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    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

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    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!


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Letter "D" Below

    LETTER "E"

      “E” the second vowel and the fifth letter of the English alphabet, seems to be the ancient Phenician and Hebrew reversed-inverted, corresponding nearly with the Chaldaic and later Hebrew.

      Its long and natural sound in English coincides with the sound of i in the Italian and French languages, and is formed by a narrower opening of the glottis than that of a. It has a long sound, as in here, mere, me; a short sound, as in met, men; and the sound of a open or long, in there, prey, vein.

      As a final letter, it is generally quiescent; but it serves to lengthen the sound of the preceding vowel, or at least to indicate that the preceding vowel is to have its long sound, as in mane, cane, plume, which, without the final e, would be pronounced man, can, plum. After c and g, the final e serves to indicate that c is to be pronounced as s, and g as j. Thus without the final e, in mace [mase,] this word would be pronounced mac [mak,] and rage [raj] would be pronounced rag.

      In a numerous class of words, indeed in almost every word, except a few from the Greek, the final e is silent, serving no purpose whatever, unless to show from what language we have received the words, and in many cases, it does not answer this purpose. In words ending in ive, as active; in ile, as futile; in ine, as in sanguine, examine; in ite, as in definite; e is, for the most part, silent.

      In some of these words, the use of e is borrowed from the French; in most or all cases, it is not authorized by the Latin originals; it is worse than useless, as it leads to a wrong pronunciation; and the retaining of it in such words is, beyond measure, absurd.

      When two of this vowel occur together, the sound is the same as that of the single e long, as in deem, esteem, need; and it occurs often with a and i, as in mean, hear, siege, deceive, in which cases, when one vowel only has a sound, the combination I call a digraph [double written.]

      In these combinations, the sound is usually that of e long, but sometimes the short sound of e, as in lĕad, a metal, rĕad, pret. of rēad, and sometimes the sound of a long, as in reign, feign, pronounced rane, fane. Irregularities of this kind are not reducible to rules.

      As a numeral, E stands for 250. In the calendar, it is the fifth of the dominical letters. As an abbreviation, it stands for East, as in charts; E. by S., East by South.

    EACH, a.

      [Scot. eik. This word is either a contraction of the Sax. ale, elc, D. elk, or the Ir. ceach, or gach, Basque, gucia, Fr. rhaque, with the loss of the first articula tioii. With the Celtic corresponds the Russ. kajdei, each. 1 am inclined to be- lieve both the English and Scottish words to be contractions of the Celtic ceach.] Every one of any number separately con sidered or treated.

      To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment. Gen. 14:1-20

      And the princes of Israel, being twelve men, each one was for the house of his fathers -Num. 1:1-20

      Simeon and Levi took each man his sword Gen. 34:1-25

      The emperor distributed to each soldier in his army a liberal donative.

      To each corresponds other. Let each es- teem other better than himself. It is our duty to assist each other; that is, it is our duty to assist, each to assist the other. E'.CHWHeRE, adv. Every where. Ohs

    EAD, ED

      , in names, is a Saxon word signifying happy, fortunate ; as in Edward, happy i)reserver ; Edgar, hajjpy power ; Edwin, happy conqueror ; Eadulph, happy assistance ; like Macarius and Eupolenms in Greek, and Fausta, Fortunatus, Felicia- nus, in Latin. Gibson.

    E'AGER, a.
      [Er. au;re ; Arm. egr ; W. egyr ; It. agro ; Sp. agrio ; L. acer, fierce, brisk, sharp, sour. If r is radical, this word be longs to Class Or. Ir. gear, geire, sharp; Ger. gier. Otherwise, it coincides with L. acus, Eng. edge, Sax. ecg'.]

      1. Excited by ardent desire in the pursuit of any object ; ardent to pursue, perform or obtain ; inflamed by desire ; ardently wish- ing or longing. The soldiers were eager to engage the enemy. Men are eager in the pursuit of wealth. The lover is eager to possess the object of his affections.

      2. Ardent ; vehement ; impetuous ; as ea- ger spirits ; eager zeal ; eager clamors.

      3. Sharp ; sour ; acid ; as eager droppings into milk. {Little used.] Shale.

      4. Sliarp ; keen ; biting ; severe ; as eager air ; eager cold. [Ldttle used.]

      Shak. Bacon.

      o. Brittle ; inflexible ; not ductile ; as, the gold is too eager. [Local.] Locke.

    E'AGERLY, adv.
      With great ardor of de- sire ; ardently ; earnestly ; warmly ; with prompt zeal ; as, he eagerly flew to the as- sistance of his friend.

      •2. Hastily; impetuously.

      3. Keenly; sharply.

      n. Ardent desire to do, pursue or obtain any thing ; animated zeal; vehement longing; ardor of inclina- tion. Men pursue honor with eagerness. Detraction is often received with eagerness. With eagerness the soldier rushes to bat- tle. The lover's eagerness often disap- points his hopes.

      2. Tartness; sourness. Obs.

    E'AGLE, ji.
      [Fr. aigle ; Sp. aguila; It. aquila ; L. aquila. Qu. from his beak, Ch. Heb. SpJ? to be crooked, [see Bux-

      torf,] or Pei-s. y^.]

      1. A rapacious fowl of the genus Falco. The beak is crooked and furnished with a cere at the base, and the tongue is cloven or bifid. There are several species. as the bald or white-headed eagle, the sea eagle or ossifrage, the golden eagle, &c.

      The eagle is one of the largest species of fowls, has a keen sight, and preys on small animals, fish, &c. He lives to a great age ; and it is said that one died at V na, after a confinement of a hundred and four years. On account of the elevationand rapidity of his flight, and of his great strength, he is called the king of birds.

      Hence the figure of an eagle was marie the standard of the Romans, and a spread eagle is a principal figure in the arms of the United States of America.

      Hence al- so in heraldry, it is one of the most noble bearings in arnioiy.

      2. A gold coin of the United States, of the value of ten dollars, or forty-five shillings sterling.

      3. A constellation in the northern hemis- phere, having its right wing contiguous to the equinoctial. Encyc.

      f ED, a. Sharpsighted as an ea- gle ; having an acute sight. Dryden.

      3. Discerning ; having acute intellectual vis- ion.

      EAGLE-SIGHTED, a. Having acute sight. Shak.

      E'AGLE-SPEED, n. Swiftness like that of an eagle. P

      E'AGLESS, »i. A female or lien eagle.

      E AGLE-STONE, n. Etite, a variety of ar- gillaceous oxyd of iron, occurring in mass- es varying from the size of a walnut to that of a man's head. Their form is spher- ical, oval or nearly reniform, or some- times like a parallelepiped with rounded edges and angles. They have a rough surface, and are essentially composed of concentric layers. These nodules often embrace at the center a kernel or nu- cleus, sometitnes movable, and always differing from the exterior in color, densi ty and fracture. To these hollow nodules the ancients gave the aame of eagle-stones, from an oi)inion that the eagle transported them to her nest to facilitate the laying of her eggs. Cleaveland.

      E'AGLET, n. A young eagle or a diminu five eagle.

      E'AGLE-WINGED, a. Having the wings of an eagle ; swift as an eagle. Milton.

      EAGRE, n. A tide swelling above another tide, as in the Severn. Dryden.

      EALDERMAN. [See Mderman.]

      EAME, n. [Sax. earn.] Uncle. Obs.


      EAN, V. I. or i. To yean. [See Yean.]

      E'ANLING, n. A lamb just brought forth. [JVot used.]

      E'AR, n. [Sax. ear, eare ; T). oor ; Svv. ora ,• DaD.6re,■ G.ohr or iihr; L. auris, whence auricula, Fr. oreille, Sp. oreja. Port, orelha, It. orecchio. The sense is probably a shoot or limb. It may be connected with hear, as the L. audio is with the Gr. ovj, uto;.]

      1. The organ of hearing ; the organ by wliicli sound is perceived; and in general, both the external and internal part is under- stood by the term. The external ear is !i cartilaginous funnel, attached, by liga ments and muscles, to the temporal bone


      2. The sense of hearing, or rather the pow-


      er of distinguishing sounds and judging of harmony ; the power of nice perception of the differences of sound, or of conso- nances and di.ssonances. She has a deli- cate ear for music, or a good ear.

      3. In the plural, the head or person.

      It is better to pass over an affront from one scounthel, than to draw a herd about one's cars. L'Estrange.

      4. The top, or highest part.

      The cavalier was up to the ears in love. [Low.'\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ L'Estrange.

      5. A favorable hearing ; attention ; heed ; regard. Give no ear to flatterj'.

      I cried to God — and he gave ear to me. Ps. Ixxvii.

      He could not gain the prince's ear.

      6. Disposition to like or dislike what is heard ; opinion ; judgment ; taste.

      He laid his sense closer— according to the style and ear of those times. Denham.

      7. Any part of a thing resembling an ear; a projecting part from the side of any thing ; as the ears of a vessel used as bandies.

      8. The spike of corn ; that part of certain plants which contains the flowers and seeds; as au ear of wheat or maiz.

      To he by the ears, 'i rt \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ r

      To fall together by the ears, i «° ''f'" "' ^"f

      Togo together by the ears, ^^''>^° quarrel.

      To set by the ears, to make strife ; to cause to quarrel.

      EAR, V. i. To shoot, as an ear ; to form ears, as corn.

      EAR, v. t. [L. f

      E'ARABLE, a. Used to be tilled. Obs.


      EARACHE, n. [See Ache.] Pain in the ear.

      E'ARAL, a. Receiving by the ear. [JVbf used.] Hewyt.

      EAR-BORED, a. Having the ear perfo- rated- Hall.

      EAR-DEAFENING, a. Stunning the ear with noise. Shak.

      E'ARED, /)/). Having ears; having spikes formed, as corn.

      EAR-ERE€T'ING, a. Setting up the ears. Co^oper.

      E'ARING, n. In seamen's language, a small rope employed to fasten the upper corner of a sail to its yard.

      E'ARING, n. A plowing of land. Gen. xliv.

      E'ARLAP, 71. The tip of the ear.

      E'ARLOCK, n. [Sax. ear-loca.] A lock or curl of hair, near the ear.

      E'.^RMARK, n. A mark on the ear, by which a sheep is known.

      EARMARK, i'. t. To mark, as sheep by cropping or slitting the ear.

      E'ARPICK, 71. An instrument for cleans* ing the ear.

      EAR-PIERCING, a. Piercing the ear, as a shrill or sharp sound. Shak.

      E'ARRING, 71. A pendant ; an ornament, sometimes set with diamonds, pearls or other jewels, worn at the ear, by means of a ring passing through the lobe.

      E'ARSHOT, 71. Reach of the ear ; the dis- tance at which words may be heard.


      E'ARWAX, 71. The cerumen ; a thick vis- cous substance, secreted by the glands of the ear into the outer passage. Encyc.

      E'ARWIG, 71. [Sax. ear-wigga, ear-wicga ; ear and worm or grub.]

      A genus of insects of the order of Coleop- ters. The antenna; are bristly ; the ely-



      tra dimidiated ; the wings covered ; and the tail forked. This animal is called in Latin forjicula, from the forceps at the end of the abdomen. The English name was given to it from an ill founded notion that the animal creeps into the ear and causes injury.

      In New England, this name is vulgarly given to a species of centiped.

      E'AR-VVITNESS, n. One who is able to give testimony to a fact from his own hearing. ff^atts.

      EARL, n. erl. [Sax. eorl; Ir. iarla, an earl ; earlamh, noble. This word is said to have been received from the Danes, although not now used in Denmark. Formerly this title among the Danes was equivalent to the English alderman. Spelman.]

      A British title of nobility, or a nobleman, the third in rank, being next below a mar- uis, and next above a viscount. The ti- e answers to count [compte] in France, and graaf in Germany. The earl formerly had the government of a shire, and was called shireman. After the conquest earls were called counts, and from them shires have taken the name of counties. Earl is now a mere title, unconnected with terri- torial jurisdiction. Spelman. Encyc.

      EARLDOM, n. crl'dom. The seignory, juris- diction or dignity of an carl.

      EARL-M'ARSHAL, n. An officer in Great Britain, who has the superintendence of raihtary solemnities. He is the eighth great officer of state. The office was originally conferred by grant of the king, but is now hereditary in the family of the Howards. Enctjc.

      EARLES-PENNY, n. Money given in part payment. [Qu. L. arrha.] [M'ol in use.]

      E'ARLESS, a. Destitute of ears ; disinclined to hear or listen.

      EARLINESS, n. tr'liness. [See Early and Ere.]

      A state of advance or forwardness ; a state of being before any thing, or at the be- ginning ; as the earliness of rising in the morning is a rising at the dawn of the morning, or before the usual time of ris- ing. So we speak of the earliness of spring, or the earliness of plants, to ex- press a state somewhat in advance of the usual time of spring, or growth of plants.

      EARLY, a. er'ly. [from Sax. rer, er, before in time, Eiig. ere, which indicates the root of the word to signify, to advance, to pass along or shoot up. It is probably connected with the D. eer, G. ehre, Sw. dhra, Dan. cere, honor, denoting the high- est point.]

      1. In advance of something else; prior in time ; forward ; as early fruit, that is, fruit that comes to maturity before other fruit : early growth ; early manhood ; early old age or decrepitude, that is, premature old age. So an early spring ; an early harvest.

      2. First ; being at the beginning ; as early dawn.

      8. Being in good season ; as, the court met

      at an early hour. EARLY, adv. er'ly. Soon ; in good season

      betimes ; as, rise early ; come early ; begin

      early te instill into children principles of


      Those who seek me early shall find me

      Prov. viii.

      Vol. I.


      EARN, V. t. em, [Sax. carnian, (crnian, f(e- arnian, to earn, to merit. It is connected in origin with earnest and yearn, which see. 'I'he primary sense is to strive or urge, ini|)lying an effijrt to advance or stretch forward.]

      1. To merit or deserve by labor, or by any performance ; to do that which entitles to a reward, whether the reward is re- ceived or not. Men often earn money or honor which they never receive.

      Ear7i money before you spend it, and spend less than you earn.

      2. To gain by labor, service or performance ; to deserve and receive as compensation ; as, to earn a dollar a day ; to earn a good living ; to earn honors or laurels.

      EAKNl'J), pp. em'ed. Merited by labor or ]if'rformance ; gained.

      EARNEST, a. ern'est. [Sax. earnest, or geor- nest, from georn, desirous, studious, dili- gent, assiduous, whence gcornian,gT/r»ia7z, to desire, to yearn ; Dan. gieme, willinglj', freely, gladly, cheerfully ; gierning, a deed, act, exploit; Ger.erns't; D.emst; W. em, earnest-money. The radical sense is to strive to advance, to reach forward, to urge, to strain.]

      1. Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain ; having a longing desire ; warm- ly engaged or incited.

      They are never more earnest to disturb us, than when they see us most earnest in tliis duty. JJtippa.

      2. Ardent ; warm ; eager ; zealous ; anima- ted ; importunate ; as earnest in love ; earn- est in prayer.

      3. Intent; fixed. On that prospect strange

      Their earnest eyes were fixed. Afilton.

      4. Serious; important ; that is, really intent or engaged ; whence the phrase, in earn- est. To be in earnest, is to be really urg- ing or stretching towards an object ; in- tent on a piu'suit. Hence, from fixed at- tention, comes the sense of sei-iousness in the pursuit, as opposed to trifling or jest. Are you in earnest or in jest ?

      EARNEST, «. ern'est. Seriousness ; a real- ity ; a real event ; as opposed to jesting or feigned appearance.

      Take heed that this jest do not one day turn to earnest. Sidney.

      And given in earnest what I bcgg'd in jest. Shak. 2. First fruits; that which is in advance, and gives promise of something to come. Early fruit may be an earnest of fruit to follow. The first success in arms may be an earnest of future success. The chris- tian's peace of mind in this life is an earn- est of future peace and happiness. Hence earnest or earnest-money is a first payment or deposit giving promise or assurance of full payment. Hence the practice of giv ing an earnest to ratify a bargain.

      This sense of the word is primary, de noting that which goes before, or in ad Vance. Thus the earnest of the spirit is given to saints, as a pledge or assurance of their future enjoyment of God's presence and favor.

      EARNESTLY, adv. em'estly. Warmly ; zealously; importunately; eagerly; with real desire.


      i: A R

      That ye should earnestly contend for tlie faith once delivered to the saints. Jude 3.

      2. With fixed attention ; with eagerness.

      A certain maid looked earnestly upon hini. Luke xxii.

      EARNESTNESS, n. em'estness. Ardor or zeal in the pursuit of any thing; eager- ness ; animated desire ; as, to seek or ask with earnestness ; to engage in a work with earnestness.

      2. Anxious care ; solicitude ; intenseness of desire. Dryden.

      i. Fixed desire or attention ; seriousness ; as, the charge was maintained with a show of gravity and earnestness.

      EARNFUL, a. ern'ful. Full of anxiety. [JVot used.] Fletcher.

      EARNING, ppr. em'ing. Meriting by ser- cos; gaining by laborer performance.

      EARNING, n. em'ing. plu. earnings. That which is earned ; that which is gained or merited by labor, services or performance ; wages; reward. The folly of young men is to s|)end their earnings in dissipation or extravagance. It is wise for the poor to invest their earnings in a productive fund.

      EARSH, n. [See Ear, to plow.] A plowed field. [JVot in use.] May.

      EARTH, n. erth. [Sax. card, eoHh, yrth ; D. aarde; G. erde; S\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\v.iord,jord ; Dan. iord; Scot, erd, yerd,yerth ; Turk, jerda; Tarta- ric, yirda. It coincides with the Heb. |nx.

      The Ar. fjo,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ aratza, from which the Arabic and Hebrew words corresponding to the Teutonic above, are derived, signi- fies to eat, gnaw or corrode as a worm, or the teredo. It is obvious then that the primary sense of earth is fine particles, like mold. The verb may be from yyi to break or bruise. The Ch. and Syr. ^g,nx earth, may be contracted from the same word. See Corrode. It is by no means improbable that aro, to plow, may be con- tracted from the same root.]

      1. Earth, in its primary sense, signifies the particles which compose the mass of the globe, but more jiarticularly the particles which form the fine mold on the surface of the globe ; or it denotes any indefinite mass or i)ortion of that matter. We throw up earth with a spade or plow ; we fill a pit or ditch with earth ; we form a ram- part with eaHh. This substance being considered, by ancient philosophers, as simple, was called an element ; and in popular language, we stilF hear of the four elements, /re, air, earth and water.

      2. In chimistry, the term earth was, till late- ly, employed to denote a simple elementa- ry body or substance, tasteless, inodorous, uninflammable and infusible. But it has also been applied to substances which have a very sensible alkaline taste, as lime. The primitive earths are reckoned ten in number, viz., silei, alumin, lime, magnesia, baryle, sirontian, zircon, glucin, yttria and thorina. Recent experiments prove that most or all of them are com- pounds of oxygen with bases, some of which appear to possess the properties of metals. In this case the earths are to be considered as metallic oxyds.

      Davy. Siiliman. Phillips.


      E A S

      E A S

      3. Tlie terraqueous globe which we inhabit The earth is nearly spherical, but a little flatted at the poles, and hence its figure is called an oblate spheroid. It is one ol' the primary planets, revolving round the sun in an orbit which is between those of Venus and Mars. It is nearly eight thou sand miles in diameter, and twenty fiv thousand miles in circumference. Its dis tance from the sun is about ninety five millions of miles, and its annual revolu tion constitutes the year of 365 days, .'> hours, and nearly 49 minutes.

      4. The world, as opposed to other scenes of existence. Shak

      .'». The inhabitants of the globe.

      The whole earth was of one language. Gen xi.

      6. Dry land, opposed to the sea.

      God called the dry land earth. Gen. i.

      7. Country ; region ; a distinct part of the globe. Dryden.

      In this sense, land or soil is more gene- rally used.

      In scripture, earth is used for a part of the world. Ezra i. 2.

      8. The ground; the surface of the earth. He fell to the eaHh. The ark was lifted above the earth.

      In the second month — was the earth dried. Gen. viii.

      9. In scripture, things on the earth, are car- nal, sensual, temporary things ; opposed to heavenly, spiritual or divine things.

      10. Figuratively, a low condition. Rev. xii. n. [from ear, Sax. erian, L. aro, to plow.]

      The act of turning up the ground in til- lage. [JVot vsed.] Tusser.

      EARTH, V. t. To hide in the earth.

      The fox is corrtfJ. Dryden.

      2. To cover with earth or mold. Evelyn.

      EARTH, V. i. To retire under ground ; to burrow. Here foxes earthed.

      EARTH'BAG, 7!. A bag filled with earth, used for defense in war.

      EARTH'BANK, li. A bank or mound of earth.

      EARTH'BOARD, n. The board of a plow that turns over the earth ; the mold-board.

      EARTH-BORN, a. Born of the earth ; ter- rigenous ; springing originally from the earth ; as the fabled earthborn giants.

      2. Earthly ; terrestrial.

      All earthborn cares are wrong. Goldsmith.

      EARTH'BOUND, a. Fastened by the pres- sure of the earth. Shak.

      EARTH'BRED, a. Low ; abject ; grovel-

      EARTH-€REA'TED, a. Formed of earth. Yomig.

      EARTH'EN, a. erth'n. Made of earth ; made of clay ; as an earthen vessel ; earthen ware.

      EARTH'FED, a. Low ; abject. B. Jonson

      EARTH'FLAX, n. Amianth; a fibrous, flexile, elastic mineral substance, consist- ing of short interwoven, or long parallel filaments. Encyc.

      I'.ARTH'INESS, n. The quality of being

      earthy, or of containing earth ; grossness


      EARTH'LINESS, n. [from earlUy.] The quahty of being earthly; grossness.

      9. Worldhness ; strong attachment to world ly things.

      .EARTH'LING, n. An inhabitant of the earth ; a mortal ; a frail creature.

      Drummond. EARTHLY, a. Pertaining to the earth, or to this world. Our earthly house of this tabernacle. 2 Cor. v. 2. Not heavenly ; vile ; mean. This earthly load Of death called life. .miton.

      i. Belonging to our present state ; as earthly objects ; earthly residence.

      4. Belonging to the earth or world; carnal; vile i as opposed to spiritual or heavenly,

      Whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly tilings. Phil. iii.

      5. Corporeal ; not mental. Spenser. EARTHLY-MINDED, a. Having a mind

      devoted to earthlv things.

      EARTHLY-MINDEDNESS, n. Grossness; sensuality ; extreme devotedness to earth- ly objects. Gregory.

      EARTH'NUT, n. The groundnut, or root of the Arachis ; a small round bulb or knob, like a nut. This root or bulb is formed from the germen, which becomes a pod and is thrust into the ground by a natural motion of the stalk. Encyc.

      It is properly the fruit of the plant, and differs from other fruit only in the cireuni stance of ripening in the earth.

      EARTH'NUT, n. The pignut, or hunium ; a globular root, somewhat resembling ir taste a chesnut, whence it is called hulbo- castanum. Encyc.

      EARTH'QUAKE, n. A shaking, trembling or concussion of the earth ; sometimes a slight tremor ; at other times a violent shaking or convulsion ; at other times a rocking or heaving of the earth. Earth- quakes are usually preceded by a rattling sound in the air, or by a subterraneous rumbUng noise. Hence the name, earth- din, formerly given to an earthquake.

      EARTH'SHAKING, a. Shaking the earth ; having power to shake the earth. Milton.

      EARTH'WORM, n. The dew worm, a spe- cies of Lumbricus ; a worm that lives un- der ground. Encyc.

      2. A mean sordid wretch.

      EARTH' Y, a. Consisting of earth ; as earthy matter.

      2. Resembling earth ; as an earthy taste or smell.

      3. Partaking of earth; terrene. Milton.

      4. Inhabiting the earth ; terrestrial ; as earthy spirits. Dryden.

      5. Relating to earth ; as an eaiihy sign. Dryden.

      6. Gross ; not refined ; as an earthy conceit. Shak.

      7. Earthy fracture, in mineralogy, is when the fracture of a mineral is rough, with minute elevations and depressions.

      Cleaveland. EASE, n. s as z. [Fr. aise ; Arm. aez ; W. haw: ; Corn, hedh ; Sax. a:th or eath, easy : L. otiuni ; It. ag-io ; Ir. easgaidh.]

      1. Rest; an undisturbed state. ^9pplied to the body, freedom from pain, disturbance, e citement or annoyance. He sits at his ease. He takes his ease.

      2. Applied to the mind, a quiet state ; tran quillity ; freedom from pain, concern, anx iety, solicitude, or any thing that frets oi ruffles the mind.

      His soul shall dwell at ease. Ps. xxv.

      Wo to them that are at ease in Zion. Amos vi.

      3. Rest from labor.

      4. Facility ; freedom from difficulty or great labor. One man will perform this service with ease. This author writes with ease.

      5. Freedom from stiffness, harshness, forced expressions, or unnatural arrangement; as the ease of style.

      Freedom from constraint or formality ; imaifectedness ; as ease of behavior.

      At ease, in an undisturbed state ; free from pain or anxiety.

      EASE, V. t. To free from pain or any dis- quiet or annoyance, as the body; to re- lieve ; to give rest to ; as, the medicine has eased the patient.

      2. To free from anxiety, care or disturb- ance, as the mind; as, the late news has eased my mind.

      3. To remove a burden from, either of body or mind ; to relieve ; with of. Ease me q/" this load; ease them of their burdens.

      4. To mitigate ; to alleviate ; to assuage ; to abate or remove in part any burden, pain, grief, anxiety or disturbance.

      Ease thou somewhat the grievous servitude of thy father. 2 Chron. x.

      5. To quiet ; to allay ; to destroy ; as, to ease jiain.

      To ease off or ease atoay, in seamen's lan- guage, is to slacken a rope gradually.

      To ease a ship, is to put the helm hard a- lee, to prevent her pitching, when close hauled. Mar. Diet.

      E'ASEFUL, a. Quiet; peaceful; fit for rest. Shak.

      E'ASEFULLY, adv. With ease or quiet.


      E'ASEL, n. The frame on which painters place their canvas.

      Easel-pieces, among painters, are the smaller pieces, either portraits or landscapes, wliich are painted on the easel, as distin- guished from those which are drawn on walls, ceilings, &c. Encyc. Chalmers.

      E'ASEMENT, n. Convenience ; accommo- dation ; that which gives ease, rehef or assistance.

      free lodging, and Swift.

      2. In law, any privilege or convenience which one man has of another, either by prescription or charter, without profit ; as a way through his land, &c.

      Encyc. Cowel.

      E'ASILY, adv. [from easy.] Without diffi- culty or great labor ; without great exer- tion, or sacrifice of labor or expense ; as, this task may be easily performed ; that event might have been easily foreseen.

      2. Without pain, anxiety or disturbance ; in tranquillity ; as, to pass life well and ea- sily. Temple.

      3. Readily ; without the pain of reluctance.

      Not soon provoked, she easily forgives.


      4. Smoothly; quietly; gently; without tu- mult or discord.

      5. Without violent shaking or jolting ; as, a carriage moves easily.

      E'ASIN'ESS, n. Freedom from difliculty; ease.

      Easiness and difficulty are relative terms.

      IHllotson. •2. Flexibility ; readiness to comply ; proinpt

      E A S

      compliance; a yielding or disposition to yield without opposition or reluctance. Give to him, and he shall but laugh at your South.

      So we say, a man's easiness of temper is remarkable.

      3. Freedom from stiffness, constraint, effort or formality ; applied to manners or to the style of writing. Roscommon.

      4. Rest ; tranquillity ; ease ; freedom from pain. ^?y-

      5. Freedom from shaking or jolting, as of a moving vehicle.

      6. Softness ; as the easiness of a seat. EAST, n. [Sax. cast ; D. oost, oosten ; G.

      ost ; Sw. ost, osten ; Dan. osl, osten ; Fr. est. If the radical sense coincides with that of the L. oriens, this word may belong to the root of hoise, hoist.] ]. The point in the heavens, where the is seen to rise at the equinox, or when it is in the equinoctial, or the corresponding point on the earth ; one of the four car dinal points. The east and the west are the points where the equator intersects the horizon. But to persons under the equinoctial line, that hne constitutes eas and west. a. The eastern parts of the earth ; the re gions or countries which lie east of Eu rope, or other country. In this indefinite sense, the word is apphed to Asia Minor, Syria, Chaldea, Persia, India, China, &c. We speak of the riches of the east, the diamonds and pearls of the east, the kings of the east.

      The gorgeous east, with richest hand. Pours on herkings baibaiic, pearl and gold. Milti EAST, a. Towards the rising sun ; or i wards the point where the sun rises, when in the equinoctial ; as the east gate ; the east border ; the east side. The east wind is a wind that blows from the east. E' ASTER, n. [Sax. caster ; G. ostem ; sup , posed to be from Eostre, the goddess of love or Venus of the north, in honor of whom a festival was celebrated by our pagan ancestors, in Ai)ril ; whence this month was called Eostermonath. Eostcr is supposed by Beda and others to be the Astarle of the Sidonians. See Beda, Clu- ver, and the authorities cited by Cluver, and by Jamieson, under Paysyad. But query.] A festival of the christian church observed in commemoration of our Savior's resurrec tion. It answers to the pascha or passo ver of the Hebrews, and most nation still give it this name, pascha, pask, paque. E'ASTERLING, n. A native of

      country eastward of another. Spenser

      2. A species of waterfowl. Johnson

      E'ASTERLY, a. Coming from the east' ward ; as an easterly wind.

      2. Situated towards the east ; as the eastcrh side of a lake or country.

      3. Towards the east ; as, to move in an east-


      kings ; eastern countries ; eastern nations.

      2. Situated towards the east ; on the east part ; as the eastern side of a town or church ; the eastern gate.

      3. Going towards the cast, or in the direc- tion of east ; as an eastern voyage.

      E'ASTVVARD, adv. [east and toard.) To- ward the east ; in the direction of east from some point or place. New Haven lies eastward from New York. Turn your eyes eastward.

      E'ASY, a. s as z. [See Ease.] Quiet ; be ing at rest ; free from pain, disturbance or annoyance. The patient has slept well and is easy.

      2. Free from anxiety, care, solicitude or peevishness; quiet; tranquil; as an mind.

      3. Giving no pain or disturbance ; as an ea- st/ posture ; an easy carriage.

      4. Not difficult ; that gives or requires no great labor or exertion ; that presents no great obstacles ; as an easy task. It is of- ten more easy to resolve, than to execute

      Knowledge is easy to him that understand eth. Prov. xiv. Not causing labor or difficulty. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\n easy

      with a

      erly direction. 4. Looking towards the east ; as an

      sterly] n the d

      exposure. E'ASTERLY, adv. On the east

      rection of east. |

      E' ASTERN, a. [Sax. eastern.] Oriental :!

      being or dweUiug in the east ; as eastern

      ascent or slope, is a slope risin, small angle. C. Smooth ; not uneven ; not rough or very hilly ; that may be traveled with case ; as an easy road.

      7. Gentle ; moderate ; not pressing ; as a lip under easy sail.

      8. Yielding with little or no resistance ; com- plying ; credulous.

      With such deceits he gained their easy hearts


      Ready ; not unwilling ; as easy to forgive


      10. Contented; satisfied. Allow hired men wages that will make them easy.

      11. Giving ease ; freeing from labor, care or the fatigue of business ; furnishing abun- dance without toil ; affluent ; as easy cir- cumstances ; an easy fortune.

      12. Not constrained ; not stiff or formal; as easy manners; an easy address; easy movements in dancing.

      13. Smooth ; flowing ; not harsh ; as an eo sy style.

      14." Not jolting; as, the horse has an easy gait.

      15. Not heavy or burdensome.

      My yoke is easy, and my burden light Matt. xi.

      EAT, t'. t. pret. ate ; pp. eat or eaten. [Sax. hitan, ealan, ytan and etan ; Goth, ttan ; Dan. Older ; Sw. bla ; D. eeten, pp. _ge- geeten ; G. essen, pp. gegessen ; Russ. ida, lada, the act of eating ;L. edo, esse, esum Gr. («u ; W. ysu ; Ir. ithim, itheadh; Sans ada. The Dutch and German, with the prefix ge, form the pass. part, gegeeten, ge- gessen, which indicates that the original ■was geeten, gessen. Class Gd or Gs, in which there are several roots from which this word may be deduced. Etch is from the same root.]

      1. To bite or chew and swallow, as food- Men eat flesh and vegetables.

      They shall make thee to eat grass as oxen Dan. iv.

      2. To corrode ; to wear away ; to separate parts of a thing gradually, as an animal


      by gnawing. We say a cancer eats the flesh.

      3. To consume ; to waste. Wlien goods increase, they are increased thai

      eat them. Ecc. v.

      4. To enjoy. if ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat

      the goodof the land. Is. i. To consume ; to oppress.

      Who eat up ray people as they cat bread. Ps. xiv. To feast.

      Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. Is. xxii. scripture, to e^il the flesh of Christ, is to believe on him and be nourished by faith. To eat one'* words, is to swallow back ; to take back what has been uttered ; to re- tract. Hudibras. EAT, V. i. To take food; to feed ; to take a meal, or to board.

      He did eat continually at the king's table. 2 Sam.

      Why eatelh your master with publicans and sinners. Matt. ix.

      To take food ; to be maintained in food. To eat, or to eat in or into, is to make way by corrosion ; to gnaw ; to enter by gradually wearing or separating the parts of a substance. A cancer eats into the

      Their word will eat as doth a canker. 2 Tim. ii.

      To eat out, to consume.

      Their word will eat out the vitals of religion, corrupt and destroy it. .inon.

      E'ATABLE, a. That may be eaten; fit to be eaten ; proper for food ; esculent.

      E'ATABLE, »!. Any thing that may be eat- en ; that which is fit for food ; that which is used as food.

      E'ATEN, pp. ee'tn. Chewed and swallow- ed ; consumed ; corroded.

      EATER, n. One who eats; that which eats or corrodes ; a corrosive.

      EATH, a. easy, and adv. easily. Obs.

      E'ATING, ppr. Chewing and swallowing; consuming ; corroding.

      E'ATING-HOUSE, n. A house where pro- visions are sold ready dressed.

      EAVES, n. plu. [Sax. efese. In English the word has a plural ending ; but not in Saxon.]

      The edge or lower border of the roof of a building, which overhangs the walls, and casts oft' the water that falls on the roof

      E'AVES-DROP, V. i. [eaves and drop.] To stand under the eaves or near the win- dows of a house, to listen and learn what is said within doors. Milton.

      E'AVES-DROPPER, n. One who stands under the eaves or near the window or door of a house, to listen and hear what is said within doors, whether from curi- osity, or for the purpose of tattling and making mischief. Shak.

      EBB, n. [Sax. f66e, ebba ; G. and D. ebbe ; Dan. id. ; Sw. ebb.]

      The reflux of the tide ; the return of tide- water towards the sea ; opposed to Jlood or flowing.

      2. Decline ;~^decay ; a falling from a better to a worse state ; as the ebb of life ; the e66 of prosperity.

      EBB, I', i. f Sax. ebban ; D. ebben ; W. eb, to go from.]

      E B U

      To flow back ; to return as the water ot a tide towards the ocean ; opposed to fioui. Tiie tide Ms and flows twice in twenty four liours. 2. To decay ; to dechne ; to return or tall back from a better to a worse state.

      Shak. Halifax EBBING, ppr. Flowing back ; dechning ;

      decaying. EBB'ING, 11. The reflux of the tide. EBB'TIDE, n. The reflux of tide-water ;

      the retiring tide. EB'IONITE, n. The Ebionites were here tics who denied the divinity of Christ and rejected many parts of tlie scriptures. EB'ON, o. [See Ebony.'] Consisting of ebo

      ny ; like ebony ; black. EB'ONIZE, V. t. [See Ebony.] To make black or tawny ; to tinge with the color of ebony; as, to ebonize the iairest com- plexion. Walsh. EB'ONY, n. [I,, ebenus; Gv. iStioi or tSao; Fr. ebene ; It. and Sp. ebuno ; D. ebben hout ; G. ebenholz.] A species of hard, heavy and durable wood, which admits of a fine polish or gl said to be brought from Madagascar. The most usual color is black, red or gr The best is a jet black, free from veins and rind, very heavy, astringent and of ai acrid pungent taste. On burning coals it yields an agreeable perfume, and wheu green it readily takes fire from its abund- ance of fat. It is wrought into toys, and used for mosaic and inlaid work. Encyc. EB'ONY-TREE, ii. The Ebemis, a small tree constituting Crete and other :

      Encyc EBRAe'TEATE, a. [e priv. and bmctea.] In botany, without a bractea or floral leaf. Martyn. EBRI'ETY, n. [L. ebrietas, from ebrius, in- toxicated. It ap[)ears by the Spanish em- briagar, and the It. imbriacarsi, that ek-iiis is contracted by the loss of a palatal, and hence it is obvious that this word is from the Gr. lifiz'^, to moisten, to drench. S( drunk is from the root of drench.] Drunkenness ; intoxication by spirituous li quors. Brown

      EBRIL'LADE, n. [Fr.] A check given to a horse, by a sudden jerk of one rein, wheu he refuses to turn. EBRIOS'ITY, n. [L. cbriositas.] Habitual drunkenness. Brown

      EBUL'LIENCY, n. [See Ebullition.]

      E C H

      as in the mixture of an acid with a carbon- 1 ated alkali.

      E€AU'DATE, a. [ e priv. and L. cauda, a tail.] In botany, without a tail or spur.

      E€CEN'TRIC, ) [L. eccenlricus ; ex,

      E€CEN'TR1€AL, $ from, and centrum, center.]

      1. Deviating or departing from the center. In geometry, not having the same center ; a term applied to circles and spheres which have not the same center, and consequently are not parallel ; in opposi- tion to concentric, having a common cen- ter. . -Enc2/c. Not terminating in the same point, nor directed by the same principle. Bacon, Deviating from stated metliods, usual


      tuu^^i.iui.i.g ^ genus, grow.-„ ... and other isles of the Archipelago

      . established forms or laws ; ._,^-.„ ; anomalous; departing from the usual course ; as eccentric conduct ; eccen- tric virtue ; an eccentric genius. ECCEN'TRI€, n. A circle not having the same center as another. Bacon.

      2. That which is irregular or anomalous. Hajiimond.

      ECCENTRICITY, n. Deviation from a

      center. •3. The state of having a center diflereni

      from that of another circle. Johnson

      3. In astronomy, the distance of the center of a planet's orbit from the center of the sun; that is, the distance between the center of an ellipsis and its focus


      4. Departure or deviation from that which is stated, regular or usual ; as the eccen- tricity of a man's genius or conduct.

      Excursion from the proper sphere.

      IFotton. In

      boihng over.


      EBUL'LIENT, a. Boiling over, as a hquor. Young. EBULLF'TION, n. [L. ebidlitio, from ebul- lio, bullio, Eng. to boil, which see.]

      1. The operation of boiling; the agitation of a liquor by heat, which throws it up in bubbles ; or more properly, the agitation produced in a fluid by the escape of portion of it, converted into an aerifor state bv heat. EbuDition is produced by the heat of file directly applied, or by the heat or caloric evolved by any substance in mixture. Thus, in slaking lime, the caloric set at liberty by the absorption of water, produces ebullition.

      2. Effervescence, which is occasioned by fer- mentation, or by any other process which causes the extrication of an aeriform fluid,]

      E€€HYM'OSIS, n. [Gr. txxviiuai;.

      medicine, an appearance of hvid spots on

      the slcin, occasioned by extravasated blood.


      E€€LESIAS'TES, n. [Gr.] A canonical

      book of the old testament. E€€LESIAS'TI€, } [L. ; Gr. ixxXt; E€€LESIAS'TI€AL, <, "" ma^ixoi, from tx x7.r,6i.a, an assembly or meeting, wlienre a church, from ixx

      apocrypha. E€€OPROT'I€, a. [Gr. tx, 4, out or from,

      and xoTtpoi, stercus.] Having the quality of promoting alvine dis- charges ; laxative ; loosening ; gently ca- thartic. Coxe. Encyc. EC€OPROT'I€, n. A medicine which pur- ges gently, or which tends to promote evacuations by stool ; a mild cathartic.

      Co.te. Encyc. ECHELON', n. [French, from echeUc, a lad- der, a scale.] In militanj tactics, the position of an army in the form of steps, or with one division more advanced than another.


      E C L

      ECH'INATE, > [L. echinus, a hedge-

      E€H'INATED, S"' hog.] Set with prick- les ; prickly, like a hedgehog ; having sharp points ; bristled ; as an echinated per- icarp. Martyn.

      Echinated pyrites, in mineralogy.


      ECH'INITE, n. [See Echinus.] A fossil found in chalk pits, called centronia ; a pet- rified shell set with prickles or points ; a calcarious petrifaction of the echinus or sea-hedgehog. Encyc. Ure.

      EeH'INUS, n. [L. from Gr. ix^m-] A hedgehog.

      2. A shell-fish set with prickles or sphies. The Echinus, in natural history, forms a genus of MoUusca. The body is round- ish, covered with a bony crust, and often beset with movable prickles. There are several species and some of them eatable. Encyc.

      .3. With botanists, a prickly head or top of a plant ; an echinated pericarp.

      4. In architecture, a member or ornament near the bottom of Ionic, Corinthian or CoiTiposite capitals, so named from its roughness, resembling, in some measure, the spiny coat of a hedgehog.

      Johnson. Encyc. ECH'O, n. [L.echo; Gr. tix^, from ijxos, sound, r^xsu, to sound.]

      1. A sound reflected or reverberated from a solid body ; sound returned ; repercus- sion of sound ; as an echo from a distant hill.

      The sound must seem an echo to the sense. Pope. a. In fabulous history, a nymph, the daugh- ter of the AirandTellus, who pined into a sound, for love of Narcissus.

      Lempriere. Johnson.

      3. In architecture, a vault or arch for redoub-

      hng sounds. Encyc.

      ECH'O, I', i. To resound ; to reflect sound.

      Tlie hall echoed with acclamations.

      2. To be sounded back ; as echoing noise. Blackmore.

      ECH'O. V. i. To reverberate or send back sound ; to return what has been uttered.

      Those peals are echoed by the Trojan tliron^.


      ECH'OED, pp. Reverberated, as sound.

      ECH'OING, ppr. Sending back sound ; as echoing hilis.

      ECHOM'ETER, n. [Gr. tjxoi, sound, and /ijrpor, measure.]

      Among musicians, a scale or rule, with sev- eral lines thereon, sei-ving to measure the duration of sounds, and to find their inter- vals and ratios. Encyc.

      ECIIOM'ETRY, n. The art or act of meas- uring the duration of sounds.

      2. The art of constructing vaults to produce echoes.

      ECL.-V'IRCISE, V. t. [Fr. eclaircir, from clair, clear. See Clear.]

      To make clear ; to explain ; to clear up what is not understood or misunderstooil.

      ECLA'IRCISSEMENT, n. [Fr.] Explana- tion ; the clearing up of any thing not be- fore understood. Clarendon.

      ECLAMP'SY, n. [Gr. txxau-^n, a shining ; ix'>.afiytu, to shine.]

      A flashing of light, a symptom of epilepsy. Hence, epilcjisy itself Med. Repos.

      ECLAT, J!. ccUt. [French. The word sig-

      E C L

      nities a bursting forth, a crack, and bright- ness, splendor ; edater, to split, to crack, to break forth, to shine.]

      1. Primarily, a burst of applause ; acclama- tion. Hence, applause ; approbation ; re- nown.

      2. Splendor; show; pomp. Pope. ECLKC'Tle, o. [Or. ixXixrixoi ; t| and Uyu,

      to chi30se.]

      Selecting ; choosing ; an epithet given to certain philosophers of antiquity, who did not attach themselves to any particular sect, but selected from the opinions and principles of each, what they thought solid and good. Hence we say, an eclectic phi- losopher ; the eclectic sect. Encrjc.

      ECLE€'Tle, n. A philosopher who select- ed from the various systems such opinions and princi|)les as he judged to be sound and rational. Enfield.

      2. A christian who adhered to the doctrines of the Eclectics. Also, one of a sect o" physicians.

      EeLE€'TI€ALLY, adv. By way of choos- ing or selecting ; in the manner of the] eclectical philosophers. Enfield.

      ECLEGM', n. [Gr. ix and xtijiu.] A med' cine made by the incorporation of oils with •syrups. Qidncy.

      ECLIPSE, n.eclips'. [L.eclipsis; Gv. fxT^ti^^i, defect, from ixXiMu, to fail ; (| and ?.ftrtu>, to leave.]

      . Literally, a defect or failure ; hence in cis- tronomy, an interception or obscuration of the liglit of the sun, moon or other lumi nous body. An eclipse of the sun is caused by the intervention of the moon, which totally or partially hides the sun's disk ; an eclipse of the moon is occasioned by the shadow of the earth, which falls on it and obscures it in whole or in part, but does not entirely conceal it.

      2. Darkness ; obscuration. We say, his glory has sutiered an eclipse.

      All the posterity of our first parents suffered a perpetual eclipse of spiritual life. Raleigh

      ECLIPSE, V. i. eclips'. To hide a luminous body in whole or in part and intercept its rays ; as, to eclipse the sun or a star.

      2. To obscure ; to darken, by interceptin the rays of light which render luminous; as, to eclipse the moon.

      3. To cloud ; to darken ; to obscure ; edtpsc the glory of a hero. Hence,

      4. To disgrace. Milton.

      5. To extinguish.

      Bom to eclipse thy life. Shak

      ECLIPSE, V. i. eclips'. To suffer an eclipse


      ECLIPS'ED, pp. Concealed ; darkened

      obscured ; disgraced. ECLIPS'ING, p/)r. Concealing; obscuring

      darkening ; clouding. ECLIP'Tle, n. [Gr. fxXHrtnxos, from ix

      jiH««, to fail or be defective ; L. eclipiicus

      linea eclijnica, the ecliptic line, or line in

      which eclipses are suffered.]


      in its orbit appears to describe, to an eye placed in the sun. Harris. Encyc.

      2. In ^eographj, a great circle on the terres- trial globe, .inswering to and falling within the plane of the celestial ecliptic.


      ECLIPTIC, a. Pertaining to or described by the ecliptic. Blackmore.

      2. Suffering an eclipse. Herbert.

      ECLOGUE, n. ec'log. [Gr. fxJ^ij, choice ; x7.iyu, to select.]

      Literally, a select piece. Hence, in poetry a pastoral composition, in which shepherds are introduced conversing with each oth- er, as the eclogues of Virgil ; or it is a little elegant composition in a simple natural style and manner. An eclogue differs from an idyllion, in being appropriated to pieces in which shepherds are introduced.


      ECONOM'IC, I [See Economy.] Per

      ECONOM'ICAL, $"• taining to the regu lation of household concerns; as the econ omic art. Davies

      Managing domestic or public pecuniary concerns with frugality ; as an economical housekeeper ; an economical minister or administration.

      ■3. Frugal ; regulated by frugality ; not w ful or extravagant ; as an economical use of money.

      ECONOMICALLY, adv. With economy with frugalitj".

      ECONOMIST, n. One who manages do- mestic or other concerns with frugality ; one who expends money, time or labor judiciously, and without waste.

      2. One who writes on economy ; the writer of a treatise on economy.

      ECON'OMIZE, V. i. To manage pecuniary concerns with frugality ; to make a pru dent use of money, or of the means of sa ving or acquiring property. It is our duty to economize, in the use of public money as well as of our own. ECON'OMIZE, V. t. To use with prudence ; to expend with frugality ; as, to

      1. A. great circle of the sphere

      be drawn through the middle of the zodiac, making an angle vi-ith the equinoctial of 23° 30', which is the sun's greatest decli. nation. The ecliptic is the apparent path of the sun, but as in reality it is the earth which moves, the ecliptic is the path or way among the fixed stars which the earth

      E D A

      The Jews already had a sabbath, which, as citizens and subjects of that economy, they were obliged to keep, and did keep. Paley.

      G. The regular operations of nature in the generation, nutrition and preservation of animals or plants ; as auimal economy ; vegetable economy.

      7. Distribution or due order of things. [ Blackmore.

      8. Judicious and frugal management of pub- 1 lie affairs ; as political economy.

      9. System of management ; general regula- tion and disposition of the atfuirsof astatc or nation, or of any department of govern- ment.

      ECPHRAC'TIC, a. [Gr. tx and $porr«.] In

      medicine, deobstruent ; attenuating. ECPHRAC'TIC, n. A medicine which dis- solves or attenuates viscid matter, and re- obstructions. Coxe. Quincy. En rap-

      To manage and economize the use of circula- ting medium. IValah ECON'OMIZED, pp. Used with frugality. ECONOMIZING, ppr. Using with frugality ECON'OMY, n. [L. o:conomia ; Gr. oixoio ^la ; oixoj, house, and ronos, law, rule.]

      1. Primarily, the management, regulation and government of a family or the con cerns of a household. Taylor.

      2. The management of pecuniary concerns or the expenditure of money. Hence

      3. A frugal aiul judicious use of money ; that manngcmcut which expends money to vantage, and incui-s no waste ; frugality in the necessary expenditure of money. It difl'ers from parsimony, which implies an improper saving of expense. Economy includes also a prudent management of all the means by which property is saved or accumulated ; a judicious application of

      ECSTASIED, a. [See Ecstasy.] l:;nrap-

      tm-ed ; ravished ; transported ; delighted.


      ECSTASY, n. [Gr. fxfoais, from f?tr'?^i-,- f?

      and t^jjA", to stand.] '1. Primarily, a fixed state ; a trance; a state ' in which the mind is arrested and fixed, or as we say, lost ; a state in which the func- tions of the senses are suspended by the contemplation of some extraordinary or supernatural object.

      Whether what we call ecstasy be not dream- ing witli our eyes open, I leave to be examined. Locke.

      2. Excessive joy ; rapture ; a degree of de- light that arrests the whole mind ; as a pleasing ecstasy ; the ecstasy of love ; joy may rise to ecstasy.

      3. Enthusiasm ; excessive elevation and ab- sorption of mind ; extreme delight.

      He on the tender grass Would sit and hearken even to ecstasy.


      4. E.xcessive grief or auxiet}'. [.Vo/userf.] Shak.

      5. Madness ; distraction. [.Vo/ used.] ' Shak. |6. li\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ medicine, a species of catalepsy, when

      the person remembers, after the paroxysm is over, the ideas he had during the fit.

      Encyc. ECSTASY, I'. /. To fill with rapture or en- thusiasm. ECSTAT'IC, I Arresting the mmd ; ECSTAT'ICAL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' suspending the sen- ses ; entrancing. In pensive trance, and anguish, and ecstatic fit. Milton.

      2. Rapturous ; transporting ; ravishing ; de- lightful beyond measure ; as ecstatic bliss or joy.

      3. Tending to external objects. [.Vot used.] ] ATorris. EC'TyPAL, a. [infra.] Taken from the

      original. Ellis.

      EC'TyPE, n. [Gr. fxrvxcj.] A copy. [Mot

      icsed.] Locke.

      lECUMEN'IC, I [Gr. oixovfui>ixoi, from iECUMEN'ICAL, S^oixou/MV'!, the habita-

      4. The disposition or arrangement of any work ; as the economy of a poem.

      Dry den. B. Jonson

      5. A system of rules, regulations, rites and ceremonies ; as the Jewish economy

      ble world.] time, of labor, and of the instruments of|:General; universal; as a.ii ecumenical coun- labor.

      EC'URIE, II. [Fr.] A stable ; a covered

      place for horses. EDA'CIOUS, a. [L. edax, from edo, to eat.] j Eating ; given to eating ; greedy ; vera-

      E D G


      E D I

      EDACITY, n. [L. edacitas, from edax, edo, to eat.]

      Greediness ; voracity ; ravenousness ; rapa- city. Bacon

      ED'DER, n. [Qu. Sax. eder, a hedge.] In husbandry, such wood as is worked into tlie top of hedge-stal{es to bind them to- gether. Mason.

      ED'DER, V. t. To bind or make tight by cd- der ; to fasten the tops of hedge-stakes, by interweaving eddcr. England.

      ED'DISH, ? The latter pasture or grass

      E'ADISH, I "■ that comes after mowing or reaping ; called also eagrass, earsh, etch. [Not used, I believe, in America.] Encyc.

      VjU'DOES, I A name given to a variety

      ED'DERS, S of the Arum esculentum, an esculent root. Mease. Encyc.

      ED'DY, n. [I find this word in no other lan- guage. It is usually considered as a com- pound of Sax. erf, backward, and ea, water.]

      1. A current of water running back, or in a direction contrary to the main stream. Thus a point of land extending into a river, checks the water near the shore, and turns it back or gives it a circular course. The word is applied also to the air or wind mo- ving in a circular dii'ection.

      2. A whirlpool ; a current of water or air in a circular direction.

      And smiling eddies dimpled on the main.


      ■Wheel through the air, in circling eddies play.


      EDDY, 1'. i. To move circularly, or as an eddy.

      ED'DY, a. Whirling; moving circularly.


      ED'DY- WATER, n. Among seamen, the water which falls back on the rudder of a ship under sail, called dead-water. Encyc.

      ED'DY-WIND, n. The wind returned or beat back from a sail, a mountain or any thing that hinders its passage. Encyc.

      ED'ELITE, ?(. A siliceous stone of a light gray color. Kirwan.

      EDEM'ATOUS, a. [Gr. oi8,;i«i, a tumor ; oiStu, to swell.]

      Swelling with a serpus humor ; dropsical. An edematous tumor is white, soft and in- sensible, ^uincy.

      E'DEN, n. [Heb. Ch. ',!}} pleasure, de- light.]

      The country and garden in which Adam and Eve were placed by God himself.

      E'DENIZED, a. Admitted into paradise.


      EDEN'TATED, a. [L. edmtalus, e and dens.] Destitute or deprived of teeth. Diet.

      EDuE, n. [Sax. ecg ; Dan. eg ; Sw. e^g ; G. ecke, ege; L. acies, acus ; Fr. atgu, whence aignUle, a needle ; Gr. axrj ; W, uwc, au'g, edge.]

      1. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\xi a general sense, the extreme border or point of any thing; as the edge of the table; the eci^e of abook ; the erfg-c of clotli It coincides nearly with border, brink, margin. It is particularly applied to the sharp border, the thin cutting extremity of an instrument, as theedg'eofan ax, razor ktiife or sythe ; also, to the point of an in- strument, as the edge of a sword.

      2. Figuratively, that which cuts or pene trates; that which wounds or injures; as the edge of slander. Shak.

      3. A narrow part rising from a broader.

      Some harrow their gronnd over, and then plow upon an edge. Mortimer.

      4. Sharpness of mind or appetite ; keenness ; intenseness of desire; fitness for action or operation; as the edge of appetite or hun- ger.

      Silence and solitude set an edge on the ge- nius. Zhryden.

      5. Keenness ; sharpness ; acrimony.

      Abate the edge of traitors. Shak.

      To set the teeth on edge, to cause a tingling or

      grating sensation in the teeth. Bacon.

      EDGE, v.t. [W.hogi; Sax. eggian ; Dan.


      1. To sharpen.

      To edg-e her champion's sword. Dryden.

      ;2. To furnish with an edge.

      Aswordciiged with flint. Dryden.

      To border ; to fringe.

      A long descending train, Witii rubies edged. Dryden.

      4. To border ; to furnish with an ornamental border ; as, to edge a flower-bed with box.

      5. To sharpen ; to exasperate ; to embitter.

      By such reasonings, the simple were blinded, and the malicious edged. Hayward.

      G. To incite ; to provoke ; to urge on ; to in- stigate ; that is, to push on as with a sharp jioint ; to goad. Ardor or passion will edge a man forward, when arguments fail.

      [This, by a strange mistake, has been sometimes written egg, from the Sax. eg- gian, Dan. egger, to incite ; the writers not knowing that this verb is from the noun ecg, eg, an edge. The verb ought certain- ly to "follow the noun, and the popular use is correct.]

      7. To niove sideways ; to move by little and little ; as, edge your chair along.

      EDciE, V. i. To move sideways ; to inove gradually. Edge along this way.

      2. To sail close to the wind. Dryden. To edge away, in sailing, is to decline grad

      ually from the shore or from the line of the course. Mar. Diet.

      To edge in with, to draw near to, as a ship in chasing. Cyc.

      EDG'ED, pp. Furnished with an edge or border.

      :2. Incited; instigated.

      ]3. a. Sharp ; keen.

      EDgELESS. a. Not sharp; blunt; obtuse ; unfit to cut or penetrate ; as an edgeless sword or weapon. Shuk.

      EDgETOOL, Ji. An instrument having a sharp edge. Moxon.

      EDGEWISE, adv. [edge and wise.] With the edge turned forward, or towards a par- ticular point ; in the direction of the edge.

      |2. Sideways ; with the side foremost.

      EDG'ING, ppr. Giving an edge ; furnishing with an edge.

      2. Inciting; urging on; goading; stimula- ting; instigating.

      3. Moving gradually or sideways.

      4. Furnishing with a border. EDG'ING, n. That which is added on the

      border, or which forms the edge ; as lace, fringe, trimming, added to a garment for ornament. Bordered with a rosy edging. Dryden.

      ■2. A narrow lace.

      3. In gardening, a row of small plants set along the border of a flower-bed ; as an edging o[ box. Encyc.

      ED'IBLE, a. [from L. (do, to eat.] Eata-

      ble ; fit to be eaten as food ; esculent. Some flesh is not edible. Bacon.

      E'DleT, n. [L. edictum, from edico, to utter or proclaim ; e and dico, to speak.]

      That which is uttered or proclaimed by au- thority as a rule of action ; an order issued by a prince to his subjects, as a rule or law requiring obedience ; a proclamation of command or prohibition. An edict is an order or ordinance of a sovereign prince, intended as a permanent law, or to erect a new office, to establish new duties, or other temporary regulation ; as the edicts of the Roman emperors ; the edicts of the French monarch.

      ED'IFICANT, a. [infra.] Building. [Lit- tle used.]

      EDIFI€A'TION, n. [L. cedificatio. See Edijy.]

      1. A building up, in a moral and religious sense ; instruction ; improvement and pro- gress of the mind, in knowledge, in morals, or in faith and holiness.

      He that prophesieth, speaketh to men to edi- fication. 1 Cor. xiv.

      2. Instruction ; improvement of the mind in any species of useful knowledge.


      ED'IFI€ATORY,a. Tending to edification Haa.

      ED'IFICE, n. [L. wdificium. See Edify.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ A building ; a structure ; a fabric ; but ap- pro])riately, a large or splendid building. The word is not applied to a mean build- ing, but to temples, churches or elegant, mansion-houses, and to other great struc- tures. Milton. Addison.

      EDIFI"CIAL, a. Pertaining to edifices or to structure.

      ED'IFIED, ;>;>. Instructed; improved in lit- erary, moral or religious knowledge.

      ED'IFIER, n. One that improves another by instructing him.

      ED'IFY, v.t. [h.(edifico; Fr.edifier; Sp. edijicar ; It. edificare ; from L. cedes, a house, and/ac)o, to make.]

      1. To build, in a literal sense. [JVbt now used.] Spenser.

      j2. To instruct and improve the mind in

      I knowledge generally, and particularly iu moral and religious knowledge, in faith and holiness.

      Edify one another. 1 Thess. v.

      3. To teach or persuade. [JYot used.]


      ED'IFYING, ppr. Building up iu christian knowledge ; instructing ; improviaig the mind.

      ED'IFYINGLY, adv. In an edifying man- ner.

      E'DILE, n. [L. mdilis, from cedes, a build- '"g-l

      A Roman magistrate whose chief business was to superintend buildings of all kinds,

      - more especially public edifices, temples, bridges, aqueducts, &c. The ediles had also the care of the highways, public pla- ces, weights and measures, &c. Encyc.

      E'DILESHIP, n. The office of Edile in an- cient Rome. Gray.

      ED'IT, V. t. [from L. edo, to publish ; e and do, to give.]

      1. Properly, to publish ; more usually, to su- perintend a publication ; to prepare a book or paper for the public eye, by writing, correcting or selecting the matter.

      E D U

      Those who know how volumes of the fathers are generally edUed. Christ. Observer.

      2. To publish.

      Abelard wrote many philosophical treatises which have never been edited. Enfield

      ED'ITEl), »/). Published; corrected; pre- pared ancl published.

      ED'ITING,;)/?r. Publishing; preparing for publication.

      EDP'TION, n. [L. editio, from edo, to pub lish.]

      1. The publication of any book or writing as the first edition of !i new work.

      2. Republication, sometimes with revision and correction ; as the second edition of a work.

      3. Any publication of a book before publisli ed ; also, one impression or the whole number of copies published at once ; as the tenth edition.

      ED'ITOR, 71. [L. from edo, to publish.] A publisher ; particularly, a person who su- perintends an impression of a book ; the per.son who revises, corrects and prepare; a book for publication ; as Erasmus, Sea liger, &c. 2. One who superintends the publication of

      a newspaper. El)lTO'RlAL,a. Pertaining to an editor, as editorial labors ; written by an editor, ai editorial remarks. EI) ITORSHIP, n. The business of an ed- itor ; the care and sujierintendence of a publication. ifahh.

      EDIT'lJATE, V. t. [Low L. adituor, from

      cedes, a temple or house.] To defend or govern the house or temple. [JVot in use.] Gregory.

      ED'UCATE, V. t. [L. educo, educare; e and

      rfiiro, to lead ; It. educare; Sp. educar.] To bring up, as a child ; to instruct ; to in form and enlighten the understanding ; t( instill into the mind principles of arts, sci ence, morals, religion and behavior. T< educate children well is one of the mos. important duties of parents and guardians. EDUCATED,;)^. Brought up; instructed; furnished with knowledge or principles; trained; disciplined. ED UCATING, ppr. Instructing ; enlight- ening the understanding, and forming the manners. KI)U€A'TION, n. [h. educatio.] The bring- ing up, as of a child; instruction; forma- tion of manners. Education comprehends all that series of instruction and discipline which is intended to enhghten the under- standing, correct the temper, and form the manners and habits of youth, and fit them for usefulness in their future stations. To give children a good education in manners, arts and science, is important ; to givi tl]em a religious education is indispensa ble ; and an immense responsibility rest 'in parents and guardians who neglect tlicse duties.

      E F F

      Th' eternal art educing good from ill.


      EDUCED, pp. Drawn forth ; extracted

      produced. EDU'CING, ppr. Drawing forth; produ-

      E'DUCT, n. [L. eductum, from educo.] E.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\- tracted matter ; that which is educed ; that wliich is brought to hglit, by separa- tion, analysis or decomposition.

      We must consider tlie educts of its analysis by Bergman, &c. Kirwan

      EDUCTION, n. The act of drawing out oi bringing into view.

      EDU€T'OR, n. That which brings forth elicits or extracts.

      Stimulus must be called an eductor of vita ether. Darwin

      EDULCORATE, v. t. [Low L. edulco, from d\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\dcis, sweet ; Fr. tdulcorer.]

      1. To purify ; to sweeten. In chimistry, to render substances more mild, by freeing them from acids and salts or other solu- ble impurities, by washing. Encyc.

      2. To sweeten by adding sugar, sirup, &c. Encyc

      EDUL'eORATED, ;>;?. Sweetened; purifi ed from acid or saline substances, and ren dered more mild. EDUL'€ORATING,;)pr. Sweetening ; ren

      dering more mild. EDUL€ORA'TION, n. The act of sweet ening or rendering more mild, by freeing from acid or saline substances, or from any soluble impurities. The act of sweetening by admixture of some saccharine substance. EDUL'CORATIVE, a. Having the quality

      of sweetening. EEK. [See Eke.]

      EEL, ji. [Sax. eel ; G. aal ; D. aal ; Dan. id. ; Sw. 81 ; Gypsey, alo ; Turk. ilan. The word, in Saxon, is written precisely like awl.] A species of Muriena, a genus of fishes be- longing to the order of apodes. The head is smooth ; lliere are ten rays in tlie brane of the gills ; the eyes are covered with a common skin ; the body is cylin- drical and slimy. Eels, in some respects resemble reptiles, particularly in their manner of moving by a serpentine wind- ing of the body ; and they often creep up on land and wander about at night ii search of snails or other food. In winter thev lie buried in mud, being very impa tieiit of cold. They grow to- the weight of 15 or 20 pounds ; and the conger eel is said to grow to a hundred pounds in weight, and to 10 feet in length. They are esteemed good food. Encyc.

      EE'L-FISIIING, n. The act or art of catch- ing eels. EE'LPOT, n. A kind of basket used for

      ins eels. EE'LPODT, 71. A species of Gadus, some- what resembling an eel, but shorter in proportion, seldom exceeding a foot in length. It

      E F F

      EF'FABLE, a. [L. effabilis, from effor ; ex

      and/or, to speak.] Utterable ; that may be uttered or spoken.

      [This word is not used; but ineffable is in

      common use.] EFFA'CE, V. t. [Fr. effacer, from the L. ez

      and/ado or facies.]

      1. To destroy a figure on the surface of any thing, whether painted or carved, so as to render it invisible or not distinguishable ; as, to efface the letters on a monument.

      2. To blot out ; to erase, strike or scratch out, so as to destroy or render illegible ; as, to efface a writing ; to efface a name.

      .3. To destroy any impression on the mind ; to wear away ; as, to efface the image of a person in the mind; to efface ideas or thoughts ; to efface gratitude. Dryden.

      To deface is to injure or impair a figure ; to efface \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\s to rub out or destroy, so as to render invisible.

      EFFA'CED, pp. Rubbed or worn out ; de- stroyed, as a figure or impression.

      EFFA'CING, ppr. Destroying a figure, cha- racter or impression, on any thing.

      EFFECT', 71. [L. effectus, from ejicio ; ex and/acio, tomake; It. ejfetto; Fr. effet.]

      1. That wliich is produced by an agent or cause ; as the effect of luxury ; the effect of intemperance.

      Poverty, disease and disgrace are the natural effects of dissipation. Consequence ; event.

      To say that a composition is imperfect, is in effect to say tlie author is a m-an. Anon.

      3. Purpose ; general intent. They spoke to her to that effect. 2 Chron.


      4. Consequence intended ; utility ; profit ; advantage.

      Christ is become of no effect to you. Gal. v.

      5. Force; validity. The obligation is void and of no effect.

      6. Completion ; perfection. Not so worthily to be brought to heroical ef- fect by fortune or necessity.

      .UI'CA'TIONAL, a. Pertaining to educa

      tiuii; derived from education; as educa-\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ length. It is a delicate fish.

      tiunal habits. Smith.]] Encyc. Diet. jVW. Hist.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      EDUCATOR, 71. One who educates. EE'LSKIN, 7i. The skin of an eel.

      Reality ; not mere appearance ; fact. No other in eff'ect than what it seems.


      8. In the plural, effects are goods ; movables ; personal estate. The people escaped from the town with their effects.

      EFFECT', V. t. [from the Noun.] To pro- duce, as a cause or agent ; to cause to be. The revolution in France effected a great change of property.

      2. To bring to passs ; to achieve ; to accom- plish ; as, to effect an object or purpose.

      EFFECT'ED, pp. Done ; performed ; ac- complished.

      EFFECT'IBLE, a. That may be done or achieved ; practicable ; feasible. Broum.

      EFFECT'ING, ppr. Producing; perform- ing ; accomplishing.

      EFFECTIVE, a. Having the power to cause or iiroduce ; efficacious.

      They are not effective of any thing. Bacon.

      2. Operative ; active ; having the quality of producing effects.

      Time is not effective, nor are bodies destroyed by it. Brown.

      JScrfrfoes. g£,Lgp£y^li^ „_ A forked instrument used 3. Efficient; causing to be; as an ejerftrr

      cause. Taylor.

      4. Having the power of active operation ; able ; as effective men in an army ; an effect- ive force.

      EDU'CE, !'. /. [L. educo, edui-i; e and duco,n for stabbing eels.

      to lead.] lE'EN, contracted from even, which see.

      To bring or draw out; to extract; to pro- p I have f'cn done with you. V Estrange.

      duce from a Slate of occultation. lEFF, ii, A '


      E F F

      E F F

      E F F

      EFFE€T'1VELY, adv. With eflect ; pow- erfully ; vvitli real operation.

      Tliis effectively resists the devil. Taylor.

      [In this sense, effectually is generally used.] EFFE€T'LESS, a. Without effect ; with- out advantage ; useless. Shak. EFFECT'OR, n. One who effects ; one wl produces or causes ; a maker or creator. Derham. EFFE€T'UAL, a. Producing an effect, or the effect desired or intended ; or having adequate power or force to produce the effect. The means employed were ef- fectual.

      According to the gift of the grace of God giv- en me by the effectual working of his power. Eph. iii.

      2. Veracious ; expressive of facts. [M>tused.]


      3. Effectual assassin, in Mitford, is unusual and not well authorized.

      EFFECT'UALLY, adv. With effect ; effi- caciously ; in a manner to produce the in- tended effect ; thoroughly. The weeds on land for grain must be effectually subdued. The city is effectually guarded.

      EFFECT' UATE, v. t. [Fr. effectiLcr. See Effect.]

      To bring to pass ; to achieve ; to accom- plish ; to fulfil ; as, to effectuate a purpose or desire. Sidney.

      EFFECT'UATED, pp. Accomplished.

      EFFECT' UATING, ppr. Achieving ; per- forming to effect.

      EFFEM'INACY, n. [from effeminate.] The softness, dehcacy and weakness in men, which are characteristic of tiie female sex, but which in males are deemed a re- proach ; unmanly delicacy ; womanish softness or weakness. Milton.

      2. Voluptuousness ; indulgence in unmanly pleasures ; lasciviousness. Taylor.

      EFFEM'INATE, a. [L. effaminatus, from effwminor, to grow or make womanish, i'tomfmmina, a woman. See Woman.]

      1. Having the qualities of the female sex soft or delicate to an unmanly degree tender; womanish ; voluptuous.

      The king, by his voluptuous life and mean maniage, became effeminate, and less sensible of honor. Bacon

      2. Womanish ; weak ; resembling the prac- tice or qualities of the sex ; as an effemi- nate peace ; an effeminate life.

      3. Womanlike, tender, in a sense not re- l)roachful. Shak.

      EFFEM'INATE, v.t. To make womanish ;

      to unman ; to weaken ; as, to effeminate

      children. Locke

      EFFEM'INATE, v. i. To grow womanish

      or weak ; to melt into weakness.

      In a slothful peace courage will effeminate. Pope. EFFEM'INATELY, adv. In a womanish

      manner ; weakly ; softly. 2. By means of a woman ; as effeminately

      vanquished. Milton

      EFFEM'INATENESS, n. Unmanhke soft

      EFFEMINA'TION, n. The state of one grown womanish; the state of being weak or unmanly. [Little tised.] Bacon

      EFFERVESCE, v.i. efferves'. [L. effervesco. from fen'co, to be hot, to rage. See Fer- vent.]

      To he in natural cuuunotic n, like liquor when

      gently boiling ; to bubble and hiss, as fer- menting liquors, or any fluid, when some part escapes in an elastic form ; to work, as new wine.

      EFFERVES'CENCE,?!. A kind of natural ebullition ; that commotion of a fluid, which takes place, when some part of the mass flies off in an elastic form, producing innu- merable small bubbles ; as the effervescence or working of new wine, cider or beer ; the effervescence of a carbonate with nitric acid.

      EFFERVES'CENT, a. Gently boiling or bubbling, by means of the disengagement of an elastic fluid. Encyc

      EFFERVES'CIBLE, a. That has the qual- ity of effervescing ; capable of producing effervescence.

      A small qiianlity of efferveseible matter.

      EFFERVES'CING,j5pr. Boiling; bubbling, by means of an elastic fluid extricated in tlie dissolution of bodies.

      EFFE'TE, a. [L. effatus, effetus ; ex and foe- tus, embryo.]

      1. Barren ; not capable of producing young, as an animal, or fruit, as the earth. An animal becomes effete by losing the power of conception. The earth may be render ed effete, by drouth, or by exhaustion of fertility. Ray. Bentley.

      2. Worn out with age ; as effete sensuality.


      EFFICA'CIOUS, a. [L. efficax, from effcio. See Effect.]

      Effectual ; productive of effects ; producing the effect intended; having power ad quate to the purpose intended ; powerful ; as an efficacious remedy for disease.

      EFFIeA'CIOUSLY, adv. Effectually such a manner as to produce the effect desired. We say, a remedy has been effi caciously applied.

      EFFICA'CIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being eflicacious. Mi

      EF'FIeACY, n. [Sp. It. cfficacia ; Fr. eff.- cace ; from L. efficax.]

      Power to produce effects ; production of the effect intended ; as the efficacy of the g> pel in converting men from sin ; the f^ cy of prayer ; the efficacy of medicine in counteracting disease ; the efficacy of ma- nure in fertilizing land.

      EFFI"CIENCE, ? „ [L. efficiens, from effi-

      EFFI"CIENCY, <, "' cio. See Effect.]

      1. The act of producing effects; a causing to be or exist ; effectual agency.

      The manner of this divine efficiency is far above us. Hooker.

      Gravity does not proceed from the efficiency of any contingent or unstable agent.


      2. Power of producing the effect intended active competent power.

      EFF1"CIENT, a. Causing effects ; produ cing ; that causes any thing to be what it is. The efficient cause is that which pro- duces ; the final cause is that for which it is produced.

      EFFI"CIENT,7!. The agent or cause which produces or causes to exist.

      2. He that makes.

      EFFI"CIENTLY, adv. With effect ; effect- ively.

      EFFIERCE, j).<. effers'. To make fierce or furious. [JVot used.] Spenser.

      EF'FlCiY, n. [L. effigies, from effingo, to

      fashion ; ex and fngo, to form or devise ; Sp. It. Fr. effigie. See Feign.]

      1. The image or likeness of a person ; re- semblance ; representation ; any substance fashioned into the shape of a person.

      2. Portrait ; likeness ; figure, in sculpture or painting.

      3. On coins, the print or impression repre- senting the head of the prince who struck the coin.

      To burn or hang in effigy, is to burn or hang an image or picture of the person intended to be executed, disgraced or degraded. In France, when a criminal cannot be ap- prehended, his picture is hung on a gal- lows or gibbet, at the bottom of which is written his sentence of condemnation.


      EFFLA'TE, i'. t. [h. effio.] To fill with breath or air. [Little used.]

      EFFLORESCE, f.i. effiores'. [L. effioresco, from florcsco,Jloreo, to blossom,^os, a flow-


      See Flotoer.] foi

      1. In chimistry, to form a mealy powder on the surface ; to become pulverulent or dusty on the surface. Substances efflor- esce by losing their water of crystalization.

      Those salts whose crystals effloresce, belong to the class which is most soluble, and crystal- izes by cooling. Fourcroy.

      2. To form saline vegetation on the surface; I or rather to shoot out minute spicular ! crystals ; as the effiorescencc of salts on

      plaster. iEFFLORES'CENCE, n. In botany, the time

      of flowering ; the season when a plant j shows its first blossoms. Mariyn.

      i2. Among physicians, a redness of the skin ;

      eruptions ; as in rash, measles, small pox,

      scarlatina, &.c.

      3. In cMmistry, the formation of small white threads, resembling the subhmated mat- ter called flowers, on the surface of cer- tain bodies, as salts. This is properly a shooting out of minute spicular crystals, called sometimes a saline vegetation, as that of the sulphate of magnesia on the deserts of Siberia, and of natron in Egypt. In butter much salted, the salt shoots in spiculfe, and an efflorescence is often seen on walls formed with plas- ter. In some species of salts, as in sulphate and carbonate of soda, the ef- florescence consists of a fine white dust. This kind of efl^orescence is the contrary of deliquescence. In the latter, the saline crystals decompose the air, or rather ab- stract moisture from it ; in the former, the atmosphere decomposes the saline crystals, and the water of crystahzation is abstract- ed from the salts.

      Fourcroy. Encyc. Diet. Nat. Hist.

      EFFLORES'CENT, a. Shooting into white threads or spicute; forming a white dust on the surface. Fourcroy.

      EF'FLUENCE, n. [L. effiuens, effiuo; ex and fuo, to flow. See Flow.]

      A flowing out ; that which flows or issues from any body or substance.

      Bright effluence of bright essence increate. Milton.

      EFFLU'VIUM, n. plu. effiuvia. [L. from effiiio, to flow out. See Flotv.]

      The minute and often invisible particles which exhale from most, if not all terres- trial bodies, such as the odor or smell of

      E F F

      E G I

      E G Y

      ' plants, and the noxious exhalations from diseased bodies or putrefying animal vegetable substances.

      EF'FLUX, n. [L. efflums, from effluo, to flow out.]

      1. The act of flowing out, or issuing in stream ; as an effiux of matter trom an ii cer. Harvey.

      2. Effusion ; flow; as the first f^wr of men's piety. Hammond.

      3. That which flows out ; emanation.

      Light— cj^w divine. Thomson.

      EFFLUX', V. i. To run or flow away. [Kot

      userf.J Boyk.

      EFFLUXION, n. [L. effluxum, from effluo.]

      1. The act of flowing out. Brmmi.

      2, That which flows out ; efiluvium ; ema- nation. Bacon.

      EFFO'RCE, V. t. [Fr. efforcer, from force.]

      1. To force ; to break tlirough by violence.


      2. To force ; to ravish. Spenser.

      3. To strain ; to exert with effort. Spenser.

      [This word is now rarely used ; perhaps never, except in poetry. We now use force.] EFFORM', i'. t. [from form.] To fashion; to shape. Taylor.

      ^ JFor thisjwe now use form.]

      " " Tiie act of giving



      shape or form.

      [vVe now use formation.

      EF'FORT, n. [Fr. efoH ; It. .iforzo ; from fori, strong, L.forhs. See Force]

      A straining; an e.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ertion of strength; en deavor ; strenuous exertion to accomplish an object ; applicable to ph/sical or intellec- tual power. The army, by great efforts, scaled the walls. Distinction in science ' eained by continued efforts of the mind.

      EFFOS'SION, n. [L. effossus, from effod. to dig out.]

      The act of digging out of the earth ; as the passion of coins. Arbuthnot.

      EFFRA'Y, t». t. [Fr. effrayer.] To frighten. [Mit in use.] Spens

      EFFRA'YABLE, a. Frightful ; dreadful jyVbf in use.] Harvey.

      EFFRENA'TION, n. [L. effrwnalio, fron: frxnum, a rein.]

      Unbridled rashness or licence ; unruliness. [^rotinuse^

      EFFRONT'ERY, n. [Fr. effronterie, fron: front] Impudence ; assurance ; shame- less boldness ; sauciness ; boldness trans- gressing the bounds of modesty and deco rum. Effrontery is a sure mark of ill- breeding.

      EFFULgE, v. i. effutj'. [L. effulgeo ; ex and fulgeo, to shine. J^

      To send forth a flood of light; to shine with splendor.

      EFFUL'(iENCE, n. A flood of light ; great luster or brightness ; splendor ; as the ef- fulgence of divine glory. It is a word of superlative signification^ and applied, witi peculiar propriety, to the sun and to the Supreme Being.

      EFFUL'GENT, a. Shining ; bright ; splen did ; diffusing a flood of hght ; as the efful sent sun.

      EFFUL'GING, ppr. Sending out a flood of light. Savage.

      EFFUMABIL'ITY, n. The quahty of fly- ing off in fiimes or vapor. Boyle.

      Vol. I.

      EFFU'ME, V. t. To breathe out. [Mt used.] Spenser.

      EFFU'SE, V. t. effu'ze. [L. effusus, from effundo ; ex and fundo, to pour.]

      To pour out as a fluid ; to spill; to shed

      Willi pushing blooil effused. Milton

      EFFU'SE, a. Dissipated ; profuse. [J^ot use.] Richardson

      EFFU'SED, pp. effu'zed. Poured out ; shed

      EFFU'SING, ppr. effu'zing. Pouring out bedding.

      EFFU'SION, 71. effu'zhon. The act of pour- ing out as a liquid.

      2. The act of pouring out; a .shedding or spilling ; wa.ste ; as the effusion of blood :. The pouring out of words. Hooker

      4. The act of pouring out or bestowing di vine influence ; as the effusions of the Ho ly Spirit; fusions of grace. That which is poured out.

      Wash me with that precious effusion, and I shall be whiter than snow. King Charles.

      6. Liberal donation. [Abi used.]


      EFFU'SIVE, a. Pouring out; that jmurs forth largely.

      Th' effimne south. Thomson.

      EFT, n. [Sax. efela.] A newt ; an evet ; the common lizard. Encyc.

      EFT, adv. [Sax.] After ; again ; soon ; quick ly. Obs. Spenser.

      EFTSOONS', adv. [Sax. ejl, after, and so na, sones, soon.] Soon afterwards ; in i short time. Obs. Spenser

      E. G. [exempli gratia.] For the sake of an example ; for instance.

      EGAD', eiclam. Qu. Ch. lia a lucky star- good fortune, as we say, my stars!

      E'GER or E'AGRE, ji. An impetuous flood ; an irregular tide. Brown

      E'GERAN, n. [from Eger, in Bohemia.] A subspecies of pyramidical garnet, of i reddish brown color. It occurs massiv( or crystalized. Ure

      EGERiSl'INATE. [.Vol used. See Germi 7iate.]

      EtiEST', V. t. [L. egestum, from eg-ero.] To

      cast or throw out ; to void, as excrement


      EgES'TION, n. [L. egestio.] The act of voiding digested matter at the natural vent. Hale.

      EGG, n. [Sax. ffg-; G.andD. ei; Sw.hg^ Dan. eg-. Qu. L. ovum, by a change of g- into V. VV. wy ; Arm. oy ; Ir. ugh ; Russ. ikra, eggs, and the fat or calf of the leg.]

      A body formed in the females of fowls and certain other animals, containing an em- bryo or fetus of the same species, or the substance from which a like animal is produced. The eggs of fowls when laid are covered with a shell, and within is the white or albumen, which incloses the yelk or yellow substance. The eggs of fish and some other animals are united by a viscous substance, and called spawn. Most insects are oviparous.

      Egg, to incite, is a mere blunder. [See Edge.]

      EGG'BIIID, n. A fowl, a species of tern.

      Cook''s Voyages.

      E6ILOP I€AL, a. Affected with the egi- lops.

      E'GILOPS, n. [Gr.o.yi>^.] Goat's eye ; an abscess in the inner canthus of the eye : fistula lachrvmalis. Coxe.


      EGLAND'ULOUS, a. [e neg. and glandn- lotis. See Gland.] Destitute of elands.

      EG'LANTINE, n. [Fr. eglantier; D. ege- lanlier.] A species of rose ; the sweet brier ; a plant bearing an odoriferous flower.

      E'GOIST, n. [from L. ego, I.] A name giv- en to certain followers of Des Cartes, who held the opinion that they were uncertain of every thing except their own existence and the operations and ideas of their own minds. Rdd.

      EGO'ITY, n. Personality. [J^ol authorized.] Swift.

      E'GOTISM, n. [Fr. egoisme; 8p. egoismo; from L. ego, I.J

      Primarily, the practice of too frequently using the word /. Hence, a speaking or writing much of one's self; Belf-j)raise ; self-commendation ; the act or practice of magnifying one's self, or making one's self of inii)ortance. Spectator.

      A deplorable egotism of character.

      Dwight on Dueling.

      EGOTIST, n. One who repeats the word / very oflen in conversation or writing ; one who speaks much of himself, or mag- nifies his own achievements ; one who makes himself the hero of every tale.

      EGOTlST'I€, a. Addicted to egotism.

      2. Containing egotism.

      E'GOTIZE, V. i. To talk or write much of one's self; to make jjretensions to self-im portance.

      EGRE'tilOUS, a. [L. egregius, supposed to be from e or ex grege, from or out of or beyond the herd, select, choice.]

      1. Eminent ; remarkable ; extraordinary ; distinguished ; as egregious exploits ; an egregious prince. But in this sense it is seldom applied to persons.

      2. In a bad seTise, great ; extraordinary ; re- markable ; enormous ; as an egregious mistake ; egregious contempt. In this sense it is often apphed to persons ; as an egregious rascal ; an egregious murderer.

      EGRE'tilOUSLY, adv. Greatly; enor- mously ; shamefully ; usually in a bad sense ; as, he is egregiously mistaken ; they were egregiotisly cheated.

      EGRE'6IOlJSNESS, n. The state of being great or extraordinary.

      E'GRESS, n. [L. egressus, from egredior ; e and gradior, to step, Sw. resa, Dan. rej- ser.]

      he act of going or issuing out, orthe power of departing from any inclosed or confined place.

      Gates of burning adamant, Barr'd over us, prohibit all egress. JtriUon.

      EGRESSION, n. [L. egressio.] The act of going out from any inclosure or place of confinement. Pope.

      E'GRET, n. [Fr. aigrette.] The lesser white heron, a fowl of the genus Ardea ; an ele- gant fowl with a white body and a crest on the head. Encyc.

      2. In botany, the flying featliery or liairy crown of seeds, as the down of the thistle.

      E'GRIOT, n. [Fr. aigre, sour.] A kind of sour chem'. Bacon.

      EgYP TIAN, a. [from Egypt, Gr. Aiyvittos ; supposed to be so called from the name Coptos, a principal town, from gupta, guarded, fortified. Asiat. Res. iii. 3W. 335.

      E I T

      E J U

      E L A

      So Mmt, Mazor, Heb. iisd,_ whence Mis- raim, signifies a fortress, from fi to biml or inclose.] Pertaining to Egypt in Afri- ca.

      EciYP'TIAN, n. A native of Egypt; also, a gypsey. Blackstone.

      EI'DER, n. [G. Sw. eider.] A species of duck.

      EI'DER-DOWN, n. Down or soft feathers of the eider duck.

      EIGH, exclam. An expression of sudden delight.

      EIGHT, a. ait. [Sax. cehta, eahta or ehta G. acht ; D. agt ; Sw. otta ; Dan. otte ; Goth, ahtau ; L. octo ; Or. oxtu ; It. otto ; Sp. ocho ; Port, oito ; Fr. huit ; Arm. eih oreiz; Ir.ocht; W. uyth or tm/th ; Corn. eulh ; Gypsey, ochto ; Hindoo, attte.]

      Twice four; expressing the number twice four. Four and four make eight.

      EIGHTEEN, a. dteen. Eight and ten t ted.

      EIGHTEENTH, a. dteenth. The next order after the seventeenth.

      EIGHTFOLD, o. dtefold. Eight times the number or quantity.

      EIGHTH, a. aitth. Noting the number eight ; the number next after seven ; the ordinal of eight.

      EIGHTH, n. In music, an interval compo- sed of five tones and two semitones.


      EIGHTHLY, adv. diUhUj. In the eighth jjlace.

      EIGHTIETH, a. dtieth. [fromeighly.] The next in order to the seventy ninth ; ih eighth tenth.

      EIGHTS€ORE, a. or n. dtescore. [eight and score ; score is a notch noting twenty." Eight times twenty ; a hundred and sixty

      EIGHTY, a. dty. Eight times ten ; four- score.

      EIGNE, «. [Norm.awrae.] Eldest; an epithet used in law to denote the eldest son ; as bastard eigtie. Blackstone

      2. Unalienable ; entailed ; belonging to the eldest son. [JVol used.] Bacon.

      E'ISEL, n. [Sax.] Vinegar. [,Vot in use] More.

      EI'SENRAHM, n. [G. iron-cream.] The red and brown eisenrahni, the scaly red and brown hematite. Cleaveland.

      E'lTHER, a. or pron. [Sax. agther, egther ; D.yder; G.jeder; Ir.ceachtar. This word seems to be compound, and the first sylla- ble to be the same as each. So Sax. dghivwr, each tchere, every where. Sax. Chron, An. 1114. 1118.] I. One or another of any number. Here are ten oranges ; take either orange of the whole number, or take either of them. In the last phrase, either stands as a pronoun or substitute.

      Q. One of two. This sense is included in the foregoing.

      Lepidus flatters both. Of both is flattered ; but he neither love Nor either cares for him. Shak

      3. Each ; every one separately considered,

      On either side of the liver. Rev. xxii.

      4. This word, when applied to sentences or propositions, is called a distributive or conjunction. It precedes the first of two or more alternatives, and is answered by or before the second, or succeeding alter natives.

      Either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he sleepeth, Kings xviii.

      In this sentence, either refers to each of the succeeding clauses of the sentence. EJACULATE, v. t. [L. ejaculor, fi-om jac ulor, to throw or dart, jaculum, a dart fromjaao, to throw.] To throw out ; to cast ; to shoot ; to dart as rays of light ejaculated. Blackmore

      It is now seldom used, except to express the utterance of a short prayer ; as, he ejacidated a few words. EJA€ULA'TION, n. The act of throwing or darting out with a sudden force and rapid flight; as the ejaculation of hght.

      Bacon. [This sense is nearly obsolete.] 2. The uttering of a short prayer; or a short

      occasional prayer uttered. Tayh

      EJA€'ULATORY, a. Suddenly darted out ; uttered in short sentences; as an ejacula- tory prayer or petition.

      2. Sudden ; hasty ; as ejacxdatory repent- ance. UEslrange.

      3. Casting; throwing out.

      EJECT', v.t. [L. ejicio, ejectum ; e and jacio, to throw, Fr. Jeter, L.jacto.] . To throw out ; to cast forth ; to thrust out, as from a jdace inclosed or confined. Sandys. South. 3. To discharge through the natural passa- ges or emunctories ; to evacuate.

      Encyc. 3. To throw out or expel from an office ; to dismiss from an office ; to turn out ; as, to

      eject a clergyman. . To dispossess of land or estate.

      5. To drive away ; to expel ; to dismiss with hatred. Shak.

      6. To cast away ; to reject ; to banisli ; as, to eject words fi-om a language. Swift.

      EJECT ED, pp. Thrown out ; thrust out ; discharged ; evacuated ; expelled ; dismis sed ; dispossessed ; rejected.

      EJEeT'ING, ppr. Casting out ; discharg- ing; evacuating; expelling; dispossess ing ; rejecting.

      EJECTION, 71. [L. ejectio.] The act of casting out ; expulsion.

      2. Dismission from oflice.

      3. Dispossession ; a turning out from pos- session by force or authority.

      4. The discliargc of any excrementitious matter through the pores or other emunc tories ; evacuation ; vomiting.

      5. Rejection.

      EJECT'MENT, n. Literally, a casting out a dispossession.

      2. In law, a writ or action which lies for the recovery of possession of land from which the owner has been ejected, and for trial of title. Ejectment may be brought by the lessor against the lessee for rent in arrear, or for holding over bis term ; also by tlie lessee for years, who has been ejected be- fore the expiration of his term. Encyc.

      EJECT'OR, n. One who ejects or dispos- sesses another of his land. Blackstone.

      EJULA'TION, n. [h. ejulatio, from ejulo, to cry, to jell, to wail. Perhaps j represents g, and this word may be radically one witl yell. Sax. giellan, gyllan.]

      Outcry ; a wailing ; a loud cry expressive

      of grief or pain ; mourning; lamentation


      EKE, V. t. [Sax. eacan ; Sw. oka ; Dan. oger. The primary sense is to add, or to stretch, extend, increase. Qu. L. augeo. The lat- ter seems to be the Eng. to wax.]

      1. To increase ; to enlarge ; as, to eke a store of provisions. Spenser.

      2. To add to ; to supply what is wanted ; to eidarge by addition ; sometimes with out : as, to eke or eke out a piece of cloth; to eke Old a performance. Pope.

      3. To lengthen; to prolong; as, to eke out the time. Shak.

      EKE, adv. [Sax. eac ; D. ook ; G. auch; Sw. och: Dan. og ; W. ac ; L. ac, and. also. This seems to be the same word as the verb, and to denote, add, join, or addi- tion. Ch. nnx to join.]

      Also; hkewise ; in addition.

      'Twill be prodigious hard to prove, That this is eke the throne of love. Prior. [This word is nearly obsolete, being used only in poetry of the familiar and ludicrous kind.]

      EKEBERG'ITE, n. [from Ekeherg.] A mineral, supposed to be a variety of scapo- lite. Cleaveland.

      E'KED, pp. Increased; lengthened.

      E'KING, ppr. Increasing ; augmenting ; lengthening.

      E'KING, n. Increase or addition.

      ELAB'ORATE, v. t. [L. elaboro, from la- boro, labor. See Labor.]

      1. To produce with labor.

      They in full joy elaborate a sigh. Young.

      2. To improve or refine by successive ope- rations. The heat of the sun elaborates the juices of plants and reudersthe fi-uit more perfect.

      ELAB'ORATE, a. [L. elaboratus.] Wrought with labor ; finished with great diligence ; studied ; executed with exactness ; as an elaborate discourse ; an elaborate perform-

      Drawn to the life in each elaborate page.


      ELABORATED, pp. Produced with labor or studv ; improved.

      ELABORATELY, adv. With great labor or study ; with nice regard to exactness.

      ELABORATENESS, n. The quality of being elaborate or wrought with great la- bor. Johnson.

      ELABORATING, ppr. Producing with la- bor ; improving ; refining by successive operations.

      ELABORATION, n. Improvement or re- finement by successive operations. Ray.

      ELA'IN, n. [Gr. rto.rof, oily.] The oily or liquid principle of oils and fats. Chevreul.

      ELAMP'ING, a. [See Lamp.] Shining. [ A*o< in use.]

      EL'ANCE, V. t. [Fr. elancer, lancer, from lance or its root.] To throw or shoot ; to hurl; to dart.

      WTiile thy unerring hand elanced — a dart.


      E'LAND, n. A species of heavy, clumsy antelope in Africa. Barrow.

      ELA'OLITE, n. [Gr. rtaia, an olive.] A mineral, called also fettstein [fat-stone] from its greasy appearance. It has a crys- taliue structure, more or less distinctly fo- liated in directions parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism, and also in the du-ection of the shorter diagonals of the bases. Its fracture is uneven, and sometimes imper-

      E L A

      fectly conchoidal. Some varieties are slightly chatoyant. It is fusible by the blow-pipe into a while enamel. Its colors are greenish or bluish gray, greenish blue and flesh red, and it is more or less trans- lucent. Cleaveland.

      ELAPSE, V. i. daps'. [L. dapsus, from tla- bor, labor, to sUde.]

      To slide away ; to slip or glide away ; to pass away silently, as time ; applied chiefly or wholly to lime.

      [Instead of elapse, the noun, we use lapse.]

      ELAPS'ED, pp. Shd or passed away, as time.

      ELAPS'ING, ppr. Sliding away ; gliding or passing away silently, as time.

      ELAS'TIe, ) [from the Gr. t^afptu, to

      ELAS'TIeAL, 5 impel, or iXom, or tXawu, to drive ; Fr. elastiqve ; It. Sp. elastico.]

      Springing back ; having the power of re- turning to the form from which it is bent, extended, pressed or distorted ; having tlie inherent property of recovering its former figure, after any external pressure, which has altered that figure, is removed ; re- bounding ; flying back. Thus a bow is elastic, and when the force which bends it is removed, it instantly returns to its form- er shape. The air is elastic ; vapors are elastic ; and when the force compressing them is removed, they instantly expand or dilate, and recover their former state.

      ELAS'TICALLY, adv. In an elastic man- ner; by an elastic power; with a spring. Lee.

      ELASTICITY, n. The inherent property in bodies by which they recover their former figure or state, after external pres- sure, tension or distortion. Thus elastit gum, extended, will contract to its natural dimensions, when the force is removed Air, when compressed, will, on the remo- val of the compressing force, instantly di late and fill its former space.

      ELA'TE, a. [L. datus.] Raised; eleva ted in mind ; flushed, as with success. Whence, lofty ; haughty; as elate with vie tory. [It is used chiejly in poetry.]

      ELA'TE, t'. t. To raise or swell, as th mind or spirits ; to elevate with to pufl" up ; to make proud.

      2. To raise ; to exalt. [Unusual.]


      ELA'TED, pp. Elevated in mind or spirits puffed up, as with honor, success or pros- perity. We say, elated with success; ela ted with pride. [This is used in prose.]

      ELA'TEDLY, adv. With elation.

      ELATE'RIUM, n. A substance depo.«ited from the very acrid juice of tlie Momord' ca elaterium, wild cucumber. It is in thi cakes of a greenish color and bitter taste, and is a powerful cathartic.

      Webster's Manual.

      EL'ATERY,n. [Gr. fXatttpa.] Acting force or elasticity ; as the elatery of tlie air. [Unusual.] Ray.

      EL'ATIN, n. The active principle of the elaterium, from which the latter is suppo- sed to derive its cathartic power.

      Webster''s Manual.

      ELA'TION, n. An inflation or elevation of mind proceding from self-approbation ; self-esteem, vanity or pride, resulting from


      succes.s. Hence, haughtiness ; pride of prosperity. AUerbury.

      EL'BOW, n. [Sax. dnboga, or elnebof^a ; ul- na, the arm, the ell, and boga, bow ; con- tracted into dboga, elbow ; G. elbogen ; D. dleboog ; Scot, elbock, elbuck.] . The outer angle made by the bend of the arm. Encyc.

      Tlie wings that waft our riches out of sight Grow on the gamester's elbows. Cmvper. 2. Any flexure or angle ; the obtuse angle of a wall, building or road. Encyc.

      To be at the elbow, is to be very near; to be

      by the side ; to be at hand. EL'BOW, V. t. To push with the elbow.

      Dryden. 2. To push or drive to a distance ; to en- croach on.

      He'll elbow out his neighbors. Dryden

      EL'BOW, V. i. To jut into an angle ; to pro- ject ; to bend. ELBOW-CHAIR, n. A chair with arms to support the elbows; an arm-chair. Gay. ELBOW-ROOM, n. Room to extend the elbows on each side ; hence, in its acceptation, perfect freedom from confine- ment ; ample room for motion or action. South. Shak. ELD, n. [Sax. eld, or wld, old age. See Old.] Old age ; decrepitude. Obs.


      2. Old people ; persons worn out with age.


      [This ipord is entirely obsolete. But its

      derivative elder is in use.]

      ELD'ER, a. [Sax. ealdor, tlic comparative

      degree of eW, now written old. See Old.^

      1. Older ; senior ; having lived a longer time ; born, produced or formed before something else ; opposed to younger.

      The elder shall serve the younger. Gen


      His elder son was in the field. Luke xv.

      2. Prior in origin ; preceding in the date of a commission ; as an elder officer or magis trate. In this sense, we generally use

      ELD'ER, n. One who is older than another or othei-s.

      2. All ancestor.

      Carry your head as your elders have done be fore you. L'Estrangi

      3. A person advanced in life, and who, o account of his age, experience and wis dom, is selected for office. Among rude nations, elderly men are rulers, judges, magistrates or counselors. Among the Jews, the seventy men associated with Moses in the government of the people, were elders- In the first christian church- es, elilers were persons who enjoyed offi- ces or ecclesiastical functions, and the word includes apostles, pastors, teachers, presbyters, bishops or overseers. Peter and John call themselves elders. The first councils of christians were called presby- teria, councils of elders.

      In the modern jirasbyterian churches, elders are officers vv-ho, with the pastors or ministers and deacons, compose the con- sistories or kirk-sessions, with authority to inspect and regulate matters of religion and discipline.

      In the first churches of New England the pastors or ministers were called elders or teaching elders.

      E L E

      ELD ER, n. [Sax. ellarn ; Sw. hyU or hyUt- tr'a; Dan. hyld or hylde-trw, G. holder or hohlunder. It seems to be named irom hollotcness.]

      A tree or genus of trees, the Sambucus, of several species. ' The common elder of America bears black berries. Some spe- cies bear red berries. The stem and bran- ches contain a soft pitli.

      ELDERLY, a. Somewhat old ; advanced beyond middle age ; bordering on old age ; as elderly people.

      ELDERSHIP, n. Seniority ; the state of being older. Dryden.

      2. The office of an elder. Eliot.

      3. Presbytei-y ; order of elders. Hooker. ELD'EST, a. [Sax. ealdesl, superlative of

      dd, old.]

      Oldest ; most advanced in age ; that was born before others ; as the eldest son or daughter. It seems to be always applied to persons or at least to animals, and not to things. If ever apphed to things, it must signify, that was first formed or pro- duced, that has existed the longest time. But applied to things we use oldest.

      ELDING, n. [Sax. a:lan, to burn.] Fuel. [Local.] Grose.

      ELEAT'IC, a. An ciiithet given to a cer- tain sect of philosophers, so called from Elea, or Velia, a town of the Lucani ; as the Eleatic sect or philosophy. Encyc.

      ELE€AMPA'NE, n. [D. alant; G. alant or alanlwurzd; L. helenium, from Gr. iXivMv, which signifies this plant and a feast in honor of Helen. Pliny informs us that this plant was so called because it was said to have sprung from the tears of Helen. The last part of the word is from the Latin campana ; inula campana.]

      A genus of plants, the Inula, of many spe- cies. The common elecampane has a perennial, thick, branching root, of a strong odor, and is u.sed in medicine. It is sometimes called yellow star-wort. The Germans are said to candy the root, like ginger, calling it German spice.

      Encyc. HiU.

      ELE€T', V. t. JL. dectus, from eligo ; e or ex and lego, Gr. >jyw, to choose ; Fr. dire, from eligere; It. deggere ; Sp. degir ; Port, eleger.]

      1. Properly, to pick out ; to select fi-om amon" two or more, that which is prefer- red. Hence,

      2. To select or take for an office or employ- ment ; to choose from among a number ; to select or manifest preference by vote or designation ; as, to elect a representative by ballot or viva voce ; to ded a president or governor.

      3. In theology, to designate, choose or select as an object of mercy or favor.

      4. To choose ; to prefer ; to determine in favor of.

      ELECT', a. Chosen ; taken by preference from among two or more. Hence,

      2. Jn theology, chosen as the object of mer- cy ; chosen, selected or designated to eter- nal life ; predestinated in the divine coun- sels.

      3. Chosen, but not inaugurated, consecra- ted or invested with office ; as bishop ded ; emperor dect ; governor or mayor

      E L E

      elect. But in the scriptures, and in theolo- gy, this word is generally used as a noun

      ELE€T', n. One chosen or set apart ; ap- plied to Christ.

      Behold my servant,, whom I uphold ; mini elect, in whom my soul delighteth. Is. xlii.

      2. Chosen or designated by God to salva- tion ; predestinated to glory as the end, and to sanctification as the means ; i

      ally with a plural signification, the elect. Shall not God avenge his c

      elect? Luke

      If it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Matt. xxiv.

      He shall send his angels — and they shall gather his elect from the four winds. Matt, xxiv.

      3. Chosen ; selected ; set apart as a peculiar churcli and people ; applied to the Israelites. Is. xlv.

      ELECT'ED, pp. Chosen ; preferred ; desig- nated to office by some act of the constit- uents, as by vote ; chosen or predestina- ted to eternal life.

      ELECT'ING, ppr. Choosing; selecting from a number ; preferring ; designating to office by choice or preference ; desij nating or predestinating to eternal salvi tion.

      ELE€'TION, n. [L. electio.] The act of| choosing ; choice ; the act of selecting or more from others. Hence appropriately,

      9. The act of choosing a person to fill an office or emi)loyment, by any manifesta tion of preference, as by ballot, uplifted hands or viva voce ; as the election of a king, of a president, or a mayor.

      Cormption in elections is the great enemy oft freedom. J- .idams

      3. Choice ; voluntary preference ; free will liberty to act or not. It is at his election to accept or refuse.

      4. Power of choosing or selecting.

      5. Discernment ; discrimination ; distinction.

      To use men with much difference and elec- tion is good. Bacon a. In theology, divine choice ; predetermina- tion of God, by which persons are distin- guished as objects of mercy, become sub- jects of grace, are sanctified and prepared for heaven.

      There is a remnant according to the election of grace. Rom. xi.

      7. The public choice of officers.

      8. The day of a public choice of officers,

      9. Those who are elected.

      The election hatli obtained it. Rom. xi.

      ELECTIONEE'R, v. i. To make interest for a candidate at an election ; to use arts for securing the election of a candidate.

      ELECTIONEE'RING, ppr. Using influ- ence to procure the election of a person

      ELECTIONEE'RING, n. The arts c practices used for securing the choice of one to office.

      ELECT'IVE, o. Dependent on choice, as an elective monarchy, in which the k' raised to the throne by election ; opposed to hereditary.

      2. Bestowed or passing by election office is elective.

      3. Pertaining to or consisting in choice or right of choosing ; as elective franchise.

      4. Exerting the power of choice ; as an eke tive act.

      E L E

      5. Selecting for combination ; as elective at- traction, which is a tendency in bodies to unite with certain kinds of matter in pref- erence to others.

      ELEeT'IVELY, adv. By choice; with preference of one to another. ■

      ELEeT'OR, n. One who elects, or one who: has the right of choice ; a person who has, by law or constitution, the right of vo-l ting for an officer. In free govertmients,' the people or such of them as possess cer-' tain qualifications of age, character and property, are the electors of their repre-i sentatives, &c., in parUament, assembly,! or other legislative body. In the United| States, certain persons are appointed orj cliosen to be electors of the president or chief magistrate. In Germany, certain! princes were formerly electors of the em- peror, and elector was one of their titles,| as the elector of Saxony.

      ELECT'ORAL, o. Pertaining to election or! electors. The electoral college in Germany consisted of all the electors of the empire, being nine in number, six secular princes and three archbishops.

      ELE€TORAL'ITY, for electorate, is not used.

      ELECT'ORATE, n. The dignity of an! elector in the German empire.

      2. The territory of an elector in the German' empire.

      ELEC'TRE, n. [L. eledrum.] Amber. [Bacon used this word for a compound! or mixed metal. But the word is not now used.] I

      ELECT'RESS, n. The wife or widow of elector in the German empire.


      ELECTRIC, ( [Fr. electrique ; It. elet-

      ELECTRICAL, S trico : Sp. etectrico , from L. electriun, Gr. jjwtxrpor, amber.]

      1. Containing electricity, or capable of ex- hibiting it when excited by friction ; as an electric body, such as amber and glass ; an electric substance.

      2. In general, pertaining to electricity ; as electric power or virtue ; electric attrac tion or repulsion ; electric fluid.

      3. Derived from or produced by electricity ;' as electrical effects ; electric vapor ; electric shock.

      4. Communicating a shock like electricity ; the electric eel or fish.

      ELECTRIC, n. Any body or substa

      pable of exhibiting electricity by means of friction or otherwise, and of resisting the passage of it from one body to another. Hence an electric is called a non-conductor, an electric per se. Such are amber, glass rosin, wax, gum-lac, sulphur, &c.

      ELECTRICALLY, adv. In the manner oi electricity, or by means of it.

      ELECTRP'CIAN, n. A person who studies| electricity, and investigates its properties, by observation and experiments ; one versed in the science of electricity.

      ELECTRICITY, n. The operations of very subtil fluid, which appears to be dif- fused through most bodies, remarkable for the rapidity of its motion, and one ofj the most powerful agents in nature. The name is given to the operations of this, fluid, and to the fluid itself. As it exists! in bodies, it is denominated a property of]

      E L E

      those bodies, though it may be a distinct substance, invisible, intangible and impon- derable. When an electric body is rub- bed with a soft dry substance, as with woolen cloth, silk or fur, it attracts or re- pels light substances, at a greater or less distance, accorduig to the strength of the electric virtue ; and the friction may be continued, or increased, till the electric body will emit sparks or flashes resem- bhng fire, accompanied with a sharp sound. When the electric fluid passes from cloud to cloud, from the clouds to the earth, or from the earth to the clouds, it is called lightning, and produces thun- der. Bodies which, when rubbed, exhibit this property, are called electrics or non- conductors. Bodies, which, when excited, do not exhibit this property, as water and metals, are called non-electrics or conduc- tors, as they readily convey electricity from one body to another, at any distance, and such is the rapidity of the electric fluid in motion, that no perceptible space of time is required for its passage to any known distance. Cavallo. Encyc.

      It is doubted by modern philosophei-s wheth- er electricity is a fluid or material sub- stance. Electricity, according to Profes- sor Silliman, is a power which causes re- pulsion and attraction between the masses of bodies under its influence; a power which causes the heterogeneous particles of bodies to separate, thus producing chini- ical decomposition ; one of the causes of magnetism.

      ELECTRIFIABLE, a. [from electrify.] Capable of receiving electricity, or of be- ing charged with it ; that may become electric. Fourcroy.

      2. Capable of receiving and transmitting the electrical fluid.

      ELECTRIFICATION, n. Tbeact of elec- trifying, or state of being charged with electricity. Encyc, art. Bell.

      ELECTRIFIED, pp. Charged with elec- ity. Encyc.

      ELEC'TRIF-f , V. t. To communicate elec- tricity to ; to charge with electricity.

      Encyc. Cavallo.

      2. To cause electricity to pass through ; to aflect by electricity ; to give an electric shock to.

      3. To e-xcite suddenly ; to give a sudden shock ; as, the whole assembly was elect- rified.

      ELECTRIFY, V. i. To become electric.

      ELECTRIFYING, ppr. Charging with electricity ; affecting with electricity ; giv- ing a sudden shock.

      ELECTRIZA'TION, n. The act of electri- zing. Ure.

      ELECTRIZE, v.t. [Fr. eledriser.-] To electrify : a word in popular use.

      ELECTRO-CHIM'ISTRY, n. That science wliich treats of the agency of electricity and galvanism in effecting chimical chan- ges.

      ELECTRO-MAGNETTC, a. Designating what pertains to magnetism, as connected with electricity, or affected by it. Electro- magnetic phenomena. Henry.

      ELECTRO-MAG'NETISM, n. That sci- ence which treats of the agency of elec-

      E L E

      E L E

      tricity and galvanism in communicating ,In its primary sense, this word signifies ' tliat which is choice or select, as distin-

      [L. eledrtim, Gr. jjXfxrpoi', amber, and ^trpew, to measure.] An instrument for measuring the quantity or intensity of electricity, or its quahty : or an instrument for discharginj; it from a jar. Encyc. Henry. Ure.

      ELEeTROMET'RieAL, a. Pertaining to an electrometer ; made by an electrome ter ; as an electrometrical experiment. ELECTRO-MO'TION, »i. The motion of electricity or galvanism, or the passing of it from one metal to another, by the at- traction or influence of one metal plate in contact with another. yotta.

      ELECTRO-MOTIVE, a. Producing elec- tro-motion ; as tledro-molive power.

      Henry. ELECTROMOTOR, n. [eledrum and mo- tor.] A mover of the electric fluid ; an in- strument or apparatus so called. Volta. ELE€'TRON, n. Amber ; also, a mixture of gold with a fifth part of silver. Coxe. ELECTRO-NEG'ATIVE, a. Repelled by bodies negatively electrified, and attracted by those positively electrified. Henry.

      ELEC'TROPHOR, ) [eledrum and ELECTROPH'ORUS, J fPf", to bear.] An instrument for preserving electricity a long time. Did. JVat. Hist.

      ELECTRO-POS'ITIVE, a. Attracted by bodies negatively electrified, or by the negative pole of the galvanic arrange- ment. Henry. ELEe'TRUM, n. [L. amber.] In mineralo- gy, an argentiferous gold ore, or native alloy, of a pale brass yellow color. Did. ELECTUARY, n. [Low L. eledarium, eke tuarium ; Gr. fx^tyiwa, or exT^cxtov, fron Uix'^, to lick. Vossius.] In pharmacy, a form of medicine composed of powders, or other ingredients, incorpo- rated with some conserve, honey or sirup, and made into due consistence, to be ta- ken in doses, like boluses.

      Quincy. Encyc. ELEEMOS'YNARY, a. [Gr. turnto^sxivyi, alms, from fXftu, to pity, eXsoj, compas- sion ; W. elus, charitable ; dusen, alms, benevolence. See Mms. It would be well to omit one e in this word.] . 1. Given in charity ; given or appropriated to support the poor ; as eleemosynary rents or taxes. Encyc

      2. Relating to charitable donations; intend- ed for the distribution of alms, or for the use and management of donations, wheth- er for the subsistence of the poor or for the support and promotion of learning; as an eleemxisynary corporation. A hospital founded by charity is an eleemosynary in- stitution for the support of the poor, sick and impotent; a college founded by do nations is an eleemosynary institution for the promotion of learning. The corpora tion entrusted with the care of such insti unions is eleemosynary. ELEEMOS'YNARY, n. One who subsist! on charity. South

      EVEGANCE,) [L. elegantia; Fr. tie- EL'EGANCY, I "'gance ; It. eleganza. Prob ably from L. eligo, to choose, though ir- regularly formed.]

      guished from what is common. , " The beauty of propriety, not of great- ness," says Johnson.

      Jlpplied to manners or behavior, elegance is that fine polish, politeness or grace, which is acquired by a genteel education, and an association with wellbred compa- ny-

      Applied to language, elegance respects the mannt-r of speaking or of writing. Ele- gance of speaking is the propriety of dic- tion and utterance, and the gracefulness of action or gesture ; comprehending correct, appropriate and rich expressions, deliver- ed in an agreeable manner. Elegance

      composition consists in correct, appropriate and rich expressions, or well chosen words, arranged in a happy manner. Elegance implies neatness, purity, and correct, per- spicuous arrangement, and is calculated to please a delicate taste, rather than to excite admiration or strong feeling. Ele- gance is applied also to form. Elegance in architecture, consists in the due sym- metry and distribution of the parts of an edifice, or in regular proportions and ar- rangement. And in a similar sense, the word is applied to the person or human body. It is applied also to penmanship, denoting that form of letters which is most agreeable to the eye. In short, in a looser sense, it is applied to many works of art or nature remarkable for their beau ty ; as elegance of dress or furniture.

      2. That which pleases by its nicety, synime try, purity or beauty. In this sense it has a plural ; as the nicer elegancies of art.


      EL'EGANT, a. [L. elegans.] Polished ; po- lite ; refined ; graceful ; pleasing to good taste ; as elegant manners.

      2. Polished ; neat; pure ; rich iji expressions correct in arrangement ; as an elegant style or composition.

      3. Lttcring or delivering elegant language with propriety and grace; as an elegant speaker.

      4. Symmetrical ; regular ; well formed in its parts, proportions and distribution ; a elegant structure. Nice; sensible to beauty; discriminating beauty from deformity or imperfection ; as an elegant taste. [This is a loose ap- plication of the word ; elegant being used for delicate.]

      G. Beautiful in form and colors ; pleas

      ; an elegant flower. 7. Rich ; costly and ornamental ; as elegant

      furniture or equipage. . EL'EGANTLY, adv. In a manner to please ;

      with elegance ; with beauty ; with pli

      ing propriety ; as a composition elegantly


      2. With due symmetry; with well formed and didy proportioned parts ; as a house elegantly built.

      3. Richly ; with rich or handsome materials well disposed ; as a room elegantly furn ished ; a woman degantly dressed.

      ELE'GIAC, a. [Low L. elegiacus. See El- egy.] Belonging to elegy ; plaintive ; ex- pressing sorrow or lamentation ; as an elegiac lay ; elegiac strains. Gay.

      E L E

      2. Used in elegies. Pentameter verse is ele- giac. Roscommon.

      EL'EgIST, n. A writer of elegies. Goldsmith.

      ELE'OIT, n. [L. cligo, elegi, to choose.] A writ of execution, by which a defend- ant's goods are apprized, and delivered to the plaintiff' and if not sufficient to satisfy the debt, one moiety of his lands are de- livered, to be held till the debt is paid by the rents and profits.

      2. The title to estate by elegit. Blackstone.

      EL'E6Y, II. [L. elegia; Gr. lUyiwv, tUyos, supposed to be from y.!yu, to sjieak or utter. Qu. the root of the L. Ittgeo. The verbs may have a common ori- gin, for to speak and to cry out in wail- ing are only modifications of the same act, to throw out the voice with morC or less vehemence.]

      1. Amournfulorplaintivepoera, or a funeral song ; a poem or a song expressive of sorrow and lamentation. Shak. Dryden.

      2. A short poem without points or affected elegancies. Johnson.

      EL'EMENT, n. [L. elemeiUum; Fr. element; It. and Sp. elemento ; Arm. elfenn ; W. el- ven, or dvyz. This word Owen refers to elv or el, a moving principle, that which has in itself the power of motion; and el is also a spirit or angel, which seems to be the Sax. celf, an elj". Vossius assigns ele- tnentu7n to eleo, lor oleo, to grow. See


      The first or constituent principle or minu- test part of any thing ; as the elements of earth, water, salt, or wood ; the ehitents of the world ; the dements of animal or vegetable bodies. So letters are called the elements of language.

      2. An ingredient ; a constituent [part of any composition.

      In a chimical sense, an atom ; the minu- test particle of a substance ; that which cannot be divided by chimical analysis, and therefore considered as a simple sub- stance, as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, &c. An dement is strictly the last result of chimical analysis ; that which cannot be decomposed by any means now employed. An atom is the last result of mechanical division ; that which caimot be any farther divided, without decomposition : hence there may be botli elementary and compound atoms.

      4. In the plural, the first rules or principles of an art or science; rudiments; as the elements of geomelry ; the elements of mu- sk ; the elements of painting ; the dements of a theory.

      In popidar language, fire, air, earth and water, are called the four ekments, as for- merly it was supposed that these are sim- ple bodies, of which the world is composed. Later discoveries prove air, earth and water to be compound bodies, and fire to be only the extrication of hght and heat during comhustioyi.

      G. Element, in the singular, is sometimes used for the air. Shak.

      7. The substance which forms the natural or most suitable habitation of an animal. Water is the proper dement of fishes; air, of man. Hence,

      8. The proper state or sphere of any thing ; he state of things suited to one's temper

      E L E

      or habits. Faction is the element of a demagogue.

      9. Tlie matter or substances which compose the world.

      The elements shall melt with fervent heat. 2 Pet. iii.

      10. The outhne or sketch ; as the elements of a plan.

      1 1. Moving cause or principle ; that which excites action.

      Passions, the elements of life. Pope.

      EL'EMENT, v, t. To compound of elements or first principles. Boyle.

      2. To constitute ; to make as a first princi- ple. Donne. [This word is rarely or never used.] ELEMENT'AL, a. Pertaining to elements.

      2. Produced by some of the four supposed elements ; as elemental war. Dryden.

      3. Produced by elements ; as elemental .strife.


      4. Arising from first principles. Brown. ELEMENTAL'ITY, n. Composition of

      principles or ingredients. Jiliillock

      ELEMENT' ALLY, adv. According to ele ments ; literally ; as the words, " Take, eat ; this is my body," elementally under- stood. Milton. ELEMENTAR'ITY, ) The state of ELEMENT' ARINESS, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' being element- ary ; the simplicity of nature ; uncom- pounded state. Brown ELEMENT' ARY, o. Primary ; simple ; uncompounded ; uncombined ; having only one principle or constituent part ; as ar elementary substance. Elementary parti cles are those into which a body is resol ved by decomposition.

      2. Initial ; rudimental ; containing, teaching or discussing first principles, rules or rudi- ments ; as an elementary treatise or dis- quisition. Reid. Blackstone.

      3. Treating of elements ; collecting, tUgest- ing or explaining principles; as an ele- mentary writer.

      EL'EMI, n. The gum elemi, sp called; but said to be a resinous substance, the prod uce of the Amyiis elemifera,a small tree or shrub of South America. It is of a whi- tish color tinged with green or yellow.

      ELEN€H', n. [L. elenchus ; Gr. fXtyxof, from Aiyx'^, to argue, to refute.]

      1. A vicious or fallacious argument, whicli_ is apt to deceive under the appearance of truth ; a sophism. [Little used.] Broion.

      2. In antiquity, a kind of earring set with pearls. Encyc.

      ELEN€H'I€AL, a. Pertaining to an elench.

      ELENCH'ICALLY, adv. By means of an elench. LVb< in use.] Brown.

      ELENell'IZE, v.i. To dispute. [Mit in itse.] B. Jonsoi

      EL'EPHANT, n. [Sax. tip, yip ; Gr. at^a? ; L. elephas, elephantus ; probably from the Heb. t|Sx, a leader or chief, the chief great animal.]

      1. The largest of all quadrupeds, belonging to the order of Bruta. This animal has no foreteeth in either jaw ; the canine-teeth are very long; and he has a long probo cis or trunk, by which he conveys food and drink to his mouth. The largest of these animals is abom 16 feet long and 14 feet high ; but smaller varieties are not more than seven feet high. The eyes are small


      and the feet short, round, clumsy, and dis- tinguishable only by the toes. The trunk is a cartilaginous and muscular tube, extend- ing from the upper jaw, and is seven or eight feet in length. The general shape of his body resembles that of swine. His skin is rugged, and his hair tliin. The two large tusks are of a yellowish color, and ex- tremely hard. The bony substance of these is called ji>o»-^. The elephant is 30 years in coming to his full growth, and he lives to 150 or 200 years of age. Ele- I)hants are natives of the warm climates of Africa and Asia, where they are em- ployed as beasts of burden. They were formerly used in war. Encyc.

      2. Ivory ; the tusk of the elephant.


      ELEPHANT-BEETLE, n. A large species of Scarabaeus, or beetle, found in South America. It is of a black color; the body covered with a hard shell, as thick as that of a crab. It is nearly four inches long. The feelers are horny, and the proboscis an inch and a (juarter in length. Encyc.

      ELEPHANT'S-FOOT, n. A plant, the Ele- phantopus. Muhlenberg.

      ELEPHANTI'ASIS, n. [L. and Gr. from ^.fijias, elephant.]

      A species of leprosy, so called from cover- ing the skin with incrustations, hke those of an elephant. It is a chronic and conta- gious disease, marked by a thickening and greasiness of the legs, with loss of hair and feeling,aswellingof the face, and a hoarse nasal voice. It afiects the whole body ; the bones, as well as the skin, are covered with spots and tumors, at first red, but afterwards black. Coxe. Encyc.

      ELEPHANT'INE, a. Pertaining to the ele- phant ; huge ; resembling an elephant : or perhaps white, like ivory.

      2. In antiquity, an appellation given to cer- tain books in which the Romans registered the transactions of the senate, magistrates, emperors and generals ; so called perhaps, as being made of ivory.

      ELEUSIN'IAN, a. Relating to Eleusis in Greece ; as Eleusinian mysteries or festi- vals, the festivals and mysteries of Ceres.

      EL'EVATE, v.t. [L. elevo ; e and leva, to raise ; Fr. elever ; Sp. elevar ; It. elevare ; Eng. to lift. See Lijl.]

      1. To raise, in a literal and general sense ; to raise from a low or deep place to a higher.

      2. To exalt ; to raise to higher state or sta- tion ; as, to elevate a man to an office.

      3. To improve, refine or dignify ; to raise from or above low conceptions; as, to ele- vate the mind.

      4. To raise from a low or common state ; to exalt ; as, to elevate the character ; to ele- vate a nation.

      5. To elate with pride. Milton. G. To excite ; to cheer ; to animate ; as, to

      elevate the spirits.

      7. To take from ; to detract ; to lessen by detraction. [JVot used.] Hooker.

      8. To raise from any tone to one more acute ; as, to elevate the voice.

      9. To augment or swell ; to make louder, as sound.

      EL'EVATE, a. [L. elevatus.] Elevated ;

      raised aloft. Milton.

      EL'EVATEO, pp. Raised; e.xalted : digni-

      E L F

      I fied ; elated ; excited ; made more acute

      i or more loud, as sound.

      ELEVATING, ppr. Raising; exalting; dignifying ; elating ; cheering.

      ELEVA'TION, n. [L. elevatit,.] The act of raising or conveying from a lower or deep- er place to a higher.

      2. The act of exalting in rank, degree or con- dition ; as the elevation of a man to a throne.

      3. Exaltation ; an elevated state ; dignity.

      Angels, in their several degrees of elevation above us, may be endowed with more compre- hensive faculties. Locke.

      4. Exaltation of mind by more noble con- ceptions ; as elevation of mind, of thoughts, of ideas. A/orris.

      5. Exaltation of style ; lofty expressions ; words and phrases expressive of lofty con- ceptions. Wotton.

      6. Exaltation of character or manners.

      7. Attention to objects above us ; a raising of the mind to superior objects. Hooker.

      8. An elevated place or station.

      9. Elevated ground ; a rising ground ; a hill or mountain.

      10. A passing of the voice from any note to one more acute ; also, a swelling or aug- mentation of voice.

      11. In astronomy, altitude; the distance of a heavenly body above the horizon, or the arc of a vertical circle intercepted between it and the horizon.

      12. In gunnery, the angle which the chace of a cannon or mortar, or the axis of the hollow cylinder, makes with the plane of the horizon. Bailey.

      13. In dialling, the angle which the style makes with the substylar line. Bailey.

      Elevation of the Host, in Catholic countries, that part of the mass in which the priest raises the host above his head for the peo- ple to adore. Encyc.

      ELEVATOR, n. One who raises, Ufts or exalts.

      2. In anatomy, a muscle which serves to raise a part of the body, as the lip or the eye.

      3. A surgical instrument for raising a de- pressed portion of a bone. Coxe.

      EL'EVATORY, ji. An instrument used in trepanning, for raising a depressed or frac- tured part of the skull. Coxe. Encyc.

      ELE'VE, n. [Fr.] One brought up or pro- tected liy another. Chesterfield.

      ELEV'EN, a. elev'n. [Sax. a:ndlefene,endleof, endlufa ; Sw. elfva ; Dan. elleve ; G. and D. elf; Isl. ellefu. Qu. one left after ten.] Ten and one added ; as- eleven men.

      ELEVENTH, «. [Sax. a;ndlyfla, endlefla; Sw. elfle ; Dan. ellevte ; D. elfde ; G. elfle.]

      The next in order to the tenth ; as the eleventh chapter.

      ELF, n. plu. elves. [Sax. lelf, or elfenne, a spirit, the night-mar ; a ghost, hag or witch ; Sw. lUfyer. In W. el is a moving principle, a spirit ; elv is the same ; elu is to move onward, to go ; elven is an ope- rative cause, a constituent part, an ele- ment; and elf is what moves in a simple or pure state, a spirit or demon. From these facts, it would seem that elf is from a verb signifying to move, to flow ; and Mf or'elf in Swedish, elv in Danish, is a river, whence Elbe. So spirit is from blowing, a flowing of air. In Saxon eel is oil and an eel, and

      E L I

      fclan is to kindle ; all perhaps from the sense of moving, flowing or shooting along. The elf seems to correspond to tlie devion of the Greeks.]

      1. A wandering spirit ; a fairy ; a hobgoh- lin ; an imaginary being whicli our rude ancestors supposed to inhabit unfrequent- ed places, and in various ways to afl^ect mankind. Hence in Scottish, elf-shot is an elf-arrow; an arrow-head of flint,_suppo- sed to be shot by elfs ; atid it signifies alsc a disease supposed to be produced by the agency of spirits.

      Every elf, and fairy sprite,

      Hop as light as bird from brier. Shak

      2. An evil spirit ; a devil. Drydeti

      3. A diminutive |)erson. Shenstone, ELF, V. t. To entangle hair in so intricate a

      manner, that it cannot be disentangled.

      This work was formerly ascribed to elves.

      Johnson. Shak.

      ELF'-ARROW, n. A name given to flints in the shape of arrow-heads, vulgarly sup- posed to be shot by fairies. Enryc.

      ELF'-LOCK, n. A knot of hair twisted by elves. Shak.

      ELF'IN, a. Relating or pertaining to elves. Spenser.

      ELF'IN, n. A little urchin. Shenslone.

      ELF'ISH, a. Resembling elves; clad in disguise. Mason.

      ELIC'IT, t;. t. [L. elicio ; e or ex and lacio, to allure, D. lokken, G. locken, Sw. locka Dan. lokker. Class Lg.]

      1. To draw out; to bring to light ; to deduce by reason or argument ; as, to elicit truth

      2. To strike out ; as, to elicit sparks of fire by collision.

      ELICIT, a. Brought into act ; brought from possibility into real existence. [LUtU used.] Johnson

      ELICITA'TION, n. The act of eliciting ; the act of drawing out. Bramhall.

      ELICITED, pp. Brought or drawn out ; struck out.

      ELICITING, /(^r. Drawing out ; bringing to light ; striking out.

      ELI'DE, V. /. [L. eli4o; e and Iwdo.] To break or dash in pieces ; to crush. [JVot used.] Hooker.

      2. To cut off a syllable. Brit. Crit.

      ELIGIBIL'ITY, ji. [fvoia eligible.] Wor- thiness or fitness to be chosen ; the state or quality of a thing which renders it pref- erable to another, or desirable.

      2. The state of being capable of being cho- sen to an office. U. States.

      EL'IGIBLE, a. [Fr. from L. eligo, to choose or select; e and lego.]

      1. Fit to be chosen ; worthy of choice ; preferable.

      In deep distress, certainty is more eligible than suspense. Clarissa.

      2. Suitable ; proper ; desirable ; as, the house stands in an eligible situation.

      3. Legally qualified to be chosen ; as, a man is or is not eligible to an ofiice.

      EL'IGIBLENESS, n. Fitness to be chosen

      in preference to another; suitableness;

      desirableness. EL'ItilBLY, adv. In a manner to be worthy

      of choice ; suitably. ELIMINATE, f. <. [L. eliinino ; eorerand

      limen, threshhold.] 1. To thrust out of doors. Lovelace.


      2. To expel; to thrust out ; to discharge, or

      throw off; to set at liberty.

      This detains secretions whicli nature finds it

      necessary to eliminate. Med. Repos.

      ELIMINATED, pp. Expelled ; thrown off:

      discharged. ELIM'INATING,;)Br. Expelling; dischar-

      ging ; throwing off.

      ELIMINA'TION, n. The act of expelling or throwing oft'; the act of discharging, or secreting by the pores.

      ELIQUA'TION, n. [L. eliquo, to melt and liquo.]

      In chimislry, the operation by which a more fusible substance is sei)arated from that is less so, by means of a degree of heat suflicient to melt the one and not the other ; as an alloy of copper and lead.

      Encyc. Ure.

      ELI'SION, n. s as :. [L. elisio, from elido, to strike off; e and terfo.]

      1. In grammar, the cutting off or suppression of a vowel at the end of a word, for the sake of sound or measure, when the next word begins with a vowel ; as, th' etnbat tied plain ; th' empyreal sphere.

      2. Division ; separation. [Not xised.]


      ELI'SOR, n. s as z. [Norm, eliser, to chuse Fr. elire, elisant.]

      In law, a sheriff's substitute .for returning i jury. When the sherifi' is not an indiffer ent person, as when he is a party to a suit or related by blood or affinity to either of the parties, the venire is issued to the core ners ; or if any exception lies to the coro- ners, the venire shall be directed to two clerks of the court, or to two persons of the county, named by the court, and sworn ; and these, who are called elisors or electors, shall return the jury.


      ELIX'ATE, V. t. [L. elixo.] To extract by boiling.

      ELIX.\\\\\\\'TION, n. [L. elixiis, from elixio, to boil, to moisten or macerate, from lixo, lir.]

      1. The act of boiling or stewing; also, con- coction in the stomach ; digestion.


      2. In pharmacy, the extraction of the virtues of ingredients by boihng or stewing ; also, lixiviation. Bailey. Encyc.

      ELIX'IR, n. [Fr. Sp. Port. e/in> ; It. elisire ; from L. elixus, elirio. liio, lix, or as others alledge, it is from the Arabic al-ecsir, chimistry.]

      1. In medicine, a compound tincture, ex- tracted from two or more ingredients. A tincture is drawn from one ingredient ; an elixir from several. But tincture is also applied to a composition of many ingredi- ents. An elixir is a liquid medicine made by a strong infusion, where the uigredients are almost dissolved in the menstruum, and give it a thicker consistence than that of a' tincture. Encyc. QtiincyJ

      2. A liquor for transmuting metals into gold.' Donne.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      .3. Quintessence ; refined .spirit. South}^

      Any cordial ; that substance which invig- orates. Milton.]

      ELK, 71. [Sax. elch ; Sw. elg ; L. alee, alces Dan. els-dyr. This animal is described by Cesar and Pausanias.]

      A quadruped of the Cervine genus, with pal- mated horns, and a fleshy protuberance on

      E L IM

      the throat. The neck is sliort, wiili a short, thick, upright mane ; the eyes are small ; the ears long, broad and slouching ; and the upper lip hangs over the under lip. It is the largest of the deer kind, being seventeen hands high and weighing twelve hundred pounds. It is found in the north- ern regions of Europe, Asia and America. In the latter country it is usually called Moose, from the Indian name mnsu.

      ELK-NUT, n. A plant, the Hamilionia, called also oil-nut. Muhlenberg.

      ELL, n. [Sax. elite ; Sw. aln ; D. ell, elle ; G. elle ; Fr. aune ; Ann. goalen ; L. xdna ; Gr. uXtvrj ; VV. elin, an elbow, and glin, the knee. Qu.]

      A measure of different lengtJis in different countries, used chiefly for measuring cloth. The ells chiefly used in Great Britain are the English and Flemish. The Enghsh ell is three feet and nine inches, or a yard and a quarter. The Flemish ell is 27 inches, or three quarters of a yard. The English is to the Flemish as five to three. In Scot- land, an ell is 37 j% English inches.


      ELLIPSE, n. ellips'. An ellipsis.

      ELLIP'SIS, n. plu. ellip'ses. [Gr. i%Xn-^ti, an omission or defect, from i7Xurtu, to leave or pass by, t-iirtu, to leave.]

      1. In geometry, an oval figure generated from the section of a cone, by a plane cutting both sides of it, but not parallel to the base. Bailey. Encyc. Harris.

      2. In grammar, defect; omission; a figure of syntax, by which one or more words are omitted, which the hearer or reader may supply ; as, the heroic virtues I admire, for the heroic virtues which I admire.

      ELLIPSOID, n. [ellipsis and Gr. aSos, form.]

      In conies, a solid or figure formed by the revolution of an ellipse about its axis ; an elliptic conoid ; a spheroid.

      Edin. Encyc.

      ELLIPSOID'AL, a. Pertaining to an elUp- soid ; having the form of an ellipsoid.

      ELLIPTIC, I Pertaining to an ellip-

      ELLIP'TICAL, ^ "• sis; having the form of an ellipse ; oval.

      The planets move in elliptical orbits, haling the sun in one focus, and by a radius from the sun, tliey describe equal areas in equal times.


      2. Defective ; as an elliptical phrase.

      ELLIPTICALLY, adv. According to Uie figure called an ellipsis.

      2. Defectively.

      ELM, )i. [Sax.e/m,orK/)H-/r«oi(; D.olm; G. ulme ; Sw. aim, or alm-tru, elm-tree ; Dan. aim ; L. ulmus ; Sp. olmo, and alamo ; Corn, elau; Russ. ilema, ilma, or Uina. Qu. W. llwyv, a platform, a frame, an dm, from extending.]

      A tree of the genus Ulmus. The common eini is one of the largest and most majestic trees of the forest, and is cuhivated for shade and ornament. Another species, the fulva, is called slippery elm, from the quality of its inner bark. One specieo seems to have been used to support vines. The treaty which William Pcnn made witli the natives in 1682 was negotiated under a large Elm which grew on the spot now called Ken- sington, just above Philadelphia. It was pros-

      E L O

      E L O

      E L U

      Memoirs of Hist. Soc. Perm. ELM'Y, a. Abounding with elms. Warton. ELO€A'TION, n. [L. doco.] A removal from the usual place of residence.

      Bp. Hall. 2. Departure from the usual method ; an ecstasy. Fotherby.

      ELOeU'TION, n. [L. elocutio, from eloqm e and loquor, to speak, Gr. X»jxfu, ^axiu.]

      1. Pronunciation ; the utterance or delivery of words, particularly in public discourses and arguments. We say of elocution, it is good or bad ; clear, fluent or melodi-

      Elocution, which anciently embraced style and the whole art of rhetoric, now signifies man- ner of delivery. E. Porter.

      2. In rhetoric, elocution consists of elegance, composition and dignity ; and Dryden uses the word as nearly synonymous with eloquence, the act of expressing thoughts with elegance or beauty


      4. In ancient treatises on oratory, the wording of a discourse ; the choice and order of words; composition; the act of framing a writing or discourse.

      Cicero. Quinctilian.

      ELOeU'TIVE, a. Having the power of elo- quent speaking.

      EL'OgIST, n. An eulogist. [JVot used.]

      EL'OGY, I [Pr. eloge ; L. elogiwn. ;

      ELO'GIUM, I "• Gr. Xoyoj. See Eulogy.]

      The praise bestowed on a person or thing ;

      panegyric. [But we generally use eulogy.]

      rVotton. Holder.

      ELGIN', V. t. rPr, eloigner, to remove far off.]

      1. To separate and remove to a distance.

      Spenser. Donne.

      2. To convey to a distance, and withhold from sight.

      The sheriff may return that the goods or beasts

      are eloined. Blackstone.

      ELOIN'ATE, V. t. To remove. Howell.

      ELOIN'ED, pp. Removed to a distance ;

      carried far off. ELOIN'ING, ppr. Removing to a distance

      from another, or to a place unknown. ELOIN'MENT, n. Removal to a distance ;

      distance. ELONG', V. t. [Low L. elongo.] To put far

      off; to retard. Obs. Shenstoiie.

      ELON'GATE, v. t. [Low L. elongo, from

      longus. See Lo7ig.]

      1. To lengthen ; to extend.

      2. To remove farther off. Brown.

      ELON'GATE, v. i. To depart from ; to re- cede ; to move to a greater distance ; ])ar- ticularly, to recede apparently from the sun, as a planet in its orbit.

      ELON'GATED,/)^. Lengthened; removed to a distance.

      ELON'GATING, ppr. Lengthening ; ex- tending.

      2. Receding to a greater distance, particu- larly as a planet from the sun in its orbit.

      ELONGA'TION, n. The act of stretching

      or lengthening ; as the elongation of a fiber,


      2. The state of being extended.

      3. Distance ; space which separates one thing from anotlier. Glanvilie.

      4. Departure ; removal ; recession.

      5. Extension ; continuation.

      May not the mountains of Westmoreland and Cumberland be considered as elongations of these two chains. Pinkerton.

      G. In astronomy, the recess of a planet from the sun, as it appears to the eye of a spec- tator on the earth ; apparent departure of a ])lanet from the sun in its orbit ; as the elongation of Venus or Mercury.

      7. In surgery, an imperfect luxation, o sioned by the stretching or lengthening ofl the ligaments ; or the extension of a part beyond its natural dimensions.

      Encyc. Coxe.

      ELO'PE, V. i. [D. loopen, tvegloopen ; G laufen, entlaufen ; Sw. lopa ; Dan. lober ; Sax. hleapan ; Eng. to leap. In all the di- alects, except the English, leap signifies tc run. Qu. Heb. tjbn. Class Lb. No. 30.]

      1. To run away ; to depart from one's prop- er place or station privately or without permission ; to quit, without permission or right, the station in which one is placed by law or duty. Particularly and appro priately, to run away or depart froin a bus band, and live with an adulterer, as a mar ried woman ; or to quit a father's house privately or without permission, and mar ry or live with a gallant, as an unmarried woman.

      2. To run away ; to escape privately; tode part, without permission, as a son from a father's house, or an apprentice from master's service.

      ELO'PEMENT, n. Private or unlicensed departure from the place or station which one is assigned by duty or law ; as the elopement of a wife from her husband or of a daughter from her father's house, usually with a lover or gallant. It is some- times applied to the departure of a son or an apprentice, in like manner.

      ELO'PING, /)pr. Running away; departing )rivately, or without permission, from a lusband, father or master.

      E'LOPS,n. [Gr.e%-Ko^.] A fish, inhabiting the seas of America and the West Indies, with a long body, smooth head, one dorsal fin, and a deeply furcated tail, with a horizon tal lanceoiated spine, above and below, at its base. Pennant.

      2. The sea-serpent. Diet. JVat. Hist.

      EL'OQUENCE, n. [h. eloqiientia, from elo- quor, loquor, to speak ; Gr. ^»;xfw, 'Ka.xw, to crack, to sound, to speak. Thej primary sense is probably to burst with a sound, for the Gr. has tjixii, a fissure, from the same root ; whence >.axi?u, to open or split ; whence L. lacero, to tear ; and hence perhaps Eng. a leak. Qu. the root of clack. See Class Lg. No. 51. 27.]

      1. Oratory ; the act or the art of speaking well, or with fluency and elegance. Elo- quence comprehends a good elocution or utterance ; correct, appropriate and rich expressions, with fluency, animation and suitable action. Hence eloquence is ada))t- ed to please, affect and persuade. Demos- thenes in Greece, Cicero in Rome, lord Chatham and Burke in Great Britain were distinguished for their eloquence ii declamation, debate or argument.

      2. The power of speaking with fluency and elegance.

      3. Elegant language, uttered with fluency and animation.

      She uttereth piercing eloquence. Shak.

      4. It is sometimes applied to written lan- guage.

      EL'OQUENT, a. Having the power of ora- tory ; speaking with fluency, propriety, elegance and animation ; as an eloquent orator ; an eloquent preacher.

      2. Composed with elegance and spirit ; ele- gant and animated ; adapted to please, af- fect and persuade ; as an eloquent address ; an eloquent petition or remonstrance ; an - eloquent history.

      EL'OQUENTLY, adv. With eloquence; in an eloquent manner ; in a manner to please, atlt-ct and persuade.

      ELSE, fl. or pron. els. [Sax. elles ; Dan. ti- lers, from eller, or ; L. aliits, alias. See Jllien.]

      Otlier ; one or something beside. Who else is coming ? What else shall I give ? Do you expect any thing else ? [This word, if considered to be an adjective or pronoun, never precedes its noun, but always fol- lows it.]

      ELSE, adv. els. Otherwise ; in the other case ; if the fact were different. Thou de- sirest not sacrifice, else would I give it ; that is, if thou didst desire sacrifice, I would give it. Ps. v. 16. Repent, or else I will come to thee quickly ; that is,repent,or if thou shouldst not repent, if the case or fact should be different, I will come to thee quickly. Rev. ii. 5.

      2. Beside ; except that mentioned ; as, no where else.

      ELSEWHERE, adv. In any other place ; as, these trees are not to be found elseiohere.

      2. In some other place ; in other places in- definitely. It is reported in town and else- where.

      ELU'CIDATE, v. f. [Low L. elucido, from eluceo, luceo, to shine, or from lucidus, clear, bright. See LAght.]

      To make clear or manifest ; to explain ; to remove obscurity from, and render intelli- gible ; to illustrate. An example will elu- cidate the subject. An argument may elu- cidate an obscure question. A fact rela- ted by one historian may elucidate an ob- scure passage in another's writings.

      ELU'CIDATED, pp. Explained ; made plain, clear or intelligible.

      ELUCIDATING, ppr. Explaining ; making clear or intelligible.

      ELUCIDATION, n. The act of explaining or throwing light on any obscure subject ; explanation ; exposition ; illustration ; as, one example may serve for an elucidation of the subject.

      ELU'CIDATOR, n. One who explains ; an expositor.

      ELU'DE, V. t. [L. eludo; e and ludo, to play ; Sp. eludir; It. eludere ; Fr. eluder. The Latin verb forms bisi, lusum ; and this may be the Heb. Ch. Ar. m to deride. Class Ls. No. 5.]

      1. To escape ; to evade ; to avoid by arti- fice, stratagem, wiles, deceit, or dexterity ; as, to ehide an enemy ; to elude the sight ; to elude an ofiicer ; to elude detection ; to elude vigilance ; to elude the force of an argument ; to elude a blow or stroke.

      2. To mock by an unexpected escape.

      E M A

      E M A

      E M B

      Me gentle Delia beckons from the plain. Then, hid in shades, eludes her eager swain. Pope

      3. To escape being seen ; to remain unseen or undiscovered. The cause of magnet- ism has liitherto eluded the researches of philosophers.

      ELU'DIBLE, o. That maybe eluded or es- caped. Swifl.

      ELU'SION, n. s as :. [L. elusio. See Elude.] An escape by artifice or deception ; eva- sion. Brown.

      ELU'SIVE, a. Practising elusion ; using arts to escape.

      Elusive of the bridal day, she gives Fond hopes to all, and all with hopes de- ceives. Pope.

      ELU'SORINESS, n. The state of being elu- sory.

      ELU'SORY, a. Tending to elude ; tending to deceive ; evasive ; fraudulent ; falla cious; deceitful. Brown

      ELU'TE, V. t. [L. eluo, elutum ; qu. e and lavo. See Elutriate.] To wash off; to cleanse. Arbuthnot.

      ELU'TRIATE, v. t. [L. dulrio ; Sw. lutra, luttra, to cleanse, to defecate ; Dan. lutter. pure ; Sax. lutter, pure ; Indian, to purify ; G. lauter ; D. louter, pure ; Ir. gleilh. Qu. Class Ls. No. 30.]

      To purify by washing ; to cleanse by separa- ting foul matter, and decanting or strain- ing off the liquor. In chimistry, to pulver- ize and mix a solid substance with water, and decant the extraneous lighter matte: that may rise or be suspended in tlie wa ter. Coxe. Encyc.

      ELU'TRIATED, pp. Cleansed by washing and decantation.

      ELU'TRIATING, ppr. Purifying by wash ing and decanting.

      ELUTRIA'TION, >i. The operation of pul verizing a solid substance, mixing it with water, and pouring off the liquid, while the foul or extraneous substances are float- ing, or after the coarser particles hav subsided, and while the finer parts are suspended in the liquor.

      ELUX'ATE, V. t. [L. eluxatus.] To dislo cate. (See Luxate.]

      ELUXA'TION, n. The dislocation of a bone. [See Luxation.]

      ELVELOCKS. [See Elf-lock.]

      ELVERS, n. Young eels ; young congei or sea-eels.

      ELVES, p/u. of elf.

      ELVISH, a. More properly elfsh, which see.

      ELYS'IAN,a.e;i/2A'un. [L. ehjsiiis.] Pertain ing to elysium or the seat of delight ; yield ing the highest pleasures ; deliciously soothing ; exceedingly delightful ; as elys- ian fields.

      ELYS'IUM, n. elyzh'um. [L. tlysium ; Or,


      In ancient mythology, a place assigned to hap- py souls after death ; a place in the lower regions, furnished with rich fields, groves, shades, streams, &c., the seat of future happiness. Hence, any delightful place. Encyc. Shak

      'EM, A contraction of the7n.

      Ttey took 'em. Hudibras

      EMAC'ERATE, v. t. To make lean. [JVot in use.]

      EMA'CIATE, I', i. [L. emacio, from macto,

      Vol. I.

      or jnacer, lean; Or. luxxot, fiixpoi, small; Fr. maigre ; Eng. meager, meek ; It. Sp. Port, magro ; D. Sw. Dan. G. mager ; Ch. 1KD, to be thin. Class Mg. No. 2. 9. 13.]

      To lose flesh gradually ; to become lean by pining with sorrow, or by loss of appe- tite or other cause ; to waste away, as flesh ; to decay in flesh.

      EMA'CIATE, r. t. To cause to lose flesh gradually ; to waste the flesh and reduce to leanness.

      EMA'CIATE, a. Thin ; wasted.

      Shenstone. EMA'CIATED, pp. Reduced to leanness

      by a gradual loss of flesh ; thin ; lean. EMA'CIATING, ppr. Wasting the

      gradually ; making lean. EMACIA'TION, n. Tlieact of making lean

      or thin in flesh ; or a becoming lean by a

      gradual waste of flesh. 2. The state of being reduced to leanness. EMAC'ULATE, v. t. [infra.] To take spots

      from. [Little uxed.] EMACULA'TION, n. [L. emaculo, from c

      and macula, a spot.] The act or operation of freeing from spots.

      [Little used.] EM'ANANT, a. [L. emanans. See Ema

      nate.] Issuing or flowing from. Hate. EM'ANATE, i;. i. [L. emano ; e and mono,

      to flow; Sp. emanar ; Fr. emantr ; It.

      emanare. Class Mn. No. 11. 9.]

      1. To issue from a source ; to flow from ; ap- plied to fluids ; as, light emanates from the sun ; perspirable matter, from animal bod ies.

      2. To proceed from a soin-ce or fountain ; as the powers of government in republics emanate from the people.

      EM'ANATING, ppr. Issuing or flowing

      from a fountain. EMANA'TION, n. The act of flowing or

      proceeding from a fountain-head or or

      igin. 2. That which issues, flows or proceeds from

      any source, substance or body ; efilux ;

      eflluvium. Light is an emanation from

      the sun ; wisdom, from God ; the auth(

      itv of laws, from the supreme power. EM"'ANATIVE, a. Issuing from another. EMAN'CIPATE, v. t. [L. emancipo, from c

      and mancipium, a slave ; manus, hand, and

      capio, to lake, as slaves were anciently

      prisoners taken in war.]

      1. To set free from servitude or slavery, by the voluntary act of the proprietor ; to lib- erate ; to restore from bondage to free- dom ; as, to emancipate a slave.

      2. To set free or restore to' hberty ; i»i a gen- eral sense.

      3. To free from bondage or i-estjaint of any kind ; to liberate from subjection, controll- ing power or influence ; as, to emancipate one from prejudices or error.

      4. In ancient Rome, to set a son free from subjection to his father, and give him the capacity of managing his affairs, as if he was of age. Encyc.

      EMAN'CIPATE, a. Set at liberty.


      EMAN'CIPATED,;^;). Set free from bond- age, slavery, servitude, subjection or de- pendence ; liberated.


      EMAN'CIPATING, ppr. Setting free from bondage, servitude or dependence ; libe- rating.

      EMANCIPA'TION, n. The act of setting free from slavery, servitude, subjection or dependence ; deliverance from bondage or coiitrolhu]^' influence ; liberation ; as the emancipation of slaves by their proprietors ; the emancipation of a son among the Ro- mans ; tlic emancipation of a person from prejudices, or from a servile subjection to authority.

      EMANCIPATOR, n. One who emanci- pates or hberatcs from bondage or re- straint.

      EMA'NE, I', i. [L. emano.] To issue or flow from. Enfield.

      lint this is not an elegant word. [See Emanate.]

      EM>AR(ilNATE, > [Fr. marge; L.

      EMARtilNATED, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' margo, whence emarginu.]

      1. In botany, notched at the end ; applied to the leaf, corol or stigma. Martyn.

      2. In mineralogy, having all the edges of the primitive form truncated, each by one face. Cleaveland.

      EM AR(5INATELY, adv. In the form of notches. Ealon.

      EM-ASCULATE, v. t. [Low L. emasculo, from e and mascidus, a male. See Male.]

      1. To castrate ; to deprive a male of certain parts which characterize the sex ; to geld ; to deprive of virility.

      2. To deprive of mascidine strength or vig- or ; to weaken ; to render effeminate ; to vitiate by unmanly softness.

      Women emasculate a monarch's reign.

      Dry den. To emasculate the spirits. Collier.

      EM^ASCULATE, a. Unmanned; deprived of vigor. Hammond.

      EMASCULATED, pp. Castrated; weak- ened.

      EMASCULATING, ppr. Castrating ; geld- ing; depriving of vigor.

      EMASCULATION, n. The act of depriv- ing a male of the parts which character- ize the sex; castration.

      2. The act ofdeprivingof vigor or strength; effeminacv ; unmanly weakness.

      EMBA'LE,'f. <. [Ft. emhaller ; Sp. embalar; It. imballare; em, im, for en or in, and balla, balle, bale.]

      1. To make up into a bundle, bale or pack- age ; to pack.

      2. To bind ; to inclose. Spenser. EMB'ALM, V. t. emb'am. TFr. embaumer,

      from baume, balm, from balsam ; It. tTtibid- samare ; Sp. embalsamar.]

      1. To open a dead body, take out the intes- tines, and fill their place with odoriferous and desiccative spices and drugs, to pre- vent its putrefaction.

      Joseph commanded his servants, the physi- cians, to embalm his father : and the physicians embalmed Israel. Gen. I.

      2. To fill with sweet scent. MUton.

      3. To preserve, with care and affection, from loss or decay.

      The memory of my beloved daughter is em- balmed in my heart. J^. W. Virtue alone, with lasting grace. Embalms the beauties of the face.

      Trumbull. EMB ALMED, pp. Filled with aromatic

      E M B

      E M B

      E M B

      plants for preservation ; preserved from

      loss or destruction. EMB'ALMER, n. One who embalms bod

      ies for pieservation. EMB'ALMING, ppr. Filling a dead body

      with spices for preservation ; preserving

      witli care from loss, decay or destruci EMB'AR, V. t. [en and bar.] To shut, close

      or fasten with a bar ; to make fast.

      2. To inclose so as to hinder egress or es- cape.

      Wliere fast emban'd iu mighty brazen wall. Spenser.

      3. To stop; to shut from entering; to hin- der ; to block up.

      He embarred all further trade. Bacon.

      EMBARCA'TION, 71. Embarkation, which

      EMb' ARGO, n. [Sp. embargo ; Port. Fr. id. This is a modern word from the Spanish and Portuguese. In Portuguese, embara- gar, which the Spanish write embaraxar, is to embarrass, entangle, stop, hinder ; Port, embarago, impediment, embarrass- ment, stop, liinderance. The palatal be- ing changed into 2 and s, we have embar- rass from this word ; but embargo retains the palatal letter.]

      In commerce, a restraint on ships, or proliibi- tion of sailing, either out of port, or into port, or both ; which prohibition is by pub- lic authority, for a limited time. Most gen- erally it is a proiiibition of ships to leave a port.

      EMB'ARGO, v. I. [S|). Port, embargar.] To hinder or prevent ships from sailing out of port, or into port, or both, by some" law or edict of sovereign authority, for a limited time. Our ships were for a time embar- goed by a law of congress.

      2. To stop ; to hinder from being prosecuted by the departure or entrance of ships. The commerce of the United States has been embargoed.

      EMB'ARGOED, pp. Stopped ; hindered from sailing ; hindered by public author- ity, as siiips or commerce.

      EMB>ARGOING, ppr. Restraining from sailing by public authority ; hindering.

      EMB' ARK, V. t. [Sp. embarcar ; Port, id.; It.

      , imharcare ; Fr. embarquer ; en and barco, a boat, a barge, a bark.]

      1. To put or cause to enter on board a ship or other vessel or boat. The general em- barked his troops and their baggage.

      2. To engage a person in any affair. This projector embarked his friends in the de- sign or expedition.

      EMB' ARK, V. i. To go on board of a ship,

      boat or vessel ; as, the troops embarked for

      Lisbon. 9. To engage in any business ; to undertake

      in ; to take a share in. The young man

      embarked rashly in sjjeculation, antl was

      ruined. EMBARKA'TION, n. The act of putting

      on board of a ship or other vessel, or the

      act of going aboard.

      2. That which is embarked ; as an embarka- tion of Jesuits. Smollett.

      3. [Sp. embarcacion.] A small vessel, or boat. [Unusual] Anson's Voyage.

      EMB'ARKED, pp. Put on shipboard ; en- gaged in any affair.

      EMB'ARKIN"G,;7/)r. Putting on board of e ship or boat ; going on shipboard.

      EMBAR'RASS, t'. t. [Fr. embarrasaer ; Port. tmbaracar ; Sp. embarazar ; from Sp. em- barazo,' Port, embarago, Fr. embarras, per- plexity, intricacy, hinderance, impediiuent. In Spanish, formerly embargo signified em- barrassment, and embarrar is to perplex.]

      1. To perplex ; to render intricate ; to en- tangle. We say, pubUc affairs are embar- rassed ; the state of our accounts isembar- rassed; want of order tends to embairass

      2. To perplex, as the mind or intellectual faculties ; to confuse. Our ideas are some times embarrassed.

      3. To perplex, as with debts, or demands, be yond the means of payment ; applied to a person or his affairs. In mercantile Ian guage, a man or his business is embarrass ed, when he cannot meet his pecuniary engagements.

      4. To perplex ; to confuse ; to disconcert abash. An abrupt address may embarrass a young lady. A young man may be too much embarrassed to utter a word.

      EMBAR'RASSED,;);?. Perplexed; render ed intricate ; confused ; confounded.

      EMBAR'RASSING, ^pr. Perplexing; en tangling ; confusing ; confounding ; abash-

      EMBAR'RASSMENT, n. Perplexity; in tricacy; entanglement.

      2. Confusion of mind.

      3. Perplexity arising from insolvency, or from temporary inability to discharge debts.

      4. Confusion ; abashment. EMBA'SE, V. t. [en and base.] To lower in

      value ; to vitiate ; to deprave ; to impair.

      The virtue — of a tree embased by the ground


      I have no ignoble end — that may embase my

      poor judgment. Wotton

      2. To degrade ; to vilify. Sjienser.

      [This word is seldom used.]

      EMBA'SEMENT, n. Act of depraving depravation ; deterioration. South.

      EM'BASSADE, n. An embassy. Obs.


      EMBAS'SADOR, n. [Sp. embaxador ; Port. id. ; Fr. ambassadeur ; It. ambasciadore ; Arm. ambagzador ; Norm, ambaxeur. Spel man refers this word to the G. ambacl, which Cesar calls ambactus, a client or re- tainer, among the Gauls. Cluver. Ant. Ger. 1. 8. favors this opinion, and mentions that, in the laws of Burgundy, ambascia was equivalent to the Ger. ambact, service now contracted to atnt, D. ampt, Dan. ambt, Sw. embeie, olTice, duty, funct: employment, province. The butch has umbagt, trade, handicraft, a manor, a lord ship, and ambagtsman, a journeyman or mechanic, which is evidently the Sw. em- betesman. The Danish has also embede, office, employment. In Sax. embeht, ym beht, is office, duty, employment; embehtan, to serve ; embehtman, a servant ; also am- beht, collation ; ambyht, a message or lega- tion, an embassy ; ambyhtsecga, a legate or envoy [a message-sayer.] The word w Gothic is andbahts, a servant ; andbahtyan to serve. The German has amtsbote, a messenger. The first syllable em is fron emb, ymb, appi, about, and the root of am- bact is Bg. See Pack and Dispatch.]

      1. A minister of the highest rank, employed

      by one prince or state, at the court of an- other, to manage the public concerns of his own prince or state, and representing the power and dignity of his sovereign. Embassadors are ordinary, when they re- side permanently at a foreign court ; or extraordinary, when they are sent on a special occasion. They are also called ministers. Envoys are ministers employ- ed on special occasions, and are of less dignity. Johnson. Eneyc.

      2. In ludicrous language, a messenger. Ash EMBAS'SADRESS, n. The consort of an

      embassador. Chesterfield.

      3. A woman sent on a public message. EM'BASSAGE, an embassy, is not used. EM'BASSy, n. [Sp. Port, embaxada; Fr.


      1. The message or public function of an em- bassador ; the charge or employment of a pubhc minister, whether ambassador or envoy ; the word signifies the message or commission itself, and the person or per- .sons sent to convey or to execute it. We say the king sent an embassy, meaning an envoy, minister, or ministers ; or the king sent a person on an embassy. The embas- sy consisted of three envoys. The embas- sy was instructed to inrjuire concerning the king's disposition. Mitford.

      2. A solemn message. Taylor.

      Eighteen centuries ago, the gospel went forth from Jerusalem on an embassy of mingled authority and love. B. Dickenson.

      3. Ironically, an errand. Sidney.

      [The old orthography, ambassade, am- bassage, being obsolete, and embassy estab- lished, I have rendered the orthography of embassador conformable to it in the initial letter.]

      EMBAT'TLE, v. t. [en and battle.] To ar- range in order of battle ; to array troops lor battle.

      On their embattled ranks the waves return. Jitilton.

      2. To furnish with battlements.

      EMBAT'TLE, v. i. To be ranged i

      of battle. Shak.

      EMBATTLED, pp. Arrayed in order of battle.

      2. Furnished with battlements; and in he raldry, having the outline resembling a battlement, as an ordinary.

      Cyc. Bailey.

      2. a. Having been the place of battle; as an embattled plain or field.

      EMBAT'TLING, ppr. Ranging in battle array.

      EMBA'Y, V. t. [en, in, and bay.] To inclose in a bay or inlet ; to land-lock ; to inclose between capes or promontories.

      Mar. Diet.

      2. [Fr. baigner.] To bathe ; to wash. [J\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ot used.] Spenser.

      EMBA'YED, pp. Inclosed in a bay, or be- tween points of land, as a ship.

      EMBED', V. t. [en, in, and bed.] To lay as in a bed ; to lay in surrounding matter ; as, to embed a thing in clay or in sand.

      EMBED'DED, pp. Laid as in a bed ; de- posited or inclosed in surrounding matter ; as ore embedded in sand.

      EMBED'DING, ppr. Laying, depositing or forming, as in a bed.

      EMBELLISH, v. t. [Fr. embeUir, from belle, L. bellus, pretty.]

      Cyc. 1 ordei

      E M B

      E M B

      E M B

      1. To adorn ; to beautify ; to decorate ; to make beautiful or elegant by ornaments ; applied to persons or things. We embellish the person with ricli apparel, a garden with shrubs and flowers, and style with metaphors.

      2. To make graceful or elegant ; as, to em hellish manners.

      EMBEL'LISHED, pp. Adorned ; decora ted ; beautified.

      EMBEL'LISHING, ppr. Adorning; deco rating ; adding grace, ornament or ele- gance to a person or thing.

      EMBEL'LISIIMENT, n. Tlie act of adorn ing.

      2. Ornament ; decoration ; any thing that adds beauty or elegance ; that which i ders any thing pleasing to the eye agreeable to the taste, in dress, furniture, manners, or in the fine arts. Rich dresses are embellishmenls of the person. Virtue is an embellishment of the mind, and liberal arts, the embellishments of society.

      EMBER, in ember-days, ember-weeks, is the Saxon emb-ren, or ymb-ryne, a circle, cuit or revolution, from ymb, o,u4>i, arouijd, and ren, or ryne, course, from the root of run. Ember-days are the Wednesday Friday and Saturday, after Quadragesima Sunday, after Whitsunday, after Holy rood day in September, and after St. Lu cia's day in December. Ember-days are days returning at certain seasons ; Ember- weeks, the weeks in which these days fall and formerly, our ancestors used the words Ember-fast and Ember-tide or season.

      Lye. Encyc. LL. Alfred. Sect. 39,

      EM'BER-GOOSE, n. A fowl of the genus Colymbus and order of ansers. It larger than the common goose ; the head is dusky ; the back, coverts of the wings and tail, clouded with lighter and darker shades of tlie same ; the primaries and tail are black ; the breast and belly silvery. It inhabits the northern regions, about Iceland and the Orkneys. Encyc

      EM'BERING, n. The ember-days, supra [Obs.] Tusser

      EM'BERS, n. plu. [Sax. cemyrian ; Scot. ameris, aumers ; Ice. einmyria.]

      Small coals of fire with ashes ; the residuum of wood, coal or other combustibles not extinguished ; cinders.

      He rakes hot embers, and renews the fires.

      Dry den

      It is used by Colebrooke in the singular,

      He takes a lighted ember out of the covered

      vessel. Miat. Res. vii. 234

      EMBER-WEEK. [See Ember, supra.]

      EMBEZ'ZLE, i> t. [Norm, embeasiler, to filch ; beseler, id. The primary sense not quite obvious. If the sense is to strip,

      to peel, it coincides with the Ar. Vxaj to strip, or Heb. Ch. Syr. SsS- In Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. lU or nt3 signifies to plun- der. See Class Bs. No. 2. 21. 22. Perhaps the sense is to cut off. No. 21. 54.] 1. To appropriate fraudulently to one's own use what is entrusted to one's care and management. It difltrs from stealing and robbery" in this, that the latter imply a ■wrongful taking of another's goods, "bu embezzlement denotes the wrongful ap propriation and use of what came intt

      by right. It is not uncommon "for men entrusted with public money to • embezzle it.

      2. To waste ; to dissipate in extravagance. When thou hast embezzled all tliy store.

      Dry den.

      EMBEZ'ZLED, pp. Appropriated wrong- fully to one's own use.

      EMBEZ'ZLEMENT, n. The act of fraud- ulently appropriating to one's own use. the money or goods entrusted to one's care and management. An accurate account of the embezzlements of public money would form a curious history.

      2. The thing appropriated.

      EMBEZZLER, n. One who embezzles.

      EMBEZ'ZLING, ppr. Fraudulently apply- ing to one's own use what is entrusted to one's care and employment.

      EMBLA'ZE, I'. /. [Fr. blasonner; Sp. bla sonar ; Port, blazonar, brazonar ; allieil to G. blasen, D. blaazen, to blow, and F blaser, to burn, Eng. blaze. The sense is to swell, to eidarge, to make showy.]

      1. To adorn with glittering embellishments.

      No weejjing orphan saw his father's stores Our shrines irradiate, or emblaze the floors. Pope.

      2. To blazon ; to paint or adorn with figures armorial.

      The iiiipcriul ensign, sti-caming to the wind,

      With gems and golden luster rich emblazed.


      EMBLA'ZED, pp. Adorned with shining

      ornaments, or with figures armorial. EMBLA'ZING, ppr. Embellishing witi glittering ornaments, or with figures ar morial. EMBLA'ZON, v. t. emUa'zn. [Fr. blason ner. See Emblaze.]

      1. To adorn with figures of heraldry or en- signs armorial. Johnson.

      2. "To deck in glaring colors ; to display pompously.

      We find Augustus — emblazoned by the poets. Hakewill.

      EMBLA'ZONED, pp. Adorned with fig- ures or ensigns armorial ; set out pomp- ously.

      EMBLA'ZONER, n. A blazoner ; one that emblazons ; a herald.

      2. One that publishes and displays with pomp.

      EMBLA'ZONING, ppr. .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\dorning with en- signs or figures armorial ; displaying with

      An emblazoning. Rosroe.

      EMBLA'ZONRY, ?i. Pictures on;

      display of figures. Milton.

      EM'BLEM, 71. [Gr. efi8>.>ifia, from {juffawuj,'

      to cast in, to insert.]

      1. Properly, inlay; inlayed or mosaic work ; something inserted in the body of anoth-

      2. A picture representing one thing to the eye, and another to the understanding ; a painted enigma, or a figure representing some obvious historj-, instructing us in some moral truth. Such is the image of Scsevola holding his hand in the fire, with these words, "agere et pati fortiter Roma- num est," to do and to suffer with forti- tude is Roman. Encyc.

      3. A painting or representation, intended to hold forth some mora] or political in-

      struction ; an allusive picture ; a typical designation. A balance is an emblem of justice ; a crowii is the emblem of royalty ; a scepter, of power or sovereignty.

      4. That which represents another thing in its predominant qualities. A white robe in scripture is an emblem of purity or right- eousness ; baptism, of purification.

      EM'BLEM, V. t. To represent by similar qualities. Fellham.

      EMBLEMAT'IC, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Pertaining to or

      EMBLEM AT'ICAL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' comprising an em- blem.

      2. Representing by some allusion or cus- tomary connection ; as, a crown is em- blematic of royalty, a crown being worn by kings.

      3. Representing by similar qualities ; as, whiteness is emblematic oC purity .

      4. Using emblems ; as emblematic worship. EMBLEMAT'ICALLY, adv. By way or

      means of emblems ; in the manner of em- blems ; by way of allusive representation. Sieijl.

      EMBLEM'ATIST, n. A writer or inven- tor of emblems. Broipn.

      EM'BLEMENT, n. used mostly in the plu- ral. [Norm, emblear, emblements ; embleer, to sow ; Fr. emblaver ; Norm, bleer, to sow with corn, from bU, bled, corn.]

      The produce or fruits of land sown or plant- ed. This word is used for the produce of land sown or planted by a tenant for life or years, whose estate is determined sud- deidy after the land is sown or planted and before harvest. In this case tlie ten- ant's executors shall have the emblements. Emblements comprehend not only corn, hut the produce of any annual plant. But the produce of grass and perennial plants be- longs to the lord, or proprietor of the land.

      Blackstone. To represent by an

      Represented by an

      EM'BLEMIZE, v emblem.

      EM BLEiMIZED, pp. emblem.

      EM'BLEMiZIXG,;);)r. Representing by an emblem.

      EMBLOOM', V. t. To cover or enrich with bloom. Good.

      EMBODIED, pp. [See Embody.] Collect- ed or formed mto a body.

      EMBOD'Y, V. t. [en, in, and body.] To form or collect into a body or united mass ; to collect into a whole ; to incorporate ; to concentrate ; as, to embody troops ; to em- body detached sentiments.

      EMBOD'YING, ppr. Collecting or forming into a body.

      EMBOGUING, n. The mouth of a river or place where its waters are discharged in- to the sea. [.'Jn ill formed tvord.]

      EMBOLDEN, v. t. [en and bold.] To give boldness or courage ; to encourage. 1 Cor. viii.

      EMBOLDENED, pp. Encouraged.

      EMBOLDEN L\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\G, ppr. Giving courage or boldness.

      EM'BOLISM, n. [Gr. if,8oU^fxos, from i^- eaw.u, to throw in, to insert.]

      1. Intercalation ; the insertion of days, months or years, in an account of time, to produce regularity. The Greeks made use of the lunar year of 354 days, and to adjust it to the solar year of 365, they ad-

      E M B

      E M B

      ded a lunar month every second or third year, which additional month they called emboliriKeus. ■ Encyc.

      2. Intercalated time.

      EMBOLIS'MAL, o. Pertaining to interca- lation ; intercalated ; inserted.

      The embolismal months are either natural or

      civil. Eneyc.

      EMBOLIS'Ml€, a. Intercalated ; inserted.

      Twelve lunations foi-m a common year ; am!

      thirteen, the emboUsmic year.

      Grosier's China. EM'BOLUS, n. [Gr. t^fSo^s, from tiiSaVKu,

      to thrust in.] Something inserted or acting in another; that which thrusts or drives ; a piston.

      Jlrbuthnot. EMBOR'DER, v. t. [Old Fr. emborder.] To

      adorn with a horder. EMBOSS', V. t. [en, in, and boss.] In arch lecture and sculpture, to form bosses c protuberances ; to fashion in relievo or raised work ; to cut or form with promi nent figures.

      2. To form with bosses ; to cover with pro tuberances. Mlton

      3. To drive hard in hunting, till a deer foams, or a dog's knees swell. He

      EMBOSS', V. t. [Fr. emboiter, for emboister,

      from boite, boiste, a box.] To inclose as in a box ; to include ; to cover. [JVot used.] Spenser.

      EMBOSS', V. t. [It. imboscare, from bosco.

      a wood.] To inclose in a wood ; to conceal in a thick- et. [JVot used.] Milton EMBOSS'ED, pp. Formed with bosses oi

      raised figures. EMBOSS' ING, ppr. Forming with figures in rehevo. Bacon

      EMBOSS'MENT, n. A prominence, hke a

      boss ; a jut. 2. Relief; figures in relievo ; raised work. Mdiso: EMBOT'TLE, v. t. [en, in, and bctlle.] To put in a bottle ; to bottle ; to include or confine in a bottle. EMBOT'TLED, pp. Put in or included in bottles. Philips.

      EMBOW, V. t. To form like a bow ; to arch to vault. Spenser

      EMBOWEL, V. t. [en, in, and bowel.] To take out the entrails of an animal body ; to eviscerate. Shak

      2. To take out the internal parts.

      Fossils and minerals that the emboweled

      earth Displays. Phibrs

      3. To sink or inclose in another substance.

      Spenser. EMBOWELED, pp. Deprived of intes- tines ; eviscerated ; buried. EMBOWELER, n. One that takes out the

      bowels. EMBOWELING, ppr. Depriving of en

      trails ; eviscerating ; burying. EMBOWER, V. i. [from bower.] To lodge

      or rest in a bower. Spenser.

      EMBRA'CE, V. t. [Fr. embrasser, from en

      and bras, the arm ; Sp. abrazar, from brazo,

      the arm ; It. abhracciare, imbracciare, from

      fcraccio, the arm ; Ir. umhracaim, from 6rac.

      the arm. See Brace.] 1. To take, clasp or inclose in the arms ; to

      press to the bosom, in token of aflfection.

      Paul called to him the disciples and embraced them. Acts xx.

      2. To seize eagerly ; to lay hold on ; to re'- ceive or take with wilhngness that which is offered ; as, to embrace the christian re- ligion; to embrace the opportunity of doing a fav

      3. To comprehend ;. to include or take m ; as, natural philosophy embraces many sci- ences. Johnson,

      4. To comprise ; to inclose ; to encompass ; contain ; to encircle. Low at his feet a spacious plain is placed, Between the mountain and the stream

      braced. Oenh

      5. To receive ; to admit. What is there that he may not embrace for

      truth ? Locke.

      6. To find ; to take ; to accept. Fleance— must embrace the fate

      Of that dark hour. Shak

      7. To have carnal intercourse with. R. To put on. Spenser. 0. To attempt to influence a jury corruptly.

      Blackstone. EMBRA'CE, V. i. To join in an embrace.


      EMBRA'CE, n. Inclosure or clasp with the

      arms ; pressure to the bosom with the


      [2. Reception of one thing into another.

      3. Sexual intercourse ; conjugal endearment

      EMBRA'CED, pp. Inclosed in the arms

      clasped to the bosom ; seized ; laid hold

      on ; received ; comprehended ; included ;

      contained ; accepted

      Influenced corruptly; biassed; as a juror.


      EMBRA'CEMENT, n. A clasp in the arms

      a hug ; embrace. Sidney.

      2. Hostile hug ; grapple. [Little used.

      Sidney. Comprehension ; state of being contain ed ; inclosure. [Little used.] Bacon

      E M B

      EMBRA'VE, V. t. [See Brave.] To embet- lisli ; to make showy. Obs. Spenser.

      2. To inspire with bravery ; to make bold.


      EMBROCATE, v. t. [Gr. fftSptz", S9^X<^j to moisten, to rain ; It. emfrroceare.]

      In surgery and medicine, to moisten and rub a diseased part of the body, with a liquid substance, as with spirit, oil, &c., by means of a cloth or spunge.

      Coxe. Encyc.

      EMBROCATED, pp. Moistened and rub- bed with a wet cloth or spunge.

      EM'BROCATING, ppr. Moistening and rubbing a diseased part with a wet cloth

      4. Conjugal endearment ; sexual commerce. Shak.

      5. Willing acceptance. [Little tised.] EMBRA'CER, n. The person who embra- ces. Howel.

      2. One who attempts to influence a jury

      corruptly. EMBRA'CERY, ji. In law, an attempt to influence a jury corruptly to one side, by promises, persuasions, entreaties, money, entertainments, or the like. Blackstone. EMBRA'CING, ppr. Clasping in the arms ; pressing to the bosom ; seizing and hold- ing; comprehending; including; receiv- ing ; accepting ; having conjugal inter- course. 2. Attempting to influence a jury corruptly. Blackstone. EMBRA'ID, v.t. To upbraid. [A''otinuse.] Elyot. EMBRASU'RE, n. s as z. [Fr. from ' «er, to widen. Lunier. If Lunier isright, this coincides with the Sp. abrasar. Port. ahrazar, to burn, Sp. to squander or dissi- pate.]

      1. An opening in a wall or parapet, through which camion are pointed and discharged,

      2. In architecture, the enlargement of the aperture of a door or window, on the in- side of the wall, for giving greater play for the opening of the door or casement, or for admitting more light. Encyc.

      EMBROeA'TION, n. The act of moisten- ing and rubbing a diseased part, with a cloth or spunge, dipped in some liquid sub- stance, as spirit, oil, &c. Coxe. Encyc. 2. The liquid or lotion with which an affect- ed part is rubbed or washed. EMBROID'ER, v. I. [Fr. broder ; Sp. Port. 6orrfar ; W. brodiaw, to embroider, to make compact, to darn. Qu. border.] To border with ornamental needle-work, or figures ; to adorn with raised figures of needle-work ; as cloth, stuffs or muslin.

      Thou shalt embroider the coat of tine linen. Ex. xxviii. EMBROID'ERED, pp. Adorned with fig- ures of needle-work. EiMBROID'ERER, n. One who embroid- ers. EMBROID'ERING, ppr. Ornamenting

      with figured needle-work. EMBROID'ERY, n. Work in gold, silver or silk thread, formed by the needle on cloth, stuffs and nmslin, into various fig- ures; variegated needle-work.

      Pope. Encyc. Variegation or diversity of figures and colors ; as the natural embroidery of mead- „\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\vs. Spectator.

      EMBROIL', v.t. [Fv. embrouiller, brouiller ; It. imbrogliare, brogliare ; Sp. embrollar ; Port, embrulhar ; properly to turn, to stir or agitate, to mix, to twist. See Broil.]

      1. To perplex or entangle; to intermix in confusion.

      The christian antiquities at Rome — are em- broiled with fable and legend. Mdison.

      2. To involve in troubles or perplexities; to disturb or distract by connection with something else ; to throw into confusion or commotion ; to perplex.

      The royal house embroiled in civil war.


      EMBROIL'ED, pp. Perplexed ; entangled ; intermixed and confused ; involved iu trouble.

      EMBROIL'ING, ppr. Perplexing; entang- ling ; involving in trouble.

      EMBROIL'MENT, n. Confusion ; disturb- ance Maundrell.

      EMBROTH'EL, v. t. [See Brothel.] To inclose in a brothel. Donne.

      EM'BRYO, I [Gr. luSfvw ; L. embryon ;

      EM'BRYON, I "• from Gr. i" and (3pvo, to shoot, bud, germinate. The Greek word is contracted probably from (SpuSu, for it gives ,i5pusi5; and if so, it coincides in ele- ments with Eng. brood and breed.]

      In physiology, tlie first rudiments of an an- imal in the womb, before the several

      E M E

      members are distinctly formed ; after which it is called a fetus. EncxjC.

      2. The rudiments of a plant.

      3. The beginn]:i>; or first state of any thing not fit for ^reduction ; the rudiments of any thing yet itupeifectly formed.

      The compnny little suspected what a noble work 1 had then in embryo. Swift.

      EM'BRYO, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Pertaining to or noting

      EM'BRYON, 5 "any thing in its first ru- diments or unfinished state ; as an embrxj- on bud. Darwin.

      EMBRYOTOMY, n. [embryo and Gr. to/irj, a cutting, from ti/xiu, to cut.]

      A cutting or forcible separation of the fetus in utero. Coxe.

      EMBUSY, V. t. To employ. [;Vo( used.]

      EMEND', V. t. To amend. [jYot used.]

      EMEND'ABLE, a. [L. emendabilis, from emendo, to correct ; e and menda, a spot or blemish.] Capable of being amended or corrected. [See Amendable.]

      EMENDA'TION, n. [L. emendaiio.] The act of altering for the better, or correcting what is erroneous or faulty ; correction ; applied particularly to the correction of errors in writings. When we speak of life and manners, we use amend, amendment, the French orthography.

      2. An alteration for the better ; correction of an error or fault.

      The last edition of the book contains many emendalio7is.

      EMENDA'TOR, n. A corrector ot errors or faults in writings ; one who corrects oi improves.

      EMEND' ATORY, a. Contributing to eraen dation or correction. Warton.

      EM'ERALD, n. [Sp. esmeralda ; Port. id. ; It. smeraldo ; Fr. emeraude ; Arm. emernu- denn ; G. D. Dan. smaragd ; L. smarag dus ; Gr. jtopoySoj and u^uapcvyios ; Ch

      njini ; Syr. ] ^ ^^^1 ' A'"- -^j-oj ^' '^ probable that the European words ai'e from the oriental, though much altered. The verb nOT signifies to sing, to call, to amputate, &c. ; but the meaning of eme- rald is not obvious.]

      A mineral and a precious stone, whose col- ors are a pure, lively green, varj'ing to a pale, yellowish, bluish, or grass green. It is always crystahzed, and almost al-| ways appears in regular, hexahedral prisms, more or less perfect, and some- times slightly modified by truncations on the edges, or on the sohd angles. It is a little harder than quartz, becomes electric by friction, is often transparent, sometiines only translucent, and before the blowpipe is fusible into a whitish enamel or glass. The finest emeralds have been found in Peru.

      The subspecies of emerald are the pre- cious emerald and the beryl.

      Kirivan. Cleaveland.

      EMERCJE, ti. i. emerj'. [L. emergo ; e, ex, and mergo, to plunge.]

      1. To rise out of a fluid or other covering or surrounding substance ; as, to emerge from the water or from the ocean.

      Thetis — emerging from the deep. Dryden. We say, a planet emerges from the sun's light ; a star emerging from chaos. It is opposed to immerge.

      E M E

      2. To issue; to proceed from. .Vewton.

      3. To reappear, after being eclipsed ; to leave the sphere of the obscuring object. The sun is said to emerge, when the moon ceases to obscure its hght ; the satellites of Jupiter emerge, when they appear be- 1 yond the limb of the planet.

      To rise out of a state of depression or ob- scurity ; to rise into view ; as, to emerge from poverty or obscurity ; to emerge from the gloom of despondencj'. EMERti'ENCE, I The act of rising out EMERti'KNCY, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' of a fluid or other cov ering or surrounding matter.

      2. The act of rising or starting into view ; the act of issuing from or quilting.

      The wliite color of all refracted light, at its first emergence — is compounded of various col- ors. JVewton

      3. That which comes suddenly ; a sudden occasion ; an unexpected event.

      Most of our rarities have been found out by casual emergency. Glanmlle.

      4. Exigence ; any event or occasional com- bination of circumstances which calls for immediate action or remedy ; pressing ne cessity.

      In case of emergency, [or in an emergency]

      the whole wealth of his cm-


      EMERO'ENT, a. Rising out of a fluid or

      any thing that covers or surrounds.

      The mountains huge appear emergent.


      2. Issuing or proceeding from. South

      3. Ri.sing out of a depressed state or from obscurity.

      4. Coming suddenly ; sudden ; casual ; un- expected ; hence, calhng for immediate action or remedy : urgent ; pressing an emersent occasion. Clarendon.

      EMER'ITED, a. [L. emeritus.] Allowed tc have done suflicient public service.


      EM'ERODS, n. with u plural termination [Corrupted from hemorrhoids, Gr. aL/ioft- potSf 5, from aijBoppoju, to labor imder a flow ing of blood ; a(|Ua, blood, and piu, to flow.'

      Hemorrhoids ; piles ; a dilatation of the| veins about the rectum, w ith a dischargej of blood.

      The Lord will smite thee — with the emernds.l Deut. xxviii. I

      EMER'SION, ». [frotu L. emergo. Seej Emerge.] \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      1. The act of rising out of a fluid or other covering orsurrotmding substance ; oppo- sed to immersion.


      E M 1

      The lapidaries cut ordinary gems on their wijeels, by sprinkling them with the moist- ened powder of emery ; but it will not cut the diamond. HUi. Cleaveland.

      EMET'Ie, a. [It. Sp. emetico ; Fr. emetique ;

      from Gr. f^itu, to vomit.] Inducing to vomit; exciting the stomach to discliarge its contents by the cesophagus and mouth. EMET'Ie, n. A medicine that provcAes

      vomiting. EMET'ICALLY, adv. In such a manner as to excite vomiting. Boyle.

      EM'ETIN, rt. [See Emetic] A substance obtained from the root of ipccacuana, half a grain of which is a powerful emetic.

      Ure. E'MEW, n. A name of the Cassowary. EMICA'TION, n. [L. emicalio, emico, from

      e and mico, to sparkle, that is, to dart.] A sparkling ; a flying off in small particles, as from heated iron or fermenting liquors. EMI€'TION, n. [L. mingo, mictum.] The discharging of urine ; urine ; what is voided by the urinary passages. Harvey. EM'IGRANT, a. [See Emigrate.] Remo- ving from one place or country to another distant place with a view to reside. EM'IGRANT, n. One who removes his habitation, or quits one country or region to settle in another. EM'IGRATE, v. i. [L. emigro; e and mi-

      gro, to migrate.] To quit one country, state or region and set- tle in another ; to remove from one coun- try or state to another for the purpose of residence. Germans, Swiss, Irish Emd Scotch, emigrate, in great numbers, to America. Inhabitants of New England emigrate to the Western States. EM'IGRATING, ppr. Removing from one

      country or state to another for residence. EMIGRA'TION, n. Removal of inhabitants from one country or state to another, lor the purpose of residence, as from Europe to America, or in America, from the At- lantic States to the Western.

      The removal of persons from house to house in the same town, state or kingdom is not called emigration, but simply remoi'a/. EM'INENCE, } [L. eminentia, from emi- EM'INENCY, I "■ nens, emineo, to stand or show itself above ; e and minor, to threat- en, that is, to stand or push forward. See Class Mn. No. 9. 11.] 1. Elevation, highth, in a literal sense ; but usually, a rising ground ; a hill of moderate elevation above the adjacent ground.

      2. In astronomy, the reappearance of a heav- enly body after an eclipse ; as the emersion of the moon from the shadow of the | The temple of honor ought to be seated on an earth : also, the time of reappearance. j eminence. Burke.

      3. The reappearance of a star, which has i2. Summit; highest part. Ray. been hid by the effulgence of the sun's JS. A part rising or projecting beyond the

      light. . Extrication. EMERY, 71. [Fr. emeril, e D. ameiil ; G. schmergel .

      Black, leri ; S]). csmeril ; Gr. and L. smi-

      i mineral, said to be a compact variety of corundum, being equal to it in hardness.! It is always amorphous ; its structure fine- ly granular; its color varying from a deep: gray to a bluish or blackish gray, some- times brownish. This is almost indispen- sable in polishing metals and hard stones.'

      rest, or above the suriace. We speak of emiiiences on any plain or smooth sur- face.

      4. An elevated situation among men ; a place or station above men in general, ei- ther in rank, office or celebrity. Merit may place a man on an eminence, and make him conspicuous. Eminence is always exposed to envy.

      5. Exaltation ; high rank ; distinction ; ce- lebrity; fame; preferment; conspicuou;- ness.


      E M O

      E M P

      OfBce, rank and great talents give to men in society.

      Where men cannot arrive at eminence, reli gion may make compensation, by teaching con- tent. Tillotson fi. Supreme degree. Milton.

      7. Notice ; distinction. Shak.

      8. A title of honor given to cardinals and others. Encyc.

      EM'INENT, a. [L. eminens, from cmineo.]

      1. High; lofty; as an eminent place. Ezek. xvi.

      2. Exalted in rank ; high in office ; dignifi ed ; distinguished. Princes hold eminent stations in society, as do ministers, judges and legislators.

      3. High in public estimation ; conspicuou.s distinguished above others; remarkable; as an eminent historian or poet ; an emi- nent scholar. Burke was an eminent ora- tor ; Watts and Cowper were eminent for their piety.

      EM'INENTLY, adv. In a high degree ; in a degree to attract observation ; in a de- gree to be conspicuous and distinguished from others ; as, to be eminently learned or useful.

      speak, Ch. Syr. Sam. id.]

      A title of dignity among the Turks, denoting a prince ; a title at first given to the Ca- hphs, but when they assumed the title of Sultan, that of Emir remained to their children. At length it was attributed to all who were judged to descend from Mo- hammed, by his daughter Fatimah.


      EM'ISSARY, n. [L. emissarius, from emitto; e and viitlo, to send ; Fr. emissaire ; Sp. emisario ; It. emissario.]

      A person sent on a mission ; a missionary employed to preach and propagate the gospel.

      If one of the four gospels be genuine, we have, in that one, strong reason to believe, that we possess the accounts which the original emissaries of the religion delivered.

      Paley, Emd. Christ. [This setise is now unusual.]

      2. A person sent on a private message or business ; a secret agent, employed to sound or ascertain the opinions of others, and to spread reports or propagate opinions favorable to his employer, or designed to defeat the measures or schemes of his opposers or foes ; a spy ; but an emissary may differ from a spy. A spy in war is one who enters an enemy's camp or terri- tories to learn the condition of the enemy ; an emissary may be a secret agent em- ployed not only to detect the schemes of an opposing party, but to influence their councils. A spy in war must be conceal- ed, or he suffers death ; an emissary may in some cases be known as the agent of an adversary, without incurring similar hazard. Bacon. Swifl.

      3. That which sends out or emits. [JVot used.] Jlrbuthnot.

      Emissari/ vessels, in anatomy, the same as excretory.

      EM'ISSARY, a. Exploring; spying.

      B. Jonson.

      EMIS'SION, n. [L. emissio, from emitto, to send out.] The act of sending or throw- ing out ; as the emission of light from the sun or other luminous body; the emis of odors from plants ; the emission of heat from a fire.

      2. The act of sending abroad or into circu lation notes of a state or of a private cor- poration ; as the emission of state notes, oi bills of credit, or treasury notes.

      3. That which is sent out" or issued at one time ;.an impression or a number of notes issued by one act of government. We say, notes or bills of various emissions were in circulation.

      EMIT', V. t. [L. emitto ; e and mitto, to

      send.] 1. To send forth ; to throw or give out ; as,

      fire emits heat and smoke ; boiling water

      emits steam ; the sun and moon emit light ;

      animal bodies emit perspirable matter ;

      putrescent substances emit offensive or

      noxious exhalations. |2. To let fly ; to discharge ; to dart or shoot ; emi< an arrow. [Unusual.] Prior.

      3. To issue forth, as an order or decree. [ Unusual] Ayliffe.

      4. To issue, as notes or bills of credit ; to print, and send into circulation. The Uni- ted States have once emitted treasury notes.

      No state shall emit bills of credit.

      Const. United States.

      EMMEN'AGOGUE, n. [Gr. tju^^vos, men- struous, or tf, in, and /itjv, month, and »yw, to lead.]

      A medicine that promotes the menstrual dis- charge. Encyc.

      EBI'MET, n. [Sax. mmet, wmette; G.ameise.] An ant or pismire.

      EMMEW', V. t. [See Mew.] To mew ; to coop up ; to confine in a coop or cage.


      EMM6VE, V. t. To move ; to rouse ; to ex- cite. [JVot used.] Spenser.

      EMOLLES'CENCE, n. [L. emoltescens, softening. See Emolliate.]

      In metallurgy, that degree of softness in a fusible body which alters its shape ; the first or lowest degree of fusibility.


      EMOL'LIATE, v. t. [L. emollio, moUio, to soften ; mollis, soft ; Eng. mellow, mild ; Russ. miluyu, to pity ; umiliayus, to repent. See Mellow.]

      To soften ; to render effeminate.

      EmoUiated by four centuries of Roman domi- nation, the Belgic colonies had forgotten their pristine valor. Pinkerton, Geog.

      [This is a new word, though well formed and applied ; but what connection is there between so^ening' and forgetting 9 Lost is here the proper word for forgotten.]

      EMOL'LIATED, pp. Softened ; rendered eflfeminate.

      EMOL'LIATING, ppr. Softening; render- ing effeminate.

      EMOL'LIENT, a. Softening ; making sup- ple ; relaxing the solids.

      Barley is emollient. Jlrbuthnot.

      EMOL'LIENT, n. A medicine which soft- ens and relaxes, or sheaths the solids; that which softens or removes the asper- ities of the humors. Qxtincy. Core.

      EMOLLI"TION, n. The act of softening or relaxing. Bacon.

      EMOL'UMENT, n. [U emolumentum, from emolo, moto, to grind. Originally, toll taken for grinding. See Mill.]

      1. The profit arising from office or employ- ment ; that which is received ^s a com- pensation for services, or which is annex- ed to the possession of office, as salary, fees and i>erquisites.

      2. Profit ; advantage ; gains in general. EMOLUMENT'AL, a. Producing profit;

      useful ; profitable ; advantageous.

      Evelyn. Emongst, for among, in Spenser, is a mistake. EMO'TION, n. [Fr. from L.emotio; emoveo,

      to move from ; It. emozione.]

      1. Literally, amoving of the mind or soul; hence, any agitation of mind or excitement of sensibility.

      2. In a philosophical sense, an internal mo- tion or agitation of the mind which passes away without desire ; when desire follows, the motion or agitation is called a passion.

      Karnes' EL of Criticism.

      3. Passion is the sensible effect, the feeling to which the mind is subjected, when an object of importance suddenly and impe- riously demands its attention. The state of absolute passiveness, in consequence of any sudden percussion of mind, is of short duration. The strong impression, or vivid sensation, immediately produces a reaction correspondent to its nature, either to ap- propriate and enjoy, or avoid and repel the exciting cause. This reaction is very properly distinguished by the term emo- tion.

      Emotions therefore, according to the gen- uine signification of the word, are prin()i- pally and primarily applicable to the sen- sible changes and visible eflfects, which particular passions produce on the frame, in consequence of this reaction, or partic- ular agitation of mind.

      Cogan on the Passions. EMPA'lR,t).<. To impair. Obs. [See /m-

      EMPA'LE, v.t. [?on. empalar ; Sp.irf.,-It. impalare ; Fr. empaler ; en, in, and L. palus. It. Sp. palo, a stake, a pale.]

      1. To fence or fortify with stakes ; to set a line of stakes or posts for defense.

      All that dwell near enemies empale villages, to save themselves from surprise. Raleigh.

      [We now use stockade, in a like sense.] 3. To inclose ; to surround.

      Round about her work she did empale. With a fair border wrought of sundry flow- ers. Spenser.

      3. To inclose; to shut in.

      Impenetrable, empal'd with circling fire.


      4. To tlirust a stake up the fundament, and thus put to death ; to put to death by fixing on a stake ; a pimishment formerly practiced in Rome, and still used in Turkey.

      Addison. Encyc. EMPA'LED, pp. Fenced or fortified with

      stakes ; inclosed ; shut in ; fixed on a

      stake. EMPA'LEMENT, n. A fencing, fortifying

      or inclosing with stakes ; a putting to

      death by thrusting a stake into the body.

      2. In botany, the calyx or flower-cup of a

      E M P

      E M P

      E JM P

      plant, which surrounds the fructification, like a fence of pales. MaHyn.

      3. In heraldry, a conjunction of coats of arms, pale-wise. Warlon.

      EMPA'LING, ppr. Fortifying with pales or stakes ; inclosing ; putting to death on a stake.

      EMPAN'NEL, n. [Y'r.panmau; En^. pane, a square. See Pane and Pannel.]

      A list of jurors ; a small piece of paper or parchment containing the names of the jurors summoned hy the sheriff. It is now written pannel, which see.

      EMPAN'NEL, v. I. To form a list of jurors. It is now written impannel, which see.

      EMP'ARK, V. t. [in and park.] To inclose as with a fence. King.

      EMPAR'LANCE, n. [See Imparlance.]

      EMPASM, 71. empaztn'. [Gr. e/xnatau, to sprinkle.]

      A powder used to prevent the bad scent of the body. Johnson

      EMPAS'SION, V. t. To move with pas- sion ; to affect strongly. [See Impassion.' Mitton

      EM PEACH. [See Impeach.]

      EMPE'OPLE, V. t. empee'pl. To form into a people or community. [Little used.]


      EM'PERESS. [See Empress.]

      EMPER'ISHED, a. [See Pemft.] Decayed. [J\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\rot in use.] Spenser.

      EM'PEROR, n. [Fr. empereur ; Sp. em- perador ; It. imperadore ; L. imperator, from impero, to command, W. peri, to conmiand, to cause.]

      Literally, the commander of an army. In modern times, the sovereign or supreme monarch of an empire ; a title of dignity superior to tliat of king ; as the emperor of Germany or of Russia.

      EM'PERY, n. Empire. Obs. Shak

      EM'PHASIS, n. [Gr.ififanti; iv and ^aertj.] In rhetoric, a particular stress of utterance, or force of voice, given to the words or parts of a discourse, whose signification the speaker intends to impress specially upon his audience ; or a distinctive utter- ance of words, specially significant, with a degree and kind of stress suited to convey their meaning in the best manner.

      Encyc. E. Po

      The province of emphasis \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\s so mucli more

      iraportaut than accent, that the customary sea

      of the latter is clianged, wlien the clahns of chi

      phasis require it. E- Porter

      EMPHAT'le, I „ Forcible ; strong ; im-

      EMPHAT'I€AL, ^ "" pressive ; as an em- phatic voice, tone or pronunciation ; en phatical reasoning.

      2. Requiring emphasis ; as an emphatical word.

      3. Uttered with cmphasis.i We remonstrated in emphatical terms.

      4. Striking to the eye ; as emphatic colors.


      EMPHAT'leALLY, adv. With emphasis; strongly; forcibly; in a striking manner.

      2. According to appearance. [JVbt used.]


      EMPIIYSE'MA, > [Gr. ffifvarjfxa, fi-om

      EM'PHYSEM, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "• >u^vsa.u, to inflate.] In surgery, a puffy timior, easily yielding to pressure, but returning to its former state, as soon as that pressure is removed. A swelling of the integuments, from tiie ad

      of air into the cellular membrane. Hiseman. Coxe. EMPlIYSEM'ATOUS,a. Pertaining to em

      phy.sema ; swelled, bloated, but yielding

      easily to pressure. EMPHYTEUTIC, a. [Gr. i/i, tv, &ndpvti

      8ij, a planting, ^vrivu, to plant.] Taken on hire ; that tor which rent is to be

      paid ; as emphyteutic lands. Blackstone. E]VIPIERCE,v.i(. empers'. [em, i?!, and/*tcrce.j

      To pierce into ; to penetrate. [Abf used.]


      EMPIGHT, a. [from pight, to fix.] Fixed.

      Ohs. Spenser.

      EM'PIRE,n. [Fr. from L. imperium ; Sp. It.

      imperio. See Emperor.]

      1. Supreme power in governing ; supreme dominion ; sovereignty ; imperial power, No nation can rightfully claim the empire of the ocean.

      2. The territory, region or countries under the jurisdiction and dominion of an empe- ror. An empire is usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, which may be and often is a territory of small extent. Thus we say, the Russian pire ; the Austrian empire; the sovereigns of which are denominated emperors. The British dominions are called an empire, and since the union of Ireland, the parlia- ment is denominated the imperial parlia- ment, hut the sovereign is called king. By custom in Europe, the empire means the German empire; and in juridical acts, it is called the holy Roman empire. Hence we say, the diet of the empire; the circles of the empire ; &c. But the German em- pire no longer exists ; the states of Germa- ny now form a confederacy.

      3. Supreme control ; governing influence ; rule ; sway ; as the empire of reason, or of truth.

      4. Any region, land or water, over which do- minion is extended ; as the empire of tht sea. Shak

      EM'PIRI€, n. [Gr. e/Jrtftpixoj; iv and nn ptuj, to attempt ; L. empiricus ; Fr. empi rique ; Sp. It. empirico. See Peril and Pirate.]

      Literally, one who makes experiments Hence its appropriate signification is, a physician who enters on practice with- out a regular professional education, ant relies on the success of his own experi cnce. Hence the word is used also for a quack, an ignorant pretender to medical skill, a charlatan. Encyc.

      EMPIR'IC, ) Pertaining to experi

      EMPIRICAL, i "• ments or experience.

      2. Versed in experiments ; as an empiric al- chimist.

      3. Known only hy experience ; derived from experiment ; used and applied without science ; as empiric skill ; empiric rente dies. Dryden

      I have avoided that empirical morality tha cures one vice by means of another

      EMPIR'ICALLY, adv. By experiment ; ac cording to experience ; without science ; in the manner of quacks. Brown

      EMPIR'ICISM, n. Dependence of a physi- cian on his experience in practice, with- out the aid of a regular medical educa- tion.

      2. The practice of medicine without a med-

      ical education. Hence, quackery ; the l)retensions of an ignorant man to medi- cal skill.

      Shudder to destroy life, cither by the naked knife, or by the surer and safbr medium of em- piricism. Dwight.

      EM PL' ASTER, n. [Gr. f/.nxorpo.-, a pfewter. J [See Plaster, which is now used.]

      EM PL' ASTER, v. t. To cover with a plas- ter. Mortimer.

      EMPL'ASTIe, a. [Gr. fM«^y«oj. SeePto- ter, Plastic]

      Viscous; glutinous; adhesive; fit to be ap- plied as a plaster; as emplastic applica- tions. Arhuihnol.

      EMPLE'AD,t).(. [em &ni plead.] To charge with a crime ; to accuse. But it is now written implead, which see.

      EMPLOY', v.t. [Vr. employer ; XTtn.impli- gea or impligein ; Sp. emplear ; Port, em- pregar ; It. impiegare ; em or en and ploy- er, plier ; W.plygu ; L. plico ; Gr. nuxu ; U. pleegen. See Apply, Display, Deploy.] . To occupy the time, attention and labor of; to keep busy, or at work ; to use. We employ our hands in labor; we emp/oy our heads or faculties in study or thought; the attention is employed, when the mind is fixed or occupied upon an object ; we employ time, when we devote it to an ob- ject. A portion of time should be daily employed in reading the scriptures, medita- tion and prayer ; a great portion of life is employed to Uttle profit or to very bad pur- ))()ses.

      2. To use as an instrument or means. We employ pens in writing, and arithmetic in keeping accounts. We employ medicines in curing diseases.

      3. To use as materials in forming any thing. We employ timber, stones or bricks, in building ; we employ wool, linen and cot- ton, in making cloth.

      4. To engage in one's service ; to use as an agent or substitute in transacting busi- ness ; to commission and entrust with the management of one's affairs. The presi- tlent employed an envoy to negotiate a treaty. Kings and States employ embas- sadors at foreign courts.

      5. To occupy ; to use ; to apply or devote to an object; to pass in business; as, toem- ploy time ; to employ an hour, a day or a week ; to employ one's life.

      To etnploy one's self, is to apply or devote one's time and attention ; to busy one's self. EMPLOY', n. That which engages the mind, or occupies the time and labor of a person ; business ; object of study or in- dustry ; employment.

      Present to grasp, and future still to find. The whole employ of body and of mind.


      2. Occupation, as art, mystery, trade, pro- fession.

      3. Public office ; agency ; service for an- other.

      EMPLOY' ABLE, a. That may be employ- ed ; capable of being used ; fit or proper for use. Boyle.

      EMPLOY'ED, pp. Occupied; fixed or en- gaged ; applied in business ; used in agency.

      EMPLOYER, n. One who employs; one


      E M O

      E M P

      Office, rank and great talents give ) men in society. Where men cannot arrive at eminence, reli

      6. Supreme degree. Milton.

      7. Notice ; distinction. Shak.

      8. A title of honor given to cardinals and others. Encyc.

      EMINENT, a. [L. eminens, from emineo.]

      1. High ; lofty ; as an eminent place. Ezek xvi.

      2. Exalted in rank ; high in office ; dignifi- Princes hold eminent

      i do ministers, judges

      ed ; distinguished stations in society, and legislators.

      3. High in public estimation ; conspicuous distinguished above others ; remarkable ; as an eminent historian or poet ; an emi- nent scholar. Burke was an eminent ora- tor ; Watts and Cowper were eminent for their piety.

      EM'INENTLY, adv. In a high degree ; in a degree to attract observation ; in a de- gree to be conspicuous and distinguished from others ; as, to be eminently learned or useful.

      5 t

      E'MIR, n. [Ar. ^^^1 Emir, a command- er, from j,^ I to command, Heb. nnx to speak, Ch. Syr. Sam. id

      A title of dignity among the Turks, denoting a prince ; a title at first given to the Ca liphs, but when they assumed the title of Sultan, that of Emir remained to their children. At length it was attributed to all who were judged to descend from Mo- hammed, by his daughter Fatimah.


      EM'ISSARY, n. [L. emissarius, from emitto ; e and mitto, to send ; Fr. emissaire ; Sp. emisario ; It. emisaario.]

      A person sent on a mission ; a missionary employed to preach and propagate the gospel.

      If one of the four gospels be genuine, we have, in that one, strong reason to believe, th we possess the accounts which the original emissaries of the religion delivered.

      Palei/, Evid. Christ [This sense is now unusual.'^

      2. A person sent on a private message or business ; a secret agent, employed to sound or ascertain the opinions of others, and to spread reports or propagate opinio favorable to his employer, or designed defeat the measures or schemes of his opposers or foes ; a spy ; but an emissan/ may differ from a spy. A spy in war is one who enters an enemy's camp or terri- tories to learn the condition of the enemy an emissary may be a secret agent em- ployed not only to detect the schemes of an opposing party, but to influence their councils. A spy in war must be conceal- ed, or he suffers death ; an emissary may in some cases be known as the agent of an adversary, without incurring similar hazard. Bacon. Swifl.

      3. That which sends out or emits. [Not used.] ' Jlrbulhnot.

      Emissary vessels, in anatomy, the same excretory.

      EM'ISSARY, a. Exploring; spying.

      B. Jonson

      EMIS'SION, n. [L. emissio, from emitto, to send ovit.] The act of sending or throw ing out ; as the emission of light from the sun or other luminous body ; the emission of odors from plants ; the emission of heat from a fire.

      2. The act of sending abroad or into circu- lation notes of a state or of a private cor poration ; as the emission of state notes, or bills of credit, or treasury notes.

      .3. That which is sent out or issued at one time ;.an impression or a number of notes issued by one act of government. We say, notes or bills of various emissions were in circulation.

      EMIT', V. t. [L. emitto; e and mitto, to send.]

      1. To send forth ; to throw or give out ; as fire emits heat and smoke ; boiling wate emits steam ; the sun and moon emit light animal bodies emit perspirable matter ; putrescent substances emit offensive or noxious exhalations.

      2. To let Ay ; to discharge ; to dart or shoot ; as, to cnu'i an arrow. [Umisual.] Prior.

      3. To issue forth, as an order or decree, [ Unusual] Jlyliffe.

      ^. To issue, as notes or bills of credit ; to print, anti send into circulation. The Uni ted States have once emitted treasury notes.

      No state shall emit bills of credit.

      Const. United States

      EMBIEN'AGOGUE, n. [Gr. i)^!^r,voi, men- struous, or fv, in, and juijv, month, and oiyu, to lead.]

      A medicine that promotes the menstrual dis- charffe. Encyc.

      EM'MET, n. [Sax. a:met, lemette; G. ameise.] An ant or pismire.

      EMMEW, V. t. [See Meio.] To mew ; to coop up ; to confine in a coop or cage.


      EMMoVE, I!, t. To move ; to rouse ; to ex- cite. [Not used.] Spenser.

      EMOLLES'CENCE, n. [L. emollescens. softening. See Etnolliate.]

      In metnllurffy, that degree of softness in a fusible body which alters its shape ; the first or lowest degiee of fusibility.


      EMOL'LIATE, v. t. [L. emollio, mollio,^ to soften ; mollis, soft ; Eng. mellow, mild Russ. miluyu, to pity ; umiliayus, to repent. See Mellou'.]

      To soften ; to render effeminate.

      Emolliated by four centuries of Roman domi- nation, the Belgic colonies had forgotten their pristine valor. Pinkerton, Geog.

      [This is a new word, though well formed and applied ; but what connection is there between softening and forgetting? Lost is here the proper word for /org'oHen.]

      EMOL'LIATED, pp. Softened ; rendered ffeminate.

      EMOL'LIATING, ppr. Softening; render- ing effeminate.

      EMOL'LIENT, a. Softening ; making sup- ple ; relaxing the solids.

      Barley is emollient. Jlrhuthnot.

      EMOL'LIENT, n. A medicine which soft- ens and relaxes, or sheaths the solids; that which softens or removes the asper- ities of the humors. Qtiincy. Core

      EMOLLI"TION, n. The act of softening or relaxing. Bacon.

      EMOL'UMENT, n. [L. emolumentum, from emolo, molo, to grind. Originally, toll taken for grinding. See Mill.]

      1. The profit arising from office or employ- ment ; that which is received as a com- pensation for services, or which is annex- ed to the possession of office, as salarj-, fees and ])erquisites.

      2. Profit ; advantage ; gains in general. EMOLUMENT'AL, a. Producing profit;

      useful ; profitable ; advantageous.

      Evelyn. Emongst,for among, in Spenser, is a mistake. EMO'TION, n. [Fr. from L. emotio ; emoveo,

      to move from ; It. emozione.]

      1. Literally, amoving of the mind or soul; hence, any agitation of mind or excitement of sensibility.

      2. In a philosophical sense, an internal mo- tion or agitation of the mind which passes away without desire ; when desire follows, the motion or agitation is called a passion.

      Kames^ El. oj Criticism.

      3. Passion is the sensible effect, the feeling to which the mind is subjected, when an object of importance suddenly and impe- riously demands its attention. The state of absolute passiveness, in consequence of any sudden percussion of mind, is of short duration. The strong impression, or vivid sensation, immediately produces a reaction correspondent to its nature, either to ap- propriate and enjoy, or avoid and repel the exciting cause. This reaction is very properly distinguished by the term emo- tion.

      Emotions therefore, according to the gen- uine signification of the word, are prin^- pally and primarily applicable to the sen- sible changes and visible effects, which particular passions produce on the frame, in consequence of this reaction, or partic- ular agitation of mind.

      Cogan on the Passions.

      EMPA'IR,t).<. To impair. 06s. [See Im- pair.]

      EMPA'LE, V. t. [Port. empaUr ;; It. impalare ; Fr. empaler; en, in, and L. palus. It. Sp. palo, a stake, a pah.]

      1. To fence or fortify with stakes ; to set a Une of stakes or posts for defense.

      All that dwell near enemies empale villages,

      to save themselves from surprise. Raleigh.

      [We now use stockade, in a like sense.]

      2. To inclose ; to surround. Round about her work she did empale. With a fair border wrought of sundry flow- ers. Spenser.

      3. To inclose ; to shut in.

      4. To thrust a stake up the fundament, and

      thus put to death ; to put to death by

      fixing on a stake ; a punishment formerly

      practiced in Rome, and still used in Turkey.

      Mdison. Encyc.

      EMPALED, pp. Fenced or fortified with stakes ; inclosed ; shut in ; fixed on a stake.

      EMPA'LEMENT, n. A fencing, fortifying or inclosing with stakes ; a putting to death by thrusting a stake into the body.

      2. In botany, the calyx or flower-cup of a

      E M P

      E M P

      E M P

      ))lant, which surrounds the fructification,

      liite a fence of pales. MaHyn.

      y. In htraldnj, a conjunction of coats of arms,

      pale-wise. IVarlon.

      EMPA'LIJVG, ppr. Fortifying with pales or

      stakes ; inclosing ; putting to death on a

      EMPAN'NEL,n. [Ft.panneau; Eng.pane, a square. See Pane and PanneL]

      A list of jurors ; a small piece of paper or parchment containing the nanies of the jurors summoned by the sherifl'. It is now written pannel, which see.

      EMPAN'NEL, v. t. To form a list of jurors. It is now written impannd, which see.

      EMP'ARK, V. t. [in and park.] To inclose as with a fence. King.

      EMPAR'LANCE, n. [See Imparlance.]

      EMPASM, n. enipazm'. [Gr. curtanau, to sprinkle.]

      A powder used to prevent the bad scent of the body. Johnson.

      EMPAS'SION, V. t. To move with pas- sion ; to affect strongly. [See Impassion.] Milton.

      EMPEACH. [See Impeach.]

      EMPE'OPLE, V. t. empee'pl. To form into a people or community. [Little used.]


      EM'PERESS. [See Empress.]

      EMPER'ISHED, a. [See Perish.] Decayed, [JSTot in use.] Spenser

      EM'PEROR, n. [Fr. empereur ; Sp. em- perador ; It. imperadore ; L. imperator, from impero, to command, W. peri, to command to cause.]

      Literally, tlie commander of an army. In modern times, the sovereign or supreme monarch of an empire ; a title of dignity superior to that of king ; as the emperor of Germany or of Russia.

      EM'PERY, 71. Empire. Obs. Shak

      EM'PIIASIS, n. [Gr. e/i^aai; ; iv and ^aoij.] In rhetoric, a particular stress of utterance, or force of voice, given to the words or parts of a discourse, whose signification the speaker intends to impress specially upon his audience ; or a distinctive utter ance of words, specially significant, with a degree and kind of stress suited to convey their meaning in the best manner.

      Encyc. E. Porter.

      The province of emphasis is so nmcii more

      important than accent, that the customary seal

      of the latter is changed, when the claims of cm-

      phasis require it. £. Porter.

      EMPHAT'I€, I Forcible ; strong ; im-

      EMPHAT'I€AL, I "' pressive ; as an em- phatic voice, tone or pronunciation ; em- phatical reasoning.

      2. Requiring emphasis ; as an emphalical word.

      3. Uttered with emphasis., We remonstrated in emphatical terms.

      4. Striking to the eye ; as emphatic colors.

      Boyle EMPHAT'ICALLY, adv. With emphasis strongly ; forcibly ; in a striking manner. 2. According to appearance. [JVb< used.]

      Brown. EMPHYSE'MA, > [Gr. fMt>""?A«', fi-oni EM'PHYSEM, S "■ '."$vffao, to inflate.; In surgery, a puffy tumor, easily yielding to pressure, but returning to its former state, as soon as that pressure is removed. A swelling of the integuments, from the ad

      of air into the cellular membrane. Wiseman. Coxe. EMPlIYSEM'ATOUS,a. Pertaining to em- physema ; swelled, bloated, but yielding

      EMPhVtEU'TIC,^. [Gr. i/x, tv, a.mi(tvttv-

      oi{, a planting, ^xnivu, to plant.] Taken on hire ; that for which rent is to be

      paid ; as emphyteutic lands. Blackstone. EMPIERCE,!!. <. empers'. [em, in, and pierce. 1

      To pierce into ; to penetrate. [M)t used.]


      EMPIGHT, a. [from pig-W, to fix.] Fixed.

      Obs. Spenser.

      EM'PIRE.n. [Fr. from L.imperium ; Sp. It.

      imperio. See Emperor.]

      1. Supreme power in governing ; supreme dominion ; sovereignty ; imperial power. No nation can rightfully claim the empire of the ocean.

      2. The territory, region or countries under the jurisdiction and dominion of an empe- ror. An empire is usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, which may be and often is a territory of small extent. Thus we say, the Russian em- pire ; the Austrian empire ; the sovereigns of which are denominated emperors. The British dominions are called an empire, and since the union of Ireland, the parlia- ment is denominated the imperial parlia- ment, but the sovereign is called king. By custom in Europe, the empire means tlie German empire; and in juridical acts, it is called the holy Roman empire. Hence we say, the diet of the empire ; the circles of the empire ; &c. But the German em- pire no longer exists ; the states of Germa- ny now form a confederacy.

      3. Supreme control ; governing infiuence rule ; sway ; as the empire of reason, or oftrutli.

      4. Any region, land or water, over which do- minion is extended ; as the empire of the sea. Shak.

      EM'PIR1€, n. [Gr. s/irtfiptxos; iv and ttti- pau, to attempt ; L. empiricus ; Fr. empi- rique ; Sp. It. empirico. See Peril and Pirate.]

      Literally, one who makes experiments Hence its appropriate signification is, a physician who enters on practice with- out a regular professional education, and relies on the success of his own experi ence. Hence the word is used also for a quack, an ignorant pretender to medical skill, a charlatan. Encyc.

      EMPJR'IC, } Pertaining to experi-

      EMPIR'leAL, J ■ nients or experience.

      2. Versed in experiments ; as an empiric al- chimist.

      3. Known only by experience ; derived fioni experiment ; used and applied without science ; as empiric skill ; empiric reme dies. Dryden

      I liave avoided that empirical morality tlmt cures one vice by means of another.

      Jiambler. EMPIRICALLY, adv. By experiment ; ac- cording to experience; without science; in the manner of quacks. Brown

      EMPIRICISM, 71. Dependence of a physi- cian on his experience in practice, with- out the aid of a regular medical educa- tion. 2. The practice of medicine without a med-

      ical education. Hence, quackery ; the pretensions of an ignorant man to medi- cal skill.

      Shudder to destroy life, either by the naked knife, or by the surer and safer medium of e»»- piricinm. Dwight.

      EMPL'ASTER, 7i. [Gr. ffiroorpoi., a pfa<

      EM PL- ASTER, v. t. To cover with a plas- ter. Mortimer.

      EMPL-ASTI€,a. [Gr. i^nxasixoi. SeePlas- ter. Plastic]

      Viscous; glutinous; adhesive; fit to be ap- l)lied as a plaster; as emplastic applica- tions. Arbuihnot.

      EMPLE'AD,«.<. [e77i and ;)/carf.] To charge with a crime; to accuse. But it is now written implead, which see.

      EMPLOY', v.t. [Fr. employer ; Arm. impli- gea or impligtin ; Sp. empkar ; Port, em- pregar ; It. impiegare ; em or e7i and play-

      er, plier; W.plygu; L. plico ; Gr. ' ' . See Apply, Display, Dtplt

      1. To occupy the time, attention and labor

      D. pleegen.

      of; to keep busy, or at work ; to use. We employ our hands in labor; we employ fnir heads or faculties in study or thought ; the attention is employed, when the mind is fixed or occupied upon an object ; we employ time, when we devote it to an ob- ject. A portion of time should be daily employed in reading the scriptures, medita- tion and prayer ; a great portion of life ia employed to Cttle profit or to very bad pur- |>oses.

      2. To use as an instrument or means. We employ pens in writing, and arithmetic in keeping accounts. We employ medicines in curing diseases.

      3. To use as materials in forming any thing. We employ timber, stones or bricks, in building ; we employ wool, Unen and cot- ton, in making cloth.

      4. To engage in one's service ; to use as an agent or substitute in transacting busi- ness ; to commission and entrust with the management of one's affairs. The presi- dent employed an envoy to negotiate a treaty. Kings and States employ embas- sadors at foreign courts.

      5. To occupy ; to use ; to apply or devote to an object; to pass in business; as, to em- ploy time ; to employ an hour, a day or a week ; to employ one's life.

      To employ one''s self, is to apply or devote one's time and attention ; to busy one's self. EMPLOY', 71. That which engages the mind, or occupies the time and labor of a person ; business ; object of study or in- dustry ; employment.

      Present to grasp, and future still to find. The whole employ of body and of mind.


      2. Occupation, as art, mystery, trade, pro- fession.

      3. Public office ; agency ; service for an- other.

      EMPLOYABLE, a. That may be employ- ed ; capable of being used ; fit or proper for use. Boyle.

      EMPLOY'ED, pp. Occupied ; fixed or en- gaged ; applied in business ; used in agency.

      EMPLOYER, 7!. One who employs; one

      E M P

      who uses ; one who engages or keeps in

      service. EMPLOYING, ppr. Occupying ;

      keeping busy. EBIPLOY'MENT, n. The act of employing

      or using.

      2. Occupation ; business ; that wliich en- gages the head or hands ; as agricultural employments ; mechanical employments. Men, whose employment is to make sport and amusement for others, are always despised.

      3. Office ; pubhc business or trust ; agency or service for another or for the public The secretary of tlie treasury has a labo rious and responsible employment. He is in the employment of eovernnient.

      EMPLUN(5E. [See Plunge.^

      EMPOIS'ON, V. t. s as z. [Fr. empoison- ver. See Poison.]

      1. To poison ; to administer poison to ; tc destroy or endanger life by givhig or caus- ing to be taken into the stomach any nox- ious drug or preparation. [In this sense, poison is generally used ; but empoison may be used, especially in poetry.]

      Sidney. Bacon

      9. To taint with poison or venom ; to ren der noxions or deleterious by an admix ture of poisonous substance. [This may be used, especially in poetry.]

      3. To embitter; to deprive of sweetness to empoison the joys and pleasures of life.

      EMPOIS'ONED, pp. Poisoned ; tainted with venom ; embittered.

      EMPOIS'ONER, n. One who poisons ; one who administers a deleterious drug ; he or that which embitters.

      EMPOIS'ONING, ;>;//•. Poisoning; embit tering.

      EMPOIS'ONMENT, n. The act of adnrin- istering poison, or causing it to be taken the act of destroying life by a deleterious drug.

      EMPO'RIUM, n. [L. from the Or. tfirtopm, iiom i/XTtofisvofiai., to buy ; ev and rtopjv'o^ai, to pass or go, Sax./ara)(.]

      1. A place of merchandize ; a town or city of trade ; particularly, a city or town of extensive commerce, or in which the com- merce of an extensive country centers, or to which sellers and buyers resort from different countries. Such are London, Amsterdam and Hamburg. New York will be an emporium.

      2. In medicine, the common sensory in the brain. Coxe.

      EMPOV'ERISH. [See Impoverish.] EMPOWER, V. t. [from en or in and power.]

      1. To give legal or moral power or author ity to ; to authorize, either by law, com mission, letter of attorney, natural right, or by verbal license. The supreme court is empowered to try and decide all cases, civil or criminal. The attorney is empow ered to sign an acquittance and discharge the debtor.

      2. To give physical power or force ; to ena- ble. [In this sense the use is not frequent, and perhaps not used at all.]

      EMPOWERED, pp. Authorized ; having

      legal or moral right. EMPOWERING, >j9r. Authorizing ; giving


      One that empties or ex-

      E M P

      EM'PRESS, n. [contracted from tmperess. See Emperor.] The consort or spouse of an emperor.

      2. A female who governs an empire ; a fe- male invested with imperial power or sovereignty.

      EMPRI'SE, n. s asz. [Norm. ; em, en, and prise, from prendre, to take.]

      An undertaking ; an enterprise.

      Spenser. Pope.

      [ This word is now rarely or never used,

      except in poetry.^ i

      EMPTIER, n. liausts.

      EMP'TINESS, n. [from empty.] A state of being empty ; a state of containing noth-' ing except air ; destitution ; absence of^ matter; as the entpiincis of a vessel.

      2. Void space ; vacuity ; vacuum. Dryden}

      3. Want of solidity or substance ; as th emptiness of light and shade. Dryden.

      4. Unsatisfactoriness ; inability to satisfy d sire ; as the emptiness of earthly things.

      5. Vacuity of head ; want of intellect or knowledge. Pope.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      EMP'TION, n. [L. emptio, from emo, to buy.] The act of buying ; a purchasing. [JVbt' much used.] Arhuthnot.

      EMP'TY, a. [Sax. mmtig or amli, from mmlian, to be idle, to be vacant, to evacu- ate, eemta, -ease, leisure, quiet.]

      1. Containing nothing, or nothing but air; as an empty chest ; empty space ; an empty purse is a serious evil.

      i. Evacuated ; not filled ; as empty shackles. ^ ^ Spenser.

      3. Unfurnislied ; as an empty room. Void ; devoid. In civility thou seeniest so empty. f

      5. Void; destitute of solid matter; as empty


      6. Destitute of force or effect words.

      7. Unsubstantial ; unsatisfactorj' ; not able to fill the mind or the desires." The pleas- ures of life are empty and unsatisfying.

      Pleased with empty praise. Pope.

      8. Not supplied ; having nothing to carry.

      They beat him, and sent him away empty Mark xii.

      9. Hungry.

      My falcon now is sharp and passing empty. Shak.

      10. Unfurnished with intellect or knowl- edge ; vacant of head ; ignorant ; as an

      empty coxcomb. 11. Unf • - ■

      fruitful ; producing nothing. Israel is an empty vine. Hosea x,. Seven empty ears blasted with the east wind. Gen. xli.

      12. Wanting substance ; wanting solidity ; as empty dreams.

      13. Destitute ; waste ; desolate.

      Nineveh is empty. Nah. ii.

      14. Without effect.

      The sword of Saul returned not empty. 2 Sam. i.

      15. Without a cargo ; in ballast ; as, the ship returned empty.

      EMP'TY, V. t. to exhaust ; to make void or destitute ; to deprive of the contents ; as, to empty a vessel ; to empty a well or a cistern. 2. To pour out the contents.

      The clouds empty themselves on the earth. Eccles. xi. Rivers empty themselves into the ocean.


      3. To waste ; to make desolate. Jer. li. EMP'TY, V. i. To pour out or discharge its


      The Coimecticut empties into the Sound. 2. To become empty.

      EMPTYING, ppr. Pouring out the con- tents; iiiuking void. EMPTYINGS, n. The lees of beer, cider,

      &c. EMPUR'PLE, V. t. [from purple.] To tinge

      or dye of a purple color ; to discolor with


      The deep empurpled ran. Philips.

      EMPUR'PLED, pp. Stained with a purple

      color. EMPUR'PLING, ppr. Tinging or dyeing of

      a purple color. EMPU'SE, n. [Gr. lu^tmaa.] A phantom or

      specter. [M'ot used.] Bp. Taylor.

      EMPUZ'ZLE. [See Puzzle.] EMPYR'EAL, a. [Fr. empyrie; Sp. It. em-

      pireo ;

      from Gr. s jurtupoj ;

      [Gr. from

      Milton. and itvf.

      and Tti'p, fire.

      1. Formed of pure fire or light; refined be- yond aerial substance ; pertaining to the highest and purest region of heaven.

      Go, soar with Plato to the empyreal sphere. Pope.

      2. Pure ; vital ; dephlogisticated ; an epithet given to the air, or rather gas, now called oxygen. Higgins.

      EMPYREAN, a. Empyreal. Menside.

      EMPYRE'AN, >i. [See Empyreal] The highest heaven, where the pure element of fire has been sup

      The empyrean rung With halleluiahs.

      E3IPYREU'MA, n fire.]

      In chimistry, a disagreeable smell produced from bunit oils, in distillations of animal and vegetable substances.

      Nicholson. Encvc.

      EMPYREUMAT'IC, > Having the

      EMPYREUMAT'I€AL, $ "' taste or smell of burnt oil, or of burning animal and veg- etable substances.

      EMPYR'ICAL, a. Containing the combus- tible principle of coal. Kirwan.

      EMPYRO'SIS, n. [Gr. t^rtvpou, to burn.] A

      general fire ; a conflagration. {Little used.]


      EMRODS. [See Emerods.]

      E'MU, n. A large fowl of S. America, with wings unfit for flight.

      This name properly belongs to the Cas- sowary, but has been erroneously applied, by the Brazilians, to the Rhea or S. Amer- ican ostrich. Cuvier

      EM'ULATE, V. t. [L.wmulor; Sp.emular; It. emulare. Qu. Gr. o^iMio, strife, con- test.]

      1. To strive to equal or excel, in qualities or actions ; to imitate, with a view to equal or excel ; to vie with ; to rival. Learn early to emulate the good and the great. Emxdate the virtues and shun the vices of distinguished men.

      2. To be equal to. Thy eye would emulate the diamond. Shak.

      3. To imitate; to resemble. [Unusual.]

      Convulsion emulating the motion of laugh- ter. " Arbuthnot. EM'ULATE, a. Ambitious. [Utile used.]

      Shak. EM'ULATED,;>/7. Rivaled; imitated.

      E N

      EM'ULATING, jrpr. Rivaling ; attempting to equal or excel ; imitating ; resembling.

      EMULA'TION, n. The act ot attempting to equal or excel in qualities or actions ; ri- valry ; desire of superiority, attended >vith effort to attain to it ; generally in a good sense, or an attempt to equal or excel oth- ers in that which is praise-worthy, with- out the desire of depressing otliers. Rom. xi. In a bad sense, a striving to equal or do more than others to obtain carnal fa- vors or honors. Gal. v.

      2. An ardor kindled by the praise-worthy examples of others, inciting to imitate them, or to equal or excel them.

      A noble emutodon heats your breast. Dryden.

      3. Contest ; contention ; strife ; conripetition ; rivalry accompanied with a desire of de- pressing another.

      Such tactions emulations sliall arise. Shak.

      EM'ULATIVE, a. Inclined to emulation ; rivaling; disposed to competition.

      EM'ULATOR, n. One who emulates; a rival ; a competitor.

      EM'ULATRESS, n. A female who emu- lates another.

      EMU'LE, V. t. To emulate. [JVot ttsed.]

      EMULfi'ENT, a. [L. emulgeo ; e and mulgeo, to milk out.]

      Milking or draining out. In anatomy, the emulgent or renal arteries are those which supply the kidneys with blood, being some- times single, sometimes double. The emut- gtnt veins return the blood, after the urine is secreted. This the ancients considered as a milking or straining of the serum, whence the name.

      Encyc. Harris. Quincy. Parr.

      EMULG'ENT; n. An emulgent vessel.

      EM'ULOUS, a. [L. mmuhis.] Desirous or eager to imitate, equal or excel another ; desirous of like excellence with another ; with of; as emtUous of another's example or virtues.

      2. Rivaling ; engaged in competition ; as emulous Carthage. B.Jonson.

      3. Factious; contentious. Shak. EM'ULOUSLY, adv. With desire of equal- ing or excelling another. Granville.

      EMl'L'SION, 71. [Fr. from L. emutsus, emul- geo, to milk out.]

      A soft liquid remedy of a color and con- sistence resembling milk; any milk-like mixture prepared by uniting oil and water, by means of another substance, saccharine or mucilaginous. Encyc. lire.

      EMUL'SIVE, a. Softening; milk-like.

      2. Producing or yielding a milk-like sub- stance ; as emulsive acids. Fourcroy.

      EMUN€'TORY, 7i, [L. emunctonum, from emuncius, emungo, to wipe, to cleanse.]

      In anatomy, any i)art of the body which serves to carry off excrenientitious matter ; a secretory gland ; an excretory duct.

      Encyc. Coxe. The kidneys and skin are called the com- mon emunctories. Cyc.

      EMUSCA'TION, n. [L. emuscor.] A freeing from moss. [JStol muck itscrf.] Evelyn.

      EN, a prefix to many English words, chiefly borrowed from the French. It coincides with the Latin, in, Gr. (v, and some Eng- lisli words are written indifferently with en or in. For the case of pronuBciation, it is changed to em, particularly before a labial, as in employ, empower.

      Vol. I.

      E N A

      En was formerly a plural termination of nouns and of verbs, as in houstn, escapen. It is retained in oxen and children. It is also still used as the termination of some verbs, aa in hearken, from the Saxon infini- tive.

      ENA'BLE, v.t. [Norm, enhabler ; en and habit, able. See Able.]

      1. To make able ; to supply with power, physical or moral ; to furnish with suS\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\- ficient power or ability. By strength a man is enahled to work. Learning and in dustry enable men to investigate the laws of nature. Fortitude enables us to bear pain without murmuring.

      2. To supply with means. Wealth enables men to be charitable, or to live in luxury,

      3. To furnish with legal ability or competen- cy ; to authorize. The law enables us to dispose of our property by will.

      4. To furnish with competent knowledge or skill, and in general, with adequate means.

      ENA'BLED, pp. Supplied with suflicient power, physical, moral or legal.

      ENA'BLEMENT, 7i. The act of enabling; ability. Bacon.

      ENA'BLING, ppr. Giving power to ; sup- plying with suflicient power, ability or means ; authorizing.

      EN.'VeT', I', t. [en and act.] To make, as a law ; to pass, as a bill into a law; to per- form the last act of a legislature to a bill, giving it validity as a law ; to give legis- lative sanction to a bill.

      Shall this bill pass to be enacted?

      T. Bigelow.

      2. To decree ; to establish as the will of the supreme power.

      3. To act ; to perform ; to effect. [Not used.] Spejiser.

      4. To represent in action. [M>t used.]


      ENA€T'ED, pp. Passed into a law ; sanc- tioned as a law, by legislative authority.

      ENA€T'ING, ppr. Passing into a law ; giv- ing legislative sanction to a bill, and estab- Ushing it as a law.

      2. a. Giving legislative forms and sanction ; as the enacting clause of a bill.

      ENA€T'MENT, ?i. The passing of a bill into a law ; the act of voting, decreeing and giving validity to a law.

      Christian Observer. Walsh.

      ENA€T'OR, n. One who enacts or passes a law ; one who decrees or establishes, as a law. Merbury.

      2. One who performs any thing. [JVot itsed.] Shak.

      ENA€'TURE, n. Purpose. [Not in use.]


      ENAL'L.^GE, n. enal'lajy. [Gr. traway^, change ; iva3Aatr>i, to change ; iv and aMarta.]

      A figure, in grammar, by which some change is made in the common mode of speech, or when one word is substituted for another; as exercitus victor, for victoriosus ; scelus, for scelfstus. Encyc.

      ENAM'BUSH, V. t. [en and ambush.] To hide in ambush.

      2. To ambush. Chapman

      ENAM'BUSHED, pp. Concealed in am- bush, or with hostile intention ; am- bushed.

      ENAM'EL, n. [en and Fr. emaU, Sp. es- 72

      E N C

      malle, It. smalto, G. schmelz, from the root of melt.]

      1. In mineralogy, a substance imperfectly vitrified, or matter in which the granular appearance is destroyed, and having a vit- reous gloss.

      In the arts, a substance of the nature of glass, differing from it by a greater degree of fusibility or opacity. " Ed. Encyc.

      Enamels have for their basis a pure crys- tal glass or frit, ground with a fine oxyd of lead and tin. These baked together are the matter of enamels, and the color is va- ried by adding other substances. Oxyd of gold gives a red color ; that of copper, a green ; manganese, a violet ; cobalt, a blue : and iron, a fine black.

      Encyc. Ntcholson.

      2. That which is enameled; a smooth, glossy surface of various colors, resem- bling enamel.

      3. In anatomy, the smooth hard substance which covers the crown of a tooth.

      Cyc. ENAM'EL, It. I. To lay enamel on a metal, as on gold, silver, copper, &c.

      2. To paint in enamel. Encyc.

      3. To form a glossv surface like enamel. ENAM'ELAR, a." Consisting of enamel ;

      resembling enamel ; smooth ; glossy.

      ENAM'ELED, pp. Overiaid with enam- el ; adorned with any thing resembhng

      I enamel.

      ENAM'ELER, n. One who enamels ; one whose occupation is to lay enamels, or in- lay colors.

      ENAMELING, ppr. Laying enamel.

      ENAMELING, n. The act or art of laying enamels.

      ENAM'OR, v.t. [from the French a/nour, L. amor, love.]

      To inflame with love ; to charm ; to capti- vate ; with of before the person or thing ; as, to be enamored of a lady ; to be enam- ored of books or science.

      [But it is now followed by with.]

      ENAMOR.VDO, 7i. One deeplv in love.


      ENAMORED, pp. Inflamed with love :

      I charmed ; delighted.

      ENAM'ORING, ppr. Inflaming with love : charming ; captivating.

      EN^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\RMED, a. In heraldry, having arms, that is, horns, hoofs, &.c. of a different

      I color from that of the body.

      ENARRA'TION, 7i. [L. enarro, narro, to relate.]

      Recital ; relation ; account ; exposition. [Lit-

      tle used.]

      [Gr. fWifSpuotf;


      and ofSpoc, a joint.]

      In anatomy, that species of articulation which consists in the insertion of the round end of a bone in the cup-Uke cavity of another, forming a movable joint ; tie ball and socket. Quincy.

      ENA'TE, a. [L. enatus.] Growing out.


      ENAUN'TER, adv. Lest that. Obs.

      EN€A'(5E, v. t. [from cage.] To shut up or

      confine in a cage ; to coop.

      Shak. Donne. ENCA'gED, pp. Shut up or


      E N C

      EN€A'(iING, ppr. Cooping ; confining in ;

      ENCAMP', V. i. [from camp.] To pitch tents or form huts, as an army ; to halt on a march, spread tents and remain for i night or for a longer time, as an army oi company.

      They encamped in Etham. Ex. xiii. The Levites shall encamp about the taberna cle. Num. i.

      2. To pitch tents for tlie purpose of a siege to besiege.

      Encamp against the ci(y and take it. 2 Sam xii.

      ENCAMP', V. t. To form into a camp ; to place a marching army or company in a temporary habitation or quarters.

      ENCAMP'ED, pp. Settled in tents or huts for lodging or temporary habitation.

      EN€AMP'ING, ppr. Pitching tents or form- ing huts, for a temporary lodging or rest,

      ENeAMP'MENT, n. The act of pitching tents or forming huts, as an army or travel- ing company, for temporary lodging rest.

      2. The place vvliere an army or company encamped; a camp ; a regular order of tents or huts for the accommodation of a

      E N C

      chanter, to sing ; L. incanto ; in and canto, to sing. See Chant and Cant.]

      1. To practice sorcery or witchcraft on any thing ; to give efficacy to any thing by songs of sorcery, or fascination.

      Aiid now about the cauldron sing. Like elves and fairies in a ring. Enchanting all that you put in.

      2. To subdue by charms or spells. i. To dehght to the highest de

      charm ; to ravish with pleasure

      Shak. Sidney.

      as, the

      we were

      ; to canker.


      ENCA'SE, V. I. To inclose or confine in a

      case or cover. Beav.m.

      ENeAUS'TIe, a- [Gv. iv and xavj-wo?, cans

      tic, from xaiu, to burn.] Pertaining to the art of enamelmg, and t( painting in burnt wax. Encaustic paint- ing, is a method in which wax is employed to give a gloss to colors. Encyc.

      ENCAUS'TIO, n. Enamel or enameling. 2. The method of painting in burnt wax.


      ENCA'VE, V. t. [from cave.] To hide in a

      cave or recess. Shak.

      ENCE'INT, n. [Fr. from enceindre ; en and

      ceindre, L. cingo, to gird.] In fortification, inclosure ; the wall or ram- part which surrounds a place, sometimes composed of bastions and curtains, sometimes only flanked by round or square towers, which is called a Roman wall.

      Encyc. ENCE'INT, a. Iti law, pregnant ; with p|,il(). " Blackstone.

      ENCHA'FE, V. t. [en and chafe, F

      chauffer.] To chafe or fret ; to provoke ; to enrage ; to irritate. [See Chafe.] Shak

      ENCIIA'FED, pp. Chafed ; irritated ; enra- ged. ENCHA'FING, ppr. Chafing ; frettmg ; en- raging. ENCHA'IN, V. t. [Fr. enchainer. Sec Chain.]

      1. To fasten with a chain ; to bind or hold in chains; to hold in bondage.

      2. To hold fast ; to restrain ; to confine.

      Dry den.

      3. To Unk together ; to connect. Howell. ENCHA'INED,^;). Fastened with a chain;

      held in bondage ; held fast ; restrained :

      confined. ENCIIA'INING, ppr. Making fast with a

      chain ; binding ; holding in chains

      fining. ENCH'ANT, V. t. [Fr. enchanter; en and

      description enchants me chanted with the music.

      ENCPr ANTED, pp. Aflfected by sorcery : fascinated ; .subdued by charms ; delight- ed beyond measure.

      2. Inhabited or possessed by elves, witches, or other imaginary mischievous spirits as an enchanted castle.

      ENCH^ANTER, n. One who enchants ; i sorcerer or magician ; one who has spirits or demons at his command ; one who practices enchantment, or pretends to pe fortn surprising things by the agency of demons.

      2. One who charms or delights.

      Enchanter's nightshade, a genus of plants the Circa^a.

      ENCH> ANTING, ppr. Af&cting with sor- cery, charms or spells.

      2. Delighting highly ; ravishing with deligh charming.

      3. a. Charming ; delighting ; ravishing ; ; an enchanting voice ; an enchanting face.

      Simplicity in manners has an enchanting effect. Karnes.

      ENCH'ANTINGLY, adv. With the power of enchantment; in a manner to delight or charm ; as, the lady sings enchantingly. ENCH'ANTMENT, n. The act of produ- cing certain wonderful effects by the " cation or aid of demons, or the agency of certain supposed spirits; the use of magic arts, spells or charms ; incantation.

      The magicians of Egypt did so with theii chantments. Ex. vii. 2. Irresistible influence; overpowering ii ence of delight.

      The warmth of fancy— which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. Pope ENCHANTRESS, 71. A sorceress

      man who pretends to effect wonderful things by the aid of demons ; one pretends to practice magic. Tatler.

      2. A woman whose beauty or excellencies give irresistible infl From this enchatitrtss all these ills are come. Brydt ENCIPARGE, v. t. To give in charge or trust. [JVot in use.] Bp. Hall.

      ENCHA'SE, D. <. [¥r. tnchasser ; S; gastar, or encaxar, from caxa, a box, a chest ; Port, encastoar, encaxar; It. incas- tonare ; Fr. chassis, a frame ; Eng. a cose.]

      1. To infix or inclose in another body so as to be held fast, but not concealed.


      2. Technically, to adorn by embossed work to enrich or beautify any work in metal, by some design or figure in low relief, as a watch case. Encyc.

      3. To adorn by being fixed on it. To drink in bowls which glittering gems en- chase. Ihjjden

      4. To mark by incision. Fairfax.

      5. To delineate. Spenser.

      E N C

      ENCHA'SED, pp. Enclosed as in a frame or in another body ; adorned with em- bossed work.

      ENCHA'SING, ppr. Inclosing in another bodv ; adorning with embossed work.

      ENCHE'ASON, n. [Old Fr.] Cause ; oc- casion. Obs. Spenser.

      ENCHIRIDION, n. [Gr. iv and ZHp, the hand.]

      A manual ; a book to be carried in the hand. [Mot used.]

      ENCIN'DERED, a. Burnt to cinders.


      ENCIR'€LE, v.t. ensur'cl. [from circle.]

      1. To inclose or surround with a circle or ring, or with any thing in a circular form. Luminous rings encircle Saturn.

      2. To encompass ; to surround ; to environ. To embrace ; as, to encircle one in the arms.

      ENCIR'CLED, pp. Surrounded with a cir- cle ; encompassed ; environed ; embraced.

      ENCIR'CLET, n. A circle ; a ring.


      ENCIR'CLING, ppr. Surrounding with a circle or ring; encompassing; embra-

      EN€L1T'IC, a. [Gr. tyxutixof, inclined j eyxjiti'u, to incline.]

      Leaning; inclining, or inclined. Ingrom- mar, an enclitic particle or word, is one which is so closely united to another as to seem to be a part of it ; as que, ne, and ve, in virumque, nonne, aliusve. 2. Throwing back the accent upon the fore- going syllable. Harris. EN€LIT'IC, n. A word which is joined to the end of another, as que, in virumque, which may vary the accent. 2. A particle or word that throws the accent or emphasis back upon the former sylla-.^ ble. Harris. EN € LIT' I C ALLY, adv. In an enclitic manner ; by throwing the accent back.

      Walker. EN€LIT'ICS, a. In grammar, the art of

      declining and conjugating words. ENCLOSE. [See Inclose.] " ENCLOUD'ED, a. [tvom cloud.] Covered with clouds. Spenser.

      EN€OACH,v.<. To carry in a coach. Davies. ENCOF'FIN, V. t. To put in a coflin. ENCOF'FINED, pp. Inclosed in a coflin.

      Spenser. ENCOM'BER. [See Encumber.] ENeOM'BERMENT, n. Molestation. [yVo? used.] Spe7iser.

      ENeO'MIAST, n. [Gr. lyxufna;,,!.] One ho praises another ; a panegyrist ; one ho utters or writes commendations. ENCOMIAS'TIC, I Bestowing praise; ENCOMIAS'TICAL, ^ "' praising ; com- mending ; laudatory ; as an encomiash'e ad- dress or discourse. ENeOMIAS'Tle, Ji. A panegyric. ENCO'MIUM, n. plu. encomittms. [L. from

      Gr. lyxufuon,] Praise ; panegyric ; commendation. Men are quite as willing to receive as to bestow

      ENCOM'PASS, V. t. [from compass.] To encircle ; to surround ; as, a ring encom- passes the finger.

      2. To environ ; to inclose ; to surround ; to shut in. A besieging army encompassed the city of Jerusalem.

      E N C

      E N C

      E N C

      3. To go or sail round ; us, Drake eyicom- passed the globe.

      ENCOM'PASSED,;)jB. Encircled ;8urround- ed; inclosed ; shut in.

      EN€OM'PASSING, ppr. Encircling ; sur- rounding ; confining.

      EN€OM'PASSMENT, n. A surrounding. A going round ; circumlocution in speak- ing. Shak.

      EN€0'RE, a French word, pronounced nearly ongkore, and signifying, again, once more ; used by the auditors and spectators of plays and other sports, wlien they call for a repetition of a particular part.

      ENCO'RE, V. t. To call for a repetition of a particular part of an entertainment.

      ENeOUNT'ER, n. [Fr. encontre, en and contre, L. contra, against, or rather ren- contre ; Sp. encuentro ; Port, enconiro ; It. incontro.] . A meeting, particularly a sudden or acci- dental meeting of two or more persons. To shun th' encounter of the vulgar crowd. Pope.

      2. A meeting in contest ; a single combat, on a sudden meeting of parties; some times less properly, a duel.

      3. A fight ; a conflict ; a skirmish ; a battle but more generally, a fight between a small number of men, or an accidentaF meeting and fighting of detachments, rath- er than a set battle or general engage- ment.

      4. Eager and warm conversation, eitlier in love or anger. Shak.

      5. A sudden or unexpected address or costing. Shak.

      G. Occasion; casual incident. [Unusual.]

      Pope ENeOUNT'ER, v. t. [Sp. Port, eiicontrar , It. incontrare ; Fr. rencontrer.]

      1. To tneet face to face ; particularly, to meet suddenly or unexpectedly.

      [This sense is now uncommon, but still in use.]

      2. To meet in opposition, or in a hostile man ner ; to rush against in conflict ; to engage with in battle ; as, two armies encounter each other.

      3. To meet and strive to remove or sui mount ; as, to encounter obstacles, imped meuts or difiiculties.

      4. To meet and oppose ; to resist ; to attack and attempt to confute ; as, to encounter the arguments of opponents. Acts xvii 18.

      5. To meet as an obstacle. Which ever way the infidel turns, he encounters clear evidence of the divine origin of the scrip- tures.

      6. To oppose ; to oppugn. Hale.

      7. To meet in mutual kindness. [Littl( used.] Shak

      ENeOUNT'ER, I), t. To meet face to face to meet unexpectedly. [Little used.]

      2. To rush together in combat ; to fight ; to conflict. Three armies encountered at Wa- terloo.

      When applied to one party, it is some- times followed by with ; as, the chi-istian army encountered with the Saracens.

      3. To meet in >



      ENeOUNT'ERED, pp. Met face to face ; met in opposition or hostility ; opposed.

      ENeOUNT'ERER, n. One who encount- ers ; an opponent ; an antagonist. Atterbury.

      ENCOUNT'ERING,/);)r. Meeting ; meeting in opposition, or in battle ; opposing ; re- sisting.

      ENCOUR'AtiE, v.t. enkur'rage. [Fr. en- courager ; en and courage, from caur, the heart ; It. incoraggiare.]

      To give courage to ; to give or increase con- fidence of success ; to inspire with cour- age, spirit, or strength of mind ; to em- bolden ; to animate ; to incite ; to inspirit. But charge Joshua, and enco^trage him. Deut. iii.

      EN€OUR'A6ED,p;>. Emboldened; inspir- ited ; animated ; incited.

      ENCOUR'AgEMENT, n. The act of giving courage, or confidence of success ; incite- ment to action or to practice ; incentive We ought never to neglect the encourage- ment of youth in generous deeds. The praise of good men serves as an encour- agement to virtue and heroism.

      2. That which serves to incite, support promote or advance, as favor, counte- nance, rewards, profit. A young man at- tempted the practice of law, but found lit- tle encouragement. The fine arts find little encouragement among a rude people.

      ENfOrU A(;1',R, n. One who encourages, iiicilc s iir suriiiilatcs to action; one who supplies iiicii.-moiits, either by counsel, re- WMnl (jr iMiMiis of execution.

      The pope is a master of polite learning and a great eneourager of arts. Addison.

      EN€OUR'A6iNG,;>;?r. Inspiring with hope and confidence ; exciting courage.

      3. a. Furnishing ground to hope for success as an encouraging prospect.

      EN€0UR'A6INGLY, adv. In a manner t( give courage, or hope of success.

      ENCRA'DLE, v. t. [en and cradle.] To lay in a cradle. Spenser.

      ENCRIM'SON, v. I. s as z. To cover witi a crimson color.

      ENCRIM'SONED, pp. Covered with i crimson color.

      EN'CRINITE, n. [Gr. xpiror, a lily.] Stone

      lily ; a fossil zoophyte, formed of many

      joints, all perforated by some starry form.

      Edin. Encyc

      ENCRISP'ED, a. [from crisp; Sp. encres- par.] Curled ; formed in curls. Skelton.

      ENCROACH, V. i. [Fr. accrocher, to catch. to grapple, from croc, a hook, W. crog, Eng. crook.] Primarily, to catch as with a hook. Hence,

      To enter on the rights and possessions ofj another ; to intrude ; to take possession ofj what belongs to another, by gradual ad vances into his limits or jurisdiction, and usurping a part of his rights or f tives; with on. The farmer who runs a fence on his neighbor's land, and incloses a piece with his own, encroaches on neighbor's property. Men often encroach, in this manner, on the highway. The is said to encroach on the land, when it wears it away gradually ; and the land encroaches on the sea, when it is extended into it by alluvion. It is important to pre vent one branch of government from en croaching on the jurisdiction of another.

      2. To creep on gradually without right.

      Superstition — a creeping and encroaching

      evil. Hooker.

      i. To pass the proper bounds, and enter on

      another's rights.

      Exclude th' encroaching cattle from thy ground. thyden.

      ENeROACHER, n. One who enters on and takes possession of what is not his own, by gradual steps. Sivijl.

      2. One who makes gradual advances be- yond his rights. Clarissa.

      ENCROACIflNG, ppr. Entering on and ta- king possession of what belongs to anoth- er.

      ENCRO.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\CHING, a. Tending or apt to en- croach.

      The encroaching spirit of power. Madison.

      ENCROACIIINGLY, adv. By way of en- croachment. Bailey.

      ENCROACHMENT, n. The entering grad- ually on the rights or possessions of an- other, and taking posses-sion ; unlawfiil in- trusion ; advance into the territories or jurisdiction of another, by silent means, or without right.

      Milton. Atterbury. Addison.

      2. That which ia taken by encroaching on another.

      3. In law, if a tenant owes two shillings rent- service to the lord, and the lord takes three, it is an encroachment. Cowel.

      ENCRUST', V. I. To cover with a crust.

      It is written also incrust. ENCUMBER, I'. I. [Fr. encombrer. See


      1. To load ; to clog ; to impede motion with a load, burden or any thing inconvenient to the limbs ; to render motion or opera- tion difiicult or laborious.

      2. To embarrass; to perplex; to obstruct.

      3. To load with debts; as, an estate is en- cumbered with mortgages, or with a wid- ow's dower.

      ENCUM'BERED, pp. Loaded ; impeded in motion or operation, by a burden or difficulties; loaded with debts.

      ENeUM'BERING,;)pr. Loading ; clogging ; rendering motion or operation difficult ; loading with debts.

      ENCUM'BRANCE, n. A load ; any thin- that imnedes motion, or renders it diffi- cult and laborious ; clog ; impediment.

      2. Useless addition or load.

      Strip from the branching Alps their piny load, The huge encumbrance of horrific wood.

      Thomson. Load or burden on an estate ; a legal claim on an estate, for the discharge of which the estate is liable.

      ENCYCLICAL, a. [Gr. fyxvx>u«of ; tv and *vx>/)5, a circle.]

      Circular ; sent to many persons or places : intended for many, or for a whole order of men. [This word is not used. We now use circular.] Stillingfieet,

      ENCYCLOPEDIA, ? [Gr. iv, in, xvxxof,

      ENCYCLOPE'DY, ^ "• a circle, and xiuSita, instruction ; instruction in a circle, or cir- cle of instruction.]

      The circle of sciences ; a general system of instruction or knowledge. More particu- larly, a collection of the principal facts, principles and discoveries, in all branches of science and tlie arts, digested under proper titles and arranged in alphabetical order ; as the French Encyclopedia ; the Enaidopedia Brittannica.

      ENCYCLOPE'DIAN, a. Embracing the whole circle of learning.


      ENCYeLOPE'DIST, n. The compiler of an Encyclopedia, or one who assists in such compilation.

      ENCYST'ED, a. [fronii cyst.] Inclosed in a bag, bladder or vesicle; aa an encysted tu- mor. Sharp.

      END, n. [Sax. end, ende, or cende ; G. ende ; D. eind ; Sw. hnde ; Dan. ende ; Goth, an- dei; Basque, ondoa ; Sans, anda or anta ;

      Per. ^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\jyi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ andan.]

      1. The extreme point of a line, or of any thing that has more length than breadth ; as the end of a house ; the endol a table ; the end of a finger; the end of a chain or rope. When bodies or figures have equal dimen- sions, or equal length and breadth, the ex- tremities are called sides.

      2. The extremity or last part, iu general ; the close or conclusion, applied to time.

      At the end of two months, she returned Judges xi.

      3. The conclusion or cessation of an action

      Of the increase of his government there sliall be no end. Is. ix.

      4. The close or conclusion ; as the end of a chapter.

      5. Ultimate state or condition ; final doom.

      Mark the perfect man, and behold the u| right, for the end of that man is peace. P xxxvii.

      6. The point beyond which no progression can be made.

      They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunk- en man, and are at their wit's end. Ps. cvii.

      7. Final determination ; conclusion of de- bate or deliberation.

      My guilt be on my head and there's an end ! Shak.

      8. Close of Ufe ; death ; decease.

      Unblanied through life, lamented in thy end. Pope.

      9. Cessation; period; close of a particular state of things; as the eiid of the world.

      10. Limit ; termination.

      There is no mrf of the store. Nahum ii.

      11. Destruction. Amos viii.

      The en

      12. Cause of death ; a destroyer.

      And award Either of you to be the other's end. Shak

      13. Consequence ; issue ; result ; conclusivi event ; conclusion.

      The end of these things is death. Rom. vi

      14. A fragment or broken piece.

      Old odd ends. Shah.

      15. The ultimate point or thing at which one aims or directs his views ; the object in- tended to be reached or accomplished by any action or scheme ; purpose intended ; scope ; aim ; drift ; as private ends ; pub- lic ends.

      Two things 1 shall propound to you, as ends. Suckling The end of the commandments is charity. ] Tim. i.

      A right to the end, implies a right to tlie means necessary for attaining it. Lai IC. Jin end, for on end, upright ; erect ; as,

      his hair stands an end. 17. The ends of the earth, in scripture, are the remotest parts of the earth, or the in- habitants of those parts. END, V. t. To finish ; to close ; to conclude to terminate ; as, to end a controversy ; t( end a war.


      On the seventh day God ended his work Gen. ii. 2. To destroy ; to put to death.

      King Harry, thy sword hath ended him.

      END, V. i. To come to the ultimate point to be finished ; as, a voyage ends by the return of a ship.

      To terminate ; to close ; to conclude The discourse ends with impressive words. To cease ; to come to a close. Winter ends in March, and summer in September. A good life ends in peace. END-ALL, n. Final close. [Ml used.]

      Shak ENDAM'AGE, v. t. [from damage.] To bring loss or damage to ; to harm ; to in- jure ; to mischief; to prejudice.

      The trial hath endamaged thee np way.

      Milton So thou Shalt endamage the revenue of the kiags. Ezra iv. ENDAMAGED, pp. Harmed ; injured ENDAMAGEMENT, n. Damage; losss

      injurv. ENDAM'AGING, ppr. Harming ; injuring ENDANGER, v. t. [from danger.] To put in hazard ; to bring into danger or peril ; to expose to loss or injury. We dread any tiling that endangers our life, our peace or our happiness. 2. To incur the hazard of [Unusual.]

      Bacon ENDANGERED, pp. Exposed to loss or in- jury. ENDANGERING, ppr. Putting in hazard ;

      exposing to loss or injury. ENDANGERING, n. Injury ; damage.

      Milton. END.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\N6ERMENT, n. Hazard ; danger.


      ENDE'AR, V. t. [from dear.] To make dear ;

      to make more beloved. The distress of a

      friend endears him to us, by exciting our


      .. To raise the price. [JVot in use.]

      ENDE'ARED, pp. Rendered dear, beloved,

      or more beloved. ENDE'ARING, ppr. Making dear or more

      beloved. ENDE'ARMENT, »i. The cause of love that which excites or increases affection j)articularly that which excites tendernes; of affection.

      Her first endearments twining round the soul


      3. The state of being beloved ; tender aflfec

      ion. South

      ENDEAVOR, n. endev'or. [Norm, devoyer,

      endeavor ; endevera, he ought ; endeyveni.

      they ought. It seems to be from Fr.

      [endevoir] devoir, to owe or be indebted,

      and hence it primarily signifies duty, from

      the sense of bindmg, pressure, urgency.

      Hence our popular phrase, I will do my

      endeavor. In Ir. dibhirce is endeavor.]

      AneflTort; an essay ; an attempt; an exer

      tion of physical strength, or the intellec

      tual powers, towards the attainment of an


      The bold and sufficient pursue their game with more passion, endeavor and appUcation, and therefore often succeed. Temph

      Imitation is the endeavor of a later poet t write like one who has written before him o the same subject. Drydei


      Labor is a continued endeator, or a sueces- )n of endeavors. Anon.

      ENDEAVOR, v.i. endev'or. To exert phys- ical strength or intellectual power, for the accomplishment of au object ; to try ; to essay ; to attempt. In a race, each man endeavors to outstrip his antagonist. A poet may endeavor to rival Homer, but without success. It is followed by after before a noun ; as, the christian endeavors after more strict conformity to the exam- ple of Christ. 2. V. i. To attempt to gain ; to try to effect. It is our duty to endeavor the recovery of these beneficial subjects. Chatham.

      ENDEAVORED, pp. Essayed; attempted. ENDEAVORER, n. One who makes an

      effort or attempt. ENDEAVORING, ppr. Making an effort or efforts; striving; essaying; attempt- ing. ENDECAGON, n. [Gr. fi^, «exo and ywio.] A plain figure of eleven sides and angles. Bailey. Johnson. ENDEI'€TIC, a. [Gr. trSfixw/i^ to show.] Showing ; exhibiting. An endeictic dia- logue, in the Platonic philosophy, is one which exhibits a specimen of skill.

      Enfield. ENDEM'IC, } [Gr. rr V"? ; '" a"d ENDEM'I€AL, > a. Sij^toj, people.] Pecul- ENDE'MIAL, ) iar to a people or na- tion. An endemic disease, is one to which the inhabitants of a particular country are peculiarly subject, and which, for that rea- son, may be supposed to proceed from lo- cal causes, as bad air or water. The epi- thet is also applied to a disease which prevails in a particular season, chiefly or whollv in a particular place. ENDEN'IZE, V. t. [from denizen, or its root.] To make free; to naturalize; to admit to the privileges of a denizen. [Liitle used.] Camden.

      ENDEN'IZEN, v. t. [from denizen.] To naturalize. B. Jonson.

      ENDI€T, ENDI€TMENT. [See Indict,

      Indictment.] ENT)'ING, ppr. [from end.] Terminating;

      closing ; concluding. END'ING, n. Termination ; conclusion. 2. In grammar, the terminating syllable or

      letter of a word. ENDITE. [See Indite.] EN'DIVE, n. [Fr. endive; It. endivia; Sp.

      endibia ; L. inlybum ; Ar. ,_,^x^ hin-


      A species of plant, of the genus Cichoriuin or succory ; used as a salad.

      END'LESS, a. [See End.] Without end ; having no end or conclusion ; applied to length, and to duration ; as an endless line ; endless progression; en

      2. Perpetual ; incessant ; continual ; as end- less praise ; endless clamor.

      END'LESSLY, adv. Without end or ter- mination ; as, to extend a line endlessly.

      2. Iiiressantly ; perjietually ; continually.

      END'LESSNESS, n. Extension without end or limit.

      2. Perpetuity; endless duration.

      END'LONG, adv. In a line; with the end

      1 forward. [LUtleused.] Drydtn.


      ENDOC'TRINE, v. I. To teach ; to indoc- trinate. [See the latter word.] Donne. j ENDORSE, ENDORSEMENT. [See In- I dorse. Indorsement.]

      ENDOSS', V. t. [Fr. endosser.] To engrave or carve. Spenser.

      ENDOW', I'. /. [Norm, endouer ; Fr. douer. Qii. from L. dos, doto, or a different Celtic root, for in Ir. diobhadh is dower. The sense is to set or put on.]

      1. To furnish with a portion of goods or es- tate, called dower; to settle a dower on, as on a married woman or widow.

      A wife is by law entitled to be endowed of all lands and tenements, of which her husband was seized in fee simple or fee tail during llie cover- ture. Blackstone.

      2. To settle on, as a. permanent provision ; to furnish with a permanent fund of pro- perty ; as, to endow a church ; to endoio a college with a fund to support a professor.

      3. To enrich or furnish with any gift, quali- ty or faculty ; to indue. Man is endowed by his maker with reason.

      ENDOWED, pp. Furnished with a por tion of estate ; having dower settled on ; supplied with a permanent fund ; indued.

      ENDOW'ING, ppr. Settling a dower on furnishing with a permanent fund ; indu ing.

      ENDOVV'MENT, n. Tlie act of settling dower on a woman, or of settling a fund or permanent provision for the support of a parson or vicar, or of a professor, &c.

      8. That which is bestowed or settled on ; property, fund or revenue permanently aji propriated to any object ; as the endow- ments of a church, of a hospital, or of a college.

      3. That which is given or bestowed on th( person or mind by the creator; gift of na lure; any quality or faculty bestowed by the creator. Natural activity of hmhs is an endowment of the body ; natural vigor of intellect is an endowment of the mind. Chatham and 15urke, in Great Britain, and Jay, Ellsworth and Hamilton, in Ameri ca, possessed uncommon endowments of] mind.

      ENDRUDiiE, V. t. endnij'. To make drudge or slave. [JVol u.ted.] Hall.

      ENDU'E, V. t. [Fr. enduire ; L. indito.] To indue, which see.

      ENDU'RABLE, a. That can be borne or suffered.

      ENDU'RANCE, n. [See Endure] Contin- uance ; a state of lasting or duration ; last- ingness. Spenser.

      2. A bearing or suffering ; a continuing un- der pain or distress without resistance, or without sinking or yielding to the pres- sure ; sufferance ; patience.

      Tlieir fortitude was most admirable in their [presence and endurance of al! evils, of pain, and of deatli. Temple.

      3. Delav ; a waiting for. [.Yot used.] Sliak. ENDU'RE, v.{. [Fr. endurer ; en and durer,

      to last, from dur, L. durus, duro ; durar. The primary sense of rfunw, hard, is set, fixed. See Durable.] 1. To List; to continue in the same state without perishing; to remain ; to abide. The Lord shall endure forever. Ps. ix.

      E N E

      2. To bear ; to brook ; to suffer without re- sistance, or without yielding.

      How can I endure to see the evil that shall come to my people ? Esther viii.

      Can thy heart endure, or thy hands be strong .' Ezek. xxii. ENDU'RE, V. t. To bear ; to sustain ; to support without breaking or yielding to force or pressure. Metals endure a cer- tain degree of heat without melting.

      Both were of shining steel, and wrought so

      pure, As might the strokes of two such arms en- dure. Dryden.

      3. To bear with patience ; to bear withoutj opposition or sinking under the pressure.

      Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake. 2 Tim. ii.

      If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons. Heb. xii. .'J. To undergo ; to sustain.

      ' wish to die, yet dare not death endure.


      4. To continue in. [JSTol used.] Brown. ENDU'RED, pp. Borne; suffered; sustain- ed.

      ENDU'RER, n. One who bears, suffers or su.stains.

      '2. He or that which continues long.

      ENDU'RING, ppr. Lasting; continuing without perishing ; bearing ; sustaining ; supporting with patience, or without op- position or yielding.

      2. a. Lasting long ; permanent.

      END'WISE, adv. On the end ; erectly ; in upright position.

      2. With the end forward. EN'ECATE, f./. [L. eneco.] To kill. [JSTot

      in use.] Harvey.

      E'NEID, n. [h.JEneis.] A heroic poem, writ- ten by Virgil, in which jEneas is the hero.

      EN'EMY, n. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Fr. ennemi; Sp. enemigo ; It. nemico ; Ir. namha ; from L. inimicus ; in iieg. and amicus, friend.]

      1. A foe; an adversary. A private enemy is one who hates another and wishes him in jury, or attempts to do him injury to grat ify his own malice or ill will. A public enemy or foe, is one who belongs to a na- tion or party, at war with another. I say to you, love your enemies. Matt. v. Enemies in war ; in peace friends.

      Declaration of Independence

      3. One who hates or dislikes ; as an enemy to truth or falsehood.

      3. In theology, and by way of eminence, the nemy is the Devil ; the archfiend.

      4. In military affairs, the opposing army or naval force in war, is called the e

      ENERGETIC, I [Gr. ivipyrjuxos, from ENERtiET'ICAL, (, "■ ivipyr^!,iv(pyiu;i,mu\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ tf)yov, work. See Energy.]

      1. Operating with force, vigor and effect forcible ; powerful ; efficacious. We say the public safety required energetic meas ures. The vicious inclinations of men can be restrained only by energetic laws. [£i ergic is not used.]

      2. Moving ; working ; active ; operative. We must conceive of God as a Being eternally

      ENERgET'ICALLY, adv. With force and

      ; with energv and effect. EN'ERGIZE, r. i. "[from energy.] To act with force ; to operate with vigor ; to in producing an effect.

      Harris. Trans, of Pausanias.

      E N F

      EN'ER(iIZE, V. t. To give strength or force to ; to give active vigor to.

      EN'ERtilZED, pp. Invigorated.

      EN'ERgIZER, n. He or that which gives energy ; he or that which acts in produ- cing an effect.

      ENERGIZING, ppr. Giving energy, force igor ; acting with force.

      EN'ER6V, n. [Gr. iwp^twi ; ip and jpyo,, ork.]

      1. Internal or inherent power ; the power of operating, whether exerted or not ; as, men possessing energies sometimes suffer them to lie inactive. Danger will rouse the dormant energies of our natures into action.

      2. Power exerted ; vigorous operation ; force; vigor. God, by his Almighty en- ergy, called the universe into existence. The administration of the laws requires energy in the magistrate.

      3. Effectual operation ; efficacy ; strength or force producing the effect.

      Beg the blessed Jesus to give an energy to your imperfect prayers, by his most powerful intercession. Smalridge.

      4. Strength of expression ; force of utter- ance ; life; spirit; emphasis. The lan- guage of Lord Chatham is remarkable for its energy.

      ENERVATE, a. [infra.] Weakened;

      weak ; without strength or force.

      Johnson. Pope. ENERVATE, v. t. [L. enervo; e and ner-

      vus, nerve.]

      1. To deprive of nerve, force or strength ; to weaken ; to render feeble. Idleness and voluptuous indulgences enervate the body. Vices and luxury enervate the strength of states.

      2. To cut the nerves ; as, to enervate a horse.

      Encyc. EN'ERVATED, pp. Weakened ; enfeebled ;

      emasculated. EN'ERVATING,p;)r. Depriving of strength,

      force or vigor ; weakening; enfeebhng. ENERVA'TION, n. The act of weakening,

      or reducing strength.

      3. The state of being weakened ; effemi- nacy.

      ENERVE, v. t. enerv'. To weaken ; the same as enervate.

      ENFAM'ISH, V. t. To famish. [See Fam- ish.]

      ENFEE'BLE, v. t. [from feeble.] To de- prive of strength ; to reduce the strength or force of; to weaken ; to debilitate ; to enervate. Intemperance enfeebles the body, and induces premature infirmity. Exces- sive grief and melancholy enfeeble the mind. Long wars enfeeble a state.

      ENFEEBLED, pp. Weakened ; deprived of strength or vigor.

      ENFEE'BLEMENT, n. The act of weak- ening ; enervation. Spectator.

      ENFEEBLING, ppr. Weakening; debiU- tating; enervating.

      ENFEL'ONED, a. [See Felon.] Fierce; cruel. Spenser.

      ENFEOFF, V. t. enfeff. [Law L. feoffo, feoffare, from fief, which see.]

      1. To give one a feud ; hence, to invest with a fee ; to give to another any corporeal hereditament, m fee simple or fee tail, by livery of seizin. Coictl. Blackstone.

      E N F

      E N G

      E N G

      2. To surrender or give up. [JVot used.]

      Shak. ENFEOFF'ED, pp. Invested with the fee

      of any corporeal liereditament. ENFEOFFING, ppr. Giving to one the

      fee simple of any corporeal hereditament. ENFEOFF'MENT, n. The act of giving

      the fee simple of an estate. 2. Tlie instrument or deed by which one is

      invested with the fee of an estate. ENFETTER, v. t. To fetter; to bind in

      fetters. Shak.

      ENFE'VER, V. t. To excite fever in.

      Seioard. ENFIERCE, V. t. enfers'. To make fierce.

      [J\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\rot in use.] ■ENFILADE,

      ENFILA'DE, n. [Fr. a row, from en and Jil, a thread, L. Jilum, Sp. hiio.]

      A hne or straight passage ; or the situation of a place which may be seen or scoured with shot all the length of a line, or in the direction of a hne. Johnson. Bailey.

      ENFILA'DE, v. t. [from the noun; Sp. enjilar.]

      To pierce, scour or rake with shot, in the direction of a line, or through the whole length of a line.

      In conducting approaches at a siege, care should be taken that the trenches be not enfila- ded. Encye. In a position to enfilade the works at Fort Isle. Washington.

      ENFILA'DED, pp. Pierced or raked in a line.

      ENFILA'DING, ppr. Piercing or sweeping in a hne.

      ENFI'RE, V. t. To inflame ; to set on fire {J^ot used.] Spenser

      ENFO'RCE, V. t. [Fr. en/ordr; en and

      1. To give strength to ; to strengthen ; to in- vigorate. [See Def. 5.]

      2. To make or gain by force ; to force ; as, to enforce a passage.

      3. To put in act by violence ; to drive.

      Stones enforced from the old Assyrian slings. Shak.

      4. To instigate ; to urge on ; to animate.


      5. To urge with energy ; to give force to ; to impress on the mind ; as, to enforce re- marks or arguments.

      6. To compel ; to constrain ; to force.


      7. To put in execution ; to cause to take ef- fect ; as, to enforce the laws.

      8. To press with a charge. Shak. 8. To prove ; to evince. [Little used.]


      ENFO'RCE, v.i. To attempt by force. UYot used.]

      ENFO'RCE, n. Force ; strength ; power. [JVot used.] Milton.

      ENFO'RCEABLE, a. That may be enfor ceu.

      ENFO'RCED, pp. Strengthened; gained by force ; driven ; compelled ; urged ; car ried into effect.

      ENFORCEDLY, adv. By violence ; not by choice. Shak

      ENFORCEMENT, n. The act of enfor cing ; compulsion ; force applied.


      2. That which gives force, energy or eflfect sanction. The penalties of law are en- forcements. Locke.

      3. Motive of conviction ; urgent evidence.


      4. Pressing exigence ; that which urges or constrains. Shak.

      5. In a general sense, any thing which com- pels or constrains ; any thing which urges either the body or the mind.

      6. A putting in execution ; as the enforce- ment of law.

      ENFO'RCER, J^. One who compels, con- strains or urges ; one who eflfects by vio- lence ; one who carries into effect.

      ENFO'RCING, ppr. Giving force or strength ; compelling ; urging ; constrain- ing ; putting in execution.

      ENFORM', V. t. To form ; to fiishion. [See Form.]

      ENFOUL'DERED, a. [Fr. foudroyer.] Mi.x- ed with lightning, [JVbt in use.] Spenser.

      ENFRAN'CHISE, v. t. s as :. [from fran- chise.] To set free ; to liberate from sla- very. Bacon.

      2. To make free of a city, corporation oi- state ; to admit to the privileges of a free- man. The English colonies were enfran- chised by special charters. Davies. Hale.

      3. To free or release from custody. Shak.

      4. To naturalize ; to denizen ; to receive as denizens; as, to enfranchise foreign words.

      JVatts. ENFRAN'CHISED, pp. Set free ; released

      2. Admitted to the rights and privileges of freemen.

      ENFRANCHISEMENT, n. Release from slavery or custody. Shak.

      2. The admission of persons to the freedom of a corporation or state ; investiture with the privileges of free citizens; the incor porating of a person into any society or body politic.

      ENFRAN'CHISER, n. One who enfran

      ENFRANCHISING, j9;7r. Setting free from slavery or custody ; admitting to the rights and privileges of denizens or free citizens in a state, or to the privileges of a free man in a corporation. Coivel.

      ENFRO'WARD, v. t. To make froward or perverse. [Aoi used.] Sandys.

      ENFRO'ZEN, a. Frozen ; congealed, [^rot used.] Spenser

      ENGA'GE, v. t. [Fr. engager : en and ga- ger, to lay, to bet, to hire ; Arm. ingagi. See Gage and Wage.]

      1. To make liable for a debt to a creditor to bind one's self as surety. Shak.

      2. To pawn ; to stake as a pledge. Hudihras

      3. To enlist ; to bring into a party ; as, to engage men for service ; to engage friends to aid in a cause.

      To embark in an affair ; as, be not has(y to engage yourself in party disputes. 5. To gain ; to win and attach ; to draw to. Good nature engages every one to its pos-

      0. To unite and bind by contract or promise Nations engage themselves to each othei by treaty. The young often engage them- selves to their sorrow.

      7. To attract and fix ; as, to engage the at- tention.

      8. To occupy ; to employ assiduously. We were engaged in conversation. The na- tion is engaged in war.

      9. To attack in contest ; to encounter. The army engaged the enemy at ten o'clock. The captain engaged the ship, at point blank distance.

      ENGA'GE, V. i. To encounter; to begin to fight ; to attack in conflict. The armies engaged at Marengo, in a general battle.

      2. To embark in any business ; to take a concern in ; to undertake. Be cautious not to engage in controversy, without in- dispensable necessity.

      3. To promise or pledge one's word ; to bind one's self; as, a friend has engaged to sup- ply the necessary funds.

      ENGA'GED, pp. or a. Pledged ; promised ; enhsted ; gained and attached ; attracted and fixed ; embarked ; earnestly employ- ed ; zealous.

      ENGA'GEDLY, adv. With earnestness: with attachment.

      ENGA'GEDNESS, n. The state of being seriously and earnestly occupied ; zeah animation. Flint's Massillon. Panoplist.

      ENGA'GEMENT, n. The act of pawning, pledging or making liable for debt.

      2. Obligation by agreement or contract. 3Ien are often more ready to make en- gagements than to fulfil them.

      3. Adherence to a paity or cause ; partiality.


      4. Occupation ; employment of the atten- tion.

      Play, by too long or constant engagement, becomes like an employment or profession.


      6. Employment in fighting ; the conflict of armies or fleets ; battle ; a general action ; appropriately the conflict of whole armies or fleets, hut applied to actions between small squadrons or single ships, rarely to a fight between detachments of land for- ces.

      6. Obligation ; motive ; that which engages. Hammond.

      ENGA'gER, n. One that enters into an engagement or agreement.

      ENGA'GING, ppr. Pawning ; making Hable for debt ; enlisting ; bringing into a jiarty or cause; promising; binding; winning and attaching ; encountering ; embarking.

      2. a. Winning ; attractive ; tending to draw the attention or the aflfections ; pleasing ; as engaging manners or address.

      ENGA'6iNGLY, adv. In a manner to win the affections.

      ENGAL'LANT, v. t. To make a gallant of.

      i [Not used.] B. Jonson.

      iENG.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\OL, V. t. enja'le. To imprison. [JVot

      1 used.] Shak.

      .ENG'ARBOIL, I', t. To disorder. [JVot in

      1 tise.]

      jENG'ARL.AND, v. t. To encircle with a garland. Sidney.

      lENGAR'RISON, v.t. To furnish with a garrison ; to defend or protect by a garri- son. Bp. Hall.

      lENGAS'TRIMUTH, n. [Gr. f^, yayw and

      j fivSog.] A ventriloquist. [JVot in use.]

      EN(>EN'DER, v.t. [Fr. engendrer; Arm. e7tguehenta ; Sp. engendrar ; from the L. gener, genero, geno, gigno. See Gener-

      I ate.]

      E N G

      E N G

      E N G

      2. To beget between the different sexes ; to form in embryo.

      3. To produce ; to cause to exist ; to cause to bring forth. Meteors are engendered in the atmosphere; worms are sometimes engendered in the stomach ; intemperanci engenders fatal maladies ; angry words en gender strife.

      ENgEN'DER, v. i. To be caused or produ ced.

      Thick clouds are spread, and storms engender there. Dryde,

      ENGEN'DERED, pp. Begotten ; caused ; produced.

      EN6EN'DERER, n. He or that which en genders.

      ENGEN'DERING, ppr. Begetting ; caus- ing to be ; producing.

      ENGILD', V. t. To gihl ; to brighten. Shak.

      EN'(5INE, n. [Fr. engin; Sp. ingenio ; Port. engenho ; Arm. iugin ; from L. ingenium ; so called from contrivance.]

      1. In mechanics, a compound machine, or artificial instrument, composed of differ- ent parts, and intended to produce some effect by the help of the ipechanical pow- ers ; as a pump, a windlas, a capstan, a fire engine, a steam engine.

      2. A military machine ; as a battering ram,

      ■3. Any instrument ; that by which any ef- fect is produced. An arrow, a sword, a musket is an engine of death.

      4. A machine for throwing water to extin- guish fire.

      5. Means; any thing used to effect a pur- pose.

      6. An agent for another ; usually in an ill sense.

      EN(iINEE R, n. [Fr. ingenieur.] In the

      I), eng, W. ing, strait, narrow, L. ango, from the sense of pressing, depression, laying, which gives the sense of level. The English are the descendants of the Jngcevones of Tacitus, De Mor. Germ. 2 ; this name being composed of ing, a plain, and G. ivohnen, D. woonen, to dwell. Tin- Ingajvones were inhabitants of the level country.] Belonging to England, or to its inhabitants.

      ENGLISH, n. The people of England.

      2. The language of England or of the Eng- lish nation, and of their descendants m India, America and other countries.

      ENGLISH, V. t. To translate into the Eng- lish language. Bacon.

      ENGLISHED, pp. Rendered into English.

      ENGLISHRY, n. The state or privilege of being an Englishman. [.Vo/ used.]


      ENGLUT', v.t. [Fr. englmitir; L. glvlio.]

      1. To swallow. Shak.

      2. To fill ; to glut. Spenser. Aacham.

      [This word is little used. See Glul.]

      ENGO'RE, V. I. To pierce ; to gore. [See Gore.] Spenser.

      ENGORGE, V. t. engori'. [Fr. engorger, from gorge, the throat.]

      To swadow ; to devour ; to gorge ; proper- ly, to swallow with greediness," or in large quantities. Spenser.i

      ENGOR6E, r. t. engorj'. To devour ; to feed with eagerness or voracity. Mtllon.]

      ENGORGED, pp. Swallowed with gree- diness, or in large draughts. i

      ENGORGEMENT, n. engorj'ment. Thej act of swallowing greedily ; a devouring! with voracity.

      ENGORGING, ppr. Swallowing with vo- racity. I

      ENGR' AFT, r. I. To ingraft, v-hich see

      of morality be engraved on the mind in early years.

      4. To bury ; to deposit in the grave ; to in- ter ; to 'inhume. [J\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ot now used.]


      FNGRAVIJ). ? Cut or marked, as with

      L\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\*iK\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\1A, ^ ""■ a chisel or graver ; im- |iiiiii i| ; ■!■ i|ilv iifipresi-ed.

      K.M.l; A \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\l .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\li;'NT, n. Engraved work; act of engraving.

      ENGRA'VER, n. One who engraves; a cutter of letters, figures or devices, on stone, metal or wood; a sculptor; a car- ver.

      ENGRA'VERY, n. The work of an engra- ver. [LAllle vaed.]

      ENGRA'VING, pjtr. Cutting or marking stones or metals, with a chisel or graver ; imprinting.

      ENGRA'VING, n. The act or art of cutting stones, metals and other hard substances, and representing thereon figures, letters, characters and devices; a branch of sculp- ture.

      ENGRIE'VE, f. I. To grieve ; to pain. [See Grieve.] Spenser.

      ENGRO'SS, ti. t. [from gross, or Fr. ^704- sir, engrossir, grossoyer ; Sp. engroiar. Seo Cross.]


      Primarily, to make thick or gross ; U) thicken. [.Vol now used.] Spenser.

      2. To make larger ; to increase in bulk. [JVol used.] fVoUon.

      3. Te seize in the gross ; to take tlie whole ; as, worldly cares engross the attention of most men, but neither business nor amuse- ment should engross our whole time.

      4. To, with a view to sell again, either the whole or large quantities of commodities in market, for the purpose of making a profit by enhancing the price. Engrossing does not necessarily imply the purchase of the whole of any commodity, but such quantities as to raise the price,

      I by diminishing the sujiplies in ojien mark- et, and taking advantage of an increased demand.

      5. To copy in a large hand ; to write a fair, correct copy, in large or distinct, legible characters, for preservation or duration ;

      ... _ . as records of public acts, on jiafier or

      Millon ^nin-ained carpew. J parchment,

      artillen ; instru- EvJ^gy'Vi't^' ^- /'>«''°? '" ^f f^i"'«- To take or assume in undue quantities or .W//on. ,;*'■, ^.°7' S'''^pp^-i ^ol, degrees ; as, to engroM fKjwer.

      Shenstont. surround :'

      military art, a person skilled in maihemat-l'E^Qp^'jL j.. t. ic5 and mechanics, who forms plans of]( gresle hail'.l works for offense or defense, and marks; i,, heraldry, to variegate • ttlie ground for fortifications. Engineers hail ; to indent or make

      [Fr. engriler, from grUe,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ spot as with

      ,- , . . , ,. . - , , — gped at the ed

      are also employed in dehneatmg plans ggg, as if broken with hail; to indent in

      grapple ;to^i2e and hold; to close in and.EXGjiO'SSED, fo.Made thick; taken in hold fast. [See Grapple, which is general-,] the ^j.olc ; purcha«.d in lar^'e quantities

      and superintending the construction of ^urve lines. Johnson. Chapman. EncycX

      other pubhc works, as aqueducts and ca- ENGRAILED, pp. Variegated ; spotted. |

      nals. The latter are called ciru erigineeri. rx-r-D 4, IV- .re ■ ^ rr, , . '

      2. One who manages engines or artillery. ' ENGRA IN, r t. [from graxn.] To dve in^ ^' = PA,-)-„. 1 grain, or in the raw material ; to dve deep.

      FVYIVT-RV „ .„^r.„. Ti.„ =-. /f^f ENGRAINED, mi. Dyed in tlie grain ; ENGINERY, n.en^CTnry. The act of man- ,„„„,„,^ ,,,^^C ^ ^

      aging enguies or artillery.

      2. Engines in general ments of war.

      3. Machinatioii. ENGIRD . r. f. [See CtVc/.j x« cui.«u..u,, .. ^

      to encircle : to encompass. Shak.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r'3r-^ki-D , re -. m • '! '*"' ^'^ 5 written in large Cur charactem.

      ^°-- ; rvr-D . i-r . ' J market as to rai*e the price.

      , cause' tNOK.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Vh., r. t. pret. engraved ; pp. fn- -2. One who copies a writing in large, fair erared or en^aren.JFr. graver; f-i,.gra- eharacters. - 6.

      Urr It. graffiare: VT. cravu O. STa4*n ; excROSSLNG, »«■. taking the whole; ^^ ,. _ „ D.|T<«ir^;Gr vfc^-. see6rar«.] Lit- hmying cornmodi^L in sucfTrinantitie. ai^

      ENGLOO), n. [See £n^i»A-] j erally, to scratch or scrape. Hence, || to raise the price in rnarket-

      ENGLISH, a. ing'giith. [Sa.T. fn^Itfc, from: 1- To cut, as metals, stones or other hard '2. Writing correct copies in large, &ir cbar-

      Engits. AngUs. a tribe of Gennaiis who. subetancea, with a chisel or graver; to cuti acters. . settled in Britain, and gave it the name of i fignres, letters or devices, on stone or •EXGEO'SSMENT, n. Tlie act of engro«- Engiand. The name seems to be derived metal ; to mark by incisions. ij ing ; the act of taking the whole,

      from eng, ine. a meadow or plain, a level- Thoo fbaJt »««« the two Mooes with thcig. The appropriation of things in the grom, country: Sai. xng ; Ue. tinge: Dan.' Mine,- of the eh2dr«i of IsaeL Ex. 28. ^ or in exorbitant quantities :'exr/rbitant^

      tng; Goth, leinga ; all which seem to be 2. To fActtae or represent by incisioDg. ^> quisition. Surlfl

      the same word a= the Sax. wong. wmg, a a To imprint ; to impress deeper ; to infix. ENGU ARD, r. L [See Cvard.] To guard ; plain, and to coincide wiUi the G. enge,. Let the laws of God aiid the i«iociples. to de&nd. .Shak

      ENGLAD ,

      To make glad ; a. Furred ; clami


      E N J

      E N K

      E N L

      ENGULF', V. t. To throw or to absc

      gulf. ENGULF'ED, /);). Absorbed in a whirlpool,

      or in a deep abyss or gull". ENGULF'MENT, n. An absorption in a

      gulf, or deep cavern, or vortex. ENH^ANCE, V. t. enh^ans. [Norm, en-

      hauncer, from hauncer, to raise. Qu

      Norm, tnhauce, hauz, haulz, high.]

      1. To raise ; to lift ; applied to material things by Spenser, but this application is entirely obsolete.

      2. To raise ; to advance ; to highthen ; ap plied to price or value. War enhances the price of provisions ; it enhances rents, and the value of lands.

      3. To raise ; applied to qualities, quantity, pleasures, enjoyments, &c. Pleasure is en- hanced by the difficulty of obtaining it,

      4. To increase ; to aggravate. The guilt of a crime may be enhanced by circumstan- ces.

      ENH'ANCE, v.i. enh'ans. To be raised swell ; to grow larger. A debt enhances rapidly by compound interest.

      ENH'ANCED, pp. Raised ; advanced ; highthened ; increased.

      ENirANCEMENT, n. Rise ; increase ; aug- mentation ; as the enhancement of value, price, enjoyment, pleasure, beauty.

      2. Increase ; aggravation ; as the enhance- ment of evil, grief, punishment, guilt oi

      ENH'ANCER, n. One who enhances ; he or that which raises price, &c.

      ENirANCING, ppr. Raising; increasing; augmenting ; aggravating.

      ENH> ARBOR, v.i. To dwell in or inhabit. Browne

      ENH'ARDEN, v. t. To harden ; to encour- age. Howell,

      ENHARMON'le, a. [from harmonic, har- mony.]

      In music, an epithet applied to such species of composition, as proceed on very small intervals, or smaller intervals than the di- atonic and chromatic. An enharmonic in- terval is the eighth of a tone. Encyc.

      ENIG'MA,?!. [L.miigma; Gr. aiioyfia, from amiiaaofiai-, to hint.]

      A dark saying, in which some known thing is concealed under obscure language ; ar obscure question ; a riddle. A question saying or painting, containing a hidden meaning, which is proposed to be guessed. Johnson. Encyc.

      ENIGMAT'IC, I „ Relating to or con-

      ENIGMAT'I€AL, S taining a riddle ; obscure ; darkly expressed ; ambiguous.

      2. Obscurely conceived or apprehended.

      ENIGMAT'ICALLY, adv. In an obscure manner; in a sense different from that which the words in common acceptation imply.

      ENIG'MATIST, n. A maker or dealer ir enigmas and riddles. Addison

      ENIG'MATIZE, v. i. To utter or form cnig- mas ; to deal in riddles.

      ENIGMATOG'RAPHY, ? , TGr. a»ty^a ENlGMAT0L'06y, S andypotw,

      >.oyos.] The art of making riddles ; or the art of

      solving them. ENJOIN', V. t. [Vr.enjoindre; en andjotn- dre, to join ; It. ingiugnere ; L. injungo ; in and jungo. See Join. We observe

      that the primary sense of join is to set, ex- tend or lay to, to throw to or on ; other- wise the sense of order or command could not spring from it. To enjoin is to set or lay to or on.]

      1. To order or direct with urgency ; to ad- monish or instruct with authority ; to command. Says Johnson, " this word is more authoritative than direct, and less im- perious than command." It has the force of pressing admonition with authority ; as, a parent enjoins on his children the duty of^obedienee. But it has also the sense of command ; as the duties enjoined by God in the moral law.

      2. In law, to forbid judicially ; to issue or di- rect a legal injunction to stop proceed- ings.

      This is a suit to enjoin the defendants from disturbinu the plaintifis. Kent.

      ENJOIN'ED, pp. Ordered; directed ; ad- monished with authority ; commanded.

      ENJOIN'ER, n. One who enjoins.

      ENJOINING, ;)pr. Orderuig; directing.


      ENJOIN'MENT, n. Direction; command; authoritative admonition.

      ENJOY', r. <. [Yr.jouir; Arm. jouifza; It. gioire. See Joy.]

      1. To feel or perceive with pleasure ; to take pleasure or satisfaction in the posses- sion or experience of. AVe enjoy the dain- ties of a feast, the conversation of friends, and our own meditations.



      of death.

      And smile in a^ony. .Addison.

      To possess with satisfaction ; to take pleasure or delight in the possession of.

      Thou shall beget sons, but thou shalt not en- joy them. Deut. xxviii.

      3. To have, possess and use with satisfac- tion ; to have, hold or occupy, as a good or profitable thing, or as something desir- able. We enjoy a free constitution and in- estimable privileges.

      That the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. Num. XXX vi.

      The land shall cti/oi/ her sabbaths. Lev. xxvi.

      To enjoy one's self, is to fee! pleasure or sat- isfaction in one's own mind, or to relish the pleasures in which one partakes ; to be happy.

      ENJOY', V. i. To live in happiness. [Unus- ual.] Milton.

      ENJOY'ABLE, a. Capable of being enjoy- ed. Pope.

      ENJOY'ED,^/). Perceived with pleasure or satisfaction ; possessed or used with pleas- ure ; occu|>ied with content.

      ENJOY'ER, n. One who enjoys.

      ENJOY'ING, ppr. Feeling with pleasure; possessing with satisfaction.

      ENJOY'MENT, n. Pleasure ; satisfaction ; agreeable sensations ; fruition.

      2. Possession with satisfaction ; occupancy of any thing good or desirable ; as the en- joyment of an estate; the e»i/o)/me»it of civil and religious privileges.

      ENKIN'DLE, v. t. [from kindle.] To kin- dle ; to set on fire ; to infJame ; as, to en- kindle sparks into a flame. In this literal sense, kindle is generally used.

      2. To excite ; to rouse into action ; to in- flame ; as, to enkindle the passions into a flame ; to enkindle zeal ; to enkindle war or discord, or the flames of war.

      ENKIN'DLED, pp. Set on fire ; inflamed : roused into action ; excited.

      ENKIN'DLING, ppr. Setting on fire ; iu- flauiing ; rousing ; excituig.

      ENL>ARD, V. t. To cover with lard or grease ; to baste. Shak.

      ENL>ARgE, v. t. enlarj. [from large.] To make greater in quantity or dimensions ; to extend in limits, breadth or size ; to ex- pand in bulk. Every man desires to en- large his possessions ; the prince, his do- minions ; and the landholder, his farm. The body is enlarged by nutrition, and a good man rejoices to enlarge the sphere of his benevolence.

      God shall enlarge Japhet. Gen. ix.

      2. To dilate ; to expand ; as with joy or love.

      O ye, Corinthians, our mouth is open to you, our heart is enlarged. St. Paul.

      3. To expand ; to make more comprehen- ve. Science enlarges the mind.

      4. To increase in appearance ; to magnify to the eye ; as by a glass.

      5. To set at liberty ; to release from confine- ment or pressure. Shak.

      6. To extend in a discourse ; to diffuse in el- oquence.

      They enlarged themselves on this subject.

      Clarendon. In this application, the word is general- ly intransitive.

      7. To augment; to increase ; to make large or larger, in a general sense ; a word of gen- eral application.

      To enlarge the heart, may signify to open and expand in good will ; to make fi'ee, liberal and charitable.

      ENL'AR6E, v. i. enlarj. To grow large or larger ; to extend ; to dilate ; to expand. A plant enlarges by growth ; an estate en- larges by good management ; a volimie of air enlarges by rarefaction.

      2. To be diflFtise in speaking or writing ; to expatiate. I might enlarge on this topic.

      3. To exaggerate. Swifl.

      ENL'ARgED, pp. Increased in bulk ; ex- tended in dimensions ; expanded ; dilated ; augmented; released from confinement or straits.

      ENL'ARgEDLY, adv. With enlargement. Mountagu.

      ENLARGEMENT, n. Increase of size or bulk, real or apparent ; extension of dimensions or limits ; augmentation ; dilatation ; expansion. The enlargement of bulk may be by accretion or addition; of dimensions, by spreading, or by addi- tions to length and breadth ; of a sum or amount, by addition, collection or accu- mulatiori.

      2. Expansion or extension, applied to the mind, to knowledge, or to the intellectual powers, by which the mind comprehends a wider range of ideas or thought.

      3. Expansion of the heart, by which it be- comes more benevolent and charitable.

      4. Release from confinement, servitude, dis- tress or straits. Esther iv. Shak.

      5. Diffusiveness of speech or writing ; an expatiating on a particular subject; a wide range of discourse or argument.


      ENL'ARGER, n. He or that which enlarg- es, increases, extends or expands ; an am- plifier. Brown.

      ENL\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\RGlNG,;);>r. Increasing in bulk ; ex-

      E N M

      tending in dimensions ; expanding ; mak

      ing free or liberal ; speaking diffusively. ENLARGING, n. Enlargement. ENLl'GHT, v.t. enli'te. To illuminate ; to

      enlighten. Pop^

      [See Enlighten. Enlisht is rarely used.]

      ENLI'GHTEN, v. I. erdi'tn. [from lighl ,

      Sax. enlihian, onlihian.']

      1. To make light ; to shed light on ; to sup- ply with light ; to illuminate ; as, the sun enlightens the earth.

      His lighmings enlightened the world. Ps xcvii.

      2. To quicken in the faculty of vision ; to en- able to see more clearly.

      Jonathan's — eyes were enlightened. I Sam xiv.

      3. To give light to; to give clearer views to illuminate ; to instruct ; to enable to see or comprehend truth ; as, to enlighten the mind or understanding.

      4. To illuminate with divine knowledge, or a knowledge of the truth.

      Those who were once enlightened. Heb. vi

      ENLI'GHTEN ED, pp. Rendered light ; il

      laminated ; instructed ; informed ; fur

      nished with clear views.

      ENLI'GHTENER, n. One who illumin

      ates ; he or that which communicates

      light to the eye, or clear views to the

      mind. Milton

      ENLI'GHTENING, ppr. Illuminating ; giv-

      ing light to ; instructnig.

      ENLINK', V. t. [from link.[ To chain to ; tc connect. Shak

      ENLIST', V. t. [See List.] To enroll ; to re- gister ; to enter a name on a list.

      2. To engage in public service, by entering the name in a register ; as, an officer en- lists men.

      ENLIST', V. i. To engage in public service by subscribing articles, or enrolling one's name.

      ENLIST'MENT, n. The act of enlisting the writing by which a soldier is bound.

      ENLI'VEN, V. t. enli'vn. [from life, live. Literally, to give life. Hence,

      1. To give action or motion to ; to make vig orous or active ; to excite ; as, fresh fuel enlivens a fire.

      2. To give spirit or vivacity to ; to animate to make sprightly. Social mirth and good humor enliven company ; they enli: dull and gloomy.

      3. To make cheerful, gay or joyous. ENLI'VENED, pp. Made more active ; ex

      cited; animated ; made cheerful or gay.

      ENLI'VENER, n. He or that which enli vens or animates ; he or that which in vigorates.

      ENLI'VENING, ppr. Giving life, spirit or animation; inspiriting; invigorating; ma- king vivacious, sprightly or cheerful.

      ENLU'MINE, V. t. To illumine ; to enlight- en. [See the latter words.]

      ENMAR'BLE, v. I. To make hard as mar- ble ; to harden. Spenser

      ENMESH', V. t. [from mesh.] To net ; to en- tangle ; to entrap. Shak

      EN'MITY, n. [Fr. inimiti^ ; in and amitie, friendship, amity. See Enemy.]

      1. The quality of being an enemy ; the op- posite of friendship; ill will ; hatred ; un friendly dispositions ; malevolence. It ex- presses more than aversion and less than malice, and differs from displeasure in de

      Vol. I.

      E N O

      noting a fixed or rooted hatred, wbercasi displeasure is more transient.

      1 will put enmity between tliee and the wo- man. Gen. iii.

      The carnal mind is enmity against God. Rom. viii. A state of opposition.

      The friendship of the world is e7imily witli God. Jaines iv. ENNEAeONTAHE'DRAL, a. [Gr. fuvttr,- xo>.Ta and fSpa.] Having ninety faces.

      Cleaveland. EN'NEAGON, Ji. [Gr. iwia, nine, and ywna,

      angle,] In geometry, a polygon or figure with nine

      sides or nine angles. ENNEAN'DER, n. [Gr. f^»a, nine, and a«jp, a male.] In botany, a plant having nine stamens. ENNEAN'DRIAN, a. Having nine sta-

      ENNEAPET'ALOUS, a. [Gr. iwia, nine, and rttta'Kov, a leaf] Having nine petals or flower-leaves.

      ENNEAT'I€AL, a. [Gr. fwia, nine.] En neatical days, are every ninth day of a dis ease. Enneatical years, are every ninth year of a man's life. Johnson.

      ENNEW, v. t. To make new. [JVot in use.] Skelton.

      ENNO'BLE, v. t. [Fr. ennohlir. See M)ble:

      1. To make noble ; to raise to nobility ; as, ennoble a commoner.

      3. To dignify; to exalt; to aggrandize; to

      elevate in degree, qualities or excellence.

      What can ennoble sots, or slaves, or cowards i

      3. To make famous or illustrious. Bacon.

      ENNO'BLED, pp. Raised to the rank of bility; dignified; exalted in rank, excel- lence or value.

      ENNOBLEMENT, n. Tlie act of advanc ing to nobility. Bacon.

      2. Exaltation ; elevation in degree or excel lence. Glanville

      ENNO'BLING, ppr. Advancing to the rank of a nobleman; exalting; dignifying.

      ENNUI, n. [Fr. weariness ; It. not«, whence noiare, annoiare, to tire,to vex, Fr. ennuyer Class Ng.] Weariness; heaviness; las situde of fastidiousness.

      ENODA'TION, n. [L. enodatio, from enodo. to clear from knots ; c and nodus, a knot.]

      1. The act or operation of clearing of knots, or of untying.

      2. Solution of a difficulty. [Little used.] ENO'DE, a. [L. enodis; e and nodus, knot.]

      In botany, destitute of knots or joints : knotlcss.

      ENOM'OTAR€H, n. The commander of an enomotv. Mitford.

      ENOM'OTY, n. [Gr. tvunotia ; iv and ofim- fu, to swear.]

      In Lacedssmon, anciently, a body of soldiers, supposed to be thirty two ; but the precise number is uncertain. Mitford.

      ENORM', a. [JVot used. See Enoiinous.]

      ENOR'MITY, n. [L. enormitas. See Enor- mous.]

      1. Literally, the transgression of a rule, or deviation from right. Hence, any wrong, irregular, vicious or sinful act, either in government or morals.

      We shall speak of the enormities of the gov- ernment. Spenser This law will not restrain llie enormity.



      E N O

      2. Atrocious crime ; flagitious villainy ; u crime which exceeds tlie common meas- ure. Sivift.

      3. Atrociousness ; excessive degree of crime or guilt. Punishment should be propor- tioned to the enormity of the crime.

      ENOR'MOUS, a. [L. enormia; e and norma, a rule.]

      1. Going beyond the usual measure or ride. Enormous in their gait. Milton.

      2. Excursive; beyond the limits of a regular figure.

      The enormous part of the light in the circum- ference of every lucid point. JVewton.

      3. Great beyond the common measure ; ex- cessive ; as enormous crime or guilt.

      , Exceeding, in bulk or highth, the common measure ; as an enormous form ; a man of

      enormous size. 5. Irregular; confused; disordered; unusu- al. Shak. ENOR'MOUSLY, adv. Excessively ; beyond measure ; as an opinion enormously absurd. ENOR'MOUSNESS, n. The state of being enormous or excessive ; greatness beyond measure. ENOUGH', a. envf. [Sax. genog, genoh; Goth, ganah ; G. genug,gnug ; D. genoeg ; Sw. nog ; Dan. nok ; Sax. genogan, to mul- tiply ; G. geniigcn, to satisfy ; D. genoegen, to satisfy, please, content. The Swedes and Danes drop the prefix, as the Danes do in nogger, to jjnaw. This word may be the Heb.Ch. Syr. Sam. to rest, to be quiet or satisfied. Class Ng. No. 14.] That satisfies desire, or gives content ; that may answer the purpose ; that is ad- equate to the wants.

      .She said, we have straw and provender enough. Gen. xxiv.

      How many hired servants of my father have bread enough, and to spare. Luke xv.

      [Note. This word, in vulgar language, is sometimes placed before its noun, like most oth- er adjectives. But in elegant discourse or com- position, it always follows the noun, to which it refers ; as, bread enough ; money etumgh.] ENOUGH', n. enuf. A sufficiency ; a quan- tity of a thing which satisfies desire, or is adequate to the wants. We have enough of this sort of cloth.

      And Esau said, I have enough, my brother. Gen. xxxili.

      Israel said, it is enough; Joseph is yet alive. Gen. xlv.

      2. That which is equal to the powers or Jibil- ities. He had enough to do to take care of himself

      ENOUGH', adv. enuf. Sufficiently ; in a quantity or degree that satisfies, or is equal to the desires or wants.

      The land, behold, it is large enough for them. Gen. xxxiv.

      Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount. Deut. i.

      3. Fully ; quite ; denoting a slight augment- ation of the positive degree. He is ready enough to embrace the offer. It is pleas- ant enough to consider the different no- tions of different men respecting the same thing.

      3. Sometimes it denotes diminution, deli- cately expressing rather less than is desir- ed : such a quantity or degree as com- mands acquiescence, ratlier than full satisfaction. The song or the perform- ance is well enough.

      E N R

      4. An exclamation denoting sufficiency. Enough, enough, I'll hear no more.

      ENOUNCE, v.t. mouns'. [Fr. enoncer; L. ennncio ; e and nuncio, to declare.]

      To utter ; to pronounce ; to declare. [Little used.]

      ENOUN'CED, pp. Uttered ; pronounced.

      ENOUN'CING, ppr. Uttering ; pronoun- cing.

      ENOW, the old plural of enough, is nearly obsolete.

      En passant. [Fr.] In passing ; by the way.

      ENQUICK'EN, i'. t. To quicken; to make alive. [Not used.']

      ENQUIRE, usually written jn^uiVe, which see and its derivatives.

      ENRA'CE, V. t. To implant. [Aoi used.]


      ENRA'gE, v. t. [Fr. enrager. See Rage.] To excite rage in ; to exasperate ; to pro- voke to fury or madness ; to make furi- ous.

      ENRA'GED, ;);). Made furious ; exaspera- ted ; provoked to madness.

      ENRA'GING, ppr. Exasperating ; provok- ing to

      ENRA'NgE, v. t. To put in order ; to rove over. [JVot in use.] Spenser.

      ENRANK', v. t. To place in ranks or order. Shak.

      ENRAP'TURE, v.t. [from rapture.] To transport with pleasure; to delight beyond measure. Enrapt, in a like sense, is little used, and is hardly legitimate.

      ENRAP'TURED, pp. Transported with pleasure ; highly delighted.

      ENRAP'TURING, ppr. Transporting witli pleasure ; highly dehghting.

      ENRAV'ISH, V. t. [from ravish.] To throw into ecstasy ; to transport with delight ; to enraptine. Spenser.

      ENRAV'ISHED, pp. Transported with de- light or pleasure ; emaptured.

      ENRAV'ISHING, ppr. Throwing into ec- stasy ; highly delighting.

      ENRAV'ISHMENT, n. Ecstasy of delight; rapture. Glanville.

      ENREt'ISTER, I'. /. [Fr. enregislrer.] To register ; to enroll or record. Spenser.

      ENRHEUJI, 1-. i. [Fr. enrhumer.] To have rheum through cold.

      ENRICH', V. t. [Fr. enrichir, from riche, rich.]

      1. To make rich, wealthy or opulent; tc supply with abundant property. Agricul- ture, commerce and manufactures enrich a nation. War and plunder seldom emich, more generally they impoverish a country.

      2. To fertilize ; to supply with the nutriment of plants and render productive ; as, to en rich land by manures or irrigation.

      3. To store ; to supply with an abundance of any thing desirable ; as, to enrich the mind with knowledge, science or useful obser- vations.

      4. To supply with any thing splendid or or namental ; as, to enrich a painting with elegant drapery ; to enrich a poem or ora- tion with striking metajdiors or images ; to enrich a garden with flowers or shrub- bery.

      ENRICHED, pp. Made rich or wealthy fertilized ; supplied with that which is de- sirable, useful or ornamental.

      ENRICH'ER, «. One that enriches.


      ENRICII'ING.ppr. Making opulent ; ferti- lizing ; supplying with what is splendid, useful or ornamental.

      ENRICH'MENT, »i. Augmentation of wealth ; amplification ; improvement ; the addition of fertility or ornament.

      ENRIDgE, V. /. enrij'. To form into ridges. Shak.

      ENRING', v. t. To encircle ; to bind.


      ENRI'PEN, v. t. To ripen ; to bring to per- fection. Donne.

      ENRI'VE, v. t. To rive ; to cleave.


      ENROBE, i>. (. [from rohe.] To clothe with rich attire ; to attire ; to invest. Shak.

      ENROBED, pp. Attired; invested.

      ENRO'BING,j);)r. Investing; attiring.

      ENROLL, V. t. [Fr. enroler, from role, rolle, a roll or register.]

      1. To write in a roll or register; to insert a name or enter in a list or catalogue ; as, men are enrolled for service.

      2. To record ; to insert in records ; to leave riting. Milton. Shai

      3. To wrap ; to involve. [Not now used.] Spense

      ENROLLED, pp. Inserted in a roll or regis- ter; recorded.

      ENROLLER, n. He that enrolls or regi ters.

      ENROLLING, ppr. Inserting in a register ; recording.

      ENROLLMENT, n. A register ; a record ; a writing in which any thing is recorded.

      2. The act of enrolling.

      IJNRQOT', V. t. [from root.] To fix by the root ; to fix fast ; to imi)lant deep. Shak.

      ENROOT'ED, pp. Fixed by the root ; plant- ed or fixed deep.

      ENRQQT'ING, ppr. Fixing by the root; planting deep.

      ENROUND', i>.<. To environ; to surround ; to inclose. [Not ttsed.] Shak.

      ENS, n. [L. ens, part, present of esse, to be.] Entity; being; existence. Among the old chimists, the power, virtue or efficacy which certain substances exert on our bod ies ; or the things which are supposed to contain all the quahties or virtues of the ingredients they are drawn from, in little room. [Little used.] Encyc. Johnson

      ENSAM'PLE, n. [Irregularly formed fron; example or sample. It. esempio, L. exem- plum.]

      An example ; a pattern or model for imita- tion.

      Being ensamj^les to the flock. 1 Pet. v.

      ENSAM'PLE, V. t. To exemphfy ; to shew by example. This word is seldom used, either as a noun or a verb. [See Exam



      ENSAN'GUINE, v. t. [L. sanguis, blood

      Eng. sanguine.] To stain or cover with blood ; to smear witi

      gore ; as an ensanguined field. Milton ENSAN'GUINED, pp. SuflTused or stained

      with blood. EN'SATE, a. [L. enm, a sword.] Havin;

      sword-shaped leaves. ENSCHED'ULE, v. t. To insert in a sched

      ule. [See Schedule.] Shak.

      ENSCONCE, V. t. enscons'. [from sconce.]

      To cover, or shelter, as with a sconce or

      fort ; to protect ; to secure.

      1 will ensconce me behind the arras. Shak


      ENS€ON'CED,i;);). Covered, or sheltered, as by a sconce or fort ; protected ; se- cured.

      ENSCON'CING, ppr. Covering, or shelter- ing, as by a fort.

      ENSE'AL, V. t. [from seal] To seal ; to fix a seal on ; to impress.

      ENSE'ALED, pp. Impressed with a seal.

      ENSE'ALING,/)^'. Sealing; affixing a seal

      n. The act of affixing a

      [from seam.] To sew up ; " lie-

      to. ENSE'ALING,

      seal to. ENSE'AM, v.t.

      to iticlose by a seam or juncture of needl

      work. Camden

      ENSE'AMED, a. Greasy. [Not in use.]

      ENSE'AR, v.t. [frotn sear.] To sear; to cauterize ; to close or stop by burning to hardness. Snak.

      ENSEARCH', v. i. enserch'. To search for ; to try to find. [Not used.] Elyot.

      ENSEM'BLE, n. [Fr.] One with another ; on an average.

      ENSHIE'LD, V. t. [from shield.] To shield : to cover ; to protect. Shak.

      ENSHRI'NE, v.t. [from shrine.] To in- close in a shrine or chest; to deposit for safe-keeping in a cabinet. Milton.

      ENSHRI'NED, pp. Inclosed or preserved in a shrine or chest.

      2. Inclosed ; placed as in a shrine.

      Wisdom enshrined in beauty. Percival.

      ENSHRI'NING,;)^-. Inclosing in a shrine or cabinet.

      ENSIF'EROUS, a. [L. ensis, sword, and fero, to bear.] Bearing or carrying a sword.

      EN'SIFORM, a. [L. ensiformis ; ensis, sword, a.w\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ forma, form.]

      Having- the shape of a sword ; as the ensi-

      form or xiphoid cartilage ; an ensiform leaf.

      (luincy. Martyn.

      EN'SIGN, n. en'sine. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Fr. enseigne; la-in- signe, insignia, from signum, a mark im- pressed, a sign.]

      1. The flag or banner of a military band ; a banner of colors; a standard; a figured cloth or piece of silk, attached to a staff, and usually with figures, colors or arms thereon, borne by an officer at the head of a company, troop or other band.

      2. Any signal to assemble or to give notice.

      He will lift up an ensign to the nations. Is.

      Ye shall be left as an ensign on a hill. Is.


      .3. A badge ; a mark of distinction, rank or office ; as ensigns of power or virtue.

      fValler. Dryden.

      4. The officer who carries the flag or colors, being the lowest commissioned officer in a company of infantry.

      5. Navai ensign, is a large banner hoisted on a staff" and carried over the poop or stern of a ship; used to distinguish ships of dif- ferent nations, or to characterize different squadrons of the same navy. Mar. Diet.

      EN'SIGN-BEARER, n. He that carries the flag ; an ensign.

      EN'SIGNCY, n. The rank, office or com- mission of an ensign.

      ENSKI'ED, a. Placed in heaven ; made immortal. [Not in use.] Shak.

      ENSLA'VE, v. t. [from slave.] To reduce to slavery or bondage ; to deprive of hherty

      E N T

      and subject to the will of a master. Bar barous nations enslave their prisoners of war, but civilized men barbarously and wickedly purchase men to enslave them.

      2. To reduce to servitude or subjection. Men often suffer their passions and appe- tites to enslave them. They are enslavedi^ to lust, to anger, to intemperance, to ava rice.

      ENSLA'VED, pp. Reduced to -slavery or subjection.

      ENSLA'VEMENT, n. The state of being enslaved ; slavery ; bondage ; servitude.


      ENSLA'VER, n. He who reduces anotherj to bondage. Smjl.

      ENSLA'VING, ppr. Reducing to bondage ; depriving of liberty.

      ENSNARE. [See Insnare.]

      ENSO'BER, V. t. [from sober.] To make sober. Taylor.

      ENSPHE'RE, V. t. [from sphere.] To place in a sphere. Hall.

      2. To make into a sphere. Carew.'

      ENSTAMP', «.«. [from stamp.] To impress| as with a stamp ; to impress deeply. God emtainped his image on man.


      ENSTAMP'ED, pp. Impressed deeply.

      ENSTAMP'ING,;)pr. Impressing deeply, i

      ENSTY'LE, t'. *. To style ; to name ; to call. [Little used.] Drayton}

      ENSU'E, II. t. [Fr. ensuivre ; Norm, ensuer ; Sp. seguir ; It. seguire ; L. sequor, to fol low. See Seek.]

      To follow ; to pursue.

      Seek peace, and ensue it. 1 Pet. iii. [In this sense, it is obsolete.]

      ENSU'E, V. i. To follow as a consequence of premises ; as, from these facts or this] evidence, the argument will ensue.

      2. To follow in a train of events or course of; time ; to succeed ; to come after. He spoke and silence ensued. We say, the' ensuing age or years ; the ensuing events.'

      ENSUING, ppr. Following as a

      quence ; succeeding.

      5Ng .. - .

      ENSURE, and its derivatives. [See Insure.'

      ENSWEE'P, I', t. To sweep over ; to pass; over rapidly. Thomson.

      ENTAB'LATURE, ) , [Sp. entahlamento ;\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      ENTAB'LEMENT, ^ "• l-V. entablement Sp. entablar, to cover with boards, from L. tabula, a board or table.]

      In architecture, that part of the order of a column, which is over the capital, inclu- ding the architrave, frieze and cornice, being the extremity of the flooring.

      Encyc. Harris.

      ENTACK'LE, v. t. To supply with tackle.] [M)t used.] Skelt,

      ENTA'IL, ?!. [Fr. cntailler, to cut, lie tailler. It. tagliare, id. Feudum talliatum, a fee entailed, abridged, curtailed, limitc

      1. An estate or fee entailed, or limited in! descent to a particular heir or heirs. Es-! tates-tail are general, as when lands and tenements are given to one and the heirs! of his body begotten ; or special, as when' lands and tenements are given to one and, the heirs of his body by a particular wife.]

      2. Rule of descent settled for an estate. i

      3. Engraver's work ; inlay. Obs. Spenser.' ENTA'IL, V. t. To settle the descent of lands'

      and tenements, by gift to a man and to*

      E N T

      certain heirs specified, so that neither tlj donee nor any subsequent possessor can alienate or bequeath it; as, to entail a manor to AB and to his eldest son, or to his heirs of his body begotten, or to his heirs by a particular wife.

      2. To fix unalienably on a person or thing, or on a person and his descendants. By tlie apostasy misery is supposed to be cii- tailed on mankind. The inteinperate often entail inhrinities, diseases and r their children.

      [from the French verb.] To cut ; to carve for ornament. [06«.] Spenser.

      ENTA'ILED, pp. Settled on a man and certain heirs specified.

      2. Settled on a person and his descendants.

      ENTA'ILING,/»;)r. Settling the descent of an estate ; giving, as lands and tenements, and prescribing the mode of descent; set- tling unalienably on a person or thing.

      ENTA'ILMENT, n. The act of giving, as an estate, and directing the mode of de- scent, or of limiting the descent to a par- ticular heir or heirs.

      2. The act of settling unalienably on a man and his heirs.

      ENTA'ME, V. I. [from tame.] To tame ; to subdue. Goioer.

      ENTAN'GLE, v. t. [from tangle.] To twist or interweave in such a manner as not to be easily separated ; to make confused or disordered ; as, thread, yarn or ropes may be entangled ; to entangle tlie hair.

      2. To involve in any thing compHcated, and from which it is diflicult to extricate one's self; as, to entangle the feet in a net, or i:i briers.

      3. To lose in numerous or complicated invo- lutions, as in a labyrinth.

      4. To involve in difficulties ; to perplex ; to embarrass ; as, to entangle a nation in alli-

      5. To puzzle ; to bewilder ; as, to entangle the understanding. Locke. To insnarc by captious questions ; tc

      catch ; to i)erplex ; to involve in contra dictions.

      The Pharisees took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. Matt. xxii.

      7. To perplex or distract, as with cares.

      No man that warreth en(an^Ze(/i himself with the affairs of this life. 2 Tim. ii.

      B. To multiply intricacies and diflicultics.

      ENTAN'GLED,;>p. or a. Twisted together; interwoven hi a confused manner ; intri- cate ; perplexed ; involved ; embarrassed ; insnared.

      ENTAN'GLEMENT, n. Involution ; a con- fused or disordered state ; intricacy ; per- ph'xity. Locke.

      F.NT AX (JLER, n. One who entangles.

      I',.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\TA.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ GLING, ppr. Involving; inter- wciivjjig or interlocking in confusion ; per- plexing ; insnaring.

      ENTEN'DER, v. t. To treat with tend ness or kindness. Young.

      EN'TER, V. t. [Fr. entrer, from entre, be tween, h. inter, intra, whence intra, t< enter ; It. entrare ; Sp. entrar. The L. inter seems to be in, with the terminatioi ter, as in subter, from sub.]

      I. To move or pass into a place, in any man ner whatever ; to come or go in ; to walk or ride in ; to flow in ; to pierce or pene trate. .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ man enters a house ; an army

      E N T

      enters a city or a camp ; a river enters the sea ; a sword enters the body ; the air enters a room at every crevice.

      2. To advance into, in the progress of life ; a.s, a youth has entered his tenth year.

      3. To beghi in a business, employment or service ; to enlist or engage in ; as, the soldier entered the service at eighteen years of age.

      4. To become a member of; as, to enter col- lege ; to enter a society.

      5. To admit or introduce ; as, the youth was entered a member of College.

      6. To set down in writing ; to set an account in a book or register ; as, the clerk entered the account or charge in the journal ; he entered debt and credit at the time.

      7. To set down, as a name ; to enroll ; as, to e»t(er a name in the eidistment.

      8. To lodge a inanifest of goods at the cus- tom-house, and gain admittance or per- mission to land ; as, to enter goods. We say also, to enter a ship at the custom- house.

      EN'TER, V. i. To go or come in ; to pass into ; as, to enter into a country.

      2. To flow in ; iis, water enters into a ship.

      3. To pierce ; to penetrate ; as, a ball or an enters into the body.

      4. To penetrate mentally ; as, to enter into the principles of action. To engage in ; as, to enter into business or service ; to enter into visionary projects.

      0. To be initiated in ; as, to enter into a taste of pleasure or magnificence. Addison.

      7. To be an ingredient ; to form a constitu- ent part. Lead enters into the composition of pewter.

      EN'TERDEAL, n. Mutual deaUngs. [.Vo< in use.] Spenser.

      EN'TERED,;?^. Moved in; come in ; pier- ced ; penetrated ; admitted ; introduced ; set down in writing.

      EN'TERING, ppr. Coming or going in ; flowing in ; piercing ; penetrating ; setting down in writing ; enlisting ; engaging.

      EN'TERING, n. Entrance ; a passing in. 1 Thes. i.

      ENTERLACE. [See Interlace.]

      EN'TEROCELE, n. [Gr. ivtipov, intestine, and x>;>.i7, tumor.]

      In surgen/, intestinal hernia ; a rupture of the intestines. Coxe.

      ENTEROL'OOiY, n. [Gr. oT'jpo.., intestine, and J.oyo{, discourse.]

      A treatise or discourse on the bowels or in- ternal parts of the body, usually including the contents of the head, breast and belly. Quincy.

      ENTEROM'PHALOS, n. [Gr. «f(po., in- testine, and ofiijHxXoj, navel.] Navel rup- ture ; umbilical rupture.

      ENTERP'ARLANCE, n. [Fr. entre, be- tween, and parler, to speak.]

      Parley ; mutual talk or conversation ; con- ference. Hayward.

      ENTER PLEAD. [See Interplead.]

      ENTERPRISE, n. s as :. [Fr. from enire- prendre, to undertake ; entre, in or between, and prendre, to take, prise, a taking.]

      That which is undertaken, or attempted to be performed ; an attempt : a project at- tempted ; particularly, a bold, arduous or hazardous undertaking, either physical or moral. The attack on Stoney-Point was a bold, but successful enterprise. The at-

      E N T

      tempts to evangelize the heathen are noble enterpiises.

      Their hands cannot perform their enterprise Job V. ENTERPRISE, v. t. To undertake ; to be- gin anil attempt to perform. The business must be enterjn-ised this night. Drydeii. EN'TERPRISED, pp. Undertaken ; at- tempted ; essayed. EN'TERPRISER, n. An adventurer; one who undertakes any projected scheme, pecially a bold or hazardous one ; a person who engages in important or dangerous designs. Haymard.

      EN'TERPRISING, ppr. Undertaking, es- pecially a bold design.

      2. a. Bold or forward to undertake ; reso- lute, active, or prompt to attempt great or untried schemes. Enterprising men often succeed beyond all human proba- bility.

      ENTERTA'IN, v. I. [Fr. enlretenir ; entre, in or between, and tenir, to hold, L. teneo.]

      1. To receive into the house and treat with hospitality, either at the table only, or with lodging also.

      Be not forgetful to entertain strangers ; for thereby some have entertained angel: Heb. xiii.

      S. To treat with conversation ; to

      instruct by discourse ; properly, to engage! the attention and retain the company of one, by agreeable conversation, discourse or argument. The advocate entertained his audience an hour, with sound argu- ment and brilliant displays of eloquence.

      3. To keep in one's service ; to maintain He entertained ten domestics.

      You, sir, I entertain for one of my hundred Shall. [This original and French sense is obso lete or little used.]

      4. To keep, hold or maintain in the mind with favor ; to reserve in the mind harbor ; to cherish. Let us entertain the most exalted views of the Divine charac ter. It is our duty to entertain charitable sentiments towards our fellow men

      5. To maintain ; to support ; as, to entertain a hospital. Obs.

      (j. To please ; to amuse ; to divert. David entertained himself with the meditation of God's law. Idle men entertain themselv with trifles.

      7. To treat; to supply with provisions and liquors, or with provisions and lodging, for reward. The innkeeper entertains a great deal of company.

      ENTERTA'IN, n. Entertainment. [JVot use,] Spe7iser.

      ENTERTA'INED, pp. Received with hos pitaUty, as a guest ; amused ; pleased and engaged ; kept in the mind ; retained.

      ENTERTA'INER, n. He who entertains he who receives company with hospitality or for reward.

      2. He who retains others in his service.

      3. He that amuses, pleases or diverts. ENTERTAINING, ppr. Receiving with

      hospitality ; receiving and treating with provisions and accommodations, for re- ward ; keeping or cherishing with favor ; engaging the attention; amusing. 2. a. Pleasing ; amusing ; diverting ; as an entertaining ; an entertaining fneud.

      E N T

      ENTERTAININGLY, adv. In an amusing manner. Warton

      ENTERTA'INMENT, n. The receiving and accommodating of guests, either witl or without reward. The hospitable mar delights in the entertainment of his friends,

      2. Provisions of the table; hence also, ;i feast ; a superb dinner or supper.

      3. The amusement, pleasure or instruction, derived from conversation, discourse, ar- gument, oratory, music, dramatic perform- ances, &c.; the pleasure which the mind receives from any thing interesting, and which holds or arrests the attention. We often have rich entertainment, in the con versation of a learned friend.

      4. Reception ; admission. Tillolson. .5. The state of being in pay or service. [JVb<

      iised.] Shak

      G. Payment of those retained in service,

      Ohs. Davies

      7. That which entertains; that which serves

      for amusement ; the lower comedy ; farce,


      ENTERTIS'SUED, a. [Fr. entre anAtissii.]

      Interwoven ; having various colors inter- mixed. Shak. ENTHEAS'TIC, a. [Gr. tv and 9.of, God.]

      Having the energy of God. ENTHEAS'TIeALLY, adv. According to

      deific energy. Trans, of Pausanias.

      EN'THEAT,a. [Gr. ^rSto;.] Enthusiastic.

      [JVot in use.] ENTHRALL', v. t. To enslave. [See In-

      thrall.] ENTHRILL', v. t. To pierce. [See Thnll.] ENTHRO'NE, v. t. [from throne.] To place

      on a throne ; to exalt to the seat of royalty.

      Beneatli a sculptured arch he sits enthroned.


      2. To exalt to an elevated place or seat. Shak.

      3. To invest with sovereign authority. Ayliffe.

      ENTHRO'NED, pp. Seated on a throne ; exulted to an elevated place.

      ENTHKO'NING, ppr. Seating on a throne aising to an exalted seat.

      ENTHUN'DER, v. i. To make a loud noisa ke thunder.

      ENTHU'SIASM, n. enihu'ziazm. [Gr. iv- dovaiarsfioi, from ffSotisiai^io, to infuse a di- vine spirit, from tvSwi, ivSiOf, inspired, di- vine ; IV and Sio^, God.]

      1. A belief or conceit of private revelation ; the vain confidence or opinion of a per son, that he has special divine communica tionsfrom the Supreme Being, or familiar intercourse with him.

      Enthusiasm is founded neither on re divine revelation, but rises from the conceits of a warmed or overweening imagination.


      2. Heat of imagination ; violent passion or excitement of the mind, in pursuit of some object, inspiring extravagant hope and confidence of success. Hence the same heat of imagination, chastised by reason or experience, becomes a noble passion, an elevated fancy, a warm imagination an ardent zeal, that forms sublime ideas, and prompts to the ardent pursuit of laud able objects. Such is the enthusiasm of the poet, the orator, the painter and the sculptor. Such is the enthusiasm of the patriot, the hero and the christian.

      E N T

      Faction and enthicsiasm are the instramenta by which popular governments are destroyed.

      ENTHU'SIAST, n. enthu'ziast. [Gr. sv- Sovuia^Tji.]

      1. One who imagines he has special or su- pernatural converse with God, or special communications from him.

      2. One whose imagination is warmed ; one whose mind is highly excited with the love or in the pursuit of an object ; a person of ardent zeal ; as an enthusiast in poetiy or music.

      3. One of elevated fancy or exalted ideas. Dniden.

      ENTHUSIAS'TIe, > Filled with en-

      ENTHUSIAS'TI€AL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "■ thusiasm, or the conceit of special intercourse with God or revelations from him.

      2. Highly excited ; warm and ardent ; zeal- ous in pursuit of an object ; heated to ani- mation. Our author was an enthusiastic lover of poetry and admirer of Homer.

      •3. Elevated ; warm ; tinctured with enthu- siasm. The speaker addressed the audi- ence in enthusiastic strains.

      ENTHUSIAS'TI€ALLY, adv. Withenthu-

      ENTHYMEMAT'ICAL, a. Pertaining to an enthymeme ; including an enthymeme.

      EN'THYMEME, n. [Gr. ,v9v^ir,l«>.f{rom iv$vixto/iai,, to think or conceive ; ev and dv/ios, mind.]

      In rhetoric, an argument consisting of only two propositions, an antecedent and a con- sequent deduced from it ; as, we are de- pendent, therefore we should be humble. Here the major proposition is suppres- sed ; the complete syllogism would be, dependent creatures shoidd be humble ; we are dependent creatures ; therefore we should be humble.

      ENTI'CE, V. t. [This word seems to be the Sp. atizar. Port aticar, Fr. atti^er, Arm. attisa, from Sp. tizon, It. tizzone, Fr. tison, L. litio, a firebrand. The sense, in these languages, is to lay the firebrands togeth- er, or to stir the fire ; to provoke ; to in- cense. The sense in English is a httle varied. If it is not the same word, I know not its origin.]

      L To incite or instigate, by exciting hope or desire ; usually in a bad sense ; as, to en- tice one to evil. Hence, to seduce ; to lead astray ; to induce to sin, by promises or persuasions.

      My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. Prov. i.

      2. To tempt; to incite; to urge or lead astray.

      Every man is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. James i.

      3. To incite; to allure ; in a good sense. Enfield.

      ENTICED, pp. Incited ; instigated to evil ; seduced by promises or persuasions ; per- suaded ; alliu-ed.

      ENTI'CEMENT, «. The act or practice of inciting to evil ; instigation ; as the entice- ments of evil companions.

      2. Means of inciting to evil ; that which se- duces by exciting the passions. Flattery often operates as an enticement to sin.

      3. Allurement.

      E N T

      E N T

      E N T

      prove. Who founds her greatness i love.

      ENTI'CER, n. One virho entices ; one who incites or instigates to evil ; one who se- duces.

      ENTI'CING, ppr. Inciting to evil ; urging to sin by motives, flattery or persuasion ; alluring.

      2. a. Having the qualities that entice or al- lun;.

      ENTI'CINGLY, adv. Charmingly ; in a winning manner.

      She shigs most enticingly. Addison.

      ENTl'RE, a. [Fr. entier ;' Sp. enlero ; Port. inteiro ; It. intero ; Arm anterin ; L. in- teger, said to be in neg. and tango, to touch. Qu.]

      1. Whole ; undivided ; unbroken ; complete in its parts.

      2. Whole ; complete ; not partici()ated with others. This man has the entire control of the business.

      .3. Pull ; complete ; comprising all requisites in itself.

      An action is entire, when it is complete in all its parts. Spectator.

      4. Sincere ; hearty.

      He run a course more entire with the king of AiTagon. Bacon.

      5. Firm ; solid ; sure ; fixed ; complete ; un- disputed.

      Entire and sure the monarch's rule must

      her subjects' Prior.

      6. Unniingled ; unalloyed.

      In thy presence joy entire. Milton.

      7. Wholly devoted ; firmly adherent ; faith- ful.

      No man had a heart more entire to the king. Clarendon.

      8. In full strength ; unbroken. Spenser.

      9. In botany, an entire stem is one without branches; an entire leaf is without any opening in the edge, not divided. Martyn.

      ENTl'RELY, adv. Wholly; completely; fully ; as, the money is entirely lost. *

      9. In the whole ; without division.

      Euphrates — falls not entirely into the Persian sea. Raleigh.

      ',i. With firm adherence or devotion ; faith- fully. Spenser.

      ENTI'RENESS, n. Completeness; full- ness ; lotaUty ; unbroken form or state ; as the entircness of an arch or a bridge.

      2. Integrity; wholeness of heart ; honesty.

      ENTIRETY, n. Wholeness; complete- ness; as entirely of interest. Blackstone.

      ■2. The whole. Bacon.

      EN'TITATIVE, a. [from entity.] Consid- ered by itself. [This word, and entitatively. rarely or never used.]

      ENTI'TLE, v.l. [Fr. intitider; Sp. inlitu- lar ; It. intitolare ; from L. titulus, a title.]

      1. To give a title to ; to give or prefix a name or appellation ; as, to entille a book, Conmientaries on the laws of England

      2. To superscribe or prefix as a title. Hence as titles are evidences of claim or proper ty, to give a claim to ; to give a right to demand or receive. The labor of the ser vant entitles him to his wages. Milton i entitled to fame. Our best services do not entitle us to heaven.

      3. To assign or appropriate by giving a title.

      4. To qualify ; to give a claim by the pos session of suitable qualifications ; as, an officer's talents entitle him to command.

      5. To dignify by a title or honorable appel- lation. In this sense, title is often used.

      6. To ascrilie. Obs. Burnet.

      ENTI'TLED, pp. Dignified or distinguish- ed by a title ; having a claim ; as, every good man is entitled to respect.

      ENTI'TLING, ppr. Dignifying or distin- guishing by a title ; giving a title ; giving

      a claim. EN'TITY, n. [Low L. entitas; Fr.entiU;

      Sp. entidad; It. entitit; from ens, esse, to

      be.] Being; existence.

      Fortune is no real entity. Bentley.

      2. A real being, or specie-s of being. ENTOIL', V. t. [See Toil.] To take with

      toils ; to ensnare ; to entangle. Bacon. ENTOMB, V. t. entoom'. [from tomb.] To

      deposit in a tomb, as a dead body.

      Hooker, 2. To bury in a grave ; to inter. P^NToMBED, pp. Deposited in a tomb ;

      buried ; interred. ENTOMBING, ppr. Depositing in a tomb ;

      burying ; interring. ENTOMBMENT, n. Burial. Barrotv.

      EN'TOMOLITE, n. [Gr. trfofui, insect, and

      ^i9oj, stone.] A fossil substance bearing the figure of an

      insect, or a petrified insect. Ed. Encyc, ENTOMOLOti'ICAL, a. Pertaining to tijc

      science of insects. ENT0M0L'0(5IST, n. One versed in the

      science of insects. ENTOMOL'OtiY, n. [Gr. evtofxa, insect,

      from rf/tTO, to cut, and ^.oyoj, discourse.] That part of zoology which treats of insects ;

      the science or history and description of

      insects. ENTORTILA'TION, 7^. [Fr. entortillement.

      A turning into a circle. Donne.

      EN'TllAIL, > [Fr.entraiUes; Arm. EN'TRAILS, l^-traUhou; Gr. frrtpa.


      1. The internal parts of animal bodies; par ticularly, the guts or intestines ; the bow els ; used chiefly in the plural.

      2. The internal parts; as the entrails of the earth.

      The dark entrails of America. Locke.

      ENTRA'IL, V. t. [It. intralciare; Fr. treillis,

      treillisser.] To interweave ; to diversify.

      [jYot in vse.] Spenser.

      ENTRAM'MELED, a. [from trammel]

      Curled ; frizzed. [jYot used.] EN'TRANCE, n. [L. intrans, intra ; or from

      Fr. entrant. See Enter.]

      1. The act of entering into a place; as the entrance of a person into a house or an apartment.

      2. The power of entering. Let the porter give no entrance to strangers.

      Where diligence opens tde door of Uie under- standing, and impartiality keeps it, truth is sure to find an entrance and a welcome too.


      3. The door, gate, passage or avenue, by which a place may bo entered.

      Tliey said, show us the entrance into the city. Judges i.

      4. Commencement ; initiation ; beginning. A youth at his entrance on a difiicult sci- ence, is apt to be discouraged.

      5. The act of taking possession, as of land ; as the entrance of an heir or a disseizor into lands and tenements.

      6. The act of taking possession, as of an of-


      ficc. Magistrates at their entrance intt> office, usually take an oath.

      7. The net of enteiing a ship or goods at the custom-house.

      8. The beginning of any thing.

      S(. Augustine, in the entrance o( one of his discourses, makes a kind of apology.


      ENTR^ANSE, v. I. or i. [from tranae, Fr.

      transe, Arm. Ireand. Qu. L. transeo. The

      Armoric is from tre, across, and antren,

      to enter, or It. andare, to go.]

      1. To i)ut in a transe; to withdraw the soul, and leave the body in a kind of dead sleep or insensibility ; to make insensible to pre- sent obj(-cts. The verb is seldom used, but the participle, entransed, is common.

      2. To put in an ecstasy ; to ravish the soul with delight or wonder.

      And 1 80 ravish'd with her heavenly note, I stood entransed, and had no room for thought. Dryden.

      ENTR'ANSED, pp. Put in a transe ; ha- ving the soul withdrav^-n, and the body left in a state of insensibility ; enraptured ; ravished.

      ENTR'ANSING, ppr. Carrying away the soul ; eiu-apturing ; ravishing.

      ENTRAP', v.<. yPr. attraper ; h.attrappare. Sec Trap.]

      To catch as in a trap ; to insnare ; used chiejly or wholly in a Jigurative sense. To catch by artifices ; to involve in difficul- ties or distresses ; to entangle ; to catch or involve in contradictions; in short, to involve in any difficulties from which an escape is not easy or possible. We are entrapped by the devices of evil men. We are sometimes entrapped in our own words.

      ENTRAPPED, pp. Ensnared ; entangled.

      ENTRAP'PING, p;)r. Ensnaring; involv- ing in difficulties.

      ENTRE'AT, v. t. [Fr. en and traiter. It. tratlnrc, Sp. Port, tratar, from L. tracto, to handle, feci, treat, use, manage.]

      1 . To ask earnestly ; to beseech ; to ])etition or pray with urgency ; to supplicate ; to solicit pres.singly ; to importune.

      Isaac entreated Jehovah for his wife. Gen.


      2. To prevail on by prayer or solicitation. Hence in the passive form, to be prevailed on ; to yield to entreaty.

      It were a fruitless attempt to appease a power, whom no prayers could entreat. Rogers.

      ."?. To treat, in any manner ; properly, to use or manage ; but I believe, entreat is al- ways applied to persons, as treat is to per- sons or things. Applied to persons, to en- treat is to use, or to deal with ; to mani- fest to others any particular deportment, good or ill.

      I will cause the enemy to entreat thee well. Jcr. XV.

      The Egyptians evi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\-entreated us. Deut. xxvi.

      [In this application, the prefix en is now dropped, and treat is used.]

      4. To entertain ; to amuse. Obs. Shak.

      5. To entertain ; to receive. Obs. Spenser. ENTRE'AT, v. i. To make an earnest peti- tion or request.

      The Janizaries entreated for them, as valiant men. Khoioles.

      2. To ofler a treaty. [JVot used.]


      E N U

      3. To treat ; to discourse. [jVot used.]


      ENTRE'ATANCE, n. Entreaty; solicita- tion. Obs. Fairfax.

      ENTRE'ATED, pp. Earnestly supplicated, besought or solicited ; importuned ; ur- gently requested.

      2. Prevailed on by urgent solicitation ; con- senting to grant what is desired.

      3. Used ; managed. Obs. ENTRE'ATER, n. One that entreats, or

      asks earnestly.

      ENTRE'ATING, ppr. Earnestly asking; pressing with request or prayer ; imi)ortu- ning.

      2. Treating ; using. Obs.

      ENTRE'ATIVE, a. Pleading ; treating.


      ENTRE'ATY, n. Urgent prayer; earnest petition ; pressing solicitation ; supplica- tion.

      The poor useth entreaties ; but the rich answereth roughly. Prov. xvili.

      Praying with much entreaty. 2 Cor. viii.

      ENTREMETS, n. [Fr. entre and mets, or L. intromissam, It. tramcsso.]

      Small plates set between the principal dish- es at table, or dainty dishes.

      Mortimer. Fr. Bid.

      ENTREPOT, n. [Fr. enlre and put, for post, positunu]

      A warehouse, staple or magazine, for the deposit of goods.

      ENTRICK', V.I. [from trirk.] Totiick; to deceive ; to entangle. Obs. Chaucer.

      EN'TROCHITE, n. [Gr. tfioxo(, a wheel.] A kind of extraneous fossil, usually about an inch in length, and made up of round joints, which, when separated, are called trocMtes. These seem to be composed of the same kind of substance as the fossil shells of the echini. They are striated from the center to the circumference and have a cavity in the middle. They ap- pear to be the petrified arms of the sea- star, called Stella arborescens.

      Nicholson. Encyc.

      EN'TRY, n. [Fr. entrie. See Enter.] The passage by which persons enter a house or other building.

      2. The act of entering ; entrance ; ingress ; as the entry of a person into a house or city ; the entry of a river into the sea or a lake ; the entry of air into the blood ; the entry of a spear into the flesh.

      .3. The act of entering and taking possession of lands or other estate.

      4. The act of committing to writing, or of recording in a book. Make an entry of every sale, of every debt and credit.

      5. The exhibition or depositing of a ship's papers at the custom house, to procure license to land goods ; or the giving an account of a ship's cargo to the officer of the customs, and obtaining his permission to land the goods.

      ENTU'NE, V. t. [from tune.] To tune.

      Chaucer ENTWINE, V. I. [from twine.] To twine :

      to twist round. ENTWIST', 1'. t. [from twist.] To twist or

      wreath round. ENU'BIl.ATE, V. t. [L. e and 7iubila, mist,


      E N V

      To clear from mist, clouds or obscurity. [jVot in use.] Did.

      ENU'BILOUS, o. Clear from fog, mist or clouds.

      ENU'€LEATE, v. t. [L. enucleo ; e and nu- cleus, a kernel.] Properly, to take out the kernel. Hence,

      1. To clear from knots or lumps ; to clear from intricacy ; to disentangle. Tooke.

      2. To open as a nucleus ; hence, to explain ; to clear from obscurity ; to make manifest.


      ENU'€LEATED, pp. Cleared from knots ; disclosed ; explained.

      ENU'CLEATING, ppr. Clearing from

      i knots; explaining.

      ENUCLEA'TION, n. The act of clearing from knots ; a disentangling.

      Neither air, nor water, nor food seem directly to contribute any thing to the enucleation of this disease [the plica Polonica.'] Tooke.

      2. Explanation ; full e.xjiosition.

      ENU'MERATE, v. t. [L. enumero ; e and numero, numerus, number.]

      To count or tell, number by number ; to reckon or mention a number of things, each separately ; as, to enumerate the stars in a constellation ; to enumerate par- ticular acts of kindness ; we cannot enu- merate our daily mercies.

      ENU'MERATEb, pp. Counted or told, number by number; reckoned or men- tioned by distinct particulars.

      ENU'MERATING, ppr. Counting or reck- oning any number, by the particulars which compose it.

      ENUMERA'TION, n. [L. enumeratio.] The act of counting or telling a number, by naming each particular.

      2. An account of a number of things, in which mention is made of every particu- ar article.

      3. In rhetoric, a pari of a peroration, in which ' the orator recapitulates the principal

      points or heads of the discourse or argu- ment.

      ENU'MERATIVE, a. Counting; reckon- ing up. Bp. Taylor.

      ENUN'CIATE,r.<. [L. cnuncio ; e and nun- cio, to tell.]

      To utter ; to declare ; to proclaim ; to relate. Bp. Barlow.

      ENUN'CIATED, pp. Uttered; declared; pronounced ; jiroclahned.

      ENUN'CIATING, ppr. Uttering; declaring; pronouncing.

      ENUNCIA'TION, n. The act of uttering or pronouncing ; expression ; manner of ut- terance. In a public discnurse, it is im- portant that the enuncmdon should be clear and distinct.

      2. Declaration; open proclamation; pidilic attestation. Taylor.

      3. Intelligence ; information. Hale. ENUN'CIATIVE, a. Declarative; expres- sive. ■Ayliffe.

      ENUN'CIATIVELY, adv. Declaratively. ENUN'CIATORY, a. Containing utterance

      or sound. Jt'ilson's Heb. Gram

      ENVAS'SAL, V. t. [from vassal.] To reduce

      vassalage. 2. To make over to another as a slave.

      More. ENVEL'OP, V. t. [Fr. envelopper ; It. invil- , uppare, awiiuppare, to wrap ; viluppo, a

      bundle, intricacy.]

      E N V

      1. To cover by wrapping or folding; to in- wrap ; to invest with a covering. Animal bodies are usually enveloped with skin ; the merchant envelops goods with canvas ; a letter is enveloped with paper.

      2. To surround entirely ; to cover on all sides ; to hide. A ship was enveloped in fog ; the troops were enveloped in dust. To line ; to cover on the uiside.

      His iron coa.i— enveloped with gold.


      ENVEL'OP, n. A wrapper; an inclosing cover; an integument ; as the envelop of a letter, or of the heart. hi foHification, a work of earth, in form of a parapet or of a small rampart with a parapet. Encyc.

      ENVELOPED, pp. Inwrapped ; covered in all sides ; surrounded on all sides ; in- lo.sed.

      ENVEL'OPING, ppr. Inwrapping ; fold- ing around ; covering or surrounding on all sides, as a case or integument.

      ENVEL'OPMENT, n. A wrapping ; an in- closing or covering on all sides.

      ENVEN'OM, v. t. [from venom.] To poi- son ; to taint or impregnate with venom, or any substance noxious to hfe ; never applied, in this sense, to persons, but to meat, drink or weapons ; as an envenomed arrow or shaft ; an envenomed potion.

      2. To taint with bitterness or malice ; as the envenomed tongue of slander.

      3. To make odious.

      what a world is this, when what is comely Envenoms him that bears it .' Shdk.

      To enrage ; to exasperate. Dryden,

      ENVEN'OMED, pp. Tainted or impreg- nated with venom or poison ; embittered ; exasperated.

      ENVENOMING, ppr. Tainting with ven- om ; poisoning ; embittering ; enraging.

      ENVER'MEIL, «.«. [Vr.vermeU.] To dye red.- Milton.

      EN'VIABLE, a. [See Envy.] That may ex- cite envy ; capable of awakening ardent desire of possession. The situation of men in office is not always enviable.

      EN'VIED, pp. [See Envy, the verb.] Sub- jected to envy.

      EN'VIER, n. One who envies another ; one who desires what another possesses, and hates him because his condition is better than his own, or wishes his down- fall.

      EN'VIOUS, a. [Fr. envieux. See Envy.] Feeling or harboring envy ; repining or feeling uneasiness, at a view of the excel- lence, prosperity or happiness of another ; pained by the desire of possessing some superior good which another possesses, and usually disposed to deprive him of that good, to lessen it or to depreciate it in common estimation. Sometimes followed by against, but generally and properly by at, before the person envied.

      Neither be thou envious at the wicked. Prov. xxiv.

      It is followed by of before the thing. Be not envious of the blessings or prosperi- ty of others.

      2. Tinctured with envy ; as an envious dis- position.

      3. Excited or directed by envy ; as an eni-i- ou.» attack.

      EN'VIOUSLY, adv. With envy; with ma-

      E N V


      E P H

      lignity excited by the excellence or pros- perity of another.

      How enviously the la

      When they surprise nie at my book. Swifl. ENVI'ROiV, V. t. [Ft. environner, from en- viron, thereabout"; en and mron, from vi- rer, to turn, Sp. fciror, Eng. to veer. Class Br.]

      1. To surround ; to encompass; to encircle; as a plain environed with mountains.

      2. To involve ; to envelop ; as, to environ with darkness, or with difficulties.

      3. To besiege ; as a city environed with

      That soldier, that man of iron. Whom ribs of horror all environ.


      ENVI'RONED, pp. Surrounded ; encom- passed ; besieged ; involved ; invested.

      ENVI'RONING, ppr. Surrounding; encir- cling ; besieging ; inclosing ; involving ; investing. The appropriation of different parts of the globe to some particular spe- cies of stone environing it.

      ENVI'RONS, n. plu. The parts or places which surround another place, or lie in its neighborhood, on different sides ; as the environs of a city or town. Chesterfield.

      EN'VOY, ji. [Fr. envoys, an envoy, from en- voyer, to send. The corresponding Italian word is inviato, an envoy, that is, sent ; and the verb, inviare, to send. The Span- ish is enviado ; and the verb, enviar, to send. Port. id. Hence envoy is from the root of L. via, Eng. tvay, contracted from viag, vag, or wag ; It. viaggiare, to travel Sp. viage, way, voyage. Class Bg.]

      1. A person deputed by a prince or govern- ernment, to negotiate a treaty, or transact other business, with a foreign prince or government. We usually apply the word to a public minister sent on a special oc- casion, or for one particular purpose ; hence an envoi/ is distinguished from an embassador or permanent resident at a foreign court, and is of inferior rank. But envoys are ordinary and extraordinary, and the word may sometimes he applied to resident ministers.

      2. A common messenger. [Ao< i)i use.]


      3. Formerly, a postscript sent with compo-


      EN'VOYSHIP, n. The office of an envoy.


      EN'VY, V. I. [Fr.envier; Arm. aria; from

      L. invideo, in and video, to see against,

      that is, to look with enmity.]

      1. To feel uneasiness, mortification or dis- content, at the sight of superior excel- ence, reputation or happiness enjoyed by another ; to repine at another's prosperi- ty ; to fret or grieve one's self at the real or supposed superiority of another, and to hate him on that account.

      Envy not thou the oppressor. Prov. iii. Whoever envies another, confesses his supe- rioiity. Rambler.

      2. To grudge ; to withhold maliciously.

      Dryden. To envy at, used by authors formerly, is obsolete.

      Who would envy at the prosperity of the wicked > Taylor

      EN'VY, n. Pain, uneasiness, mortification or discontent excited by the sight of an- other's superiority or success, accompa- nied with some degree of hatred or nia- hgnity, and often or usually with a desire or an eflbrt to depreciate the person, and with pleasure in seeing him depressed. Envy -springs from pride, ambition or love, mortified that another has obtained what one has a strong desire to possess.

      Envy and admiration are the Scylla and Cha- rybdis of authors. Pope.

      All human virtue, to its latest breath. Finds envy never conquered, but by death. Pope. Emulation differs from envy, in not being accompanied with hatred and a desire to depress a more fortunate person.

      Envy, to which th' ignoble mind's a slave,

      Is emulation in the leam'd or brave. Pope

      It is followed by of or to. They did this

      in envy q/" Cesar, or in envy to his genius.

      The former seems to be preferable.

      2. Rivalry ; competition. [LAttle used.] Dryden.

      3. Malice ; malignity. You turn the good we offer into envy.


      4. Public odium ; ill repute ; invidiousness.

      To discharge the king of the envy of that opinion. Bacon.

      EN'VYING, ppr. Feeling uneasiness at the superior condition and happiness of anoth er.

      EN'VYING, n. 3Iortification experienced at the supposed prosperity and happiness of another.

      2. Ill will at others, on account of some sup- posed superiority. Gal. v. 21.

      ENWAL'LOWED, a. [from tvatloio.] Be- ing wallowed or wallowing. Spenser

      ENVVHEE'L, v. I. [from wheel.] To encir- cle. Shak.

      ENVVI'DEN, v. t. [from ivide.] To make wider. [JVot used.)

      ENWOMB, V. t. enivoom'. [from womb.] To make pregnant. [JVot used.] Spenser

      2. To bury ; to hide as in a gulf, pit or cav- ern. Donne

      ENWoMBED, pp. Impregnated ; buried in a deep gulf or cavern.

      ENWRAP', V. t. enrap'. To envelop. [Set Inwrap.]

      ENWRAP'MENT, n. A covering; a wrap ping or wrapper.

      EO'LIAN, } Pertaining to jEolia or ^olis,

      EOL'le, I "• in Asia Minor, inhabited by Greeks.

      The £o/ic dialect of the Greek language, was the dialect used by the inhabitants of that country.

      Eoiian lyre or harp, is a simple stringed in- strument that sounds by the impulse of air, from Mollis, the deity of the winds.

      EOL'IPILE, n. [.^olus, the deity of the winds, and pila, a ball.]

      A hollow ball of metal, with a pipe or slen- der neck, used in hydraulic experiments, The ball being filled with water, is heated, till the vapor issues from the pipe with great violence and noise, exhibiting the elastic power of steam. Kncyt

      E'ON, n. [Gr. oiui-, age, duration.] In the Platonic philosophy, a virtue, attribute orj perfection. The Platonists represented the Deity as an assemblage of eons. The'

      Gnostics considered eons as certain sub- stantial p

      EP, EPI, Gr. ffti, in composition, usually signifies on.

      E'PA€T, n. [Gr. t«axro{, adscitilious, from frtayu, to adduce or bring ; f/ttand wyu, to drive.]

      In chronology, the excess of the solar month above the lunar synodical month, and of the solar year above the lunar year of twelve synodical months. The epacta then are annual or menstrual. Su|)pose the new moon to be on the first of Janua- ry ; the month of January containing 31 days, and the lunar month only 29 days, 12h. 44' 3", the diflerence, or 1 day, 1 Ih. 15' 57', is the menstrual epact. The an- nual epact is nearly eleven days ; the so- lar year being 365 days, and the lunar year 3.54. Encyc.

      EP'ARCII, "• [Gr. trtofxii; "" and ;t7, dominion.] The governor or prefect of a province. ^h.

      EP'AR€HY, n. [Gr. tnofx'-a, a province ; itti. and ofx^-i government.]

      A province, prefecture or territory under

      the jurisdiction of an eparch or governor.


      EPAULET, n. [Fr. epaulette, from epaide, the shoulder. It. spaUa, Sp. espaUa.]

      A shoulder-piece ; an ornamental badge worn on the shoulder by military men. Officers, military and naval, wear epaulets on one shoulder, or on both, according to their rank.

      EPAUL'MENT, n. [from Fr. epaule, a shoul- der.]

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\n fortification, a side-work or work to cover sidewise, made of gabions, fascines or bags of earth. It sometimes denotes a semi-bastion and a square orillon, or mass of earth faced and lined with a wall, de- signed to cover the cannon of the case- mate. Harris.

      EPENET'I€, a. [Gr. tsaniji-.xos.] Lauda- tory ; bestowing praise. Phillips.

      EPEN'THESIS, > [Gr. t«ti'9f«s ; t Jtt, fv,

      EPEN'THESY, I "' and nSij^i, to put.] The insertion of a letter or syllable in the middle of a word, as alituum' for alitum.

      EPENTHETIC, a. Inserted in the midjfe of a word. .1/. Stuart.

      E'PHA, n. [Heh. nSN, or nS'N, properly a baking.]

      A Hebrew measure of three pecks and three pints, or according to others, of seven gal- lons and four pints, or about 15 solid in- dies. Johnson. Encyc.

      EPHEM'ERA, n. [L. from Gr. i^intfoi, daily ; tm. and >?/»fpa, a day.] A fever of one day's continuance only.

      2. The D"ay-fly : strictly, a fly that fives one day only ; but the word is applied also to insects that are very short-lived, whether they live several days or an hour only. There are several species.

      EPHEMERAL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ „ Diurnal ; beginning

      EPHEM'ERIC, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "• and ending in a day ; continuing or existing one day only.

      2. Short-Hved ; existing or continuing for a short time only. [Ephemeral is generally

      E P I

      used. Ephemeroiis is not analogically formed.] EPHEM'ERIS, n. plu. ephemer'ides. [Gr.


      1. A journal or account of daily transac- tion.s ; a diary.

      2. In astronomy, an account of the daily state or positions of the planets or heavenly orbs ; a table, or collection of tables, ex- hibiting the places of all the planets every day at noon. From these tables are cal- culated echpses, conjunctions and other aspects of the planets. Encvc,

      'Hr"'""'"-" - ■ • ■

      E P I



      vho studies the

      daily motions and positions of the planets ;

      an astrologer. Howdl.

      EPHEM'ERON-WORM, n. [See Epheme-

      ra-l A worm that lives one day only.

      Derham., EPIIE'SIAN, a. s as z. Pertaining to Ephe- sus, in Asia Minor. As a noun, a native of Ephesus. EPHIAL'TES, n. [Gr.] The night-mar.

      EPH'OD, n. [Heb. lax, from nijx to bind. In Jemsh antiquity, a part of the sacerdo tal habit, being a kind of girdle, which was brought from behind the neck over the two shoulders, and hanging down before, was put across the stomach, then carried round the waist and used as a girdle to the tunic. There were two sorts ; one of plain Unen, the other embroidered for the high priest. On the part in front were two precious stones, on which were en graven the names of the twelve tribes of Israel. Before the breast was a square piece or breastplate. Encyc. Calmet

      EPH'OR, n. [Gr. ifo^iof, from f^opou, to in- spect.]

      In ancient Spaila, a magistrate chosen by the people. The epbors were five, anil they were intended as a check on the re- gal power, or according to some writers, on the senate. Encyc. Mitford.

      EPH'ORALTY, «. The office or term of office of an ephor. Mitford.

      EP'I€, a. [L. epicus, Gr. utixoi, from frtoj, a song, or f rtu, iirtu, to speak.]

      Nan-ative ; containing narration ; rehearsing An epic poem, otherwise called heroic, is a poem which narrates a story, real or ficti- tious or both, representing, in an elevated style, some signal action or series of tions and events, usually the achievements of some distinguished hero, and intended to form the morals and affect the mind with the love of virtue. The matter of poem includes the action of the fable, the incidents, episodes, characters, morals and machinery. The form includes the man- ner of narration, the discourses introdu- ced, descriptions, sentiments, style, versi- fication, figures and other ornaments. The end is to improve the morals, and inspire a love of virtue, bravery and illustrious actions. Encyc.

      EP'ICEDE, n. [Gr. tjtixjjSios.] A funeral song or discourse.

      EPICE'DIAN, a. Elegiac ; mournful.

      EPICE^DIUM, n. An elegy.

      EP'ICENE, a. [Gr. frtixowos ; fXt and xoiroj, common.] Common to both sexes ; of both kinds.

      EPICTE'TIAN, (I. Pertaining to Epictetus, the Grecian writer. Arhuthnot.

      EP'ICURE, n. [L. epicurus, a voluptuary.

      from Epicurus.] Properly, a follower of Epicurus ; a man de- voted to sensual enjoyments ; hence, one who indulges in the luxuries of the table. [The word is now used only or chiefly in the latter sense.] EPICU'REAN, ) „ [L. epicureus.] -Pertain EPICURE' AN, S ing to Epicurus ; as the Epicurean philosophy or tenets. Reid.

      2. Luxurious ; given to luxury ; contribu- ting to the luxuries of the table. EPICU'REAN, I A follower of Epicu- EPICURE'AN, I "■ rus.

      Encyc. Shaftesbuni. EPICUREANISM, n. Attachment to the doctrines of Epicurus. Harris.

      EP'ICURISM, n. Luxury ; sensual enjoy- ments ; indulgence in gross pleasure ; vo- luptuousness. Shak. 2. The doctrines of Epicurus.

      Warton. Bailey. EP'ICURIZE, V. i. To feed or indulge like an epicure ; to riot ; to feast. Fuller.

      2. To profess the doctrines of Epicurus.

      Cudworth. EP'ICYCLE, n. [Gr. ixi and xvxxo;, a cir- cle.] A little circle, whose center is in the circumference of a greater cu-cle ; or £ small orb, which, being fixed in the defer ent of a planet, is carried along with it, and yet by its own peculiar motion, car- lies the body of the planet fastened toil round its proper center. Harris.

      EPICYCLOID, n. [Gr. trt«i>:?.ofta^; ; inc

      xvxf.0;, and itSoi, foini.] In geometry, a curve generated by the revolu tion of the periphery of a circle along tin convex or concave side of the periphery oil another circle. Encyc. Harris.

      A curve generated by any point in tl plane of a movable circle which rolls on the inside or outside of the circumference of a fixed circle. Ed. Encyc.

      EPICYCLOID'AL, a. Pertaining to the epicycloid, or having its properties.

      Encyc EPIDEM'IC, I [Gr. ini and «.;uos, peo EPIDEM'ICAL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "■ pie.] Common to ma ny people. An epidemic disease is one which seizes a great number of people, at the same time, or in the same season Thus we speak of epidemic measles ; epi demic fever; epidemic catarrh. It is used in distinction from endemic or local. In- temperate persons have every thing to fear from an epidemic influenza. i. Generally prevailing ; affecting great num

      bers ; as epidemic rage ; an epidemic evil. EPIDEM'IC, n. A popular disease : a dis ease generally prevailing. The influenza of October and November 1789, that of March and Ai)ril 1790, that of the winter 1824—5, and that of 1825—0, were very severe epidemics.

      Pertaining to the cu tide ; covering the




      [Gr. iniSipiiii


      The epiderm EPIDERMIS,

      P^a, skin.] In anatomy, the cuticle or scarf-skin of the body ; a thin membrane covering the skir of animals, or the bark of plants.

      Encyc. Martyn.


      EP'IDOTE, n. [from Gr. irtM^f^t ■ so na- med from the apparent enlargement of the base of the prism in one direction. It is called by Werner, pistazit, and by Haus- mann, thallit.] A mineral occurring in lamellar, granular or compact masses, in loose grams, or in prismatic crystals of six or eight side,*, and sometimes ten or twelve. Its color is commonly some shade of green, yellowish, bluish or blackish green. It has two va- rieties, zoisite and arenaceous or granular epitlote. Jameson. Cleaveland.

      Epidote is granular or manganesian.

      Phillips. EPIGAS'TRIC, a. [Gr. mc and yaj^p, bel- ly.] Pertaining to the upper part of the abdomen ; as the epigastric region ; the epigastric arteries and veins. Quincv

      EPIGEE or EPIGEUM. [See Pei-igee.] EP'IGLOT, } j^ [Gr.iMvyTMttis •,(»(, aud

      EPIGLOT'TIS, 5 ■ y7.wrra, the tongue.] In anatomy, one of the cartilages of the larynx, whose use is to cover the glottis, when food or drink is passing into the stomach, to jnevent it from entering the larynx and obstructing the breath. vv>/ Qiiincy.

      EP'IGRAM, n. [Gr. tniypa/tfia, inscription ;

      fTti and ypofijua, a writing.] A short poem treating only of one thing, and ending with some lively, ingenious and natural thought. Conciseness and point form the beauty o{ epigrams. Epigrams were originally inscriptions on tombs, statues, temples, triumphal arches, ^c- Encuc.

      EPIGRAMMATIC, ) Writing epi- EPIGRAMMAT'ICAL, ^ "• grams i deal- ing in epigrams ; as an epigrammatic poet. 2. Suitable to epigrams ; belonging to epi- grams ; like an epigram ; concise ; point- ed ; poignant ; as epigrammatic style or wit. EPIGRAM'MATIST, n. One who compo- ses epigrams, or deals in them. Martial was a noted epigrammatist. EP'IGRAPH, n. [Gr. ,«.ypa^; ,rt, and

      ypafu, to write.] Among antiquaries, an inscription on a build- ing, pointing out the time of its erection, the builders, its uses, &c. Encyc

      EP'ILEPSY, n. [Gr. £«a,4«)i, from maift'-

      Sowu, to seize.] The falling sickness, so called because the patient falls suddenly to the ground ; a disease accompanied with spasms or con- vulsions and loss of sense. Quincv EPILEP'TIC, a. Pertaining to the fallirrg sickness ; affected with epilepsy ; consist- ing of epilepsy. EPILEP'TIC, n. One affected with epilep-

      EP'ILOgISM, n. [Gr. iTtfKoyiafW!.] Compu-

      '"'' --:-- Gregory.

      epilogue ;

      tation ; enumeration EPILOgIS'TIC, o. Pertaininj of the natur

      of an epilogue. EP'ILOGUE, n. ep'ilog. [L. epilogus, from Gr. {jtaoyos, conclusion ; ijtaiyw, to con- clude ; frtt and }.cyu, to speak.]

      1. In oratory, a conclusion ; the closing part of a discourse, in which the principal mat- ters are recapitulated. Encyc.

      2. In the drama, a speech or short poem ad- dressed to the spectators by one of the ac- tors, after the conclusion of the play.

      E P I

      E P I

      E P I

      EP'ILOGUIZE, I ■ To pronounce an ep

      EP'ILOgIZE. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "■ '• iloguc.

      EP'ILOGUIZE, V. t. To add to, in the man ner of an epilogue.

      EPINI"CION, n. [Or. frtiwxior ; «rti and nxou, to conquer.J A song of triumph, jJYot in use.] Warton.

      EPIPII'ANY, n. [Gr. ira^auM, appearance ; ini^aivu,, to ajjpear; uti and $airu.]

      A christian festival celebrated on the sixth day of January, the twelfth day after Christmas, in commemoration of the ap pearance of our Savior to the magians or philosophers of the East, who came to adore him with presents ; or as othei-s maintain, to commemorate the appearance of the star to tlic inagiuns, or the mani- festation of Clirist to the Gentiles. Je- rome and Chrysostoni take the epiphany to be the day of our Savior's baptisi7i, from 1

      when s

      I heaven declared, "Tlii

      is my beloved son, in whom 1 am pleased." The Greek fathers use tlie «i . for the appearance of Christ in tlie wor the sense in which Paul uses the word, 2 Tim. i. 10. Encyc.

      EPIPH'ONEM, ), [Gr. frtt$Q«?;«(i, excla-

      EPIPHONE'MA, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "• malion ; £«i4.u»u, to cry out ; f«t aixl ^um u.]

      In oralonj, an exclamation ; an ecphonesis ; a vehement utterance of the voice to ex- press strong passion, in a sentence not closely coimected with the general strain of the discourse ; as, O mournful day Miserable fate ! Admirable clemency !

      Johnson. Encyc

      EPIPirORA, n. [Gr. trti and tfp«, to bear.; The watery eye ; a disease in which tht tears, from increased secretion, or an nh- struction in the lachrymal duct, accinnii late in front of the eye and trickle over iIji cheek. Cyc. Parr

      EPIPHYLLOSPERM'OUS, a. [Gr. frti ^vM.ov, a leaf, and crtsp^a, seed.]

      In botany, bearin" their seeds on the back of the leaves, as ferns. Harris.

      EPIPH'YSIS, ? , [Gr. e«i^ai5;trtiand4.vio,

      EPIPH'YSY, i togrow.] Accretion ; the growing of one bone to another by simple contiguity, without a proper articulation. Qih'hct/. The spongy extremity of a bone ; ail\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ portion of a bone growing on another, but separated from it by a cartilage. Coxe

      Epiphysis are appendixes of the long bones, forthe purpose of articulation, form- ed from a distinct center of ossification, and in the young subject connected with I he larger bones by an intervening cartilage, which in the adult is obliterated. Parr.

      EPIP'LOCE, I „ [Gr. £7tt«Xox^, implica-

      EPIP'LOCY, S "• tion ; i>ti and rCKixu, to fold.]

      A figure of rhetoric, by which one aggrava- tion, or striking circumstance, is added in due gradation to another ; as, •' He not only spared his enemies, but continued them in employment ; not only continued them, but advanced them." Johnson.

      EPIP'LOCELE, n. [Gr. trtirt^^ox^?.^ ; m,- rtXooi', the caul, and jtjjXj;, a tumor.] A rup- ture of the caul or omentum. Coxe.

      EPIP'LOIe, a. [Gr. frt.7t;uwi, the caul.] Pertaining to the caul or omentum.

      Vol. I.

      EPIP'LOON, n. [Gr. otirCKoov ; cm and ro-fu.] The caul or omentum.

      EPIS'COPACY, n. [L. episcopaliis ; Sp. obispado ; Port, bispado ; It. episcopato ; from the Gr. £«i«ortfu), to inspect ; tfti and axortju, to see. See Bishop.]

      Government of the church by bishops ; that form of ecclesiastical government, in which diocesan bishops are established, as dis- tinct from and superior to priests or jires- bylers. Encyc.

      EPiS'COPAL, a. Belonging to or vested in bishops or prelates; as yji'scopa/ jurisdic- tion ; episcopal authority.

      2. Governed by bishops ; as the episcopal church.

      EPISCOPALIAN, a. Pertaining to bish- ops or government by bishops; episcopal.

      EPISCOPALIAN, n. One who belongs to an ejiiscopal church, or adheres to the episcopal form of church government and (lisc-ipiiiie.

      EPIS COPALLY, adv. By episcopal au- thority ; in an episcopal manner.

      EPISCOPATE, ji. A bishopric ; the office and dignity of a bisho]).

      2. The order of bishops.

      EPIS'COPATE, I', i. To act as a bishop ; to fill the office of a prelate.

      Harris. MUner.

      EPIS'COPY, n. Survey ; superintendence : search. Milton.

      EP'ISODE, JI. [from the Gr.] In poetry, a separate incident, story or action, intro, duced for the purpose of giving a greater variety to the events related in the poem : an incidental narrative, or digression, sep- arable from the main subject, but natural- ly arising from it. Johnson. Encyc.

      EPISODIC, I Pertaining to an e"| '

      EPISODICAL, S .sode; contained in:: episode or digression. Dryde

      EPISPAS'TIC, a. [Gr. t7tiarta;ixa, "from irtionau, to draw.]

      In j«c(/icnie, drawing ; attracting the liumors to the skin ; exciting action in the skin ; blistering.

      EPISPAS'TIC, n. A topical remedy, apphed to the external part of the body, for the purpose of drawing the humors to the part, or exciting action in the skin ; a blis ter. Encyc. Coxe.

      EPISTIL'BITE, n. A mineral, said to be the same as the heulandite.

      Jourti. of Science.

      EPIS'TLE,n. epis'l. [L. epistola, Gr. fjicyox,, from frtiCfW.u, to send to ; ini. and ftTJiu, to send, G. stellen, to set.]

      A writing, directed or sent, communicating intelligence to a distant person ; a letter ; a letter missive. It is rarely used in fa- miliar conversation or wl-itings, but chief- ly in solemn or formal transaetinns. It is used paiticidarly in speaking of the letters of the Apostles, as the epistles of Paid ; and of other letters written by the ancients, as the epistles of Pliny or of Cicero.

      EPIS'TLER, n. A writer of epistles. [LUlle


      2. Formerly, one who attended the com- munion table and read the epistles.

      EPIS'TOLAKY, a. Pertaining to epistles or letters ; suitable to letters and corres- pondence ; familiar; as an episio/ary style.

      2. Contained in letters ; carried on by letters ; an epistolary correspondence.


      EPISTOL'IC, I Pertaining to letter.*

      EPISTOL'ICAL, I "■ or epistles.

      2. Designating the method of representing ideas by letters and words. M'arbttrion.

      EPIS'TOLIZE, V. i. To write epistles or letters. Howell.

      EPIS'TOLIZER, n. A writer of epistles.


      EPISTOLOGRAPII IC, a. Pertaining to the writing of letters.

      EPISTOLOG RAPIIY, n. [Gr. .,-«.i;, a letter, and yt^u, to write.]

      The art or practice of writing letters.


      EPIS'TROPHE, ) [Gr.,;tcfpot>;;frt.and

      EPIS'TROPHY, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "rpo,}..;, a return.]

      A figure, in rhetoric, in which several suc- cessive sentences end with the same word or affirmation. Bailey. Ash.

      EP'ISTYLE, n. [Gr. jrti and riooj, a col- umn.]

      In ancient architecture, a term used by the Greeks for what is now called the archi- trave, a massive piece of stone or wood laid immediately over the capital of a col- umn or pillar. Encyc.

      EPITAPH, n. [Gr. trti and ra^os, a sepul- cher.]

      1. An inscription on a monument, in honor or memory of the dead.

      The epitaphs o( the present day are crammed with fulsome compliments never merited.

      Encyc. Can yoii look forward to the honor of a dec- orated coffin, a splendid funeral, a towering monument — it may be a lying epitaph.

      W. B. Sprague.

      2. An eulogy, in prose or verse, composed without any intent to be engraven on a monument, as that on Alexander:

      " Sufficit huic tumulus, cui non suffice-

      ret orbis." Encyc.

      EPITAPH'IAN, a. Pertaining to an epitaph.


      EPITHALA'MIUM, ) [Gr. f«c9aiu.|U«>'' :

      EPITHAL'AMY, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "• ,«> and SoXauof,

      a bed-chamber.] A nuptial song or poem, in praise of the bride and bridegoom, and praying for their prosperity.

      The forty fifth Psalm is an epithalamium to

      Christ and the church. Burnet.

      EP'ITHEM, n. [Gr. tn^r^pa. ; im and rtS^jut,

      to place.] In pharmacy, a kind of fomentation or poul- tice, to be applied externally to strengthen the part. Encyc.

      Any external application, or topical medicine. The term has been restricted to liquids in which cloths are dipped, to be applied to a part. Parr. Turner.

      EPITHET, n. [Gr. tTtiOitov, a name added,

      from frti anil tiSriiu, to place.] An adjective expressing some real quahty of the thing to which it is applied, or an at- tributive expressing some quality ascribed to it ; as a verdant lawn ; a brilliant ap- pearance ; a just man ; an accurate descrip- tion.

      It is sometimes used for title, name,

      phrase or expression ; but improperly.

      EPITHET, V. t. To entitle ; to describe by

      pithets. Hotton.

      EPITHET'IC, a. Pertaining to an epithet

      or epithets. 2. Abounding with epithets. A stj'le or com- position may be too epithetic.

      E P O

      EPITHUMET'lC, ? [Gr. frti9r;x)jr


      EPIT'OME, ) [Gr. irtiron,}, from im anc

      EPIT'OMY, S "' Tifivu, to cut, rofir„ a cut ting, a section.}

      An abridgment; a brief summary or abstract of any book or writing ; a compendium containing the substance or principal mat ters of a book.

      Epitomes are helpful to the memory.


      EPIT'OMIST, n. An epitomizer.

      EPIT'OMIZE, V. t. To shorten or abridge, as a writing or discourse ; to abstract, in a summary, the principal matters of a book; to contract into a narrower compass Xiphiiin epitomized Dion's Roman History

      2. To diminish ; to curtail. [Less proper.]

      EPIT'OMIZED, p;). Abridged; shortened; contracted into a smaller compass, as a book or writing.

      EPITOMIZER, n. One who abridges; a writer of an epitome.

      EPIT'OMiZING,^^)-. Abridging; shorten- iug ; making a summary.

      EP'ITRITE, n. [Gr. Ertirpif oj ; « rti and fpiroj, third.]

      In prosody, a foot consisting of three long syllables and one short one ; as salutantes, concitati, incantare. Encyc.

      EPIT'ROPE, I [Gr. trtifportjj, from I'rti-

      EPIT'ROPY, I "• Tpjrtu, to permit.]

      Ill rhetoric, concession ; a figure by which one thing is granted, with a view to obtain an advantage ; as, I admit all this may be true, but what is tliis to the purpose ? I concede the fact, but it overthrows your own argument. Encyc.

      EPIZOOT'IC, a. [Gr. nn and ^coor, ani- mal.]

      In geology, an epithet given to such moun- tains as contain animal remains in their natural or in a petrified state, or the im- pressions of animal substances.

      Epizootic mountains are of secondary forma- tion. Kiruyan.

      EPIZO'OTY, n. [supra.] A murrain or pestilence among irrational animals.

      Ed. Encyc.

      E'POeH, n. [L. epochn ; Gr. inoxf;, reten- tion, delay, stop, from f?tf;t"^ to inhibit ; eH(. and (x^, to hold.]

      1. In chronology, a fixed point of time, from which succeeding years are numbered ; a point fi'om which computation of yeare begins. The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and the Babylonish captivity, are remarkable epochs in their history.

      a. Any fixed time or period ; the period when any thing begins or is remarkably prevalent ; as the epoch of falsehood ; the epoch of woe. Donne. Prior.

      The fifteenth century was the unhappy epoch of militaiy establishments in tiuie of peace.


      EP'ODE, n. [Gr. srtua^ ; f?fi and uSij, ode.] In lyric poetry, the thinl or last pai-t of the ode ; that which follows tjie strophe and antistrophe ; the ancient ode being divid- ed into strophe, antistrophe and epode. The word is now used as the name of any little verse or verses, that follow one or more great ones. Tims a pentameter af- ter a hexameter is an epode. Encyc.

      E a u

      EPOPEE', n. [Gr. frtoj, a song, and xouu, to make.]

      An epic poem. More properly, the history action or fable, which makes tlie subjet of an epic poem. Encyi

      E'POS, n. [Gr. irtof.] An epic poem, or its fable or subject.

      Epsom salt, the sulphate of magnesia, a ca- thartic.

      EP'ULARY, a. [L. epularis, from epulmn, feast.] Pertaining to a feast or banquet Bailey.

      EPULA'TION, n. [L. epulatio, from epulor, to feast.] A feasting or feast. Brown.

      EPULOT'l€, a. [Gr. frtwXur«a, from tjtw- J.OU, to heal, to cicatrize : ini, and ouJijj, a cicatrix, oi*u, to be sound, oi^Xot, whole.]

      Healing ; cicatrizing.

      EPULOTTC, n. A medicament or applica tion which tends to di7, cicatrize and heal wounds or ulcers, to re|)ress fungous flesh and dispose the parts to recover sound ness. Coxe. Quiticii.

      EaUABIL'ITY, n. [See Equable.] Equality in motion ; continued equahty, at all times, in velocity or movement ; uniformity ; as the equability of the motion of a heavenly body, or of the blood in the arteries and veins.

      3. Continued equality ; evenness or uniform ity ; as the equability of the temperature of the air ; the equability of the mind

      E'Q,UABLE, a. [L. cequabilis, from (equus, equal, even, wquo, to equal, to level.]

      1. Equal and uniform at all times, a: tion. An equable motion continues the same in degree of velocity, neither accel crated nor retarded.

      i. Even; smooth; having a uniform surface or form ; as an equable globe or plain.


      E'QUABLY, adv. With an equal or uniform motion ; with continued uniformity ; even ly ; as, bodies moving equably in concen trie circles. Cheyne.

      E'QUAL, a. [L. cequalis, from cequus, equal, even, aqtto, to equal, perhaps Gr. sixo;, similar ; Fr. egal ; Sp. igual ; Port. id. ; It. eguale.]

      1. Having the same magnitude or dimen- sions ; being of the same bulk or extent ; as an equal quantity of land ; a house ot equal size ; two persons of equal bulk ; an equal line or angle.

      2. Having the same value ; as two commod- ities of equal price or worth.

      .3. Having the same qualities or condition ; as two men of equal rank or excellence ; two bodies of equal hardness or softn

      4. Having the same degree ; as two of equal velocity.

      5. Even; uniform; not variable; as an c^tia/ temper or mind.

      Ye say, the way of the Lord is not equal. Ezek. xvi.

      6. Being in just proportion ; as, my commen- dation is not equal to his merit.

      7. Inipartial; neutral; not biased. Equal and unconcerned, I look on all.


      8. Indifferent ; of the same interest or con- cern. He may receive them or not, it is equcU to me.

      9. Just; equitable ; giving the same or sim- ilar rights or advantages. The terms and conditions of the contract are equal.

      E a u

      10. Being on the same terms ; enjoying the same or similar benefits.

      They made the married, orphans, widows, yea and the aged also, equal in spoils with themselves. Maccabees

      11. Adequate ; having competent power, abihty or means. The ship is not equal to her antagonist. The army was not equal to the contest. We are not equal to the undertaking.

      E'CiUAL, n. One not inferior or superior to another ; having the same or a similar age, rank, station, office, talents, strength, &c. Those who were once his equals, envy and defame him. Addismi.

      It was thou, a man my equal, my guide. Ps. Iv. Gal. i.

      E'QUAL, V. t. To make equal ; to make one tiling of the same quantity, dimensions or quality as another.

      3. To rise to the same state, rank or estima- tion with anotlier; to become equal to. Few officers can expect to equal Wash-

      ington in fame. 3. To be (

      equal to. One whose all not equals Edward's moiety. Shak.

      4. To make equivalent to ; to recompense fully; to answer in full proportion.

      He answer'd all her cares, aniequaVd all her love. Dryden.

      5. To be of like excellence or beauty. The gold and the crystal cmnot equal it.

      Job xxviii. EQUAL'ITY, n. [L. cequalitas.] An agree- ment of things in dimensions, quantity or quality; likeness; similarity in regard to two things compared. We speak of the equality of two or more tracts of land, of two bodies in length, breadth or thickness, of virtues or vices.

      2. The same degree of dignity or claims; as the equality of men in the scale of being ; the equality of nobles of the same rank ; an equality of rights.

      3. Evenness ; uniformity ; sameness in state or continued course ; as an equality of tem- per or constitution.

      4. Evenness ; plainness ; uniformity ; as an equality of surface.

      EQUALIZATION, n. The act of equaliz- ing, 01 state of being equalized.

      E'QUALIZE, V. I. To make equal ; as, to equalize accounts ; to equalize burdens or taxes.

      E'QUALIZED, pp. Made equal ; reduced equality.

      E'QUALIZING, ppr. Making equal.

      E'QUALLY, adv. In the same degree with another ; alike ; as, to be equally taxed ; to be equally virtuous or vicious; to be equally impatient, hungry, thirsty, swift or slow; to be equally furnished.

      2. In equal shai-es or proportions. The es- tate is to be equally divided among the heirs.

      3. impartially ; with equal justice. Shak. E'QUALNESS, n. Equality; a state of be-

      ing equal. Shak.

      2. Evenness; unifonnity; as the equalness

      of a surface. EQUAN'GULAR, a. [L. a^quus and angu-

      lus.] Consisting of equal angles. [See

      Eqviangular, which is generally used.] EQUANIM'ITY, n. [L. mquanimitas ; cequus

      and animus, an equal mind.] Evenness of mind ; that calm temper or

      E Q U

      firmness of mind which is not easily elated or depressed, which sustains prosperity without excessive joy, and adversity with- out violent agitation of the passions or de pressioii of spirits. The great man bears misfortunes with equanimity.

      EQUAN'IMOUS, a. Of an even, composed frame of mind ; of a steady temper ; not easily elated or depressed.

      EQUA'TION, ;(. (L. mqualio, from i^quo, to make equal or level.]

      1. Literally, a making equal, or an equal di vision.

      2. In algebra, a. proposition asserting the equality of two quantities, and expressed by the sign =: between them ; or an ex pression of the same quantity in two dis- similar terms, but of equal value, as t3s=36d, or x=6+?n— r. In the latter case, X is equal to b added to m, with r subtracted, and the quantities on tlie right hand of the sign of equation are said to be the value oCx on the left hand.

      Encyc. Johnson.

      3. In astronomy, the reduction of the appa- rent time or motion of the sun to equable, mean or tnie time. Encyc.

      4. The reduction of any extremes to a mean proportion. Harris

      FAIUA'TOR, n. [L. from cequo, to make equal.]

      In astronomy and geography, a great circle of the sphere, equally distant from the two poles of the world, or having the same poles as the world. It is called equator, because when the sim is in it, the days and nights are of equal length ; hence it is called also the equinoctial, and when drawn on maps, globes and planispheres, it called the equinoctial line, or simply the line. Every point in the equator is 90 de- grees or a quadrant's distance from the poles ; hence it divides the globe or sphere into two equal hemispheres, the northern and southern. At tlie meridian, the equa tor rises as much above the horizon as u the complement of the latitude of the place. Encyc. Harris.

      EQUATO'RIAL,a. Pertaining to the equa tor ; as equatorial climates. The equato rial diameter of tlie earth is longer than the polar diameter.

      E'QUERY, n. [¥"1: ecuyer, for esciiyer ; It scudiere ; Low L. scutariits, from scutum a shield. See Esquire.]

      1. An officer of princes, who has the care and management of his horses.

      2. A stable or lodge for horses. EQUES'TRIAN, a. [L. equester, equeslris,

      from eques, a horseman, from equus,]

      1. Pertaining to horses or horsemanshi] performed with horses ; as equestrian feats.

      2. Being on horseback ; as an equestrian lady. Spectator

      3. Skilled in horsemanship.

      4. Representing a person on horseback ; a an equestrian statue.

      5. Celebrated by horse-races; as equestrian games, sports or amusements.

      C>. Belonging to knights. Among the Ro mans, the equestrian order was the order

      , of knights, equites ; also their troopers or horsemen in the field. In civil life, the Unights stood contra-distinguished from

      E a u

      the senators ; in the^ieW, from the infant- ry. Encyc.

      EQUIAN'OIILAR, a. [L. u:quus, equal, and angulus, an angle.]

      In geometry, consisting of or having equal angles ; an epithet given to figures whose angles are all equal, such as a square, an equilateral triangle, a parallelogram, &c.

      EQUIBAL'ANCE, n. [L. a:quus and bi- lanx.] Equal weight.

      EQUIBAL'ANCE, v. t. To have equal eight with something.

      Ch. Relig. Jlppeal.

      EQUIeRU'RAL, a. [L. mquus, equal, and cms, a leg.] Having legs of equal length.

      2. Having equal legs, but longer than the

      base ; isosceles ; as an equicrural triangle.


      EQUIDIF'FERENT, a. Having equal dif- ferences ; arithmetically proportional.

      In crystalography, having a different numl)er of faces presented by the prism and by each summit; and these three numbers form a series in arithmetical progression, as 6.4.2. Cleaveland.

      EQUIDIS'TANCE, n. Equal distance.


      EQUIDISTANT, a. [L. cequus, equal, and (/js/o»i5, distant.]

      Being at an equal distance from some point or ulare.

      EQUIDIS'TANTLY, adv. At the same or an equal distance. lirown

      EQUIFORM ITY, n. [L. a;qmis, equal, and forma, form.] Uniform equality. Brown

      EQUILAT'ERAL, a. [L. aquus, equal, and lateralis, from latus, side.]

      Having all the sides equal ; as an equilateral triangle. A square must necessarily be equilateral.

      EQUILAT'ERAL, ji. A side exactly cor responding to others. Herbert.

      EQUILI'BRATE, v. t. [L. (Equus and libra, to poise.]

      To balance equally two scales, sides or ends; to keep even with equal weight on each side.

      The bodies of fishes are equilibrated with th( water. Ariuthnot

      EQUILIBRATED, pp. Balanced equally on both sides or ends.

      EQUILI'BRATING,;);)r. Balancing equal ly on both sides or ends.

      EQUILIBRA'TION, ». Equipoise; the aci of keeping the balance even, or the state of being equally balanced.

      Nature's laws of equilibration. Derham.

      EQUILIB'RIOUS, a. Equally poised.

      EQUILIB'RIOUSLY, adv. In equal poise.

      EQUIL'IBRIST, n. One that balances equallv.

      EQUILlB'RITY, n. [L. mquilibritas.] The state of being equally balanced ; equal balance on both sides ; equilibrium ; as the theory o( equUibrity. Gregory.

      EQUlLIB'RIUM,n. [L.] In mechanics, equi- pose ; equality of weight ; the state of the two ends of a lever or balance, when both are charged with equal weight, and they maintain an even or level position, paral- lel to the horizon. Encyc.

      2. Equality of powers.

      Health consists in the equilibrium between those two powers. Mrbuthnot.

      3. Equal balancing of the mind between mo-

      E Q U

      lives or reasons ; a state of indifference or of doubt, when the mind is suspended ill indecision, between different motives, or the different forces of evidence.

      EQUIMULTIPLE, a. [L. a^juus and mul- iiplico or multiplex.] Multiplied by the same number or quantity.

      EQUIMULTIPLE, n. In arithmetic and geometry, a number multiplied by the same number or quantity. Hence equi- multiples are always in the same ratio to each other, as the simple numbers or quantities before multiplication. If 6 and 9 are multiplied by 4, the multiples, 24 and 30, will be to each other as 6 to 9.


      E'QUINE, a. [L. equinus, from equus, a horse.] Pertaining to a horse or to the genii«.

      The slioulders, body, tliighs and mane arc equine ; the head completely bovine.

      Barrow^s IVavel^.

      EQUINEC'ESSARY, a. [L. mquus and Jif- cessari/.]

      Necessary or needful in the same degree.


      EQUINOCTIAL, a. [L. aquus, equal, and nox, night.]

      1. Pertaining to the equinoxes; designating m equal length of day and night ; as the quinoctial line.

      2. Pertaining to the regions or climate of the C()uinoctial line or equator ; in or near that line; as equinoctial heat; an equinoctial sun ; equinoctial wind.

      3. Pertaining to the time when the sun en- ters the equinoctial points ; as an equinoc- tial gale or storm, which happens at or near the equinox, in any part of the world.

      4. Equinoctial flowers, flowers that ojien at a regular, stated Iiour. Martyn.

      EQUINOCTIAL, n. [(or equinoctial Urn.] In astronomy, a great circle of the sphere, under which the equator moves in its diur- nal course. This should not he confound- ed with the equator, as there is a differ- ence between them ; the equator beuig movable, and the equinoctial immovable ; the equator being drawn about the convex surface of the sphere, and the equinoctial on the concave surface of the magnus orbis. These words however are often confounded. When the sun, in its course through the ecliptic, comes to this circle, it makes equal days and nights in all parts of the globe. The equinoctial then is the circle which the sun describes, or appears to describe, at the time the days and nights are of equal length, viz. about the 21st of March and 2.3d of September. Encyc.

      Equinoctial points, are the two points where- in the equator and ecliptic intersect each other ; the one, being in the first point of Aries, is called the ttenial point or equi- nox ; the other, in the first point of Libra, the autumnal point or equinox. Encyc.

      Equinoctial dial, is that whose plane lies par- allel to the equinoctial. Encyc.

      EQUINOC'TIALLY, adv. In the direction of the equinox. Brown.

      E'QUINOX, n. [L. cequus, equal, and nox, night.]

      The precise time when the sun enters one of the equinoctial points, or the first point of Aries, about the 21st of March, and the first point of Libra, about the 23d of Sejj-

      E U U

      teiiiber, maldiig the day and the night of equal length. These are called the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. These pointi are found to be moving backward or west ward, at the rate of 50" of a degree in ! year. This is called the precession of the equinoxes. Encyc

      EaUINU'MERANT, a. [L. aquus, equal, and mimerus, number.]

      Having or consisting of the same number [Little used.] Jlrbutlmol

      EQUIP', V. t. [Fr. equiper ; Arm. aqipa, aqipein ; Sp. equipar ; Ch. t]p', Aphel tj'pN to surround, to gird ; perhaps the same rootasEth. (tl + di [ t^pn ] to embrace.]

      1. Properly, to dress; to habit. Hence, furnish with arras, or a complete suit of arms, for military service. Thus we to eqttip men or troops for war ; to equip a body of infantry or cavalry. But the word seems to include not only arms, but clothing, baggage, utensils, tents, and all the apparatus of an army, particularly when applied to a body of troojis. Hence to furnish with arms and warlike appara- tus ; as, to equip a regiment.

      2. To furnish with men, artillery and muni- tions of war, as a ship. Hence, in com- mon language, to fit for sea ; to furnish with whatever is necessary for a voyage

      EQ'UIPAgE, n. The furniture of a miUtary man, particularly arms and their appen dages.

      2. The furniture of an army or body of troops, infantry or cavalry ; including arms, artillery, utensils, provisions, anc whatever is necessary for a military expe dition. Camp equipage includes tents, and every thing necessary for accommodation in camp. Field equipage consists of arms, artillery, wagons, tumbrils, &c.

      fi. The furniture of an armed ship, or the necessary preparations foi' a voyage ; eluding cordage, spars, provisions, &c

      4. Attendance, retinue, as persons, liorses, carriages, &c.; as the equipage of a prince.

      5. Carriage of state ; vehicle ; as celestial equipage. Milton.

      6. Accoutermouts ; habiliments ; ornament- al fmniture. Piior.

      EQ'UIPAgED, a. Furnished with equi- page; attended with a splendid retinue.

      Cowper. Spenser. EQUIPEN'DENCY, n. [L. wquus, equal,

      and pendeo, to hang.] The act of hanging in equipoise ; a being not inclined or determined either way.


      EQUIPOL'LENCE, i [h. tequus and pol-

      EQUH'OL'LENCY, I "• lentia, power, pol-

      teo, to be able.]

      1. Equality of power or force.

      2. In logic, an equivalence between two or more propositions; that is, when two pro- positions signify the same thing, though diflerently expressed. Encyc.

      EQUIPOLLENT, a. [supra.] Having equal power or force ; equivalent. li logic, having equivalent signification.


      EQUlPON'DERANCE,n. [L. cequus,eqwi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ and pondus, weight.] Equahty of weight

      EQUIP'MENT, n. The act of equipping, or fitting for a voyage or e.vpedition.

      9. Any thing that is used in equipping ; fur- niture ; habihmeuts ; warlike apparatus ; necessaries for an expedition, or for a voy- age ; as the equipments of a ship or an army.

      E'QUIPOISE, n. s as z. [L. mqims, equal, and Fr. poids, or rather W. pivys, weight See Poise.]

      Equality of weight or force ; hence, equilib- rium ; a state in which the two ends oi sides of a thing are balanced. Hold the scales in equipoise. The mind may be in a state of equipoise, when motives are of equal weight.

      ;. [supra.] Being


      i. [L.ff^KM^, equal.

      of the same weight.

      EQUIPONDERATE, and pondero, to weigl

      To be equal in weight ; to weigh as much as another thing. ffilkins.'

      EQUIPON'DIOUS, a. Having equai weight on both sides. Glanville.

      EQUIP'PED, pp. Furnished with habili ments, arms, and whatever is necessary for a military expedition, or for a voyage or cruise.

      EQUIPPING, ppr. Furnishing with habili ments or warlike apparatus; supplying with things necessary for a voyage.

      EQUISO'NANCE, n. An equal sounding ; a name by which the Greeks distinguished the consonances of the octave and double octave. Busby.

      EQ'UITABLE, n. [Fr. equitable, from L. mquitas, from mquus, equal.]

      1. Equal in regard to the rights of persons; distributing equal justice; giving each his due ; assigning to one or more what law or justice demands; just; impartial. The judge does justice by an equitable deeision. The court will make

      equitable distribu tion of the estate.

      2. Having the disposition to do justice, or doing justice ; impartial ; as an equitable judge.

      3. Held or exercised in equity, or with chan eery powers ; as the equitable jurisdiction of a court. Kent

      EQ'UITABLENESS, n. The quahty of being just and impartial; as the equitable ness of a judge.

      2. Equity ; the state of doing justice, or dis tributing to each according to his legal or just claims ; as the equitableness of a de- cision or distribution of property.

      EQ'UITABLY, adv. In an equitable man- ner ; justly ; impartially. The laws should be equitably administered.

      EQ'UITANT, a. [L. equitans, eqxiito, to ride, from eques, a horseman, or equus, a liorse.]

      In botany, riding, as equitant leaves : a term of leafing or foliation, when two opposite leaves converge so with their edges, that one incloses the other; or when the inner leaves are inclosed by the outer ones.


      EQUITA'TION, n. A riding on horseback. BarroiD.

      EQ'UITY, n. [L. (Equitas, from avptus, equal, even, level ; Fr. eqidli ; It. crjuitii.]

      Justice; right. In |ir;ii t

      •c, ((luitv is the

      impartial distribution nf

      insure, or the

      doing that to another \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\vl

      irli Ihr laws ol

      God and man, and of rea

      sou, give him a

      E Q U

      right to claun. It is the treating of a per- son according to justice and reason.

      With righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove vpith equity. Is. xi.

      2. .lustice ; impartiality ; a just regard to right or claim ; as, we must, in equity, al- low this claim.

      3. In law, an equitable claim. " I consider the wife's equity to be too well settled to be shaken." Kent.

      4. In jurisprudence, the correction or qualifi- cation of law, when too severe or defect- ive ; or the extension of the words of the law to cases not expressed, yet coming within the reason of the law. Hence a court of equity or chancery, is a court which corrects the operation of the literal text of the law, and supplies its defects, by reasonable construction, and by rules of proceeding and deciding, which are not admissible in a court of law. Equity then is the law of reason, exercised by the chan- cellor or judge, giving remedy in cases to which the courts of law are not compe- tent. Blackstone.

      Equity of redemption, in law, the advan- tage, allowed to a mortgager, of a reasona- ble time to redeem lands mortgaged, when the estate is of greater value than the sum for which it was mortgaged.


      EQUIVALENCE, n. [L. ceqiius, equal, and valens, from valeo, to be worth.] . Equality of value; equal value or worth. Take the goods and give an equivalence in corn.

      2. Equal power or force. [To equivalence, a verb, used by Brown, has not gained currency.]

      EQUIVALENT, a. Equal in value or worth. In barter, the goods given are supposed to be equivalent to the goods re- ceived. Equivalent in valtie or tvorlh, is tautological.

      2. Equal in force, power or effect. A steam engine may have force or power equiva- lent to that of thirty horses.

      3. Equal in moral force, cogency or effect on the mind. Circumstantial evidence may be almost equivalent to full jiroof.

      4. Ofthe same import or meaning. Friend- ship and amity are equivalent terms.

      For now to serve and to minister, servile and ministerial, are terms equivaleirt. South.

      Equivalent propositions in logic arc called also equipollent.

      5. Equal in excellence or moral worth.


      EQUIVALENT, n. That which is equal in value, weight, dignity or force, with some- thing else. The debtor cannot pay his creditor in money, but he will pay him an equivalent. Damages in money cannot be an equivalent for the loss of a limb.

      2. In chimistry, equivalent is the particular weight or quantity of any substance which is necessary to saturate any other with which it can combine. It is ascertained that chimical combinations are definite, that is, the same body always enters into combination in the same weight, or if it can combine with a particular body in more

      E R



      • than one proportion, the higher proportion is always a multiple of the lower.


      EQUIV'ALENTLY, adv. In an equal man- ner.

      EaUIV'OCACY, n. Equivocalness. [Mt used.] Brown.

      EQUIV'OCAL, a. [Low L. mquivocus ; uequus, equal, and vox, a word ; Fr. equi- voque ; It. equivocale. Sec Vocal.]

      1. Being of doubtful signification; that may be understood in different senses ; capable of a double interpretation ; ambiguous ; as equivocal words, terms or senses. Men may be misled in their opmions by the use of e^uiwca/ terms.

      2. Doubtful; ambiguous; susceptible of dif- ferent constructions; not decided. The character of the man is somewhat equivo- cal. His conduct is equivocal.

      a. Uticertain ; proceeding from some un- known cause, or not from the usual cause. Equivocal generation is tlie production of animals without the intercourse of the sexes, and of plants without seed. This doctrine is now exploded.

      EQUIV'OCAL, n. A word or term of doubtful meaning, or capable of different



      EQUIVOCALLY, adv. Ambiguously ; in a doubtful sense; in terms susceptible of different senses. He answered the ques- tion equivocally.

      2. By uncertain birth ; by equivocal genera- tion. Bentleu.

      EQUIVOCALNESS, n. Ambiguity ; double meaning. JVorris.

      EQUIVOCATE, i'. i. [It. equivocate; Fr. equivoquer. See Equivocal.]

      To use words of a doubtful signification ; to express one's opinions in terms which ad mit of different senses ; to use ambiguoui exi)ressions. To equivocate is the dishon orable work of duplicity. The upright man will not equivocate in his intercourst with his fellow men.

      EQUIVOCATING, ppr. Using ambiguoui woiils or phrases.

      EQUIVOeA'TION,n. Ambiguity of speech the use of words or expressions thai art susceptible of a double signification. Hyp oorites are often guilty oi equivocation, and bv this means lose the confidence of their fellow men. Equivocation is incompatible with the christian character and profes sion.

      EQUIVOCATOR, n. One who cquivo cates; one who uses language which i; ambiguous and may be interpreted in dif- ferent ways ; one who uses mental reser-

      E' QUI YOKE, n. [Fr. equivoque.) An am^ biguous tenn ; a word susceptible of dif ferent significations.

      2. Equivocation.

      EQUIVOROUS, a. [L. equus, horse, and

      niiincs of places, er signifies a man of the place ; Londoner is the same as London- man.

      There is a passage in Herodotus, Melpo mene, 110, in wliich the word iver, vir, a man, is mentioned as used by the Scythi ans ; a fact proving the affinity of the Scythian and the Teutonic nations. Taj 6f Auafwaj xaT^ovai. Xxv6a.i Oiopjtara. /\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\v- varcu St to owojia rovto xaf' E>.?.a8a yhJd- flat' avb^toxtofot. Otop -yap xaXfOvnt tov av8pa, TO it rtora, xtiivhv. " The Scythians call the Amazons Oiorpata, a word wliich may be rendered, in Greek, mtnkil- lers ; for oior is the name they give to man. pata signifies to kill." Pata, in the Bur- man language, signifies to kill ; but it is probable that this is really the English beat.

      E'RA, n. [L. a:ra ; Fr. ere ; Sp. era. The irigiii of the term is not obvious.]

      1. In chronology, a fixed point of time, from which any number of years is begun to be counted ; as the Christian Era. It differs from epoch in this; era is a point of time fixed by some nation or denomination of men ; epoch is a point fi.xed by historians and chronologists. The christian era be- gan at the epoch of the birth of Christ.


      2. A succession of years proceeding from fixed point, or comprehended between two fixed points. The era of the Seleucides ended with the reign of Antiochus.

      Rollin ER A'DIATE, v. i. [L. e and radio, to beam

      To shoot as rays of light ; to beam. ERADIA'TION, n. Emission of rays or

      beams of light ; emission of light or spl<

      dor. King Charles.

      ERADICATE, v. t. [L. eradico, from radix,

      root.] . To pull up the roots, or by the roots,

      Hence, to destroy any thing that grows ;

      to extirpate ; to destroy the roots, so that

      the plant will not be reproduced ; as, to

      eradicate weeds: 2. To destroy thoroughly ; to extirpate ; as,

      to eradkate errors, or false principles, or

      ERADICATED, pp. Plucked up by tli

      roots; extirpated; destroyed. ERAD'ICVTING, ppr. Pulling up the roots

      of any thing; extirpating. ERADiCA'TlON, n. The act of pluckiuj I by the roots ; extirpation ; excision ;i tal destruction. j

      2. The state of being plucked up by tlic

      roots. ERAD'ICATIVE, a. That e.xtirpates ; that

      cures or destroys thoroughly. ERAD'ICATIVE, n. A medicine that cf-

      fect.s a radical cure. Jf'hitlock.

      ERA'SABLE, a. That may or can be era- sed. ERA'SE, I', t. [L. erado, erasi; e and rado,

      to scrape, Fr. raser, Sp. raer. It. raschiare,

      acters written, engraved or painted ; to efface ; as, to erase a word or a name. '. To ol)literate ; to expunge ; to blot out ; as with pen and ink.

      3. To efface ; to destroy ; as ideas in the mind or memory.

      4. To destroy to the foundation. [See Raze.]

      ER.A'SED, pp. Rubbed or scratched out : obliterated; effaced.

      ERA'SEMENT, n. The act of erasing; a rubbing out ; expunction ; obliteration ; destruction.

      ERA'SING, ppr. Rubbing or scraping out ; obliterating ; destroying.

      ERA'SION, (I. 3 as z. The act of erasing ; ubbing out ; obliteration.

      Black, Chim.

      ERAS'TIAN, n. A follower of one Erastus, the leader of a religious sect, who denied the power of the church to discipline its members. Chambers.

      ERAS'TIANISM, n. The principles of the Erastians. Leslie.

      ERA'SURE, n. era'zhur. The act of era- sing ; a scratching out ; obliteration.

      2. The place where a word or letter has been erased or obliterated.

      ERE, arfw. [Sax.ffir; G.eher; D. eer ; Goth. air. This is the root of early, and (cr, in Saxon, signifies the morning. Before ever, we use or, " or ever." Let it be observed, that ere is not to be confounded with e'er, for ever.] Before ; sooner than.

      Ere sails were spread new oceans to explore. Dry den. The nobleman saith to him. Sir, come down ere my child die. John iv.

      In these passages, ere is really a prepo- sition, followed by a sentence, instead of a single word, as below. ERE, prep. Before.

      Our fruitful Nile Flow'd ere the wonted season. Dryden.

      E'RELONG, adv. [ere and long.] Before a long time had elapsed. [06a. or little used.]

      He mounted tlic horse, and following the stag, erelong slew him. Spenser.

      3. Before a long time shall elapse ; before long. £re?o)ig' you will repent ofyour folly.

      The world erelong a world of tears must w eep.


      E'RE.VOW, adv. [ere and noiv.] Before

      this time. Dryde

      .] Son

      before a

      Feeding or subsisting on liorse flesh.

      Equioorous Tartar.^. Quart. Rev.

      ER, the termination of many English words, is the Teutonic form of the Latin or ; the one contracted from wer, the other from vir, a man. It denotes an agent, original- ly of the masculine gender, but now ap- plied to men or things indifferently ; as in! hater, farmer, heater, grater. At the eudof|ll. To rub or scrape out, as letters or char-|

      Arm. raza. See Ar. ^jiA to corrode, Ch. TlJ to scrape, Heb. tnn a graving tool, and A




      Class Rd. No :35. 38 and 58.]

      nne ago ;

      E'REVVHILE, } , [ere and while.] Some

      E'REWHILES, i; '""^■- ti " "

      little while. Obs. I am as fair now as I was erewhile. Shak.

      ER'EBUS, n. [L. erebus; Gr.fpfSoj; Orien- tal T\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\y evening, the decline of the sun, whence darkness, blackness.]

      In mythology, darkness ; hence, the region of

      the dead ; a deep and gloomv place ; hell.

      Shak. Milton.

      ERECT', a. [L. erectus, from erigo, to set upright ; c and rego, to stretch or make straight, right, rectus ; It. ereffo. See Right.]

      1. Upright, or in a perpendicular posture ; as, he stood erect.

      2. Directed upward.

      .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\nd suppliint hands, to heaven erect.


      3. Upright and fum ; bold; unshaken.


      E R O


      Let no vain fear thy generous ardor tame ; But stand erect. Granville.

      4. Raised ; stretched ; intent ; vigorous ; as a vigilant and erect attention of mind in prayer. Hooker.

      5. Stretched ; extended.

      6. In botany, an erect stem is one which is without support from twining, or nearly perpendicular ; an erect leaf is one which grows close to the stem ; an erect flower has its aperture directed upwards.

      Martyn. ERECT', V. t. To raise and set in an upriglit or perpendicular direction, or nearly such : as, to erect a pole or flag-staff.

      To erect a perpendicular, is to set or form one line on another at right angles.

      2. To raise, as a building; to setup; to build; as, to erect a house or temple ; to erect a fort.

      3. To set up or establish anew ; to found ; to form ; as, to erect a kingdom or com- monwealth ; to erect a new system or theory.

      4. To elevate ; to exalt.

      I am far from pretending to infallibility : that would be to erect myself into an apostle.


      5. To raise ; to excite ; to animate ; to en- courage.

      Why should not hope As much erect our thoughts, as fear deject them ? Denham.

      6. To raise a consequence from premises. [Little used.]

      Malebranche erects this proposition. Locke.

      7. To extend ; to distend.

      ERECT', V. i. To rise upright. Bacon.

      ERECT' ABLE, n. Tiiatcan be erected ; as an erectable feather. Montagu.

      ERECT'ED, pp. Set in a straight and per- pendicular direction ; set upright ; raised ; built ; established ; elevated ; animated ; extended and distended. |

      ERECT'ER, n. One that erects; one that raises or builds.

      ERECT'ING, ppr. Raising and setting up- right ; building ; founding ; establishing ; elevating ; inciting ; extending and dis- tending.

      ERECTION, n. The act of raising and set- ting perpendicular to the plane of the ho- rizon ; a setting upright.

      2. Tlie act of raising or building, as an edi- fice or fortification ; as the erection of a wall, or of a house.

      3. The state of being raised, built or eleva- ted.

      4. Establishment ; settlement ; formation ; as the erection of a commonwealth, or of a new system ; the erection of a bishop- rick or an earldom.

      5. Elevation; exaltation of sentiments.

      Her peerless height my mind to high erection draws up. Sidney.

      6. Act of rousing ; excitement; as the erec- tion of the s\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\)\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ms. Bacon.

      7. Any thing erected ; a building of anv kind. O. ffolcol't.

      8. Distension and extension. ERECT'IVE, a. Setting upright ; raising. ERECT'LY, adv. In an erect posture.


      ERECT'NESS, n. Uprightness of posture

      or form. |

      ERECT'OR, n. A muscle that erects ; one that raises.

      ER'EMITA6E, n. [See Hermitage.]

      ER'EMITE, )!. [L. eremita; Gr. (piiii.tri(, from fpjjfios, a desert.J

      One who lives in a wilderness, or in retire- ment, secluded from an intercourse with men. It is generally written her7nit, which see. Raleigh. Milton.

      EREMIT'ICAL, a. Living in solitude, or inj seclusion from the world.

      EREP'TION, n. [L. ereptio.] A taking or snatching away by force.

      ER'GAT, V. i. [L. ergo.] To infer ; to draw conclusions. [JVot used.] Hewyt.

      ER'GO, adv. [h.] Therefore.

      ER GOT, n. [Fr. a spur.] In farriery, a stub, like a piece of soft horn, about thc| bigness of a chestnut, situated behind and below the pastern joint, and commonly! hid under the tuft of the fetlock. I

      2. A morbid excrescence in grain ; a dark- colored shoot, often an inch long, from the ears of grain, particularly of rye.

      ER'GOTISM, n. [L. ergo.] A logical infer-] ence ; a conclusion. Brown.

      ER'IACII, n. [Irish.] A pecuniary fine.

      ER ItilBLE, a. That may be erected. [/«j formed and not used.] Shaw's Zool.

      EKINGO. [See£;-i/)ie-o-] ERIST'IC. I [(5r. fpt;, contention ; ERIST'ICAL, I "■ tptf^os, contentious.] Pertaining to disputes ; controversial. [J/bl

      ERKe!' n. [Gr. atpyof.] Idle ; slothful.

      [JVot in use.] Chaucer.

      ERMELIN. [See Ermin.] ER'MIN, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ [Fr. hermine ; It. armellino ; ER'MINE, I "• Sp. armino ; Port, arminho ;

      Ann. erminicq ; D. hermelyn ; G. Dan. Sw.


      1. An animal of the genus Mustela, an in- habitant of northern climates, in Europe and America. It nearly resembles the martin in shape, but the weasel, in food and maimers. In winter, the fur is en- tirely white : in summer, the upper part of the body is of a pale tawny brown col- or, but the tail is tipped with black. The fur is much valued.

      2. The fur of the ermin.

      ER'MINED, a. Clothed with ermin ; adorn- ed with the fur of the ermin ; as ermined Pope. Saxon word, signify- ing a place or receptacle, forms the term- ination of some English words, as well as Latin ; as in barn, lantern, taverti, taberna. ERO'DE, V. t. [L. erodo ; e and rodo, to

      pride ; ermined pomp. ERNE, or .ERNE, "

      gnaw, Sp. roer. It. rodere, Ar. qoA

      to gnaw. Class Rd. No. 35.] To eat in or away ; to corrode ; as, canker

      erodes the flesh.

      The blood, being too sharp or thin, erodes

      the vessels. Wiseman.

      ERO'DED, pp. Eaten ; gnawed ; corroded. ERO'DING,/)/)r. Eating into ; eating away ;

      corroding. ER'OGATE, v.l. [h. erogo.] To lay out;

      to give ; to bestow upon. [JVot iised.] |


      EROGA'TION, n. The act of conferring.

      [M>t used.] Elyot.l

      ERO'SE, a. [L. erosus.] In botany, an erosc leaf has small sinuses in the margin, as if gnawed. ^Martyn.

      ERO'SION, n. s as z. [L. erosio.] The act or operation of eating away.

      2. The state of being eaten away ; corro- sion ; canker.

      EROT'IC, I [Gr. tpco;, love.] Pertain-

      EROT'ICAL, $ ' 'ing to love; treating of love. Encyc.

      EROT'IC, n. An amorous composition or poem. Encyc.

      ERPETOL'OGIST, n. [Gr. fprttfoj, reptile, and ^oyos, discourse.]

      One who writes on the subject of reptiles, or is versed in the natural history of rep- tiles. Ch. Observer.

      ERPETOL'OtiY, n. [supra.] That part of natural history which treats of reptiles. Diet, of JVat. Hist.

      ERR, V. i. [L. erro; Fr. errer; Sp. errar ; It. errare ; G. iiren ; Sw. irra ; Dan. irrer.]

      1. To wander from the right way ; to devi- ate from the true course or purpose.

      But errs not nature from this gracious end. From burning suns when livid deaths des- cend ? Pope.

      2. To miss the right way, in morals or reli- gion ; to deviate from the path or line of duty ; to stray by design or mistake.

      We have erred and strayed like lost sheep.

      Com. Prayer. ;?. To mistake ; to commit error ; to do wrong from ignorance or inattention. Men err in judgment from ignorance, from want of attention to facts, or from previ- ous bias of mind. 4. To wander ; to ramble.

      A storm of strokes, well meant, with furv

      flies. And errs about their temples, ears, and eyes.

      ER'RABLE, a. Liable to mistake ; fallible."

      [l/iltle xised.]


      Liableness to mis-


      take or error.

      We may infer from the errableness of our na- ture, the reasonableness of compassion to the seduced. Decay of piety.

      ER'RAND, n. [Sax. mrend, a message, mandate, legation, bu.siness, narration ; wrendian, to tell or relate ; Sw. hrende ; Dan. (erinde.]

      1. A verbal message ; a mandate or order ; something to be told or done ; a commu- nication to be made to some person at a distance. The servant was sent on an er- rand ; he told his errand; he has done the errand. These are the most common modes of using this word.

      I have a secret errand to thee, King.

      2. Any sjiecial business to be transacted by a messenger.

      ER'RANT, a. [Fr. erraiit ; L. errans, from erro, to err.]

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\. Wandering ; roving ; rambling ; applied particularly to knights, who, in the middle ages, wandered about to seek adventures and display their heroism and generosity, called knights errant.

      2. Deviating from a certain course. Shak.

      3. Itinerant. Obs.

      Errant, for arrant, a false orthography. [See

      ..irrant.] ERRANTRY, n. A wandering; a roving

      or rambling about. Addison.


      E R U


      a. The employment of a knight errant.

      ERRAT'Ie, a. [L. erralicus, from erro, to wander.] Wandering ; having no certain course ; roving about witliout a fixed des- tination. Pope.

      2. Moving ; not fixed or stationary ; applied to the planets, as distinguished from the

      fixed stars.

      3. Irregular; mutable. Harvey. ERRAT'ICALLY, adv. Without rule, order

      or establislied method ; irregularly.


      ERRA'TION, n. A wandering. [.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ot used.]

      ERRA'TUM, n. plu. errata. [See Err.] An error or mistake in writing or printing. A list of the errata of a book is usually printed at the beginning or end, with ref- erences to the pages and lines in which they occur.

      ER'RHINE, a. er'rine. [Gr. tppwoi' ; iv and piv, the nose.]

      Affecting the nose, or to be snuffed into the nose ; occasioning discharges from the

      ER'RHINE, n. er'rine. A medicine to be snuffed up the nose, to promote dischar- ges of nnicus. Coxe. Encyc.

      ER'RING, ppr. Wandering from the truth or the right way ; mistaking ; irregular.

      ERRO'NEOUS, a. [L. erroneus, from erro, to err.]

      1. Wandering ; roving ; unsettled.

      They roam Erroneous and discoiii'olatc. Philips.

      2. Deviating; devious; irregular; wander- ing from the right course.

      Erroneous circulation of blood. Arbuthnot. [The foregoing applications of the tvord are less common.]

      3. Mistaking ; misled ; deviating, by mistake from the truth. Destroy not the eironeous with the malicious.

      4. Wrong ; false ; mistaken ; not conforma- ble to truth; erring from truth or justice; as an erroneous opinion or judgment.

      ERRO'NEOUSLY, adv. By mistake ; not rightly; falsely.

      ERRO'NEOUSNESS, ji. The state of being erroneous, wrong or false ; deviation fr( right ; inconformity to truth ; as the er neousness of a judgment or proposition,

      ER'ROR, n. [L. error, from erro, to wander.] A wandering or deviation from the truth ; a mistake in judgment, by which men as- sent to or believe what is not true. Er- ror may be voluntary, or involuntary. Vol- untary', when men neglect or pervert the ])roper means to inform the mind : invol- untary, when the means of judging cor- rectly are not in their power. An error committed through carelessness or haste " a blunder.

      Charge home upon error its most tremendous consequences. /• M. Mason.

      2. A mistake made in writing or other per- formance. It is no easy task to correct the en-ors of the press. Authors some- times charge their own en-ors to the prin- ter.

      3. A wandering ; excursion ; irregular course.

      Driv'n by the winds and errors of the sea.

      JJrydcn [This sense is unusual and hardly legiti- mate]

      4. Deviation from law, justice or right ; oversight ; mistake in conduct.

      Say not, it was an error. Eccles. v.

      5. In scripture and theology, sin ; iniquity ; transgression.

      Wlio can understand his errors ? cleanse thou me liom secret faults. Ps. xix.

      6. In law, a mistake in pleading or in judg- ment. A writ of error, is a writ Ibunded on an alledged error in judgment, which carries the suit to another tribunal for re- dress. Hence the following verb,

      ER'ROR, V. t. To determine a judgment of court to be erroneou.s.

      [The use of this verb is not well author- ized.]

      ERSE, n. The language of the descend- ants of the Gaels or Celts, in the high- lands of Scotland.

      ERST, adv. [Sax. cerest, superlative o((er. See Ere.]

      1. First; at first ; at the beginning.

      2. Once ; formerly ; long ago.

      3. Before ; till then or now ; hitherto.

      [This word is obsolete, except in poetry.]

      ERSTWHILE, adv. Till then or now ; for- merly. Obs. Glanville.

      ERUBES'CENCE, n. [L. erubescens, em- besco, from rubeo, to be red.]

      A becoming red ; redness of the skin or sur- face of any thing; a blushing.

      ERUBES'CENT, a. Red, or reddish ; blush- ing.

      ERU€T', I , [L. enicto, rudor, coin-

      ERUCT'ATE, S ciding in elements with

      Ch. pn Heb. pT to spit. Qu. yerk.]

      To belch ; to eject from the stomach, as wind. [Little itsed.] Howell.

      ERU€TA'TION, ji. [L. eruclatio.] The act of belching wind from the stomach ; a belch.

      2. A violent bursting forth or ejection of wind or other matter from the earth.


      ER'UDITE, a. [L. eruditus, from erudio, to

      instruct. Qu. e and rudis, rude. Rather

      Ch. Syr. Sam. rm redah, to teach. Class

      Rd. No. 2.] Instructed ; taught ; learned.


      ERUDI"TION, n. Learning; knowledge gained by study, or from books and in- struction ; particularly, learning in litera- ture, as distinct from the sciences, as in history, antiquity and languages. The Scaligers were men of deep erudition.

      The most useful erudition for republicans is that which exposes the causes of discords.

      J. Mams.

      ERU'GlNOUS, a. [L. teniginosus, from aii-ugo, rust.]

      Partaking of the substance or nature of cop- per or the rust of copper.; resembling ru.>«t.

      ERUPT', V. i. To burst forth. [J\\\\\\\'ot used.]

      ERUP'TION, »i. [L. eruptio, from erumpo, enipi ; e and rumpo, lor rupo ; Sp. romper ; Fr. Tompre. See Class Rb. No. 2G. 27. 29.]

      1. The act of breaking or bursting forth from inclosure or confinement ; a violent emission of any thing, particularly of flames and lava from a volcano. The eruptions of Hecla in 1783, were extraor- dinary for the quantity of l.iva discharged.

      2. A sudden or violent rushing forth of men or troops for invasion ; sudden excursion.

      Incensed at such eruption bold. Milton.


      3. A burst of voice ; violent exclamation. [LitUe used.] South.

      4. In medical scietice, a breaking out of hu- mors ; a copious excretion of humors on the skin, in pustules ; also, an efflores- cence or redness on the skin, as in scarla- tina ; exanthemata; petechise ; vibices ; as

      small pox, measles and fevers. P'TIVE, a. Bursting forth. The sudden dance Appears far south eruptive Uirougli Oie cloud. Thomson.

      2. Attended with eruptions or efflorescence, or producing it ; as an eruptive fever.

      ERYN'GO, n. [Gr. ^pvyy.o^.] The sea-hollj-, En/ngium, a genus of plants of several sjiecies. The flowers are collected in a round head ; the receptacle is paleaceous or chaffy. The young shoots are esculent. Enojc.

      ERYSIP'ELAS, ,i. [Gr. tpimxixo.!.] A dis- ease called St. Anthony's fire ; a diffused inflammation with fever of two or three days, generally with coma or delirium ; an eruption of a fiery acrid humor, on some part of the body, but chiefly on the face. One species of erysipelas is called shingles, or eruption with small vesicles. Coxe. Encyc. Quincy.

      ERYSIPEL'ATOUS, a. "Eruptive; resem- bling erysipelas, or partaking of its na- ture.

      ES€ALA'DE, n. [Fr. id. ; Sp. escalada ; It. scalata ; from Sp. escala. It. scala, L. scata, a ladder, Fr. echelle. See Scale.]

      In the military art, a furious attack made by troops on a fortified place, in which lad- ders are used to pass a ditch or mount a rampart.

      Siu enters, not by escalade, but by cunniag or treachery. Buckminster.

      ESCALA'DE, v. t. To scale ; to mount and pass or enter by means of ladders ; as, to escalade a wall. Life of yVellinglon.

      ES€AL'OP, n. skid'lup. [D. schulp, a shell.] A family of bivalvular shell-fish, whose shell is regularly indented. In the center of the top of the shell is a trigonal sinus with an elastic cartilage for its hinge.

      2. A regular curving indenture in the margin of any thing. [See Scallop and Scollop.]

      ESCAPA'DE, n. [Fr. See Escape.] The fling of a horse. In Spanish, night, es- cape.

      ESCA'PE, V. t. [Fr. echapper ; Norm, eche- ver; Arm. achap ; It. scappare ; Sp. Port. escapar ; probably from L. capio, with a negative prefix, or from a word of the same family.]

      1. To flee from and avoid ; to get out of the way; to shun ; to obtain security from; to pass without harm ; as, to escape dan- ger.

      A small number, that escape the sword, shall return. Jer. xUv.

      Having escaped the corruption tliat is in the world through lust. 2 Pet. i.

      2. To pass unobserved ; to evade ; as, the fact escaped my notice or observation.

      3. To avoid the danger of; as, to escape the sea. Acts xxviii.

      Note. This verb is properly intransitive, and in strictness should be followed by from; but usage sanctions the omission of it.

      ESeA'PE, V. 1. To flee, shun and be secure from danger ; to avoid an evil.




      Escape for thy life to the mountains, xix.

      2. To be passed without liarm. The balls whistled by me, my comrades fell, but J escaped. ES€A'PE, n. Flight to shun danger or in jury ; the act of fleeing from danger.

      I would hasten my escape from the windy storm. Ps, Iv.

      2. A being passed without receiving injury as when danger conies near a person, but passes by, and the person is passive. Ev- ery soldier who survives a battle has had such an escape.

      3. Excuse ; subterfuge ; evasion. Raleigh

      4. In law, an evasion of legal restraint or the custody of the sheriff, without due course of law. Escapes are voluntary or invol- untary ; voluntary, when an officer per-

      mits au offender or debtor to


      tody, without warrant ; and involuntary. or negligent, when an arrested person quits the custody of the officer against his will, and is not pursued forthwith and re- taken before the pursuer hath lost sight of him.

      5. Sally ; flight ; irregularity. [Little used.]


      6. Oversight ; mistake. [Little used, or im- proper.]

      ES€A'PEMENT, n. That part of a clock or watch, which regulates its movements, and prevents their acceleration.

      Ed. Encyc.

      ESCA'PING, }}pr. Fleeing from and avoid- ing danger or evil ; being passed unobser- ved or unhurt; shunning; evading; se- curing safety; quitting the custody of the law, without warrant.

      ESCA'PING, )(. Avoidance of danger. Ez- ra ix.

      ES€>ARGATOIRE, n. [Fr. from escargot, a snail.] A nursery of snails. Addison.

      ESe'ARP, V. t. [Fr. escarper, to cut to a slope ; It. Scarpa, a slope. See Cane.]

      To slope ; to form a slope ; a military term. Carkton.

      ESCARPMENT, n. A slope ; a steep des- cent or declivity. Buckland.

      ESCHALOJ, n. shallo'te. [Fr. echalote.] A species of small onion or garlic, belonging to the genus Allium ; the c^calonicum.


      ES'CIIAR, n. [Gr. t(i;tapa-] In surgery, the crust or scab occasioned by burns or caus- tic applications. Encyc.

      2. A species of Coralline, resembling a net or woven cloth.

      ESCHAROT'IC, a. Caustic; having the

      power of searing or destroying the flesh

      Coxe. Encyc

      ESCHAROT'le, n. A caustic apphcatio'n ;

      a medicine which sears or destroys flesh.


      ESCHE'AT, n. [Fr. echeoir, echoir, choir. Norm, cschier, eschire, eschever, to fall, to happen to, to escheat. The Pr. echoir, seems to be the Sp. caer, which is contrac- ted from the L. cado, cadere.]

      1. Any land or tenements which casually fall or revert to the lord within his manor, through failure of heirs. It is the deter- mination of the tenure or dissolution of the nmtual bond between the lord and tenant, from the extinction of the blood

      of the tenant, by death or natural means or by civil means, as forfeiture or cor- ruption of blood. Blackstone.

      2. In the U. States, the faUing or passing of lands and tenements to the state, through failure of heirs or forfeiture, or in cases where no owner is found.

      Stat, of Mass. and Connecticut.

      3. The place or circuit within which the king or lord is entitled to escheats.


      4. A writ to recover escheats from the per-

      Blackstone. Cowel. Encyc.

      5. The lands which fall to the lord or state by escheat.

      0. In Scots law, the forfeiture incurred by a man's being denounced a rebel.

      ESCHE'AT, V. i. In England, to revert, as land, to the lord of a manor, by means of the extinction of the blood of the tenant.

      3. In America, to fall or come, as land, to the state, through failure of heirs or owners, or by forfeiture for treason. In the feu- dal sense, no escheat can exist in the Uni- ted States ; but the word is used in stat- utes confiscating the estates of those who abandoned their country, during the re ohuion, and in statutes giving to the state the lands for which no owner can be found.

      ESCHE'AT, V. t. To forfeit. [JVot used.]

      Bp. Hall.

      ESCHE'ATABLE, a. Liable to escheat.

      ESCHE'AT AGE, n. The right of succeding to an escheat. Sherwood.

      ESCHE'ATED, pp. Having fallen to the lord through want of heirs, or to the state for want of an owner, or by forfeitin'e.

      ESCHE'ATING,;3;)r. Reverting to the lord through failure of heirs, or to the state for want of an owner, or by forfeiture.

      ESCHE'ATOR, n. An officer who observes the escheats of the king in the county whereof he is escheator, and certifies them into the treasury. Camden.

      ESCHEW, v.t. [Norm, eschever; Old Fr. escheoir ; G. scheuen ; It. schivare ; Fr. es- quiver ; Dan. skyer ; to shun. The G. scheu, Dan. sky. It. schifo, is the Eng. shy. In Sw. the corresponding words are «%§■§• and skyggia, which leads to the opinion that the radical letters are Kg or Skg ; and if so, these words correspond with the G- scheuchen, to frighten, to drive away, which we retain in the word shoo, used to scare away fowls.]

      To flee from ; to shun ; to avoid.

      He who obeys, destiuction shall eschew.

      Sandys. Job— feared God and eschewed evil. Job 1.

      ESCHEW'ED, pp. Shunned ; avoided.

      ESCHEWING, j)/»-. Shunning; avoiding. [This word is nearly obsolete, or at least little used.]

      ESCO'CHEON, n. [Fr.] The shield of the family. Warton.

      ES'eORT, n. [Fr. escorte ; It. scoHa, a guard, and scortare, to escort, to abridge, to shorten. From this Italian word, we may infer that escort is from the root of short, which signifies curtailed, cut off; hence the sense is a detachment or small party, or a cutting off, a defense. The Si>. and Port, word is escolta, r being changed into I. See Short.]

      A guard ; a body of armed men which at- tends an officer, or baggage, provisions or munitions conveyed by land from place to place, to protect them from an enemy,

      I or in general, for security. [This word is

      ! rarely, and never properly used for naval

      I protection or protectors; the latter we

      [ call a convoy. I have found it applied to

      j naval protection, but it is unusual.]

      i ESCORT', V. t. To attend and guard on a

      I journey Vjy land ; to attend and guard any thing conveyed by land. General Wash-

      j ington arrived at Boston, escorted by a de- tachment of di-agoons. The guards ejcor-

      j ted Lord Wellington to London.

      ESeORT'ED, p2>. Attended and guarded by land.

      ESCORT'ING, ppr. Attending and guard- ing by laud.

      ESeOT. [See Scot.]

      ESCOUADE. [See Squad.]

      ESCOUT. [SeeScoui.]

      ESCRITO'IR, ». [Sp. escntorio ; It. scri«o- io ; Fr. ecritoire, from ecrire, ecrit, to write, from the root of L. scribo, Eng. to scrape.]

      A box with instruments and conveniences for writing ; sometimes, a desk or chest of drawers with an apartment for the instruments of writing. It is often pro- nounced scrutoir.

      ES'CROW, 7t. [Fr. ecrou. Norm, escrover, es- crowe, a scroll, a contraction of scroll, or otherwise from the root of ecrire, ecrivons, to write.]

      In law, a deed of lands or tenements deliver- ed to a third person, to hold til] some condition is performed by the grantee, and which is not to take effect till the condi- tion is ])erformed. It is then to be deliv- ered to the grantee. Blackstone.

      ES'CUAgE, n. [from Fr. ecu, for escu, L. scutum, a shield.]

      In feudal law, service of the shield, called also scutage ; a species of tenure by knight service, by which a tenant was bound to follow his lord to war ; afterwards ex- changed for a jjecuniary satisfaction.


      ESCIILA'PIAN, a. [from .Esculapius, the physician.]

      Medical ; pertaining to the healing art.


      ES'CULENT, a. [L. esculentus, from esca, food.]

      Eatable ; that is or may be used by man for food ; as esculent plants ; esculent fish.

      ES'CULENT, n. Something that is eatable; that which is or may be safely eaten by man.

      ESeU'RIAL, n. The palace or residence of the King of Spain, about 15 miles North West of Madrid. This is the largest and most superb structure in the kingdom, and one of the most splendid in Europe. It is built in a dry barren spot, and the name itself is said to signify a place full of rocks. Encyc.

      The Escurial is a famous monastery built by Philip II. in the shape of a gridiron, in honor of St. Laurence. It takes its name from a village near 3Iadrid. It contains the king's palace, St. Laurence's church, the monastery of Jerenomites, and the free schools. Port. Diet.




      ESeUTCH'EON, n. [Fr. rmsson, for escus- son, from L. scutum, a shield, It. saido, Sp. escudo, Ann. scoeda.]

      The shield on which a coat of amis is re- presented ; the shield of a family ; the pic- tm-e of ensigns armorial.

      Encyc. Johnson.

      ESeUTCH'EONED, a. Having a. coat of arms or ensign. Young.

      ESLOIN', V. I. [Fr. eloigner.] To remove. [jVol in use.]

      ESOPIIAGOT'OMY, n. [esophagus and ro^t;, a cutting.]

      In surgery, the operation of making an incis ion into the esophagus, for the purpose of] i-emoving any foreign substance that ob- structs the passage. Joum. of Science.

      ESOPH'AGUS, n. [Gr. oiao^ayoi.] Tlie gul- let ; the canal through which food and drink pass to the stomach.

      ESO'PIAN, a. [from .^sop.] Pertaining to JEaSO}) ; composed by him or in his man ner. Warlon.

      ESOT'ERI€, a. [Gr. fauTtpoj, interior, from fSu, within.]

      Private ; an eiiithct applied to the pr instructions and doctrines of Pythagoras; opposed to exoteric, or public. Enfield.

      ESOT'ERY, n. Mystery ; secrecy. [Little used.]

      ESPAL'lER, 71. [Fr. espalier ; Sp. espalera; It. spulliera ; from L. palus, a stake pole.]

      A row of trees planted about a garden or hedges, so as to inclose quarters or sepa- rate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close hedge or shelter to protect plants against injuries ti-om wind or weather.


      ESPAL'lER, V. t. To form an espalier, ot to protect by an espalier.

      ESPAR'CET, n. A kind of sainfoin.


      ESPE"CIAL, a. [Fr. special ; L. speciulis, from specie, to see, .species, kind.]

      Principal; chief; particular; as, in an espe cial manner or degree.

      ESPE"CIALLY, adv. Principally ; chiefly particularly ; in an uncommon degree ; it reference to one person or thing in partic iilar.

      ESPE'CIALNESS, n. The state of being especial.

      ES'PERANCE, n. [Fr. from L. spero, to hope.] Hope. [ATot English.] Shak.

      ESPI'AL, n. [See Spy.] A spy ; the act of espying. Elyot.

      ES'PINEL, n. A kind of ruby. [See Spi- nel.]

      ES'PIONAgE, n. [Fr. from espionner, to spy, espion, a spy.]

      The practice or employment of spies ; the practice of watching the words and con duct of others and attempting to make dis- coveries, as spies or secret emissaries ; the practice of watching others without being suspected, and giving intelligence of dis- coveries made.

      ESPLANA'DE, n. [Fr. id. ; Sp. esplanada ; It. spionnta; from h. planus, plain.]

      1. In fortijicaiion, the glacis of the counte scnrp. or the sloping of the parapet of il covered-way towards the countrv ; or the

      Vol. I.

      void space between the glacis of a citadel, and the first houses of the town.

      Encyc. Baiiey.

      2. In gardening, a grass-plat.

      ESPOUS'AL, a. espouz'al. [See Espouse.] Used in or relating to the act of espousing or botrotliiiig. Bacon.

      ESPOUS'AL, n. The act of espousing or betrothing.

      2. Adoption ; protection. Ld. Orford.

      ESPOUS'ALS, n.plu. The act of contract- ing or affiancing a man and woman to each other ; a contract or mutual iiromise of marriage.

      I remcnibcr thee, the kindness of thy youth the love of thine espousals. .ler. ii.

      ESPOUSE, v.l. espovz'. [Fr. epouser ; It sposare; Port, dcsposar ; Sp. aesposar, to marry ; desposarse, to be betrothed. If this word is the same radically as the L. spondeo, .sponsus, the letter n, in the latter, must be casual, or the modern languages have lost the letter. The former is most probable; in which case, spondeo was pri- marily spodeo, sposus.]

      1. To betroth.

      When iis his mother Mary was espoused to Josepli. Matt. i.

      2. To betroth ; to promise or engage in mar riagc, by contract in writing, or by some pledge ; as, the king espoused his daughter to-» t ai -eigii piince. Usually anil properly followed by to, rather than ivith.

      3. To marry ; to wed. Shak. Milton.

      4. To unite intimately or indissolubly.

      I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Clirist.

      5. To embrace ; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\p take to one's self, with a view to maintain ; as, to espouse the quar- rel of another ; to espouse a cause.


      ESPOUS'ED, pp. Betrothed ; affianced ; promised in marriage by contract ; ried ; united intimately; embraced.

      ESPOUS'ER, n. One who espouses who defends the cause of another.

      ESPOUS'ING, ppr. Betrothing ; promising in marriage by covenant ; marrying ; uni ting indissolubly ; taking part in.

      ESPY', 1^ <. [Fr. epier, espier ; Sp. espiar ; It. spiare ; D. bespieden, from spiede, a spy ; G. spahen, to spy ; Sw. speia ; Dan. speider ; W. yspiaw, and yspeithiaw, from yspaith, paith. See Spy. The radical let- ters seetii to be Pd ; if not, the word contraction from the root of L. specio.

      1. To see at a distance; to have the first sight of a thing remote. Seamen esp land as they approach it.

      2. To see or discover something intended to be hid, or in a degree concealed and not very visible ; as, to espy a man in a crowd, or a thief in a wood.

      3. To discover une,xpectedly.

      As one of them opened his sack, he espied his money. Gen. xlii.

      4. To inspect narrowly ; to e.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\amine and make discoveries.

      Moses sent nie to e.ipy out the land, and I brought him word again. Josh. xiv. ESPY', V. i. To look narrowly ; to look about ; to watch.

      Stand by the way and espy. Jer. xlviii.

      [This word is often pronounced spy, which .see.]


      ESPY', 71. A spy ; a scout.

      ESQUI'RE, n. " [Fr. ecuyer ; It. scudiere ; Sp. escudero ; Port, escudeiro ; from L. scu- tum, a shield, from Gr. axvtoi, a hide, of which shields were anciently made, or from the root of that word, Sax. sceadan. See Shade.]

      Projierly, a shield-hearer or armor-bearer, scutifer; an attendant on a knight. Hence in modern times, a title of dignity next in degree below a knight. In England, this title is given to the younger sons of noble- men, to officers of the king's courts and of the household, to counselors at law, jus- tices of the peace, while in commission, sheriffs, and other gentlemen. In the Uni- ted States, the title is given to public offi- cers of all flegrees, from governors down to justices and attorneys. Indeed the ti- tle, in addressing letters, is bestowed on any person at pleasure, and contains no definite description. It is merely an expres- .sion of respect.

      ESQUIRE, V. I. To attend ; to wait on.

      ESSA'Y, v.t. [Fr. essaijer ; Norm, essoyer ; Arm. (Bczaca ; D. zoeken, to seek ; bezoeken, verzoeken, to essay ; G. suchen, to seek ; versuchen, to essay ; Dan. forsoger ; Sw. forshkia ; Sp. ensayar ; Port, ensaiar ; It. saggiare, assaggiare. The jirimary word is seek, the same as L. sequor. See Seek. The radical sense is to press, drive, urge, strain, strive, Ch. pON. Class Sg. No. 46.]

      L To try ; to attempt ; to endeavor ; to ex- ert one's power or faculties, or to make an effort to perform any thing.

      While I Uiis unexampled task essay.


      2. To make experiment of

      3. To try the value and purity of metals. In this application, the word is now more generally written assay, which see.

      ES'SAY, n. A trial ; attempt ; endeavor ; an effort made, or exertion of body or mind, for the performance of any thing. We say, to make an essay.

      FruiUess our hopes, diough pious our essays. Smith.

      9. In literature, a composition intended to prove or illustrate a particular subject; usually shorter and less methodical and finished than a system ; as an essay on the hfe and writings of Homer; an essay on fossils : an essay on commerce.

      3. A trial or experiment ; as, this is the first essay.

      Trial or experiment to prove the quali- ties of a metal. [In this sense, see Jlssay.] First taste of any thing. Dryden.

      ESSA'YED, pp. Attempted ; tried.

      ESSA'YER, n. One who writes essays.


      ESSA'YING, ppr. Trying; making an ef- fort : attempting.

      ESSA'YIST, n. A writer of an essay, or of essays. Butler.

      ES'SENCE, 71. [L. essentia ; Fr. essence ; It. essenza ; Sp. esencia ; from L. esse, to be; Sw.vhsende; Goth, tmsands, from tins- an. Sax. wesan, to be, whence icas. The sense of the verb is, to set, to fL\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\, to he permanent.]

      1. That which constitutes the particular na- ture of a being or substance, or of a genus, and which distinguishes it from all others.


      Mr. Locke makes a Jistinction between nominal essence and real essence. The nominal essence, for example, of gold, is that complex idea expressed by gold; the ceaZ essence is the constitution of its insen- sible parts, on which its properties depend, which is imknown to us.

      The essence of God bears no relation to place. E. D. Origin. 9. Formal existence ; that which makes any thing to be what it is; or rather, the i)e- culiar nature of a thing; the very sub- stance ; as the tssence of Christianity, n. Existence ; the quality of being.

      I could have resigned my very essence.


      4. A being ; an existent person ; as heavenly essences. Milton.

      5. Species of being. Bacon.

      6. Constituent substance ; as the pure es- sence of a spirit. [Locke's real essence supra.] Milton

      7. The predominant qualities or virtues of any plant or drug, extracted, refined or rectified from grosser matter ; or more strictly, a volatile essential oil ; as the es- sence of mint.

      8. Perfume, odor, scent ; or the volatde mat- ter constituting perfume.

      Nor let th' iaipiisoned essences exhale.


      ES'SENCE, V. I. To perfume ; to scent. ES'SENCED, pp. Perfumed; as cssenced fops. Mdison

      ESSE'NES, n. Among the Jews, a sect re markable for their strictness and absti nence. .

      ESSEN'TIAL, a. [L. essenludis.] JNecessa ry to the constitution or existence of a thing. Piety and good works are essential to the christian character. Figure and extension are essential properties of bodies. And if each system in gradation roll, ial to the amazing whole—



      I. An excuse ; the alledging of an excuse for him who is summoned to appear m court and answer, and who neglects to ap- pear at the day. In England, the three first days of a term are called essoin-days, as three days are allowed for the appear- ance of suitors.

      Blackstone. Coivel. Spelman. •2. Excuse; exemption. Spenser.

      3. He that is excused for non-a|)pearance in court, at the day appointed. Johnson.

      ESSOIN', V. t. To allow an excuse for non- appearance in court; to excuse for ab- sence. Cowel. ESSOIN 'ER, n. An attorney who suffi- ciently e.xcuses the absence of another. ESTAB'LISH. v. t. [Fr. etablir ; Sp. estab- teccr ; Port, estabelecer ; It. stabilire ; L. stabitio ; Hcb. 2T or 3X: ; Ch. Syr. id. ; Ar,

      wK/aJ to set, fix, estabhsh. Class Sb No. 37. and see No. 35. See also Ar. ,_^i- Ch. 3n" to settle, to place, to dwell, Clasi Db. No. 53. 54.] 1. To set and fix firmly or unalterably ; to settle permanently.


      His excellency — might gradually lessen your establishment. Swifi.

      6. That which is fixed or established ; as a permanent military force, a fixed garrison, a local government, an agency, a factory, &c. The king has establishments to sup- port, hi the four quarters of the globe.

      G. Britain. The episcopal form of religion, so called in England. 8. Settlement or final rest.

      set up our hopes and establishment here.


      ESTAFET', n. [Sp. estafeta.] A military

      courier. [See Staff.] ESTA'TE, n. [Fr. etat, for eslat ; D. staat ; G. staat ; Arm. stad ; It. stato ; Sp. estado ; L. status, from sto, to stand. The roots stb, sld and slg, have nearly the same significa- tion, to set, to fix. It is probable that the L. sto is contracted from stad, as it forms

      steti. See Ar. jv *s , Class Sd. No. 46.

      Alike esseniK

      2. Important in the highest degree ore essential to a gci

      neral than


      Judgmei courage.

      3. Pure ; highly rectified. Essential oils are such as are drawn from plants by distilla- tion in an alembic with water, as distin gnished from empyreumatic oils, which an raised by a naked fire without water.^

      Etiryc ESSEN'TIAL,)!. Existence; being. [Lit- tle used.] Mdton.

      2. First or constituent principles ; .ns the es- sentials of religion.

      3. The chief point; that which is most nii- portant. ., .

      ESSENTIAL'ITY, n. The quality ol being essential; first or constituent principles.


      ESSEN'TIALLY, adv. By the constitution

      of nature ; in essence ; as, minerals and

      plants are essentially different.

      2. In an important degree ; in effect. The

      two statements diflfer, but not essentially.

      ESSEN'TIATE, v. i. To become of the

      same essence. B. Jonson

      ESSEN'TIATE, i>. t. To form or constitute

      the essence or being of. Boyle

      ESSOIN', n. [Norm, exon, excuse ; Law L.

      cxom'a, sonium ; Old Fr. exonier, essonier,

      to excuse. Spelman deduces the word

      from ex and soing, care. But qu '

      ill establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant. Gen. xvii. J. To found permanently; to erect and fi or settle ; as, to establish a colony or an en

      3. To enact or decree by authority and for permanence ; to ordain ; to appoint; to establish laws, regulations, institutions, rules, ordinances, &.c.

      4. To settle or fix ; to confirm ; as, to estab- lish a person, society or corporal' iiossessions or privileges.

      5. To make firm ; to confirm ; to ratify what has been previously set or made.

      Do we then make void the law through faith ? God forbid : yea, we establish the law. Rom. iii !. To settle or fix what is wavering, doubt ful or weak ; to confirm.

      So were the churches established in the faith. Acts xvi.

      To the end he may establish your hearts un- blamable in holiness. 1 Thess. iii. 7. To confirm ; to fulfill ; to make good.

      Establish thy word to thy servant. Ps. cxix ?. To set up in the place of another and con- firm.

      Who go about to establish their own right- eousness. Rom. X. ESTAB'LISHED, pp. Set ; fixed firmly founded ; ordained ; enacted ; ratified confirmed. ESTAB'LISHER, n. He wlio establishes

      ordains or confirms. ESTAB'LISHING, ppr. Fixing; settling permanently; founding; ratifying; con- firming ; ordaining. ESTABLISHMENT, n. [Fr. etabhsse ment.] The act of establishing, founding,' ratifying or orilaining. i

      Settlement ; fixed state. Spenser.l

      3. Confirmation ; ratification of what has been settled or made. Bacon.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      Settled regulation ; form ; ordinance ; sys- tem of laws; constitution of government.! Bring in that establishment by which all nienl should be contained in duty. Spenser.l

      Fixed or stated allowance for subsistence ;| income ; salary. '

      and Class Dd. No. 22. 2.3. 24.] L In a general sense, fixedness ; a fixed con- dition ; now generally written and pro- nounced state.

      She cast us headlong from our high estate. Dryden.

      2. Condition or circumstances of any person or thing, whether high or low. Luke i.

      3. Rank ; quality. Who hath not heard of the greatness of your

      estate ? Sidney.

      4. In law, the interest, or quantily of inter- est, a man has in lands, tenements, or oth-

      ■ er effects. Estates are real or personal. Real estate consists in lands or freeholds, which descend to heirs ; personal estate consists in chattels or movables, which go to executors and administrators. There are also estates for life, for years, at will, &c.

      5. Fortune ; possessions ; property in gene- ral. He is a man of a great estate. He left his estate unincumbered.

      The general business or interest of gov- ernment ; hence, a political body ; a com- monwealth ; a republic. But in this sense, we now use State. Estates, in the plural, dominions; posses- sions of a prince. 2. Orders or classes of men in society or government. Herod made a supper for his chief cs/a(es. Mark vi.

      In Great Britain, theesto

      2. To establish. [Little used.-] ESTA'TED, pp. or a. Possessing an estate. Swifl. ESTEE'M, v.t. [Fr. estimer; It. estimare; Sp. Port, estimar ; Arm. istimout, istimein ; L. (estimo ; Gr. fis-i//aouot ; tts and tipau,, to honor or esteem. See Class Dm. No.

      1. To set a value on, whether high or low ; to estimate ; to value.

      Then he forsook God who made him, ami lightly esteemed t\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ie rock of his salvation. Deut.

      "They that despise me shall be lighUy esteem- ed. 1 Sam. ii.

      2. To prize ; to set a high value on ; to re-


      gard with reverence, respect or friendship. When our minds are not biased, we al- ways esteem the industrious, the generous, the brave, the virtuous, and the learned. Will he esteem thy riches ? Job xxxvi.

      3. To hold in opinion ; to repute ; to think.

      One man esteemetli one day above another ; another esteemetli every day alike. Rom. xiv.

      4. To compare in value ; to estimate by pro- portion. [LUtle used.] Davies.

      ESTEE'M, n. Estimation; opinion or judg- ment of merit or demerit. This man is of no worth in my esteem.

      2. High value or estimation ; great regard favorable opinion, founded on supposed worth.

      Both those poets lived in much esteem will good and holy men in orders. Dryden

      ESTEE'MABLE, a. Worthy of esteem estimable.

      ESTEE'MED, pp. Valued ; estimated highly valued or prized on account of worth ; thought ; held in opinion.

      ESTEE'M ER, n. One who esteems; one who sets a high value on any thing

      A proud esteemer of his own parts. Locke.

      ESTEE'MING, ppr. Valuing ; estimating valuing highly ; prizing; thinking; deem ing.

      ES'TIMABLE, a. [Fr. ; It. eslimxvoh.]

      1. That is capable of being estimated or val- ued ; as estimable damage. Paley.

      2. Valuable ; worth a great price.

      A pound of man's flesh, taken from a man. Is not so estimable or profitable. Shak.

      3. Worthy of esteem or respect ; deserving our good opinion or regard.

      A lady said of her two companions, that one was more amiable, the other more estimable.

      Temple ES'TIMABLE, n. That which is worthy of regard. Brown

      ES'TIMABLENESS, n. The quality of de- serving esteem or regard. R. j^Jewton ES'TJMATE, v.t. [h.teslimo. Sec Esteem.]

      1. To judge and form an opinion of the value of; to rate by judgment or opinion, witli out weighing or measuring either value degree, extent or quantity. We estimate the value of cloth by inspection, or the ex tent of a piece of land, or the distance of a mountain. We estimate the worth of i friend by his known qualities. We esti mate the merits or talents of two differen men by judgment. We estimate profits, loss and damage. Hence,

      2. To compute ; to calculate ; to reckon. ES'TIMATE, n. A valuing or rating in the

      mind ; ajudgment or opinion of the value, degree, extent or quantity of any thing, without ascertaining it. We form esti- mates of the expenses of a war, of the probable outfits of a voyage, of the com parative strength or merits of two men, ofl the extent of a kingdom or its population. Hence estimate may be equivalent to cal- culation, computation, without measuring or weighing.

      2. Value. Shak.

      ES'TIMATED, pp. Valued ; rated in opin- ion or judgment.

      ES'TIMATING, ppr. Valuing; rating forming an opinion or judgment of thr value, extent, quantity, or degree of worlli of any object; calculating; computing.


      ESTIMA'TION, n. [L. (tslimatio.] The act of estimating.

      2. Calculation ; computation ; an opinion or judgment of the worth, extent or quantity of any thing, formed without using pre- cise data. We may differ in our estima- tions of distance, magnitude or amount, and no less in our estimation of moral

      regard ; favorable opinion

      qualities. 3. Esteem


      I shall have estimation among the multitude

      and honor with the ciders. Wisdom

      ESTIMATIVE, a. Having the power of

      comparing and adjusting the worth or

      preference. [Little used.] Hale. Boyle. 2. Imaginative. ESTIMATOR, n. One who estimates or

      alues. ES'TIVAL, a. [L. (Bstivus, from ccstas, sum

      mer. See Heat.] Pertaining to summer, or continuing for tin

      ES'TIVATE, V. i. To pass the smnmer. ESTIV.V'TION, n. [L. mstivatio, from as tas, smniner, testivo, to pass the summer.]

      1 . The act of passing the summei-. Bacon

      2. In botany, the disposition of the petals within the floral gem or bud ; 1. convolute when the petals are rolled together like a scroll ; 2. imbricate, when they lie over each other like tiles on a roof; .3. condu plicate, when they are doubled together at the midrib ; 4. valvate, when as they are about to expand they are placed like the glumes in grasses. Martyn.

      ESTOI", V. t. [Fr. etouper, to stop. See Stop.] In laiv, to impede or bar, by one's own act.

      A man shall always be estopped by his own deed, or not permitted to aver or prove any thing in contradiction to what he has once sol- emnly avowed. Blackstone.

      ESTOP'PED, pp. Hindered ; barred ; pre- cluded by one's own act.

      ESTOPPING, ppr. Impeding; barring by one's own act.

      ESTOP'PEL, n. In law, a stop ; a plea in bar, grounded on a man's own act or deed, which estops or precludes him from averring any thing to the contrary.

      If a tenant for years levies a fine to another person, it shall work as an estoppel to the co?- nizor. Blackstone.

      ESTO'VERS, n. [Norm, estoffer, to store, stock, furnish ; estitffeures, stores; Fr. e

      In law, necessaries, or supplies ; a reasona- ble allowance out of lands or goods for the u,«e of a tenant ; such as sustenance of felon in prison, and for his family, during his im|)risoninent ; alimony for a woman divorced, out of her husband's estate Common of estovers is the liberty of taking the necessary wood for the use or furni- ture of a house or farm, from another's es- tate. In Saxon, it is expressed by bole, which signifies more or sujiply, as house- bote, plow-bole, f re-bole, cart-bole, &c.


      ESTRA'DE,>i. [Fr.] An even or level place. Diet.

      ESTRANtiE, V. t. [Fr. etranger. See Strange.]

      1. To keep at a distance ; to withdraw; to cease to frequent and be famiUar with.


      Had we estranged ourselves from them iu tilings indifferent. Hooker.

      1 tlms estrange my person from her bed.


      2. To alienate ; to divert from its original use or possessor ; to apply to a purpose foreign from its original or customary one.

      'Hiey have estranged this place, and burnt incense in it to other gods. Jer. xix.

      3. To alienate, as the affections ; to turn from kindness to indifference or malevo- lence.

      I do not know, to this hour, what it is that has estranged him from me. Pope.

      To withdraw ; to withhold.

      Wc must estrange our belief from what is not clearly evidenced. Glamille.

      ESTRANtiED, pp. Withdrawn ; withheld ; alienated.

      ESTRANGEMENT, n. Alienation ; a keep- ing at a distance ; removal ; voluntary ab- straction ; as an ci/rang'e/ntnt of affection. An estrangement of desires from better things. South.

      ESTRAN(iING,;);>r. Alienating; withdraw- g ; keeping at or removing to a distance.

      ESTRAPA'DE, n. [Fr. strappado.] The de- fense of a horse that will not obey, and which, to get rid of his rider, rises before and yerks furiously with his hind legs.

      Farrier^s Did.

      ESTRA'Y, V. i. To stray. [See Stray.]

      ESTRA'V, n. [Norm, cslrayer, probably al- lied to straggle, and perhai)s from" the root of W. Irag, beyond.]

      A tame beast, as a horse, ox or sheep, which is found wandering or without an owner; a beast supposed to have strayed from the power or inclosure of its owner. It is usually written stray. Blackstone.

      ESTRE'AT, n. [Norm, estraite or eslreile. from L. exlradum, extraho, to draw out.]

      In law, a true copy or duplicate of an origi- nal writing, especially of amercements or penalties set down in the rolls of court to be levied by the bailiff or other officer, ou every offender. Cowel. Encyc.

      ESTRE'AT, I', i. To extract ; to copy.


      ESTREATED, pp. Extracted ; copied.

      ESTRE'PEMENT, n. [Norm, estreper, es- Iripper, to waste ; Eng. to strip.]

      In law, spoil ; waste ; a stripping of land by a tenant, to the prejudice of the owner.

      Blackstone. Cowel.

      ES'TRICH, n. The ostrich, which see.

      ES'TUANCE, n. [L. cestus.] Heat. [J\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ot in rise.] Brown.

      ES'TUARY, n. [L. mstuarium, from irs/i/o, to boil or foam, cestus, heat, fury, storm.]

      1. An arm of the sea ; a frith ; a narrow pas- sage, or the mouth of a river or lake, where the tide meets the current, or flows and ebbs.

      2. A vapor-bath. ES'TUATE, I', i. [L. lestuo, to boil.] To

      Iwil ; to swell and rage ; to be agitated.

      ESTU.A'TION, n. A boiling ; agitation ; commotionof a fluid. Brown. .\\\\\\\'orris

      ES'TURE, ji. [h.astuo.] Violence ; conmio- tion. jjVotused.] Chapman.

      ESU'RIENT.a. [L. esuriens, esurio.] Inclin- ed to eat ; hungry. Diet.

      ES'URINE, a. Eating; corroding. [Little used.] ff'iseman.

      ET CETERA, and the contraction e(c.,de-

      E T E


      E T I

      note the rest, or others of the kind ; and so on ; and so forth. ETCH, V. t. [G. eken, D. ttatn, to eal. See Eat.]

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\. To make prints on copper-pUite by means of lines or strokes first drawn, and then eaten or corroded l)y nitric acid. The plate is first covered with a proper varnisi or ground, which is capable of resisting tlie acid, and the groimd is then scored or scratched by a needle or similar instrii inent, in the places where the hatching.- or engravings are intended to be ; the plate is tlien covered with nitric acid wliich corrodes or eats the irietal in the lines thus laid bare. Enri/'

      8. To sketch ; to delineate. [.Voi in use] Lock

      ETCH' ED, pp. Marked and corroded by nitric acid.

      ETCH'ING, ;>;)/■. Marking or making prints with nitric acid.

      ETCH'ING, n. The impression taken from an etched copper-plate.

      ETEOS'TIe, »i. [Gr. fffo;, true, and ^ixoi, a verse.]

      A chronogrammatical composition.

      B. Jonson.

      ETERN', a. Eternal ; perpetual ; endless. [Xot used.] Shak.

      ETER'NAL, o. [Fr. efeniel ; L. wlernus, composed of cevum and temus, aimtenius. Varro. The origin of the last component part of the word is not oIjWoiis. It occurs in duUurnus, and seems to denote contin-

      1. Without beginning or end of existence.

      The eternal God is thy refuse. Dent, xxxiii.

      2. Without beginning of existence.

      To know whether there is any real being, whose duration has been eternal. Locke.

      3. Without end of existence or duration ; everlasting; endless; immortal.

      That they may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. 2 Tim. ii.

      What shall I do, that I may have eternal life ? Matt. xix.

      Suflbring the vengeance of eternal fire. Jude 7.

      4. Perpetual ; ceaseless ; continued without intermission.

      And fires eternal in thy temple shine.


      5. Unchangeable; existing at all times with- out change ; as eternal truth.

      ETER'NAL, ji. An appellation of God.

      Hooker. Milton. ETER'NALIST, n. One who holds the past

      existence of tlie worlil to be infinite.

      Burnet. ETER'NALIZE, v. t. To make eternal ; to

      give endless duration to. [We now use

      eternize.] ETER'NALLY, adv. Without beginning or

      end of duration, or without end only.

      2. Unchangeably ; invariably ; at all times.

      That which is morally good must be eternal- ly and unchangeably so. South.

      3. Perpetually ; without intermission ; at all times.

      ETER'NITY, n. [L. leternitas.] Duration oi continuance without beginning or end.

      By repeating the idea of any length of dura tion, with the endless addition of Jiumbci", we tome by the idea o( eternity- Lock:

      The high and lofty one who inhabiteth eter nily. Is. Ivii.

      We speak of eternal duration preceding the present time. God has existed from eternity. We also speak of endless or ev- erlasting duration in future, and dating from present time or tlie present state of tilings. Some men doubt the eternity of future punishment, though they have " difiiculty in admitting the eternity of future rewards.

      ETER'NIZE, D./. [Fr.elerniser ; Sp. eteml zar ; It. cternare ; Low L. ceterno.]

      1. To make endless.

      3. To conlinue the existence or duration of

      indefinitely; to perpetuate; as, to eternize

      woe. Milton.

      So we say, to eternize fame or glory.

      ■i. To make forever famous ; to imtnortalize ; as, to eternize a name ; to eternize exploits.

      ETER'NIZED,^/). Made endless; immor- talized.

      ETER'NIZING, ppr. Giving endless dura- tion to ; immortalizing.

      ETE'SIAN, a. ete'zhan. [L. etesius ; Gr. ihtj- «o;, from fro{, a year. Qu. Eth. 0©^ owed, awed, a circuit or circle, and the verb, to go round.]

      Stated ; blowing at stated times of the year; periodical. Etesian winds are yearly or anniversary winds, answering to the mon- soons of the East Indies. The word is applied, in Greek and Roman writers, to the periodical winds in the Mediterrane- an, from whatever quarter they blow.


      ETHE, a. Easy. Obs. Chakcer.

      E'THEL.a. Noble. Obs.

      E'THER, n. [L. wther ; Gr. at9>ip, atOu, to burn, to shine ; Eug. loeather; Sax. wceder, the air; D. weder; G. wetter ; Sw. vader.]

      1. A thin, subtil matter, much finer and rar- er than air, which, some philosophers sup- pose, begins from the limits of the atmos- phere and occupies the heavenly space.

      Mwton. There fields of light and liquid ether flow.


      2. In chimistry, a veuy light, volatile and in- flammable fluid, produced by the distilla- tion of alcohol or rectified spirit of wine, with an acid. It is lighter than alcohol, of a strong sweet smell, susceptible of great expansion, and of a pungent taste. It is so volatile, that when shaken it is dis- sipated in nn instant. Enajc. Fourcroy.

      ETKE'REAL, a. Formed of ether; con- taining or filled with ether ; as ethereal space ; ethereal regions.

      2. Heavenly ; celestial ; as ethereal messen- ger.

      3. Consisting of ether or spirit. Vast chain of being, which from God began, Natures ethereal, human, angel, man.


      ETHE'REOUS, a. Formed of ether ; heav- enly. Milton.

      E'THERIZE, V. t. To convert into ether.

      Med. Repos.

      E'THERIZED, pp. Converted into ether.

      E'THERIZING, ppr. Converting into ether.

      ETH'IC, } [L. ethicus ; Gr. jjSixoj, from

      ETH'ICAL, S "■ l^oi, manners.]

      Relating to manners or morals; treating of morality; delivering precepts of morality ; as ethic discourses or epistles.

      ETH'ICALLY, adv. According to the doe- trines of morality.

      ETH'I€S, n. The doctrines of morahty or social manners; the science of moral phi- losophy, which teaches men their duty and the reasons of it. Foley. Encyc.

      2. A system of moral principles; a system of rules for regulating the actions and manners of men in society.

      Ethiops martial, black oxyd of iron ; iron in the form of a verj- fine powder, and in the first stage of calcination.

      Ethiops mineral, a combination of mercury and sulphur, of a black color ; black sul- phuret of mercury.

      Thomson. JViclwlson.^

      ETH'MOID, I [Gr. .76^05, a sieve, and

      ETHMOIDAL, S ^Sos.form.] llesembUng a sieve.

      ETH'MOID, n. A bone at the top of the root of the nose.

      ETH'Nie, I [L. ethnicus ; Gr. tSfixo,,

      ETH'NICAL, ^ ""from tdroi, nation, from the root of G. heide, heath, woods, whence lieathen. See Heathen.]

      Heathen ; pagan ; pertaining to the gentiles or nations not converted to Christianity ; opposed to Jewish and Christian.

      ETH'NIC, n. A heathen ; a pagan.

      ETH'NICISM, n. Heathenism; paganism; idolatry. B. Jonson.

      ETHNOL'OtiY, n. [Gr. tews, nation, and f-oyoi, discourse.] A treatise on nations.

      ETHOLOG'IeAL,a. [See Ethology.] Treat- ing of ethics or morality.

      ETHOL'OtilST, n. One who writes on the subject of manners and morality.

      ETHOL'OgY, tt. [Gr. lOo;, or ^do^, man- ners, morals, and J-oyoj, discourse.]

      A treatise on morality or the science of ethics. Owen. Lunier.

      E'TIOLATE, v. i. [Gr. (»?«, to shine.] To- become white or whiter; to be whitened by excluding the hght of the sun, as plants.

      E'TIOLATE, V. t. To blanch ; to whiter bv excluding the sun's rays.

      E'tlOLATED, pp. Blanched ; whitened by excluding the sun's rays.

      E'TIOLATING,;)pr. Blanching ; whitening, by excluding the sun's rays.

      ETIOLA'TION, n. The operation of being whitened or of becoming white by exclud- ing the light of the sun. "Fourcroy. Darwin.. Ingardening, the rendering plants white, crisp and tender, by excluding the action of light from them. " Cyc.

      ETIO'LO(i'I€AL, a. Pertaining to etiology. .irbuthnot.

      ETIOL'OdY, n. [Gr. airca, cause, andJ^oyo,-, discourse.]

      An account of the causes of any thing, par- ticularly of diseases. Qutncy.

      ETIQUET', n. clAkeV. [Fr. etiquette, a ticket; W. tocxjn, a little piece or slip, from iociaiv, to cut off, Eng. to dock. Originally, a lit- tle piece of paper, or a mark or title, afiix- ed to a bag or bundle, expressing its con- tents.]

      Primarily .'1 • n 1 ^ fi eremonies. Hence inpri^.n; I i-^ (if ceremony or de-

      corum ; ih I. ,11 I 111- h are observed to- wards ji;ir!i ;il 11 j iii:s, or in particular' places, esiicci;dly in courts, levees, and on public occasions. From the original sense of the word, it may be inferred that it was formerly the custom to deliver cards con-

      E U C

      E U P

      E t R

      taiiiiiig orders for regulating cer on public occasions.

      E'TITE, n. [Gr. aitof, an eagle.] Eagle- stone, a variety of bog iron. [See Eagle- stone.]

      ETNE'AN, a. [from Mna.] Pertaining to Etna, a volcanic mountain in Sicily.

      ET'TIN, n. A giant. Obs. lieaum.

      ET'TLE, V. t. To earn. [Xol in use.]


      ETUI, ) [Vr. etui, a case.] A

      ETWI'IE', > n. case for pocket in-

      ETVVEE'-CASE, ) strnments.

      ETYM0L'06ER, n. An etymologist. [JVot in u.te.] GriJUli

      ETYMOLOG'leAL, a. [See Etymology.]

      Pertaining to etymology or the derivation of words ; according to or by means of ety- mology. Locke.

      ETYMOLOgTCALLY, adv. According to

      !tymology. L'YMOL'Oi

      ETYMOL'OlilST, n. One versed in ety- mology or the deduction of words from their originals ; one who searches into the original of words.

      ETYMOL'OOIZE, v. i. To search into the origin of words ; to deduce words from their simple roots. Encyc.

      ETYMOL'OOY, n. [Gr. (tviiof, true, and ^.oyos, discourse.]

      1. That part of philology which explains the origin and derivation of words, with a view to ascertain their radical or primary signification.

      In grammar, etymology comprehends the various inflections and modifications of words, and shows how they are formed from their simple roots.

      2. The deduction of words from their origi nals; the analysis of compound words in to their primitives.

      ET'Y'MON, n. [Gr. ceviiov, from itvfiof, true.

      An original root, or primitive word. EU'eUARIST, n. [Gr. ivxafl>.;ia, a giving of

      thanks ; iv, well, and x^i, favor.]

      1. The sacrament of the Lord's supper; the solemn act or ceremony of commemorat- ing the death of our Redeemer, in the use of bread and wine, as emblems of his flesl: and blood, accompanied with appropriate prayers and hymns.

      2. The act of giving thanks.

      EUeSARli'TlcAL,^- Containing ex- pressions of thanks. Broini

      2. Pertaining to the Lord's supper.

      Euehloric gas, the same as ciichlorine. Davy.

      EUeHLO'RIN E, n. [See Chlorine.] In chim. istrif, protoxxM of chlorine. Davy. Ure.

      EUeftOL'OuV, »l. [Gr. ivxo'f.oywv ; prayer or vow, and >j>yof, discourse.]

      A formulary of prayers ; the Greek ritual, in which are prescribed the order of cereino- nie.s, sacraments and ordinances. Encyc.

      EU'€HYMY, n. [Gr. ivx^jiio..] A good state of the blood and other fluids of the body.

      EU€HYSID'ERITE, n. A mineral, consid- ered as a variety of augite. Pliillips

      EU'€LASE, n. [Gr. (v and x?.au, to break ; easily broken.]

      A mineral, a species of emerald, prismatic emerald, of a greenish white, appli mountain green, bluish green, or dark sky blue color. It is a rare mineral, and re luarkably brittle, whence its name.

      Cteaveland. Jameson,

      EU'CRASY, n. [Gr. tv, well, and xfjaois, tem- perament.]

      In medicine, such a due or well proportioned mixture of qualities in bodies, as to con- stitute health or soundness.

      Quiney. Encyc. ral of a brownish

      EU'DIALYTE,n. A minera

      red color. Jameson

      EUDIOM'ETER, n. [Gr. tvSioj, serene, h

      id ito{, .love, air, and fttrpor, measure.] An instrument for ascertaining the purity of the air, or the quantity of oxygen it con tains. Encyc. Ure.

      EUDIOMET'RIC, > , Pertaining to ar EUDIOMET'RI€AL, ^"- eudiometer; per formed or ascertained by an eudiometer ; as eudiometrical experiments or results, EUDIOM'ETRY, n. The art or practice ofl scertaining the purity of tlie air by the udiometer. EU'tiE, n. Applause. [JVnt used.]

      Hammond. EUGH, a tree. [See Yeto.] EUHARMON'Ie, a. [Gr. tv, well, and har-

      Producing harmony or concordant sounds ; as the enharmonic organ. Listo.

      EUK^AIRITE, n. [Gr. tuxoipos, opportune.] Cupreous seleniuret of silver, a mineral of a shining lead gray color and granidar structure. Ckaveland.

      EULOti'IC. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ [See Eulogy.] Contain-

      EULO(i'I€AL, S ing praise ; conuncnda-

      EU'LOGIST, n. [See Eulogy.] One who praises and commends another; one writes or speaks in commendation of| another, on account of his excellent (piali ties, exploits or performances.

      EULO'tilUM, n. An eulogy.

      EU'LOGIZE, v.t. [See Eulogy.] To praise to speak or write in commendation of an other ; to extol in speech or writing.

      EU'LOgIZED, ^. Praised; commended.

      lEU'LOGlZING,;);)r. Commending ; writhig or speaking in praise of

      EU'LOgY, n. [Gr. ivXoym; iv and Xoyoj.] Praise ; encomium ; panegyric ; a speecli or writing in commci>dation of a person, on account of his valuable quahties, or ser vices.

      EU'NOMY, ji. [Gr. mio/jio ; iv and lo.uo. law.]

      Equal law, or a well adjusted constitution of government. MUford.

      EU'NCCH, n. [Gr. twmixoi ; (vvr„ a bed, and (X^, to keep.] A male of the human spe cies castrated.

      EU'NC€HATE, v. t. To riiake a eunuch ; to castrate.

      EU'NC€11ISM, 1!. The state of being an eunuch.

      EU'PATH Y, n. [Gr. ivnaJetux..] Right feeling. Harr^.

      EU'PATORY, n. [L. eupalorium; Gr. fu«o- topim:] The plant hemp agrimony.

      [EUPEP'SY', n. [Gr. ti^t+co; ft. and nt+cs,

      I concoction.]

      IGood concoction in the stomach ; good di-

      1 gestion.

      EUPEP'TIC, a. Having good digestion.

      EU'PHEMISM, n. [Gr. iv^r^m'^ij^oi; iv, well,

      i and $r^c, to speak.]

      A representation of good qualities; particu- larly in rhetoric, a figure in which a harsh or indelicate word or expression is soften- ed, or rather by which a delicate word or expression is substituted for one which is offensive to good manners or to delicate ears. ^sh. CampheU.

      EUPHONIC, I [SceEuplujny.] Agree-

      EUPHON'lCAL, S"'al.le in sound; pleas- ing to the ear; as euphonical orthography. Colebrooke. The Greeks adopted many cliangcs in the comliinatioii of syllables to render their lan- guage euphonic, by avoiding such collisions.

      E. Porter.

      EU'PHONY, 71. [Gr. (vt""*; ^^ and <^pr„ voice.]

      An agreeable sound ; an easy, smooth enun- ciation of sounds; a pronunciation of let- ters and syllables which is pleasing to the ear.

      EUPIIOR'IUA, n. [Gr. fv^opfiMi, with a dif- ferent signiflc-ation.]

      In holuinj, spurge, or bastard spurge, a genus of plaijts iif liiiiny species, mostly shrubby herb;[i-i-iii|v >ui riikiits, some of them arm- ed uiili ilioi-n^. Encyc.

      EUPIlOi! HUM, n. [L. fromGr.fvi.op«io.,




      In the materia medica, a gummi-resinous sub- stance, exuding from an oriental tree. It has a sharp biting taste, and is vehemently acrimonious, inflaming and ulcerating the fauces. Encyc.

      EU'PHOTIDE, n. A name given by the French to the aggregate of diallage and saussurite. Cteaveland.

      EU'PHRASY, n. [According to De Tlieis, this word is contracted from euphrosyne, (ii^poanc;;, joy, pleasure; a name given to the platil on account of its wonderful ef- fects in curing disorders of the eyes.]

      Eyebright, a genus of ])lants, Euphrasia, called in French casse-lunette.

      EU'RIPUS, n. [Gr. fi.pi«oj; L. Euripus.]

      A strait ; a narrow tract of water, where the tide or a current flows and reHows, as that in Greece, between Enboea and Attica, or Euboea and Boi-otia. It is .sometimes used for a strait or frith much agitated.


      EU'RITE,?!. The white stone [weiss stein]

      EUROC'LYDON, n. [Gr. tipoj, wind, and x%vSm; a wave.]

      [A tempestuous wind, which drove ashore, on Malta, the ship in which Paul wassail-

      I ing to Italy. It is supposed to have blown

      I from an easterly point. Acts .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\xvii.


      EU'ROPE, n. [Bochart supposes this word to be com]>osed of S3x im white face, the land of white people, as distinguished from the Ethiopians, black-faced people, or tawny inhabitants of .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\sia and Africa.]

      Tlie great quarter of the earth that lies be-




      tween the Atlantic ocean ami Asia, and between the ftlediteiraneaii sea and the North sea. EUROPE'AN, a. Pertaining to Europe. EUROPE'AN, 71. A native of Europe.

      EU'RIIS, n. [L.] The east wind.

      EU'RYTHMY, n. [Gr. ,v and pvOi^o;, ryth- mus, number or proportion.]

      In architecture, painting and sculpture, ease majesty and elegance of the parts of a body, arising from just proportions in the composition. Encyi

      EUSE'BIAN, n. An Arian, so called from one Eusehius.

      EU'STYLE, n. [Gr. tv and ruJioj, a column.; In architecture, a sort of building in whicl the columns are placed at the most con- venient distances from each other, the in- terrolumniations being just two diameters and a quarter of the column, except those in the middle of the face, before and be- hind, which are three diameters distant. Encyc.

      EU'THANASY, n. [Gr. .vSamsio. ; iv and eaiuros, death.] An easy death.


      EUTYCH'IAN, n. A follower of Eutycli- ius, who denied the two natures of Christ.

      EUTY€H'IANISM, n. The doctrines of Eu- tychius, who denied the two natures of Christ.

      EVA'eATE, V. t. [L. vaco.] To empty. UVot in use.] Harvey.

      EVA€'UANT, a. [L. evacuans.] Empty- ing; freeing from.

      EVA€'UANT, n. A medicine wliich pro- cures evacuations, or promotes the natural secretions and excretions.

      EVA€'UATE, V. t. [L. evacuo ; e and vacuus, from vaco, to empty. See Vacant.]

      1. To make empty ; to free from any thing contained ; as, to evacuate the church.


      2. To throw out ; to eject ; to void ; to dis- charge ; as, to evacuate dark-colored mat- ter from the bowels. Hence,

      3. To empty ; to free from contents, or to diminish the quantity contained ; as, to evacuate the bowels ; to evacuate the vessels by bleeding.

      4. To quit ; to withdraw from a place. The British army evacuated the city of New- York, November 25, 178.3.

      5. To make void; to nullify; as, to evacuate a marriage or any contract. [In thi.^ sense, vacate is now generally used.]

      EVA€'UATED, pp. ' Emptied ; cleared : freed from the contents; quitted, as by an army or garrison ; ejected ; discharged : vacated.

      EVACUATING, ppr. Emptying ; making void or vacant; withdrawins frnni.

      EVAeUA'TION, n. The act ofemptying or clearing of the contents ; the act of with drawing from, as an army or garrison.

      9. Discharges by stool or other natural means ; a diminution of the fluids of an animal body by cathartics, venesection, or other means. Qutnry.

      3. Abolition ; nullification.

      EVACUATIVE, a. That evacuates.

      EVAC'UATOR, n. One that makes void.

      Hammond. EVA'DE, V. t. [L. evado ; e and vado, to go ; Sp. evadir ; Fr. evader.]

      1. To avoid by dexterity. The man evaded the blow aimed at his head.

      2. To avoid or escape by artifice or strata gem ; to slip away ; to elude. The thief evaded his pursuers.

      3. To elude by subterfuge, sophistry, address or ingenuity. The advocate evades an ar gument or the force of an argument.

      4. To escape as imperceptible or not to be reached or seized. South

      EVA'DE, v. i. To escape ; toshp away ; for merly and properly with //'om; as, to evade from perils. But/rom is now seldom used.

      2. To attempt to escape ; to practice artifice or sophistry for the purpose of eluding.

      The ministers of God are not to evade and take refuge in any such ways. South.

      EVA'DED, pp. Avoided ; eluded.

      EVA'DING, ^^r. Escaping; avoiding ; elu- ding; slipping away from danger, pursuit or attack.

      EVAGA'TION, n. [L. evagatio, evagor ; e and vagor, to wander.]

      The act of wandering ; excin-sion ; a roving or rambling. Ray.

      E'VAL, a. [L. tevum.] Relating to time or duration. [ATot in use.]

      EVANES'CENCE, n. [L. evanescens, from evanesce ; e and vanesco, to vanish, from vanus, vain, empty. See Vain.]

      1. A vanishing ; a gradual departure from sight or possession, either by removal to a distance, or by dissipation, as vapor.

      2. The state of being liable to vanish and escape possession.

      EVANES'CENT, a. Vanishing ; subject to vanishing ; fleeting ; passing away ; liable to dissipation, like vapor, or to become imperceptible. The pleasures and joys of life are evanescent.

      EVAN'GEL, n. [L. evangelium.] The gos- pel. [JVot in use.] Chaucer.

      EVANgE'LIAN, a. Rendering thanks for favors. Mitford.

      EVANgEL'I€, ) [Low L. evangelicus,

      EVANgEL'I€AL, ^ ■ from evangelium,the gospel ; Gr. ti'ay75>.ixo5, from ivayyeUov ; ID, well, good, and ayyiXXa, to announce,

      Ir. agalla, to tell, to speak, Ar. ^1.5

      to tell. Class Gl. No. 49, or Ch. i^D, 'SoN to call. No. 36.]

      1. According to the gospel ; consonant to the doctrines and precepts of the gospel, pub- lished by Christ and his apostles ; as evitn- gelical righteousness, obedience or piety.

      2. Contained in the gospel; as an evangelical doctrine.

      3. Sound in the doctrines of the gospel ; or thodox ; as an evangelical preacher.

      EVANGEL'leALLY, adv. In a maimer ac cording to the gospel.

      EVAN'gELISM, n. The promulgation of the gospel. Bacon.

      EVAN'gELIST, n. A writer of the history, or doctrines, precepts, actions, life and death of our blessed Savior, Jesus Christ; .is the four evangelists, Matthew, Blark, Luke and John.

      2. A preacher or publisher of the gospel of Jesus Christ, licensed to preach, but nol having charge of a particular church.

      EVAN'gELISTARY, n. A selection of pas- sages from the gospels, as a lesson in di- vine service. Gregory.

      EVANGELIZA'TION, n. The act of evan- gelizing.

      EVAN'GELIZE, v. t. [Low L. evangelizo.] To instruct in the gospel ; to preach the gospel to, and convert to a belief of the gospel ; as, to evangelize heathen nations ; to evangelize the world.

      Milner. Buchanan.

      EVAN'GELIZE, v. i. To preach the gospel

      EV.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\N'GELIZED, pp. Instructed in the gos- pel; converted to a belief of the gospel, or to Christianity.

      EVAN'GELIZING, ppr. Instructing in the doctrines and precepts of the gospel; con- verting to christianitv.

      EVAN'gELY, n. Good .tidings; the gospel. U^ot in use.] ' Spenser.

      EVAN'ID, a. [L. evanidus. See Vain.] Faint ; weak ; evanescent ; liable to van- ish or disappear ; as an evanid color or smell. Bacon. Encyc.

      EVAN'ISH, V. i. [L. cvanesco. See Vain.] To vanish ; to disappear ; to escape from sight or perception. [ Vanish is more gen- erally used.]

      EVAN'ISHMENT, VI. A vanishing; disap- pearance. Barton.

      EVAP'ORABLE, a. [See Evaporate.] That may be converted into vapor and pass off in fumes ; that may be dissipated by evapo- ration. Grew

      EVAP'ORATE, v.i. [L. evaporo ; e and vaporo, from vapor, which see.]

      1. To pass off in vapor, as a fluid ; to escape and be dissipated, either in visible vapor, or in particles too minute to be visible. Fluids when heated often evaporate in visible steam ; but water, on the surface of the earth, generally evaporates in an im- perceptible manner.

      2. To escape or pass off without effect ; to be dissipated ; to be wasted. Arguments evaporate in words. The spirit of a writer often evaporates in translating.

      EVAP'ORATE, v. t. To convert or resolve a fluid into vapor, which is specifically lighter than the air; to dissipate in fumes, steam, or minute particles. Heat evapo- rates water at every point of temperature, from 32° to 212°, the boiling point, of Fahrenheit. A north west wind, in New England, evaporates water and dries the earth more rapidly, than the heat alone of a summer's day.

      2. To give vent to ; to pour out in words or ■sound. fVotton.

      EVAP'ORATE, o. Dispersed in vapors.

      EVAPORATED, pp. Converted into va- por or steam and dissipated ; dissipated in insensible particles, as a fluid.

      EVAP'ORATING,^;)r. Resolving into va- por ; dissipating, as a fluid.

      EVAPORATION, n. The conversion of a fluid into vapor specifically lighter than the atmospheric air. Evaporation is in- creased by heat and is followed by cold. It is now generally considered as a solu- tion in the atmosphere.

      2. The act of flying off in fumes ; vent ; dis- charge.

      3. In phannacy, the operation of drawing off a portion of a fluid iii steam, that the re- mainder may be of a greater consistence, or more concentrated.

      EVAPOROM'ETER, n. [L. evaporo, and Gr. fisrpoi', measure.]


      An instrument for ascertaining the (iiiantity of n fluid evaporated in a given time; an atmometer. Journ. of Science.

      EVA'SION, n. s as z. [L. evasio, from evado, evasi. See Evade.]

      The act of eluding or avoiding, or of esca- ping, particularly from the pressure of an argument, from an accusation or charge, from an interrogatory and the like ; ex- cuse ; subterfuge ; equivocation ; artifice to elude ; shift. Evasion of a direct an- swer weakens the testimony of a witness. Thou by evasions thy crime uncovei'st more. JirMon.

      EVA'SIVE, a. Using evasion or artifice to

      avoid; elusive; shuflling; equivocating.

      He — answered evasive of the sly request.


      2. Containing evasion ; artfully contrived to elude a question, charge or argument'; an evasive answer ; an evasive argument or reasoning.

      EVASIVELY, adv. By evasion or suhter fuge ; ehisively ; in a manner to avoid i direct reply or a charge.

      EVA'SIVENESS, n. The quaUty or state of being evasive.

      EVE, n. The consort of Adam, and mother of the human race ; so called by Adam because she was the mother of all liv ing. In this case, the word would pro pcrly belong to the Heb. ri'n. But th< llebrew name is mn havali or chuvah coinciding with the verb, to shew, to dis cover, and Parkhurst hence denominates Eve, the manifester. In the Septuagint Eve, in Gen. iii. 20, is rendered Zutj, life but in Gen. iv. 1, it is rendered Evw, Euan or Evan. The reason of this variation is not obvious, as the Hebrew is the same in both passages. In Russ. Eve is Ewa. In the Chickasaw language of America, a wife is called awah, says Adair. EVE€'TION, n. [L. evefio, to carry away.] A carrying out or away ; also, a lifting oi extolling ; exaltation. Pearson,

      E'VEN. I „ ,„„ [Sax. aftn, efen ; D. avond ,

      EVE, ■ ^ "• ' ""• G. abend : Sw. a/Ion ; Dan a/ten ; Ice. ajilan. Qu. Ch. X'Jfl, fromnji) fanab, to turn, to decline. The evening the decline of the day, or fall of the sun. I. The decline of the sun ; the latter part or close of the day, and beginning of the night Eve is used chiefly in poetry. In prose we generally use evening. Winter, oft at ere, resumes the breeze.


      They, like so many Alexander Have in these parts from morn till evei


      •i. Eve is used also for the fast or the eve- ning before a holiday ; as Christmas Eve. Johnson. E'VEN-SONG, n. A song for the evening; a form of worship for the evening.


      2. The evening, or close of the day. Dn/den

      E'VEN-TIDE, n. [even and Sax. tid, time.]

      Literally, the time of evening ; that is,


      Isaac went out to meditate in tlie field at the even-tide. Gen. xxiv. This word is nearly obsolete ; tide being useless addition to even.


      E'VEN, a. e'vn. [Sax. f/V ii ; D. et^cn ; G.

      eben ; Sw. efven ; Pers. • . ^ hovan.

      The sense is laid or pressed down, level.]

      1. Level ; smooth ; of an equal surface ; flat ; not rough or waving ; as an even tract of land ; an even country ; an even surface.

      2. Uniform ; equal ; calm ; not easily ruffled or disturbed, elevated or depressed ; as an even temper.

      3. Level with; parallel to.

      And shall lay thee even with the ground. Luke xix. Not leaning.

      He could not carry his honors eucH. .S7i«/f.

      5. Equally favorable ; on a level in advan- tage ; fair. He met the enemy on even ground. The advocates meet on even ground in argument.

      6. Owing nothing on either side ; having accounts balanced. We have settled counts and now arc even.

      Settled ; balanced ; as, our accounts are even.

      Equal ; as even nimibers. Capable of being divided into equal parts, without a remainder ; opposed to odd. 4. 6. 8. 10. are even numbers.

      Let him tcl! me whether the number of the stars is even or odd. Tal/I^

      E'VEN, v. t. e'vn. To make even or level ; to level ; to lay smooth.

      This will even all inequalities. Evelyn.

      This temple Xerxes evened with the soil.

      Raleigh. 2. To place in an equal state, as to obliga- tion, or in a state in which nothing is due on either side ; to balance accounts.

      Shak. E'VEN, I'. ;. To be equal to. [Ao« used.]

      Carew E'VEN, adv. e'vn. Noting a level or equality, or emphatically, a like manner or degree. As it has been done to you, even so shall it be done to others. Thou art a soldier ewen to Cato's wishes, that is, your qualities, a a soldier, are equal to his wishes.

      2. Noting equahty or sameness of time hence emphatically, the very time. I knew the facts, even when I wrote to you.

      3. Noting, emphatically, identity of jjcrson.

      And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters on the earth. Gen Likewise ; in like Here all their rage, and ev n tiieir murmurs cease. Popt

      5. So much as. We are not even sensible of the change.

      6. Noting the application of somethiMg tc that which is less probably included in tht phrase; or bringing something within f description, which is unexpected. Tht common people are addicted to this vice and even the great are not free from it He made several discoveries which are new, even to the learned.

      Here also we see the sense of equality, bringing to a level. So in these phrases, I sliall eveii let it pass, I shall even do more, we observe the sense of bringing the mind or will to a level with what is tc to he done.

      EVE'NE, V. i. [L. evenio.] To happen LVof in use.] Heuijl

      E'VENED, pp. Made even or level.


      E'VENER, n. One that makes even.

      E'VKNMAND, 71. Equality. Bacon.

      E'VENHANDED, a. Impartial ; etjuitable ; just. Skak.

      E'VENING, n. [See JSue, £rcn.] The lat- ter part and close of the day, and the be- ginning of darkness or night ; properly, the decline or fall of the day, or of the sun. The evening and the morning were the first day. Gen. i.

      The precise time when evening begins, or when it ends, is not ascertained by usage. The word often includes a part at least of the afternoon, and indeed the whole afternoon ; as in the phrase, " The morning and evening service of the sab- bath." In strictness, eve7nng commences at the setting of the sun, and continues during twilight, and night commences with total darkness. But in customary lan- guage, the evening extends to bed-time, whatever that time may he. Hence we say, to spend an evening with a friend ; an evening visit.

      2. Thedeclineor latter part of life. We say, the evening of life, or of one's days.

      3. The decline of any thing ; as the evening of glorv.

      E'VENING, a. Being at the close of day ; as tlie evening sacrifice.

      E'VENING HYMN,? A hymn or song

      E'VENING SONG, ^ "• to be sung at eve- ning.

      EVENING-STAR, n. Hesperus or Vesper ; Venus, when visible in the evening.

      E'VENLY, adv. e'vnly. With an even, level or smooth surface ; without roughness, elevations and depressions ; as things e»eH- iw spread.

      2. Equally ; uniformly; in an equipoise ; as evenly balanced.

      3. In a level position ; horizontally.

      The surface of the sea is eveitly distant from the center of tire earth. Brerewood.

      4. Impartially ; without bias from favor or enmity. Bacon.

      E'VENNESS, 71. The state of being even, level or smooth ; equality of surface.

      2. Uniformity ; regularity ; as evenness of motion.

      3. Freedom from inclination to either side ; equal distance from either extreme.


      4. Horizontal position ; levelncss of surface; as the evenness of a fluid at rest.

      5. ImpartiaUty between parties; equal re- spect.

      G. Calmness; equality of temper; freedom from perturbation ; a state of mind not subject to elevation or depression ; equa- niniity. Atlerburu.

      EVENT', n. [L. evenlus, evenio ; e and eeTiio, to come ; Fr. evenement ; It. and Sp. evento ;


      At. Class Bn. No. 21.

      That which comes, arrives or happens ; that which falls out; anv incident good or bad.

      There is one event to the righteous and to the wicked. Eccles. ix.

      2. The consequence of any thing; the issue; conclusion ; end ; that in wliicb an action, operation, or series of operations termi- nates. The event of the campaign was to bring about a negotiation for peace.

      EVENT', V. i. To break forth. [Xot used.]



      E V I

      EVENT'ERATE, v. t. [Fr. evenlrer, froiij the L. e and venter, tlie belly.]

      To open the bowels; to rip open ; to disem- bowi'l. Brown.

      EVENT'ERATED, pp. Having the bowels opened.

      EVENT'ERATING, ;;;)/■. Opening the bow- els.

      EVENTFUL, a. [from event] Full of events or incidents ; producing numerous or great changes, either in public or private affairs ; as an eventful period of history ; an eventful period of life.

      EVEN'TILATE, v. t. To winnow ; to fan ; to discuss. [Sec Ventilate.]

      EVENTILA'TION, n. A fanning; discus-

      EVENT'UAL, a. [from event.] Coming or

      happening as a consequence or result of

      anything; consequential.

      2. Final; terminating; ultimate. Burke.

      Eventual provision for the payment of the

      public secuiities. Hamilton.

      EVENTUALLY, idv. In tlie event; in the

      final result or issue. EVENT'UATE, v. i. To issue ; to come to an end ; to close ; to terminate. J. Lloyd. EVENTUATING, ppr. Issuing; termina- ting. EVER, adv. [Sax. a/re, efre.] At any time ; at any period or point of time, past or fu- ture. Have you ever seen the city of Paris, or shall you ever see it ? No man ever yet hated his ovfn flesh. Eph. v 2. At all times ; always ; continually. He shall ever love, and always be The subject of my scorn and cruelty.

      Dryden He will ever be mindful of his covenant. Ps

      Ei'cr learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. 2 Tim. iii.

      3. Forever, eternally ; to perpetuity ; during everlasting continuance.

      This is my name/oreticr. Ex. iii.

      In a more lax sense, this word signifies continually, for an indefinite period.

      His master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall sei-ve \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\i\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\m forever. Ex. xxi. ' Tliese words are sometimes repeated, for the sake of emphasis ; forever and ever, or forever and forever. Pope. Shak.

      4. Ever and anon, at one time and another ; now and then. Dryden.

      5. In any degree. No man isei'ecthe richer or happier for injustice.

      Let no man fear that creature ever the less, because he sees the apostle safe from his poi- son. Hall.

      In modern usage, this word is used for never, but very improperly.

      And all the question, wrangle e'er so long.

      Is only this, if God has placed huu wrong.


      This ought to be, ne'er so long, as the l>hrase is always used in the Anglo-Saxon, and in our version of the scriptures, that is, so long as never, so long as never before, to any length of time indefinitely. Ask me never so much dowry. Charmers, charming never so wisely. These are the genuine English phrases. Let them charm so wisely as never before. (). A word of enforcement or emphasis thus, as soon as ever he had done it ; as like him as ever he can look.

      They broke all their bones in pieces or < (hey came to the boUoni of ihe deu. Dan,

      The latter phrase is however anoma- lous ; or ever being equivalent to before, and or may be a mistake for ere.

      7. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, ever is contracted into eVr.

      Ever in composition signifies always or con- tinually, without intermission, or to eter- nity.

      EVERBUB'BLING, a. [ever and bubbling.] Continually boiling or bubbling.


      EVERBURN'ING, a. [ever and btirning.] Burning continually or without intermis- sion ; never extinct ; as an everburning lamp ; everburning sulphur. Milton.

      EVERDU'RING, a. [ever and during.] En- during forever ; continuing without end ; as everduring gloi-y. Raleigh.

      EVERGREEN, a. [ever and green.] Al- ways green ; verdant throughout the year. The pine is an evergreen Wee.

      EVERGREEN, n. A plant that retains its verdure through all the seasons ; as a gar- den furnished with evergreens.

      EVERHON'ORED, a. [ever and honored.] Always honored ; ever held in esteem ; as an everhonorcd name. Pope.

      EVERLASTING, a. [ever and lasting.] Lasting or enduring for ever ; eternal ; existing or continuing without end ; im- mortal.

      The everlasting God, or Jehovah. Gen. xxi. Everlasting fire ; everlasting punishment. Matt, xviii. xxv.

      '2. Perpetual ; continuing indefinitely, or du- ring the present state of things.

      I will give thee, and thy seed after thee, the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession. Gen. xvii.

      The everlasting hills or mountains. Genesis. Habakkuk.

      .3. Iw popular usage, ewAXess; continual ; un- intermitted ; as, the family is disturbed with everlasting disputes.

      EVERL^ASTING, n. Eternity ; eternal du- ration, past and future.

      From everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. Ps. xc.

      2. A plant, the Gnaphalium; also, the Xcr- uithemuni. Fam. of Plants.

      EVERL^-^STINGLY, adv. Eternally ; per- petually ; continually. Swift.

      EVERL^ASTINGNESS, n. Eternity; end- less duration ; indefinite duration. [Little used.] Donne.

      EVERLASTING-PEA, n. A plant, the Laihyrus Uitifolia.

      EVERLIVING, a. [ever and living.] Liv- ing without end ; eternal ; immortal ; ha- ving eternal existence; as the everliving God.

      2. Continual; incessant; unintermitted.

      EVERMO'RE, adv. [ever and more.] .Al- ways; eternally.

      Religion piefers the pleasures which flow from the presence of God for evermore.


      2. Always; at all times ; as evemiore guided by truth.

      EVERO'PEN, a. [ever and open.] Always open ; never closed. Taylor.

      EVERPLE'ASING, a. [ever and pleasing.] Always pleasing ; ever giving delight. The everpleasing Pamela. Sidney.

      EVERSE, v. t. evers'. [L. eversus.] To overthrow or subvert. [JVbt used.]


      EVER'SION, n. [L. eversio.] An over- throwing ; destruction. Taylor.

      Eversion of the eye-lids, ectro])ium, a disease in which the eye-lids are turned outward, so as to expose the red internal tunic.


      EVERT', v. t. [L. everto ; e and verto, to turn.]

      To overturn; to overthrow; to destroy. [Little used.] Jtyliffe.

      EVERWA'KING, a. [ever and ivaking.] Always awake.

      EVERWATCH'FUL, a. [evere.nAwaiehful.]

      I Always watching or vigilant ; as ever-

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ watchful ej es. Pope.

      iEVERY, a. [Old Eng. everich. Chaucer.

      I It is formed from ever. The Scots write everich and everilk ; the latter is the Sax.

      I (efre and ale, each. The former may be

      I enc, eaca, addition, or the common termi- nation ich, ig, like.]

      Each individual of a whole collection or ag- gregate luimber. The word includes the whole number, but each separately stated

      [ or considered.

      Every man at his best state is altogether van-

      I ity. Ps. xxxix.

      jEVERYDAY, o. [every and day.] Used or being everyday; common; usual; as eu-

      I eryday wit ; an everyday suit of clothes.

      EVERYWHERE, arfr. [See Where,vih\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\eh signifies place.] In every place ; in all places.

      EVERYOUNG, a. [ever and yming.] Al- ways young or fresh ; not subject to old age or decay ; undecaying.

      Joys everyoung, unmixed with pain or fear. Pope.

      E'VES-DROP. [See Eaves-drop, the usual spelling.]

      E'VES-DROPPER, n. One who stands un- der the eaves or at a window or door, to listen privately to what is said in the house. [See Eaves-dropper.]

      EVES'TIGATE, v.t. [JVot inuse.] [See Investigate.]

      EVI'BRATE, [J<

      EVICT', V. t. [L. evinco,evictum ; e and vinco, conquer.]

      1. To dispossess by a judicial process, or course of legal proceedings ; to recover lands or tenements by law.

      If either party be evicted for defect of the other's litle. Blackstone.

      2. To take away by sentence of law. King Charles.

      3. To evince ; to prove. [JVot used.] Cheyne.

      EVICT'ED, pp. Dispossessed by sentence of law; applied to persons. Recovered by legal process ; applied to things.

      EVICT'ING, ppr. Dispossessing by course of law.

      EVICTION, n. Dispossession by judicial sentence ; the recovery of lands or tene- ments from another's possession, by due course of law.

      2. Proof; conclusive evidence. L'Estrangc.

      EVIDENCE, n. [Fr. from L. evidentia. from video, to see. Class Bd.]

      1. That which elucidates and enables the mind to see truth ; proof arising from our own perceptions by the senses, or from the testimony of others, or from inductions of reason. Our senses fiu'iiish cvidenci

      E V I

      E V I

      E V O

      of the existence of matter, of solidity, of| color, of heat and cold, of a difference i the qualities of bodies, of figure, &c. Tl declarations of a witness furnish evidence of facts to a court and jury; and reason ing, or the deductions of the mind from facts or arguments, furnish evidence of truth or falsehood.

      2. Any instrument or writing which contains proof

      I delivered the evidence of the purchase to Baruch. Jer. xxxii.

      I subscribed the evidence and sealed it. Jer. xxxii.

      3. A witness ; one who testifies to a fact. This sense is improper and inelegant, though common, and found even in John son's writings.

      EVIDENCE, V. t. To elucidate ; to prove ; to make clear to the mind ; to show in such a manner that the mind can appro hend the truth, or in a manner to convince it. The testimony of two witnesses is usu ally sufficient to evidence the guilt of an offender. The works of creation clearly evidence the existence of an infinite first cause.

      EV'IDENCED, pp. Made clear to the mind ; proved.

      EVIDENCING, ppr. Proving clearly ; man- ifesting.

      EVIDENT, a. Plain ; open to be seen ; clear to the mental eye ; apparent ; mani- fest. The figures and colors of bodies are evident to the senses ; their qualities may be made evident. The guilt of an offender cannot always be made evident.

      EVIDEN'TIAL, a. Aflbrding evidence ; clearly proving. Scott.

      EVIDfiNTLY, adv. Clearly; obviously: plainly ; in a manner to be seen and un derstood ; in a manner to convince the mind ; certainly ; manifestly. The evil of sin may be evidently proved by its mischie- vous effects.

      EVI(5ILA'TION, n. [L.evigilatio.] A wa- king or watching. [Little used.]

      E'VIL, a. e'vl. [Sax. efel, ijfel, or hyfcl ; D. euvel ; G. iibel ; Arm. fail, goall. Qu. W. gwael, vile ; Ir. feal. The Irish word is connected with feallaim, to fail, which may be allied to fall. Perhaps this is from a. different root. Uu. Heb. Ch. Syr. Si;? to be unjust or injurious, to defraud, Ar.

      ^Ic to decline, and jLi to fall or invade suddenly.]

      1. Having bad qualities of a natural kind ; mischievous ; having qualities which tend to injury, or to produce mischief

      Some evil beast halh devoured him. Gen. XXX vii.

      2. Having bad qualities of a moral kind ; wicked ; corrupt ; perverse ; wrong ; as evil thoughts ; evil deeds ; evii speaking ; an evil generation. Scripture

      3. Unfortunate; unhappy; producing sor- row, distress, injury or calamity ; as evil tidings ; evil arrows ; evil days. Scripture.

      E'VIL, n. Evil is natural or moral. JVatu- ral evil is any thing which produces pain, distress, loss or calamity, or which in any way disturbs the peace, impairs the hap piness, or destroys the perfection of natu- ral beings. Moral evil is any deviation of a moral

      Vol. I.

      agent from the rules of conduct prescri lied to him by God, or by legitimate hu- man authority ; or it is any violation of the plain principles of justice and rectitude,

      There are also evils called civil, which affect injuriously the peace or prosperity of a city or state ; and political evils, which injure a nation, in its public capacity.

      All wickedness, all crimes, all violations of law and right are moral evils. Diseases are natural evils, but they of\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\en proceed from moral evil.^.

      2. Misfortune ; mischief; injury. There shall no evil befall thee. Ps, A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and hideth

      himtelf. Prov. xxii.

      3. Depravity; coiTuption of heart, or disp sition to commit wickedness ; malignity

      The heart of the ."ions of men is full of evil. Eccles. ix.

      4. Malady ; as the king's evil or scrophula E'VIL, adv. [generally contracted to t'tt.] I. Not well ; not with justice or propriety ;


      i;m7 it beseems tlice. Shak.

      3. Not virtuously ; not innocently.

      3. Not happily ; unfortunately. It went evil with his house. Deut

      4. Injuriously ; not kindly. The Egyptians evil entreated us, and afflicted

      us. Deut.

      In composition, evil, denoting something bad or wrong, i.s often contracted to ill.

      EVIL- AFFECTED, a. Not well disposed unkind ; now ill-affected.

      EVILDOER, II. [evil and doer, from do. One who does evil ; one who commits sin, crime, or any moral wrong.

      They speak evil against you as evildoers Pet. ii.

      E'VILEVED, o. [evil and eye.] Looking with an evil eye, or with envy, jealousy or bad design.

      EVIL-FA'VORED, a. [evil and favor.] Ha- ving a bad countenance or external ap- pearance ; ill-favored. Bacon

      EVIL-FA'VOREDNESS, n. Deformity.


      E'VILLY, adv. Not well. [Little used.]

      Bp. Tayloi

      EVIL-MINDED, a. [evil and mind.] ving evil dispositions or intentions ; dispo- sed to mischief or sin; mahcious; malig nant ; wicked. Slanderous reports an propagated by evil-minded persons. [This word is in common use.]

      E'VILNESS, n. Badness ; viciousness ; ma lignity ; as evilness of heart ; the evibiess of sin.

      EVILSPE'AKING, n. [evil and speak.] Slander ; defamation ; calumny ; censori ousness. 1 Pet. ii.

      EVILWISH'ING, a. [eiil and msh.] Wish ing hann to ; as an evilunshing mind.


      EVILWORK'ER, n. [evil and work.] Oiie who does wickedness. Phil

      EVINCE, )). t. evins'. [L. evinco, to van- quish, to prove or show ; e and vinco, to conquer.]

      1. To show in a clear manner ; to prove be- yond any reasonable doubt ; to manifest ; to make evident. Nothing evinces the depravity of man more fully than his u willingness to believe himself depraved.

      2. To conquer. [.Yot in use.] EVIN'CED, pp. Made evident ; proved.


      EVIN'CIBLE, a. Capable of proof; de- monstrable. Hale.

      EVIN'CIBLY, adv. In a manner to demon- strate, or force conviction.

      EVIN'CIVE, a. Tending to prove ; having the power to demonstrate.

      E'VIRATE, v. t. [L. t-ir, eviratus.] To emasculate. [JVot in use.] Bp. Hall.

      EVIS'CERATE, v. t. [L. eviscero;e and viscera, the bowels.]

      To embowel or disembowel ; to take out the entrails ; to search the bowels.

      Johnson. Griffdh.

      EVIS'CERxVTED, pp. Deprived of the bowels.

      EVISCERATING, ppr. Disemboweling.

      EV'ITABLE, a. [L. evilabilis. Sec Evitale.] That may be shunned ; avoidable. [Little iised.] Hooker.

      EVITATE, t'. /. [L.evito; c and vito, from 'le root ot'void, uride.]

      To shun ; to avoid ; to escape. [Little used.] Shak.

      EVITA'TION, ji. An avoiding; a shun- ning. [Little used.] Bacon.

      EVITE, V. t. [L. evito.] To shun. [A'oi used.] Drayton.

      I . [L. ei'oco ; e and I "■'•call.] To call ft I deity


      0, to


      Neptune is a deity wlio evocaies tilings progression. Paus. TVans.

      3. To call from one tribunal to another; to remove.

      The cause was evoked to Rome. Hume. [Evoke is the preferable word.] EVO€A'TION, Ji. A calling fonh ; a call- ing or bringing from concealment.


      2. A calling from one tribunal to another.

      3. Among the Romans, a calling on the gods of a besieged city to forsake it and come over to the besiegers ; a religious ceremo- ny of besieging armies. Encyc.

      EVbLA'TION, n. [L.evolo; e and i-o/o, to fly.] The act of flying away. Bp. Halt.

      EV'OLUTE, n. An original curve from which another curve is described ; the ori- gin of the evolvent. Ash.

      EVOLU'TION, n. [L. evolutio.] The act of unfolding or unrolling. Boyle.

      3. A series of things unrolled or unfolded ; as the evolution of ages. Moore.

      3. In geometry, the unfolding or opening of a curve, and making it describe an evol- vent. T?he equable evolution of the peri- phery of a circle, or other curve, is such a gradual approach of the circumference to rectitude, as that its parts do all concur, and equally evolve or unbend; so that the same line becomes successively a less arc of a reciprocally greater circle, til! at last they change into a straight hne. Harris.

      4. In algebra, evolution is the extraction of roots from powers ; the reverse of involu- tion. _ Harris. Encyc.

      5. In military tactics, the doubling of ranks or files, wheeling, countermarching or other motion by which the disposition of troops is changed, in order to attack or defend with more advantage, or to occupy a different post Encyc.

      EVOLVE, I', t. evolv'. [L. evoho ; e and

      volvo, to roll, Eng. to u'allow.] 1. To unfold; to open and expand.

      The animal soul sooner evolves itself to its full

      orb and extent than the human soul. Hale.

      E X A

      E X A

      E X A

      2. To tliiovv out ; to emit. Pnor.

      EVOLVE, v.i. To open itself; to disclose itself. Prior.

      EVOLVED, ^;>. Unfolded; opened; ex- panded ; emitted.

      EVOLVENT, ?». In gcomelry, a curve for- med by the evolution of another curve ; the curve described from the evolute. J,

      EVOLV'ING, ppr. Unfolding; expanding; emitting.

      EVOMr'TION, n. A vomiting. Sioift.

      EVULGA'TION, n. A divulging. [JVot iv use.]

      EVUL'SLON, n. [h. cvulsio, from evello ; e and velto, to pluck.]

      Tlie act of plucking or pulling out by force. Brown.

      EWE, 11. yu. [Sax. eowa, eowe ; D. ooi ; Ir. ««■ or 01 ; Sp. oveja. It seems to be the L. ovis.]

      A female sheep ; the female of the ovine race of animals.

      EWER, n. yu're. [Sax. huer or hzoer.] A kind of pitcher with a wide spout, used to bring water for washing the hands.

      Shak. Pope.

      EW'RY, n. yu'ry. [from eiver.] In England, an otKce in the king's household, where they t.'.ke care of the linen for the king': table, lay the cloth, and serve up water in ewers after dinner. Did.

      EX. A Latin preposition or prefix, Gr. eI or ix, signifying out of, out, proceeding from Hence in composition, it signifies some- times Old of, as in exhale, exclude ; some- times off, from or out, as in L. excindo, to cut off or out ; sometimes beyond, as '- excess, exceed, excel. In some words it merely emphatical ; in others it has httle effect on the signification.

      EXACERB'ATE, v. t. [L. exacerbo, to irri tate ; ex and acerbo, frotu acerbus, severe, bitter, harsh, sour, G. herbe. See Har- vest.]

      1. To irritate ; to exasperate ; to mflamc an- gry passions ; to inibitter ; to increase ma- hgnant qualitie.=.

      2. To increase the violence of a disease.

      Med. Repos. EXACERBA'TION, n. The act of exas- perating ; the irritation of angry or malig- nant passions or qualities ; increase of malignity.

      2. Among physicians, the increased violence of a disease ; hence, a paroxysm, ■- •■■ the return of an intermitting fever.

      This term is more generally restricted to the periodical increase of remittent and continued fevers, where there is no abso- lute cessation of the fever. Cyc

      3. Increased severity; as violent exacerba- tions of punishment. [Unusual.] Paley.

      EXACERBES'CENCE, n. [L. exacerbcsco.] Increase of irritation or violence, particu- larly the increase of a fever or disease.

      Dariein. EXACT', a. egzacl'. [L. exactus, from exigo, to drive ; ex and ago, Gr. ay", to drive, urge or press.] 1. Closely correct or regular ; nice ; accu- rate ; conformed to rule ; as a nian exact in his dealings.

      AU this, exact to rule, were brought about. Pope.

      2. Precise; not different in the least. This is the exact sum or amount, or the f,rad time. We have an exact model for imitation.

      3. Methodical ; careful ; not negligent ; cor- rect ; observing strict method, rule or or- der. This man is very exact in keeping his accounts.

      Punctual. Every man should be exact in paying his debts when due ; he should be exact in attendance on appointments. 5. Strict. We should be exact in the perform- ice of duties.

      The exacfest vigilance cannot maintain a sin- gle day of unmingled innocence. Rambler. EXA€T', r. t. egzacl'. [L. exigo, exactum ; Sp. crigir ; It. esigere ; Fr. exiger. See the Adjective.]

      1. To force or compel to pay or yield ; to demand or require authoritatively ; to ex- tort by means of authority or without pity or justice. It is an offense for an officer to exact illegal or unreasonable fees. It is customary for conquerors to exact tribute or contributions from conquered coun- tries.

      2. To demand of right. Princes exact obe- dience of tlieir subjects. Tlie laws of God t.Tact obedience from all men.

      3. To demand of necessity ; to enforce a yielding or compliance ; or to enjoin with pressing urgency.

      Duty, Anil justice to my father's soul, exact Thiscruel piety. Denham.

      EXA€T', 11. i. To practice extortion.

      The enemy shall not exact upon him. Ps Ixxxix. EXA€T'ED, pp. Demanded or required by

      authority ; extorted. EXA€T'ING, ppr. Demanding and com- peUing to pay or yield under color of au thority ; requiring authoritatively ; de manding without pity or justice ; extort ing ; compelling by necessity. EXA€'T10N, n. The act of demanding with authority, and compelling to pay or yield ; authoritative demand ; a levying or drawing from by force ; a driving to com- pliance ; as the exaction of tribute or of obedience. 3. Extortion ; a wresting from one unjustly ; the taking advantage of one's necessities, to compel him to pay illegal or e.xorbitant tribute, fees or rewards.

      Take away your exactions from my people Ezek. xlv. 3. That which is exacted ; tribute, fees, re wards or contributions demanded or levi ed with severity or injustice. Kings may be enriched by exactio-ns, but their power is weakened by the consequent disaffec- tion of their subjects. EXA€T'ITUDE, n. Exactness. [Little

      used.] EXAeT'LY, adv. Precisely according to rule or measure ; nicely ; accurately tenon should be exactly fitted to the j tise.

      2. Precisely according to fact. The story exactly accords with the fact or event.

      3. Precisely according to principle, justice or right.

      EXA€T'NESS, n. Accuracy ; nicety ; pre- cision ; as, to make experiments with ex- acfness.

      2. Regularity ; careful conformity to law or rides of propriety ; as exactness of deport-

      i. Careful observance of method and con- formity to truth ; as exactness in accounts or business.

      EXAeT'OR, n. One who exacts ; an offi- ;er who collects tribute, taxes or customs. I will make thine officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness. Isa. Is.

      3. An extortioner; one who compels anoth- er to pay more than is legal or reasonable ; one who demands something without pity or regard to justice. Bacon.

      3. He that demands by authority ; as an ex- actor of oaths. Bacon.

      4. One who is unreasonably severe in his in- junctions or demands. TiUotson.

      EXACT'RESS, n. A female who exacts or

      severe in her injunctions. B. Jonson.

      EXAC'UATE, V. I. [L. eraeuo.] To whet or

      sharpen. [JVot in use.] B. Jonson.

      EXAG'gERATE, t). <. [L. exag-g-e7-o; ex and

      aggei-o, to heap, from agger, a heap.]

      1. To heap on ; to accumulate. In this lite- al sense, it is seldom used ; perhaps never.

      2. To highthen; to enlarge beyond the truth ; to amplify ; to represent as greater than strict truth will warrant. A friend exaggerates a man's virtues ; an enemy ex- aggerates his vices or faults.

      3. In painting, to highthen in coloring or design. Encyr.

      EXA6'GERATED, pp. Enlarged beyond

      the truth. EXA6'(iERATING, ppr. Enlarging or am

      plifying beyond the truth.

      EXAGGERA'TION, n. A heaping togeth- en; heap ; accumulation. [Little used.]


      2. In rhetoric, amplification ; a representa- tion of things beyond the truth ; hyperbol- ical representation, whether of good or evil.

      In painting, a method of giving a repre- sentation of things too strong for the life.

      EXAG'gERATORY, a. Containing exag- geration.

      EXAG'ITATE, !>.«. [L.exagito.] To shake; to agitate ; to reproacli. [Little used or obs.] Arbuthnot.

      EXALT', V. I. tgzoW. [Fr. exalter ; Sp. ex- altar ; It. esaltare ; Low L. exalto ; ex and altus, high.]

      1. To raise high ; to elevate.

      2. To elevate in power, wealth, raidc or dig- nity ; as, to exalt one to a throne, to the chief magistracy, to a bishopric.

      3. To elevate with joy or confidence ; as, to be exalted with success or victory. [We now use elate.]

      4. To raise with pride ; to make undue pre- tensions to power, rank or estimation ; to elevate tQO high or above others.

      He that cvalteth himself shall be abased. Luke xiv. Matt, xxiii.

      5. To elevate in estimation and praise ; to magnify ; to praise ; to extol.

      He is my father's God, and I will exalt him. Ex. .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\v. 0. To raise, as the voice ; to raise in opposi- tion. 2 Kings xix.

      7. To elevate in diction or sentiment ; to make sublime ; as exalted strains.

      8. Li physics, to elevate ; to purify; to sub-

      E X A

      E X A

      E X A

      lilize ; to refiae ; as, to exalt tlie juices or the qualities of bodies. EXaLTA'TION, n. The act of raising high.

      2. Elevation to power, office, rank, dignity or excellence.

      3. Elevated state ; state of greatness or dig- nity.

      I wondered at my flight, and change To this high exaltation. Milton.

      4. In pharmacy, the refinement or subtiliza- tion of bodies or their qualities and vir- tues, or the increase of their strength.

      5. In astrology, the dignity of a planet in which its i)o\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\vors are increased. Johnson.

      EXaLT'ED, pp. Raised to a lofty highth elevated ; iionored with oflice or rank ; ex tolled ; magnified ; refined ; dignified ; sublime.

      Time never fails to bring every exalted rep- utation to a strict scrutiny. Jlmes

      EX^LT'EDNESS, n. The state of being elevated.

      9. Conceited dignity or greatness.

      EX^LT'ER, n. One who exalts or raises to dignity.

      EXaLT'ING, ppr. Elevating ; raising to

      an eminent station ; praising ; extollin magnifying ; refining.

      EXA'MEN, n. egza'men. [L. ejramoi, the tongue, needk: or beam of a balance. It signifies also a swarm of bees. Sp. en- xambre, a swarm of bees, a crowd ; Port. enxame ; It. sciamo ; Fr. essaim. From its use in a balance, it came to signify exami- nation.]

      Examination ; disquisition ; enquiry. [Lit- tle used.] ' Brown

      EXAMINABLE, a. [Sec Examine.] That may be examined; proper for judicial ex- amination or inquiry.

      S. Court, U. States.

      EXAM'INANT, n. One who is to be ex- amined. [JVot legitimate.] Prideaux.

      EXAM'INATE, n. The person examined. Bacon.

      EXAMIN A'TION, n. [L. examinatio. See Examen.]

      1. The act of examining; a careful search or inquiry, with a view to discover truth or the real state of things; careful and accurate inspection of a thing and its parts ; as an examination of a house or a ship.

      2. Mental inquiry ; disquisition ; careful con sideration of the circumstances or facts which relate to a subject or question ; a view of qualities and relations, and an es- timate of their nature and importance.

      3. Trial by a rule or law.

      4. In judicial proceedings, a careful inquiry into facts by testimony ; an attempt to as- certain truth by inquiries and interrogato- ries ; as the examination of a witness or the merits of a cause.

      5. In seminaries of learning, an inquix-y into the acquisitions of the students, by ques- tioning them in literature and the sciences, and by hearing their recitals.

      6. In chimistry and other sciences, a searching for the nature and qualities of substances, by experiments ; the practice or applica- tion of the (lociinastic art.

      EXAM'INATOR, n. An examiner. [JVot used.] Brown

      EXAM'INE, V. t. egzam'in. [L. examina from examen.]

      To inspect carefully, with a view to dis cover truth or the real state of a thing as, to examine a ship to know whether she is sea-worthy, or a house to know whcth er rejiairs are wanted.

      2. To search or inquire into facts and.cir cumstances by interrogating ; as, to exam ine a witness.

      3. To look into the state of a subject ; t( view in all its aspects ; to weigh arguments and compare facts, with a view to form a correct opinion or judgment. Let us ex- amine this proposition ; let us examine this subject in all its relations and bearings let us examine into the state of this ques- tion.

      4. To inquire into the improvements oi qualifications of students, by interrogato ries, proposing problems, or by hearing their recitals ; as, to examine the classes in college ; to examine the candidates for a degree, or for a license to preach or to practice in a profession.

      5. To try or assay by experiments ; as, to ex amine minerals.

      6. To try by a nile or law. Examine yourselves whether ye are in thi

      faith. 2 Cor. xiii.

      7. In general, to search ; to scrutinize ; to explore, witli a view to discover truth ; as to examine ourselves; to examine the ex- tent of human knowledge.

      EXAM'INED, pp. Inquired into ; searched ; inspected ; interrogated ; tried by experi ment.

      EXAM'INER, n. One who examines, tries or inspects ; one who interrogates a wit- ness or an offender.

      2. In chancery,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\n Great Britain, the Examin ers are two officers of that court, who ex amine, on oath, the witnesses for the par tics. Encyc

      EX.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\M'1NI\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\G, ppr. Inspecting carefully s'tin-liiiif,' in- inquiring into; interrogating trviiii; or ,-i^-i.-vying bv experiment.

      EXAMPLAKY, a. [from example.] Serv- ing for example or pattern ; proposed for imitation. [It is now written exemplary.] Hooker.

      EXAMTLE, n. egzam'pl. [L. exemplum Fr. exemple ; It. esempio ; Sp. exempli Qu. from ex and the root of simUis, Gi ofxaXoi.]

      L A pattern ; a copy ; a model ; that which is proposed to be imitated. This word, when applied to material things, is now generally written sample, as a sample of cloth ; but example is sometimes used.


      2. A pattern, in morals or manners; a copy or model ; that which is proposed or is proper to be imitated. •

      I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. John xiii.

      Example is our preceptor before we can rea son. Kblloek

      3. Precedent ; a former instance. Buona parte furnished many examples of success- ful bravery.

      4. Precedent or former instance, in a bad sense, intended for caution.

      Lest any man fall after the same example of unhcliof. Heb. iv.

      Sodom and Gomorrah — are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire Jude 7.

      A person fit to be proposed for a pattern : one whose conduct is worthy of imitation. Be thou an example of the believers. 1 Tim. iv. 6. Precedent which disposes to imitation. Example has more effect than precept. Instance serving for illustration of a rule or precept ; or a particular case or propo- sition illustrating a general rule, position or truth. The principles of trigonometry and the rides of grammar are illustrated by examples.

      In logic, or rhetoric, the conclusion of one singular jioint from another ; an induction of what may happen from what has hap- pened. If civil war has produced calami- ties of a particular kind in one instance, it is inferred that it will produce like conse- quences in other cases. This is an exam- ple. Bailey. Encyc.

      EXAM'PLE, V. t. To exemplify ; to set an exam])Ic. [JVot used.] Shak.

      EXAM'PLELESS, a. Having no examplc- JVbt used.] B. Jonson.

      EX.'\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\M'PLER, n. A pattern ; now sample or sampler.

      EXAN'GUIOUS, a. Having no blood. [.Vot used. See Eisanguious.]

      EX.VN'IMATE, a. egzan'imate. [L. exani- nuttus, exanimo ; ex and anima, hfe.]

      Lifeless ; spiritless ; disheartened ; depress- ed in spirits. Thomson.

      EXANIMATE, v. I. To dishearten ; to dis- courage. Coles.

      EXANIMA'TION, n. Deprivation of life or of s|)irits. [Little used.]

      EXAN'IMOUS, a. [L. exanimis ; ex and anima, Wfe.] Lifeless; dead. [Little used.]

      EXAN'THEMA, n. plu. exanthem'ata. [Gr. from i^avOtu, to blossom ; i^ and ovSof, a flower.]

      Among physicians, eruption ; a breaking out ; pustules, petechiiB, or vibices ; any efflo- rescence on the skin, as in measles, small pox, scarlatina, &c.

      This term is now limited by systematic nosologists, to such eruptions as are ac- compariicil will] fever. Good.

      EXANTIII'.M AT If. } Eruptive; ef-

      EXAN'l'lir.M AT(jrS, ^"- florescent ; no- ting morbid redness of the skin. The mea- sles is an eianthematoxis disease. Tooke uses exanthematic.

      EXANT'LATE, v. t. [L. exantlo.] To draw out ; to exhaust. [JVot used.] Boyle.

      EXANTLA'TION, n. The act of drawing out ; exhaustion. [JVot iised.] Brown.

      EXARA'TION, n. [L. ejraro ,- ex and arc] The act of writing. [.Vo/ u.serf.] Z>ic/.

      EX'ARCH, ?i. [Gr. from apxo!, a chief.] A prefect or governor under the eastern em- perors. Also, a deputy or legate in the Greek church.

      EX'ARCHATE, n. The office, dignity or .administration of an exarch. Taylor.

      EXARTIeULA'TION, n. [ex and articula- tion.] Luxation ; the dislocation of a joint. Quincy.

      EX'ASPERATE, r. t. [L. cxaspero, to irri- tate ; ex and aspero, from asper, rough, harsh.]

      L To anger ; to irritate to a high degree ; to provoke to rage ; to enrage ; to excite anger, or to inflame it to an extreme de- gree. We say, to exasperate a person, or to exasperate the passion of anger or re- sentment.

      E X C

      E X C

      E X C

      9. To aggravate ; to embitter ; as, to exas- perate enmity. 3. To augment violence ; to increase malig- nity ; to exacerbate ; as, to exasperate paiu or a part inflamed. Baeon.

      EX' ASPERATE, a. Provoked ; embitter- ed ; inflamed. Sliak. EX' ASPERATED, pp. Highly angered or irritated ; provoked ; enraged ; embitter- ed ; increased in violence. EX'ASPERATER, n. One who exaspe- rates or inflames anger, enmity or vio- lence. EX' ASPERATING, p;>r. Exciting keen re- sentment ; inflaming anger ; irritating ; increasing violence. EXASPERA'TION, n. Irritation; the act

      of exciting violent anger; provocation. 9. Extreme degree of anger ; violent pas- sion. 3. Increase of violence or malignity ; exa- cerbation. EXAU€'TORATE, ) „ , [L. exaucturo EXAU'THORATE, S and auctoro, to

      hire or bind, from auctor, author.]

      To dismiss from service ; to deprive of a

      benefice. ■^i/liff't

      EXAUCTORA'TION, ? Dismission from

      EXAUTHORA'TION, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "• service ; depri

      vation ; degradation ; the removal of <

      person from an oflice or dignity iu the

      church. ^yliff'

      EXAU'TIIORIZE, v. t. To deprive of au

      thority. Sclden.

      EX€AL'CEATED, a. [L. excakeo, to pull

      oflfthe shoes ; ex and calceus, a slioe.] De

      prived of shoes ; unshod; barefooted.

      EXCANDES'CENCE, n. [L. excandescen

      tia, excandesco ; ex and candesco, candeo, to

      glow or be hot, from caneo, to be white, to


      1. A growing hot ; or a white heat ; glowing

      heat. 9. Heat of passion ; violent anger ; or

      growing angry. EX€ANDES'CENT, a. White with heat. EX€ANTA'TION, n. [L. excanto, but with

      an opposite signification.]

      Disenchantment by a counterchann. [Little

      used.] Bailey.

      EX€'ARNATE, V. /. [L. w and caro. " ' ;

      To deprive or clear of flesh. Grew.

      EX€ARNIFl€A'TION, n. [L. excarnijico.,

      to cut in pieces, from caro, flesh.] The act of cutting ofi" flesh, or of depriving of flesh. Johnson

      EX'CAVATE, V. t. [L. excavo ; ex and c vo, to hollow, cavus, hollow. See Cave. To hollow ; to cut, scoop, dig or wear o tlie inner part of any thing and make it hollow ; as, to excavate a ball ; to excavate the earth ; to excavate the trunk of a tree and form a canoe. EX'CAVATED, pp. Hollowed y made hol- low. EX'€AVATING, ppr. Making hollow. EX€AVA'TION, n. The act of making hollow, by cutting, wearing or scoopirig out the interior substance or part of thing.

      2. A hollow or a cavity formed by removing the interior substance. Many animals burrow in excavalions of their own form- ing. EX'CAVATOR, n. One who excavates.

      EX'CECATE, V. t. [L. cxcceco.] To makel blind. [ATot used.] \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      EXCECA'TION, n. The act of making! blind. Richardson.]

      EXCE'DENT, n. Excess. [J^ot aulhonzed.] EXCEE'D, V. t. [L. excedo ; ex and cedo,

      to pass.] 1. To ]iass or go beyond ; to proceed be- yond any given or supposed limit, meas- ure or quantity, or beyond any thing else ; used equally iu a physical or moral One piece of cloth exceeds the customary length or breadth ; one man exceeds an- other in bulk, stature or weight ; one of- fender exceeds another in villainy. 3. To surpass ; to excel. Homer exceeded all men in epic poetry. Demo.stbenes and Cicero exceeded their cotemporaries in ora- tory.

      King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth For riches and for wisdom. 1 Kings x. EXCEE'D, V. i. To go too far ; to pass the lu-oper bounds ; to go over any given hmit, number or measure.

      Forty stripes may he give him, and not ex- ceed. Dent. XXV. 3. To bear the greater proportion ; to be more or larger. Dryden.

      [This verb is intransitive only by ellip- sis.] EXCEE'DABLE, a. That may surmount or exceed. [111.] Sho-wood.

      EXCEE'DED, pp. Excelled; surpassed;

      outdone. EXCEE'DER, n. One who exceeds or passes the bounds of fitness. Mountagu. EXCEE'DING, ppr. Going beyond; sm--

      passing ; excelling ; outdoing. 3. a. Great in extent, quantity or duration ; very extensive.

      Cities were built an exceeding space of ti before the flood. IThis sense is unusual.]

      Raleigh. 3. adv. In a very great degree ; as exceeding rich.

      The Genoese were exceeding powerful by sea. Raleigh.

      I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great re- ward. Gen. XV. EXCEE'DING, n. Excess; superfluity.

      Smollett. EXCEEDINGLY, adv. To a very great degree ; in a degree beyond wliat is us ual ; greatly ; very much.

      Isaac trembled exceedingly. Gen. xxvii. EXCEE DINGNESS, n. Greatness in quan

      tity, extent or duration. [JVbt used.] EXCEL', V. i. [L. excello, the root of which

      cello, is not in use. In Ar. ^ I. j> signifie: to lift, raise, excel ; also, to speak, to strike, to beat. So we use heat in the sense of surpass. See Class Gl. No. 31 and 49.] ]. To go beyond; to exceed; to surpass ii good quahties or laudable deeds ; to out- do.

      Excelling others, these were great ; Thou greater still, must tliese excel. Prior Many daughters have done virtuously, but tliou excellest them all. Prov. xxxi

      9. To exceed or go beyond or deeds.

      bad qualities

      3. To exoeed ; to

      EXCEL', V. i. To have good qualities, or to perform meritorious actions, in an unusual

      degree ; to be eminent, illustrious or dis- tinguished.

      Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel io strength. Ps. ciii.

      We say, to excel in mathematics ; to ex- cel in painting; to excel in heroic achieve- ments.

      EXCEL'LED, pp. Surpassed ; outdone ; exceeded in good qualities or laudable achievements.

      EX'CELLENCE, ^ „ [Fr. from L. exceUen-

      EX'CELLENCY, (, "' tia.] The state of pos- sessing good qualities in an unusual or eminent degree; the state of excelling in any thing.

      3. Any valuable quality ; any thing highly laudable, meritorious or virtiious, in per- sons, or valuable and esteemed, in things. Purity of heart, uprightness of mind, sin- cerity, virtue, piety, are excellencies of character ; symmetry of parts, strength and beauty are excellencies of body ; an ac- curate knowledge of an art is an excellence in the artisan ; soundness and durability are excellencies in timber ; fertility, in land ; el- egance, in writing. In short, whatever contributes to exalt man, or to render him esteemed and happy, or to bless society, is in him an excellence.

      3. Dignity; high rank in the scale of beings. Angels are beings of more excellence than men ; men are beings of more excellence than brutes.

      4. A title of honor formerly given to kings and emperors, now given to embassa- dors, governors, and other persons, be- low the rank of kings, but elevated above the common classes of men.

      EX'CELLENT, a. Being of great virtue or worth ; eminent or distinguished for what is amiable, valuable or laudable ; as an excellent man or citizen ; an excellent judge or magistrate.

      2. Being of great value or use, applied to things ; remarkable for good properties ; as excellent timber ; an excellent farm ; an excellent horse ; excellent fruit.

      .3. Distinguished for superior attainments ; as an excellent artist.

      4. Consummate ; complete ; tra an ill sense. Elizabeth was an excellent hypocrite.


      EXCELLENTLY, adv. In an excellent manner ; well in a high degree ; in an em- inent degree ; in a manner to please or command esteem, or to be useful.

      EXCEPT', v.t. [Fr. excepter ; It. eccettare ; from L. excipio ; ex and capio, to take. See Caption, Capture.]

      1. To take or leave out of any number spe- cified ; to exclude ; as, of the thirty per- sons present and concerned in a riot, we must except two.

      3. To take or leave out any particular or particulars, from a general description.

      When he saith, all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted who did put all things under him. 1 Cor. xv.

      EXCEPT', V. i. To object ; to make an ob- jection or objections ; usually followed by "to ; sometimes by against. I except io a witness, or to his testimony, on account of his interest or partiality.

      EXCEPT', pp. contracted from excepted. Taken out; not included. All were in- volved in this afl!air, cccept one : that ia,

      E X C

      E X C

      E X C

      one excepted, tbe case absolute or indepen- dent clause. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish ; that is, except this fact, tliat ye repent, or this fact being ex- cepted, removed, taken away, ye shall alli likewise perish. Or except may be con- sidered as the imperative mode. Excepti thou or ye, this fact, ye shall all likewise perish. Hence except is equivalent to: leithout, unless, and denotes exclusion.

      EXCEPTED, pp. [See Except.]

      EXCEPTING, ppr. Talung or leaving out ;| excluding. I

      2. This word is also used in the sense o(ex-\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ cept, as above explained. The prisoners; were all condemned, excepting three. This: is an anomalous use of the word, unless,! in some cases, it may be referred to a pro-; noun. Excepted would be better: three excepted ; three being excepted. 1

      EXCEP'TION, n. The act of excepting, or excluding from a number designated, or from a description ; exclusion. All ihe^ representatives voted for the bill, with the' exception of five. All the land is in tillage,! with an exception of two acres. j

      2. Exclusion fi-om what is comprehended in a general rule or proposition. |

      3. That which is excepted, excluded, or separated from others in a general de-[ scription ; the person or thing si)ecified as distinct or not included. Almost every general rule has its exceptions. j

      4. An objection ; that which is or may be of- fered in opposition to a rule, proposition, statement or allegation ; with to ; some-l times with against. He made some ex- emptions to the argument.

      5. Objection with dislike ; offense ; slight anger or resentment ; with at, to or against^ and commonly used with take ; as, to take exception at a severe remwk ; to take ex-\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ception to what was said. 1

      Roderigo, thou hast taken against ine an ex- ception. Shak. But it is more generally followed by at.

      6. In law, the denial of what is alledged and considered as valid by the other party, either in point of law or in pleading ; or an allegation against the sufficiency of an answer. In law, it is a stop or stay to an action, and it is either dilatory or peremp- tory. Blackstone

      7. A saving clause in a writing.

      BUI of exceptions, in law, is a statement of

      exceptions to evidence, filed by the party

      and which the judge must sign or seal. EXCEP'TIONABLE, a. Liable to objec

      tion. I

      This passage I look upon to be the most ex-\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      ceptionable in the whole poem. .iddison.

      EXCEP'TIOUS, a. Peevish ; disposed or!

      apt to cavil, or take exceptions. [Little,

      used.] SouthJ

      EXCEP'TIOUSNESS, n. Disposition to'

      cavil. Barroio.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      EXCEPTIVE, a. Including an exception i

      as an exceptive preposition. fVattsi

      2. Making or being an exception. Milton. i:\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\(EPT'LESS, a. Omitting all exception.

      {.Vol in use.] Shak.

      EXCEPT'OR, n. One who objects, or makes

      exceptions. Burnet.

      EXCERN', V. t. [L. excerno ; ex and cei-no,

      Gr. xftvu, to separate.] To separate and emit through the pores, oi

      through small passages of the body ; to strain out ; to excrete ; as, fluids are ex- cerned in perspiration. Bacon

      EXCERN'ED, pp. Separated; excreted emitted through the capillary vessels of the body.

      EXCERN'ING, ppr. Emitting through the small passages ; excreting.

      EXCERP', V. t. [L. excerpo.] To pick out. [Ldttle used.] Hales.

      EXCERPT', V. t. [L. excerpo ; ex and carpo, to take.] To select. [JVot used.] Barnard.

      EXCERP'TION, n. [L. excerptio.] A pick- ing out ; a gleaning ; selection, [ldttle used.]

      2. That which is selected or gleaned. [Lit- tle used.] Raleigh.

      EXCERP'TOR, n. A picker ; a culler.


      EXCERPTS', n. Extracts from authors. [A bad word.]

      EXCESS', n. [L. excessus, from excedo. See Exceed.]

      1. Literally, that which exceeds any measure or limit, or which exceeds something else, or a going beyond a just line or point. Hence, superfluity ; that which is beyond necessity or wants ; as an excess of provis- ions ; excess of light.

      2. That which is beyond the common mea- sure, proportion, or due quantity ; as the excess of a limb ; the excess of bile in the .system.

      3. Superabundance of any thing. JVewton.

      4. Any transgression of due hniits. Alterhury.

      5. In jiiorafe, any indulgence of appetite, pas- sion or exertion, beyond the rules of God's word, or beyond any rule of propriety ; intemperance in gratifications ; as excess in eating or drinking ; excess of joy ; excess of grief; excess of love, or of anger; excess of labor.

      6. In arithmetic and geometry, the difference between any two unequal numbers or quantities ; that which remains when the lesser number or quantity is taken from the greater.

      EXCESS'IVE, a. Beyond any given de- gree, measure or limit, or beyond the com- mon measure or proportion ; as the excess- ive bulk of a man ; excessive labor ; excess- ive wages.

      2. Beyond the established laws of morality and religion, or beyond the bounds of jus- tice, fitness, propriety, expedience or util- ity ; as excessive indulgence of any kind.

      Excessive ball shall not be required.

      £ill «f Mights.

      3. Extravagant ; unreasonable. His expen- ditures of money were excessive.

      4. Vehement ; violent ; as excessive passion.

      EXCESSIVELY, adv. In an extreme de- gree ; beyond measure ; exceedingly ; as excessively impatient ; excessively grieved.

      2. Vehemently; violently ; as, the wind blew excessively.

      EXCESS'iVENESS, «. The state or quality of being excessive ; excess.

      EXCH.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\NtiE, v.t. [Fr. echanger ; Arm. eceinch ; from changer, ceincA, to change.]

      I. In commerce, to give one thing or com- modity for another ; to aUenate or transfer the property of a thing and receive in com- pensation for it something of supposed equal value ; to barter; and iii vulgar lan-

      guage, to swap ; to truck. It diflers from sell, only in the kind of compensation. To sell is to alienate for inone^ ,• to exchange is to alienate one commodity for another ; as, to exchange horses ; to exchange oxen for corn.

      2. To lay aside, quit or resign one thing, state or condition, and take another in the place of it ; as, to exchange a crown for a cowl ; to exchange a throne for a cell or a herinitage ; to exchange a life of ease for a life of toil.

      3. To give and receive reciprocally; to give and receive in compensation the same thing.

      Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Ham- let. Siak.

      4. To give and receive the like thing ; as, to exchange thoughts ; to exchange work ; to exchange blows ; to exchange prisoners.

      It has with before the person receiving the thing given, and /or before the equivalent. Will you exchange horses teith me ? Will you exchange your hoi-se_/br mine .'

      EXCHANGE, n. In commerce, the act of giv- ing one thing or commodity for another ; barter ; traffick by permutation, in which the tiling received is supposed to be equiva- lent to the thing given.

      Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses. Gen. xlvii.

      2. The act of giving up or resigning one thing or state for another, without con- tract.

      3. The act of giving and receiving recipro- cally ; as an exchange of thoughts ; an ea- change of civilities.

      4. The contract by which one commodity is transferred to another for an equivalent commodity.

      The thing given in return for something received ; or the thing i-eceived in return for what is given.

      There's my exchange. ShaJc.

      In ordinary busines.s, this is called clia/ige.

      6. The form of exchanging one debt orcredit for another ; or the receiving or paying of money in one place, for an equal sum in another, by order, draft or bill of exchange. .4 ill London is creditor to B in New York, .nud C in London owes D in New York a like sum. Jl in London draws a bill of ex- change on B in New York ; C in London purchases the bill, by which .•? receives his debt due from fi in iVcw York. C trans- mits the bill to D in New York, who re- ceives the amount from B.

      Bills of exchange, drawn on persons in a foreign country, are called /oreigTi bills of exchange ; the like bills, drawn on persons in different parts or cities of the same coun- try, are called inland bills of exchange.

      .\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ bill of exchange is a mercantile con- tract in which lour persons are primarily concerned.

      7. In mercantile language, a bill drawn for money is called exchange, instead of a bill of exchange.

      8. The course of exchange, is the current price between two places, which is above or below par, or at par. Exchange is at par, when a bill in New York for tlie pay- ment of one hundred pounds Eterliog iu London, can be purchased for one hundred pounds. If it can be purchased for less,

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      E X C

      E X C

      exchange is under par. If the purchaser! is obliged to give more, exchange is above par.

      9. In law, a mutual grant of equal interests, the one in consideration of the other. Es- tates exchanged must be equal in quantity, as fee simple for fee simple. Blackslone.

      10. The place where the merchants, brokers and bankers of a city meet to transact business, at certain hours ; often contract- ed into change.

      EXCHANGEABILITY, n. The quality or state of being exchangeable.

      Though the law ought not to be contravened by an express article admitting the exchangea- bility of such persons. JVashington EXCHANGEABLE, a. That may he ex- changed ; capable of being exchanged ; fit or proper to be exchanged.

      The officers captured with Burgoyne were exchangeable within the powers of Gen. Howe. Marshall. Bank bills exchangeable for gold or silver.

      Rainsay. EXCHANGED, pp. Given or received for

      something else ; bartered. EXCHANGER, n. One who exchanges; one who practices exchange. Matt, xxv EXCHANdiING, ppr. Giving and receivinj one commodity for another; giving and receiving mutually ; laying aside or rel' quishing one thing or state for another. EXCHEQ'UER, n. exchek'er. [Fr. echiquier, checker-work, a chess-board. See Chess and Checker.] In England, an ancient court of record, in- tended principally to collect and superin tend the king's debts and duties or i-eve nues, and so called from scaccharium, or from the same root, denoting a checkered cloth, which covers the table. It consists of two divisions : the receipt of the excheq tier, which manages the royal and the judicial part, which is divided a court of law and a court of equity. The court of equity is held in the exchequer chamber, before the lord treasurer, tl chancellor of the exchequer, the chief' baron and three inferior barons. The common law court is held before the bar- ons, without the treasurer or chancellor. BlacksU)ne Exchequer-hills, in England, bills for money, or promissory bills, issued from the ex- chequer ; a species of paper currency emit- ted under the authority of the government and bearing interest. EXCHEQ'UER, v. t. To institute a process against a person in the court of exchequer. Pegge.

      EXCI'SABLE, a. s as z. Liable or subject

      to excise ; as, coffee is an excisable


      EXCT'SE, n. s as z. [L. excisum, cut off,

      from excido; D. accys ; G. accise.] An inland duty or impost, laid on commodi- ties consumed, or on the retail, which is the last stage before consumption ; as ai excise on coffee, soap, candles, which i person consumes in his family. But many articles are excised at the manufactories, as spirit at tlie distillery, printed silks and linens at the printer's, &c. Encyc.

      EXtJl'SE, V. f. s as z. To lay or impose a duty on articles consumed, or in the hands

      of merchants, manufacturers and retail ers ; to levy an excise on.

      EXCI'SED, pp. Charged with the duty of| excise.

      EXCrSEMAN, n. An officer who inspects commodities and rates the excise duty on them. Johnson.

      EXCI'SING, ppr. Imposing the duty of excise.

      EXCIS'ION, »i. sasz. [h.eicisio.] hi sur- gery, a cutting out or cutting off any part of the body; extirpation; amputation.

      3. The cutting off of a person from his peo- ple ; extirpation ; destruction.

      The rabbins reckon tliree kinds of excision. Encyc.

      EXCITABIL'ITY, n. [from excite.] The quality of being capable of excitement ; susceptibility of increased vital action by the force of stimulants. Broion.

      EXCI'TABLE, a. Having the quality of being susceptible of excitement ; capabh of increased action by the force of stimu- lants.

      2. Capable of being excited, or roused into action.

      EXCI'TANT, n. That which produces or may produce increased action in a livin body ; a stimulant.

      EX'CITATE, V. t. To excite. {Kol in use. Bacon.

      EXCITA'TION, n. The act of exciting oi putting in motion ; the act of rousing oi awakening. Bacon. Walls

      EXCI'TATIVE, a. Having power to excite. Barroxc

      EXCI'TATORY, a. Tending to excite containing excitement. Miller.

      EXCI'TE, V. t. [L. excUo ; ex and cito, to cite, to call or jn-ovoke.]

      1. To rouse; to call into action ; to animate to stir up; to cause to act that which i: dormant, stupid or inactive ; as, to excite the spirits or courage.

      2. To stimulate ; to give new or increased action to ; as, to excite the human system to excite the bowels.

      3. To raise ; to create ; to put in motion as, to excite a mutiny or insurrection.

      4. To rouse ; to inflame ; as, to excite the passions.

      EXCI'TED, pp. Roused ; awakened ; ani mated ; put in motion ; stimidated ; iufla ined.

      EXCl'TEMENT, n. The act of exciting stimulation.

      2. Tlie state of being roused into action, or of having increased action. Stimulants are intended to produce excitement in the animal system,

      3. Agitation ; a state of being roused action ; as an excitement of the people

      4. That which excites or rouses ; that which moves, stirs, or induces action ; a mo


      EXCI'TER, n. He or that which excites he that puts in motion, or tlie cause which awakens and moves.

      2. In medicine, a stimulant.

      EXCI'TING, ppr. Calling or roirsing into action ; stimulating.

      Exciting causes, in medicine,are those which immediately produce disease, or those which excite the action of prcdisponent causes. Parr.

      EXCI'TING, 71. Excitation. Herbert

      EXCLA'IM, tl. t. [L.exclamo; ex und clam n. cry out. See Claim, Clamor.]

      1. To utter the voice with vehemence ; tu cry out; to make a loud outcry in words : as, to exclaim against oppression ; to ex- claim with wonder or astonishment ; to exclaim with joy.

      2. To declare with loud vociferation. -That thus you do exclaim you'll go with him.


      EXeL.^'IMER, n. One who cries out with vehemence ; one who speaks with heat, passion or much noise ; as an exclaimer against tyranny. Alterbury.

      EX€LA'IMING, ppr. Crying out ; vocifera- ting ; speaking with heat or passion.

      EX€LAIMA'TION, n. Outcry ; noisy talk ; clamor ; as exclamations against abuses in government.

      2. Vehement vociferation.

      Thus will I drown your exclmnations.

      Shak. Emphatical utterance ; a vehement exten- sion or elevation of voice ; ecphonesis ; as, O dismal night !

      A note by which emphatical utterance or outcry is marked : thus !

      5. In grammar, a word expressing outcry ; an interjection ; a word expressing some passion, as wonder, fear or grief.

      EX€LAM'ATORY, a. Using exclamation ; as an exclamatory speaker.

      2. Containing or expressing exclamation ; as an exclamatory phrase.

      EXeLU'DE, V. i. [L. excludo ; ex and claudo, to shut, Gr. x%ii.iou, xXiiu,.] Properly, to thrust out or eject ; but used as synony- mous with preclude.

      1. To thrust out ; to eject ; as, to exclude j'oung animals from the womb or from eggs.

      2. To hinder from entering or admission ; to shut out ; as, one body excludes another from occupying the same space. The church ought to exclude immoral men from the communion.

      3. To debar ; to hinder from participation or enjoyment. European nations, in time of peace, exclude our merchants from the commerce of their colonies. In some of the states, no man who pays taxes is exclu- ded from the privilege of voting for repre- sentatives.

      4. To except ; not to comprehend or include in a privilege, grant, proposition, argu- ment, description, order, species, genus, &c. in a general sense.

      EX€LU'DED, pp. Thrust out ; shut out ; hindered or prohibited from entrance or admission ; debarred ; not included or comprehended.

      EXCLU'DING, ppr. Ejecting; hindering from entering ; debarring ; not compre- hending.

      EXCLU'SION, n.s as I. The act of exclu- ding, or of thrusting out ; ejection ; as the exclusion of a fetus.

      2. The act of denying entrance or admission ; a shutting out.

      3. The act of debarring from participation in a privilege, benefit, use or enjoyment.


      4. Rejection ; non-reception or admission, a general sense. Addison.

      5. Exception. Bacon.

      E X C

      (J. Ejection ; that which is emitted or thrown out. Broum.

      EX€LU'SIONIST, n. One who would pre- clude another from some privilege. Fox.

      EX€LU'SIVE, a. Having the power of pre- venting entrance ; as exclusive bars.


      2. Debarring from participation ; posses-sed and enjoyed to the exclusion of others as an exclusive privilege.

      3. Not taking into the account ; not inclu ding or comprehending; as, the general had five thousand troops, exclusive of ar- tillery and cavalry. He sent me all the numbers from 78 to 94 exclusive; th all the numbers between 78 and 94, but these numbers, the first and last, are ex- cepted or not included.

      EXCLU'SIVELY, adv. Without admission of others to participation; with the exclu sion of all others ; as, to enjoy a privilege exclusively.

      2. Without comprehension in- an account or number ; not inclu.sively.

      EXCLU'SORY, a. Exclusive; excluding; able to exclude. [Little used.] IValsh.

      EXCOCT', V. t. [L. excoctus.] To boil. [JVot in use.] Bac

      EXCO(i'ITATE, V. t. [L. excogilo ; ex a cogito, to think.]

      To invent ; to strike out by thinking ; tc contrive. More. Hale

      EXCOcilTA'TION, n. Invention ; contri vance ; the act of devising in the thoughts

      EX-eOM'MISSARY, n. [ex and commissa ry.] A commissary disnnssed from office one formerly a conmiissary.

      EXCOMMU'NE, V. t. To exclude. [JVot used.] Gayton.

      EXeOMMUNICABLE, a. [See Excommu- nicate.] Liable or deserving to be excom- municated. Hooker

      EXCOMMUNICATE, v. t. [L. ca-.and corn- To expel from communion ; to eject from the communion of the church, by an ec clesiastical sentence, and deprive of spirit ual advantages ; as, to excommunicate no- torious offenders.

      EXCOMMU'NICATED, pp. E.xpclled or separated from comnmnion witli a church, and a participation of its ordinances^ rights and privileges.

      EXCOMMU'NICATING, ppr. Expelling from the communion of a cluirch, and de priving of spiritual advantages, by an ec clesiastical sentence or decree.

      EXCOMMUNICATION, n. The act of ejecting from a church ; expulsion from the communion of a church, and depriva tion of its rights, privileges and advanta ges; an ecclesiastical penalty or punish nient inflicted on oftenders. Excommu nication is an ecclesiastical interdict, of two kinds, the lesser and the greater ; the lesser excommunication is a separation or suspension of the offender from partaking of the eucharist ; the greater, is an abso- lute separation and exclusion of the offen- der from the church and all its rites and advantages. Encvc

      EXeO'RIATE, V. t. [Low L- excorio; ex

      and corium, skin, hide.] To flay; to strip or wear off the skin ; to abrade ; to gall ; to break and remove the

      E X C

      cuticle in any manner, as by rubbing, beat- ing, or by the action of acrid substances.

      EXCORIATED,/)/). Flayed ; galled ; strip- ped of skin or the cuticle ; abraded.

      EXCO'RIATING, ppr. Flaying; galling; stripping of the cuticle.

      EXCORIA'TION, n. The act of flaying, or the operation of wearing off the skin or cuticle ; a gaUing ; abrasion ; the slate of being galled or stripped of skin.

      2. Plunder; the act of strijjping of posses- sions. [Little used.] Howell.

      EXCORTICA'TION, n. [L. ex and cortex, bark.] The act of strii)ping off bark.


      EX'CREABLE, a. That may be discharged by spitting. [Little used.]

      EX' CREATE, v. t. [L. excreo, hawk and spit.]

      To hawk and spit ; to discharge from the throat by hawking and spitting.

      EXCREA'TION, n. A spitting out,

      EX'CREMENT, n. [L. excremenlum, from excerno, excretus ; ex and cenio, to seiiarate, Gr. xptno.]

      Matter excreted and ejected; that which is discharged from the animal body alter di- gestion ; alvine discharges.

      EXCREMENT'AL, a. E.xcreted or ejected by the natural passages of the body.

      EXCRKMENTI "TIAL, a. Pertaining to or consisting; in rxiionic iit. Fourcrou.

      EXCREMllNI'l Tiol S, a. Pertaining to excreniciit: (•i.Mtaiiiiug excrement; con- sisting ill mutter evacuated or proper to be evacuated from the animal body,

      Bacmi. Harveii.

      EXCRES'CENCE, n. [L. excrescens, froi, excresco ; ex and cresco, to grow.]

      In surgery, a preternatural protuberance growing on any part of the body, as a wart or a tubercle; a superfluous part.


      2. Any preternatural enlargement of a plant, like a wart or tumor; or something grow- ing out from a plant. Bentley.

      3. A preternatural production. Toiler. EXCRES'CENT, a. Growing out of some

      thing else, in a preternatural manner ; su perfluous ; as a wart or tumor.

      Expuivge the whole or lop the excrescent

      P»it'- Pope.

      EXCRE'TE, V. t. [L. excretus, infra.] To

      separate and throw off; to discharge ; as,

      to excrete urine.

      EXCRE'TION, n. [L. excretio, from excerno,

      to separate.]

      1. A separation of some fluid from the blood, by means of the glands ; a throwing ofi'or discharge of animal fluids from the body.

      2. That which is excreted ; fluids sep.-tiated from the body by the gkmds and called ex-', crement. Bacon

      Tiie term excretion is more usiially plied to those secretions which are diroet'ly discharged from the body. It is also ap- plied to the discharges from the bowels, ■which are called almne excretions. Cyc.

      EX'CRETIVE, a. Having the power of] separating and ejecting fluid mutter from the body.

      Excretive faculty. Harvey.

      EX'CRETORY, a. Having the quality of excreting or throwing off excrementitious matter bv the glands.

      EXCRETORY, n. A little duct or vessel.

      E X C

      destined to receive secreted fluids, and to excrete them ; also, a secretory vessel.

      The excretories are nothing but slender slips cf the arteries, ilerivlng an appropriated juice from the blood. Ctteyne.

      EXCRU'(MAIJLE, a. [infra.] Liable to tor- ment. [Little used.]

      EXCRU'CIATE, v. t. [L. excrucio ; ex and crucio, to torment, from crux, a cross.]

      To torture ; to torment ; to inflict most se- vere pain on ; as, to excruciate tiie heart or the body. Chapman.

      P:XCKUC1ATED, pp. Tortured ; racked ; tormenti.'d.

      EXCRUCIATING, ppr. Torturing ; tor- menting ; putting to most severe pain.

      2. a. Extremely painful ; distressing ; as excruciating fears.

      EXCUBA'TION, n. The act of watching all night. [Little used.] IMct.

      EXcUL'PATE,t.«. [It. scolpare ; L. ex and culpa, to blame, culpa, fault.]

      To clear by words from a charge or imputa- tion of fault or guilt ; to excuse. How naturally are we inclined to exculpate our- selves and throw the blame on others. Eve entleavored to exculpate herself for eating the Ibrbidden fruit, and throw the blame on the serpent ; Adam attempted to exculpate himself and tlirow the blame on Eve.

      EXCUl/PATED, pp. Cleared I>y word.s from the imputation of fault or guilt.

      EXCUL'PATING, ppr. Clearing by words from the charge of fault or crime.

      EXCULPA'TION, »i. The act of vindica- ting from a charge of fault or crime ; ex-

      EXCUL'PATORY, a. Able to clear from the charge of fault or guilt ; excusing ; con- taining excuse. Johnson.

      EXCUR'SION, n. [L. excursio, excurso, from cursus, from curro, to run.]

      1. A rambling ; a deviating from a stated or settled path.

      She in low luinibers short excursions tries.

      Pope. Progression beyond fixed limits ; as, the excursions of the seasons into the extremes of heat and cold. Jlrbuthnot.

      Digression ; a wandering from a subject or main design. Atterbury.

      An expedition or journey into a distant part ; any rambling from a point or place, and return to the same point or place.

      EXCUR'SIVE, a. Rambling; wandering; deviating ; as an excursive fancy or imag- ination.

      EXCUR'SIVELY, adv. In a wandering

      manner. Boswell.

      XCIR .SIVENESS, n. The act of wan-

      f: or of passing usual limits.

      (inincy.lF.XcV ^.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\BUi, a. s as z. [See JExcu^e., That may be e.xcused ; pardonable; as, the man is excusable.

      2. Admitting of excuse or justification ; as an excusable action.

      EXCU'SABLENESS, n. s as z. The state of being excusable : pardonableness ; the quality of admitting of excuse. Boyle.

      EXcUSA'TION, n. s as z. Excuse ; apolo- gy. [Little used.] Bacon

      EXCUSA'TOR, n. s as z. One who makes or is authorized to make an excuse or car- ry an apology. fjume.

      EXCUSATORY, a.sasz. Makms excuse -.


      containing excuse or apology; apologet ical ; as an excusatory plea. EXeU'SE, V. t. sasz. [h. excuso; ex and causor, to blame. See Cause.]

      1. To pardon ; to free from the imputat: of fault or blame ; to acquit of guilt. We excuse a person in our own minds, when we acquit him of guilt or blame ; or we excxise him by a declaration of that acquit tal.

      2. To pardon, as a fault ; to forgive entire iy, or to admit to be little censurable, and to overlook. We excuse a fault, wliicli ad- mits of apology or extenuation ; and w( excuse irregular conduct, when extraordi nary circumstances appear to justify it.

      3. To free from an obligation or duty.

      I pray thee have me excused. Luke xiv.

      4. To rennt ; not to exact ; as, to excuse f forfeiture. Johnson.

      5. To pardon ; to admit an apology for.

      i^xcuse some courtly strains. Popi

      6. To throw off an imputation by apology.

      Think you that we excuse ourselves to you ? 2 Cor. xii.

      7. To justify ; to vindicate.

      EXeU'SE, ji. A plea offered in extenuation of a fault or irregular deportment ; apolo gy. Every man has an excuse to offer for his neglect of duty ; the debtor makes e.r discs for delay of payment.

      2. The act of excusing or apologizing.

      3. That which excuses ; that which extenu ates or justifies a fault. His inability to comply with the request nnist be his ex cuse.

      EXeU'SELESS, a. Having no excuse ; that for which no excuse or apology can be of fered. [Ldttle used.]

      EXeU'SER, n. s as z. One who offers ex cuses or pleads for another.

      2. One who excuses or forgives another.

      EX€U'SING,^/)r.sasz. Acquitting of guili or fault ; forgiving ; overlooking.

      EX€USS', V. t. [L. excussus.] To shake off' also, to seize and detain by law. [JVot used.]

      EX€US'SION, n. A seizing by law. [J^oi used.] •^yliff'f.

      EX-DIRE€T'OR, «. One who has been a director, but is displaced.

      EX'E€RABLE, a. [L. execrabitis. See Ex- ecrate.]

      Deserving to be cursed ; very hateful ; detest- able ; abominable ; as an execrable wretch.

      EX'ECRABLY, arfi). Cursedly; detestably.

      EX'E€RATE, V. t. [L. eiecror, from ex and sacer, the primary sense of which is to sep- arate. See Sacred.]

      Literally, to curse ; to denounce evil against, or to imprecate evil on ; hence, to detesi utterly ; to abhor ; to abominate.


      EXECRA'TION, n. The act of cursing curse pronounced ; imprecation of evil ; utter detestation expressed. Milton.

      Cease, gentle queen, these execrations.


      EX'ECRATORY, n. A formulary of exe- cration. L. Addison EXECT', V. t. [L. extco, for exseco.] To cut off or out; to cut aw;iy. [Little used.]



      EXECTION, n. A cutting offer out. [Lit He used.]

      EX'ECUTE, V. t. [Fr. executer; It.eseguire, Sp. executar ; L. exequor, for exsequor ; ex and sequor, to follow. See Seek.]

      1. Literally, to follow out or through. Hence, to perfoi-m ; to do ; to effect ; to carry in to complete effect ; to complete ; to finish We execute a purpose, a plan, design or scheme ; we execute a work undertaken that is, we pursue it to the end.

      2. To perform ; to inflict ; as, to execwfe judg- ment or vengeance. Scripture.

      3. To carry into effect ; as, to execute law or justice.

      4. To carry into effect the law, or the judg ment or sentence on a person ; to in flict capital punishment on ; to put to death ; as. to execute a traitor.

      5. To kill. ■ Sh,

      6. To complete, as a legal instrument ; perform what is required to give validity to a writing, as by signing and sealing ; as, to execute a deed or lease.

      EX'EeUTE, V. i. To perform the proper office ; to iiroduce an effect.

      EX'E€UTED, pp. Done ; performed ; ac complished ; carried into effect ; put t( death.

      EX'ECUTER, n. One who performs or car ■ ito effect. [See Executor.]

      EX'ECUTING,/!/))-. Doing ; performing ; fin ishing; accomplishing ; inflicting ; carry ing into effect.

      EXECU'TION, n. Performance ; the act of completing or accomplishing.

      The excellence of the subject contributed much to the happiness of the execution.


      2. Li law, the carrying into effect a sentence or judgment of court ; the last act of the law in completing the process by which justice is to be done, by which the pos- session of land or debt, damages or cost, is obtained, or by which judicial punishment is inflicted.

      The instrument, warrant or official order, by which an officer is empowered to carry a judgment into effect. An execution is- sues from the clerk of a court, and is lev- ied by a sheriff, his deputy or a consta- ble, on the estate, goods or body of the debtor.

      4. The act of signing and sealing a legal in- strument, or giving it the forms required to render it a valid act ; as the execution of a deed.

      5. The last act of the law in the punishment of criminals ; capital punishment ; death inflicted according to the forms of law.

      6. Effect ; something done or accomplished. Every shot did execution.

      7. Destruction ; slaughter. Shak.

      It is used after do, to do execution ; never after make.

      8. Performance, as in music or other art. EXEeU'TIONER, ?!. One who executes;

      one who carries into effect a judgment of death ; one who inflicts a capital punish ment in j)ursuance of a legal warrant. It is chiefly used in this sense.

      2. He that kills; he that murders. Shak.

      3. The instrument by which any thing is performed. Crashaw.

      EXECUTIVE, a. egzec'utive. Having the quality of executing or performing ; as ex-


      eculive power or authority; an executive officer. Hence, in government, executive is used in distinction from legislative and judicial. The body that deliberates and enacts laws, is legislative; the body that judges, or appUes the laws to particular cases, is judicial; the body or person who carries the laws into effect, or superin- tends the enforcement of them, is exec- utive.

      It is of the nature of war to increase the ex- ecutive, at the expense of the legislative author- ity- Federalist, Hamilton.

      EXECUTIVE, n. The officer, whether king, president or other chief magistrate, who superintends the execution of the laws ; the person who administers the government ; executive power or author- ity in government.

      Men most desirous of places in the executive gift, will not expect to be gratified, except by their support of the executive. J. Quinty.

      EXECUTOR, n. The person appointed by a testator to execute his will, or to see it carried into effect.

      EXECUTO'RIAL, a. Pertaining to an ex- ecutor; executive. Blackstone.

      EXE€'UTORSHIP,n. The office of anex-

      EXEC'UTORY, a. Performing official du- ties. Burke.

      2. In laic, to be executed or carried into ef- fect in future ; to take effect on a future contingency ; as an executory devise or re- mainder. Blackstone.

      EXEC'UTRESS, } „ A female executor ; a EXE€'UTRIX, i"- woman appointed by

      a testator to execute his will. [The latter

      ivord is generally used.] EXEUE'SIS, n. [Gr. i^nyv^if, from f%fo;i«»t,

      to explain, from f| and tiyfofiai, to lead.]

      1. Exposition ; explanation ; interpretation. :2. A discourse intended to explain or illus- trate a subject. Encyc.

      EXEgET'ICAL, a. Explanatory ; tending to unfold or illustrate ; expository.

      .fFalker. EXEgET'I€ALLY, adv. By way of explan- ation. EXEM'PLAR, ji. egzem'plar. [L. See Ex- ample.]

      . A model, original or pattern, to be copied or imitated.

      3. The idea or image of a thing, formed in the mind of an artist, by which he con- ducts his work ; the ideal model which he attempts to imitate. Encyc.

      EX'EMPLARILY, adv. In a manner to de- serve imitation ; in a worthy or excellent manner.

      She is exemplarily loyal. Howell.

      2. In a manner that may warn others, by way of terror ; in such a manner that oth- ers may be cautioned to avoid an evil ; or in a manner intended to warn others.

      Some he punished exemplarily in this world. Hakewill. EX'EMPLARINESS, n. The state or qual- ity of being a pattern for imitation. EX'EMPLARY, a. [from exemplar.] Serv- ing for a pattern or model for imitation ; worthy of imitation. The christian should be exemplarij in his life, as well as correct in his doctrines. 2. Such as may serve for a warning to oth- such as may deter from crimes or vi-


      CE3 ; 33 exemplary justice ; exemplary puri' ishment.

      3. Such as may attract notice and imitation

      When any duty has fallen into general ne- glect, the most visible and exemplary perform- ance is required. Rogers

      4. Illustrating. Fuller. EXEMPLIFICA'TION, n. [from exemplify.] 1. The act of exemplifying; a showing or

      illustrating by example.

      5. A cojiy ; a transcript ; an attested copy ; as an exemplification of a deed, or of letter: patent.

      EXEM'PLIFIED, pp. Illustrated by exam

      pie or copy. EXEM'PLIITER, n. One that exempliliei

      by following a pattern. EXEM'PLIFY, V. t. egzem'pli/y. [from ex

      emplar ; Low L. exemplo ; It. esemplijicare ;

      Sp. exemplijicar.]

      1. To show or illustrate by example. Tlie life and conversation of our Savior exem- plified his doctrines and precepts.

      2. To copy ; to transcribe ; to take an attest- ed copy.

      3. To prove or show by an attested copy. EXElM'PLIFYlNG, ppr. Illustrating by ex

      ample ; transcribing ; taking an attested copy ; proving by an attested copy.

      EXEMPT', t;. «. egzem.t'. [Fr. exempter ; Sp. exentar ; It. esentare ; from L. eximo, ex- emptus ; ex and emo, to take.]

      Literally, to take out or from ; hence, to free, or permit to be free, from any charge, bur- den, restraint, duty, evil or requisitfon, to which others are subject ; to privilege ; to grant immunity from. Officers and stu dents of colleges are exempted from milita ry duty. No man is exempted from pain and suffering. The laws of God exempt no man from the obligation to obedience. Certain abbeys claimed to be exempted from the jurisdiction of their bishops.

      Henry, Hint. Brit

      EXEMPT', a. Free from any service, charge, burden, tax, duty, evil or requl sition, to which others are subject ; not subject ; not liable to ; as, to be exempt from military duty, or from a poll tax ; to be exempt from pain or fear. Peers in G, Britain are exempt from serving on in- quests.

      2. Free by privilege ; as exempt from the ju- risdiction of a lord or of a court.

      3. Free ; clear ; not included.

      4. Cut off from. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\JVot used.] Shak EXEMPT', n. One who is exempted or

      freed from duty ; one not subject.

      EXEMPT' ED, fip. Freed from charge, du- ty, tax or evils, to which others are sub- ject ; privileged ; not subjected.

      EXEMPT'IBLE, a. Free ; privileged. [Mit in use.]

      EXEMPT'ING, ppr. Freeing from charge duty, tax or evil ; granting immunity to.

      EXEMPTION, n. The act of exempting the state of being exempt.

      2. Freedom from any service, charge, burden, tax, evil or requisition, to which others an subject; uriinunity; privilege. 3Iany cit ies of Europe purchased or obtained ex emptions from feudal servitude. No raai can claim an exemption from pain, sorrow or death.

      EXEMPTI"TIOUS, «. Separable ; that may be taken from. [.Vol used.] More.

      Vol. I.


      EXEN'TERATE, v. «. [l..exenUro; ex and Gr. ivrifiov, entrails.]

      To take out the bowels or entrails; to em- bowel, lirotim.

      EXENTERA'TION, n. The act of taking out the bowels.

      EXEQIIA'TUR, n. [L.] A written recogui tion of a person in the character of consul or commercial agent, issued by the gov- ernment, and authorizing him to exercise his powers in the country.

      EXE'QUIAL, a. [L. exequialis.] Pertaining to funerals. Pope.

      EX'EQUIES, n. plu. [L. exequice, from exe- quor, that is, exsequor, to follow.]

      Funeral rites; the ceremonies of burial ; fu- neral procession. Dryden.

      EXER'CENT, a. [L. exercens. Sec Exer- cise.']

      Using ; practising ; following ; as a calling or profession. [Little used.] -'iylijc.

      EX'ERCISABLE, a. s as :. That may be exercised, used, employed or exerted.

      Z. SiviJI.

      EX'ERCISE, n. s as z. [L. exercitium, from exerceo ; ex and the root of Gr. tpyof, Eng. work ; Fr. exercice ; Sp. exercicio ; It. eser- cizio.] In a general sense, any kind of work, labor or exertion of body. Hence,

      1. Use ; practice ; the exertions and move- ments customary in the performance of business ; as the exercise of an art, trade, occupation, or profession.

      2. Practice ; performance ; as the exercise of] rehgion.

      3. Use ; employment ; exertion ; as the exer- cise of the eyes or of the senses, or of any power of body or mind.

      4. Exertion of the body, as conducive to health ; action ; motion, by labor, walking, riding, or other exertion.

      The wise for cure on exercise depend.


      a. Exertion of the body for amusement, or for instruction ; the habitual use of the limbs for acquiring an art, dexterity grace, as in fencing, dancing, riding ; or the exertion of the muscles for invigora- ting the body.

      G. Exertion of the body and mind or facul- ties for improvement, as in oratory, in painting or statuary.

      7. Use or practice to acquire skill ; prepara tory practice. Military exercises consist in using arms, in motions, marches and evolutions. Naval exercise consists in the use or nianngement of artillery, and in the evolutions of fleets.

      8. Exertion of the mind; application of the mental powers.

      9. Task ; that which is appointed for one to perform. • Milton

      10. Act of divine worship. Shak

      11. A lesson or example for practice. EX'ERCTSE, V. t. [L. exerceo ; Fr. exercer ,

      It. esercere ; Sp. exercer. See the Noun.]

      1. In a general sense, to move ; to e.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ert ; to cause to act, in any manner ; as, to exercise the body or the hands ; to exercise the mind, the powers of the mind, the reason or judgment.

      2. To use ; to exert ; as, to exercise authori- ty or power.

      3. To use for improvement in skill ; as, to I exercise arms.



      4. To exert one's powers or strength; to practice habitually ; as, to exercise one's self in speaking or music.

      5. To practice ; to perform the duties of; as, to exercise an office.

      6. To train to use ; to discipline ; to cause to perform certain acts, as preparatory to service ; as, to exercise troops.

      7. To task ; to keep employed ; to use efforts.

      Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offcose towards God and men. Acts xxiv. To use ; to employ.

      9. To busy ; to keep busy in action, exertion or emploj'ment.

      10. To pain or afflict ; to give anxiety to; to make uneasy.

      EX'ERCISE, V. i. To use action or exer- tion ; as, to exercise for health or amuse- ment. [Elliptical.]

      EXERCISED, pp. Exerted ; used ; train- ed ; disciplined ; accustomed ; made skil- ful by use; employed ; practiced ; jiained ; afflicted ; rendered uneasy.

      EX'ERCISER, n. One who exercises.

      EXERCISING, ppr. Exerting; using ; em- ploving; training; practicing.

      EXERCITA'TION, n. IL. exercUalio, from exerceo. See Exercise.] Exercise ; prac- tice ; use. Brown. Felton.

      EXER'GUE, n. [Gr. t% and fpyw, work.] A little space around or without the fig- ures of a medal, lef> for the inscription, ci- pher, device, date, &,c. Encyc.

      EXERT', V. t. egzert'. [L. exero, for exsero ; ex and sero, to throw, to thrust, for this is the radical sense otsero.]

      1. Literally, to thrust forth ; to emit ; to push out. Dryden.

      Before the gems exert Their feeble heads. Philips.

      [Jin unusual application.]

      2. To bring out ; to cause to come forth ; to produce. But more generally,

      S. To put or thrust forth, as strength, force or ability ; to strain ; to put in action ; to bring into active operation ; as, to exert the strength of the body or limbs ; to exert efforts; to exert powers or faculties; to exert the mind.

      4. To put forth ; to do or perform.

      When the will has exerted an act of commaml on any faculty of the soul. South.

      To exert one's self, is to use efforts ; to strive.

      EXERT ED, pp. Thrust or pushed forth ; put in action.

      EXERT'ING, ppr. Putting forth ; putting in action.

      EXER TION, n. The act of exerting or straining ; the act of putting into motion or action ; effort ; a striving or struggling ; as an exertion of strength or power ; an exertion of the limbs, of the mind or fac- ulties. The ship was saved by great exer- tions of the crew. No exertions will sup- press a vice which great men counte- nance.

      EXE'SION, n.sesz. [L. exesus, exedo ; ex and edo, to eat.]

      The act of eating out or through. [Little used.] Brown.

      EXESTUA'TION, ii. [L. extestuatio ; ex and a-stv^, to boil.]

      A boiling ; ebulhtion ; agitation caused by heat ; eftervescence. Boytr.

      E X H

      E X H

      E X H

      EXFOLIATE, v. i. [L. ex/olio ; ex and fo- lium, a leaf.]

      In surgery and mineralogy, to separate and come off in scales, as pieces of carious bone ; to scale off, as the lamins of a min- eral.

      EXFO'LIATED, pp. Separated in thin scales, as a carious bone.

      EXFO'LIATING,;>pr. Separating and com- ing off in scales.

      EXFOLIA'TION, n. The scaling of a bone ; the process of separating, as pieces of unsound bone from the sound part ; des- fiuamation. Coxe.

      EXFO'LIATIVE, a. That has the power of causing exfoliation or the desquamation of a bone.

      EXFO'LIATIVE. n. That which has the power or quality of procuring exfoliation.

      EXHA'LABLE, a. [See Exhale.] That may be exhaled or evaporated. Boyle.

      EXHALA'TION, n. [L. exhalatio. See Ex- hale.]

      1. The act or process of exhaling, or send- ing forth fluids in the form of steam or va- por ; evaporation.

      2. That which is exhaled ; that which is emitted, or which rises in the form of va- por ; fume or steam ; effluvia. Exhala- tions are visible or invisible. The earth is often dried by evaporation, without vis- ible exhalations. The smell of fragrant (ilants is caused by invisible exhalations.

      EXHA'LE, v.t. egzha'le. [h. eahalo ; ex and halo, to breathe, to send forth vapor; Ir. gal, gail, vapor ; gailim, to evaporate.]

      1. To send out; to emit ; as vajjor, or mi- nute particles of a fluid or other sub- stance. The rose exhales a fragrant odor. The earth exhales vapor. Marshes exhale noxious effluvia.

      2. To draw out ; to cause to be emitted in vapor or minute particles; to evaporate. The sun exhales the moisture of the earth.

      EXHA'LED. ;)/). Sent out; emitted, as va- por ; evaporated.

      EXHA'LEMENT, n. Matter exhaled ; va- por. Brown.

      EXHA'LING, ppr. Sending or drawing out in vapor or effluvia.

      EXHAUST', v.t. egzhausl'. [L. exhaurio, exhavsltim ; ex and haurio, to draw, Gr.

      1. To draw out or drain off the whole of any thing; to draw out, till nothing of the matter drawn is left. We exhaust the wa- ter in a well, by drawing or pumping; the water of a marsh is exhausted by draining ; the moisture of the earth is exhausted by evaporation.

      3. To empty by drawing out the contents. Venesection may exhaust the veins and arteries.

      3. To draw out or to use and expend the whole ; to consume. The treasures of the prince were exhausted; his means or his resources were exhausted. The strength or fertility of land may be exhausted.

      4. To use or expend the whole by exertion ; as, to exhaust the strength or spirits ; to exhaust one's patience. Hence this phrase is equivalent to tire, weary, fatigue

      EXHAUST', o. Drained ; exhausted. [Lit- tle used.] "

      EXHAUST'ED, pp. Drawn out; drained oft'; emptied by drawing, draining or evap- oration ; wholly used or expended ; con- sumed.

      EXHAUSTER, n. He or that which ex- hausts or draws out.

      EXHAUSTIBLE, a. That may be exhaust- ed or drained off.

      EXHAUST'ING, p/ir. Drawing out ; drain- ing off; emptying; using or expending the whole ; consuming.

      2. a. Tending to exliaust ; as exhausting labor.

      EXHAUST'ION, n. The act of drawing out or draining off; the act of emptying completely of the contents.

      2. The state of being exhausted or empti- ed ; the state of being deprived of strength or spirits.

      3. In mathematics, a method of proving the equality of two magnitudes by a reductio ad ahsurdum, or showing that if one is supposed either greater or less than the other, there will arise a contradiction.


      EXHAUST'LESS, a. Not to be exhausted not to be wholly drawn off or emptied inexhaustible ; as an exhaustless fund or store.

      EXIIAUST'MENT, n. Exhaustion ; drain.

      EXHER'EDATE, v. t. [infra.] To disin- herit.

      EXHEREDA'TION, n. [L. exhceredalio, ex- hceredo ; ex and ha;res, an Iiei r.]

      In the civil law, a disinheriting ; a father's excluding a child from inheriting any part of his estate. Encyc.

      EXHIB'IT, V. t. egzhih'it. [L. exhiheo ; ex and habeo, to have or hold, as we say, to hold out or forth.]

      1. To offer or present to view ; to present for inspection ; to show ; as, to exhibit paintings or other specimens of art; to exhibit papers or documents in court.

      2. To show ; to display ; to manifest public- ly ; as, to exhibit a noble example of bra- very or generosity.

      3. To present ; to offer publicly or officially ; as, to exhibit a charge of high treason.

      EXHIB'IT, n. Any |)aper produced or pre- sented to a court or to auditors, referees or arbitrators, as a voucher, or in ])roof of facts ; a voucher or document produced.

      2. In chancery, a deed or writing produced in court, sworn to by a witness, and a certificate of the oath indorsed on it by the examiner or commissioner. Encyc.

      EXHIB'ITED, pp. Offered to view ; pre- sented for inspection ; shown ; displayed.

      EXniB'ITER, n. One who exhibits ; one who presents a petition or charge. Shak

      EXHIB'ITING,/(/)r. Offering to view ; pre- senting; showing; displaying.

      EXHIBI"TION, n. [L. exhibilio.] The act of exhibiting for inspection ; a showing or presenting to view ; display.

      2. The oftering, producing or showing of titles, authorities or papers of any kind before a tribunal, in proof of facts.

      3. Public show ; representation of feats actions in public ; display of oratory public ; any public show.

      4. Allowance of meat and drink ; pension ; salary ; benefaction settled for the main

      tenance of scholars in universities, not de- pending on the foundatioii.

      Sivifl. Bacon. Encyc.

      5. Payment ; recompense. Shak.

      EXHIBP'TIONER, n. In English univer- sities, one who has a pension or allow- ance, granted for the encouragement of learning.

      EXHIB'iTIVE, a. Serving for exhibition ; representative. Morris.

      EXIIIB ITIVELY, adv. By representation. fVaterland.

      EXHIB'ITORY, a. Exhibiting; showing; displaying.

      EXHIL'ARATE, v. t. egzhiV arate. [L. ex- hilaro ; ex and hilaro, to make merry, hila- ris, merry, jovial, Gr. Oapot.]

      To make cheerful or merry ; to enliven ; to make glad or joyous ; to gladden ; to cheer. Good news exhilarates the mind, as good wine exhilarates the animal spirits.

      EXHIL'ARATE, v. i. To become cheerful or joyous. Bacon.

      EXHIL'ARATED, pp. Enlivened ; anima- ted ; cheered ; gladdened ; made joyous or jovial.

      EXHIL'ARATING, ppr. Enlivening ; giv- ing life and vigor to the spirits ; cheering ; gladdening.

      EXHILARATION, n. The act of enliven- ing the spirits ; the act of making glad or cheerful.

      2. The state of being enlivened or cheerful. Exhilaration usually expresses less than joy or mirth, but it may be used to express both.

      EXHORT', v.t. egzhort'. [L. exhmtor; ex and hortor, to encourage, to embolden, to cheer, to advise ; It. esortare ; Fr. exhorter ; Sp. exhortar. The primary sense seems to be to excite or to give strength, spirit or courage.]

      L To incite by words or advice ; to animate or urge by arguments to a good deed or to any laudable conduct or course of ac- tion.

      I exhort you to be of good cheer. Acts xxvii.

      Tit. u. 2. To advise ; to warn ; to caution.

      To incite or stimulate to exertion.

      Goldsmith. EXHORT', v. i. To deliver exhortation ; to

      use words or arguments to incite to good


      EXHORTA'TION, n. The act or practice of exhorting; the act of inciting to lauda- ble deeds ; incitement to that which is good or commendable.

      2. The form of words intended to incite and encourage.

      3. Advice ; counsel.

      EXHORT'ATIVE, a. Containing exhorta- tion.

      EXHORT' ATORY, a. Tending to exhort;

      serving for exhortation. EXHORT'ED, pp. Incite.l by words to

      good deeds ; animated to a laudable course

      of conduct; advised. EXHORT'ER, n. One who exhorts or en^


      E X I

      EXHORT'ING, ppr. Inciting to good deeds by words or arguments ; encouraging ; counseling.

      EXHUMA'TION, n. [Fr. from exhumer, to dig out of tlie ground ; Sp. exhumar ; L. e.t and humus, ground.]

      I. The digging up of a dead body interred; the disinterring of a corpse.

      a. The digging up of any thing buried.


      EXI€€ATE, EXle€ATION. [See Ex- siccate.]

      I'^X'IGENCE, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ [L. exigens from exigo, to

      i:X'l6ENCY, S exact ; ex and ago, to drive.]

      1 . Demand ; urgency ; urgent need or want. We spealc of tlie exigence of the case ; the exigence of the times, or of business.

      2. Pressing necessity; distress; any case which demands immediate action, supply or remedy. A wise man adapts his meas- ures to his exigencies. In the present ex- igency, no time is to be lost.

      EX'IgENT, n. Pressing l>usiness; occa- sion that calls for immediate help. [JVot used.] [See Exigence.] Hooker.

      2. In law, a writ which lies where the de- fendant is not to be found, or after a re- turn of non est inventus on former writs ; the exigent or exigi facias then issues, which requires the sheriff to cause the defendant to be proclaimed or exacted, in five county courts successively, to ren- der himself; and if he does not, he is out- lawed. Blackstone.

      .3. End ; extremity. [Xol used.] Shak.

      EX'I(iENTER, n. An officer in the court of Common Pleas in England who makes out exigents and proclamations, in cases of outlawry. Encyc.


      EXIGU'ITY, n. [L. exiguilas.] Small ness ; slenderness. [Little used.] Boyle.

      EXIG'UOUS, a. [L. exiguus.] Small ; slen- der ; minute ; diminutive. [Little used.] Harvey.

      EX'iLE, n. e^'zile. [L. exilium, extil ; Fr. exit; It. esilio. The word is probably compounded of ex and a root in SI, signi- fying to depart, or to cut off, to separate, or to thrust away, perhaps L. salio.]

      1. Banishment ; the state of being expelled from one's native country or place of idence by authority, and forbid to return, either for a hmited time or for perpetuity

      2. An abandonment of one's country, or re moval to a foreign country for residence, through fear, disgust or resentment, or for any cause distinct from business, i; called a voluntary exile, as is also a separa tion from one's counti^ and friends by distress or necessity.

      3. The person banished, or expelled fron Ills country by authority ; also, one who abandons "his country and resides in an- other ; or one who is separated from hi: country and friends by necessity.

      EX'ILE, V. t. To banish, as a person from his country or from a particular jurisdic- tion by authority, with a prohibition of re- turn ; "to drive away, expel or transport from one's country.

      2. To drive from one's coimtry by misfor lune, necessity or distress.

      E X I

      To exile oiie's self, is to quit one's country witli a view not to return.

      EX'ILE, a. eg'zil. [L. exilis.] Slender; thin: fine. Bacon.

      EX'ILED, pp. Banished ; expelled from one's country by authority.

      EX'ILEMENT, n. Banishment.

      EXILING, ppr. Banishing; expelling from one's country by law, edict or sentence ; voluntarily departing from one's country, and residing in another.

      EXILI'TION, n. [L. e.Hlio, for exsalio, to leap out.]

      A sudden springing or leaping out. [Little tised.] Brown.

      EXIL'ITY, n. [L. exilitas.] Slenderness ; fineness ; thinness.

      EXIM'IOUS, a. [L. erimius.] Excellent. [Little used.] Bacon.

      EXIN'ANITE, V. t. [L. exinanio.] To make empty ; to weaken. [JVot used.] Pearson.

      EXINANI'TION, n. [L. exinanitio, from exinanio, to empty or evacuate ; ex andl inanio, to empty, inanis, empty, void.]

      An emptying or "evacuation ; hence, priva- tion ; loss ; destitution. [Little used.]

      EXIST', v.i. egzisV. [L. existo ; ex and sisto, or more directly from Gr. if", i;wh to set, place or fix, or fau, L. sto, to stand, Sp. Port, estar. It. stare, G. stehen, D. staan, Russ. stoyu. The primary sense is to set, fix or be fixed, whence the sense of per- manence, continuance.]

      1. To be ; to have an essence or real being: applicable to matter or body, and to spiritu- al substances. A supreme being and first cause of all other beings must have existed from eternity, for no being can have ere ated himself.

      3. To live ; to have life or animation. Men cannot exist in water, nor fishes on lam '

      .3. To remain; to endure; to continue in behig. How long shall national enmities exist?

      EXIST'ENCE, n. The state of being or having essence ; as the existence of body and of soul in union; the separate exist- ence of the soul ; immortal existence ; tem- |)oral existence.

      2. Life; animation.

      3. Continued being ; duration ; continuation. We speak of the existence of troubles or calamities, or of happiness. During the existence of national calamities, our pious ancestors always had recourse to prayer lor divine aid.

      EXIST'ENT, a. Being; having being, es- sence or existence.

      The eyes and mind are fastened on objects which have no real being, as if they were truly existent. Dryden.

      EXISTEN'TIAL, a. HavJng existence.

      Bp. Barlow.

      EX'IT, n. [L. the 3d person of exeo, to go out.] Literally, he goes out or departs. Hence,

      1. The departure of a player from the stage, when he has performed his part. This is also a term set in a play, to mark the time of an actor's quitting "the stage.

      2. Any departure ; the act of quitting the stage of action or of life ; death ; decease


      3. A way of departure; passage out of a place. Woodward.

      4. A going out ; departure. Glanville.

      E X O

      I [L. exitialis.] Destructive ', ' to life. Homilies.



      EX-LE(i ISLA'TOR, n. One who has been

      a legislator, but is not at present.

      EX-MINISTER, n. One who has been or, hut is not in ofiice.

      EX'ODE, »!. [Gr. fio&un>. See Exodus.] In the Grttk drama, the concluding part of a ]>lay, or the part which comprehends all that is said after the last interlude.


      EX'ODUS, } ^j [Gr. fSoSos ; (S and oJof,way.]

      EX'ODY, ^ ■ Departure from a place ; par- ticularly, the departure of the Israelites from Egypt under the conduct of Moses.

      2. The second book of the Old Testament, which gives a history of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt.

      Ex officio, [L.] By virtue of office, and with- out special autliority. A justice of the peace n)ay ex officio take sureties of the peace.

      EX'OGLOSS, n. [Gr. f|- and yTiwouo, tongue.]

      A genus of fishes found in the American seas, whose lower jaw is trilobed, and the middle lobe protruded performs the of- fice of a tongue.

      EXOLE'TE, a. [lu.exolelus.] Obsolete. [Ao< in use.]

      EXOLU'TION, n. Laxatiou of the nerves. [JVot in use.] Broicn.

      EXOLVE, V. t. To loose. [A'ot in tise.]

      EXOM'PHALOS, n. [Gr. t? and o^iijiaxos.] A navel rupture.

      EXON'ERATE, v. t. egzon'erate. [L. ex- ontro ; ex and onero, to load, oni/«, a load.]

      1. To unload; to disburden. The vessels exontrate themselves into a com- mon duct. Say.

      But more generally, in a figurative

      2. To cast off, its a charge or as blame rest- ing on one ; to clear of something that lies upon the character as an imputation ; as, to exonerate one's self from blame, or from the charge of avarice.

      3. To cast off, as an obligation, debt or duty : to discharge of responsibihty or liabihty ; as, a surety exonerates himself by produ- cing a man in court.

      EXONERATED, pp. Unloaded ; disbur- dened; freed from a charge, imputation or responsibility.

      EXON'ERATING, ppr. Unloading; dis- burdening ; freeing from any charge or imputation.

      EXONERATION, n. The act of disbur- dening or discharging : the act of freeing from a charge or imputation.

      EXON'ERATIVE, a. Freeing from a bur- den or obligation.

      EX'ORABLE, o. [L. ejora6t/i«,from ci-oro; p.r and oro, to pray.]

      That may be moved or persuaded by entrea- ty. Harrington.

      EXORB'ITANCE, ? egzorb'itance. [L. ex-

      EXORB'ITANCY, j "' orbitans, from fjand orbita, the track of^ a wheel, orbis, an orb.]

      Literally, a going beyond or without the track or usual limit. Hence, enormity ; extravagance : a deviation from rule or the ordinary limits of right or propriety ; as the exorbitances of the tongue, or of de- portment.

      E X O

      The reverence of my presence may be a curb to your exorbitancies. Dryden.

      EXORB'ITANT, a. [L. exorbitans.] Lite- rally, departing from an orbit or usual track. Hence, deviating from the usual course ; going beyond the appointed rules or established Hmits of right or propriety; hence, excessive ; extravagant ; enormous We speak of exorbitant appetites and pas sious ; exorbitant demands or claims ; ex orbitant taxes. 2. Anomalous ; not comprehended in a set tied rule or method. The Jews were inured with causes exorbitant Hooker EXORB'ITANTLY, adv. Enormously ; ex- cessively. EXORB'ITATE, v. i. To go beyond the usual track or orbit ; to deviate from the usual limit. Bentley.

      EX'ORCISE, V. i. s as z. [Gr. E?opxt?co, to adjure, from opxtja, to bind by oath, from opxoi, an oath.] 1. To adjure by some holy name; but chief- ly, to expel evil spirits by conjurations, prayers and ceremonies. To exorcise a person, is to expel from him the evil spirit suijposed to possess him. To exorcise a demon or evil spirit, is to cast him out or drive him from a person, by prayers or other ceremonies. Encj/c.

      9. To purify from unclean spirits by adjura- tions and ceremonies ; to deliver from the influence of malignant spirits or demons ; as, to exorcise a bed or a house. EX'ORCISED, pp. Expelled from a person or place by conjurations and prayers freed from demons in like manner. EX'ORCISER, n. One who pretends to cast out evil spirits by adjurations and juration. EX'ORCISING, ppr. Expelhng evil spirits

      by prayers and ceremonies. EX'ORCISM, n. [L. exorcisnms ; Gr. il


      The expulsion of evil spirits from persons oi places by certain adjurations and ceremo- nies. Exorcism was common among the Jews, and still makes a part of the super- stitions of some churches. Encyc

      EX'ORCIST, n. One who pretends to ex- pel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers and ceremonies. Acts xix.

      EXORD'IAL, a. [infra.] Pertaining to the exordium of a discourse ; introductory.

      EXORDIUM, n. plu. exordiums. [L. from exordioT ; ex and ordior, to begin. See Order.]

      In orato7-y, the beginning ; the introductorv part of a discourse, which prepares the audience for the main subject ; the pre- face or proemial part of a composition. The exordium may be formal and delibe- rate, or abrupt and vehement, according to the nature of the subject and occasion.

      EXORNA'TION, n. [L. exomatio, from ex- orno ; ex and onio, to adorn.] Ornament ; decoration ; embellishment.

      Hale. Hooker.

      EXORT'IVE, a. [L. exortivus ; ex and nr.

      lus, a rising.] Rising ; relating to th^ EXOS'SATED, a. [infra.] Deprived ofl

      bones. EXOS'SEOUS, a. [L. ex and ossa, bones.]


      Without bones ; destitute of bones ; at exosseous animals. Brown.

      EXOT'ERl€, a. [Gr. flcoffpoj, exterior.] External ; public ; opposed to esoteric oi secret. The exoteric doctrines of the an- cient philosophers were those which were openly professed and taught. The esoteric] were secret, or taught only to a few cho sen disciples. Enjleld. Enaic.

      EX'OTERY, n. What is obvious or com- "ion- Search.

      EXOT'Ie, a. [Gr. f?urtxos, from f|«, with- out.] Foreign ; pertaining to or produ ced in a foreign country ; not native ; ex traneous ; as an exotic plant ; an exotic tenr or word.

      EXOT'IC, 71. A plant, shrub or tree not na- tive ; a plant produced in a foreign coun- «'T- Addison.

      2. A word of foreign urigin.

      EXPAND', V. t. [L. expando ; ex and pan- do, to open, or s)iread ; It. spandere, tn pour out ; coinciding with Eng. span, D. span, spannen, Sw. sphnna, Dan. spmider.

      SeeAr. ^|.j Class Bn. No. 3. The pri- mary sense is to strain or stretch, and this seems to be the sense of bend, L. pan- dus.] ^

      1. To open ; to spread ; as, a flower expands its leaves.

      ■2. To spread ; to enlarge a surface ; to dif- fuse ; as, a stream expands its waters over a plain.

      3. To dilate ; to enlarge in bulk ; to distend ; expand the chest by inspiration;

      heat expands all bodies ; air is expanded


      3. Extent ; space to which any thing is en- larged ; also, pure space or distance be- tween remote bodies.

      4. Enlargement ; as the expansion of the heart or affections.

      EXPANS'IVE, a. [Fr.] Having the power to expand, to spread, or to dilate ; as the expansive force of heat or fire. Gregory.

      •2. Having the capacity of being expanded ; as the expansive quality of air ; the expan- sive atmosphere. Thomson.

      3. Widely extended; as expansive benevo- lence.

      EXPANSTVENESS, itig expansive.

      Ex parte, [L.] On one part ; as a hearing or a council ex parte, on one side only.

      EXPA'TIATE, V. i. [L. expatior; ex and spatior, to wander, to enlarge in discourse, spatium, space, probably allied to pateo, to

      The quality ofbe-

      open. Class Bd.] To move at '

      large ; to rove without pre- i-ribed limits ; to wander in space with- ut restraint. He bids his soul expatiate in the skies.

      by rarefaction. 4. To enlara

      to extend ; as, to expand the

      sphere of benevolence ; to expand the

      heart or affections. EXPAND', V. i. To open ; to spread. Flow

      ers expand in spring. 2. To dilate ; to extend in bulk or surface.

      Metals ej:pand by heat. A lake expands,

      when swelled by rains. •3. To eidai-ge ; as, the heart expands with


      EXPANDED, pp. Opened ; spread ; ex tended ; dilated ; enlarged ; diffused.

      EXPAND'ING, ppr. Opening; spreading extending; dilating; diffiising.

      EXPANSE, n. expans'. [L. expansum.] A spreading; extent; a wide extent of space or body; as the expanse of heaven.

      The smooth expanse of crystal lakes. Pone

      EXPANSIBIL'ITY, n. [from expansible.] The capacity of being expanded; capacity of extension in surface or bulk ; as the ex- pansibility of air.

      EXPANS'iBLE, a. [Fr. from expand.] Ca- pable of being expanded or spread ; capa- ble of being extended, dilated or diffused. Bodies are not expansible in proportion to their vveiglit. , G,.f„,

      EXPANS'ILE, a. Capable of expanding, or of being dilated.

      EXPAN'SlbN, n. [L. expansio.] The act of expanding or spreading out.

      2. The state of being expanded ; the en- largement of surface or bulk ; dilatation. We a])ply expansion to surface, as the ex- pansion of a sheet or of a lake, and to bulk, as the expansion of fluids or metals by heat ; but not to a line or length with- out breadth.

      Pope. 2. To enlarge in discourse or writing ; to be copious in argument or discussion. On important topics the orator thinks himself at liberty to expatiate. EXPATIATING, ppr. Roving at large ; moving in space without certain hmits or restraint ; enlarging in discourse or wri- tini;.

      EXPA'TIATOR, n. One who enlarges or amphfies in language.

      EXPATRIATE, v. t. [Fr. expatrier ; It. spatriare ; from L. ex and patna, country.]

      In a general sense, to banish.

      To expatriate one's self, is to quit one's coun- try, renouncing citizenship and allegiance in that country, to take residence and become a citizen in another country. The right to expatriate one's self is denied in feudal countries, and much controver- ted in the U. States.

      EXPAT'RIATED, pp. Banished ; removed from one's native country, with renuncia- tion of citizenship and allegiance.

      EXPAT'RIATING, ppr. Banishing ; aban- doning one's country, with renunciation of allegiance.

      EXPATRIATION, n. Banishment. More generally, the forsalcing one's own coun- try, with a renunciation of allegiance, and with the view of becoming a permanent resident and citizen in another country.

      EXPECT', V. t. [L. expecto ; ex and specto, to look, that is, to reach forward, or to fix the eyes.]

      1. To wait for.

      The giiaids. By me encamp'd on yonder hill, expect Their motion. Milton.

      [This sense, though often used by Gib- bon, seems to be obsolescent.]

      2. To look for ; to have a previous appre- hension of something future, whether good or evil ; to entertain at least a slight belief that an event will happen. We ex- pect a visit that has been promised. We expect money will be paid at the time it is due, though we are often disappointed. Expect, in its legitimate sense, always re-


      fers to a future event. Tlio common phrase, / expect it was, is as vulgar as it is

      may he expected. EXI'K€T'ANCF,, / The act or state of EXl'ECT'ANCY, ^ "-expecting ; expecta- tion. Milton. Shak.

      2. Something exjiected. Shak.

      3. Hope ; a looking for with pleasure.


      EXPE€T'ANCY, n. In law, a state of| waiting or suspension. An estate in expect ancy is one which is to take efi'ect or com meuce afler tlie determination of another estate. Estates of this kind are remain ders at\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\d reversions. A remainder, ores tate in remainder, is one which is limited to take effect and be enjoyed after anotl er estate is determined. Thus when grant of land is made to A for twenty years, and after the determination of that term, to B and his heirs forever ; A is ten ant for years, remainder to B in fee. In this case, the estate of B is in expectancy, that is, waiting for the determination of the estate for years. A reversion is the residue of an estate letV in the grantor, to commence in possession after the deter- mination of a particular estate granted out by him. As when A leases an estate to B for twenty years ; after the determina- tion of that period, the estate reverts to the lessor, but during the term the estate ot the lessor is in expectanci/. Blackstone.

      EXPECT' A NT, a. Waiting ; looking for. Sitnft.

      2. An expectant estate, is one which is sus- pended till the determination of a particu- lar estate. Blackstone.

      EXPECT'ANT, n. One who expects ; one who waits in expectation ; one held in de- pendence by his belief or hope of receiv- ing some good. Those who have the gift of offices are usually surrounded by e,r- jiectants.

      EXPE€TA'TION, n. [L. expeclatio.] The act of expecting or looking forward to j future event with at least some reason tc believe the event will happen. Expecta- tion differs from hope. Hope originates ii desire, and may exist with little or nc ground of belief that the desired event will arrive. Expectation is founded on some reasons which render the event probable. Hope is directed to some good ; expectation is directed to good or evil.

      The same weakness of mind whicli indulges absurd expectations, produces petulance in dis- appointment. Ii-ving

      2. The state of expecting, either with hope or fear.

      3. Prospect of good to come.

      My soul, wait thou only on God, for my pectation is from him. Ps. Isii.

      4. The object of expectation ; the expected Messiah. Milton

      5. A state or qualities in a person which ex- cite expectations in others of some future excellence ; as a youth of expectation

      Sidney. Otway. We now more generally say, a youth of promise.

      6. In chances, expectation is applied to con tingent events, and is reducible to compu


      tation. A sum of money in expectation, when an event happens, has a determinate value before that event happens. If the chances of receiving or not receiving a hundred dollars, when an event arrives, ore C()ual ; then, before the arrival of the event, the expectation is worth half the money. Encyc.

      EXPECT' ATIVE, n. That which is ex- pected. [JSTot used.]

      EXPECT'ER, n. One who expects ; one who waits for something, or for another person. Swift. Shak.

      EXPECT'ING, ppr. Waiting or looking for the arrival of.

      EXPECTORANT, a. [See Expectorate.] Having the quality of promoting dischar- ges from the lungs.

      EXPECTORANT, n. A medicine which promotes discharges from the lungs.

      EXPECTORATE, v. t. [L. expectoro ; Sp. expectorar ; Fr. expectorer ; from L. ex and pectus, the breast.]

      To eject from the trachea or lungs ; to dis- charge phlegm or other matter, by cough- ing, hawking and spitting. Coxe.

      EXPECTORATED, pp. Discharged from the lungs.

      EXPECTORATING, ppr. Throwing from the lungs by hawking and spitting.

      EXPECTORA'TION, n. The act of dis- charging phlegm or mucus from the lungs, by coughing, hawking and spitting,


      EXPECTORATIVE, a. Having the qual ty of promoting expectoration.

      EXPE'DIATE, V. t. To expedite, [mt i use,]

      EXPE'DIENCE, ? [See Speed, Expedient

      EXPE'DIENCY, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ""and Expedite.]

      1. Fitness or suitableness to effect some good end or the purpose intended ; ])ropriety under the particular circumstances of a case. The practicability of a measure is often obvious, when the expedience of it is uestionable.

      quesi !. Exp

      edition ; adventure. [JVo< now used. Shak

      3. Expedition ; haste ; dispatch. [JVot now used.] Shak.

      EXPE'DIENT, a. [L. expediens ; expedio to hasten ; Eng. speed ; Gr. ff«f vSw.]

      1. Literally, hastening ; urging forward Hence, tending to promote the object pro- posed ; fit or suitable for the purpose ;! proper under the circumstances. Manyj things may be lawful, which are not expe- dietit.

      2. Useful ; profitable.

      3. Quick ; expeditious. [JVot used.] Shak EXPE'DIENT, n. That which serves tc

      promote or advance ; any means which may be employed to accomplish an end Let every expedient be employed to effectj an important object, nor let exertions cease till all expedients fail of pioducingi llie effect.

      2. Shift ; means devised or employed in an' exigency. Dnjden.i

      EXPE'DIENTLY, adv. Fitly ; suitably ;; conveniently.

      2. Hastilv ; quickly. [06*.] Shak.

      EXPED'IT.VTE, v. t. [L. ex aad pes, foot.] In the forest laws of England, to cut out the


      balls or claws of a dog's fore feet, for the

      preservation of the king's game.

      EXPEDITA'TION, n. The act of cutting

      the balls or claws of a dog's fore feet.


      EX'PEDITE, o. <. [L. expedio ;Sp.expedtr;

      Fr. expedier ; It. spedire ; Ar. ,yi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ to

      hasten, or J<.i^ to send, to move hastily, to be suitable ; Eng. speed. Expedio is compound. We see the same root in im- pedio, to hinder, to send against, to move in opposition.] . To hasten; to quicken; to accelerate mo- tion or progress. The general sent or- ders to expedite the march of the army. Artificial heat may expedite the growth of plants.

      2. To dispatch ; to send from. Sucli charters arc expedited of course.


      3. To hasten by rendering easy. See No. 1. EX'PEDITE, a. [L. expeditus.] Quick ;

      speedy ; expeditious ; as expedite execution. [Ldttle used.] Sandys.

      2. Easy ; clear of impediments ; unencum- bered ; OS, to make a way plain and expe- dite. [Unusual.] Hooker.

      3. Active ; nimble ; ready ; prompt.

      The more expedite will be the soul in its op- erations. [Unusutil.] Tillotson.

      4. Light-armed. [.Vot used.] Bacon. EX'PEDITELY, adv. Readily; hastily;

      speedily ; pronii)tIy. Grew.

      EXPEDi "TION, n. [L. expeditio.] Haste ; speed ; quickness ; dispatch. The mail is conveyed with expedition.

      2. The march of an army, or the voyage of a fleet, to a distant place, for hostile pur- poses ; as the expedition of the French to Egypt ; the expedition of Xerxes into Greece.

      3. Any enterprize, undertaking or attempt by a number of persons ; or the collective body which undertakes. We say, our government sent an expedition to the Pa- cific ; the expedition has arrived.

      EXPEDP'TIOUS, a. Quick ; hasty ; speedy ; as an expeditious march.

      2. Nimble ; active ; swift ; acting with ce- lerity ; as an expeditious messenger or run- ner.

      EXPEDP'TIOUSLY, adv. Speedily; has- tilv ; with celerity or dispatch.

      EXPED'ITIVE, a. Performing with speed. Bacon.

      EXPEL', V. t. [L. expello ; ex and pello, to drive, Gr. /JoXXu ; It. espellare; W. yspe- liaio ; and from the L. participle, Fr. ei- pulser. Class Bl.]

      1. To drive or force out from any inclosed place ; as, to expel wind from the stomach, or air from a bellows. [The word is appli- cable to any force, physical or moral.]

      2. To drive out ; to force to leave ; as, to ex- pel the inhabitants of a country ; to expel wild beasts from a forest.

      3. To eject ; to throw out. Dn^den.

      4. To banish ; to exile. Pope.

      5. To reject ; to refuse. [Little used.] And would you not poor fellowship expel ?

      Hub. Tak.

      G. To exclude ; to keep out or off. Shak.

      7. In college government, to command to

      leave ; to dissolve the connection of a stu


      Jent -, to interdict him from further con- nection.

      EXPEL'LABLE, a. That may be expelled or driven out.

      Acid expellable by heat. Kirwan.

      EXPEL'LED, pp. Driven out or away ; for- ced to leave ; banished ; exiled ; excluded.

      EXPEL'LER, n. He or that which drives out or away.

      EXPEL'LING, ppr. Driving out ; forcing away ; compelling to quit or depart; ban- ishing ; excluding.

      EXPEND', V. t. [L. expcndo; ex and pernio, to weigh ; Sp. expender ; Fr. depenser, from L. dispendo ; It. spendere ; properly, to! weigh off; hence, to lay out.] j

      1. To lay out ; to disburse ; to spend ; to de-' liver or distribute, either in payment or; in donations. We expend money for' food, drink and clothing. We expend a; little in charity, and a great deal in idle, amusements. [

      2. To lay out ; to use ; to employ ; to con-, suroe ; as, to expend time and labor. I hope the time, labor and money expended on this book will not be wholly misem- ployed. I

      3. To use and consume ; as, to expend hay| in feeding cattle.

      4. To consume ; to dissipate ; to waste ; as,[ the oil of a lamp is expended in burning ;' water is expended in mechanical opera-' tions. I

      EXPEND', v.t. To be laid out, used or consumed.

      EXPEND'ED, pp. Laid out; spent; dis bursed ; used ; consumed.

      EXPEND'ING,ppr. Spending; using; em- ploying ; wasting.

      EXPEND'ITURE, n. The act of expend ing ; a laying out, as of money ; disburse roent. A corrupt administration is known] by extravagant expenditures of public mo- ney:

      National income and expenditure. Price

      2. Money expended ; expense.

      The receipts and exjienditures of this exten- sive country. Hamilton

      EXPENSE, n. erpens'. [L. cxpensuin.] A laying out or expending ; the disbursing of money, or the employment and consump- tion, as of time or labor. Great enterpri- ses are accomplished only by a great ex- pense of money, time and labor.

      2. Money expended ; cost ; charge ; that which is disbursed in payment or in char- ity. A prudent man limits his expenses by his income. The expenses of war are rare- ly or never reimbursed by the acquisition either of goods or territory.

      3. That which is used, employed, laid out or consumed ; as the expense of time or la- bor.

      EXPENSEFUL, a. expens'ful. Costly; ex- pensive. [Little used.] ff'otton.

      EXPENSELESS, a. expens'less. Without cost or expense. Milton

      EXPENS'IVE, a. Costly; requiring much expense ; as an expensive dress or equip age ; an expensive family. Vices are usu- ally more expensive than virtues.

      2. Given to expense ; free in tlie use of mo- ney ; extravagant ; lavish ; applied to per- sons. Of men, some are frugal and indus- trious; others, idle and expensive.



      .3. Liberal ; generous in tlie distribution of property.

      This requires an active, expensive, indefatiga- ble goodness. Spratt.

      EXPENS'IVELY, adv. With great expense ; great cost or charge. Swift.

      EXPENS'IVENESS, n. CostUness ; the quality of incuning or requiring great ex- penditures of money. The expensiveness of war is not its greatest evil. Addictedness to expense ; extravagance applied to persons.

      EX.PE'RIENCE, n. [L. experientia, from experior, to try; ex and ant. perior; Gr. rtf ipou, to attempt, whence pirate ; G fahren, from fahren, to move, to go, to drive, to ferrij ; D. ervaaren, from vaaren. to go, to move, to sail ; Sw. fbrfara, fara ; Dan. furfarerfjarer ; Sax. and Goth.^ron j Eng. to fare. The L. periculum, Eng pent, are from the same root. We ses the root of these words is to go, to fare, to drive, urge or press, to strain or stretch forward. See Class Br. No. 3. Ar. No. 4 19. 23.]

      . Trial, or a series of trials or experiments active effort or attempt to do or to prove something, or repeated efforts. A man at tempts to raise wheat on moist or clayey ground ; his attempt fails of success ; e.r- perience proves that wheat will not flour- ish on such a soil. He repeats the trial- and his experience proves the same fact, A single trial is usually denominated an experiment; experience maybe a series of trials, or the result of such trials. . Observation of a fact or of the same facts

      or events happening under like circura stances.

      3. Trial from suffering or enjoyment ; suf- fering itself; the use of the senses ; as the experience we have of pain or sickness. We know the effect of light, of smell or of taste by experience. We learn the insta- bility of human affairs by observation or l)y experience. We learn the value of in- tegrity by experience. Hence,

      4. Knowledge derived from trials, use, prac- tice, or from a series of observations.

      EXPERIENCE, v. t. To ti^ by use, by suffering or by enjoyment. Thus we all experience pain, sorrow and pleasure ; we experience good, and evil ; we often ex- perience a change of sentiments and views.

      2. To know by practice or trial ; to gain knowledge or skill by practice or by a se- ries of observations.

      EXPE'RlENCED,pp. Tried; used; prac- ticed.

      a. Tauglit by practice or by repeated ob- servations ; skilful or wise by means of trials, use or obsarvation ; as an experi- enced artist ; an experienced physician.

      EXPE'RIENCER, n. One who makes tri- als or experiments.

      EXPE'RIENCING.ppr. Making trial ; suf- fering or enjoying.

      EXPER'IMENT, n. [L. expenmentum, from experior, as in experience, which see.]

      A trial ; an act or operation designed to dis- cover some unknown truth, principle or effect, or to establish it when discovered. Experiments in chimistry disclose the qual ities of natural bodies. A series ofexperi ments proves the uniformity of the laws of| matter. It is not always safe to trust to


      single experiment. It is not expedient to try many experiments in legislation.

      A political experiment cannot be made in a laboratory, nor determined in a few hours.

      J. Adams. EXPER'IMENT, v. i. To make trial ; to make an experiment ; to operate on a body in such a manner as to discover some un- known fact, or to establish it when known. Philosophers experiment on natural bodies for the discovery of their qualities and combinations.

      2. To try ; to search by trial.

      3. To experience. [.Vo< used.] Locke. EXPER'IMENT, v. t. To tiy ; to know by

      trial. [Little used.] Herbert.

      EXPERIMENT'AL, a. Pertaining to ex periment.

      2. Known by experiment or trial ; derived from experiment. Experimental knowl- edge is the most valuable, because it is most certain, and most safely to be trusted. Built on experiments ; founded on trial and observations, or on a series of results, the effects of operations ; as experimental jjhilosophy.

      4. Taught by experience ; having personal experience.

      Admit to the holy communion such only as profess and appear to be regenerated, and ex- perimental christians. H. Humphreys.

      5. Known by experience ; derived from ex- perience ; as experimental religion.

      EXPERIMENT' ALIST.n. One who makes experiments. Burgess.

      EXPERIMENT'ALLY, adv. By experi- ment ; by trial ; by operation and observa- tion of results.

      2. By e.xperience ; by suffering or enjoy- ment. We are all experimentally acquaint- ed with pain and pleasure.

      EXPERIMENTER, n. One who makes experiments: one skilled in experiments.

      EXPERIMENTING, ppr. JIaking experi- ments or trials.

      EXPERT', a. [L. expertus, from experior, to try. See Experience.] Properly, experienced ; taught by use, practice or experience ; hence, skilful ; well instructed ; having familiar knowledge of; as an expert philosopher.

      2. Dextrous; adroit; ready; prompt; hav- ing a facility of operation or perfor

      from practrce ; as an erpert operator m surgery. It is usually followed by in ; as expert in surgery ; expert in performance on a musical instrument. Pope uses ex- pert of arms, but improperly.

      EXPERT'LY, adv. In a skilful or dextrous manner ; adroitly ; with readiness and ac- curacy.

      EXPERT'NESS, n. Skill derived from prac- tice ; readiness ; dexterity ; adroitness ; as expertness in musical performance ; ex- pertness in war or in seamanship ; expeii- 7iess in reasoning.

      EXPE'TIBLE, o. [h.expetibilis.] That may be wished for ; desirable. [JVot used.]

      EX'PIABLE, a. [L. expiahihs. See Expi- ate.]

      Tliat may he expiated ; that may be atoned for and done away; as an eipiaiie offense ; expiable guilt.

      EX'PIATE, V. t. [L. expio ; ex and pio, to worship, to atone ; pius, pious, mild. The primary sense is probably to appease, to




      pacify, to allay resentment, which is tin usual sense of atone in most language which 1 have examined. Pio is probably contracted from pica, and from the root of paco, the radical sense of which is to lay, set or fix ; the primary sense of peace, pax. Hence the sense of mild in pius. But this opinion is offered only as probable.]

      1. To atone for ; to make satisfaction for to extinguish the guilt of a crime by sub- sequent acts of piety or worship, by which the obligation to punish the crime is can celed. To expiate guilt or a crime, is t( perform some act which is supposed to purify the person guilty ; or some act which is accepted by the offended party as satisfaction tor the injury ; that is, some act by which Ids wrath is appeased, and his forgiveness procured.

      2. To make reparation for; as, to expiate an injury. Clarendon.

      3. To avert the tlireats of prodigies. Johnson. EX'PIATED, pp. Atoned for; done away

      by satisfaction offered and accepted.

      EX'PIATING, ppr. Making atonement or satisfaction for ; destroying or removing guilt, and canceling the obligation to pun ish.

      EXPIA'TION, n. [L. expiatio.] Tlie act oi atoning for a crime ; the act of making satisfaction for an offense, by which the guilt is done away, and the obligation of the offended person to punish the crime is canceled ; atonement ; satisfaction. Among pagans and Jews, expiation was made chiefly by sacrifices, or washing: and purification. Among christians, expi atioii for the sins of men is usually consid ered as made only by the obedience and .sufferings of Christ.

      2. The means by wliieh atonement for crimes is made ; atonement ; as sacrifices and purification among heathens, and the obedience and death of Christ among christians.

      3. Among ancient heathens, an act by which the threats of prodigies were averted.


      EX'PIATORY, a. Having the power to make atonement or expiation ; as an ex- piatory sacrifice. Hooker.

      EXPILA'TION, n. [L. expUatio, from expi- lo, to strip ; er and pilo, to peel.]

      A stripping ; the act of committing waste on lanil ; waste. [Little used.]

      EXPI'RABLE, a. [from expire.] That may expire ; that may come to an end.

      EXPIRA'TION, n. [L. txpiralio, from ex- piro. See Expire.]

      1. The act of breathing out, or forcing the air from the lungs. Respiration consists of expiration and inspiration.

      2. The last emission of breath ; death.


      3. The emission of volatile matter from any substance ; evaporation ; exhalation ; as the expiration of warm air from the earth.

      4. Matter expired ; exhalation ; vapor ; fume.


      5. Cessation ; close ; end ; conclusion ; ter- mination of a limited time ; as the expira- tion of a month or year ; the expiration of a term of years ; the expiration of a lease ; the expiration of a contract or agreement.

      EXPl'RE, v.t. [L. expiro, for exspiro ; ex and spiro, to breathe.]

      1. To breathe out ; to throw out the breatl from the lungs ; opijosed to inspire. We

      expire air at every breath. 1. To • •

      fluid or volatile matter. The earth

      p exhale ; to emit in minute particles

      expires a damp or warm vapor ; the body expires fluid matter from the pores ; plants expire odors.

      |3. To conclude. Obs.

      EXPl'RE, V. i. To emit the last breath, as an animal ; to die ; to breathe the last.

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\2. To perish ; to end ; to fail or be destroy- ed ; to come to nothing ; to be frustrated With the loss of battle all his hopes of em- pire expired.

      3. To fly out ; to be thrown out with force [^Unusual.]

      Tlie ponderous ball expires. Dryden

      4. To come to an end ; to cease ; to termi- nate ; to close or conclude, as a given pe- riod. A lease will expire on the first of May. The year expires on Monday. Tl contract will expire at Michaelmas. The days had not expired.

      When forty years had expired. Acts vii.

      EXPI'RING, ppr. Breathing out air from tlie lungs; emitting fluid or volatile mat- ter; exhaling; breathing the last breath ; dying ; ending ; terminating.

      a. a. Pertaining to or uttered at the time oi

      dying; as expiring words ; er/jimig- groans.

      J. Lathrop.

      EXPLA'IN, V. t. [L. explano ; ex and pla- nus, plain, open, smooth ; Sp. explanar; It. spianare. See Plain.]

      To make plain, manifest or intelligible ; to clear of obscurity; to expound; to illui trate by discourse, or by notes. The first business of a preacher is to explain his text. Notes and comments are intended to explain the scriptures.

      EXPLA'IN, V. i. To give explanations.

      EXPLA'IN ABLE, a. That may be cleared of obscurity ; capable of being made plain to the understanding ; capable of being in- terpreted. Brown.

      EXPLA'INED, pp. Made clear or ob ous to the understanding; cleared of doubt, ambiguity or obscurity ; expound- ed; illustrated.

      EXPLA'INER, n. One who explains; an

      expositor ; a commentator ; an interpreter.


      EXPLA'INING, ppr. Expounding; illus- trating ; interpreting : opening to the un- derstanding; clearing of obscurity.

      EXPLANA'TION, n. [L. exptanatio.] The act of explaining, expounding or interpre- ting; exposition; illustration; interpreta- tion ; the act of clearing from obscurity and making intelligible ; as the explanation of a passage in scripture, or of a contract or treaty.

      2. The sense given by an expounder or in- terpreter.

      3. A mutual exposition of terms, meaning or motives, with a view to adjust a misun- derstanding and reconcile differences. Hence, reconciliation, agreement or good understanding of jiarties who have been at variance. The parties have come to an explanation.

      EXPLAN'ATORY, a. Serving to explain ; containing explanation ; as explanatory

      EXPLE'TION, n. [L.expletio.] Accomplish- ment ; fulfilment. [Little used.]


      EXPLETIVE, a. [Fr. expletif, from L. ex- pleo, to fill.] FilUng; added for supply or ornament.

      EX'PLETIVE, n. In language, a word or syllable inserted to fill a vacancy, or for ornament. The Greek language abounds with expletives.

      EX' PLI CABLE, a. [L. explicalAlis. Sec Explicate.]

      1. Explainal)le ; that maybe unfolded to the mind; that may be made intelligible. Ma- ny difficulties in old authors are not expli- cable.

      2. That may be accounted for. The con- duct and measures of the administration are not explicable, by the usual rules of judging.

      EXPLICATE, V. t. [L. explico, to unfold ; ex and plico, to fold ; Fr. expliquer ; Sp. ex- plicar ; It. spiegare.]

      1. To unfold ; to expand ; to open. "They explicate the leaves." [In this sense, the word is not common, and hardly admissi- ble.] Blackmore.

      'i. To unfold the meaning or sense ; to ex- plain ; to clear of difficulties or obscuritj- ; to interpret.

      Tlie last verse of his last satyr is not yet sul'- ficicDtly explicated. Dryden.

      EX'PLICATEU, pp. Unfolded ; explained.

      EX'PLICATING, ppr. Unfolding ; exjilain- ing; interpreting.

      EXPLICA'TION, n. The act of opening or unfolding.

      2. The act of explaining ; explanation; ex- position ; interpretation ; as the explica- tion of the parables of our Savior.

      3. The sense given by an expositor or inter- preter. Johnson.

      EXPLICATIVE, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Serving to unfold or

      EX'PLICATORY, <, "■ explain ; tending to lay open to the understanding. IVatts.

      EX'PLIC ATOR, n. One who unfolds or ex- plains ; an expounder.

      EXPLICIT, a. [L. explicitiis, part, of ej- plico, to unfold.]

      1. Literally, unfolded. Hence, plain in lan- guage ; open to the understanding ; clear, not obscure or ambiguous; express, not merely implied. An explicit proposition or declaration is that in which the words, iu their common acceptation, express the true meaning of the person who utters them, and iu which tlierc is no ambiguity or disguise.

      2. Plain; open; clear; unreserved; having no disguised meaning or reservation ; ap- plied to persons. He was explicit in his terms.

      EXPLICITLY, adr. Plainly: expressly; without duplicity; without disguise or res- ervation of meaning; not by inference or implication. He explicitly avows his in- tention.

      EXPLICITNESS, n. Plainness of lan- guage or expression; clearness; direct expression of ideas or intention, without reserve or ambiguity.

      EXPLO'DE, V. i. [h. explodo ; ex and plau- do, to utter a burst of sound, from the root of loud.]

      Properly, to burst forth, as sound ; to utter a report with sudden violence. Hence, to




      burst and expand with force and a violent report, as an elastic fluid. We say, gun powder explodes, on the application of fire ; a volcano explodes ; a meteor ex- plodes. EXPLO'DE, V. I. To decry or reject with noise ; to express disapprobation of, with noise or marks of contempt ; as, to explode a play on the stage. Hence,

      2. To reject with any marks of disapproba- tion or disdain ; to treat with contempt, and drive from notice ; to drive into disre- pute ; or in general, to condemn ; to reject ; to cry down. Astrology is now exploded.

      3. To drive out with violence and noise- [Little used.]

      The kindled powder exploded the ball.

      Blackmore EXPLO'DED, pp. Driven away by hisses

      or noise ; rejected with disajjprobation contempt; condemned; cried dowu.

      EXPLO'DER, n. One who explodes; i hisser ; one who rejects.

      EXPLO'DJNG, ppr. Bursting and expand- ing with force and a violent report ; reject- ing with marks of disapprobation or con- tempt ; rejecting ; condemning.

      EXPLOIT', n. [Fr. exploit ; Norm, exploit, esploil, dispatcli ; expleiter, to be dispatch- ed, exercised or employed ;^toi<, dispatch ;

      Arm. espied, espledi, explef ^

      1. A deed or act ; more especially, n heroic act ; a deed of renown ; a great or noble achievement ; as the exploits of Alexan- der, of Cesar, of Washington. [Exploi- ture, in a like sense, is not in use.]

      2. In a ludicrovs sense, a great act of wick- edness.

      EXPLOIT', V. f. To achieve. [J^ot in use.] Camden.

      EXPLO'RATE, v. t. To explore. [.Vo< used. See Explore.]

      EXPLORA'TION, n. [See Explore.] The act of exploring ; close search ; strict or careful examination. Boyh

      EXPLORA'TOR, n. One who explores; one who searches or examines closely.

      EXPLO'RATORY, a. Serving to explore ; searching ; examining.

      EXPLO'RE, V. t. [L. exploro ; ex and ploro, to cry out, to wail, to bawl. The com- pound appears to convey a very different sense from the simple verb ploro; but the primary sense is to stretch, strain, drive ; applied to the voice, it is to strain or press out sounds or words ; applied to the eyes, it is to stretch or reach, as in prying curi- osity.]

      1. To search for making discovery ; to view with care ; to examine closely by the eye. Moses sent spies to explore the land of Canaan.

      9. To search by any means ; to try ; as, to explore the deep by a plummet or lead.

      3. To search or pry into ; to scrutinize ; to inquire with care ; to examine closely with a view to discover truth ; as, to explore the depths of science.

      EXPLORED, ;?p. Searched; viewed; ex- amined closely.

      EXPLO'REMENT, n. Search; trial. [Lit- tle used.] Brown.

      EXPLO'RING, ppr. Searching; viewing; examining with care.

      EXPLO'SION, ji. s as i. [from explode.]

      ]. A bursting with noise ; a bursting or sud-

      den expansion of any elastic fluid, with force and a loud report ; as the explosion of powder.

      2. The discharge of a piece of ordnance with 1 loud report.

      3. The sudden burst of sound in a volcano, &c.

      EXPLOSIVE, a. Driving or bursting out with violence and noise ; causing explo- sion ; as the explosive force of gun-powder- Woodward.

      EXPOLIA'TION, n. [L. expoliatio.] A spoiling ; a wasting. [See Spoliation.]

      EXPOLJSH, for polish, a useless word.

      EXPO'NENT, JI. [L. exponens ; expono, to expose or set forth ; ex and pono, to place.]

      1. In algebra, the number or figure which, placed above a root at the right hand, de- notes how often that root is repeated, or how many multiphcations are necessary to produce the power. Thus, as denotes the second power of the root a, or aa : denotes the fourth power. The figure is the exponent or index of the power.

      Day's Algebra.

      2. The exponent of the ratio or proportion between two immbers or quantities, is the quotient arising when the antecedent is divided by the consequent. Thus six is the exponent of the ratio ofthiily to Jive.

      Bailey. Harris. Encyc.

      EXPONEN'TIAL, a. Exponential curves are such as partake both of the nature of algebraic and transcendental ones. They partake of the former, because they con- sist of a finite number of terms, though these terms themselves are indeterminate ; and they are in some measure transcen- dental, because they cannot be algebra- ically constructed. Harris.

      EXPO'RT, v.<. [\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\..exporto; exanipoiio, to carry. Poiio seems allied to fero, and Eng. bear. Class Br.]

      To carry out ; but appropriately, and per- haps exclusively, to convey or transport, in traflick, produce and goods from one country to another, or from one state or jurisdiction to another, either by water or land. We export wares and merchandize from the United States to Europe. The Northern States export manufactures to South Carolina and Georgia. Goods are exported from Persia to Syria and Egypt on camels.

      EX'PORT, n. A commodity actually con- veyed from one country or state to ano- ther in traflick, or a commodity which may be exported ; used chiefly in the plu- ral, expoiis. We apjjy the word to goods or produce actually carried abroad, or to such as are usually exported in commerce.

      EXPO'RTABLE, o. That may be exported.

      EXPORTATION, n. The act of export- ing ; the act of conveying goods and pro- ductions from one country or state to ano- ther in the course of commerce. A coun- try is benefited or enriched by the exporta- tion of its surplus productions.

      2. The act of carrying out.

      EXPO'RTED, pp. Carried outof a country or state in traflick.

      EXPO'RTER, n. The person who exports : the person who ships goods, wares and merchandize of any kind to a foreign coun- try, or who sends them to market in a dis- tant country or state ; opposed to impoHer.

      jEXPO'RTING, ppr. Conveying to a foreign j country or to another state, as goods, j produce or manufactures. EX'PORT-TRADE, n. The trade which I consists in the exportation of commodi- j ties.

      EXPO'SAL, n. Exposure. [J^ot in use.] I Swift.

      jEXPp'SE, V. t. s as 2. [Fr. exposer ; L. ex- I positum, from expono ; ex and pono, to place ; It. esporre, for exponere. The radi- cal sense of pono is to set or place, or rather to throw or thrust down. To ex- pose is to set or throw open, or to thrust forth.]

      1. To lay open ; to set to public view ; to disclose ; to uncover or draw from con- cealment ; as, to expose the secret artifices of a court ; to expose a plan or design.

      2. To make bare ; to uncover ; to remove from any thing that which guards or pro- tects ; as, to expose the head or the breast to the air.

      3. To remove from shelter ; to place in a situation to be affected or acted on ; as, to expose one's self to violent heat.

      4. To lay open to attack, by any means ; as, to expose an army or garrison.

      5. To make liable ; to subject ; as, to expose one's self to pain, grief or toil; to expose one's self to insult.

      6. To put in the power of; as, to expose one's self to the seas.

      7. To lay open to censure, ridicule or con- tempt.

      A fool miglit once himself alone expose.

      Pope. . To lay open, in almost any manner ; as, to expose one's self to examination or scru- tiny.

      9. To put in danger. The good soldier never shrinks from exposing himself, when duty

      10. To cast out to chance; to place abroad, or in a situation unprotected. Some na- tions expose their children.

      L To lay open ; to make public. Be care- ful not unnecessarily to expose the faults of a neighbor.

      12. To offer ; to place in a situation to in- vite purchasers ; as, to expose goods to sale.

      13. To offer to inspection ; as, to expose ))aintings in a gallery.

      EXPO'SED, pp. Laid open; laid bare; un- covered ; unprotected ; made liable to at- tack ; offered for sale ; disclosed ; made pubhc ; offered to view.

      EXPO'SEDNESS, «. A state of being ex- posed, open to attack, or unprotected; as an exposedness to sin or temptation.

      EXPO'SER,?!. One who exposes.

      EXPO'SING, ppr. Lying or laying open; making bare ; putting in danger ; disclo- sing ; placing in any situation without pro- tection ; offering to inspection or to sale.

      EXPOSI"TION, n. A laying open ; a set- ting to public view.

      2. A situation in which a thing is exposed or laid open, or in which it has an unob- structed view, or in which a free passage to it is open ; as, a house has an easterly exposition, an exposition to the south or to a southern prospect. The exposition gives




      ;i free access to tlie air or to the sun s ray ^rhuthnot.

      'S. Explanation ; interpretation ; a laying open the sense or meaning of an author, or of any passage in a writing. Dryden.

      EXI'OS'ITIVE, a. Explanatory; laying open. Pearson.

      EXPOS'ITOR, n. [L.] One who expounds or explains; an interpreter. South.

      2. A dictionary or vocabulary which ex- plains words. Encr/c.

      EXPOS'ITORY, a. Serving to explain; tending to illustrate. Johnso7i.

      Ex post facto. [L.] In law, done after ano- ther thing. An estate granted may be made good by matter ex post facto, wliich was not good at first.

      An ex post facto law, in criminal cases, con- sists in declaring an act penal or criminal, which was innocent when done; or in raising tlie grade of an offense, making it greater than it was when committed, or increasing the punishment after the com- mission of the offense ; or in altering the rules of evidence, so as to allow different or less evidence to convict the offender, than was required when the offense committed. Sergeant.

      An ex post facto law is one that renders ai act punishable in a manner in which i was not punishable at the lime it was com niitted. Cranch, Repoiis.

      This definition is distinguished for its com- prehensive brevity and precision.

      KenCs Commentaries.

      In a free government, no person can be sub- jected to punishment by an f,r post facto law.

      EXPOS'TULATE, v. i. [L. expostulo ; ex and postnlo, to require, ]n-obably from the root otposco.]

      To reason earnestly with a person, on some impropriety of his conduct, representing the wrong he has done or intends, and nr ging him to desist, or to make redress ; fol lowed by loith.

      The emperor's embassador expostulated will the kiiip, that he had broken the league with the emperor. Hayward.

      EXPOS'TULATE, v. t. To discuss; to ex- amine. hWotused.^

      EXPOSTULATING, ppr. Reasoning or urging arguments against any improper conduct.

      EXPOSTULATION, n. Reasoning with a pei-son in opposition to his conduct ; the act of pressing on a person reasons or ar- guments against the impropriety of his conduct, and in some cases, demanding redress or urging reformation.

      2. In rhetoric, an address containing expos- tulation. Encyc.

      EXPOS'TULATOR, n. One who expostu- lates.

      EXPOS'TULATORY, a. Containing ex postnlation ; as an expostulatory address or debate.

      EXPO'SURE, n. s as z. [from expose.] The act of exposing or laying open.

      1i. The state of l)eing laid open to view, to danger or to any inconvenience ; as expo- sure to observation ; exposure to cold, or to the air ; exposure to censure.

      3. The situation of a place in regard to points of compass, or to a free access of air or light. We say, a building or a garden or

      Vol. I.

      a wall has a northern or a southern expo- sure. We speak of its exposure or exposi- tion to a free current of air, or to the access of light.

      EXPOUND', V. t. [L.expono; ex and pono, to set.]

      To explain ; to lay open the meaning; to clear of obscurity ; to interpret ; a.s, to ex- pound a text of scripture ; to expound a law.

      |2. To lay open ; to examine ; as, to expound piicket. [JVot used.] Hudibras,

      EXPOUND'ED, p;). Explained; laid open ; interjirPtod.

      EXPOUND'ER, n. An explainer; one who interprets or explains the meaning.

      EXPOUND'ING, ppr. Explaining; laying open ; making clear to the understanding ; interpreting.

      EX-PRE'FE€T, n. A prefect out of oflice one who has been a prefect and is displa ced.

      EX-PRESIDENT, n. One who has been president, but is no longer in the office.

      EXPRESS', V. t. [Sp. expresar; Port, expres- sar ; L. expressum, eiprimo ; ex and premo, to press. See Press.]

      1. To press or squeeze out ; to force out by ]ircssure ; as, to express the juice of grapes or of apples,

      2. To utter ; to declare in words ; to speak. He expressed his ideas or his meaning with precision. His views were expressed in very intelligible terms.

      3. To write or engrave ; to represent in writ ten words or language. The covenants ir the deed are wc\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ expressed.

      4. To represent ; to exhibit by copy or re semblance.

      So kids and whelps their sires and dams ex press. Dryden

      5. To represent or show by imitation or the imitative arts ; to form a Hkeness ; as in painting or sculpture.

      Each skillul artist shall express thy form.

      Smith ':. To show or make known ; to indicate. A downcast eye or look may express hu mility, shame or guilt.

      7. To denote ; to designate.

      Moses and Aaron took these men, who arc expressed by their names. Num. i.

      8. To extort ; to elicit. [Little used.]

      B. Jon-son

      EXPRESS', a. Pl.iin ; clear; expressed

      direct; not ambiguous. We are informed

      in express terms or words. The terms of]

      the contract are express.

      2. Given in direct terms ; not implied or left to inference. This is the express covenant or agreement. We have his express con- sent. We have an express law on the sub- ject. Express warranty ; express malice.

      3. Copied ; resembling ; bearing an exact representation.

      His face express. Milton.

      4. Intended or sent for a particular purpose, or on a particular errand ; as, to send a messenger express.

      EXPRESS', n. A messenger sent on a par- ticular errand or occasion ; usually, a

      rier sent to communicate information of To upbraid ; to censure as reproachful

      an important event, or to deliver impor- tant dispatches. It is apphed also to boats or vessels sent to convey important infor- Clarendon. Dryden.


      2. A message sent. King Charle-i.

      .3. A declaration in plain terms. [JVot in] jVorris.

      EX PRESS' ED, pj). Squeezed or forced out, as juice or liquor; uttered in words : set down in writing or letters ; declared ; represented ; shown.

      EXPRESSIBLE, a. That may be express- ed ; that may be uttered, declared, shown or represented.

      2. That may be squeezed oiu.

      EXPRESS'ING,;);>r. Forcing out by press- ure ; uttering ; declaring ; showing ; repre- senting.

      EXTRES'SION, n. The act of expressing , the act of forcing out by pressure, as juices and oils from plants.

      2. The act of uttering, declaring or repre- senting ; utterance; declaration; repre- sentation ; as an expression of the pubUc will.

      3. A phrase, or mode of speech ; as an old expression ; an odd expression.

      4. In rhetoric, elocution ; diction ; the pe- cidiar manner of utterance, suited to the subject and sentiment.

      No adequate description can be given of (he nameless and ever varying shades of expression which real pathos gives to the voice.

      Porter's Analysis.

      5. In painting, a natural and lively repre- sentation of the subject ; as the expression of the eye, of the countenance, or of a par- ticular action or passion.

      a. In music, the tone, grace or modulation of voice or sound suited to any particular subject; that manner which gives hfe and reality to ideas and sentiments.

      7. Theatrical expression, is a distinct, sono- rous and pleasing pronunciation, accom- panied with action suited to the subject.

      EXPRESSIVE, o. Serving to express; serving to utter or represent; followed by of. He sent a letter couched in terras ex- pressive o/his gratitude.

      Each verse so swells expressive of her woes. Tickel.

      2. Representing with force ; empbatical. These words are very expressive.

      3. Showing ; representing ; as an expressive sign.

      EXPRESS'IVELY, adv. In an expressive manner ; clearly ; fully ; with a clear re- presentation.

      EXPRESS'IVENESS, n. The quality of being expressive ; the power of expres- sion or representation by words.

      2. The power or force of representation ; the quality of presenting a subject strongly to the senses or to the mind ; as the ex- pressiveness of the eye, or of the features, or of sounds.

      EXPRESS'LY, adv. In direct terms ; plainly.

      EXPRESS'URE, n. Expression ; utterance ; representation ; mark ; impression. [Lil- tlc used.] Shak.

      EX'PROBRATE, r. t. [L. exprobro ; ex and prohrum, deformity, a shamefiil act.]

      blame : to condemn. EXPROBRA'TION, n. The act of chargin or censuring reproachfully ; reproaci accusation ; the act of upbraiding.



      No need such boasts, or exprobrations false Of cowardice. Philips.

      KXPROBRA'TIVE, a. Upbraiding; ex- pressiiiif reproach. Sherleu.

      EXPRO'I'RIATE, i>. t. [L. ex and proprius, own.]

      To disengage from appropriation ; to hold no longer as one's own ; to give up a claim to exclusive property. Boyle

      EXPROPRIA'TION, n. The act of discard

      ing appropriation, or declining to hold ai

      one's own ; thesurrender of a claim to ex-

      ^ elusive property. jyalsh

      EXPU'GN, V. t. evpu'ne. [L. expugno; ex and pugno, to fight.] To conquer ; to take by assault. Johnson

      EXPU'GNABLE, a. That may be forced.

      EXPUGNA'TION, n. Conquest; the act of taking by assault. Sandys.

      EXPU'GNER, n. One who subdues.


      EXPULSE, V. t. expuW. [Fr. expulser, from L. expulsus, eipeUo ; ex and pello, to drive.]

      To drive out ; to expel. [Little used.]

      Shak. Bacon.

      EXPUL'SION, n. The act of driving outer expelUng ; a driving away by violence ; as the expulsion of the thirty tyrants from Athens, or of Adam from paradise.

      9. The Slate of being driven out or away.

      EXPUL'SIVE, a. Having the power of dri- ving out or away; serving to expel.


      EXPUNC'TION, n. [See Expunge.] The act of expunging; the act of blotting out or erasing. Milton.

      EXPUNGE, V. t. expunj'. [I., expungo ; ex and pungo, to thrust, to prick.]

      J. To blot out, as with a pen; to rub out; to efface, as words ; to obliterate. We ex- punge single words or whole lines or sen- tences.

      2. To efface ; to strike out ; to wipe out or

      destroy ; to annihilate; as, to expunge an

      offense. Sandys.

      Expunge the whole, or lop tlie excrescent

      parts. Pope.

      EXPUN'tiED, pp. Klotted out ; iibliterated ; destroved.

      EXPUN'(ilNG,ppr. Blotting out; erasing; effacins ; dcstroving.

      EX'PURGATE, k «. [L. expurgo; er and purgo, to cleanse.]

      To purge ; to cleanse^ to purify from any thing noxious, offensive or erroneous. Faber.

      EX'PURGATED, pp. Purged ; cleansed ; purified.

      EX'PURGATING, jopc. Pm-ging : cleansing ; purifying.

      EXPURGA'TION, n. Tlie act of purging or cleansing ; evacuation. Wiseman.

      2. A cleansing ; purification from any thing noxious, offensive, smfid or erroneous.


      EX'PURGATOR, n. One who expurgates or purifies.

      EXPURG'ATORY, a. Cleansing ; purify- ing ; serving to purify from any thing nox- ious or erroneous; as the expicrgatory in- dex of the Romanists, which directs the expunction of passages of authors con- trary to their creed or principles.

      Expurgatory animadversions. Bruum.

      EXPURgE, v. t. expuTJ'. [L. expurgo.] To purge away. [JVot m use.] Milton.

      E X S

      EXQUI'RE, v. t. [L. exqulro.] To search.into or out. [JVot in use.] Sandys.

      EX'QUISITE, o. sasz. [L. ei^umtes, from exquiro ; ex and quairo, to seek.] Lite rally, sought out or searched for with care ; whence, choice ; select. Hence,

      1. Nice; exact; very excellent ; complete as a vase of exquisite workmanship.

      2. Nice ; accurate ; capable of nice percep- tion ; as exquisite sensibility.

      3. Nice; accurate; capableof nice discrimi- nation ; as exquisite judgment, taste or discernment.

      4. Being in the liigliest degree ; extreme ; as, to relish pleasure in an exquisite degree. So we say, exquisite pleasiue or pain.

      The most exquisite of human satisfactions flows from an approving conscience.

      /. M. Mason.

      5. Very sensibly felt ; as a painful and ex- quisite impression on the nerves. Cheyne.

      EX'QUIHITELY, arfi). Nicely; accurately; with great perfection ; as a work exqui- sitely finished ; exquisitely written.

      2. With keen sensation or with nice percep- tion. We feel pain more exquisitely when nothing diverts our attention from it. We see more exquisitely with one eye shut. Bacon.

      EX'QUISITENESS, n. Nicety; exactness; accuracy ; completeness ; perfection ; as the exquidteness of workmanship.

      2. Keenness ; sharpness ; extremity ; as tlie exquisitene.

      EXQUIS'ITIVE, a. Curious ; eager to dis- cover. [JVot in use.]

      EXQUIS'ITIVELY, adv. Curiously ; mi- nutely. [JVot in use.] Sidney.

      EX-REPRESENT'ATIVE, n. One who has been formerly a representative, but is no longer one.

      EXSAN'GUIOUS, a. [h. c.rsanguis ; ex and sanguis, blood.]

      Destitute of blood, or rather of red blood, as an animal. Encyc.

      EXSCIND', V. t. [L. exscindo.] To cut 6ff. [LitUe used.]

      EXSCRI'BE, t). «. [L. exscriho.] To copy; to transcribe. [JVot in use.] B. Jonson.

      EX'SeRIPT, n. A copy ; a transcript. [.Vo< used.]

      EX-SE€'RETARY, n. One who has been secretary, but is no longer in oflice.

      EXSEC'tlON, n. [L. exscctio.] A cutting off, or a cutting out. Darwin.

      EX-SEN'ATOR, n. One who has been a senator, but is no longer one.

      EXSERT', I „ [L. exsero ; ex and sero.

      EXSERT'ED, ^ "• See ExeH.] Standing

      out; protruded from the corol; as stamens

      exsert. Eaton.

      A small portion of the basal edge of the shell

      exserted. Barnes.

      EXSERT'lLE, a. That may be thrust out or protruded. Fleming.

      EXSI€'eANT, a. [Sec Exsiccate.] Drying; evaporatii»g moisture ; having the quality of drying.

      EX'SI€eATE, V. t. [L. exsicco ; ex and sicco, to dry.]

      To dry ; to exhauster evaporate inoislurc. Brown. Mortimer.

      EX'SI€€ATED, pp. Dried.

      EX'SICCATING, ppr. Drying; evapora- ting moisture.


      EXSl€€A'TION, n. The act or operatioii of drymg; evaporation of moisture; dry- ness. Brown

      EXSPUl"TION, I [L. expuo for exspuo.]

      EXPUI'TION, I "■ A discharge of salivi by spittuig. Darwin.

      EXSTIP'ULATE, a. [L. ex and stipula, straw.] In botany, having no stipules.


      EXSU€'€OUS, a. [L. exsuccus; ex and suc- c«*, juice.] Destitute of juice; dry.


      EXSUC'TION, n. [L. exvgo, exsugo, to suck out ; sugo, to suck.] The act of sucking out. Boyle.

      EXSUDA'TION, n. [h. exudo, for exsudo.] A sweating ; a discharge of humors or moisture from animal bodies by sweat or

      I extillation through the pores.

      j2. The discharge of the juices of a plant, moisture from the earth, &c.

      EXSU'DE, V. t. [supra.] To discbarge the moisture or juices of a living body through the pores; also, to discharge the liquid matter of a plant by incisions.

      Our forests exude turpentine in the greatest abundance. Dwight.

      EXSU'DE, V. i. To flow from a living body through the pores or by a natural dis- charge, as juice.

      EXSU'UED, pp. Emitted, as juice.

      EXSU'DING, ppr. Discharging, as juice.

      EXSUFFLA'TION, n. [L. ex and sufflo, to blow.]

      1. A blowing or blast from beneath. [Ldttle used.] Bacon.

      2. A kind of exorcism. Fulke. EXSUF'FOLATE, a. Contemptible. [JVot

      in use.] Shak.

      EXSUS'CITATE, v. t. [L. exsusdto.] To rouse; to excite. [JVot used.]

      EXSUSCITA'TION, n. A stirring up ; a rousing. [JVot used.] Hallywell.

      EX'TANCE, n. [L. exlans.] Outward exis- tence. [JVot used.] Brown.

      EX'TANCY, n. [L. exstans, eitans, stand- ing out, from exsto; ex and sto, to stand.]

      1. The state of rising above others.

      2. Parts rising above the rest ; opposed to depression. [Little used.] Boyle.

      EX'TANT, a. [L. exstans, exlans, supra.] Standing out or above any surface ; pro- truded.

      That part of the teeth which is extant above

      the gums. Ray.

      A body partly immersed io a fluid and partly

      extant. Bentley..

      2. In being ; now subsisting ; not suppres- sed, destroyed, or lost. A part only of the history of Livy, and of the writings of Cicero, is now extant. Socrates wrote .Tiucli, but none of bis writings are extant. The ex-tant works of orators and philoso- pliers. Miiford.

      EXT.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\SY, EXTATI€. [See Ecstasy, Ec- static]

      EXTEM'PORAL, «. [L. exiemporalis; ex and tempus, time.J Made or uttered at the moment, without premeditation ; as an extemporal discourse. Hooker. Wotton.

      2. Speaking without premeditation.

      B. Jonson.

      Instead of this word, extemporaneous and ex- temporary are now used.

      EXTEM'PORALLY, adv. Without pre- meditation, Shak,




      EXTEMPORA'NEAN, a. [Ml used. See Extemporaneous.]

      EXTEMPORA'NEOUS, a. [L. extempora- neus ; ex and tenipus, lime.]

      Composed, performed or uttered at the time the subject occurs, without previous study ; unpremeditated ; as an extemporaneous ad- dress ; an extemporaneous production ; an extemporaneous prescription.

      EXTESiPOUA'NEOUSLY, adv. Without previous study-

      EXTEM'PORARILY, adv. Without previ- ous study.

      EXTEM'PORARY, a. [L. ex and lempora- rius, from tempus, time.]

      Composed, performed or uttered without previous study or preparation. [See Ex- temporaneous.]

      EXTEM'PORE, adv. exltm'pory. [L. abl.]

      1. Without previous study or meditation ; without preparation ; suddenly ; as, to write or speak extempore.

      2. It is used as an adjective, improperly, at least without necessity ; as an extempore dissertation. Addison.

      EXTEM'PORINESS, n. The state of being unpremeditated ; the state of being com- posed, performed or uttered without pre- vious study. Johnson.

      EXTEM'PORIZE, v. i. To speak extem- pore ; to speak without previous study or preparation. To extemporize well re- quires a ready mind well furnished with knowledge.

      2. To discourse without notes or written composition.

      EXTEM'PORIZER, n. One who speaks without previous study, or without writ- ten composition.

      EXTEMPORIZING, ppr. Speaking with- out previous study, or preparation by wri- ting.

      The extemporizing faculty is never more out of its element than in the pulpit. South.

      EXTEND', V. t. I L. extendo ; ex and tendo, from Gr. rtino, L. teneo ; Fr. ctendre; It. stendere ; Sp. extender ; Arm. astenna ; W. estyn, from tynu, to pull, or tyn, a pull, a stretch.]

      1. To stretch in any direction ; to carry for- ward, or continue in length, as a line ; to spread in breadth ; to expand or dilate in size. The word is particularly applied to length and breadth. We extend lines in surveying ; we extend roads, limits, bounds ; we extend metal plates by hanniiering.

      2. To stretch ; to reach forth ; as, to extend the arm or hand.

      3. To spread ; to expand ; to enlarge ; to widen ; as, to extend the capacities, or in- tellectual powers ; to extend the sphere of usefulness ; to extend commerce.

      4. To continue ; to prolong ; as, to extend the time of payment ; to ex(endthe season of trial.

      5. To communicate ; to bestow on ; to use or exercise towards.

      He hath extended mercy to me before the king. Ezra vii. C. To impart ; to yield or give.

      I will extend peace to her like a river. Is. Ixvi. 7. In law, to value lands taken by a writ of extent in satisfaction of a debt ; or to levy on lands, as an execution.

      The execution was delivered to the sheriff,

      who extended the same on certain real estate.

      Mass. Rep.

      EXTEND', V. i. To stretch ; to reach ; to be continued in length or breadth. The state of Massachusetts extends west to the border of the state of New York. Con- necticut river extends from Canada to the sound. How far will your argument or pro]»osition extend? Let our charities extend to the heathen.

      EXTEND'ED, pp. Stretched; spread; ex- panded ; eidarged ; bestowed on ; commu- nicated ; valued under a writ of extendi facias ; levied.

      EXTEND'ER, n. He or that which extends or stretches.

      EXTEND'IBLE, a. Capable of being ex- tended ; that may be stretched, extended, enlarged, widened or expanded.

      2. That may be taken by a writ of extent and valued.

      EXTEND'ING, ppr. Stretching ; reaching ; continuing in length ; spreading ; enlar- ging ; valuing.

      EXTEND'LESSNESS, n. Unlimited ex- tension. UVot used.] Hale.

      EXTENS'IBILITY, n. [from extensible.] The capacity of being extended, or of suf- fering extension ; as the extensibility of a fiber, or of a plate of metal. Grew.

      EXTENS'IBLE, a. [from L. extensus.] That may be extended ; capable of being stretched" in length or breadth ; susceptible of enlargement. Holder.

      EXTENS'IBLENESS, n. Extensibility, which see.

      EXTENSILE, a. Capable of being exten- ded.

      EXTEN'SION, 71. [L. exlensio.] The act of extending ; a stretching.

      2. The state of being extended ; enlarge- ment in breadth, or continuation of length.

      3. In philosophy, that projierty of a body by which it occupies a ))ortion of space.

      EXTEN'SIONAL, a. Having great extent. [.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"ot used.] More.

      EXTENS'IVE, a. Wide; large; having great enlargement or extent ; as an e.r- tensive farm ; an extensive field ; an exten- sive lake ; an extensive sphere of opera- tions ; e.rtensive benevolence.

      2. That may be extended. [.Vb< used.]


      EXTENS'IVELY, adv. Widely ; largely ; to a great extent ; as, a story is extensively circulated.

      EXTENS'IVENESS, n. Wideness ; large- ness ; extent ; as the extensiveness of the ocean.

      2. Extent ; diffusiveness ; as the extensive- ness of a man's charities or benevolence.

      3. Capacity of being extended. [Little used.]

      Hay. EXTENS'OR, Ji. In anatomy, a muscle

      wliich serves to extend or straighten any

      part of the body, as an arm or a finger ;

      opposed to flexor. Coxe. Cyc.

      EXTENT', a. Extended. Spenser.

      EXTENT', n. [L. extentus. It is frequently

      accented on the first syllable.]

      1. Space or degree to which a thing is ex- tended ; hence, compass ; bulk ; size ; as a great extent of country, or of body.

      2. Length ; as an extent of line.

      3. Communication ; distribution.

      The extent of equal justice. Shal,

      4. In law, a writ of execution or extendi facias, commanding a sheriff to value the

      lands of a debtor; or extent is the act of the sheriff or conmiissioncr in making the valuation. Encyc.

      EXTEN'UATE, v. t. [L. extenuo ; ex and tenuo, to make thin ; Sp, cxtenuar ; It, sten- uare. See Thin.]

      1. To make thin, lean or slender. Sickness extenuates the body. Encyc.

      2. To lessen ; to diminish ; as a crime or guilt.

      But fortune there extenualeit the crime.


      3. To lessen in representation ; to palliate ; opposed to aggravate.

      4. To lessen or diminish in honor. [Little used.] Milton.

      a. To make thin or rare ; opposed to con- dense. [Little used.] Bacon.

      EXTEN'CATE, a. Thin ; slender. [M,t used.]

      EXTEN'UATED, pp. Made thin, lean or slender; made smaller; lessened; diniin-

      isiieu ; painateu ; maue r>ire.

      EXTEN'lIATING, ppr. Making thin or slender ; lessening ; diminishing ; pallia- ting ; making rare.

      EXTENUATION, n. The act of making thin ; the process of growing thin or lean ; the losing of flesh.

      2. The act representing any thing less wrong, faulty or criminal than it is in fact ; palliation ; opposed to aggravation ; as the extenuation of faults, injuries or crimes.

      3. Mitigation ; alleviation ; as the extenua- tion of punislitnent. [.Vol common.]

      AUerbury. EXTERIOR, a. [L. from exterus, foreign ; Fr. exterieur ; It. esteriore.]

      1. External ; outward ; applied to the out- side or outer surface of a body, and op- posed to interior. We speak of the exterior and interior surfaces of a concavo-con- vex lens.

      2. External ; on the outside, with reference to a person ; extrinsic. We speak of an object exterior to a man, as opposed to that which is within or in his mind.

      3. Foreign ; relating to foreign nations ; as the exterior relations of a state or king- dom.

      EXTERIOR, tj. The outward surface; that which is external.

      2. Outward or visible deportment ; appear- ance.

      EXTERIORLY, adv. Outwardly ; exter- nally. [An HI formed u}ord.] Shak.

      EXTERIORS, n. plu. The outward parts of a thing. Shak.

      2. Outward or external deportment, or forms and ceremonies ; visible acts ; as the exte- riors of religion.

      EXTERM'INATE, v. t. [L. extermino; ex and terminus, limit.] Literally, to drive from within the limits or borders. Hence,

      1. To destroy utterly ; to drive away ; to ex- tirpate ; as, to exterminate a colony, a tribe or a nation ; to exterminate inhabi- tants nr a race of men.

      2. To eradicate ; to root out ; to extirpate ; as, to exterminate error, heresy, infidelity or atheism ; to exterminate vice.


      3. To root out, as plants ; to extirpate ; as, to exltrmiiiate weeds.

      4. In algebra, to take away ; as, to extermi- ' nate surds or unknown quantities.

      EXTERMINATED, pp. Utterly driven away or destroyed ; eradicated ; extirpa- ted.

      EXTERMINATING, ppr. Driving away or totally destroying ; eradicating ; extir-

      EXTERMINA'TION, n. The act of exter- minating ; total expulsion or destruction ; eradication; extirpation; excision " the extermination of inhabitants or tribes, of error or vice, or of weeds from a field

      2. In algebra, a taking away.

      EXTERM'INATOR, n. He or that which exterminates.

      EXTERMINATORY, a. Serving or tend- ing to exterminate. Burke.

      EXTERM'INE, v. t. To exterminate. [JVot used.] Shak

      EXTERN', a. [L. ertenms.] External ; out- ward ; visible. Shak.

      2, Without itself : not inherent; not intrinsic [Little used.] ' Dighy.

      EXTERN'AL, cf. [h. exiernus ; It. esiemo ; Sp. externa.]

      1. Outward; exterior; as the external sur- face of a body ; opposed to internal.

      2. Outward ; not intrinsic ; not being within ; as external objects ; external causes or ef- fects.

      3. Exterior; visible; apparent; as external deportment.

      4. Foreign ; relating to or connected with foreign nations ; as external trade or com- merce ; the external relations of a state or kingdom.

      External taxes, are duties or imposts laid on

      goods imported into a country. Federalist.

      EXTERNALITY, n. External perception.

      ./;. SmUh.

      irdlv ; on the

      EXTERN'ALLY, adv. Oatwai

      outside. 2. In appearance ; visibly. EXTERN'ALS, n. phi. The outward parts

      exterior form.

      Adam was no less glorious in his externals

      he had a beaiitiXul body, as well as an immortiJ

      soul. Sovih

      2. Outward rites and ceremonies; visible

      forms; as the externals of religion. EXTERRA'NEOUS, a. [L. exterranens

      ex and terra, a land.] Foreign ; belonging to or coming from

      abroad. EXTER'SION, II. [L. exler.fio, from exter-

      geo ; ex and (crg-eo, to wipe.] The act of

      wiping or rubbing out. EXTILL', V. i. [L. extillo ; ex and stillo, to

      drop.] To drop or distil from. EXTILLA'TION, n. The act of distilli

      from, or falling from in drops. EXTIMULATE. [.Vo« in use.] [See Stim

      ulate.] EXTIMULATION. [Sec Slimulation. _ EXTlNeT', a. [\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.. exlinctus. See Extm


      1. Extinguished; put out ; quenched ; as, fire, Ught or a lamp is extinct.

      2. Being at an end ; having no survivor ; a a family or race is extinct.

      3. Being at an end ; having ceased. Th enmity between the families is extinct.

      My days are extinct. Job xvii.


      4. Being at an end, by abolition or disuse ;

      having no force ; as, the law is extinct. EXTINCTION, n. [L. extinctio. See Ex-


      1. The act of putting out or destroying light or fire, by quenching, suffocation or oth- erwise.

      2. The state of being extinguished, quench- ed or suffocated ; as the extinction of fire or of a candle.

      3. Destruction ; excision ; as the extinction of nations.

      4. Destruction ; suppression ; a putting an end to ; as the extinction of life, or of a family ; the extinction of feuds, jealousiei or enmity ; the extinction of a claim.

      EXTIN'GUISH, V. t. [L. exlinguo ; ex an( stingo, stinguo, or the latter may be a con traction ; Gr. ftf u for f tyu, to prick, tha is, to thrust ; or more directly from tingo, to dip, to stain; both probably allied to tango, for tago, to touch. Fr. eteindre ; It estinguere ; Sp. extinguir. See Class Dg No 19. 31. 40.]

      1. To put out ; to quench ; to suffocate; to destroy ; as, to extinguish fire or flame.

      2. To destroy ; to put an end to ; as, to e.r tinguish love or hatred in the breast ; to extinguish desire or hope ; to extinguish a claim or title.

      3. To cloud or obscure by superior splendor. Shak

      4. To (uit an end to, by union or consolida- tion. [See Extinguishment.]

      EXTIN'GUISHABLE, a. That may be quenched, destroyed or suppressed.

      EXTIN'GIJISHED, pp. Put out ; quench- ed ; stifled ; suppressed ; destroyed.

      EXTIN'GUISHER, n. He or that which extinguishes.

      2. A hollow conical utensil to be put on b candle to extinguish it.

      EXTIN'GUISHING, ppr. Putting out quenching; suppressing; destroying.

      EXTIN'GUISHMENT, ?i. The act of put ting out or quenching ; extinction ; sup pression ; destruction ; as the extinguish- ment of fire or flame ; of discord, enmity or jealousy ; or of love or affectiou.

      a. Abolition ; nullification.

      Divine laws of cliristian church polity may not be altered by extinguishment. Hooker.

      3. Extinction ; a putting an end to, or a coming to an end ; termination ; as the extinguishment of a I'ace or tribe.

      The putting an end to a right or estate, by consolidation or union.

      If my tenant for life makes a lease to .3. for life, remainder to B and his heirs, and I release to A ; this release operates as an extinguish- ment of my right to the reversion,

      Blackstone. EXTIRP', V. t. To extirpate. [_J^ol used.]

      Spenser. EXTIRP' ABLE, a. That may be eradica- ted. Evelyn. EX'TIRPATE, v.t. [L. exlirpo ; ex and stirps, root ; It. estirpare.]

      1. To pull or pluck up by the roots ; to root out; to eradicate; to destroy totally; as, to extirpate weeds or noxious plants from a field.

      2. To eradicate; to root out; to destroy wholly ; as, to extirpate error or heresy ; to extirpate a sect.


      3. In surgery, to cut out ; to cut off; to eaf

      out ; to remove ; as, to extirpate a wen. EX'TIRPATED, pp. Plucked up by the roots; rooted out; eradicated; totally destroyed. EX'TIRPATING, ppr. Pulling up or by the roots ; eradicating ; totally ins:. EXTIRPATION, n. The act of rooting out ; eradication ; excision ; total destruc- tion ; as the extirpation of weeds from land ; the extirpation of evil principles from the heart ; the extirpation of a race of men ; the extirpation of heresy. EX'TIRPATOR, n. One who ro'ots out ; a

      destrover. EXTOL', V. I. [L. exiollo ; ex and tollo, to raise, Ch. '7n, or Heb. and Ch. SbJ. Class Dl. No. 3. 18. 28.] To raise in words or eulogy ; to praise ; to exalt in commendation ; to magnify. We extol virtues, noble exploits, and heroism. Men are too much disposed to extol the rich and despise the poor.

      Extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name Jah. Ps Ixviii. EXTOL'LED, ppr. Exalted in commenda- tion ; praised ; magnified. EXTOL'LER, n. One who praises or mag- nifies ; a praiser or magnifier. EXTOL'LING, ppr. Praising ; exalting by

      praise or commendation ; magnifying. EXTORS'IVE, a. [See ExtoH.] Serving to extort : tending to draw from by com- pulsion. EXTORS'IVELY, adv. In an extorsive

      manner ; by extortion. EXTORT', V. t. [L. extorlus, from extorqueo, to wrest from ; ex and torqueo, to twist ; Fr. extorquer.]

      1. To draw from by force or corapul.sion; to wrest or wring from by physical force, by menace, duress, violence, authority, or by any illegal means. Conquerors extort contributions from the vanquished ; tyran- ical princes extort money from their sub- jects ; officers often extort illegal fees ; con- fessions of guilt are extorted by the rack. A promise extorted by duress is not bind-

      2. To gain by violence or oppression. Spenser.

      EXTORT', V. i. To practice e.xtortion.

      Spenser. Davies.

      EXTORT'ED, pp. Drawn from by compul- sion ; wrested from.

      EXTORT'ER, n. One who extorts, or practices extortion. Camden.

      EXTORT'ING, ppr. Wresting from by force or undue exercise of power.

      EXTOR'TION, n. The act of extorting; the act or practice of wresting any thing from a person by force, duress, menaces,' authority, or by any undue exercise of power; illegal exaction ; illegal compul- sion to pay money, or to do some other act. Extortion is an offense punishable at common law.

      9. Force or illegal compulsion by which any thing is taken from a person.

      King Charles.

      EXTORTIONER, n. One who practices extortion.

      Extortioners shall not inlierit the kingdom ot God. 1 Cor. vi.




      EXTOR'TIOUS, a. Oppressive ; violent ; unjust.

      RXTRA, a Latin preposition, denoting be- yond or excess ; as extra-work, ertra-pay, work or pay beyond what is usual or agreed on.

      EXTRACT', V. t. [L. extractu.i, from extra- ho ; ex and traho, to draw. See Draw and Drag. Sp. exlraer ; It. estrarre ; Fr. ex- traire.]

      1. To draw out ; as, to extract a tooth.

      2. To draw out, as the juices or essence of a substance, by distillation, solution or oth- er means; as, to extract spirit from the juice of the cane ; to extract salts from ashes.

      3. To take out ; to take from.

      Woman is her name, of man Extracted. Milton.

      4. To take out or select a part ; to take a passage or passages from a book or wri- ting.

      I have extracted from the pamphlet a few no- torious falsehoods. Swift.

      5. In a general sense, to draw from by any means or operation.

      EX'TRACT, n. That which is extracted or

      drawn from something. 1. In literature, a passage taken from a book or writing. Camden.

      9. In pharmacy, any thing drawn from a sub- stance, a-s essences, tinctures, &.c. ; or a solution of the purer parts of a nii.ved body inspissated by distillation or evapo- ration, nearly to the consistence of lioney. Encyc. Quincy. Any substance obtained by digesting vegetable substances in water, and evapo- rating them to a solid consistence.

      Webster's Manual.

      3. In chimistry, a peculiar principle, supposed to form the basis of all vegetable extracts; called also the extractive principle.

      li'ebster's Manual.

      4. Extraction ; descent. [.Vol now used.]


      EXTRA€T'ED, pp. Drawn or taken out,

      EXTRA€T'ING, ppr. Drawing or taking out.

      EXTRA€'TION, ?i. [L. exlractio.] The act of drawing ont ; as the extraction of i tooth ; the extraction of a bone or an ar low from the body; the extraction of a fe- tus or child in midwifery.

      3. Descent ; lineage ; birth ; derivation ol persons from a stock or family. Hence the stock or family from whicli one ha; descended. We say, a man is of a noble txtraction.

      3. In pharmacy, the operation of drawing essences, tinctures, &c. from a substance.


      4. In arithmetic and algebra, the extraction of roots is the operation of finding the root of a given number or quantity; also, the method or rule by which the operation is performed.

      EXTRACT'IVE, a. That may be extract- ed. Kirwan.

      EXTRACT'IVE, n. The proximate prin- ciple of vegetable extracts. Parr.

      EXTRACT'OR. n. In midwifen/. a forceps or instrument for extracting children.

      EXTRADIC'TIONARY, oT [L. ej:tra and dictio.] Consisting not in words, but in re- alities. [.Vot used.] Brown.

      EXTRAPOLIA'CEOUS, a. [L. extra, on

      the outside, and folium, a leaf.] In botany, growing on the outside of a leaf;

      as extrafoliaceous stipules. Martyn.

      EXTRAoE'NEOUS, a. [V.. extra and genus,

      kind.] Belonging to another kind. CTAL



      e.nd judicial.]

      Out of the proper court, or the ordinary course of legal procedure. Encyc.

      EXTRAJUDl "CIALLY, adv. In a manner out of the ordinary course of legal pro- ceedings. Ayliffe.

      EXTRALIM'ITARY, a. [extra and Iwnl.] Beingbeyond the limit or bounds ; as ex- tralimitary land. Mitford.

      EXTRAMIS'SION, n. [L. extra and mitto, to send.] A sending out ; emission.


      EXTRAMUN'DANE, a. [L. extra and mun- dus, the world.] Beyond the limit of the material world. Glanvitle.

      EXTRA'NEOUS.a. [L.erfraneuj.] Foreign not belonging to a thing ; existing with- out; not intrinsic; as, to separate gold from extraneous matter.

      Relation is not contained in the real exis- tence of things, but is extraneous and superin- duced. Locke

      Extraneous fossils, organic remains ; exuvia of organized beings, imbedded in the strata of the earth. Ciic

      EXTRAOR'DINARIES, n. plu. Thing; which exceed the usual order, kind or method. Rarely used in the singular.

      EXTRAOR'DINARILY, adv. extror'dina rily. [Sec Extraordinary.]

      In a manner out of the ordinary or u«ua method ; beyond the common course, lini its or order ; in an imcommon degree ; re markably ; particularly ; eminently.

      The temple of Solomon was extraordinarily magnificent. Wilkins.

      EXTRAOR'DINARINESS, n. Uncom- monness ; remarkableness.

      EXTRAORDINARY, a. eitror'dinary. [L. extraordinarius ; extra and ordinarius, ual, from ordo, order.]

      1. Beyond or out of the common order or method; not in the usual, customary or regular course ; not ordinary. Extraordi- nary evils require extraordinary remedies

      3. Exceeding the common degree or meas ure ; hence, remarkable ; uncommon ; rare ; wonderful ; as the extraordinary tal- ents of Shakspeare ; the exfroorrftnan/ pow- ers of Newton ; an edifice o[ extraordinary grandeur.

      3. Special ; particular ; sent for n s|)ecial purpose, or on a particular occasion ; as an extraordinary courier or messenger ; aiij embassador extraordinary ; a gazette ex traordinary.

      EXTRAPA^O'CHIAL, a. [extra and paro chiaL] Not within the limits of any par- ish. Blackstone.l

      EXTRAPROFES'SIONAI>, a. [extra and professional.]

      Foreign to a profession ; not within the or- dinary limits of professional duty or busi-l

      Molina was an ecclesiastic, and these studies

      were extraprofessional. Med. Sepos.t

      EXTRAPROVIN'CIAL, a. [extra and pro]

      vincial.] Not within the same province ;'

      not within the juri.^diction of the saint archbishop. Auliffe.

      EXTRAREG'ULAR, a. [extraand regular.]

      Not comprehended within a rule or rules.


      EXTRATERRITORIAL, a. Being befond or without the limits of a territory orpar- ticular jurisdiction.

      Hunter, JVhealon's Rep.

      EXTHAI (;ilT. ..1,1 ;,;,. of extract. Obs.

      EXTliW \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\(;\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\( i:. ^ [L. extra and va-

      EXTItW \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\(.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\i\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.

      1. Literally, a wandering beyond a limit; an excursion or sally from the usual way, course or limit. Hammond.

      3. In uniting or discourse, a going beyond the limits of strict truth, or probability ; as extravagance of expression or descrip- tion.

      3. Excess of aflection, passion or appetite ; as extravagance of love, anger, hatred or himger.

      4. Excess in expenditures of property ; the expending of money without necessity, or beyond what is reasonable or proper ; dis- sipation.

      The income of tliree dukes was not enough to supply her extravagance. Jlrbulhnot .

      5. In general, any excess or wandering from prescribed limits; u-regularity ; wildness; as the extravagance of imagination ; f.r- travagance of claims or demands.

      EXTRAVAGANT, a. Literally, wander- ing beyond limits. Shak.

      3. Excessive ; exceeding due bounds ; un- reasonable. The wishes, demands,

      Znt. egular; wild; not within ordinary lim- its oftruth or probability, or other usual bounds ; as extravagant "flights of fancy.

      There is something nobly wild and extrava- gant in great geniuses. .addison.

      4. Exceeding necessity or proi)riety ; waste- ful ; prodigal ; as extravagant expenses ; an extravagant mode of livmg.

      5. Prodigal ; profuse in expenses ; as an ex- travagant man.

      He that is extravagant will quickly become poor, and poverty will enforce dependence, and invite corruption. Rambler.

      EXTRAVAGANT, n. One who is confi- ned to no general rule. L'Estrange.

      EXTRAVAGANTLY, adv. In an extrava- gant manner; wildly; not within the lira- its of truth or probability. Men often write and talk extravagantly.

      3. Unreasonably ; excessively. It is prudent not to praise or censure extravagantly.

      3. In a manner to use property without ne- cessity or propriety, or to no good pur- pose ; expensively, or profusely to an un- justifiable degree ; as, to live, eat, drink, or dress extravaganilu.

      EXTRAVAGANTNESS, n. Excess ; ex- travagance. [Little used.]

      EXTRAVAGANTS, n. In church history, certain decretal epistles, or constitutions of the popes, which were published after the Clementines, and not at first arranged and digested with the other papal consti- tutions. They were afterward inserted in the body of the canon law. Encuc.

      EXTRA VACATE, v. t. To wander Be- yond the limits. [j\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\bt used.] H'arb'irton.



      E X U

      EXTRAVAGA'TION, n. Excess ; a wan- dering beyond limits. Smollet.

      EXTRAV'ASATED, a. [L. extra and vasa, vessels.] Forced or let out of its proper vessels; as extravasakd \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\}\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ood. Arbulhnot.

      EXTRA VASA'TION, n. The act of for- cing or letting out of its proper vessels or ducts, as a fluid ; the state of being forced or let out of its containing vessels ; effu- sion ; as an extravasation of blood after a rupture of the vessels.

      EXTRA VE'NATE, a. [L. extra and vena,

      vein.] Let out of the veins. [J^olinuse.]


      EXTRA VER'SION, n. [h. extra and ver- sio, a turning.] The act of throwing out ; the state of being turned or thrown out. [Littte used.] Boyle.

      EXTRE'AT, 71. Extraction. Obs.


      EXTRE'ME, a. [L. extrenms, last.] Outer- most ; utmost ; farthest ; at the utmost jjoint, edge or border ; as the extreme verge or point of a thing.

      2. Greatest ; most violent ; utmost ; as f j- trenie pain, grief, or suffering ; extreme joy or pleasure.

      3. Last ; beyond which there is none ; as au extreme remedy.

      4. Utmost ; worst or best that can exist or be supposed ; as an extreme, case.

      5. Most pressing ; as extreme necessity. Extreme unction, among the Romanists, is

      the anointing of a sick person with oil, when decrepit with age or affected with some mortal disease, and usually just be- fore death. It is applied to the eyes, ear.«, nostrils, mouth, hands, feet and reins of penitents, and is supposed to represent the grace of God poured into the soul.


      E.rtreme and mean proportion, in geometry, is when a line is so divided, that the whole line is to the greater segment, as that seg- ment is to the less ; or when a line is so divided, that the rectangle under the whole line and the les.ser segment is equal totlie square of the greater segment. Euclid.

      EXTRE'ME, n. The utmost point or verge of a thing; that part which terminates a body ; extremity.

      2. Utmost point ; furthest degree ; as the extremes of heat and cold ; the extremes of virtue and vice. Avoid extremes. Ex tremes naturally beget each other.

      There is a natural progression from the ex treme of anarchy to the extreme of tyranny.


      3. In hgic, the extremes or extreme terms of a syllogism are the predicate and subject Thus, "Man is an animal : Peter is a man, therefore Peter is an animal ;" the word animal is the greater extreme, Peter the less extreme, and man the medium.


      4. In mathematics, the extremes are the first and last terms of a proportion ; as, when three magnitudes are proportional, the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the square of the mean. Euclid.

      EXTRE'MELY,arfi'. In the utmost degree ;

      to the utmost point. It is extremely hot or

      cold ; it is extremely i)ainful. 2. In famihar language, very much ; great


      EXTREM'ITY, n. [L. extremitas.] The utmost point or side ; the verge ; the point or border that terminates a thing ; as the extremities of a country.

      2. The utmost parts. The extremities of the body, in painting and sculpture, are the head, hands and feet ; but in anatomy, the term is applied to the limbs only.

      Encyc. Cyc.

      3. The utmost point ; the highest or furthest degree ; as the extremity of pain or suffer- ing; the f,r

      4. E.xtrenie or utmost distress, straits or dif- ficulties ; as a city besieged and reduced to extremity.

      .5. The utmost rigor or violence. The Greeks have endured oppression in its utmost ex- tremity.

      6. The most aggravated state.

      The world is running after farce, the extremi- ty of bad poetry. Dryden

      EX'TRI€ABLE, a. [infra.] That can be extricated.

      EX'TRIe.VTE, j;. «. [L. e.rtnVo. The pri- mary veib Irico is not in the Latin. VVe probably see its affinities in the Gr. epi|, ffi-xoi, hair, or a bush of hair, from inter- weaving, entangling. I suspect that ■tfm and three are contracted from this root ; three for threg, folded, or a plexus. The same word occm-s in intricate and intrigue ; Fr. trichcr, to cheat ; tricoter, to weave ; Eng. trick ; It. treccia, a lock of hair. Class Rg. No. 35.]

      1. Properly, to disentangle ; hence, to free from difficulties or perplexities ; to disem- barrass ; as, to extricate one from compli- cated business, from troublesome alliances or other connections ; to extricate one's self from debt.

      2. To send out ; to cause to be emitted or evolved.

      EX'TRICATED, pp. Disentangled ; freed from difiiculties and perplexities ; disem- barrassed ; evolved.

      EX'TRICATING, ppr. Disentangling ; dis- embarrassing ; evolving.

      EXTRI€A'TION, n. The act of disenlan- gling; a freeing from perplexities ; disen- tanglement.

      2. The act of sending out or evolving ; a.s the extrication of heat or moisture from a substance.

      EXTRIN'SIC. ? , [L. extrinsecus.] Ex-

      EXTRIN'SICAL, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "' ternal ; outward ; not contained in or belonging to a body. Mere matter cannot move without the "impulse oi&n extrinsic agent. It is opposed to i?i- irinsic.

      EXTRIN'SICALLY, adv. From without ; externally.

      EXTRU€t',u. <. [I., extrno, extructus.-] To build ; to construct. [JVo* in use.]

      EXTRUC'TION, n. A building, [mt used.]

      EXTRUCT'IVE, a. Forming into a struc- ture. Fulke.

      EXTRUCT'OR, n. A builder ; a fabricator ; a contriver. []Vot used.]

      EXTRU'DE, V. t. [L. extrudo; ex and trudo, to thrust. Class Rd.]

      1. To thrust out ; to urge, force or press out; to expel; as, to extrude a fetus.

      2. To drive away ; to drive off. Jf'oodward.

      ip. or away ; expelled.

      EXTRU'DING, ppr. Thrusting out ; dri- ving out ; expelling.

      EXTRU'SION, n. * as :. The act of thrust- ing or throwing out; a driving out; ex- pulsion.

      EXTU'BERANCE, ^ [L. exiuberans, ex-

      EXTU'BERANCY, p-teicro; ev and tu- ber, a puff.]

      1. In medicine, a swelling or rising of the flesh ; a protuberant part. Encyc.

      2. A knob or swelhng part of a body.

      Moxon. EXTU'BERANT, a. Swelled ; standing

      out. EXTU'BERATE, r. i. [L. exlubero.] To

      swell. [M'ot in use.] EXTUMES'CENCE, n. [L. extumescens,

      extumesco ; ex and tumesco, tumeo, to swell.]

      A swelling or rising. [Little used.] EXU'BERANCE, ) , [L. exuberans, exube- EXU'BERANCY, I "■ ro ; ex and ubero, to

      fatten ; uber, a pap or breast, that is, a

      swelling or mass.]

      1. An abundance ; an overflowing quantity ; richness ; as an exuberance of fertility or fancy.

      2. Superfluous abundance ; luxuriance.

      3. Overgrowth ; superfluous shoots, as of trees.

      EXU'BERANT, a. Abundant ; plenteous ; icb ; as exuberant fertility ; exuberant good-

      2. Over-abundant ; superfluous ; luxuriant.

      •3. Pouring forth abundance ; producing in plenty; as entieranf spring. Thomson.

      EXU'BERANTLY, adv. Abundantly ; very copiously ; in great plenty ; to a superflu- ous degree. The earth has produced exu- beranth/.

      EXU'BliRATE, v. i. [L. exubero.] To abound ; to be in great abundance. [Ldt- tle xised.] Bmile.

      EX'UDATE, ? J, ; j,„j ; [See Exsude, Ihe

      EXU'DE, S ' ■ " preferable or-


      EXUDA'TION n. [See Exsudalion.]

      EXU'DED, pp. [See Exsuded.]

      EXU'DING, ppr. [See Exsuding.]

      EXUL'CERATE, v.t. [h.exuleero; ex and ulcero, to ulcerate, ulcus, an ulcer.] To cause or produce an ulcer or ulcers.

      Arbulhnot. Encyc.

      2. To afflict ; to corrode ; to fret or anger. Milton.

      EXUL'CERATE, v. i. To become an ulcer or ulcerous. Bacon.

      EXUL'CERATED, pp. Affected with ul- cers ; having become ulcerous.

      EXUL'CERATING, ppr. Producing ulcers on; fretting; becoming ulcerous.

      EXULCERA'TION, n. The act of causing ulcers on a body, or the process of becom- ing ulcerous ; the beginning erosion which wears away the substance and forms an "leer. Encyc. quincy.

      2. A fretting ; exacerbation ; corrosion.


      EXUL'CERATORY, a. Having a tenden- cy to form ulcers.

      EXULT'.r. I egzuW. [L. exulto ; ex and sal- to, salio, to leap ; It. esidtare.]

      Properly, to leap for joy; hence, to rejoice in triumph; to rejoice exceedingly, at sue-



      E Y R

      cess or victory ; to be glad above iiioasi ure ; to triutnpb. It is natural to mail tt exult at the success of his schemes, and tc exult over a fallen adversary.

      EXULT'ANCE, ( „ Exultation. [jVo

      EXULT'ANCY, <, "• Hammond.

      EXULT' ANT, a. Rejoicing triumphantly. More.

      EXULTA'TION, n. The act of exulting lively joy at success or victory, or at any advantage gained ; great gladness ; rap- turous delight ; triumph. £)xultation usu- ally springs from the gratification of our de- sire of some good ; particularly of distinc- tion orsuperiority, or of that which confers distinction. It often springs from the grat ification of pride or ambition. But exulta lion may be a lively joy springing from laudable causes.

      EXULT'ING, ppr. Rejoicing greatly or triumph.

      EXUN'DATE, v. i. To overflow. [jVo< used.]

      EXUNDA'TION, n. [L. erundatio, from exundo, to overtlow ; ex and undo, to rise in waves, unda, a wave.]

      An overflowing abundance. [Little used.] Ra,j.

      EXU'PERATE, v. t. To excel ; to [JVot used, nor Us derivatives.]

      EXUS'TION, )i. [L. exustus.] Tlie act or operation of burning up.

      KXU'VI^, n. plu. [L.] Cast skins, shells or coverings of animals ; any parts of mals which are shed or cast oft" as the skins of serpents and caterpillars, th shells of lobsters, &c. Ency(

      2. The spoils or remains of animals found ii the earth, supposed to be deposited there at the deluge, or in some great convulsion or change which the earth has undergone, in past periods. Cuvier.

      EY, in old writers; Sax. ig, sio;nifies an isle.

      EY'AS, n. [Fr. niais, silly.] A young hawk just taken from the nest, not able to prey for itself. Hanmer. Shak

      EY'AS, a. Unfledged. [JVot used.]


      EY'AS-MUSKET, n. A young imfledged male hawk of the musket kind or sparrow hawk. Hanmer. Shak

      EYE, n. pronounced as I. [Sax. eag, eah ; Goth, auga ; D. oog ; G. auge ; Sw. oga ; Dan. owe ; Russ. oko ; Sans, akshi ; h. ocu- hiS, a. diminutive, whence Fr. ait, Sp. ojo, It. occhio, Port. olho. The original v/ord must have been ag, eg, or hag or heg, co- inciding with egg. The old English plu- ral was eyen, or eyne.]

      1. The organ of sight or vision ; properly, the globe or ball movable in the orbit. The eye is nearly of a spherical figure, and composed of coats or tunics. But in the term eye, we often or usually include the ball and the parts adjacent.

      2. Sight ; view : ocular knowledge ; as, I have a man now in my eye. In this sense, the plural is more generally used.

      Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evi- ilently set forth, crucified among you. Gal. iii.

      3. Look; covmtenance.

      rU say yon gray is not the inoruing's eye.


      4. Front; face.

      Her shall you hear disproved to your eyes.

      ■ flhak

      5. Direct opposition ; as, to sail in the wind't eye.

      6. As|)ect ; regard ; respect ; view.

      Booksellers mention with respect the authon they have printed, and consequently have an eye to their own advantage. Addison

      7. Notice ; observation ; vigilance ; watch.

      After this jealousy, he kept a strict eye upon hirn. L'' Estrange.

      8. View of the mind ; opinion formed by ob- servation or contemplation.

      It liath, in tlieir eye, no great affinity with the form of tlic church of Rome. Hook

      9. Sight ; view, cither in a literal tivc sense.


      10. Something resembling the eye in form ; as the eye of a peacock's feather.


      11. A small hole or aperture ; a perforation ; as the eye of a needle.

      12. A small catch for a hook ; as wc say hooks and eyes. In nearly the same sense, the word is applied to (-ertain fastenings in the cordage of ships.

      13. The bud of a plant ; a shoot. Encyc

      14. A small shade of color. [Little used.]

      Red with an eye of blue makes a purple Hoyle

      15. The power of perception.

      The eyes of your understanding being cullglil- cned. Eph. i.

      16. Oversight; inspection.

      The eye of the master will do more work tlian both his hands. Franklin,

      The eyes of a ship, are the ])arts which lie near the hawse-holes, particularly in the lower apartments. Mar. Diet.

      To set the eyes on, is to sec ; to have a sight of.

      To find favor in the eyes, is to be graciously received and treated.

      EYE, «. A brood; as an c^e of pheasants,

      EYE, V. t. To fix the eye on ; to look on ; to view ; to observe ; particularly, to observe or watch narrowly, or with fixed atten- tion. Eye nature's walks, shoot folly as it flics.


      EYE, V. i. To appear ; to have an appear- ance. Shak.

      EY'EKALL, n. The ball, globe or apple of the eve.

      EY'EBEAM, n. A glance of the eye.


      EY'EBOLT, n. In ships, a bar of iron or bolt, with an eye, formed to be driven into the deck or sides, for- the purpose of hook- ing tackles to. Mar. Diet.

      EY'EBRIGHT, n. A genus of plants, the Euphrasia, of several species.

      EY'E-BRIGHTENING, n. A clearing of the sight. Milton.

      EY'EBROW, n. The brow or hairy arch above the eye.

      EY'ED, pp. Viewed ; observed ; watched.

      2. a. Having eyes ; used in composition, as a dull-eyed man, ox-eyed Juno.

      EY'EDRbP, n. A tear. Shak.

      EY'EGLANCE, n. A glance of the eye; a rapid look. Spenser.

      EY'EGLASS, n. A glass to assist the sight; spectacles. Shak.

      In telescopes, the glass next the eye; and where there are several, all except the ob- ject glass are called eye-glasses. Cyc.

      EY'E-GLUTTNIG, n. A feasting of the eyes.

      [JVol in use.] Spenser.

      EY'ELASH, n. The line of hair that edges

      the eyelid. Johyison.

      EY'ELESS, a. Wanting eyes ; destitute of

      sight. Milton. Addison.

      EY'ELET, 71. [Fr. a:illet, a little eye, from

      ceil, eye.] A small hole or perforation, to receive a lace or small rope or cord. We usually say, eyelet-hole. EY'ELIAD, n. [Fr. ailUide.] A glance of the eve. Shak.

      EY'ELID, ?!. The cover of the eye ; that portion of movable skin with which an animal covers the eyeball, or imcovers it, at pleasure. EYE-OFFENDING, a. That hurts the eyes. Shak. EY'E-PLEASING, a. Pleasing the eye.

      Davies. EY'ER, n. One w ho eyes another.

      Gayton. EY'E-SALVE, n. Ointment for the eye.

      Revelation. EYE-SERVANT, n. A servant who attends to his duty only when watched, or under the eye of his master or enn)loyer. EY'E-SERVICE, n. Service performed only under inspection or the eye of an em- ployer.

      Not with eye-sevvice, as mcn-pleasers ; but in

      singleness of heart, fearing God. Col. iii.

      EY'ESHOT, n. Sight ; view ; glance of the

      eve. Dryden.

      E Y'ESIGIIT, n. The sight of the eye ; view ;

      observation. Ps. xviii.

      Josephus sets this down from his own eye- sight. IVUki'ns. 2. The sense of seeing. Ilis eyesight fails. EY'ESORE, n. Something oflensive to the eye or sight.

      Mordecai was an eyesore to Haman.

      L'Estrange. EY'KSPLICE, Ji. In seaman's language, a sort of eye or circle at the end of a rope.

      Mar. Diet.

      EY'ESPOTTED, a. Marked with spots like

      eyes. Spenser.

      EY'ESTRING, n. The tendon by which

      the eye is moved. Shak.

      EY'ETOOTH, n. A tooth midcr the eye ; a

      pointed tooth in the upper jaw next to the

      grinders, called also a canine tooth ; a.

      fang. Ray.

      EY'EWINK, «. A wink, or motion of the

      eyelid; a hint or token. Shak.

      EY'E-WITNESS, n. One who sees a thing

      done ; one who has ocular view of any


      We were eye-witnesses of his majesty. 2 Pet. i. EY'OT, n. A little isle. Blackstone.

      EYRE, n. ire. [Old Fr. from I,, iter.] Lite- rally, a joiu-ney or circuit. In England, the justices in eyre were itinerant judges, who rode the circuit to hold courts in the difierent counties. 2. A court of itinerant justices. Blackstone. EY'RY, n. The place where birds of prey construct their nests and hatch. It is written also eyrie. [See Aerie.]

      The eagle and tlie stork On cliffs and cedar-tops their eyries build.



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