy to determine. Tli word is restricted to domestic beasts ; but in England it includes horses, which it or dinarily does not, in the United States, at least not in New-England.

2. In the United States, cattle, in common

usage, signifies only beasts of the bovine genus, oxen, bulls, cows and their yoimg. In the laws respecting domestic beasts, horses, sheep, asses, mules and swine are distinguished from cattle, or neat cattli Thus the law in Connecticut, requiring " that all the owners of any cattle, sheej or swine, shall ear-mark or brand all their cattle, sheep and swine," does not extend to horses. Yet it is probable that a law giving damages for a trespass committed by cattle breaking into an inclosure, would he adjudged to include horses.

In Great Britain, beasts are distinguish- ed into black cattle, including bulls, o.xen, cows and their young ; and small cattle, in- cluding sheep of all kinds and goats.

3. In reproach, human beings are called cattle. Shak.

eAU€A'SIAN, \\\\ Pertaining to Mount

€AUCASE'AN, \\\\ Caucasus in Asia.

As. Researches. Pinkerton.

CAUCUS, n. A word used in America to denote a meetingof citizens to agree upon candidates to be jiroposed for election to ottices, or to concert measures for support- ing a |)arty. The origin of the word is not ascertained.

CAUD'AL, a. [L. cauda, a tail.] Pertain- ing to a tail ; or to the thread which ter- minates tlie seed of a plant. Botany.

CAr:i)ATE, ^ [L. cnurfo, a tail.] Ha-

l AID A'l'KD, ^ ■ ving a tail. Fairfax.

I \\\\l I) i;\\\\, n. plu. caudeies. [L.] In bot- any, ihc stem of a tree. Linne uses the \\\\vord for the stock which proceeds from a seed, one part ascending and forming the body above ground, the other des- cending and putting forth roots.

Martyn. Danvin.

CAU'DLE, n. [Fr. chaudeau, from chaud, warm or hot, by contraction from L. cali- dus or its root ; It. caldo.]

A kind of warm broth, a mixture of wine and other ingredients prepared for tlie sick. Wiseman.

CAU'DLE, V. t. To make or prepare caudle, or to dress with caudle. Shak.

€AUF, n. [probably from the root of cof-

A chest with holes for keeping fish ahve in water. Ash.

€AUGHT, pret. and pp. of catch, pronoun- ced caut.

€AUK, i ^ A name given by miners to

€AWK, ^ ■ certain specimens of the com- pact sulphate of baryte. These are of a white, gray or fawn color, often irregular in figure, but sometimes resembhng a number of small convex lenses set in a ground. Nicholson, lire.

This name is sometimes' given to masses composed of concentric lamellar concre- tions. Cleaveland.

€AUK'Y, a. Pertaining to cauk ; like cauk. H'oodward.

CAUL, n. [L. caula, a fold, from the root of ftoW. See Hold.]

I. In anatomy, a membrane in the abdomen, covering the greatest part of the lower in- testines, called from its structure, reticu- lum, a net, but more generally, the omen- tum ; also, a little membrane sometimes encompassing the head of a child when born. Encyc.

2. A kind of net in which females inclose their hair ; the hinder part of a cap.


3. Any kind of net. Greic. CAULES'CENT, a. [L. caulis, a stalk ; Gr.

xoiiXos. See Cole.]

In botany, having a stem different from that which produces the flower ; as a caxdea- cent plant. Linne apphes this term to the root also, as in cabbage and turnep.

Martyn. Lee.

€AULlF'EROUS, a. [L. caulis, astern, and fero, to bear.]

In botany, having a stem or stalk.

€AUL'lFLOVVER, n. fit. cavotfiore ; L. caulis, VV. cawl, D. kool, mid Jlower.]

A variety of Brussica or cabbage, well known and much esteemed.

CAUL IFORM, a. [L.* caulis, a stem, and forma, form.]

Having the form of a stalk or of stems.


CAUL'INE, a. [L. caulis, a stalk.] In bot- any, growing immediately on the stem, without the intervention of branches ; as a cauline leaf, bulb, peduncle or scape.


CAULK, [See Calk.]

CAUP'ONATE, u.t. [L. cauponor.] To keep victualling house. [.Ybt in use.]

CAUP'ONISE, V. t. To sell wine or vict- uals. [jVot in use.] ff'artmrton.

CAUS'ABLE, a. [See Cause.] That may be caused, produced or effected. Ash.

CAUS'AL, a. [See Cause.] Relating to. a cause or causes ; implying or containing a cause or causes ; expressing a cause.

Causal propositions are where two propositions

are joined by causal words, as that or because.


CAUS'AL, n. In grammar, a word that expresses a cause, or introduces the rea- son. Harris.

CAUSAL'ITY, n. The agency of a cause ; the action or power of a cause, in produ- cing its effect. Encyc. GlanvUle.

CAUS'ALLY, adv. According to the order or series of causes. Johnson. Broton.

CAUS'ALTY, n. Among miners, the light- er, earthy parts of ore, carried off by wash- ing. Encyc.

CAUSA'TION, n. The act of causing or producing ; the act or agency by which an effect is produced. Brown.

CAUS'ATIVE, a. That expresses a cause or reason ; also, that effects as a cause.


CAUS'ATIVELY, adv. In a causative man-

CAUSA'TOR, 71. One who causes or pro- duces an efl'ect. Broum.

CAUSE, n. s asz. [Fr. cause ; Sp. Port. It. causa; h. causa, from the Celtic; Welsh acaws, effecting power, allied to cais, ef- fort, ceisiaw, to seek or go after, to attempt ; Arm. caus or cos. The primary sense is to urge, press, impel, like sequor, whence suit ; hence, to accuse, to attack or follow with a charge. The root of this word coincides vvilh that of castle, cast. Sic, which express a driving. A cause is that which moves, excites or impels to ac- tion or effect ; in law, a pressing for a claim. Sec Question. Cause, sake and thing have the hke radical sense.]

1. A sidt or action in court ; any legal pro-




cess which a party institutes to obtain las demand, or by which he seeks his right or his supposed right. This is a le- gal, scriptural and popular use of the word, coinciding nearly with case from cado, and action from ago, to urge or drive. The rouse of both parties shall come before

the judges. Ex. xxil. 3. That which produces an effect ; that which impels into existence, or by its agen- cy or operation produces what did not be- fore exist ; that by virtue of which any thing is done ; that from which any thing proceeds, and without which it would not exist.

Cause is a substance exerting its power into

act, to make a thing begin to be. Lorke.

3. The reason or motive that urges, moves, or impels the min(f to act or decide.

For this cause have I raised up Pharaoh. Ex. ix. And David said, is there not a cause ? 1 Sam.

4. Sake ; account.

I did it not for his cause that had done the wrong. 2. Cor. vii. [See Sake.]

5. That which a party or nation pursues ; or rather pursuit, prosecution of an object. We say, Bible Societies are engaged in a noble cause. [See the first definition.] Hence the word cause is used to denote that which a person or thing favors ; that to which the efforts of an inteUigent being are directed ; as, to promote religion is to advance the cause of God. So we say, the cause of truth or of justice. In all its ap- phcations, cause retains something of its original meaning, struggle, impelling force, contest, effort to obtain or to eft'ect some- thing.

6. Jf^thout cause, without good reason ; with- out a reason or motive to justify the act.

They hale me without cause. Ps. x.xxv. l.xix. €AUSE, V. t. To produce ; to bring into ex- istence.

They caused great joy to all the brethren. Acts XV. 2. To effect by agency, power or influence. I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days. Gen. vii.

I will couse him to fall by the sword. 2

CAUSE, V. i. To assign insufficient cause. Obs. Spenser.

CAUS'ED, pp. Produced ; effected ; brought about.

CAUSELESS, a. cauz'less. Having no cause, or producing agent. Blackinore.

2. Without just ground, reason or motive' ; causeless hatred ; causeless fear.

Fairfax. Waller. Prov. xxvi.

CAUSELESSLY, adv. cauz'lesshj. Without cause or reason. Taylor.

CAUSELESSNESS, n. cauz'lessness. The Slate of being causeless. Hammond,

CAUS'ER, n. He that causes ; the agent by which an effect is produced.

Johnson. Sidney. CAUS'EY, n. cauz'y. [Norm, calsay ; Fr. chaussie for chaulsie, a bank, or raised way ; Arm. chau^zer, the bank or mole of a pond. The ^Spanish has calzada, a causey, or way paved and raised ; Port calgada, a pavement, and stones used in paving. Both those words are evidently from the same root as Sj). calzas, Port calgado, Sp. calzado, hose, loose breeches,

trowsers, shoes, Fr. chausse, and the French word is evidently the same with the loss of <. The sense is probably taken from putting on, covering, Port, cal^ar, to put on shoes, or stockings, to pave, Sp. calzar, id, L. calceo, calceus.]

A way raised above the natural level of the ground, by stones, earth, timber, fascines, &c., serving as a dry passage over wet or marshy ground, or as a mole to confine water to a pond or restrain it from over- flowing lower ground. Most generally it is a way raised in a common road.

CAUSID'ICAL, a. [L. caitsidicus, causa and rfico.]

Pertaining to an advocate, or to the mainte- nance and defense of suits.

CAUSING, ppr. Producing ; effecting ; bringing into being.

€AUS'TI€, \\\\ [Gr. xwogixof, from xomh,

€AUS'TI€AL. \\\\ "■ xooiffu, to burn.]

Burning ; corroding ; destroying the texture of animal flesh.

€AUS'TI€, n. In medicine, any substance which applied to living animals, acts like fire, in corroding the part and dissolving its texture ; an escharotic. [See Caustici- ty.] Coxe. Encyc.

Lunar caustic, a preparation of crystals of silver, obtained by solution in acid, and afterwards fused in a crucible. It is a nitrate of silver. JsTicholson.

Caustic curve, in geometry, a curve formed by a coincidence of rays of light reflected from another cui-ve. Encyc.

CAUSTICITY, n. The quality of acting like fire on animal matter, or the quality of combining with the principles of organ- ized substances, and destroying their tex- ture. This quality belongs to concentra- ted acids, pure alkalis, and some metallic salts. J^/tcholson

CAU'TEL, n. [L. caulela, from cavco, to take care.] Caution. [JVot Mserf.] Shak.

CAU'TELOUS, a. [Fr. cauieleux, from L. cautela.] Cautious ; wary ; provident.


9. Cunning ; treacherous ; wily. Spenser.

CAU'TELOUSLY, tM/i). Cunningly; slily; treacherously. Bacon.

2. Cautiously ; warily. Brown.

CAU'TELOUSNESS, n. Cautiousness.

CAU'TERISM, n. The appUcation of cau- tery. Ferrand.

CAUTERIZA'TION, n. [See Cauterize.]

In surgery, the act of burning or searing some morbid part, by the appUcation of fire. This is done by burning tow, cot ton, mo.xa, Spanish wax, pyramidical pie ces of linen, &c., or more generally by a hot iron. Encyc

CAU'TERIZE, V. t. [Fr. cauteriser; Sp. Port cauterizar ; It. cauterizzare ; Gr. atavrjypiof u from xavtrif, a burning or branding iron, from xaiu, to burn.]

To burn or sear with fire or a hot iron, as morbid flesh.

CAU'TERIZED, pp. Burnt or seared with a hot iron.

CAUTERIZING, ppr. Burning, as with hot iron.

CAU'TERIZING, n. The act of burning, as with a hot iron.

CAU'TERY, n. [Gr. xmitripiov ; L. cauleri um. See Cauterize.]

A burning or searing, as of morbid flesh, by a hot iron or by caustic medicines that burn, corrode or destroy any solid part of an animal body. The burning by a hot iron is called actual cautery ; that by caus- tic medicines, potential cautery.

CAU'TION, n. [L. cautio ; Fr. caution ; Sp. caucion ; from L. caveo, to take care. See Class Gb. No. 3. 52. 53. 83. The sense of catieo is probably to retire, or to stop, check or hold.]

\\\\. Provident care ; prudence in regard to danger ; wariness, consisting in a careful attention to the ]>robable effects of a meas- ure, and a judicious course of conduct to avoid evils and the arts of designing men. Caution is the armor to defend us against im- position and the attacks of evil.

2. Security for, nearly the sense of the French caution, bail.

The parliament would give his majesty suffi- cient caution that the war should be prosecuted. Clarendon.

3. Provision or security against ; measures taken for security ; as the rules and cau- tions of government.

4. Precept ; advice ; injunction ; warning ; exhortation, intended as security or guard against evil.

CAU'TION, V. t. To give notice of danger ; to warn ; to exhort to take heed.

You cautioned me against then- charms.


CAUTIONARY, a. Containing caution, or warning to avoid danger ; as cautionary advice.

2. Given as a pledge or in security ; as a cautionary town.

CAU'TIONED, pp. Warned ; previously admonished.

CAU'TIONER, n. In Scots law, the person who is bound for another, to the perform- ance of an obligation.

CAU'TIONING, ppr. Warning; giving pre- vious notice of danger.

CAU'TIONRY, n. In Scots laiv, the act of giving security for another, or the obli- gation by which one person becomes en- gaged as security for another, that he shall pay a sum of money or perform a deed. Enq/c.

CAU'TIOUS, a. Wary ; watchful ; careful to avoid evils ; attentive to examine prob- able effects and consequences of meas- ures, with a view to avoid danger or mis- fortune ; prudent ; circumspect.

CAUTIOUSLY, adv. With caution; in a wary, scrupulous manner.

CAU'tlOUSNESS, n. The quality of being- cautious ; watchfulness ; provident care ; circumspection ; prudence with regard to danger. Addison.

CAVALCADE, n. {Tr. cavalcade ; Sp.eaW- gada ; It. cavidcata. See Cavalry.]

A procession of persons on liorseback ; a formal, pompous march of horsemen and equipage, by way of parade, or to grace a triumph, the public entry of a person of distinction, &c.

CAVALIE'R, n. [Fr. See Cavalry.] A horse- man, especially an armed horseman ; a knight.

2. A gay, sprightly, military man.

3. The appellation of the party of king Charles I. Swift.

4. \\\\n fortification, an elevation of earth, situ-




ated ordinarily in the gorge of a bastion

bordered with a parapet, with embrasures


4. In the manege, one who understands

horseinansiiip ; one skilled in the art of


€AVALIE'R, a. Gay ; sprightly ; warlike ;

brave ; generous. 2. Haughty; disdainful. €AVALIE'RLY,«

Johnson. Bailey.

CAVE, n. [Fr. cave ; L. cavea ; Sp. cueva

It. cava ; Arm. caff, or cau ; W. ogov

Hindoo, gopa ; Ar.

jLs to dig ou to be hollow. Class

excavate, or Gb. No. a 71.]

A hollow place in the earth ; a subterrane- ous cavern ; a den. This may be natura: or artificial. The primitive inhabitants of the earth, in many countries, lived caves ; and the present inhabitants of some parts of the earth, especially in the high northern latitudes, occupy caves, particu- larly in winter.

Lot dwelt in a cave, he and his daughters Gen. xix.

Caves were also used for the burial of tlie dead.

.\\\\braham buried Sarah in the cave of the field of Machpelah. Gen. xxiii

Bacon applies the word to the ear, "the cave of the ear ;" but this application is unusual.

CAVE, 1'. t. To make hollow. Spenser.

CAVE, r. i. To dwell in a cave. Shak.

To cave in, to fall in and leave a hollow, as earth on the side of a well or pit. When in digging into the earth, the side is exca- vated by a falling of a quantity of earth, it is said to cave in.

CA'VEAT, n. [L. caveat, let him beware, from caveo.]

In law, a process in a court, especially in a spiritual court, to stop proceedings," as to stop the proving of a will ; also to prevent the institution of a clerk to a benefice.

Blackston In America, it is used in courts of com- mon law. Crouch's Reports

2. Intimation of caution ; hint ; warning ;

admonition. CA'VEAT, V. t. To enter a caveat.

Judge Innes, CrancVs Rep. CA'VEATING, n. \\\\n fencing, is the shifting the sword from one side of that of your adversary to the other. Encyc.

CA'VEATOR, n. One who enters a caveat Judge Innes, Cranch's Rep, CAV'ERN, n. [L. caverna; Sp. Port. It. id. This word seems to be composed of cavus, and the Sax. cem, a secret place.] A deep hollow place in the earth. In gen- eral, it difters from cave in greater depth, and in being applied most usually to natural hollows, or chasms.

Earth with its caverns dark and deep.

Watts. CAV'ERNED, a. Full of caverns, or deep

chasms ; having caverns. 2. Inhabiting a cavern. Pope.

CAVERNOUS, a. [L. cavernosus.] Hollow ; full of caverns. U'oodward.

[Faber uses cavernal, which is less larly formed.] CAVERN'ULOUS, o. [h. cavemula.] Full of Uttle cavities ; as cavemulous metal.

Black CAVET'TO, n. [from It. cavo.] In architecture, a hollow member, or round concave mold- ing, containing the quadrant of a circle; used as an ornament in cornices. Encyc. CA VEZON. ) [Fr. cavefon, or cavesson ; CA VESSON, ^ "■ It. cavezzone, a muzzle for

horse, from cavare, to draw.] A sort of nose-band, of iron, leather or wood sometimes flat, and sometimes hollow oi twisted, which is put on the nose of c horse to wring it, and thus to forward the suppling and breaking of him.

Farrier's Diet.

CAVIAR, Ji. cavee'r [Sp. cabial ; It. cavi-

ale; Ar. .IxAii gabiar. The Arabic

ppr. Raising frivolous objec-

verb j.Aji gabara, from which this word is formed, signifies to try, to strain or press, and to season with fat. {t may coincide with the Gr. jtftpou, L. experior.]

The roes of certain large fish, prepared and salted. The best is made from the roes of the sterlet, sturgeon, sevruga, and beluga, caught in the lakes or rivers of Russia! The roes are put into a bag with a strong brine, and pressed by wringing, and then dried and put in casks, or into cisterns, perforated at bottom, where they are pressed by heavy weights. The poorest sort is trodden with the feet. Tooke.

CAVIL, V. i. [Sp. cavilar: Port, cavillar ; It. cavUlare ; L.cavillor; U. kibbelen ; Ori- ental S3p ; Ch. to cry out or complain ; Syr. to accuse, oppose, censure.]

1. To raise captious and frivolous objections to find fault without good reason ; follow- ed by at.

It is better to reason than to cavil. Anon

2. To advance futile objections, or to frame sophisms, for the sake of victory in an ar- gument.

CAVIL, V. t. To receive or treat with objec- tions.

Wilt thou enjoy the good.

Then cavil the conditions. Mlton

\\\\_JVot usual.}

C.W IL, 11. False or frivolous objections : also, a fallacious kind of reason, bearing some reseinblance to truth, advanced for the sake of victory. Johnson. Encyc.

CA VILER, n. One who cavils; one who is apt to raise captious objections ; a cap- tious disputant. Jlddison.

CAVILING, tions.

CAV'ILINGLY, adv. In a caviling manner. Sherwood.

CAVILLA'TION, n. [L. cavUlatio.} The act or jiractite of caviling, or raising friv- olous objections. Hooker.

C.WILOUS, a. Captious ; unfair in argu- ment ; apt to object without good reason. Miffe.

CA V'lLOUSLY, adv. In a cavilous manner ; captiously. Milton.

CAV'ILOUSNESS, n. Captiousness ; dispo- sition or a|)titude to raise frivolous objec- tions.

CAViN, n. [Fr. from L. cams, hollow.]

In the military art, a hollow way or natural hollow, adapted to cover troops and facil- itate their approach to a place.

Johnson. Bailey.

CAVITY, n. [L. cavitas; Fr. caviti; from L. caws, hollow.]

A hollow place; hollowness; an opening; as the cavity of the mouth or throat. This a word of very general signification ^'OLINITE, n. [from Caiilini, a

CAVOLINITE,-n. [from Cavolini, a Nea- politan naturalist.]

A newly discovered Vesuvian mineral, of u hexahedral form, occurring in the interior of calcarious balls, accompanied with gar- nets, idocrase, mica, and granular pjTox- ene, lining the cavity of the geode, &c.

Joum. of Science.

CA'VY, n. A genus of quadruped.s, holding a middle place between the murine and leporine tribes. Encyc.

CAW, V. i. [probably from the sound ; Sa.\\\\. ceo, a crow or a jay.]

To ciy like a crow, rook or raven.

CAX'OU, n. [Sp. caxa, caxon.] A chest of ores of any metal that has been burnt, ground and w ashed, and is readv to be refined. [Local.] ' Todd.

CA'YMAN, n. An animal of the genus Lacerta, found in the West Indies, the al- ligator.

CAZiC, or CAZiQUE, n. cazeik. The title of a king or chief among several Uibes of Indians in America.

CEASE, v.i. [Fr. cesser; Sp.cesar; Port. cessar ; It. cessare ; L. ocoto.]

1. To stop moving, acting or speaking; to leave off; to give over ; followed hy from before a noun.

It is an honor for a man to cease from strife". Prov. XX.

2. To fail ; to be wanting. The poor shall never cease out of the land.

Deut. XV.

3. To stop ; to be at an end ; as, the wonder ceases ; the stonii has ceased.

i. To be forgotten.

I would make the remembrance of them to

cease. Deut. xxxii. 5. To abstain ; as, cease from anger. Ps.

XXX vii. To cease from labor, is to rest ; to cease from

strife, is to be quiet ; but in such phrases,

the sense of ceoje is not varied.-




CEASE,!'. (. To put a stop to; to put an end to.

Cease this impious rage. Milton.

[But in this use the phrase is generally el- liptical.]

CEASE, n. Extinction. [jYol in use.]


CE'ASELESS, a. Without a stop or pause ; incessant ; continual ; witliout intermis- sion.

All these with ceaseless praise liis works be- hold. Miltun.

2. Endless ; enduring for ever ; as the cease- less joj's of heaven.

CE'ASELESSLY, adv. Incessantly ; per- petually. Donne.

CE'ASING, p/)r. Stopping; ending; desist- ing ; failing.

CE€€H N, J!. A coin of Italy and Barbary. [See Zechin.]

CE'CITY, n. [L. ciBcitas, from ca:cus, blind.] Blindness. Brown.

CE'DAR, n. [L. cedrus : Fr. cedre ; Sp. It. cedro ; from Gr. xf 8po5 ; Syr. ! ^a ; Heb. Tip kadar, to be dark.]

A tree. This name is given to different spe- cies of the jimiper, and to a species of Pi- nus. The latter is that which is men- tioned in scripture. It is an evergreen, grows to a great size, and is remarkable for its durability.

CE'DAR-LIKE, a. Resembling a cedar.

B. Jonson.

CE'DARN, a. Pertaining to the cedar.


CEDE, V. t. [Fr. ceder ; Sp. Port, ceder ; It. cedere ; L. cerfo; W . gadu, gadaw ; Eng. to quit. See Qjiii and Conge. This coin- cides also with the Gr. jr*?", (X<^^°''-]

1. To yield; to surrender; to give up ; to re- sign ; as, to cede a fortress, a province or country, by treaty. This word is apjjro- priately used to denote the relinquishment of a conquered city, fortress, or territory, to the former sovereign or proprietor.

2. To relinquish and grant ; as, to cede all claims to a disputed right or territory.

The people must cede to the government

some of their natural rights. Jay.

CE'DED, pp. Yielded ; surrendered ; given

up. CE'DING, ppr. Yielding ; giving up. CE'DRAT, n. A species of citron-tree.

Pallas. Tooke. CE'DRINE, a. Belonging to cedar. CE'DRY, a. Having the color or properties of cedar. Evelyn.

CED'UOUS, a. Fit to be felled. Evelyn. CEIL, «. <. [Sp. cicZo, heaven, a roof or ceil- ing ; It. cielo ; Fr. del, heaven, a canopy, a tester ; L. cmlum. Qu. Gr. xoaoj. This word indicates its original application vaulted buildings, without divisions into stories ; such as many of the pubhc edifi ces in Europe, but which are rarely seer in America.] To overlay or cover the inner roof of a building ; or to cover the top or roof of a room.

And the greater house he ceiled with fir-tree 2 Chron. iii. CE'ILED, pp. Overlaid with timber, or with

plastering. CE'ILING, ppr. Covering the top of a room

or building. CE'ILING, n. The covering which overlays

the inner roof of a building, or the timbers which form the top of a room. This cov- ering may be of boards, or of lath and plastering. Hence ceiling is used for the upper part of a room.

2. In ship building, the inside planks of a ship.

CEL'ANDINE, n. [T>. celedonie ; It. celido- nia ; L. chelidonia ; Gr. xi'^i&wi.ov, from ;tf>.i8uii', a swallow.]

A plant, swallow-wort, horned or prickly poppy, growing on old walls, among rub- bish, and in waste places. The lesser cel- andine is called pile-wort, a species of Ranunculus. The name is also given to the Bocconia, a plant of the West Indies, called the greater tree-celandine. The true orthography would be Chelidine.

Coxe. Fam. of Plants.

CE'LATURE, n. [L. cmlatura, from ca:lo, to engrave or emboss.] . The act or art of engraving or embossing.

2. That which is engraved. Hakeuiill.

CEL'EBRATE, v. t. [Ir. ceileabradh ; Fr. celehrcr ; Sp. Port, celehrar ; It. celebrare ; L. celebro, irom celeber, famous. The Russ. has slavlyu. Qu. the root of caH.] . To praise ; to extol ; to commend ; to give praise to ; to make famous ; as, to celebrate the name of the Most High.

The grave cannot celebrate thee. Is. xxxviii.

2. To distiuguish by solemn rites ; to keep holy.

From even to even shall ye celebrate your sabbath. Lev. xxiii.

3. To honor or distinguish by ceremonies and marks of joy and respect ; as, to cele- brate the birth day of Washington ; to cel- ebrate a marriage.

4. To mention in a solemn manner, whether of jov or sorrow. Johnson.

CEL'EBRATED, pp. Praised ; extolled ;

honored. CEL'EBRATING,;)pr. Praising ; honoring CELEBRA'TION,n. Solemn performance

a distinguishing by solemn rites ; as the

celebration of a marriage, or of a reUgious


2. A distinguishing by ceremonies, or by marks of joy or respect; as the celebration of a birth day, or other anniversary.

3. Praise ; renown ; honor or distinction be stowed, whether by songs, eulogies, or rites and ceremonies. Clarendon

CEL'EBRATOR, n. One who celebrates.

Boyle. CELE'BRIOUS, a. Famous ; renowned. [Little used.] Grew.

CELE'BRIOUSLY, adv. With praise or re- nown. [Little used.] CELE'BRIOUSNESS, n. Fame; renown-

[Little used.] CELEB'RITY. n. [L. celebritas.] Fame ; re- nown ; the distinction or honor pubhcly bestowed on a nation or person, on char- acter or exploits; the distinction bestowed on whatever is great or remarkable, and manifested by praises or eulogies ; as the celebrity of the duke of Wellington ; the celebrity of Homer, or of the Iliad.

England acquired celebrity from the triumphs of Marlborough. T. Dawes

2. Public and splendid transaction ; as the celebrity of a marriage. In this sense, used bv Bacon, we now use celebration. CEL'ERI. [See Celery.]

CELE'RIA€, n. A variety of celery, called also the tumep-rooted celeni. [See Celeru.l

CELER'ITY, n. [L. cderitis ;Fr. celerite; Sp. celeridad; It. eelerita ; from L. cder, swift ; Oriental Sp swift, light ; Gr. xfWUo.]

1. Rapidity in motion; swiftness; speed; applied most generally to bodies moving on or near the earth ; as the celerity of a horse or of a fowl. We speak of tlie ve- locity of sound or of light, or of a planet in its orbit. This distinction however is not general, nor can the different uses of the two words be precisely defined. We ap- ply celerity rather than velocity to thought ; but there seems to be no reason, except usage, why the two words should not be synonymous.

2. An affection of motion by which a mova- ble body runs through a "given space in a given time. Encyc.

CEL'ERY, n. [Fr. celeri; D. seldery;'G.

selleri; Gr. BtV-tpw.] A plant, a species of Apium, cultivated for

the table. CELES'TIAL, a. [h. cwlestis, from calum,

ccelum, heaven.]

1. Heavenly ; belonging or relating to hea- ven ; dwelling in heaven ; as celestial spir- its ; celestial joys. Hence the word con- veys the idea of superior excellence, delight, purity, &c. Dryden.

2. Belonging to the upper regions, or visible heaven ; as celestial signs ; the celestial globe.

3. Descending from heaven ; as a suit of ce- lestial armor. Pope.

CELES'TIAL, n. An inhabitant of heaven. Pope.

CELES'TIALLY, adv. In a heavenly or transporting manner.

CELES'TIFY, v. I. To communicate some- thing of a heavenly nature to any thing. [JVbt used.] Brown.

CEL'ESTIN, I In mineralogy, native

CEL'ESTINE, S sulphate of strontian, a mineral so named from its occasional dehcate blue color. Ure.

CEL'ESTINS, n. A religious order, so nam- ed from Pope Celestin. They have ninety- six convents in Italy, and twenty-one in France. They rise two hours after mid- night to say matins. They eat no flesh, except when sick, and fast often. Their habit is a white gown, a capuche aud a black scapulary. Encyc.

CE'LIA€, a. [L. caliacus ; Gr. xoataxoj, from xoaia, the belly.]

Pertaining to the lower belly, or intestines. Arhuthnot.

CELIB'ACY, n. [L. Calebs, an unmarried person ; calibaivs, a single life.]

An unmarried state; a single hfe. It is most frequently if not always applied to males, or to a voluntary single life.

They look on celibacy as an accursed state. Spectator.

CEL'IBATE, n. A single Hfe ; celibacy ; chiefly used when speaking of the single ; i life of the Popish clergy. Encyc.

CELL, n. [L. ceUa ; Ir. ceall ; Sp. celda ; Port. It. cella ; D. kelder, a cellar ; G. keller ; ?w.kellare; Dan. kelder; W.cill< It has the elements of the Latin cdo, to cont'cal, and of the English hold.] ij




I. A small or close apartment, as in a prison,

or a bath. 9. A cottage ; a cave ; a small or mean place

of residence. Prwr.

3. A small cavity or hollow place, variously applied ; as the cells of the brain ; the cells of a honey comb, &c.

4. In botany, a hollow place in a pericarp, particularly in a capsule, in which seeds are lodged. According to the number of these cells, pericarps are called unilocular, bilocular, trilocular, &c. Marti/n

J. In anatomy, a little bag, or bladder, con- taining fluid or otlier matter ; as the adi- pose cells, containing fat. Encyc.

6. A religious house. Chaucer.

CEL'LAR, n. [L. cellarium. See Cell.^

A room under a house or other building, \\\\\\\\s- ed as a repository of liquors, provisions, and other stores for a family.

CEL'LARAGE, n. The room for a cellar; a cellar, or cellars.

OEL'LARET, n. A case of cabinet work, for holding bottles of liquors. [Local.]

OEL'LARIST, CELLARER, n. An of- ficer in a monastery who has the care of| the cellar, or the charge of procuring and keeping the provisions ; also, an officer ir chapters, who has the care of the tempo- rals, and particularly of distributing bread, wine, and money to canons, an account of their attendance" in the choir. Ennic

CELLIF'EROUS, a. [L. cella, and /ero," to bear.] Bearing or producing cells.


CEL'LULAR, a. [L. celhda, a little cell.] Consisting of cells, or containing cells.


The cellular membrane, in animal bodies, is composed of an infinite number of mi- nute cells, communicating with each oth- er. It invests every fiber, and seems to be the medium of connection between all parts of the body. The cells serve as re- servoirs for fat. Encyc.

CELLULIF'EROUS, a. [L. celhda, a little cell, and fero, to bear.] Bearing or pro- ducing little cells. Dkf. Mit. Hist

CKLS'ITUDE, n. [L. celsitudo.] Highth

• Icvation. Chaucer. <.'KI.T, n. One of the primitive inhabitants

oltlie South ofEurope. [See Celtic]

• Ki.riBE'RIAN, a. Pertaining to Celtibe 111, and its inhabitants, the Celtiberi, or I ills of the Iberus, a river in Spain.

' i . I .TI BE'RIAN, n. An inhabitant of Celt

t ' I ; I .'f' le, a. [W. celt, a covert or shelter ; n .,';'«(/, one that dwells in a covert, an in- haliitant of the forest, a Celt ; cebt, to conceal,L. celo ; Gr. KtWoi, Celts.'

IVrtuiningto the primitive inhabitants of the .'-'(iiith pnd West ofEurope, or to the ear- ly inhabitants of Italy, Gaul, Spain and liiitain. We say, Celtic nations ; Celtic iiistonis; Ce/h'c origin.

< I'.l.Tle, n. The language of the Celts.

' I. I.T'ICISM, n. The manners and cus- I s of the Celts. Warlon.

• I'.l.'i' IS, Ji. The nettle-tree,of several spe- i-i.s; among which are the australis or Mmtliern, a native of Africa and the South

• ifEiirope; the oriental, growing in Arme- nia and Tam'ica; and the western, srrow-

Arm. cimant; Sp. cimiento, the groundl work of a building ; It. cimento, an essay or experiment.]

1. Any glutinous or other substance capable of uniting bodies in close cohesion, mortar, glue, soder, &c. In building, ce- ment denotes a stronger kind of mortar than that which is ordinarily used. Encyc.

2. Bond of union ; that which unites firmly, as persons in ft-iendsbip, or men in society

.3. Powders or pa.stes, surrounding bodies ir pots and crucibles, for chimical purposes

CEMENT', V. t. To unite by the application of glutinous substances, by mortar which hardens, or other matter that produces cohesion of bodies.

2. To unite firmly or closely ; as, to cement all parts of the community ; to cement friendship.

CEMENT', V. i. To unite or become solid; to unite and cohere. Sharp.

CEMENTA'TION, n. The act of cement- ing ; the act of uniting by a suitable sub- stance.

2. In chimisiry, the act of applying cements to substances, or the corroding and chang ing of them by cement. This is done by surrounding them with the powder of an- other body, and exposing them, in a close vessel, to a heat not suflicient to fuse them. Encyc. Ure.

CEMENT' ATORY, a. Cementing ; having the quality of uniting firmly. Encyc.

CEMENT'ED, pp. United by cement changed by cement ; firmly united ; con- solidated

CEMENT'ER, n. The person or thing that

CEMENT'ING, ppr. Uniting by cement changing by means of a cement ; uniting closely ; consolidating.

CEMENTI "TIOUS, a. Uniting as cement conglutinating ; tending to unite or con solidate.

CEM'ETERY,H. [h. ca:meterium ; Gr.xot/.,- rjjptoi', from xoi/iuu^, to sleep.]

A place where the dead bodies of human )eings are buried. Addison.

CEN'ATORY, a. [L. comatorius, from cana, sup])er, cceno, to sup.]

Pertaining or relating to supper. Brown

CE'NOB'ITE, n. [Gr. xoivaSiorr,i, a commu- nity, from xoii'oj, common, and fJiof, life. (3tou, to live.]

One of a religious order, who live in a con- vent, or in community ; in opposition to an anchoret, or hermit, who lives in soU- tude. Encyc.

CEN0BIT'I€, \\\\ a. Living in communi-

CEN0BIT'I€AL, ^ ty, as men belonging to a convent. . StiUingdeet

CE'NOBY, n. A place where persotis live in coinmunitv. Buck.

CEN'OTAPH, n. [Gr. xsi-ofo^wi', from xe- I'oj, empty, and rcujios, a tomb.]

\\\\n empty tomb erected in honor of some deceased person ; a monument erected to one who is buried elsewhere.

Johnson. Encyc.

CENSE, n. cens. [L. census, a valuation, a registering, a tax ; censeo, to enroll, tc tax. Qu. Ch. OJp to impose a fine.]

1. A public rate or tax. Bacon.

ing in Virginia. Enryc. Tooke.p. Condition ; rank. Obs. B. Jonson.

UEM'ENT, n. [L. cwmentum; Vr. ciment ;\\\\\\\\CEtiSE, v. t. [Fr. encenser. See Incense.]

\\\\ Vol. I. 34

To perfume with odors from burning sub- stances. Dryden.

CENS'ER, n. [Fr. tncensoir ; Sp. incensa- rio ; It. incensiere. See Incense.]

A vase or pan in which incense is burned.

Among the Jews, a kind of chafins-dish,

covered by a dome, and suspended by a

chain, used to oflijr perfumes in sacrifices^


CENSING, ppr. Perfuming with odors.

CEN'SION, n. [L. censio. See Cense] A rate, tax, or assessment. [.Vot used.]

J. Hall.

CENS'OR,n. [L. censor. See Cense]

An ofiicer, in ancient Rome, whose business was to register the effects of the citizens, to impose taxes according to the property which each man possessed, and to inspect the manners of the citizens, with power to censure vice and immoraUty, by inflicting a public mark of ignominy on the offender.

2. One who is empowered to examine all manuscripts and books, before they are committed to the press, and to see that they contain notliing heretical or immoral.


3. One who is given to censure. Roscominon. Dryden.

CENSORIAL, } a. Belonging to a censor.

CENSO RIAN, \\\\ or to the correction of public morals ; as, censorial power.

2. Full of censure. See Cejisorious, the pro- per word.

CENSO'RIOUS, a. Addicted to censure ; apt to blame or condemn ; severe in mak- ing remarks on others, or on their writings or manners ; often implying ill-nature, il- liberaUty, or uucharitableness ; as a cen- sorious critic.

2. Implying or expressing censure ; as, cen- sorious remarks.

CENSORIOUSLY, adv. In a censorious manner.

CENSO RIOUSNESS, n. Disposition to blame and condemn; the habit of censur- ing or reproaching. Taylor.

2. The quality of being censorious.

CENS'ORSHIP, n. The office or dignity of a censor ; the time during which a cen- sor holds his office.

CENS'UAL, a. [L. censualis.] Relatingt o, or containing a census ; liable to be rated.

Whitaker. Encyc.

CENS-URABLE, a. [See Censure.] Wor- thy of censure ; blamable ; culpable ; rep- rehensible ; faulty ; as a censurable person, or censurable conduct or vvTitings. Locke.

CENS'URABLENESS, n. Blamableness ; fitness to be censured. ffTiitlocl;.

CENS'URABLY, adv. In a manner worthy of blame.

CENS'URE, n. cen'shur. [L. censura ; Fr. censure ; Sp. Port. It. censura ; from L. cen- seo, censor.]

1. The act of blaming or finding fault and condemning as wrong; applicable to the moral conduct, or to the works of men. When applied to persons, it is nearly equiv- alent to blame, reproof, reprehension, re- prunand. It is an expression of disappro- bation, which often implies reproof.

2. Judicial sentence ; judgment that con- demns. An ecclesiastical ce?i*ure is a sen- tence of condemnation, or penalty inflict- ed on a member of a church for inal-con- ductj by which he is deprived of the com-


ijiiiiiion of the church, or prohibited from executing the sacerdotal office. Encyc.

CENS'URE, V. t. cen'shur. [Fr. cenaurer; Sp. censumr.] To find fault with and con demn as wrong ; to blame ; to express dis approbation oi'; as, to censure a man, o: his manners, or his vvTitings.

We laugh at vanity, oftener than we censure pride. Buckminsler

Q. To condemn by a judicial sentence, as in ecclesiastical affairs.

3. To estimate. [JVot in use.] Shak.

CENS'URE, V. {. To judge. [JVot in use.]

CENS'URED, p;>. Blamed ; reproved ; con- demned.

CENS'URING, /)/))•. Blaming, finding fault with ; condemning.

CENS'US, n. [L. from censeo. See Cense ^

In ancient Rome, an authentic declaration made before the censors, by the citizens, of their names and places of abode. This

•2. In the United States of America, an enu- meration of the inhabitants of all the States, taken by order of the Congress, to furnish the rule of api)ortioning the repre- sentation among the States, and the num- ber of represensatives to which each State is entitled in the Congress ; also, an enu- meration of the inhabitants of a State, ta- ken by order of its legislature.

CENT,n. [Fr. ce7i<,- Sp. ciejiio ; Port. cento; It. cento ; from L. centum, formed on tlie Celtic, W. cant. Arm. cant. Corn. kanz. The Welcli cant signifies a circle, hoop, wheel, or rim, a wattled fence round a yard or corn floor ; hence, a complete cir- cle, a hundred. It is probable that the Teutonic and Gothic hund, in hundred, is

the same word. Ar. j>i^ handon, a hundred, and the same root gives India, Hindu. See Hundred.]

1. A himdred. In commerce, per cent, de- notes a certain rate by the hundred ; as, ten per cent, is ten in the hundred, whether profit or loss. This rate is catied percent- age.

2. In the United States of America, a copper coin whose value is the hundredth part of a dollar.

CENT'AgE, n. Rate by the cent or hun- dred.

CEN'TAUR, n. [L. centaurus; Gr. xii/tmifiof. Qn. xtfiiu, to spur, and Tewpoj, a bull.]

In mythology, a fabulous being, supposed to be half man and half horse. It has been supposed that this fancied monster origin- ated among the Lapithse, a tribe in Thes- saly, who first invented the art of breaking horses. But the origin of the fable and of the name is doubtful.

2. Part of a southern constellation, in form of a centaur, usually joined with the wolf, containing thirty-five stars ; the archer.

CEN'TAURLIKE, a. Having the abear- ance ol a centaur. Sidney.


CEN'TAURY, n. [L. centaurea; Gr. xivtav

The name of a plant, and a genus of plants, of numerous species. The lesser centaury is a species of Gentiana. Centaui-y bears the popular names of knapweed, blue- bottle, sultan, and star-thistle. Encyc

CENT'ENARY, n. [L. centenarius, iwm centum, a hundred.]

The number of a hundred ; as a centenary ofl years.

CENT'ENARY, a. Relating to a hundred ; consisting of a hundred.

CENTEN'NIAL, a. [L. centum, a hundi-ed, and annus, a year.] . Consisting of a hundred years, or com- pleting that term. Mason.

2. Pertaining to a hundred years.

3. Happening every hundred years. CEN'TER, n. [Gr. xivrpoi; a point, goad or

spur, from xivri^, to prick ; L. centrum ; Fr. ce7itre ; Sp. centra ; Port. It. id.] . A point equally distant from the e.xtrem ilies of a line, figure or body ; the middlf point or place. 3. The middle or central object. In an ar my, the body of troops occupying the place in the line between the wings. In a Jleet, the division between the van and rear of the fine of battle, and between the weath er division and lee, in the order of sailing Mar. Diet. 3. A single body or house.

These institutions collected all authority in- one center, Idngs, nobles and people.

/. Mams. Center of gravity, in mechanics, the point about which all the parts of a body exact- ly balance each other. Center of motion, the point which remains at rest, while all the other parts of a body move round it. Encyc.

CEN'TER, V. t. To place on a center ;

fix on a central point. Milton.

2. To collect to a point.

Thy joys are centered all in me alone.

Prior. CEN'TER, V. i. To be coUected to a point. Our hopes must center on ourselves alone.


2. To be collected to a point ; to rest on.

3. To be placed in the middle. Milton. CEN'TERED, pp. Collected to a point or

center ; fixed on a central point.

CEN'TERING,;>;)r. Placing on the center; collecting to a point.

CENTES'IMAL, a. [L. centesimus, from centum, a hundred.]

The hundredth. As a noun, the next step of progression after decimal in the arithme- tic of fraction!?. Johnson.

CENTESIMA'TION, n. [L. centesimus, su- pra.]

A military punishment, for desertion, mutiny or the like, where one person in a hundred is selected for execution. Ena/c.

CEN'TESM, n. [L. centesimus.] The hun- dredth part of an integer or thing. [M)t used.] Bailen.

CENTIFO'LIOUS, a. [L. centum, a hund- red, and folium, a leaf] Having a hundred leaves. Bailey. Johnso7i.

CEN'TIGRADE, a. [L. centuni, a hundred, and grndus, a degree.]

Consisting of a hundred degrees ; gradu-


ated into a hundred divisions or equai parts ; as a centigrade thermometer.

„ „ . , Medical Repositorti.

CEN'TIGRAM, n. [L. centum and gram.] fn French Measure, the hundredth part of a gram. [See Gram.]

CENTILITER, n. [L. centum, and Fr. litre or litron.] The hundredth part of a liter, a httle more than 6-10 of a cubic inch

CENTIM'ETER, n. [L. centum, a hundred, and Gr. fiiTfiov, measure.]

In French measure, the hundreth part of a meter, rather more than 39-100 of an inch, English measure. Christ. Obs. x. 192.

CEN'TINODY, n. Knotgrass. [JVot used.] EN'TIPED, n. [L. centipeda; centum, a hundred, and pes, a foot.]^

An insect having a hundred feet, but the term is applied to insects that have mauv feet, though not a hundred. Insects of this kind are called generically Scolopendra. In warm climates, some of them grow to the length of six inches or more, and their bite is poisonous. Encyc.

CENTIPEE, for centiped, is not used.

CENT'NER, n. [L. centum, centenarius.]

In metallurgy and assaying, a dociniastic hundred; a weight divisible first into a hundred parts, and then into smaller parts. The metallurgists use a weight divided into a lumdred equal parts, each one pound; the whole they call a centner : the pound is divided into thirty-two parts or half ounces ; the half ounce into two quar- ters, and each of these into two drams. But the assayers use different weights. With them a centner is one dram, to which the other parts are proportioned. Encyc.

CEN'TO, n. [L. cento, patched cloth, a hapsody.]

A composition formed by verses or passa- ges from other authors, disposed in a new order. Johnson. Encyc.

CEN'TRAL, a. [L. centralis.] Relating to the center ; placed in the center or middle ; containing the center, or pertaining to the parts near the center.

Central forces, in mechanics, the powers which cause a moving body to tend to- wards or recede from the center of mo- tion.

CENTRAL'ITY, n. The state of being cen- tral.

CEN'TRALLY, adv. With regard to the center ; in a central manner.

CEN'TRI€, a. Placed in the center or mid- dle.

CEN'TRI€ALLY, adv. In a central position.

CEN'TRICALNESS, n. Situation in the center.

CENTRIF'UGAL, a. [L. centrum, and/w- gio, to flee.]

Tending to recede from the center. The centrifugal force of a body, is that force by which all bodies moving round another body in a curve, tend to fly oft' from the axis of their motion, in a tangent to the periphery of the curve. Encyc.

CENTRIP'ETAL, a. [L. centrum, and peto, to move towards.]

Tending towards the center. Centripetal force IB that force which draws or impels a body towards some point as a center ; as in case of a planet revolving round the snu, the center of the system.

[Note. The common accentuation of cen-

C E 1»



hy'iigal and centripetal is artificial and harsli. The accent on the first and third syllables, circumpolar, would be natural and easy.]

CEN'TUMVIR, n. [L. centum, a hundred, and vir, a man.]

One of a hundred and five judges, in ancient Rome, appointed to decide common caus- es among the people.

CENTUM' VIRAL, o. Pertaining to tlie cen tumvirs.

CEN'TUPI.E, a. [Fr. from L. cenluptex, cenltuii, iind »/jco, to fold.] A hundred fold.

CEN 'TUPLE, V. t. To multiply a hundred fold. Beatun.

CENTU'PLI€ATE, v. t. [L. centum, and pUcatus, folded ; Sp. cenluplicar, to make a hundred fold.]

To make a hundred fold.

CENTU'RIAL, a. [from century.] Relating to a century, or a hundred years ; as a cenlurial sermon.

When tJie third centurial jubilee of New England shall come, who of us will then be liv iug to participate the general joy .'

J. JVoodbridge

CENTU'RIATE, v. t. [L. centurio, to divide into hundreds or companies.]

To divide into hundreds. Johnson. Bailey.

CENTURIA'TORS, ) n. [Fr. centui-iateur,

CEN'TURIST, ^ from L. centuria,

century, or from centurio, to divide into hundreds.]

A historian who distinguishes time into cen turies ; as in the Universal Church His- tory of Magdeburg.' -^yliffe

CENTU'RION, n. [L. centurio, from cen- tum, a huntlied.]

Among the Romans, a military officer who commanded a hundred men, a century or company of infantry, answering to the lern armies.

[L. centuria, from centum. hundred.]

1. In a general sense, a hundred ; any thing consisting of a himdred parts.

2. A division of the Roman people for tl piu'pose of electing magistrates and eiia<- ing laws, the people voting by centuiie; also, a company consisting of a huiidrt men.

3. A period of a hundred years. Tliis is the most common signification of the word ; and as we begin our modern computation of time from the incarnation of Christ, the word is generally applied to some term of a hundred years subsequent to that event ; as the first or second century, or tlie tenth century. If we intend to apply the word to a different era, we use au explan-

,atory adjunct; as the third century before the Christian era, or after the reigu of Cyrus.

4. The Centuries of Magdeburg, a title given to an ecclesiastical history, arranged in 1.3 centuries, compiled by a great number of I'rotestants at Magdeburg.

CENTZONT'LI, ». The Me.xican name of the Turdus Polyglottus, or inocking thrush. Clavigero.

CEOL, Sax. a ship, L. celox, or Eng. keel. This word is sometimes found prefixed to names.

CEPHALAL'UIC, n. [Infra.] A medicine good for the headache. Swi/l.

CEPH'ALALUY, n. [Gr. xttaXaJiyia, xf$o?. the head, and aXyo;, pain.] The lieadach

CEPHAL'IC, a. [Gr. xt^oxtxos, from xifat^ij, the head.]

Pertaining to the head ; as cephalic med remedies for disorders in the head. The cephalic vein, which runs along the arm, was so named because the ancients used to open it for disorders of the head.


CEPHAL'IC, n. A medicine for headache or other disorder in the head.

CEPH'EUS, n. A constellation in the North- ern hemisphere.

CE'PHUS, n. A fowl of the duck kind ; al- so, a species of monkey, the mona.

Diet. Mtl. Hist

CERA SEE', n. The male balsam apple.

CER'ASIN, 71. [L. cerasus.]

Any gummy substance which swells in cold water, but does not readily dissolve in it. Ure. Dr. John.

CER'ASITE, n. [L. cerojum, cherry.] A petrifaction resembling a cherry. Cijc

CERAS'TES, n. [Gr. xtpaf,;?, from xtpof, ;i horn.]

In zoology, tlie name of a serpent, of the genus Coluber, which the ancients suppos- ed to have horns.

CE'RATE, n. [L. ceralum, fVom cera, wax.]

A thick kind of ointment, composed of wax and oil, with other ingredients ; iipplied externally in various diseases. Cyc.

CE'RATED, a. [L. ceratus.] Covered witli vax.

CERE, n. The naked skin that covers the base of a hawk's bill. Encyc.

CERE, V. t. [L. cera, wax.] To wax or with wax. Wiseman.

CER'EBEL, I „ [L. cerebellum.] The

CEREBEL'LUM, \\\\ "• hinder part of the head, or the little brain. Coxe

CER'EBRAL, ? „ [from L. cerebrum, the

CER'EBRINE, \\\\ "" brain.]

Pertaining to the cerebrum or bram.

CE'RECLOTH, n. [L. cera, wax; and cloth.]

A ilcitli sirieared with melted wax, or will some iiuiiimy or glutinous matter. Bacon

[Put the Enghsh word for a cloth used to cover wounds is sear-cloth, Sax. aar-cloth a sore-cloth.]

CE'REMENT, n. [L. cera, wax.] Cloths clipped in melted wax, with which dead bodies were infolded, when embalmed


CEREMO'NIAL, a. [See Ceremony.] Relating to ceremony, or external rite ; ual ; according to the forms of estabhslied rites ; as ceremonial exactness. It is par ticularly appUed to the forms and rites of the Jewish religion ; as the ceremonial law or worship, as distinguished from the mor id and judicial law.

2. Formal ; observant of old forms ; exact ; precise in manners. Dryden

[In this sense, ceremonious is now used.] CEREMONIAL,?!. Oiuwardform; exter- nal rite, or established forms or rites, eluding all the forms prescribed ; a sys- tem of rules and ceremonies, enjoined by law or established by custom, whether in religious worship, in social intercourse, or in the courts of princes.

3. The order for rites and forms in the Ro- mish church, or the book containing the

rules prescribed to be observed on solemn occasions.

CEREMONIOUS, a. Consisting of out- ward fbnns and rites ; as the ceremonious part of worshi]). [In this sense, ceremonial is now used.]

2. Full of ceremony or solemn forms.


.3. According to the rules and forms prescri- bed or customary ; civil; formally respect- ful. " Ceremomous phrases." Addison.

4. Formal; according to the rules of civility ; as, to take a ceremonious leave.

5. Formal ; exact ; precise ; too obsers-ant of forms.

CEREMO'NIOUSLY, adv. In a eeremoni- ous manner; formally; with due forms.

CEREMO'NIOUSNESS, n. The use of customary forms ; the practice of too much ceremony ; great formality in manners.

CER'EMONY, n. [L. Sp. It. Port, ceremo- nia ; Fr. ceremonie.]

\\\\. Outward rite ; external form in religion.

2. Forms of civihty; rules established by custom for regulating social intercourse.

3. Oiitward forms of state ; the forms pre- scribed or established by order or custom, serving for the purpose of civility or mag- nificence, as in levees of princes, the re- ception of embassadors, &c.

Master of ceremonies, an officer who super- intenils the recejition of embassadors. A person who regulates the forms to be ob- served by the company or attendants on a public occasion.

CER'EOLITE, n. [L. cera, wax, and Gr. y.(,9os, a stone.]

\\\\ substance which in appearance and soft- ness rrsoiiddes wax ; sometimes confound- (■(I uiili >ti-»lite. Cyc. Cteaveland.

C'E Iv I'.or.^, a. [L. cereus, from cera, wax.] \\\\V,-i.\\\\(ii : like wax. Gayion.

CE'RES, 7(. In mythology, the inventor or goddess of corn, or rather the name of corn deified.

2. The name of a planet discovered by 31. Piozzi, at Palermo in Sicily, in 1801.

CE'RIN, 71. [L. CfT-a, wax.] Apeculiarsub- stance which precipitates on evaporation, from alcohol, which has been digested on grated cork. Ure.

3. The part of conmion wax which dissolves in alcohol. Dr. John.

3. A variety of the mineral allanite.

CERINTH'IANS, n. A set of heretics, so called from Cerinthus, one of the first heresiarchs in the church. They denied the divinity of Christ, but they held that, m his baptism, a celestial virtue descended on him in the form of a dove, by means of which he was consecrated by the Holy Spirit and made Christ. Encyc.

CE'RITE, n. [See Ceriwn.] The siliceous oxyd of Cerium, a rare mineral of a pale rose red color, with a tinge of yellow.

Haiiy. Jameson. Cleaveland.

2. A fossil shell.

CE'RIUM, 71. A metal recently discovered iu Sweden, in the mineral cerite, and so called from the i)lanet Ceres. It is of great specific gravity. Its color a grayish wliite and its texture lamellar.

■ Diet. JVitt. Hist.

CEROON', 71. [from the Spanish.] A bale or package made of skins.




CER'RIAL, a. Pertaining to the Cerrus, or

bitter oak. Chaucer.

CER'RUS, n. [L.] The bitter oak. CP:R'TAIN, o. cer'tin. [Fr. certain; Sp.

cierto ; It. Port, certo ; from L. certus.]

1. Sure ; true ; undoubted ; unquestionable ; that cannot be denied ; existing in fact and trutli.

The dream is certain and the interpretation sure. Dan. ii.

2. Assured in mind ; having no doubts ; fol- lowed by of, before a noun.

However I with thee have fixed my lot, Certain to undergo like doom of death. Consort with thee. Milton.

To make her certain of the sad event.

Dry den.

3. Unfailing; always producing the intended effect ; as, wc may have a certain remedy for a disease.

4. Not doubtful or casual ; really existing.

Virtue that directs our ways Througli certain dangers to uncertain praise.


5. Stated ; fixed ; determinate ; regular.

Ye shall gather a certain rate every day. Ex. xvi.

6. Particular.

There came a certain poor widow. Mark xii. In the plural number, a particular part or number ; some ; an indefinite part, num- ber, or quantity. " Ilanani came, he and certain men of Judah." " I mourned certain days." Neh. i. 2. 6. In the latter sense, it is used as a noun ; as, " certain also of your own poets have said." Acts xvii. CER'TAINLY, adv. Without doubt or ques- tion ; in truth and fact.

Certainly this was a righteous man. Luke xxiii. 2. Without failure.

He said, I will certainly return to thee. Gc xviii. CER'TAINNESS, n. Certainty, wliicli see. CER'TAINTY, n. A fixed or real state ; truth ; fact.

Know lor a certainty, that the Lord your God will no more drive out these nations. Josh, xxiii. Luke i.

2. Full assurance of mind ; exemption from doubt.

Certainty is the perception of the agreement or disagreement of our ideas. Locke.

3. Exemption from failure ; as the certainty of an event, or of the success of a medi- cine.

The certainty of punishment is the truest se- curity against crimes. Ames

4. Regularity : settled state. CER'TES, adv. Certainly ; in truth ; verily.

Obs. Chaucer.

CERTIF'IGATE, n. [Yr.ceHifical; It. ccr- tificato. See Certify.)

I. In a general sense, a written testimony not sworn to ; a declaration in writing, signed by the party, and intended to verify a fact

'J. In o more particular sense, the written dec- laration, under the hand or seal or both, of some public officer, to be used as evi- dence in a court, or to substantiate a fact A certificate of this kind may be consid- ered as given under the oath of oflice.

3. Trial by cerfijicate, is where the evidence of the person certifying is the only proper criterion of the point in dispute ; as when the issue is whether a person was absent in the army, this is tried by the certificate

of the MareschaD of the army, in writingl under his seal. Blackstone.

CERTIF'IeATE, v. t. or i. To give a cer tificate ; to lodge a certificate with the proper officer, for the purpose of being ex empted from the payment of taxes to suj) port the ministry, in a parish or ecclesi astical society. JS/ew England.

2. To give a certificate to, acknowledging one to be a parishioner.

CERTIFICA'TION, 71. The act of certify

ing. CER'TIFIED, pjo. [See Certify.] Assured;

made certain ; informed. CER'TIFIER, n. One who certifies, or

CER'TIFY, V. t. [Fr. certifier ; Sp. certifcar ; It. certificare ; Low L. certijico ; from cer- tus, certain, and facio, to make.] I. To testify to in writing ; to make a decla- ration in writing, under hand, or hand and seal, to make known or establish a fact.

The judges shall certify their opinion to the chancellor, and upon such certificate, the decree! is usually founded. The judge shal the freehold came chiefly in question.

Blackstone. 9. To give certain information to ; applied to

and certified the king. Ezra iv.

3. To give certain information of; applied to tilings. I

Tills is designed to certify those things that are confirmed of God's favor. Hammond.

It is followed by of, after the person, and before the thing told ; as, I cetiified you of the fact.

CER'TIFtING, ppr. Giving a written tes- timony, or certificate ; giving certain no- tice ; making certainly known.

CERTIORA'RI, n. [Low L. certioror, from certus, certior.]

A writ issuing out of Chancery, King's! Bench or other superior court, to call up the records of an inferior court, or remove; a cause there depending, that it may bel tried in the superior court. This writ is obtained upon complaint of a party, that he has not received justice, or that he cannot have an impartial trial, in the inferior court. Encyc.

CER'TITUDE, n. [Low L. certitudo, from certus, certain.] Certainty ; assurance ; freedom from doubt. Dryden.

CERU'LEAN, > [L. ca^r^ile^is ; It. Sp.

CERU'LEOUS, I "■ ceruleo.] Sky-colored ; blue. Thomson.

CERULIF'IC, a. Producing a blue or .sky- color.

CERU'MEN, n. [L. cera, wax.] The wax or vellovv matter secreted by the ear.

CER'USE, n. [Fr. ceruse ; L. It. cerussa ; Sp. ceriisa."

White-lead ; a carbonate of lead, produced by ex|)osing the metal in thin plates to the vapor of vinegar. Lead is sometimes found native in the form of ceruse.

Ceruse of antimony is a white oxyd of anti mony, which separates from the water ii which diaphoretic antimony has been washed. Micholson

CER'USED, a. Washed with a preparation of white lead. Beaum

CER'VI€AL, a. [L. cennx, the neck, whence cervicalis.]

Belonging to the neck; as the ccmcaZ nerves ; cermcal vessels. Encyc.

CERV'IN, I [I: cervinus ; Sp. cervino ;

CERVINE, p- from L. cerrus, a deer; W. carw ; Corn, and Ai-m. karu ; Kamtchatka, haro.]

Pertaining to the deer, or to animals of the genus Cervus.

CESA'REAN, a. The Cesareaji operation is the taking of a child from the womb by cutting ; an operation, which, it is said, gave name to Caesar, the Roman em- peror.

CESPITP'TIOUS, a. [L. cespes, turf] Per- taining to turf; made of turf Gough.

CES'PITOUS, a. Pertaining to turf; turfy.

A cespitous or turfy plant, has many stems

from the same root, usually forming a close thick

carpet or matting. Martyn.

CESS, as a noun, a rate or tax, and as a verb, to rate or lay a tax, is probably a corruption of assess, or from the same root. It is not used. Spenser.

CESS, V. i. [L. cesso, to cease.] To neglect a legal duty. Obs. Cowel.

CESSATION, n. [L. cessatio, from cesso, to- cease.]

1. A ceasing ; a stop ; a rest ; the act of dis- continuing motion or action of any kind, whether temporary or final.

2. A ceasing or suspension of operation, force or effect ; as a cessation of the laws of nature.

A cessation of arms, an armistice or truce, agreed to by the commanders of armies, to give time for a capitulation, or for other purposes.

CESSA'VIT, n. [L. cesso, to cease, cessavit, he hath ceased.]

In law, a writ given by statute, to recover lands, when the tenant or occupier has ceased for two years to perform the service, which constitutes the condition of his ten- ure, and has not sufficient goods or chat- tels to be distrained, or the tenant has so inclosed the land that the lord cannot come upon it to distrain. Blackstone.

CES'SER, n. [See Cess.] A ceasing ; a neglect to perform^ervices or payment for

two years. [See Cessavit.] Blackstone. CESSIBIL'ITY, n. [See Cede and Cession.]

The act of giving way or receding. [L/it-

tle used.] Digby.

CES'SIBLE, a. {See Cede.] Giving way ;

yielding ; easy to give way. Digby.

CES'SION, n. [L. cessio ; Fr. cession ; from

L. cedo, cessum. See Cede.]

1. The act of giving way ; a yielding to force or impulse. Bacon.

2. A yielding, or surrender, as of property or rights, to another person ; particularly, a surrender of conquered territory to its former proprietor or sovereign, by treaty.

3. In the civil law, a voluntary surrender of a person's efiects to his creditors, to avoid imprisonment. Encyc.

4. In ecclesiastical law, the leaving of a bene- fice without dispensation or being other- wise qualified. ^Vhen an ecclesiastical person is created a bishop, or when tlie parson of a parish takes another benefice, without dispensation, the benefices are void by cession, without resignation.





CES'SIONARY, a. Having surrendered ef- fects ; as a cessionary bankrupt. Martin.

CESS'MENT, Ji. An assessment or tax. rjVo< uierf.]

CES'SOR, n. [L. cesso, to cease.] In luto, he that neglects, for two years, to perform the service by which lie holds lands, so that he incurs the danger of the writ of cessavit. [See Cessavit.] Coioel.

2. An assessor, or taxer.

CEST, n. [Infra.] A lady's girdle.


CEST'US, n. [L. from Gr. x^yof.] The girdle of Venus, or marriage-girdle, among the Greeks and Romans.

CESU'RA, I [Fr. cesure ; It. cesura ; h.

CE'SUKE, < "■ ca^ura, from casdo, cwsum, to cut ofl'.J

A pause in verse, so introduced as to aid the recital, and render the versification more melodious. It divides a verse or line uito equal or unequal pai-ts. Its most pleasing effect is produced, when it is placed at the end of the second foot, or in the middle, or at the end of the third foot.


CE'SURAL, a. Pertaining to the cesure.

CETA'CEOUS, a. [L. cete ; Gr. x^toj, a whale.]

Pertaining to the whale ; belonging to the whale kind. The cetaceous fishes include the genera monodon, balana, physeter and ddphimu. They have no gills, but an aperture on the top of the head, and a flat or horizontal tail. Encyc.

CE'TATE, n. A compound of cetic acid, with a base. Chevreul.

CET'ERAeH,n. A trivial name of a species of Asplenium, or spleen-wort.

CE'TI€, a. [L. cetvs, a whale.] Pertaining to the whale. The cetic acid is a peculiar substance obtained from the spermaceti.


CE'TIN, n. [L. celjts, a whale.] A name given to spermaceti by Chevreul.

CET0L06'I€AL, a. [from cetology.] Per- taining to cetology.

CETOL'OgIST, n.Onc who is versed in tJic natural history of the whale and its kin- dred animals.

CETOL'OgY, n. [Gr. xjjfoj, a whale, and Tioyoj, discourse.]

The doctrine or natural history of cetaceous animals. Ed. Encyc.

f'E'TUS, n. [Supra.] In astronomy, the whale, a large constellation of the south- ern hemisphere, containing ninety-seven stare. Encyc.

CE'YLANITE, n. [from Ceijlon.] A min- eral, classed with the ruby family ; called also pkonaste. Its color is a muddy, dark blue, and grayish black, approaching to u-on black. It occurs in grains, or small crystals, either perfect octahedrons, or truncated on the edges, or with the angles acuminated by four planes. It occurs also in rhomboidai dodecahedrons.

Cyc. Ure. 1 CHAB'ASIE, ) „ [Schahasit. Werner.] A

CHAB'ASITE, I "■ mineral which has been regarded as a variety of zeolite. It is di- visible into very obtuse rhomboids.

Diet. Xat. Hist

This mineral occurs in crystals, whose primi- tive form is nearly a cube. Ure:

Chabasie has a foliated structure ; its frac- ture is somewhat conchoidal or uneven, with a glistenuig vitreous luster. It is translucent, sometimes transparent. Its color is white or grayish white, sometimes with a rosy tinge. Before the blowpipe, it uitumesces a little, and easily melts into

_ a white sjtongy mass. Cleaveland.

CHAD, n. A kind of fish; pronounced «/iarf. Carew.

CHAFE, V. t. [Fr. echauffer ; Sp. escalfar, to warm ; Port, escalfar, to poach or boil slightly ; from the root of L. caleo, whence calefio, calfacio.]

1. To excite heat or inflammation by fric- tion, as to chafe the skin ; also, to fret and wear by rubbing, as to chafe a cable.

2. To excite heat in the mind ; to excite pas- sion ; to inflame ; to make angry ; to cause to fret ; to provoke or incense. 2 Sam. xvii. 8.

•3. To excite violent action ; to cause to rage ;

the wind chafes the ocean. 4. To perfume ; rather, to stimulate, or agi- tate ; to excite by pungent odors. Lilies, whose scent chafed the air.

Suckling CHAFE, II. i. To be excited or heated ; to rage ; to fret ; to be in violent action.


2. To act violently upon, by rubbing ; to fret against, as waves against a shore.

The tioubled Tyber chafing with his shores Shak

3. To be fretted and worn by rubbing ; as, a cable chafes.

CHAFE, n. Heat, excited by friction. Violent agitation of the mind or passions : heat ; fret ; passion. Camden.

CHA'FED, pp. Heated or fretted by rub- bing ; worn by friction.

CHA'FER, n. One who chafes.

CHA'FER, n. [Sax. ceafor; J), kever ; G. kclfer.] An insect, a species of Scara- ba-us, or beetle.

CHA'FERY, n. [from chafe.] In Iron tvorks, a forge in which an ancony or square mass of iron, hammered into a bar in the mid die, with its ends rough, is reduced to i complete bar, by hammering down the ends to the shape of the middle. Encyc.

CHA'FE-WAX, n. In England, an ofticer belonging to the Lord Chancellor, who fits the wax for the sealing of writs.


CH'AFF, n. [Sax. ceaf; D. kaf; G. kaff.]

1. The husk, or dry calyx of corn, and! In common language, the word

applied to the husks when separated from the corn by thrashing, riddling or winnowing. The word is sometimes used rather improperly to denote straw cut small for the food of cattle.

Marlyn. Encyc.

2. Refuse ; worthless matter ; especially that which is light, and apt to be driven by thel wind. In scripture, false doctrines, fruit less designs, hypocrites and ungodly men are compared to chaff. Ps. i. 4. Jer. xxiii. 28. Is. xxxiii. 11. Math. iii. 12.

CHAF'FER, V. i. [Sax. ceapian ; D. koopen ; G. kaufen ; Sw. kapa ; Dan. kiober, to bar- gain or buy. It seems to be radically the same word as cheap, cheapen, and chap\\\\ in chapman. See Cheap.''

To treat about a purchase ; to bargain ; to

haggle ; to negotiate ; to chop and change ; as, to cAo^er for |)relerment3. Drydtn.

CHAF'FER, V. t. To buy ; to exchange.

Spenser. [In this sense it is obsolrle.]

CHAF'FER, n. Merchandize. [Ao< in use.] Skelton.

CHAF'FERER, n. One who chaffers ; a bargainer ; a buyer.

CHAF'FERN, ji. A vessel for heating water. [Local.]

CHAF'FER Y, n. Trafick ; buying and seU- ing. Obs. Spenser.

CHAF'FINCH, n. [chaff and fnch.] A spe- cies of birds of the genus Fringilla, which are said to delight in chaft", and are ad- mired for their song.

CH'AFFLESS, n. AVithout chaff. Shak.

CH^AFFWEED, n. A plant, cud-weed, a species of Gnaphaliuni ; but this name is given also to the Centuuculus.


CH'AFFY, a. Like chaff; fullof chaff; light : as, chaffy straws ; chaffy opinions.

Broivn. Glanviile.

CHA'FING, ppr. Heating or fretting by friction.

CHAFING-DISH, »i. [chafe and dish.] A dish or vessel to hold coals for heating any thing set on it ; a portable grate for coals.

CHAGRIN', n. [Fr. This word, applied to a particular kind of skin, or leather, is said to be derived from a Turkish word, sagri, Fr. croupe. The skin is dressed so as to present on its surface little eminences. See Shagreen.]

Ill-humor ; vexation ; peevishness ; fretful- ness. Pope.

CHAGRIN', V. t. [Fr. chagriner.] To ex- cite ill-humor in ; to vex ; to mortify.

CHAGRINED, pp. Vexed; fretted; dis- pleased.

CHAIN, n. [Fr. chaine, for chaisne ; Norm. cadene, and cheyne ; Arm. chaden, cadenn, or jadenn; Sp. cadena ; Port, cadea ; It. catena ; L. catena ; D. keten ; G. kette ,• Sw. klulia ; Dan. kede ; \\\\V. cadwen. Qu. Ar. s - , , t

i,\\\\.SsS from J^^sl akada, to bind or make fast.]

1. A series of links or rings connected, or fitted into one another, usually made of some kind of metal, as a chain of gold, or of iron ; but the word is not restricted to any particular kind of material. It is used often for an ornament about tlie person.

2. That which binds ; a real chain ; that which restrains, confines, or fetters ; a bond.

If God spared not the angels that sinned, but delivered tliem into chains of darkness. 2 Peter ii.

3. Bondage ; affliction.

He hath made my chain hca\\\'y. Lam. iii.

4. Bondage ; slavery.

In despotism the people sleep soundly in their chains. Ames.

5. Ornament. Prov. i. 9.

6. A series of things linked together : a series of things connected or following in suc- cession ; as a chain of causes, of ideas, or events ; a chain of being.

A range, or fine of things connected; as a chain of mountains. 8. A series of links, forming an instrument to measiu:e land.


9. A string of twisted wire, or sometliiiig similar, to hang a watch on, and for other pui-poses. 1 r i- I

10. In France, a measure of wood tor tiieJ, and various commodities, of various length. ,. ,

11. In ship-building, chains are strong hnks or plates of iron, bolted at the lower end to the ship's side, used to contam the blocks called dead eyes, by which the shrouds of the mast are extended.

19. The warp in weaving, as in French. Chain-pump. This consists of a long cham, equipped with a sufficient number ot valves, moving on two wheels, one above, the other below, passing downward through a wooden tube and returning through another. It is managed by a long winch, on which several men may be em- ployed at once. , ^ Encyc. Chain-shot, two balls connected by a cham, and used to cut down masts, or cut away shrouds and rigging. ,,.,,, Chain-wales of a ship, broad and thick planks projecting from a ship's side, abreast ot and behind the masts, for the purpose ot extending the shrouds, for better support- ing the masts, and preventing the shrouds from damaging the gunwale. Encyc Chain-ivork, work consisting of threads cords and the Uke, linked together m the form of a chain ; as lineal chaining or tam- bour work, reticulation or net work, &c. Ed. Encyc. Top-chain, on board a ship, a chain to sling the sail-yards in time of battle, to prevent their falling, when the ropes that sujiport them are shot away. Encyc. CHAIN, V. t. To fasten, bind or connect witli a chain ; to fasten or bind with any thing in the manner of a chain. 2. To enslave ; to keep in slavery.

And which more blest ? Who chainhi his coun-


7. A two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse ; a gig.

8. Supreme office or magistracy. When Governor Shute came to the chair,

several of the old councilors were laid aside.


Curule chair, an ivory seat placed on a car, used by the prime magistates of Rome.

CHA'IR-MAN, n. The presiding officer or speaker of an assembly, association " company, particularly of a legislative house ; also, tlie president or senior mem- ber of a committee.

'i. One whose business is to carry a chair. Dryden

CHAISE, n. s as :. [Fr. chaise, a seat or chair. Qu. It. seggia.]

A two-wheeled carriage drawn by one horse ; a gig. It is open or covered.

CHALCEDON'ie, a. Pertaining to dial cedony. , ,

€HAL'CEDONY, n. [from Chakedon, a

a To guard with a chain, as a


Pope. harbor or


Made fast, or bound by a chain ; bound ;

chain ; connected by enslaved.

CHAINING, ppr. Binding, fastening oi connecting with a chain ; binding, or at tachjng to ; enslaving.

CHAIR, n. [Fr. chaire, a pulpit, contracted from Norm, cadiere, as chain from catena ; Arm. cadarn, or cador ; Ir. cathaoir ; L. cathedra ; Gr. xa9f«pa, connected with xa9f?o;uc«, to sit, xara and ifo^« ; W cadair, a seat or stool.]

1 A movable seat ; a frame with a bottom made of different materials, used for per- sons to sit in ; originally a stool, and an- ciently a kind of pulpit in churches.

2. A seat of justice or of authority ; as a chair of state. ,

3. A seat for a professor, or his otiice ; as tlie professor's chair.

4. The seat for a speaker or presiding officer of a public council or assembly, as the speaker's clw-ir ; and by a metonymy, the speaker himself; as, to address the chair.

5. A sedan; a vehicle on poles borne by men.

«. A pulpit. BvrnH

town in Asia Minor, opposite to Byzanti- um, now Constantinople. Pliny informs us that Chalcedon signifies the town of blind men. The last syllable then is the Celtic dun, English town, a fact that the historian should not overlook. Pliii. Lib. 5- 32.] . , „ ,

A subspecies of quartz, a mineral called also white agate, resembling milk diluted with water, and more or less clouded or opake, with veins, circles and spots. It is used in jewelry.

Cleaveland. Nicholson. Encyc. The varieties of chalcedony are common chalcedony, heliotrope, chrysoprase, plas- ma, onyx, sard and sardonyx. Ure. €HAL'C'EDONYX, n. A variety of agate, in which white and gray layers alternate. Cleaveland. CHAL'CITE, n. [Gr. x«-'^-*'

of the Chaldeans. €HAL'DAISM, n. An idiom or pecuha

the Clialdee dialect. Parkhxirst.

€HALDE'AN, n. An inhabitant of Chal

I'f'^- ^, , ,

CHAL'DEE, a. Pertaining to Chaldea. CHAL DEE, n. The language or dialect of

the Chaldeans. CHAL'DRON, > , [Yr. chaudron; Sp. cal CHAL'DER, y de'^o'n■ ; It. c(dderone, i

kettle. The same word as caldron. Chal

der is not in use in the United States.] A measure of coals consisting of thirty sn

bushels. Chamhirs

CHAL'ICE, n. [Fr. calice ; Sp. calix ; It

calice ; D. kelk ; G. kelch ; L. cahx ; Gr.

xia.it It should have been written cal-


plied by Shakspeare to a flower; but I believe little used. CHALK, n. chauk. [Sax. cealc ; D. Dan. G. kalk ; Sw. kalck ; W. cole ; Com. kalch ; Ir. cailk ; L. calx ; Fr. chain. The Latin calx is lime-stone, chalk-stone, and the heel, and calco is to kick and to tread. In Italian calca is a crowd. The sense then is a mass made compact, a clod or lump. If the Gr. xa'^i, Aint) gravel, is the same word, the Latins deviated from their usual practice m writing calx, for chalx. These words are probably connected in origin with callus.] \\\\ well known calcarious earth, of an opake white color, soft and admitting no polish. It contains a large portion of carbonic acid, and is a subspecies of carbonate of lime. it is used as an absorbent and anti-acid. Cleaveland. JVicholson. Kirwan. Aikin. Black-chalk is a species of earth used by

painters for drawing on blue paper. Red-chalk is an indurated clayey ocher used

bv iiainters and artificers. CHALK, V. t. To rub with chalk; to mark

with chalk. 3. To manure with chalk, as land. 3. From the use of chalk in marking lines, the phrase to chalk out is used to signify, to lay out, draw out or describe ; as, to chalk out a ))lan of proceeding. CHALK-CUTTER, n. A man that digs chalk. Woodward.

CHALKINESS, n. chauk'iness. Tlie state

of being chalkv. CHALK-PIT, n'. A pit in which chalk is (]„„. Johnson.

CHa'lK-STONE, n. In medicine, a calca- rious concretion in the hands and feet of men violently aftected by the gout. Encyc. 2. A small lump of chalk. Isaiah.

CHALKY, a. chauk'y. Resembling chalk ; :halkii taste.

2. White w"ith chalk; consisting of chalk;. as, cfta% cliffs. Rowe.

3. Impregnated with chalk ; as, chalky wa-

usiially, a communion cup. . Having a cell or cup ; ap-

CHAL'LENgE, n. [Norm, calenge, an ac eusation ; chalunge, a claim ; challenger, to claim ; from the root of call, Gr. xaJ^u, xAr.u, L. calo. See Coll.]

Literally, a calling, or crying out, the primai-y sense of many words expressing a demand, as claim, L. clamo. Hence appropriately,

A calling upon one to fight in single com- bat; an invitation or summons, verbal or written, to decide a controversy by a duel. Hence the letter containing the summons is also called a challenge.

2. A claim or demand made of a right or supposed right.

There must be no challenge of superiority.


3. Among hunters, the opening and crying of hounds at first finding the scent ol their game. Encyc.

4. In law, an exception to jurors; the claim ofajiarty that certain jurors shall not sit ill I rial upon him or his cause; that is, a calling them off. The right of challenge is given both in civil and criminal trials, for certain causes which are supposed to disqualify a juror to be an impartial judge. The ri^ht of challenge extends either to the wlmlc panel or array, or only to par-




ticular jurors, called a challenge to the polls. A principal challenge is that which the law allows without cause assigned. A challenge to the favor, is when the party alledgcs a special cause. In crimi- nal cases, a prisoner may challenge twenty jurors, without assigning a cause. This is called a peremptory challenge.

Blackslont. CHAL'LENgE, v. t. To call, invite or sum- mon to answer for an offense by single combat, or duel.

2. To call to a contest ; to invite to a trial ; as, 1 challenge a man to prove what he asserts, implying defiance.

3. To accuse ; to call to answer.

Spenser. Shak.

4. To claim as due ; to demand as a right ; as, the Supreme Bemg challenges our rev- erence and homage.

5. In law, to call off a juror, or jurors; or to demand that jurors shall not sit in trial upon a cause. [See the noun.]

6. To call to the perfoririance of conditions. CHALLENGEABLE, a. That may be

challenged ; that may be called to ac- count. Sadler.

CHAL'LENgED. pp. Called to combat or to contest ; claimed ; demanded, as due ; called from a jury.

CHAL'LENgER, n. One who challenges;

one who invites to a single combat ; one

who culls on another by way of defiance.


9. One who claims superiority; one who claims any thing as his right, or makes pretensions to it. Hooker.

3. One who calls a juror, or a jury, from the trial of his cause.

CHALLENGING, ppr. Summoning to a duel, or to contest ; claiming as a right ; defying ; calling off from a jury.

CHALYB'EAN, a. [Infra.] Pertaining to steel well tempered. Milton.

CHALYB'EATE, a. [L. chahjhs ; Gr. x<>-->^H, steel. Qu. from Chatybs, a town near the Euxine.]

Impregnated with particles of iron ; as chalybeate waters.

CHALYBEATE, n. Any water or other liquor into which iron enters.

CHAM, Ji. kam. The sovereign prince of Tartary. Usually written Khan.

CHAMA'DE, n. [Fr. from It. chiamata, a calling ; chiamare, to call ; L. clamo ; Sp. llamada ; Port, chamada, from chamar. to call. See Claim.]

In war, the beat of a drimi or sound of a trumpet, inviting an enemy to a parley ; as for making a proposition for a truce, or for a capitulation. Encyc.

CHAMBER, } iThe first pronunciation is

CH'AMBER, ^ ■' most common ; the last, most analagoiis and correct. [Fr. cham- bre ; Arm. canipr, cambr ; It. camera ; Port, Sp. camara ; L. camera ; Gr. xa/iofu, an arched roof, vault or upper gallery, a chamber ; D. kamer ; G. kammer ;' Sw, kaiiwinre ; Dan. kammer ; Cli. I3p to arch ; Eth. ^<^Q karaare, an arch or vault.]

1. An apartment in an upper story, or in story above the lower floor of a dwellin house; often used as a lodging room.

2. Any retired room ; any private apartment

which a person occupies ; as, he called on the judge at his chamber.

Joseph entered into liis chamber and wept. Gen. xliii. i. Any retired place.

Her house is the way to hell, going down to the chambers of death. Prov. vii. 4: A hollow or cavity ; as the chamber of the eye. Sharp.

5. A place where an assembly meets, and the assembly itself; as star-chamber ; im- perial chamber ; chamber of accounts ; ec- clesiastical chamber; privy chamber; cham- ber of commerce, &c.

6. In military affairs, the chamber of a mor- tar is that part of the chase, where the powder lies.

7. A powder-chamber, or bomb-chamber, a place under ground for holding powder and bombs, where they may be safe and secured from rains.

8. The cliambtr of a mine, a place, generally of a cubical form, where the powder is confined.

9. A species of ordnance. Qu. Camden.

10. The clouds. Ps. civ.

IL Certain southern constellations whicJi are hid from us. The chambers of the south. Job ix.

Chamber- council, a private or secret council. Shak.

Chamber-counsel, a counselor, who gives his opinion in a private apartment, but does not advocate causes in court.

CHAMBER, I . To reside in or occupy

CHAMBER, I ^- '• as a chamber.

2. To be wanton ; to indulge in lewd or im- modest behavior. Rom. xiii.

CHAMBER, I , To shut up as in a

CH AMBER, I ^'- '■ chamber. Shak.

CHAMBERER, ) One who intrigues, or

ClPAaiBERER, I "■ indulges in wanton- ness. Shak. 'HAMHER-FELLOW, ) One who

CHAMBER-FELLOW, ^ "• sleeps in the same apartment. Spectator.

CHAMBER-HANGING, n. Tapestry or hangings fur a chamber.

CHAMBERING, ? Wanton, lewd, im-

CH^AMBERING, I "' modest behavior. Rom. xiii.

CHAMBERLAIN, > „ [Fr. chambeUan;

CHAMBERLAIN, ^ "• Arm. cambrelan Sp. camarero ; Port, eamareiro ; It. earner lingo ; D. kamerling ; Dan. kammer-herre ; L. camerarius.]

1. An ofiicer charged with the direction and management of a chamber, or of cham- bers. The Lord Chamberlain of Great Britain is the sixth oflicer of the crown. To him belong livery, and lodging in the king's court ; on coronation day he brings to the king his apparel, his sword, scab- bard, &c. He dresses and undresses the king on that day, and waits on him be- fore and after dinner. To him also be- longs the care of providing all things in the house of lords, in time of parliament. Under liim are the gentleman usher of the black rod, and other officers. The Lord Chamberlain of the household has the oversight of all officers belonging to the king's chambers, excejit the precinct of the bed-chamber, of the wardrobe, ])hy sicians, chaplains, barbers, &c., audadmiu isters the oath to all officers above stairs.

The chamberlains of the exchequer, of London, of Chester, of North Wales, &c., are receivers of rents and revenues.

Encyc. Johnson.

2. A servant who has the care of the cham- bers in an inn or Imtcl.

CHAMBERLAINSIHP, ) The office of

CH'AMBERLAINSIHP, S"" a chamber- lain.

CHAMBER-LYE, n. Urine.

CHAMBER-MAID, ) A woman who

CHAMBER-MAID, ^ "• has the care of chambers, making the beds, and cleaning the rooms, or who dresses a lady and waits upon her in her apartment.

CHAMBER-POT, n. A vessel used in bed- rooms.


CHAMBER-PRACTICE, S "• ^'"^ P'"°'=' tice of counselors at law, who give their opinions in private, but do not appear in court.

CHAM BREL,n. The joint or bending of the upper part of a horse's bind leg. In New- England pronounced gambrel, which see.

CHAMELEON, n. [L. chamceleon ; Gr. Xanai,7.tut'.]

An animal of the genus Lacerta, or lizard, with a naked body, a tail and four feet. The body is six or seven inches long, and the tail five inches ; with this it clings to the branches of trees. The skin is cold to the touch, and contains small grains or etninences, of a bluish gray color, in the shade, but in the light of the sun, all parts of the body become of a grayish brown, or tawny color. It is a native of Africa and Asia. Encyc.

CHAME'LEONIZE, v. t. To change into various colors. Diet.

CHAMFER, V. t. [corrupted from Fr. echancrer, to hollow, to cut sloping ; Arm. chancra ; said to be from cancer.]

1. To channel ; to cut a furrow, as in a col- Uinn, or to cut into a sloping form.

Johnson. Bailey. Encyc.

2. To wrinkle. Shak. CHAM'FER, } A small gutter or furrow CHAM FRET, ^ "" cut in wood or other

hard material ; a slope.

CHAM FERED, pp. Cut into furrows, or cut sloping.

CHAMFERING, ppr. Cutting a gutter in ; cutting in a slope.

CHAM'ITE, n. Fossil remains of the Cha- ma, a shell.

CHAMLET, [See Camlet.]

CHAMOIS, n. [Fr. from It. camozza ; Sp. gamitza, from gamo, a buck.]

An animal of the goat kind, whose skin is^ made into soft leather, called shammy.


It is now arranged with the Antelopes.


CHAMOMILE, [See Catnomile.]

|CH,\\\\JMP, V. t. [Fr. champayer, 1 have not found. Qu. Gr. xanru, for m is often casual before a labial, and in Gr. yafi^a: is the

I jaws.]

11. To bite with repeated action of the teeth ;

I as, a hoi-se chainps the bit.

2. To bite into small pieces ; to chew ; to masticate ; to devour. Dryden.

CHAMP, V. i. To chew; to perform the ac- tion of biting by repeated motion of the teeth ; as, to champ ujjon the bit. Hooker.




9. A string of twisted wire, or soinetliing similar, to hang a watch on, and for other

10. In France, a measure of wood for fuel, and various commodities, of various length.

11. In ship-building, chains are strong links or plates of iron, bolted at the lower end to the ship's side, used to contain the blocks called dead eyes, by which the shrouds of the mast are extended.

12. The warp in weaving, as in French. Chain-pump. This consists of a long chain,

equippett with a sufficient number of valves, moving on two wheels, one above, the other below, passing downward through a wooden tube and returning through another. It is managed by a long winch, on which several men may be ployed at once. Encyc.

Chain-shot, two balls connected by a ch and used to cut down masts, or cut away shrouds and rigging.

Chain-ivales of a sliip, broad and thick plank projecting from a ship's side, abreast of and behind the masts, for the purpose of extending the shrouds, for better support ing the masts, and preventing the shrouds from damaging the gunwale. Encyc.

Chain-work, work consisting of threads, cords and the like, linked together in the form of a chain ; as lineal chaining or tam- bour work, reticulation or net work, &c. Ed. Encyc.

Top-chain, on board a sliip, a chain to sling the sail-yards in time of battle, to prevent their falling, when the ropes that support them are shot away. Encyc.

CHAIN, V. t. To fasten, hind or connect with a chain ; to fasten or bind with any thing in the manner of a chain.

2. To enslave ; to keep in slavery.

And which more blest ? Who chained his coun- try, say. Or he whose virtue sighed to lose a day ?


3. To guard with a chain, as a harbor or passage.

4. To unite ; to form chain-work. CHA'INED, pp. Made fast, or bound by a

chain ; connected by a chain ; bound ; enslaved.

CHA'INING, ppr. Binding, fastening or connecting with a chain ; binding, or at- taching to ; enslaving.

CHAIR, n. [Fr. chaire, a pulpit, contracted from Norm, cadiere, as chain from catena ; Arm. cadani, or cador ; Ir. cathaoir ; L. cathedra ; Gr. xaStSpa, connected with xa.9t^oi.i(u, to sit, xara and ffoftai ; W. cadair, a seat or stool.]

1. A movable seat ; a frame with a bottom made of diiferent materials, used for per- sons to sit in ; originally a stool, and an- ciently a kind of pulpit in churches.

2. A seat of justice or of authority ; as a chair of state.

3. A seat for a professor, or his office; as the professor's chair.

4. The seat for a speaker or presiding officer of a public council or assembly, as the speaker's chair ; and by a metonymy, th speaker himself; as, to addi-ess the chair.

.5. A sedan ; a vehicle on poles borne by

men. a. A i)ul|>ir. Burnet.

7. A two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse ; a gig.

8. Supreme office or magistracy.

Wlien Governor Shute came to the chair, several of the old councilors were laid aside.


Curulc chair, an ivory seat placed on a cai", used by the prime magistates of Rome

CHAIR-MAN, n. The presiding officer or speaker of an assembly, association or company, particularly of a legislative house ; also, the president or senior mem- ber of a committee.

2. One whose business is to can-y a chair. Dryden.

CHAISE, n. s as z. [Fr. chaise, a seat or chair. Qu. It. seggia.]

A two-wheeled carriage drawn by one horse ; a gig. It is open or covered.

€HALCEDON'I€, a. Pertaining to chal- cedony.

eHAL'CEDONY, n. [from Chalcedon, a town ill Asia Minor, opposite to Byzanti- lun, now Constantinople. Pliny informs us that Chalcedon signifies the town of blind men. The last syllable then is the Celtic dun, English town, a fact that tlie historian should not overlook. Plin. Lib. 5. 32.]

A subspecies of quartz, a mineral called also wliite agate, resembling milk diluted with water, and more or less clouded or opake, with veins, circles and spots. It is used in jewelry.

Cleaveland. JVichohon. Encyc.

The varieties of chalcedony are common chalcedony, heliotrope, chrysoprase, plas- ma, onyx, sard and sardonyx. Ure.

€HAL'CEDONYX, n. A variety of agate,

in which white and gray layers altei-nate.


€HAL'CITE, n. [Gr. x

€HAL€OG'RAPHER, n. [Infra.] An en- aver in brass.

€HALCOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. za?.*of, brass, and ypo^iu, to write.] The act or art of engraving in brass.

CHALDA'I€, a. Pertaining to Chaldea, an- ciently a country on the Frat or Euphra- tes, in Asia, called in scripture Shinar. Of this Babylon was the principal city.

€HALDA'l€, n. The language or dialect of the Chaldeans.

CHAL'DAISM, n. An idiom or peculiarity the Clialdee dialect. Parkhurst.

ellALDE'AN, )(. An inhabitant of Chal- dea.

eHAL'DEE, a. Pertaining to Chaldea.

€HAL'DEE, ;i. The language or dialect of the Chaldeans.

CHAL'DRON, ? [Fr. chaudron; Sp. cal-

CHAL'DER, I deron ; It. adderonc, a kettle. Thesame word as caWron. Chal- der is not in use in the United States.]

A measure of coals consisting of thirty six bushels. Chambers.

CHAL'ICE, n. [Fr. calice ; Sp. caliz ; It. calice ; D. kelk ; G. kelch ; L. calix ; Gr. xuXtl. It should have been written cal-

rV cup, or bowl ; usually, a communion cup. CHAL'ICED, a. Haviiig a cell or cup; ap-

pHed by Shakspeare to a flower; but I believe little used.

CHALK, ?i. chauk. [Sax. cealc ; D. Dan. G. kalk ; Sw. kalck ; W. calc ; Com. kalch ; Ir. cailk ; L. calx ; Fr. chaui. The Latin calx is lime-stone, chalk-stone, and the heel, and calco is to kick and to tread. In Italian calca is a crowd. The sense then is a mass made compact, a clod or lump. If the Gr. ;^a>.i?, ffint, gravel, is the same word, the Latins deviated from their usual practice in writing calx, for chalx. These words are probably connected in origin with callus.]

A well known calcarious earth, of an opake white color, soft and admitting no polish. It contains a large portion of carbonic acid, and is a subspecies of carbonate of lime. It is used as an absorbent and anti-acid. Cleaveland. JVicholson. Kirwan. Aikin.

Black-chalk is a species of earth used by painters for drawing on blue paper.

Red-chalk is an indurated clayey ocher used by painters and artificers.

CHALK, V. t. To rub with chalk ; to mark with chalk.

2. To manure with chalk, as land.

.3. From the use of chalk in marking lines, the ])hrase to chalk out is used to signify, to lay out, draw out or describe ; as, to chalk out a ])lan of proceeding.

CHALK-€UTTER, n. A man that digs chalk. Woodward.

CHALKINESS, n. chauk'iness. Tlie state of being chalkv.

CHALK-PIT, 7i." A pit in which chalk is dug. Johnson.

CHALK-STONE, n. In medicine, a calca- rious concretion in the hands and feet of men violently aflected by the gout. Encyc.

2. A small lump of chalk. Isaiah.

CHALKY, a. chauk'y. Resembling chalk ; as a chalky taste.

2. White with chalk ; consisting of chalk ; as, chalky cliffs. Rawe.

J. Impregnated with chalk ; as, chalky wa- ter.

CHAL'LENgE, n. [Norm, calenge, an ac eusation ; chalunge, a claim ; challenger, to claim ; from the root of call, Gr. xa%iu, xiVKu, L. calo. See Call.]

Literally, a calling, or crying out, the primary sense of many words expressing a demand, as claim, L. clamo. Hence appropriately,

1. A calling upon one to fight in single com- bat; an invitation or summons, verbal or written, to decide a controversy by a duel. Hence the letter containing the summons is also called a challenge.

2. A claim or demand made of a right or supposed right.

There must be no challenge of superiority.


3. Among hunters, the opening and crying of hounds at first finding the scent of their game. Enci/c.

4. In laiv, an exception to jurors ; the claam of a party that certain jin-ors shall not sit in trial iqion him or his cause ; that is, a calling them off. The right of challenge is given both in civil and criminal trials, for certain causes which are siqiposed to disquahfy a juror to be an impartial judge. The right of challenge extends either to the whole panel or array, or only to par -




licular jurors, called a challenge to tl polls. A principal challenge is that which the law allows without cause assigned A challenge to the favor, is when the party alledgcs a special cause. In crimi nal cases, a prisoner may challenge twenty jurors, without assigning a cause. This is called a pereiiiptory challenge.

Blackstone CHAL'LENgE, v. t. To call, invite or sum- mon to answer for an oftense by single combat, or duel.

2. To call to a contest ; to invite to a trial : as, 1 challenge a man to prove what he asserts, implying defiance.

3. To accuse ; to call to answer.

Spenser. Shak

4. To claim as due ; to demand as a right ; as, the Supreme Being challenges our rev- erence and homage.

5. In law, to call off a juror, or jurors; or to demand that jurors shall not sit in trial upon a cause. [See the noun.]

6. To call to the performance of condition CHAL'LENuEABLE, «. That may be

challenged ; that may be called to ac- count. Sadler.

CHAL'LENgED. pp. Called to combat or to contest ; claimed ; demanded, as due called from a jury.

CHAL'LENCiER, n. One who challenges ;

one who invites to a single combat ; one

who calls on another by way of defiance.


2. One who claims superiority ; one who claims any thing as his right, or makes pretensions to it. Hooker.

3. One who calls a juror, or a jury, from the trial (if his cause.

CHAL'LENgING, ppr. Summoning to a

duel, or to contest ; claiming as a right ;

defying; calling off from a jury. CHALYB'EAN, a. [Infra.] Pertaining lo

steel well tempered. Milton.

CHALYB'EATE, a. [L. chalybs ; Gr. x"-7.v^,

steel. Qu. from Chalybs, a town near the

Euxine.] Impregnated with particles of iron ; as

chalybeate waters. CHALYBEATE, n. Any water or other

liquor into which iron enters. CHAM, n. kam. The sovereign prince of

Tartary. Usually written A7m?i. C'HAMA'DE, n. [Fr. from It. chiamata, a

calling ; chiamare, to call ; L. clamo ; Sp.

llamada ; Port, chamada, from chamar. to

call. See Claim.] In war, the beat of a drum or sound of a

trumpet, inviting an enemy to a parley ;

as for making a proposition for a truce,

or for a capitulation. Eneyc.

CHAMBER, } iThe first pronunciation is CH'AMBER, ^ '-most common; the last,

most analagous and correct. [Fr. cham-

hre ; Arm. campr, cambr ; It. camera ; Port.

Sp. camara ; L. camera ; Gr. xa/tapu, an

arched roof, vault or upper gallery, a

chamber ; D. kamer ; G. kammer ; Sw.

kammare ; Dan. kammer ; Cli. nap to arch ;

Eth. 'P'^^ kamare, an arch or vault.]

1. An ai)artment in an upper story, or in a story above the lower floor of a dwelling house ; often used as a lodging room.

2. Any retired room ; any private apartment

which a person occupies ; as, he called on the judge at his chamber.

Joseph entered into liis chamber and wept Gen. xliii. i. Any retired place.

Her hou.se is the way to hell, going down to the chambers of death. Prov. vii. 4: A hollow or cavity ; as the chamber of| the eye. Sharp.

A place where an assembly meets, and the assembly itself; as star-chamber ; im perial chamber ; chamber of accounts ; ec clesiastical chamber; privy chamber; cham 6er of commerce, &c.

6. In military affairs, the chamber of a mor tar is that part of the chase, where tli( powder lies.

7. A powder-chamber, or bomb-chamber, i place under ground for holding powder and bombs, where they may be safe and secured from rains.

8. The chamber of a mine, a place, generally of a cubical form, where the powder is confined.

9. A species of ordnance. Qu. Camden.

10. The clouds. Ps. civ. U. Certain southern constellations which

are hid from us. The chambers of the south. Job ix.

Chamber-council, a private or secret council. Shak

Chamber-counsel, a counselor, who gives his opinion in a private apartment, but does not advocate causes in court.

CHAMBER, } . To reside in or occupy

CH' AMBER, I "• '• as a chamber.

2. To be wanton ; to indulge in lewd or im modest behavior. Rom. xiii.

CHAMBER, ) To shut up as in :

CHAMBER, I ^- '• chamber. Shak.

CHAMBERER, ) One who intrigues, or

CH AMBERER, I "• indulges in wanton ness. Shak


CHAMBER-FELLOW, I "■ sleeps in the same apartment. Spectator.

CHAMBER-HANGING, n. Tapestry or hangings for a chamber.

CHAMBERING, ) Wanton, lewd, im-

CIPAMBERING, I "• modest behavior, Rom. xiii. lAMBERLAIN, ) [Fr. chambellan

CH^AMBERLAIN, ^ "• Arm. cambrelan ; Sp. camarero ; Port, camareiro ; It. camer- lingo ; D. kamerling ; Dan. kammer-herre ; L. caynerai-ius.]

1. An ofiicer charged with the direction and management of a chamber, or of cham bers. The Lord Chamberlain of Greai Britain is the sixth officer of the crown To him belong livery and lodging in the king's court ; on coronation day he brings to the king his apparel, his sword, scab- bard, &c. He dresses and undresses the king on that day, and waits on him be- fore and after dinner. To him also be- longs the care of providing all things in the house of lords, in time of parUament. Under him are the gentleman usher of the black rod, and other oflicers. The Lord Chamberlain of the household has the oversight of all oflicers belonging to the kmg's chambers, exce])t the precinct ofl the bed-chamber, of the wardrobe, i)hy- sicians, chaplains, barbers, &c., and admin- isters the oath to all officers above stairs,

The chamberlains of the exchequer, of London, of Chester, of North Wales, &c., are receivers of rents and revenues.

Encyc. Johnson.

2. A servant who has the care of the cham- bers in an inn or hotel.

CHAMBERLAINSIHP, ) The oftlce of

CH'AMBERLAINSHIP, ^ "• a chamber- lain.

CHAMBER-LYE, n. Urine.

CHAMBER-MAID, > A woman who

CH' AMBER-MAID, \\\\ "• has the care of chambers, making the beds, and cleaning the rooms, or who dresses a lady and waits upon her in her ai)artment.

CHAMBER-POT, n. A vessel used in bed- rootns.


CH'AMBER- PRACTICE, P- ^"^ ?"■"•=" tice of counselors at law, who give their opinions in private, but do not appear in court.

CHAM BREL, n. The joint or bending of the upper part of a horse'.s hind leg. In New England pronounced gambrel, which see.

CHAME'LEON, n. [L. chamaleon ; Gr. Xa.iw.0.iM:]

An animal of the genus Lacerta, or lizard, with a naked body, a tail and four feet. The body is six or seven inches long, and the tail five inches ; with this it clmgs to the branches of trees. The skin is cold to the touch, and contains small grains or eminences, of a bluish gray color, in the shade, but in the light of the sun, all parts of the body become of a grayish brown, or tawny color. It is a native of Africa and Asia. Encyc.

CHAME'LEONIZE, v. t. To change into various colors. Diet.

CHAM'FER, V. t. [corrupted from Fr. echancrer, to hollow, to cut sloping ; Arm. chancra ; said to be from cancer.] To channel ; to cut a furrow, as in a col- umn, or to cut into a sloping form.

Johnson. Bailey. Encyc. To wrinkle. Shak.

CHAM'FER, > A small gutter or furrow

CHAM FRET, $ "• cut in wood or otlier hard material ; a slope.

CHAMFERED, pp. Cut into furrows, or cut sloping.

CHAMFERING, ppr. Cutting a gutter in ; cutting in a slope.

CHAM'ITE, n. Fossil remains of the Cha- ma, a shell.

CHAMLET, [See Candet.]

CHAMOIS, n. [Fr. from It. camozza ; Sj). gamuza, from g-amo, a buck.]

An animal of the goat kind, whose skin is made into soft leather, called shammy.


It is now arranged with the Antelopes.


CHAM'OMILE, [See Camomile.]

CHAJMP, V. t. [Fr. champayer, I have not found. Qu. Gr. xantu, for m is often casual before a labial, and in Gr. yo/iijiat is the jaws.]

1. To bite wth repeated action of the teeth ; as, a horse champs the bit.

2. To bite into small pieces ; to chew ; to masticate ; to devour. Dryden.

CHAMP, u. i. To chew ; to perform the ac- tion of biting by repeated motion of the teeth ; as, to champ upon the bit. Hooker.




CHAMPA'GNE, ) „ A kind of brisk, spark-

CHAMPA'NE, S ling wine, from Cham- pagne in France.

CHAMPA'IGN, ? [from caini) or the

CHAMPA'IN, S same root.] A flat open coimtry. Bacon. Milton.

CHAMPA'IN, )i. In heraldry, champain or point champain, is a mark of dishonor in the coat of arm? of him who has killed a prisoner of war after he has asked for quarter. Encyc.

CHAMP'ED, pp. Bitten ; chewed.

CHAMP'ER, n. One that champs or bites.

CHAM'PERTOR, n. [See ChampeHy.] In Imv, one who is guilty of ckamperty, whicli

CHAM'PERTY, n. [Fr. champart, field- rent ; champ, L. campus, a field, and part, a share, or partir, to divide, campum par- tire.]

A species of maintenance, being a bargain with a plaintiff or defendant, to divide the land or other matter in suit, between them, if they prevail; whereupon the champer- tor is to carry on the party's suit at his own expense. The purchase of a suit, or of the right of suing. Blackstone.

CHAMPIGN'ON, n. shampin'yon. [Fr.] A kind of mushroom.

CHAMP'ING, pp. Biting with repeated ac- tion.

CHAM'PION, n. [Fr. champion; Arm. campyon ; Sp. campeon ; Port, campeam, or eampiam ; It. campione ; D. hamper, or kampvegter ; G. kampfer. In all the Teu- tonic dialects, camp or kamp signifies a combat, and in some of them, a camp ; Sax. campa, a camp and a combat ; cempa, a soldier, warrior or gVidiator ; W. camp, a game, a feat ; campiaw, to contend in a game. Here we have the origin of the Latin campus. It was originally the plain or open place appropriated to games, sports and athletic exercises.]

1. A man who undertakes a combat in the place or cause of another. Bacon.

9. A man who fights in his own cause n a duel.

,3. A hero ; a brave warrior. Hence, one who is bold in contest ; as a champion for the truth.

CHAM'PION, V. t. To challenge to a com- bat. Shak.

CHAM'PIONESS, n. A female champion. Fairfax.

CH'ANCE, n. [Fr. chance ; Norm, cheaunce ; Arm. chanpz ; D. kan^ ; G. schu7ize. This seems to be from the participle of the French verb cheoir, to fall, Sp. caer, from the L. cado, or directly from the Latin ca dens, cadentia.] , 1. An event that happens, falls out or takes place, without being contrived, intended, expected or foreseen ; the effect of an un known cause, or the unusual or unex pected effect of a known cause; accident casualty ; fortuitous event ; as, time and chance happen to all.

By chance a priest came down that way Luke s.

S. Fortune ; what foitime may bruig ; as, they must take their chance.

3. An event, good or evil ; success or mis- fortune ; luck. Shiik.

4. Possibility of an occurrence ; opportunity.

Yotir ladyship may have a chance (o escape this address. Swift.

CH'ANCE, V. i. To happen ; to fall out ; to come or arrive without design, or expec- tation.

If a bird's nest chance to be before thee. Deut. xxii.

Ah Casca, tell us what hath chanced to day. Slmk.

CH'ANCE, o. Happening by chance ; cas- ual ; as a chance comer.

CH'ANCEABLE, a. Accidental; casual; fortuitous. Sidney.

CH'ANCE-€OMER, n. One who comes unexpectedly. Addison.

CH'ANCEFUL, a. Hazardous. Spenser.

CH'ANCE-MEDLEY, n. [chance and med- ley, a mixture.]

Inlaw, the kiUing of a person by chance, when the killer is doing a lawful act ; for if he is doing an unlawful act, it is felony. As if a man, when throwing bricks from a house into a street where people are con- tinually passing, after giving warning to passengers to lake care, shoidd kill a per- son, this is chance-medley. But if he gives no warning, and kiUs a man, it is manslaughter.

CH'ANCEL, n. [Fr. chancel or chanceau; L. cancelli, lattices or cross bars, inclosing the place ; Sp. cancel, cancilla, a wooden screen, a wicker gate ; It. cancello, balus- trades ; Gr. xtyxT.!?; Ch. Spjp kankel or kankail, net work ; Syr. id. See Cancel.]

That part of the choir of a church, between the altar or communion table and the balustrade or railing that incloses it, or that part where the altar is placed ; for- merly inclosed with lattices or cross bars, as now with rails. Encyc. Johnson.

CH'ANCELLOR, n. [Fr. chancelier ; Arm. chanceilher, or canceller ; Sp. canciller ; Port, chancelier ; It. cancelliere ; D. kan- selier ; G. kanzler ; Sw. cantsler ; Dan. kantsler or cantsler ; L. cancellarins, a scribe, secretary, notary, or chancellor; from cancello, to make lattice work, to can- cel, or blot out by crossing the lines ; or from cancelli, lattices, because the secreta- ry sat behind lattices.]

Originally, a chief notary or scribe, under tlie Roman Emperors ; but in England, it later times, an officer invested with judi cial powers, and particularly with the su perintendance of all charters, letters and other official writings of the crown, that required to be solemnly authenticated. Hence this officer became the keeper of the great seal. From the Roman Empire, this office passed to the church, and hence every bishop has his chancellor.

The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Keeper of the Great Seal, is the highest officer of the crown. He is a privy coun- selor by his ofiice, and prolocutor of tin house of lords by prescription. To him belongs the appointment of all justices of the peace ; he is keeper of the king's i science, visitor of all hospitals and colle- ges founded by the king, guardian of all charitable uses, and judge of the liigh court of chancery.

Chancellor of an Ecclesiastical Court, is the bishop's lawyer, versed in the civil and ca non law, to direct the bishop in causes ofl the church, civil and criminal.

Chancellor of a Cathedral, is an officer who hears lessons and lectures in the church, by himself or his vicar, inspects schools, hears causes, applies the seal, writes and dispatches letters of the chapter, keeps the books, &c.

Chancellor of the Exchequer, is an officer who presides in that court, and takes care of the interest of the crown. He has power, with the lord treasurer, to lease the crown lands, and with others, to compound for forfeitures on penal statutes. He has a great authority in managing the royal rev- enues, and in matters relating to the first fruits.

Chancellor of a University, is an officer who seals the diplomas, or letters of degree, &c. The chancellor of Oxford is usually one of the prime nobiUty, elected by the students in convocation, and he holds the office for fife. He is the chief magistrate, in the government of the university. The chancellor of Cambridge is also elected fi'om among the prime nobility ; he does not hold his office for life, but may be elected every three years.

Clumcellor of the Order of the Garter, and oth- er military orders, is an officer who seals the commissions and mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the register of their proceedings, and dehvers their acts under the seal of their order. Johnson. Encyc.

In France, a secretary is, in some cases, called a chancellor.

In the United States, a chancellor is the judge of a court of chancery or equity, es- tablished by statute.

In scripture, a master of the decrees, or pres- ident of the council. Ezra iv.

CHANCELLORSHIP, n. The office of a chancellor ; the time during which one is chancellor.

CH'ANCERY, n. [Fr. chancellerie ; Arm. cancellery ; Sp. chancilleria ; It. cancelleria ; L. eancellaria, from cancelli, lattices, or from the judge, who presided in the court.]

1. In Great Britain, the highest court of jus- tice, next to the parliament, consisting of two distinct tribunals ; one ordinary, being a court of common law ; the other extra- ordinary, or a court of equity. The ordi- nary legal court holds pleas of recogni- zances acknowledged in the chancery, writs of scire facias, for repeal of letters patent, writs of partition, and all personal actions by or against any officer of the court. But if the parties come to issue, in fact, this court cannot try it by a jury : but the record must be delivered to the king's bench. From this court issue all original writs that pass under the great seal, commissions of charitable uses, bank- ruptcy, idiocy, lunacy, &c.

The extraordinary court, or court of equity, proceeds upon rules of equity and conscience, moderates the rigor of the common law, and gives relief in cases where there is no remedy in the common law courts.

9. In the United States, a court of equity.

OHAN'€RE, »!. [Fr. chancre ; Arm. chancr. The same as cancer, canker.] A venereal ulcer.

CHAN'€ROUS, a. Ulcerous ; having the qualities of a chancre.




ClIANDELIE'R, n. [Fr. id. ; Sp. eanddero It. candeliere ; Arm. cantolozr, or caniuUr from L. candela, a candle, from caneo, t( shine.]

1. A frame with branches to hold a number of candles, to illuminate a public or larg< room.

2. In fortijication, a movable parapet, scrv ing to support fascines to cover pioneers.

CH' ANDLER, w. [Qr. Fr. chandelier, or rath er Teutonic handler. See Corn-chandler.'

An artisan whose trade is to make can dies, or one who sells candles. Johnson

In America, I believe the word never signi fies a seller of candles, unless he is the maker. A corn-chandler is a seller of corn, but 1 believe not used in the U. States.

CH'ANDLERLY, o. Like a chandler.


CH'ANDLERY, n. The commodities sold by a chandler.

CirANDRY, n. The place where candles are kept. B. Jonson.

CH.\\\\NGE, v. i. [Fr. changer ; It. cangiare Arm. eceinch ; Norm, chainant, exchang ing. Qu. Is this radically the same word as It. cambio, cambiare, Sp. id. ?]

1. To cause to turn or pass fVom one state to another ; to alter, or make different vary in external form, or in essence ; as, to change the color or shape of a thing , change the countenance ; to change the heart or life.

2. To put one thing in the place of another; to shift ; as, to change the clothes.

Be clean and change your garments. Gi


■3. To quit one thing or state for another ; followed by /or ; as, persons educated in a particular religion do not readily change it for another.

4. To give and take reciprocally ; as, will you change conditions imlh me ?

5. To barter ; to exchange goods ; as, change a coach for a chariot.

6. To quit, as one place for another ; as, to change lodgings.

7. To give one kind of money for another ; to alter the form or kind of money, by re- ceiving the value in a different kind, as to change bank notes/or silver ; or to give pieces of a larger denomination for an equivalent in pieces of smaller denomina tion, as to change an eagle for dollars, or a sovereign for sixpences, or to change a dollar into cents ; or on the other haiid, to change dollars ybr or i7ito eagles, giving money of smaller denomination for larger.

8. To become acid or tainted ; to turn from a natural state of sweetness and purity ; as, the wine is changed ; thunder aiid lightning are said to change milk.

To change a horse, or to change hand, is to turn or bear the horse's head from one hand to the other, from the left to the right, or from the right to the left.

Farrier^s Diet.

CHANGE, V. i. To be altered ; to undergo

variation ; as, men sometimes cliange for

the better, often for the worse.

I am Jehovali ; I change not. Mai.

2. To pass the sun, as the moon in its orbit ; as, the moon will change the 14th of this month.

CHANGE, n. Any variation or alteration in form, state, quality, or essence ; or a pass-

Vol. I.

ing from one state or form to another ; a.' a change of countenance ; a change of hab its or principles.

2. A succession of one thing in the place of another ; vicissitude ; as a change of sea sons ; a change of objects on a journey ; < change of scenes.

3. A revolution ; as a change of government.

4. A passing by the sun, and the beginning of a new monthly revolution ; as a change of the moon.

5. A different state by removal ; novelty ; variety.

Our fathers did, for change, to France repair Dryden

6. Alteration in the order of ringing bells ; variety of sounds.

Four bells admit twenty-four changes in ring- ing. Holder

7. That which makes a variety, or may be substituted for another.

Tliirty changes of raiment. Judges xiv.

8. Small coins of money, which may be en for larger pieces.

9. The balance of money paid beyond the price of goods purchased.

I gave the clerk a bank note for his clotli, and he gave mc the change.

10. The dissolution of the body; death.

All the days of my appointed time will 1 wait till my cliange come. Job xiv.

11. Change for exchange, a place where mer- chants and others meet to transact busi ness ; a building appropriated for mercan tile transactions.

12. In arithmetic, permutation ; variation! of numbers. Thirteen numbers admit of| 6,227,020,800 changes, or different posi- tions.

CHANGEABILITY, n. Changeableness, which is generally used. Fleming.

CHANGEABLE, a. That may change ; sub- ject to alteration ; fickle ; inconstant ; mu- table ; variable ; as a person of a change- able mind.

2. Having the quality of suffering alteration of external appearance ; as changeable silk.

CHANgEABLENESS, n. The quality of| being changeable ; fickleness ; inconstan- cy ; instability ; mutability.

2. Susceptibility of change, or alteration.


CHANgEABLY, adv. Inconstantly.

CHANGED, pp. Altered ; varied ; turned ; converted ; shifted.

CHANGEFUL, a. Full of change ; incon- stant ; mutable ; fickle ; uncertain ; sub- ject to alteration. Pope.

CHANGELESS, a. Constant ; not admit- ting alteration.

CHANGELING, n. [change and ling. It is said this word originated in a superstitious opinion that fairies steal children and put others that are ugly and stupid in their places. Johnson.]

1. A child left or taken in tlie place of an- other. Spenser.

2. An idiot ; a fool. Dryden. Locke.

3. One apt to change ; a waverer. Shak.

4. Any thing changed and put in the place of another. Shak.

CHANGER, 71. One who alters the form of

any thing. 2. One that is employed in changing and

discounting money ; a money-changer.


3. One given to change.

CH.vNGiNG, ppr. Altering; turning; put- ting one thing for another; shifting.

CHAJV'NA, n. A fish taken in the Mediter- ranean, resembling the sea-perch.

Diet, ofj^at. Hist.

CHAN'NEL,n. [Ir. cainneal ; Fr. canal; L. canalis ; Arm. can, or canol. It is a dif- ferent spelling of cano/.]

1. In a general sense, a passage ; a place ol" passing or flowing; particularly, a water-

2. The place where a river flows, including the whole breadth of the river. But more appropriately, the deeper part or hollow in which the principal current flows.

3. The deeper part of a strait, bay, or har- bor, where the principal current flows, ei- ther of tide or fresh water, or which is the most convenient for the track of a ship.

4. That through which any thing passes; means of passing, conveying, or transmit- ting ; as, the news was conveyed to us by diflerent channels.

5. A gutter or furrow in a column.

6. An arm of the sea ; a straight or narrow sea, between two continents, or between a continent and an isle ; as the British or Irish channel.

7. Channels of a ship. \\\\^ee Chain-wales. 'X CHANNEL, V. t. To form a channel ; to

cut chamiels in ; to groove ; as, to channel a field or a column. IFotton

CHANNELED, pp. Having channels; grooved longitudinally.

CHANNELING, ppr. Cutting channels ; grooving longitudinally.

CHAN'SON, n. [Fr.] A song. Shak.

CH" ANT, V. t. [Fr. chanter ; L. canto, canlus : W. apanu ; Arm. cana, cannein ; It. can- tare ; Sp. Port, cantar ; L. cano. See Cant]

1. To sing ; to utter a melodious voice ; that is, to cant or throw the voice in modula- tions.

The cheerful birds do chant sweet music.


2. To celebrate in song ; as, to chant the praises of Jehovah.

3. To sing, as in church-service ; to repeat words in a kind of canting voice, with modulations.

CHANT, t.. I. To sing ; to make melody with the voice.

They chant to the sound of the viol. Amos vi.

2. To repeat words in the church-service with a kind of singing.

CH'ANT, n. Song ; melody ; church-ser- vice.

CHANTED, pp. Sung ; uttered with mod- ulations of voice.

CH.\\\\NTER, n. One who chants ; a singer or songster. Pope.

2. The chief singer, or priest of the chan- tiy. Gregory.

3. The pipe which soimds the tenor or tre- ble in a bagpipe.

CHANTICLEER, n. [chant and clear, Fr. clair.]

A cock, so called fi-om the clearness or loud- ness of his voice in crowing. Dryden.

CH' ANTING, ppr. Singing ; uttering a me- lodious voice ; repeating words with a singing voice.


C'H'ANTING, n. The act of singing, or ut- tering with a song.

CH"ANTRESS,Ji. A female singer. Milton.

CH>ANTRY, n. [Fr. chantrene, from chant] A church or chapel endowed with lands, or other revenue, for the maintenance of one or more priests daily to sing or say mass for the souls of the donors, or such as they appoint. Cowdi

CHA'OS, n. [L. chaos; Gr. zaoj.] That con- fusion, or confused mass, in which matter is supposed to have existed, before it was separated into its different kinds and duced to order, by the creating power of God. " Rudis, indigestaque moles."


2. Any mixed mass, without due form or or- der; as a chaos of materials.

D. Confusion ; disorder ; a state in which tlie parts are undistinguished. Donne.

CHAOT'Ie, a. Resembling chaos ; confus- ed ; as, tlie eartli was originally in a chaotic state.

CHAP, i>. /. [Ar

jiibba, to cut ofl'

or out, to castrate ; i_,l-» to split, rend,

tear, or cleave, to cut. It seems to be al lied to the G. and D. happen, Dan. kap per, Fr. couptr ; but these agree betlei

witli Ar. -x:=5 or t-ix^ to cut

See Chop 'and Gape. Chap is .sometime!

pronounced chop.] To cleave, split, crack, or open longitudi

iially, as the sinface of tlie eartli, or the

skin and flesh of the hand. Dry weather

chaps the earth ; cold dry winds chap th

hands. CHAP, V. I. To crack ; to open in long slits ;

as, the earth chaps ; the hands chap. CHAP, n. A longitudinal cleft, gap or chink,

as in the surface of the earth, or in the

Iiands or feet. C'HAP, n. [Sax. ceaf, a beak, or chap ; phi.

ceaflas, the chaps.] The upper and lower part of the mouth ; the

jaw. It is applied to beasts, and vulgarly

to men ; generally in the pliu-ul, the chaps

or mouth. CHAP, 71. A man or a boy ; a youth. It

used also in the sense of a buyer. "If

you want to sell, here is your chap." In

ihis sense it coincides with chapman. [See

Cheap.] _ Steele.

CHAP, V. i. [Sax. ceapian.] To cheapen.

[Not used.] CHAP'BOOK,«. [See Chapman drnXaieap.]

A small book or pamphlet, carried about

for sale by hawker.?. CHAPE, n. [Fr. chape, the tongue of a

buckle, a cover, a cliurchman's cope,

the head of an alembic ; Arm. chap ; Sp.

ckapa, a thin plate of metal covering some

kind of work. Qu. ca/>.]

1. The catch of any thing, as the hook of a scabbard, or the catch of a buckle, by which it is held to the back strap.

2. A brass or silver tip or case, that strength- ens the end of a scabbard.

Johnson. PhiUips. CHAPEAU, n. ahappo. [Fr.] A hat ; in her-

aldn/, a cap or bonnet. CHAP'EL, n. [Fr. chapelle ; L. capdla i


Arm. chapel ; Sp. capilla, a chapel, a hood or cowl, a chapter of collegians, a proof- sheet; Port, capella; It. cappella; D.kapel; from the same root as cap. It is said that the kings of France, in war, carried St Martin's hat into the field, which was kept in a tent as a precious relic, whence the place took the name capella, a little hat, and the priest who had the custody of the tent was called capellanus, now chaplaii Hence the word chapel came to signify private oratory. Encyc. lAinier.]

1. A house for public worship ; primarily, a private oratory, or house of worship be longing to a private person. In Great Britain there are several sorts of chapels; as parochial chapels, distinct from the mother church ; chapels which adjo and are a part of the church ; such were formerly built by honorable persons for burying places ; chapels of ease, built in large parishes for the accommodation of the inhabitants ; free chapels, which were founded by the kings of England ; chapels in the universities, belonging to particular colleges ; domestic chapels, built by noble- men or gentlemen for the use of their families. Encyc.

2. A printer's workhouse ; said to be so call- ed because printing was first carried on in a chajiel. Bailey. Encyc.

CHAP'EL, V. t. To deijosit in a chapel.


CHA'PELESS, a. Without a chape,

CHAP'ELET, I [Fr. chapelet.] A pair of

CHAP'LET, I "■ stirrup leathers, with stu- mps, joined at the top in a sort of leather buckle, by which they are made fast to the pommel of the saddle, after they have been adjusted to the length and bearing of the rider. Farrier's Diet.

CHAP'ELLANY, n. A place founded with- in some church and dependent thereon.


CHAP'ELLING, n. The act of turning a slnp round in a light breeze of wind, when close hauled, so that she will lie the same way as before. Mar. Diet.

CHAP'ELRY, n. The bounds or jurisdic- tion of a chapel.

CHAP'ERON, n. [Fr.] A hood or cap worn by the knights of the garter in their hab- its. It was anciently worn by men, wo- men, nobles and populace ; afterwards ap- propriated to doctors and licentiates in colleges. The name then passed to cer- tain devices placed on the foreheailf^

CHAP'ERON, V. t. To attend on a lady "in a public assembly. Todd.

CHAP'-F ALLEN, a. [chap and fall.] Hav- ing the lower chap depressed ; hence, de- je(;ted ; dispirited ; silenced. B. Jonson.

CilAP'ITER, n. [Fr. chapiteau ; It. capitello ; L. capitellum, from caput, a head. This is a different word for capital.]

1. The upper part or capital of a column or pillar; a word used in the scriptures. [See Capital.]

2. That which is delivered by the mouth of the justice in his charge to the inquest.

Encyc. CHAP'LAIN, n. [Fr. chapelain ; Sp. capel- Ian ; It. cappellano : L. capellanus ; from chapel.]


1. An ecclesiastic who has a chapel, or who performs service in a chapel. The king of Great Britain has forty-eight chaplains, who attend, four each month, to perform divine service for the royal family. Prin- ces also, and persons of quality have chap- lains, who ofliciate in their chapels.

2. A clergyman who belongs to a ship of war, or to a regiment of land forces, for performing divine service.

3. A clergyman who is retained to perform divine service in a family.

Chaplains of the Pope, are auditors or judges of causes in the sacred palace. Encyc.

CHAP'LAINCY, n. The oflice or station of a chaplain.

CHAP'LAINSHIP, ji. The ofiice or busi- ness of a chaplain.

2. The possession, or revenue of a chapel.


CHAP'LESS, a. Without any flesh about the mouth. Bailey. Shak.

CHAP'LET, n. [Fr. chapelet.] A garland or wreath to be worn on the head ; the circle of a crown.

2. A string of beads used by the Roman Catholics, by which they count the num- ber of their prayers. They are made sometimes of coral, of wood, of diamonds, &.C., and are called;;a(enios


3. In architecture, a little molding, carved in- to round beads, pearls, olives or the like.

4. In horsemanship, a chapelet, which see.

5. A tuft of feathers on a peacock's head. Johnson.

G. A small chapel or shrine. Hammond.

CHAP'MAN, n. phi. chapmen. [Sax. ceap-

man ; D. koopman ; G. kaufmann ; Dan.

kiobmand. See Cheap.]

1. A cheapener ; one tliat offers as a pur- chaser.

Their chapmen fhey betray. Dryden.

2. A seller ; a market-man. ^hak. CHAP'PED, pp. Cleft ; opened, as the sur- face or skin.

CHAP'PING, ppr. Cleaving, as the surface

rilAl'l'Y, a. Full of chaps; cleft.

( IIAI'S, the nio-jdi or jaws. [See Chap.]

(11 APT. [See Chapped.]

CHAPTER, n. [Fr. chapitre; L. capitulim,

a head ; It. capitolo ; Sp. capitulo; from L.

caput, the head.]

1. A division of a book or treatise ; as. Gen- esis contains fifty chapters. Hence the ])hrase, to the end of the chapter, that is, throughout ; to the end. Johnson.

2. In ecclesiastical polity, a society or com- munity of clergymen, belonging to a ca- thedral or collegiate church. Encyc.

3. A place where delinquents receive disci- pline and correction. -flyliffe.

4. A decretal epistle. Jlyhffe. CHAP'TER, V. t. To tax : to correct.


CHAP'TER-HOUSE, n. A house where a chapter meets. Bailen


CHAP'TREL, n. [flora chapiter.] Tlie capi- tals of pillars and pilasters, wlii(:li support arches, commonly called imposts. Moxon.

CH>AR, n. A fish.

CHAR, n. In England, work done by the day ; a single job, or task. In jVew Eng- land, it is pronounced chore, which see. I know not the origin of the word. In Sax. cerre, curr, signifies a time, a turn, occa- sion, from ctrran, cyrran, to turn, oi return.

€HAR, V. t. To perform a business. May

CHAR.w. t. To work at others houses by the day, without being a hired servant ; to do small jobs. Bailey. Johnson

CHAR- WOMAN, n. A woman hired for odd work, or for single days. Johnson.

[Cliar-man and Char-woman are, I believe, not used in America.]

CirAR, V. I. [Russ. jari/u or chnryii, to ron or burn; or goryu to burn, or \\\\iv biin and with a preli.v, sgnrayu or ngdniyii, burn; Fr. c/iarrea, ashes. Qu. Hub. ( Eth. Tm. Class Gr. No. 23. 1i. This seems to be the root of L. carbo. Chark.]

1. To burn or reduce to coal or carbon reduce to cliiucoid, by expelUng all volatile matter from wood. This is done by burn- ing wood slowly under a covering of turf] and earth.

2. To e.xpol all volatile matter from stoue or earth, by heat.

The stone or earth charred from all foreign visible ingredients. JCirican

€HAR'A€T, ) [See Character.] An in- CHAR'ECT, S "• scription. [JVotin use.]

Sketton. CHAR'ACTER, n. [L. character ; Fr. carac- tere ; Sp. caracter ; It. carattere ; G, axrrjp, from the verb jjopasou, jioportu, ;ta()o?u, to scrape, cut, engrave.]

1. A mark made by cutting or engraving, as on stone, metal or other hard material hence, a mark or figure made with a pen or style, on paper, or other material used to contain writing; a letter, or figure used to form words, and communicate ideas. Characters are literal, as the letters of an alphabet ; numeral, as the arithmetical figures ; emblematical or symbolical, which express things or ideas ; and abbreviations as C. for centum, a hundred; lb. for libra, a pound ; A. D. Anno Domini

2. A mark or figuie made by stampnig or impression, ns t

3. Themann.rnlv of letters iiscil Ir

Vouknow t!w i


All the characters in the play appeared l< advantage. The friendship of distinguished characters. Roscoe

the peculiar form ■ uliir person.

By way of eminence, distinguished or good qualities ; those which are esteemed and respected ; and those which arc ascri- bed to a person in common estimation. We enquire whether a stranger is a man of character.

Adventitious qualities impressed by office, or station ; the qualities that, in pul)lic es- timation, belong to a person in a particidar station; as when we ask how a magis- trate, or commander supports liis char- acter. i>. In natural history, the peculiar discrimina- ting qualities or properties of animals, plants and minerals.

These properties, when employed for the pur

pose of discriminating minerals, are called char

acters. Cleaveland.

IIAR'ACTER, V. t. To engrave ; to

scribe. Milton. Shak.

2. To describe ; to distinguish by i)articular

marks or traits. Mitford.

eHAR'A€TERED, pp. Engraved; inscri

bed ; distinguished by a particular charac

ter. Mitford.

€IiAR'ACTERISM, n. The distinction of

character. Bp. Hall.

2. A particular aspect or configuration of the

heavens. Encyc.

eHARA€TERIS'TIC, ? „ [Or. ;KO(>ax-

€HARA€TERIS'TI€AL, S rwfxos,

from jjapaxfijp.] That constitutes the character ; that marks the peculiar, distinctive qualities of a per- son or thing.

Generosity is often a characteristic virtue of i brave man. It is followed by of.

Generosity is characteristic of tnie bravery €IIARA€TERIS'TI€, n. That which con- stitutes a character ; that which charac- terizes ; that which distinguishes a persor or thing from another.

Invention is the characteristic of Homer.


2. In grammar, the principal letter of a word,

which is preserved inmost of its tenses, in

its derivatives and compounds.

The characteristic of a logarithm, is its index

or exponent. The characteristic triangle of a curve, in ge ometry, is a rectilinear right-angled trian gle, whose hypotenuse makes a part of the curve, not sensibly difierent from a right line. Encyc.



To mark with a peculiar slanip,or ligurc.

European, Asiatic, and African faces are all

cliararferized. Arbuihnol.

ellAR'ACTERIZED,;);). Described or dis-

tinguii^heil by pecular qualities. CHARACTERIZING, ppr. Describing or

4. The peculiar qualities, impressed by na ture or habit on a person, which distin guish him from others ; these constitute real character, and the qualities which he supposed to possess, constitute his estimated character, or reputation. Hence we say, a character is not formed, when the person has not acquired stable and distinctiv qualities.

5. An accotmt, description or representation of any thing, exhibiting its qualities and the circumstances attending it ; as, to gi

a bad character to a town, or to a road.

6. A person ; as, the assembly consisted of various characters, eminent characters, and low characters.


r><, n. The •liaractcristic. ; I-. xc^ft^xTr^fi^u.] account of the ; to describe by

manner that disiin-ui-l €HARA€TERIi^ 1 I ( \\\\1

state or qualitii - <'!' I» ii €H.\\\\R'A€TERIZr, r. /.

To give a character, or

personal qualities of a n:

peculiar qualities. 2. To distinguish ; to mark, or express the

character; to exhibit the pecuUar qualities

of a person or thing; as, humility charac

terizes the true christian ; the hero is char-

acterizedhy bravery and magnanimity. The system of mediation has characterized

the entire scheme of divine dispen-sation.

Thodey .3. To engrave or imprint. [Little used.]


distinguishing by peculiar quahties

CHARACTERLESS, a. Destitute of any

peculiar character. Shale.

CHAR'ACTERY, n. Impression ; mark :

distinction. [Aof used.] ShaJc.

CHARA'DE, n. [Said to be from the name

of the inventor.] A composition, in which the subject must be a word of two syllables, each forming a distinct word ; and these syllables are to be concealed in an enigmatical descrip- tion, first sei)arately and then together. Example.

My first, when a Frenchman ia leartiing Eng- lish, serves him to .swear by. My second in either hay or corn. My whole is tlie delight of the age. Gar-rick. Encyc.

CH'ARCOAL, n. [c/tar and coo/. See C/tar.j Coal luade by charring wood ; the remains of wood burnt under turf, and from which all watery and other volatile matter has been expelled by heat. It makes a strong heat, and is used in furnaces, forges, pri- vate families, &c. It is black, brittle, light and inodorous, and not being decomposa- ble by water or an-, will endure for ages without alteration. CH'ARD, Ii. [Fr. charde; L. carduus.] The leaves of artichokes tied and wra|)petl all over, except the top, in straw, during autumn and winter. This makes them grow white and lose some of their bitter- ness. Chambers. Chards of beet are plants of white beet trans- planted, producing great tops, which, in the midst, have a large, white, thick, downy, cotton-like maiji shoot, which is the true chard. Mortimer. CH'ARgE, D. <. charj. [Fr. charger ; Arm. carga ; Sp. cargar ; It. caricare, or carcare ; Port, carregar. It would seem from the Welsh that this word is from cai; a cart or other vehicle, and that the noun charge or cargo was first formed, and therefore ought in arrangement to precede the verb. If the verb was fiist formed, the primary sense would be to load, to thrower put on or in. I tliink the fact to be otherwise. See Cargo.]

1. To rush on; to fall on ; to attack, espe- cially with fixed bayonets ; as, an army charges the enemy.

2. To Toad, as a musket or cannon ; to thrust in powder, or powder and ball or shot.

3. To load or burden ; to tlirow on or im- pose that which oppresses ; as, to charge the stomach with indigestible food ; or to lay on, or to fill, without oppressing ; as, to charge the memory with rules and pre- cepts ; to charge the mind with facts.

4. To set or lay on ; to impose, as a tax ; as, the land is charged tvith a quit rent ; a rent is charged on the land.

5. To lay on or impose, as a task. The gospel chargeth us with piety towards

God. Tillotson.

6. To put or lay on ; as, to charge a building with ornaments, often implying super- fluity.

7. To lay on, as a duty ; followed by with.




The commander charged the officer with the execution of the project. See Gen. xl. 4

8. To entrust to ; as, an officer is charged with dispatches.

9. To set to, as a debt ; to place on the debit side of an account ; as, to charge a man with the price of goods sold to him.

10. To load or lay on in words, something wrong, reproachful or criminal ; to impute to ; as, to charge a man mth theft.

11. To lay on in words; to impute to; fol- lowed by on before the person; as, tc charge a crime oti the offender ; to charge evil consequences on the doctrines of the stoics.

12. To censure ; to accuse.

In all this, Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly. Job i.

13. To lay on, give or communicate, as order, command or earnest request ; enjoin ; to exliort.

Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not high-minded. 1 Tim. vi.

In this sense, when the command given in the name of God, or with an oath, the phrase amounts to an adjuration.

To adjure ; to bind by an oath. 1 Sam. xiv. 28.

14. To give directions to ; to instruct author- itatively ; as, the judge charged the grand jury to inquire respecting breaches of the peace.

15. To communicate electrical matter to, as to a coated vial, or an electrical battery,

OH'ARCE, V. i. To make an onset. Thus Glanville says, " like your heroes of anti quity, he charges in iron ;" and we say, to charge with fixed bayonets. But in this application, the object is understood ; tc charge the enemy.

C'HARtiE, n. [Fr. charge; Arm. and W carg ; Sp. carga, cargo ; Port, carga, car

carga go.]

rega ; It. earica, carco ; Eng. cargo.

I. That which is laid on or in ; in ageneral sense, any load or burden. It is the same word radically as cargo.

?. The quantity of powder, or of powder and ball or shot, used to load a musket, cannon or other like instrument.

:i. An onset ; a rushing on an enemy tack; especially by moving troops with fixed bayonets. " But it is used for an on- set of cavalry as well as of infantry.

4. An order, injunction, mandate, command,

Moses gave Joshua a charge. Numbers xxvii.

The king gave charge concerning Absalom, 2 Sam. xviii.


5. That which is enjoined, committed, en- trusted or deUvered to another, implying care, custody, oversight, or duty to be per- formed by the person entrusted.

I gave Hanani charge over Jerusalem. Nch

Hence the word includes any trust or commission ; an office, duty, employment It is followed by of or over ; more generally by of. Hence, (i. The person or thing committed to anotl; er's custody, care or management ; a trust. Thus the people of a parish are called the minister's charge. The starry guardian drove his charge away To some fresh pasture. Drydcn

7. Instructions given by a judge to a jury, or by a bishop to his clergy. The word may

be used as synonyinous with command, direction, exhortation or injunction, but always implies solemnity. Im]iutation in a bad sense ; accusation. Lay not this sin to their charge. Acts vii.

9. That which constitutes debt, in coimner- cial transactions ; an entry of money or the price of goods, on the debit side of an account.

10. Cost; expense ; as, the eftarg-fts of the war are to be borne by the nation.

11. Imposition on land or estate ; rent, tax, or whatever constitutes a burden or duty.

13. In military affairs, a signal to attack ; as, to sound the charge.

13. The posture of a weapon fitted for au attack or combat.

Their armed slaves in charge. Shak.

14. Among farriers, a preparation of the consistence of a thick decoction, or be- tween an ointment and a plaster, used as a remedy for sprains and inflammations.

15. In heraldi-y, that which is borne upon the color ; or the figures represented on the escutcheon, by which the bearers are dis- tinguished from one another.

16. In electrical experiments, a quantity of electrical fluid, communicated to a coated jar, vial or pane of glass.

A charge of lead, is thirty-six pigs, each con- taining six stone, wanting two pounds.

CH^ARgEABLE, a. That may be charged ; that may be set, laid, imposed ; as, a duty of forty percent, is chargeable on wine.

9. Subject to be charged ; as, wuie is charge- able toith a duty of forty per cent.

3. Expensive ; costly ; as a chargeable fam- ily-

4. Laying or bringing expense.

Because we would not be chargeable to any of you. 1 Thess. ii.

5. Imputable ; that may be laid or attributed as a crime, fault or debt ; as a fault charge- able on a man.

6. Subject to be charged or accused ; as a nan chargeable with a fault, or neglect.

CH' ARGEABLENESS, n. E.xpensiveness ; cost ; costliness. Boyle.

CH'ARGEABLY, adv. Expensively ; at great cost. Ascham.

CH'ARgED, pp. Loaded; burdened; at- tacked ; laid on ; instructed ; imputed ; accused ; placed to the debt ; ordered commanded.

CirAR6EFyL, a. Expensive ; costly. [JVb< iised.] Shak.

CH'AROELESS, a. Not exi)ensive ; free from expense.

CH>AR6ER, n. In Scots law, one who char- ges another in a suit.

9. A large dish. Nurn. vii.

3. A horse used for attack.

CH*AR6ING, ppr. Loading ; attacking ; laying on; instructing; commanding; ac- cusing; imputing.

CHA'RILY, adv. [See Chary.] Carefully ; warily ; frugally. [Little used.] Shak

CHA'RINESS, n. Caution ; care ; nicety ; scrupulousness. [Little used.] Shak

CHAR'IOT, n. [Fr. chariot, from char, a car, which see ; Sp. It. carro ; It. carrctta.]

1. A half coach; a carriage with four wheel; and one seat behind, used for conveni ence and pleasure.

2. A car or vehicle used formerly in war, diawn by two or more horses, and con

veymg two men each. These vehicles- were sometimes armed with hooks or sythes.

CHAR'IOT, V. t. To convey in a chariot.


CUAR'IOTEB, pp. Borne ma chariot.


CHARIOTEER, n. The person who drives or conducts a chariot. It is used in speak- ing of mihtary chariots and those in the ancient games, but not of modern drivers. Johnson. Addison.

CHARIOT-MAN, n. The driver of a char- iot. 2 Chron. xviii.

CHAR'IOT-RACE, n. A race with char- iots ; a sport in which chariots were driven in contest for a prize. Addison.

CHARITABLE, a. [Fr. See Charity.] Benevolent and kind ; as a charitable dis- position.

2. Liberal in benefactions to the poor, and in relieving them in distress ; as a char- itable man.

3. Pertaining to charity ; springing fi-oni charity, or intended for charity ; benevo- lent ; as a charitable institution, or society : a cliai-itable purpose.

4. Formed on charitable principles ; favora- ble ; dictated by kindness ; as a charitable construction of words or actions.

CHARITABLENESS, n. The disposition to be charitable ; or the exercise of charity.

2. Liberality to the poor.

CHARITABLY, adv. Kindly; liberally: benevolently ; with a disposition to help the poor ; favorably.

CHAR'ITY, n. [Fr. chariU ; L. chariias, or caritas ; W. cariad ; Sp. caridad ; Port. caridade ; It. carita,caritade. Qu. Gr.^^opij. The Latin caritas is from carus, dear, cost- ly, whence beloved, and the word was sometimes written charitas, as if from the Gr. ajoptj. The Lat. cai-us would seem to be from the verb careo, to want, as dear- ness arises from scarcity. Of this we have an example in the English dear, whence deaiih, which shows the primary sense of dear to be scarce. But qu. the Oriental Y ■ Class Gr. No. 50.]

1. In a general sense, love, benevolence, good will ; that disposition of heart which in- chnes men to think favorably of their fel- low men, and to do them good. In a theo- logical sense, it includes supreme love to God, and universal good will to men. 1 Cor. xiii. Cpl. iii. 1 Tim. i.

2. In a more particular sense, love, kindness, affection, tenderness, springing from nat- ural relations ; as the chanties of father, son and brother. Milton.

3. Liberality to the poor, consisting in alms- giving or benefactions, or in gratuitous services to relieve them in distress.

4. Alms; whatever is bestowed gratuitously )n the poor for their reUef.

5. Liberality in gifts and services to promote ])ublic objects of utility, as to found and .support bible societies, missionary socie- ties, and others.

6. Candor; liberality in judging of men and their actions ; a disposition which inclines men to think and judge favorably, and to put the best construction on words and actions which the case will admit.


ITie hiehest exercise of charity, is charity towards £e uncharitable. Huckminster.

7. Any act of kindness, or benevolence; as the charitiea of life.

8. A charitable institution. D. JVehater.

Charity-school, is a school maintained by vol- untary contributions for educating poor children.

CH^ARK, V. t. [Qu. char, or Ch. pn, Ar.

Oj.^ haraka, to burn.] To burn to a coal ; to char. [JVo< used. See Char.] Gr'iv.

CH^ARLATAN, n. [Fr. from It. ciarlatano. a quack, from ciarlare, to prate ; Sp. char- latan, from charlar, to prate ; Port, chartar, id.; L. garrulo, garrio ; Gr. yjjptu.] One who prates much in his own favor, and makes unwarrantable pretensions to skill ; a quack ; an empiric ; a mountebank.

Brown. Butter. CHARLATAN'ICAL,a. Quackish; making undue pretensions to skill ; ignorant.


CH^ARLATANRY, n. Undue pretensions

to skill ; quackery ; wheedhng ; deception

by fair words. Johnson

CH'ARLES'S-WAIN, n. [Charles, Celtic

karl, a man, or brave man. See ff'ain. In astronomy, seven stars in the constellation called Ursa Major, or the Great Bear.

Encyc CH^ARLOCK, n. [Sax. cerlice. Leac, in Saxon, is a leek, but the same word occurs in hemlock, and it probably signifies, a plant or root.] The English name of the Raphanus rapha nistrum and Sinapis arvensis, very perni cious weeds among grain. One kind has yellow flowers ; another, white, with joii ed pods. Lee. Encyc.

CH'ARM, n. [Fr. channe ; Norm, carine oc garme; Arm. chalm ; L. carmen, a song, a verse, an outcry, a charm. It coincides with the W.gann, an outcry, garmiaiv, to shout. Sax. cirm, or ei/rai, outcry, noise: See Marm.] I. Words, characters or other things ima gined to possess some occult or unuitelh gible power; hence, a magic power or .«pell, by which with the supposed assis tance of the devil, witches and sorcerers have been supposed to do wonderful things. Spell; enchantment. Hence, ','. That which has power to subdue opposi tion, and gain the affections ; that which can please irresistibly ; that which delights and attracts the heart ; generally in the idural.

The smiles of na


4. To fortify with charms against evil.

I have a charmed life, which must not yield. [JVotinuse.} Shak.

5. To make powerful by charms. Johnson.

6. To sununon by incantation.

Shak. Johnson.

7. To temper agreeably. Spenser. CH'ARM, V. i. To sound harmonically.

MUon. CH'ARMA, »i. A fish resembling the sea-


CWAKMED, pp. Subdued by charms; de lifjlited ; enchanted.

CHARMER, n. One that charms, or has power to charm ; one that uses or has the jjower of enchantment. Deut. xviii. 11. One who delights and attracts the affec- tions.

CH'ARMERESS, n. An enchantress.


CH'ARMFUL, a. Abounding with charms. Coivlty.

CH^ARMING, ppr. Using charms ; en- chanting.

~ ' de-

d the charn)s of art. .'Iddison Good humor only teaches charms to last.

Pope CH^ARM, V. t. To subdue or control by in- cantation or secret influence.

I will send serpents among you — wliich will not be charmed. Jer. vUi.

2. To subdue by secret power, especially by that which pleases and deUghts the mind to allay, or appease.

Music the fiercest grief can charm. Pope

3. To give exquisite pleasure to the mind oi senses ; to delight.

We were charmed with the conversation. The aerial songster charms us with her melo- dious notes. .inon

. Pleasing in the highest degree lighting.

Music is but an elegant and charming species of elocution. E. Porter.

CirARMlNGLY, adv. Delightfully; in a manner to charm, or to give deUght.

She smiled very charmingly. .iddison.

CirARMLNGNESS, n. The power to please. Johnson.

CHARMLESS, a. Destitute of charms.

Swift. Cir ARNEL, a. [Fr. chamel, carnal, fleshly ; charnier, a charnel-house, a larder ; Arm camell ; Sp. camera ; It. carnaio ; L. car- nalis, carnal, from caro, flesh.] Containing flesh or carcasses. Milton

CHARNEL-HOUSE, n. A place under or near churches, where the bones of the dead are reposited. Anciently, a kind of porti- co or gallery, in or near a church-yard, over which tlie bones of the dead were laid, after the flesh was consumed. Encyc €HA'RON, )i. In falndous history, the son of Erebus and Nox, whose office was to ferry the souls of the deceased over the waters of Acheron and Styx, for t piece of money. CHVVRR, n. A fish, a species of Salmo. CH'ARRED, pp. [from char.] Reduced t(

a coal. CHARRING, ppr. Reducing to coal ; de

priving of volatile matter.

CH'ARRY, a. [See Char.] Pertaining to

charcoal ; like charcoal, or partaking of

its qualities. Lavoisier.

CH'ART, n. [L. charta, the same as card.

which see.] A hydrographical or marine map ; a draught or projection of some part of the earth's superficies on paper, with the coasts, isles, rocks, banks, channels or entrances into harbors, rivers, and bays, the points of compass, soundings or depth of water, &c., to regulate the courses of ships in their voyages. The term chart is applied to a marine map; map is appUed to draught of some portion of land. A plane chart is a representation of some part of the superficies of the globe, in which the meridians are supposed parallel to each other, the parallels of latitude at equal distances, and of course the degrees


of latitude and longitude are everj- where equal to each other. Mercalor'a chart, is one on w hich the meridi- ans are straight fines, parallel and equi- distant ; the parallels are straight Unesand parallel to each other, but the distance between them increases from the equi- noctial towards either pole, in the ratio of the secant of the latitude to the radius. Globular chart, is a meridional ])rojection in which the distance of the eye from the plane of the meridian, on which the pro- jection is made, is supposed to be equal to the sine of the angle of forty-five degrees. Selenographic charts, represent the spots

and appearances of the moon. Topographic charts, are draughts of particu-- lar places, or small parts of the earth.

Encyc. CH-ARTER, n. [Fr. chartre, i'rom L. charta.

See Card.] A written instrument, executed with usual forms, given as evidence of a grant, con- tract, or whatever is done between man and man. In its more usual sense, it is the instrument of a grant conferring pow- ers, rights and privileges, either from a king or other sovereign power, or from a jirivate person, as a charter of exemption, that no person shall be em])annelled on a jury, a cliarter of pardon, &c. The charters under which most of the colonies in America were settled, were given by the king of England, and incorporated certain persons, with powers to hold the lands granted, to establish a govermnent, and make laws for their own regidation. These were called charter-governments. Any instrument, executed with form and solemnity, bestowing rights or privileges. Dryden. South. 3. Privilege ; immunity ; exemption.

Who has a cliarter to extol her blood, Wien she does praise me, grieves me. Shah. CHARTER, V. t. To hire, or to let a ship by cliarter. [See Charter-parly.]

2. To establish by charter. Buchanan. CHARTER-LAND, n. Land held by char- ter, or in soccage. Coke.

CH>ARTER-PARTY, n. [Fr. charle-partie, a divided charter ; from the practice of cutting the instrument in two, and giving one part to each of the contractors.]

In commerce, an agreement respecting the hire of a vessel and the freight. This is to be signed by the proprietor or master of the ship and by the merchant who hires or freights it. It must contain the name and burden of the vessel, the names of the master and freighter, the price or rate of the freight, the time of loading and unloading, and other stipulated con- ihtions. Encyc.

CirARTERED, i>p. Hired or let, as a ship.

3. Invested with privileges by charter; priv- ileged. SItak.

3. Granted by charter ; as chartered rights ; chartered power. D. Ramsay.

CHARTERING, ppr. Giving a charter; establishing by charter.

2. Hiring or letting by charter.

CH^ARTLESS, a. Without a chart; of which no chart has been made ; not delin- eated on paper ; as the charUess main. Barlme.


CII'ARTULARY, n. [Fr. chartulaire. See Caiiutary.]

An officer in the ancient Latin church, who had the care of charters and other papers of a pubhc nature. Blaekstone uses this word for a record or register, as of anion astery.

CHA'RY, a. [Sax. cearig. See Care.] Care fnl ; wary ; frugal. Shak

CHA'SABLE, a. That may be chased ; fit for tlie chase. Cower.

CHASE, V. t. [Fr. chasser ; Arm. chaczeal; Sp. cazar ; Port, ca^ar ; It. cacdare. The eleirieiits are Cg or Ck ; and the change of a palatal to a sibilant resembles that in firofc]

1. Literally to drive, urge, press forward with vehemence ; hence, to pursue for the purpose of taking, as game ; to hunt.

2. To pursue, or drive, as a defeated flying enemy. Lev. xxvi. 7. Deut. xxxii. 30.

3. To follow or iiursue, as an object of de sire ; to ])ursue for the purpose of taking as, to chase a ship.

4. To drive ; to pursue.

Chased bv their brother's endless malice. KnoUes To chase away, is to compel to depart ; ti

disperse. To chase metals. [See Enchase.] CHASE, re. Vehement pursuit; a runnins or driving after ; as game, in hunting ; i flying enemy, in war ; a ship at sea, &c.

2. Pursuit with an ardent desire to obtain, as pleasure, profit, fame, &c. ; earnest seeking.

3. That which may be chased ; that which is usually taken by chase ; as beasts of chase.

4. That which is pursued or hunted ; seek some other chase. So at sea, a slnp chased is called the chase.

5. In law, a driving of cattle to or from place.

G. An open ground, or place of retreat for deer and oHicr wild beasts; ditt'eringfr— a forest, wliicli is not private property and is invested with privileges, and from a park which is inclosed. A chase is pri; vate property, and beasts or game.

7. [Fr. cJiasse; Sp. coaajlt. cassa. See Case and Cash.] An iron frame used by print ers to confine types, when set in columns

8. Chase of a gun, is the whole length of the bore.

i). A term in the game of tennis.

Chase guns, in a ship of war, guns used in chasing an enemy or in defending a ship when chased. These have their ports at the head or stern. A gun at the head is called a bow-chase ; at tlie stem, a stem- chase.

CHA'SED, pp. Pursued ; sought ardently driven.

CHA'SER, n. One who chases ; a pursuer a driver ; a hunter.

2. An enchaser. [See Enchase.]

CHA'SING, ppr. Pursuing ; driving ; hunt ing.

CHASM, n. [Gr. ;taff;Uo, L. chasma, from Gr. ;t<*") x^^^*^, Xf^^^^, to open.]

1. A cleft; a fissure; a gap; properly, opening made by disrupture, as a breach j)i the earth or a roi-k.

ell stored with wild


2. A void space ; a vacuity.

Between the two propositions, that the gos- pel is true and that it is false, what a fearful chasm .' The unsetUed reason hovers over it in dismay. Suckminster.

CHAS'MED, a. Having gaps or a chasm.

CHAS'SELAS, n. A sort of grape.

CHASTE, a. [Fr. chaste ; Arm. chast ;^ It. Sp. Port, casto ; from L. castus. Sax. cusc, D. kuisch, G. keusch, Sw. kysk,\\\\^ Russ. chistei, are probably from the samei root. Qu. Ir. caidh. 1 suppose the pri- mary sense to be, separate, fi-ora the ori-J ental practice of sequestering females. If so, castus accords with the root of castle, \\\\ W. cas ; and at any rate, the word de- notes purity, a sense taken from separa-i tion.]

1. Pure from all uidawful commerce of sex-; es. Applied to persons before marriage, it| signifies pure from all sexual commerce,]

uudefiled ; applied to married ])ersons. to the marriage bed. Free from obscenity.

While they behold your chaste conversation. 1 Peter iii.

3. In language, pure ; genuine ; uncorrupt ; free from barbarous words and phrases, and from quaint, affected, extravagant expressions.

CHA'STE-EYED, a. Having modest eyes. Collins.

CHA'STE-TREE, re. The agnus castus, or vitex ; a tree that grows to the highth of eight or ten feet, producing spikes of flowers at the end of every strong shoot in autumn. MUler.

CHA'STELY, adv. In a chaste manner ; without unlavvfiil commerce of sexes; without obscenity ; purely ; whhout bar- barisms or unnatural phrases.

CHA'STEN, V. t. cha'sn. [Fr. chatier, for chastier ; Arm. castien ; Russ. chischu.]

1. To correct by punishment ; to punish ; to inflict pain for the purpose of reclaiming an oftender ; as, to chasten a son with a rod.

I will chasten him with the rod of men. 2 Sam. vii.

2. To afllict by other means. As many as I love I rebuke and chasten.

Rev. iii. .

I chastened my soul with fasting. Ps. Ixix.

3. To purify from errors or faults. CHA'STENED, pp. Corrected ; punished ;

aflhcted for correction. CHA'STENER, n. One who punishes, for

the purpose of correction. CHA'STENESS, n. Chastity ; purity. CHA'STENING, ppr. Correcting ; aflflict

ing for correction. CHA'STENING, re. Correction ; punish

ment for the purpose of reclaiming. No chastening for the present seemeth to b(


2. To reduce to order or obedience ; to res train ; to awe ; to repress.

The gay social sense. By decency chastis'd. Thomson

To correct ; to piu-ify by expimging faults ; as, to chastise a poem. CHASTI'SED, pp. Punished ; corrected. CHASTISEMENT, n. [Fr. chatiment :

Arm. cc^tiz ; from chaste.] Correction ; punishment ; pain inflicted for ]nmishment and correction, either by stripes or otherwise.

Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars. On equal terms to give him chastisement.


I have borne chastisement, I will not offend

any more. Job xxxiv.

The chastisement of our peace, in Scripture,

was the pain which Christ suffered to

purchase our peace and reconciliation to

God. Is. liii.

CHASTI'SER, n. One who chastises ; a

punisher; a corrector. CHASTI'SING, pp: Punishing for correc- tion ; correcting. CHAS'TITY, n. [L. castitas; Fr. thastete ; Sp. caslidad ; It. caslila ; from L. castus, chaste.]

1. Purity of the body ; freedom from aU un- lawful conunerce of sexes. Before mar- riage, purity from all commerce of sexes ; after marriage, fidelity to the marriage bed.

2. Freedom from obscenity, as i or conversation.

3. Freedom from bad mixture words and phrases.

4. Piuity ; unadulterated state ; tity of the gospel.



the chas- Gibbon.

Deserving of chastise- Sherwood.

but gnevous, CHASTl'SABLE, <


CHASTI'SE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. chatter ; Arm. casliza ; from chaste, castus. The Latin tigo, Sp. Port, castigar. It. gastigare, formed with a different termination. We have chastise from the Armoric dialect 1. To correct by punishing ; to punish inflict pain by stripes, or in other manner, for the purpose of punishing an offender and recalling him to his duty,

1 will chastise you seven times for your sins. Lev. xxvi.

CHAT, V. i. [G. kosen, to talk or prattle ; Ir. ceadach, talkative ; ceadac, a stoi-y or narrative ; Sp. cotorra, a magpie ; cotorrera, ■ a hen-])arrot, a talkative woman ; Gr. xuriTAu, to prate ; D. koeteren, to jabber, and kwetleren, to chatter ; koulen, id.]

t To talk in a familiar manner ; to talk with- out form or ceremony. Milton. Dryden.

2. To talk idly ; to prate. Johnson.

CHAT, V. t. To talk of [jVot in use.]

I. Free, familiar talk ; idle talk ; It. A twig, or httle stick. [See





CHAT'EAU, re. shat'o. [Fr. a castle. See Castle.] A castle ; a seat in the country.

CHAT ELET, n. A little castle. Chambers.

CHAT'KLLANY, n. [Fr. chateUenie.] The lordship or jurisdiction of a castellan, or goveiuor of a castle. [See Castdlany.]

CHATOYANT, a. [Fr. chat, cat, and aU, eye.]

Having a changeable, undulating luster, or coloi-, like that of a cat's eye in the dark.

CHATOYANT, re. A hard stone, a little transi)arent, which being cut smooth pre- sents on its surface and in the interior, an undulating or wavy light. It is of a yel- lowish gray color or verging to an olive sreen. It rarely exceeds the size of a iilbert. Diet. ofJSTat. Hist.

CHATOY'MENT, re. Changeable coin.-.. or changeableness of color, in a mine ral : plav of colors. Cltuvrhn, .'

ClIAT'TEL, H. chat'l. [See Culllc.] Prim.




nly, any article of movable goods. In modern usage, the word chattels conipre Lends all goods, movable or immovable, except such as have tlie nature of freehold, " Chattels are real or personal. real, are such as concern or savor of the realty, as a term for years of land, ward- ships in cliivalry, the next presentation to a church, estates by statute merchant, elegit and the like. Chattels personal, are things movable, as animals, furniture of a house, jewels, corn, &o." Blackstone.

ClIAT'T'ER, V. i. [See Chat]

1. To utter sounds rapidly and indistinctly, as a magpie, or a monkey.

2. To make a noise by collision of the teeth. We say, the teeth chatter, when one is chilly and shivering.

3. To talk idly, carelessly or rapidly ; to jabber.

CHAT'TER, n. Sounds like those of a pie or monkey ; idle talk.

CHATTER-BOX, n. One that talks santly.

CHAT'TERER, n. A prater; an idle talker.

CHAT'TERING,;);)c Uttering rapid, indis tinct sounds, as birds; talking idly; mo- ving rapidly and clashing, as the teeth.

CIIAT'TERING, n. Rapid, inarticulatt .sounds, as of birds ; idle talk ; rapid striking of the teeth, as in chilliness.

CHATTING, ]mr. Talking famiharly

CH-iVT'TY, a. Given to free conversation ; talkative.

CHAT'WPOD, n. I,ittle sticks ; fuel.

Bailey. Johnsoti.

CHAUMONTELLE, n. [Fr.] A sort of pear.

CHAUN, n. A gap. [JVo< in use. See Yaicn.]

CHAUN, V. i. To open ; to yawn. [Xot ' use.]

CIIAV'ENDER, } [Fr. chei^esne.] The

CHE V EN, I "• chub, a fisli.

CHAW, V. t. [Sax. ceowan; D. kaauwen G. kauen ; Ir. ca^naim, or cognaim ; Arm. jaoga, or chaguein ; coinciding with jaw, ^vhich in Arm. is javed, gaved or chagell, and as cheek und jaw are often united, this word coincides with Sax. ceac, ceoca. It is most correctly written and pronounced chaw ; but chew is deemed most elegant."

1. To grind with the teeth; to masticate as food in eating ; to ruminate, or to chew as the cud.

3. To ruminate in thought ; to revolve and consider. Obs.

CHAW, n. [a different spclhng of jaw. Sec CItaw, supra.]

1. The jaw. Ezek. xxix. 4. But in modern editions of the Bible it is printed/

2. In vulgar language, a cud ; as much as is put in the mouth at once.

CHAW'DRON, n. Entrails. Shak.

CHAY, n. Chaya-root; the root of the Ol- denlandia umbellata, used in dyeing rod.

CHEAP, a. [Sax. ceap, cattle, business, or trade, a price, a pledge or pawn, a sel ling any thing that may be bought or sold rrapian, cypan, to buy, to sell, to nego- tiate, to gain ; D. koop, a bargain or pur- chase ; " te koop zetten," to set to sale " goed koop," ch^ap, good purchase ; koop- en, to buy ; G. kaufen ; Dan. kiober ; Sw. kPipa ; Russ. kupayu ; L. caupo ; Eiig. che'apen, to chaffer, chap-man, chap-book, chop and change. The sense is a purchase,

and good cheap is a good purchase or bar- gain. Hence probably, omitting good, we nave cheap.]

1. Bearing a low price, in market ; that may be purchased at a low price ; that is, at a price as low or lower than the usual price of the article or commodity, or at a i)rice less than the real value. The sense is always comparative ; for a price deemed cheap at one time is considered dear at another.

it is a principle wliich the progress of politi- cal science has clearly establisiied ; a principle that illustrates at once (lie wisdom of the crea- tor and the blindness of human cupidity, that it is cheaper to hire the labor of freemen than to compel the labor of slaves. L. Bacon.

2. Being of small value; common; not res- pected ; as cheap beauty.

Make not yourself cheap in the eyes of the

world. Anon.

CHEAP, n. Bargain ; purchase ; as in the

phrases, good cheap, better cheap ; the

original phrases from which we have


CHE'APEN, v.<. che'apn. [Sax. ceapian. Sec

Cheap, supra.]

. To attempt to buy ; to ask the price of i

commodity ; to chafler.

To sliops in crowds the daggled females fly,

Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy.


2. To lessen value. Dryden.

CHE'APENER, 7i. One who cheapens or

bargains. CHE'APLY, adv. At a small price ; at a low

ate. CHE'APNESS, n. Lownoss in price, con- sidering the usual price, or real value. CHEAR, [See Cheer.]

CHEAT, V. t. [Sax. cealt. In Ar. = Js -;

gadaa, signifies to deceive, circumvent, seduce ; to fail, to hide, to disguise, to de- fraud : i L^, kaida, signifies to deceive.

to lay snares ; Eth. "^ ^ (Tl chiet or hiet, signifies to cheat, to deceive, to defraud.]

1. To deceive and defraud in a bargain ; to deceive for the purpose of gain in selling. Its proper application is to commerce, in which a person uses some arts, or misre- presentations, or withholds some facts, by which he deceives the purchaser.

2. To deceive by any artifice, trick or de- vice, with a view to gain an advantage contrary to common honesty ; as, to cheat a person at cards.

.3. To impose on ; to trick. It is followed by q/'or out of, and colloquially by into, as to cheat a child into a belief that a medicine is palatable.

CHE.\\\\T, n. A fraud committed by decep- tion ; a trick ; imposition ; imposture. A person who cheats ; one guilty of fraud by deceitful practices.

CHE'ATABLENESS, n. Liability to be cheated. Hammond.

CHEAT-BREAD, n. Fine bread purchas- ed, or not made in the family. {LUtle used.]

CHEATED, pp. Defrauded by deception.

CHE'ATER, n. One who jiractices a fraud in commerce.

iCHE'ATING, ppr. Defrauding by decep-

I tion ; imposing on.

CHE'ATI.\\\\G, n. The act of defrauding by

( deceitful arts.

CHECK, V. t. [Fr. echec, plu. echecs, which we have changed into chess ; Sp. xaque, a move at chess ; la/jtte de male, check-mate ; Port, xaque, a check ; xagoale, a rebuke. Sp. and Port, xaquima, a halter ; It. scacco the squares of a chess-board ; scacchi, chess- men ; scacco-matto, check-mate ; scaccato, checkered ; Low L. scaccarium, an exche- quer, Fr. echiquier ; G. schach, chess ; schachmatt, check-mate ; D. schaak, chess ; schauk-mat, check-mate ; Dan. skak, chess, crooked, curving ; skak-7nal, check-mate ; skakrer, to barter, chaffer, chop and change; Sw. schach, chess; schach-mcUt, check-mate; Russ. scAacA, check, chess; schach-mat, check-mate. In Spanish xaque, xeque, is an old man, a shaik, and xaco, a jacket. These latter words seem to be the

Ar. _L;i or a L.^ ; the latter is render- ed to grow old, to be old, to blame or rebuke, under which we find shaik ; the former signifies to use diligence, quasi, to bend to or api)ly ; also, to abstain or turn

aside. In Arabic we find alsOi^^ to doubt, hesitate, halt, and in Heb. the same word 131? signifies to still, allay, sink, stop or check, to obstruct or hedge ; ip a hedge. We have, in these words, clear evidetice of the manner, in which several modern nations express the Shemitic 17, or


To stop ; to restrain ; to hinder ; to curb. It signifies to put an entire stop to motion,

j or to restrain its violence, and cause an abatement ; to moderate.

j2. To rebuke ; to chide or reprove. Shak.

|3. To compare any paper with its counter- part or with a cipher, with a view to as-

I certain its authenticity ; to compare cor-

j responding pai)ers; to control by a coun-

I ter-rcgister.

4. In seamenship, to ease off a little of a rope, which is too stiffly extended ; also, to stop- per the cable. Mar. Did.

CHECK, v.i. To stop; to make a stop; with at.

The mind checks at any vigorous iinderta- kmg. Locke.

2. To clash or interfere. I love to check with business. Bacon.

3. To strike with repression. Dryden. [These applications are not Jrequent.]

CHECK, Ji. A stop; hindrance; rebuff; sudden restraint, or continued restraint ; curb; control; government.

2. That which stops or restrains, as reproof, reprimand, rebuke, shght or disgust, fear, apprehension, a person ; any stop or ob- struction. Shak. Dryden. Clarendon.

3. In falconry, when a hawk forsakes her proper game, to follow rooks, pies, or oth- er fowls, that cross her in her flight.

Bailey. Encyc.

4. The correspondent cipher of a bank note ; a corresponding indenture ; any counter- register. Johnson. A term in chess, when one party obliges




the other either to move or guard his king.

6. An order for money, drawn on a banker or on the cashier of a bank, payable to the bearer.

This is a sense derived from that in de- finition 4.

7. In popidar use, checkered cloth ; check, for checkered.

Check or check-roll, a roll or book containing the names of persons who are attendants and in the pay of a king or great person- age, as domestic servants.

Bailey. Encyc.

Clerk of Ike check, in the British King's household, has the check and control of the yeomen of the guard, and all the usl crs belonging to the royal family, the care of the watch, &c. Bailey. Encyc.

Clerk of the check, in the British Royal Dock- Yards, Is an officer who keeps a register of all the men employed on board his ma jesty's shij)s and vessels, and of all the ar tificers in the service of the navy, at the port where he is settled.

CHECK'ED, CHF.CKT, pp. Stopped strained ; repressed ; curbed ; moderated ; controlled ; reprimanded.

CHECK'ER, V. t. [from check, or perhaps directly from the Fr. echiquier, a chess board. Norm, escheqir, or chekere, exche quer.]

1. To variegate with cross lines ; to form into little squares, like a chess board, by Imes or stripes of different colors. Hence.

2. To diversify ; to variegate with different qualities, scenes, or events.

Our minds are, as it were, checkered with trutli and falsehood. Jiddlson.

CHECK'ER, n. One who checks or re- strains ; a rebuker.

2. A chess-board.

CHECK'ER, ) Work varied al-

CHECK'ER-WORK, \\\\ "" ternately as to itsi colors or materials ; work consisting of| cross lines.

CHECK'ERS, n. plu. A common game on a checkered board.

CHECK'ING, ppr. Stopping; curbing; re. straining ; moderating ; controlling ; re- buking.

CHECK'LESS, a. That cannot be checked or restrained.

CHECK'-MATE, n. [See Check. Mate is from the root of the Sp. and Port, vmtar, to kill. Ar. Ch. Syr. Heb. Eth. Sam. niD moth, to die, to kill.]

1. The movement on a chess board or in the game of chess that kills the opposite men, or hinders them from moving, so that the game is finished.

2. Defeat ; overthrow. Spenser. CHECK'-MATE, v. t. To finish. Skelton. CHECK' Y, n. In heraldn/, a border that has

more than two rows of'cheekers, or when the bordure or shield is checkered, like a chess-board. Bailey. Encyc.

CHEEK, re. [Sax. ceac, ceoca ; D. kaak ; this is probably the same word as jaw, Fr. joue, Arm. gaved, javed, connected with jaoga, chaguein, to chaw, or chew, for the words chin, cheek and jaw, are confounded, the same word which, in one dialect, sig- nifies the cheek, in another, signifies the jaw. GtiHi in I.atiu is the Eughsh chin.^

The side of the face below the eyes on each side.

2. Among mechanics, cheeks are tliose pieces of a machine which form corresponcUng sides, or which are double and alike ; as the cheeks of a printing press, which stand perpendicular and support the three som- mers, the head, shelves and winter ; the cheeks of a turner's lathe ; the cheeks of a glazier's vise ; the cheeks of a mortar, and of a gun-carriage ; the cheeks of a mast, which serve to sustain the trestle trees, &c.

Cheek byjoivl, closeness, proximity. Beaum.

CHEE'K-BONE, n. The bone of the cheek.

CHEE'KED, a. Brought near the cheek.


CHEE'K-TOOTH, n. The hinder tooth or tusk. Joel i. 6.

CHEEP, V. i. To chirp, as a small bird.

CHEER, V. t. [Fr. chere ; Arm. cher, cheer, entertainment ; Ir. gairim, to call, shout, extol, rejoice ; Gr. ;t'»'P", to rejoice, to hail or salute. The primary sense is to call out or shout, as in joy ; a sense retained in jovial companies, to give cheers, and among seamen, to salute a ship by cheers. Orient. Nip kara.]

1. To salute with shouts of joy, or cheers. Mar. Did.

To dispel gloom, sorrow, silence or apa thy ; to cause to rejoice ; to gladden ; t( make cheerful ; as, to cheer a lonely desert the cheering rays of the sun ; good news cheers the heart. To infuse life, spirit, animation ; to incite ; to encourage ; as, to cheer the hounds. CHEER, V. i. To grow cheerful ; to be- come gladsome, or joyous.

At siglit of thee my gloomy soul cheers up.

PhiWps Cheer up, my lads. CHEER, n. A shout of joy; as, they gave three cheers.

A state of gladness or joy; a state of ani- mation, above gloom and depression of spirits, but below mirth, gayety and jolhty. - Son, be of good cheer, thy sins are forgiven thee. Mat. ix.

Then were they all of good cheer, and they also took some meat. Acts xxiii. ;?. Mii'fh ; gayety ; jollity ; as at a feast.

4. Invitation to gayety. Shak.

5. Entertainment ; that which makes cheer- fid ; provisions for a feast. Shak.

The table was loaded with good cheer.


6. Air of countenance, noting a greater or less degree of cheerfulness.

His words their drooping cheer Enlightened. .Milton.

CHEE'llED, pp. Enlivened ; animate


Thou cheerer of our days. Wotton.

Prime cheerer, light. Thomson

CHEE'RFUL, a. Lively ; animated ; hav- ing good spirits ; tiioderately joyful. This is the most usual signification of the word, expressing a degree of animation less than mirth and jollity.

2. Full of life; gay; animated; mirthful; musical ; as the cheerful birds.

3. Expressive of good spu-its or joy; lively iii mated.

A merry heart maketh a cheerful counte- Qce. Prov. XV.

CHEE'RFULLY, adv. In a cheerful man- ner ; with alacrity or wilhngness; readily ; with life, animation or good spirits.

CHEE'RFyLNESS, n. Life ; animation ; good spirits ; a state of moderate joy or gayety ; alacrity.

He that showeth mercy, with cheerfulness. Rom. xii.

CHEE'RILY, adv. With cheerfubess; with spirit.

CHEE'RING, ppr. Giving joy or gladness ; enlivening ; encouraging ; animating.

CHEE'RISHNESS, n. State of cheerful- ness. [N'ot in ttse.] Milton.

CHEERLESS, o. Without joy, gladness, or comfort ; gloomy ; destitute of any thing to enhven or animate the spirits.


CHEE'RLY, a. Gay ; cheerful ; not gloomy.

CHEE'RLY, adv. Cheerfully ; heartily ; briskly.

CHEE'RY, a. Gay ; sprightly ; having pow- er to make gay.

Come, let us hie, and quaff a cheery bowl.


CHEESE, n. sasx. [Sax. cese, or eyse; Ir. cais; W. caws; Corn, kes; Arm.caus ; L. caseus ; Sp. queso ; Port, queijo ; D. kaas ; G. kase ; Basque, gasna or gazta. The primary sense is to curdle, to congeal, from collecting, drawing or driving, W. casiaw, to curdle. Perhaps it is allied to squeeze.]

1. The curd of milk, coagulated by rennet, separated from the serum or whey, and pressed in a vat, hoop or mold.

2. A mass of pumice or ground apples placed a press. JVeiv England.

CHEE'SE-€AKE, n. A cake made of soft

curds, sugar and butter. Prior.

CHEE'SE-MONGER, n. One who deals or sells cheese. B. Jonson.

CHEESE-FARING, n. The rind or paring

of cheese. Beaum.

CHEESE-PRESS, n. A press, or engine

for pressing curd in the making of cheese.


CHEE'SE-RENNET, n. A plant, ladies

bed-straw, Galium verum. CHEESE-VAT, n. The vat or case in

which curds are confined for pressing.

GlanviUe. CHEE'SY, a. Having the nature, qualities,

te or form of cheese. CHEG'OE, n. A tropical insect that enters

the skin of the feet and multiplies incredi-

blv, causing an itchmg. Encyc.

€HEI'ROPTER, n. [Gr. ;t«'P, the hand, and

rtTtpoK, wing.] An animal whose anterior toes are connect- ed by a membrane, and whose feet thus

serve for wings, as the bat. Lntnier.

CHEL IDON, n. [Gr.] A brown fly with

silvery wings. €HELIF'EROUS, a. [Gr. j:i;>^^, a claw, and

L.fero, to bear.] Furnished with claws,

as an animal. CHEL'IFORM, a. [L. chela, a claw, and

form.] Having the form of a claw. CllELMS'FORDITE, re. A mineral arran

ged as a subspecies of schaalstein ; found

in Chelmsford, Massachusetts.

Cleaveland. CHELO'NIAN, a. [Gr. xtf-^i, X<^>":, a tor-




loise.] Pertaining to or designating ani- mals of the tortoise kind. ■GHEL'Y, n. [L. chela, Or. xi^, a claw.] The claw of a shell-fisli. Brown.

€HEMI€AL. [See Chimical] €HEMI€ALLY. [Sec CliimicaUy.] CHEMISE, n. [Fr. chemise; Ir. caimae, caimis ; Sj). camisa ; It. camicia ; Ar.

(j<3A«.3 kaniitzon ; Anih. id.]

I. A shift, or under garment worn by fe- males.

■2. A wall that lines the face of any work of eartli. Battel/.

CHEMIST. [See ChimisL]

CHEMISTRY. [See Chimistry.]

CHEQUER. [See Checker.]

CUER'IFF, n. written also Sheriff. The prince of Mecca; a high priest among the MoliamMicdan.s.

Cni':R'ISn, v. l. [Fr. chenr; Arm. cheri^za; from F'r. cher, dear ; W. cir, bounty ; cir- imv, to pity, to cherish. See Caress.]

1. To treat with tenderness and affection ; to give warmth, ease or comt'crt to.

We were gentle among you^ even as a nurse cherisheth her children. 1 Tlicss. ii.

The damsel was fair and cherished the king, 1 Kings i.

3. To hold as dear ; to embrace with aflec- tion ; to foster, and encourage ; as, to cher- ish the principles of virtue ; to cherish reli- gion in the heart.

3. To treat in a manner to encourage growth, by protection, aid, attendance, or supplying nourishment; as, to cherish ten der plants.

4. To harbor; to indulge and encourage in the mind ; as, to cherish ill will, or any evil ])assion.

CHERISHED, pp. Treated with tender- ness ; warmed ; comforted ; fostered.

CHER'ISHER, n. One who cherishes ; an encourage'r ; a supporter.

CHERISHING, ppr. Warming ; comfort ing ; encouraging ; fostering ; treating with affection.

C'HER'ISHING, n. Support; encourage

CHERTSHMENT, n. Encouragement ; comfort. [JVot used.] Spenser.

CHERMES. [See Kermes.]

OHER'RY, n. [Fr. cerise ; L. cerasus ; It. ciriegia ; Port, cereja ; Sp. cereza ; Arm. freresen ; D. kars, or kiiek ; G. kirsche ; Sw. kirshar ; Dan. kirsehcer ; so named, it is said, from Cerasus, a city in Pontus. near the Euxine, whence the tree was im- ported into Italy.]

The fruit of a tree, a species of Prunus, of which there are many varieties, as the red or garden cherry, the red heart, the white heart, the black cherry, the black heart, and several others. The fruit ' pulp inclosing a kernel. It is related that this fruit was brought fiom Cerasus ii Pontus to Italy, after the defeat of Mithri dates by Lucullus, A R. G80., and introdu- ced into England by the Romans, about 130 years afterwards, A. D. .55.

Barbadoes chern/, is the genus Malpighia, of several species. The berries are redj cherry-shaped, acid and eatable.

Bird cherry, is a species of Prunus, tlie com mon laurel or lauro-cerasus. Lee.

Vol. I.

Also, the Prunus padus. Encyc

Cornelian cherry, is the fruit of the Corniis cornel-tree or dogwood. It is a small acid, cherry-like, eatable berry.

Dwarf cherry, is the fruit of a species of Loni- cera, or honey-suckle.

Hottentol-chern/, is the fruit of a species of Cassine. The, fruit is a trispermous berry of a dark purple color.

fVinter-cherry, is a name of the fruit of the Physalis, a genus of many species. It is a berry of the size of a small cherry, inclosed in an inflated, bladder-like caly.v. This name is also given to a species of Solanum. Fam. of Plants.

CHER'RY, a. Like a red cherry in color; red, ruddy, blooming ; as a cherry lip ; cherr)! cheeks.

CHER'RY, n. A cordial composed of cher- ry juice and spirit, sweetened, and diluted The wild cherry is most generally used for this purpose, being steeped for some days in spirit, which extracts the juice of the fruit ; the tincture is then sweetened and diluted to the taste. This cordial moderately bitter and astringent. It is sometimes made of the mazzard.

CHERRY-CHEEKED, a. Having ruddy clu'eks. Congreve.

CHER'RY-PIT, n. A child's play, in which cherry stones are thrown into a hole.


CHER'RY-TREE, n. A tree whose fruit is cherries, in the more appropriate sens the word. The name is mostly give the common cultivated trees, and to that which produces the black wild cherry, The wood of the latter is valued for cabi- net work.

eHER'SONESE, n. [Gi: x^faovriaor, x^V^oi, land or uncultivated land, and j'jjaos, an isle.]

A peninsula; a tract of land of any indefinite extent, which is nearly surrounded by wafer, but united to a larger tract by neck of land or isthmus ; as the Cimbric Chersonese or Jutland ; the Tauric Cher- sonese, or Crimea.

CHERT, 11. In mineralogy, a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz ; called also hornstone, petrosilex or rock flint. It is less hard than common quartz ; its fracture usually dull and splintery, sometimes more or less conchoidal. It is more or less trans lucent, sometimes at the edges, and some times the whole mas.s, if thin, has the strong translucency of certain horns. It colors are numerous and usually dull. It is usually amorphous, sometimes globu lar, or in nodules. It occurs often ii veins, especially metallic, in primitive mountains. ■ Jameson. Cleaveland.

Chert is also applied to other minerals besides hornstone. Aikiu calls a variety o{ Aim, flinty chert, and the Derbyshire mi- ners apply the term, black chert, to a fusi- ble mineral, whereas the hornstone above described is infusible.

CHERT'Y', a. Like chert ; flintv. Pennant.

CHER'UB, n. plu. cherubs, but 'the Hebrew plural cherubim is also used. [Heb. 2113 kerub. In Ch. and Syr. the correspond- ing verb signifies to plow ; and the word is said to signify properly any image or figure ; if so, it may have been named from engraving. But this is uncertain,


and the learned are not agreed on the sig nification.]

A figure composed of various creatures, as a man, an ox, an eagle or a hon. Tlie first mention of cherubs is in Gen. iji. 24, where the figure is not described, but their office was, with a flaming sword, to keep or guard the way of the tree of hfe. The two cherubs which Moses was command- ed to make at the ends of the Mercy seat, were to be of beaten work of gold ; and their wings were to extend over the Mer- cy seat, theii- faces towards each other, and between them was the residence of the Deity. Ex. xxv. The cherubs, in Ezekiel's vision, had each four heads or faces, the hands of a man and wings. The four faces were, the face of a bull, that of a man, that of a lion, and that of an eagle. They had the likeness of a man. Ezek. iv. and x. In 2 Sam. xxii. 11. and P.salm xviii., Jehovah is represented as riding on a cherub, and flying on the wings of the wind. In the celestial hierarchy, cherubs are represented as spu-its next in order to seraphs. The hieroglyphical and emblematical figures embroidered on the vails of the tabernacle are called cherubs of curious or skilful work. Ex. xxvi.

CHERUBIC, I [The accent is usually

ClIi'.Kr Bic, ^"' laid on the second sylla- lil", liiii Improperly.]

I'lrtMiinii:.' t

I'.K IBIM, 11. The Hebrew plural of dumb. '^

CHER'UBIN, a. Cherubic; angehc.


CHER'UBIN, n. A cherub. Dryden.

CHER UP, a corruption of chirp, which see.

CHER'VIL, n. [Sax. cerfiUe, a contraction of L. chwrophyllum ; Gr. ^tpt cjniWo^, ;tat()u to rejoice, and ^VKov, leaf.]

A genus of plants, two species of which are called cow-weed.

CHES'APEAK, n. A bay of the U. States, whose entrance is between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, in Virginia, and which extends northerly into Mainland 270 miles. It receives the waters of the Susquehan- nah, Potomack, Rappahannock, York, and James Rivers.

CHES'IBLE, n. [Old Fr. casuhle.] A short vestment without sleeves, worn by a po- pish priest at mass. Bale.

CHES'LIP, n. A small vermin that lies un- der stones and tiles. Skinner.

CHESS, n. [Fr. echecs. See Check.] An ingenious game perfoi-med by two par- ties with different pieces, on a check- ered board, that is, a board divided into sixty four squares or houses. The success of the game depends almost entirely on skill. Each gamester has eight dignified pieces, called a king, a queen, two bish- ops, two knights, and two rooks or castles ; also eight pawns. The pieces of the par- ties are of different colors. Encyc.

CHESS, n. [I do not find this word in any English Dictionary ; nor do I know its

origm or aflSnities. In Persian, ^»,ii

chas or gas, signifies evil, depraved, and a useless weed.] In New England, that weed which grows among wheat, and is supposed to be wheat




degenerated or clianged, as it abounds most in fields where the wheat is winter- killed. It bears some resemblance to oats. This fact is mentioned by Pliny, Nat. Hist. Lib. 18. Ca. 17. Primum omnium fiu- menti vitium avena est : et hordeum in earn degenerat. This change of wheat and barley into oats, he ascribes to a inoi soil, wet weather, bad seed, &c. Tl opinion coincides with observations in .\\\\raerica, as wheat is most liable to perish in moist land, and often in such places, almost all the wheat is killed, and instead of it chess often appears. CHESS'-APPLE, n. A species of wild

CHESS'-BOARD, n. The board used in tl game of chess, and from the squares of which chess has its name.

CHESS'-MAN, n. A piece or puppet, for the game of chess.

CHESS'-PLAYER, n. One who plays chess ; one skilled in the game of chess.

CHESS'-TREE, n. In ships, a piece of wood bolted perpendicularly on the side to con- fine the clews of the main sail.

CHESS'OM, n. Mellow earth. Bacon

CHEST, n. [Sax. cest or cyst ; L. cista ; W. cist ; Ir. cisde ; Gr. xtyi? ; G. kiste ; D. kist ; Sw. kista ; Dan. kiste. See Chest- nut.]

1. A box of wood or other material, in which goods are ke"pt or transported. It differs from a trunk in not being covered with skin or leather.

3. The trunk of the body from the neck to the belly ; the thorax. Hence, broad-chest- ed, narmw-chested, having a broad or nar- row chest.

-.3. In commerce, a certain quantity ; as a chest of sugar; a chest of indigo ; cfcc.

Chest of drawers is a case of movable boxes called drawers.

CHEST, V. t. To reposit in a chest ; to hoard. Johnson.

CHEST'-FOUNDERING, n. A disease in horses, like the pleurisy or peripneumony in the human body. Farrier's Diet.

CHEST'NUT, n. [Sax. cystel, and the tree iu Sax. is cijstbeam or cystenbeam ; L. ianea, the tree and the nut ; Fr. chataigne ; Arm. gistenen, or gestenen ; W. castan Sp. castana ; Port, castanha ; It. casta^a G. kastanie ; Sw. Dan. kastanie ; fron Welsh cast, envelopment, the root of castle, from separating, defending ; so named from its sheU or cover.]

The fruit, seed or nut of a tree belonging to the genus Fagus. It is inclosed in a prick ly pericarp, which contains two or more seeds.

CHEST'NUT, a. Being of the color of a chestnut ; of a brown color. It is perha: rarelv used as a noun.

CHESTNUT-TREE, n. The tree which produces the chestnut. This tree grows to a great size, with spreading branches. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, as the wood is very durable, and forms in America the principal timber for fencing. The timber is also used in building, and for vessels of various kinds. Dwarf-chestnut, or chinkapin, is another spe- cies of Fagus. Horse-chestnut, is a tree of the genus .iEscu- Jus. The common tree of this sort is a

native of the North of Asia, and admired for the beauty of its flowers. It is used for shade and ornament, and its nuts are esteemed good food for horses. The scar- let-flowering horse-chestnut is a native of Carolina, Brazil and the East, and is ad- mired for its beauty.

The Indian Rose-chestnut, of the genus Mesua, bears a nut, roundish, pointed and marked with four elevated longitudinalj sutures. Encyc. Fain. ^ Plants.

CHES'TON, ?i. A species of plum.


CHEV'ACHIE, n. An expedition with cav- alry. [jVbt MSfrf.] Chaucer.

CHEVAL DE FRiSE, generally used in the plural, chevaux de frise, j)ronounced shevo defreez. [Fr. cheval, a horse, and/rise, any thing curled, rough, entangled ; the horse of fiise, or frizzled horse. Hence called also titrnpike, tourniquet.]

1. A piece of timber traversed with wooden spilies, pointed with iron, five or six feet long ; used to defend a passage, stop a lireach, or make a retrenchment to stop

2. A kind of trimmuig. CHEVALIE'R, n. [Fr.from cheval, ahorse

Sp. caballero. See Cavalry.]

1. A knight ; a gallant young man. Shak.

2. In heraldry, a horseman armed at all points. Encyc.

CHEV'EN, n. [Fr. chcvesne.] A river fish,

the chub. CHEV'ERIL, n. [Fr. chevrcau, a kid, from

chevre, a goat, L. caper, W. gavar. Arm.

gavricq, gavr.] A kid, or rather leatlier made of kid-skin ;

used as a noun or adjective. Shak

CHEV'ERILIZE, v. t. To make as phab's

kid-leather. Montagu.

CHEV'ISANCE, n. s as z. [Fr. chevir, to

come to the end, to perform, to prevail,

from chef, the head, literally the end. See

Chief and Achieve.] 1. Achievement; deed; performance;

tcrprize accomplished. Obs. Spe, In law, a making of contracts ; a bargain.

Stat. 13 Eliz. 7.

3. An unlawful agreement or contract. 21 James. 17.

4. An agreement or composition, as an end or order set down between a creditor and his debtor. Encyc.

CHEVRON, n. [Fr. a rafter; W.ceber; Arm. gebr.]

In herald)-y, an honorable ordinary, repre- senting two rafters of a house meeting at the top. Bailey.

OHEV'RONED, o. Having a chevron, or the form of it. B. Jonson.

CHEVROTA'IN, n. [from Fr. chevre, a goat.] The smallest of the antelope kind.

CHEW, II. <. [Sax. ceouian ; O.kaautcen; G. kauen. See Chaw.]

1. To bite and grind with the teeth ; to mas- ticate, as food, to prepare it for degluti- tion and digestion.

2. To ruminate in the thoughts; to meditate as, to chew revenge. Shak.

3. To champ ; to bite, hold or roll about iu the mouth ; as, to chew tobacco.

4. To taste, without swallowing. Shak. CHEW, V. i. To champ upon ; to ruminate,

Old politicians chew on wisdom past. Pope. CHEW, n. That which is chewed; that

which is held in the mouth at once ; a cud. [Vulgar.]

CHEW'ED,pp. Ground by the teeth ; mas- ticated.

CHEW'ET, n. A kind of pie, made with chopped substances.

CHEWING, ppr. Grinding with the teeth ; masticating ; ruminating ; meditating ; champing.

CHI'A, n. A beautiful Mexican plant.

CHl' AN, a. Pertaining to Chios, an isle in the Levant.

Chian earth, a medicinal, dense, compact kind of earth, from Chios, used anciently as an astringent, and a cosmetic. Encyc.

Chian turpentine, or Cyprus turpentine, is procured from the Pistacia Terebintbus. It is of the consistence of honey, clear and of a yellowish white.

€HIAS'TOLITE, n. [Gr. x^asc, decussa- ted.]

A mineral, called also made, whose crystals are arranged in a peculiar manner. The form of the crystals is a four-sided prism, whose bases are rhombs, differing little from squares. But each crystal, when viewed at its extremities, or on a trans- verse section, is obviously composed of two very different substances ; and its gen- eral aspect is that of a black prism, passing longitudinally through the axis of another prism which is whitish. The term mcu:le, as the name of a distinct species, applies to the whitish prisms only. Cleaveland.

CHIB'BAL, n. [Fr. ciboule.] A small sort of onion. Beaum.

CHI€A'NE, n. [Fr. chicane ; Arm. dean or cicanerez. Qu. Gr. Sixamos, a SiciUan, a cheat. Lmnier.]

1. In law, shitY ; turn ; trick ; cavil ; an abuse of judiciary proceedings, by artifices, un- fair practices, or idle objections, which tend to perplex a cause, puzzle the judge, or impose on a party, and thus to delay or pervert justice.

2. In disputes, sophistrj- ; distinctions and subtleties, that tend to perplex the question and obscure the truth. Locke.

3. Any artifice or stratagem. Prior. CHICA'NE, V. i. [Fr. chicaner.] To use

shifts, cavils or artifices.

CHI€A'NER, n. [Fr. chicaneur.] One who uses shifts, turns, evasions or undue artifi- ces, in litigation or disputes; a caviller; a sophister; an unfair disputant. Locke.

CHICA'NERY, n. [Fr. chicanerie.] Soph- istry ; mean or unfair artifices to perplex a cause and obscure the truth.

CHICH'ES, n. plu. Dwarf peas.

CHICII'LING, ? , A vetch or pea,

CHICKLING-VETCH, I "■ of the genus Lathyrus, used in Germany for food, but inferior to other kinds. j\\\\iiller.

CHICK, V. i. To sprout, as seed in the ground ; to vegetate. Todd.

CHICK, } [Sax. ciccn ; D. kuiken ;

CIIICK'EN, S "■ G. kuchkin. Qu. Russ. chikayu, to peep.]

1. The young of fowls, particularly of the domestic hen, or gallinaceous fowls.

2. A person of tender years.

3. A word of tenderness. CHICK'EN-HEARTED, a. Timid; fear- ful ; cowardly.

CHICK'EN-POX, /!. A mild contagious




eruptive disease, generally appearing in children.

CHICKLING, H. A small chick or chicken.

CHICK-PEA, n. [L. cicer ; G. kkher; Sp. chicharo.]

A plant or poa, constituting the genus Cicer ; a native of Spain, where it is used in olios. It is smaller than the common pea.

CHICK'-\\\\VI:KI), «. a nhml of Iho -roniis Msim, wlii,-l, iMclmlcsMiiiny spcrics. Tlic ConiMinii ,-l,i,k-w.T

©HIDE, V. t. pret. chid, [chode is obs.] ; part. chid, chidden. [Sax.cidan, cA«/a/i, to chide, to scold ; VV. cozi, to chide, to press, straiten; Ch. BOp, to scold, to brawl, to fight. Qu. W. cad, a battle.] Literally, to scold ; to clamor ; to utter noisy words ; that is, to drive. Hence,

1. To scold at; to reprove; to utter words in anger, or by way of disapprobation; to rebuke ; as, to chide one fur his faults.

2. To blame ; to reproach ; as, to chide folly or negligence.

To chide from or chide away, is to drive away by scolding or reproof.

CHIDE, V. 1. To scold ; to clamor; to find fault ; to contend in words of anger ; some- times followed by loith.

The people iliil chide with Moses. E.\\\\. svii.

2. To quarrel. Shak.

3. To make a rough, clamorous, roaiing noise ; as the chiding floo

CHIDE, n. Murmur ; gentle noise.


CHI'DER, n. One who chides, clamors, re- proves or rebukes.

CHI'DERESS, n. A female who chides. [JVot v^ed.] Chajicer.

CHI'DING, p;>r. Scolding; clamoring; re- bidiing ; making a harsh or continued

CHI'DING, ji. A scolding or clamoring; rebuke ; re])roof.

CHI'DINGLY, adv. In a scolding or repro- ving manner.

CHIEF, a. [Fr. chef, the head, that is, the top or highest point ; Norm, chief; Sp. xefc ; Ir. ceap ; It. capo. It is e\\\\idently from the same root as the L. caput, Gr. xifa^tj, and Eng. cape, bvit through the Celtic, probably from shooting, extend- ing.]

1. Highest in office or rank ; ])rincipal ; as a chief priest; the cAte/" butler. Gen xl. 9.


2. Principal or most eminent, in any quality or action ; most distinguished ; having most influence ; commanding most res- pect ; taking the lead ; most valuable ; most important; a word of extensive use as a country chief in arms.

The liand of the princes and rulers hath been ehief in thi.s trespass. Ezra ix.

Agriculture is tlie cAif/'empIoymentof men. 8. First in aftection ; most dear and familiar,

A whisperer separateth chief friends. Prov, xvi.

CHIEF, n. A commander ; particularly a military commander ; the person who heads an army ; equivalent to the modern terms, commander or general in chief, captain general, or generalissimo. 1 Ch. xi.

2. The principal person of a tribe, family, or congregation, &c. Num. iii. Job xxix Math. XX.

i. In chief, in English law, in capile. To hold land in chief is to hold it directly from the king by honorable personal services. Blackstone.

4. In heraldnj, chief signifies the head or up- per part of the escutcheon, from side to side, representing a man's head. In chief, imports something borne in this part.


5. In Spenser, it seems to signify something like achievement, a mark of distinction as, chaplets wrought with a chief.

Johnson i. This word is often used, in the singular number, to express a pluraUty.

I took the chief of your tribes, wise men and known, and made them heads over you. Deut. i. 15.

Tlicse were the chief of the officers, that were over Solomon's work. 1 Kings 9.

In these phrases, chief may have been primarily an adjective, that is, chief men, chief persons. 7. The principal part ; the most or largest part, of one thing or of many.

The people took of tlic spoil,*sheep and oxen, the cAi>/of the things which should have been utterly destroyed. I Sam. xv.

He smote the chief of their strength. Ps. Ixviii.

The chief of the debt remains unpaid. CHIEF, adi. Chiefly.

CHIE'FAgE, I A tribute by the head. CHE'VAgE, <, "■ Obs. Chambers.

CHIE'FDOM, n. Snvereigntv. Spenser.

CHIE'FLESS, a. WithoiU a chief or leader. Pope. CHIE'FLY, adv. Principally; eminently; in the first place.

It chiefly concerns us to obey the divine pre- cepts. 2. For the most part.

In the parts of the kingdom where the estates

of the dissenters chiefly lay. Swift.

CHIE'FRIE, n. A small rent paid to the

lord paramount. Spenser^s Ireland.

CHIE'FTAIN, n. [from chief. Norm, cheven-

teins, formed like captain, capitai7ie.] A captain, leader or commander ; a chief; the head of a troop, army or clan. It is most commonly used in' the latter sense. The chieftains of the Highland clans in Scotland, were the piincipal noblemen and eentlemen. Encyc.

CHIE'FTAINRY, ? Headship; cap- CHIE'FTAINSHIP, <, "■ taincy; the gov- ernment over a clan.

Johnson. Smollett. CHIE' VANCE, n. [S orm. chivisance. See

Chevisance.] An unlawful bargain ; traffick in which money is extorted. Obs. Bacon.]

CHIEVE or CHIVE, t..t. [Fr. chevir. Seel Achieve.] To come to an end ; to issue ;| to succeed. Obs. Chancer.]

CIIIL'BLAIN, n. [chill. Sax. cele, cold, and blain.]

A blain or sore produced by cold ; a tumor afl'ecting the hands and feet, accompanied with inflanunation, pain, and sometimes ulceration. Encyc.

CHILD, JI. plu. children. fSax. cUd ; in Dan. kuld is jirogeny, kulde is coldness, and ktder is to blow strong. Child is un- doubtedly issue, that which is produced.]

1. A son or a daughter ; a male or female descendant, in the first degree ; the imme- diate progeny of parents'; applied to the human race, and chiefly to a person when young. The term is applied to infants from their birth ; but the time when they cease ordinarily to be so called, is not de- fined by custom. In strictne.-is, a child is the shoot, issue or produce of the parents, and a person of any age, in respect to the parents, is a child.

An infant.

Hagar cast the child under one of the shrubs . Gen. xxi.

It signifies also a person of more advau' cod years.

Jephtha's daughter was his only chUd. Judges xi.

The child shall behave himself proudly.- Is. iii.

A curse will be on those who corrupt the morals of their children. J. Clarke.

The application of child to a female in opposition to a male, as in Shakspeare, is not legitimate.

2. One weak in knowledge, experience, judg- ment or attainments ; as, he is a mere child.

Behold, I cannot speak, for I am a child. Jcr. i.

3. One young in grace. 1 John ii.

One who is humble and docile. Math, xviii.

One who is imfixed in principles. Eph. iv.

4. One who is born again, spiritually re- newed and adopted ; as a chUd of God.

5. One who is the product of another ; or whose principles and morals are the [)ro- duct of another.

Thou child of the devil. Acts xiii. That which is the product or effect of something else.

This noble passion, child of integrity. Shak.

6. In the plural, the descendants of a man however remote; as the children of Israe} ; the children of Edom.

7. The inhabitants of a country ; as the chil- dren of Seir. 2 Chron. xxv.

To be leith child, to be pregnant. Gen. xvi. U.xix. 36.

CHILD, V. i. To bring children. [jYot used.] Shak.

CHILD-BEARING, a. or ppr. [See Bear.] Bearing or producing children.

CHILD-BEARING, n. The act of produ- cing or bringing forth children ; parturi- tion. Milton. Addison.

CHILDBED, ji. [child and bed.] The state of a woman bringing forth a child or being in labor; parturition.

CHILDBIRTH, n. [child and birth.] The act of bringing forth a child ; travail ; la- bor: as the pains of cAtWiirtA. Taylor.

CHILDED, a. Furnished with a child. [.Vol used.] Shak.


CHILD'ERMAS T>AY, jj. [child, viass and

An anniversary of the church of England, held on the 28th of Decemher, in commem- oration of the children of Bethlehem slain by Herod ; called also Innocents' Day.

Bailey. Encyc.

CHILD'HQOD, n. [Sax. cildhad. See Hood.]

1. The state of a child, or the time in which (lersons are children, including the time from birth to puberty. But in a more res- tricted sense, the state or time from infancy to puberty. Thus we say, infancy, child- hood, youth and manhood.

Childhood and youth are vanity. Eecl. .\\\\i

2. The properties of a child. Dn/den CHILDING,;>;7r. [The verb

now used.] Bearing children ; producing as childing women. Arhuthnot.

CHILDISH, a. Belonging to a child ; tri- fling ; puerile.

When I became a man, I put away childish things. 1 Cor. xiii.

2. Pertaining to a child ; as childish years oi age ; childish sports.

3. Pertaining to children ; ignorant ; silly weak ; as childish fear.

CHILDISHLY, adv. In the manner of s child ; ia a trifling way ; in a weak or fool- ish manner.

CHILDISHNESS, n. Triflingness, pue- rility, the state or quahties of a child, ir reference to manners. But in reference to the mind, simplicity, harmlessuess, weakness of intellect.

CHILDLESS, a. Destitute of children or offspring. 1 Sam. xv. 33.

CHILDLIKE, a. Resembling a child that which belongs to children ; becoming a child ; meek ; submissive ; dutiful ; as childlike obedience.

CHILDLY, a. Like a child.

CHIL'DREN, n. phi. of child.

eHIL'IAD, n. [Gr. x<''^Mi,tvom j;aia, a thou- sand.]

1. A thousand ; a collection or sum, contain- ing a thousand individuals or particulars.


2. The period of a thousand years. Encyc. CHIL'IAGON, n. [Gr. ;taio, a thousand,

and ymia, a corner.] A plain figure of a thousand angles and sides. Math. Diet.

CHILIAHE'DRON, n. [Gr. j:aia, a thou

sand, and f 8pa, a base.] A figure of a thousand equal sides. €HIL'IAR€H, n. [Gr. ;tc>.ia, a thousand, and

apxoi: a chief.] The military commander or chief of a thou

sand men. CHIL'IARCHY, n. A body consisting of i thousand men. Mitford.

CHIL'IAST, n. [Supra.] One of the sect of

Millenariuns. eHILIPAC'TIVE. [See Chylifaclive.] €HlLIOL'ITER. [See Kilohter.] eHILIOM'ETER. [See KUometer.] CHILL, n. [Sax. cele, cyle, cyl, cold ; celan to be cold ; D. kil ; allied to Fr. geler, L. gelo, gelidus. See Cold, which appear; to be radically the same word. The word cele in Saxon is a noun.] 1. A shivering with cold ; rigors, as m an ague ; the cold fit that precedes a fever


sensation of cold in an animal body; chil- liness. [See Cold and Heat.]

3. A moderate degree of cold ; chilliness in any body ; that which gives the sensation of cold.

CHILL, a. Cool ; moderately cold ; tending to cause gliiveriiig ; as the chill vapors ot night.

2. Shivering with cold. My chill veins freeze with despair. Jlowe.

3. Cool; distant; formal; dull; not warm, animated or affectionate ; as a chill recep-

4. Depressed ; dispu-ited ; dejected ; dis couraged.

CHILL, V. t. To cause a shivering, or shrink ing of the skin ; to check circulation or motion ; as, to chill the blood, or the veins. The force of this word hes in expressing the shivering and shrinking caused by cold. 3. To make cold, or cool ; as, the evening

I- chills the earth. 3. To blast with cold ; to check the circula tion in plants, and stop their growth.

Blackmore. To check motion, life or action ; to de- press ; to deject ; to discourage ; as, to chill the gayety of the spirits. Rogers.

CHILLED, ;>;). Made cool; made to shiv

; dejected. CHIL'Li, )!. A Mexican plant, Guinea


3. To jingle ; to clatter. Tlie sely tonge may wi


2. A moderate degree of coldness ; as the

chilliness of the air, which tends to cause

a shivering. CHILLTNG, ppr. Cooling ; causin;^

"liver. CHILL'NESS, n. Coolness ; coldness ; a

shivering. CHILL'Y, a. Cool; moderately cold, such to cause shivering ; as a chilly day,

...j,ht, or air. €HlL'OGRAM. [See Kilogram.] CHIMB, n. [See Chime.] CHIME, n. [Chaucer, chimbe ; Dan. kimer,

to tinkle, to tingle, to toll a bell ; L. cam-

pana, a bell, from its sound, whence It,

scampanare, to chime.]

\\\\. The consonant or harmonic sounds of several correspondent instruments. Instruments that made melodious chime.


2. Correspondence of sound. Love— harmonized the chime. Dryden

3. The musical sounds of bells, struck witl hammers. Shak.

4. Correspondence of proportion or relation.


5. A kind of periodical music, or tune of a clock, produced by an apparatus annexed to it.

A set of bells which chime, or ring in harmony. CHIME, V. i. To sound in consonance or harmony ; to accord.

To make the rough recital aptly chime.


2. To correspond in relation or proportion.

Father and son, husband and wife, correla- tive terms, do readily chime. Locke

3. To agree ; to fall in with.

He often chimed in with the discourse.


4. To agree ; to suit with. Locke

Smith. and chimbe. Chaucer.

CHIME, V. t. To move, strike, or cause to

sound in harmony. Dryden.

2. To strike or cause to sound, as a set of

bells. CHIME, n. [D. kim; G.kimme, edge, brim.] The edge or brim of a cask or tub, formed by the ends of the staves. CHl'MER, n. One who chimes. €HIME'RA, n. [L. chimcera ; Gr. zi|«atpo, a goat, a monstrous beast.] In fabulous history, a monster with three heads, that of a lion, of a goat, and of a dragon, vomiting flames. The foreparts of the body were those of a lion, the mid- dle was that of a goat, and the hinder parts were those of a dragon ; supposed to represent a volcanic mountain in Lycia, whose top was the resort of lions, the middle, that of goats, and the foot, that of serpents. Hence,

In modern usage, a vain or idle fancy ; a creature of the imagination, composed of contradictions or absurdities, that can have no existence except in thought.

Encyc. €HIMERT€AL, a. Merely imaginary ; fan- ciful ; fantastic ; wildly or vainly con- ceived ; that has, or can have no existence except in thought. €HIMER'I€ALLY, adv. Wildly; vainly;

fancifully ; fantastically. €HIM'I€AL, a. [See Chimistry.] Pertain- ing to chimistry ; as a chimical opera- tion.

Resulting from the operation of the prin- ciples of bodies by decomiiosition, combi- nation, &c. ; as chimical changes. 3. According to the principles of chimistry <

chimical combination. €HIM'I€ALLY, adv. According to chim- ical jirinciples ; by chimical process or operation. CHIM'INAGE, n. [Fr. chemin ; Sp. camino,

a way.] In law, a toll for passage through a forest.

Cowel. Bailey. CHI'MING, ppr. [from chime.] Causing to

chime ; sounding in accordance. €HIM'1ST, n. A person versed in chimis-

trv ; a professor of chimistry. CHiM'ISTRY, n. [Fr. chimie ; Sp. chimia : It. and Port, chimica. The orthography of this word has undergone changes through a mere ignorance of its origin, than which nothing can be more obvious. It is the Arabic La^aSs kimia, the

occult art or science, from ^ ^

kamai, to conceal. This was originally the art or science now called alchimy ; the art of converting baser metals into gold. The order of Diocletian, directing seairh to be made for books treating of the won- derful art of making gold and silver, and all that should be found to be committed to the flames, proves the origin of this ni i to be as remote as the close of the third century, and it was probably somewhat earlier. Gibbon, Ch. 13. It is not iiii probable that this art was used in coun- terfeiting coins. The common orthogra- phy is from ;t'") to melt or fuse ; the oM

C H 1



orthography was from ;ti'u, the same word, (lifFerontly written ; both having no foun- dation, but a random guess. If lexicog- raj)hers and writers iiad been contented to take the orthography of the nations in the south of Europe, where the origin of tlic word was doubtless understood, and tln-ough whom tlie word was introduced into England, the orthography would have been settled, uniform, and corresponding exactly with the pronunciation.]

Chimistry is a science, the object of which is to discover the nature and properties of all bodies by analysis and synthesis.


Chimistry is that science which explains the intimate mutual action of all natural bod- ies. Fourcroy.

Analysis or decomposition, and synthesis or

combination, are the two methods which

chimistry uses to accomplish its piu-poses.

Fourcroy. Hooper.

Chimi.sti"y may be defined, the science which investigates the composition of material substances, and the permanent changes of constitution which their mutual actions produce. Ure.

Cliiuiistry may be defined, that science, the olycct of which is to discover and explain the changes of composition that occur amon^ the integrant and constituent parts of diflerent bodies. Henry.

Chimistry is the science which treats of tliose events and changes in natural bod- ies, wliich are not accompanied by sensi- ble motions. Thomson.

Chimistry is justly considered as a science, but the practical operations may be de- nominated an art.

CIIIM'NEY, 71. plu. chimneys. [Fr. chemi- n/e ; Arm. cimiaal, or cheminal ; G. kandn; Corn, chimbla ; Ir. simiLeur ; Sp. chimenea ; It. cammino ; L. caminus ; Ch. pap ; Ar.

..A*i' ; Gr- *»«""<>« ; Russ. kamin. It

seems originally to have been a furnace, a stove, or a hearth.]

1. In architecture, a body of brick or stone, erected in a building, containing a funnel or funnels, to convey smoke, and other volatile matter through the roof, from the hearth or fire-place, where fuel is burnt. This body of materials is sometimes called a slack of chimneys, especially when it con- tains two or more funnels, or passages.

2. A fireplace ; the lower part of the body of brick or stone which confines and con- veys smoke.

CHliVI'NEY-eORNER, n. The corner of a fire-place, or the space between the fire and the sides of the fire-place. In the Northern States of America, fire-places were formerly made six or eight feet wide, or even more, and a stool was placed by the side of the fire, as a seat for children, and this often furnished a comfortable sit- uation for idlers. As fuel has become scarce, our fire-places are contracted, till, in many or most of our dwellings, we have no chimney-corners.

a. In a more enlarged sense, the fire-side, or a place near the fire.

CHIM'NEY-HQOK, n. A hook for holding pots and kettles over a fire.

CHIMNEY-MONEY, n. Hearth-money, a duty paid for each chimney in a house.

Eng. CHIM'NE Y-PIECE, n. An ornamental piece

of wood or stone set round a fire-place. CHIMNEY-SWEEPER, n. One whose oc- cupation is to sweep and scrape chimneys, to dean them of the soot that adheres to their sides. CHIMFAN'ZEE, n. An animal of the ape kind, a variety of the oiu-ang-outang.

Diet. JVat. Hist. It is now considered a distinct species. Cuvier.

CHIN, «. [Sax. cinne ; Pcrs. ^ l^ ; D. kin ; G. kinn ; Dan. kind, the cheek ; Sw. kind; L. gena; Gr. ytm. The sense is probably an edge or side, and allied to chine.]

The lower extremity of the face below the mouth; tlie point of the under jaw.

CHI'NA, n. A species of earthern ware made in China, and so called from the country ; called also china ware and porce- lain. [See Porcelain.]

CHINA-ORANGE, n. The sweet orange, said to have been originally brought from

CIH'NA-RQOT, n. The root of a species Smilax, brought from the East Indies, of a ])ale reddish color, with no smell, and very little taste.

CHINCH, 71. [Qu. It. cimice, L. cimex, cor- rupted.]

A genus of insects, resembling the feather- wing moths. These insects live in the flowers of j)lants, and wander from flower to flower, but prefer those wiiich are sweetest. Diet. JVat. Hist.

CHIN'-COUGH, n. [D. kink-hoest, from kink, a twist or bend, and hoest, a cough : G. keichhusten, from keichen, to pant. Qui

for in Pers. ^i^i chonah is a cough.]

A contagious disease, often epidemic among children. It increases for some weeks, is attended with a difficulty of breathing, and in its worst stage, with a degree of con- vulsion. From a particular noise made in coughing, it is also called hooping cough.

:CHINE, Ji. [Fr. echine ; It. schiena ; Ann.

! chein. It may be allied to chin. In Ger-

I :nan, schiene is the shin, also a clout, a splint ; and rad-schiene is the band of a

I wheel ; Russ. schina.]

:1. The back-bone, or spine of an animal.

J2. A piece of the back-bone of an animal,

; with the adjoining parts, cut for cooking.

i3. The chime of a cask, or the ridge formed by the ends of the staves.

Stat, of Pennsylvania.

iCHINE, II. t. To cut through the back- bone, or into chine-pieces.

CHI'NED, a. Pertaining to the back.


iCHINE'SE, a. Pertaining to China.

CHINE'SE, n. sing, and plu. A native of

I China ; also, the language of China.

CHIN'GLE, n. Gravel free from dirt. [See Shingle.] Donne.

.CHINK, 71. [This word may be a derivative from the Saxon dnan, or ginian, geonan,

I to gape, to ymtm, Gr. x"*"'^; or from the

common root of these words. Sax. cina, or cinu, a fissure.]

A small aperture lengthwise ; a cleft, rent, or fissure, of greater length than breadth ; a gaj) or crack ; as the chinks of a wall.

CHINK, V. i. To crack ; to open. Barrett

CHINK, V. t. To open or part and form a fi.>^!^urc.

CHINK, V. t. [See Jingle.] To cause to sound by shaking coins or small pieces of metal, or by bringing small sonorous bod- ies in colhsion ; as, to chink a purse of money. Pope.

CHINK, ti. i. To make a small sharp sound, as by the collision of little pieces of money, or other sonorous bodies. Jlrhuthnol.

CHINKAPIN, 77. The dwarf chestnut, Fa- gus pnmila, a tree that rises eight or ten feet, with a branching shrubby stem, pro- ducing a nut.

CHINK^Y, a. Full of chinks, or fissures; gaping ; openmg in narrow clefts.

Dry den.

CHINNED, a. Having a long chin.


CHINSE, V. i. In naval affairs, to thrust oakum into the seams or chinks of a ship with a chisel or point of a knife, as a tetn- jiorary expedient for calking. Mar. Diet.

CHINTS, 71. [b.diits; G.zitz; Sans, cheet; Hindoo, cheent ; Per. chim, spotted, stain- ed.]

Cotton cloth, printed with more than two colorfi.

CHIOPPlNE, 71. [Sp. chapin ; Port, chapim. It is said to be of Arabian origin. It can- not be the L. crepis, Gr. xpijjtts, unless a letter has been lost.]

A high shoe, Ibrmerly worn by ladies.


CHIP, CHEAP, CHIPPING, in the names of places, imply a market: from Sax. ceap- an, cypan, to buy or sell. [Sec Cheap.]

CHIP,"7i. [from the root of chop. Fr. coup- eau.]

1. A piece of wood or other substance, sep- arated from a body by a cutting instru- ment, particularly by an ax. It is used also lor a piece of stone separated by a chisel or other instrument, in hewing.

2. A fragment or piece broken ofl'; a small piece.

CHIP, V. t. To cut into small pieces, or chips ; to diminish by cutting away a lit- tle at a time, or in sniiall pieces ; to hew. Shak.

CHIP, ti. J. To break or fly ofl" in small pie- ces, as in potter's ware.

CHIP-AX, n. An ax for chipping.

CHIPPED, pp. Cut in chips, or small pie- ces ; hewed.

CHIPPING, ppr. Cutting off in small pie- ces.

CHIP PING, 71. A chip ; a piece cut off or separated by a cutting or engraving instru- ment ; a fragment.

2. The flying or breaking off in small pieces, of the "edges of potter's ware, and porce- lain. Encyc.

CHIRAC Rl€AL, a. [from chiragra, hand- gout, Gr. ;tt(p, the hand, and oypo, sei- zme.]

Having the gout ill the hsmd, or subject to that disease. Brown.

CHIRK, a. churk. [Probably allied to chirp; D. drcken, obs. Chaucer uses the verb.




to chirk, in the sense of cMi-p or chatter- The word is found in the Russ. chirkayu. to chirp. It is in popular use in New- England.]

Lively ; cheerful ; in good spirits ; in a com- fortable state.

CHIRK, V. i. To cliirp. Obs. Chaucer.

CHIRM, V. i. [Sax. cyrman.] To sing as a bird. [JVot in use.]

CHI'ROGRAPH, n. [Gr. x^^?, the hand, and ypoi}>u, to write.]

1. Anciently a deed, which, requiring a coun- terpart, was engrossed twice on the same piece of parchment, with a space between, in which was written chirograph, throu; which the parchment was cut, and o part given to each party. It answered to what is now called a charier-party. Encyc.

2. A fine, so called from the manner of en- grossing, which is still retained in the chirographer's office in England. Ibm

eHIROG'RAPHER, n. [See Chirograph.' He that exercises or professes the art or business of writing. In England, the chi- rographer of fines is an officer in the common pleas, vvlio engrosses fines ac knowledged in that court, and delivers the iiidi'iitiMvs Id the parties. Enci/<

tlllR<)<;i!AI'lI IC, ? Pertaining to

Cllll!0(il! \\\\1M1 I€AL, \\\\ "• chirographv.

Cllll!«»(; HAIMIIST, n. One who tells for tunes by examining the hand. [Not a le- gitimate ivord.] Arbuthnot.

eHlROG'RAPHY, n. [See Chirograph. The art of writing, or a writing with one'i own hand.

€HIROLOG'l€AL, a. Pertaining to chi rology.

CHIROL'OGIST, n. [Gr. x^V, the hand, and Xoyo;, discourse.]

One who communicates thoughts by signs made with the hands and fingers.

CHIROL'OGY, n. [See Chirologist.] The art or practice of communicating thought; by signs made by the hands and fingers; a substitute for language or discourse much used by the deaf and dumb, and by others who communicate with them,


CHIR'OMANCER, n. " [See Chiromancy.] One who attempts to foretell future events, or to tell the fortunes and dispositions of persons, by inspecting the hands. Dryden.

€HIR'OMANCY,7i. [Gr. j:Eip, the hand, and imrcii-a,, divination.]

Divination by the hand ; the art or practice of attempting to foretell events, or to dis- cover the dispositions of a person, by in- specting the lines and lineaments of his hand. Broimi.

CHIROMAN'Tle, a. Pertaining to chiro- mancy, or divination by the hand.

Chiromantic deception. Grdlman.

CHIRP, V. i. cherp. [Ger. zirpen.] To make the noise of certain small birds, or of cer- tain insects ; as a chirping lark, or cricket. Thomson.

CHIRP. V. t. To make cheerfid. Pope.

CHIRP, n. A particular voice of certain birds or insects. Spectator.

CIIIRP'ER, ji. One that chirps, or is cheer- ful. CHIRP'ING, ppr. Making the noise of cer

tain small birds. CIIIR1"ING, n. The noi.se of certain small birds and insects.

€HIRUR'GE0N, n. [Gi-. ;t"pTOpro{, one who operates with the hand, x"f>, the hand, and ifyov, work ; L. chirvrgus ; Fr. chirur- gien ; Sp. cirujano ; Port, surgiam, or ci- rurgiam ; It. chirurgo ; A rm. surgj/an.'}

A surgeon ; one whose profession is to heal diseases by manual operations, instru- ments or external apphcations. [This ill- sounding word is obsolete, and it now appears in the form of ™?g-eo)!, which see.]

CHIRIJR'GERY, n. [Gr. ;t«pcmp7ia. See Chirurgeon.']

That part of the medical art which consists in heahng diseases and wounds by instru ments and external applications ; now written surgery.

€HIRUR'Gle, ? Pertaining to surge

eHIRUR'GlCAL, S ry, or to the art of healing diseases and wounds by manual operations, instruments or external appli- cations.

2. Having qualities useful in external appli- cations, for healing diseases or injuries It is now written surgical.

CHIS'EL, n. s as z. [Fr. ciseau, a chisel ; ciseler, to engrave ; Arm. gisell ; Sp. cin- cel ; Heb. ?1J, Ch. DIJ, or NtJ, or Ar.

•i» chazza, to cut, hew, carve. See Class Gs.]

An instrument of iron or steel, used in car pentry, joinery, cabinet work, masonry scul])ture, &c., either for paring, hewing or gouging. Chisels are of different sizes and shapes, fitted for particular uses.

CHIS'EL, V. t. To cut, pare, gouge, or ave with a chisel.

CHIS'ELEJ), pp. Cut cliisel.


CHIS'LEU, n. [Hcb

raved with a


TO3, from tlie Ar \\\\*v.r kasila, to be torpid or cold.]

The ninth month of the Jewish j'ear, an swering to a part of November and a part of December, in the modern division of the year.

CHIT, n. [Sax. cith, a shoot or twig, from thrusting out.]

1. A shoot or sprout ; the first shooting or germination of a seed or plant. Hence,

2. A child or babe, in familiar language. •S. A freckle, that is, a push. CHIT, V. i. To sprout ; to shoot, as a seed

or ])lant.

CHIT'-CHAT, n. [See Chat, Chatter.]

Prattle ; familiar or trifling talk.

CHIT'TERLING, n. The frill to the br of a shirt. Gascoigne.

CHIT'TERLINGS, n. plu. [G. kuttel, prob- ably from the root of gut.]

The guts or bowels ; sausages.

Johnson. Bailey.

CHIT'TY, a. Childish ; like a babe.


2. Full of chits or warts.

CHIVALROUS, a. [See aiivalry.] Per- taining to chivalry, or knight errantry warlike ; bold ; gallant. Spenser.

CHIVALRY, n. [Fr. chevalerie, from e^ci-- alier, a knight or horseman, from cheral, a horse ; Sp. caballeria ; It. cavalkna. See Cavalry.] Knighthood ; a military dignity, founded

on the St

of soldiers on horseback

called knights ; a service formerly deemed

more honorable than service in infantry.


2. The qualifications of a knight, as valor and dexterity in arms. Shak.

3. The system of knighthood ; the privileges, characteristics or manners of knights ; the practice of knight-errantry, or the he- roic defense of life and honor. Dryden,

4. An adventure or exploit, as of a knight.

Sidney. The body or order of knights. Shak.

6. In English law, a tenia-e of lands by knight's service ; that is, by the condition of performing service on horseback, or of performing some noble or military ser- vice to his lord. This was general or special ; general, when the tenant held per servitium militare, without specification of the particular service ; special, when the particular service was designated. When the tenant held only of the king, the tenure was regal ; when he held of a com- mon person, it was called common. This service was also grand sergeantry, as when the tenant was bound to perform service to the king in his own person ; and petit sergeantry, when he was bound to yield to the king annually some small thing, as a sword or dagger. Chivalry that might be held of a common person, was called escu- age, scutagium, or shield service.


Court ofchivaln/, a court formerly held be- fore the Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal of England, having cognizance of contracts and other matters relating to deeds of arms and war. It had jurisdic- tion both of civil and criminal causes, but no power to enforce its decisions by fine or imprisonment, not being a court of record. It is now nearly extinct.


CHIVE, n. [Fr. cive ; L. cepa.] A species of small onion.

CHIVES, n. plu. In botany, slender threads or filaments in the blossoms of plants. [See Stamen.]

€HLO'RATE, n. [See ChloHne.] A com- pound of chloric acid with a saUfiable base. Ure.

€HLO'RIC, a. Pertaining to chlorine, or obtained from it; as chloric acid. Ure.

CHLORIDE, } [See Chlorine.] A com-


ellLORID'IC, a. Pertaining to a chloride. Ure.

ellLO'RINE, ^ [Gr. x^fi, green ; so na-

€HLO'RIN, I "• med from its color.]

Chloric gas ; a new name given to what has been called oxymuriatic gas. This sub- stance has hitherto resisted all efforts to decompose it, and as it is not known to contain oxygen, and is apparently a sim- ple substance, it has been denominated from its color, cJdorine, or chloric gas.


€HLORIODT€, a. Consisting of chlorine and iodine, or obtained from them. Davy.

CHLO'RIS, n. [Gr. ;i:>.upo5, green.] The green finch, a small bird.

€HLO'RITE, n. [Gr. x-^^f^f, green.]

A mineral of a grass green color, opako, usually frit'.l.'lc or easily pulverized, com-




posed of little spangles, scales, prisms or shining small grains. It is classed by Kir- wan with the muriatic genus. Tliere are four subspecies, chlorite earth, common chlorite, chlorite slate, and foliated chlo- rile. Ure. Kirwan

CHLORO-€ARBON'l€, { The terms

ellLORO-CARBONOUS, S chloro-car- bonic and and chloro-carbonous acid, are a|)|)lied, the former by Thomson, and the latter by Ure, to a compound of chlorine and carbonic oxyd, formed by exposing a mixture of the two gases to the direct solar rays. It was discovered by Dr. J. Davy, and called by him pkosgene gas.

ellLOKO'PAL, n. [green opal.] A newly observed mineral, of two varieties, the conchoidal and the earthy ; the conchoi- dal is of a pistachio green color ; the other has an earthy fracture, and both varieties are possessed of magnetic [iroperties.


GHLO'ROPHANE, n. [Gr. x^fos, gieen, and ^aivu, to show.]

A variety of fluor spar, from Siberia. When placed on a heated iron, it gives a beauti- ful emerald green light.

Cleaveland. Cyc.

CHLO'ROPIIEITR, n. [Gr. yfl^poi, green, and tfMof, blackish.]

.\\\\ rare mineral found in small nodules.


CIILO'ROPHYL, n. [Gr. x^-'^fU green, and ^■KtMi, leaf.]

The green niatterof the leaves of vegetables. Pelletier.

ellLORO'SIS, n. [Gr. ifl.>^foi, green.] The green sickness; a disease of females, char- acterized by a pale or greenish hue of the skin, weakness, palpitation, dyspepsy, &c. Coxe.

€HLOROT'Ie, a. Pertaining to chlorosis; as, chlorotic affections. Medical Repository.

2. Affected by chlorosis; as, cWoroiic nuns. BaHie.

€HLO'ROUS, a. Pertaining to rlilorinc ; as chlorous oxyd.

OTIOAK, [See Choke.]

CHOCK, n. [from choke.] In marine lan- guage, a kind of wedge for confining a cask or other body, to prevent it from mo- ving.

Chocks of the rudder, are pieces of timber kept in readiness to stop the motion of the rudder, in case of an accident, &c.

Mar. Diet.

CHOCK, an encounter. [See Shock.]

CHOCOLATE, n. [Fr. chocolat ; Sp. Port. chocolate ; It. cioccolata ; from cacao.]

1. A paste or cake composed of the kernel of cacao, with other ingredients, usually a little sugar, cinnamon" or vanilla. The nut is first ground fine, mixed with the ingredients, and put in a mold.

2. The liquor made by dissolving chocolate in boiling water.

CHOe OLATE-HOUSE, n. A house where company may be served with chocolate.

CHO€'OLATE-NUT. [See Cacao.]

CHODE, the old preterit of cfetWe, which see.

CHOICE, n. [Fr. choix ; Arm. choas ; Sax. q/se ; D. keus. See Choose.]

1 . The act of choosing ; the voluntary act of selecting or separating from two or more things that which is preferred ; or

the determination of the mind in prefer- ring one thing to another ; election.

Ye kuow how that a good while ago God, made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, anil believe. Acts xv. , The power of choosing ; option.

Where there is force, there can be no choice. Of these alternatives we have our own choice. Anon. selecting; judgment or skill in hiiiir \\\\vli;it is to be jn-eferred, and

LMus were collected

iliat which is a))pro preference to others

3. Care in distingui in givii,

I ill>.>;;l

with jui!

4. The iln ved and selection

Nor let thy conquests only be her choice.


5. The best part of any thing ; that which! is preferable, and properly the object of] choice.

In the choice of our sepulchers bury thy dead Gen. xxiii.

6. The act of electing to office by vote ; elec- tion.

To make choice of, to choose; to select; to

separate and take in preference. CHOICE, a. Worthy of being preferred; select ; precious ; very valuable. My choicest hours of life are lost. Swift

My revenue is better than choice silver. Hrov

2. Holding dear; preserving or using with care, as valuable; frugal ; as, to be choice c'Tinuv of time or of advantages. OHUivt.

3. Selecting with care, and due attention to preference ; as, to be choice of one's panv.

CHOICE-DRAWN, a. Selected with par- ticular care. Shak

CHOICE'LESS, a. chois'less. Not having the power of choosing ; not free.


CHOICE'LY, adv. chois'ly. With care in choosing ; with nice regard to preference ; with exact choice ; as a band of men choicely collected.

2. Valuably ; excellently ; preferably ously.

3. With great care ; carefully ; as a thing choicely preserved.

CHOICM'NESS, n. chois'ness. Valuable- ness ; ])articular value or worth ; as the choiceness of a plant or of wine.

€I10IR, n. quire. [L. chorus ; Gr. ;^opos ; Fr chaur ; Sp. Port. It. coro ; Sax. chor ; D,

choor ; G. chor ;

.'^ to go round

collect or bind. See Cliorus.]

1. A collection of singers, especially in d vine service, in a church.

2. Any collection of singers.

3. That part of a church appropriated for the singers, separated from the chancel and the nave. In congregational and some other churches, the singers are pla- ced in certain seats in the galleries.

4. In nunneries, a large hall adjoining to the body t)f the church, separated by a grate, wlit'K' I lie nuns sing the office.

ClIOII! Sl',l!\\\\ ICE, n. The service of sing- ^ 'u\\\\!Z iiirioriiicd by a choir. Warlon.

CHOKE, V. I. [Sax. aeeocan. In Arm. coucq I or goucq is the neck, Avith which choke I may be connected, in the sense of narrow-

ness or comi)ression. The sense of choice is to stuff, thrust down or stop ; or to compress, or bind tight. [The Sp. ahogar is the Port, afogar, L. »t«^oco.] It is i)rob- ably allied to the Sf). ceg-ar, to shut, L. emeus, Eng. key. Sax. ccig.]

1. To stop the passage of the breath, by fil- ling the windpipe or compressing the lieck. The word is used to express a temporary or partial stoppage, as to choke with

2. To stop by filling ; to obstruct ; to block up; as, to choke tiie entrance of a harbor, or any passage.

3. To hinder by obstruction or impediments ; to hinder or check growth, expansion, or progress ; as, to choke plants ; to choke the spreading of the fruit. Bacon.

Thorns choke them. Matt. xiii. Luke viii.

4. To smother or suffocate, as fire. Dryden.

5. To suppress or stifle; as, to choke the strong conception. Shak.

6. To offend ; to cause to take an exception ; as, I was choked at this word. Simjl.

We observe that this word generally im- plies crowding, stuffing or covering. A channel is choked by stones and sand, but not by a boom.

CHOKIE, v. i. To have the wind-pipe stop- ped ; as, cattle are apt to choke when eat-

I ing potatoes.

!2. To be offended ; to take exceptions.

The filamentous or capillary part of the artichoke. Johnson.

CHO'KE-CHERRY, n. The popular name of a species of wild cherry, remarkable for its astringent qualities.

CHO'KED, pp. Suffocated ; strangled ; ob- structed by filling; stifled; suppressed; smothered.

CHOKE-FULL, a. [choke and full.] Full as po^sible ; quite full.

CHOKE-PEAR, n. A kind of pear that has a rough astringent taste, and is swal- lowed with difficulty, or which contracts the parts of the moiith.

2. An aspersion or sarcasm by which a per- son is put to silence. [^ low term.]


CHO'KER, n. One that chokes another ; one that puts another to silence ; that which cannot be answered. Johnson.

CHOKE-WEED, n. A plant so called.

CHO'KY, a. That tends to suffocate, or has power to suffocate.

€HOL'AGOGUE, n. col'agog. [Gr. x<^>i^a- yoj, from xo^l, bile.]

A medicine that has the specific quality of evacuating the bile.

CHOL'ER, n. [L. cholera; Gr. xo^po., from Xoi.ri, bile.]

1. The bile. By the superabundance of this fluid, anger was formerly supposed to be produced ; or perhaps the opinion was that the bile caused the inflamed appear- ance of the face in anger. Hence,

2. Anger; wrath; irritation of the passions. Cholera Morbus, a sudden evacuation of bile,

both upwards and downwards.

CHOLERIC, a. Abounding with choler.


2. Easily irritated ; irascible ; inclined to an- ger ; as a choleric man.


3. Aiigiy ; iiitlicatiiig anger ; excited by an- ger; as a. choleric speech. Raleigh €HOL'ERI€NESS, n. Irascibility; anger;

peevishness. eHOLES'TERI€, a. Pertaining to choles- terin, or obtained from it ; as cholesteric acid. Ure.

€HOLES'TERINE, ? „ [Gr. z"^, bile, and €HOLES'TERIN, (, "• ;ip^o,, solid.] A name given by M. Chevreul, to the pearly or crystaline substance of human biliary calcul' CHOLIAM'BIC, n. [L. choliambi.] A verse in poetry having an iambic foot in the fiftli place, and a spondee in the sixth or last. Beiitky. eHON'DRODITE, n. A mineral, called also Brucite. It occurs in grains or perfect crystals, or in four-sided prisms with rhombic bases, truncated on the two acute lateral edges. It is translucent ; and its color varies from reddish or amber yel- low to grayish brown. Ckaveland. CHOOSE, V. t. s as z. pret. chose ; pp. cho- sen, chose. [Sax. ceosan ; D. kiezen ; G. kiesen ; Sw. kesa ; Ice. kioosa ; Fr. choisir ; Arm. choasa; Pers. ghozidan. The He- brew has \\\\mr> to collect. Sec Class Gs, No. 40. 70. 71.] ]. To pick out ; to select ; to take by way of preference from two or more things offer- ed ; to make choice of.

The man the Lord doth choose shall be holy, Jv'um. xvi.

Refuse the evil and choose the good. 3. To take in preference.

Let us choose to us judgment. Job xxxiv

3. To prefer; to choose for imitation; tc follow.

Envy not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways. Prov. iii.

4. To elect for eternal ha])piness ; to predes tiuate to life.

Many are called but few chosen. Matt, xx For his elect's sake, whom he hath chosen Mark xiii

.5. To elect or designate to office or employ- ment by votes or suffrages. In the United States, the jjoople choose representatives by votes, usually by ballot.

CHOOSE, V. i. To prefer; as, I choose to go.

2. To have the power of choice. Tlie phrase, he cannot choose but stay, denotes that he has not the power of choice, whether to stay or not.

The verb, in these phrases, is really transi- tive ; the following verb standing as the object, instead of a noun.

CHOOS'ER, n. He that chooses ; he thn has the power or right of choosing ; an elector




preference ; electing. CHOOS'ING, n. Choice ; election. CHOP, V. t. [G. and D. kappen ; Dan. kajy

per ; Gr. xorttui ; Fr. couper ; Norm, copper

oi-coupcr; Ar. ^x^s or ^^5./..^= lo cui.j Class Gb. No. 47.' 51.]

1. To cut off or separate, by striking with a sharp instrument, either by a single blow or by repeated blows ; as, to chop off a head ; to chop wood.

2. To cut into small pieces-; to niincc; as, ti> chop meat : to rhup straw.

3. To grind and mince with the teeth ; to devour eagerly ; with up; as, to chop up an entertamment. Dryden.

To break or open into chinks or fissures ; to crack ; to chap. [See Chap.] CHOP, V. i. To catch or attempt to seize with the mouth. {N'ot used.]

To chop at the shadow and lose the sub- stance. V Estrange. ■2. To light or fall on suddenly. Johnson. [If this is a legitimate sense, it indicates that the primary sense is, to throw, thrust, or strike. It is not in common use.] To chop in, to become modish. [M'ot used.] Wilson. To chop out, to give vent to. [M'ot used.]

Beaum. CHOP, V. t. [Sax. ceapian, cypan, to buy or sell. See Cheap.]

. To buy, or rather to barter, truck, ex change. . To exchange ; to put one thing in the place of another; as, to chop and change our friends. L'Estrange.

3. To bandy ; to altercate ; to return one Word or thing for another. Let not the council chop with the judg.

Bacon. CHOP, V. i. To turn, vary, change or shift suddenly ; as in the seaman's phrase, the wind chops, or chops about. [The various senses of this verb seem to cen- ter in that of thrusting-, driving, or a sud- den motion or exertion of force.] CHOP, n. A piece chopped off; a small piece of meat ; as a mutton chop.

2. A crack or cleft. See Chap, which, with the broad sound of a, is often pronounced chop.

3. The chap; the jaw: plu. the jaws ; the mouth ; the sides of a river's mouth or channel. [See Chap.]

CHOP'-CHURCH, ». An exchange or an exchanger of benefices.

CHOP'-FALLEN, a. Dejected ; dispirited.

CHOP'-HOIISE, n. A house where provis- ready dressed is sold.

CHO'PIN, n. [Fr. chopine.'] A liquid meas- ure in France, containing nearly a pint Winchester measure. In Scotland quart of wine measure.

CHOP'PED, pp. Cut; minced.

CHOP'PING, ppr. Cutting; mincing; buy- bartering.

CHOP'PING, o. Stout; lusty; plump.

CHOP'PING, n. [Sp. chapin.] A high-heel ed shoe, worn by ladies in Italy. [See

, Chioppine.]

2. A cutting ; a mincing ; from chop.

CHOP'PING-BLOCK, n. A block which any thing is laid to be chopped

CHOP'PING-KNIFE, n. A knife for min , cing meat.

CHOP'PY, o. Full of clefls or cracks.

CHOPS, [See Chop.]

€HO'RAL, a. [from chorus.] Belonging tc or composing a choir or concert ; as, cho- ral symphonies. Milton. i. Singing in a choir ; as, choral serapli


The string of a musical instrument.

Milton. 2. In music, the union of two or more sounds uttered at the same time, forming an en- tire harmony ; as a third, fifth and eighth, which are perfect chords, or consonancies. The fourth and si.xth are imperfect chords.

3. In geometry, a right line drawn or suppo- sed to extend from one end of an arch of a circle to the other. Hence the chord of an arch is a right line joining the extrem- ities of that arch. Encyc.

CHORD, V. t. To string. Dryden.

CHORDEE', n. [See Chord.] In medicine and surgery, an inflammatory or spasmod- ic contraction of the f\\\\-8enum, attending gonorrhea and accompanied with pain.

Coxe. Encyc.

CHORE, n. [Eng. char.] In America, this word denotes small work of a domestic kind, as distinguished from the principal work of the day. It is generally used in the plural, chores, which includes the daily or occasional business of feeding cattle and other animals, preparing fuel, sweep- ing the house, cleaning furniture, &e.

[See Char.-] HC


CIIO'RALLY, adv. In the manner of a chorus. Mason

CHORD, n. [L. chorda ; Gr. zopS)?, an intes- tine, of which strings were made. When it signifies a string or small rope, in gen eral, it is written cord. See Cord.]

CHOREPIS'COPAL, a. [Gr. jtupoj, place,

and iXinxoTtof, bishop.] Pertainini' to the power of a suffragan or local bishop. Fell.

CHORE' LIS, n. [Gr. xoptm-] In ancient po- etry, a foot of two s} llables, the first long and the second short ; the trochee. CHOR'IAMB, ?„ [Gr. a;op"05, a trochee, CHORIAM'BUS, \\\\ 'and 10/1605, iambus.] In ancient poetry, a foot consisting of four syllables, of which the first and last are long, and the others short ; that is, a cho- reus or trochee and an iambus united ; as, nobilitas, anrietas. Encyc.

CHORIAM'BIC, n. A choriamb. CHORIAM'BIC, a. Pertaining to a rhori- amb. Mason.

CHO'RION, n. [Gr. ;iopioi/, or a;"P">^' : tfji- latter seems to be allied to Jrupt", to hold, or contain.] In anatomy, the exterior membrane which

invests the fetus in utero. CHO'RIST, 71. [Fr. choiisle.] A singing man

choir. CllOR'ISTER, n. [from chorus, choir.] Literally, a singer ; one of a choir; a smgei in a concert. Drydt n

2. One who leads a choir in church rnu^;^

Tliis is the sense in the United States. CHOROG'RAPHER, n. [See Chorography. , A person who describes a particular re- gion or country ; or one who forms a ma|) or maps of particular regions or countries. Encyc. CHOROGRAPII'RAL, a. Pertaining to chorography ; descriptive of particular re- gions or countries ; laying down or mark- ing the bounds of particular countries.



rographical manner; in a manner descrip

tive of particular regions.

CHOROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. z^poj, a phu •

or region, and ypaf w, to describe.] The art or i.raciM-r ..f making a map v'

particular reiji r,HiMtry,or provmce ;

of markiii- u- limits bounds or posiii Chorography dillLrs irom geography, asML. dcscrii)tion of a p.-irlicular country diflcr^




from that of tlie whole earth ; and from

iopo^raphi), as the description of a country

diflers from that of a town, city or district.


■eHO'ROID, n. [Gr. ji^op'O", a particular membrane, and f iSoj, likeness.]

In anatomy, a term applied to several parts of the body that resemble the chorion ; as the inner membrane investing the brain or the pia mater ; the second coat of the eye ; the fold of the carotid artery in the brain, in which is the pineal gland.

Coxe. Encyc

-CHO'RUS, n. [L. dMrus ; Gr. ;topo5 ; Sax, chor ; Tr. chceur ; 1). choor or koor ; Sp. It, coro ; Ir. cora ; W. cor. In Welsh, the word signifies a round or circle, a choir. If the primary sense is a circle, or a eompany

the word may be referred to the Ar. j \\\\^ kaura, to go round, to collect, to bind, or to

j.^ kan-a, to return, to repeat. Class Gr. No. :32. 34. If the radical sense is to sing or shout, it may be allied to Gr. z<^V"- The former is most probable.]

1. A number of singers ; a company of j)cr sons singing in concert.

Dryden. Pope. Addison

2. The persons who are sujjposed to behold what passes in the acts of a tragedy, and sing their sentiments between the act.s.

Shak. Johnson.

3. The song between the acts of a tragedy,


4. Verses of a song in which the company join the singer ; or the union of a compa ny with a singer, in repeating certain couplets or verses, at certain period; song. Johnson. Encyc.

5. A musical composition of two or njore parts.

6. Among the Greeks, a chorus consisted of ^ a number of singers and dance CHOSE, n. [Fr. chose ; Sp. cosa, suit,

cause, thing ; It. cosa ; Port, coiisa ; L. causa. See Cause. The primary sense is, action, urging, prosecution. See Thing and Cause.]

In latB, property in action ; a right to pos- session ; or that which may be demanded and recovered by suit or action at law. TIius, money due on a bond or note is a chose in action ; a recompense for damage done is a chose in action ; the former pro- ceeding from an express, the latter from im implied contract. A contract executed is a chose in possession ; a contract execu- tory conveys only a chose in action. A chose local is annexed to a place, as a mill i or the like ; a chose transitory is a thing which is movable. Blackstone. Encyc.

CHOSE, s as z, pret. and pp. of choose.

The Cornish chough is a fow 1 of the genus Corvus, nearly of the size of the crow, and mischievous, like the magpie. It is black, except the bill, legs and feet, which are red. It is a native of the west of England. Diet. o/MU. Hist.

Chough is also applied to the jackdaw.


CHOULE. [SeeJoivl]

CHOUSE, V. t. [This word may be from the root of cozen. Arm. couczein, or conche-

za. Ar. j_^l-i gausa, to deceive or de- fraud ; Etli. (tM*! ® chaso, to lie, deceive or cheat.]

To cheat, trick, defraud ; followed by of, in Hudibra.^; but in America, by out of; as, to chouse one out of his money. [It is now vulgar.] Dryden. Swifl.

CHOUSE, n. One who is easily cheated ; a tool ; a simpleton.

A trick ; sham ; imposition. Johnson.

CHOUSED, pp. Cheated ; defrauded ; im- posed on.

CHOUS'ING, ppr. Cheating ; imposing on.

CHOWDER, n. In JVtw England, a d' ' offish boiled with biscuit, i\\\\;c. In S)); ish, chode is a paste madr nC niilK. eg sugar and flour. In the west of England, chowder-beer is a liquor made by boiling black spruce in water and mixing with it melasses.



cho'zn. Selected from

number ; picked out ; taken in preference ; elected ; predestinated ; designated to office. 2. a. Select ; distinguished by preference ; eminent.

; drowned in the sea.

His chosen captains Ex. XV.

Ye are a chosen generatio hood. 1 Pet. ii.

royal priest- •CHOUGH, n. chuff. [Fr. choueas ; Ir. cas ;

Sax. ceo or ceogh. This word may be the same as jack, in jackdaw. It appears to be a Cornisii word.]

Vol. 1.

CHOWDER, V. t. To make a chowder

CHOWTER, IN t. To grumble like a frog or a froward child. Phillips

€HRISM, 71. [Gr. ;i;p«i/io, fi'om ;^ptu, tc anoint.]

Unguent ; unction. In the Romish and Greek churches, oil consecrated by the bishop, and used in the administration of] baptism, confirmation, ordination, and ex treme unction. It is prepared on holy Thursday with much ceremony, and in some cases, mixed with balsam. Encyc.

€HRIS'M.\\\\L, o. Pertaining to chrism.


€HRISi\\\\lA'TION, n. The act of applying the chrism, or consecrated oil ; in baptism, by the priest ; in confirmation, by the bishop. In ordination, it is usually styled unction. Encyc.

CHRIS'MATORY, n. A vessel to hold the oil for chrism.

€HRIS'OM, n. [See Chrism.] A child that dies within a month after its birth ; so call- ed from the chrisom-cloth, a linen cloth anointed with holy oil, which was former- ly laid over a child's face when it was baptized. Also, the cloth itself Encyc.

CHRIST, n. [Gr. xp'^oi, anointed, from Arpi", to anoint.]

The A.Noi.NTED ; an appellation given to the Savior of the world, and synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah, it was a custom of antiquity to consecrate persons to the sacerdotal and regal offices by anointing them with oil.

€HR1S'TEN, f. «. kris'n. [Sax. cristnian ; D. kerstenen. See Christ.]

1. To baptize, or rather to baptize and name ; to initiate into the visible church of Christ by the application of water; appli- ed to persons. And as a name is given to the person in the ceremony, lieiice,


2. To name ; to denominate ; applied to things. Burnet.

€HRlS'TE.\\\\DOM, n. kris'ndom. [Sax. cristendom, cristen, christian, and dom, power, judgment, rule, jurisdiction. See Christ.]

1. The territories, countries or regions in- habited by christians, or those who pro- fess to believe in the chrisitian religion.

2. The whole body of christians. Hooker.

3. Christianity ; the christian religion ; ai>. while c/im/enrfom prevailed. [Unustud.]



CHRISTENING, ppr. kris'etiing. Bapti- zing luid naming.

CHRISTENING, n. The act or ceremo- ny of baptizing and naming ; initiation into the christian religion.

CHRIS'TIAN, n. krysl'yan. [Gr. zpiyto^os:. L. christianus ; Sax. cristen ; D. kristen ; Fr. chrititn ; Sp. christiano ; Arm. cris- ten ; W. cristian. See Christ.]

1. A belie* er in the religion of Christ.

2. A profes.sor of his belief in the religion of Christ.

3. A real disciple of Christ; one who be- lieves in the truth of the christian religioUj and studies to follow the example, and obey the precept.'--, of Christ ; a believer in Christ who is characterized by real piety.

In a general sense, the word christians in- cludes all who are born in a christian countrv or of christian parents.

CHRISTIAN, a. [See the Noun.] Pertain- ing to Christ, taught by him, or received from him ; as the christian religion ; chris- tian doctrines.

2. Professing the religion of Christ ; as a christian friend.

Belonging to tlie religion of Christ ; rela- ting to Christ, or to his doctrines, precepts and example ; as christian profession and practice.

4. Pertaining to the church ; ecclesiastical ; as courts christian. Blackstone.

CHRIS'TIAN, i: t. To baptize. [.Yot used.] Fulke. CHRIS'TIANISM, n. [Gr. ;tp^r'avi(T^05. See Christ.]

1. The christian religion.

2. The nations professing Christianity. Johnsan.

CHRIS'TIANITE, n. A newly discovered Vesuvian mineral ; its primitive form is that of an oblique rectangular prism ; its colors brown, yellow or reddish.

Joum. of Science.

CHRISTIANITY, h. [See Christian, from Chist.]

The religion of christians : or the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ, and recorded by the evangelists and apos- tles.

Whilst politicians are disputing about mon- archies, aristocracies, and republics, Christiani- ty is alike applicable, useful and friendly to them all. Paley.

CHRISTIANIZE, v. t. To make christian ; to convert to Christianity ; as, to chiistian- ize pagans.

CHRIS TIANLIKE, a. Becoming a cliris- t'»"- Shak.

CHRIS'TIANLY, adv. In a christian man-


ncr; in a manner becoming the principles of the christian religion, or tlie profession of that rehgion. CHRIS'TIAN-NAME, n. Tlie name given in baptism, as distinct from the gentiUtious or surname. CllRJSTIANOG'RAPHY, 71. A descrip tion of christian nations. \\\\JVot used.]

Pagltt eHRIST'MAS, n. [Christ and mass. Sax

Aiassn, a holy day or feast ; D. hersmis.] \\\\. The festival of the christian church oh served annually on the 25th day of ,Dc cember, in memory of the birth of Christ, and celebrated by a particular church ser- vice. The festival includes twelve days. 9. riiiislriias-il.iv.

♦ 1 1 K 1ST AI \\\\S-150X, n. A box in vi'hich lit- tle |iris(iit-< are deposited at christmas. CHRIST MAS-DAY, n. The twenty fiftli day of December, when christmas is cel- ebrated. €HRISTMAS-FLOWER, n. Hellebore. €HRIST'MAS-ROSE, «. A plant of the genus Helleborus, producing beautiful white flowers about (Uiristmas. CHRiST'S-THORN, n. The Rhamniis liurus, a deciduous shrub, a native of lestine and the South of Europe. It has two thorns at each joint, and is supposed to have been the sort of which the crown of thorns for our Savior was made.

Encyc. Hanhury OHROAS'TACES, n. [Gr. jrpoa, color.] In natural history, a genus of pellucid gems, i;omprehending all those of variable colors, as viewed in diftereut lights. [JVot techni- cal.] Encyc. CHRO'MATE, n. [See Chrome.] A salt or compound formed by the chromic acid with a base. CHROMATIC a. [Gr. x9^t">^f<-»'>i, from ;i;pQ^a, color, from ;^p"?w, to color. Xpoa Xfioi'i.^, seem to be a dialectical orthogra jihy of the same word.] 1. Relating to color. Dryden. 1. Noting a particular species of music, which proceeds by several semitones in succession. Encyc. Busby. f^HROMAT'IC, n. [Suj.ra.] A Idnd of mu- sic that proceeds by several conseciuive semitones, or scmitonic intervals.

Rousseau. €IIR03IAT ICALLY, adv. In the chro- matic maimer. CHROMAT'IeS, ?!. The science of colors that part of optics which treats of the pro- l)erties of tlie colors of light and of natural bodies. Encyc.

CHROME, n. [Gr. zpu^o, color.] A metal consisting of a porous mass of agghitina led grains, very hard, brittle, and of a gray- ish white color. Its texture is radiated. In its highest degree of oxydation, it passes! into the state of an acid, of a ruby red (••olor. It takes its name from the various and beautiful colors which its oxyd and acid communicate to minerals into whose composition they enter. Chrome is em ])loyed to give a fine deep green to the en amel of porcelain, to glass, &c.

The oxyd of Chrome is of a bright grass green or pale yellow color. Cleaveland. -CHRO'MIC, a. Pertaining to chrome, or obtained from it : as chromic acid.


Chromic yellow, the artificial chromate of

lead, a beautiful pigment. CHRON'IC, ? [Fr. chronique ; It. Sp. ellRON'ICAL, 5 cronico ; Gr. arponxos,

from X9'»'°i, time, duration. See Ar. ^ »j» • Class Rn. No. 15.]

Continuing a long time, as a disease. A chronic disease is one which is inveterate or of long continuance, in distinction from an acute disease, which speedily termi nates.

€HRON'l€LE,n. [See CAromc] A historic al account of facts or events disposed in tin order of time. It is nearly synonymous with annals. In general, this species of writing is more strictly confined to chron ological order, and is less diffuse than thi form of writing called history.

2. In a more general sense, a history. On/den.

3. That which contains history. ' Europe — her very ruins tell the history of times gone by, and eveiy moldering stone is a chronicle. Irving.

4. Chronicles, plu. Two books of the Old Testament.

CHRONICLE, r.t. To record in history oiiicle ; to record ; to register.

Spenser. Shak. CHRONICLER, n. A writer of a chronicle;

a recorder of events in the order of time;

a historian. CHRONIQUE, n. chron'xh. A chronicle.

Addison CHRON OGRAM,n. [Gr. ^ho.o;, time, anc

yfiafifia, a letter or a\\\\ riting, from ypa^u, to

write.] An inscription in which a certain date or

epoch is expressed by numeral letter!

in the motto of a medal struck bv Gusta-

vus A,l..l|.hu.-: in 1032.

< l,rl.t\\\\ > n\\\\ X : eiijo trlVMpliVs. CHRoNtX.K \\\\A1 MAT'IC, ? Belong CHR0.\\\\0(;HA\\\\1.MVT'ICAL, \\\\"- ingtoa

chronogram, or containing one. CHRONOGRAM MATIST, n. A writer of

chronograms. CHRONOG'RAPHER, ji. [Gr. a^po^oj, time,

and ypa^u, to describe.] One who v^rites concerning time or the

events of time ; a chronologer. Tooke

CHROXOr; RAPIIY, n. The description

ofliiii.' |.a-t. [JJItle used.] CHR()X()I.(»(,I;K, I [See Chronology. CHRONOLOOIST, ^ "' A person who at

tempts to discover the true dates of past

events and transactions, and to arrauj

them under their proper years, or divi

ions of time, in the order in which they

happened. 2. One who studies chronology, or is versed

in the science. CHRONOLOG'IC, I Relating to chro CIIRONOLOG'ICAL, ^ "' nology ; contain

ing an account of events in the oi-dcr of

time ; according to the order of time. CHRONOLOG'ICALLY, adv. In a chron

ological manner ; in a manner according

with the order of time, the series of events,

or rules of chronology. CHR0N0L'06Y, n. [Gr. ;tpo>'0^oy.a ; ;tpcHO;

time, and Jioyoj, discourse or doctrine.] The science of time; the method of measur ing, or computing time hy rcgidar divis


ions or periods, according to the revolu- tions of the sun, or moon ; of ascertaining the true periods or years when past events or transactions took place ; and arranging them in their proper order according to their dates.

If history without chronology is dark and confused ; chronology without history is dry and insipid. A. Holmes.

CHRONOM'ETER, n. [Gr. j^poros, time, and fiitfiov, measure.]

Any instrument that measures time or that divides time into equal portions, or that is used for that purpose, as a clock, watch or dial ; particularly an instrument that measures time with great exactness. Chronoscope is now rarely used.

CHRYS'ALID, n. [See Cht-ysalis.]

CHRYS'ALIS, n. [L. chrysalis, Gr. xf^aaXki.;, grub, from its golden color, xpyi'oi, gold.]

Tlie particular form which butterflies, moths, and some other insects assume, before they arrive at their winged or perfect state. It is called also aurelia, from aurum, gold. In this form, the anunal is in a state of rest or insensibility ; having no organs for taking nourishment, nor wings, nor legs. The external covering is car- tilaginous, and usually smooth and glossy ; sometimes hairy. The name is taken from the yellow color of certain species ; but they are of different colors, as green, black, &c.

CHRYS'OBERYL, n. [Gr. ;rp«'ff<'5, gold, and

/3)jpi)»ioi', beryl.] V siliceous gem, of a dilute yellowish green color. Kincan.

Chrysoberyl, the cymophane of HaUy, is a mineral usijally found in round pieces, about the size of a pea; but it is also found crystaUzed in eight-sided prisms. It is next to the sapphire in hardness, and emjiloyed in jewelry. Ure. Cleaveland.

CHRYS'OCOLLA, n. [Gr. xpvaoxena, glue of gold, ;^pii5o; and xoMa ; a name given by the Greeks to borax and to mountain green.] Carbonate of copper, of two subspecies, the blue and the green ; formerly called blue and green chrysocolla, also mountain blue and mountain green. It occurs in crys- tals, stalactites and other forms.

Fourcroy. Cleaveland. CRYS'OLITE, n. [Gr. jtpvaos, gold, and

xtSoj, stone.] A mineral, called by HaUy and Brongniart,

peridote, and by Jameson, jirismatic chrys- olite. Its prevailing color is some shade of green. It is harder than glass, but less hard than quartz ; often transparent, sometimes only translucent. It occurs sometimes in crystals, sometimes in small amorphous masses or grains, and some- times in rolled pieces. Cleaveland.

CHRYS'OPRASE, n. [Gr. ;tpv(jortpa(5os ; Xfrvaoi, gold, and rtpaaor, a leek.]

A mineral, a subs]>ecies of quartz. Its color is commonly apple green, and often ex- tremely beautiful. It is translucent, or sometimes semi-transparent; its fracture even and dull, sometimes a little splin- tery, sometimes smooth and slightly con- choidal; its hardness little inferior to that of flint. Cleaveland.

CHUB, n. [This word seems to signify thick head, or a muss or lunij). In Pcrs. chitb




or chob is a club. See Class Gb. No. 1 and 2.]

A river fish, called also cheven, of the genus Cyprinus. The body is oblong, nearly round ; the head and back, green ; the sides silvery, and the belly white. It frequents deep boles in rivers shaded by trees ; but in warm weather floats near the surface, and furnishes sport for anglers. It is in- diflerent food. Did. JVat. Hist. Encyc.

CHUiJ'BED, I Like a chub ; short and

CHUBBY, i"- thick.

CHUB'-FACED, a. Having a plump round face. Mdison.

CHUCK, V. i. To make the noise of a hen or partridge, when she calls her chickens.

CHUCK, V. t. To call, as a hen her chick ens.

CHUCK, V. i. To jeer; to laugh. [See Chuckle.]

CHUCK, v.t. [Fr. cAo^uer ; Russ. chokayu, to strike gently ; Port. Sp. chocar.]

1. To strike, or give a gentle blow ; as, to chiick one under the chin.

2. To throw, with quick motion, a shor distance ; to pitch. [Vulgar.]

CHUCK, n. The voice or call of a hen.

2. A sudden small noise.

3. A word of endearment, corrupted from chick, chicken.

CHUCK-FARTHING, n. A play in whicli a farthing is pitched into a hole.

CHUCK'LE, V. t. [from chuck.] To call, as a hen her chickens.

2. To fondle ; to cocker. [Qu. W. cocru. See Cocker.]

CHUCK'LE, V. i. [Ch. nin chuk or huk to laugh. See Class Gk. No. 18. and Giggle^

To laugh heartily, or convulsively ; to shake with laughter, or to burst into fits of laugh ter.

CHUCK'LE-HEAD, n. A vulgar word ir Ameiica, denoting a person with a large head, a dunce. Bailey says, a rattling, noisy, empty fellow.

CHUD, V. t. To champ ; to bite. [JVot in tise.] Stafford.

CHU'ET, n. Forced meat. Bacon

CHUFF, n. [Perhaps VV. cijf, a stock or stem; cyfiaw, to become torpid.]

A clown; a coarse, heavy, dull or surly fellow.

CHUFF'ILY, adv. In a rough, surly man- ner ; clownishly.

CHUFF'INESS, n. Surliness.

CHUFF'Y, a. Blunt ; clownish ; surly ; an gry ; stomachful. In N. England, this word expresses that displeasure which '•auses a swelling or surly look and gruni bliug, rather than heat and violent e.\\\\ pressious of anger.

CHUK, n. A word used in calling swine. It is the original name of that animal, which our ancestors brought with them from Persia, where it is still in use, Pers, chuk, Zend, chuk, a hog ; Sans, sugara. Our ancestors, while in England, adopted the Welsh hive, hog, biit chuck is retained in our popular name of woodchuck, that is, wood hog. This is a remarkable proof of the original seat of the Teutonic na- tions. I have taken chuk from Adclung The French cochon may be the same word.

CHU5I. n. [Arm. chmnni, or chommei)!,, or

ham, to dwell, stay, or lodge ; Fr. chtiMer,\\\\ to rest. Qu. Sax. ham, home.] I

A chamber-fellow ; one who lodges or re-' sides in the same room ; a word used in colleges.

CHUMP, rt. A short, thick, heavy piece of wood, less than a block. Johnson.'^

CHURCH, n. [Sax. circe, circ or cyric ; Scots, kirk, which retains the Saxon pro-1 nunciation ; D. kerk ; G. kirche ; Sw. kurck-\\\\ ia ; Dan. kirke ; Gr. xupiaxw, a temple of^ God, from xvfuaxos, pertaining to a Lord,! or to our Lord Jesus Christ, from xipioj, a| Lord ; Russ. tzerkov.] 1

1. A house consecrated to the worship of God, among christians ; the Lord's housc._ This seems to be the original meaning of the word. The Greek exxXifaia, from ex-| xaXiu, to call out or call together, denotes: an assembly or collection. But xvpioxos,' xvpwLxm, are from xuptoj. Lord, a term ap- plied by the early christians to Jesu^ Christ ; and the house in which they wor- shipped was named from that title. So xvpiaxa signifies church goods, bona ec- clesiastica ; xvptaxjj, sc. ij/ufpa, the Lord's day, dies dominica.

2. The collective body of christians, or of those who profess to believe in Christ, and; acknowledge him to be the Savior of man kind. In this sense, the church is some times called the Catholic or Universal Church. Johnson. Encyc.

3. A particular number of christians, united under one form of ecclesiastical govern- ment, in one creed, and using the same ritual and ceremonies ; as the Englisl church ; the Galilean church ; the Presby terian church ; the Romish church ; the Greek church.

4. The followers of Christ in a particul, city or province ; as the cAurcA of Ephesus, or of Antioch.

5. The disciples of Christ assembled for worship in a particular place, as in a pri- vate house. Col. iv. [See No. 9.]

. The worshipers of Jehovah or the true God, before the advent of Chi-ist ; as the Jewish church.

. The body of clergy, or ecclesiastics, in distinction from the laity. Hence, ecclesi- astical authority. Encyc.

8. An assembly of sacred rulers convened in Christ's name to execute his laws.

Cruden. Brown.

9. The collective body ofchristians, who have made a public profession of the christian reUgion, and who are united under the same [>astor ; in distinction from those who belong to the same parish, or eccle- siastical society, but have made no pro- fession of their faith.

CHURCH, V. t. To perform with any one the office of returning thanks in the church after any signal dehverance, as from tht dangersof childbirth. Johnson.

CHURCH-ALE, n. A wake or feast com memoratory of the dedication of the church. Johnson

CHURCH-ATTIRE, n. The habit in which men officiate in divine service. Hooker.

CHl'RCH-.MTHORITY, n. Ecclesiastical power; spiritual jurisdiction. Atterbury.

CHURCH-BENCH, n. The seat m the porch of a church.

CHURCH-BURIAL, n. Burial according to the rites of th(! church. •Ayliffc.

CHI K< H-lJlSCll'l.INE, n. Discipline of inch, ihti-iiilrd to correct the offense's iri.-inlHT>.

Clll'RCli I>O.M, n. The government or au- tliority of the church.

CHURCH-FOUNDER, n. He that builds or endows a churcli. Hooker.

CnUR(MI-HISTORY, „. History of the christian ( liiinh : ecclesiastical history.

CHURCH l:\\\\<;, ii.'VUi- art of offering thanks in chiiicli after rliildliirtli.

CIIUR( II LAND, I!. Lund belonging to a liiMi-li. Yelverion.

(iiri{<'ll I.IKE, a. Becoming the churchi

('11UR(;H MAxV, n. An ecclesia.stic or cler- gyman ; one who ministei-s in sacred things.

2. An episcopalian, as distinguished from a preslivtrrian or congregationalist, &c,

CIHRCIIMEM'BER, n. A member in iiuiiiiii with a cliurch ; a professor of

CnURCli-AR; SIC, n. The service of sing- ing or <-liaiiting in a church.

^. Music suited to church service.

CHURCH SHIP, n. Institution ofthechurclr. South.

CHURCH- WARDEN, n. A keeper or guar- dian of the church, and a representative of the parish. Church-wardens are appoint- ed by the minister, or elected by the parish- ioners, to superintend the church, its i>rop- erty and concerns, and the behavior of tlie parishioners. For these and many othei- purposes, they possess corporate powers. Johnson. Encyc.

CIU'RCH -WAY, n. The way, street or (piiil xUm loads to the church. 11 HCll -WORK, n. Work carried on l,,«lv. Todd.

CHURCH- YARD, n. The ground adjoining to a church in which the dead are buried ; a cemetery. ohnson.

CHURL, n. [Sax. ceorl ; D. kaerel ; G. kerl ; Dan. karl. It signifies primarily, a man, or rather a male, for it was applied to other animals, as a carl-cat, a male-cat ; and males are named from their strength, or the sex impUes it ; hence, cart-hemp denoted strong hemp. Huscarla, a house- carl, or servant; huscarla, a ship's-carl. See Spelman. Hence the name, Charles, Carolus.]

1. A rude, surly, ill-bred man. Sidney.

2. A rustic ; a countryman, or laborer. Dryden.

3. A miser ; a niggard. Is. xxxii. CHURL'ISH, a. Rude ; surly ; austere ; sul- len ; rough in temper ; unfeeluig ; uncivil.

2. Selfish ; narrow-minded ; avaricious. King.

3. [Of things.] Unpliant ; unyielding ; cross- grained ; harsh ; unmanageable ; as churl- ish metal. Bacon.

4. Hard ; firm ; as a churlish knot. Shak.

5. Obstinate ; as a churlish war. Bacon. CHURLISHLY, arfu. Rudely; roughly; in

lurlish manner.

CHURLISHNESS, n. Rudeness of man- ners or temper, but generally the word refers to the temper or disposition of mind ; sullenness ; austerity ; indisposition to kind- ness or courtesv.

CHURL'Y, a. Riide ; boisterous.

C I c



I -HURME, or CHIRM, n. [Sax. ryrm, clam- or; cyrman, to cry out ; W. gann.] Noise clamor, or confused noise. Obs.


CHURN, n. [Sax. ciern, cynn, or cerenc, i churn; cerann, to cliurn ; D.kam,1uirne7i Dan. Idenie, kienier.]

\\\\ vessel in which cream or milk is agitated for separating the oily part from the case ous and serous parts, to make butter.

CHURN, V. t. To stir or agitate cream for making butter.

9. To shake or agitate with violence or con tinned motion, as in the operation of ma king butter.

CHURN'ED, pp. Agitated ; made into butter.

CHURN'ING, ppr. Agitating to make but ter ; shaking ; stirring.

CHURN'ING, n. The operation of making butter from cream by agitation; a shaking or stirring.

2. As much butter as is made at one opera- tion.

CHURN'-STAFF, n. The staff or instru- ment used in churning.

CHURR'VVORM, n. [Sax. cyrrmi, to turn, and worm.]

An insect that turns about nimbly, called also a fancricket. Johnson. Bailey.

CHUSE, [See Choose.]

CHU'SITE, n. A yellowish mineral found by Saussure in the cavities of porphyries in the environs of Limbourg. Ure.

CHYLA'CEOUS, a. [See Chyle.] Belong- ing to chyle; consisting of chyle.

CHYLE, n. [Gr. zv^-os, juice, humor.] In animal bodies, a white or milky fluid sepa- rated from aliments by means of digestion. It is absorbed by the lacteal vessels, by which it is conveyed into the circulation, assimilated into blood, and converted into nutriment. Encyc. Ouiiicy. Coxe.

CHYLIFA€'TION, n. [chyle and L./acio.] The act or process by which chyle is form- ed from food in animal bodies.


€HYLIFA€'TIVE, a. Forming orchanging into chyle ; having the power to make

CHYLOPOET'l€, adv. [Gr. ;ci*05, chyle,

and Ttoifu, to make.] Chylifactive ; having the power to change into chyle ; making chyle. .Irbufhnot.

CHY'LOUS, a. [from chyle.} Consisting of chyle, or partaking of it. Arbulhnol.

CHYME, n. [Gr. ztiftoj, juice.] That par- ticular modification which food assumes after it has undergone the action of the stomach. Cyc.

\\\\mong the older authors, juice; chyle, or the finest part of the chyle contained in the lacteals and thoracic duct ; any humor incrassated by concoction, whether fit or unfit for preserving and nourishing the body. Encyc. Coxe. Bailey.

€HYMIC,€HYMIST,€1IYMISTRY. [See Chimical, Chimist, Chimistry.]

k:iBA'RIOUS, a. [L. cibaHus, from cibus, food.]

Pertaining to food ; useful for food ; edible. Johnson.

CIB'OL, 11. [Fr. ciboute ; L. cejmla.] A sort of small onion.

CI€A'DA, )i. [L. See Cigar.] The frog-hop-

per, or flea locust ; a genus of insects of many species.

CI€'ATRICLE, n. [L. cicatriciila, from cic atrix.]

The germinating or fetal point in the em bryo of a seed or the yelk of an egg ; as "germinating cicatiicle." Barton.

CI€'ATRISIVE, «. Tending to promote the formation of a cicatrix.

CICATRIX, > [L. cicatrir ; Fr. cica

CICATRICE, S trice.] A scar ; a litth seem or elevation of flesh remaining after a wound or ulcer is healed. Encyc.

CICATRIZANT, n. [from cicatrize.] A medicine or application that promotes the formation of a cicatrix, such as Armenian bole, powder of tutty, &c. It is called also an escharotic, epidotic, incarnative agglutinant, &c. Encyc.

CICATRIZA'TION.n. The process of heal ing or fornfmg a cicatrix ; or the state of being healed, cicatrized or skinned over.

CICATRIZE, r. t. To heal, or induce the formation of a cicatrix, in wounded or ul cerated flesh ; or to apply medicines for that purpose.

CICATRIZE, V. i. To heal or be healed ; to skin over ; as wounded flesh cicalri

CICATRIZED, pp. Healed, as wounded flesli ; having a cicatrix formed.

CICATRIZING, ppr. Heahng ; skinning over ; forming a cicatrix.

CICELY, n. A plant, a species of Cha;ro phyllum. Tlie sweet cicely is a species of Scandix.

CICERO'NE, n. [from Cicero.] A guide one wlio explains curiosities. Addison.

CICERO'NIAN, a. [from Cicero, the Roman orator.]

Resembling Cicero, either in style or action ; in style, diffuse and flowing ; in manner, vehement.

CICERO'NIANISM, n. Imitation or resem- blance of the style or action of Cicero.

CICHORA'CEOfJS, a. [from L. ciclwrium, succory or wild endive.] Having the quahties of succory. Floyer.

CICISBE'ISM, n. The practice of dangling about females.

CICISBE'O, n. [It.] A dangler about females. Smollett.

CI€' URATE, V. t. [L. cicur, tame ; cicuro, to tame.]

To tame ; to reclaim from wildness. [Little used.]

Cl€URA'TION, n. The act of taming wild limals. [IaMc used.]

CI€U'TA, n. [L. cieuta; W. cegid ; Fr. eigne ; Arm. chagud. The Welsh is from ceg, a choking.]

Water-hemlock, a plant whose root is pois- onous. This term was used by the an- cients and by medical writers for the Coni- um maculatum, or common hemlock, the expressed juice of which was used as a common poison. Socrates and Phocion perished by it. It is now used medicinally in moderate doses, with good effect.

CI'DER, n. [Fr. cidre or sidre ; It. sidro ; Sp. sidra; Arm. cistr ; Port, cidra, a citron and cider. This cannot be the Gr. ijixffia, unless the radical letter has been changed.]

The juice of apples expressed, a liquor used for drink. The word was formerly used to signify the juice of other fiuits, and

other kinds of strong liquor ; but it is now appro jiriated to the juice of apples, before and after fermentation.

CI'DERIST, n. A maker of cider.

^, ^„ Mortimer.

CI'DERKIN, n. The liquor made of the gross matter of apples, after the cider is pressed out, and a quantity of boiled water is added ; the whole steeping forty eight hours. Phillips.

[The two last words, I believe, are little used in America.]

CIERGE, n. [Fr. Qu. L. cera.] A candle carried in processions.

CIGAR', n. [Sp. cigarro, a small roll of tobacco for smoking. In Sp. cigarra is the L. cicada, the balm-cricket or locust. Port, cigarra ; and in Sp. cigarron is a large species of that animal, and a large roll of tobacco.]

A small roll of tobacco, so formed as to be tubular, used for smoking. Cigars are of Spanish origin.

CIL'IARY, a. [L. cilium, the eye-lashes, or

edge of the eyelid.] Belonging to the eye-

_, 'ids. Ray.

CIL'IATED, a. [from L. cUium, as above.] In botany, furnished or surrounded with parallel filaments, or bristles, resembhng the hairs of the eye-lids, as a ciliated lea^ &c. Encyc. Martyn.

CILI"CIOUS, a. [from L. cihum, whence dlicium, hair cloth.] Made or consisting of hair. Brown.

CIMA, [SeeCyma.]

CIM'BAL, n. [It. ciambclla.] A kind of cake.

CIM'BRle, a. Pertaining to the Cimbri, the inhabitants of the modern Jutland, in Den- mark, which was anciently called the Cim- bric Chersonese. Hence the modern names, Cymru, Wales, Cambria ; Cymro, a Welsh- man ; Cymreig, Welsh, or the Welsh lan- guage ; names indicating the Welsh to be a colony of the Cimbri or from tlie same stock.

CIM'BRle, n. The language of the Cimbri.

CIM'ITER, n. [Fr. cimUeire ; Sp. and Port. cimitarra ; It. scimitarra.]

A short sword with a convex edge or re- curvated point, used by the Persians and Turks. [This word is variously written ; l)ut it is a word of foreign origin, and it is not material which orthography is used, provided it is uniform. I have adopted that which is most sunple.]

CIMME'RIAN, a. Pertaining to Cimmetium. a town at the mouth of the Palus Mreotis! The ancients pretended that this country was involved in darkness ; whence the phrase Cimmerian darkness, to denote a deep or continual obscurity. The country is now called Crimea, or Krim-Tartary.

CIM'OLITE, n. [Gr. xt/.oiUa ; L. cimoliu, so called by Pliny ; said to be from Cimolus, an isle in the Cretan Sea, now Argentiera.]

A species of clay, used by the ancients, as a remedy for erysijielas and other inflam- rnations. It is white, of a loose, soft text- ure, rnolders into a fine powder, and efler- vesces with acids. It is useful in taking spots from cloth. Another species, of a purple color, is the steatite or soap-rock. From another siiecios, found in the isle of Wight, tobacco i)ipcs are made.

Pliny. Lib. 35. 17. Encyct



C 1 R

CINCHONA, n. The Peruvian bark, quin

quina, of which there are three varieties,

the red, yellow and pale. CINe'TURE, n. [L. cindura, from cirtgo,U

surround, to gird ; It. cintura ; Fr. cein


1. A belt, a girdle, or something worn round the body. Pope-

2. That which encompasses, or incloses.


3. Li architecture, a ring or list at the top and bottom of a column, separating the shaft at one end from the base ; at the other, from the capital. It is supposed to be in imitation of the girths or ferrils anciently used to strengthen coliunns. Chambers.

CIN'DER, n. chiefly used in the plu. cinders. [Fr. cendre ; It. centre ; Sp. ceniza ; L. oinis, ashes. In W. sindw, is the cinders or scoria of a forge ; Sax. sinder, the scoria of metals ; D. zindet ; Sw. sinder. Qu. Gr. xoi/tf, xaiiia, dust, ashes.]

1. Small coals or particles of fire mixed with ashes ; embers. [ This is the usual sense of the word in America.]

2. Small particles of matter, remaining after combustion, in which fire is e.xtinct ; i the cinders of a forge.

[Ibelieve this word is never used assynoi

ymous vnlh ashes.] CINDER-WENCH, > A woman wliose CINDER- WOMAN, S "' business is to rake

into heaps of ashes for cinders.

[JVol known in America.] Johnson.

CINERA'TION, n. [from L. cinis, ashes.]

The reducing of any thing to ashes by

combustion. CINE'REOUS, a. [L. cinereus, from cinis,^

ashes.] Like ashes ; having the color of

the ashes of wood. Marlyn.

CINERI'TIOUS, a. [L. cinericivs, from

cinis, ashes.] Having the color or i

sisteuce of ashes. Cheyne.

CIN'GLE, n. [Ir. rcangal ; L. cinguium,

from cingo, to gird.] A girth ; but the

word is little used. [See Surcingle.] CINNABAR, »i. [Gr. xiwoSopt ; L.cinnaba-

Pers. A J


Red sulphuret of mercury. JVative cinnabai is an ore of quicksilver, moderately com pact, very heavy, and of an elegant striated red color. It is called native vermilion, and its chief use is in painting. The inten- sity of its color is reduced by bruising and dividing it into small parts. It is found amorjihous, or under some imitative form, or crystalized. Factitious cinnabar mixture of mercury and sulphur sublimed, and thus reduced into a fine red glebe.

Encyc. Cleaveland. Hooper.

CIN'NABARINE, a. Pertaining to cinna- bar; consisting of cinnabar, or containing it ; as, cinnaharine sand.

Journ. of Science

CIN'NAIVION, n. [Gr. xiirafwv, or xtvmfianop ; L. cinnamomum. Qu. It. cannella ; candn ; D. kaneel ; Fr. cannelk. It is in the Heb. pojp.]

The bark of two species of Laurus. Tli true cinnamon is the inner bark of the Laurus Cinnamomum, a native of Ceylon. The base cinnamon is from the Laurus Cassia. The tnie cinnamon is a most

grateful aromatic, of a fragrant smell, mod erately pungent taste, accompanied with some degree of sweetness and astringen cy. It is one of the best cordial, carmina- tive and restorative spices. The essential oil is of great price. Encyc. Hooper.

Cinnamon stone, called by HaUy, Essonile, is a rare mineral from Ceylon, of a hyacintTi red color, yellowish brown or honey yel- low ; sonjetimes used in jewelry.


Cinnamon-water, is made by distilling the bark, first infused in barley water, in spirit of wine, brandy or white wine.

Clove-cinnamon, is the bark of a tree growing in Brazil, which is often substituted for real cloves.

ffhite-cinnamon, or Winter's bark, is the bark of a tree, growing in the West Indies, of a sharp biting taste, like i)epper.

CINQUE, n. cink. [Fr. five.] A five word used in games.

CINQUE-FOIL, n. [Fr. cinque, five, and feuille, a leai^ L. foliiivi.] Five-leaved clover, a species of Potentilla.

CINQUE-PACE, n. [Fr. cinque, five, and pas, pace.] A kind of grave dance


CINQUE-PORTS, n. [Fr. cinque, five, and poHs.]

Five havens on the eastern shore of England, towards France, viz. Hastings, Roniiiey Hythe, Dover and Sandwicli. To these ports, Winchelsea and Rye have been added. These were anciently deemed of so much importance, in the defense of the kingdom against an invasion from France that they received royal grants of particu- lar privileges, on condition of providing a certain number of ships in war at their own expense. Over these is appointed a warden, and each has a right to send two barons to Parliament.

Cowel. Blackstone. Encyc.

CINQUE-SPOTTED, a. Having five spots Shak.

CI'ON, n. [Fr. don or scion. Different modes of spelling the same word are very incon venient; and whatever may have been the original orthography of this word, cion. the most simple, is well estabUshed, and is here adopted.]

1. A young shoot, twig or sprout of a tree, or plant, or rather the cutting of a twig, in- tended for ingrafting on another stock ; also, the shoot or slip inserted in a stock for propagation.

CI'PHER, n. [Fr. chiffre ; Arm. chyf or cyfr ; It. cifera or cifra ; Sp. and Port. m/)a ; D. cyffer ; G. zlffer ; Dan. ciffer ;


Russ. tsiphir ; Ar. j.i

a name, engraved on a seal, box, plate, coach or tomb ; a device ; an enigmatical character. Anciently, merchants and tradesmen, not being permitted to bear family arms, bore, in lieu of them, their cyphers, or mitials of their name-s artfully interwoven about a cross. Encyc.

A secret or disguised manner of writing ; certain characters arbitrarily invented and agreed on by two or more persons, lo stand for letters or words, and undei-stood only by the persons who invent, or agree to use them. This is a mode of commu- nicating information by letters, in time of war, with a view to conceal facts from an enemy, in ca.se the letters should be inter- cepted. This art has given rise to another art, that of decyphering ; and hence cipher- is used for a key to unravel the characters. To have, or to ham a cipher, is to be able to interpret it.

CI'PHER, I', i. In popular language, to use figures, or to practice arithmetic.

CI'PHER, V. t. To write in occult charac- ters. Hayward.

2. To designate ; to characterize. Shak.

CIPHERING, ppr. Using figures, or prac- ticing arithmetic.

a. Waiting in occult characters.

CIP'OLIN, n. [Qu. It. cipolla, an onion, cip- ollina, a shalot.]

A green marble from Rome, containing white zones. It consists chiefly of carbonate of lime, with quartz, shistus, and a small por- tion of iron. Mcholson.

CIR€, [See Circus.]

CIRCE'AN, a. Pertaining to Cu-ce, the fa- bled daughter of Sol and Perseis, who was suppo.«ed to possess great knowledge of magic and venomous herbs, by which she was able to charm and fascinate.


CIRCEN'SIAN, a. [L. wVcenje*, games of the circus.]

Pertaining to the Circus, in Rome, where were practiced games of various kinds, as running, wrestling, combats, &c. The Cir- censian games accompanied most of the feasts of the Romans ; but the grand games were held five days, commencing on the 15th of September. Lempriere. Encyc.

CIR'CIN.\\\\L, a. [L. circinus, a compass; circino, to go round. See Circle.]

Rolled in spirally downwards, the tip occu- pying the center ; a term in foUation or leafing, as in ferns. Marlyn.

CIR'CINATE, V. t. [L. circino, to go round.] To make a circle ; to compass.

CIRCINA TION, n. An orbicular motion. [Xot used.] Bailey.

jCIR €LE, n. sur'kl. [Fr. cercle ; It. circolo ; L. circidus, from circtis ; Gr. xifixoj ; Sp. ccrco ; It. ccrchio ; from the Celtic, W. cyrc.

from CIO-, i to go round.


empty, and a cipher.]

In arithmetic, an Arabian or Oriental char- acter, of this form 0, which, standing by itself, expresses nothing, but increases or diminishes the value of other figures, ac- cording to its position. In whole num- bers, when placed at the right hand of a figure, it increases its value ten fold ; but in decimal fractions, placed at the left hand of a figure, it diminishes the value of that figure ten fold. 2. A character in general. Raleigh. |j2. In popular use, the hue that comprehends

An intertexture of letters, as the initials of the figure, the plane or surface compre-

circle, a limit ; Ar. Class Gr. No. 32. 34.] 1. In geometry, a plane figure comprehended by a single curve fine, called its circum- ference, evei-y pan of which is equally dis- tant from a point called the center. Of course all lines drawn from tlie center to the circumference or periphery, are equal to each other.


hended, and the whole body or solid mat- ter of a round substance, are denominated a circle ; a ring; an orb ; the earth. He thatsitteth on the circle of the earth. Is. xl.

3. Compass; circuit; as the circle of the forest. Shak.

4. An assembly sunounding the principal person. Hence, any company, or assem- bly ; as a circle of friends, or of beauties. Hence the word came to signify indefi nitely a number of persons of a particular character, whether associated or not a political circle ; the circle of one's quaintance ; having however reference to a primary association.

5. A series ending where it begins, and per- petually repeated ; a going round.

Thus la a circle runs the peasant's pain.


C. Circumlocution ; indirect form of words


7. In logic, an inconclusive form of argu ment, when the same terms are proved in orbem by the same terms, and the parts of the syllogism alternately by each other, directly and indirectly ; or when the fore- going proposition is proved by the follow- ing, and the following is inferred from the foregoing ; as, " that heavy bodies descend by gravity, and that gravity is a quaUtyby which a heavy bodv descends."

Encyc. Glanville. Watts

8. Circles of the sphere, are such as cut the mundane sphere, and have their periphery either on its movable surface, as the me- ridians ; or in another immovable, conter minous and equidistant surface, as the ecliptic, equator, and its parallels.

9. Circles of altitude or almucantars, are cles parallel to the horizon, having their common pole in the zenith, and diminish- ing as they approach the zenith.

10. Circles of latitude, are great circles per- pendicular to the plane of the ecliptic pasi>iiig through its poles and through ev- ery stiir and planet.

11. Circles of longitude, are lesser circles parallel to the ecliptic, diminishing as they recede from it.

12. Circle of perpetual apparilion, one of the lesser circles, parallel to the equator, des- cribed by any point of the sphere touch- ing the northern point of the horizon, and carried about with the diurnal motion. The stars within this circle never set.

13. Circle of perpetual occultation, another lesser circle at a like distance from the equator, which includes all the stars which never appear in our hemisphere.

14. Diurnal circles, are immovable circles supposed to be described by the several stars and other points in the heavens, in their diurnal rotation round the earth, or rather in the rotation of the eartli round its axis.

15. Horary circles, in dialing, are the lines which show the hours on dials.

1(). Crcles of the empire, the provinces c principalities of the German empire, whic have a right to be present at the diets. Maximilian I. divided the empire into six circles at firsi, and afterwarils into ten Austria, liiii-iiundy, I.iiwcr Hliiiio, Bn varia, I iipcr Saxony, l-'iani'onia, Swa bia, I'piM-i- Kliine, \\\\\\\\ fHtphalia, and Lower Saxony.


17. Druidical circles, in British Topography, are certain ancient inclosures formed by rude stones circularly arranged ; as Stone- henge near Sahsbury. Encyc.

CIR'€LE, V. t. To move round ; to revolve round. And other planets circle other suns. Pope.

2. To encircle ; to encompass ; to surround ; to inclose. Prior. Pope.

3. To circle in, to confine ; to keep together, Digby

CIR'€LE, V. i. To move circularly ; as, the

bowl circles ; the circling years. CIR'€LED, pp. Surrounded ; encompass

ed ; inclosed. CIR'€LED, o. Having the form of a circle

round ; as the moon's circled orb. Shak. CIR'CLER, n. A mean poet, or circular

poet. B. Jonson.

CIR'CLET, n. A little circle ; a circle ; an


ppr. Surrounding ; going


round ; inclosing.

C1R'€LING, Ov Circular; round. Milton.

CIR'€OCELE, n. [Gr. xpisuos or xptso;, a di- lated vein, and xip^, a tumor. But the same Greek word seems to be written xtpTOj, which would give the orthography cirsocele.]

A varix, or dilatation of the spermatic vein; varicocele ; hernia varicosa.

Ouincy. Coxe.

CIR'CUIT, n. sur'kit. [Fr. circuit; L. cir cuitus; of circa, circum, and eo, to go.]

1. The act of moving or passing round; ai the periodical circuit of the earth round the sun, or of the moon round the earth.


2. The space inclosed in a circle, or within certain limits. Milton.

3. Any space or extent measured by trav- eling round. Addison.

4. That which encircles ; a ring; a diadem Shak.

5. In England, the journey of judges through several counties or boroughs, for the pur- pose of holding courts. In the United States, the journey of judges through cer- tain states or counties for the same pur- ])o.se.

0. The counties or states in which the same judge or judges hold courts and adminis- ter justice. It is common to designate a certain number of counties to form a cir cuit, and to assign one or more judges to each circuit. The courts in the circuits are called circuit courts. In the govern- ment of the United States, a certain num- ber of states form a circuit.

7. A long deduction of reason. Donne.

8. In law, a longer course of proceedings than is necessary to recover the thing sued for. Cowel. Encyc. Johnson

Bailey gives this as the definition of ciV- cuity. CIR'€UIT, V. i. To move in a circle ; to gr 1. Philips.

CIR'€UIT, V. t. To move or go round


CIRClJITEE'R n. One that travels a cir-


CIRCUI'TION, n. [h. circuitio.] The act

of going round; compass ; circumlocution

[Little used.] Hooker



in a circuit ; not direct ; as a circuitous

road or course. CIR'€UITOUSLY, adv. In a circuit. CIReU'ITY, n. A going round ; a course

not direct. Ash.

CIR'€ULAR, a. [L. circularis. See Circle.]

1. In the form of a circle; round; circum- scribed by a circle ; spherical ; as, the sun appears to be circular.

2. Successive in order ; always returning.


3. Vulgar ; mean ; circumforaneous ; as u circular poet. Dennis.

4. Ending in itself; used of a paralogism, where the second proposition at once proves the first, and is proved by it.

Johnson. Baker. Addressed to a circle, or to a number of ])ersons having a common interest ; as a circular letter.

Circular lines, such straight lines as arc divided from the divisions made in the arch of a circle ; as the lines of sines, tan- gents and secants, on the plain scale and sector. Johnson .

7. Circular numbers, are those whose powers terminate in the roots themselves ; as Sand G, whose squares are 25 and 36. Bailey.

CIRCUITOUS, a. eur'kilous. Going round'

Circular sailing, is the method of sailing by tlie arch of a great circle. Encyc.

CIR'CULAR, 71. A circular letter, or paper.

CIRCULAR'ITY, n. A circular form.

CIR'CULARLY, adv. In a circular man- ner; in the form of a circle ; in the form of going and returning.

CIR'CULATE, V. i. sur'culate. [Fr. eircu-, ler ; L. circulo.]

1. To move in a circle; to move or pass round ; to move round and return to the same point ; as, the blood circulates in the body.

2. To pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand ; to he diffused ; as, money circulates in the country ; a story circulates in town.

3. To move round ; to run ; to flow in veins or channels, or in an inclosed place ; as, the sa)) of plants circulates ; water aVc«- lates in the earth, or aii- in a city or house.

CIRCULATE, V. t. To cause to pass from place to place, or from person to person ; to i)Ut about ; to spread ; as, to circulate a report ; to circulate bills of credit. CIReULA'TION, n. The act of moving round, or in a circle, or in a course which brings or tends to bring the moving body to the point where its motion began ; as the circulation of the blood in the body. A series in which the same order is pre- served and things return to the same state. 3. The act of going and returning ; or of passing from place to place, or from per- son to person ; as the circulation of money.

t'urrency ; circulating coin, or notes or^ bills current for coin. 5. In chimislry, circulation is an operation by which tlie same vapor, raised by fire, falls back to be returned and distilled sev- eral times. CIRCULATO'RIOUS, a. Travelling in a circuit, or from house to house. [lAttle used.] Barrme.

CIR'€ULATORY, a. Circular ; as a ciVctt^ latory letter. Circulating.




CIR'CULATORY, n. A cliimical vessel, ii wliich that wliich rises from tlic vessel oi the fire is collected and cooled in another fixed upon it, and falls down again.


CIRCUMAM'BIENCY, n. [L. circum, a- round, and ambio, to go about. See Am- bienl.]

The act of surrounding, or encompassing. Brown.

CIR€UMAM'BIENT, a. Surrounding ; en- compassing ; inclo.sing or being on all sides ; used j)articularly of the air about the earth.

CIRCUMAM'BULATE, v. i. [L. circiimam- bulo, to walk round ; circum and ambulo.] '

To walk round about. [IaUU used.]

CIRCUMAMBULA'TION, n. The act of walking round. [Little itserf.l

CIRCUMCEL'LION, n. [L. circum, about, and cella, a cell, or cellar. Hence, a va- grant.]

In church history, a set ofilhterate peasants that adhered to tlie Donatista in the fourth century. Milner.

CIR'€UMCiSE, V. t. sur'cumcize. [L. cir- cumcido, circum, aroiuid, and cido, to cut ; Fr. circondre ; Sp. drcuncidar ; It. circon ddere.]

To cut off" the prepuce or foreskin of males ; a ceremony or rite in the Jewish and Mo- hammedan religions. The word is appli- ed also to a practice among some nations of jjcrforming a like operation upon fe-

CIR'CUMCiSER, )i. One who performs circumcision. Milton.

CIR€UMCIS'ION, »i. The act of cutting off" the prepuce or foreskin,

CIReUMCURSA'TION, n. [L. circum, u- bout, and curso, to run.]

Tlie act of running about. [JVot used.]


CIR€UMDU€T', v. t. [L. drcumduco ; cir- cum, round, and duco, to lead.]

To contravene ; to iniUify ; a term of civil laio. [Mtle u.ied.] %'#.

CIR€UMDU€ TION, n. A leading about. [Little used.] Hooker.

2. All annulling ; cancellation. [Little used.]

Ayliffe. eiR'CUMFER, V. t. [L. drctmfero.] To bear or carry round. [JVot in use.]

Bacon. CIRCUM'FERENCE,n. [L. circumfercitia,

from circum, round, and /ero, to carry.] 1. The line that bounds a circle ; the exte- rior line of a circular body ; the whole exterior surface of a round body ; a peri- jihery. JVewton. Milton,

'i. The space included in a circle.

Milton. Dnjden.

3. An orb ; a circle ; any thing circular or orbicular; as in Milton, speaking of a shield.

The broad circumference Hunp on his shoulders like the moon.

CIR€UM'FERENCE, v. t. To include in a circular space. [JVot used.] Brown.

CIR€UMFEREN'TIAL, a. Pertaining to the circumference. Parkhurst.

CIR€UMFEREN'TOR, n. An instrument used by surveyors for taking angles. It consists of a brass index, and circle, all of a piece ; on the circle is a chart, divided into 360 degrees. There are also two!

sights to screw on and sUdc up and down tlie index ; also a spangle and socket screwed on the back side of the circle to put the head of the staff" in. Ena/c

C1R'€UMFLEX, n. [L. drcumflexus ; cir- cum, round, and fecto, to bend.]

In grammar, an accent serving to note or distinguisli a syllable of an intermediate sound between acute and grave ; marked in Greek thus -. It is a kind of undula- tion in the voice, but not used in English.

CIR'€UMFLEX, V. t. To mark or pro- nounce with the accent called a circum- flex. Walker.

CIRCUM'FLUENCE, n. [L. drcumfluens ; drcum, round, and^uo, to flow.]

A flowing round on all sides ; an inclosur( of waters.

CIRCUMFLUENT, a. Flowing round surrounding as a fluid ; as, circumfluent waves. Pop

CIR€UM'FLUOUS, a. [L. circumfluus. See Circumfluence.] Flowmg round ; encom passing as a fluid ; circumfluent.

Milton. Pope.

CIR€UMFORA'NEAN, > [L.drcumfor-

CIR€UMFORA'NEOUS, ^ "• aneus ; cum, around, and /om, a door, or abroad.]

Going about; walking or wandering from iiouse to house ; as a drcumforaneous fidler or piper ; drcumforaneous wits.

Addison, Sped. 47,

drcumforaneous musidans, male and female, are daily seen at the doors of hotels, in France ; and sometimes they enter the room, where a company is dining, and tertain them with music ; expecting a franc or a few sous as a reward. VV

CIR€UMFU'SE, v. t. s as z. [L. circumfu sus ; drcum and fundo, fusus, to pour.] . To pour round ; to spread round, as a fluid. Bacon

2. To sjiread round ; to suiTOund. Milton.

C1R€UMFU'SILE, a. [L. circum, and fu sUis, that may be melted.]

That may be poured or spread round ; as, circumfusile gold. Pope.

CIR€UMFU'SION, n. [See Circumfuse.]

The act of pouring or spreading round ; the state of being poured round. Johnson.

CIReUMGESTA'TION, n. [L. circum and gestaiio.] A carrying about. Taylor.

CIRCUM'GYRATE, ) , [L. circum, and

CIRCUMgY'RE, S gyrus, a turning


To roll or turn round. [Little used.] Ray.

CIR€UMciYRA'T10N, n. The act of turn- ing, rolling or whirling roimd ; the turn- ing of a limb in its socket.

(luincy. Cheyne.

CIRCUMJA'CENT, a. [L. circumjacens ; drcum and jaceo, to lie.]

Lying round ; bordering on every side.


CIR€UMLIGA'TION, n. [L. circumligo, to bind round ; drcum and ligo, to bind.]

The act of binding round ; the bond with hich any thing is encompassed.


CIRCUMLO€U'TION, n. [h.drcwnlocutio: circum and locutio, a speaking, loquor, to speak.]

A circuit or compass of words ; a periphrase : the use of a number of words to express an idea, when a suitable term is not at hand, or when a speaker chooses to avoid

the use of a single term, either from del- icacy or respect, or with a view to soffen the force of a direct exI)rcs.•^ion, or for other reason.

CIRCUMLOCUTORY, a. Pertaining to circumlocution; consisting or contained hi a compass of words ; ])criphra.>itic.


CIRCUMMU'RED, a. [L. drcum and mu- rus, a wall.]

Walled round ; encompassed with a wall.


CIRCUMNAV'IGABLE, a. [See Circum- navigate.] That may be sailed round. . Ray.

CIRCUMNAVIGATE, v. t. [L. circumnav- igo ; drcum and nadgo, to sail, from nail's, a ship.]

To sail round ; to pass round by water ; as, to drcumnavigate the globe.

CIRCUMNAVIGATION, n. The act of ing round. Arbuthnot.

CIRCUMNAVIGATOR, n. One who sails round.

CIRCUMPLICA'TION, n. [h. ciratmplico ; circum and plico, to fold.]

A folding, winding or wrapping round; or a .state of being enwrapped. [Little used.] Bailey.

CIRCUMPO'LAR, a. [L. circum, and Eng. polar.]

About the pole ; an appellation given to stars, which are so near the north pole, as to revolve round it without setting. The number of these depends on the latitud*; of the spectator. We apply it to the north polar region and stars, but the word is applicable to either pole.

CIRCUMPOSI'TION.n. s as z. [L. drcum, and positio.]

The act of placing in a circle ; or the state of being so placed. Evelyn.

CIRCUJIRA'SION, n. s as z. [L. circumra- sio ; drcum and rado, to shave.]

The act of shaving or paring round. [Little used.]

CIRCUMRO'TARY, a. Turning, rolling or whirling round. Shenstone.

CIRCUMROTA'TION, n. [L. drcum and rotatio, rotation, from roto, to turn round.]

The act of rolling or revolving round, as a wheel ; circumvolution ; the state of being whirled round. Gregory.

CIRCUMSCRIBE, v. t. [L. circumscribo ; circum and scribo, to draw.] Literally, to draw a line round. Hence,

1. To inclose within a certain limit; to limit, bound, confine.

Vou are above The little forms which circumscribe your sex. Suutheni.

2. To write round. [Little used.] CIRCUMSCRIBED, pp. Drawn round as

a line ; hmited ; confined.

In geometry, this word is applied to a figure which is drawn roimd another figure, so that all its sides or planes touch the inscri- bed figure. Encyc.

CIRCUMSCRIBING, ppr. Drawing a line round ; inclosing ; limiting ; confining.

CIRCUMSCRIP TIBLE, a. That may be circumscribed or limited by bounds.

CIRCUMSCRIPTION, n. The line that hniits ; limitation ; bound ; confinement. Shak.

2. In natural philosophy, the termination or




limits of a body ; the exterior line which determines tlie form or magnitude of a body. Ray-

3. A circular inscription. ,/lshmole.

CIIieUMSeRIP'TlVE, a. Defining the ex- ternal form; marking or inclosing the limits or superficies of a body. Grew.

CIR€UMS€RIP'TIVELY, adv. In a limit- ed maimer. Monlagu

CIK'€UMSPE€T, a. [L. circumspedus ; cir- cum and specio, to look.]

Literally, looking on all sides; lookiiij; round. Hence,

Cautious ; prudent ; watchfid ou all sides ; examining carefully all the circumstances that may affect a determination, or a meas- ure to be adopted. Boyle. Haywood

ClR€UMSPEe'TION, «. [L.drcumspectio.' Caution ; attention to all the facts and cir- cumstances of a case, and to the natural or probable consequences of a measure, with a view to a correct course of conduct, or to avoid danger. Clarendon. Milton

CIR€UMSPE€'TIVE, a. Looking round every way ; cautious ; careful of conse- quences; watchful of danger. Pope

CIR€UMSPE€'TIVELY, adv. Cautiously vigilantly ; heedfully ; with watchfulness to guard against danger.

CIR'eUMSPE€TLY,arf«. Cautiously ; witi watchfulness every way ; with attention to guard against surprise or danger. Ray.

CIR'€UMSPE€TNESS, n. Caution ; cir- cumspection ; vigilance in guarding a- against evil from every quarter. Wotton CIR'eUiVISTANCE, n. [L. circumslanlia from circumstans, standing about ; circum and sto, to stand.] Literally, that which stands around or near Hence,

1. Sometlnng attending, appendant, or rela- tive to a fact, or case ; a particular thuig which, thougli not essential to an action, in some way aflfects it ; the same to a mor- al action, as accident to a natural sub stance ; as, the circumstances of time, place and persons, are to be considered.

2. The adjuncts of a fact, which make it more or less criminal, or make an accu sation more or less probable ; accident something adventitious ; incident ; event.


3. Circumstances, in the plural, condition in regard to worldly estate ; state of prop erty ; as a man in low circumstances, or ii; easy circumstances.

yiR'CUMSTANCED, pp. or a. Placed in a particidar manner, with regard to attend ing facts or incidents ; as, circumstanced as we were, we could not escape.

CIR'€UMSTANT, a. Surrounding. [Little used or not at all.]

CIR€UMSTAN'TIAL, a. Attending ; rela ting to; but not essential.

ii. Consisting in or pertaining to circumstaii cos, or to particular incidents.

The usual character of human testimony i

substantial tiutli under circumstantial variety


3. Inciilcntal ; casual. Donne.

4. Aboimding with circumstances, or iting all the circumstances ; minute ; par ticular ; as a circumstantial account or re cital.

5. In law, circumslmilinl evidence is tlia wliich is obtained from circumstance?

which necessarily or usually attend facts of a particular nature, from which arises presumption. Blackstone.

CIReUMSTANTIAL'lTY, n. The appen- dage of circumstances ; the state of any thing as modified by circumstances.


2. Particularity in exhibiting circumstances ; minuteness ; as the circumstantiality of a story or description.

CIRCUMSTAN'TIALLY, adv. According to circumstances ; not essentially ; acciden tally. Glanville.

Minutely ; exactly ; in every circumstance or particular. Broome

CIR€UMSTAN'TIATE, v. t. To place in particular circumstances ; to invest with particular accidents or adjuncts.


2. To place in a particular condition with regard to power or wealth. .Sioijl,

[This word is little tisecl.]

CIReUMTERRA'NEOUS, a. [eircMm,about and terra, earth.] Around the earth.


CIR€UMVAL'LATE, r. t. To surround with a ram])art. [hittle used.'\\\\

CIR€UMVALLA'TION, n. [h. circtimvallo to wall round ; circum, and vallo, to forti- fy with a rampart.]

1. In the art of war, a surrounding with t wall or rampart ; also, a wall, rampart, or parapet with a trench, surrounding the camp of a besieging army, to prevent sertion, and guard the army against any attempt of an enemy to relieve the place besieged. Encyc.

2. Tiie rampart, or fortification surrounding a besieged place.

[Note. This word, from the Latin, vallo, oi vallum, vallus, denotes properly the tvall oi rampart thrown up ; but as the rampart is form- ed by entrenching, and the trench makes a pari of the fortification, the word is applied to both See Eng. Wall.]

CIR€UMVE€'TION, n. [L. circum, and veho, to carry.] A carrying about. [J^ot used.]

CIRCUMVENT', v. «. [L. circumvenio ; cir- cum, and venio, to come.] Literally, tc come round ; hence.

To gain advantage over another, or to ac- complish a purpose, by arts, stratagem, or deception ; to deceive ; to prevail over an- other by wiles or fraud ; to delude ; to im- pose on. Milton. Dryden

CIRCUMVENTED, pp. Deceived I)y craft trataaem ; deluded.

CIReUMVENT'ING, ;>;)(•. Deceiving; im- posing on.

CIReUMVEN'TION, n. The act of i)re vailing over another by arts, address, or fraud ; deception ; fi'aud ; imposture ; de- lusion. South.

2. Pievention ; preoccupation Ohs. Shak.

CIRCUMVENT'IVE, «. Deceiving by arti- fii-e.^ ; ih'luding.

CIRCUM VEST', v.l. [\\\\.. circumvestio ; cir- cum, and vestio, to clothe.]

To cover round, as with a garment.


CIRcrAIVOLA'TION, n. [L. circumvoto; rin-i,,,,. .-nid vohj, to flv.]

Tlic art .,r (l\\\\iiiir niund. [Little used.]

ClRCUMVOLl TION, n. Tlie act of roll- ing ronnd ; tlie state of being rolled ; also,

the thing rolled round another.

Arbuthnot. Wilkint.

2. In architecture, the torus of the spiral line of the Ionic order. Encyc.

CIRCUMVOLVE, v. t. circumvolv'. [L. cir- cumvolvo ; circum, and volvo, to roll.]

To roll round ; to cause to revolve ; to put into a circular motion. Glanville.

CIRCUMVOLVE, i'. i. To roll round ; to revolve.

CIRCUMVOLV'ED, pp. RoUed round; moved in a circular manner.

CIRCUMVOLV'ING, ppr. RolUng round ; revolving.

CIRCUS, n. plu. circuses. [L. circus ; Fr. cirque ; It. circa ; Sp. circo ; Gr. *if .toj ; whence circle, which see.] In antiquity, a round or oval edifice, used for the exhibition of games and shows to the people. The Roman circus was en- compassed witli porticos, and furnished with rows of seats, rising one above an- ther for the accommodation of spectators. The Circus Maximus was nearly a mile in circumference. Adam. Encyc.

The open area, or space inclosed, in which were exhibited games and shows ; as wrestling, fighting with swords, staves or pikes, running or racing, dancing, quoits, &c. ^

3. In modern times, a circular inclo^Mtin' the exhibition of feats of horsendflRp.

CIRL, n. An Italian bird ab pntjp ^^e of a parrow. JjB^JVat. Hist.

CIRRIF'EROUS, a. [L. cirrus, a tendril, dfero, to bear.]

Producing tendrils or claspers, as a plant.

CIR'ROUS, a. [L. ciirus, a curl.] Termi- nating in a cirrus, curl or tendril ; as a cirrous leaf. Jilartyn.

CISALP'INE, a. [L. cis, on this side, and Alpes, Aljis, whence alpinus, alpine.]

On this side of the Alps, with regard to Rome ; tliat is, on the south of the Alps ; opposed to transalpine.

CIS'PADANE, a. [L. cis, on this side, and Padus, the river Po, whence padanus.]

On this side of the Po, with regard to Rome ; that is, on the south side. Stephens.

CISSOID', n. [Gr. xiaaoj, ivy, and t i«o{, form.] A curve of the second order, invented by Diodes. Bailey. Encyc.

CIST, n. A case. [See Cyst, the proijer or- thography.]

CIST'ED, a. Inclosed in a cyst. [See Cysted.]

CISTER'CIAN, n. [CiVeaux, in France.] A monk, a reformed Benedictine.

CIS'TERN, n. [L. cistema ; cista, and Sax. am, place, i-epository.]

1. An artificial reservoir or receptacle for holding water, beer or other liquor, as in domestic uses, distilleries, and breweries.

2. A natural reservoir ; a hollow place con^ taining water ; as a fountain or lake.

CISTIC, a. [See Cystic]

CIST'US, n. [Gr. xifos] The rock-rose, a genus of i)lants of many species, most of tliem natives of the southern parts of Eu- rope. Sonic 111' tlirin are beautiful ever- green fliiwi ring slinibs, and ornamental in gardens. Encyc.

CIT, n. [contracted from citizen.] A citizen, in a loie sen.ic ; an inhabitant of a city; a pert townsman ; a pragmatical trader.



CIT'ADEL, n. [Fr. cUadtlk ; It. dttuddla ; Sp. ciudadela ; from tlie It. citta, city.]

A fortress or castle, in or near a city, intend- ed for its defense ; a place of arms.

Johnson. Encyc

CI'TAL, n. [from die.] Reproof; impeach- ment. [Lillk used.] Shak.

2. Summons ; citation ; quotation. [Little used.] Johnson

CITA'TION, n. [L. cifalto, from dto, to dte which sec.]

1. A .summons ; an official call or notice, given to a person, to appear in a court, and answer to a demand ; a call or notice to appear, in various other cases, and tUe paper ' containing such notice or call

i. Quotation ; the act of citing a passage from a book ; or tiom another person, in liis own words ; also, the passage or words mioted. Watts. Atterhury.

3. Enumeration ; mention. Harvey. CI'TATORV, a. Citing ; calling ; having

the power or form of citation ; as, letters dtatonj. Miffe

CITE, V. t. [L. dto, to call ; Fr. dter; It. a- tare ; Sp. Port, dtar ; Goth, haitan ; Sax hatan, or halan, to call, order, command G.helssui, whi-iu-e F,ng. behest ; D. heeten ; Sw. httu ; 1>:iii. heder. The same word in Dutch and I»;iiiish signifies to heat. The sense tlicu is to rouse, push, drive, stimu late. See E.rcite, Incite.]

1. To call upon officially, or authoritatively to summon ; to give legal or official no tice, as to a defendant to appear in court, to answer or defend. Milton

a. To enjoin ; to direct ; to summon ; to or- der or urge. Piior

3. To quote ; to name or repeat, as a pas- sage or the words of another, either froir a book or from verbal communication ; as, to dte a passage from scripture, or to die the very words a man utters.

Bacon. Dryden

4. To call or name, in support, proof or con- firmation ; as, to cite an authority to prove a point in law.

CI'TER, n. One who cites or summons into court.

2. One who quotes a passage or the words of another.

CIT'ESS, n. [See Cit.] A city woman.


enjoyd the freedom and privileges of the, city in which he resides ; the freeman of a city, as distinguished from a foreigner, or one not entitled to its franchi.se.s.

|2. A townsman ; a man of trade ; not a gen- tleman. Shak.

3. An inhabitant ; a dweller in any city, town or place. Dryden.

In a general sense, a native or permanent resident in a city or country ; as the dti- zens o( Londoner Philadelphia; the citi- tens of the United States.

5. In the U. States, a person, native or natu- ralized, who has the privilege of exercising the elective franchise, or the qualifications which enable him to vote for rulers, and to purchase and hold real estate.

If the citizens of the U. States sliould not be free and happy, the fault will be entirely theii own. Washington.

CIT'IZEN, a. Having the quaUtics of a cit-

CIT'IZENIZE, V. I. To make a citizen ; to admit to the rights and privileges of a cit-

Talleyrand wa.s citizenized in Pennsylvania, when there in the fomi of an emigrant.


CIT'IZENSIIIP, n. The state of being ve.^t- ed with the rights and privileges of a cit- izen. Bp. Home

CIT'RATE, »i. [L. citrus, a citron or lemon.] In chimislry, a neutral salt, formed by a union of the citric acid, or acid of lemons, with a base.

The onion yields citrate of lime. Cre.

CIT'Rie, a. Belonging to lemons or limes : as dtric acid.

CIT'RIL, Ji. Abeainiful songbird of Italy Did. Mat. Hist.

CITRINA'TION, n. [See Citrine.] The turning to a yellow green coloi-.

CIT'RINE, a. [L. citrinus.] Like a citron or lemon ; of a lemon color ; yellow — greenish yellow.

CIT'RINE, K. [L. dtnmis.] A species of very fine .sprig crystal, of a beautiful yel- low" color, found in columns, and termina- ting in a hexangular pyramid.

Hill. Encyc.

CIT' RON, n. [Fr. a7ro?i ; L. dtreum, or ci-


This is the sense of the word in the United States. In Great Britain, a city is said to be a town corporate that lias a bishop and a cathedral church ; but this is not always the fact.

3. The collective body of citizens, or the in- habitants of a city ; as when we say, the dty voted to establish a market, and the city repealed the vote.

CIT'Y, a. Pertaining to a city ; as dli/ ives ; a dlii feast ; city manners. Shak.

CITY-eOURl', n. The municipal court of a city, consisting of the mayor or recorder and aldermen. U. Stales.

CIVES. 71. [Fr. cive ; L. repa.] A species of leek, of the gemis Allium.

CIVET, n. [Fr. dvette ; It. zibetto ; Per*.

\\\\.j- zabad, the sweet seem of any beast : nd civet ; si L j •, a

[Little used. CITll

.'\\\\RIS'T1C, a. [L. cithara, a harp or lyre.]

Pertaining to or adapted to the harp ; or ap- propriated to the accompaniment of the harp. Mas. Did.

CITH'ERN, ?i. [L. dthara; It. dtara; Sp. dtara ; D. cyter ; Gr. xiSofo..]

A stringed musical instrument, among the ancients, the precise form of which is not known, but it bore some resemblance the modern guitar, the name of whicl evidently from this ancient word.

CITICIS'M, n. [from cit.] The manners of a cit or citizen. B. Johnson.

CIT'IED, a. Belonging to a city.


CIT ISIN, n. A substance of a yellow color, obtained from the seeds of the Cytisus Laburnum. M'ebster's Manual.

CIT'IZEN, n. cU'izn. [Fr. dtoyen ; It. dtta' dino ; Sp. dudadano ; Port, cidadam ; from It. dtta. Sp. dudad, a city. See City.^

1. The native of a city, or an inliabitant who

Vol I.


i Lj •. cream.


The fruit of the citron tree, a large species of lemon.

CIT RON-TREE, 7i. The tree which pro duces the citron, of the genus Citrus. It has an upright smooth stem, with a bran chy head, rising from five to fifteen feet, adorned with large, oval, spear-shaped leaves. To the same genus belong the lemon-tree, orange-tree, &c. Encyc.

CIT'RON-WATER, n. A liquor distilled ith the rind of citrons. Pope.

CIT'RUL, n. The pompion or pumpkin, so named from its yellow color. [/ believe not used.]

CIT'Y, n. [Fr. dt^ ; It. dtta, ciltade or dt- tate: Sp. dudad; Port, ddade; from the Latin cimtas.]

1. In a general sense, a large to-*™ ; a large number of houses and inhabitants, es lished ui one place. _

2. In a more appropriate sense, a corporate town ; a town or collective body of inhab- itants, incorporated and governed by par- ticular officer.-!, as a mayor aad aldeVnieii.


civet-cat. The Arabic verb signifies to make butter, and this substance may be named from its resemblance to it.]

\\\\ substance, of the consistence of butter or honey, taken from a bag under the tail of the civet-cat. It is of a clear, yellowish, or brownish color ; of a strong smell, and offensive when undiluted, but agreeable when a small portion is mixed with anoth- er substance. It is used as a perfume.


CIV'ET-€AT, 71. The animal that produces civet, a species of Viverra. This animal bears a resemblance to a cat or to a fox ; it is of a cinereous color, tinged with yellow, marked with dusky spots disposed in rows. It inhabits India, Guinea, Ethiopia, and Madagascar. Encyc.

CIV'I€, a. [L. ddcus, from civis, a citizen.] Literally, pertaining ito a city or citizen ; relating to civil affairs or honors. Pope.

The dvic crown, in Roman affairs, was a crown or garland of oak boughs, bestowed on a soldier who had saved the Ufe of a citizen in battle.

CIV'IL, a. [L. dvilis, from cids, a citizen ; Fr. civil ; It. civile ; Sp. civil. Qu. the Welsh cau, to shut, inclose, fence, hedge ; for the rude inhabitants of antiquity forti- fied their towns witli hedges, stakes or pal- isades.]

1. Relating to the community, or to the pol- icy and governtnent of the citizens and subjects of a state ; as in the phrases, dvil rights, dvil government, dml privileges, civil war, ddl justice. It is opposed to criminal; as a dvil suit, a suit between citizens alone ; whereas a cnminal process is between the state and a citizen. It is distinguished from ecdesiastical, which respects tlie church ; and from military, which respects the army and na^-y.

2. Relating to any man as a member of a community ; as cii'i7 power, dvil rights, the power" or rights which a man enjoys as a citizen.

3. Reduced to order, rule and government ; under a regular administration ; implying some refinement of manners ; not savage or wild ; as dvil Ufe ; ddl society.

4. Civilized ; courteous; complaisant ; gen- tle and obliging ; well-bred ; affable ; kind ; having the manners of a city, as opposed


to the rough, rude, coarse maiinera of a savage or clown.

flliere civil speech and soft persuasion hung. Prior.

r>. Grave ; sober ; not gay or showy.

Till civil suited mora appear. JtrUton.

(j. Complaisant ; poUte ; a popular colloquial use of the word.

7. Civil death, in law, is that which cuts off a man from civil society, or its rights anc benefits, as banishment, outlawry, ex communication, entering into a monaste ry, &c., as distinguished from natural death.

-8. Civil law, in a general sense, the law of a state, city or country ; but in an appropri- ate sense, the Roman law ; the municipal law of the Roman empire, comprised the Institutes, Code and Digest of Just: ian and the Novel Constitutions.


9. Civil list, the officers of civil government who are paid from tlie public treasury also, the revenue appropriated to support the civil government. Blackslone.

The army of James II. was paid out of lii? civil list. Hamilton.

10. Civil state, the whole body of the laity ot citizens, not included under the military, maritime, and ecclesiastical states.

n. Civil loar, a war between people of the same state or city; opposed to foreign war.

1.^. Civil year, the legal year, or annual ac- count of time which a government ap- jioints to be used in its own dominions as distinguished from tlie natural year which is measured by the revolution of the heavenly bodies. Bailey. Encyc.

is. Civil architecture, the architecture which is employed in constructing buildings for the purposes of civil life, in distinction from military and naval architecture ; private houses, palaces, churches, &c.

CIVIL'IAN, n. [from civU.] One who skilled in the Roman law ; a professor doctor of civil law. i'nci/c

2. In a more extended se7ise, one who is versed ill law and government.

3. A student of the civil law at the univer- sity. Graves.

CIV'"ILIST, n. A civilian. [.Vol in use.] CIVILITY, n. [L. civilitas, from civilis,

civil ; It. civilita ; Sp. civUidad.] 1. The state of being civilized ; refinement of manners ; applied to nations ; as distin guished from the rudeness of barbarous nations. [This sense is obsolescent or obso- lete.] Spenser. Davies. Denham '2. Good breeding ; poUteness ; complaisance courtesy ; decorum of behavior in the treatment of others, accompanied witl kind ofKces, and attention to their wants and desires. Civility respects manners or external deportment, and in the plural civilities denote acts of politeness.

Clarendon. South. Dryden CIVILIZA'TION, n. [See CivUize.] The act of civilizing, or the state of being civil ized ; the state of being refined in man ners, from the grossness of savage life, and improved in arts and learning, a. The act of rendering a criminal process

civil. [jYot used.] CIVILIZE, V. t. [It. civilizzare ; Fr. civili- ser ; Sj). Port, civilizar ; from civil.]

cr L A


new gaf-

To reclaim from a savage state ; to intro-i CLAD, pp. [See Clothe.] Clothed ; invested

duce civility of manners among a people,

and instruct them in the arts of regular

life. Locke. Holler. Denham.f

CIV'ILIZED, pp. Reclaimed from savage

life and manners ; instructed in arts, learn

ing and civil manners.

Such sale of conscience and duty In open;

market is not reconcilable with the present

state of civilized society. X Quincy.

CIV'ILIZER, n. One who civilizes; he that]

reclaims others from a wild and savage]

life, and teaches them the rules and cus

toms of civilitv. 2. That which reclaims from savageness. CIVILIZING, ppr. Reclaiming from sav

age life ; instructing in arts and civility of

manners. CIVILLY, adv. In a manner relating to

government, or to the rights or character

of a member of the community. Hooker.

2. In a manner relating to private rights; opposed to criminally ; as a process civilly commenced for the private satisfaction of a party injured. -^yW;:.

3. Not naturally, but in law ; as a man civil- ly dead.

4. I'olitely ; complaisantly ; gently ; with due decorum; courteously; as, we were civilly treated. Dryden. Prior.

Without gaudy colors, or finery ; as cham- bers furnished civilly. Obs. Bacon. CIV'ISM, 7!. [L. civis, a citizen.] Lov

country; patriotism. CIZ'AR, V. t. To cUp with scissors. [Xot nor correct.] Beaum.

CIZE, for size, is not in use. eLAB'BERorBONNY-CLABBER.n.Milk

turned, become thick or inspissated. [G.

lab, D.?e6. rennet.] €LACK, V. i. [Fr. claquer, to flap or snap ;

cliquct, a mill-clapper ; cliqueter, to clack ;

W. cleca, clegyr ; Ir. clagaim ; D. klak-

ken ; Sax. cloccan, to cluck, L. glocio.

Probably from the root of the Lat. loquor,

Gr. ^axu, ^rjxiui. See Cluck, and Class Lg,

No 27.]

1. To make a sudden sharp noise, as by striking or cracking; to clink; to click.

2. To utter words rapidly and continually, or witli sharp, abrupt sounds; to let tongue run.

€LACK, n. [W. dec, a sharp noise, a crack, tale-bearing ; cleca, clccian, clegyr, to clack, to crack, to" tattle. See the Verb.]

1. A sharp, abrupt sound continually re peated, su(th as is made by striking an object, or by bursting or cracking ; continu al talk ; as, we do not wish to hear his clack ; a common expression. Hence the| word is used for the tongue, the instru ment of clacking. Butler. Prior.

2. The instrument that strikes the hopi)e a grist-mill, to move or shake it, for dis-i charging the corn. And according to^ Johnson, ab^ll that rings when more corn] is required to be put in. '

To clack wool, is to cut off the sheep's mark,j which makes it weigh less, and yield less duty. [JVot used, I believe, in America.] j

eLACK'ER, n. One that clacks; that which clacks.

eLACK'ING, ppr. Making a sharp, abrupt sound, continually rejjeated ; talking con- tinually ; tattling ; rattling with the tongue.

CLACKING, n. A prating.

covered as with a garment.

Jeroboam had clad himself with

;nt. 1 Kings xi.

The fields are clad in cheerful green. CLAIM, V. t. [L. clamo, to cry out, to call upon ; It. clamare, or chiamare ; Port, cla- mor; Sp. llamar ; Sax. klemman ; Sw. glamma ; Ir. glamaim.] To call for ; to ask or seek to obtain, by virtue of authority, right or supposed right ; to challenge as a right ; to demand as due ; as, to dorm a debt ; to claim obe- dience, or respect.

2. To assert, or maintain as a right ; as, he claims to be the best poet of the age.

3. To have a right or title to ; as, the heir claims the estate by descent ; he claims a promise.

4. To proclaim. Obs. Spenser.

5. To call or name. Obs.

CLAIM, n. A demand of a right or sup- posed right ; a calling on another for something due, or supi)osed to be due ; as a claitn of wages for services. A claim implies a right or supposed right in the claimant to something which is in anoth- er's possession or power. A claim may be made in words, by suit, and by other means. The word is usually preceded by 7nake or lay ; to make claim ; to lay claim.

A right to claim or demand ; a title to any debt, privilege or other thing in pos- session of another ; as, a prince has a claim to the throne.

Homer's claims to the first rank among Epic poets have rarely been disputed. .Anon.

.3. The thing claimed, or demanded.

4. A loud call. Spenser

[This original sense of the wprd is now obsolete.]

CLA'IMABLE, a. That may be demanded as due.

CLA'IMANT, n. A person who claims; one who demands any thing as his right.

2. A person who has a right to claim, or de- mand.

CLA'IMED, pp. Demanded as due ; chal- lenged as a right ; asserted ; maintained.

CLA'IMER, n. A claimant ; one who de- mands as due.

CLA'HIING, ppr. Demanding as due ; challenging as a right; asserting; main- taining' ; having aright to demand.

CLAIR-OBSCURE. [See Clare-obscure,]

CLAM, n. [See the Verb.] The popular name of certain bivalvular shell-fish, of many species.

CLAM'-SHELL, n. The shell of a clam.

CLAM, v. t. [Sax. clmnian, to glue; D. klam, clammy ; lym, glue ; G. klamm, close, clammy ; klemmen, to pinch ; Dan. klammer, to cling ; klemmer, to squeeze, or pinch ; Urn, glue ; timer, to glue ; limagtig, clanmiy. Qu. W. clymu, to bind or tie a kuot. "See Lime and Class Lm. No. 1. 5. 9. 13.]

To clog with glutinous or viscous matter.


CLAM, V. i. To be moist. [Jjittle used.]


CLA'MANT, a. [Sec Claim.] Crying , be- seechinff. Thomson.

CLAM'BER, v. i. [from climb, or D. klam- pen, to grapple.]




To climb with difficulty, or with hands and feet. Addison.

CLAM'BERING, ppr. CUmbing witli ctTort and labor.

«LAM'MINESS, n. [See Clammy.] The state of being viscous ; viscosity ; sticlii- ness ; tenacity of a soft substance.


eLAM'MY, a. [See Chm.] Tiiick, viscous, adlicsivo ; soft and sticky ; glutinous ; te- nacious ; as, bodies clammy and cleaving. Bacon. Cold sweat, in clammy drops, \\\\aa limbs o'er- spread. Dryden.

CLAM'OR, n. [L. clamor; Fr.clameur; h: glam ; Sax. hkm. See Claim.]

I. A great outcry ; noise ; exclamation ; vo- ciferation, made by a loud human voice continued or repeated, or by a multitude of voices. It often expresses complaint and urgent demand. Sliak. Prior.

9. Figuratively, loud and continued noise, as of a river or other inanunate things.


€LAM'OR, V. t. To stun with noise.


To clamor bells, is to multiply the strokes.


CL.\\\\M'OR, V. i. To utter loud sounds, or outcries ; to talk loud ; to utter loud voi- ces repeatedly ; to vociferate, as an indi- vidual ; to utter loud voice.", as a nnilti- tude ; to complain ; to make importunate demands. Shak. Bacon.

Those who most loudly clamor for liberty do not most liberally grant it. Anon.

" C/anior your tongues" in Shakspeare, if in- tended "to mean, " stop from noise," is not English. Perhaps the word was clam, or intended for a derivative.

€LAM'ORER, 71. One who clamors.


€LAM'ORING, ppr. Uttering and repeat- ing loud words; making a great and con- tinued noise ; particularly in complaint or importunate demands.

•t'LAM'OROUS, a. Speaking and repeating loud words ; noisy; vociferous; loud; tur- bulent. Hooker. Pope. Swijl.

CLAM'OROUSLY, adv. With loud noise or words,

CLAM'OROUSNESS, n. The state or qual- ity of being loud or noi.sy.

CLAMP, rt. [D. klamp ; G. klammer, klem- men ; Dan. klamp ; VV. clymu, to tie.]

1. In general, something that fastens or binds ; a piece of timber or of iron, used to fasten work together; or a particular maimer of uniting work by letting boards into each other.

2. In ship-building, a thick plank on tiro in- ner part of a ship's side, used to sustain the ends of the beams.

3. A smooth crooked plate of iron forelock- ed on the trunnions of a cannon to keej) it fast to the carriage. Clamps are also used to strengtlicn masts, and to fasten the masts and bowsprits of small vessels and of boats. Mar. Diet.

■i. A pile of bricks laid up for burning, in which the end of one brick is laid over an- other, and a space is left between the bricks for the fire to ascend. Encyc.

Clamp-irons, irons used at tlie ends of fires 10 keep the fuel from falling. Bailey.

Clamp-nails, nails used to fasten on clamps

in ships. €LAMP, V. t. To fasten with clamps. 2. In joinery, to fit a piece of board with the

grain, to the end of another piece of board

across the grain ; as, to clamp a table to

prevent its warping. Moxon.

€LAMP'ED, pp. United or strengthened

with a clamp. €LAMP'1NG, ppr. Fastening or strength

ening with a clamp. CL.\\\\N, n. [Ir. ctonn, or cfenrf, children, pos

tcrity ; a tribe, breed, generation, family

Erse, clan or klaan.] . A race ; a family ; a tribe. Hence, an as

.sociation of persons under a chieftain.

Milt07i. Dryden 2. In contempt, a sect, society, or body of

persons closely united by stune common

interest or pursuit. Smft.

Note. In Russ. kolieno signifies a knee,

ami a family, race or tribe. Irish ghm, the

knee, and a generation. CLAN'CULAR, a. [L. clancularius.] Clan

destine ; secret ; private ; concealed. [Ui

lie used.] CLAN'CUI-ARLY, adv. Privately; secret

Iv. [Lillle used.] CLANDESTINE, a. [L. clandestinus.] Se

cret ; private ; hidden ; withdrawn from

public view. It often bears an ill sense

as implying craft or deception, or evil de

CLANDES'TINELY, adv. Secretly ; pri vatelv ; in secret.

CLANDES'TINENESS, «. Secrecy; a state of concealment.

CLANG, r. t. [L. clango, to sound ; G. klang ; D. klank ; Sw. klang ; Dan. klang j Gr. xTMiyyu, xJxiJu, xXo^lu, ix^ayov. It ap- pears from the Greek, that n is not radical and tliat this word belongs to Class Lg, coinciding with clink, clank, and probably with clack.]

To make a shai-p, shrill sound, as by striking metallic substances ; or to strike with a sharp sound.

They clanged their sounding arms. Prior

CLANG, n. [L. clangor; G. klang; D. klank. See the Verb'.]

A sharp, shrill sound, made by striking to- gether metallic substances, or sonorous bodies, as the clang of arms ; or any like sound, as the clang of trumpets. Tl ' word implies a degree of harshness iii the sound, or more harshness than clink.


CLAN'GOR, n. [L.] A sharp, shrill, harsh sound. [See Clang.] Dryden.

CLAN'GOROUS, a. Sharp, or harsh in sound. Spectator.

CLAN'GOUS, a. Making a clang, or a shrill, or harsh sound. ' Brown.

CLAN'ISH, a. Closely united, like a clan ; disposed to adhere closely, as the members of a clan.

CL.\\\\N'1SHNESS, n. Close adherence or disposition to unite, as a clan.

€LANK, n. [See Clang.] The loud, shrill, sharp sound, made by a collision of metal- lic or other sonorous bodies. Spectator.

€LANK, V. t. To make a sharp, shrill sound ; to strike with a sharp sound ; as, the pris- oners clank their chains.

CLAN'SIIIP, n. A state of union, as in

family, or clan ; an association under a chieftain. Robertson. Encyc.

CLAP, V. t. pret. and pp. clapped or clapt. [D. idappen, kloppen ; Dan. klapper ; Sw. klappa ; G. kiappen or kla fen ; Russ. klep- lyii. The Dutch and German words sig- nify to clap or strike, and to talk, clatter, prate. Sax. cleopian or clypian, to call, to speak, whence ycleped, obs. W. clepian, to clack, to babble, from Hep, a lapping, Itepiaw, to lap, to lick. The sense is to send, drive or strike, L. idapa, a slap.]

1. To strike with a quick motion, so as to make a noise by the collision; to strike with something broad, or having a flat surface ; as, to clnp the hands ; to clap tlie wings. Locke. Dryden.

2. To thrust ; to diive together; to shut has- tily ; followed by to ; as, to clap to the door or gate. Locke. Shak.

3. To thrust or drive together ; to put one thing to another by a hasty or sudden mo- tion ; followed by to, on or in ; as, to clap the hand to tlie mouth ; to clap spurs to a horse ; to clap on a saddle.

fVatts. Addison. Dryden.

1. To tlirust ; to put, place or send ; follow- ed by in, into, uniler, over, &c. ; as, to clap one vndtr the hatclies; to clap one into Bedlam ; to clup a board oi'fr a pit.

Shak. Spectator.

5. To applaud ; to manifest approbation or praise by striking the hands together; an, to clap a performance on the stage.

6. To iniect with venereal poison.


To clap up, to make or comi)lcte hastily ;

as, to clap up a peace. Sliak. Howel.

2. To imprison hastily, or with littls delay.

Sandys. CLAP, V. t. To move or drive together sud- denly with noise.

The doors around me clapt. Dryden.

2. To enter on with alacrity and briskness ; to drive or thrust on ; as "we say to reap- ers or mowers, clap in, or clap to, that is, enter on the work, begin' without delay, begin briskly.

3. To strike the hands together in applause.

Bid tfiem clap. Shak.

€L.\\\\P, ji. A driving together ; a thrust and collision of bodies with noise, usually bodies with broad surfaces.

Give the door a clap. Swift.

2. A sudden act or motion ; a thrust.

Pay all debts at one clap. Suri/i.

3. A burst of sound; a sudden explosion ; as a clap of thunder.

4. An act of applause ; a striking of hands to express approbation. Addison.

5. A venereal infection. [Fr. clapoir ; D. klapoor.] Pope.

i'l. With falconers, the nether part of the beak of a hawk. Bailey.

€LAP'-BOARD, n. A thin narrow board for covering houses. In England, accord- ing to Bailey, a clapboard is also what in America is called a stave for casks.

€LAP'-DISH, n. A wooden bowl or dish.

CLAP'-DOCTOR, n. One who is skilled in healing the clap. Taller.

€LAP'-NET, n. A net for taking larks, imi- ted with a looking glass. Bailey. Encyc.

CLAPPED, pp. Thrust or put on or to- getlier ; applauded by striking the bands


together; infected with the venereal dis- ease. CLAP'PER, n. A person who claps, crap

plauds by clapping.

2. Tliat which strikes, as the tongue of i

bell, or the piece of wood that strikes ;


CLAP'PER-€LAW, v. t. [dap and claiv.]

To scold ; to abuse with the tongue ; to

revile. Shak. Hudibms.

CLAP'PING, ppr. Driving or putting on, in,

over, or under, by a sudden motion ; stri

king the hands together.

€LARE, n. A nun of the order of St. Clare.


CLAR'ENCEUX, > ^^ In Great Britain, the

CLAR'ENCIEUX, ^ 'second king at arms,

so called from the dulte of Clarence, and

appointed by Edward IV. His office is to

marshal and dispose tlie funerals of all

baronets, knights and esquires, on the

south of the river Trent. Bailey. Eneyc.

€LARE-OBS€U'RE, n. [L. clarus, clear

and ohscurus, obscure.] Light and shade in painting ; or the particu lar distribution of the lights and shades of a piece, with respect to the ease of the eye and the effect of the whole piece ; also, i design of two colors. Encyc

CLAR'ET, 7!. {Vr.dairet, from dair, clear

It. daretto.] A species of French wine, of a clear pale red color. Thomson.

eLAR'I€HORD, n. [L. dai-us, clear, and

chorda, a string. See Chord.] A musical instrument in form of a spmet, called also manichord. It has forty nine o fifty stops or keys, and seventy strings some of the latter being in unison. There are several little mortises for passing the jacks, armed with brass hooks, which stop and raise the ciiords, mstead of the feath- er used in virginals and spinets. The chords are covered with pieces of clutli ■ which deaden the sound and render it sweeter. Hence it is particularly used by nuns. Encyc.

CLARIFICA'TION, n. [See Clarify.] The act of clearing ; particularly tlie clearing or fining of liquid substances from all fe- culdut matter. Bacon.

-CLAR'IFIED, pp. Purified : made clear or

fine ; defecated. CLAR'IFIER, n. That which clarifies or purifies ; as, whites of eggs, blood and isinglass are clarijiers of liquors. Edwards. 1. A vessel in which liquor is clarified.

Higeiyis, Med. Repos. CLAR'IFV, v.t. [Fr. clarifier; It. chiari- Jicare ; from L. clarus, clear, and fncio, to make.[ To make clear ; to purify from fecident mat- ter; to defecate; to fine ; applied particu- larly to liquors ; as, to clarify wine, or syrup.

1. To make clear ; to brighten or illuminate ; applied to the mind or reason. [Rarely used.]


CLAR'IFY, r. i. To clear up; to grow clear

or briglit.

His understanding clarifies, in discoursing with another. Bacon

2. To grow or become clear or fine ; to be come pure, as liquors. Cider clarifies by fermentation.

CLAR'IFYING, ppr. Making clear, pure or bright ; defecating ; growing dear.


eLAR'INET, n. [Fr. clarinette.] A Wind instrument of music.

eLAR'ION, n. [Fr. clairon ; Sp. darin , It. chiarina ; Port, clarim ; from L. clarus. clear, from its shrill sound.]

A kind of trumpet, whose tube is narrower and its tone more acute and shrill than that of the common trumpet. Encyc.

€LAR'ITUDE, n. Clearness ; splendor. [lAttle used.] Beaum.

CLAR'ITY, n. [Fr. darte; L. clarilas, from clarus, clear.]

Clearness, brightness ; splendor. [Littlt used.] Baton. Brown

€LAR' Y, V. i. To make a loud or shrill noise [J\\\\rot used.] Golding.

€LA'RY, n. A plant of the genus Salvia, or sage.

€LA'RY-WATER, n. A composition of^ brandy, sugar, clary-flowers, and cuma- mon, with a httle ambergris dissolved ' it. It is a cardiac and helps digestion.


CLASH, V. i. [D. kletsen; G. klatschen, klifschen ; Dan. klatsker.]

To strike against ; to drive against with force.

JVote. The sense of this word is simply to strike against or meet with force ; but when two sounding bodies strike together, the effect is sound. Hence the word often implies, to strike with a noise, as clashing arms. Denha

To meet in opposition ; to be contrary ; to act in a contrary direction ; to interfere. as opposing persons, minds, views, inter- ests, &c.; as, the opinions of men dash ; clashing interests. Soidh. Bacon.

Independent jurisdictions — could not fail to clash. Dtvight's Theol.

CLASH, V. t. To strike one thing against another, with sound. Dryden

CLASH, n. A meeting of bodies with vio- lence ; a striking together with noise ; col- lision, or noisy colUsiou of bodies ; as the dash of arms. Pope. Denham.

2. Opposition ; contradiction ; as between differing or contending interests, views, purposes, &c. Atterbury. Denham.

CLASHING, ppr. Striking against with noise ; meeting in opposition ; opposing ; interfering.

CLASH'ING, n. A striking against ; colli- sion of bodies; opposition. Howel.

CL'ASP, n. [Ir. dasba.]

1. A hook for fastening ; a catch ; a small hook to hold together the covers of a book, or the difteront parts of a garment belt, &c. Addison.

8. A close embrace; a throwing of tlicarms round. Shak.

CL'ASP, I'. /. To sliut or fasten together with a clasp. Pope.

3. To catch and hold by twining ; to sur- round and cling to ; as the clasping ivy.

Miltoji. 3. To inclose and hold in the hand ; oi ply to inclose or encompass with tl ers. Bacon.


4. To embrace closely ; to throw the arms

roimd ; to catch with the arms.

Milton. Dryden .5. To inclose, and press. CLASPED, pp. Fastened with a clasj);

siiut ; embraced ; ijiclosed ; encompassed



CL'ASPER, n. He or that which clasps;" usually the tendril of a vine or other plants %vhich twines round something for sup- port.

CL ASPERED, n. Furnished with tendrils.

CL'ASPING,p;;r. Twining round ; catching and holding; embracing; inclosing; shut- ting or fastening with a clasp.

3. In botany, siuTOunding the stem at the base, as a leaf. Martyn

CL'ASP-KNIFE, n. A knife which folds into the handle. Johnson.

CL'ASS, n. [L. dassis, a class, a fleet, a troop, that is, a collection ; It. classe ; Fr. dasse ; Sp. close ; Arm. clafz, and sdafz ; Dan. Masse, a class, and klase, a cluster, a bunch. This seems to be a branch of the root of L. cluudo, clausus.]

I. An order or rank of persons; a number of persons in society, supposed to have some resemblance or equality, in rank, educa- tion, property, talents, and the like ; as in hr

the phrase, all classes of men in society.

The readers of poetry may be distinguished into three classes, according to their capacity of judging. Dryden.

2. A number of students in a college or school, of the same standing, or pursuing the same studies. In colleges, the students entering or becoming members the same year, and pursuing the same studies. In academies and schools, the pupils who learn the same lesson, and recite together. In some cases, students of different stand- ings, pursuing the same studies and reci- ting together, or attending the same pro- fessor, or the same course of lectures.

3. Scientific division or arrangement ; a set of beings or things, having something in common, or ranged under a common de- nomination. Hence in zoology, animals are divided into classes ; as quadrupeds, fowls, fishes, &c. So in botany, plants are arranged in classes. Classes are natural or artificial ; natural, when foimded on natural relations, or resemblances ; artifi- cial, when formed arbitrarily, for want of a complete knowledge of natural relations.

Martyn. CL'ASS, V. t. To arrange in a class or classes ; to arrange in sets, or ranks, according to some method founded on natural distinc- tions ; to place together, or in one division, men or things which have or are supposed to have something in common. To place iu ranks or divisions students that are pursuing the same studies ; to form into a class or classes. CLAS'SIC, } [L. dassicus ; Fr. clas- CLAS'SICAL, I "" sique ; It. dassico ; Sp. dasico ; from L. classis, the first order of Roman citizens.]

1. Relating to ancient Greek and Roman authors of the first rank or estimation, which, in modern times, have been and still are studied as the best models of fine writing. Tlius, Aristotle, Plato, Demos- thenes, Thucydidcs, &c., among the Greeks, and Cicero, Virgil, Livy, Sallust, Cesar, and Tacitus, among the Latins, arc dassical authors. Hence,

2. Pertaining to writers of the first rank among the moderns ; being of the first or- der; constituting the best model or au-


thority as an author ; as, Addison and Johnson are Enghsh classical writers. Hence classical denotes pure, chaste, cor- rect, refined ; as a classical taste ; a classical style.

At Liverpool, Roacoe is lilje Pompey s col umn at Alexandria, towering alone in classic dignity. ■fr"'"^'

3. Denoting an order of presbytenan assem- blies. Millon. Mason,

CLAS'SIC, n. An author of the first rank^ a writer whose style is pure, correct, and refilled ; primarily, a Greek or Roman au- thor of this character ; but the word is applied to writers of a hke character m any nation. Pope.

2. A book written by an author of the farst

CLAS'SICALLY, adv. In the manner of classes ; according to a regular order of classes, or sets.

It would be impossible to bear all its specift

details in the memory, if they were not classic

ally airanged. ICeTrr's Lavoisier

2. In a classical manner ; according to the

manner of classical authors. CLASSIF'IC, a. Constituting a c classes ; noting classification, or the order of distribution into sets.

Med. Repos. Hex. 2, €LASSIFl€A'TION, n. [See Classify.] The act of forming into a class or classes; distribution into sets, sorts or ranks.

Enfield's Phil. Encyc. ■CLAS'SIFIED, pp. Arranged in classes;

formed into a class or classes. €LAS'SIFY, t'. t. [L. classis, a class, and facio, to make ; a word of modern coinage.] To make a class or classes ; to distribute into classes; to arrange in sets according to some common properties or characters.

The diseases and casualties are not scien- li&cMy classified. Tooke, Russ. Einp. i. 53\\\\ See also, Jiikin's Letters. 106. Black' i Chimistry.i.ms. fValsh.m.Ai. Stew- art, El. Phil. 1.187. CLAS'SIF-f ING, ppr. Forming a class oi

classes ; arranging in sorts or ranks. CLAS'SIS, 71. Class ; order ; sort.


2. A convention or assembly. Milton. €LAT'TER, v. i. [D. Materen, klctteren ; W

dewtiaw ; Sax. clatninge, a clattering. Qu. Fr. tclater; L. lalro; Sax. hlyd,\\\\o\\\\xA. It seems to be a diminutive.]

1. To make rattling sounds ; to make repeat cd sharp sounds, as by striking sonorous bodies ; as, to clatler on a shield. Drydt

■2. To utter continual or repeated sharp soimds, or rattling sounds, by being struck together ; as clattering arms.

3. To talk fast and idly ; to run on ; to rattle with the tongue. Spenser.

€LAT'TER, v. t. To strike and make a rat- tling noise.

You clatter still your brazen kettle. Swift.

2. To dispute, jar or clamor. [A low word.]

Martin CLAT'TER, n. A rapid succession of abrupt, sharp sounds, made by the coUision of me- tallic or other sonorous bodies; rattling sounds. Swift.

2. Tumultuous and confused noise ; a repe tition of abrupt, sharp sounds.

Swifl. Shak


CLAT'TERER, n. One who clatters; babbler.

CLATTERING, ppr. Making or uttermg sharp, abrupt sounds, as by a collision ot sonorous bodies ; talking fast with noise ;

ttUng. €LAT'TERING, «. A rattling noise. eLAUD'ENT, a. [L. claudens ; claudo, to shut.] Shutting ; confining ; drawing together ; as a claudent muscle. [Ldttle used.] eLAUD'ICANT, a. Halting ; limpmg.

[Little used.] CLAUD'ICATE, V. i. [L. claudico, to limp, from claudus, lame.] To halt or limp. [Little used, or not at all.] €LAUDlCA'TION, n. Ahahingorhmping.

[Ultleused.] CLAUSE, n. s as z. [Fr. clause ; L. clausu- ra, from claudo, to shut ; Gr. xXaw, xXafoj ; W. claws; Eiig. close; Sax. hlidan, to cover ; hlid, a cover, a lid, which Class Ld. No. L 8. 'J.] Literally, a close, or inclosure. Hi that which is included, or contained, witliin certain limits, ,

L In language or grammar, a member of a period or sentence; a subdivision ofasen-j tence, in which the words are inseparably connected with each other in sense, andj cannot, with propriety, be separated by a^ point ; as, " there is reason to think that he afterwards rose to favor, and obtained several lienors civil and military." In this sentence are two clauses. 2. An article in a contract or other writing ; a distinct part of a contract, will, agree- ment, charter, commission, or other wri- ting ; a distinct stipulation, condition, pro- viso, grant, covenant, &c. South. eLAUS'TRAL, a. [L. claustrum, an inclo- sure, from claudo. See Clause.] Relating to a cloister, or rehgious house ; as claustral prior. Ayliffe.i CLAUS'URE, n. s as z. [See Clause.] The act of shutting up or confining ; confine- ment. [Little used.] Geddes. 2. In anatomy, an imperforated canal.

Coxe. ^uincy. CLAV'ATED, a. [L. clava; Eng. a club; W. clwpa.^ -shav


CLAV'I6ER, n. [L. clavif, a key, and

g-fro, to carry.] One who keeps the keys of any place.

Ch. Relig. Appeal. CLAW, n. [Sax. claw ; G.klave ; D. klaauw ;

Dan. klov ; Sw. klof, or klo.]

The sharp hooked nail of a beast, bird or

other animal

1. Club-shaped; having the form of a club; growing gradually thicker towards the top, as certain parts of a plant. Mariyn.

2. Set with knobs. Woodward. CLAVE, pret. of cleave. CLAV'ELLATED, a. Clavellated ashes,

potash and pearlasli. Coxe.

CLAV'IARY, n. [L. clavis, a key; Gr. x%iis, contracted from,x>^i6ou; L. claudo.]

A scale of lines and spaces in music.

Encyc. art. Clef.

CLAVICHORD, n. [L. clavis, a key, and cAocfte, a string.] ^ ,, „ J

A musical instrument of an oblong figure, ot the nature of a spinet. The strings are

j muflled with small bits of fine woolen cloth, to soften the sounds ; used in nunne- ries. [See Clarichord.] Encyc.

IcLAV'ICLE, Ji. [L. clavicula, a tendril, that

Iis a little key or fastener, from clavis, a key, or lock.] I

The collar bone. There are two clavicles, or channel bones, joined at one end to the^ scapula or shoulder bone, and at the other,i to the sternum or breast bone. ^uincy.'

Every beast that parteth the hoof, and cleavetli

the cleft into two claws, and cheweth the cud—

ye shall cat. Deut. xiv.

His nails were grown like birds claws. Dan.


The whole foot of an animal armed with

hooked nails. 3. The hand, in contempt. CLAW, i;. «. [Sax. dau'en.] To pull, tear or

scratch with the nails. Shak. South.

2. To scratch or tear in general ; to tickle. Shak. Hudibras.

3. To flatter. Obs. . Shak. To claw off or away, to scold or rail at.


2. In seamanship, to turn to windward and beat, to prevent falling on a lee shore.

3. In vulvar language, to scratch away ; to get oft" or escape.

CLAW'BACK, n. [claw and back.] One who flatters ; a sycophant ; a wheedler.


CLAWED, pp. Scratched, pulled or torn with claws.

2. a. Furnished with claws. Grew.

CLAWING, ;)^r. Pulling, tearing or scratch- ing with claws or nails.

CLAWLESS, a. Destitute of claws.

Joum. of Science.

CLAY, «. [Sax. cte^; G.klei; D.klei; W. clai ; Dan. klwg, viscous, sticky.]

1. The name of certain substances which are mixtures of silex and alumin, sometimes with lime, magnesia, alkali and metallic oxyds. A species of earths which are firmly coherent, weighty, compact, and hard when dry, but stiff", viscid and ductile when moist, and smooth to the touch ; not readily diff"usible in water, and when mix- ed, not readily subsiding in it. They con- tract by heat. Clays absorb water greed- ily, and become soft, but are so tenacious as to be molded into any shape, and hence they are the materials of bricks and vari- ous vessels, domestic and chimical.

Encyc. Cleavdand. In poe«n/ and mscriptitre, ea^lh. in general.

Donnt. I also am formed out of the clay. Job xxsiii. 3. Ill scriiiture, clay is used to express frailty, liableness to decay and destruction.

They that dwell in houses of clay. Job iv.

CLAY, V. t. To cover or manure with clay.


2. To purify and whiten with clay, as sugar.

Edwards, W. Ind.

CL.VY-COLD, a. Cold as clay or earth;

Ufeless. Rowe.

CLA'YED, pp. Covered or manured with

clay. 2. Purified and whitened with clay ; as clayed sugar. Edwards.

CLAYES, n. plu. [Fr. claie, a hurdle ; W.


la fortification, wattles or hurdles made with

stakes interwoven with osiers, to cover

lodgments. Chambers.

CLAYEY, a. Consisting of clay ; abound-


inn- with clay ; partaking of clay ; like clav.

CLAY-GROUND, )!. Ground consisting of clay, or abounding with it.

CLA'VISII, n. Partaking of the nature of clay, or containing particles of it.

CLAY-LAND, } Land consisting of clay,

CLAY-SOIL, ^ "■ or abounding with it. I

CLAY-MAUL, :,. A whitish, smooth, chalky! clay. Mortimer.

CLAY-PIT, n. A pit whore day is dug.


CLAY-SLATE, n. In mmtralogy, argillace- ous shist ; argillitc.

CLAY-STONE, ». A mineral, the fftonsiein of Werner, antl indurated day of Kirwan. It resembles compact limestone or calca- rious marl. Its texture is porous, compact or slaty. Its color is gray, often tinged with yellow or blue ; also rose or pale red, or brownish red, and sometimes greenish. Cleaveland.

CLEAN, a. [Sax. cldne ; W. glan, or glain ; Ir. glan ; Ann. glan. The primai-y sense seems to be, to open or to remove, toi separate.] I

In a general sense, free from extraneous matter, or whatever is injurious or oft'en- sive; hence its signification depends on the nature and qualities of the substances to which it is ai)plied.

1. Free from dirt, or other-foul matter; as dean water ; a dean cup ; a dean floor.

2. Free from weeds or stones ; as dean land ; a clean garden or field.

3. Free from knots or branches; as dean timber. In America, dear is generally used.

4. Free from moral impurity ; innocent.

WTio can bring a clean thing out of an un- clean ? Joh xiv. Acts xviii.

5. Free from ceremonial defilement. Lev. X. Numb. xix.

C. Free from guilt ; sanctified ; holy. John xiii. Ps. li.

7. That might be eaten by the Hebrews.' Gen. vii. viii.

8. That might be used. Luke xi. 'J. Free from a foul disease ; cured of lepro- sy. 2 Kings V. Math. viii.

10. Dextrous ; adroit ; not bungling ; free from awkwardness ; as a dean feat ; a dean boxer. n. Free from infection ; as a cZean ship. A dean bill of health is a certificate that a ship is dean, or free from infection. CLEAN, adv. Quite; perfectly; wholly; entirely; fully; indicating separation or complete removal of every part. " The people passed dean o\\\'«r Jordan." Josh, iii. " Is his mercy dean gone forever ?" Ps. Ixxvii. Tills use of dean is not now elegant, and not used except in vulgar language. 2. Without miscarriage ; desirously.

Pope came off clean with Homer. Henley CLEAN, V. t. [Sax. da^nan ; W. glanau.

See the Adjective.] To remove all foreign matter from ; to sepa- rate from any thing whatever is extrane- ous to it, or whatever i;s foul, noxious, or ofiensive, as dirt or filth from the hands,] body or clothes, foul matter from a ves- sel, weeds, shrubs and stones from a mead- ow ; to purify. Thus, a house is cleaned


by sweeping and washing; a field is clean- ed by plowing and hoeing.

CLEAN'LINESS, n. den'liness. [from deanli/.] Freedom from dirt, filth, or any foul, extraneous matter. Addison.

2. Neatness of person or dress; purity.


CLEAN'LY, a. den'ly. [from dean.] Free from dirt, filth, or any foul matter ; neat carefully avoiding filth.

Dryden. Addison.

2. Pure ; free from mixture ; innocent cleanly iioys. GlanvHte.

3. Cleansing ; making clean ; as cleanly pow- der. Prior.

4. Nice; artful; dextrous; adroit; as a cleanly play ; a cleanly evasion. Obs.

Sptnscr. L'Estrange.

CLEAN'LY, adv. den'ly. In a clean man- ner ; neatly; without filth. Shak.

CLE'ANNESS, n. Freedom from dirt, filth, and foreign matter; neatness.

2. Freedom from infection or a foul disease.

.3. Exaot4iess ; purity ; justness ; correctness ; used of language or style; as, cleanness of expression. Dryden.

4. Purity ; innocence.

In scripture, cleanness of hands denotes iiocence. Cleanness of teeth denotes h of provisions. Amos iv. 6.

CLEANS' ABLE, a. denz'able. That may be cleansed. Shertoood.

CLEANSE, V. t. clenz. [Sax. clcensian, from clane, clean.]

L To inirify; to make clean: to remove filth, or foul matter of any kind, or by any process whatever, as by washing, rub- bing, scouring, scraping, purging, ventila tion, &-C. ; as, to cleanse the hands or face to cleanse a garment ; to cleanse the bow els ; to cleanse a ship ; to cleanse an infect ed house.

2. To free from a foul or infectious disease to heal. Lev. xiv. 4. 8. Mark i. 42.

3. To free from ceremonial pollution, and consecrate to a holy use. Numb. viii. 15. Ezek. xliii. 20.

4. To purify from guilt. 1 John i. 7. To remove ; as, to cleanse a crime.

Dryden. CLEANS'ED,pp. clenz'ed. Purified; made

lean ; purged ; healed. CLEANS'ER, n. clenz'er. He or that which cleanses; in medicine, a detergent.

Arbuthnot. CLEANS'ING, pp. cknz'ing. Purifying ;i making clean ; purging ; removing foul or noxious matter from; freeing from guilt. CLEANS'ING, n.. cknz'ing. The act of pu- rifying, or purging. Mark i. 44. Luke

CLE'AN-TIMBERED, n. Well-proportion- ed. [jVot in use.] Shak.

CLEAR, a. [W. claer, clear, bright, from llaer, a reflux, llaeru, to ebb, to clear, or W. eghir, clear, from tlur, extended, [like floor ;] Ir. gleair, tear, leir and glor ; Ami. sclear ; L. clarus ; Fr. dair ; Sp. Port.j claro ; It. chiaro ; D. klaar ; G. klar ; Sw. and Dan. klar. See Glare and Glory.]

1. Open ; free from obstruction ; as a dear plat of ground ; the way is clear.

2. Free from clouds, or fog ; serene ; as a clear day.

3. Free fiom foreign matter ; mimixed ;


pure ; as clear water ; clear sand ; char air ; clear glass.

4. Free from any thing that creates doubt or uncertainty ; apparent ; evident ; manifest not obscure ; conspicuous; that is, open to the mind ; as, the reason is clear.

5. Unclouded ; luminous ; not obscured ; a'- a clear sun; a clear shining after a rain 2 Sam. xxiii.

(3. Unobstructed ; iniobscured ; as a clca view.

7. Perspicacious ; sharp ; as a dear sight.

8. Not clouded with care, or ruffled by pas- sion ; cheerful ; serene ; as a clear aspect-


9. Evident ; undeniable ; indisputable ; a;- the \\\\-ictory was clear. Milton.

10. Quick to understand ; prompt ; acute. Mother of science, now I feel thy power AVithin me clear. Milton.

11. Free from guilt or blame ; innocent ; un- spotted ; irreproachable. 2 Cor. vii.

In action faithful, and in honor clear. Pope.

12. Free from bias ; unprepossessed ; not preoccupied; impartial; as a. dear judg- ment. Sidney.

13. Free from debt, or obligation ; not liable I to prosecution ; as, to be clear of debt or

responsibility. Gay.

14. Free from deductions, or charges ; as, char gain or profit. Locke.

15. Not entangled ; unembarrassed ; free ; as, the cable is dear. A ship is clear, when she is so remote from shore or other ob- ject, as to be out of danger of striking, or to have sea room sufficient.

16. Open ; distinct ; not jarring, or harsh ; as a clear sound ; a clear voice.

17. Liberated ; freed ; acquitted of charges ; as. a man has been tried and got clear.

18. Free from spots or any thing that dis- figures ; as a clear skin.

Clear is followed hy from or by of.

Thou shalt be clear from this my oath. Gen. xxiv. The air is clear of damp exhalations.


CLEAR, adv. Plainly ; not obscurely ; man- ifestly.

Clean ; quite ; entirely ; wholly ; indica- ting entire separation ; as, to cut a piece clear off; to go dear away ; but in this sense its use is not elegant.

Clear or in the clear, among joiners and car- penters, denotes the space within walls, or length and breadth clear or exclusive

CLEAR, V. t. To make clear ; to fine ; to remove any thing foreign ; to separate from any foul matter ; to piu-ify ; to clar- ify ; as, to clear hquors. To free from obstructions ; as, to dear the road.

3. To free from any thing noxious or inju- rious ; as, to clear the ocean of pirates ; to clear the land of enemies.

4. To remove any incumbrance, or embar- rassment ; often followed by q^or away f as, to clear o^debts ; to clear away rubbish.

5. To free ; to liberate, or disengage ; to ex- onerate ; as, to clear a man from debt, ob- ligation, or duty.

6. To cleanse ; as, to clear the hands from filth ; to clear the bowels.

To remove any thing that obscures, as


clouds or fog ; to make bright ; as, to cltar the sky ; sometimes followed by up.

Druden. Milton. S. To free from obscurity, perplexity or ambi- guity ; as, to clear a question or theory ; to clear up a case or point. Prior.

9. To purge from the imputation of guilt ; to justify or vindicate.

How shall wc clear ourselves ? Gen. xliv. That will by no means clear the guilty. Ex. xxxiv.

10. In a legal sense, to acquit on trial, by verdict ; as, the prisoner has been tried and cleared.

n. To make gain or profit, beyond all ex pcnsea and charges ; as, to clear ten per cent, by a sale of goods, or by a voyage

12. To remove wood from land : to cut down trees, remove or burn them, and prepare land for tillage or pasture ; as, to clear land for wheat.

To clear a ship at the custom house, is to exliibit the documents required by law, give bonds or perform other acts requisite, and procure a permission to sail, and such papers as the law requires.

To clear the land, in seamen's language, is to gain such a distance from shore, as to have open sea room, and be out of dan- ger from the land.

To clear the liold, is to em])ty or unload a ship.

To clear a ship for action, or to clear for CKtion, is to remove all incumbrances from the decks, and prepare for an engage- ment.

■CLEAR, V. i. To beconje free from clouds or fog ; to become fair ; often followed by up, off, or away ; as, the sky clears ; the weather clears up ; it clears aioay ; it clears

2. "To be disengaged from incumbrances, distress or entanglements ; to become free or disengaged. He that clears at once will relapse. Bacon.

€LE'ARA6E, ji. The removing of any thing. [Little itserf.]

€LE'ARANCE, ji. A certificate that a shi)) or vessel has been cleared at the custom bouse ; permission to sail.

€LE'ARED, pp. Purified ; freed from for eign matter, or from incumbrance ; made nlauife^■t ; made luminous ; cleansed ; hb- crated ; acquitted.

CLE'ARER, n. That which clears, purifies, or enlightens ; that which brightens.


CLE'ARING, ppr. Purifying ; removing foul matter, incumbrances, or obstruc- tions ; making evident, or luminous ; cleansing ; liberating ; disengaging quitting ; making gain beyond all costs and charges.

CLE'ARING, n. A defense ; justification vindication. 2 Cor. vii.

2. A place or tract of land cleared of wood for cultivation ; a common itse of the word in .Imeiica.

3. The act of making clear. CLE'ARLY, adv. Plainly ; evidently ; fully ;

as, the fact is clearly proved.

2. Without obstruction ; luminously ; as, tc shine clearly.

3. With clear discernment ; as, to under- Stand clearly.


4. Without entanglement, or confusion.

Bacon. Plainly ; honestly ; candidly. Deal clearly and impartially with yourselves. Tillotson.

6. Without reserve, evasion or subterfiige. Davies.

CLE'ARNESS, n. Freedom from foul or extraneous matter ; purity ; as the clear- ness of water, or other liquor.

2. Freedom from obstruction or incum- brance ; as the clearness of the ground.

3. Freedom from fogs or clouds ; openness ; as the clearness ot the sky. It generally expresses less than brightness or splen- dor. Ex. xxiv.

Distinctness ; perspicuity ; luminouaness ; as the clearness of reason, of views, of arguments, of explanations.

Plainness, or plain deaUng ; sincerity ; honesty ; fairness ; candor. Bacon.

Freedom from imputation of ill. Shak.

7. Freedom from s[)ots, or any thing that disfigures ; as the clearness of the skin.

CLE'AR-SHINING, a. [clear and shine.] Shitiing with brightness, or unobstructed splendor. Shak.

CLE'AR-SIGHTED, a. [clear and sight.] Seeing with clearness ; having acuteness of sight ; discerning ; persjiicacious ; as clear-sighted reason; Hclear-sighted judge.

CLEAR-SIGHTEDNESS, n. Acute dis- cernment. Bp. Barlow.

CLE'AR-STARCH, v. I. [clear and starch.] To stiffen and clear with starch, and by clapping with the hands ; as, to clear-starch muslin.

CLE'AR-STARCHER, n. One who clear- starches.

CLE'AR-STARCHING, ppr. Stiffening and clearing with starch. n. The act of stiffening and clearing with starch.

CLEAT, n. [Qu. the root ofL.claudo, Gr. *Xfi9por, the fastener.]

■V piece of wood used in a ship to fasten ropes upon. It is formed with one arm or two, or with a hollow to receive a rope, and is made fast to some part of a vessel. Cleats are belaying-cleats, deck-cleats or thiunb-cleats. Mar. Diet.

CLE'AVAtiE, n. The act of cleaving or splitting.

2. In mineralogy, the manner of cleaving, or of mechanical division. It is used in relation to the fracture of minerals which have natural joints and possess a regular structure. Phillips

CLEAVE, V. i. prct. clave or cleaved. [Sax cleqfian, cliofian, to spht and to adhere ; chifian, to adhere ; D. klceven ; G. kleben or kieiben; Dan. kla:ber, kleber ; Sw. klibba ; Russ. lipna. The old preterit clave is ob- solescent.] I. To stick ; to adhere ; to hold to. My bones cleave to my skin. Ps. cii. Let my tongue cleave to tlie roof of my mouth. Ps. cxxxvii.

Cleave to that which is good. Rom. xii. Q. To unite aptly ; to it : to sit well on.


3. To unite or be united closely in interest or affection ; to adhere witlj strong at- tachment.

A man shall leave father and mother, and I cieare to his WTfc. Gen. ii. Math. six. Cleave to Jehovah your God. Josh, xxiii


CLEAVE, r. t. pret. clej} : pp. clefl or cleav- ed. The old pret. clove is obsolete ; dare is obsolescent. The old participle, c/ortH, is obsolescent, or rather used as an adjec- tive. [Sax. cleqfian, or clifan ; D. klooven; G. klieben ; Sw. klyfioa ; Dan. klover; Russ. lopayu ; Gr. Xin^. This word Beems to be connected with the L. liber, free, and bark, book, libera, to free, Fr. livrer, whence deliver.]

1. To part or divide by force ; to split or rive ; to open or sever the cohering parts of a body, by cutting or by the applica- tion of force ; as, to cleave wood ; to cleave a rock ; to cleave tlie flood. Ps. Ixxiv.

Milton. Dry den.

2. To part or open naturally.

Every beast that cleaveth the cleft into two claws. Deut. xiv.

CLEAVE, V. i. To part ; to open ; to crack ; to separate, as parts of cohering bodies ; as, the ground cleaves by frost.

The mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof. Zech. xiv.

CLE'AVED, pp. Split ; rived ; divided.

CLE'AVELANDITE, n. [from Professor Cleaveland.] A mineral, generally of a white or grayish white color, sometimes blue or bluish or reddish ; called also sili- ceous felspar, or albite. Phillips.

CLE' AVER, n. One who cleaves; that

which cleaves ; a butcher's instnmient for

cutting animal bodies into joints or pieces.


CLE'AVING, ppr. Sticking; adliering; uniting to. Also, splitting ; dividing; ri- ving.

CLECHE, n. In heraldry, a kind of cross, charged with another cross of the same figure, but of the color of the field. Encyc.

CLEDgE, n. Among miners, the upper stratum of fuller's earth.

CLEF, n. [Fr. clef; L. clavis, a key, the fastener.]

A character in music placed at the beginning^ of a stave, to determine the degree of elevation occupied by that stave in the

I general claviary or system, and to point

' out the names of all the notes which it contains in the line of that clef.


CLEFT, pp. of cleave. Divided; split; parted asunder. Milton.

CLEFT, 71. A space or opening made by splitting ; a crack ; a crevice ; as the clefl of a rock. Is. ii. 21. Addison.

2. A disease in horses ; a crack on the bought of the pastern. Farriir's Diet.

3. A piece made by splitting ; as a deft of wood.

[This word is sometimes written difl.] CLEFT-GRAFT, v. t. [clefl and graft.] To engraft by cleaving the stock and inser- ting a cion. Mortimer. CLEG, Ji. The horse fly ; Dan. klmg. CLEM, V. t. [G. klemmen.] To starve. [J^'bt in use.] Jonson. CLEM'ENCY, n. [L. dementia, from Clem- ens, mild, smooth ; whence Fr. demence. It. demenza, Sp. demencia ; W. llim, smooth ; Heb. onS to be soft, mild, gentle.]

1. 3Iildness ; sofuiess ; as the clemency of the air. Dryden.

2. INIildness of temper ; gentleness or lenity of disposition ; disposition to treat with fa- vor and kindness.




I pray 'lie^ 'hat thou wouldcst hear lis of tliy clemency a few words. Acts xxiv.

3. Mercy ; disposition to treat with lenity, to forgive or to spare, as offenders ; ten- derness in punishing ; opposed to severity, harshness, or rigor. Mdison.

CLEM'ENT, a. Mild in temper and dispo- sition ; gentle ; lenient ; merciful ; kind i tender ; compassionate.

CLEM'ENTINE, a. Pertauiingto St. Clem- ent, or to his compilations ; or to the con- stitutions of Clement the fifth.

CLEM'ENTLY, adv. With mildness of temper; mercifully. Taylor.

CLENCH. [See Clinch.]

CLEPE, V. t. or i. [Sax. clepan, cleopan, chj- pan, to cry out ; W. clepiaie, to clack.]| To call, or name. Obs. Skak.

€LEPSAM'MIA, n. [Gr. x^intu, to hide, to steal, and o>t/io5, sand.]

An instrument for measuring time by sand, like an hour glass. Brown

€LEP'SYDRA, n. [L. from Gr. *xt4i.«pa xT^irtTu, to steal, to hide, and uSwp, water.]

1. A time piece used by the Greeks and Ro mans, which measured time by the (lis charge of a certain quantity of water. Also, a fountain in Greece.

9. A chimical vessel.

€LER'GI€AL, a. Pertaining to the clergy. [JVot used.] [See Clerical.] Milton

€LER'(iY, ?!. [Fr. clerg^ ; Norm, cler- kus, clerex, clergy, or clerks, and cler- gie, literature ; Arm. doer, the plural of cloarecq, a clerk ; Corn, cloireg ; Ir. cleir, clergy, and cleirioch, a clerk or clergyman ; L. clerus, clericus, which would seem to be from the Gr. x>.»?pof, lot or portion, in heritance, estate, and the body of those who perform sacred duties ; whence x-Krifoa, to choose by lot, to make a clerk, clericuni facere. In 1 Peter v. Z. the won" in the plural seems to signify the churcl or body of believers ; it is rendered God's heritage. In W. cler signifies teachers or learned men of thedruidical order; clerig, belonging to the cler, clerical. It. Sp. clero, from the Latin. The application of this word to ministers or ecclesiastica' teachers seems to have originated in their possessions, or separate allotments of land ; or from the Old Testament denomination of the priests, for the tribe of Levi is there called the lot, heritage, or inheritance of the Lord.]

The body of men set apart, and consecrated by due ordination, to the service of God, in the christian church ; the body of eccle- siastics, in distinction from the laity.

Hooker. Encyc. y. The privilege or benefit of clergy.

If convicted of a clergyable felony, lie is enti tied equally to his clergy after as before convic tion. Blackstone

Benefit of clergy, in English law, originally the exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal ]n-ocess before a secul judge ; or a jirivilege by which a clerk j)erson in orders claimed to be delivered to his ordinary to piu-ge himself of felony. But this privilege has been abridged and modified by various statutes. See Black- stone, B. 4. Ch. 98. In the United States, no benefit of clergy exists. €LER'tiYABLE, a'. Entitled to or admit- ting the benefit of clergy ; as a rlergynhh felonv. " Blackstone

CLER'GYMAN, n. A man in holy orders ; a man licensed to preach the gospel, ac- cording to the forms and rules of any par- ticidardenomination of christians.

CLER'IC, n. A clerk or clergyman.


CLER'ICAL, a. [L. clericus ; Gr. xXi;ptxoi. See Clergy and Clerk.]

Relating or pertaining to the clergy as cler- ical tonsure ; clerical robes ; clerical duties. Blackstone.

€LERK, n. [Sax. cleiic, clerc, clere ; L. cler- ictis; Gr. x%^fii,xo;. See Clergy.]

1. A clergyman, or ecclesiastic ; a man in holy orders. ^^yliff^-

2. A man that can read. Every one that could read — being accounted

clerk. Blackstone.

.3. A man of letters ; a scholar. Sidney. South. The foregoing significations are found in the English laws, and histories of the church ; as in the rude ages of the church, learning was chiefly confined to the cler- gy. In modern usage,

1. A writer ; one who is employed in the use of the pen, in an oflice pubUc or pri vate, for keeping records, and accounts ; as the clerk of a court. In some cases clerk is synonymous with secretary; but not always. A clerk is always an officer subordinate to a higher officer, board, cor- poration or person ; whereas, a secretary may be either a subordinate officer, or the head of an office or department.

5. A layman who is the reader of respon ses ill church service. Johnson.

€LERK'-ALE, n. [clerk and ale.] In Eng land, the feast of the parish clerk. Warton.

€LERK'LIKE, a. Like a clerk ; learned. Sl,ak.

€LERK'LY, a. Scholarlike. Cramner.

CLERK'LY, adv. In a learned manner.


eLERK'SHIP, n. A state of being in jioly orders. Blackstone.

2. Scholarship. Johnson

3. The office or business of a clerk or wri- ter. Swijl.

€LER'OMANCY, n. [Gr. *>.»;po;, lot, and

liavtiia, divination.] A divination by throwing dice or Httle bones, and observing the points or marks turneil np. Bailey.

€LEVE, j) in the composition of names, €L1F, > denote a jilace situated on or €LIVE, ) near a chff; on the side of a hill, rock or precipice ; as Cleveland, Clifton. CLE'V'ER, a. [I know not the radical let ters of this word. If (he elements are clh. or Ih. the affinities may be Russ. lovkie, convenient, dextrous, ulovka, dexterity, craft, lovlyu, to take or seize, as if allied to Gothic lofa, Ir. lamh, W. Haw, the hand. In Ir. hih is a thong or loop, a plait or told, and craft, cunning; luhach, sly crafty; luham to bend. In Eth. AOt labuvvi, signifies ingenious, ready, skdful and the verb, to understand, or be skilful If V ill clever is from g-, as in many othci words, the affinities may be Sax. gleaw knowing, skilful, industrious, wise, whicl is the G. king, D. kloek, Dan. klog, Sw kink. Let the reader judge.] Fit ; suitable ; convenient ; proper ; com iiiodious. Pope

2. Dextrous ; adroit ; ready ; that iMrfornis with skill or address. Addison.

3. In JVctt) England, good-natiu-ed, posses- sing an agreeable mind or disposition. In Great Britain, this word is applied to the body or its movements, in its literal sense ; in America, it is appUed chiefly to the mind, temper, disposition. In Great Britain, a clever man is a dextrous man, one who performs an act with skill or ad- dress. In JVeiv-Englatid, a clever man is a man of a pleasing obliging disposition, and amiable manners, but often implying a moderate share of talents. Fitness, suit- ableness, gives both senses analogically : the former applied to the body ; the latter, to the mind, or its qualities. It is a collo- quial word, but sometimes found in res- pectable writings.

In some of the United States, it is said this word is applied to the intellect, deno- ting ingenious, knowing, discerning.

eLEV'ERLY, adv. Fitly ; desirously ; hand- somely. Butler.

CLEVERNESS, n. Dexterity; adroitness: skill. Johnson.

2. Mildness or agreeableness of disposition ; obligingness; good nature. J\\\\nv England.

€LEV'Y, ) [Qii. L. Claris.] An iron

CLEVIS, ^ "■ bent to the form of an ox bow, with the two ends perforated to re- ceive a pin, used on the end of a cart- neap to hold the chain of the forward horse or oxen ; or a draft iron on a plow. JVew England.

CLEW, n. [Sax. cleou; cliwe ; D. kluwen ; G. kloben ; L. glohis. The word signifies a ball or a lump. In ^Velsh, cloh is a knob or boss ; clwpa is a club or knob ; clap is a lump ; all from roots in lb; llob,a. lump, a lubber.]

1. A ball of thread. Spenser.

2. The thread that forms a ball ; the thread that is used to guide a person in a laby- rinth. Hence, any thing that guides or directs one in an intricate case. Watts.

3. The lower corner of a square sail, and the aftmost corner of a stay sail. Mar. Did.

CLEW, V. t. In seamanship, to truss up to the yard, by moans of clew-garnets or clew-lines, in order to furling.

2. To direct.

CLEW-GARNETS, n. In marine language, a sort of tackle, or rope and pulley, fasten- ed to the clews of the main and foresails to truss them up to the yard.

CLEW'-LINES, n. These are the same tac- kle, and used for the like purpose as clew- garnets, but are applied to the smaller square sails, as the top-sail, top-gallant and sprit-sails. Mar. Did.

CLICK, V. i. [D. klikken ; Fr. cliqueter, to crack ; cliquet, a mill-clapper. See CUtck, to tlie root of which this word belongs.]

Literally, to strike ; hence,

To make a small sharp noise, or rather a succession of small sharp sounds, as by a gentle striking. The solemn death-watch clicked. (ray.

CLICK, n. In seamen's language, a small piece of iron falling into a notched wheel attached to the winches in cutters, &c.

Mar. Diet.

CLICK, 71. The latch of a door. [Locai.]

CLICK'ER, n. The servant of a salesman, who stands at the door to invite custom-




ers ; a low word and not used in the United

States. CLlCK'ET,n. The knocker of a door. [JM'ot

used in the United States.] CLICKING, ppr. Making small sharp noi-

€LI'ENT, »i. [Fr.ciient; It. cliente; Sp. id.; L. cliens.]

1. Among the Romans, a citizen who put himself under tlie protection of a man of distinction and influence, who, in respect to that relation, was called his patron. Hence in modern usage,

2. One who applies to a lawyer or counsel- or for advice and direction in a question of law, or commits his cause to his man- agement in prosecuting a claim, or defend- ing against a suit, iu a court of justice.

Bacon. Taylor.

3. A dependent. B. Joiison. €LI'ENTAL, a. Dependent. [Unusual]


CLI'ENTED, fl. Supplied with clients.


CLI'ENTSHIP, n. The condition of a cli- ent ; a state of being under the protection of a patron. [Clientele is not used.]


€LIFF, n. [Sax. clif, clvf, or clcof; D'. klif, or klip ; G. and liau.'klippe ; Svv. kiippa ; W. dip; L. clivus ; probably from cleaving. Sax. Aifian, cleojkm.]

1. A steep bank; as the cliffs of Dover. So in Saxon, the cliff's of the Red Sea.

Orosius, supposed by Alfred.

5. A liigh and steep rock ; any precipice.

Bacon. Dryden.

This word has been sometimes writteii clijt. and if from cleaving, rending, coincides with cleft in origin.

CLIFF, in nuisic. [See Clef.]

CLIFF'Y, a. Having cliffs ; broken ; crag- gy. Harmar.

CLIFT'ED, a. Broken. Congreve.

CLlMAC'raR, n. [Gr. xxiiuoxfjyp, the stej of a ladder, from xxtjuol, a ladder or scale ; L. climacter.]

1. A critical year in human life ; but climac- teric is more generally used.

2. A certain sjmce of time. [JVot used.]


CLIMACTERIC, a. [Gr. x\\\\ifiaxTi;fixai : L climactericus, from climax, a ladder. See Climax.]

Literally, notmg a scale, progres^iion, or gra- dation ; appropriately, denoting a critical period of human life, or a certain nmnber

CLIMACTERIC, n. A critical period in human life, or a period in which great change is supposed to take place in the human constitution. The critical pe- riods are supjiosed by some persons to be the years produced by multiplying 7 into the odd numbers 3, 5, 7, and 9 ; to which others add the 81st year. The 63d year is called the grand climacteric. It has been supposed that these periods are at- tended with some remarkable change in respect to health, life or fortune.

Brown. Dryden. Pope

CLIMATARCH'IC, a. [Gr. xUfia, climate, and opj;);, dominion.] Presiding over cli- mates. Patis. Trans. .\\\'otc.

Vol. r.

CLI'MATE, n. [Gr. *Jit/w» ; whence L. cH- ma ,• It. Sp. clima ; Fr. cltTnat. (iu. from Gr. itvi'M), to lean or incline, or the root ol climax.]

1. In geography, a part of the surface of the earth, bouiulcd by two circles parallel to the equator, and of such a breadth that the longest day in the parallel nearest the pole is half an hour longer than that near- est to the equator. The beginning of a climate is a parallel circle in which the longest day is half an hour shorter than that at the end. The climates begin at the equator, where the day is 12 hours long ; and at the end of the first climate the longest day is 124 hours long, and this increase of half an hour constitutes a cli- mate, to the polar circles; from whicii climates are measured by the increase of a montli. Johnson. Encyc.

2. In a popular sense, a tract of land, region or country, differing from another in the temperature of the an- ; or any region or country with respect to the temperature of the air, the seasons, and their peculiar qualities, without any regard to the length of the (lays, or to geographical position Thus we say, a warm or cold climate ; a moist or dry climate ; a happy climate genial climate ; a mountainous climate.

CLI'MATE, V. i. To dwell ; to reside in a particular region.

Shak. Hist, of St. Domingo.

[LilfJe used, and hardly legitimate.]

CLIMAT'IC, I Pertaming to a climate

!CLIMAT'ICAL, ^ "' or chmates ; limited

I bv a climate. .S. S. Smith.

CLi'MATURE, n. A chmate. [LiMe used.


CH'MAX, n. [Gr. x^Kl^lai^, a scale or ladder ;

L. climax ; perhaps from the root of the

W. llamu, to step, stride, leap. Ham, a

step, stride, leap, Ir. leimim, leim, or from

the root of climb.]

1. Gradation ; ascent ; a figure of rhetoric, in which a sentence rises as it were, step by step ; or in which the expression which ends one member of the period, begins the second, and so on, till the period is finish- ed ; as in the following : " When we have practiced good actions a while, they be- come easy ; and when they are easy, we begin to take pleasure in them ; and when they please us, we do them frequently ; and by frequency of acts, tliey grow into a habit." Tillotson.

2. A sentence, or series of sentences, in which the successive members or senten- ces rise in force, importance or dignity, to the close of the sentence or series.

Dryden. CLIMB, V. i. clime, pret.' and pp. climbed, or clomb, but the latter is not elegant. [Sax. climan, or climhan ; D. klimmen ; G. rrf. The corresponding word m Dan. is klyver ; Sw. klifwa.]

1. 'to creep up by little and little, or step by step; to mount or ascend, by means of the hands and feet ; to rise on any fixed ob- ject, by seizing it with the hands and hft- ing the body, and by thrusting with the feet ; as, to climb a tree or a precipice.

Ami he ran before anil climbed up into a syc- aniore tree. Luke xLx.

2. To mount or ascend with labor and diffi- rultv. Shak.


3. To rise or ascend with a slow motion.

Black vapors cUmb aloft. Vrydcn.

CLIMB, V. t. To ascend by means of the hands and feet, implying labor, diflieulty and slow progress ; as, to climb a wall, or a steep mountain. Prior.

2. To mount or ascend, with labor or a slow motion ; as, to climb the ascents of fame.


CLIMBABLE, a. That may be climbed.


CLIMBED, pp. Ascended by the use of the hands and feet ; ascended with labor.

CLIMBER, n. One who chmbs, mounts or rises, by the hands and feet ; one who ri- ses by labor or effort.

2. A plant that creeps and rises on some support. Mortimer.

CLIMBER, r. i. [from climb, or a different orthography of clamber.]

To climb ; to mount with effort. [JVot used.] Tusser.

CLIMBING, ppr. Ascending by the use of the hands and feet ; ascending with diffi- culty.

CLIM"BING, n. The act of ascending.

CLIME, n. [from climate, or directly from Gr. and L. clima.]

A climate ; a tract or region of the earth ;

a poetical word, but sometimes used in

prose. [See Climate.]

Whatever clime the sun's bright circle warms.


CLINCH, V. t. [D. klinken, to clink or rivet ; klink, a latch, a rivet ; Dan. klinke, a latch ; Sw. klinka ; Fr. clenche ; allied to cling, link, W. elided, a latch.]

1. To grij>c with the hand ; to make fast by bending over, folding, or embracing close- ly. Thus, to clinch a nail, is to bend the point and drive it closely. To clinch the hand or fist, is to contract the fingers closely into the palm of the hand. To clinch an instrument, is to close the fin- gers and thumb round it, and hold it fast.

2. To fix or fasten ; to make firm ; as, to clinch an argument.

CLINCH, ji. A word used in a double mean- ing ; a pun ; an ambiguity ; a dupUcity of meaning, with identity of expression.


Here one poor word a hundred clinches

makes. Pope.

j2. A witty, ingenious reply. Bailey.

3. In seamen's language, the part of a cable which is fastened to the ring of an anchor ; a kind of knot and seizings, used to fasten a cable to the ring of an anchor, and the britching of a gun to the ring bolts in a ship's side. Mar. Diet.

CLINCH'ED, pp. Made fast by doubhng or embracing closely.

CLINCH'ER, n. That which chnches ; a cramp or piece of iron bent dowTi to fas- ten any thing. Pope.

2. One who makes a smart reply. Bailey.

3. That which makes fast.

1 1. INCH F.K-r.lILT, } Made of chnch- CMNK KIMil'ILT, ^ "• er work. CLIMIl 1:R-W0RK, n. In shipbuilding, the disposition of Uie planks in the side of a boat or vessel, when the lower edge of every plank overlays the next below it, like slates on the roof a house.

.Mar. Diet.




€LINCH'ING, ppr. Making fast by doub- ling over or embracing closely ; griping with the fist.

CLING, t'. I. ]>ret. and pp. clung. [Sax. clh2gan, to adhere and to wither ; Dan. klynger, to grow in clusters ; klynge, a heap or cluster. See the transitive verb below.]

1. To adhere closely; to stick to ; to hold

fast upon, especially by winding round or

embracing ; as, the tendril of a vine clings

to its support.

Two babes of love close clinging to her waist.


9. To adhere closely ; to stick to ; as a vis- cous substance. Wiseman.

n. To adhere closely and firmly, in interest or aftection ; as, men of a party c/t?ig- to their leader.

CLING, V. t. To dry up, or wither.

Till famine cling Uiee. Shak

III Saxon, clingan is rendered to fade or wither, marcesco, as well as to cling. In this sense is usedforclingan, pp. forclun- gen. The radical sense then appears to be, to eontract or draw together ; and dry- ing, withering, is expressed by shrinking, [The latter -use of the ivord is obsolete.]

CLING'ING, ppr. Adhering closely ; stick- ing to ; winding round and holding to.

CLING' V, a. Apt to cling; adhesive.

CLIN'IC, ) [Gr. xT.ii'ixos, fi-om xJ-h)?, a

CLIN'ICAL, I "■ bed, froin xlwu, to recline. See Lean.]

In a general sense, pertaining to a bed. A rlinical lecture is a discourse delivered at the bed-side of the sick, or from notes ta- ken at the bed-side, by a physician, with a view to practical instruction in the heal- ing art. Clinical medicine is the practice of medicine on patients in bed, or in hos- pitals. A clinical convert is a convert on his death-bed. Anciently persons receiv- ing baptism on their death-beds were called clinics. Coxe. Encyc. Taylor.

CLIN'le, Ji. One confined to the bed by sickness.

CLINICALLY, adv. In a clinical manner ; by the bed-side.

CLINK, V. t. [Sw. klinga ; Dan. hlinger, klinker ; D. klinken ; G. klingen. This seems to be a dialectical orthography of clang, clank, L. clango, and if n is not rad- ical, they coincide with clack, click, witl the radical sense, to strike.]

To ring or jingle ; to utter or make a small sharp sound, or a succesj^ion of such sounds, as by striking small metallic or other sonorous bodies together.

Prior. Gay.

€LINK, n. A sharp sound, made by the col- lision of small sonorous bodies. Spenser according to Johnson, uses the word for a knocker.

■eLINK'ING, ppr. Making a small sharp sound, or succession of sounds.

CLINK'STONE, n. [dink and stone, from its sonorousness. See Phonolite.]

A mineral which has a slaty structure, and is generally divisible into tabular ma! usually thick, sometimes thin like those of argillite. The cross fracture is commonly splintery. Its colors are dark greenisl gray, yellowish, bluish, or ash gray ; and it is usually translucent at the edges, sometimes opake. It occurs in extensive

masses, often composed of columnar or tabular distinct concretions, more or less regular. It is usually found among sec- ondary rocks ; sometimes resting on ba- salt, and covered by greenstone.


CLINOM'ETER, n. [Gr. x\\\\wo>, to lean, and fLitpov, measure.]

An instrument tor measuring the dip of min- eral strata. Ure.

CLINa'UANT, a. [Fr.] Dressed in tinsel finery. [M'ot English.] Shak.

CLIP, V. t. [Sax. clypan ; Dan. klipper ; Sw. klippa. The sense seems to be, to strike, to cut off by a sudden stroke. The Danish word signifies not only to cut oft' with scis- sors, but to wink or twinkle with the eyes. In our popular dialect, a clip is a blow or stroke ; as, to hit one a clip. Cut is used in a like sense. The radical sense then is, to strike or drive with a sudden effort, thrust or spring.]

To cut off" with shears or scissors ; to sep- arate by a sudden stroke ; especially to cut off the ends or sides of a thing, to make it shorter or narrower, in distinction from shaving and paring, which are performec by rubbing the instrument close to the thing shaved ; as, to clip the hair ; to clip wings.

But love had clipped his wings and cut

short. Dry den,

2. To diminish coin by paring the edge. Locke.

3. To curtail ; to cut short. Mdison.

4. To confine, hmit, restrain, or hold ; to ig. [Little used.] Shak.

To clip it, is a vulgar phrase in New England for to run with speed. So cut is used : cut on, run fast. This seems to be the meaning in Dryden.

Some falcon stoops at what her eye designed, And with her eagerness the quarry ndssed. Straight flies at clieck, and clips it down the

wind. This sense would seem to be allied to that of leap.

CLIP, n. A blow or stroke with the hand ; as, lie hit him a clip. JVew- England.

An embrace ; that is, a throwing the arms round. Sidney

CLIPPED, CLIPT, pp. Cut off; cut short ; curtailed ; diminished by paring.

CLIP'PER, n. One who clips ; especially one who cuts oft' the edges of coin.


CLIP'PING, ppr. Cutting oft" or shortening with shears or scissors ; diminishing coin by parinc off the edges; curtailing.

CLIP'PING, n. The act of cutting off, cur- tailing or diminishing.

i. That which is clipped off; a piece sepa- rated by clipping. Locke.

CLIVERS, n. A plant, the Galium aparine ; called also goose-grass, or hairiff. It has a square, rough, jointed stem ; the joint.« hairy at the base ; with eight or ten nar- row leaves at each joint.

Encuc. Fam. of Plants.

CLOAK. [See Cloke.]

CLO'CHARD, n. [from clock, Fr. cloche.] A belfry. [ATot ttsed.] ffeeV'

CLOCK, n. [Sax. clugga, clucga; D. klok ; G. klocke; Dan. klokke; Sw. klocka ; Fi clocht ; Arm. clock, or clech ; Ir. clog ; ^V clue ; properly a bell, and uumed from its

sound, from striking. It coincides in ori- gin with clack and cluck, L. ghcio, Ch. i )i. Class Lg. No. 27. See Cluck.] A machine, consisting of wheels moved by weights, so constructed that by a uni- form vibration of a pendulum, it measures time, and its divisions, hours, minutes and seconds, with great exactness. It indi- cates the hour by the stroke of a small hammer on a bell.

The phrases, what o'clock is it ? it is nine o'clock, seem to be contracted from

j what of the clock'.' it is nine of the clock.

2. A figure or figured work in the ankle of

I a stockinff. Swift.

ICLOCK, t.. t. To call. [See Cluck.]

jCLOCK'-MAKER, n. An artificer whose

I occupation is to make clocks.

CLOCK'-SETTER, n. One who regulates

I the clock. [Al'ot used.] Shak.

CLOCK-WORK, n. The machinery and movements of a clock; or that part of the movement which strikes the hours on a bell, in distinction from that part wh.ch measures and exhibits the time on the face or dial plate, which is called watch-work. Encyc.

|2. Well adjusted work, with regular move-

j ment. Prior.

,CLOD, n. [D. kiuit, a clod ; G. Uots ; Dan.

I klods ; Sw. klot, a log, stock, or stump ; Dan. klode, D. kloot, a ball ; G. loth, a ball; D. lood, lead, a ball ; Sw. and Dan. lod, id.; W. cluder, a heap. Clod and clot seem to be radically one word, signifying a mass or lump, from collecting or bringing to- gether, or from condensing, setting, fix- ing. In Sax. dud, a rock or hill, may be from the same root. See Class Ld. No. 8. 9. 10. 16. 26. 35. 3G. 40. Qu. Gr. xJuoflu, to form a ball.]

1. A hard lump of earth, of any kind ; a mass of earth cohering. Bacon. Dryden.

2. A lump or mass of metal. [Little used.]


3. Turf; the ground. Swift.

4. That which is earthy, base and vile, as the body of nian compared to his soul.

Milton. Glanville. Burnet.

5. A dull, gross, stupid fellow ; a dolt.


6. Any thing concreted. Carew. CLOD, V. i. To collect into concretions, or

a thick mass ; to coagulate ; as clodded gore. Milton.

[See Clot, which is more generally used.}

CLOD, V. t. To pelt with clods.

CLOD'DY, o. Consisting of clods; abound- ing with clods.

a. Earthy ; mean ; gross. Shak.

CLOD'HOPPER, n. A clown; a dolt.

CLOD'PATE, n. A stupid fellow ; a dolt ; a Ihiokskull.

CLOD'PATED, o. Stupid; dull; doltish.


CLOD' POLL, 71. A stupid fellow; a dolt ; a blockhead. Shak.

CLOG, V. t. [W. cleg, a limip ; dug, a swell- ing, roundness; clog, a large stone; Uoc, a monn



1. To load or fill with something that retards or hinders motion ; as, to clog tlie chan- nel of a river ; to clog a passage.

9. To put on any thing that encumbers, with a view to hinder or restrain leaping ; to shackle ; as, to clog a beast.

3. To load with any thing that encumbers ; to burden ; to embarrass ; as, to clog com- merce with impositions or restrictions.

Mdison. 4. To obstruct natural motion, or render it

difficult; to hinder; to impede. CLOG, V. i. To coalesce ; to unite and ad- hero in a cluster or mass.

Move it sometimes with a broom, that the pceds clog not together. Evelyn.

i. To form an accretion ; to be loaded or en- cumbered with extraneous matter. The teeth of the saw will begin to clog.

Sharp CLOG, n. Any thing put ujion an animal to hinder motion, or leaping, as a piece ot] wood fastened to his leg. 2. An encumbrance ; that which Innders motion, or renders it difficult ; hindrance impediment


2. a. Solitary ; retired from the world. 1


3. Built with peristyles or piazzas ; inclosed.! Wotlon.

CLOIS'TERING, ppr. Shutting uj) in a monastery ; confining ; secluding from the world.

CLOISTRESS, n. A nun ; a woman who iias vowed religious retirement. [Littk nie.d.] Shak.

CLOKE, n. [Sax. lack. In D. taken, Chau- cer, lake is cloth.]

1. A loose outer garment worn over other clothes both by men and women.

He was clad with zeal as a cloke. Is. lix.

2. A cover ; that which conceals; a disguise or pretext ; an excuse ; a fair pretense.

Not using your liberty for a cloke of mali- ciousness. 1 Peter ii.

They have no cloke for their sin. Johuxv. CLOKE, ti. t. To cover with a cloke. 2. To hide ; to conceal ; to use a false cov- ering. Spenser. CLO'KE-BAG, n. A bag in which a cloke or other clothes are carried ; a portman- teau. Shak

CLO'KED, ;);). Covered with a cloke; con aled under a cover.

3. [ Qu. Fr. claque ; Sp. Port, galocha ; Arm gdoig.] A wooden shoe ; also, a sort of patten worn by ladies to keep their feel dry in wet weather. CLOG'GED, pp. Wearing a clog ; shack led ; obstructed ; loade.l with incum brance. ^ , .

CLOG'GINESS, n. The state of bemg

clogged. CLOG'GING, ppr. Putting on a clog ; load- ing with incumbrance ; obstructing ; im- peding. CLOG'GY, a. That clogs, or has power to

clog ; thick ; gross. CLOIS'TER, n. [Fr. cloltre; Sax. claustr, or cluster ; Arm. claustr, or cloestr ; Sp claustro ; It. ctaustro, or chiostro ; D. kloos- Itr ; G. klosler ; Dan. and Sw. klostcr ; W. claws, clwys; Ir. ctabhstur ; L. claustrum, from clausus, pp. of claudo. See Eng Close.] 1. Literally, a close; a close, or inclosed place. A monastery or nunnery ; a house inhabited by monks or nuns. In a more limited sense, the principal part of a regu- lar monastery, consisting of a square erected between the church, the chapter- house and the refectory, and over which is the dormitory. The proper use of the cloister is for the monks to meet in for con- versation. The cloister is square, and has its name from being inclosed on its four sides with buildings. Hence in architec ture, a building is said to be in the form of a cloister, when there are buildings on each of the four sides of the court.

Encyc •2. A ])eristyle ; a piazza. Johnson.

CLOIS'TER, V. t. To confine

or monastery. 7. To shut up ; to confine closely within walls; to immure ; to shut up in retire- ment from the world. Bacon CLOIS'TERAL, a. Confined to a cloister retired from the world ; recluse.

CLOISTERED, pp. Shut up i iuliabitlng a monastery.

CLO'KING, ppr. Covering with a cloke hiding under an external covering.

CLOMB, prel. of climb.

CLONG, old part, of cling.

CLON'IC, a. [Gr. xXoioj, a shaking or ir- regular motion.]

Shaking ; convulsive ; irregular ; as clonic spasm. Coxe.

eLOOM, V. I. [Sax. cta:man.] To close witli glutinous matter. [Local.] Mortimer

CLOSE, r. t. s as :. [Fr. clos ; Arm. verb closa, or closein ; part, closet; from the L.

participle clausiis, of claudo, to shut; Fr. clorre ; It. cliiudere,chiuso ; D. kluis, an m- closure. The D. shiiten, G. schliessen, schloss, Dan. stutter, Sw. sluta, are from the same root, with a prefix. Gr. xXfiu, for xJt«i6ou, wlience xXm, a key, clavis, that which shuts or fastens ; W. claws, clunja, a close, a cloister ; Sax. Idid, a lid, the shutter ; htidan, to cover ; Ir. cteithim, ctudaim. See Class Ld. No. 1. 8. 9. 10.] To shut; to make fast, by pressing t gether, or by stopping an ojien place, so as to intercejit a passage, in almost any man- ner ; as, to close the eyes ; to close a gate door or window. In these and other ca ses, cl^).nn^ is performed by bringing an object before the opening. To close •■ book, is to bring the parts together. The Lord hatli closed your eyes. Is. xxix. He closed the book. Luke iv. 2. To end ; to finish ; to conclude ; to com- plete ; to bring to a period ; as, to close a bargain, or contract. '

One frugal supper did our studies close.

Di-yden. [3. To unite, as the parts of a breach or frac- ture ; to make whole ; to consolidate ; of- ten followed by up.

The Lord closed up the flesh instead thereof. Gen. ii.

4. To cover ; to inclose ; to encompass ; to overwhelm.

The depths closed me round about. Jonah ii,

5. To inclose ; to confine. [See Indose.] }y„tton.\\\\\\\\6- To move or bring together ; to unite sep-

a cloister ; "rate bodies or parts ; as, to dose the ranks of an army.


CLOSE, V. i. s as 2. To unite ; to coalesce : to come together ; as the parts of a wound or fracture, or [larts separated; often fol- lowed by on or upon.

The lal closed upon tlie blade. Judges iii. The earth closed upon them. Num. xvi. To end ; to termhiate, or come to a peri- od ; as, the debate closed at six o'clock. To close on or upon, to come to a mutual agreement ; to agree on or join in.

France and Holland might close upon some measures to our disadvantage. Temple.

To close with, to accede to ; to consent or agree to ; as, to close with the terms propo- sed. When followed by the person with whom an agreement is made, to make an agreement with ; to unite with ; as, to close with an enemy.

He took the time when Richard was deposed. And high and low with happy Harry closed. Dry den. In this sense, to close in u-ith is less ele- gant. To close with. To close in untli., , „ . .

a contest; applied to wrestlers, when they come to close embrace for scuffling. CLOSE, n. a as :. An inclosed place ; any place surrounded by a fence or other body which defends or confines it, particularly a field, or portion of land. Conclusion ; termination ; final end ; as the dose of life ; the dose of day or night.

3. A temporal^ finishing; a pause; rest; cessation ; intermission.

At every close she made, th' attending throng RepHed, and bore the burden of the song.


4. The manner of shutting. The doors of plank were ; their close exqui- site. Chapman.

to unite ; to join closely ; ajiple, as persons in

5. A grapple in wrestling. Bacon.

CLOSE, a. Shut fast ; tight ; made fast, so

as to have no opening ; as a dose box ; a

dose vizard.

2. Having jiarts firmly united ; compact ; dense ; applied to solid substances of any kind ; as the close texture of wood or me- tal.

3. Having parts firmly adhering ; viscous ; tenacious ; as oil, or glue. fVitkins.

4. Confined ; stagnant ; without ventilation or motion ; as dose air.

5. Confined ; retired. While David kept hunseh close. 1 Chroii.

6. Hid ; private ; secret ; as, to keep a pur- pose dose. Numb. v. Luke ix.

7. Confined within narrow limits ; narrow ; as a dose alley.

|8. Near ; within a small distance ; as a dose fight or action. >. Joined ; in contact or nearly so ; crowd- ed ; as, to sit close.

10. Compressed, as thoughts or words ; hence, brief; concise ; opposed to loose or diffuse.

Where the original is close, no version can reach it in the same compass. Dryden.

11. Very near, in place or time ; adjoining, or nearly so.

I saw him come close to the ram. Dan. viii. They sailed close by Crete. Acts xxvii. Some dire misfortune follows close behind. Pope.

12. Having the quality of keeping secrets, thoughts or designs; cautious; as a dose




iniiiister. Hence iii friendship, trusty ; confidential. Shak.

13. Having an appearance of concealment ; implying art, craft or wariness ; as a close aspect. Shak.

U. Intent; fixed; attentive ; pressing upon the object ; as, to give close attention.

Keep your mind or thoughts close to the bu- siness or subject. Locke.

l.*). Full to the point ; home; pressing; as a dose argument ; bring the argument close to the question. Dryden.

1(). Pressing; earnest; warm; as a do«c de- bate.

17. Confined; secluded from communica- tion ; as a close prisoner.

18. Covetous; penurious; not liberal; as a close man.

lit. Applied to the weather or air, close, in popular language, denotes warm and damp, cloudy or foggy, or warm and re- laxing, occasioning a sense of lassitude and depression. Perhaps originally, con- fined air.

10. Strictly adhering to the original ; as a close translation.

^l. In heraldry, drawn in a coat of arms with the wings close, and in a standing posture. Bailey.

CLOSE, adv. Closely; nearly; densely: secretly ; pressingly.

Behind her deatli C/osp foUoH-cd, pace tor pace. .Milton.

CLOSE-BANDED, a. Being in close order ; closely united. Milton.

CLOSE-BODIED, a. Fitting the body ex- actly ; setting close; as a garment.


eLOSE-eOMPACT'ED, a. Being in cjom- pact order ; compact. Addison.

CLOSE-COUCHED, a. Quite concealed. Milton.

CLOSE-CURTAINED, «. Inclosed or sur- rounded with curtains. Milton.

CLOSE-FISTED, a. Covetous ; niggardly. Berkeley.

CLOSE-HANDED, a. Covetous; penuri- ous. Ucde.

CLOSE-HANDEDNESS, n. Covetousness. Holyday.

CI,OSE-HAULED, a. In seajnanship, hav- ing the tacks or lower corners of the sails drawn close to the side to windward, and the sheets hauled close aft, in sailing near the wind. Encyc.

CLOSE-PENT, a. Shut close. Dryden.

CLOSE-QUARTERS, n. Strong barriers of wood used in a ship for defense when the ship is hoarded. Mar. Diet.

CLOSE-STOOL, n. A chamber utensil for the conveAience of the sick and infirm.

CLOSE-TONGUED, a. Keeping silence ; cautious in speaking. Shak

CLO'SED, pp. s as :. Shut ; made fast ; ended ; concluded.

CLO'SELY, adv. In a close, compact man ner ; with the parts united, or pressed to- gether, so as to leave no vent ; as a cruci- ble closely luted.

tj. Nearly ; with httle space intervening applied to space or time ; as, to follow closely at one's heels ; one event follows closely upon another.

3. Intently ; attentively ; with the mind or thoughts fixed ; with near inspection; as. to look or attend closely.

4. Secretly f slyly. [JVo< much used.] Carew.

5. With near aflfection, attachment or inter- est ; intimately ; as, men closely connected in friendship ; nations closely allied by treaty.

6. Strictly ; witliin close limits ; without communication abroad ; as a prisoner close- ly confined.

7. With strict adherence to the original ; as, to translate closely.

CLO'SENESS, n. The state of being shut, pressed together, or united. Hence ac- cording to the nature of the thing to which the word is appUed,

3. Compactness; soUdity; as the closeness of texture in wood or fossils. Bacon.

3. Narrowness ; straitness ; as of a place.

4. Tightness in building, or in apai-tments ; firmness of texture in cloth, &c.

5. Want of ventilation ; applied to a close oni, or to the air confined in it. Sivift.

6. Confinement or retirement of a person ; recluseness ; solitude. Shak.

7. Reserve in intercourse ; secrecy ; priva- cy ; caution. Bacon. Covetousness; penuriousness. Mdison.

9. Connection ; near union ; intimacy, wheth- er of friendship, or of interest ; as the close- ness of friendship, or of alliance.

10. Pressure; urgency; variously applied; as the closeness of an agreement, or of de- bate ; the closeness of a question or inquiry.

IL Adherence to an original ; as the close- ness of a version.

CLO'SER, n. s as:. A finisher ; one who concludes.

CLO'SER, a. comp. of close. More close.

CLO'SEST, rt. superl. of close. Most close.

In these words, * has its proper sound.

CLOS'ET, n. « as z. A small room or apartment for retu-ement ; any room for privacy.

Wlicn thou prayest, enter into thy closet. Mat. vi.

2. An apartment for curiosities or valuable thing.s. Dryden.

3. A small close apartment or recess in the side of a room for repositing utensils and furniture.

CLOS'ET, V. t. s as :. To shut up in a clo- set ; to conceal ; to take into a private apartment for consultation.

Herbert. Swift.

CLOS'ETED, pp. s as :. Shut up m a clos- et ; concealed.

CLOS'ETING, ppr. s as z. Shutting up in a private room ; concealing.

CLOS'ET-SIN, n. cloz'et-sin. Sm commit- ted in privacy. Bp. Hall.

CLOSII, n. A disease in the feet of cattle, called also the founder, Bailey.

CLO'SING, ppr. s as 2. Shutting; coales- cing ; agreeing ; ending.

CLO'SING, a. s as z. That ends or con- cludes ; as a closing word or letter.

CLO'SING, n. s as z. End ; period ; con- clusion.

CLO'SURE, n. clo'zhur. The act of shut- ting ; a closing. Boyle.

2. That which closes, or shuts ; that by vvliich separate parts are fastened or made to adhere. Pope.

3. Inclosure ; that which confines. Shak.

4. Conclusion. Shak. CLOT, n. [See Clod.] A concretion, par- ticularly of soft or fluid matter, which con-

cretes into a mass or lump ; as a clot of blood. CVorf and clot appear to be radi- cally the same word ; but we usually ap ply clod to a hard mass of earth, and clot to a mass of solter substances, or fluids concreted.

CLOT, V. i. To concrete ; to coagulate, as soft or fluid matter into a thick, inspissa- ted mass ; as. milk or blood clots.

2. To form into clots or clods ; to adliere ; as, clotted glebe. Philips.

CLOT-BIRD, n. The common cenanthe or English ortolan.

CLOT'-BUR, n. [G. klette.] Burdock.

CLOTH, n. clawth. [Sax. clath; D. kleed, cloth, and kleeden, to clothe ; G. khid, kleid- en; Sw. klhde, klada ; Dan. kla:de, klceder. The plural is regular, cloths ; but when it signifies garments, it is written clothes.]

1. A manufacture or stuff of wool or hair, or of cotton, flax, hemp or other vegetable filaments, formed by weaving or intertex- ture of threads, and used fijr garments or other covering and for various other pur- poses ; as woolen cloth, linen cloth, cotton cloth, hair cloth.

2. Tlie covering of a table ; usually called a tablecloth. Pope.

3. The canvas on which pictures arff drawn.


4. A texture or covering put to a particular use ; as a cloth of state. Hayward.

5. Dress ; raiment. [See Clothes.]

I'll ne'er distrust my God for cloth and bread. Quarles.

6. The covering of a bed. [JVot used.]

Prior. CLOTHE. j>. t. pret. and pp. clothed, or clad. [See Cloth.]

1. To put on garments ; to invest the body with raiment ; to cover with dress, for con- cealing nakedness and defending the body from cold or injuries.

The Lord God made coats of skin and clothed them. Gen. iii.

2. To cover with something ornamental.

Embroidered purple clothes the golden beds. Pope.

But clothe, without the aid of otiier words, seldom signifies to adorn. In this example from Pope, it signifies merely to cover.

3. To furnish with raiment ; to provide with clothes ; as, a master is to feed and clothe his apprentice.

4. To put on ; to invest ; to cover, as with a garment ; as, to clothe thoughts with words.

I will clothe her priests with salvation. Ps. cxxxii.

Drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags. Prov. x-fiii.

Let them be clothed with shame. Ps. xxxv.

I. To invest ; to surround ; to encompass.

The Lord is clothed with majesty. Ps. xciii.

Thou art clothed with honor and majesty.

Ps. civ.

1. To invest ; to give to by commission ; as,

to clothe with power or authority. '. To cover or spread over ; as, the earth is

clothed with verdure. CLOTHE, V. i. To wear clothes.

Care no more lo clothe and eat Shak.

CLOTHED, pp. Covered with garments; dressed ; invested ; furnished with cloth- ing. CLOTHES, n. phi. of cloth ; pronounced cloze. Garments for the human body :




iress ; Tcstments ; vesture ; a general term for whatever covering is worn, or made to be worn, for decency or comfort. If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole. Mark v.

2. The covering of a bed ; bed-clothes.


CLOTHIER, n. dothytr. In English au- thors, a man who makes cloths ; a maker of cloth. Johnson. In tin's sense, J believe it is not used in the U. States ; certainly not in JVew England.

Q. In America, a man whose occupation is to full and dress cloth.

■CLOTHING, ppr. Covering with or putting on vestments of any kind ; providing with garments ; investing ; covering.

CLOTHING, n. Garments in general ; clothes ; dress ; raiment ; covering.

As for me — my clothing was sackcloth. Ps.


2. The art or practice of making cloth. [Un- usual.]

The king took measures to instruct the refu- gees from Flanders in the art of clothing. Ray

CLOTH-SHEARER, n. One who shears cloth, and frees it from superfluous nap.

CLOTH-WORKER, n. A maker of cloth Scott.

CLOT'POLL, n. A thickskull ; a block- head. [See Clod-poll.]

CLOT'TED, pp. Concreted into a mass inspissated ; adhering in a lump.

CLOT'TER, V. i. [from clot.] To concrete or gather into lumps. Dryden

CLOT'TING, pf)r. Concreting ; inspissa- ting ; forming nito clots.

CLOTTY, a. [from clot.-] Full of clots, or small hard masses ; fiill of concretions, or clods.

CLOUD, n. [I have not found this word in any other language. The sense is obvi- ous — a collection.]

1. A collection of visible vapor, or watery particles, suspended in the atmosphere, at some altitude. A like collection of va- pors near the earth is usually called /og-.

Locke. I do set my bow in tlic cloud. Gen. ix. Behold, a white cloud. Rev. xiv.

2. A state of obscurity or darkness.

Waller. Addison.

3. A collection of smoke, or a dense collec- tion of dust, rising or floating in the air as a cloud of dust.

A clowl of incense. Ezck. viii.

4. The dark or varied colors, in veins or spots, on stones or other bodies, arc called clouds.

o. A great multitude ; a vast collection.

Seeing wc are encompassed with so great cloud of witnesses. Heb. xii.

CLOUD, V. i. To overspread with a cloud or clouils ; as, the sky is clouded ; clouds intercept the rays of the sun. Hence,

2. To obscure ; to darken ; as, to cloud thi day, or truth, or reason.

3. To darken in veins or spots ; to variegate with colors ; as clouded marble.

4. To make of a gloomy aspect ; to give the appearance of sullenness.

What sullen fury clouds his scornful brow. Pope.

5. To sully; to tarnish. Shak CLOUD, V. i. To grow cloudy ; to become

obscure with clouds ; sometimes followed by over ; as, the sky clouds over.

CLOUD-ASCEND'ING, a. Ascending to the clouds. Sandys.

CLOUD'-BERRY, n. A plant, called also knot-berry ; Rubus chamamorus.

CLOUD -BORN, a. Born of a cloud.


CLOUD'-CAPT, a. [cloud and cap.] Capped!

with clouds ; touching the clouds ; lofty.j

The cloud-capt towers. Shak.

CLOUD-COMPELLER, n. He that col-i lects clouds ; Jove.

CLOUD-COMPELLING, a. CoUecting clouds ; or driving clouds ; as cloud-com- pelling Jove. ff'aller. Dryden

CLOUD'-COVERED, a. Enveloped with clouds. Young.

CLOUD-DISPEL'LING, a. Having i)ower to disperse clouds. Dryden

CLOUD-ECLIP'SED, a. Eclipsed by f loud. Shak

CLOUD'ED, pp. Overcast ; overspread with clouds ; obscured ; darkened ; rendered gloomy or sullen ; variegated with colored spots or veins.

CLOUD' ILY, adv. [from cloudy.] With clouds ; darkly ; obscurely. Dryden.

CLOUD'INESS, 71. The state of being over- cast with clouds ; as the cloudiness of the atmosphere. Harvey.

2. Obscurity; gloom; want of brightness.

3. Darkness of appearance ; variegation ol colors in a fossil or other body.

4. Appearance of gloom or suUcnness ; as cloudiness of aspect.

CLOUD'ING, ppr. Overspreading with

clouds ; obscuring ; giving an appearance

of gloom or sullenness.

CLOUD -KISSING, a. Toucliing the clouds.


CLOUD'LESS, a. Being without a cloud ;

unclouded ; clear ; bright ; luminous ; as

cloudless skies. Pope

CLOUD-PIERCING, a. Penetrating or ri

sing above the clouds. Philips.

CLOUD'-TOPT, a. Having the top covered

with a cloud. Gray.

CLOUD'-TOUCHING, a. Touching the

clouds. Sandys.

CLOUD'Y, a. Overcast with clouds ; ob

scured with clouds ; as a cloudy day ; i

cloudy sky ; a cloudy night.

2. Consisting of a cloud or clouds ; as a cloudy pillar. Ex. xxxiii. 9.

3. Obscure ; dark ; not easily understood ; as cloudy and confused notions. Watts.

4. Having the appearance of gloom ; indica- ting gloom, anxiety, sullenness, or ill- nature ; not open or cheerful ; as cloudy looks. Spenser. Shak.

5. Indicating gloom or sullenness ; as cloudy wrath.

Marked with veins or spots of dark or va- rious hues, as marble. 7. Not bright ; as a cloudy diamond. Boyle CLOUGH, n. cluf. [Sax. dough, a cleft.] A cleft in a hill. In commerce, an allow- ance of two pounds in every hundred weight, for the turn of the scale, that the commodity may hold out in retailing. [JVbt iised in America.] CLOUT, n. [Sax. clut, a patch, a plaster, plate, a scam or joint; Sw.klut; W.cM, a patch, a clout ; dwtiaw, to patch ; Sax geduted, sewed together, clouted, patched ; gesceod mid gedudedum scon, shod with clouted shoes. This undoubtedly signifies

patched shoes, for clut in Saxon does not signify a nail. The word dout, a nail, may be from the French, dou, douter, from L. clavus, from the root of L. daudo, dudo. Whether clouted brogues in Shakspeare sig- nify patched shoes or shoes studded wiUi nails, let the critic determine. Such shoes are common in England, and were for- merly worn in America. The primary sense is, to thrust or put on ; hence the sense of i/ou>.]

1. A patch ; a piece of cloth or leather, &c., to close a breach.

2. A piece of cloth for mean piuposes. Spenser.

3. A piece of white cloth, for archers to shoot at. [^rot now used.] Shak.

4. An iron plate on an axle tree, to keep it from wearing.

5. [Fr. clou, douter.] A small nail.

0. In vulgar language, a blow with the hand. M'ew- England. Todd.

CLOUT, V. t. To patch ; to mend by sewing on a piece or patch ; as clouted shoon, iu Milton. This is the sense as understood by Johnson. Mason understands the word clouted to signify nailed, studded with small nails, from the French douter, and the following words in Shakspeare, " whose rudeness answered my steps too loud," give some countenance to Mason's interpreta- tion. In this case, the verb clout must sig- nify, to nail, or fasten with nails; to stud.

2. To cover with a piece of cloth. Spenser.

2. To join clumsily ; as clouted sentences.


4. To cover or arm with an iron plate.

5. To strike; to give a blow. Beauni. Clouted cream, in Gay, is evidently a mis- take for dotted cream.

CLOUT'ED, pp. Patched ; mended clum- sily ; covered with a clout.

CLOUT'ERLY, a. Clumsy ; awkward.


CLOUTING, /jpr. Patching; covering with a clout.

CLOVE, ore/, of cZearc. Obs. Spenser.

CLOVE,)!. [D. kloof. See Cleave.] A cleft; a fissure; a gap; a ravine. This word, though properly an appellative, is not often used as such in Enghsh; but it is appro- I)riatcd to particular places, that are real clefts, or which appear as such ; as the Clove of Kaaterskill, in the state of New- York, and the Stony Clove. It is properly a Dutch word. Journ. of Science.

CLOVE, n. [Sax.c/t//e; Fr. clou; Sp. clavo; Port, cravo ; from L. claims, a nail ; so call- ed from its resemblance to a nail. So in D. kruidnagel, herb-nail, or spice-naU.]

1. A verj- pungent aromatic spice, the flow- er of the clove-tree, Caryophyllus, a native of the Molucca isles. The tree grows to the size of the laurel, and its bark resem- bles that of the olive. No verdure is seen under it. At the extremities of its branch- es are produced vast numbers of flowers, which are at first white, then green, and at last red and hard. These are called cloves. E/icyc.

2. [fi-om cleave.] The parts into which gar- Uc separates, when the outer skin is re- moved. Tate.

3. A certain weight ; seven pounds of wool ; eight pounds of cheese or butter. [JVot used in America.]




CLOVE-GILLY-FLOWER, n. A species of Dianthus, bearing a beautiful flower, ruliivated in garileus ; called also Carna- tion pink.

A''ote. Some writers suppose tliat gilly- flower should be written Juty-floiver. But qu. is it not a corruption of the French sirofle, clou de girofle, cloves ; giroflie, a gilliflower ; giroflier, a stock gilliflower ; L. caryophyllus. ChdMcerv/roie cloue gilof re. Cant.Tales. 13692. The Italians write garofano, prohahly lor garo- falo ; Arm. genofles, gennflen. Johnson sup- poses the plant so called from the smell of tlie flower, resembling that of cloves ; but it is prob- ably from its shape, the nail-flower, as in Dutch. [See Clove.'\\\\

€LO'VEN, p;j. o{ cleave. Divided ; parted : pronounced clovn.

CLO'VEN-FOQTED, > , Having the foot

€LO'VEN-riQ0FED, \\\\ "' or hoof divided into two parts, as the ox ; bisulcous.

€LO'VER, X [Sax. clcefer-wyrt,

€LO'VER-GRASS, S "" clover-wort ; G. klee ; D. klaver ; Dan. Mever or klee. The Saxon word is rendered also marigold and violet. The Dutch word signifies a club. The name then signifies cluh-grass, club- wort, L. clavn, from its flower.]

A genus of plants, called Trifolium, trefoil, or three-leafed, Fr. trejle. The species are numerous. The red clover is gene- rally cultivated for fodder and for enrich- ing land. The wliite clover is also excel

■ lent food for cattle, either green or dry and from its flowers the bee collects iic small portion of its stores of honey.

To live in clover, is to live luxuriously, or ii abundance ; a phrase borrowed from the luxuriant growth of clover, and the feeding of cattle in clover.

CLO'VERED, a. Covered with clover.


CLOWN, n. [L. colonus, a husbandman.]

A countryman ; a rustic ; hence, one who

jias the inanners of a rustic ; a churl ; a

man of coarse inanners ; an ill-bred man,

Sidney. Drifden. Swift.

•CLOWN'AgE, n. The manners of a clown. [J^otin une.] B. Jonson.

€LOWN'ER Y, n. Ill-breeding ; rustic beha- ior; rudeness of manners. [IMlle used.] UEslrange.

■CLOWN'ISH, a. Containing clowns ; con- sisting of rustics ; as a clownish neighbor- hood. Dryden

2. Coarse ; hard ; rugged ; rough ; as clown- ish hands. Spenser

3. Of rough manners; ill-bred; as a cloicnish fellow.

4. Clumsy ; awkward ; as a clownish gait.

Prior €LOWN'ISHLY, adv. In the manner of

clowns; coarsely; rudely. €LOWN'ISHNESS, n. The manners of clown ; rusticity ; coarseness or rudeness of behavior; incivility; awkwardness.

Dryden. Locke CLOY, V. t. [from Fr. clouer, or the root ot the word, the L. cludo, claudo ; coinciding in elements with glut.]

Strictly, to fill ; to glut. Hence, to satis- fy, as the appetite ; to satiate. And as the appetite when satisfied rejects additiona food, hence, to fill to lothing ; to surfeit. Wbo can cloy the hungry edge of appetite By bare imagination of a feast ? Shak

3. To spike up a gun ; to drive a spike into the vent. Bailey. Johnson.

3. In fariiery, to prick a horse in snoeing. Jlsh. In the two latter senses, I believe the word ittle used, and not at all in America.]

CLOY'ED, pp. Filled ; glutted ; filled to sa- tiety and lothing ; .spiked ; pricked in shoeing.

CLOYING, ppr. Filling; filling to satiety, or disgust.

CLOY'LESS, a. That cannot cloy, or fill to tiety.

CLOY'MENT, n. Surfeit ; repletion beyond the demands of appetite. [Lilllr k.5«/.] Shfil.\\\\

CLUB,w. [W.clopa, rhr,m. .■oinri.lni- \\\\miI, clap, a lump, and elob, rlnlnjn : >:. I,h,/i/'il : D.klaver; Sw.klubba; Ihu,. I.ltihh, :' I. J clava. The sense is i)robably a knob lump, W. llwb, Hob, whence lubber.]

]. Properly, a stick or piece or wood with one end "thicker and heavier than the other, and no larger than can be wielded with the hand.

'2. A thick heavy stick, that may be managed with the hand, an(l used for beating, or defense. In early ages, a club was aprin- cipal instrument of war and death ; a fact remarkably perpetuated in the accounts which history relates of the achievemente of Hercules with his club. Plin. Lib. 7 Ca. 56. This use of the club was the ori- gin of the scepter, as a badge of royalty.

3. The name of one of the suits of cards ; so named from its figure.

4. A collection or assembly of men ; usually a select number of friends met for social or literary purposes. Any small private meeting of persons. Dryden.

5. A collection of expenses; the expenses of a company, or unequal expenses of ind viduals, united for the purpose of finding the average or proportion of each indi- vidual. Hence the share of each individu- al in joint expenditure is called his club. that is, his proportion of a club, or joint charge.

6. Contribution ; joint charge. Hudibras. CLUB, V. i. [W. clapiaw, to form into a


1. To join, as a number of individuals, to the same end ; to contribute separate powers to one end, i)urpose or clTect.

Till grosser atoms, tumbling in the stream Of fancy, madly met, and clubbed into a drear Bryde.

2. To pay an equal proportion of a common reckoning or charge.

CLUB, V. t. To unite diflTerent sums of ex- pense, in a common sum or collection, U find the average, that each contributor may pay an equal share. Pope

2. In common parlance, to raise or turn up permost the britcli or club of a musket as, the soldiers clubbed their muskets.

CLUB'BED, pp. Collected into a sum and averaged, as different expenses.

2. United to one end or effect.

3. Shaped like a club. Asiat. Researches, v. 213.

4. Having the britch turned upwards, as musket.

.5. Heavy like a club. Chance,

CLUH'BER, } One who belongs to CLUB'BIST, I "• party, club or association- Burke

CLUB'BING, ppr. Joining in a club ; uniting to a common end.

CLUB'-FIST, n. A large heavy fist.

CLUB'-FISTED, a. Having a"large fist.


CLUB'-FOQTED, a. Having short or crook- ed feet.

CLUB-HEADED, a. Having a thick head. Derham.

CLUB'-LAW, n. Government by clubs, or violence ; the use of arms, or force, in place of law; anarchy. Mdison.

CLl?B'-ROOM, 7!. The apartment in which a club meets. Addison.

f LUB'-RUSH, n. A genus of plants, the Scirpus. Muhlenberg.

CLUB'-SHAPED, a. Shaped hke a club ; growing thicker towards the top ; clava- ted. Marlyn.

CLUCK, v.i. [Sax. cloccan; T)an. khtkker ; Sw. klycka ; G. glucken ; D. klokken ; VV. clwcian, clocian ; Arm. clochat; h. glodo ; It. chiocciare ; Sp. clocar, cloquear ; Ch. l'^i. Class Lg. No. 27. See Clack and Clock. The Gr. xXu^u seems to be the same word, as it gives xXuyftof ; the guttural passing into ^, as in many Greek verbs ; and henc« Fr. glousser. Sec Brace.]

To make the noise, or utter the voice of the domestic hen, when sitting on eggs for hatching, and when conducting her chick- ens. This voice, with the change of the vowel, is precisely our word clack and clock, and is probably an ouomatopy. [See Clack and Clock.]

CLUCK, V. t. To call chickens by a particu- lar sound. Shak.

CLUCKING, ppr. Uttering the voice of a sitting hen ; calling chickens.

CLUE. [See Clew.]

CLUMP, )i. [G. klump ; D. klomp ; Sw. klimp ; Dan. klump, a lump ; W. clamp. It is lump with a prefix. It coincides with plump, and L. plumbum, lead ; as the D. lood, G. loth, Dan. tod, Eng. lead, coincide with clod. It signifies a mass or collec- tion. If m is the final radical, see Class Lm. No. 1. 4. 5. 9. L. glomus.]

1. A thick, short piece of wood, or other solid substance ; a shapeless mass. Hence dumper, a clot or clod.

2. A cluster of trees or shrubs; formerly written plump. In some parts of England, it is an adjective signifying lazy, unhandy.


CLUMPS, n. [from clump.] A stupid fel- low ; a numskull. Bailey.

CLUM'SILY,arfi). [from clumsy.] In a clumsy manner; awkwardly ; in an unhandy man- ner; without readiness, dexterity or grace.

CLUM'SINESS, n. The quality of being

short and thick, and moving heavily ;

awkwardness ; unhandiness ; ungainliness ;

want of readiness, nirableness or dexterity.


CLUM'SY, a. s as i. [from clump, lump.]

1. Properly, short and thick, like a clump or lump. Hence,

2. Moving heavily, slowly or awkwardly ; as clumsy fingers.

3. Awkward; ungainly; unhandy; artless; without readiness, dexterity or grace ; as a clumsy man ; a clumsy fellow.

4. Ill-made; badly constructed; Sls a clumsy garment ; clumsy verse.




€LUNCH, n. Among jtiinera, indurated clay, found in coal pits next to the coal.

Kirwan. Bailey. €LUNG, prel. and pp. of cling, which see, €LUNG, V. i. To shrink. LYot used.] See

€LU'NIAe, n. One of a reformed order of Benedictine monks, so called from Oluni in Burgundy.

eLUS'TER, n. [Sax. cluster. It seems to be from the root of close, L. clausus,daus- trum, claudo, a collecting or crowding to- gether ; Sw. klasa, a cluster of grapes ; Dan. klase. The latter in orthography coincide nearly with class. In Welsh, clws\\\\ is compact, neat ; clysa, to make compact cluys is a close.]

1. A bunch ; a number of things of the same kind growing or joined together ; a knot as a ctMJiter of raisins.

2. A number of individuals or things collect- ed or gathered into a close body ; as a clus- ter of bees ; a cluster of people.

Milton. Dryden

3. A number of things situated near eaci other ; as a cluster of governments in Italy

J. Mams.

CLUS'TER, v.i. To grow in clusters ; to

gather or unite in a bunch, or bunches ;

as, clustering grapes. Milton

2. To form into flakes; as, clustering snow


3. To collect into flocks or crowds. eLUS'TER, V. t. To collect into a bunch or

close body. €LUS'TERED, pp. Collected into a duster.

or crowd ; crowded. €LUS'TER-GRAPE, n. A small black

frape. Mortimer

US'TERING, ppr. Growing in a cluster or in bunches; uniting in a bunch, or in a flock, crowd, or close body. CLUS'TERY, a. Growing in clusters,

Johnson. Full of clusters. Bailey.

CLUTCH, v.t. [This seems to be from the root of Sax. Iceccan, to seize, whence gclaccan, id. If not, I know not its origin. It may ho allied to lock and latch.]

1. To double in the fingers and pinch or com press them together; to clinch. [If ji ii not radical in clinch, this may be from the same root.]

2. To seize, clasp or gripe with the hand ; as, to clutch a dagger ; to clutch proy.

Shak. Herbert. •3. To seize, or grasp ; as, to clutch the globe

at a grasp. Collier.

€LUTCH, n. A griping or pinching with the

fingers ; seizure ; grasp. CLUTCH'ES,;)/«. The paws or talons of a

rapacious animal, as of a cat or dog. 2. The hands, in the sense of rapacity or

cruelty, or of power.

Hudihras. Stillingfleet. CLUT'TER, 71. [W. cluder, a heap or pile,

from cludaw, to bear, to bring together,

to heap. It has tlie elements of L. claudo.]\\\\

1. A heap or assemblage of things lying in confusion ; a word of domestic application.]

He saw what a clutter there was whh huge pots, pans and spits. L'Estrans;e.\\\\

2. Noise ; bustle. [This sense seems allied' to clatter, but it is not the sense of the word! in N. England.]

GLUT'TER, V. t. To crowd together in dis-l

order ; to fill with things in confusion to clutter a room ; to clxUter the house. CLUT'TER, V. i. To make a bustle, or fill with confusion.

[The English lexicographers explain this word by noise and bustle ; but proba- bly by mistake.] CLUT'TERED, pp Encumbered with

things in disorder. CLUl'^TERING, ppr. Encumbering with

things in confusion. CLVS'TER, n. [Gr. xw^rip, from xxv^u, to wash or cleanse ; L. clyster ; D. klisteer ; G.klystier; Fr. clistere; Dan. klisteer.] An injection ; a liquid substance injected into the lower intestines, for the purpose of promoting alvine discharges, relieving from costiveness, and cleansing the bow- els. Sometimes it is administered to nour- ish and support patients who caimot swal- low aliment. CLYSTER-PIPE, n. A tube, or pipe used

for injections. CLYS'TERWISE, adv. In the manner of

a clyster. CO, a prefix, signifying leith, in conjunction

[See Con.]

COACERV'ATE, v. t. [L. coacervo ; con and

acervo, to heap up ; acervus, a heap.] To

heap up; to pile. [Little used.']

COACERV'ATE, a. [I., coacervatus.] Heap

ed ; raised into a i)ile ; collected into t

crowd. [Little xised.] Bacon.

COACERVA'TION, n. The act of heaping,

or state of being heaped together. [Little

xised.] Bacon

COACH, n. [Fr. coche ; Arm. coich ; It.

cocchio, a coach or coach-box ; Sp. coche

a coach and a coasting barge ; Port, coche ,

D. koets, a coach and a couch ; G. kutsche

Tins word seems to be radically a couchor

bed, [Fr. couche, coucher,] a covered bed on

wheels, for conveying the infirm.]

A close vehicle for commodious travehng, borne on four wheels, and drawn by horses or other animals. It differs from a chariot in having seats in front, as well as behind. It is a carriage of state, or for pleasure, or for travelling.

Hackney-coach, a coach kept for hire. In some cities, they are licensed by authority, and numbered, and the rates of fare fixed by law.

Mail-coach, a coach that can-ies the public mails.

Stage-coach, a coach that regularly conveys passengers from town to town. [See Stage.]

COACH or COUCH, ii. An apartment in a large ship of war near the stern, the roof of which is formed by the poop. Mar. Diet.

COACH, II. t. To carry in a coach. Pope.

COACH-BOX, n. The seat on which the] driver of a coach .sits. ./Jrbuthnot.i

COACH-HIRE, n. Money paid for the use] of a hired coacli. Dryden.

COACH-HORSE, ii. A horse used in draw- ing coaches.

COACH-HOUSE, n. A house to shelter a coach from the weather. Swift.

COACH-JIAKER, n. A man whose occu- pation is to tnake coaches. Swift.

COACHMAN, ?i. The person who drives a coach. Prior.

COACHMANSHIP, n. Skill in driving coaches. Jenyns.l

COACT', I', i. To act together. [.Vol used.]

Shak. COACT'ED, pp. or a. Forced ; compelled.

[JVotused.] B.Jonaon.

COAC'TION, n. [L. coactio, coactus, cogo ;

con and ago, to drive.] Force ; compulsion, either in restraining or

impelling. ^ South.

COACT'IVE, a. Forcing ; compulsory ;

having the power to impel or restrain.

Raleigh. 2. Acting in concurrence. Shak.

CO.\\\\CT'IVELY,arfv. In a compulsory man- ner. BramhaU. COADJU'TANT, a. [L. con and adjutans,

helping.] Helping ; mutually assisting or operating.

PhUips. COADJU'TOR, n. [L. ,o„ and adjutor, a

heljier ; adjuto, to help.]

1. One who aids another; an assistant; a fellow-helper ; an associate in operation.

2. lu the canon law, one who is empowered or appointed to perform the duties of an- other. Johnson.

COADJU'TRIX,n. A female assistant.


COADJU'VANCY, n. [L. con and adjuvans ; adjuvo, to assist.]

Joint help; assistance; concurrent aid; co- operation. [Little used.] Broum.

COAD'UN.\\\\TE, a. [h. coadunalus ; con, ad and unus.]

In botany, coadunate leaves are several uni- ted at the base. The word is used also to denote one of the natural orders of plants in Linne's svstem. Martyn.

COADUNI"'riON, n. [L. con, ad and un{tio, from unus, one.]

The union of different substances in one mass. [Little used.] Hale.

COADVENT'URER, n. A fellow adven- turer. Howell.

COAFFOR'EST, v. t. To convert ground into a forest. Howell.

COA'gENT, n. An assistant or associate in an act. Beaum.

COAGMENT', ji. /. [L. coagmcyUo, to join or cement ; con and agmen, a compact body, from ago, to drive.]

To congregate or heap together. [JVot used.] GlanviUe.

COAGMENTA'TION, n. Collection into a mass or united body; union ; conjunction. [Little used.] B. Jonson.

COAGMENT'ED, a. Congregated ; heaped together ; imited in one muss. [Little iised.] GlanviUe.

COAGULABILITY, n. The capacity of be- ing coagulated. Ure.

COAG'ULABLE, a. [See CoagiUate.] That may be concreted ; capable of congealing or changing from a liquid to an inspissated state ; as coagulable lymph. Boyle.

COAG'ULATE, v. t. [L. coagulo ; Fr. coag- vler ; It. coagxdare ; S^t. coagidar. Usually considered as from cog-o, con and ago. But probably the last component part of the word is the W. ceulatc, to curdle, the root of gelid and C07igeal.] To concrete ; to curdle ; to congeal ; to change from a fluid into a fixed stibstance, or solid mass ; as, to coagulate blood ; ren- net coagulates milk. This word is gene- rally apphed to the change of fluids into



substances bke curd or butter, of a .node- COAL-SHIP, n. A .hip employed in trans- rate consistence, but not hard or impene

(rable. Uacon. Arbuthnot.

eOAG'ULATE, v. i. To curdle or congeal; to turn from a fluid into a consistent state, or fixed substance; to thicken.

Bacon. Boyle. COAG'ULATED, pp. Concreted; curdled tOAG'ULATING.ppr. Curdling; congeal

ing. COAGULA'TION, n. The act of changing from a fluid to a fixed state ; concretion ; the state of being coagidated ; the body formed by coagulating. Arbuthnot.

COAG'ULATIVE, a. That has the power to cause conrretion. Boyle.

COAG'ULATOR, n. That wliich causes co- agulation. Arbuthnot COAG'ULUM, Ji. Rennet; curd ; the clot of blood, separated by cold, acid, &c.

Encyc. Coxe. tOA'ITI, n. A species of monkey in South

America. eOAK. [See Cok,.] , , , ^

COAL, n. [Sax. col or coll; G. kohk ; D. kool ; Dan. kul ; Sw. kol ; Ir. gual ; Corn kolan; Russ. ugol. Qu. Heb. '7nj. It is from the sense of glowing, raging, for in Dan. kvler signifies to blow strong.]

1. A piece of wood, or other combustible substance, ignited, burning, or charred. When burning or ignited, it is called a live coal, or burning coal, or coal of fire. When the fire is extinct, it is called charcoal.

2. In the language of chimists, any sub- stance containing oil, which has been ex- posed to a fire in a close vessel, so that its volatile matter is expelled, and it can sus tain a red heat without further decorapo sition. Encyc.

3. In mineralogy, a solid, opake, inflamma- ble substance, found in the earth, and by way of distinction called fossil coal. It is divided by recent mineralogists into three species, anthracite or glance coal, black or bituminous coal, and brown coal or lig- nite ; under which are included many va- rieties, such as cannel coal, bovey coal, jet, &c.

-COAL, V. t. To burn to coal, or charcoal ; to char. Careu: Bacon

2. To mark or delineate with charcoal.


[As a verb, this word is little used.]

COAL-BLACK, a. Black as a coal ; very

black. Dryden

COAL-BOX, n. A box to carry coal to the

fire. Swift.

COAL-FISH, n. A species of Gadus or cod,

named from the color of its back. It grows

to the length of two feet, or two and a

half, and weighs about thirty pounds.

This fish is found in great numbers about

the Orkneys, and the northern parts of

Britain. Diet. Mit. Hist.

COAL-HOUSE, n. A house or shed for

keeping coal. COAL-MINE, n. A mine or pit in which

coal is dug. COAL-MINER, ii. One who works in i

coal-mine. COAL-MOUSE, n. A small species of tit

mouse, with a black head. COAL-PIT, n. A pit where coal is dug. In America, a place where charcoal is made

porting coal. COAL-STONE, n. A kind of cannel-coal COAL-WORK, 71. A coalery ; a place where coal is dug, including the machinery fc ■ raising the coal. COALERY, }^. A coal-mine, coal-pit, or I place where coals are dug, with the en- gines and machinery used in discharging the water and raising the coal. Encyc. COALESCE, r. i. coaless'. [L. eoalesco, from coaleo ; con and alesco, from aleo or oleo, to grow.] L To grow together; to unite, as separate bo

3. To unite and adhere in one body or mass, I by spontaneous approximation or attrac I tion ; as, vapors coalesce. JVeivton.

.3. To unite in society, in a more genera



impurities; as coarse metal; Shak. unrefined : uncivil ; as

The Jews weve incapable of coalescing with other nations. Campbell, Prelim. Dissert

eOALES'CENCE, n. The act of growing together; the act of uniting by natural af- finity or attraction ; the state of being uni ted ; union ; concretion.

COALES'CING, ppr. Growing or cominj together; uniting in a body or mass; uni ting and adhering together.


CO'ALITE, V. t. To unite or coalesce. [Ml in vsc] Bolingbroke.

eOALP'TION, n. Union in a body or mass ; a coining together, as of separate bodies or parts, and their union in one body or mass ; as, a coalition of atoms or particles.


2. Union of individual persons, parties or states.

CO-ALLY', 71. A joint ally ; as the subject of a co-ally. ' Kent.

COALY, a. Like coal ; containing coal.


COAMINGS, 71. In ships, the raised borders or edges of the hatches, made to prevent water from running into the lower apart- ments from the deck. Mar. Diet.

COAPPREHEND', v. t. To apprehend with another. [Little used.] Brown.

COAPTA'TION, 71. [L. con and apto, to fit.] The adaptation or adjustment of parts to| each other. Boyle.

CO'ARCT, ? „ , [L. coarcto ; con and

CO>AReTATE, S ardo.]

1. To press together ; to crowd ; to straiten ; ifine closely. Bacon.

2. To restrain : to confine. Ayliffe. COARCTA'TION, ti. Confinement ; re- straint to a narrow space. Bacon.

2. Pressure ; contraction. Ray.

3. Restraint of liberty. Bramhall. COARSE, a. [This word may be allied to

gross, and the Latin crassus, for similar transpositions of letters are not uncoin

Rude ; rough ;

:oarse manners. 5. Gross ; not delicate.

The coarser tie of human law. Thomson. C. Rude ; rough ; unpolished ; inelegant ;

applied to language. Dryden.

7. Not nicely expert ; not accomplished by art or education ; as o coarse practitioner.


8. Mean ; not nice ; not refined or elegant ; as a coarse perfume ; a coarse diet.

COARSELY, adv. Roughly ; without fine- ness or refinement ; rudely ; inelegantly ; uncivilly ; meanly ; without art or polish. Brotcn. Dryden.

COARSENESS, n. Largeness of size ; thick- ness; as the coarseness of thread.

2. The quahty of being made of coarse thread or yarn ; whence thickness and roughness; as the coarseness of cloth.

3. Unrefined state ; the state of being mixed with gross particles or impurities ; as the coarse7!ess of glass. Bacon.

4. Roughness ; grossness ; rudeness ; appli- ed to manners ; as the coarseness of a clown.


5. Grossness ; want of refinement or delica- cy ; want of polish ; as the coarseness of expression or of language. L'Estrange.

a. Meanness ; want of art in preparation ;

want of nicety ; as the coarseness of food

or of raiment. COASSES'SOR, 7t. [See Assess.] A joint


1. Thick; large or gross in bulk; compara- tively of large diameter; as coarse thread or yarn; coarse hair; coarse sand. This seems to be the primary sense of the word ; opposed to fine or slender. Hence,

2. Thick ; rough ; or made of coarse thread or yarn ; as coarse cloth.

3. Not refined ; not separated from grosser

COASSU'ME, 71. /. [co7i and assutne.] To as- sume something with another. Walsatl.

COAST, n. [L. cosla, a rib, side or coast ; W. cost ; Fr. cute for cosle ; It. costa ; Sp. cosla ; Port. id. ; D. kust ; G. kiiste. Hence to accost. See Class Gs. No. 18. 25. 67. The word properly signifies a side, limit, border, the exterior part, from extension.]

1. The exterior hue, Hmit or border of a country, as in Scripture. ''From the river to the uttermost sea shall your coast be." Deut. xi. " And ships shall come from the coast of Chittira." Numb, xxiv. Hence the word may signify the whole country within certain limits. Ex. X. 4.

2. The edge or margin of the land next to the sea ; die sea-shore. This is the more common application of the word ; and it seems to be used for sea-coast, the border of the sea. Hence it is never used for the bank of a river.

3. A side ; applied to objects indefinitely, by Bacon and JVewton. This is a correct use of the loord, but now obsolete.

The country near the sea-shore ; as, pop- ulous towns along the coast. The coast is clear, is a proverbial phrase sig- nifying, the danger is over; the enemies have maiched ofl', or left the coast.


COAST, V. i. To sail near a coast ; to sail

by or near the shore, or in sight of land.

The ancients coasted only in their navigation.


2. To sail from port to port in the same

country. COAST, V. t. To sail by or near to; as, to ' coast the American shore.




2. To draw near ; to approach ; to follow. Ohs. Spenser.

COASTED, pp. Sailed by.

COASTER, 71. One who sails near the shore. Dryden.

2. A vessel that is employed in sailing along a coast, or is licensed to navigate or trade from jiort to port in the same country. In the United States, coasting vessels of twen- ty tuns burthen and upwards must be en- rolled at the custom house.

COASTING, ppr. Sailing along or near a

COASTING-PILOT, n. A pilot who con- ducts vessels along n coast-

COASTING-TRADE, n. The trade which is carried on between the different ])orts of the same country, or under the same jurisdiction, as distinguished from foreign trade.

COASTING-VESSEL, n. A vessel employ- ed in coasting ; a coaster.

COAT, n. [Fr. cotte ; It. cotta ; Ir. cota ; Corn. kotn ; Pol. kotz. It may be from tlie root of the Russ.tetoyu, to cover, and be allied to hut. The primary sense may be, that which is spread over or put on. But such woids are sometimes from verbs which signify to strip, or to repel. The Gr. xevBu has the like elements, but the sense seems to be, to withdraw. I question whether coal has any connection with the Sliemitic jno. Gr. jKirw, a tunic. This word in Ch. Syr. and Ar. signifies flax.]

1. An up])er garment, of whatever material it may be made. The word is, in modern times, generally applied to the garment worn by men next over the vest.

God made coats of skin and clothed theni. Oen. iii.

Jacob made Joseph a coat of many colors. Gen. sxxvii.

He shall put on the holy linen coat. Levit.

Goliath was armed with a coot of mail. 1 Sam.

2. A petticoat; a garment worn by infants or young children. Locke.

3. The habit or vesture of an order of men, indicating the order or office.

Men of his coat should be minding their prayers. Swift-

So we say, "men of his cloth."

4. External covering, as the fur or hair of a beast, the skin of serpents, the wool of sheep, &c. Milton.

5. A tunic of the eye ; a membrane that serves as a cover ; a tegument. Derham.

0. The division or layer of a bulbous root ; as the coats of an onion.

7. A cover ; a layer of any substance cov- ering another ; "as a coat of tar, pitch or varnish ; a coat of canvas roiuid a mast ; a coat of tin-foil.

9. That on which ensigns armorial are por- trayed ; usually called a coat of arms. An- ciently kniglits wore a habit over their arms, reaching as low as the navel, open at the sides, with short sleeves, on which were the armories of the knights, embroi- dered in gold and silver, and enameled with beaten tin of various colors. This habit was diversified with bands and fil- lets of several colors, placed alternately, and called devises, as being di\\\\-ided and composed of several pieces sewed togeth-

Vol. I.

cr. The representation of these is still called a coat of arms.

9. A coat of mail is a piece of armor, in form of a shirt, consisting of a net-work of iron rings.

10. A card ; a coat-card is one on which a king, queen or knave is painted.

COAT, V. t. To cover or spread o»-er with a layer of any substance ; as, to coat a retort ; to con* a ceiling; to coat a vial.

2. To cover with cloth or canvas ; as, to coat a mast or a pump.

COAT-ARMOR, n. A coat of arms ; armo- rial ensigns. Blackstone. Shenstone.

COATED, pp. Covered with a coat ; lori- cated ; covered or overspread with any thing that defends ; clothed with a mem- brane.

2. Having concentric coats or layers, as a bulbous root. Martyn.

COATI, 71. An animal of South America resembling the raccoon, but with a longer body and neck, shorter fur and smalli eyes ; the Viverra nasua of Linne.

COATING, ppr. Covering with a coat ; overspreading.

COATING, n. A covering, or the act of cov- ering ; lorication ; any substance spread over for cover or defense ; as the coating of a retort or of a vial.

2. Cloth for coats ; as, merchants advertise an assortment of coatings.

COAX, V. t. [W. cocru, to fondle, to cocker ; cocyr, a coaxing, indulgence ; Sp. cocar, to make wry faces, to coax.]

To wheedle ; to flatter ; to soothe, appease or persuade by flattery and fondling. [Jl loio word.] UEstrange.

COAXED, pp. Soothed or persuaded by flattery.

COAXER, n. A wheedler ; a flatterer.

COAXING, p;jc. Wheedling; flattering.

COB, n. [VV. coh or cop, a top or tuft, a thump ; Gr. xvSrj ; G. kopf, the head ; D. kop ; Sax. cop.]

1. The top or bead ; a covetous wretch ; a foreign coin. Bailey.

[In these senses not used in America.]

2. In America, the receptacle of the maiz, or American corn ; a shoot in form of a |)in or spike, on which grows the corn in rows. This receptacle, with the corn, is called the ear.

.3. A sea-fowl, the sea-cob. [It. gabhiano, cob, sea-mew or gull.]

4. A ball or pellet for feeding fowls.


5. In some ])arts of England, a spider. Old Dutch, kop or koppe, a spider, retained in koppespin, spinnekop, a spider.

0. A horse not castrated ; a strong poney.

COB, J), t. In seamen^s language, to punisli by striking the breech with a flat i)iece of wood, or with a board. Mar. Diet.

CO'BALT, n. [D. cobalt. This is said to be the G. kobold, a goblin, the demon of the mines; so called by miners, because co- balt was troublesome to miners, and at first its value was not known.]

A mineral of a reddish gray or grayish white color, very brittle, of a fine close grain, compact, but easily reducible to powder. It crystalizes in bundles of needles, arran- ged one over another. It is never found in a pure state ; but usually as an oxyd, or


combined vnth arsenic or its acid, with sulphur, iron, &c. Its ores are arranged under the following species, viz. arsenical cobalt, of a white color, ]>assing to steel gray; its texture is granular, and when heated it exhales the odor of garlic : gray cobalt, a compound of cobalt, arsenic, iron, and sulphur, of a white color, with a tinge of red ; its structure is foliated, and its crystals have a cube for their priniitivo form : sulphuret of cobalt, compact and massive in its structure : oxyd of cobalt, brown or brownish black, generally fria- ble and earthy : sulphate and arseniate of cobalt, both of a red color, the former so- luble in water. The impure oxyd of co- balt is called zaffer ; but when fu.sed witli three parts of siliceous sand and an alka- line flux, it is converted into a blue glass, called smalt. The great use of cobalt is to give a pei-manent blue color to glass and enamels ui)on metals, porcelain and car- thern wares.

Fourcroy. Encyc. Cleaveland-

Cobalt-bloom, acicular ar-^eniate of cobalt.

Cfjbalt-crusl, earthy arseniate of cobalt.

COB.vLT'IC, a. Pertaining to cobalt, or con- sisting of it ; resembling cobalt, or con- taining it.

COB'BLE, \\\\ [Eng. copple. This

COB'BLE-STONE, \\\\ "■ seems to be of Welsh origin, W. cub, a mass, a cube, or cob, cop, head, top.]

A roundish stone ; a pebble ; supposed to be a fragment, rounded by the attrition of water. We give this name to stones of various sizes, from that of a hen's egg or smaller, to that of large paving stones. These stones are called by the English copple-stones and boiolder-stones or bowl- ders. The latter name is among us known only in books.

COB'BLE, r. <. [In Persic, jLj^f kobal, is a shoemaker.]

1. To make or mend coarsely, as shoes ; to botch. Shak.

2. To make or do clumsily or unhandily ; as, to cobble rhymes. Dryden.

COB'BLER, n. A mender of shoes.


2. A clumsy w orkman. Shak.

3. A mean jjerson. Dryden. COBBLING, ppr. Mending coarsely. COBBY, a. Stout ; brisk. [.Vot in use.]


COB'CAL, n. A sandal worn by ladies in the east.

COB'COALS, n. Large round coals.

COBELLIG'ERENT, a. [See Belligerent.]

Carrying on war iti conjunction with another power.

COBELLIG'ERENT, n. A nation or state that carries on war in connection with an- other.

COBIRON, n. [See Cob.] An andiron with a knob at the top. Bacon.

COBISH'OP, n. A joint or coadjutant bish- op. Ayliffe.

CO'BLE, n. [Sax. cuopk.] A boat used in the herring fishery.

COB'LOAF, n. A loaf that is irregular, uneven or crusty. Qu. Is it not a round loaf.5

COB'NUT, n. A boy's play, or a hazle-nut

c o c

c o c

c o c

so railed, used in play ; the conquering

nut. >flah. Barret

€OBOOSE, n. [See Caboose.] eOB'STONE, n. [See Cobble.] COB'SWAN, n. [eob, head, and swan.] The

head or leading swan. B. Jonson

COB'WEB, n. [cob or koppe, a spider ; D

spinnekop ; Sax. atter-coppa, poison spider.

In Ch. '30 is a spider's web.]

1. The line, thread or filament which a spi der spins from its abdomen ; the net-work spread by a spider to catch its prey, Hence,

9. Any snare, implying insidiousness and

weakness. Johnson

In this sense it is used adjectively or in com

position, for thin, flimsy; as a cobweb law

Dryden. Smjl.

Or slender, feeble ; as the cobweb thread of

life. Buckminster.

COB'WEBBED, a. In ftotani/, covered with

a thick interwoven pubescence. Martyn.

2. Covered with cobwebs. €0'€ALON, n. A large cocoon, of a weak

texture. Encyc.

€OCCIF'EROUS, a. [L. coccus, and fero, to bear ; Gr. xoxxos, a beyry, grain or seed, or a red berry used in dyeing ; VV. cac, red.]

Bearing or producing berries ; as cocciferous trees or plants. Quincy.

€0€'€OLITE, n. [Gr. xoxxo;, a berry, and ^tfio;, a stone.]

A variety of augite or pyroxene ; called by Haay, granuliform pyroxene. Its color is usually some shade of green. It is compo- sed of granular distinct concretions, easily separable, some of which present the ap- pearance of crystals whose angles and ed- ges have been obhterated.

Cleaveland. Dkl, Mit. Hist.

Cocculus Indicus, the fruit of the Menisper- mum cocculus, a poisonous berry, often used in adulterating malt liquors. Enci/c.

COCiriNEAL, ?i. [Sp. cochiniUa, a wood- louse, and an insect used in dyeing ; It. rocciniglia ; Fr. cochcnille ; from the Gr. xoxKo;, as the cochineal was formerly supposed to be the grain or seed of a plant, and this word was formerly defined to be the grain of the i/exg'^amK/era. See Greg- oire's Armoric Diciionary.]

An insect, the Coccus cadi, of the genus Coc- cus, a native of the w armer climates of America, particularly of Oaxaca, in Mex- ico. It is found on a plant called nopal or Indian fig-tree. The female, which alone is valued for its color, is ill-shaped, tardy and stupid ; the male is small, slen- der and active. It is of the size of a tick. At a suitable time, these insects are gath- ered and put in a pot, where they are confined for some time, and then killed by the application of heat. These insects thus killed form a mass or drug, which is the proper cochineal of the shops. It is used in giving red colors, especially crim- son and scarlet, and for making carmine. It has been used in medicine, as a cardiac, sudorific, alexipharmic and febrifuge ; but is now used only to give a color to tinct- ures, &c. Encyc. €0€l!'LEARY, } [L. cochlea, a screw,

COCH'LEATE, S o. the shell of a snai

COCH'LEATED, S Gr. xox^s, from xox^, to turn or twist.]

Having the form of a screw ; spiral ; turb ated ; as a cochleate pod. Martyn.

CO€H'LITE, n. [Gr. xo^xmk, a snail.] A fossil shell having a mouth hke that of a snail. Morin

€OCK, n. [Sax. coc ; Fr. coq ; Arm. gocq ; Sans, kuka ; Slav, kokosch. The sense ' that which shoots out or up ; It. cocca, the tip of a spindle, the top or crown ; L. ca Qumen.]

1. The male of birds, particularly of galli- naceous or domestic fowls, which having no appropriate or distinctive name, are called dunghill fowls or barn-door fowls

2. A weather-cock ; a vane in shape of cock. Shak.

[It is usually called a weather-cock.]

3. A spout ; an instrument to draw out oi discharge Uquor from a cask, vat or pipe so named from its projection.

4. The projecting corner of a hat. Addison

5. A small conical pile of hay, so shaped for shedding rain ; called in England a cop. When hay is dry and rolled together for carting, the heaps are not generally called cocks, at least not in New England. A large conical pile is called a stack.

6. The style or gnomon of a dial. Chambers. ". The needle of a balance.

Bailey. Johnson. . The piece which covers the balance in a clock or watch. Bailey

9. The notch of an arrow. [It. cocca.]


10. The part of a musket or other fire arm, to which a flint is attached, and which, being impelled by a spring, strikes fire, and opens the pan at the same time.

11. A small boat. [W. cwc, Ir. coca, D. and Dan. kaag. It. cocca.] It is now called a cock-boat, which is tautology, as cock itself! is a boat.

12. A leader; a chief man.

Sir Andrew is the cock of the club. ..Iddison. 1.3. Cock-crowing ; the tima wiien cocks

crow in the morning. Shak.

Cock a hoop, or cock on the hoop, a phrase

denoting triunq)h; triumphant; exulting.

[Qu. Fr. coq a Inippe. Bailey.]

Camden. Shak. Hudibras. Cock and a bull, a phrase denoting tedious

trifling stories. COCK, V. t. To set erect ; to turn up ; as,

to cock the nose or ears. Mdison.

2. To set the brim of a hat so as to make sharp corners or points ; or to set uj) with an air of pertness. Prior.

3. To make up hay in small conical piles.

4. To set or draw back the cock of a gun, in order to fire. Dryden

eOCK, J), i. To hold up the head ; to strut ; to look big, ])ert, or menacing.

Dryden. Addison

2. To train or use fighting cocks. [Little used.] B. Jonson

3. To cocker. [Ml in use.] COCKA'DE, n. [Fr. cocarde; Sp. cocarda ;

Port, cocar, or cocarda.]

A ribin or knot of ribin, or something simi- lar, worn on the hat, usually by ofticeri: of the army or navy, sometimes by others. It most usually designates the military character; sometimes political parties.

COC KA'DED, a. Wearing a cockade. Young.

eOCK'AL, n. A game called buckle bone. Kinder.

COCKATOO', 71. A bird of the parrot kind, Herbert.

COCK'ATRICE, n. [Fr. cocatrii, from coc. Junius mentions the word as in D. kocke- tras. The Irish call it riogh-nathair, the king-serpent, answering to basilisk.]

A serpent imagined to proceed from a cock's egg. Bacon. Taylor. Is. xi. 8. Ux. 5.

COCK-BILL. In seamen's language, the anchor is « cock-bill, when it is suspended perpendicularly from the cat-head, ready to be let go in a moment. Mar. Diet.

COCK'-BOAT, n. A small boat. [See Cock, No. 11.]

COCK'-BRAINED, a. Giddy ; rash.


COCK-BROTH, n. Broth made by boil- ing a cock. Harvey.

COCK'-CHAFFER, n. The May-bug or dorr-beetle, a species of Scarabaeus.

COCK'-CROWING, n. The time at which cocks crow ; early mornuig. Mark xiii.

COCK'ER, V. I. [W. cocru. See Coar.]

To fondle ; to indulge ; to treat with tender- ness ; to pamper. Locke. SwiJI.

COCK'ER, n. One who follows cock-fight- ing. JohnsoJi.

2. A sort of spatter-dash. Bp. Hall.

COCK'EREL, n. A young cock. Dryden.

COCK'ERING, n. Indulgence. Milton.

COCK'ET, a. Brisk ; pert. Sheru-ood.

COCK'ET, n. [Qu. Fr. cachet, Arm. cacheot, a seal.]

A seal of the custom-house ; a royal seal ; rather a scroll of parchment, sealed and delivered by the ofiicers of the custom- house, to merchants, as a warrant that their merchandize is entered. The oflice of entry. Spelman. Coioel. Encyc.

COCK'ET-BREAD, n. The finest sort of wheat bread. Qu. stamped-bread.

COCK'-FIGHT, I ^, A match or con,

COCK'-FIGHTING, ^ "■ test of cocks; a barbarous sport of the ancients, and mod- erns, in which cocks are set to fight with each other, till one or the other is con- quered. Bacon. Addison.

COCK'-HORSE, a. On horse back ; trium- phant ; exulting. Prior.

COCK'ING, n. Cock-figliting. Beaum.

COCK'LE, n. [Sax. coccel, cocel, or code; Ir.cagal; Sp. and Port, joyo ; Fr. coque- licot.]

A plant or weed that grows among com, the cornrose, a species of Agrostemma. It is also apphed to the Lolium or darnel.

COCK'LE, 71. [Fr. coque, coquille ; L. coch- lea ; W. cocos, plu.; Gr. xox'>^of, xo;t>-'»5, from xox'^.io, to turn or roll. Probably by giving the X «i nasal soimd, Gr. xoyxr;, L. concha, are from the same root, whence xoyx'^oi', L. conchylium. It. conchiglia. See Conch.]

1. A small testaceous shell ; or rather a genus of shells, the Cardium. The general char- acteristics are ; shells nearly equilateral and equivalvidar ; hinge with two small teeth, one on each side near the beak, and two larger remote lateral teeth, one on each side ; prominent ribs running from the hinge to the edge of the valve.

Cicmer. lAnne.

2. A mineral; a name given by the Cornish miners to shirt or short. A"icholsoji.

3. A young cock. Obs. [See Cockerel.]


c o c

COCK'LE, V. i. or t. To contract into wrin kles ; to shrink, pucker, or wrinkle, as cloth. Bailey.

tOCK'LED, pp. Contracted into folds or wrinkles ; winding.

2. Having shells.

■COCK'LER, 71. One that takes and sells cockles. Gray.

COCK'LE-STAIRS, n. Winding or spiral stairs. Chambers.

€0C;K'-L0FT, n. [Sec Cock.] The top-loft the upper room in a house or other build- ing ; a lumber room. Dryden. Swifl.

€OCK'-MASTER, n. One who breeds game cocks. UEstrange.

€OCK'-MATCri, n. A match of cocks ; a cock-fight. Addison.

eOCK'NEY, n. [Most probably from L. coquina, a kitchen, or co

1. A native of London, by way of contempt.

Watts. Shak.

a. An effeminate, ignorant, despicable citi- zen. Shak

€OCK'NEYLH<^E, a. Resembling the man- ners of a cockney. Burton

COCK'-PADDLE, n. The lump fish or sea- owl. Encyc.

•eOCK'PIT, n. A pit or area, where game cocks fight. Shak.

2. In ships of war, a room or apartment, in which the wounded men are dressed ; sit- uated near the after-hatchway, under the lower gun-deck. The fore-cockpit is a place leading to the magazine passage and the store room of the boatswain, gunner and carpenter. Mar. Diet.

■COCK'ROACH, 71. A genus of insects, the Blatta, of several species. They have ♦bur semicrustaceous wings, and resemble the beetle ; the head is inflected towards the breast ; the feelers are hard like bris- tles ; the elytra and wings are plain and resemble parchment. These animals are very troublesome, as they enter chests of clothes, meal-tubs, pantries, and infest beds. They avoid the hght, and have a very unsavory smell. Encyc.

COCKS'eOMB, ji. The caruncle or comb of a cock.

2. A plant. This name is given to the Celo- sia cristata, the Pedicularls or louse-tcort, and the Rliinanthus, or yellow rattle.

Fam. of Plants. Lee.

3. A fop, or vain silly fellow. [See Coxcomb.] €OCKS'HEAD, n. A plant, the Hedysarum

or sainfoin. Favi. of Plants.

eOCK'SHUT, n. The close of the day,

when fowls go to roost. Shak.

COCK'SPUR, n. Virginia hawthorn, a

species of medlar. Mille

€OCK'SURE, a. Confidently certain. [A

hw word.] Pope.

€OCK'SWAIN, ?!. contracted into coren.

[See Stcain.] An officer on board of a sliip


who has the care of the boat and the boat's crew. Mar. Diet.

COCK-WEED, 71. A plant called also dit tandcr and pepperwort. Johnson.

COCOA, 71. co'co. [Sp. coco ; Port, coco, the nut, and coqueiro, tlie tree ; It. cocco ; Fr. coco.]

A tree belonging to the genus Cocas, of the order of Palmar ; and the fruit or nut of the tree. This tree grows in the warm climates of both the Indies. It the highth of 00 feet, and the stem is like an apothecary's pestle, of equal thickness at the ends, but somewhat smaller in the middle. The bark is smooth, of a pale brown color, and the tree often leans one side. The leaves or branches are 14 or 15 feet long, about 28 in number, wing ed, of a yellow color, straig-ht and taper ing. The nuts hang in clusters of a dozen each, on the top of the tree. The husk of this nut consists of strong, tough, stringy filaments, resembling coarse oak- um. This covers a hard shell, which con- tains a white kernel that is whftlesome food, and a liquor which is a coohng bev- erage, Encyc.

CO'COA-NUT, 71. The nut or fruit of the ocoa-tree.

COCOON', n. [Fr. cocon.] An oblong ball or case in which the silk-worm involves itself, formed by threads which compose silk.

COC'TILE, a. [L. coctilis, from coquo, to cook.]

Made by baking, or exposing to heat, as a brick.

COC'TION, n. [L. coctio, from coquo, to cook.]

The act of boiling or exposing to heat liquor. In medicine, that alteration in the crude matter of a disease, which fits it for a discharge ; digestion. Core. Encyc.

COD, ) A .species of fish, of the ge-

COD'FISH, I "■ nus Gadus, inhabiting nor- thern seas, but particularly the banks ofl Newfoundland, and the shores of New England. [See Haddock.]

COD, 71. [Sax. codd ; W. cod, cwd ; G. hode. Probably in a different dialect, Fr. cosse. or eco«se.]

1. Any husk, envelop or case, containing the seeds of a plant ; apod. Mortimtr.

2. A bag ; the scrotum.

3. A pillow. [JVot in use.] COD'DED, a. Inclosed in a rod. Mortimer. COD'DER, 71. A gatherer of cods or peas.


COD'DY, a. Husky. Sherwood.

CODE, n. [L. codex, or catidex ; Fr. code; It. codice ; Sp. codi^o.^ The Latin word signifies the stem ot a tree, and a board or number of boards united, on which ac- counts were kept. So the Greeks used axi^f;, a board, for a like purpose, from (j;t'?", to cut or split; whence L. scheda, a sheet.]

1. A collection of the laws and constitutions of the Roman emi)erors, made by order of Justinian, containing twelve books. The name is also given to otlier collections of Roman laws ; as the Theodosian code Hence in general,

2. Any collection or digest of laws.

Pope. Blackstone. COD GER, v- [Sp. coger, to catch, says


Todd. Hence he defines the \\\\ford by

7nwer. But the ])rimary sense is by no

means obvious. I take "it to be a corrup- tion of cottager, Norm, cotier.] A rustic ; a clown ; a miserly man. COD'ICIL, n. [L. codiciUus, dim. of codex.]

A writing by way of supplement to a will.


CODILLE, 71. codill'. [Fr. codille ; Sp. co-

dillo, the knee, a joint ; codo, the elbow,

that is, a turn or a fastening.] A term at ombre, when the game is won.

Pope. COD'LE, ? , . To parboil, or soften by COD'DLE, S the heat of water. COD'LE, V. t. To make much of. [Xof in

ttse.] CODLING, i An apple codled ; or one COD'LIN, J"" suitable for codling, or

used for that piirjjose. Bacon. Mortimer. CODLING, 71. A young cod. COEF'FICACY, n. [con and effcacy, L.

ejficio.] Joint efJicacy; the power of two or more

things acting together to produce an effect.


COEFFP'CIENCY, n. [con and efficiency,

L. efficio.] Cooperation ; joint power of two or more

things or causes, acting to the same end.


COEFFP'CIENT, a. [con and L. efficiens.]

Cooperating ; acting m union to the same

end. COEFFI'CIENT, n. That which unites in

action with something else to produce the

same effect.

2. In algebra, a number or known quantity put before letters, or quantities, known or unknown, and into which it is supposed to be multiplied; as in 3i and a i, '3 and a are the coefficients of x.

3. In fluxions, the coefficient of any genera- ting term is the quantity which arises from the division of that term by the generated quantity. Chambers. Bailey.

COEFFP'CIENTLY, adv. By cooperation.

CO-ELD'ER, n. An elder of the same rank. Trapp.

CCE'LIAC, I [Gr. xoaiaxof, from xoaio,

CE'LIAC, l"- the belly; allied perhaps to xoiXos, hollow.]

Pertaining to the belly, or to the intestinal canal.

Ccetiac artery is the artery which issues from the aorta just below the diaphragm.

£71 eye.

Cceliac passion, the lientery, a flux or diar- rhoea of undigested food. Coxe.

Caliac vein, a vein of the intestinum rectum. Core.

COEMPTION, 71. [L. coemptio ; con and e7no, to bny.]

The act of purchasing the whole quantity

I of an V commodity. Bacon.

COENJOY', V. t. To enjoy together.


COE'QUAL, a. [L. eoji and equalis, equal.] Equal with another person or thing ; of the same rank, dignity or power. Shak.

COE'QUAL, 71. One who is equal to an- other.

COEQUAL'ITY, 71. The state of being equal with another; equaUty in rank, dig- nity or power.

C0E"'QUALLY, adv. With joint equality.


COERCE', V. t. coers'. [L. coerceo ; con and arcco, to drive, or press.]

). To restrain l»y force; to keep from act- ing, or transgressing, particularly by moral force, as by law or authority ; to repress.

2. To compel ; to constrain.

These causes — coerced by those which pre- ceded and coercing those which followed.

Dtvight, Theol. COER'CED, pp. Restrained by force ; com- pelled. COER'CIBLE, a. That may or ought to be

restrained or compelled. eOER'CING, ppr. Restraining by force


regularly followed by

Locke. Beniley.

[L. con and extendo.

€OER'CTON, n. Restraint, check, partic ularly by law or authority ; compidsion ; force. South

€OER'CIVE, a. That has powder to res- train, particularly by moral force, as of law or authority. Hooker. Diyden

2. Compulsory ; constraining ; forcing. €OER'CIVELY, adv. By constraint. eOESSEN'TIAL, a. [co7i and essential,

from L. esseHlialis. See Essence.] I'artaking of the same essence.

We bless and magnify that coeasential spirit

eternally proceeding from the father and sou.


COESSENTIAL'ITY, »i. Participation of

the same essence. Johnson.

COESSEN'TIALLY, adv. In a coessential

manner. COESTAB'LISHMENT, Ji. Joint estab lishment. Bp. of Lamlaff.

COETA'NEOUS, a. [L. coataneus ; con and

atas, age. Coctanean is rarely used.] Of tlie same age with another ; beginning exist at the same time ; with to. " Every faidt has penal effects, coetaneous to the act." But with may be preferable to tc This word is sometimes used as synony inous with cotcm-porary; but coetaneous .seems properly to denote cotemporary in origin, rather than coteniporary in e.xist- ence at any other period. It may howevei be used in both senses. COETERN'AL, a. [L. con and alrrnus.] Equally eternal with another. MUlon COETEilN'ALLY, adv. With equal eter- nity. Hooker COETERN'ITV, n. Existence from eter- nity equal with another eternal being equal eternity. Hammond. COE'VAL, a. [L. coavus; con and

age.] Of the same age; beginning to exist at the same time ; of equal age ; usually an l)roiJerly followed by with.

Hale. Pope. Btntley.

COE'VAL, 11. One of the same age; one

who begins to exist at the same time. It

is not properly used as synonymous witl


€OE'VOUS, o. The same as coeval, but not

used. ■So"''!

CO-EXECUTOR, n. A joint executor.

COEXIST', V. i. [L. con and exislo. See


To exist at the same time with another ;

followed by loilh. Hale. Locke.

eOEXIST^ENCE, n. Existence at the

same time with another ; followed regu

larly by with. Locke. Grew.

COEXIST'ENT, a. Existing at the same

time with another tiAth. eOEXTEND', v.i

See Extend.] To extend through the same space or dura tion with another ; to extend equally ; as one line coextends with another ; or perhaps in a transitive sense, to coextend a line with another. eOEXTEND'ED,;)/). Being equally exten- ded. Grew. COEXTEND'ING, ppr. Extending through the same space or duration with another. COEXTEN'SION, n. The act of extending equally, or the state of being equally ex- tended. Hale. COEXTEN'SIVE, o. Equally extensive;

having equal extent. COEXTENSIVENESS, n. Equal exten-

or extent. eOF'PEE, n. [Fr. caffc ; It. caffe ; Sp. cafe ; Port. id. ; G. kaffee ; D. koffy; Ar. cahuahr The berry of a tree belonging to the genus Coffea," growing in Arabia, Persia, and in other warm chmates of Asia and America. It will grow to the highth of 16 or 18 feet, but its growth is generally stinted to five feet, for the convenience of gathering the fruit. The stem is upright, and covered with a light brown bark ; the branches are horizontal and opposite, crossing each other at every joint, and forming a sort of pyramid. The flowers grow in clusters at the root of the leaves, and close to the branches ; they are of a pure white and of an agreeable odor. The fruit which is < berry, grows in clusters, along the branch es, under the axils of the leaves. Encyc 3. A drink made from the berry of the coffee tree, by decoction. The berry is first roasted, and then ground in a mill, and boiled. The use of it is said to have been introduced into Franco by Thevenot, the traveler, and into England, in 1G52, by a Greek servant, called Pasqua. The best coffee is said to be the Mocha coffee from Arabia Felix. Tlie coffee of Java, Bour bon and the West Indies constitutes an important article of commerce. eOF'FEE-€UP, n. A cup from which coffee

is drank. €OF'FEE-HOUSE, n. A house of enter- tainment, where guests are supplied with coffee and other refreshments, and where men meet for conversation.

Prior. Swift.

A house of entertainment ; an inn ; which

in some cities is also an exchange where

merchants meet to transact business.

COF'FEE-MAN, n. One who keeps a cof-

house. Addison-

eOF'FEE-POT, n. A covered pot in which

coffee is boiled, or in which it is brought

\\\\ipon the table for drinking

COF'FER, n, [Fr. coffre ; Arm. confr,

coffr ; Ir. cofra ; Sp. cofre ; Port. id. ; D. atul

G. koffer ; Dan. koffeH ; Sw. id ; W

fawr, from cof a hollow trunk. The same

French word coffre signifies a coffer, aw'

the trunk of the body, and a coffin. In Ai

yf.X3 is a chest or basket. The prima

ry sense is probably a holder, or a hoUov place.] . A chest or trunk ; and as a chest is cus


tomarily used for keeping money, henco

2. A chest of money ; a treasure. Bacon.

3. In architecture, a square depression or sinking in each interval between the mo- dillions of the Corinthian cornice, ordin- arily filled with a rose, a pomegranate or other enrichment. Chambers. Encyc.

4. In fortificalion, a hollow lodgment across a dry moat, from 6 to 7 feet deep and from 16 to 18 broad ; the upper part made of pieces of timber, raised two feet .ibove the level of the moat ; which little eleva- tion lias hurdles laden with earth for its covering, and serves as a parapet with embrasures. It is raised by the besieged to repulse besiegers when they endeavor to pass the ditch. Chambers. Encyc.

COF'FER, V. t. To reposit or lay up in a coffer. Bacon.

COF'FERED, pp. Laid up in a coffer.

COF'FERER, n. The Cofferer of the king's household in Great Britain, a principal offi- cer of the court, next under the Control- ler. He was also a white-staff officer, and a member of the privy council. He had the special charge and oversight of the other officers of the household. This office is now suppressed, and the business is transacted by the lord steward and pay- master of the household. Cowel. Encyc.

COF'FIN, 71. [Fr. coffre. See Coffer. In French, coffin is a candle-basket ; Gr. xo^t- voi; Norm. French, cojin, a basket; Sp. cojln ; radically the same word as coffer.]

1. The chest or box in which a dead human body is buried, or deposited in a vault.

2. A mold of paste for a pie. Johnson.

3. A paper case, in the form of a cone, used by grocers. Johnson.

4. In farriery, the hollow part of a horse'.s hoof; or the whole hoof above the coro- net, including the coffin-bone, which is a small spungy bone in the midst of the hoof^ and possessing the whole form of the hoof.

Bailey. Farrier's Diet.

COF'FIN, V. t. To put in or inclose in a

coftiii. Shak. Donne.

COF'FINED, pp. Inclosed in a coffin.

COFFIN-MAKER, n. One who makes, or

whose occupation is to malie coffins.

TaUer. COFOUND'ER, n. A joint founder.

ff'eever. COG, V. t. [W. coegiaw, to make void, to deceive, from coeg, empty, vain.]

1. To flatter ; to wheedle ; to seduce or draw frotn, by adidation or artifice.

I'll cog their hearts from them. Shak.

2. To obtrude or thrust in, by falsehood or deception ; as, to cog in a word to serve a purpose. Stillingfleet. Tillotson. Dennis.

To cog a die, to secure it so as to direct

its fall ; to falsify ; to cheat in playing dice.

Dryden. Swif.

COG, I', i. To deceive ; to cheat ; to lie.

Tusser. Shak.

2. To wheedle. , , ^

COG, n. [W. cocos, cogs of a wheel. Qu. Sp. fog-cr, to catch, or Welsh coctf, a mass or lump, cog, a mass, a short piece of wood.] . .

The tooth of a wheel, by which it drives another wheel or body. .

COG, V. t. To fix a cog ; to furnish with cogs.




€OG, I A boat ; a fisliinfr boat. It is

COG'GLE, \\\\ probably tlie \\\\V. cwc, It. com. [See Cock.]

CO'liENCY, n. [L. cogens, from cogo; con and ago, to drive.]

Force ; strength ; power of compelling i erally, urgency, or driving. It is used chiefly of moral subjects, and in relation to force or pressure on the mind ; as the cogenci) of motives or arguments. Locke.

eOiJE'IVJIAL, for congenial. [JVot itstil.]


€0'(iENT, a. [Sec Cogency.]

1. Forcible, in o physical sense ; as the cogent force of natiu-e. Prior.

2. Urgent ; pressing on the mind ; forcible ; powerful ; not easily resisted ; as a cogent reason, or argument.

The harmony of the universe furnishes coge/ii proofs of a deity. Anon.

CO'tiENTLY, adv. With urgent force ; with powerful impulse; forcibly. Locke.

€OCr'GED, pp. Flattered ; deceived ; cheat- ed; thrust in deceitfully; falsified; furn- ished with cogs.

eOG'GER, n. A flatterer, or deceiver.

€OG'GERY, n. Trick ; falsehood. H'alson

€OG'GING, ppr. Wheedling ; deceiving cheating; inserting deceitfully; fixing cogs.

COG'GING, n. Cheat ; deception ; fallacy ; Beaum.

COG'ITABLE, a. [See CogUate.] That may be thought on ; that may be medita- ted on. Johnson.

COG'ITATE, v. i. [L. cog^o. Varro says from cogo, quasi coagilo, to agitate in the mind. But the Gothic hugyan, and Sax, hogirm, signify to think.]

To think ; to meditate. [Little iised.]

COgITA'TION, n. The act of thinking ; thought ; meditation ; contemplation.

Hooker. Bentley. Milton.

% Thought directed to an object ; purpose. Bacon.

COG'ITATIVE, a. Thinking ; having the power of thinking, or meditating ; as a cogitative substance. Bentley.

2. Given to thought, or contemplation.


COG'NATE, a. [L. cognnlus ; con and nas- cor, to be born.]

1. Allied by blood ; kindred by birth.

2. Related in origin ; proceeding from the same stock ; of the same family ; as a cognate dialect.

3. Allied in the manner of formation or ut terance ; uttered by the same organs ; as a cognate letter or sound.

COG'NATE, n. In Scots law, any male relation through the mother. " Encyc.

COGNATION. 71. [L. cognatio. See Cog- nate.]

1. Ja the civillaw, kindred or natural rela- tion between males and females, both des- cended from the same father ; as agnation is the relation between males only descen- ded from the same stock. Encyc.

'3. Kindred ; relation by descent from the same original.

Pride and hardheartedness are of near cogna- tion to ingratitude. Wotton.

;l. Relation ; participation of the same na- ture. Brown.

€OGNI"TION, n. [L. cognitio ; cognosco, cognitus; con and nosco, to know.]

Knowledge or certain knowledge, as from personal view or experience.

Shak. Brown.

COG'NITIVE, a. Knowing, or apprehend- ing by the understanding ; as cognitive power. \\\\Little used.] South.

COGN'IZABLE, a. con'izable. [Fr. connois sable, from conno'dre, lo know; It. cognos- cere ; Sp. conoeer, conocible ; Port, conhe- cer ; from L. cognosco, con and nosco, to know personally ; Gr. yivuaxu, id.] That falls or may fall under judicial no. tic« ; that may be heard, tried, and deter mined ; as, a cause or action is cognizable before the circuit court.

These wrongs are cognizable by the eccle astical courts. Blackstone.

2. That falls or may fall under notice or ob- servation ; that may be known, perceived or api)rehended.

The cause of many phenomena is not cogm zable hv the senses. Anon.

COGN'IZANCE, n. con'izance. [Fr. con noissance ; It. cognoscenza ; Sp. conocen- cia ; Port, cotihecenpa.] I. Judicial notice or knowledge ; the hear- ing, trying and determining of a cause or action in court.

The court of king's bench takes cognizanct

of civil and criminal causes. Blaekstonc

In the United States, the district courts

have cognizance of maritime causes,

9. Jurisdiction, or riglit to try and determine


The court of king's bench has original juris- diction and cognwowce of all actions of trespass vi et armis. Blaekstone.

3. In law, an acknowledgment or confession ; as in fines, the acknowledgment of the cognizor or deforciant, that the right to the land in question is in the plaintiff or cog- nizee, by gift or otherwise ; in replevin, the acknowledgment of the defendant, that he took the goods, but alledging that he did it legally as the bailiff of another person who had a right to distrain.


4. A badge on the sleeve of a waterman or servant, by which he is known to belong to this or that nobleman or gentleman.


5. Knowledge or notice ; perception ; obser- vation ; as the cognizance of the senses.

6. Knowledge by recollection. Spenser. COGNIZEE', n. conizee'. In law,

whom a fine is ackno^^•ledged, or the plaintiff in an action for the assurance of Iand-l)y fine. Blaekstone.

COGNIZOR', n. conizor'. One who ; knowledges the right of the i)laiiitiff or cognizee, in a fine ; otherwise called the defendant or deforciant. Blaekstone.

COGNOM'INAL, a. [L. cognomen, a sur- name ; con and nomen, name.]

1. Pertaining to a surname.

2. Having the same name. [Little used.]


COGNOMINA'TION, n. [L. cognomen.] A

surname ; tlic name of a family ; a name

given from any accident or quality ; as

Alexander the Great. Broicn

COGNOS'CENCE, n. [See Cognition.]

Knowledge ; the act or state of knowing.

[Little 7ised.] COGNOS'CIBLE. a. That may be known. [Little used.] Hale

COGNOS'CITIVE, a. Having the power of knowing. Cudworth.

COGUAR, n. A carnivorous quadrur)ed of America.

CO-GUARDIAN, n. A joint guardian.


COHABIT, v.i. [L. con and haltito, to dwell.]

1. To dwell with ; to inhabit or reside in company, or in the same place, or country.

Stiles. SouVi.

2. To dwell or live together as husband and wife ; usually or often apjtiied to jjersone not legally married.

COHABITANT, n. One who dweUs with

another or in tlie same place.

Decay of piety. COHABITA'TION, n. The act or state of

dwelhng together or in the same place

with another. Stiles, Elect. Senn.

2. The state of living together as man and

wife, without being legally married.

Bacon. COHEIR, n. coa'ir. [L. cohmres ; con and

hmres, an heir. See Heir.] A joint heir ; one who succeeds to a share

of an inheritance, which is to be divided

among two or more. COHEIRESS, n. coa'iress. A female who

inherits a share of an estate, which is to

be divided among two or more heirs or

heiresses; a joint heiress. COHERE, V. i. [h. cohwreo ; con and ft

reo, to stick or cleave together.]

1. To stick together; to cleave ; to be uni- ted ; to hold fast, as parts of the same mass, or as two substances that attract each other. Thus, particles of clay coliere ; poUshed surfaces of bodies cohere.

2. To be well connected ; to follow regular- ly in the natural order ; to be suited in connection ; as the parts of a discourse, or as arguments in a train of reasoning.

3. To suit ; to be fitted ; to agree. Shak. COHERENCE, ) A sticking, cleaving or COHERENCY, S hanging together ; u-

nion of parts of the same body, or a cleav- ing together of two bodies, by means of attraction ; applied to all substances, solid or fluid. Locke. Bentley.

2. Connection ; suitable connection or de- pendence, proceeding from the natural relation of parts or things to each other, as in the parts of a discourse, or of any system ; consistency. Hooker. Locke.

COHE'RENT, o. Sticking together ; cleav- ing ; as the parts of bodies, solid or fluid. Arbuthnot.

2. Connected ; united, by some relation in form or order ; followed by to, but rather by tcHh. Locke.

3. Suitable or suited ; regularly adapted. ShaJc,

4. Consistent ; having a due agreement of parts ; as a coherent discourse. Or obser- ving due agreement ; as a coherent thinker or reasoner.

COHERENTLY, adv. In a coherent man- ner ; with due connection or agreement of parts.

COIIE'SION, 71. sas z. [It. coesione; from E. coha:si, pret. of co?i^reo.]

I. The act of slicking together; the state of being imited by natural attraction, as the constituent particles of bodies which unite


c o


in a mass, by a natural tendency ; one oH the diffeient species of attraction.

JVewlon. Arbuthnot.

'i. Connection ; dependence ; as the cohesion of ideas. But iii this sense, see Cohe- rence. Locke.

COHE'SIVE, a. That has the power of sticking or coliering ; tending to unite in a mass, and to resist separation.


COHESIVELY, adv. With cohesion.

■COHE'SIVENESS, ji. The quality of being cohesive ; the quaUty of adhering together. us particles of matter.

CO'HOBATE, V. t. [Port, cohorar.]

Among chimists, to repeat the distillation of the same liquor or that from the s body, pouring the liquor back upon the matter remaining in the vessel.

Bailey. Encyc.

CO'HOBATED, pp. Repeatedly distilled.

CO'HOBATING, ;);?r. Distilling repeatedly,

COHOBA'TION, n. [Sp. cohobacion.] The operation of repeatedly distilhng the same Uquor, or that from the same substance. Encyc.

€OH0ES, or COHO'ZE, n. A fall of water or falls ; a word of Indian origin in America.

CO'HORT, n. [L.cohors; Fr. cohorte ; It coorte ; Sp. cohorte ; Port, id.]

1. Among the Romans, a body of about five or six hundred men ; each cohort consisted of three maniples, and each maniple, of two centuries; and ten cohorts constituted a legion. Mam, Rom. Ant

2. In poetry, a band or body of warriors.


■COHORT A'TION, n. Exhortation ; encour- agement. [A/'ot used.] Diet.

COIF, n. [Fr. coiffe ; Arm. coeff; It. cuffia, a cap ; Sp. cofa, a net of silk or thread worn on the head ; Port, coifa, a caul.]

A kind of caul, or cap, worn on the head, by sergeants at law, and others. Its chief use was to cover the clerical tonsure.


COIF, V. t. To cover or dress with a coif.

■eOIF'ED, a. Wearing a coif

-COIF'FURE, n. [Fr.] A head-dress.


€OIGNE, for coin. [See Coin, a corner.] Sliak

COIGNE or COIN'Y, v.i. To Uve by extor- tion. [An Irish tvord.] Bryskett

COIL, V. t. [Fr. cueillir; perhaps Or. tiUu. or xv^M. See the roots, hhl and Snp, Class Gl. No. 5. 48.] '

To gather, as a line or cord into a circular form ; to wind into a ring, as a serpent, or a rope.

COIL, n. A rope gathered into a ring shipboard, a single turn or winding is called a fake, and a range of fakes is called a tier.

Q. A noise, tumult, bustle. [JVot used.]

Bailey. Johnson.

COIL'ED, pp. Gathered into a circular form, as a rope or a serpent.

COII,'ING, ppr. Gathering or winding into a ring or circle.

COIN, n. [Fr. coin, a corner, a wedge Arm. coign ; Sp. esquina, a corner, and Ciiha, a wedge ; Port, quina ; L. cuneus Gr. -/uiHtt: Ir. rvinn( : W. gaing, or cyn

a wedge. The pronunciation of this word, by our common people, is quine, or quoin when appUed to a wedging stone, in ma sonry. See the ne.xt word.]

1. A corner; a jutting point, as of a wall.


Rustic coins, stones jutting from a wall

for new buildings to be joined to. Bailey.

2. A wedge for raising or lowering a piece of ordnance. Bailey.

3. A wedge or piece of wood to lay between casks on shipboard. Bailey.

COIN, 71. [Sp. cuha ; Port, cunho, a die to stamp money ; Sp. acunar, to coin or im- press money, to wedge; Port, cunhar ; It, conio, a die ; coniare, to coin ; Fr. coin ; Ar,

• Li" to hanmier, forge or stamp. The

sense is, to strike, beat, or drive, coinciding with the French coigner, or cogner. Hence we see that coin, whether it signifies a cor ner, a wedge or a die, is from the same root, from thrusting, driving.] Primarily, the die employed for stamping money. Hence,

1. Money stamped ; apieceof metal, as gold silver, copper, or other metal, converted into money, by impressing on it marks, figures or characters. To n)ake good money, these impressions must be made under the authority of government. That which is stamped without authority is call ed false or counterfeit coin. Formerly, all coin was made by hammering ; but it is now impressed by a machine or mill.

Current coin is coin legally stamped and circulating in trade.

Ancient coins are chiefly those of the Jews, Greeks and Romans, which are kept in cabinets as curiosities.

2. In architecture, a kind of die cut diagona ly, after the manner of a flight of a stair case, serving at bottom to support columns in a level, and at top to correct the incli- nation of an entablature supporting a vault. Encyc.

3. That which serves for payment.

The loss of present advantage to flesh and blood is repaid in a nobler coin. Hammond COIN, V. t. To stamp a metal, and converl it into money ; to mint.

2. To make ; as, to coin words. Shak.

3. To make ; to forge ; to fabricate ; in an ill sense ; as, to com a lie ; to coin a fable,

Hudibras. Dryden. COIN'AtsE, ) The act, art or practice of| COIN'ING, I ■ stamping money.


2. Coin ; money coined : stamped and legit- lated metal for a circulating medium.

3. Coins of a particular stamp; as the coin- age of George III.

4. The charges or expense of coining money

5. A making ; new production ; formation ; as the coinage of words.

6. Invention ; forgery ; fabrication.

This is the very coinage of your brain.


COINCI'DE, V. i. [L. con and incido, to fall

on ; in and cado, to fall. See Cadence,

Case. Low L. coincido ; Sp. coincidir ;

Fr. coincider.]

1. To fall or to meet in the same point, as

two lines, or bodies ; followed by with.

If (he cijuator and the ecliptic had coincided

it would have rendered the annual revolution of the earth useless. Cheyne.

2. To concur ; to be consistent with ; to agree.

The rules of right judgment and of good rati- ocination often coincide with each other.


The judges did not coincide in opinion.

COIN'CIDENCE, n. The falhng or meeting

of two or more lines, surfaces, or bodies in

the same point. Bentley.

2. Concurrence ; consistency ; agreement ; as the coincidence of two or more opin- ions; ctnncirfence of evidences. Hale.

3. A meeting of events in time ; concurrence ; a happening at the same time ; as coinci- dence of events.

COIN'CIDENT, a. Falling on the same point ; meeting as lines, surfaces or bodies : followed by tvith. JSTewton.

2. Concurrent ; consistent ; agreeable to ; followed by uith.

Christianity teaches nothing but what is per- fectly coincident with the ruling principles of a virtuous man. South.

COINCI'DER, n. He or that which coin- cides or concurs.

COINCI'DING, ppr. Meeting in the same

from indico, to show.] In medicine, a sign or symptom, which, with

other signs, assists to show the nature of

the disease, and the proper remedy ; a

concurrent sign or symptom. COIN'ED, pp. Struck or stamped, as money ;

made ; invented ; forged. COIN'ER, n. One who stamps coin ; a

minter ; a maker of money. Addison.

2. A counterfeiter of the legal coin; amaker of base monej'.

3. An inventor or maker, as of words.


COIN'ING, ppr. Stamping money ; making; inventing ; forging ; fabricating.

COIN'QUINATE, v. t. [L. coinquino.] To pollute. [.Vol used.]

COINQUINA'TION, n. Defilement. [Ab* used.]

COIS'TRIL, n. [Said to be from kestrel, a degenerate hawk.] A coward ; a runa- way. Shak. Johnson.

2. A young lad. Bailey.

COIT, n. A quoit, which see.

COIT'ING. [See quoit.]

COr'TION, n. [L. coitio, from coeo, to come together ; con and eo, to go.] A coming together ; chiefly the venereal intercourse of the sexes ; copulation. Grew.

COJOIN', V. t. [L. conjungo. See Conjoin.] To join with another in the same oflfice. [Little used.] Shak.

COJU'ROR, n. One who swears to another's credibility. Wotton.

COKE, n. Fossil coal charred, or deprived of its bitumen, sulphur or other extraneous or volatile matter by fire, and thus pre- pared for excithig intense heat.

Encyc. Cleavcland.

COL'ANDER, n. [L. colo, to strain ; Fr. couler, to flow, to trickle dovm ; coulant, . flowing ; couloir, a colander.]

A vessel with a bottom perforated with little holes for straining liquors. In America, this name is given, I believe, exclusively to


a vessel of tin, or other metal. In Great Britain, tlie name is given to vessels, like sieves, made with hair, osiers or twigs.

May. Ray. Dryden.

OOLA'TION, n. The act of straining, or purifying liquor, by passing it through perforated vessel. [Little used.]

COL'ATURE, n. The act of straining ; the matter strained. [Ldttle xised.]

COL'BERTINE, n. A kind of lace worn by women. Johnson.

COL'COTHAR, n. The brown red oxyd of iron which remains after the distillation of

' the acid from sulphate of iron ; used for poUshing glass and other substances. It' is called by artists crocus, or crocus^ martis. Enajc. Ure.\\\\

The sulphate of iron is called colcothar or

chalcite, when the calcination has been

carried so far as to drive ott'a considerable

part of the acid. Fourcroy.l

[See Chalcite.]

€OLD, a. [.Sax. cald ; G. kail; D. koud, con- tracted ; Goth, cakh ; Basque, gcddn ; Sw. kail ; Dan. kold, and tlie noun, kulde. The latter seems to be connected with kid, a coal, and kuler, to blow strong. But the connection may be casual. In Swedish, kyla signifies to cool, and to burn ; thus connecting cool, cold, with the L. caleo, to be hot. Both cold and heat may be from rushing, raging, and this word may he from the same root as gale. If not, cool would seem to be allied to L. gelo.]

1. Not warm or hot : gehd ; frigid ; a relative term. A substance is cold to the touch, when it is less warm than the body, and when in contact, the heat of the body passes from the body to the substance ; as cold air ; a cold stone ; cold water. It denotes a greater degree of the quality than cool. [See the Noun.] I

2. Having the sensation of cold ; cliill ; shiv- ering, or inclined to shiver; as, I am cold.

3. Having cold qualities ; as a cold plant.


4. Frigid ; wanting passion, zeal or ardor ; indifferent ; unconcerned ; not animated,^ or easily excited into action ; as a cold\\\\ spectator ; a cold christian ; a coU. lover,, or friend; a coW temper.

Hooker. Addison.' Thou art neither cold nor hot. Rev. iii.

5. Not moving ; unaffecting ; not animated ;| not able to excite feeling ; spiritless ; i^ aj cold discourse ; a cold jest. Mdison.]

C. Reserved ; coy ; not affectionate, cordial! or friendly ; indicating indifference ; as a cold look ; a cold return of civilities ; a cold reception. Clarendon.

7. Not heated by sensual desire. Shak.

8. Not hasty ; not violent. Johnson.

9. Not affecting the scent strongly. Shak.

10. Not having the scent stronirly affected.

Shak) €OLD, n. [Sax. cele, a/l, cyle ; D. koelle, koude ; G. kiUte. See Cool.] j

1. The sensation produced in animal bodiesi by the escape of heat, and the consequent contraction of the fine vessels. Also, the cause of that sensation. Heat expands] the vessels, and cold contracts them ; ami the transition from an expanded to a con-j tracted state is accompanied with a senj sation to which, as well as to the cause ofl


It, we give the denomination of cold. Hence cold is a privation of heat, or the cause of it. Encyc. Bacon.

2. A shivering ; the effect of the contraction of the fine vessels of the body; chilliness, or chilliiess. Dryden.

3. A disease ; indisposition occasioned by cold ; catarrh.

COLD-BLOODED, a. Having cold blood.

2. Without sensibility, or teehng.

COLD-l'INCH, n. A species of Motacilla, a biril frequenting the west of England, with the head and back of a brownish gray, the belly white, and the quill feathers and tail black. Did. J\\\\iat. Hist.

COLD-UEARTED, a. Wanting passion or feeling ; iiidiflerent.

COLD-HEARTEDNESS, n. Want of feel- ing or .sensibility.

COLDLY, adu. In a cold manner ; without warmth ; without concern ; without ardor or aniuiation ; without apparent passion, emotion or feeling; with indifference or negligence ; as, to answer one coldly ; a proposition is coldly received.

COLDNESS, n. Want of heat ; as the cold 7tess of water or air. When tlio heat or temperature of any substance is less than that of the animal body exposed to it, that state or temperature is called coldness.

2. Unconcern ; indifference ; a frigid state of] temper ; want of ardor, zeal, emotion, ani- mation, or spirit ; negligence ; as, to re- ceive an answer with coldyiess ; to listen with coldness.

3. Want of apparent affection, or kindness ; as, to receive a friend with coldness.

4. Coyness ; reserve : indiflereuce ; as, to re- ceive addresses with coldness.

5. Want of sensual desire ; frigidity ; chas- tity. Pope.

COLD-SHORT, a. Brittle when cold, as a metal.

COLE, ?i. [Sax. cou/, caif/ or caiw/ ; L. cait- lis ; Gr. xov^oj ; D. kool ; G. kohl ; Sw k&l ; Dan. kaal ; W. catvl ; Ir. colis, coiiis . It. cavolo; Sp. col; Port, couve ; Ann caidin, colen ; Fr. chou.]

The general name of all sorts of cabbage or brassica ; but we generally use it in its compounds, cole-wort, cauliflower, &c.

CO'LE-MOUSE, n. [See Coal-mouse.]

COL'EOPTER, ) [Gr.xo>.fOf, a sheath,

COLEOP'TERA, S "• and rtTipoy, a wing.]

The colcopters, in Linne's system of ento- mology, are an order of insects, having crustaceous elytra or shells, which shut and form a longitudinal suture along the hack, as the beetle.

COLEOP'TERAL, a. Having wings cover- ed with a case or sheatji, which shuts as above.

CO'LE-PERCH, n. A small fish, less than the common perch. Diet. .Xat. Hist.

eO'LE-SEED, 71. The seed of the navew, napus sativa, or long-rooted, narrow-leafed rapa ; reckoned a sjjecies of brassica or cabbage. Encyc.

2. Cabbage seed. Mortimer.

CO'LE-WORT, n. [cole and wort. Sax. wyrt, an herb.] A particular species of cole, brassica, or cabbage.

COL'IC, 71. [L. colicus ; Gr. xuXtxof, from xuxoi', the colon.]

In general, a severe pain in the bowels, of which there are several varieties ; as bil


ious coLc, hysteric colic, nervous colic and many others. Coie. ^uincy.

COL'IC, ) Affecting the bowels.

COL'ICAL, i "• MUton.

COL'IN, n. A bird of the partridge kind, found in America and the West Indies,

called also a quail.

COLL, I', t. To embrace. [Xot in use. See Collar.] Spenser.

COLLAPSE, V. i. collaps'. [L. coUabor, col- lapsus ; con and labor, to slide or fall.]

To fall together, as the two sides of a vessel ; to close by falling together ; as, the fine canals or vessels of the body collapse in old age. Arbuthnot.

COLLAPSED, pp. Fallen together ; closed^

COLLAP'SION, n. .-V state of falling togeth- er ; a state of vessels closed.

COL'LAR, 71. [L. coUare; Fr. coUier, collet; Arm. colyer ; It. collare ; Sp. collar ; from L. coUum, the neck.]

1. Something worn round the neck, as a ring of metal, or a chain. The knights of several orders wear a chain of gold, enam- eled, and sometimes set with ciphers or other devices, to which the badge of the order is appended. Encyc.

2. The part of a gannent which surrounds the neck. Job xxx. 18.

3. A part of a harness lor the neck of a horse or other beast, used in draught.

4. Among seamen, the upper part of a stay ; also, a roj)e in form of a wreath to which a stay is confined. Mar. Diet.

To slip the collar, is to escape or get free ; to disentangle one's self from difficulty, labor, or engagement. Johnson.

A collar of brawn, is the quantity bound up in one parcel. [Not used in America.]


COL'LAR, V. t. To seize by the collar.

2. To put a collar on.

To collar beef or other meat, is to roll it up and bind it close with a string. [Eng- lish.]

C0L'L.'\\\\RAGE, n. A tax or fine laid for the collars of wine-drawing horses. [Eiig.]

Bailey. Encye'.

COLLAR-BONE, ti. The clavicle.

COL'LARED, pp. Seized by the collar.

2. Haviiiff a collar on the neck.

COLLA'TE, t'. ?. [L. collatum, collalus ; cori and latum, latus ; considered to be the supine and participle offero, confero, but a word of distinct origin.]

Literally, to bring or lay together. Hence,

1. To lay together and compare, by examin- ing the points in which two or more things of a similar kind agree or disagree ; appli- ed parlicidarly to manuscripts and books ; as, to collate copies of the Hebrew Scriptures.

2. To confer or bestow a benefice on a cler- gyman, by a bishop who has it in his own gift or patronage ; or more strictly, to pre- sent and institute a clergyman in a bene- fice, when the same person is both the or- dinary and the patron ; followed by to.

If the patron neglects to present, the bishop may collate his clerk to the chui-ch.


3. To bestow or confer; but note seldom used, except as in the second definition. TayUtr.

COLLA'TE, V. i. To place in a benefice, as by a bishop.

If the bishop neglects to collate within six




0. Not dii-ect, c

If by direct

7. Concurrent ;

mouths, the right to do it devolves on the arch- bishop. Encyc. ■eOLLA'TED, pp. Laid together and com- pared ; examined by comparing; presented and instituted, as a clergyman, to a bene- fice. COLLAT'ERAL, a. [L. collateralis ; con and lateralis, from lotus, a side.]

1. Being by the side, side by side, on the .side, or side to side.

In his bright radiance and collateral light Must I be comforted, not in his sphere.

Shak. Collateral pressure is pressure on the side. So we say, collateral circumstances, circumstances which accompany a princi- pal event. 'i. In genealogy, descending from the same .stock or ancestor, but not one from the other ; as distinguished from lineal. Lin- eal descendants proceed one from another in a direct line ; collateral relations spring from a common ancestor, but from differ- ent branches of that common stirps or stock. Thus the children of brothers are co//a/era/ relations, having different fathers, but a common grandfather. Blackstone.

3. Collateral security, is security for the per- formance of covenants or the payment of money, besides the principal security.

4. Rimiiing parallel. Johnson.

5. Diffused on either side ; springing from relations ; as, collateral love. Milton.

■ immediate.

ir collateral hand. .S/mAr.

as, collateral strength.

Jltterbtiry. COLLAT'ERAL, n. A collateral relation or

kinsman. COLLAT'ERALLY, adv. Side by side ; or

by the side. ■2. Indirectly. Dryden.

-3. In collateral relation ; not in a direct hne ;

not lineallv. COLLAT ERALNESS, n. The state of

being collateral. €OLLA'TING, ppr. Comparing ; present

ing and instituting. €OLLA'TION, n. The act of bringing or laying too;ether, and comparing ; a com parison of one copy or thing of a like kind with another. Pope

2. The act of conferring or bestowing ; a gift


3. In the canon law, the presentation of t clergyman to a benefice by a bisliop, who has it in his own gift or patronage. Col lation includes both presentation and in stitution. When the patron of a church is not a bishop, he presents his clerk for ad mission, and the bishop institutes hmi ; but if a bishop is the patron, his presentation and institution are one act and are called collation. Blackstone.

4. In common law,\\\\\\\\\\\\e presentation of a copy to its original, and a comparison made by examination, to ascertain its conformity ; also, the report of the act made by the pro- ])er officers. Encyc.

.'>. In Scots law, the right which an heir has of throwing the whole heritable and mo- vable estates of the deceased into one mass, and sharing it equally with others who are of the same degree of kindred.

(.). A repast between full meals ; as a cold collation.

Collation of seals, denotes one seal set on

the same label, on the reverse of another.


COLLA'TIVE, a. Advowsons are presenta- tive, collaiive or donative. An advowson collative is where the bishop and patron are one and the same person ; in which case the bishop cannot present to himself, but he does, by one act of collation or con- ferring the benefice, the whole that is done, in common cases, by both presenta- tion and institution. Blackstone

€OLLA'TOR, n. One who collates or com- pares manuscripts or copies of books.


2. One who collates to a benefice, as when the ordinary and patron are the same per- son, -flyliffe.

eOLLAUD', V. t. [L. collaudo.] To unite in praising. [Little used.] Howell.

eOL'LEAGDE, n. coVleeg. [L. collega ; Fr. collegue ; It. collega ; Sp. colega ; L. con and lego, to choose, or lego to send, or ligo to bind. This word is differently ac- cented by different speakers and lexicog- raphers. I have followed the latest au- thorities.]

A partner or associate in the same office employment or commission, civil or eccle- siastical. Milton. Swijl.

It is never used of partners in trade or manufactures.

COLLE'AGUE, v. t. or i. collee'g. To unhe ith in the same office.

COLLE'AGUED, pp. United as an ai ' !ite in the same office.

COL'LEAGUESHIP, «. Partnership office. Milton.

COLLECT', V. t. [L. colligo, collectu and lego, to gather ; Gr. Xiya.] To gather, as separate persons or things, into one body or place ; to assemble or bring together ; as, to collect men into ai army ; to collect ideas ; to collect particu lars into one sum.

9. To gain by observation or information. From all that can be collected, the publii peace will not soon be interrupted. . To gather from premises ; to infer as a consequence.

Which consequence, I conceive, is ver>- il collected. Locke

4. To gather money or revenue from debt ors ; to demand and receive ; as, to collect taxes ; to collect the customs ; to collect ae counts, or debts.

5. To gather, as crops ; to reap, mow or pick, and secure in proper repositorie to collect hay, corn or fruits.

C. To draw together ; to bring into united action ; as, to collect all the strength, or all the powers of the mind.

7. To obtain from contribution.

To collect one's self, is to recover from sur prise, or a disconcerted state ; to gain com mand over the thoughts, when dispersed over the passions, when tumultuous ; or the mind, when dismayed. Shak. Milton.

COLLECT', V. i. To run together ; to ac- cumulate ; as, pus collects in an abscess ; sand or snow collects in banks.

COL'LECT, n. A short comprehensive prayer ; a prayer adajited to a particular ilay or occasion. Taylor.

2. A collection or gathering of money. [Lit-

I tie used.] Enryr.

COLLECTA'NEOUS, a. [L. coUectaneus.] Gathered ; collected.

COLLECT'ED, pp. Gathered; assembled; congregated ; drawn together.

2. a. Recovered from surprise or dismay ; not disconcerted ; cool ; firm ; prepared.

COLLECTEDLY, adc. In one view ; to- gether; in one bodv.

COLLECT'EDNESS, n. A collected state of the mind ; recoverv from surprise.

COLLECT'IBLE, a. That may be collect- ed or gathered ; that may be inferred.

2. That may be gathered or recovered ; as, the debts or taxes are or are not collectible.

COLLECT'LNG, ppr. Gathering ; drawing ogether ; assembling.

COLLECTION, n. The act of gathering, assembling.

2. The body forined by gathering; an as- semblage, or assembly ; a crowd ; as a collection of men.

3. A contribution ; a sum collected for a charitable purpose.

Now concerning tlie collection for the saints. 1 Cor. xvi.

4. A gathering, as of matter in an abscess.

5. The act of deducing consequences ; rea- soning ; inference. [Little used.]

Johnson. Hooker.

6. A corollary ; a consectary ; a deduction from premises ; consequence.

Johnson. Hooker.

7. A book compiled from other books, by the putting together of parts; a compUa- tion ; as a collection of essays or sennons.

COLLECT'IVE, a. [L. coUectivus ; Fr. col- lectif; It. colleltivo.]

1. Formed by gathering ; gathered into a mass, sum, or body ; congregated, or ag- gregated, ff'atts. SwiJl.

Deducing consequences ; reasoning- ; in- ferring. Brown.

3. In grammar, expressing a number or mul- titude united ; as a collective noun or name, which, though in the singular number it- self, denotes more than one ; as, company, army, troop, assembly.

COLLECTIVELY, adv. In a mass, or body ; in a collected state ; in the aggre- gate ; unitedly; in a state of combination ; as the citizens of a state coHech'rcii/ consid- ered.

COLLECT IVENESS, n. A state of union ; mass.

COLLECT'OR, n. One who coUeets or gathers things which are scattered or sep- arate.

2. A compiler; one who gathers and puts together parts of books, or scattered pie- ces, in one book. Addismi.

3. In botany, one who gathers plants, with- out studying botany as a science. Encyc.

4. An officer appointed and commissioned to collect and feceive customs, duties, taxes or toll. Temple.

5. A bachelor of arts in Oxford, who is ap- pointed to superintend some scholastic proceedings in Lent. Todd.

COLLECT'ORSHIP, n. The office of a

collector of customs or taxes. 9. The jurisdiction of a collector.

^'isiat. Researches. COLLEG'ATARY, n. [L. con and 7ego, to

send.] In the civil law, a person who has a legacy


left to him in common with one or more other persons. Cliambers. Johnson.

COL'LEOE, n. [L. collegiuvi ; con and lego, to gather.]

In its primary sense, a collection, or assem- bly. Hence,

V In o general sense, a collection, assem- blage or society of men, invested with cer- tain powers and rights, performing cer- tain duties, or engaged in some common employment, or pursuit.

2. In a parlkular sense, an assembly for a ' • political or ecclesiastical purj'ose ; as the

coUege of Electors or their deputies at the diet in Ratishon. So also, the college of princes, or their deputies ; the college of cities, or deputies of the Imperial cities ; the college of Cardinals, or sacred college. In Russia, the denomination, college, is given to councils of state, courts or assem- blies of men intrusted with the adminis- tration of the government, and called Im- perial colleges. Of these some are supreme and others subordinate ; as the Supreme Imperial College; the college of foreign af- fairs ; the college of war ; the admiralty college ; the college of justice ; tlie college of commerce ; the medical college.

Tookeu.335. .35(!. In Great Britain and the United States o/j America, a society of physicians is called a college. So also there are colleges of sur- geons; and in Britain, a college of philoso- phy, a college of heralds, a college of jus- tice, &c. Colleges of these kinds are us- ually incorporated or established by the supreme power of the state.

3. An edifice appropriated to the use of stu dents, who are acquiring the languages and sciences.

4. The society of persons engaged in the pursuits of literature, including the officers and students. Societies of this kind arc incorporated and endowed with revenues.

5. In foreign universities, a public lecture. €OL'LEgE-LIKE, n. Regulated after the

manner of a college.

COLLE'GlAL, a. Relating to a college; belonging to a college ; having the proper ties of a college.

€OLLE'6IAN, »i. A member of a college, particularly of a literary institution so call- ed ; an inhabitant of a collesre. Johnson.

■eOLLE'filATE, a. Pertaining to a college : as collegiate studies.

a. Containing a college ; instituted after the manner of a college ; as a collegiate socie- ty. Johnson.

X A collegiate church is one that has no bishop's see ; but has the ancient retinue of a bishoii, canons and prebends. Of these some are of royal, others of ecclesi- astical foundation ; and each is regulated in matters of divine service, as a cathedral Some of these were anciently abbeys which have been seciilarizcd. Encyc.

COLLE'GIATE, n. The member of a col- lege. Burton.

€OL'LET, n. [Fr. collet, a collar, or neck, from L. coUum.]

J. Among jewelers, the horizontal face or plane at the bottom of brilhants ; or the part of a ring in which the stone is set. Encyc. Johnson

2. In glass-making, that part of glass vessels which sticks to the iron instrument used

Vol. I.


in taking the substance from the melting- pot. Encyc.

S. Anciently, a band or collar.

4. A term used by turners. Johnson.

€OLLET'l€, a.' Having the property i<( gluing; agghitinant. Encyc.

€OLLET'I€, »i. [Gr. *oWk.;ftxof.] An agglu tinant. Encyc.

COLLI'DE, V. i. [I., collido ; con and Mo, to strike.]

To strike or dash against each other.


COL'LIER, n. col'yer. [from coal] A dig- ger of coal ; one who works in a coal-mine. Joh7}son.

2. A coal-merchant or dealer in coal.


3. A coasting vessel employed in the coal trade, or in transporting coal from the ports where it is received from the mines, to the ports where it is purchased for con sumption.

COL'LIERY, n. col'yery. The place where coal is dug. [See Coalenj.]

2. The coal trade. Qu. €OLLIFLO\\\\VER. [See Cauliflower.] COL'LIGATE, v. t. [L. colligo ; con and li-

go, to bind.] To tie or bind together.

Tlie pieces of isinglass are colligated ir rows. JVich. Diet.

COL'LIGATED, pp. Tied or bound to- gether.

€OL'LIGATING, ppr. Binding together.

COLLIGA'TION, n. A binding together. Brown.

eOLLIMA'TION, n. [L. collimo ; con and limes, a limit. Ainsworth suggests that it may be an error, and that collineo, con and linea, is the real reading ; but collimo is in perfect analogy with other words of like signification. To aim is to direct to the limit or end.]

The act of aiming at a mark ; aim ; the act of levehng, or of directing the sight to t fixed object. Asiat. Research

COLLINEA'TION, n. [L. collineo ; con and linea, a line.]

The act of aiming, or directing in a line to a fixed object. Johnson.

€OL'LING, n. [L. collum, the neck.] An embrace ; dalUance. {JSfol used.]


COLLIQUABLE, a. [See CoUiquate.] That may be litpiefied, or melted ; liable to melt, grow soft, or become fluid.

eOLLIQ'UAMENT, n. The substance

formed by melting ; that which is melted,

Bailey. Johnson.

Q. Technically, the fetal part of an egg ; the transparent fluid in an egg, contauiing the first rudiments of the chick.

Coxe. Encyc.

3. Tlie first rudiments of an embryo in gen- eration. Coxe.

eOL'LIQUANT, a. That has the power of dissolving or melting. '

COL'LIQUATE, v. i. [L. colliqueo ; con and liqueo, to melt. See Liquid.]

To melt ; to dissolve ; to change from sohd to fluid ; to become hquid. Broten.

€OL'LIQUATE, v. t. To melt or dissolve

€OL'LIQUATED, pp. Melted ; dissolved ; turned from a solid to a fluid substance. Boyle. Harvey.

COL'LIQUATING, ppr. Melting ; dissol- ving.



eOLLIQUA'TION, n. Tlie act of melting. Boyk.

2. A di.-solving, flowing or wasting ; applied to the blood, when it does not readily coagulate, and to the solid parts, wJieu they waste away by excessive secretion, occasioning fluxes and profuse, clammy sweats. Coxe. Encyc. Quincy.

COLLIQUATIVE, a. Melting"; dissolving ; appropriately indicating a morbid dis- charge of the animal fluids ; as a colliqua- tive fever, which is accompanied whh diarrhcEa, or profuse sweats ; a colliquative sweat is a profuse clanmiy sweat.

€OLLIQUEFA€'TION, n. [L. colliquefa-

cio.] A melting together; the reduction

of different bodies hito one mass by fusion.


COLLI'SION, n. s as :. [L. collisio, from collido, eollisi ; con and lado, to strike or liurt.]

1. The act of striking together; a striking together of two hard bodies. Milton.

3. The state of being struck together ; u clashing. Hence,

3. Opposition ; interference ; as a coUisioir of interests or of parties.

4. A running against each other, as ships at sea. Marshal on Insurance. ff'aUh.

COL'LOCATE, v. t. [L. colloco ; con and loco, to set or place.] To set or place ; to set ; to station.

eOL'LOCATE, a. Set ; placed. Bacon.

COLLOCATED, pp. Placed.

COL'LOCATING.jjpr. Setting; placing.

COLLOCA'TION, n. [L. collocatio.] A set- ting ; the act of placing ; disposition in place.

2. The state of being placed, or placed with something else. Bacon.

COLLOCU'TION, n. [L. collocutio ; con and locutio, from loquor, to speak.]

A speaking or conversing together ; confer- ence; mutual discoiu-se.

Bailey. Johnson.

COLLOCU'TOR, n. One of the speakers in a dialogue.

COLLOGUE, V. t. To wheedle. [JVot in use.]

COL'LOP, n. A small shoe of meat; apiece of flesh. Dryden.

2. In burlesque, a child. Shak.

In Job XV. 27. it seems to have the sense

of a thick piece or fleshy lump. " He ma-

keth collops of fat on his flanks." This is

the sense of the word in N. England.

COLLO'QUIAL, a. [See CoUoquy.] Per- taining to common conversation, or to mu- tual discourse ; as colloquial language ; a colloquial phrase.

COL'LOQUIST, n. A speaker in a dialogue. Malone.

COL'LOQUY, n. [L. colloquium; con and loquor, to speak.]

Conversation ; mutual discourse of two or more ; conference ; dialogue.

Milton. Taylor.

COLLOW. [See CoUy.]

COLLUC'TANCY, n. [L. colluctor ; con and luctor, to struggle.]

A struggling to resist ; a striving against ; resistance ; opposition of nature.

COLLUCTA'TION, n. A struggling to re- sist ; contest ; resistance ; opposition ; con- trariety. fVoodtcard.


■COLLU'DE, V. i. [L. colludo : con and ludo,

to play, to banter, to mock.] To playinto the hand of each other ; to con- spire in a fraud ; to act in concert.

Johnson. COLLU'DER, n. One who conspires in a

fraud. <:OLhV'DlfsG,ppr. Conspiring with anotlier in a fraud.

COLLU'DING, n. A trick; colhision.

fOLLU'SION, n. s as z. [L. collusio. S Collude.]

\\\\. In law, a deceitful agreement or compact between two or more persons, for the one party to bring an action against the other, for some evil purpose, as to defraud a third person of his right. Coivel.

A secret understanding between two parties, who pleatl or proceed fiviudulently against each other, to the prejudice of a third person. Encyc.

3. In general, a secret agreement for a fraudulent purpose.

eOLLU'SIVE, rt. Fraudulently concerted between two or more ; as a collusive agree- ment.

COLUI'SIVELY, adv. By collusion; by se- cret agreement to defraud.

COLLU'SIVENESS, n. The quality of be- ing collusive.

COLLU'SORY, a. Carrying on a fraud by a secret concert ; containing collusion.

COL'LY, I [Supposed to be from coal.]

COL'LOW, \\\\ "'The black grime or soot of coal or burnt wood.

Woodward. Burton

COL'LY, V. t. To make foul ; to grime with the smut of coal. Shak.

■eOL'LYRITE,Ji. [Gr. xompiov, infra.] A variety of clay, of a wliite color, with shades of gray, red, or yellow.


COLLYR'IUM, n. [L.; Gr. xo^Mptor. Qu from xu^vu, to check, and piof, defluxion.]

Eye-salve ; eye-wash ; a topical remedy for disorders of the eyes. Coxe. Encyc.

COL'MAR, ra. [Fr.] A sort of pear,

COL'OCYNTH, n. [Gr. xo^xvrOii.] The

coloquintida, or bitter apple of the shops.

a kind of gourd, from Aleppo and fi

Crete. It contains a bitter pulji, which is

a drastic purge. Encyc

COLOGNE-EARTH, n. A kind of lighi

bastard ocher, of a deep bro\\\\vn color, not

a pure native fossil, but containing

vegetable than mineral matter ; sup

to be the remains of wood long buried in

the earth. Hill.

It is an earthy variety of lignite or brown

coal. Cleaveland.

COLOM'BO, n. A root from Colombo hi

Ceylon. Its smell is aromatic, and its

taste pungent and bitter. It is much es

teemed as a tonic in dyspeptic and biliou

diseases. Hooper.

CO'LON, n. [Gr. xuXor, the colon, a member

or limb.] 1. In anatomy, the largest of the intestines, or rather the largest division of the intestinal canal ; beginning at the csecum, and cending by the right kidney, it passes un- der the hoUow part of the liver, and the bottom of the stomach, to the spleen thence descending by the left kidney, itl passes, in the form of an S, to the upper"


part of the os sacrum, where, from its straight course, the canal takes the name of rectum. Encyc. (^uincy.

% In grammar, a point or character formed thus [ : ], used to mark a pause, greater than that of asemicolon, but less than that of a period ; or rather it is used when the sense of the division of a period is complete, so as to admit a full point ; but something is added by way of illustration, or the de- scription is continued by an additional re- mark, without a necessary dependence on the foregoing members of the sentence. Thus,

A brute arrives at a point of perfection he can never pass : in a few years he has all the en (lowments he is capable of. Spect. No. iii.

The colon is often used before an address, quotation or example. "Mr. Gray wai followed by Mr. Erskine, who spoke thus ' I rise to second the motion of my honor able friend.' " But the propriety of tliis depends on the pause, and this depends on the form of introducing the quotation ; for after say, said, or a like word, the colon is not used, and seems to be improper. Thus in our version of the scriptures, such mem hers are almost invariably followed by a comma. "But Jesus said to them, 'Ye know not what ye ask.' "

The use of the colon is not uniform ; nor is it easily defined and reduced to rides. In deed the use of it might be dispensed with without much inconvenience. €OL'ONEL, ?i. cicr'nel. [Fr. colonel; It. col onnello ; Arm. coronal ; Sp. coronet ; Port coronet ; from It. colonna, Fr. colonne, a col unm. It. colonnello, the column of a book.^ The cliief commander of a regiment of troops, whether infantry or cavalry. He ranks next below a brigadier-general. In England, colonel-lieutenant is the com- mander of a regiment of guards, of which the king, prince or other person of emi- nence is colonel. lAeutenant-colonel is the second officer in a regiment, and com- mands it in the absence of the colonel. COLONELCY, n. cur'nelcy. } The of-

COLONELSHIP, n. cur'nelship. ^ fice,rank or commission of a colonel.

Sivijl. Washington. COLO'NIAL, a. [See Colony.] Pertaining to a colony ; as colonial government ; colo- nial rights. [Colonical is not in use.] COL'ONIST, n. [See Colony.] An inhab- itant of a colony. Blackstone. Marshall, lAfe of Washington. €OLONIZA'TION, n. The act of coloni- zing, or state of being colonized. COL'ONIZE, t).<. [See Colony.] To plant or establish a colony in ; to plant or settle a number of the subjects of a kingdom or state in a remote country, for the purpose of cultivation, commerce or defense, and for permanent residence. Bacon

The Greeks colonized the South of Italy am of France. 2. To migrate and settle in, as inhabitants. English Puritans colonized New England. COL'ONIZED, pp. Settled or planted with

a colony. COL'ONiZING, ppr. Planting with a col

ony. eOL'ONIZING, n. The act of establishing a colony.

This state paper has been adopted as the ba sis of all her later co^oni'iintrs. TuwAt, I. 622


eOLONNA'DE, n. [It. colonnata, from c»- lonna, a column ; Sp. colunata; Fr. colon- nade. See Column.]

1. In architecture, a peristyle of a circular figure, or a series of columns, disposed in a circle, and insulated within side.

Builder'' s Diet. Addison.

2. Any series or range of columns. Pope. A polystyle colonnade is a range of colunnis

too great to be taken in by the eye at a single view ; as that of the palace of St. Peter at Rome, consisting of 384 columns of the Doric order. Encyc.

COL'ONY, n. [L. colonia, from colo, to cul- tivate.]

1. A con)pany or body of people transplant- ed from their mother country to a remote province or country to cuhivate and in- liahit it, and remaining subject to the ju- risdiction of the parent state; as the Brit- ish colonies in America or the Indies ; the Spanish colonies in South America. When such settlements cease to be subject to the parent state, they are no longer denomi- nated colonies.

The first settlers of New England were the

best of Englishmen, well educated, devout

christians, and zealous lovers of liberty. There

was never a colony formed of better materials.


2. The country planted or colonized ; a plan- tation ; ulso, the body of inhabitants in a territory colonized, including the descend- ants of the first planters. The people, though born in the territory, retain the name of colonists, till they cease to be sub- jects of the parent .state.

3. A collection of animals ; as colonies of shell-fish. ' Encyc.

eOL'OPHON, n. [from a city of Ionia.] The conclusion of fi book, formerly con- taining the place or year, or both, of its publication. Warton.

COL'OPHONITE, n. [Supra, from the city

or its resin color.] A variety of garnet, of a reddish yellow or brown color, occurring in small amor- phous granular masses. Diet. .Wat. Hist. COLOPHONY, n. In pharmacy, black resin or turpentine boiled in water and dried ; or the residuum, after distillation of the etherial oil of turpentine, being further urged by a more intense and long contin- ued fire. It is so named from Colophon in Ionia, whence the best was formerly bi-ought. A'icholson. Encyc.

COLOQUINTIDA, n. [Gr. xo'KoxmB^s; L.

colocynthis.] The colocyuth or bitter apple, the fruit of a plant of the genus Cucurais, a native of Syria and of Crete. It is of the size of a large orange, containing a pulp which is violently purgative, but sometimes useful as a medicine. Chambers.

COL'OR, n. [L. color; It. colore; Sp. Port.

color ; Fr. coule^ir.] 1. In physics, a property inherent in lighl, which, by a difference in the rays and the laws of refraction, or some other cause, gives to bodies particular appearances to the eye. The princi]jal colors are red, or- ange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and vio- let. HOiite is not properly a color ; as a white body reflects the rays of light with- out separating them. Black bodies, on tlie contrary, absorb all the rays, or nearly




ail, and therefore black, is no distinct col-| or. But in common discourse, white and] Itack are denominated colors; and all tliel colors admit of many shades of difference.

2. Appearance of a hody to the eye, or aj quality of sensation, caused by the rays of light ; hue ; dye ; as the color of gold, or of indigo. |

3. A red color ; the freshness or appearance of blood in the face.

My cheeks no longer did their color boast.


4. Appearance to the mind; as, prejudice puts a false color upon objects. I

5. Superficial cover ; palha'tion ; that whicl serves to give an appearance of right ; as,l their sin admitted no color or excuse. \\\\

King Charles.

6. External appearance ; false show ; i)ro- tense ; guise.

Under the cofor of commending him, I have access my own love to prefer. Shak.] [See Aetsxxvii. 30.] I

7. Kind ; species ; character ; complexion.

Boys and women are, for the most part, cat-! tie of this coJor. Shak.'

8. That which is used for coloring ; paint : as red lead, ocher, ori)imcnt, ciiuiabar, or' vermilion, &.e. i

!>. Colors, with a plural termination, in the' military art, a flag, ensign or standard, borne in an army or fleet. [See Flag.\\\\ j

10. In Imp, color in pleading is when the de-j fendant in assize or trespass, gives to the^ plaintiff a color or appearance of title, by stating his title specially ; thus removingi the cause from the jury to the court. j


Water-colors are such as are used in painting! with gum-water or size, without beini;! mixed with oil. EncycJ

eOL'OR, t'. t. To change or alter the exter- nal appearance of a body or substance ; to dye ; to tinge ; to paint ; to slain ; as, to| color cloth. Generally, to color is to change! from white to some other color.

2. To give a specious appearance ; to set in a fair light ; to palliate ; to excuse.

He colors the falsehood of jEneas by an ex- press conunand of Jupiter to forsake the queen. Dryden.

3. To make plausible ; to exaggerate in rep- resentation. Addison)

To color a stranger^s goods, is when a free- man allows a foreigner to enter goods at the custom house in his name, to avoid the alien's duty.

eOL'OR, V. i. To blush.

t'OL'ORABLE, a. Specious ; plausible ;

giving an appearance of right or justice ;

as a colorable pretense ; a colorable excuse

Spenser. Hooker

eOL'ORABLY, adv. Speciour^ly ; plausibly; with a fair external appearance. Bacon.

COL'ORATE, a. [L. coloralus, from coloro, to color.] *

Colored ; dved ; or tinged with some color. [Little us'ed.] Rmi.

COLORA'TION, Ji. [L. coloro.] The art or practice of coloring, or the state of be-j ing colored. Bacon}

COL'ORATURE, n. In music, all manner' of variations, trills, &c., intended to make a song agreeable. Encyc.

COL'ORED, pp. Having the external ap- pearance changed ; dyed ; tinged ; paint- ed or stained.

2. Streaked ; striped ; having a diversity of]

hues. "

:1. Having a specious appearance. Colored people, bl4ck people, Africans or

their descendants, mi.xed or unmixed. eOLORIF'IC, o. [color, and L./«cto.] That

has the quality of tinging ; able to give

color, or tint to other bodi'-s. Kirwan.

COLOR'ING, ppr. Dying ; staining ; ting-

infj. 2. Giving a fair external appearance; pal

bating ; excusing. COLORING, n. The act or art of dyeing;

the state of being colored ; color.

2. A specious appearance ; fair artificial rep rescntation ; as, the story lias a coloring of truth.

3. Among painters, the manner of applying colors ; or the mixture of light and shade, formed by the various colors employed.

eOL'ORIST, n. [Supra.] One who colors ; a painter who e.xcels in giving the proper colors to his designs. Dniden.

C0L'ORLESS,a. [Supra.] Destitute of" col- or ; not distinguished by any hue ; trans- parent ; as colorless water, glass or gas.


COLOSSAL, I [See Colossus.] Like

COLOSSE'AN, S a colossus ; very large ; huge : gigantic.

COLOS'SUS, n. [L. and Gr.] A statue of a gigantic size. The most remarkable co- lossus of antiquity was one at Rhodes, n statue of Apollo, so high that it is said ships might sail between its legs.

COLOS' SUS-WISE, adv. In the manner ofl a colossus. Shak.

COL STAFF, n. A staff for carrying bur- dens by two on their shoulders. [Local.]

COLT, n. [Sax. coll.] The young of the equine genus of animals or horse kind. In America, colt is equally applied to the male or female, and this is imquestiona- bly correct. The male is called a horse- colt, and the female is called a flli).

2. A young foohsh fellow ; a person without cxiierience or stability. Shak.

COLT, V. i. To frisk, riot or frolick, like a colt ; to be hcentious. [J^'ot used.]


COLT, V. t. To befool. [JVot used.] STmk.

COLT'S-FQQT, n. A genus of plants, the Tussilago. The name is also given to a species of Cacalia. Fain, of Plants.

COLT'S-TOOTH, n. An imi)erfect or su- perfluous tooth in young horses. Johnson

2. A love of youthful pleasure. Well said. Lord Sands ;

Your coWs-toolh is not yet cast ? Shah

[Little used.]

COLTER, n. [L. culler, a colter or knife thot is, the cutter; Yr.'coutre ; It. coltro . W. ajlltaivr ; D. koufer ; G. kolter.]

The fore iron of a plow, with a sharp edge that cuts the earth or sod.

COLTISH, a. Like a colt ; wanton ; frisky ; gay. Chaucer.

COL'UBER, n. [L. a serpent or adder.] In zoology, a genus of serpents, distinguished by scuta or hard crusts on the belly, and scales on the tail. Under this genus are ranked many species, as tlie viper, black snake, &.i:.

COL'UBRINE, a. [L. colubi-inus.] Relating to the coluber, or to serjients ; cunning crafty. [Little used.] Johnson

COL'L'MB.\\\\RY, n. [L. columbarium, from columba, a pigeon ; W. colomen ; Ir. cobn or colum ; Ana. coulm ; Russ. golub, a pi- geon or dove. In Russ. golubei signifies, of a sky-blue, azure.]

A dove-cot ; a pigeon-house.

COLUM BATE, n. A salt or compound of columbic acid, with a base.

COLUM'BIAN, a. Pertaining to the United States, or to America, discovered by Co- limibus.

COLUMBIC, a. Pertaining to columbium ; as columbic acid.

COLUftlBIF'EROUS, a. Producing or con- taining columbium. PhiUips.

COL'UMBINE, a. Like or pertaining to a pigeon or dove ; of a dove-color, or like the neck of a dove.

COL'UMBINE, n. [L. columUna.] Aquilc- gia, a genus of plants of several species. The Thalictrum or meadow-rue is also called feathered columbine. Fam. of Plants.

COLUM'BITE, re. [See Columbium.] The ore of columbium.

COLUMBIUM, 71. [from Columbia, Ame- rica.]

A metal first discovered in an ore or oxyd, found in Connecticut, at New-London, near tlio house of Gov. Winthrop, and by him tran.'imitted to Sir Hans Sloane, by whom it was deposited in the British mu- setun. The same metal was afterwards discovered in Sweden, and called tanta- lum, and its ore tanlalitc. Cleavcland.

COLUMBO. [See Colombo.]

COL'UMEL, 7!. In botany, the central col- umn ui a capsule, taking its rise from the receptacle, and having the seeds fixed to it all roimd. Marlyn.

COL UMN, )i. colum. [L. columna, columen ; W. colov, a stalk or stem, a prop ; colovyn, a column ; Ir. colbh, a stalk, a column; Arm. coit/oucnn; Pr. colonne ; It. colonna; Sp. columna ; Port, columna or coluna. This word is from the Celtic, signifying the stem of a tree, such stems being the first columns used. The primary sense is a shoot, or that which is set.]

1. In architecture, a long round body of wood or stone, used to support or adorn a build- ing, composed of a base, a shafk and a cap- ital. The shaft tapers from the base, in imitation of the stem of a tree. There are five kinds or orders of columns. 1. The Tuscan, rude, simple and massy ; the highth of which is fourteen semidiameters or modules, and the diminution at the top from one sixth to one eighth of the in- ferior diameter. 2. The Doric, which is next in strength to the Tuscan, has a ro- bust, masculine aspect ; its highth is six- teen modules. 3. The Ionic is more slen- der than the Tuscan and Doric ; its higlith is eighteen modules. 4. The Corinthian is more delicate in its form and ppopor- tions, and enriched with ornaments ; its highth should be twenty modules. 5. The Composite is a species of tlie Corinthian, and of the same highth. Encyc.

In strictness, tlie shaft of a column con- sists of one entire piece ; but it is often composed of different pieces, so united, as to have the appearance of one entire piece. It difters in this respect from a pillar, which primarily signifies a pile, composed of small pieces. But the two things are lui-


ibrtunately confounded; and a column consisting of a single piece of timber is absurdly called a pillar or pile.

2. Au erect or elevated structure resembhng " a column in architecture ; as the aslronom-

kal column at Paris, a kind of hollow tower with a spiral ascent to the top ; gnomonic column, a cylinder on which the hour ot the day is indicated by the shadow of a style ; military column, among the Romans: triumphal column ; &c.

3. Any body pressing perpendicularly on its base, and of the same diameter as its base !is a column of water, air or mercuiy.

4. In the military art, a large body of troop; drawn up in order ; as a solid column.

5. Among printers, a division of a page ; i perpendicular set of lines separated fron another set by a line or blank space. In manuscript books and papers, any sepa- rate perpendicular line or row of words or figures. A page may contain two or more columns ; and in arithmetic, many columns of figures may be added.

eOLUM'N AR, a. Formed in columns ; hav- ing tlie fcrriiof columns; like the shaft ot a riilmnii; as cofemnorspar. tOLUftlNARlrili, a. Somewhat resem- bling a column. [Abadword.]

Fam. of Plants. Vol. u. 4o4- eOLU'RE, 11. [Gr. xo>,oi,po5 ; xoTlo;, mutila- ted, and ovpa, a tail ; so named because a part is always beneath the horizon.] In astronomy and geography, the coliues two great circles supposed to intersect each other at right angles, in the poles of] the world, one of thein passing througli the solstitial and the other through the equinoctial points of the ecUptic, viz. Can- cer and Capricorn, Aries and Libra, divi- ding the ecliirtic into four equal parts. The points where these lines intersect the eclip- tic are called cardinal points.

Encyc. Hams. COM, in composition as a prefix, Ir. comh, or coimh, W. cym or cj/v, h. com or cum, denotes loith, to or against. CO'MA, n. [Gr. x<^f«i, lethargy.] Lethargy; dozing ; a preternatural propensity to sleep ; a kind of stupor of diseased per- sons. , , Co^e- CO'MA, n. [L. from Gr. xo/iti, a head ot hair In botany, a species of bracte, terminatmg the stem of a plant, in a tuft or bush ; as in crown-imperial. Martyn. •3. In astronomy, hairiness ; the hairy appear- ance that surrounds a comet, when the earth or the spectator is between the comet and the sun. CO'MART, n. [con and mart.] A treaty article ; agreement. Obs. Shak CO'MATE, a. [L. comatus, from coma ; Ir ciamh, ciabh.] Hairy ; encompassed with a coma, or bushy appearance, like hair.

Shak. €0-MA'TE, n. [co and mate.] A fellow- mate, or companion. Shak. CO'MATOSE, ) [See Coma.] Preter- eO'MATOUS, I "■ naturally disposed to sleep; drowsy; dozing, without natural sleep ; lethargic. Coxe. Grew. eOMB, n. [Sax.] A valley between hills or mountains. [JSTot in use.] Brown. eOMB, n. b silent. [Sax. camb, a comb; cemban, to comb ; G. kamm ; D. kam ; Sw. kamin : Dan. kam, a comb ; Ir. ciomaim, to


comb or card. Qu. L. como, to dress, trim or comb, which seems to be allied to the Gr. xou^oj. But the noun may be the rad- ical word in our language, and from scratching, scraping; Eth. I^^^O gamea, to shave or scrape.]

1. An instrument, with teeth, for separating, cleansing and adjusting hair, wool, or flax, Also, an instrument of horn or shell, for keeping the hair in its place when dressed.

a. The crest, caruncle or red fleshy tiill, iwing on a cock's head ; so called from indentures which resemble the teeth of



3. The substance in which bees lodge their honey, in small hexagonal cells.

4. A dry measure of fuur bushels. [JVot used in U. States.]

COMB, V. t. To separate, disentangle cleanse, and adjust with a comb, as t( comb hair ; or to separate, cleanse and lay smooth and straight, as to comb wool.

COMB, V. i. In the language of seamen, to roll over, as the top of a wave ; or to break with a white foam. [Qu. Sp. combar, to bend, or from the English comb.]

COMB-BIRD, n. A gallinaceous fowl of Africa, of the size of a turkey-cock.

COMB-BRUSH, n. A brush to clean combs.

COMB-MAKER, n. One whose occupation is to make combs.

COMBAT, V. i. [Fr. combattre, cojnand bat tre, to beat with or against ; It. combattere ; Sp. combatir ; Port, combater ; Arm. com- badti or combatein. See Beat.]

1. To fight ; to struggle or contend with an opposing force.

Pardon nie ; I will not combat in my shirt.

Shak. This word is particularly used to denote private contest, or the fighting of two per- sons in a duel ; but it is used in a general sense for the contention of bodies of men, nations, armies, or any species of animals. After the fall of the republic, the Romans

3. To act in opposition.


It is followed by unth before the person and/or before the thing sought. A combats tcith B for his right COM'BAT, t>. «. To fight with; to oppose bj

force ; as, to combat an antagonist. a. To contend against ; to oppose ; to resist

as, to combat arguments or opinions. COM'BAT, n. A fighting ; a struggling to resist, overthrow or conquer ; contest by force ; engagement ; battle ; as the combat of armies. a. A duel; a fighting between two men; formerly, a formal trial of a doubtful cause, or decision of a controversy between two persons, by swords or bastons. COMBATANT, a. Contending ; disposed to contend. B. Jonson

COM'BATANT, n. A person who combats any jierson who fights with another, or ii an army, or fleet. .

3. A duellist ; one who fights or contends in battle, for the decision of a private quarrel or difference ; a champion. 3. A person who contends with another

argument, or controversy. COM'BATED,i)p. Opposed; "^s'^tcd.


COM'BATER, n. One who fights or con- tends. Shenvood, COM'BATING,;)pr. Striving to resist ; fight- ing; opposing by force or by argument- COMBED, pp. Separated, cleaned, or dress- ed with a comb. COMBER, 71. One who combs ; one whose

occupation is to comb wool, &.C. COM'BER, n. Incumbrance. [JVo< used.] COM'BER, n. A long slender fish with a red

back, found in Cornwall, England. COMBI'NABLE, a. Capable of combining. ChesteifieU. COM'BINATE, a. [See Combine.] Espous- ed ; betrothed. [JVot used.] Sfiak. COMBINA'TION, M. [Fr. comfcinawon. See Combine.] In general, close union or con- nection. Hence,

Intimate union, or association of two or more persons or things, by set purpose or agreement, for effecting some object, by joint operation ; in a good sense, when the object is laudable ; in an ill sense, when it is illegal or iniquitous. It is sometimes equivalent to league, or to conspiracy. We say, a combination of men to overthrow government, or a combination to resist oppression. 2. An assemblage ; union of particulars ; as a combination of circumstances. Commixture; union of bodies or qualities in a mass or compound ; as, to make nevr compounds by new combinations. Boyle. Chimical union ; union by aflSnity.

Mix dry acid of tartar with dry carbonate of potash ; no combination will ensue, till water is added. Henry.

5. In mathematics, the union of numbers or quantities in every possible manner ; or the variation or alteration of any number of quantities, letters, sounds, or the hke, in all the difterent manners possible. The nuin- ber of possible changes or combinations is found by multiplying the terms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 . continually into each other. Thus 1X2 =2: 2X3=6: 6X4=24: 24X5=120. &c. So the permutations of five quantities amount to 120. The change»that may be rung on twelve bells anwunt to 479,001,600. And the twenty four letters of the alpha- bet admit of 62,044,840,173,323,943,936,000 changes or combinations. Encyc.

COMBI'NE, V. t. [Fr. combiner ; It. combi- nare ; Sp. comUnar ; from the Low Latin combino, of com and binus, two and two, or double.] 1. To unite or join two or more things; to link closely together.

Friendship combines the hearts of men.

2. To agree ; t [M'ot usual.]

3. To join words or ideas together ; opposed to analyze. Johnson.

4. To cause to unite ; to bring into union or confederacy. .

The violences of revolutionary France combi.- ned the powers of Europe in opposition. COMBI'NE, V. i. To unite, agree or coa- lesce.

Honor and policy combine to justify the meas- ure.

2. To unite in friendship or design ; to league together.

You with your foes combine. Dryclen.

3. To unite by aflinity, or natural attraction.


Two substances which will not conibine of tlieinselves, may be made to combine, by the intervention of a third.

4. To confederate ; to unite as nations.

The powers of Europe coinbined against France.

COMBI'NED, pp. United closely ; associa- ted; leagued; confederated; chimically united.

COMBING, ppr. Separating and adjusting hair, wool, &.c.

COMBING, »i. Borrowed liair combed over a bald part of the head. [Local.']

Bp. TayhT.

COMBI'NING, ppr. Uniting closely ; joining in purpose ; confederating ; uniting by chiniical affinity.

eOMBLESS, o. Without a comb or crest ; as a combUss cock. *'««*•

COMBUST', a. [L. combustus, comburo.] When a planet is in conjunction with tlie sun or apparently very near it, it is said to be combust or in combustion. The distance withiii which this epithet is applicable to a planet, is said by some writers to be 8i degrees; others say, within the distance ot half the sun's disk.

COMBUSTIBLE, o. [Fr. combMlible ; Sp. id. ; from L. comburo, combustum.]

That will take fire and burn ; capable of| catching fire ; thus, wood and coal are com- bustible bodies.

COMBUST'IBLE, n. A substance that will take fire and bum ; a body which, in its rapid union with others, disengages heat and light. Ure.

COMBUST'IBLENESS, > , The quality

COMBUSTIBILITY, J of taking fire and burning ; the quality of a substance which admits the action of fire upon it ; capacity of being burnt, or combined with oxygen. Lavoisier.

The quaUty of throwing out heat and liglit, in the rai)!d combination of its substance with another body. Ure

COMBUS'TION, n. combus'chun. [Low L combustio. See Combtist.]

1. The operation of fire on inflammable sub- stances ; or according to modern cliimistry, the union of an infiamniable substance with oxygen, attended with hght, and u most instances, with heat. In the com bustion of a substance, heat or caloric is disengaged, and oxygen is absorbed.

Lavoisier. This theory of Lavoisier being found somewhat defective, the following defini- tion is given. Combustion is the disen- gagement ofrhcat and light which accom- panies chimical combination. Ure Combustion cannot be regarded as dependent on any peculiar principle or form of matter, but must be considered as a general result of intense chimical action. Webster's Man. of Chim

% \\\\n popular language, a. \\\\innmi^; the |)ro- cess or action of fire in consuming a body, attended with heat, or heat and flame the combustion of wood or coal.

3. Conflagration ; a great fire. Hence, from the violent agitation of fire or flame,

4. Tumult ; violent agitation with hurry and noise ; confusion ; uproar.

Hooker. Milton. Dryden.

COME, I!, t. prct. came, part. come. [Sax.

cuman, or eieiman ; Goth, amman, pret.

cwom ; D. /women, pret. kwam ; G. kom

€ O M

men ; Sw. komma ; Dan. kommer, to come Qu. W. cam, Ir. cam, a step. And qu

theAr. A'i Heb. Ch. Dip to rise, or stand erect; to set or establish ; to subsist consist, remain ; to rectify-, or set in order ; and in Arabic, to be thick, stiff or congealed. The senses of the words appear to be very different ; but we use come in the sense of rising or springing, applied to corn ; the corn co7ne3or comes up, G. keimen. So the butter com£s, when it separates from the wliey and becomes tliick or stiff. And is not our conunon use of come, when we in- vite another to begin some act, or to move, equivalent to rise, being originally directed to persons sitting or reclining, in the ori- ental manner ? Coming impUes moving, driving, shootmg along, and so we use set : we say, to set forward ; the tide sets north- erly.] L To move towards ; to advance nearer, in any manner, and from any distance. We say, the men come this way, whether riding or on foot ; the wind comes from the west the ship comes with a fine breeze; light cctmes from the sun. It is appUcal haps to every thing susceptible of motion, and is opposed to go.

2. To draw nigh ; to approach ; to arrive : to be present.

Come thou and all thy house into the ark. Gen. vii-

All my time vrill I wait, till my change come. Job xiv.

When shall I come and appear before God ? Ps. xlii-

Then shall the end come. Math. xxiv.

Thy kingdom come; thy will be done. Math vi.

The time has come.

3. To advance and arrive at some state or condition ; as, the ships came to action ; the players came to blows ; is it come to this

His sons come to honor and he knoweth it not. Job xiv.

I wonder how he came to know what had been done ; how did he come by his knowledge? the heir comes into possession of his estate; the man will come in time to' abhor the vices of his youth, or he will come to be poor and despicable, or to poverty.

In these and similar phrases, we observe! the process or advance is applied to the body or to the mind, indifl'erently ; and to persons or events.

4. To happen or fall out; as, how comes that? let co?rte what will. Hence when| followed by an object or person, with to or on, to befall ; to light on.

After all that has coine on us for our evil deeds. Ezra ix.

All things come alike to .nil. Eceles. ix.

5. To advance or move into view ; to apoear ; as, blood or color comes and goes in the face. Spenser. Shak.

6. To sprout, as plants ; to spring. The corn comes or comes up. " In the coming or sprouting of malt, as it must not come too little, so it must not come too much." Mor- timer. So Bacon uses the word; and this, use of it coincides nearly with the sense ofl Dip, quoin, 2 Kings xix. 26. and in the

same chapter inserted in Isaiah xxsvii.


27. It is the G. keimen, Icelandic keima, to bud, or germinate.

7. To become. So canu I a widow. Shak.

8. To appear or be formed, as butter ; to ad- vance or change from cream to butter ; a common use of the word ; as, the butter comes. Hudibras.

9. Come, in the imperative, is used to excite attention, or to uivite to motion or joint action ; come, let us go.

This is the heir ; come, let us kill him. When repeated, it sometimes expresses haste ; come, come. Sometimes it express- es or introduces rebuke. As the sense of come is to move, in al- most any manner, in its various applica-" tions, that sense is modified indefinitely by other words used in connection with it. Thus with words expressing approach, it denotes advancing nearer; with words ex- pressing departure, as/rom, of, out of, &c., it denotes motion from, &c. To come about, to happen ; to fall out ; to come to pass ; to arrive. How did these things come about ? So the French venir it bout, to come to the end, that is, to ar- rive. To come about, to turn ; to change ; to come round. The wind will come about from west to east. The ship comes about. It is applied to a change of sentiments. On better thoughts, and my urged reasons, They are come about, and won to the true side. B. Jonson. To come again, to return. Gen. xxviii.

Lev. xiv. To come after, to follow. Math. xvi. Also, to come to obtain ; as, to come after a book. To come at, to reach ; to arrive within reach of; to gain ; to come so near as to be able to take or possess. We prize those most who are hardest to come at. To come at a true knowledge of ourselves.


Also, to come towards, as in attacking.

To come away, to depart from ; to leave ; to

issue from. To come back, to return. To come by, to pass near ; a popular phrase. Also, to obtain, gain, acquire ; that is, to come near, at or dose.

Examine how you came by all your state.

Dryden. This is not an irregular or improper use of this word. It is precisely equivalent to possess, to sit by. [See Possess.] So in Ger. bekommeji, D. bekoomen, to get or ob- tain ; the by or 6e prefixed. To come down, to descend.

The Lord will come down on mount Sinai. Ex. xix. Also, to be humbled or abased. Vour principalities shall comedoum. Jer. xiii. Come down from thy glory. Jer. xlviii. To come for, to come to get or obtain ; to

come after. To come forth, to issue or proceed from. Gen. XV. Is. xi. Micah v. Also, to depart from ; to leave. Mark ix. Also, to come abroad. Jer. iv. To come from, to depart from ; to leave. In popular language, this phrase is equiva- lent to, where is his native place or former place of residence ; where did this man, this animal or this plant originate. To come home, that is, to come to home, or




the liouse ; to arrive at the dwelling. Hence, to come close ; to press closely ; to touch the feelings, interest, or reason. [See Home.] To come in, to enter, as into an inclosiire. Also, to comply ; to yield ; as, come in :iiid submit.

Also, to arrive at a port, or place of ren- dezvous ; as, the fleet has come in.

Also, to become fashionable ; to be brought into use.

Silken garments did not come in till late.

.flrbtUhnol . Also, to enter as an ingredient nr part of a composition.

A nice sense of propriety comes in to lieiglit- cn the character.

Also, to grow and produce ; to come to maturity and yield. If the corn comes in well, we shall have a supply, without im- portation. Crops come in light.

Also, to lie carnally with. Gen. xxxviii To come in for, to arrive in time to take a share. Johnson says this phras taken from hunting, where the slow dogs take nothing. Qu. But the sense in which we now use the phrase lias no refer- ence to time or slow movement. It is, to imite with others in taking a part.

The rest came infer subsidies. Swift.

To come into, to join with ; to bring help.

Also, and more generally, to agree to ;

to comply with ; to unite with others in

adopting ; as, to come into a measure or


To come near, to approach in place. Hence metaphorically, to approach in quality ; to arrive at nearly the same degree in a qual- ity, or accomplishment ; to resemble.

Temjile To come nigh, is popularly used in like sen- ses. To come no near, in seamanship, is an order to the helmsman not to steer so close to the wind.

To come of, to issue from ; to proceed from, as a descendant.

O/" Priam's royal race my niollier came.


Also, to proceed from, as an effect from

a cause.

TWs conies of judging by the eye.

L'Estrnnge. \\\\\\\\Tience come wars — come they not of you lusts .' James iv. To come off, to depart from ; to remove from on.

Also, to depart or deviate from a line or point ; to become wider ; to dilate.

Bacon. Also, to escape ; to get free.

Hence, to end ; to arrive at the final •sue ; as, to come off with honor or disgrace.

To come off from, to leave ; to quit. Felton.

To come on, to advance ; to proceed ; as, come on, brave boys ; night is coming on So we say, the young man comes on well in his studies, and the phrase often denotes a prosperous advance, successful im- provement. So we say of i)lants, they come on well, they grow or thrive— that is, they proceed.


Also, to pass from one party, side or army to another ; to change sides. To come out, to depart or proceed from.

They shall come out with great substance Gen. XV.

Also, to become public ; to escape from concealment or privacy ; to be discovered ; as, the truth is come out at last.

Also, to be published, as a book. The work comes out in (piarto.

Also, to end or come to an issue ; as, how will this afl'air come out ; he iias come out well at last. To come out of, to issue forth, as from confinement, or a close place ; to proceed or depart from.

Also, to issue from, as descendants,

Kings shall come out of thee. Gen. xv

To come out with, to give publicity to; to

lisclose. Boijle.

To come short, to fail; not to accomplish.

All have sinned and come short of the glory

God. Rom. iii.

To come to, to consent or yield. Swift.

Also, to amount to ; as, the taxes co?nf

to a large sum.

Also, to recover, as from a swoon. To come together, to meet or as.semble. To come to pass, to be ; to happen ; fall out ; to be effected. The phrase much used in the common version of the scriptures, but is seldom found in modern English writings. Tu come up, to ascend ; to rise.

Also, to spring ; to shoot or rise above

the earth, as a plant. Ba

Also, to come into use, as a fashion.

To come up th^ capstern, in seamanship, is to

turn it the contrary way, so as to slacken

the rope about it.

To come up the tackle fall, is to slacken it

gently. To come up to, to approach near. Also, to amount to. Also, to advance to ; to rise to. To come up with, to overtake, in following

or pursuit. To come upon, to fall on ; to attack or in

\\\\iu\\\\e. To come, in futurity ; to happen hereaf- ter. In times to come. Success is yet to

Take a lease for years to come. Loche.

Come is an intransitive verb, but the partici- )(le come is much used with the .substan tive verb, in the pas.sive form. "The end of all flesh is come." I am come, thou art come, he is come, we are come, &c. This use of the substantive verb, for have. is perhaps too well established to be reject cd ; but have or ha^ should he used in such phrases. In the phrase, '■^come Friday come Candleinas," there is an elliiisis of certain words, as when Fridai/ shall come.

Come, come, the repetition of come, ex- presses haste, or exhortation to hasten. Sometimes it introduces a threat.

€OME, n. A sprout. [Ml used.]


eOME-OFF, n. Means of escape ; cvasioa;

do not want tliis come-off.

Grellman, 172, €OME'DIAN, Ti. [Sec Comedy.] An actor or player in comedy ; or a player in gen- eral, male or female. Camden.

2. A writer of comedy. Peacham. COM'EDY, n. [L. comadia; Gr. *u;««8ia.

Qu. from xu/m;, a village, and wSij, or rath- er atibu, to shig, and denoting that the comedian was a strolling singer ; or whether the first syllable is from xujuos, a merry feast, whence comic, comical, the lat- ter indicating that the comedian was characterized by buffoonery. The latter coincides in elements with the English game.]

A dramatic composition intended to repre- sent human characters, which arc to bo imitated in language, dress and manner, by actors on a stage, for the amuse- ment of spectators. The object of come- dy is said to be to reconmiend virtue and make vice ridiculous ; but the real effect is amusement.

eOMELILY, adv. cum'lily. In a suitable or decent manner. [Littleu^ed.] Sherwood.

COMELINESS, n. cum'liness. [See Come- ly.] That which is becoming, fit or suita- ble, in form or manner. Comeliness of person impUes symmetry or due propor- tion of parts; comeliness of manner im- plies deconiin and propriety. " It signi- fies something less forcible than beauty, less elegant than g)-ace, and less light than prettiness." Johnson.

A careless comeliness with comely care.

Sidney. He hath no form nor comeliness. Is. liii. 2.

eOMELY, a. cum'hj. [from come. The sense of suitableness is often fiom meet- ing, coming together, whence adjusting, putting in order. So m Latin, conveniens, from cojitienio.]

Properly, becoming ; suitable : whence, hand- some ; graceful. Jlpptied to person or form, it denotes symmetry or due proportion, but it expresses less than beautiful or ele- gant.

I have seen a son ol Jesse — a comely person.

I will not conceal his comely proportion. Job xli.

3. Decent ; suitable ; proper ; becoming ; suited to time, place, circumstances Or per- sons.

Praise is comely for the upright. Ps. xxxiii. Is it comely that a woman pray to God un- covered ? 1 Cor. xi. O what a world is this, when what is cfimely Envenoms him that bears it. Shale.

COMELY, adv.cum'ly. Handsomely; grace- fully. Ascham.

COMER, )!. One that comes ; one who aj)- proaches ; one who has arrived and is present.

COMESSA'TION, )). [L. comessalio.]

Feasting or reveling. /?«//.

COMESTIBLE, o. [Fr.] Eatable. [Ao£ used.] Wotton.

COMET, n. [l..cometa; Gr. xofirjtfjf ; from xofir;, coma, hair ; a hairy star.]

An opake, spherical, solid body, like a planet, but accompanied with a train of light, per- forming revolutions about the sim, in an elliptical orbit, having the sun in one of its


foci. In its approach to its pcriiiclion, if becomes visible, and niter passing its peri- helion, it departs into remote regions and disappears. In popular language, comets are tailed, bearded or hmiy, but tlicse terms are taken from the appearance of the light which attends them, which, in diflerent positions with respect to the sun, exhibits the form of a tail or train, a beard, or a border of hair. When the comet is west- ward of the sun and rises or sets before it, the light appears in the morning like a train beginning at the body of the comet and extending westward and diverging in proportion to its extent. Thus the comet of 1769, [which I saw,] when it rose in the morning, presented a luminous train that extended nearly from the horizon to the meridian. When the comet and the sun are op|)osite, the earth being between them, the comet is, to the view, immersed in its train and the light appears around its body like a fringe or border of hair. From the train of a comet, this body has obtained the popidar name of a blazing star. Herschel observed several comets, which appeared to ha\\\'e no nucleus, but to be merely collections of vapor condensed about a center. C'yc.

€OM'ET, 71. A game at cards. Souther'ne.

COMETA'RIUM, ) A machine exhibiting

eOM'ETARY, S a" 'dea of the revolu- tion of a comet round the sun. Encyc.

€OM'ETARY, o. Pertaining to a comet.


COMET'le, a. Relating to a comet.

■COM'ET-LIKE, a. Resembling a comet.


€OMETOG'RAPIIY, n. [comet and Gr. ypa4>u, to describe.] A description or trea- tise of comets.

COM'FIT, \\\\ ^ [D. konfyt ; G. confed ;

COM'FITURE, I "• Dan. co7ifect ; Fr. conft, confiture ; It. confetlo, confetlura, or con- fezione ; Sp. confite ; Port, con/eito ; from the L. confectura, confectus, conjicio, con and facio, tamake.]

A dry sweet-meat ; any kind of fruit or root preserved with sugar and dried. Johnson.

eOM'FIT, V. t. To preserve dry with sugar. Cowley.

eOM'FIT-MAKER, n. One ivho makes or prepares comfits.

eoM'FORT, t'. t. [Low L. cnnforto ; Fr. conforter ; Arm. confoiii, or conforta ; It. confortare ; Sp. and Port, confortar ; Ir. comh-J'hurtach, comfort, and furtiichd, id.; furlaighim, to relieve or help ; from the L, 'am and fortis, strong.]

1. To strengthen ; to invigorate ; to cheer oi enliven.

Light excelleth in comforting the spirits of men. Bacon.

Com/oi< ye your hearts. Gen.xviii.

2. To strengthen the mind when depressed or enfeebled ; to console ; to give new vi- gor to the spirits ; to cheer, orrelieve from depression, or trouble.

His friends came to moum with liim and to comfort him. Job ii.

3. In law, to relieve, assist or encourage, as the accessory to a crime after the fact.


COMFORT, n. Relief from pain ; ease ;

rest or moderate pleasure after pain, cold

or distress or uneasiness of body. Thei


word signifies properly new strength, or animation ; and rehef from pain is often the cftect of strength. In a popular sense, the word signifies ratlier negatively the ab- .sence of pain and the consequent quiet, than positive animation.

2. Relief from distress of mind ; the case and quiet which is experienced when pain, trouble, agitation or affliction ceases. It implies also some degree of positive ani- mation of the spirits ; or some pleasurea- ble sensations derived from hope, and agreeable prospects ; consolation.

Let me alone, that I may take comfort a little. Job X.

Daughter, be of good comfort ; thy faith hath made thee whole. Mat. ix.

3. Support ; consolation under calamitj', dis- tress or danger.

Let thy merciful kindness be for my comfort. Vs. cxix.

4. That which gives strength or support in distress, difficulty, danger, or infirmity.

Pious children are the comfort of their aged parents.

5. In law, support ; assistance ; counte- nance ; encouragement ; as, an accessorj' affords aid or comfort to a felon.

6. That which gives security from want and furnishes moderate enjoyment ; as the comforts of-life.

eOM'FORTABLE, a. Being in a state of ease, or moderate enjoyment ; as a per- son after sickness or pain. Thui is the most common use of the word in the U. States.

2. Admitting comfort ; that may afford com- fort.

WTio can promise him a coinforiable appear- ance before his dreadful judge .' South.

3. Giving comfort ; affording consolation. The word of my lord the king shall now be

comfortable. 2 Sam. xiv.

4. Placing above want and affording mode- rate enjoyment ; as a comfortable provis- ion for old age.

eOM'FORTABLENESS, n. The state of !

enjoying comfort. COMFORTABLY, adv. In a manner to give comfort or consolation.

Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem. Is. xl. 2. With comfort, or clieerfulness ; without despair.

Hope comfortably and cheerfully for God's performance. Hammond.

COM'FORTED, pp. Strengthened ; conso- led; encouraged. COM'FORTER, n. One who administers comfort or consolation ; one who strength- ens and supports the mind in distress or danger.

I looked for comforters, but found none. Ps. Ixix.

Miserable comforters arc ye all. Job xvi. 2. The title of tlie Holy Spirit, whose office it is to comfort, and sujtport the christian. But the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name — he shall teach you all things. John xiv. COM'FORTING, ppr. Giving strength or spirits ; giving ease ; cheering ; encoura- ging; consolinff. COM'FORTLESS, a. Without comfort ; without any thing to alleviate misfortune, or distress.

I will not leave you comfortless. John xiv. COM'FORTRESS, ji. A female that affords li comfort.


COM'FREY, I [Qu. L. conjirmo, equiva, COM'FRY, S "• lent to consolida.] A genus j of plants, the Symphytum. COM'IC, a. [L. comicus ; Gr. xaittxoi. Sec Comedy.]

1. Relating to comedy, as distinct from tra- I gedy. ffaller. ,2. Raising mirth ; fitted to excite merriment.

Shak. COM'ICAL, a. Relating to comedy ; comic. i ^ Gau.

2. Exciting mirth ; diverting ; .sportive ; droll. j Addison. I We say, a buflToon is a comical fellow, or I his story or his manners are comic. €OM'l€ALLY, adv. In a manner befitting I comedy.

2. In a comical manner; in a manner to ! raise mirth. €OM'l€ALNESS, n. The quality of being

comical ; the power or quality of raising mirth. Johnson.

COM'ING, ppr. [See Come.] Drawing nearer or nigh ; approacliing ; moving towards ; advancing.

2. a. Future ; yet to come ; as, in coming ages.

3. Forward ; ready to come. How coming to the poet every muse.

[The loiter sense is now unusual.]


eOM'ING, n. The act of coming; approach. 2. The state of being come; arrival.

The Lord hath blessed thee since my coming. Gen. XXX. €OM'ING-IN, n. Entrance.

I know thy going-out and thy coming-in. 2 Kings xi.\\\\.

2. Beginning ; commencement ; as the com- I mg--tn of the year. 2 Kings xiii.

3. Income; revenue. [JVot now used.] I Shak.

4. Compliance ; submission. [J^ot in use,] Massingcr.

€OMI"TIAL, a. [L. comitia, an assembly of the Romans ; probably formed from cum and eo, Ir. coimh, W. cym or cyv.]

1. Relating to the comitia or popular assem- blies of the Romans, for electing officers and passing laws. Middleton.

2. Relating to an order of presbyterian as- semblies. Bp. Bancroft.

COMTTY, n. [L. comitas, from comes, mild, affable ; Ir. caomh.]

Mildness and suavity of manners; courtesy ; civility ; good breeding. Wellbred peo- ple are characterized by comity of man- ners.

€OM'MA. n. [Gr. xoft/ia, a segment, from *o«ruj, to cut off.]

1. In uriting and printing, this point [ , ] de- noting the shortest pause in reading, and separatuig a sentence into divisions or members, according to the construction. Thus, " There is not a just man upon eartli, that doeth good, and sinneth not." " Virtue, wit, knowledge, are excellent accomplishments." " Live soberly, right- eously, and piously, in the present world."

2. In music, an enharmonic interval, being the eighth part of a tone, or the difference between a major and a minor semitone ; a term used in theoretic music to show the exact proportions between concords.

Encyc. Harris.




3, Distinction. L. Addison

COMM'AND, V. I. [It. comandare ; Sp. mandar, mandar ; Arm. coumandi ; Fr. commander ; con, or com, and L. mando, to command, to commit to, Basque nanatu ; literally, to send to, to send forth, from the same root as commend, demand, and L, moneo. See Class Mn.]

1. To bid ; to order ; to direct ; to charge implying authority, and power to control, and to require obedience.

We will sacrifice to the Lord our God, as li shall command us. Ex. viii.

I know that he [Abraham] will command his children and his household after him, ant tlicy shall keep the way of the Lord. Gen xviii.

2. To govern, lead or direct ; to have or to exercise supreme authority over.

Lord Wellington commanded an army Spain ; he commanded the army at the battle of Waterloo.

3. To have in jiower ; to be able to power or autiiority over ; as, a military post commands the surrounding country ; a fort commands the harbor.

5. To overlook, or have in the power of the eye, without obstruction.

One side commands a view of the finest garden in the world. Addison

5. ^Fo direct ; to send.

The Lord shall command the blessing oi thee. Deut. xxviii.

The Lord will command his loving kindness Ps. xlu. C. To have or to exercise a controlling influ- ence over.

A good magistrate commands the respect and affections of the people. eOMM^AND, D. i. To have or to exercise supreme authority ; to possess the chie power ; to govern ; as, the general fcom mands with dignity and humanity. Wliat general commands in Canada ? eOMM'AJVD, n. The right or power of governing with chief or exclusive author ity ; supreme power ; control ; as, an offi cer has a brigade under liis command he takes command of the army in France ; an appropriate military term.

2. The power of controlling ; governing in- fluence; sway.

He assumed an absolute command over his readers. Bryden.

3. Cogent or absolute authority.

Command and force may often create, but can never cure, an aversion. Locke.

4. The act of commanding ; the mandate uttered ; order given.

The captain gives command. Dryden.

5. The power of overlooldng, or surveying, without obstruction.

The stcepy strand. Which overlooks the vale with wide com- mand. Dryden.

6. The power of governing or controlling by force, or of defending and protecting.

Tlie fortress has complete command of tlie port.

7. That which is commanded ; control ; as a body of troops under command.


€OMM>ANDABLE, a. That may be com- manded.

■eOMMANDANT', n. [Fr.] A commander; a commanding officer of a place or of a body of forces. Smollett.

j€OMlVrANDATORY, a. Having the force

I of a command.

iCOMM>ANDED, pp. Ordered; directed;

I governed ; controlled.

iCOMM'ANDER, n. A chief; one who has supreme authority ; a leader ; the chief officer of an army, or of any division of it,

j The term may also be applied to the ad

[ miral of a fleet, or of a squadron, or tc

I any supreme officer ; as the commander of

I the land or of the naval force ; the com

1 mander of a ship.

2. One on whom is bestowed a benefice o j command ry.

,3. A heavy beetle or wooden mallet, used I in paving, &c. [This gives us the primary

sense of L. mando, to send, to drive.] |4. An instrument of siu-gery. IViseman.

eOMarANDERY, ^ [Fr. commanderie.] €OMM>ANDRY, \\\\ "• A kind of benefice or fixed revenue, belonging to a military order, conferred on knights of merit. There are strict and regular commandries, obtained by merit, or in order ; and others are of grace and favor, bestowed by the Grand Master. There are also command- ries for the rehgious, in the orders of St, JJernard and St. Anthony. Encyc.

€OMM>ANDING, ppr. Bidding ; ordering ; directing with authority ; governing ; bearing rule ; exercising supreme author- ity ; having in power ; overlooking with out obstruction.

3. a. Controlling by influence, authority, or dignity ; as a man of commanding man ners ; a commanding eloquence.

COMMANDINGLY, adv. In a command

ing maimer. COMM>ANDMENT, »i. A command ; i mandate ; an order or injunction given by authority ; charge ; precept.

Why do ye transgress the commandment of God. Math. xv.

This is the first and great commandment. Math. xxii.

A new commandment I give to you, that ye love one another. John xiii.

2. By way of eminence, a precept of the decalogue, or moral law, written on tables of stone, at Mount Sinai; one of the ten commandments. Ex. xxxiv.

3. Authority; coercive power. Shah.

COMM^ANDRESS, n. A woman invested with supreme authority. Hooker.

COM'MARK, n. [Fr. comarque; Sp. co- marca.l The frontier of a country.


€OMMATE'RIAL, a. [con and material] Consisting of the same matter with an- other thing. Bacon.

€OMMATERIAL'ITY, n. Participation of the same matter. Johnson.

eOM'MATISM, n. [from comma.] Brief- ness ; conciseness in writing.

Bp. Horsley.

€OMMEAS'URABLE, a. [See Measure.] Reducible to the same measure. Bin commensurable is generally used.

€OM'MELINE, n. A genus of herbaceous plants, Commelina, natives of warm cli-j mates. This name was given to this ge-i nus by Linne, in honor of the Commelins,! distinguished botanists of Holland. These plants have flowers with three petals, two large and one small ; the large petals rep- resenting John and Gaspard Commelin,|

who published catalogues of plants ; the smaller petal representing another of the name who pubhshed nothing.

Gloss, de Botanique, De Theis. €OMMEM'ORABLE, a. Memorable ; wor- thy to be remembered, or noticed with honor. [See Memorable.]

COMMEMORATE, v. t. [L. commemoro ; con and metnoro, to mention. See Mem- ory.]

To call to remembrance by a solemn act ; to celebrate with honor and solemnity ; to honor, as a person or event, by some act of respect or afteiction, intended to preserve the remembrance of that person or event. The Lord's supper is designed to commemo- rate the suflerings and dying love of our Savior.

€OMMEM'ORATED,jb;). Called to remem- brance by some act of solemnity.

€0MMEM'0RATING, ppr. Celebrating with honor by some solemn act.

eOMMEMORA'TION, n. The act of call- ing to remembrance, by some solemnity ; the act of honoring the memory of some person or event, by solemn celebration. The feast of shells at Plymouth in Massa- chusetts is an annual commemoration of the first landing of our ancestors in 1620.

COMMEMORATIVE, a. Tending to pre- serve the remembrance of something.


COMMEM'ORATORY, a. Serving to pre- serve the memory of.

COMMENCE, V. i. commens'. [Fr. commen- cer ; Port, comecar ; Sp. comenzar ; It. co- minciare ; Arm. coumanp. Perhaps com and initio.]

To begin ; to take rise or origin ; to have first existence ; as, a state of glory to com- mence after this life ; this empire commen- ced at a late period.

To begin to be, as in a change of char- acter.

Let not learning too commence its foe. Pope. To take a degree or the first degree in a university or college. Bailey.

COMMENCE, V. t. To begin ; to enter up- on ; to perforin the first act ; as, to com- mence operations.

To begin ; to originate ; to bring ; as, to commence a suit, action or process in law.

COMMEN'CED, pp. Begun ; originated.

COMMENCEMENT, n. commens'ment. Be- ginning ; rise ; origin ; first existence ; as t\\\\\\\\B commencement of New Style in 1752 ; the commencement of hostilities in 1775.

2. The time when students in colleges com- mence bachelors ; a day in which degrees are publicly conferred on students who have finished a collegiate education. In Cambridge, Eng., the day when masters of arts and doctors complete their degrees. ti'orthington.

COJIMEN'CING, ppr. Beginning; enter- ing on ; originating.

COMMEND', V. t. [L. commendo ; con and mando ; It. commendare ; Port, encommen- dar ; Fr. recommander; Sp. comandar, to command, and formerly to commend. This is the same word as command, difTerently applied. The primary sense is, to send to or throw ; hence, to charge, bid, desire or ' intreat.]

To represent as worthy of notice, regard, or kindness ; to speak in favor of; to re- commend.




I cc^mmeTul to you Phebe our sister. Rom. xvi. 3. To commit ; to entrust or give in charge. Father, iato thy hands I commend my spirit. Luke xxiii.

3. To praise ; to mention with approbation.

Tlie princes commended Sarai before Pha- raoh. The Lord commended the unjust stew- ard. Bible.

4. To make acceptable or more acceptable.

But meat commendeth us not to God. 1 Cor.

5. To produce or present to favorable no- tice.

The choru-i had an occasion of commending their voices to the king. Dryden.

6. To send or bear to.

These draw the chariot which Latinus 8en

And tlic ricli present to the prince commends.


COMMEND', n. Commendation. '[JSTot used.] Shak.

eOMMEND'ABLE, a. [Fr. recommandable ; It. eommendabile. Formerly accented im- properly on the first sjllable.]

Tliat may be commended or praised ; wor- thy of approbation or praise ; laudable.

Order and decent ceremonies in tlie church are commendable. Bacon.

€OMMEND'ABLENESS, n. State of be- ing commendable.

COMMEND' ABLY, adv. Laudably ; in a praise-worthy manner.

COMMEND'AM, n. In ecclesiastical law, in England, a benefice or living commended, by the king or head of the church, to the care of a clerk, to hold till a proper pas- tor is provided. This may be temporary or perpetual. Blackstone.

The trustor administration of the revenues of a benefice given to a layman, to liolcfas a deposit for six months in order to re- pairs, &c., or to an ecclesiastic, to per- form the pastoral duties, till the benefice is provided with a regul ar incumbent.


COMMEND' AT.\\\\IIY, n. [Fr. commenda- taire ; It. commendatario, commendatore.]

One who holds a living in commendam.

COMMENDA'TION, n. [L. commendatio.] The act of commending; praise; favora- ble representation in words ; declaration of esteem.

Need we, as some others, letters of comtnen- datian. 2 Cor. xx\\\\i.

2. Ground of esteem, approbation or praise ; that which presents a person or thing to another in a favorable light, and renders worthy of regard, or acceptance.

Good-nature is tlie most godlike commenda- tion of a man. Dryden.

8. Service ; respects ; message of love.


COMMEND'ATORY, a. Which serves to commend ; presenting to favorable notice or recejjtion ; containing praise ; as a commendatory letter. Bacon. Pope.

2. Holding a benefice in commendam ; as a commendatort/ bishop.

COMMEND'ATORY, n. A commenda- tion; eiilogv. South.

COMMEND'ED, pp. Praised ; represented favorably ; committed in eliarge.

COMMEND'ER, n. One who commends or jjraiscs.

COMMEND'ING, ppr. Praising ; represent irig favorably ; committing, or delivering ■11 charge.

Vol. I.

Note. In imitation of the French, we arc ac- customed to use recommendation, &.C., for commendation. But in most instances, it is better to use the word without the prefix re. A letter of commendation, is the preferable phrase.

COMMENS'AL, n. [L. con and mensa, ta- ble.] One that eats at the same table. Obs. Cliaucer.

COMftlENSAL'ITY, n. [Sp. conmensalia; L. commensalis ; con and mensa, a table.] j

Fellowship at table ; the act or practice of eating at the same table. [Little used.]

Brown. Gillies.


COMMEN'SURABLENESS, ^ "• mensura- bilite.] The capacity of being compared with another in measure, or of being measured by another, or of having a com- mon measure. Brown. Hale.

COMMENSURABLE, a. [Fr. fi-om con and L. meiisura, measure. See Measure.]

That have a comtnon measure ; reducible to a common measure. Thus a yard and a foot are commensurable, as both may be measured by inches. Commensurable numbers are those which may be measur- ed or divided by another number without a remainder ; as 12 and 18 which may be measured by C and 3.

Commensurable surds are those which, being reduced to their least terms, becottie true figurative quantities of their kind ; and arc therefore as a rational quantity to a ra- tional one. Encyc.

COMMEN'SURATE, a. [It. commensurare ; Sp. conmensurar, whence conmensurali- vo ; con and L. mensura, measure.]

1. Reducible to one and the same common measure.

3. Equal; proportional; having equal meas- ure or extent.

We find nothing in this life commensurate to our desires.

COMMEN'SURATE, v.t. To reduce to a common measure.

COMMEN'SURATELY, adv. With the capacity of measuring or being mea.sured by some other thing. Holder.

2. With equal measure or extent. COMMENSURA'TION, n. Proportion, or

in-oportion in measure; a state of having a common measure.

All fitness lies in a particular commensuration, or proportion, of one thing to another. South. COM'MENT, V. 1. [L. commentor, to cast in the mind, to think, to devise, to com- pose ; from con and mens, mind, or the same root. It. comentare ; Fr. commenter ; Sp. C07nentar ; Fort, commentar. See Mind.]

1. To write notes on the works of an au- thor, with a view to illustrate his meaning, or to explain particular passages ; to ex- plain ; to expound ; to annotate ; followed by on. We say, to comment on an author or on his writings. Diyden. Pope.

2. To make verbal remarks, or observations, either on a book, or writing, or on actions,] events, or opinions. Sliak.

COM'MENT, V. t. To explain. Fuller.

2. To li^ign ; to devise. Obs. Spenser.

COM'MENT, n. A note, intended to illus- trate a writing, or a diflicult passage in an author ; annotation ; explanation ; exposi- tion ; as the comments of Scott on the Scriptures.


: meet

J bear its cotn. ShttI:.

2. That which explains or il'ustrates ; a.s, a man's conduct is the best comment on his declarations. Poverty and disgi-ace are very .significant comments on lewdness, gambling and dissipation.

3. Remark ; observation.

In such a time as this, it is i That every nice offense she

COM'MENTARY, n. A comment ; expo- sition ; ex|)lanation ; illustration of diffi- cult and obscure passages in an author.

2. A book of comments or annotations.

3. A historical narrative ; a memoir of partic- ular transactions ; as the commentaries of Cesar.

COM'MENTARY, v.t. To write notes up- on. [lAtlle used.]

COM'MENTATOR, n. One who com- ments ; one who writes annotations ; an expositor; an annotator. [The accent on the first syllable and that on the third are nearly equal.]

COIMM ENTER, n. One that writes com- iiH-iits : an annotator.

•>. Our uliH makes remarks.

COMMENTING, ppr. Making notes or comments on something said or written.

COMMENTI"TIOUS, a. [L. commentUius.] Invented; feigned; imaginary. Glanville.

COM'MERCE, n. [Fr. commerce; L. com- mercium ; con and mercor, to buy ; merr, mereo. See Class Mr. No. 3. It. comm^r- cio ; Sp. eomercio ; Port, commercio. For- merly accented on the second syllable.]

1. In a general sense, an interchange or mu- tual change of goods, wares, productions, or property of any kind, between nations or individuals, either by barter, or by pur- chase and sale ; trade ; traffick. Com- merce is foreign or inland. Foreign com- merce is the trade which one nation car- ries on with another ; inland commerce, or inland trade, is the trade in the exchange of commodities between citizens of the same nation or state. Active commerce. [See Active.]

2. Intercourse between individuals; inter- change of work, business, civilities or amusements ; mutual dealings in common life.

3. Familiar intercourse between the sexes.

4. Interchange ; reciprocal communications ; as, there is a vast commerce of ideas.

D. Webster. COM'MERCE, V. i. To UaiBck ; to carry on trade. Raleigh.

2. To hold intercourse with.

. And looks commercing with the skies.

MUton. COMMERCIAL, a. Pertaining to com- merce or trade ; as commercial concerns ; commercial relations. 2. Carrying on commerce ; as a commercial

3. Proceeding fi-om trade ; as commercial

benefits or profits. COMMERCIALLY, adv. In a commercial

view. Burke.

COM MIGRATE, v.i. [L. commigro ; con

and migro, to migrate.] To migrate together; to move in a body

from one country or place to another for

permanent residence. [Little used.] COMMIGRA'TION, n. The moving of a

body of people from one country or place




to another with a view to pemianent res- idonre. H'oodioard.

€OMMINA'TION, n. [L. comminatio ; anil viinatio, a threatening, from minor, to threaten. See Menace.]

1. A threat or tlireatening ; a denunciation of punisliinent or vengeance.

2. The recital of God's threatenings on sta- ted days; an office in the Liturgy of th« Church of England, appointed to be read on Ash Wednesday or on the first day of Lent. Encyc.

COMMIN'ATORY, a. Threatening ; de- nouncing punishment. B. Jonson.

COMMIN'GLE, v. t. [con and mingle.] To mix together ; to mingle in one mass, oi intimately ; to blend. [See Mingle.]


COMMIN'GLE, V. i. To mix or unite to- gether, as different substances. Bacon.

€OMMlN'UATE, v. t. To grind. [JVot used.]

[See Comminute.]


)MMIN'UIBLE, a. Reducible to' pow- der. Brown eOM'MlNUTE, V. t. [L. comminuo ; con and ininuo, to lessen, from the root of minor j Ir. mion, min, fine, small, tender; W. main

Mn. No. 5.^

To make small or fine ; to reduce to particles, or to a fine powder, by breaking, pounding, rasping, or grinding ; to pulver- ize ; to triturate ; to levigate. It is chiefly or wholly applied to substances, not liquii" Bacor,

COM'MINUTED, pp. Reduced to fine pat tides ; pulverized ; triturated.

€OM'MINUTING, ppr. Reducing to fin particles ; pulverizing ; levigating.

COMMINU'TION, n. The act of reducing to a fine powder or to small particles ; pul- verization. R"y- Beniley.

.9. Attenuation ; as comminniion ol" spirits.


■COMMIS'ERABLE, a. [See Commiserate. Deserving of commiseration or pity ; piti able : that may excite sympathy or soi-

This eomtniserable person, Edward. [Little tised.] Baco/i.

COMMIS'ERATE, v. t. [L. commiseror; con and miscreor, to pity. See Miserable.]

1. To pity ; to compassionate; to feel sor- row, pain or regret for another in distress ; applied to persons.

We sliould commiserate those vvlio groan be- neath the weight of age, disease or want.


2. To regret ; to pity ; to be sorry fiir ; as. to commiserate our mutual ignorance.

Locke. C0MMIS'ERATED,7)/J. Pitied. COMMIS'ERATING, ppr. Pitying ; com

passionating ; feeling sorrow for. €OMMISERA'TION, n. Pity ; compas sion ; a sympathetic suffering of pain or sorrow for the wants, afflictions or 1 of another.

eOMMIS'ERATIVELY, adv. From com- passion. Overbury. COMMIS'ERATOR, n. One who pities.


€OMMISSA'RIAL, a. [See Commissary.]

Pertaining to a commissary.

Smollett uses commissorial ; but this is

not regular nor authorized. eOMMISSA'RIATE, n. [Sp. comisariato.

See Commissary.] The office or etnployment of a commissary ;

or the wliole body of officers in the coni-

missarv's department.

Tooke, Buss. i. 575. eOM'MISSARY, n. [Fr. commissaire ; It.

and Port, commissario ; Sp. comisario ; Low

L. commissaiius ; from commissus, com-

mitto ; con and mitto, to send.]

1. In a general sense, a commissioner ; one to whom is committed some charge, duty or oflice, by a superior power ; one wl is sent or delegated to execute some office or duty, in the place, or as the representa live, of his superior.

2. In ecclesiastical law, an officer of the bish 0|), who exercises spiritual jurisdiction it places of the diocese, so far distant from the episcopal see, that the chancellor can not call the people to the bishop's princi pal consistory court, without putting them to inconvenience. -^yliffe. Encyc.

In a military sense, an officer who has the charge of furnishing provisions, clothing, &c., for an army. Commissaries are dis- tinguished by different names, according to their duties ; as commissary-general,who is at the head of the department of sup plies, and has under him deputy commis- saries, and issuing commissaries ; the latter to issue or distribute the supplies.

4. An officer who musters the army, re- ceives and inspects the muster-rolls, and keeps an account of the strength of the army. He is called, the commissary-gene- ral of musters. The commissary of horses has the inspection of the artillery horses ; and the commissa)y of stores lias charge of all tlie stores of the artillery. Encyc.

COM'MISSARYSHIP, n. The office of a commissary. Ayliffe.

COMMIS'SION, n. [Fr. covimission ; It. commisione ; Sp. comision ; L. commissio, with a different application, from commit- to ; con and mitto, to send.] . The act of committing, doing, perform- ing, or perpetrating ; as the commissiun of a crime.

2. The act of committhig or sending to ; the act of entrusting, as a charge or duty. Hence,

3. The thing committed, entrusted or deliv- ered ; letters patent, or any writing from proper authority, given to a person as his warrant for exercising certain powers, or the performance of any duty, whetlier civd, ecclesiastical, or military. Hence,

4. Charge ; order ; mandate ; authority given.

He bore liis great commissio7i in Iiis look.

Dry den.

5. By a metonymy, a number of persons join- ed in an office or trust.

C). The state of that which is entrusted, as the great seal was put into commission ; oi the state of being authorized to act or per- form service, as a ship is put into com mission.

7. In commerce, the slate of acting under au thority in the purchase and sale of goods To tri ■ - ■ ■

for another.

ratio or do business 07i

commission, is to buy or sell for another by his authority. Hence,

8. The allowance made to a factor or com- mission-merchant tor transacting busi- ness, which is a certain rate per cent, of the value of the goods bought or sold.

Commission of bankruptcy, is a commission issuing from the Chancellor in Great Brit- ain, and in other countries, from some prop- er authority, appointing and empowering certain persons to examine into the facts relative to an alledged bankruptcy, and to secure the bankrupt's lands and effects for the creditors.

Commission of lunacy, is a commission issu- ing frotn the court of chancerj', to author- ize an inquiry whether a person is a luna- tic or not.

Commission-officer, in the army or navy, is an officer who has a commission, in distinc- tion from subaltern officers.

COMMISSION-MERCHANT, n. A mer- chant who transacts business as the agent of other men, in buying and selling, and receives a rate per cent, as his commis- sion or reward.

COMMIS'SION, V. t. To give a commission to ; to empower or authorize by commis- sion. The president and senate appoint, but the president commissions.

United Stales.

2. To send with a mandate or authority. A chosen band

He first commissions to the Latian land.


3. To authorize or empower.

Note. Commissionate, in a like sense, ha? been used, but rarely.

COMMIS'SIONAL, > Appointed by

C03IMIS'SI0NARY, J "• warrant. [Ut- ile used.]

COMMISSIONED, pp. Furnished with a commission ; empowered ; authorized.

COMMIS'SIONER, n. A person who has a commission or warrant from proper au- thority, to perform some oflice, or execute some business, for the person or govern- ment which employs him, and gives him authority ; as commissionejs for settling the bounds of a stale, or for adjusting claims.

COMMIS'SIONING, ppr. Giving a com- mission to ; furnishing with a warrant ; empowering by letters patent or other writing ; authorizing.

COM'MISSURE,_ 71. [L. commissura, from committo, commissus ; literally, a sending or thrusting together.]

1. A joint, seam or closure ; the place where two bodies or parts of a body meet and unite ; an interstice or cleft between par- ticles or parts, as between plates or la- niellsB.

2. In architecture, the joint of two stones, or application of the surface of one to that of another. Encyc.

•3. In anatomy, a suture of the cranium or skull ; articidation ; tlie corners of the lips. Also, certain parts in the ventricles of the brain, uniting the two hemispheres.


COMMIT', V. t. [L. committo, to send to, or thrust together ; eon and mitto, to send ; Fr. mettre, to put, set or lay ; commettre, to cotnmit ; It. mettere, commettere ; Sp. meter, cometer ; Port, meter, cometer.]




Literally, to send to or upon ; to throw, put or lay upon. Hence,

1. To give in trust ; to put into tlie bands or power of another; to entrust; vvitli

Commit thy way to the Lord. Ps. xxxvii. The thing.s thou hast heard of me, commit to faithful men. 2 Tim. ii.

2. To put into any place for preservation ; to deposit ; as, to commit a passage in a book to memory ; to commit the body to the grave.

3. To put or send to, for confinement; as, to commit an offender to prison. Hence for the sake of brevity, commit is used for im- prison. The sheriff has committed the of- fender.

These two were committed, at least restrain- ed of their liberty. Clarendon.

4. To do ; to effect or perpetrate ; as, to commit murder, treason, felony, or tres- pass.

Thou slialt not commit adultery. Ex. xx.

5. To join or put together, for a contest ; to match ; followed by with ; a latinism.

How does Philopolis commit the opponent with the respondent. [Little used.] More.

6. To place in a state of hostility or incon- gruity. " Committing short and long words." But this seems to be the same signification as the foregoing.

7. To expose or endanger by a preliminary step or decision whicli cannot be recalled ; as, to commit the peace of a country by pousing the cause of a belhgerent.

You might have satisfied every duty of polit- ical friendship without committing the honor of your sovereign. Junius.

8. To engage ; to pledge ; or to pledge by imphcation.

The general — addressed letters to Gen. Gates and to Gen. Heath, cautioning them against any sudden assent to the proposal, which might pos- sibly be considered as committing the faith of the United States. Marshall.

And with the reciprocal pronoun, to commit one's self, is to do some act, or make some declaration, which may bind the person in honor, good faith, or consisten- cy, to pursue a certain course of conduct, or to adhere to the tenor of that declara

9. To reter or entrust to a committee, or se- lect number of persons, for their conside- ration and report; a term of legislation ; as, the petition or the bill is committed. Is it the pleasure of the house to commit the bill ?

•COMMITMENT, n. The act of committing ; a sending to prison ; a putting into prison imprisonment. It is equivalent to sending or putting in simply ; as a commitment to the tower, or to Newgate ; or for the sake of brevity, omitting the name of the place, it is equivalent to putting into prison . the offender is secured by commitment.

•2. An order for confining in prison. But more generally we use mittimus.

3. The act of referring or entrusting to e committee for consideration ; a term in le gislation ; as the commitment of a petition or a bill to a select number of persons for consideration and report.

4. The act of deUvering in charge or en trusting.

5. A doing, or perpetration, as of sin or a crime ; commission. Clarendon.

6 Tho act of pledging or engaging ; or the

act of exposing or endangering. [See the Verb, No. 7 and 8.] Hamilton.

€OMMIT'TED, pp. Dehvered in trust ; giv- en in charge ; deposited ; imprisoned ; done ; perpetrated ; engaged ; exposed ; referred to a committee.

eOMMIT'TEE, n. One or more persons elected or appointed, to whom any mattei or business is referred, either by a legisla- tive body or either branch of it, or by a court, or by any corporation, or by any society, or collective body of men acting together. In legislative bodies, a house or branch of that body may resolve or form itself into a committee, called a committee of the whole house, when the speaker leaves the chair, and one of the members acts as chairman. Standing committees are such as continue during the e.xistence of the legislature, and to these are committed all matters that fall within the purposes of their appointment; as the committee of elections, or of privile- ges, &c. Special committees are appointed to consider and report on particular sub- jects.

COMMIT TEESHIP, n. The office and cilil iir.-diMiiiitlees. Milton.

COMMIT 'I'l;!!, n. One who commits; one liu (liifs (.1- pii|)etrates. South.

COMiMlT TIBLE, a. That may beconunit- il. [Little used.] Brown.

COMMn"TING,;?pr. Giving in trust; de- positing ; imprisoning ; perpetrating ; en- gaging ; referring to a committee ; expo sing.

COMMIX', r. t. [L. commiscco, commixtus ; con and misceo, to mix. See Mix.]

To mi.x or mingle ; to blend ; to mix, as dif- ferent substances. Bacon. JVcwton.

COMMIX', V. i. To mix ; to mingle. Shak.

COMMIX'ED,p». Mixed; blended.

COMMIX'ING, ppr. Mixing ; blending.

COMMIX'TION, n. Mixture; a blending of different ingredients in one mass or com- pound. Brown. Mi.rioji is used by Shakspeare, but is hardly legitimate.

eOMJIIX'TURE, 71. The act of mixing

the state of being mingled; the blending

of ingredients in one mass or compound.


2. The mass formed by mingling different things ; composition ; compound.

Bacon. SItak. Jfotton.

3. In Scots law, a method of acquiring prop- erty, by blending different substances be- longing to different proprietors. Encyc

COMMODE, n. [Fr. from L. commodus, convenient ; con or com and modus, man- ner. See Mode.]

A Icind of head dress formerly worn by la- dies. Addison.

COIMMO DlOrS, a. [Fr. commode; It. co- Dihi : S|i. ill. : L. commodus. See Mode.]

Convcniiiit; Miit;d)le; fit; proper; adapted to its use or purpose, or to wants and i cessities ; as a commodious house or room.

The haven was not commodious to winter Acts xxvii. 12.

It is followed by /or before a noun ; as a place commodious for a camp.

eOMMO'DIOUSLV, adv. Conveniently ; i a commodious manner ; suitably ; in a manner to afford ease, or to prevent im easiness; as a house commodiously situ

3(1 ; we may pass life commodiously with ■ t the restraints of ceremony.

CO.MMO'DIOUSNESS, n. Convenience fitness ; suitableness for its purpose ; as the commodiousness of a house or an apart- ment ; the commodiousness of a situation for trade.

COMMODITY, n. [L. commoditas; It. co- modita ; Fr. commodite ; Sp. comodidad ; Port, commodidade. See Commode.]

1. Primarily, convenience ; profit ; advan- tage ; interest. " Men seek their own commoditu." In this sense it was used by Hooker, Sidney, &c ; but this is nearly or wholly obsolete.

That which affords ease, convenience or advantage ; any thing that is useful, but particularly in commerce, including every thing movable that is bought and sold, goods, ware-s, merchandize, produce of land and manufactures. Unless perhaps animals may be excepted, the word in- cludes all the movables which are objects of commerce.

Commodities arc movables, valuable by mo- ney, the common measure. Locke. The principal use of money is to save tlie com- of more bullcy com»no(/i


Staple commodities are those which are the produce or manufacture of a countr), and constitute the principal articles of expor- tation. Thus flour is the staple commod- ity of New-York and Pennsylvania ; flour and tobacco, of Mainland and Virginia ; cotton and rice, of S. Carolina and Geor- gia ; cotton and sugar, of Louisiana.

COM MODORE, n. [This word is probably a corruption of the Italian comandatore, a commander ; or the Spanish comendador, a superior of a monastery, or a knight « ho holds a cominandry.] The oflicer who commands a squadron or detachment of ships, destined on a parti- cular enterprise. In the British marine, he bears the rank of a brigadier-general in the array, and his ship is distinguished by a broad red pendant, tapering to the outer end, and sometimes forked. Encyc.

2. A title given by courtesy to the senior captain, when three or more ships of war are cruising in company. Mar. Did.

3. The convoy or leading ship in a fleet of merchantmen, which carries a light m her top to conduct the other ships.

COMMODULA'TION, n. [L. con and mod-

tda'io.] Measure ; agreement. [Little icsed.]


COMMOIGNE, n. [Fr.] A monk of the same convent. [.Vo< in use.] Selden.

COMMON, a. [L. communis; Fr. commun; Arm. coumun ; It. comune ; Sp. comun ; Port, commum; Goth, gamains ; Sax. g-e- ma:n ; G.gemein; D.gemeen; Sw. gemen; Dan. gemeen ; Ir. cumann ; Goth, gamana, a fellow, fellowship. This word may be composed of cum and nwn, men, the plural men being equivalent to people and vulgus. The last syllable is clearly from the root of many, which seems to be- long to the root of man, and mean is of the same family. Hence we see the connec- tion between common and mean, as vulgar, from vtilgus, Eng./o/A«.]

1. Belonging equally to more than one, or to many indefinitely ; as, life aad sense are




common to man and beast; the common privileges of citizens ; the common wants of men.

2. Belonging to the public ; having no sepa- rate owner. The right to a highway is common.

3. General ; serving for the use of all ; as the common prayer.

4. Universal; belonging to all ; as, the earth is said to be the common mother of mankind.

5. Public ; general ; frequent ; as common report.

C. Usual ; ordinary ; as the commoii opera- tions of nature ; the common forms of con- veyance ; the common rules of civility.

7. Of no rank or superior excellence; ordi- nary. Applied to men, it signifies, not noble, not distinguished by noble descent, or not distinguished hy office, character or tal- ents ; as a common man ; a common sol- dier. Applied to things, it signifies, not distinguished by excellence or superiority ; as a common essay ; a common exertion. It however is not generally equivalent to mean, which expresses something lower in rank or estimation.

8. Prostitute ; lewd ; as a common woman. 'X In grammar, such verbs as signify both

action and passion, are called com7non ; as aspernor, I despise or am despised ; also, such nouns as are both masculine and feminine, as parens. 10. A common bud, in botany, is one that contains both leaves and flowers ; a covi- mon peduncle, one that bears several flow- ers ; a common perianth, one that incloses several distinct fructifications ; a common receptacle, one that connects several dis- tinct fructifications. Martyn. Common divisor, in mathematics, is a number or quantity that divides two or more num- bers or quantities without a remainder. Common Law, in Great Britain and the Uni- ted States, the unwritten law, the law that receives its binding force from innnemo- rial usage and universal reception, in dis- tinction from the written or statute law. That body of rules, principles and cus- toms which have been received from our ancestors, and by which courts have I governed in their judicial decisions. The evidence of this law is to be found in the reports of those decisions, and the records of the courts. Some of these rules may have originated in edicts or statutes which are now lost, or in the terms and condi- tions of particular grants or charters ; but it is most probable that many of them ori- ginated in judicial decisions founded on natural justice and equity, or i>u local cus toms. Common pleas, in Great Britain, one of the king's courts, now held in Westminster Hall. It consists of a chief justice and three other justices, and has cognizance of aU civil causes, real, personal or mixed as well by original writ, as by removal from the inferior courts. A writ of error m the nature of an appeal, lies from this court to the court of king's bench.

Blcukstone In some of tlie American states, a court of common pleas is an inferior court, whose jurisdiction is limited to a county, and it is sometimes called a eoimty court. This court is variously constituted in diflereni

states, and its powers are defined by stat- utes. It has jurisdiction of civil causes, and of minor offenses ; but its final juris- diction is very hraited ; all causes of mag- nitude being removable to a higher Court by a])peal or by writ of error.

Common prayer, the liturgy of the Church of England, which all the clergy of the Church are enjoined to use, under a pen- alty. Encyc.

Common recovery, a legal process for recov- ering an estate or barring entails.

Common time, in music, duple or double time, when the semibreve is equal to two min-

In common, equally with another, or with others ; to be equally used or participated by two or more ; as tenants in common ; to provide for children in common ; to as- sign lands to two persons in rommmi, or to twenty in common ; we enjoy the boun- ties of providence in common.

eOM'MON, n. A tract of ground, the use of which is not appropriated to an ind vidual, but belongs to the public or fo number. Thus we apply the word to an open ground or sj)ace in a highway, re served for public use.

'2. In law, an open ground, or that soil the use of which belongs equally to the inhab- itants of a town or of a lordship, or to a certain number of proprietors ; or the pro- fit which a man has in the land of anoth- er; or a right which a person has to pas- ture his cattle on land of another, or to dig turf, or catch fish, or cut wood, or the like; caWed common of pasture, of turbary, of piscary, and of estovers.

Common, or right of common, is appen- dant, appurtenant, because of vicinage, or in gross.

Common appendant is a right belonging to the owners or occupiers of arable land to put commonable beasts upon the lord's waste, and upon the lands of other persons within the same manor. This is a mat- ter of most universal right.

Common appurtenant may be annexed to lands in other lordships, or extend to oth er beasts, besides those which are gene rally commonable ; this is not of common right, but can be claimed only by unme morial usage and prescription.

Cmnmon because of vicinage or neighbor hood, is where the inhabitants of two town ships, lying contiguous to each other, have usually intercommoned with one another, the beasts of the one straying into the oth- er's fields ; this is a permissive right.

Common in gross or at large, is annexed to a man's person, being granted to him and his heirs by deed ; or it may be claimed by prescriptive right, as by a parson of "a church or other corporation sole.


COM'MON, v.i. To have a joint right will: others in common ground. Johnson

2. To board together ; to eat at a table ii common. Encyc.

COM'MON, adv. Commonly. Shak

COMMON-COUNCIL, n. The council of a city or corporate town, empowered to make by-laws for the government of the citizens. The common council of Lon don consists of two houses ; the upper house, composed of the Lord Mayor and

Aldermen ; and the lower house, of the common-council-men, elected by tlie sev- eral wards. In most of the American cities, the Mayor, Aldermen and common- council-men constitute one body, called a Court of Common-Council.

COMMON-CRIER, n. A crier whose oc- cupation is to give notice of lost things.

COMMON-HALL, n. A hall or house iu which citizens meet for business.

COMMON-LAWYER, n. One versed in Common Law. Spelman.

COM'MONPLACE, n. A memorandum; a common topic.

COM'MONPLACE, v. t. To enter in a com- monplace-book, or to reduce to general heads. Felton.

Commonplace-book, a book in which are registered such facts, opinions or obser- vations as are deemed worthy of notice or remembrance, so disposed that any one may be easily found. Hence common- place is used as an epithet to denote what is common or often repeated, or trite ; as a commonplace observation.

COMMONABLE, a. Held in common.


2. That may be pastured on common land. Commonable beasts are either beasts of the o\\\\v, or such as manure the ground.


COMMONAGE, n. The right of pasturing on a common ; the joint right of using any tiling in connnon with others. Johnson.

COMMONALTY, n. The common people. In Gi'eat Britain, all classes and conditions of people, who are below the rank of no- bility.

The commonalty, like the nobility, are divi- ded into several degrees. £lackstone. In the United States, commonalty has no very definite signification. It is however used to denote that part of the people who live by labor, and are not liberally educa- ted, nor elevated by office or professional pursuits.

2. The bulk of mankind. Hooker.

eOM'MONEU, n. One of the lower rank, or common people ; one under the degree of nobility. Addison.

2. A member of the house of commons. Sivifl.

3. One who has a joint right in common ground. Bacon.

4. A student of the second rank in the uni- versities in England ; one who eats at a common table. Johnson.

5. A prostitute. Shak. (3. A partaker. Fuller. COMMONI"TION, n. [L. commonitio. See

Monition.] Advice ; warning ; instruction. [Little used.]

COMMON'ITIVE, a. Warning; momtory. [Little used.]

eOM'MONLY, ade. Usually; generally; ordinarily ; frequently ; for the most part ; as, confirmed habits commonly continue through life.

COM'MONNESS, n. Frequent occurrence ; a state of being common or usual.

2. Equal participation by two or more. [Lit- tle used.]

COM'MONS, n. phi. The common people, who inherit or possess no honors or titles ; the vulgar. Chaucer. ShaJc. Dryden.

2. In England, the lower house of Parlia- ment, consisting of the representatives of


cities, boroughs and counties, cliusen by men possessed of the property or (|iiuh(i- cations required by law. Tliis body is called the House of Commons. The House of Representatives in North Carolma bears the same name.

3. Common grounds ; land used l)y two or more persons in common, [See Common.]

4. Food provided at a common table, as in colleges, where many persons eat at the same table or in the same hall.

Their commons, though but coarse, were nothing scant. Dryden

Doctors Commons, in London, a college found- ed by Dr. Harvey, for the professors of the civil law, where the civilians common