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Letter "F" Below

    F. the sixth letter of ihe Englisli Alphabet, is a labial articulation, formed by placing the upper teeth on the initler lip, and ac- companied with an emission of breath. Its kindred letter is v, which is chiefly distin- guished from/by being more vocal, or ac- companied with more sound, as may be perceived by pronoimcing ef, ev. This letter may be derived from the Oriental l ran, or from 3 pe or phe ; most probably the former. The Latins received the let- ter from the Eolians in Greece, who wrote it in the form of a double g-, F, j[ ; whence it has been called most absurdly diga ma. It corresponds in jmwer to the Greek ^ phi, and its proper name is ef.

    As a Latin numeral, it signifies 40, and with a dash over the top f, forty thousand.

    In the civil law, two of these letters together ff, signify the pandects.

    In English criminal law, this letter is brand- ed on felons, when adinitted to the benefit of clergy ; by Stat. 4. H. VII. c. 13.

    In medical prescriptions, F stands for Jiat, lei it be made ; F. S. A. Jiat secundum artem.

    V stands also for Fellow ; F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society.

    For fa, in music, is the fourth note rising in this order in the gamut, ut, re, mi, fa. It denotes also one of the Greek keys ii music, destined for the base.

    F in English has one uniform sound, as in father, after.

    FABA'CEOUS, a. [Low L./a6oceus, from faba, a bean.]

    Having the nature of a bean ; like a bean [Lillle used.]

    FA'BIAN, a. Delaying ; dilatory ; avoiding battle, in imitation of Q. Fabius Maxi a Roman general who conducted military operations against Hannibal, by declining to risk a battle in the open field, but bar assing the enemy by marches, counter marches and ambuscades.

    FA'BLE, n. {\\..fabula; Fr. fable; It. favo la; Ir. fabhal; Sp. fabula, from the Latin but the native Spanish word is habla, speech. Q,u. W. hebu, to speak ; Gr. The radical sense is that which is spoken or told.]

    1. A feigned story or tale, intended to struct or amuse ; a fictitious narration tended to enforce some useful truth or precept.

    Jotham's/oii/e of the trees is tlie oldest extant, and as beautiful as any made since. Addison.

    2. Fiction in general ; as, the story is all a fable.

    3. An idle story ; vicious or vulgar fictions.

    But refuse profane and old Wives' fables. Tim. iv.

    4. The plot, or connected series of events, in an epic or dramatic poem.


    The moral is the first business of the poet ; tliis being formed, he contrives such a design or fable as may be most suitable to the moral.

    Dryden. 5. Falsehood; a softer term for a lie.

    Mdison. FA'BLE, V. i. To feign ; to write fiction. Vain now the tales wh\\chfabli7ig poets tell.

    Prior. 3. To tell falsehoods; ,is, he fables not.

    Shak. FA'BLE, 1!. t. To feign ; to invent ; to de- vise and speak of, as true or real.

    The liell thouya6/es(. Milton.

    FA'BLED, pp. ' Feigned ; invented, as sto- ries.

    Told or celebrated in fables.

    HaW, fabled grotto. Ticket

    FA'BLER, n. A writer of fables or fictions ;

    dealer in feigned stories. Johnson

    FA'BLING, ppr. Feigning; devising, as

    stories ; writing or uttering false stories. FAB'RI€, n. [L. fabrica, a frame, fron faber, a workman ; Fr.fabriqiie.] . The structure of any thing ; the manner in which the parts of a thing are united by art and labor; workmanship; texture. This is cloth of a beautiful/aftWc. 9. The frame or structure of a building; con- struction. More generally, the building itself; an edifice ; a house ; a temple ; a church ; a bridge, &c. The word is usu ally applied to a large building.

    3. Any system composed of connected parts as the fabric of the universe.

    4. Cloth manufactured. Silks and other fine fabrics of the east.

    Henry. FABRIC, V. I. To frame ; to build ; to cor

    struct. [Little used.] Philip.

    FAB'RICATE, v. t. [L. fabrico, to frame,

    from faber, su|)ra.]

    1. To frame; to build; to construct ; to form a whole by connecting its parts ; as, t( fabricate a bridge or a ship.

    3.' To form by ait and labor ; to nianufac ture ; as, to fabricate woolens.

    3. To invent and form ; to forge ; to devise falsely ; as, to fabricate a lie or story.

    Our books were not fattricated with an commodation to prevailing usages. Paley

    4. To coin ; as, to fabricate money. [Unx sual] Henry, Hist

    FAB'RICATED,;);;. Framed; constructed built; manufactured; invented; devised falsely ; forged.

    FAB'RI€ATING,pjpc. Framing ; construct- ing ; manufacturing ; devising falsely ; forging.

    FABRICA'TION, n. The act of framing or constructing ; construction ; as the fabri- cation of a bridge or of a church.

    2. The act of manufacturing.

    3. The act of devising falsely ; forgery.

    4. That which is fabricated ; a falsehood. The story is doubtless a fabrication.

    FABRICATOR, ji. One that constructs or makes.

    F A C

    FAB'RILE, a. [L. fabrilis.] Pertaining to

    andicrafts. [JVot used.] FAB'ULIST, 71. [from fable.] The inventor writer of fables. GarricJ;.

    FAB'ULIZE, V. t. To invent, compose or elate fables. Faber.

    FABULOS'ITY, n. Fabulousness; fullness 'fables. [Little iised.] Abbot.

    FAB'ULOUS, o. Feigned, as a story ; devi- sed ; fictitious ; as a fabulous story ; a fabulous description. 3. Related in fable ; described or celebrated in fables ; invented ; not real ; as a fabu- lous hero ; thefabidous exploits of Hercu- les.

    . The fabulous age of Greece and Rome, was the early age of those countries, the accounts of which are mostly /afrii/ojw, or in which thefabidous achievments of their heroes were performed ; called also the

    adv. In fable or fiction ; Brown. The quality of being


    in a fabulous i FABULOUSNESS, n

    fabulous or feigned. FACADE, n. fassa'de. [Fr.] Front.

    WaHon. FACE, n. [Fr. /ace; It. faccia; Sp.faz, or

    haz ; Arm. /op; L. /acres, from /acio, to

    make.] 1. In a general sense, the surface of a thing,

    or the side which presents itself to the view

    of a spectator ; as the face of the earth ;

    the/ace of the waters.

    A part of the surface of a thing; or the

    plane surface of a solid. Thus, a cube or

    die has six/ace.s; an octahedron has eight


    3. The surface of the forepartof an animal's head, particulariy of the human head ; the visage.

    In the sweat of thy /ace shalt thou eat bread. Gen. iii.

    Joseph bowed himself with his face to the earth. Gen. xhiii.

    4. Countenance; cast of features ; look; air of the face.

    We set the best face on it we could.


    5. The front of a thing ; the forepart ; the flat surface that presents itself first to view ; as the /ace of a house. Ezek. xli.

    6. Visible state ; appearance.

    This would produce a new /ace of things in

    Europe. Addison.

    Appearance ; look.

    Nor heaven, nor sea, their former/ace retained.


    His dialogue has the/ace of probability.


    8. State of confrontation. The witnesses were presented /oce to face.

    9. Confidence ; boldness ; impudence ; a bold front.

    He has the face to charge others with false citations. TUlotsan.

    10. Presence ; sight ; as in the phrases, be-

    F A C

    F A C

    F A C

    Jore the face, in the face, to the face, from the

    11. The person.

    I liad not thouglit to see thy/ace. Gen. xlviii.

    12. In scripture, face is used for anger or favor.

    Hide us from the face of him that sitleth on the throne. Rev. vi.

    Malte tliy face to shine on thy servant. Ps. \\x.\\i.

    How long wilt thou hide thy face from me ! I's. xiii.

    Hence, to seek the face, tliat is, to pray to, to seek the favor of.

    7\\) act the face against, is to oppose.

    To accept one's face, is to show him fa- vor or grant his request. So, to entreat the face, is to ask favor ; but these phrases are nearly obsolete.

    13. A distorted form of the face ; as in the phrase, to make faces, or to make wry

    faces. Face to face, when both parties are present ; as, to have accusers face to face. Acts


    2. Nakedly ; without the interposition of any other body.

    Now wc see tliroiie;h a glass, darkly ; hut then face to face. 1 Cor. xiii.

    FACE, v.t. To meet in front; to oppose

    with firmness ; to resist, or to meet for the

    purpose of stopping or opposing ; as, to

    face an enemy in the field of battle.

    I'll /ace

    This tempest, and deserve the name of king.


    2. To stand opposite to ; to .stand witii the face or front towards. The colleges in New Haven /nee the public square.

    i\\. To cover with additional superficies ; to cover in front ; as a fortification faced will marble; to /ace a garment with silk.

    To face down, to oppose boldly or impu- dently.

    FACE, I', i. To carry a false appearance ; to play the hypoerite. To lie, toyace, to forge. Hubberd's Tale.

    2. To turn the face ; as, to /ace to the right or left.

    FA'CECLOTH, ?i. [/ace and c?ott.] A cloth laid over the face of a corpse. Brand.

    FA'CED, pp. Covered ill front. In compo- sition, denoting the kind of face ; as full- faced. Bailey.

    FA'CELESS, a. Without a face.

    FA'CEPAINTER, n. A painter of por- traits; one who draws the likeness of the face.

    FA'CEPAINTING, n. The act or art of painting portraits. Dryden.

    FACET, ji. [Fr. facette, from face ; Sp,

    A little face ; a small surface ; as the facets of a diamond.

    FACE'TE, a. [L.fucctus.] Gay ; cheerful. [JVot in use.] Burton.

    FACE'TENESS, n. Wit ; pleasant repre- sentation. [JVot used.] Hales.

    FACE'TIOUS, a. [Fr. facitieux; Sp.face- cioso ; It. faceto ; L. facetus ; facetia, or

    plu. Qu. Ar.

    to be merry.]

    . Merry; sportive; jocular; sprightly will wit and good humor ; as a facetious com panion.

    Vol. r.

    2. Witty ; full of pleasantry playful ; exci- ting laughter; as a/aceh'ou* story ; a face- tious reply.

    FACE'TIOUSLY, adv. Merrily ; gayly ; wittily; with pleasantry.

    FACE'TIOUSNESS, n. Sportive humor pleasantry; the quality of exciting laugh ter or good humor.

    FA"CIAL, a. [L. fades, face.] Pertaining to the face ; as the facial artery, vein or nerve.

    Facial angle, in anatomy, is the angle con- tained by a line drawn horizontally from the middle of the external entrance of the ear to the edge of the nostrils, and another from this latter point to the superciliary ridge of the frontal bone ; serving to mea- sure the elevation of the forehead.

    Ed. Encyc.

    FACILE, a. [Fr. facile; Sp.facil; L./oci- lis, from facio, to make.] . Properly, easy to be done or performed ; easy ; not difficult ; performable or attain- able with little labor.

    Order — will render the work facile and de- lightful. Evelyn.

    2. Easy to be surmounted or removed ; ea- sily conquerable.

    Theyaci7e gates of hell too slightly barred.


    3. Easy of access or converse; mild; cour- teous ; not haughty, austere or distant.

    I mean she should be courteous, _/act7e, sweet. B. Jonson. Pliant ; flexible ; easily persuaded to good or bad ; yielding ; ductile to a fault. Since Adam, and his facile consort Eve, Lost Paradise, deceived by me. Milton

    FACILELY, adv. Easily. [Littk u.sed.]


    FACILENESS, n. Easiness to be persua- ded. Beaum FACILITATE, v. t. [Fr. fadliter, from fa- cility, h.facililas, from facilis, easy.] To make easy or less difficult ; to free from difficulty or impediment, or to diminish it ; to lessen the labor of Machinery facili trilrs manual labor and operations. Pio niiM's ina\\ fiicHilnte the march of an army F A( I L' ITATKD, pp. Made easy or easier. FACIL'IT.'VTING, /);))•. Rendering easy or

    easier. FACILITA'TION, n. The act of making easy. Johnson.

    FACiL'ITY, 71. [Fr.facim; L. facilitas, from facilis, easy.]

    1. Easiness to be performed ; freedom from difficulty ; ease. He performed the work or operation with great facility.

    Thousih facility and hope of success might invite some other choice. Bacon

    2. Ease of performance ; readiness proceed ing from skill or use ; dexterity. Practice gives a wonderful faciliiy in executing works of art.

    3. Pliancy; ductility; easiness to be persua- ded ; readiness of compliance, usually

    a bad sense, implying a disposition to yield to solicitations to evil.

    It is a great error to take/aci7i7i/ for good na- ture : tenderness without discretion, is no betle than a more pardonable folly. L' Estrange

    4. Easiness of access ; complaisance; con descension ; affability.

    He oflcrs himself to the visits of a friend with

    facility. South

    FACIL'ITIES, 11. plu. The means by which


    the performance of any thing is rendered easy ; convenient opportunities or advan- tages.

    FA'CING,p;)r. [from face.] Fronting ; ha\\- ng the face towards; opposite. Covering the fore part. Turning the face.

    FA'CTNG, n. A covering in front for orna- ment or defense; as the/aaHg'of a fortifi- cation 1)1- (it'll •;.inucnt.

    FACl.N <)l!()l .-^, It. [[..facinus.] Atrocious- ly wirk.-.l. I /.////, used.] Shak.

    FACINUKO I. S.NESS, n. Extreme or atrocious wickedness.

    FACSIM'ILE, n. [L. facio, to make, and similis, like. See Simile.]

    An exact copy or likeness, as of liandwri- ting.

    FA€T, n. [L. factum, from facio, to make or do ; Fr. fait ; U.fatto ; Sp. hecho.]

    1. Any thing done, or that comes to pass ; an act ; a deed ; an effijct produced or achieved; an event. Witnesses are intro- duced into court to prove a fact. Facts are stubborn things. To deny a fact knowingly is to lie.

    2. Reality; truth; as, in fact. So we say, indeed.

    FAC'TION, n. [Fr. from L.factio, from fa- cio, to make or do.]

    1. A party, in political society, combined or acting in union, in opposition to the prince, government or state ; usually applied to a minority, but it may be applied to a major- ity. Sometimes a state is divided wlo fac- tions nearly equal. Rome was almost al- ways disturbed hy factions. Republics are jiroverbial for factions, and factiojis in mon- archies have often effected revolutions.

    A feeble government produces more factions tlian an oppressive one. Jlmes.

    By a faction, I understand a number of citi- zens, whether amounting to a majoiity or mi- nority of the whole, who are united and actua- ted by some common impulse of pa-ssion, or of interest, advci-se to the riglits of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community. Federalist, Madison.

    2. Tinnult ; discord ; dissension. Clarendon.

    FA€'TIONARY, n. A party man; one of a faction. [Little used.] Shak.

    FAC'TIONER, n. One of a faction. [.\\ot use.] Bancroft.

    FAC'TIONIST, n. One who promotes fac- tion. Mountagu.

    FACTIOUS, a. [Fr. factieux; L.factiosus.]

    1. Given to faction ; addicted to form par- ties and raise dissensions, in opposition to government ; turbulent ; prone to clamor against public measures or men. No state is free froni/ac

    2. Pertaining to faction ; proceeding from faction ; as factious tumults ;/ac/iou« quar- rels. Dryden.

    FA€'TIOUSLY, adv. In a factious manner; by means of faction; in a turbulent or dis- orderly manner.

    FA€'TIOUSNESS, n. Inclination to form parties in opposition to the government, or to the public interest ; disposition to clamor and raise opposition ; clamorous- ness for a party.

    FA€TI"TIOU.S; a. [L.faclitius, from facio.] Made by art, in distinction from what is produced by nature ; artificial ; as facti-

    F A C


    F A H

    liuus i-iniiabiu- ; faditiotis stones ; faditiousi

    air. TACTIVE, a. Making ; having power to

    make. [JVot used.] Bacon.

    I'Ae'TOR, n. [L.fador; Fr. fadeur ; lt.\\ fattore ; from h./acio.] !

    1. In commerce, an agent employed by iner-[ chants, residing in other places, to buy andi sell, and to negotiate bills of exchange, or to transact other business on their ac- count.

    2. An agent ; a substitute.

    ."i. In arithmetic, the multiplier and multipli- cand, from the multiplication of which proceeds the product.

    FA€'TORAgE, n. The allowance given to a factor by his employer, as a comjjensa- tiou for his services ; called also a com- mission. This is sometimes a certain sum or rate by the cask or package ; more gen- erally it is a certain rate per cent, of the value of the goods, purchased or sold.

    FACTORSHIP, «. A factory; or the busi- ness of a factor. Shenvood.

    FACTORY, n. A house or place where factors reside, to transact business fur their employers. The Enghsh merchants have factories in the East Indies, Turkey, Portugal, Hamburg, &c.

    U. The body of factors in any place ; as a chaplain to a British _/«c

    .1. Contracted from manufactory, a building or collection of buildings, appropriated to the manufacture of goods ; the jilace where workmen are employed in fabrica- ting goods, wares or utensils. v

    FA€TO'TUM, n. [L. do evci-y thing.] A

    servant employed to do all kinds of work.

    B. Jonson.

    PAC'TURE, )i. [Fr.] The art or manner of making. Bacon

    FAe'ULTY, n. [Yr. facuU<' ; L. facullas irom facio, to make.]

    I . That power of the mind or intellect whicl enables it to receive, revive or modify per ceptions ; as the faculty of seeing, of hear ing, of imagining, of remembering, &c. : or in general, the faculties may be called the powers or capacities of the mind.

    'i. The power of doing any thing ; ability. There is no faculty or power in creatures, which can rightly perform its functions, without the perpetual aid of the Supreme Being. Hooker

    S. The power of performing any action, nat- ural, vital or animal.

    The vitA\\ faculty is that by which life is pre- served. Quincy

    4. Facility of performance; the peculiar skill ilerived from practice, or practice aided by nature; habitual skill or ability; dex terity ; adroitness ; knack. One man has a remarkable faculty of telling a story ; another, of inventing excuses for iniscon duct ; a third, of reasoning ; a fourth, of] preaching.

    5. Personal quality ; disposition or habit, good or ill. Shak

    This] Hath borne his/acu/(!(

    I so meek. Shak

    [Hardly legitimate. 7. Mechanical jiower ; as the faculty of the wedge. [M)t used, nor legitimate^


    8. Natural virtue ; efficacy; as the/acitWy of simples. [JVol used, nor legitimate.]


    'J. Privilege ; a right or power granted to a person by favor or indulgence, to do what by law he may not do ; as the faculty of marrying without the bans being first pub- lished, or of ordaining a deacon underage. The archbishop of Canterbury has a court of faculties, for granting such privileges or dispensations. Encyc.

    10. In colleges, the masters and professors of the several sciences. Johnson.

    One of the members or departments of a university. In most universities there are four faculties ; of arts, including hu- manity and philosophy ; of theology ; of medicine; and of law. Encyc.

    In America, the faculty of a college or university consists of the president, pro- fessors and tutors.

    The faculty of advocates, in Scotland, is a respectable body of lawyers who plead in all causes before the Courts of Session, Justiciary and Exchequer. Encyc.

    FACUND, n. [L. _/ac«nrfMS, supposed to be from the root of for, fari, to speak. If so, the original word was faco, or facor.] Elo- quent. [Little used.]

    FACUNDITY, n. [h. facunditas.] Elo- quence; readiness of speech.

    FAD'DLE, V. i. To trifle ; to toy ; to play. [A low ivord.]

    FADE, a. [Fr.J Weak ; slight ; faint. [M'ol in use.] Berkeley.

    FADE, i'. i. [Fr. fade, insipid, tasteless.

    Qu. L. vado.

    Ar. 4Xi5

    afeeda, to

    vanish, Syr. to fail, to err. See Class Bd. No. 48. and 39. 44.]

    1. To lose color ; to tend from a stronger or brighter color to a more faint shade of the same color, or to lose a color entirely. A green leaf /arfes and becomes less green or yellow. Those colors are deemed the best, which are least apt to fade.

    2. To wither, as a plant ; to decay.

    Ye shall be as an oak, whose "leaf fadeth. Is. i.

    3. To lose strength gradually ; to vanish.

    When the memory is weak, ideas in the mind quickly yufie. Locke.

    To lose luster; to grow dim.

    The stars shall fade away. Jiddison.

    5. To decay ; to perish gradually. We all do fade as a leaf. Is. Ixiv. An inheritance Ihat fadclh not away. 1 Pet. i.

    6. To decay; to decline; to become poor and miserable.

    The rich man shall fade away in his ways. James i.

    7. To lose strength, heahh or vigor ; to de- cline ; to grow weaker. South.

    8. To disappear gradually ; to vanish. FADE, V. t. To cause to wither ; to wear

    away ; to deprive of freshness or vigor.

    No winter could his laurels fade. Vryden

    This is a man, old, wrinkled, /aded, witheied


    FA'DED, pp. Become less vivid, as color ;

    withered : decayed ; vanished. FADGE, V. i. faj. [Sax. fa-gen, gefegen, to unite, to fit together ; G.fugen ; D. voegen , S w. foga ; Dan. fuge, a seam or joint ; VV fag, a meeting in a point. It coincides with L. pango, pegi, pepegi, Gr. Ttiyu, r

    mu, L. figo. See p3T Class Bg. No. 33. See also No. 34. 35. ' Of this word fay is a contraction.]

    1. To suit ; to fit ; to come close, as the parts of things united. Hence, to have one part consistent with another. Shak.

    2. To agree ; to live in amity. [Lmdicrous.]


    3. To succeed ; to hit. VEstrange. [This word is now vulgar, and improper in

    elegant writing.]

    FA'DING, ppr. [See Fade.] Losing color ; becoming less vivid ; decaying ; declining : withering.

    2. a. Subject to decay ; liable to lose fresh- ness and vigor; liable to perish ; not dur- able; transient; as a/arfing- flower.

    FA'DING, n. Decay ; loss of color, fresh- ness or vigor. Sherwood.

    FA'DINGNESS, n. Decay ; hableness to decay. Mountagu.

    FA'DY, a. Wearing away ; losing color or strength. Shenstone.

    F^eAL, a. [See Fecal.]

    FjE'CES, n. [L.] Excrement ; also, set- tUngs ; sediment after infusion or distilla- tion. Quincy.

    FAF'FEL, V. i. To stammer. [JVot in use.] Barret.

    FAG, V. t. To beat. [M)t in use.]

    FAG, n. A slave ; one who works hard. [JVot in use.]

    FAG, V. i. [Scot. faik. Qu. Heb. Ch. Syr. J13 to fail, to languish. See Class Bg. No. 44. 60. 70.]

    To become weary ; to fail in strength ; to be faint with weariness.

    The Italian began to fag. JUackemie.

    [Jl vulgar loord.]

    FAG, n. A knot in cloth. [.Vo« in use.]

    FAGEND', n. [fag and end. See Fag, v.i. supra.]

    1. The end of a web of cloth, generally of coarser materials. Johnson.

    2. The refuse or meaner part of any thing.


    3. Among seamen, the untwisted end of a rope ; hence, to fag out, is to become un- twisted and loose. JWar. Did.

    We observe that the use of this word among seamen leads to the true sense of the verb, as well as the noun. The sense is, to ojien by receding, or to yield and be- come lax, and hence weak. FAG'OT, Ji. [W.fagod; Gr.^xiiXor, con- nected with W. fag, that which unites or meets ; fagiad, a gathering round a point ; Scot, faik, to fold, to grasp ; fake, in sea- men's language, a coil ; allied to Sax. fce- gan, gefegan, to unite. See Fadge. The sense is a bundle or collection, like pack.]

    1. A bundle of sticks, twigs or small branches of trees, used for fuel, or for raising bat- teries, filling ditches, and other purposes in fortification. The French use fascine, from the h. fascis, a bundle; a term now adopted in English.

    2. A person hired to appear at musters in a


    full and hide the deficiency. Encyc.

    FAG'OT, V. t. To tie together; to bind in a bundle ; to collect promiscuously.

    Dry den. F'AHLERZ, n. Gray copper, or gray cop- per ore, called by Jameson tctrahedral

    F A I

    F A I

    F A I

    roppev pyrite. This mineral is easily bro ken, ami its fracture usually uneven, but sometimes a little conchoidal. It is found amorphous and in regular crystals.


    F'AHLUNITE, n. [from Fahlun, in Swe- den.]

    Automalite, a subspecies of octahedral co- rundum, lire.

    FAIL, V. i. [Fr. faillir ; W. faelu, or paU. and aballu ; Scot. faUye ; It. fallire ; Sj). falir, /altar ; Port. /attar ; L. /a«o,- Ir. Jeallam ; Gr. ^liXiu, ^njxou, whence tfalAu ; D. fiilen, faalen ; G. fehlen ; Sw. fda ; Dan. ftjler ; Arm. fallaat, ftllel, whence fallom, wickedness. Rug. felony. It seems to be allied to fall, fallow, pale, and man other words. See Class Bl. No. C. 7. i 13. 18. 21. 28.]

    1. To become deficient; to be insuflicient; to cease to be abundant for supply ; or to be entirely wanting. We say, in a dry season, the springs and streams/ai7, or are failing, before they are entirely exhaust- ed. VVe say also, the springsyui7crf, wlicn they entirely ceased to flow. Crops fait wholly or partially.

    2. To decay ; to decline ; to sink ; to be d minished. We say of a sick person, his strength fail^ daily.

    3. To decline ; to decay ; to sink ; to become weaker; as, the patientyazVs every hour.

    4. To be e.vtinct ; to cease ; to be entirely wanting ; to be no longer produceil.

    Help, Lord, for the godly man ce,i

    5. To be entirely exhausted ; to be wanting; to cease from supply.

    Money failed in the land of Egjpt. Gen. xlvii. C>. To cease ; to ; to be lost.

    Lest the remembrance of )iis grief shou)d/a!7. Addison.

    7. To die.

    They shall all/ui7 together. Isaiah xxxi.

    8. To decay ; to decline ; as, the sight /ai7s in old age.

    9. To become deficient or wanting ; as, the heart or the cour&ge fails.

    10. To miss ; not to produce the effect. The experiment was made with care, but/ot7- erf, or failed to produce the effect, or failed of the effect.

    11. To be deficient in duty; to omit or ne- glect. The debtor/oi^erf to fulfil his prom- ise.

    12. To miss ; to miscarry ; to be frustrated or disappointed. The enemy attacked the fort, but failed in his design, or failed of success.

    1.3. To be neglected ; to fall short ; not to be executed. The promises of a man of prob- ity seldom /atZ.

    The soul or the spirit_/ai7^,-when a per- son is discouraged. The eyes fail, when the desires and expectations are long de- layed, and tlie person is disappointed.

    14. To become insolvent or bankrupt. When merchants and traders fail, they arc said to become bankrupt. When oth- er men /at7, they are said to become insol- vent.

    FAIL, r. I. To desert ; to disappoint ; to cease or to neglect or omit to afford aid,

    . supply or strength. It is said, fortune nev-

    er /«i7j; the brave. Our friends sometimes yat7 us, when we most need them. Tli

    aged attempt to walk, when their limbs fail them. In bold enterprises, courage

    should never fail the hero.

    2. To omit ; not to perform. The inventive God, who never faih his part


    3. To be wanting to.

    There shall never fail thee a man on the throne. 1 Kings ii. [In the transitive use of this verb, there is really an ellipsis of from or to, or other word. In strictness, the verb is not trans- itive, and the passive participle is, I be lieve, never used.] FAIL, n. Omis.sion ; non-performance.

    He will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites. Josh. iii. Miscarriage; failure; deficience ; want;

    death, [/(i these senses little used.]

    FA'ILANCE, n. Fault; failure. Obs.

    FA'ILING, ppr. Becoming deficient or in sufficient; becoming weaker; decaying;; dechning ; omitting ; not executing or per- forming ; miscarrying ; neglecting ; want- ing ; becomin" bankrupt or insolvent.

    FA'ILING, n. The act of failing; deficien- cy ; imperfection ; lapse ; fault. Failings. in a moral sense, are minor faults, pro- ceeding rather from weakness of intellect or from carelessness, than from bad mo- tives. But the word is often abusively ap- plied to vices of a grosser kind.

    2. The act of failing or becoming insolvent,

    FA'ILDRE, n. fa'ilyur. A failing; defi- cience ; cessation of supply, or total defect as the failure of springs or streams ; fail ure of rain ; failure of crops.

    2. Omission ; non-performance ; as the/at7 ure of a promise; a man's failure in tlie execution of a trust. Decay, or defect from decay ; as the fail ure of memory or of sight.

    4. A breaking, or becoming insolvent. At the close of a war, the prices of commodities fall, and immmerable_/ui7urej succeed.

    .5. Afaihng; a slight fault. [Little used.]

    FAIN, a. [Sax. fagen,fcegan, glad ; fagnian, Goth.faginon, to rejoice ; Sv/.fagen. Class Bg. No. 3. 43. 77.]

    1. Glad ; pleased ; rejoiced. But the appro- priate sense of the word is, glad or pleased to do something under some kind of ne cessity ; that is, glad to evade evil or se cure good. Thus, says Locke, " The learn ed Castalio was fain to make trenches at Basil, to keep himself from starving." This appropriation of the word, which is mod- ern, led Dr. Johnson into a mistake in de- fining the word. The ■ proper significa- tion is glad, joyful.

    FAIN, adv. Gladly ; with joy or pleasure. He would fain flee out of his hand. Job xxvii.

    He would fain have filled his belly husks. Luke xv.

    FAIN. I', i. To wish or desire. [Xot used.]

    FA'INING, ppr. Wishing ; desiring fondly, In his faining eye. Spenser

    FAINT, a. [Ir. faine, a weakening ; fann. weak; fanntais, weakness, inchnation to faint ; anbhfaine, fainting ; Fr. faineant, idle, sluggish. This word is perhaps alli- ed to Fr. faner, to fade, wither, decay, to

    make hay, /oi)i, L.fmium; and to vain,

    L. vanus, whence to vanish, Ar. ^-jii

    fani, to, to fail, Eng. to wane, Sax. fynig, musty. Class Bn. No. 2,5.]

    1. Weak ; languid ; inclined to swoon ; as, to be rendered faint by excessive evacua- tions.

    j2. \\Veak; feeble; languid; exhausted; as

    I faint with fatigue, hunger or thirst.

    3. Weak, as color ; not bright or vivid ; tiot

    I strong; as a faint color; a faint red or

    I blue ; a faint light.

    |4. Feeble ; weak, as sound ; not loud ; as a faint sound ; a faint voice.

    .5. Imperfect ; feeble ; not striking ; as a faint resemblance or image.

    G. Cowardly; timorous. A /ainHieart nev- er wins a fair lady.

    7. Feeble ; not vigorous ; not active ; as a faint resistance ; n faint exertion.

    8. Dejected ; depressed ; dispirited. My heart is faint. Lam. I.

    FAINT, V. i. To lose the animal functions; to lose strength and color, and become senseless and motionless; to swoon ; some- times with away. He fainted for loss of blood.

    On hearing the honor intended her, she fainted away. Guardian.

    2. To become feeble ; to decline or fail in strength and vigor ; to be weak.

    If I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will/ain( by the way. Mark viii.

    3. To sink into dejection ; to lose courage or spirit.

    Let not your hearts /ajn(. Deut. xx. If thou faint in the day of adversity, thy strength is small. Prov. xxiv.

    4. To decay ; to disappear ; to vanish. Gilded clouds, while we gaze on them, faint

    before the eye. Pope.

    FAINT, V. t. To deject; to depress; to weaken. [Unusual.] Shak.

    FAINTHE.\\RTED, a. Cowardly; timor- ous ; dejected ; easily depressed, or yield- ing to fear.

    Fear not, neither iie fainthearted. Is. vii.

    FAINTHEARTEDLY, adv. In a cowardly

    FAINTHEARTEDNESS, n. Cowardice ; timorousness; want of courage.

    FA'INTING, ppr. Falling into a swoon ; failing ; losing strength or courage ; be- coming feeble or timid.

    FA'INTING, »i. A temjjorary loss of strength, color and respiration ; syncope ; dehquium ; leipothymy ; a swoon.


    FA'INTISH, a. Slightly faint.

    FA'INTISHNESS, n.'\\ slight degree of faintness. Arbuthnot.

    FA'INTLING, a. Timorous; feeble-mind- ed. [^rot used.] Arbuthnot.

    FA'INTLY, adv. In a feeble, languid man- ner ; without vigor or activity ; as, to at- tack or defend/atn%.

    2. With a feeble flame ; as, a torch burns faintly.

    3. With a feeble light; as, the candle burns faintly.

    4. With little force ; as, to breathe/ajn%.

    5. Without force of representation ; imper- fectly ; as, to describe faintly what wc have seen.

    F A I

    li. Ill a low tone ; witli a feeble voice ; as,

    to speak faintly. 7. Without spirit or courage ; timorously. He/aintly now declines the fatal strife.

    Denham FA'INTNESS, n. The state of being faint ;

    loss of strength, color and respiration. 2. Feebleness; languor; want of strength.

    Hooke. . :X Inactivity; want of vigor. Spenser}

    4. Feebleness, as of color or light. j

    a. Feebleness of representation; as faintness]

    of description. G. Feebleness of mind; tiniorousness ; de- jection ; irresolution.

    I will send a faintness into Uieir hearts. Lev. xxvi. FAINTS, 71. plu. The gross fetid oil remain-i ing after distillation, or a weak spirituous liquor that runs from the still in rectifyingi the low wines after the proof spirit is; drawn off; also, the last runnings of all; spirits distilled by the alembic.

    Encyc. Edwards, fV. Iiid.^ FA'INTY, a. Weak ; feeble ; languid.

    Dryden.' FAIR, a. [Sax. fceger; Sw.fager; Daii./a ver. If the sense is primarily to open, toi clear, to separate, this word may belong to the root of Sw./«;a, Dan. fejer, D.veeg- en, G. fegen, to sweep, scour, furbish.] 1. Clear; free from spots; free from a dark liue ; white ; as a fair skin ; a fair com- plexion. Hence, 1. Beautiful ; handsome ; properly, having a handsome face.

    Thou art a fair woman to look upon. Gen xii. Hence,

    3. Pleasing to the eye ; handsome orbeauti fid in general.

    Thus was he fair in his greatness, in tliej length of his branches. Ezek. xxxi. !

    4. Clear ; pure ; free from feculence or e\\-\\ traneous matter ; as fair water. j

    .5. Clear ; not cloudy or overcast ; as fair weather ; a fair sky. j

    li. Favorable; prosperous; blowing in a di- rection towards the place of destination ; as a fair wind at sea.

    7. Open ; direct, as a way or passage. You are in a fair way to promotion. Hence, likely to succeed. He stands as fair to succeed as any man.

    .S. Open to attack or access; unobstructed: as a fair mark ; a fair butt ; fair in sight • in/air sight ; afair view.

    !1. Open ; frank ; honest ; hence, equal ; just ; equitable. My friend is a fair man ; his offer is fair ; his propositions are /air honorable.

    10. Not effected by insidious or unlawful; methods ; not foul.

    He died a fair and natural death. Temple

    11. Frank ; candid ; not sophistical or insid ious; as a /air disputant.

    12. Honest; honorable; mild; opposed to insidious and compulsory ; as, to accom phsh a thing by fair means.

    13. Frank ; civil ; pleasing ; not harsh.

    When fair words and good counsel will no prevail on us, we must be frighted Jnto

    F A I

    1.5. Liberal: not narrow; as a fair liveh- hood. Carew.

    16. Plain; legible; as, the letter is written in a fair hand,

    F A I

    8. Completely ; without deficience. His an- tagonist fought till he was fairly defeated.

    9. Softly ; gently. Milton. -'—&8S, n.


    Clearness ; freedom from

    17. Free from stain or blemish ; unspotted ; spots or blemishes ; whiteness ; as the

    untarnished ; as a fair character or fame, fairness of skin or complexion. FAIR, adv. Openly ; frankly ; civilly ; com- 2. Clearness ; purity ; as the fairness of aisantly. I water.



    14. Equitable ; just ; merited.

    His doom is /air, That dust I am, and shall to dust return.


    One of the company spoke liim Jair.


    2. Candidly ; honestly ; equitably. He prom- sed fair.

    3. Happily ; successfully. Now fair befall thee. Shak.

    4. On good terms ; as, to keep/air with the world ; to stand fair with one's compan

    To bid fair, is to be likely, or to have a fair

    prospect. Fair and square, just dealing ; honesty. FAIR, n. Elliptically, a fair woman handsome female. Tlie fair, the female sex. 2. Fairness ; applied to things or persons

    [Mot in ttse.] FAIR, Ji. [Fr. foire ; W. fair ; Artn. foar foer.feur, or for ; 1,. forum, or feria. The It. flera, and Sp. feria, a fair, are the L. feri(e, a holiday, a day exempt from labor ; Q.feier, whence /eicni, to rest from labor. 11' fair is from forum, it may coincide in or- igin with Gr. itofivu, f/t«opti>o^at, to trade whence tfutopiov, emporium, the primary sense of which is to pass. In Norman French we find fair awAfeire. IC fair is from/eriffi, it is so called Irom being held in places where the wakes or feasts at the dedication of churches were held, or from the feasts themselves. It is a fact that Sundays were formerly market days.] A stated market in a particular town or city ; a stated meeting of buyers and lers for trade. A fair is annual or more frequent. The privilege of holding fairs is granted by the king "or suprenie power. Among the most celebrated fairs in Eu- rope are those of Francfort and Leipsic in Germany ; of Novi in the Milanese ; of Riga and Archangel in Russia; of Lyons and St. Germain '^in France. In Great Britain many towns enjoy this privilege. Encyc. FA'IR-HAND, a. Having a fair appearance. Shak. FA'IRING, n. A present given at afair.

    Gay FA'IRLY, adv. Beautifully; handsomely [Little used.]

    2. Commodiously ; conveniently ; as a town fairly situated 'for foreign trade.

    3. Frankly ; honestly ; justly ; equitably without disguise, fraud or prevarication. The question was fairly stated and argued Let us dea\\ fairly with all men.

    4. Openly ; ingenuously ; plainly. Let ui deal fairly with ourselves or our own hearts.

    5. Candidly. I interpret /air/;i/ your design. Dryden

    Without perversion or violence ; as, ar inference may he fairly deduced from th( premises. 7. Without blots ; in plain letters ; plainly legibly ; as an instrument or record fairly written.

    3. Freedom from stain or blemish ; as the /ainiesjf of character or reputation.

    4. Beauty ; elegance ; as the fairness of form.

    5. Frankness; candor; hence, honesty ; in- genuousness ; as faii-ness in trade.

    6. Openness ; candor ; freedom from dis- guise, insidiousness or prevarication ; as the fairness of an argument.

    7. Equality of terms ; equity ; as the fair- ness of a contract.

    8. Distinctness ; freedom from blots or ob- scurity ; as the fairness of hand-writing ; the fairness of a copy.

    FAIR-SPOKEN, a. Using fair speech ; bland; civil; courteous; plausible.

    Alius, di fair-spoken man. Hooker.

    FA'IRY, n. [G. fee ; Fr. fee, whence fier, to enchant, feerie, a fairy land ; It. fata. The origin of this word is not obvious, and the radical letters are uncertain. The conjectures of Baxter, Jamieson and oth- ers throw no satisfactory light on the sub-

    1. A. fay ; an imaginary being or spirit, sup- posed to assume a human form, dance in meadows, steal infants and play a variety of pranks. [See Elf and Demon.]

    Locke. Pope.

    2. An enchantress. Shak.

    Fairy of the mine, an imaginary being sup- posed to inhabit mines, wandering about in the drifts and chambers, always em-, ployed in cutting ore, turning the wind- lass, &c., yet effecting nothing. The Ger- mans believe in two species ; one fierce and malevolent ; the other gentle. [See Cobalt.] Encyc.

    Fairy ring or circle, a phenomenon observed in fields, vulgarly supposed to be caused by fairies in their dances. This circle is of two kinds ; one about seven yards in diameter, containing a round bare path, a foot broad, with green grass in the mid- dle; the other of different size, encompas- sed with grass. Encyc. FATRY, a. Belonging to fairies ; as fah-y land. Shak. 2. Given by fairies; as fairy money or fa- vors. Dryden. Locke. FA'IRYLIKE, a. Imitating tlie manner of fairies. Shak. FA'IRYSTONE, n. A stone found in grav- el pits. Johnson. The fossil echinite, abundant in chatk ))its. Cyc. FAITH, n. [W. fyz ; Arm, fei: ; L. fdes ; It. fede ; Port, and Sp. fe ; Fr. foi ; Gr. rtifti ; L. fido, to trust ; Gr. «f iSu, to per- suade, to draw towards any thing, to conciliate ; TdiSo/jai, to believe, to obey. In the Greek Lexicon of Hederic it is said, the primitive signification of the verb is to bind and draw or lead, as rtjiaa signifies a rope or cable, as does jtsio^o. But this remark is a little incorrect. The sense of the verb, from which that of rope

    F A I

    F A I

    F A L

    and binding is derived, is to strain, to draw, and thus to bind or make fast. A rope or cable is tliat wlii<'h makes fast. Qh. Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. noa. Class Bd. No. 16.] . Belief; tlie assent of the mind to the truth of wliat is declared by another, resting on his authority and veracity, without other evidence; the judgment that what anoth- er states or testifies is the truth. I have strong failh or no faith in the testimony of a witness, or in what a historian nar- rates.

    2. The assent of the mind to the truth of a proposition advanced by another; belief, on probable evidence of any kind.

    3. In theology, the assent of the mind or un- derstanding to the truth of what God has revealed. Simple belief of the scriptures, of the being and perfections of God, and of the existence, character and doctrines of Christ, founded on the testimony of the sacred writers, is called historical or specu- lative faith ; a faith little distinguished from the belief of the existence and achiev- inents of Alexander or of Cesar.

    4. Evangelical, justifying, or saving faith, is the assent of the mind to the truth of di- vine revelation, on the authority of God's testimony, accompanied with a cordial as- sent of the will or approbation of the heart ; an entire confidence or trust in God's character and declarations, and in the character and doctrines of Christ, with an unreserved surrender of the will to his guidance, and dependence on his merits for salvation. In other words, that firm belief of God's testimony, and of the truth of the gospel, which influences the will, and leads to an entire reliance ou Christ for salvation.

    Being justified by faith. Rom. v.

    Vfithoai faith it is impossible to please God. Heb. xi.

    For we walk by faith, and not by sight. 2 Cor. V.

    With the heart man believeth to righteous- ness. Rom. X.

    The faith of the gospel is diat emotion of the mind, which is called trust or confidence, exer- cised towards the moral character of God, and particularly of (he Savior. Dwis;ht.

    Faith is an affectionate practical confidence in the testimony of God. /. Haives.

    Faith is a firm, cordial belief in the veracity of God, in all the declarations of his word ; or a full ami affectionate confidence in the certainty of those things which God has declared, and because he has declared them. L. TVoods.

    Tt. The object of belief; a doctrine or sys- tem of doctrines believed ; a system of re- vealed truths received by christians.

    They heard only, that he who persecuted us in times past, now preacheth tlie faith which once he destroyed. Gal. i. 0. The promises of God, or his truth and faithfiilness.

    Shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect ? Rom. Hi.

    7. An open profession of gospel truth.

    Your faith is spoken of throughout lli whole world. Rom. i.

    8. A persuasion or belief of the lawfidness of things indifferent.

    Hast thou faith 7 Have it to thyself before God. Rom. xiv.

    9. Faithfulness ; fidelity ; a strict adherence to duty and fulfillmeut of promises.

    Her failing, while her faith to me remains, I would conceal. Mtltun.

    Children in whom is no faith. Deut. xxxii.

    10. Word or honor pledged ; promise given ; fidelity. He violated his plighted /aitt.

    For you alone i broke my faith with injured Palamon.


    11. Sincerity; honesty; veracity; faitliful- ness. We ought, in good faith, to fulfill all our engagements.

    12. Credibility or truth. [Unusual.] The faith of the foregoing narrative.


    FA'ITII-BREACH, n. Breach of fidelity ;

    lisloyalty; perfidy. Shak.

    FA'ITHED, a. Honest ; sincere. [.Mot

    used.] Shak.

    FA'ITHFUL, a. Firm in adherence to the

    truth and to the duties of religion.

    Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. Rev. ii.

    2. Firmly adhering to duty ; of true fidelity ; loyal ; true to allegiance ; as a faithful subject.

    3. Constant in the performance of duties or services ; exact in attending to commands as a faithful servant.

    Observant of compact, treaties, contracts, vows or other engagements; true to one'.- word. A government should be faithful to its treaties ; individuals, to their word.

    5. True ; exact ; in conformity to the letter and spirit ; as a faithful execution of will.

    (5. True to the marriage covenant ; as a faithful wife or husband.

    7. Conformable to truth ; as a faithful nar- rative or representation.

    8. Constant ; not fickle ; as a faithful lover or friend.

    9. True; worthy of belief 2. Tim. ii. FA'ITIIFULLY, adv. In a faithful manner;

    with good faith.

    2. With strict adherence to allegiance and duty ; applied to sutjects.

    3. With strict observance of promises, vows, covenants or duties ; without failure of performance ; honestly ; exactly. The treaty or contract was'faitbfuUy executed.

    4. Sincerely ; with strong assurances ; he faithfully promised.

    Honestly ; truly ; without defect, fraud, trick or ambiguity. The battle was faith- fully described or represented.

    They suppose the nature of things to be faithfully signified by their names. South.

    6. Confidently ; steadily. Skak. FA'ITHFULNESS, n. Fidelity; loyalty;'

    firm adherence to allegiance and duty ;l as the faithfulness of a subject.

    2. Truth; veracity; as tire faithfulness of God.

    3. Strict adherence to injunctions, and to the duties of a station ; as the failhfuliuss of servants or ministers.

    4. Strict performance of promises, vows or covenants ; constancy in affection ; as the faithfulness of a husband or wife.

    FAITHLESS, a. Without belief in the re vealed truths of religion ; unbelieving. O faithless generation. Matt. xvii.

    2. Not believing ; not giving credit to.

    3. Not adhering to allegiance or duty ; dis loyal; perfidious; treacherous ; aa a faith- less subject.

    4. Not true to a master or employer; neg- lectful ; as a faithless servant.

    5. Not true to the marriage covenant; false ; as afailUess husband or wife.

    6. Not observant of promises.

    7. Deceptive.

    Vondfr/ai/A/ej» phantom. Goldsmith.

    FA'ITULESSNESS, n. Unbelief, as to re- vealed religion.

    2. Perfidy ; treachery ; disloyalty ; as in sub- jects.

    3. Violation of promises or covenants ; in- constancy ; as of husband or wife.

    FA'ITOUR, n. [Norm, from L. factor.] An evildoer; a scoundrel ; a mean fellow. Obs. Spenser.

    FAKE, n. [Scut, faik, to fold, a fold, a lay- er or stratum ; perhaps Sw. vika, vickla, to fold or involve. The sense of fold may be to lay, to fall, or to set or throw together, and this word may belong to Sax. fcegan, fegan, to unite, to suit, to fadgo, that is, to set or lay together.]

    One of the circles or windings of a cable or hawser, us it lies in a coil; a single turn or coil. Mar. Diet.

    PAKIR, ) [This word signifies in Ara-

    F".\\QU1R, J ■ bic, a poor man ; in Ethiop- ic, an iHterpreter.]

    A monk in India. The fakirs subject them- selves to severe austerities and mortifi- cations. Some of them condemn them- selves to a standing posture all their lives, supported only by a stick or rope under their arm-pits. Some mangle their bodies with scourges or knive.s. Others wander about in companies, telling fortunes, and these are said to be arrant villains.


    FALCA'DE, n. [L. falx, a sickle or sythe.] A horse is said to make a falcade, when he throws himself on his haunches two or three times, as in very quick curvets ; that is, a falcade is a bending very low.


    FALG'ATK, > [L. /afca to, from /air, a

    FALCATED, ^ "• sickle, sythe or reaping- hook.]

    Hooked ; bent like a sickle or sythe ; an epi- thet apiilied to the new moon. Bailey

    FALCA'TION, n. Crookedness ; a bending ill the form of a sickle. Brown.

    FAL'CHION, n. fal'chun. a is pronounced as in fall. [Fr. fauchon, from L. falx, a reaping-hook.]

    A short crooked sword ; a cimiter.


    FAL'CIFORJI, a. [L.falx, a reaping-hook, and form.]

    In the shape of a sickle ; resembling a reap- ing-hook.

    FAL'eON, )i. sometimes pron./aiccon. [Fr. faucon; It. falcons; L.falco,a hawk; W. gwcdc, a crested one, a hero, a hawk, that which rises or towers. The falcon is prob- ably so named from its curving beak or talons.]

    1. A hawk ; but appropriately, a hawk train- ed to sport, as in falconry, which see. It is said that this name is, by sportsmen, given to the female alone ; for the male is smaller, weaker and less courageous, and is therefore called tircelet or tarsel.


    This term, in ornithology, is applied to

    a division of the genus Faico, with a short

    F A L

    F A L

    F A L

    iiooked beak and very long wings, the strongest armed and most courageous spe- cies, and tlierefore used in falconry.

    Cuvier, Ed. Encyc.

    2. A sort of cannon, whose diameter at the bore is five inches and a quarter, and car- rying shot of two pounds and a half.


    FAL'CONER, n. [Fr. fauconnier.] A per- son who breeds and trains hawks for ta- king wild fowls; one who follows the sport of fowling with hawks. Johnson.

    FAL'eONET, n. [Fr. falcone.tte.] A small cannon or piece of ordnance, whose diam- eter at the bore is four inches and a quar- ter, and carrying shot of one pound and a quarter. Harris.

    FAL'€ONRY, n. [Fr. fauconnerie, from L. falco, a hawk.]

    1. The art of training hawks to the exercise of hawking.

    3. The practice of taking wild fowls by means of hawks.

    FALD'AGE, n. a as in all. [W./a/rf, afold ; Goth. faldan; Sax. fealdan, to fold; Law h.fatdagium.]

    In England, a privilege which anciently sev- eral lords reserved to themselves of setting np folds for sheep, in any fields within their manors, the better to manure them. Harris.

    FALD'FEE, Jf. A fee or composition paid| anciently by tenants for the privilege ofj faldage. Didi

    FALD'ING, n. A kind of coarse cloth. Obs. Chaticer.

    FALD'STOOL, n. [fald or fold and stool.] A kind of stool placed at the south side of the altar, at which the kings of England kneel at their coronation. Johnson

    2. The chair of a bishop inclosed by the rail hig of the altar.

    3. An arm-chair or foldiiig chair, .flshmole. FALL, V. {. pret. fill ; pp. fallen. [Sax.

    feallan; G. fallen; D. vallen ; Sw. falUi Dan. falder; allied probably to Jj.fallo, to

    fail, to deceive, Gr. afa^^M ; Sp. hallar, to find, to fall on ; Fr. affaler, to lower. Set Class Bl. No. 18. 28. 43. 49. 53. Fall co- incides exactly with the Shemitic ^3J Heb. Ch. Syr. and Sam. to fall. Fail agrees better with the Heb. '73J, and San, but these words may have had one prim itive root, the sense of which was to move, to recede, to pass. As these words are unquestionably the same in the Shemitic and Japhetic languages, they afford deci- sive evidence that the i or "first letter of the Shemitic words is a prefix. The Chaldee sense of S3J is to defile, to make

    foul. See Foul. The same verb in Ar.

    J>A J signifies to shoot, to drive or throw an arrow, Gr. fia>.\\u.'\\

    1. To drop from a higher place ; to descend by the power of gravity alone. Kam falls from the clouds ; a man falls from his horse ; ripe fruits fall from trees ; an ox

    falls into a pit.

    I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. Luke X.

    2. To drop from an erect posture.

    I/eH at his feet to worship him. Rev. xix.

    3. To disembogue ; to pass at the outlet ; to flow out of its chiumcl into a pond, lake or]

    sea, as a river. The Rhone falls into the Mediterranean sea. The Danube /aZ/s in to the Euxine. The Mississippi falls int( the gulf of Mexico.

    4. To depart from the faith, or from recti tilde; to apostatize. Adamfellhy eating the forbidden fruit.

    Labor to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. Heb

    5. To die, particularly by violence.

    Ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall faU before you by the sword. Lev. xxvi. A thousand shall fall at thy side. Ps. xci.

    6. To come to an end suddenly ; to vanish to perish.

    The greatness of these Irish lords suddenly fell and vanished. Dames.

    7. To be degraded ; to sink into disrepute or disgrace ; to be plunged into misery as, to fall from an elevated station, or from a prosperous state.

    8. To decline in power, wealth or glory ; to sink into weakness; to be overthi ruined. This is the renowned Tyre ; but oh, how fallen.

    Heaven and earth will witness. If Rome niust/aW, that we are innocent.


    9. To pass into a worse state than the for- mer ; to come ; as, to fall into difficulties ; to fall under censure or imputation ; to fall into erroror absurdity ; to/o/Hnto a snare. In these and similar phrases, the sense of suddenness, accident or ignorance is often implied; but not always.

    10. To sink ; to be lowered. The mercury in a thennometer rises and falls with the increase and diminution of heat. The water of a river rises and falls. The tide rails.

    . To decrease ; to be diminished in weight or value. The price of goods falls with plenty and rises with scarcity. Pliny tolLs us, the as fell from a pound to tvvo oun- ces in the first Punic war. Arbuthnot.

    12. To sink ; not to amount to the full.

    The greatness of finances and revenue doth fall under computation. Bacon.

    13. To be rejected ; to sink into disrepute. This book must stand or fall with thee.


    14. To decline from violence to calmness, from intensity to remission. The wind falls and a calm succeeds.

    At length her (my fell. Dri/den.

    15. To pass into a new state of body or mind ; to become ; as, to fall asleep ; to falli distracted ; to fall sick ; to fall into rage or ])assion ; to fall in love ; to fall into temptation.

    1. To sink into an air of dejection, discon- tent, anger, sorrow or shame ; applied to the couiitenance or look.

    Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. Gen.iv.

    I have observed of late thy looks are fallen. Addison. 17. To happen ; to befall ; to come.

    Since this fortune /oHs to you. Shak.

    8. To light on ; to come by chance.

    The Romans/ea on this "model by chance.


    9. To come ; to rush on ; to assail.

    Fear and dread shall/aH on them. Ex. xv. And (ear fell on them all. Acts xix. 20. To come ; to arrive.

    The vernal equinox, which at the Nicene council fell on the 21st of March, falls now about ten days sooner. Holder.

    21. To come unexpectedly.

    It happened this evening that we fell into a pleasing walk. Addison.

    22. To begin with haste, ardor or vehe- mence ; to rush or hurry to. They fell to blows.

    The mixt muIlifude/eH to lusting. Num. xi.

    23. To pass or be transferred by chance, lot, distribution, inheritance or "otherwise, as possession or pro|ierty. The estate or the province/e« to his brother. The kingdom

    Jfetl into the hands of his rival. A large estate fell to his heirs.

    24. To become the property of; to belong or ppertain to.

    If to her share some female errors fall. Look in her face, and you'll forget them all. Pope.

    25. To be dropped or uttered carelessly. Some expressions fell from him. An un- guarded expression/cM from his lips. Not a word fell from him on the subject.

    26. To sink ; to languish ; to become feeble or faint. Our hopes and fears rise and fall with good or ill success.

    27. To be brought forth. Take care of lambs when they first fall. Mortimer.

    28. To issue ; to terminate.

    Sit still, my daughter, till thou knowest how the matter will /aH. Ruth iii.

    To fall aboard of, to strike against another ship.

    To fall astern, to move or be driven back- ward ; or to remain behind. A ship falls astern by the force of a current, or when outsailed by another.

    To fall away, to lose fJesh ; to become lean or emaciated ; to pine.

    2. To renounce or desert allegiance ; to re- volt or rebel.

    5. To renounce or desert the faith ; to apos- tatize ; to sink into wickedness.

    These for awhile believe, and in time of temptation /aH aioay. Luke viii.

    4. To perish ; to be ruined ; to be lost. How can the soul— /a// away into nothing.


    5. To decline gradually ; to fade ; to lan- guish, or become faint.

    One color falls away by just degrees, and another rises insensibly. Addison.

    To fall back, to recede ; to give way. 2. To fail of performing a promise or pur- pose ; not to fiilfill. To fall calm, to cease to blow ; to become

    calm. To fall down, to prostrate one's self in wor- hip.

    Alt nations shall fall down before him. Ps. Ixxii. 2. To sink ; to come to the ground.

    Down fell the beauteous youth. Dryden.

    •3. To bend or bow as a suppliant. Isaiah

    xlv. 4. To sail or pass towards the mouth of a

    iver, or other outlet. To fall foul, to attack ; to make an assaidt. To fall from, to recede from ; to depart ; not to adhere ; as, to fall from an agreement or engagement. 2. To depart from allegiance or duty ; to re- volt. To fall in, to concur; to agree with. The ire falls in with popular opinion.

    F A 1.

    •2. To comply ; to yiekl to.

    You will find it ilifficvilt to peri men io fall in with vour jjiojects.

    3. To come in ; to join ; to enter. Fall into the ranks ; fall in on tbe right.

    To fall in iintk, to meet, as a ship; also,

    I.ovc cools, friendship falh off, brothers di- vide. Shair 2. To perish ; to die away. Wonls fall off by disuse.

    , To apostatize ; to forsake ; to withdraw from the faith, or from allegiance or duty, Those captive tribes /e« off From God to worship calves. Milton

    4. To forsake ; to abandon. His subscribers fell off.

    5. To drop. Fruits fall off when ripe.

    0. To depreciate ; to depart from former ex cellence ; to become less valuable or in teresting. The magazine or the review faUs off; it has fallen off.

    7. To deviate or depart from the course di- rected, or to which the head of the shi| was before directed ; to fall to leeward.

    To fall on, to begin suddenly and eagerly. Fall on, and try thy appetite to eat. Dryden

    2. To begin an attack ; to assault ; to assail. Fall on, fall oji, and hear him not. Dryden.

    3. To drop on ; to descend on.

    To fall out, to quarrel ; to begin to contend. A soul exasperated in \\\\\\s, falls out With every thing, its friend, itself—

    Mdison. 2. To happen ; to befall ; to chance.

    There fell out a bloody quarrel betwixt the

    frogs and the mice. V Estranf^e .

    To fall over, to revolt ; to desert from one

    side to another. 2. To fall beyond. Shak.

    To fall short, to be deficient. The coin falls

    short. We all fall short in duty. To fall to, to begin hastily and eagerly. Fall to, with eager joy, on homely food.

    Dryden. 2. To apply one's self to. He will never af- ter fall to labor.

    They fell to raising money, under pretense of

    the relief of Ireland. ' Clarendon

    To fall under, to come under, or within the

    limits of; to be subjected to. They fell

    under the jurisdiction of the emperor,

    2. To come under ; to become the subject of This point did not fall under the cog- nizance or deliberations of the court. These things do not fall under human sight or observation.

    3. To come within ; to be ranged or reck- oned with. These substances /aW under a different class or order.

    To fall upon, to attack. [See to fall on.]

    a. To


    II pt.

    3. To rush against.

    Fall primarily denotes descending motion, either in a perpendicular or inclined direc lion, and in most of its apphcations, im- plies literally or figuratively velocity, haste, suddenness or violence. Its use is so va rious and so much diversified by modify ing words, that it is not easy to enumerate its senses in all its applications.

    FALL, V. t. To let fall ; to drop. And fall

    F A L

    tliy edgi'less sword. I am willing to full. this urgument. Shak. Dryden

    [This application is obsolete.]

    2. To sink ; to depress ; as, to raise or fall the voice.

    3. To diminish ; to lessen or lower ; as, tt fall the price of commodities. [LittU used.]

    4. To bring forth ; as, to fall lambs. [Little used.] Shak

    .^. To fell ; to cut down ; as, to fall a tree [This use is now common in America, and felt and fall are j)robably from a com- mon root.]

    FALL, n. The act of dropping or descend ing from a liigher to a lower place by gravity; descent; an a. fall from a horse or from the yard of a ship.

    2. The act of dropping or tutnbling from an erect posture. He was walking on ice and had a fall.

    3. Death ; destruction ; overthrow.

    Our fathers had a great fall before our ene- mies. Jxidith.

    4. Ruin ; destruction.

    They conspire thy fall. Denham.

    5. Downfall; degradation; loss of greatness or office ; as the fall of cardinal Wolscy.

    Behold thee glorious only in thy fall. Puju. G. Declension of greatness, power or (lorniii- ion ; ruin ; as the fall of the Roman em- pire.

    7. Diminution; decrease of price or value; depreciation ; as the fall of prices; the fall of rents; the /a/< of interest.

    8. Declination of sound ; a sinking of tone ; cadence ; as the fall of the voice at the close of a sentence.

    9. Declivity ; the descent of land or a hill ; a slope. Bacon.

    10. Descent of water ; a cascade ; a cata- ract ; a rush of water down a steep place ; usually in the plural ; sometimes in the singular; as the falls of Niagara, or the Mohawk ; the fall of the Hoosatonuc at Canaan. Fall is applied to a perpendicu- lar descent, or to one that is very steep. When the descent is moderate, we name it rapids. Custom however sometimes de- viates from this rule, and the rapids of riv- ers are catted falls.

    n. The outlet or discharge of a river or current of water into the ocean, or into a lake or pond ; as the fall of the Po into the gulf of Venice. Addison

    12. Extent of descent; the distance which any thing falls ; as, the water of a pond has a/(i(/ of five feet.

    13. Tiie fall of the leaf; the season when leaves/uM from trees ; autumn.

    14. That which falls; a falling; as a fall o( rain or snow.

    15. The act of felling or cutting down ; as thc./;r// of timber.

    1(!. Full, or till fall, hy way of distinction, the ii|insl;i.«y ; till' art of our first parents in eating ihe lorliidden fruit; also, the apos tasy of the rebellious angels.

    17. Formerly, a kind of vail. B. Jon son

    18. In seamen's language, the loose end of a tackle. _ Mar. Diet.

    19. In Great Britain, a term applied to sev- eral measures, linear, superficial and so- lid. Cyc.

    FALLA'CIOUS, a. [Fr. fallacieux ; h. fal- lar, from fallo, to deceive. See Fail.]

    F A L

    1. Deceptive ; deceiving ; deceitful ; wear- ing a false appearance; misleading; pro during error or mistake ; sophistical ; a/t- plied to things only ; as a fidlacious argu- ment or proposition ; a falUxciov.s appear- ance.

    2. Deceitful; false; not well founded ; pro- lucing disappointment ; mocking expecta- ion ; as a fallacious hope.

    FALLACIOUSLY, adv. In a fallacious maimer ; deceitfully ; sophistically ; with l)urpose or in a manner to deceive.

    We have seen how fallaciously the author lias stated the cause. Mdiaun.

    FALLA'CIOUSNESS, n. Tendency to de- ceive or tnislead ; inconclusiveness ; as the fallaciousness of an argument, or of appearances.

    FAL'LACY, n. [L. fallacia.] Deceptive or false appearance ; deceitfulness ; that which misleads the eye or the mind. De- tect the fallacy of the argument.

    2. Deception ; mistake. This appearance may be all a fallacy.

    I'll entertain the favored /oZ/acy. Shak.

    FALL'EN, pp. or a. Dropped ; descended ; dcgradrd ; decreased ; ruined.

    FAL'I.KNCV, ».. Mistake. Obs.

    IWl.L i;i!, n. One that falls.

    I'.\\1,I,1I!ILITV, n. [h. fallibilitii. See Fatliblc]

    1. Liableness to deceive ; the quality of be- ing falhble ; uncertainty ; possibility of be- ing erroneous, or of leading to mistake ; as the faUihility of an argument, of rea- soning or of testimony.

    2. Liableness to err or to be deceived in one's own judgment ; as the fallibility of men.

    FAL'LIBLK, a. [It. fallibile ; ^p. falibk ; from L.fallo, to deceive.]

    1. Liable to fail or mistake ; that may err or be deceived in judgment. All men arc


    2. Liable to error ; that may deceive. Our judgments, our faculties, our opinions are fallible ; our hopes arc fallible.

    FALL'ING, ppr. Descending; dropping; disemboguing ; ajiostatizing ; declining ; decreasing ; sinking ; coming.

    FALL'ING, ) An indenting or hol-

    FALL'ING IN, ^ " low ; opposed to rising or prominence. Addison.

    Falling atvay,

    Falling off, ae])arture from the hue or course ; declension.

    FALL'ING-SICKNESS, n. The epilepsy ; a disease in which the patient suddenly loses his senses and falls.

    FALL'ING-STAR, n. A luminous meteor, suddenly appearing and darting through the air.

    FALL'ING-STONE, )i. A stone falling from the atmosphere ; a meteorite ; an aerolite. Cyc.

    FAL'LOW, a. [Sax. falewe,falu or fealo ; D. vaal; G. /a/6, fahl ; Fr. fauve, for falve ; L. fulvus ; qu. helvus, for felvus. This word may be from the root of fail, fallo ; so called from the fading color of autumnal leaves, or from failure, wither- ing. Hence also the sense of unoccupied, applied to land, which in Spanish is bal- dio.]

    1. Pale red, or pale yellow ; as ayaWoicdeer.

    2. Unsowed ; not tilled ; left to rest after a

    F A L

    year or moio of tillage ; as faltoiv groiinJ ; Si fallow field.

    Break up youv fallow ground. Jer.iv.

    3. Left unsowed after plowing. The word is applietl to the land after plowing.

    4. Un plowed ; uncultivated.

    Tooke. Shak.

    5. Unoccupied ; neglected. [JVot in use.]

    Let the cause lie fallov>. Hudibras.

    FAL'LOW, n. Land that has lain a year or more untillcd or unseeded. It is also call- ed fallow when plowed without being sowed.

    F A L

    2. The plowing or tilling of land, without sowing it, for a season. Summer /aWotc properly conducted, has ever been found a sure method of destroying weed:

    By a complete summer fallow, liered tender and mellow. The fallow gives it ii better tilth, than can be given by a fallov' crop. Sinclair.

    A green fallout, in England, is that where land is rendered mellow and clean from weeds, by means of some green crop, as turiieps, potatoes, &c. Cyc.l

    FAL'LOW, v.i. To fade; to become yel- low. Ohs. FAL'LOW, v.«. To plow, harro%v and break land without seeding it, for the \\nir-\\ pose of destroying weeds and insects, and] rendering it mellow. It is found for the interest of the farmer to fallow cold, strong,] clayey land. FAL'L0W-€ROP, n. The crop taken from| fallowed ground. Sinclair.

    FAL'LOWED, pp. Plowed and harrowed!

    for a season, without being sown. FAL'LOW-FINCH, n. A small bird, thel

    oenanthe or wheat-car. FAL'LOWING, ppr. Plowing and harrow- ing land without sowing it. FAL'LOWING, n. The operation of plow- ing and harrowing land without sowing it. Fallowing is found to contribute to the de-|| structiou of snails and other vermin

    Sinclair.', FAL'LOWIST, n. One who favors the prac- tice of fallowing land.

    On this subject, a controversy has arisen be- tween two sects, Ihe fallowists and the anti-fal- lowists. [ Umtsual.] Sinclair.

    FAL'LOWNESS, n. A fallow state ; bar- renness ; exemption from bearing fruit,

    Substituted for another; succedaneous ; jupposititious ; as a false bottom.

    5. Counterfeit ; forged ; not genuine ; as false coin ; a. false bill or note.

    6. Not solid or sound ; deceiving expecta- tions; as a /a/se foundation.

    False and slippeiy ground. Dryden.

    7. Not agreeable to rule or propriety; as false construction in language.

    8. Not honest or just; not fair; as false play . 0. Not faithful or loyal ; treacherous ; per

    tidious; deceitful. The king's subjects may prove false to him. So we say false heart.

    10. Unfaithful ; inconstant ; as a/a/se friend ; a false lover ; false to promises and vows. The husband and wife proved /ate to each other.

    11. Deceitfid; treacherous; betraying se- crets.

    13. Counterfeit; not genuine or real; as £ false diamond.

    13. Hypocritical; feigned; made or assum ed for the purpose of deception ; as false tears ; false modesty. The man appears in false colors. The advocate gave the subject a false coloring.

    False f re, a blue flame, made by the burning of certain combustibles, in a wooden tube ; used as a signal during the night.

    Mar. Diet

    False imprisonment, the arrest and imprison- ment of a person without warrant or cause, or contrary to law ; or the unlawful de- taining of a person in custody.

    FALSER adv. Not truly ; not honestly : ■falsely. -S^ai,

    FALSE, V. t. To violate by failure of vera-

    F A L

    The prince is in no danger of being betrayed

    by the falseness, or cheated by the avarice of

    such a^ervant. Hogers.

    FALS'ER, n. A deceiver. Spenser.

    FaLSET'TO, n. [It.] A feigned voice.


    FaLS'IFIABLE, a. [from falsify.] That

    may be falsified, counterfeited or cor




    Johnson. [Fr. from falsifier.]

    city ; to deceive. 2. To defeat ; to balk ;


    perfidious. [Thefo

    Donne. FaLS'ARY, n. [See False.] A falsifier o evidence. [JVot in use.] Sheldon

    FALSE, a. [L.falsus, f\\om fallo, todeceiv Sp.falso; It. id.; Fr. faux, fausse ; Sj false ; D. valsch ; G.falsch ; Sw. and Dan. fulsk ; W.fals ; Ir. falsa. See Fall and Fail.] 1. Not true ; not conformable to fact ; ex- pressing what is contrary to that which exists, is done, said or thought. A falsi report communicates what is not done or said. A false accusation imputes to a per son what he has not done or said. A false witness testifies what is not true. A false opinion is not accorditig to truth or fact, The word is applicable to any subject, physical or moral.

    2. Not well founded ; as a false claim.

    3. Not true; not according to the lawful standard ; as a false weight or measure.

    Spcn. to evade. Ohs.

    Spenser. Hollow ; treache- "■ rous ; deceitful ; mer is not used.]


    FaLSE-HEARTEDNESS, n. Perfidious- treachery. Stillingfleet FALSEHOOD, n. fols'hood. [false and hood.]

    Contrariety or inconformity to fact or truth ; as the falsehood of a report. 2. Want of truth or veracity ; a lie ; an un true assertion.

    Want of honesty ; treachery ; deceitful ness ; perfidy. Milton.

    But falsehood is properly applied to things only. [See Falseness.] Counterfeit ; false appearance ; impos- ture. Milton. FALSELY, adv. fols'ly. In a manner con- trary to truth and fact; not truly ; as, to speak or swear /aW?/ ,• to testify /ate/j/,

    2. Treacherously ; perfidiously. Swear to me— that thou wilt not den] falsely

    with me. Gen. xxi.

    3. Erroneously ; by mistake. Smallridge Falseness, n. fols'ness. Want of intcg

    rity and veracity, either in principle or ii

    The act of making false ; a counterfeit- ing; the giving to a thing an appearance of something which it is not ; as the falsifi- cation of words. Hooker.

    2. Confutation. Broome.

    FaLSIFICA'TOR, Ji. A falsifier.

    j Bp. Morton.

    FaLS'IFIED,p;>. Counterfeited.

    FaLS'IFIER, n. One who counterfeits, or gives to a thing a deceptive appearance ; or one who makes false coin. Boyle.

    2. One who invents falsehood ; a liar. L'Estrange.

    3. One who proves a thing to be false. FaLS'IFY, v. t. [Fr. falsifier, from false.] l.To counterfeit; to forge ; to make some- thing false, or in imitation of that which is true"; as, to falsify coin.

    The Irish bards use to falsify every thing.

    Spenser. To disprove ; to prove to be false ; as, to falfify a record.

    3. To violate ; to break by falsehood ; as, to falsify one's faith or word. Sidney.

    4. To show to be unsound, insufiicientornot proof. [JVot in use.]

    His ample shield is falsified. Dryden.

    FALS'IFY, V. i. To tell lies ; to violate the

    It is universally unlawful to lie and falsify.

    South. FALS'IFYING, ppr. Counterfeiting; for- cing ; lying ; proving to be false ; viola-

    FALS'ITY,n. [h. falsitas.] Contrariety or inconformity to truth ; the quality of being false.

    Probability does not make any alteration, either in the truth or falsity of things. Soiith.

    2. Falsehood ; a lie ; a false assertion. [This sense is less proper.] GlanviUe.

    FAL'TER, v. i. [Sp. faltar, to be deficient, from falla, fault, defect, failing, from falir, to fail, /a/te, fault, defect ; Port, faltar, to want, to miss; from L./oi/o, the primary sense of which is to fall short, or to err, to miss, to deviate.]

    1. To hesitate, fail or break in the utterance of words ; to speak with a broken or trem- bling utterance ; to stammer. His tongue

    falters. He speaks with a /rtWcriug- tongue.

    'He falters at the question.

    2. To fail, tremble or yield in exertion ; not to be firm and steady. His legs falter.


    3. To fail in the regular exercise of the un- derstanding. We observe ideots to falter.

    Locke. FAL'TER, V. t. To sift. [M'ot in use.] I ■ Mortimer.

    FAL'TERING, ppr. Hesitating; speaking I "with a feeble, broken, trembling utterance ; failii

    act ; as the falseness of a man's heart his falseness to his word. 2. Duplicity; deceit; double-deatog.^^^^^^^J — -j^j^^,^^ ^ Feebleness ; deficiency,

    3. Unfaithfiilness ; treachery ; perfidy ; trai-| torousness.

    FAL'TERINGLY, adv.

    Killingbeck. With hesitation ;

    F A M

    ■with a trembling, broken voice ; with diffi- culty or feebleness.

    FAME, n. [L. fama ; Fr. fame ; Sp. It. fama ; Gr. ^afia, ^firi, from t<*"> to speak. I suspect this root to be contracted from ^loyu, or ifoxu, Class Bg. See No. 48. G2. and t^acimd.]

    \\. Public rejKirt or rumor.

    The fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren are come. Gen. xlv.

    2. Favorable report ; report of good or great actions ; report that exalts the character ; celebrity; renown ; as the/amc of Howard or of Washington ; the fame of Solomon. And the fmne of Jesus went throughout all Syiia. Matt. iv.

    FAME, V. t. To make famous. B. Jonson.

    2. To report. Buck.

    FA'MED, a. Much talked of; renowned ; celebrated ; distinguished and exalted by favorable reports. Aristides was famed for learning and wisdom, and Cicero for elo- quence.

    He is famed for mildness, peace and prayer. Shuk.

    FA'ME-GIVING, a. Bestowing fame.

    FA'MELESS, a. Without renown.


    FAMIL'IAR, a. famil'yar. [L. famitiaris ; Vr.familier; Sp. familiar; from L.familia, family, which see.]

    1. Pertaining to a family ; domestic. Pope.

    2. Accustomed by frequent converse ; well acquainted with; intimate; close; as a

    familiar friend or companion.

    3. Affable ; not formal or distant ; easy in conversation.

    Be thou/ami/i'ar, but by no means vulgar.


    4. Well acquainted with ; knowing by fre- quent use. Be familiar with the scrip- tures.

    5. Well known ; learnt or well understood by frequent use. Let the scriptures be familiar to us.

    6 Unceremonious ; free ; unconstrained easy. The emperor conversed with the gentleman in the most familiar manner.

    7. Common; frequent and intimate. By fa miliar intercourse, strong attachments are soon fornied.

    *!. Easy; unconstrained; not formal. His letters are written in Sl familiar style. He sports in loose familiar strains. Addison

    9. Intimate in an unlawful degree.

    A poor man found a priest familiar with his wife. Camden.

    FAMIL'IAR, n. An intimate ; a close com- panion ; one long acquainted ; one accus- tomed to another by free, unreserved con- verse.

    All my familiars watched for my halting. Jer. XX.

    2. A demon or evil spirit supposed to attend at a call. But in general we say, a familiar spirit. Shak.

    3. In the court of Luiuisition, a person who assists in apprehending and imprisoning the accused. Encyc

    FAMILIAR'ITY, n. Intimate and frequent converse, or association in company. The gentlemen lived in remarkable familiar- ity. Hence,

    2. Easiness of conversation ; affability ; free- dom from ceremony.

    Vol. I.

    F A M

    3. Intimacy; intimate acquaintance ; uncon- strained intercourse.

    FAMILIARIZE, v. t. To make familiar or intinuite ; to habituate; to accustom; to make well known, by practice or converse ; as, to familiarize one's self to scenes of dis- tress.

    2. To make easy by practice or customary use, or by intercourse.

    To bring down from a state of distant su- periority.

    The genius smiled on me with a look of com- passion anil affability that familiarized him to my imagination. Addison.

    FAMIL'IARIZED, pp. Accustomed; ha- bituated ; made easy by practice, custom or use. FAMIL'IARIZING, pjor. Accustoming; ren-

    Icring easy by practice, custom or use. FAMIL'IARLY, adv. In a familiar manner; unceremoniously ; without constraint ; without formality.

    Commonly; frequently; with the ease and unconcern that arises from long cus- tom or acquaintance. FAM'ILISM, n. The tenets of the familists. FAM'ILIST, n. [irom family.] One of the

    religious sect called the family of love. FAM'ILY, n. [L. Sp./amtVia; Fr./amt'tfe; It. famiglia. This word is said to have originally signified servants, from the Celtic /amuZ ; but qu.] The collective body of persons who live in one house and under one head or manager ; a household, including parents, children and servants, and as the case may be, lodgers or boarders. Those who descend from one common progenitor ; a tribe or race ; kindred ; line- age. Thus the Israelites were a branch of the family of Abraham ; and the descend- ants of Reid>eu, of Manasseb, &c., were called their families. The whole human race are the family of Adam, the human family.

    3. Course of descent ; genealogy ; line of ancestors.

    Go and complain thy faiytily is young.


    4. Honorable descent ; noble or respectable stock. He is a man of family.

    5. A collection or union of nations or states

    The states of Europe were, by the prevailing maxims of its policy, closely united in one family. B. Everett

    6. In popular language, an order, class or genus of animals or of other natural pro- ductions, having something in common, by which they are distinguished from others ; as, quadrupeds constitute a family of animals, and we speak of the family or families of plants.

    FAM'INE, n. [Fr. famine, from /am; L. fames; It. fame ; Sp.fame or hambre; Port. fame.] 1. Scarcity of food; dearth; a general want of provisions sufficient for the inhabitants of a country or besieged place.

    There was a famine in the land. Gen. xxvi

    Famines are less frequent than formerly

    A due attention to agriculture tends tc

    prevent famine, and commerce secures a

    country from its destructive effects.

    3. Want"; destitution; as a /amine of the

    word of life. FAM'ISH, v.t. [Fr. a/amer, from/utm, 1


    ger, L.fam


    I. To starve;


    I ; It. affamire, affamare ; Sp.

    to kill or destroy with hunger. Shak.

    2. To exhaust the strength of, by hunger or thirst; to distress with hunger.

    The pains oi famished Tantalus he'U feel.

    Dry dm.

    3. To kill by deprivation or denial of any thing necessary for life. Milton.

    FAM'ifSH, V. i. To die of hunger. More generally,

    2. To suffer extreme hunger or thirst; to be exhausted in strength, or to come near to perish, for want of food or drink.

    You are all resolved rather to die, than to famish. Shak.

    3. To be distressed with want ; to come near to perish by destitution.

    The Lord will notsufferthe righteous to fam- ish. Prov. X.

    FAMISHED, pp. Starved; exhausted by want of sustenance.

    FAM'ISHING, ppr. Starving; killing; per- ishing by want of food.

    FAMISHMENT, n. The pain of extreme hunger or thirst ; extreme want of suste- nance. Hakeieill.

    FA'MOUS, a. [L. famosiis ; Fr. fameui. Sec fame.]

    1. Celebrated in fame or public report ; re- nowned ; much talked of and praised ; dis- tinguished in story.

    Two hundred and fifty princes of the assem- bly, /oihoms in the congregation. Num. xvi.

    It is followed by for. One man isfi- moiw/or erudition ; another,/or eloquence ; and another,/or military skill.

    2. Sometimes in a bad sense ; as counterfeiter; a/amous pirate.

    FA'MOUSED, a. Renowned. formed word.]

    FA'MOUSLY, adv. With great i celebration.

    Then this land was /amous/y enriched With politic grave counsel. Shak.

    FAMOUSNESS, n. Renown; great fame; celebrity. Boyle.

    FAN, n. [Sax. fann; Sw. vanna; D. icon; G. wanne ; L. vannus ; Fr. van ; Sp. Port. abano. The word, in German and Swe- dish, signifies a fan and a tub, as if from opening or spreading ; if so, it seems to be allied to pane, pannel. Class Bn.]

    1. An iiLstrument used by ladies to agitate the air and cool the face in warm weather. It is made of feathers, or of thin skin, pa- per or taffety mounted on sticks, &c.

    2. Something in the form of a woman's fan when spread, as a peacock's tail, a win- dow, &c.

    J. An instrument for winnowing grain, by moving which the grain is thrown u]) and agitated, and the chaff is separated and blown away.

    4. Something by which the air is moved ; a wing. Dryden.

    5. An instrinnent to raise the fire or flame : as a fan to inflame love. Hooker.

    FAN-LIGHT, n. A window in form of an

    open fan. FAN, V. t. To cool and refresh, by moving

    the air with a fan ; to blow the air on the

    face with a fan. 2. To ventilate ; to blow on ; to affect by air

    put in motion.

    a famous

    [An ill Shak.




    The fanning wind upon her bosom blows ; To meet the/anning wind the bosom rose.

    Dry den.

    Calm as the breath which fans our eastern

    groves. Vryden.

    3. To move as with a fan.

    The air— fanned with plumes. JiTilton

    4. To winnow ; to ventilate ; to separate chaff from grain and drive it away by a current of air; as, to/a?i wheat.

    FANAT'IC, } [L. fanaticus, phanali

    FANAT'ICAL, ] "' cus, from G. fairo^uat, to appear ; literally, seeing visions.]

    Wild and extravagant in opinions, particu larly in refigioiis opinions; excessively en thusiastic ; possessed by a kind of frenzy Hence we say, fanatic zeal ; fanatic no tions or opinions.

    FANAT'l€, f A person affected by

    FANAT'I€AL, ij "" excessive enthusiasm, particularly on religious subjects ; one who indulges wild and extravagant notions of religion, and sometimes exhibits strange motions and postures, and vehement vo- ciferation in religious worship. Fanatics sometimes affect to be inspired or to have intercourse with superior beings.

    FANAT'leALLY, adv. With wild enthusi asm.

    FANAT'IeALNESS, n. Fanaticism.

    FAN AT'ICISM, n. Excessive enthusiasm ; wild and extravagant notions of relig: reljo-ioiis frenzy. Rogers.

    FANAT'ir;iZE, V. t. To make fanatic.

    FAN'CIED, pp. [See Fancy.] Imagined conceived; liked. Stephens.

    FAN'CIFUL, a. [See Fauci/.] Guided by the imagination, rather than by reason and experience; subject to the influence of fiincy; whimsical; applied to persons. * fanciful man forms visionary projects.

    3. Dictated by the imagination ; full of wild images ; chimerical ; whimsical ; ideal ; visionary ; applied to things ; as scheme ; a fanciful theor-

    FAN'CIFULLY, adv. In a


    3. Taste ; conception.

    The litt'.e chapel called the salutation is very neat, and built with a pretty /anci/. Addison.

    4. Image ; conception ; thought.

    How now, my lord, why do you keep alone ;

    Of sorriest/ancies your companions making ?


    5. Inclination ; hking. Take that which suits your fancy. How does this strike your fancy i

    H\\s fancy lay to travelling. V Estrange

    6. Love.

    Tell me where is fancy bred. Shak

    7. Caprice ; humor ; whim ; as an odd oi strange /aney.

    True worth shall gain me, that it may be said Desert, not fancy, once aw

    8. False notion.

    9. Something that pleases without real use or value.

    Dryden. Bacon. entertains

    which the prey is seized and held ; a point- ed tooth. Bacon.

    2. A claw or talon.

    3. Any shoot or other thing by which hold is taken.

    The protuberant /angs of the Yuca. Evetyn. FANG'ED, a. Furnished with fangs, I


    something long and pointed ; as a fang- adder. Shak. Chariots /an^erf with sythes.

    fill manner ; Idly ; whimsically.

    2. According to fancy.

    FAN'CIFULNESS, n. The quahiy of being fanciful, or influenced by the imagination, rather than by reason and experience ; the habit of following fancy ; applied to per- sons. ,. , , .

    2. The quality of bemg dictated by imagi- nation ; applied to things.

    FAN'CY, n. [contracted from /(tniasy, L. phantasia, Gr. ^avraeia, from $ovraJu, to cause to appear, to seem, to imagine, front aaiTO, to show, to appear, to shine, fht primaiy sense seems to be to open, or to

    shoot forth. Ar. ^U to open, to ap

    pear; or xi to open or expand. Clas^

    Bn. No. 3. 28.]

    1. The faculty by which the nnnd form; images or representations of things a pleasure. It is often used as synonymous with imagination; but imagination h rather the power of combining and modify ing our conceptions. Stewart

    2. An opinion or notion.

    1 have always had a fancy, that learning mightj be made a play and recreation to childr

    FAN'CY, V. i. To imagine ; to figure to one's self; to believe or suppose without proof. All may not be our enemies whom we fancy to be so.

    If our search has reached no farther than simile and metaphor, we taiher fancy than know.

    Loch FAN'CY, r. t. To form a conception of; to portray in the mind ; to imagine. He whom I fancy, but can ne'er express. Drydi 2. To like ; to be pleased with, particularly on account of external appearance or manners. We fancy a person for beauty and accomplishment. We sometimes/an cy a lady at first sight, whom, on acquaint aiice, we cannot esteem. FAN'CYFRAMED, a. Created by the fan ey. Crashato

    FANCYFREE, a. Free from the power of] love. Shak.

    FAN'CYING, ppr. Imagining; conceiving;

    liking. FAN'CYMONGER, n. One who deals in tricks of imagination. Shah.

    FAN'CYSICK, a. One whose imagination is unsound, or whose distemper is in his! own mind. UEstrange.

    FAND, old pret. of find. Ohs. Spenser. FANDAN'GO, n. [Spanish.] A lively dance. Sp. Diet.

    FANE, 5!. [L. fanum.] A temjile ; a pli _ consecrated to religion ; a church ; used in\\ poetry.

    From men their citip?, and from gods their

    fanes. Pope.

    FAN'FARE, ji.. [Fr.] A coming into the^

    sts with sound of trumjiets; a flourish ot"!


    FAN'FAUON, n. [Fr.favfaron; Sp./un/ai-


    A bully; a hector; a swaggerer; an emiity]

    boaster ; a vain pretender. Dryden.

    FANFARONA'DE, n. A swaggering ; vain

    boasting; ostentation; a bluster. Swijl.

    FANG, V. t. [Sax. fengan, to catch, seize

    or take, to begin ; D. vangen ; G.fangen ;

    J)an.fanger;Sw. f&nga. See Finger.]

    To catch ; to seize ; to lay hold ; to gripe ;

    to clutch. Obs. Shak.

    FANG, n. [Sax. fang: D. vang ; G. fang,

    a seizing.] 1. The tusk of a boar or other animal liy

    FAN'GLE,7i./ang-'g-«. [from Sax./eng-an, to begin.]

    A new attempt ; a trifling scheme. [JVot used.]

    P'AN'GLED, a. Properly, begun, new made ; hence, gawdy ; showy ; vainly dec- orated. [Seldom used, except with new. See JVho-fangled.] Shak.

    FANG'LESS, a. Having no fangs or tusks ; toothless; as a fangless Hon.

    FAN'GOT, »i. A quantity of wares, as raw silk, &c., from one to two hundred weight and three quarters. Did.

    FAN'ION, n. fan-yon. [Fr. from Goth, fana, L. pannits, G. fahnc, a cloth, a flag, a ban-

    l [f '■• funon ; Goth, fana, su- \\ ' pra.] A sort of ornament

    In armies, a small flag carried with the bag- gage. Encyc.

    FAN'NED, pp. Blown with a fan ; winnow- ed ; ventilated.

    FAN'NEL, (


    like a scarf, worn about the left arm of a mass-priest, when he officiates. Diet.

    FAN'NER, n. One who fans. Jeremiah.

    FAN'NING, ppr. Blowing ; ventilating.

    FAN'TASIED, a. [from fantasy, fancy.] Filled with fancies or imaginations ; whimsical. [JVot used.] Shak.

    FAN'TASM, »!. [Gr. favtan/xa, from ^ouru, appear. Usually written phantasm.]

    That which appears to the imagination ; a phantom ; something not real.

    FANTAS'TIC, > [Fr. /anto/i^ue ; It.

    FANTAS'TICAL, S "' fantastico ; from Gr. ^avfaeio, vision, fancy, from $airw, to ap- pear.]

    1. Fanciful; produced or existing only in imagination ; imaginary ; not real ; chi- merical. South.

    2. Having the nature of a phantom ; appa- ■ent only. Shak.

    3. Unsteady ; irregular. Prior.

    4. Whimsical ; capricious ; fanciful ; indul- ging the vagaries of imagination; as fan- tastic minds; a fantastic mistress.

    5. Whimsical ; odd. FANTAS'TICALLY, adv. By the power of


    2. In a fantastic manner ; capriciously ; un- steadily.

    Her scepter so fantastically borne. Shak.

    3. Whimsically ; in compliance with fancy. Grew.

    FANTAS'TICALNESS, n. Compliance with fancy; hiimorousness; whimsical- ness ; unreasonableness ; caprice.


    FAN'TASY, n. Now written fancy, which

    Is not this something more than/aji«a«j/ ?

    FAN'TOM, n. [Fr. fantume, probably con- tracted from L. phantasma, from the Greek.

    See Fancy.]




    Something that appears to the imagination ; also, a specter ; a ghost ; an apparition. It is generally wrkten phantom, which see.

    TAP, a. Fuddled. [JYot in use.] Shak.

    KAQUIIl, [See Faktr.]

    F'AR, a. [Sax./eor,/or ovfyr; D. ver, verre; G.Jern, and in composition, ver; Sw.fier- ran ; Dan. Jierii ; L. porro ; Gr. xoppo ; connected vvitli rtopoj, a way, a passing, rtopivu, riopcvofMu, to pass or go, Sax. and Golh. Jarav, G. fahren, D. vaaren, Dan farer, Sw./nro, Eng. lo fare. See Pare.]

    1. Distant, in any direction ; separated by a wide space from the place where one is, or from any given place remote.

    They said," we arc come from a far country. Josh. ix.

    The kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into afar country. Matt. xxv.

    The nations /ar and near contend in choice Dry den

    2. Figuratively, remote from purpose ; con- ti-ary to design or wishes; as, far be il from me to justify cruelty.

    3. Remote in afiection or obedience ; at en- mity with ; alienated ; in a spiritual sense.

    They that are Jar from tliee shall perish. Ps Ixxiii.

    4. More or most di.stant of the two; as the far side of a horse. But the drivers of teams in New England generally use off ns the offsulc, or off horse or ox.

    F'AR, atlv. To a great extent or distance

    of space; as the /«/• extended ocean ; we

    are separated far from each other.

    Only ye shall not go very far away


    9. Figuratively, distantly in time from any point ; remotely. He pushed his research- es very far into antiquity.

    3. In interrogatories, to what distance or tent. How far will such reasoning lead us ?

    4. In great part ; as, the day is far spent.

    5. In a great proportion ; by many degrees very much.

    Who can find a virtuous woman ? for her price isfar above rubies. Prov. xxxi.

    For I am in a strait betwixt two, having sire to depart, and to be with Christ, wl) far better. Phil. i. (I. To a certain point, degree or distance. This argument is sound and logical, asfar as it goes.

    Answer them How /ar forth you do like their articles. Shak From far, from a great distance ; from a re

    mote place. Far from, at a great distance ; as far from

    home ; far from hope. Far off, at a great distance.

    They tarried in a place that was far off. Sam. XV. 2. To a great distance.

    Lo then would I wander far off, and remain in the wilderness. Ps. Iv. :?. In o .?/)tn

    Ye, who were sometime far off, are made

    nigh by the blood of Christ. Eph. ii.

    Far other, very different. Pope.

    EAR-ABOUT', n. A going out of the way

    [M>t in use.] FUU

    F'AR-FAMED, a. Widely celebrated.


    F'AR-FETCH, n. A deep laid stratagem

    [Little used.] Hudibras

    FAR-FETCHED, a. Brought from a mote place. Whose pains have earned the far-fetched spoil. MUton. 2. Studiously sought ; not easily or naturally deduced or introduced ; forced ; strained. York with all hinfar-fetched policy. Shak. So we say, far-fetched arguments ; far-fetched rhymes ; far-fetched analogy. [Far-fit, the same, is not used.] FAR-PIER'CING, a. Striking or penetra- ting a great way; as afar-piercing eye. Pope FAR-SHOOTING, a. Shooting to a great distance.

    Great Jove, he said, and the far-shooting

    god. Dryden.

    F'AR, n. {ii»x.fiErh,fearh. See Farroio.]

    The young of swine ; or a litter of pigs.

    [Local.] Tusser.

    F'ARCE, v.t./itrs. [L. /arcio, Fr. /araV,

    stuff, Arm. farsa.] 1. To stuff; to till with mingled ingredients. [Little used.]

    The iirst principles of religion should not be farced with school points and private tenets.

    2. To extend ; to swell out ; as the farced title. [Little used.] Shak.

    F'ARCE, n.fars. [Fr. farce; It. farsa; Sp. id. ; from farcio, to stufi'. Literally, sea- soning, stuffing or mixture, like the stuf- fing of a roasted fowl ; force-meal.] A dramatic composition, originally exhib- ited by charlatans or buffoons, in the open street, for the amusement of the crowd, but now introduced upon the stage. Il is written without regularity, and filled with ludicrous conceits. The dialogue is usually low, the persons of inferior rank and the fable or action trivial or ridicu- lous. Encyc. Farce is thai in poetry which grotesque is in a picture : the persons and actions of a farce are all unnatural, and the manners false.

    Ihyden. F'ARCICAL, a. Belonging to a farce ; ap- propriated to farce.

    They deny the characters to he. farcical, be- cause lliey are actually in nature. (ioy.

    2. Droll ; ludicrous ; ridiculous.

    3. Illusory ; deceptive. F'ARCICALLY, adv. In a manner suited

    to farce ; hence, ludicrously.

    F'ARCILITE, n. [from farce.] Pudding- stone. The calcarious farcilite, called amenla, is formed of rounded calcarious pebbles, agglutinated by a calcarious ce- ment. Kirwan, Geol.

    F'ARCIN, ? „ A disease of horses, sonie-

    F'ARCY, ^ ■ times of oxen, of the nature of a .scabies or mange. Encyc

    FARCING, n. Stuffing composed of mix ed ingredients. Carew

    F>ARCTATE, a. [L. farctics, stuffed, fi-om farcio.]

    In botany, stuffed ; crammed, or full ; with- out vacuities ; in opposition to tubular or hollow ; as a farctate leaf, stem or peri- carp. Martyn.

    F>ARD, V. t. [Fr.] To paint. [.Yot used.]


    F'ARDEL, H. [It. fardello ; Fr. fardeau ; S[i. fardel, fardo : Arm. fardell; probably from the root of L./ero, to bear, or of^ar cio, to stuff.] A bimdle or little pack.


    FARDEL, I'. I. To make up in bundles.


    FARE, V. i. [Sax. and Goth, faran, to go ; D. vaaren ; (i. fahren; Sw.fara ; Ttan. fa- rer. This word may be connected in ori- gin with the Heb. Cli. Syr. Sam. tzy, -Vr.

    »xc abara, to go, lo pass; or \\\\itli j.i\\ afara, to pass, or pass over, which seems

    to be radically the same word as .i j nafara, lo flee. This coincides with the Etii. ©<<^4 wafar, to go, to pass, Gr. «opfvu, Ir. bara. Class Br. No. 2:i. 37. 41.]

    1. To go; to pass; to move forward; to travel.

    So on he fares, and to the border comes Of Eden. Milton.

    [In thii literal sense the word is not in common use.]

    2. To be in any state, good or bad ; to be attended with any circumstances or train of events, fortunate or unforlimate.

    So fares the stag among th' enraged hounds Denham.

    So fared the inight between two foes.


    He fared very well ; he fared very ill. Go further and fare worse. The sense is taken fromgoi)ig, having a certain course ; hence, being subjected to a certain train of incidents. The rich man /ore

    3. To feed ; to be entertained. We fared well ; we had a good table, and courteous treatment.

    4. To proceed in a train of consequence.-', good or bad.

    So fares it when with trulli falsehood con- tends. Mdtoii. th it imperson- ally.

    him. FARE, n. The price of passage or going; the sum paid or due, for conveying a per- son by land or water; as the/are for cros- sing a river, called also ferriage; the fare for conveyance in a coach ; stage^rf. The price of conveyance over the ocean ■ is now usually called the passage, or pas- sage money. Fare is never used for the price of conveying goods ; this is called freight or transportation.

    2. Food ; provisions of the table. We lived on coarse /are, or we had delicious /are.

    3. The person conveyed in a vehicle. [.Vol in use in U. States.] Drummond.

    FAREWELL, a compoun.l of /are, in the imperative, and well. Go icell ; originally applied to a person departing, but by cus- tom now applied both to those who de- part and those who remain. It expresses a kind wish, a wish of happiness to those who leave or those who are left.

    The verb and adverb are often separated by tlie pronoun ; fare you welt ; I wish you a happy departure ; may you be well in your absence.

    It is sometimes an expression of separation only. Farewell the year ; farewell ye sweet groves ; that is, 1 take my leave of you.

    5. To happen well or ill ;

    We shall see how it will fare with




    FAREWELL, n. A wish of happiness or

    welfare at parting; the parting compli- ment; adieu. 3. Leave ; act of departure.

    And takes het farewell of the glorious sun. Shak. jeot. Addison.

    FAR'IN, I [L. farina, meal.] lu botany, FARI'NA, ^ "■ the pollen, fine dust or pow- der, contained in the antliers of plants, and which is supposed to fall on the stigma, and fructify the plant. 2. In chimistry, starch or fecula, one of the

    proximate principles of vegetables.

    Fossil farina, a variety of carbonate of lime,

    in thin white crusts, light as cotton, and

    easily reducible to powder. Cleaveland.

    FARINA'CEOUS, a. [from L. farina,

    meal.] L Consisting or made of meal or flour ; as a farinaceous diet, which consists of the meal or flour of the various species of corn or grain.

    2. Containing meal ; as farinaceous seeds.

    3. Like meal ; mealy ; pertaining to meal ; as a farinaceous taste or smell.

    FARM, n. [Sax. fanna, fcarm, or feorm, food, provisions, board, a meal, a dinner or supper, hospitality, substance, goods, use, fruit. Hence, feormian, to supply provisions, to entertain ; also, to purge or purify, to expiate, to avail, to profit. Arm.

    firm, or fiurm ; in ancient lavvs,_^rairt ; Fr.

    ferme, a farm, or letting to farm, whence affermer, to hire or lease. The sense of

    feorm seeins to be corn or provisions, in which formerly rents were paid. The radical sense oi feorm, provisions, is prob ably produce, issues, from one of the verbs in Br; produce and purification both' plying separation, a throwing oflT or out.] 1. A tract of land leased on rent reserved ground let to a tenant on condition of hi; paying a certain sum annually or other wise for the use of it. A farm is usually such a portion of land as is cultivated by one man, and includes the buildings and fences. Rents were formerly paid in pro- visions, or the produce of land ; hut now

    they are generally paid in money.

    This is the signification of farm m Great Britain, where most of the land is leased to cultivators. 2. In the United States, a portion or tract of land, consisting usually of grass land, meadow, pasture, tillage and woodland, cultivated by one man and usually owned by him in fee. A like tract of land under lease is called a farm ; but most cultiva- tors are projjrietors of the land, and called farmers.

    A tract of new land, covered with for- est, if intended to be cuhivated by one man as owner, is also called a fimn. A man goes into the new States, or into the unsettled country, to buy a farm, that is, land for a farm. 3. The state of laud leased on rent reserved ; a lease.

    It is great wilfulness in landlorcis to make any longer yarms to their tenants. Spenser.

    F>ARM, V. t. To lease, as land, on rent re- served ; to let to a tenant on condition of paying rent.

    We are enforced to farm ourroyo! realm.

    Shak. [In this sense, I believe, the word is not used in America.]

    2. To take at a certain rent or rate. [JVo< used in America.]

    3. To lease or let, as taxes, impost or other duties, at a certain sum or rate per cent. It is customary in many countries for the prince or government to farm the reve- nues, the taxes or rents, the imposts and excise, to individuals, who are to collect and pay them to the government at a cer- tain percentage or rate per cent.

    4. To take or hire for a certain rate per cent.

    5. To cultivate land. To farm let, or let to farm, is to lease on


    FARMHOUSE, n. A house attached to farm, and for the residence of a farmer.

    F' ARM-OFFICE, n. Farm-offices, are the out buildings pertaining to a farm.

    FARMYARD, n. The yard or inclosure attached to a barn ; or the inclosure sur- rounded by the farm buildings.

    F'ARMABLE, a. That may be farmed.


    F'ARMED, pp. Leased on rent; let out a certain rate or price.

    F'ARMER, n. In Great Britain, a tenant ; a lessee ; one who hires and cultivates i farm ; a cultivator of leased groimd.


    2. One who takes taxes, customs, excise or other duties, to collect for a certain rate per cent ; as a farmer of the revenues.

    3. One who cultivates a farm ; a husband- man ; whether a tenant or the proprietor.

    United Slates.

    4. In mining, the lord of the field, or one who farms the lot and cope of the king.

    Encyc, F' ARMING, ppr. Letting or leasing land on

    rent reserved, or duties and imposts at a

    certain rate per cent.

    Taking on lease. 3. Civltivating land ; carrying on the busi

    ness of agriculture. F'ARMING, n. The business of cultivating


    FARMOST, a. [/< tant or remote.

    F'ARNESS, n. [fi moteness.

    FARRAGINOUS, ure, from /or, me

    Formed of various materials ; mixed ; as a farraginous mountain. Kirwan.

    FARRA'GO, «. [L. from far, meal.] A mass composed of various materials c fusedly mixed ; a medley.

    FARREATION. [See Confarreation.]

    FAR'RIER, n. [Fr.ferrant ; li.fer

    herrador; L. ferrarius, from ferrum, non, Fr. ferrer ; It. ferrare, to bind with iron " ferrare un cavallo", to shoe a horse. Fer- rum is probably from hardness ; W. fir dense, solid ; feru, to harden, or congeal feris, steel. A farrier is literally a work- er in iron.]

    1. A sheer of horses; a smith who shoes horses.

    2. One who professes to Qure the of horses.

    ind most.] Most dis-


    <\\ far.] Distance ; re-


    [L. farrago, a mixt-


    FAR'RIER, V. i. To practice as a farrier.

    FAR'RIERY, n. The art of preventing, curing or mitigating the diseases of hor- ses. Encyc.

    This is now called the veterinary art.

    FAR'ROW, n. [Sax. fearh, fcerh ; D. var- ken; G.firkel.] A fitter of pigs. Shak.

    FAR'ROW, v.t. To bring forth pigs. J l/«rf ofsidne only.] Tusstr.

    FAR'ROW, a. [D.vaare; " een vaare koe," a dry cow; Scot, firry cow. Qu. the root of bare, barren.]

    Not producing young in a particular season or year; applied to cows only. If a cow has had a calf, but fails in a subsequent year, she is said to be farrow, or to go farrow. Such a cow may give milk through the year. JVew England.

    F'ARTHER, a. comp. [Sax. farther, from feor, far, or rather from forth, from the root of faran, to go ; D. verder.]

    1. More remote; more distant than some- thing else.

    Let me add ^farther truth. Dryden.

    Longer ; tending to a greater distance. Before om farther way the fetes alloiv.

    Dryden. F ARTHER, adv. At or to a greater dis- tance ; more remotely ; beyond. Let u» rest with what we have, without looking farther.

    2. Moreover ; by way of progression in a subject. Farther, let us consider the prob- able event.

    F' ARTHER, v. t. To promote ; to advance; to help forward. [Little used.]

    FARTHERANCE, n. A helping forward; promotion. [JVot used.]

    FURTHERMORE, aOv. Besides; more- over. [Little used.]

    Instead of the last three words, we now use furtherance, furthermore, further ; which see.

    F'ARTHEST, a. superl. [Sax. feorrest; D. verst. See Fwihesl.]

    Most distant or remote ; as the farthegt de- gree.

    F'ARTHEST, ado. At or to tlie greatest dis- tance. [See Fuiihesl.]

    F ARTHING, n. [Sax. feorthung, from fiorth, fourth, from feower, four.]

    1. The fouiih of a penny ; a small copper coin of Great Britain, being the fourth of a penny in value. In America we have no coin of this kind. We however use the word to denote the fourth part of a penny in value, but the penny is of difier- cnt value from the English penny, and difl'erent in different states. It is becom- ing obsolete, with the old denominations of money.

    2. Farthings, in the plural, copper coin. Gay.

    3. Very small price or value. It is not worth a farthing, that is, it is of very little worth, or worth nothing.

    4. A division of land. [JVot note used.] Thirty acres make a farthingAaaA ; nine^ar-

    things a Cornish acre ; and fom- Cornish acres a knight's fee. Carew.

    F'ARTHINGALE, n. [This is a com- pound word, but it is not easy to analyze it. The French has vertugadin ; the Sp. verdugado ; Port, verdugada ; which do not well correspond with the English word. The Italian has guardinfanle, in-




    fant-guard ; and it has been said that the hoop petticoat was first worn by pregnant women.]

    A hoop petticoat ; or circles of hoops, form- ed of wlialebono, used to extend the petti- coat.

    F'ARTHINGSWORTII, n. As much as is sold for a farthing. Arbuihnot.

    FAS'CES, n. ]}lu. [L. /ascis, W. fasfr, a bundle ; fascia, a band. See Class Bz. No. 24. 35. W.]

    In Roman antiquity, an ax tied up with a bundle of rods, and borne before the Ro- man magistrates as a badge of their au- thority. Dryden.

    FAS'CIA, n. fash'ia. [L. a band or sash.]

    1. A band, sash or fillet. In archilecture, any flat member with a small projecture, as the band of an architrave. Also, in brick buildings, the jutting of the bricks beyond the windows in the several sto- ries except the highest. Encyc.

    2. In astronomy, the belt of a planet.

    3. In surgery, a bandage, roller or ligature.


    4. In anatomy, a tendinous expansion or aponeurosis ; a thin tendinous covering which surrounds the muscles of the limbs, and binds them in their places.

    Parr. Cyc. FAS'CIAL, a. fash'ial.. Belonging to the

    FAS'CIATED, a. fash'iated. Bound with a fillet, or bandage.

    FASCIA'TION, n. fashia'tion. The act or manner of binding up diseased parts ; bandage. ff'iseman.

    F'AS'CICLE, n. [L. fasciculus, from fascis, a bundle.]

    In botany, a bundle, or little bundle ; a spe- cies of inflorescence, or manner of flow- ering, in which several upright, parallel, fastigiate, approximating flowers are col- lected together. Marlyn.

    FASCICULAR, a. [L.fasdcularis.] United in a bundle ; as a fascicular root, a root of the tuberous kind, with the knobs collect- ed in bundles, as in Pteonia. Martyn.

    FASCI€'ULARLY, adv. In the form of bundles. Kirwan.

    FaIcII'ULATC^L. f'>om/a,ac.i.,,

    FAS'CleLED, ^ ^"'"^"-J

    Growing in bundles or bunches from the same point, as the leaves of the Larix or larch. Martyn.

    FASCIC'ULITE, n. [supra.] A variety of fibrous hornblend, of a fascicular struct- ure. Hitchcock.

    FAS'CINATE, v. t. [h. fascino ; Gr. /3a«- xaivu.]

    I. To bewitch ; to enchant ; to operate on by some powerful or irresistible influence ; to influence the passions or affections in an incontrollable

    None of the affections have been noted to fascinate and bewitch, but love and envy.


    3. To charm; to captivate; to excite and al- lure irresistibly or powerfully. The young are fascinated by love; female hcauly fas- cinates the unguarded youth ; gaming is a fascinating^ vice.

    FAS'CINATED, pp. Bewitched; enchant- ed ; charmed.

    FAS'CINATING, ppr. Bewitching; en- chanting ; charming ; captivating.

    FASCINA'TION, n. The act of bewitch- ing or enchanting ; enchantment ; witch- craft ; a powerful or irresistible influence on the aflections or passions ; unseen explicable influence. The ancients speak of two kinds of fascination ; one by the look or eye ; the other by words.

    The Turks hang old rags on their fairest hors- es, to secure them against fascination.


    FAS'CiNE, n. [Fr.from U fascis, a bundle.] In fortification, a fagot, a bundle of rods or small sticks of wood, bound at botli ends and in the middle ; used in raising batteries, in filling ditches, in strengthen- ing ramparts, and making parapets. Some- times being dipped in melted pitch or tar. they are used to set fire to the enemy's lodgments or other works. Encyc

    FAS'C'INOUS, a. Caused or acting by witch- craft. [jYot used.'] Harvey

    FASH'ION, n. fash' on. [Vt. f agon ; Arm. facfzoun ; Norm, facion ; from fairc, tc make ; L. facio, fades.]

    1. The make or form of any thing; the state of any thing with regard to its external appearance; shape; as the fashion of the ark, or of the tabernacle.

    Or let me lose the fashion of a man. Shak The fashion of his countenance was altered Luke ix.

    2. Form ; model to be imitated ; pattern. King Ahaz sent lo Urijah the priest the fash-

    m of the altar. 2 Kings xvl.

    3. The form of a garment; the cut or shape of clothes; as the fctshion of a coat or of a bonnet. Hence,

    4. The prevailing n-.ode of or orna- ment. We import fashions from England, as the English often import them from France. What so changeable as fashion

    5. Manner ; sort ; way ; mode ; applied to actions or behavior.

    Pluck Casca by the sleeve, And he will, after his sour fashion, tell you What hath proceeded. Shak.

    G. Custom ; prevaihng mode or practice. Fashion is an inexorable tyrant, and most of the world its willing slaves.

    It was the fashion of the age to call every thhig in question. Tillolson.

    Few enterprises are so hopeless as a contest with/osAion. Rambler.

    7. Genteel life or good breeding ; as men of fashion.

    8. Any thing worn. [.Vof used.] Shak.

    9. Genteel company.

    10. Workmanshi[). Overburi/. FASH'ION, V. t.fa3h'on. [Fr.fagonntr.] to

    form ; to give shape or figure to ; to mold,

    Here the loud hammer fashions female toys


    Asmnjashiuned the calf with a graving tool

    Ex. xxxii.

    Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it,

    what makest thou ? U. xlv.

    2. To fit ; to adapt ; to accommodate ; with to.

    Laws ought to be fashioned to the manners and conditions of the people. Spenser

    3. To make according to the rule prescribed by custom.

    Fashioned plate sells for more than its weight Locke

    4. To forge or counterfeit. [JVot used.]


    FASHIONABLE, a. Made according to the prevailing form or mode; as a fash- ionable dress.

    2. Established by custom or use ; current ; prevailing at a particular time ; as the

    fashionable philosophy ; fashionable opin-

    3. Observant of the fashion or customary mode ; dressing or behaving according to the prevailing fashion ; as a fashionable man. Hence,

    4. Genteel ; well bred ; as fashionable com-

    being fashionable ; modish elegance ; such ajjpearance as is according to the prevail- ing custom. Locke.

    FASH'IONABLY, adv. In a manner ac- cording to fashion, custom or prevailing |)ractice ; with modish elegance ; as, to dress/fl«/iiono6/y.

    FASH'IONEI),/^}). Made ; formed ; shaped ; fitted ; adajited.

    FASHIONER, n. One who forms or gives shape to.

    FASH'IONING, ppr. Forming; giving shape to ; fitting ; adapting.

    FASH'ION-M0NGER,n. One who studies the fashion ; a fop.

    Fashion-pieces, in ships, the hindmost tiin- bei-s which terminate the breadth, and form the shape of the stern. Mar. Diet.

    FAS'SAITE, ji. A mineral, a variety of au- gite, found in the valley of Fassa, in the Tyrol.

    F'AST, a. [SaTi. fa;sl,fest ; G. fest ; D. vast ; Sw. and Dan. fast ; from pressing, bind- ing. Qu. Pers. .,a*».j bastan, to bind, to make close or fast, to shut, to stop ; Ir. fosadh, or fos, a stop. See Class Bz. No. 24.35. 41.G0. 6G. 86.]

    1. Literally, set, stopi)ed, fixed, or pressed close. Hence, close ; tight ; as, make fast the door; take fast hold.

    2. Firm ; immovable.

    Who, by liis strength, settctli /as< the moun- tains. Ps. Ixv.

    3. Close; strong.

    Robbers and outlaws — lurking in wooils and fast places. SpeTlser.

    4. Firmly fixed ; closely adhering ; as, to stick /a,s/ in mire ; to make fast a rope.

    5. Close, as sleep ; deep ; sound ; as a fast

    fast hak.

    C. Firm in adherence ; as a fast friend. Fast and loose, variable ; inconstant ; as, i

    play fast and loose. F-AS-r, a

    adv. Firmly ; immovably. We will bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their h,ind. Judges xv. Fast by, or fast beside, close or near to.

    Fast by the tlirone Q^sequious fame resides. Pope. F'AST, a. [W.fesl, fast, quick -.festu, to has- ten ; L. feslino. If /is not written for A, as in haste, see Class Bz. No. 44. 45. 46. The sense is to press, drive, urge, and it may be from the same root as the prece- ding word, with a different application.] Swift ; moving rapidly ; quick in motion ;

    as a fast horse. F'AST, adv. Swiftly; rapidly; with quick steps or progression ; as, to run fast ; to move fast through the water, as a ship ; the work goes oafast.


    F AST, 11. t. [Shx. fiEslan ; Goth. /u*ten, to| liist, to keep, to observe, to hold ; G. fas- ten ; D. vast, firm ; vasten, to fast ; Sw. fasta ; ironi the same root as fast, firm. 'The sense is to liold or stop.]

    1. To abstain from food, beyond the usual time : to omit to take the usual meals, for a time ; as, lo/a^t a day or a week

    3. To abstain from food voluntarily, for the

    ■ mortification of the body or appetites, or

    as a token of ^rief, sorrow and affliction.

    Thou didst /irsi and weep for the child

    2 Sam. xii.

    When ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance. Matt. vi. 3. To abstain from food partially, or from j)articular kinds of food; as, the Catholics fast in Lent. F"AST, n. Abstinence from food ; properly a total abstinence, but it is used also for an abstinence from particular kinds of food, for a certain time.

    Happy were our forefathers, who broke their fasts with herbs. Taylor.

    2. Voluntary abstinence from food, as a reli- gious mortification or humiliation ; either total or partial abstinence from customary food, with a view to mortify the appetites, or to express grief and affliction on ac count of some calamity, or to deprecate an expected evil.

    3. The time of fasting, whether a day, week or longer time. An annual fast is kept in New England, usually one day in the spring.

    The /as( was now already past. Acts xxvii. F'AST, n. That which fastgns or holds. F>AST-DAY, n. The day on which fasting

    is observed. F'ASTEN, V. t.fasn.[S!ix.fa^tnian; Sw.

    fastna; D.vesfen; Dan. faster ; It. foslu-

    gadh, fostughim.]

    1. To fix firmly ; to make fast or close ; as, to fasten a chain to the feet, or to fasten the feet with fetters.

    2. To lock, bolt or bar ; to secure ; as, to fasten a door or window.

    3. To hold together ; to cement or to link to unite closely in any manner and by any means, as by cement, hooks, pins, nails cords, &c.

    4. To affix or conjoin.

    The words Whio- and Tory have been press cd to the service of many successions of parties, with different ideas fastened to them. \\_jVot common.'] Swift

    5. To fix ; to impress.

    Thinking;, by this face, To fasten in our thoughts tliat they have cour- age. C. To lay on with strength.

    Could he fasten a blow, or make a thrust, when not suffered to approach .' Drydi

    F^ASTEN, V. i. To fasten on, is to fix on- self; to seize and hold on : to clinch. The leech will hardly fasten on a fish.

    Brown. 1 F'ASTENED, pp. Made firm or fust ; fixed

    firmly ; impressed. F-ASTENER, n. One that makes last or

    firm. P'ASTENING, ppr. Making fast. FASTENING, n. Any thing that binds and makes fast ; or that wiiich is intended for that purpose. F' ASTER, «. One wli.. abstains from food.l



    F> AST-HANDED, a. Closehanded ; cov-|

    etous ; closefisted ; avaricious. Bacon.l FASTIDIOSTTY, n. Fastidiousness. [JVol]

    used.] Siififl.'

    FASTIDTOUS, a. [L. fastidiosus, from /as-

    tidio, to disdain, from fastus, haughtiness.

    See Heb. m. Class Bz. No. 2. 3. and 10.


    Disdainful ; squeamish ; delicate to a fault ;l

    over nice ; difficult to please ; as a fu.itid-\\

    io^is mind or taste. |

    2. Squeamish; rejecting what is common

    or not very nice; suited with difficulty :

    as a fastidious appetite. FAST'ID'IOUSLY, adv. Disdainfully ;

    squeamishly ; contemptuously. They

    look fastidioushj and speak disdainfully. FASTIDIOUSNESS, n. Disdainfulness;

    conteinptuousness ; squeamishness of

    mind, taste or appetite. FASTltiTATE, ? [\\j.fusligiatas, point FASTIG'IATED, <, "" ed, from fasligio, to

    point, fastigiuin, a top or peak.]

    1. In botany, a fastigiate stem is one whose branches are of an equal highth. Pedun cles are fastigiate, when they elevate the fructifications in a bunch, so as to be equally high, or when they form an even surface at the top. Martyn.

    2. Roofed ; narrowed to the top. F'ASTING, ppr. Abstaining from food. F'ASTING, n. The act of abstaining from

    food. F>ASTING-DAY, n. A day of fasting fast-day ; a day of religious mortification and liumiliation. F'ASTNESS, n. [Sax. fceslenesse, from fast.] '. Tlie state of being fast and firm; firm ad Iierence. . Strength ; security.

    The places of fas'ttiess are laid open. I


    3. A strong hold ; a fortress or fort ; a place! fortified ; a castle. The enemy retired to their fastnesses.

    Closeness ; conciseness of style. [JVol

    used.] Ascham.

    FAS'TUOUS, a. [h. fasluosus, from fastus,

    haughtiness.] Proud ; haughty ; disdainfid. Barrow.

    FAT, a. [Ba\\.fiZl,fett; G.fett ; D. vet ; Sw.

    fet; Dan. feed; Basque, tc/ea.] 1. Fleshy ; plump; corpulent ; abounding with an oily concrete substance, as an mal body ; the contrary to lean ; as a fat man ; a fat ox. Coarse ; gross. Nay, added fat pollutions of our own.

    Dry den

    3. Dull ; heavy ; stupid ; unteacliable. Make the heart of this people fat. Is. vi.

    4. Rich ; wealthy ; affluent. These are terrible alarms to persons ^rowr

    fat and wealthy. South

    5. Rich ; producing a large income ; as a fat benefice.

    G. Rich ; fertile ; as a fat soil : or rich ; nour ishing ; as/a( pasture.

    7. Abounding in spiritual grace and comfort They (the righteous) shall be fat and flour ishing. Ps. xcii.

    FAT, n. An oily concrete substance, depos ited in the cells of the adipose or cellulai membrane of animal bodies. In mos parts of the body, the fat lies immediately! under the skin. Fat is of various degrees


    of consistence, as in tallow, lard and oil. It has been recently ascertained to consist of two substances, stearine and elaine, the former of which is solid, the latter hquid, at common teinperatures, and on the dif- ferent proportions of which its degree of consistence depends.

    Encyc. ff'ebsler^s Manual. 2. The best or richest part of a thing.

    Abel brought of the fat of his flock. Gen. iv. FAT, V. t. To make fat; to fatten; to make plump and fleshy with abundant food ; as. to fat fowls or sheep. iMcke. Shak.

    F.\\T, V. i. To grow fat, plump and fleshy. An old ox fats as well, and is as good, as a young one. Mortimer.

    FAT, \\ [Sax. feet, fat, fet ;D. vat; G.fass; VAT, i""Sw.fat; Dan. fad. It seems to be connected with D. vatten, G. fassen, Sw. fatta, Dan. fatter, to hold. Qu. Gr. fttSoj.] A large tub, cistern or vessel used for various purposes, as by brewers to run their wort in, by tanners for holding their bark and hides, &c. It is also a wooden vessel con- taining a quarter or eight bushels of grain, and a pan for containing water in salt- works, a vessel for wine, &c.

    The fats shall overflow with wine and oil. Joel ii. FAT, n. A measure of capacity, but indefi-

    FA'TAL, a. [L. fafalis. See Fate.] Pro- ceeding from fate or destiny ; necessary ; ■ able.

    These things are fatal and necessary.

    Tillotson. •2. Appointed by fate or destiny.

    It wift fatal to the king to figlit for his money.


    In the foregoing senses the word is now little

    used. 3. Causing death or destruction ; deadly ; mortal ; as a fatal wound ; a fatal disease. Destructive ; calamitous ; as a fatal day ; a fatal event. FA'TALISM, n. The doctrine that all things are subject to fate, or that they take place by inevitable necessity. Rtish.

    FA'TALIST, n. One who maintains that II things happen by inevitable necessity. ffatts. FATAL'ITY, 7i. [Fr. fatam, from fate.] . A fixed unalterable course of things, inde- pendent of God or any controlling cause ; an invincible necessity existing in things themselves ; a doctrine of the Stoics.


    1. Decree of fate. King Charles.

    3. Tendency to danger, or to some great or hazardous event. Brown.

    4. Mortality. Med. Repos.

    FA'TALLY, adv. By a decree of fate or des- tiny; by inevitable necessity or determi- nation. Bentley.

    2. Mortally ; destructively ; in death or ru- in. This encounter ended fatally. The prince was fatally deceived.

    FA'TAI,NESS. n. Invincible necessity.

    FAT'BRAINED, a. Dull of apprehension. Shak.

    FATE, n. [L. fatum, from for, fan, to speak, whence _/a

    1. Primarily, a decree or word pronounced by God ; or a fixed sentence by which the order of things is prescribed. Hence, in- evitable necessity ; destiny depending on


    a superior cause and uucontrollubic. Ac- cording to the Stoics, every event is

    Necessity or chanco Approach not me ; and what I will is fale.


    2. Event predetermined ; lot ; destiny. It is our fatf to meet vVitli disappointments. It is the fate of mortals.

    Tell me what fates attend the duke of Suf- folk ? Shak.

    3. Final event; death; destruction.

    Yet still he chose the longest way to fate.

    Uryden. The whizzing arrow sings, And bears thy fate, Antinous, on its wings.


    4. Cause of death. Drydcn calls an arrow a feathered fate.

    Divine fate, the order or determination of God; providence. Encyc.

    FA'TEU, a. Decreed by fate ; doomed ; des- tined, lie was fated to rule over a fac- tious people.

    2. Modelled or regulated by fate.

    Her awkward fove indeed was oddly /a

    3. Endued with any quality by fate.


    4. Invested with the power of fatal deter- mination.


    The two last senses are hardly legitimate.

    FA'TEFUL, a. Bearing fatal power ; pro- ducing fatal events.

    The fateful steel. J. Barlotv

    FATES, n. plu. In mythology, the destinies or parcx ; goddesses supposed to preside over the birth and life of men. They were three in number, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. Lempriere

    F'.\\T1IER, Ji. [Sax./ffirfer, /c(/er; G. voter; D. vader ; Ice. Sw. and Van. fader ; G rtaf>;p ; L. pater ; Sp. padre ; It. padre ; Port, pai, or pay ; Fr. ptre, by contraction ;


    Russ. balia ; Sans.

    and Bali, pi(a; Zend, fedrc ; Syr. \\\\..^Ci batara. This word signifies the begetter, from the verb, Sw. foda, Dan. foder, to beget, to feed ; Goth. fodya7i ; Sas.fedan D. voeden, to feed ; whcnce/orfrfer, G. fnt tcr, fiittem. The primary sense is olivi ous. See Class Bd. No. 54. 55. The Goth, atta, Ir. aithir or athair, Basqiii aita, must be from a different root, unless the first letter has been lost.]

    1. He who begets a child ; in L. genilor or generator.

    The father of a fool hath no joy. Piov. xvii A wise son maketh a ^Vid father. Prov. x.

    2. The first ancestor ; the progenitor of a race or family. Adam was the father of the human raee. Abraham was the father of the Israelites.

    3. The appellation of an old man, and a term of respect.

    The king of Israel said to Elisha, my father^ shall I smite them ? 2 Kings vi.

    The servants of Naaman call him fa- ther. Ibin. V. Elderly men are called fathers ; as the fathers of a town or city, In the church, men venerable for age, learn ing and piety are called fathers, or rever eudfather.1.


    Tlie grandfather, or more remote ances- tor. Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar, thougli he; was his grand- father. Dan. v.

    15. One who feeds and supports, or exerci.scs paternal care over another. God is called the/a(/ier of the fatherless. Ps. Ixviii. 1 was a father to the poor. Job xxix.

    6. He who creates, invents, makes or com- poses any thing ; the author, former or contriver; a founder, director or instruct- or. God as creator is the father of all men. John viii. Jabal was the father of such as dwell in tents ; and Jubal of mu- sicians. Gen. iv. God is the father of spirits and of lights. Homer is consider ed as the father of epic poetry. Wash ington, as a defender and an affectionate and wise counselor, is called the father of his country. And see 1 Chron.ii. "" 14.— ix. 35. Satan is called the /afAtr ofl lies ; he introduced sin, and instigates men to sin. John viii. Abraham is call- ed the father of believers. He was an early believer, and a pattern of faith and obedience. Rom. iv. Fathers, in the plural, ancestors.

    David slept with his fathers. I Kings ii. A father in law. So Heli is called the fa- ther of Joseph. Luke iii.

    9. The appellation of the first person in the adorable Trinity.

    Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, bap tizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Matt, xx

    10. The title given to dignitaries of the church, su|)eriors of convents, and to po- pish confessors.

    11. The appellation of the ecclesiastical wri- ters of the first centuries, as Polycarp, Je rome, &c.

    12. The title of a senator in ancient Rome as conseript_/afAers.

    Adoptive father, he who adopts the childrei of another, and acknowledges them as hii own.

    Vattiral father, the father of illegitimate children.

    Putative father, one who is only reputed to be the father ; the supposed father.

    F^ATHER-IN-LAW, »•.. Thefather of one's

    husband or v\'ife ; and a man who

    a woman who has children by a former] husband is called the/a(Acr in lair or step- fitther of those children.

    FEATHER, V. t. To adopt; to take the chiM of another as one's own. Shak.

    2. To adopt any thing as one's own ; to pro- fess to be the author.

    Men of wit Often father'd what he writ. Suifl.

    3. To ascribe or charge to one as his off- spring or production : with on.

    My name was made use of by several persons,

    one of whom was pleased to father on me a new

    set of productions. Swift.

    FEATHERED, pp. Adopted; taken as one's

    ; ascribed to one as the author. 9. Having had a father of particular quali- ties.

    I am no stronger than my sex.

    Being so father'd and so husbanded. [Ivi-

    usual.'i Shak.

    F'ATHERHOOD, n. The state of being a

    father, or the character or authority of a



    We might have had an entire notion of this fatherhood, or fatherly authority. Locke.

    FATHERING, ppr. Adopting ; taking or acknowledging as one's own ; ascribing to the father or author.

    FWTHERLASHER, n. A fish of the ge- nus Cottu.s or bull-head, called scorpius or scalping. The head is large and its spines forniidahle. It is found on the rocky coasts of Britain, and near Newfoundlanil and Greenland. In the latter country it is a great article of food.

    Encyc. Pennant.

    FATHERLESS, a. Destitute of a living father ; as a fatherless child. Without a known author.

    F'ATHERLESSNESS, »,. The state of be- ing williout a father.

    F>AT1IERLI\\ESS, n. [See /"oMer/i/.] The qualities of a father; parental kindness, care and tenderness.

    F ATHERLY, a. [father and like.] Like a father in affection and care ; tender; pa- ternal ; protecting ; careful ; as fatherly care or aflfection.

    2. Pertaining to a father.

    F> ATHERLY, adv. In the maimer of a fa- ther.

    Tims .\\

    FATH'OM, n. [Sax. falhem ; Ir. fead ; G. faden ; D. vadem. Qu. Dan. favn. The German word signifies a thread, a fathom, and probably thread or line is the real sig- nification.]

    1. A measure of length containing six feet, the space to which a man may extend his arms ; used chiefly at sea for measuring cables, cordage, and the depth of the sea in sounding by a line and lead.

    2. Reach; penetration; depth of thought or contrivance. ShaJi.

    FATH'OM, f. t. To encompass witJi the arms extended or encircling.

    2. To reach ; to master ; to comprehend. Leave to fathom such high points as these.


    3. To reach in depth ; to sound ; to try the depth.

    Our depths who fathoms. Pope.

    4. To penetrate ; to find the bottom or ex- tent. I cannot /o/AoHi his design.

    FATH OMED, pp. Encompassed with the arms ; reached ; comprehended.

    FATH O.MER, ,i. One who fathoms.

    FATH O.AIING, ppr. Encompassing with the arms ; reaching ; comprehending ; sounding: penetrating.

    FATH OxAILESS, a. That of which no bot- tom can be found ; bottomless.

    2. That cannot be embraced, or encompass- ed with the arms. Shak.

    .3. Not to be penetrated or comprehended.

    FATID'ICAL, a. [L. fatidicus ; fatum and dico.] Having power to foretell future events; prophetic. Hoieell.

    FATIF'EROUS, a. [L. fatifer ; fatum and fero.] Deadly ; mortal ; destructive.


    FAT'IGABLE, a. [See rafigTi*.] That may be wearied ; easily tired.

    FAT IGATE, v. t. L. fatigo.] To weary : to tire. [Little used.]

    FAT'IG,\\TE, «. Wearied; tired. [LitUe used.] Elyol.


    FATIGA'TION, n. Weariness. IV. Mount.

    FATIGUE, n. fatee'g. [Fr. U. ; Arm. fa- ticq; It.fatica; S\\>. faliga ; from L. fall- go. It seems to be allied to L. falisco ; if so, the sense is a yielding or relaxing.]

    1. Weariness with bodily labor or mental ex- ertion ; lassitude or exhaustion of strength. We suffer fatigue of tlie mind as well of the body.

    2. The cause of weariness ; labor ; toil ; as the /a

    3. The labors of military men, distinct from the use of arms ; as a party of men on fa-

    FATiGUE, v.t.fatee'g. [h.fatigo; It. futi- care ; Sp.faligar.]

    1. To tire ; to weary with labor or any bodi- ly or mental exertion ; to harass with toil ; to exhaust the strength by severe or long continued exertion.

    2. To weary by importunity ; to harass. FATIGUED, 'pp. fatee'ged. Wearied ; ti- red; harassed.

    FATIGUING, ppr. fatet'ging. Tiring ; wea- rying ; harassing. 2. a. Inducing weariness or lassitude; as

    fatiguing services or labors. FATIS'CENCE, n. [L. faiisco, to open, to

    gape.] A gaping or opening ; a state of

    being chinky. Did. Kirwan.

    FATKID'NEYED, n. [jfat and kidney.]

    Fat ; gross ; a ivord used in contempt.

    Shak. FAT'LING, n. [from fat.] A lamb, kid

    other young animal fattened for slaughter ;

    a fat animal ; applied to quadrupeds ivhose

    flesh is used for food.

    David sacrificed oxen and fallings. 2 Sam

    vi. FAT'LY, adv. Grossly ; greasily. FAT'NER, 71. That which fattens; that

    which gives fatness or richness and fertil

    ty. Arhulhnol.

    FAT'NESS, n. [from fat.] The quality of

    being fat, phimp, or full fed ; corpulency :

    fullness of flesh.

    Their eyes stand out with/ateess. Ps. Ixxiii

    2. Unctuous or greasy matter. _ Bacon.

    3. Unctuousness ; sliminess ; applied to earth : hence richness ; fertility ; fruitfulness,

    God give thee of the dew of heaven, am fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine. Gen. xxvii.

    4. That which gives fertility.

    Thy paths drop/a(?Jfss. Ps. Ixv.

    The clouds drop/u(ness. Philips.

    5. The privileges and pleasures of religi( abundant blessings.

    Let your soul delight itself in fatness. Is. Iv. FAT'TEN, V. t. fat'n. To make fiit ; to feed


    or plumj

    to enrich

    lelds with



    for slaughter with fat.

    2. To make fertile and fruitful as, to fatten land ; to fatten blood.

    3. To feed grossly ; to fill. FAT'TEN, V. i. fat'n. To grow fat or cor

    pulent ; to grow plump, thick or fleshy ; to be pampered.

    And villains fatten with the brave man's la- bor. Otway. Tigers and wolves shall in the ocean breed, The whale and dolphin/aHm on the mead. GlanviUe FAT'TENED, pp. fat'nd. Made fat, plump

    or fleshy. FAT'TENER, n. [See Fatne:

    F A U

    FAT'TENING, ppr. fat'ning. Making fat ; growing fat ; making or growing rich and fruitful.

    FAT'TINESS, n. [from fatty.] The state of being fat ; grossness ; greasiness.


    FAT'TISH, a. Somewhat fat. Sherwood.

    FAT'TY, a. Having the qualities of fat ; greasy ; as a fatty substance, ^rbuthnot.

    FATU'ITY, n. [Fr. fatuM ; L. fatuitas.] Weakness or imbecility of mind ; feeble- ness of intellect ; foolishness. Arbuthnot.

    FAT'UOUS, a. [h.fatuus. Class Bd. No. 2. 6. 63.]

    1. Feeble in mind ; weak ; silly ; stupid ; foolish. Glanville.

    2. Impotent ; without force or fire ; illuso- ry ; alluding to the ignis falxms.

    Thence fatuotis fires and meteors take their birth. Denham.

    FAT'WITTED, a. [fat and uit.] Heavy ; dull ; stupid. Shak.

    FAU'CET, n. [Fr. fausset, probably con- tracted from falset.] A pipe to be insert ed in a cask for drawing liquor, and stop ped with a peg or spiggot. These are called tap and faucet.

    FAUCIIION. [See Falchion.]

    FAU'FEL, n. [said to be Sanscrit.] The fruit of a species of the palm-tree.

    FAULT, n. [Fr. faute, for faulte; Sp.falta; Port. id. ; It. fallo ; from fail. See Fail.]

    1. Properly, an erring or missing ; a failing hence, an error or mistake ; a blunder ; i defect ; a blemish ; whatever impairs ex cellence ; applied to things.

    2. In mo7-als or depoHment, any error or de feet ; an imperfection ; any deviation from propriety ; a slight oftense ; a neglect of duty or propriety, resulting from inatten- tion or want of jjrudence, rather than from design to injure or offend, but liable to censure or objection.

    I do remember my faults this day. Gen. xli If a man be overtaken in a fault, ye, who art spiritual, restore such on one in the spirit ol meekness. Gal. vi.

    Fault implies wrong, and often some de- gree of criminality.

    3. Defect ; want ; absence. [JVot now used. See Default.]

    I could tell to thee, as to one it pleases mc (ov fault of a better, to call my fi-iend. Shak

    4. Puzzle ; difficulty.

    Among sportsmen, when dogs lose the scent, they are said to be at fault. Hence the phrase, the inquirer is at fault.

    5. In mining, a fissure in strat.i, causing a dislocation of the same, and thus inter- rupting the course of veins. (' ;c.

    To find fault, to express blame ; to coni-

    Thou wilt say then, why doth he yet find fault ? Rom. ix.

    To fnd fault with, to blame ; to censure ; as, to find fault loith the times, or with a neigh- bor's conduct.

    FAULT, V. i. To fail ; to be wrong. [ATot used.] Spenser.

    Fault, v. t. To charge with a fault ; to accuse.

    For that I will not fmill thee. Old Song.

    IFAULT'ED, pp. Charged with a fault ; ac- cused.

    FaULT'ER, n. An offender; one who com

    I mits a fault. Fairfax

    F A V

    FAULT'-FiNDER, n. One who censures or objects.

    FAULT'FUL, a. Full of faults or sins.


    FaULT'ILY, adv. [from fatdty.] Defective- ly ; erroneously ; imperfectly ; improper-

    Hooker. not de-

    ly; wrongly. FaULT'INESS, n. [from/au%.] The stale of being faulty, defective or erroneous : defect.

    2. Badness ; vitiousness ; evil as the fauUiness of a person.

    3. Delinquency ; actual offenses. FAVLT'lfiG, ppr. Accusing. FaULT'LESS, «. Without fault

    fective or imperfect ; free from blemish ;

    free from incorrectness ; perfect ; as a faultless poem or picture. 2. Free from vice or imperfection ; as a

    faultless man. FaULT'LESSNESS, n. Freedom from

    faidts or defects. FAULTY, a. Containing faults, blemishes

    or defects ; defective ; imperfect ; as a

    faulty composition or book; a faulty plan

    or design ; a faulty picture.

    2. Guilty of a fault or of faults; hence, bla- mable ; worthy of censure.

    The king doth speak this thing as one who is faulty. "2 Sam. xiv.

    3. Wrong ; erroneous ; as a faulty polity. Hooker.

    4. Defective ; imperfect ; bad ; as a faulty helmet. Bacon.

    FAUN, Ji. [L. faunns.] Among the Ro mans, a kind of demigod, or rural deity, called also sylvan, and differing little from satyr. The fauns are represented as half goat and half man. Encyc.

    FAUN'IST, n. One who attends to rural disquisitions; a naturahst. fVhite.

    FAU'SEN, n. A large eel. Chapman.

    FAU'TOR, n. [L. See Favor.] A favorer: a yiatron ; one who gives countenance or support. [Little used.] B. Jonson.

    FAU'TRESS, n. A female favorer ; a pat- roness. Chapman. FAVIL'LOUS, a. [L.favilla, ashes.] Con- sisting of or pertaining to ashes. Brown- 's. Resembling ashes.

    FA'VOR, 71. [L. favor; Fr. faveur ; Arm.

    faver ; Sp. favor; It. favore ; from L. fa-

    veo ; Ir. fabhar, favor ; fabhraim, to favor.]

    1. Kind regard ; kindness ; countenance ;

    propitious aspect ; friendly disposition.

    His dreadful navy, and his lovely mind,

    Gave him the fear and /auor of mankind.

    Waller. The king's favor is as dew on the grass. Prov. xix.

    God gave Joseph favor and wisdom in the sight oi Pharaoh. Acts vii.

    Favor is deceitful, and beauty is vain. Prov. sxxi. , Support ; defense ; vindication ; or dis- position to aid, befriend, support, promote or justify. To be in favor of a measure, is to have a disposition or inclination to sup- port it or carry it into effect. To be in fa- vor of a party, is to be disposed or inclined to support it, to justify its proceedings, and to promote its interests. 3. A kind act or office; kindness done or granted ; benevolence shown by word or deed ; any act of grace or good will, as distinguished from acts of justice or re-

    F A V

    F A W

    F E A

    iwinoration. To pardon the guilty is n favor ; to punish them is an act of justice,

    4, Lenity; mildness or mitigation of punish- ment.

    I coulcl not discover the lenity and favor of this sentence. Stvifi.

    5. Leave ; good will ; a yielding or conces- sion to another ; pardon.

    But, with yonr favor, I will treat it here.

    l>ryden. G. The object of kind regard ; the person or thing favored.

    All tliese his wondrous works, but chiefly

    man His chief delight and favor. Milton.

    7. A gift or present ; something bestowed as an evidence of good will ; a token of love : a knot of ribitis ; something worn as a to- ken of affection.

    Bacon. Spectalor. Shale.

    8. A feature : countenance. [JVot lued.]


    9. Advantage ; convenience afforded for success. The enemy approached under favor of the night.

    10. Partiality ; bias. A challenge to the favor, in law, is the challenge of a juror on ac- count of some supposed partiality, by rea- son of favor or malice, interest or connec- tion.

    FA'VOR, J'. /. To regard with kindness; to support ; to aid or have the disposition to aid, or to wish success to ; to be propitious to ; to countenance ; to befriend ; to en- courage. To favor the cause of a party, may be merely to wish success to it, or it may signify to give it aid. by counsel, or by active exertions. Sometimes men profes- sedly favor one party and secretly favor another.

    The lords favor thee not. 1 Sam. xxix. Thou shalt arise, and have mercy on Zion; for the time to favor her, yea, the set time is come. Ps. cii. happy youth ! and favored of the skies.

    Pope. 5. To afford advantages for success ; to fa- cilitate. A weak place in the fort favored the entrance of the enemy ; the darkness of the nightyai'orrrf his approach. A fair w'md favors a voyage.

    3. To rn.scmble in features. The child fa- vors his father.

    4. To ease ; to spare. A man in walking favors a lame leg.

    FA'VORABLE, a. [L. favorahitis ; Fr. fa- vo)-able; Sp. id.; It. favorabile, or favorc- role.]

    1. Kind; propitious; friendly; affectionate.

    Lend favorable ear to our request. Shak.

    Lord, thou hast been /ai'oraftte to thy laml. Ps. Ixxxv.

    2. Palliative ; tender ; averse to censure.

    None can have Ihe favorable thoiipht Tliat to obey a tyriuil's will they fought.


    3. Conducive to ; contributing to ; tending to promote. A salubrious climate and plenty of food are favorable to population.

    4. Convenient ; advantageous ; affording means to facilitate, or affording facilities. The low price of labor and provisions is

    favorable to the success of manufactures. "The army was drawn up on faVQrable

    ground. The ship took a station /aroro-

    ble for attack.

    Vol. I.

    5. Beautifid ; well favored. Obs. Spenser.

    FA'VORABLENESS, n. Kindness; kind dispo.-^ition or regard.

    2. Convenience ; suitableness ; that slate which affords advantages for success; con- duciveuess ; as the favorableness of a sea- son for crops ; the favorableness of the times for the cultivation of the sciences.

    FA'VORABLY, adv. Kindly ; with friend, ly dis])Ositions ; with regard or affection ; with an inclination to favor ; as, to judge or think favorably of a measure ; to think favorably of those we love.

    FA'VORED, pp. Countenanced ; support- ed ; aided ; supplied with advantages ; eased ; spared.

    2. a. Regarded with kindness ; as a favored friend.

    3. With well or ill prefixed, featured.

    Well-favored is well-looking, having a good countenance or appearance, fleshy, plump, handsome.

    Ill-favored, is ill-looking, having an ugly appearance, lean. See Gen. xxxix. xli. &c.

    Well-favoredly, with a good appearance. [Little used.]

    Ul-favoredly, with a bad appearance. [Utile used.]

    FA'VOREDNESS, n. Appearance. Deut.

    FA'VORER, n. One who favors; one who regards with kindness or friendship ; a wellwisher ; one who assists or promotes success or prosperity. Hooker. Shak.

    FA'VORING, ppr. Regarding with friend ly dispositions ; countenancing ; wishing well to ; contributing to success ; facilita- ting.

    FA'VORITE, n. [Fr.favori, favorite ; It./o- vorito.]

    A person or thing regarded with peculiar fa- vor, preference and affection ; one greatly beloved. Select /ai'orites from among the discrete and the virtuous. Princes are of- ten misled, and sometimes ruined by fa- vorites. Gaveston and the Spensers, the favorites of Edward IL, fell a sacrifice to public indignation.

    FA'VORITE, a. Regarded with particular kindness, affection, esteem or preference ; asayiironVe walk; a ynronVe author ; a fa vorite child.

    FA'VORITISM, n. The act or practice ofl favoring, or giving a preference to one over another.

    2. The disposition to favor, aid and promote the interest of a favorite, or of one person or family, or of one class of men, to the neglect of others having equal claims.

    It has been suggested that the proceeds of the foreign bills — were calculated merely to in- dulge a spirit of favoritism to the bank of the United States. Hamilton.

    Which consideration imposes such a necessi- ty on the crown, as hath, in a great measure, subdued the influence o{ favoritism. Paley.

    .3. Exercise of power bv favorites. Burke.

    FA'VORLESS, a. Unfavored ; not regard- ed with favor; having no patronage or coinitenance.

    2. Not favoring ; unpropitious. Spenser.

    FAV'OSITE, 71. [L.favus, a honey-comb.] A genus of fos.'iil zoophytes.

    FAWN, n. [Fr. fao7i, fawn. Qu. W. fynu, to produce.]


    A young deer ; a buck or doe of the first year. Bacon. Pope.

    FAWN, V. i. [Fr. faonner.] To bring forth n fawn.

    FAWN, V. i. [Sax. fa^enian. See Fain.]

    1. To court favor, or show attachment to, by fri.sking about one ; as, a dog /nii-ns on his master.

    2. To soothe ; to flatter meanly ; to blan- dish ; to court servilely ; to cringe and bow to gain favor; as a fawning favorite or minion.

    My love, forbear lofaten upon their frowns. SliaJe.

    FAWN, n. A servile cringe or bow ; mean flattery.

    I'AWN" rn, I,. One who fuwus; one who .iiM-i- ;hhI iliiiters meanly.

    I"\\\\\\ \\ l\\(;, jipr. Courting servilely; flat- ti'iiii;; liy cringing and meanness; bring- ing forth a fawn.

    FAWNING, 77. Gross flattery. Shak.

    FAWN'INGLY, adv. In a cringing servile wav ; with mean flattery.

    FAX'ED, a. [Sax. /cax, hair] Hairy. [Xoi in use.] Camdtn.

    FAY, 71. [Fr. fee.] A fairy ; an elf.

    Milton. Pope.

    FAY, V. i. [Sax. fagan ; Sw. foga ; D. voegen. See Fadgel]

    To fit ; to suit ; to unite closely with. [This is a contraction of the Teutonic word, and the same as fadge, which see. It is not an elegant word.]

    FEAGITE, V. t. feeg. [G.fegen.] To beat or whip. [J\\rot in use.] Buckingluim.

    FE'AL, a. Faithful. [Infra.]

    FE'ALTY. 77. [Fr. feal, trusty, contracted from L. ^elis ; It. fedelta ;' Fr. _fidelilt ; Sp.fe, faith, contracted from fides ; hence, fel, faithful ; feldad, fidelity.]

    Fidelity to a lord ; faithful adherence of a tenant or vassal to the superior of whom he holds his lands ; loyalty. Under the feudal system of tenures, every vassal or tenant was bound to be true and faithfid to his lord, and to defend him against all his enemies. This obligation was called his fidelity or fealty, and an oath of fealty wan required to betaken by all tenants to their landlords. The tenant was called a liege man ; the land, a liege fee ; and the supe- rior, liege lord. [See Liege.]

    FEAR, n. [See the Verb.] A painful emo- tion or passion excited by an expectation of evil, or the apprehension of im|>ending danger. Fear expresses less apprehension than dread, and dread less than terror and fright. The force of this passion, begin- ning with the most moderate degree, may be thus expressedj/car, dread,terror, fright. Fear is accompanied with a desire to avoid or ward off the expected evil. Fear is an uneasiness of mind, upon the thought of future evil likely to befall us. ff'ails.

    Fear is the passion of our nature which ex- cites us to provide for our security, on the ap- proach of evil. Rogers.

    2. Anxiety; solicitude. The principal /ear was for the holy temple.


    3. The cause of fear.

    Thy angel becomes 3 fear. Shaft.

    4. The object of fear.

    Except the God of Abraham, and the fear ol Isaac, had been with me. Gen. xxxi.

    F E A

    F E A

    F E A

    5. Something set or hung up to terrify wild animals, by its color or noise. Is. xxiv. Jer. xlviii.

    G. In scripture, fear is used to express a fil- ial or a slavish passion. In good men, the fear of God is a holy awe or reverence of God and his laws, which springs from a just view and real love of the divine char- acter, leading the subjects of it to hate and shun every thing that can oftend such a holy being, and inclining them to aim at perfect obedience. This isfilial fear. I will put my /ear in their hearts. Jer. xxxii. Slavish fear is the effect or consequence of guilt ; it is the painful apprehension of merited punishment. Rom. viii.

    The love of God casteth out /car. 1 John iv.

    7. The worship of God.

    I will teach you the fear of the Lord. Ps. xxxiv.

    8. The law and word of God.

    The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever. Ps. xix.

    9. Reverence ; respect ; due regard.

    Render to all their dues ; fear to whom /ear. Rom. xiii. FEAR, V. t. [Sax. fmran, afaran, to impress fear, to terrify ; D. vaaren, to put in fear, to disorder, to derange ; L. vereor. In Saxon and Dutch, the verb coincides in elements with fare, to go or depart, and the sense seems to be to scare or drive

    away. Qu. Syr. and Ar. ^iJ nafara,

    to flee or be fearful. See Class Br. No 4G. and 33.]

    1. To feel a painful apprehension of somi inipending evil ; to be afraid of; to con sider or expect with emotions of alarm or solicitude. We fear the approach of an enemy or of a storm. We have reason to

    fear the punishment of oin- sins.

    I wiliyeor no evil, for thou art with me. Ps. xxiii.

    2. To reverence ; to have a reverential awe ; to venerate.

    This do, anil li\\e : for I fear God. Gen. xlii. .3. To affright; to terrify; to drive away or prevent approach by fear, or by a scare- crow. [This seems to be the primary meaning, but now obsolete.]

    We must not make a scarecrow of the law,

    Setting it up to fear the birds of prey. Shak.

    FEAR, V. i. To be in apprehension of evil ;

    to be afraid ; to feel anxiety on account of

    some expected evil.

    But I fear, lest by any means, as the seriient beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. 2 Cor. xi.

    Fear not, Abrain : I am thy shield, and thy

    exceeding great reward. Gen. xv.

    FEAR, n. [Sax./era, gefera.] A companion.

    \\M)t in use. See Peer.] Spenser.

    FE'ARED, pp. Apprehended or expected

    with painfid solicitude ; reverenced. FE'ARFUL, a. Affected by feai-; feeling pain in expectation of evil; apprehensive with solicitude; afraid. I am fearful of the consequences of rash conduct. Hence,

    2. Timid ; timorous ; wanting courage.

    What man is there that is jearful and faint hearted ? Deut. xx.

    3. Terrible ; impressing fear ; frightful ; dreadful.

    It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands ol le living God. Heb. x. 4. Awful ; to be reverenced.

    O Lord, who is like thee, glorious in holi ness, fearful in praises .' Ex. xv.

    That thou niayest fear this glorious and feai ful name, Jehovah, thy God. Deut. xxviii.


    FE'ARFIJLLY, adv. Timorously In such a night Did Thisbe fearfully o'ertrip the dew. Shak. '2. Terribly ; dreadfully ; in a manner to im- press terror.

    There is a cliff, whose high and bending head Looks fearfully on the confined deep.

    Shak. 3. In a manner to impress admiration and astonishment.

    I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Ps. cxxxix. FE'ARFULNESS, n. Timorousness ; timid-

    ity- •2. State of being afraid; awe; dread.

    A third thing that makes a government des- pised, is /ear/u/ness of, and mean compliances with, bold popular offenders. South.

    3. Terror; alarm; apprehension of evil.

    Fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites Is. xxxiii. FE'ARLESS, a. Free from fear ; as fearless

    of death ; fearless of consequences. 3. Bold ; courageous ; intrepid ; undaunted ;

    as a fearless hero ; a fearless foe. FE'ARLESSLY, adv. Without fear; in a bold or courageous manner ; intrepidly Brave mcn_/ca)-/e««/i/ expose themselves tc the most formidable dangers. FE'ARLESSNESS, n. Freedom from fear courage; boldness; intrepidity.

    He gave instances of an invincible courage and fearlessness in danger. Clarendon

    FEASIBIL'ITY, n. saaz. [See Feasible. The quality of being capable of execution practicability. Before we adopt a plan, let us consider its feasibility. FE'ASIBLE, a. s as :. [Fr. faisable, from faire, to make, L.facere ; It. faltibile ; Sp. faclible.] That may be done, performed, executed or effected ; practicable. We say a thing is feasible, when it can be efiected by human means or agency. A thing may be possi- ble, but not feasible. 9. Tliat maybe used or tilled, as land.

    B. Trumbull. prac that which can be performed by human means. FE'ASIBLENESS, n. Feasibility ; practi- cability. Bp. Hall. FE'ASIBLY, adv. Practicably. FEAST, )i. [h.festum ; Fr. fete ; Sp. fiesta ;

    Itfesta; Ir.feasda; D.feesl; G.fest] 1. A sumptuous repast or entertainment, ofl which a number of guests partake ; par ticularly, a rich or splendid public enter tainment.

    On Pharaoh's birth day, he made a feast t< all his servants. Gen. xl. 9. A rich ordeUcious rejtast or meal; some

    thing dehcious to the palate. 3. A ceremony of feasting ; joy and thanks giving on stated days, in commemoratioi of some great event, or in honor of some distinguished personage ; an anniversary, periodical or stated celebration of some event; a festival; as on occasion of the games in Greece, and the feust of the pass-

    over, the feast of Pentecost, and the feasl of tabernacles among the Jews.

    4. Something delicious and entertaining to the mind or soul ; as the dispensation of the gospel is called a feast of fat things.

    Is. XXV.

    5. That which delights and entertains. He that is of a meri-y heart hath a contmual

    feast. Prov. xv. In the English church, feasts are immovable or movable : immovable, when they occur on the same day of the year, as Christmas- day, &c. ; and movable, when they are not confined to the same day of the year, as Easter, which regulates many others. FEAST, V. i. To eat sumptuously ; to dine or sup on rich provisions ; particularly in large companies, and on public festivals. And his sons went ^nd feasted in their houses Jobi. |2. To be highly gratified or delighted. FEAST, V. t. To entertain with sumptuous provisions ; to treat at the table magnifi- cently ; as, he was feasted by the king.

    Hayward. 2. To delight ; to pamper ; to gratify luxu- riously ; as, to feast the soul.

    Whose taste or smell can bless the feasted

    sense. Dryden.

    FE'ASTED, pp. Ejitertained sumptuously f

    delighted. FE' ASTER, n. One who fares deliciously. Taylor. 2. One who entertains magnificently.

    Johnson, FE'ASTFUL, a. Festive ; joyful ; as a feastful day or friend. Milton.

    2. Sumptuous ; luxurious ; as feastful rites. Pope. FE'ASTINGj ppr. Eating luxuriously ; far- ing sumptuously.

    2. Delighting ; gratifying.

    3. Entertaining with a sumptuous table. FE'ASTING, n. An entertainment. FE'ASTRITE, n. Custom observed in en- tertainments. Philips

    FEAT, n. [Fr. fait; It. fatto; L. factum, from facio, to perform.]

    1. An act; a deed; an e.xploit ; as a bold feat ,- a noble/ea< ; feats of prowes.s.

    2. In a subordinate sense, any extraordinary act of strength, skill or cunning, as feats of horsemanship, or of dexterity ; a trick.

    FEAT, a. Ready ; skilful ; ingenious. Never master had a page — so feat. Obs.

    Shak. FEAT, V. t. To form ; to fashion. Obs.

    Shak. FE'ATEOUS, a. Neat ; dextrous. FE'ATEOUSLY, arfv. Neatly; dextrously. Obs. Spenser.

    FEATII'ER, ? , [Sax.fether; G.feder; D. FETH'ER, \\"-veder; Dan. fiwr ;'8w.fie- allied probably to Ttnpov, and rtsTcaoy,


    to open or expand. Th&

    inost correct orthography is fether.'] 1. A plume; a general name of the cover- ing of fowls. The smaller fethers are used for the filling of beds ; the larger ones, called quills, are used for ornaments of the head, for writing pons, &c. Th© fether consists of a shaft or stem, corne- ous, round, strong and hollow at the low- er part, and at the upper part, filled with pith. On each side of tlio shafl are the vanes, broad on one side and narrow ott

    F E A

    \\he other, consisting of thin lamins. The fothers which cover tlie body are called the plumage; the fathers of the wings are adapted to flight.

    2. Kind; nature; species; from the prover-) bial phrase, " Birds ofafether," that is, of the same species. [Unxtsual.]

    I iim not of that feather to shake off

    My friend, when he most needs me. Shale.

    3. An ornament ; an empty title.

    4. On a horse, a sort of natural frizzling of the hair, which, in some places, rises above the lying hair, and there makes a figure resembling the tip of an ear of wheat. Far. Did.

    Afelher in the cap, is an honor, or mark of]

    distinction. J'EATH'ER, ? , , To dress in fethers FKTH'ER, I S fit with fethers, or to

    cover with fethers.

    2. To tread as a cock. Drydt

    3. To enrich ; to adorn ; to exalt.

    The king cared not to plume his nobility and

    people, to feather himself. Bacon

    To /ether one's nest, to collect wealth, par

    ticularly from emoluments derived from

    agencies for others ; a proverb taken from

    birds which collect fethers for their nests.

    FEATII'ER-BED, I A bed filled with

    FETH'ER-BED, ^ "• fethers; a soft bed.

    FEATHER DRIVER, > , One who beat

    FETH'ER-DRIVER, S fethers to make

    them light or loose. Derham

    FEATHERED, ) „„ Covered with feth-

    FETH'ERED, ^ PP' ers ; enriched.

    52. a. Clothed or covered with fethers. A

    fowl or bird is a fethered animal.

    Rise from the ground XxVe feathered Mercury Shak

    3. Fitted or furnished with fethers ; as c felhered arrow.

    4. Smoothed, like down or fethers. Scott.

    5. Covered with things growing from the substance; as land/cWiererf with trees.

    Coxe. FEATH'EREDgE, ? „ An edge like a feth- FETH'EREDtiE, ^ er.

    A board that has one edge thinner than the

    otlier, is csMed featheredge stuff. Moxon

    FEATH'ERED6ED, \\ „ Having a thin

    FETHERED6ED, \\ "' edge.

    FEATH'ER-FEW, a corruption of fever

    FEATHER-GRASS, \\ „ A plant, gramen FETH'ER-GRASS, \\ "' plumosum.

    Johnson FEATH'ERLESS, \\ „ Destitute of fethers FETH'ERLESS, ^ °- unfledged. Hotoel. FEATH'ERLY, > Resembling fethers. FETll'ERLY, \\ "" [mtused.] Bro. FEATHER-SELLER,^ One who s F ET 1 1 'ER -SELLER, \\ "■ fethers for beds KF.ATH'ERY, > Clothed or covered witl IKTll'ERY, p-fetliers. Milton,

    •'.. I! isembling fethers. II.ATLY, adv. [from /<;««.] Neatly ; dex

    trously; adroitly. [Little used.]

    Shak. Dryden. KF, ATNESS, n. [from /mf.] Dexterity

    .idroitness; skilfulness. [lattle itsed.] rv. ATURE, n. [Norm. /aidire ; L. factura

    (I making, from facio, to make; It. fat

    ' . 'I'lie make, form or cast of any part of the Uicc ; any single lineament. We si)eak of

    F E C

    large features or small features. We see a resemblance in the features of a parent and of a child.

    2. The make or cast of the face. Report the feature of Octavia, her years.


    3. The fashion ; the make ; the whole turn or cast of the body.

    . The make or form of any part of the sur- face of a tiling, as of a country or land- .scapc. 5. Lineament; outline; prominent parts; as

    the features of a treaty.

    FE'ATURED, a. Having features or good

    features ; resembling in features. Shak.

    FEAZE, V. I. To untwist the end of a rope.


    FEB'RIFACIENT, a. [h. fehris, a fever,

    and facio, to malie.] Causing fever.

    Beddoes. FEB'RIFACIENT, n. That which produ- ces fever. Beddoes.

    FEBRIF'Ie, a. [L. febris, fever, and facio,

    ill. FEB'RIFUtiE, n. [L.'febris, fever, and/u-

    to make.] Producing fever ; feverish

    go, to drive away.]

    Any medicine that mitigates or removes fe- ver. Encyc

    FEB'RIFUciE, a. Having the quality of| mitigating or subduing fever; antifebrile. Arbuthnot

    FE'BRILE, a. [Fr. from L. febrilis, from febris, fever.]

    Pertaining to fever; indicating fever, or de- rived from it ; as febrile symptoms ; febrile action.

    FEB'RUARY, n. [L. Februarius ; Fr. Fev- rier ; It. Febbraio ; Sp. Febrero ; Arm. Fevrer ; Port. Fevereiro ; Ir. Feabhra ; Russ. Phcbral. The Latin word is said to be named from februo, to purity by sacrifice, and thus to signify the month of purification, as the people were, in this month, purified by sacrifices and obla- tions. The word februo is said to be a Sabine word, connected with ferveo, fer- beo, to boil, as boiling was used in purifi- cations. Varro. Ovid. This practice bears a resemblance to that of making atonement among the Jews ; but the connection between ferveo and February is doubtful. The W. givevral, February, Arm. heuvrer. Corn, huevral, is: from W. fwevt/r, violence ; the severe month.]

    The name of the second month in the year,] introduced into the Roman calendar by Numa. In common years, this niontji contains 28 days ; in the bissextile or leap year, 21) days.

    FEBRUA'TION, n. Purification. [See February.] . Spenser.

    FE'€AL, a. [See Fieces.] Containing or con- sisting of dregs, lees, sediment or excre- ment.

    FE'CES, 71. plu. [L. faces.] Dregs ; lees ; sediment; the matter which subsides in casks of liquor.

    2. Excrement. Arbuthnot.

    FE'CIAL, a. [L.fecialis.] Pertaining to her- alds and the denunciation of war to an enemy ; as fecial law. Kent.

    FE€'IILA, ?i. The green matter of plants; chlorophyl. Ure.

    3. Starch or farina ; called also amylaceous fecula.


    This term is applied to any pulverulent mat- ter obtained from plants by simply break- ing down the texture, washing with wa- ter, and subsidence. Hence its applica- tion to starch and the green fecula, though entirely different in chimical properties. Cyc. FECULENCE, > [L. faculentia, from FE€'ULENCY, \\ "' facula, faces, far, dregs.]

    1. Muddiness; foulness; the quality of be- ing foul with extraneous matter or lees.

    2. Lees ; sediment ; dregs ; or rather the substances mixed with liquor, or floating in it, which, when separated and lying at the bottom, are called lees, dregs or sedi- ment. The refining or fining of liquor is the separation of it from its feculencies.

    FECULENT, a. Foul with extraneous or impure substances; muddy; thick; tur- bid; abounding with sediment or excre- mentitious matter.

    FE€'ULUM, n. [from faces, supra.] A dry, dusty, tasteless substance obtained from plants. Fourcroy, Trans.

    [This should be fecula.]

    FE'eUND, a. [L.facundus, from the root of fiBtus.] Fruitful in children ; prolific.


    FE'€UND.\\TE, v. t. To make fruitful or prolific.

    2. To im))regnate ; as, the pollen of flowers fecundates the stigma.

    Anacharsis, Trans.

    FE'CUNDATED,;>/). Rendered prolific or fruitful ; impregnated.

    FE'CUN DATING, /)/)r. Rendering fruitful : impregnating.

    FECUNDA'TION, n. The act of making fruitful or prolific ; impregnation.

    FECUND'IFY, V. t. To make fruitful ; to fecundate. [Little used.]

    FE€UND'ITY, n. [h.facunditas.] Fruit- fuhiess ; the quality of producing fruit : particularly, the quality in female animals of producing young in great numbers.

    2. The power of producing or bringing forth. It is said that the seeds of some plants retain their fecundity forty years.


    3. Fertility ; the power of bringing forth in abundance; richness of invention.

    FED, pret. and pp. of feed, which see.

    FED'ERAL, a. [from L. /ffirfi/s, a league, allied perhaps to Eng. wed. Sax. iceddian, L. vas, vadis, vador, vadimonium. See Heb. Ch. Syr. 02y to pledge. Class Kd- No. 2.5.]

    1. Pertaining to a league or contract ; deri- ved from an agreement or covenant be- tween parties, particularly between na- tions.

    The Romans, contrary to federal right, com- pelled them to part with Sardinia. Grew.

    2. Consisting in a compact between parties, particularly and chiefly between states or nations ; founded on alliance by contract or mutual agreement ; as a federal govern- ment, such as that of the United States.

    3. Friendly to the constitution of the United States. [See the Noun.]

    FED'ERAL, > , An appellation in

    FEDERALIST, I "' America, given to the friends of the constitution of the Uni- ted States, at its formation and adoption, and to the political party which favored


    the administration of President Washing- ton.

    FED'ERARY, ? A partner; a confede-

    FED'ARY, ^ ■ rate ; an accomplice, [JVot used.] Shak.

    FED'ERATE, a. [L. fcederatus.] Leagued; united by compact, as sovereignties, states or nations; joined in confederacy; as Jed erate nations or powers.

    FEDERA'TION, n. Tlie act of uniting in a league.

    9. A league ; a confederacy. Burke.

    FEDERATIVE, a. Uniting ; joining in a league ; forming a confederacy.

    FE'DlTY,n. [U/mditas.] Turpitude; vile- ness. [ATot in use.] Hall.

    FEE, n. [Sax. feo,feoh; D. vee ; G.vieh; Sw. Ja; Dan. fwe ; Scot, fee, fey, or fie, cattle ; L. pecu, pecus. From the use of cattle in transferring property, or from barter and payments in cattle, the word came to signily money ; it signified also goods, substance in general. The word belongs to Class Bg, but the primary sense is not obvious.]

    1. A reward or compensation for services recompense, either gratuitou.s, or establish ed by law and claimed of right. It is ap- plied particularly to the reward of profe ional services ; as theyef* of lawyers and physicians; the/ecsof office ; clerk's /ces; sheriff's /ees ; marriage/c««, &c. Many of these are fixed by law ; but gratuities to professional men are also calledyce*.

    FEE, n. [This word is usually deduced from Sax. feoh, cattle, property, and fee, a re ward. Thisis a mistake. Fee, in land, ii a contraction oC feud or fief, or from th« same source ; ll.fede, Sp. fe, faith, trust Fee, a reward, from feoh, is a Teutonic word ; h\\i\\. fee, feud, fief, are words wholly unknown to the Teutonic nations, who use, as synonymous with them, the word which, in English, is loan. This word, fee, in land, or an estate in trust, origina ted among the dei5cendants of the northeri conquerors of Italy, but it originated in the south of Europe. See Jfeurf.]

    Primarily, a loan of land, an estate in trust, granted by a prince or lord, to be held by the grantee on condition of personal ser- vice, or other condition ; and if the grantee or tenant failed to perform the conditions the land reverted to the lord or donor called the landlord, or lend-lord, the lord of the loan. A fee then is any land or tene nient held of a superior on certain condi tions. It is synonymous with/e/'and/eiwi. All the land in England, except the crown land, is of tliis kind. Fees are absolute or limited. An absolute fee or fee-simple is land which a man holds to himself and his heirs forever, who are called tenants in fee simple. Ilencejn modern times, the term fee or fee simple denotes an estate of inhe- ritance ; and in America, where lands arc not generally held of a superior, a fee or fee-simple is an estate in which the owner "has the whole property without any cond tion annexed to the tenure. A limited fee is an estate limited or clogged with cer- tain conditions ; as a qtialified or base fee, which ceases with the existence of certain conditions; and a conditional fee, which is litnited to particular heirs.

    Blackstone. Encyc.


    In the U. States, an estate \\nfee or fee-simpU is vvliatis called in English law an allodia estate, an estate held by a person in his own right, and descendible to the heirs in general.

    FEE'-FARM, n. [fee and /am.] A kind oi tenure of estates without homage, fealty oi other service, except that mentioned in the feoffment, which is usually the full rent. The nature of this tenure is, that if the rent is in arrear or unpaid for two years, th feoffor and his heirs may have an action for the recovery of the lands. Encyc.

    FEE'-TAIL, n. An estate entailed ; a condi- tional fee.

    FEE, V. t. To pay a fee to ; to reward Hence,

    2. To engage in one's service by advancing a fee or sum of money to ; as, to fee a lawyer. To hire ; to bribe. Shak.

    4. To keep in hire. Shak.

    FEE'BLE, «. [Fr. foible; Sp.feble; Norm id.; It. fievole. I know not the origin of the first syllable.]

    1. Weak ; destitute of much physical strength ; as, infants are feeble at their birth.

    2. Infirm ; sickly ; debilitated by disease.

    3. Debilitated by age or decline of life.

    4. Not full or loud ; as a feeble voice or sound.

    5. Wanting force or vigor ; as feeble efforts.

    6. Not bright or strong ; faint ; imperfect ; as feeble light ; feeble colors.

    7. Not strong or vigorous; as^cei/e powers of mind.

    3. Not vehement or rapid ; slow ; as feeble motion.

    FEE'BLE, t-. /. To weaken. [JVot used See Enfeeble.]

    FEEBLE-MINDED, a. Weak in mind :

    wanting firmness or constancy ; irresolute,

    Comfort the feeble-minded. 1 Thess. v.

    FEE'BLENESS, n. Weakness of body or mind, from any cause ; imbecility ; infirm- ity ; want of strength, physical or intel- lectual ; as feebleness of the body or limbs ; feebleness of the mind or understanding.

    2. Want of fullness or loudness ; as feeble- ness of voice.

    3. Want of vigor or force ; as feebleness of exertion, or of operation.

    4. Defect of brightness ; as_/ie6/eness of light or color.

    FEE'BLY, adv. Weakly ; without strength ; as, to movefeebhj. Thy gentle numbers /cfi/y creep. Drydcn FEED, V. I. pret. and fp.fed. [Sax.fedan Dan. Joder, Sw. foda, to feed and to be- get ; Golh. fodyan ; D. voeden, to feed ; G fuller, fodder ■,fiUtern, to feed ; Norni.ybrffr, to feed and to dig, uniting with feed the

    h.fodio; Ar. Llai fata, to feed, and con- gressus fuit cum foemina, soepius concu- buif. Class Bd. No. 14. See Father. In Russ. petayu, is to nourish ; and in W. buyd is foo(l, and buyta, to eat ; Arm. boela ; 1 fiadh, food.]

    1. To give food to ; as, to feed an infant ; to feed horses and oxen.

    2. To supply with provisions. We have flour and meat enough to feed the army a month.


    .3. To supply ; to furnish with any thing of which there is constant consumption, waste or use. Springs feed ponds, lakes and rivers ; ponds and streams/eerf canals. Mills are fed from hoppers.

    4. To graze ; to cause to be cropped by feed- nig, as herbage by cattle. If grain is too forward in auturan,/eerf it with sheep.

    Once in three years feed your mowing lands. Mortimer.

    5. To nourish ; to cherish ; to supply with nutriment ; as, to feed hope or expecta- tion ; to feed vanity.

    6. To keep in hope or expectation ; as, to feed one with hope.

    7. To supply fuel ; as, to feed a fire.

    8. To dehght; to supply with something de- sirable ; to entertain ; as, to feed the eye with the beauties of a landsca{>e.

    9. To give food or fodder for fattening ; to fatten. The county of Hampshire, in Mas- sacluksetts, feeds a great number of cattle for slaughter.

    10. To supply with food, and to lead, guard and protect ; a scriptural sense.

    He shall feed his flock like a shepherd. Is.

    FEED, V. i. To take food ; to eat. Shak.

    2. To subsist by eating ; to prey. Some birds /eerf on seeds and berries, others oa flesh.

    3. To pasture ; to graze ; to place cattle to feed. Ex. xxii.

    4. To grow fat. Johnson.

    FEED, 71. Food ; that which is eaten ; pas- ture ; fodder ; applied to that which is eaten by beasts, not to the food of men. The hills of our country furnish the best feed for sheep.

    2. Meal, or act of eating.

    For such pleasure till that hour At/eed or fountain never had I found.


    FEEDER, n. One that gives food, or sup- plies nourishment.

    2. One who furnishes incentives ; an en- courager.

    The feeder of my riots. Shah:

    3. One that eats or subsists ; as, small birds are feeders on grain or seeds.

    One that fattens cattle for slaughter.

    U. States. A fountain, stream or channel that sup- phes a main canal with water.

    Feeder of a vein, in mining, a short cross vein. Cyc.

    FEE'DING, ppr. Giving food or nutriment ; furnishing provisions ; eating ; taking food or nourishment ; grazing; supplying wa- ter or that which is constantly consumed ; nourishing ; supplying fuel or iticentives.

    FEE'DING,)!. Rich pasture. Drayton.

    FEEL, v.t. pret. and pp.^H. [Sax.felan, fadan, gefelan ; G.fiiMen; D.voelen; alli- ed probably to L.palpo. Qii. W. pwyllaw, to impel. The primary sense is to touch, to pat, to strike gently, or to press, a.s is- evident from the L. palpito, and other de- rivatives of palpo. If so, the word seems to be allied to L. pello. See CUiss Bl. No.

    1. To perceive by the touch ; to have sen- sation excited by contact of a thing with the body or litnbs.

    Sutler me thot I may/eeZ the pillars. Judges


    I niiy feel thee, my son. Gen. xxvii.

    2. To have the sense of; to suflfer or enjoy j as, to/ce/pain ; tojeei pleasure.

    3. To experience ; to suffer.

    Whoso keepeth the couimandments ahaU feel no evil thing. Eccles. viii. 3. To be affected by ; to perceive mentally ; as, to feel grief or woe. Mould I had never trod this English earth, Otfelt the flatteries that grow upon it.

    Shale ^. To know ; to be acquainted with ; to have a real and just view of. For then, and not till then, he felt himself.

    Shak. tj. To touch ; to handle ; with or without of.

    Feel this piece of silk, or feel of it. To feel, or to feel out, is to try ; to sound ; to search for ; to explore ; as, to feel or feel out one's opinions or designs. To feel after, to search for; to seek find ; to seek as a person groping in tlie dark.

    If haply they inight/ec( after liiiii, and find him. Acts xvii. FEEL, t;. i. To have perception by the touch, or by the contact of any substance with the body.

    3. To have the sensibility or the passions moved or excited. The good man feels for the woes of others.

    Man, who feela for all mankind. Pope.

    .^. To give jicrception ; to excite sensation.

    Blind men say black feels rough, and white

    feels smooth. Ihydcii.

    So we say, a thing feels soft or bard,

    or itfeels hot or cold.

    4. To have perception mentally; as, to feel hin-t ; to feel grieved ; to feel unwilling.

    EEEL, n. The sense of feeling, or the per- ception caused by the touch. The differ- enre of tumors maybe ascertained by the feel. Argillaceous stones may sometimes be known by the feel. [In America,/cd- ing is more generally used ; but the use of feel is not uncommon.]

    FEELER, n. One who feels.

    3. One of the palpi of insects. The feelers of insects are usually four or six, and situa ted near the mouth. They are filiform and resemble articulated, movable anten nae. They are distinguished from antennse or horns, by being short, naked and placed near the month. They arc used in search- ing for food. Enci/c This term is also applied to the antennw or horns of insects.

    FEE'LING,;);>r. Perceiving by the touch; having perception.

    2. a. Expressive of great sensibility ; affect ing ; tending to excite the passions. He made a feeling representation of liis wrongs. He spoke viith feeling eloquence

    3. Possessing great sensibility ; easily affect ed or moved ; as a feeling man ; a feeling heart.

    4. Sensibly or deeply affected ; as, I had a feeling sense of his favors. [This lise is

    not analogical, hit common.] FEE'LING, n. The sense of touch ; the sense by which we perceive external ob- jects which come in contact with the bodj', and obtain ideas of their tangible qualities ; one of the five senses. It is by feeling we know that a body is hard or soft, hot or cold, wet or dry, rough or smooth.


    2. Sensation ; the effect of perception. The apprehension of the good

    Gives but the grcater/ee/i/tg to the worse.


    3. Facuhy or power of perception ; sensi- bility.

    Their king, out of a princely feeling, was sparing and compassionate towards his subjects. Bacon. Nice sensibility ; as a man of feeling. 5. Excitement ; emotion. FEE'LINGLY, adv. With expression of great sensibility ; tenderly ; as, to speak feelingly. 2. So as to be sensibly felt.

    These are counselors. That feelingly persuade me what I am.

    FEESE, n. A race. [J^Tot in use.] Barret.

    FEET, 71. plu. of foot. [See Foot.]

    FEE'TLESS, a. Destitute of feet ; asfeel- birds. Camden.

    FfiIGN, V. t. fane. [Vr.feindre ; 8l>. Jingir ; h.Jingere, or fgnere ; L. Jingo ; D. veimen ; Arm. feinta, fincha. The Latin forms fic- tum,fictus, yNhenw.figura, figure. Hence it agrees with W.fugiaiv, to feign or d semble •,fug, feint, disguise ; also L.fucus.]

    1. To invent or imagine ; to form an idea or conception of something not real.

    There are no such things done as thou say est, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart. Neh. vi.

    2. To make a show of; to pretend ; to as sume a false appearance ; to counterfeit.

    I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourne 2 Sam. xiv.

    She feigns a laugh. Pope.

    3. To represent falsely; to pretend ; to for and relate a fictitious tale.

    The poet Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones, and floods. Shak.

    4. To dissemble ; to conceal. Obs. Spenser

    FEIGNED, pp. Invented ; devised ; inia gined ; assumed.

    FEIGNEDLY, adv. In fiction ; in pretense "not really. Bacon

    FEIGNEDNESS, ji. Fiction ; pretense deceit. Harmar.

    FEIGNER, n. One who feigns ; an invent or ; a deviser of fiction. B. Jonson

    FEIGNING, ppr. Imagining ; inventing pretending ; making a false show.

    FEIGNING, n. A false appearance ; artfu contrivance. B. Jonson.

    FEIGNINGLY, adv. With false appear ance.

    FEINT, n, [Fr.feinte, from feindre.] An assumed or false appearance ; a pretense of doing something not intended to be done.

    Courtley's letter is but z feint to get off.


    2. A mock attack; an appearance of aiming at one part when another is intended to be struck. In fencing, a show of making a thrust at one part, to deceive an antago- nist, when the intention is to strike another part. Prior. Encyc

    FEINT, a. or pp. Counterfeit ; seeming [Not used.] Loch

    FE'LANDERS, n. [See Fdanders.]


    F E L

    [G.feld, field, and spar. It is written



    FELD Sl'.vrH, C "• by some authors

    FEL'SP/VTH, > fdspar, which is rock-.yiar, or fil is a contraction of feld. Spath in Gorman signifies spar.]

    A ininpnil widely distributed and usually of a fi)iiulc(l structure. When in crystals or crysialinc masses, it is very susceptible of mechanical division at natural joints. Its hardness is a little inferior to that of quartz. There are several varieties, as common feldspar, the adularia, the siliceous, the ' glassy, the ice-spar, the opalescent, aven- turine feldspar, petuntze, the granular, and the coiiii)act. Cleaveland.

    FELDSPATIl'IC, a. Pertaining to feldspar, or consisting of it. Joum. of Science.

    FELICITATE, t.. <. [Fr. feliciler ; Sp./e/i- cilar; It. felicitare ; L. felicito, irota felir, happy.]

    1. lo make very happy. What a glorious entertainment and pleasure

    would fill and felicitate his spirit, if he could grasp all in a single survey. IVatts.

    More generally,

    2. To congratulate ; to express joy or plea- sure to. We felicitate our friends on the acquisition ol good, or an escape from evil.

    FELICITATE, a. Made very happy.


    FELICITATED, pp. Made very happy; congratulated.

    FELICITATING, ppr. Making very hap- py ; congratulating.

    FELICITA'TION, n. Congratulation.


    FELICITOUS, a. Very happy; prosper- ou.s; delightful. Did.

    FELICITOUSLY, a(/r. Happily. Did.

    FELICITY, n. [L. felicitas, from felix, liapjjy.]

    1. Happiness, or rather great happiness ; blessedness ; blissfulness ; appropriately, the joys of heaven.

    2. Prosperity ; blessing ; enjoyment of good. The felicities of her wonderful reign may be

    complete. Atterbury.

    Females — who confer on life its finest /f/ic(-

    ties. Jiawle.

    FE'LINE, a. [L. felinus, from felis, a cat. Hu.felt, fierce.]

    Pertaining to cats, or to their species ; like a cat; noting the cat kind or the genus Felis. We say, the feline race ; felijie ra- pacity.

    FELL, pret. of fall.

    FELL, a. [Snx.fell; D.fel.] Cruel ; bar- barous ; inhuman. It seemed furj', discord, madness /t//.


    2. Fierce ; savage ; ravenous ; bloody. More fell than tigeis on the Libyan plain.


    FELL, 71. [Sax./e«; G. id.; V. vel ; t. pel- lis ; Fr. peau ; probably from peeling.]

    A skin or hide of a beast ; used chiefly in composition, as icoot-fell.

    FELL, n. [G.feb.] A barren or stony hill. [Local.] Gray.

    FELL, I', f. [D.vellen; G. fallen; Sw.fMa; Dan. /aider; probably from the root ot" fall.]

    To cause to fall ; to prostrate ; to bring to the ground, cither by cutting, as to fell trees, or by striking, as to fell an ox.

    F E I.

    F E L

    F E L

    FELLED, /)^. Knocked or cut down. FELL'EK, n. One who hews or knocki

    down. Is. xiv. FELLIF'LUOUS, a. [L. ftl, gall, and /ho,

    to flow.] Flowing with gall. Did.

    FELL'ING, ppr. Cutting or beating to the

    ground. FELL'MONGER, n. [fell &nA vion get:] A

    dealer in hides. FELL'NESS, n. [See Fell, cruel.] Cruelty ;

    fierce barbarity ; rage. Spenser.

    FELL'OE. [See Ftlly.] FEL'LOW, n. [Sax.felaw ; Scot, fidow. Qu.

    from follow. More probably, lleb. h2l2

    Cli. San to tie or connect, to be joined oi

    associated. Bl. No. 46. 53.]

    1. A companion; an associate.

    In youth I had twelve /("//oit's, like myself.

    ^scham Each on hif felloto for assistance calls.


    2. One of the same kind.

    A shepherd had one favorite dog : he fed him with his own hand, and took more care of him than of his /eZ/o«'s. L'Estrang:

    3. An equal.

    Awake, O sword, ae;ainst my shepherd, and against the man that is my/(7to«', saitli Jehovah of hosts. Zech. xiii.

    4. One of a pair, or of two things used to- gether and suited to each other. Of t pair of gloves, we call one the fellow of the other.

    5. One equal or like another. Of an artist we say, this man has not his /cWomj, that is, one of like skill.

    C. An appellation of contempt; a man with- out good breeding or worth ; an ignoble man ; as a mean felloic.

    Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow. Pope.

    7. A member of a college that shares its revenues; or a member of any incorpora- ted society. Johnson.

    8. A member of a corporation ; a trustee.

    U. Slates. FEL'LOW, V. t. To suit with ; to pair with ;

    to match. [Little itscd.] Shak.

    In compositioii,/e//ou; denotes community of

    nature, station or employment. FELLOW-CIT'IZEN, n. A citizen of the

    same state or nation. Eph. ii. FELL0W-€OM'MONER, n. One who has

    the same right of common. 2. In Cambridge, England, one who dines

    with the fellows. FELLOW-eOUN'SELOR, n. An associate

    in council. Shak.

    FELLOW-CRE'ATURE, n. One of li,

    same race or kind. Thus men are all

    called fellow-creatures. Watts uses the

    word for one made by the same creator.

    " Reason by which we are raised above our

    fellow-creatures, the brutes." But the word

    is not now used in this sense. FELLOW-FEE'LING, n. Sympathy ; ;

    like feeling. 2. Joint interest. [JVot in use.] FELLOW-HEIR, n. A co-heir, or joint

    heir; one entitled to a share of the same


    That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs Eph. iii. FELLOW-HELPER, n. A coadjutor ; one who concurs or aids in the same bus' jiess. 3 John 8.

    FELLOW-LA'BORER, n. One who labors

    in the same business or design.

    FEL'LOWLIKE, a. Like a companion

    companionable ; on equal terms. Careiv

    FELLOW-MAIDEN, n. A maiden who it

    an associate. Shak.

    FELLOW-MEMBER, n. A member of the

    same body. FELLOW-MINISTER, n. One who offi ciates in the same ministry or calling.


    FELLOW-PEER, n. One who has the like

    privileges of nobility. Shak

    FELLOW-PRISONER, «. One imprison

    ed in the same place. Rom. xvi. FELLOW^-RA'KE, n. An associate in vice and profligacy. ^irmstrong.

    FELLOW-SellOL'AR, n. An associate in studies. Shak.

    FELLOW-SERVANT, n. One who has the same master. Milton.

    FEL'LOWSIIIP, n. Companionship; soci- ety ; consort ; mutual association of per- sons on equal and friendly terms ; familiar intercourse.

    Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness. Eph. v.

    Men are made for society and mutual /e//otc- ship. Calamy.

    2. Association ; confederacy ; combination. Most of the other christian princes were drawn into the fellowship of that war. [ Unu- sual. '\\ Knolles. Partnership; joint interest ; as fellowship in pain. Milton. Company ; a state of being together. The great contention of the sea and skies Parted om fellowship. Shak. Frequency of intercourse.

    In a town friends are scattered, so that there is not that fellowship which is in less neighborhoods. , Bacon

    Fitness and fondness for festive entertain- ments; with g-oorf prefi.xed.

    He hail by his good fellowship — made himself popular, with all the officers of the army.


    7. Communion ; intimate familiarity. 1 John i.

    8. In arithmetic, the rule of proportions, by which the accounts of partners in busi- ness are adjusted, so that each partner may have a share of gain or sustain a share of loss, in proportion to his part of the stock.

    An establishment in colleges, for the maintenance of a fellow. FELLOW-SOLDIER, n. One who lights under the same commander, or is enga- ged in the same service. Ofiicers often address their companions in arms by this

    FELLOW^STRE'AM, n. A stream in the vicinity. Shenstone.

    FELLOW-STUDENT, n. One who stud- ies in the same company or class with another, or who belongs to the same

    FELLOW-SUBJECT, n. One who is sub- ject to the same government with another. Swijl.

    FELLOW-SUFFERER, n. One who shares in the same evil, or partakes of the same sufferings with another.

    FELLOW-TRAVELER, «. One who travels in company with another.

    FELLOW- WRITER, n. One who writes at the same time. Addison.

    FELLOW-WORK'ER,n. One employed in the same occupation.

    FEL'LY, adv. [See Fell, cruel.] Cruelly ; fiercely; barbarously. Spenser

    FEL'LY, n. [Sax. falge ; Dan. id. ; D velge; G. felge.]

    The exterior part or rim of a wheel, sup- ported by the spokes.

    Felo de se, in laiv, one who commits felony by suicide, or deliberately destroys his own life.

    FEL'ON, n. [Fr. felon ; Low L. felo : Arm. fellon ; It. fetlo or fellone, a thief. I accord with Spelman in deducing this word from the root of fail, the original signification being, a vassal who failed in his fidelity or allegiance to his lord, and committed an offense by which he forfeited his feud. Hence in French,/cW is traitor- ous, rebellious. So the word is explained and deduced in Gregoire's Armoric Dic- tionary. The derivation from/ce and Ion in Spelman, copied by Blackstone, is un- natural.]

    1. In laiv, a person who has committed feN ony. [See Feloity.]

    2. A wliitlow ; a painful swelling formed in the periosteum at the end of the finger.


    FEL'ON, a. Malignant; fierce; malicious; proceeding from a depraved heart. Vain shows of love to vail his felon hate.


    2. Traitorous ; disloyal.

    FELONIOUS, a. Malignant; malicious; indicating or proceeding from a depraved heart or evil purpose ; villainous ; traitor- ous ; perfidious ; as a felonious deed.

    2. In law, proceeding from an evil heart or purpose; done with the deliberate pur- pose to commit a crime ; as felonious hom- icide.

    FELO'NIOUSLY, adv. In a felonious man- ner ; with the deliberate intention to com- mita crime. Indictments for capital offen- ses must state the fact to be done feloni- ously.

    FEL'ON- WORT, n. A plant of the genus Solanum. Fam. of plants.

    FEL'ON Y, n. [See Felon.] In common law, any crime which incurs the forfeiture of lands or goods. Treason was formerly comprised under the name of felony, but is now distinguished from criiries thus de- nominated, although it is really a felony. All offenses punishable with death are fel- onies; and so are some crimes not thus punished, as suicide, homicide by chance- medley, or in self-defense, and petty larce- ny. Capital punishment therefore does not necessarily enter into the true idea or definition of felony ; the true criterion of felony being forfeiture of lands or goods. But the idea of felony has been so gene- rally connected with that of capital pun- ishment, that law and usage now confirm that connection. Thus if a statute makes any new offense a felony, it is understood to mean a crime punishable with death. Blackstone.

    FEL'SITE, n. [See Feldspar.] A species of compact feldspar, of an azure blue or green color, found amorphous associated witli quartz and mica. Kirwan.

    F E M



    FELT, pret. of feel.

    FELT, »i. [S-Ax. felt; G.filz; D. vUt ; Fr. feutre, for feiiUre ; Ann. fellr, ov feullr ; It. feltro. This may be derived naturally from the root o{ fill or fall, to stuff and make thick, or from the root of L. pellis, Eng. fell, a skin, from plucking or strip- ping, L. vello, vellus, Eng. wool. In Ir. folt, W. gwalll, is hair.]

    1. A cloth or stuff made of wool, or wool and hair, fulled or wrought into a com- pact substance by rolling and pressure with lees or size. Encyc.

    2. A hat made of wool.

    3. Skin.

    To know whether shpcj) are sound or not, see that Ihefelt be loose. Mortimer.

    FELT, V. t. To make cloth or stuff of wool, or wool and hair, by fulling. Hale.

    FELT'ER, V. t. To clot or meet together like felt. Fairfax.

    FELT'MAKER, n. One whose occupation is to make felt.

    FELUCCA, re. [It. feluca ; Fr. felouque ; S|>. faluca.]

    A boat or vessel, with oars and lateen .«ails,

    used in the Mediterranean. It has this

    peculiarity, that the helm may be applied

    to the head or stern, as occasion requires.

    Mar. Diet. Encyc.

    FEL'WORT, n. A plant, a species of Gen- tian.

    FE'MALE, n. \\Fr. femclle ; L. femella; Arm. femell; Fr. femme, woman. See Feminine.]

    1. Among animals, one of that sc.\\ which conceives and brings forth young.

    2. Among platils, that which produces fruit; that which bears the pistil and receives the pollen of the male flowers.

    FE'MALE, a. Noting the sex which produ- ces young ; not male ; as a female bee.

    2. Pertaining to females ; as a female hand or heart ; female tenderness

    To the generous decision of a female mind, we owe the discovery of Auierica. Belknap

    3. Feminine ; soft ; delicate ; weak. Female rhymes, double rhymes, so called

    from the French, in which language they

    end in e feminine. FEMALE-FLOWER, n. In botany, a flow

    er which is furnished with the pistil, poin-

    tal, or female organs. FEMALE-PLANT, n. A plant which pro

    duces female flowers. FEMALE-SCREW, n. A screw witi

    grooves or channels. FEME-COVERT, ) [Fr.] A married FEMME-COVERT, (,"■ woman, who is

    under covert of her baron or husband. FEME-SOLE, ( FEMME-SOLE, $ Femme-sole merchant, a woman who uses a

    trade alone, or without her husband. FEMINAL'ITY, n. The female nature.

    Brotvi FEM'INATE, a. Feminine. [.Yot in nse

    Ford'. FEM'ININE, a. [Fr. feminin ; L. femini

    nus, from femiiia, woman. The first syl

    ■ n. An unmarried woman.

    lable may be and probably is from we'mb or womb, by the use of/ for w ; the 6 not being radical. The last part of the word ii) probably from man. quasi, fern worob-man.l

    . Pertaining to a woman, or to women, or to females ; as the female sex.

    2. Soft ; tender ; delicate.

    Her heavenly form Angelic, but more soft and/eminine. Milton.

    3. Effeminate ; destitute of manly qualities. Raleigh.

    4. In grammar, denoting the gender or words which signify females, or the ter- minations of such words. Words are said to be of the feminine gender, when they denote females, or have the terminations proper to express females in any given language. Thus in L. dominus, a lord, is masculine ; but domina, is mistress, a fe- male.

    Milton uses feminine as a noun, for female.

    FEMIN'ITY, n. The quality of the female sex. [.Vo< used.] Spenser.

    FEM'INIZE, V. t. To make womanish. LVot used.] More.

    FEM'ORAL, a. [L. femoralts, from femur, the thigh.]

    Belonging to the thigh ; as the femoral ar- tery.

    FEN, n. [Sax. /en or/e»!n ; D. veen ; Arm fenna, to overflow; W.fynu, to abound to produce ; hence L. /oii», Eng. foun- tain.]

    Low land overflowed, or covered wholly or partially with water, but producing sedge, coarse grasses, or other aquatic plants ; boggy land ; a moor or marsh. A long canal the muddy fen divides.


    FEN'-BERRY, n. A kind of blackberry.


    FEN'-BORN, a. Born or produced in a fen, Milton.

    FEN'-CRESS, n. [Sax. fen-cerse.] Cress growing in fens.

    FEN'-CRICKET, re. [Gryllotalpa.] An in- sect that digs for itself a little hole in the giound. Johnson,

    FEN'-DUCK, n. A .species of wild duck.

    FEN'-FOWL, ?i. Any fowl that frequents fens.

    FEN'-LAND, n. Marshy land.

    FEN'-SUCKED, a. Sucked out of marshes as fen-sucked fogs. Shak

    FENCE, n. fens. [See Fend.] A wall, hedge, ditch, bank, or line of posts and rails, or of boards or pickets, intended to confine beasts from straying, and to guard a field from being entered by cattle, or from other encroachment. A good far- mer has good fences about his farm ; an insutHcient fence is evidence of bad man agement. Broken windows and poor/en- ces are evidences of idleness or poverty or of both.

    2. A guard ; any thing to restrain entrance that which defends from attack, approach or injury ; security ; defense.

    A/ence betwixt us and the victor's wrath. Mdison

    3. Fencing, or the art of fencing ; defense


    4. Skill in fencin? or defense. Shak FENCE, !•. t. feu's. To inclose with a hedge

    wall, or any thing that prevents the es- cape or entrance of cattle; to secure by ar inclosure . In JVeto England, farmers, for the most part,/eHce their lands with post- and rails, or with stone walls. In Eng- land, lands are usually /e«ce(i with hedges and ditches.

    He huh fenced my way that I cannot pa«>. Job xix.

    2. To guard ; to fortify.

    So much of adder's wisdom I have learnt. To fei>ce my car against Ihy sorceries.


    FENCE, V. i. To practice the art of fencing; to use a sword or foil, for the purj)ose of learning the art of attack and defense. Ilo fence well is deemed a useful accom- plishment for military gentlemen.

    2. To fight and defend by giving and avoid- ing blows or thrusts.

    They fence and push, and, pushing, loudly

    roar. Their dewlaps and their sides arc bathed in gore. Dryden.

    .3. To raise a fence ; to guard. It is difficult to fence agahist unruly cattle.

    FENCED, pp. Inclo.scd with a fence; guarded ; fortified.

    FENCEFLTL, a. fensful. Affording de- fense. Congreve.

    FENCELESS, a. fens'less. Without a fence ; uninclosed ; unguarded.

    2. Open ; not inclosed ; as the fenceless ocean. Rowe.

    FENCE-MONTH, re. The month in which hunting in any forest is prohibited.


    FEN'CER, 71. One who fences; one who teaches or practices the art of fencing with sword or foil. Dighu.

    FEN'CIBLE, a. Capable of defense.

    Spenser. Addison.

    2. n. A soldier for defense of the country ; as a regiment of fencibles.

    FEN'CING, ppr. Inclosing with fence ; guarding ; fortifying.

    FEN'CING, n. The art of using skilfully a sword or foil in attack or defense ; an art taught in schools.

    2. The materials offences for farms.

    A*". England.

    FENCING-MASTER, re. One who teach- es the art of attack and defense with sword or foil.

    FENCING-SCHOOL, n. A school in which the art of fencing is taught.

    FEND, V. t. [The root of defend and ojcnd. The primary sense is to fall on, or to strike, to repel.]

    To keep off; to prevent from entering ; to ward off; to shut out.

    With fern beneath to fend the bitter cold.


    It is usually followed by off; as, to ferid off blows.

    To fend off a boat or vessel, is to prevent its running against another, or against a wharf, &c., with too much violence.

    FEND, V. i. To act in opposition ; to resist; to parry ; to shift off. Locke.

    FEND'ED, pp. Kept off; warded off; shut out.

    FEND'ER, re. That which defends; an utensil employed to binder coals of fire from rolling forward to the floor.

    2. A piece of timber or other thing hung over the side of a ves.sel to prevent it from striking or rubbing against a wharf, also to preserve a small vessel from being injured by a large one.

    FEND'ING, D;>r. Keeping or warding off.

    FEN'ERATE, v. i. [L. fanero.] To put to use : to lend on interest. [SVot used.]

    FENERA'TION, n. The act oflending- on

    F E R

    F E R

    F E R

    use ; or the irueiest or gain of that which is lent.

    FENES'TRAL, a. []..fenestmUs, from fen estra, a window.] Pertaining to a win dow. JVicholson.

    FEN'NEL, n. [Sax. fenol ; G. fenchel ; D venkel ; Sw. fenkal ; Dan. fennikel ; W. fenigyl ; Fr.fenouil ; Sp. hincjo ; It.Jinoc- chio ; Ir. feneul ; L. fanicvlum, f Vom fa- mim, hay.]

    A fragrant plant of tlie genus Ancthmn, culti- vated in gardens.

    FEN'NEL-FLOWER, n. A plant of thi; genus Nigella.

    FEN'NEL-GlANT, n. A plant of the genus Ferula.

    FEN'NY, a. [from fm.] Boggy; marshy: moorish. Moxon.

    2. Growing in fens ; as fenny brake. Prior.

    3. Inhabiting marshy ground ; as a fenny snake. Sliak.

    FENNYSTONES, )i. A plant.

    FEN'OWED, «. Corrupted ; decayed. [jVot in use.]

    FEN'CJGREEK, n. [L. fanum giwcum.] A plant of the genus Trigonella.

    FE'OD, n. A feud. So written by Black- stone and other authors ; but more geuer- ally,/e»f/, which see.

    FE'ODAL, a. Feudal, which see.

    FEODAL'ITY, n. Feudal tenures; the feudal system. Burke.

    FE'ODARY, n. One who holds lands of a superior, on condition of suit and service. [Little used.] [See Feudatory.]

    FEODATORY. [See Feudatory.]

    FEOFF, II. /. feff. [Norm, feffre ; Fr.feffer, fronifef. The first syllable is the It./erfe, Sp./e, contracted from fides, faith ; the last syllable I am not able to trace.]

    To invest with a fee or feud ; to give or grant to one any corporeal hereditament. The compoimd infeoff is more generally used.

    FEOFF, a fief. [See Fief]

    FEOFFEE, 71. feffee'. A person who is in- feoffed, that is, invested with a fee or corporeal hereditament.

    FEOFFER, ? f fl. One who infeoffs or

    FEOFFOR, < "• ■'^■V "■ grants a fee.

    FEOFFMENT, n. feffmenf. [Law L. feoff- amentuni.] The gift or grant of a fee or corporeal hereditament, as land, castles, honors, or other inunovable thing ; a grant in fee simple, to a man and his heirs forever. When in writing, it is called a deed of feoffment. The primary sense is the grant of a feud or an estate in trust. [See Feud.]

    FERA'CIOUS, a. [L. ferax, from fero, to bear.] Fruitful; producing abundantly. Thomson.

    FERAC'ITY, n. [L. feracitas.] Fruitful- ness. [Little used.]

    FE'RAL, a. [L. feralis.] Funereal; per- taining to funerals; mournful. Burton.

    FERE, n. [Sax. fera, or gefera, with a pre- fi.\\.] A fellow ; a mate ; a peer. Obs.


    FER'ETORY, n. [L. feretrum, a bier.] A place in a church for a bier.

    FE'RIAL, a. [L. ferialis.] Pertaining to hohdays, or to common days. Gregon/.

    FERIA'TION, n. [L.feriatio, from ferice, va- cant days, holidays ; G. fcier, whence fe-

    icrn, to rest from labor, to kcc|) holiday

    D. vieren.] The act of keeping holiday ; cessation from

    work. Brown

    FE'RINE, a. [h.ferinus, from ferus, wild.

    probably from the root of Sax. faran, tc

    go, to wander, or a verb of the same fam-

    ily.] [Wild ; untamed ; savage. Lions, tigers, ! wolves and bears are/cmic beasts. Hale FE'RINENESS, n. Wildness ; savageness, Hale. FER'ITY, n. [L. fenlas, from ftrus, wild.]

    Wildness ; savageness ; cruelty.

    Woodtvard. FERM, n. A farm or rent ; a lodging-house,

    06*. [See Farm.] FER'MENT, n. [\\^. fermerdum, from ferveo,

    to boil. See Fervent.]

    1. A gentle boiling ; or the internal motion of the constituent parts of a fluid.

    [In this sense it is rarely used. See Fermentation.]

    2. Intestine motion; heat; tumult; agita- tion ; as, to put the passions in a ferment ; the state or people are in a ferment.

    Subdue and cool the ferment of desire.


    3. That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or fennenting beer.

    FERMENT', v. t. [L.fermento; Fr.fermen ter ; Sp. fermentar ; It. fermentare.]

    To set in motion ; to excite internal motion ; to heat ; to raise by intestine motion. Wh\\\\e youth ferments the blood. Pope.

    FERMENT', v. i. To work ; to effervesce ; to be in motion, or to be excited into sen- sible internal motion, as the constituent particles of an animal or vegetable fluid. To the vinous fermentation we apply the term, ^vork. We say that new cider, beer or wine ferments or works. But work is not applied to the other kinds of fermenta- tion.

    FERMENT'ABLE, a. Capable of fermen- tation ; thus, cider, beer of all kinds, wine, and other vegetable liquors, txrefermentable.

    FERMENTA'TION, n. [L. fertnentatio.] The sensible internal motion of the con- stituent particles of animal and vegetable substances, occasioned by a certain degree of heat and moisture, and accompanied by an extrication of gas and heat. Fer- mentation is followed by a change of properties in the substances fermented, arising from new combinations of their principles. It may be defined, in its most general sense, any spontaneous change which takes place in animal or vegetable substances, after life has ceased. It is of three kinds, vinous, acetous and putrefac- tive. The term is also applied to other processes, as the panary fermentation, or the raising of bread ; but it is limited, by some authors, to the vinous and acetous fermentations, which terminate in the production of alcohol or vinegar. Fer- mentation differs from effervescence. The former is confined to animal and vegeta- ble substances ; the latter is applicable to mineral substances. The former is spon- taneous ; the latter produced by the mix- ture of bodies. Encyc. Parr. Thomson.

    FERMENT'ATIVE, a. Causing or having l)ower to cause fermentation ; as ferment- ative heat.

    IS ; rapacious ; as a ferocious lion, barbarous ; cruel ; as ferocious

    2. Consisting in fermentation ; as fermenla-

    I tive process.

    FERMENT'ATIVENESS, n. The state of

    ! being fermentative.

    •FERMENT'ED, /^jo. Worked; having un-

    i dergone the process of fermentation.

    FERMENT'ING, ppr. Working; efferves-

    I cing.

    [FERN, n. [Sax. fearn ; G. farn-kraut ; D.

    j vaaren.]

    jA plant of several species constituting the

    I tribe or family of Filiees, which have their fructification on the back of the fronds or leaves, or in which the flowers are borne on footstalks which overtop the leaves. The stem is the common footstalk or rath- er the middle rib of the leaves, so that most icrns want the stem altogether. The ferns conftitute the first order of crypto- gams, in the sexual system.

    Milne. Encyc.

    FERN-OWL, n. The goatsucker.

    FERN'Y, a. Abounding or overgrown with fern. Barret.

    FEROCIOUS, a. [Fr. feroee ; Sp. feroz ; It. feroee ,- L. ferox ; allied to ferus, wild, fera, a wild animal.]

    1. Fierce ; savage ; wild ; indicating cruelty ; as a ferocious look, countenance or fea- tures.

    2. Raven j3. Fierce I savage

    FEROCIOUSLY, adv. Fiercely ; with sav- age crueltv.

    FERO'CIOUSNESS, n. Savage fierceness; cruelty ; ferocity.

    FEROCITY, n. [L.ferocitas.] Savage wild- ness or fierceness ; fury ; cruelty ; as the

    1 ferocity of barbarians.

    j2. Fierceness indicating a savage heart ; as ferocity of countenance.

    FER'REOUS, a. [L. ferretts, from ferrum, iron, Fr. fer, Sp. hierro, from the Celtic ; . W.Jfer, solid ; feru, to concrete.]

    Partaking of iron ; pertaining to iron ; like

    j iron ; made of iron. Brown.

    FER'RET,»i. [D.vret;Fr.furet; G. freit, or fretlchen, or freiiwiesel ; W.fured; Ir. fir- ead ; Sp. huron ; It. furetto. Fur in W. is subtil, penetrating, cunning.]

    1. An animal of the genus Mustela, or Wea- sel kind, about 14 inches in length, of a pale yellow color with red eyes. It is a native of Africa, but has been introduced into Europe. It cannot however bear cold, and cannot subsist even in France, except in a domestic state. Ferrets are used to catch rabbits. Encyc.

    2. A kind of narrow woolen tape.

    3. Among glass makers, the iron used to try the melted matter, to see if it is fit to work, and to make the rings at the mouths of bottles. Encyc.

    FERRET, V. t. To drive out of a lurking place, as a ferret does the coney.

    Johnson. Heylin.

    FER'RETED, pp. Driven from a burrow or lurking ])lace.

    FER'RETER, »i. One that hunts another in his private retreat.

    FER'RETING, ppr. Driving from a lurk-

    [ ing place.

    FER'RIAGE, )i. [Sec Ferry.] The price or

    1 fare to be paid at a ferry ; the compensa-

    F E R

    tion established or paid for conveyancp

    over a river or lake in a boat. FER'RIe, a. Pertaining to or extracted

    from iron. Ftrric acid is the acid of iron

    saturated with oxygen. Lavoisier.

    FERRl-CAL'CITE, n. [L.ferrum, iron, and

    calx, lime.] A species of calcarious earth or limestone

    combined with a large portion of iron,

    from 7 to 14 per cent. Kirwan.

    FERRIF'EROUS, a. [L. ferrum and/fro.]

    Producing or yielding iron. Phillips.

    FER'RILITE, n. [L. fernm, iron, and Gr.

    %i9oi, a stone.] Rowley ragg ; a variety of trap, containing

    iron in the state of oxyd. Kirwan.

    FERRO-CY'ANATE, n. A compound of the

    ferro-cyanic acid with a base. FERRO-CYAN'l€,a. \\h. ferrum, iron, and

    cyanic, which see.] The same as Jerro-

    prvssic. FERRO-PRUS'SIATE, n. A compound of

    the ferro-prussic acid with a base. FERRO-PRyS'SI€,a. [h. ferrum, iron, and

    prussic] Designating a pecidiar aricl

    formed of prussic acid and protoxyd ol

    iron. Coxc

    FERRO-SIL'l€ATE, n. A compound oil

    ferro-silicic acid with a base, forming a

    substance analogous to a salt. FEBRO-SILIC'I€, a. [L./cmim, iron, and

    sitex.] Designating a compound of iron

    and silex. FERRU'UINATED, a. [infra.] Having the

    r.olor or properties of the rust of iron. FERRU'GINOUS, a. [L. ferrvgo, rust of|

    iron, from ferrum, iron.]

    1. Partaking of iron; containing particles of iron.

    2. Of the color of the rust or oxyd of iron [Ferrugineous is less used.]

    FER'RULE, n. [Sp. birola, a ring or cap foi a cane.]

    A ring of metal put round a cane or other thing to strengthen it.

    FER'RY, V. t. [Sax. feran, ferian ; G.fuh- ren ; Gr. $fpw ; h.fero; allied to bear, and more nearly to Sax. faran, to pass. Sec Bear and Fare, and Class Br. No. 33. 35.]

    To carrj' or transport over a river, strait or other water, in a boat. We ferry men, horses, carriages, over rivers, for a mode- rate fee or price called fare or ferriage.

    FER'RY, V. i. To pass over water in a boat. Millon.

    FER'RY, n. A boat or small vessel in which passengers and goods are conveyed over rivers or other narrow waters ; sometimes called a ivherry. This application of the uvrd is, I believe, entirely obsolete, at least in America.

    2. The place or passage where boats pass ver water to convey passengers.

    3. The right of transporting passengers over a lake or stream. A. B. owns l\\\\e ferry at Windsor. [In JVetu England, this ivord is used in the two latter senses.]

    FER'RYBOAT, »i. A boat for conveying passengers over streams and other nar- row waters.

    FER'RYMAN, n. One who keeps a ferry, and transports passengers over a river.

    FER'TILE,a. [Fr./«rtj7e; Sp.fertil; Infer- tile ; L.foiilis, from fero, to bear.]

    1. Fruitful; rich; producing fruit in abun-

    Vol. I.

    F E R

    dance; as/erh7e land, ground, soil, field or meadows. This word iu America i; rarely applied to trees, or to animals, but to land. It formerly had of before the thing produced ; as fertile of all kinds of grain : but in is now used ; fertile in grain.

    2. Rich ; having abundant resources ; pro lific ; productive ; inventive ; able to pro ducc abundantly ; as a fertile genius, mind or imagination.

    FER'TILENESS, n. [See FertUity.]

    FERTIL'ITY, n. [L. fertilitas.] Fruitful- ness ; the quality of producing fruit in abundance ; as the fertility of laud, ground, soil, fields and meadows.

    2. Richness; abundant resources; fertile vention ; as the/ertj7% of genius, of fancy or imagination.

    Fl'.R'TILIZE, V. t. To enrich ; to supply with the pabulum of plants ; to make fruit ful or productive ; as, to fertilize land, soil, ground and meadows. [FerlUitate ' used.]

    FKK'TIIJZED, p;?. Enriched; rendered IViiiiliil.

    I'i:i{ TILIZING, /jpr. Enriching; making fruitful or productive. The Connecticut overflows the adjacent meadows, fertiliz- ing them by depositing fine particles of earth or vegetable substances.

    2. a. Enriching ; furnishing the nutriment of plants.

    FERULA'CEOUS, a. [L. ferula.] Pertain ing to reeds or canes; having a stalk like a reed ; or resembling the Ferula, as fcr- ulaceous plants. Fourcroy.

    FER'ULE, n. [L. ferula, fromferio, to strike, or from the of stalks of the Ferula.l

    1. A little wooden pallet or slice, used to punish children in school, by striking them on the palm of the hand. {Ferular is not used.]

    2. Under the Eastern empire, ihefenda was the emperor's scepter. It was a long stem or shank, with a flat square head,


    FER'ULE, V. t. To punish with a ferule

    FERVENCY, n. [See Fervent.] Heat of

    mind ; ardor ; eagerness. Shak

    2. Pious ardor ; animated zeal ; warmth of


    When you pray, let it be witJi attention, with

    fervency, and with perseverance. TVake

    FERVENT, a. [L. fervens, from ferveo

    to be hot, to boil, to glow; Ar. [j

    to boil, to swell with heat, to ferment Class Br. No. 30. Ferveo gives the Span- ish hervir, to boil, to swarm as bees- whose motions resemble tlie boiling of

    1. Hot ; boiling ; as a fervent summer ; fer- vent blood. Spenser. Wotton.

    2. Hot in temper ; vehement.

    They are fervent to dispute. Hooker

    3. Ardent ; very warm ; earnest ; excited : animated; glowing; s.a fervent zeal; fer- vent piety.

    Fervent in spirit. Rom. xii. FERVENTLY, adv. Earnestly ; eagerly :

    vehemently ; with great warmth. 2. With pious ardor ; with earnest zeal ; ar- dently.

    Epa'phras — saluteth you, lahonag fervently foi you in piayers. Col. iv.



    FERVID, ff. [L.fervidus.] Very hot; burn- ing; boihng; as fervid lie at.

    2. Very warm in zeal ; vehement ; eager ; earnest ; as fervid zeal.

    FERVIDLY, arfi'. Very hotly ; with glow- ing warmth.

    FERVIDNESS, n. Glowing heat; ardor of nd ; warm zeal. Bentley.

    FERVOR, n. [L. fervor.] Heat or warmth ; the fervor of a summer's day.

    2. Heat of mind ; ardor ; warm or animated zeal and earnestness in the duties of reli- gion, particidarly in praver.

    FES'CKNNINE, a. Pertaining to Fescen- nium in Italy ; licentious. Kennet.

    FES'CENNINE, n. A nuptial song, or a li- centious song. Cartwrighl.

    FES'€UE, n. [Fr. felu, for festu, a straw ; L. festuca, a shoot or stalk of a tree, a rod.]

    A small wire used to point out letters to chil- dren when learning to read.

    Dn/dev. Holder.

    FES'€UE-GRASS, n. The t'eftuca, a ge- nus of grasses. Lee.

    FE'SELS, n. A kind of base grain. May.

    FESSE, n.fess. [\\,. fascia, a band.] In her- aldry, a band or girdle, possessing the third part of the escutcheon ; one of the nine honorable ordinaries. Peacham. Encyc.

    FESSE-POINT, Ji. The exact center of the escutcheon. Encyc.

    FES'TAL, a. [L. festtis, festive. See Feast.] Pertaining to a fcast ; joyous ; gay ; mirth- ful. Chesterfield.

    FES'TER, V. i. [Ciu. L. peslis, pus, or pus- <«to.]

    To rankle ; to corrui)t ; to grow virulent. We say of a sore or wound, it festers.

    Passion and unkindness may give a wound that shall bleed and smart ; but it is treachery that makes it fester. South.

    FES'TERING, ppr. Rankling ; growing virulent.

    FES'TINATE, a. [L. feslino, feslinalus.] Hasty ; hurried. LYotin use.] Shtik.

    FESTiNA'TION, n. Haste. [.Vot used.]

    FES'TIVAL, a. [L.festivus, fromfestus, or festum, or fasti. See Feast.]

    Pertaining to a feast ; joyous ; mirthful ; as a festival entertainment. Atterbury.

    FES'TIVAL, n. The time of feasting ; an niversary day of joy, civil or religious. The morning trumpets /fs/ica? proclaimed.


    FES'TIVE, a. [h. festivus.] Pertaining to or

    becoming a feast ; joyous ; gay ; mirthful.

    The, glad circle round them jield their soids

    To festive mirth and wit that knows no gall.


    FESTIV'ITY, n. [h.festivitas.] Primarily, the mirth of a feast ; hence, joyfulness ; gayety ; social joy or exhiliration of spir- its at an entertainment. Taylor.

    2. A festival. [A'ot in use.] Brotcn.

    FESTOON', n. [Fr. feston ; Sp. id. ; Ix.fes- tone ; probably a tie, from the root of fast, W.fest.]

    Something in imitation of a garland or wreath. In architecture and sculpture, an ornament of carved work in the form of a wreath of flowers, fruits and leaves inter- mixed or twisted together. It is in the form of a string or collar, somewhat lar- gest in the middle, where it falls down in an arch, being suspended by the ends, the

    F E T

    extremities of wliicli hang down perpen-

    didiliirlv. Hari-is. Encyc.

    FES'TUCINE, a. [h. fesiiua.] Being of a

    straw-color. Brown.

    FES'TUeOUS, a. Formed of straw. Broivn.

    FET, »!. [Fr./rtii.] Apiece. [JVot used.

    FET, V. I. or i. To fetch ; to come to. [M'ot

    used.] Tusser. Sackvillt.

    FE'TAL, a. [from fetus.] Pertaining to a

    fetus. FETCH, D.«. [Sax. feccan, or feccean. I have not found this word in any other lan- guage. Fet, fettan, must be a different word or a corruption.] 1. To go and bring, or simply to bring, that is, to bear a tiling towards or to a person.

    We will take iiiea to fetch victuals for the people. Judges xx.

    Go to the flock, and/e/cft me from thence two kids of the goats. Gen. xxvii.

    In the latter passage,/e

    [In this sense, the use is neither commor, nor elegant.]

    3. To strike at a distance. [JVoi used.]

    The conditions and improvements of weap- ons are the fetching afar off. Bacon

    4. To bring jjack ; to recall ; to bring to any state. [JYol used or vulgar.]

    In smells we see tlieir great and sudden effect in fetching men again, when they swoon. Bacon

    5. To bring or draw ; as, to fetch a thing within a certain compass.

    (i. To make ; to perform ; as, to fetch a turn ;

    to fetch a leap or bound. Shak.

    Ketch a compass behind them. 2 Sam. v.

    7. To draw ; to heave ; as, to fetch a sigh.


    8. To reach ; to attain or come to ; to ar- rive at.

    We fetched the syren's isle. Chapman.

    .9. To bring ; to obtain as its price. Wheat

    fetches only 75 cents the bushel. A com

    inodity is worth what it will fetch. To fetch out, to bring or draw out ; to cause

    to .'ippear. To fetch to, to restore ; to revive, as from

    swoon. To fetch up, to bring up; to cause to come

    up or forth. To fetch a pump, to pour water into it to

    make it draw water. Mar. Diet.

    FETCH, V. i. To move or turn ; as, to fetch

    about. Shak.

    FETCH, n. A stratagem, by which a thing

    is indirectly brought to pass, or by whicl

    one thing .seems intended and another is

    done ; a trick ; an artifice ; as a fetch of

    wit. Sliftk.

    Straight cast about to over-reach Th' unwary conqueror witli a fetch. Hudibras. FETCH'ER, n. One that brings. FETCH'ING, ppr. Bringing ; going and

    bringing ; deriving ; drawing ; making ;

    reaching ; obtaining as price. FET'ICHISM, ? The worship of ido FET'ICISM, S among the negroes of

    Africa, among whom fetich is an idol, any

    tree, stone or other thing worshipped. FET'ID, a. [h. fmtidus, from fceteo, to ha\\e

    an ill scent.] Having an offensive smell ; having a strong

    or rancid scent.


    Most putrefactions smell either fetid or moldy.

    FET'IDNESS, n. The quality of smellling

    offensively ; a fetid quality. FETIF'EROtJS, a. [L. fwtifer ; fwtus am\\ fero, to bear.] Producing young, as ani- mals. FET'LOCK, n. [foot or feet and lock.] A ; tuft of hair growing behind the pastern j joint of many horses. Horses of low size I have scarce any such tufl. Far. Diet.

    FE'TOR, n. [L.fcetor.] Any strong offensive smell; stench. Arbuthnot.

    FET'TER, n. [Sax. fetor, from foot, feet, as in L. pedica ; G.fessel. Chiefly used in tlie plural, fetters.] A chain for the feet ; a chain by which an animal is confined by the foot, either made fast or fixed, as a prisoner, or impe ded in motion and hindered from leaping as a horse whose fore and hind feet are confined by a chain.

    The Philistines bound Samson with fetters of brass. Judges xvi. Any thing that confines or restrains from

    fierce to be in fetters bound.


    FET'TER, V. t. To put on fetters ; to shack le or confine the ftjet with a chain.

    2. To bind ; to enchain ; to confine ; to re

    strain motion ; to impose restraints on.

    Fetter strong madness in a silken thread.


    FET'TERED, pp. Bound or confined by fetters ; enchained. Marston.

    [FET'TERING, />/?r. Binding or fastening by

    1 the feet with a chain ; confining; restrain

    j ing motion.

    FET'TERLESS, a. Free from fetters or re straint. Marston.

    FETT'STEIN, n. [Ger. fat-stone.] A min eral of a greenish or bluisli gray color or flesh red, called also elaolite.

    Aikin. Jameson.

    FE'TUS, n. plu. fetuses. [L. fmtus.] The young of viviparous animals in the womb, and of oviparous animals in the egg, after it is perfectly formed ; before which time it is called embryo. A young animal then is called a fetus from the time its parts are distinctly formed, till its birth. Encyc.

    Feu de joie, fire of joy, a French phrase for a bonfire, or a firing of guns in token of

    FEUD, n. [Sax.fwhth, or feegth, fvomfgan, feon, to hate. Hence also fah, a foe, and from the participle, feond, a fiend ; D. vy- and, G. feind, an enemy ; G. fehde, war, quarrel; Sw.fegd; Dan. fejde. In Irish, fuath is hatred, abhorrence. Class Bg.j

    1. Primarily, a deadly quarrel ; hatred ami contention that was to be terminated only by death. Among our rude ancestors, these quarrels, though originating in the nmr der of an individual, involved the wholi tribe or family of the injured and of tin aggressing parties. Hence in modern usage,

    2. A contention or quarrel ; particularly, an inveterate quarrel between families or parties in a state ; the discord and ani- mosities which prevail among the citizens of a state or city, sometimes accompanied with civil war. In the north of Great Britain, the word is still used in its origi- nal sense ; denoting a combination of kin-


    dred to revenge the death of any of their blood, on the offender and all his race, or any other great enemy. We say, it is the policy of our enemies to raise and cherish intestine feuds.

    The word is not strictly applicable to wars between different nations, but to in- testine wars, and to quarrels and animosi- ties between families or small tribes. FEUD,»i. [Usually supposed to be composed of the Teutonic/ee, goods, reward, and ead or odh, W. eizaw, possession, property. But if feuds had been given as rewards for ser- vices, that consideration would have vested the title to the land in the donee. Yet feud is not a Teutonic or Gothic word, be- ing found among none of the northern na- tions of Europe. This word originated in the south of Europe, whether in France, Spain or Italy, may perhaps be ascertained by writings of the middle ages, which I do not possess. It probably originated among the Franks, or in Lombardy or Italy, and certainly among men who studi- ed the civil law. In Italian, a feoffee is called fede-commessario, a trust-commissa- ry ; fede-eommesso, is a feoffhient, a trust- estate ; Sp.fideioomiso, a feoffment. These words are the fidei-commissarius, fidei- commissum, of the Digest and Codex. In Spanish fiado signifies security given for another or bail ; al fiado, on trust ; fiador, one who trusts ; feudo, a fief; fee or feud ; Port. id. In Norman, fidz de chevalers signifies knight's fees. Feud^ then, and fee, which is a contraction of it, is a word formed fiom the L. fides. It. fede, Sp./e, Norm, fei, faith, trust, with had, state, or ead or odh, estate ; and a feud is an estate in trust, or on condition, which coincides nearly in sense with the northern word, G. lehen, D. leen, Sw. l&n, Dan. lehn, Eng. loan. From the origin of this word, we see the pecuhar propriety of calling the Aonee fidelis, and his obligation to his lord fidelitas, whence fealty.]

    A fief; a fee ; a right to lands or heredita- ments held in trust, or on the terms of performing certain conditions ; the right which a vassal or tenant has to the lands or other immovable thing of his lord, to use the same and take the profits thereof hereditarilj', rendering to his superior such duties and services as belong to mili- tary tenure, &c., the property of the soil always remaining in the lord or superior. From the foregoing explanation of the origin of the word, result very naturally the definition of the term, and the doc- trine of forfeiture, upon non-performance of the conditions of the trust or loan.

    FEU'DAL, a. [Sp. feudal.] Pertaining to feuds, fiefs or fees ; as feudal rights or ser- vices ; feudal tenures.

    2. Consisting of feuds or fiefs ; embracing tenures by military services ; as the feudal system.

    FEUDALITY, n. The state or quality of

    being feudal ; feudal form or constitution.


    FEU'DALISM, n. The feudal system; the principles and constitution of feuds, or lands held by military services.


    FEU'DARY, a. Holding land of a superior.

    FEU'DATARY, n. A feudatory, which see.

    F E V

    FEU'DATORY, n. [Sp. feudalorio ; Port.

    feudatario.] A tenant or vassal wlio holds his lands of a superior, on condition of military service ; the tenant of a feud or fief.

    Blackslone. Encyc. FEU'DIST, n. A writer on feuds.


    FEUILLAciE, n. [Fr. foliage.] A bunch or

    row of leaves. Jervas.

    FEUILLEMORT, n. [Fr. dead leaf.] The

    color of a faded leaf.

    FEU'TER, V. t. To make ready. [Mt in

    use.] Spenser.

    FEU'TERER, n. A dog keeper. [JVotused.]


    FE'VER, n. [Fr.fievre; Sp.Jiebre; It./ei-

    bre; L.febris, supposed to he so written

    by transposition tor ferbis, or fervis, from

    ferbeo,ferveo, to be hot, Ar. ^Li tJlass

    Br. No. 30.]

    1. A disease, characterized by an accelera- ted pulse, with increase of heat, impaired functions, diminished strength, and often with preternatural thirst This order of diseases is called by Cullen pyrexy, Gr. «vpf?ia. Fevers are often or generally preceded by chills or rigors, called the (!old stage of the disease. Fevers are of vari- ous kinds; but the principal division of fevers is into remitting fevers, which sub- side or abate at intervals ; interyiiitling fe- vers, which intermit or entirely cease at intervals ; and continued or continued fe- vers, which neither remit nor intermit.

    2. Heat; agitation; excitementby any thing that strongly afifects the passions. Tlii; news has given me a fever. This quarrel has set my blood in a fever.

    FE'VER, V. i. To put in a fever. Dnjdi

    FE'VER-COOUNG, a. Allaying febrile heat. Thomson.

    FE'VERET, n. A slight fever. [JYot used.] Ayliffe.

    FE'VERFEW, n. [Sax.feferfuge; L.febris and fugo.]

    A plant, or rather a genus of plants, the Ma- tricaria, so named from supposed febri- fuge qualities. The common feverfew grows to the highth of two or three feet, with compound leaves and compound ra- diated white flowers, with a yellow disk.

    FE'VERISH, a. Having a slight fever ; as the patient \\s feverish.

    2. Diseased with fever or heat ; as feverish nature. Creech.

    3. Uncertain; inconstant; fickle; now hot, now cold.

    We toss and turn about our feverish will.


    4. Hot ; sultry ; burning ; as the feverish north. Dryden.

    FE'VERISHNESS, n. The state of being feverish ; a slight febrile affection.

    FE'VEROUS, o. Affected with fever or ague. Shak.

    2. Having the nature of fever.

    AW feverous kinds. Milton.

    3. Having a tendency to produce fever ; as a /evcrous disposition of the year. [This word i« little used.] Bacon.

    FE'VER-RQOT, n. A plant of the genus Triosteum.

    F I B

    FE'VER-SICK, o. [Sax.ftfer-seoc] Diseas- ed with fever. Peek.

    FE'VER-WEAKENED, a. Debilitated by fever.

    FE'VER- WEED, n. A plant of the genus Ervngium.

    FE'VER-WORT, n. [tice Fever-root.]

    FE'VERY, a. Affected with fever.

    B. Jonson.

    FEW, a. [Sax. /«a, or feawa; Dan. fine ; Fr. peu ; Sp. and It. poco ; L. pauci. The senses of few and smcUl are often united. Class Bg.]

    Not many ; small in number. Party is the madness of many for the gain of a few but few men, in times of party, regard the maxim.

    FEW'EL, II. Combustible matter. [See Fuel.]

    FEWNESS, n. Smallness of number; paucity. Dn/den

    2. Paucity of words; brevity. [JVotused,]


    FI'ANCE, V. t. To betrotli. [See Jlffiance.]

    Fl'AT. [L. from fo.] Let it be done ; a dc cree ; a command to do something.

    FIB, n. [See Fable. Ir. mcabhra.] A lie or falsehood ; a word used among children and the vulgar, as a softer expression than lie.

    FIB, V. i. To lie ; to speak falsely.

    FIB'BER, n. One who tells lies or fit

    FIB'BING, ppr. Telhng fibs ; as a noim, the telling of fibs.

    FI'BER, n. [Fr./6rc,- L. /6ra; Sp. htbra, fhra ; It. fbra.]

    A thread ; a fine, slender body which con stitutes a part of the frame of animals Of fibers, some are soft and flexible; oth- ers more hard and elastic. Those that are soft are hollow, or spungy and full o little cells, as the nervous and fleshy Some are so small as scarcely to be visi ble ; others are larger and appear to be composed of still smaller fibers. These fibers constitute the substance of th< bones, cartilage-s ligaments, membranes, nerves, veins, arteries, and muscles.


    2. A filament or slender thread in plants or minerals; the small slender root of a plant.

    3. Any fine, slender thread.

    FI'BRIL, n. [Fr./6n7/f.] A small fiber the branch of a fiber ; a very slender thread. Cheyne.

    FI'BRIN, n. [See Fiber.] A peculiar or- ganic compound substance found in ani- mals and vegetables. It is a soft solid, ofj a greasy appearance, which softens in air, becoming viscid, brown and semi transparent, but is insoluble in water. It is the chief constituent of muscular flesh. Ure.

    FIB'ROLITE,n. [from L./ftr«, and Gr.>.i9o5.] A mineral that occurs with corundum, of a white or gray color, composed of mi- nute fibres, some of which appear to be rhomhoidal prisms. Cleavcland.

    FI'BROUS, a. Composed or consisting of fibers ; as a fibrous body or substance.

    2. Containing fibers. In mineralogy; /6row« fracture, is that which presents fine| threads or slender lines, either straight or, curved, parallel, diverging, or stellated,! like the rays of a star. Kinvan.\\


    FIB'LLA, n. [L.] The outer and lesser bone

    of the leg, much smaller than the tibia.


    2. A clasp or buckle.

    FICK'LE, a. [Sax. ficol ; but it seems to be connected with toicelian, Sw. vackla, to waver, from the root of wag ; L. va- cillo; Gr. rtotxiXoj; Heb. Ch. Syr. J19 to fail, or rather Heb. pig, to stagger. Class Bg. No. 44. 60.] '

    1. VVavcring; inconstant; unstable; of a changeable mind ; irresolute ; not firm in o])inion or purpose ; capricious.

    They know how Jichle common lovers are. Dryden.

    2. Not fixed or firm ; liable to change or vicissitude ; as a fickle state. Milton.

    FICK'LENESS, n. A wavering ; wavering disposition ; inconstancy ; instability ; un- steadiness in opinion or purpose ; as the fickleness of lovers.

    2. Instability ; changeableness ; as the fick- Ie7ies3 of fortune.

    FICK'LY, adv. Without firmness or stead- iness. Southern.

    Fl'eO, n. [It. a fi^.] An act of contempt done with the fingers, expressing a fig for you. Carew.

    FICTILE, a. [L fictilis, from fictus, fingo, to feign.]

    Molded into form by art ; manufactured by the potter.

    Fictile eajlh is more fragile than crude earth. Bacon.

    FICTION, n. [L./dio, from^ngo, to feign.]

    1. The act of feigning, inventing or ima- gining ; as, by the mere fiction of the mind.


    2. That which is feigned* invented or ima- gined. The story is a fiction.

    So also was ihe fiction of those golden apples kept by a dragon, taken from the serpent which tempted Eve. Raleigh.

    FI€TIOUS, for fictitious, not used.

    Fl€TI"TIOL'S, a. [L. ficlitius, from fingo, to feign.]

    1. Feigned ; imaginary ; not real. The human persons are as fictitious as the

    airy ones. Pope.

    2. Counterfeit; false; not genuine ; as ficti- tious fame. Dryden.

    FICTP'TIOUSLY, adv. By fiction; falsely; counterfcitly.

    FICTP'TIOUSNESS, n. Feigned repre- sentation. Brown.

    FI€'TIVE, a. Feigned. [.Yot used.]

    FID, n. A square bar of wood or iron, with a shoulder at one end, used to support the top-mast, when erected at the head of the lower mast. Mar. Diet.

    j2. A pin of hard wood or iron, tapering to a point, used to open the strands of a rope in splicing. Mar. Diet.

    FIDDLE, n. [G.fiedel; D.vedel; L. fides, fidiculn.] A stringed instrument of music ; a violin.

    FID'DLE, V. i. To play on a fiddle or violin.

    TTiemistoclcs said he could not fiddle, but he

    could make a small town a great city. Bacon.

    It is said that Nem fiddled, when Rome was

    in flames. History.

    2. To trifle ; to shift the hands often and do nothing, like a fellow that plavs on a fiddle.


    GooJ cooks cannot abide what they cal

    fiddling work. Swift

    FlU'DLK, V. t. To play a tune ou a fiddle FIDDLE-FADDLE, n. Trifles. [A low

    cant ivord.] Spectator.

    FIDDLE-FADDLE, a. Trifling-; making

    a bustle about nothing. [Vulgar.] FIDDLER, n. One who plays on a fiddle

    or violin. FID'DLE-STICK, n. The bow and strins

    with which a fiddler plays on a viohn. FID'DLE-STRING, n. The string of a fid

    die, fastened at the ends and elevated ii

    the middle bv a bridge. FID'DLE-WOQD, n. A plant of the genus

    Citharexvlon. FIDDLING, ppr. Playing on a fiddle. FID'DLING, )i. The act of playing on a

    fiddle. Bacon

    FI'DEJUSSOR, n. [L.] A surety; out

    bound for another. Blackslone.

    FIDELITY, n. [L. fidelitas, from fides

    faith, fido, to trust. See Faith.]

    1. Faithfulness; careful and exact observ- ance of duty, or performance of obhga- tions. We expectfidelity iji a public min ister, in an agent or trustee, in a domes tic servant, in a friend.

    The best security for the fidelity of men, Is to make interest coincide with duty.

    Federalist, Hamilton

    2. Firm adherence to a person or party with which one is united, or to which one i; bound; loyalty; as the^(/e% of subjecti to their king or government ; the fidelity of a tenant or liege to his lord.

    3. Observance of the marriage covenant as the fidelity of a husband or wife.

    4. Honesty ; veracity ; adherence to truth as the fidelity olja witness.

    FIDSE, I • [allied probably to fickle. FIDG'ET, \\ *■ To move one way and the

    other ; to move irregularly or in fits and

    starts. [A low word.] Swift.

    FIDG'ET, 11. Irregular motion ; restlessi


    FIDG'ETY, a. Restless ; uneasy. [Vul.gar.] FIDU'CIAL, a. [from L.fiducia, from fido,

    to trust.]

    1. Confident ; undoubting ; firm ; as a fidu cial reliance on the promises of the gos pel.

    2. Having the nature of a trust ; as fiducial power. Spelman

    FIDU'CIALLY. adv. With confidence.

    South FIDU'CIARY, a. [L. fiduciarius, {lomfido to trust.]

    1. Confident ; steady ; undoubting ; unwa- vering ; firm. JVake.

    2. Not to be doubted ; as fiduciary obedi- ence. Howell

    :i. Held in trust. Spelman

    FIDU'CIARY, n. One who holds a thing

    in trust ; a trustee. 2. One who depends on faith for salvation,

    without works ; an antinomian.

    Hammond. FIE, pronounced fi, an exclamation denot

    ing contempt or dislike. ■ FIEF, n. [Fr. fief, probably a compound

    word, consisting ofjfc, faith, and a word I

    do not understand. See Fee, Feoff and

    Feud.] A fee; a feud; an estate held of a supei

    on condition of military service.

    F I E

    FIELD, n. [Sax. field; G. field ; D. veld; Sw. Dan./eH ; probably levelland, a plain, from D. velien, to fell, to lay or - throw down.]

    1. A piece of land inclosed for tillage or pasture ; any part of a farm, except the garden and appurtenances of the man- sion ; properly land not covered with wood, and more strictly applicable to til- lage land than to mowing land, which is often called meadow. But we say, the master of the house is in the field with his laborers, when he is at a distance from his house on his farm. He is in the field, plowing, sowing, reaping or making hay.

    2. Ground not inclosed. Mortimer.

    3. The ground where a battle is fought. We say, the field of battle ; these veterans are excellent soldiers in thefietd.

    4. A battle ; action in the field. What though the field be lo.^t. Milton

    5. To keep the field, is to keep the campaign open ; to live in tents, or to be in a state of active operations. At the approach of cold weather, the troops, unable to keep the field, were ordered into winter quar- ters.

    (j. A wide expanse.

    Ask of yonder argent fields above.


    7. Open space for action or operation ; com- pass ; extent. This subject opens a wide

    field for contemplation.

    8. A piece or tract of land. The field I give thee and the cave that i: lereln. Gen. xxlli.

    9. The ground or blank space on which fig ures are drawn ; as the field or ground of a picture. Diyden.

    10. In heraldry, the whole surface of the shield, or the continent. Encyc.

    11. In scripture, field often signifies the open country, ground not inclosed, as it may in some countries in modern times.

    12. A field of ice, a large body of floating ice.

    FIE'LDED, a. Being in the field of battle encamped. Shak.

    FIELD-BASIL, n. A plant of several kinds.

    FIE'LD-BED, ». A bed for the field.


    FIE'LD-BOQK, n. A book used in survey ing, in which are set down the angles stations, distances, &c. Encyc.

    FIE'LD-COLORS, n. plu. In war, small flags of about a foot and half square, car ried along with the quarter-master gen eral, for marking out the ground for the squadrons and battalions. Encyc.

    FIE'LD-DUCK, n. A species of bustard, nearly as large as a pheasant ; found chiefly in France. Diet. JVat. Hist.

    FIE'LDFARE, n. [field and fare, wander- ing in the field. Sax. faran, to go.]

    A bird of the genus Turdus or thrusli about ten inches in length, the head ash colored, the back and greater coverts of the wings, of a fine deep chesnut, and the tail black. These birds pass the summer in the northern parts of Europe, but visit Great Britain in winter. Encyc

    FIELD-MARSHAL, Ji. The commander of an army ; a military oflicer of high rank in France and Germany, and th highest mihtary oflicer in England.


    FIE'LDMOUSE, n. A species of mouse that lives in the field, burrowing in banks, &c. Mortimer.

    FIELD-OFFICER, n. A military oflicer above the rank of captain, as a major or colonel.

    FIELD-PIECE, n. A small cannon which is carried along with armies, and used in the field of battle.

    FIELD-PREACHER, n. One who preach- in the open air. Lavinglon.

    FIELD-PREACHING, n. A preaching in the field or open air. Warhurlon.

    FIE'LDROOM, n. Open space. [Abi in use.] Drayton.

    FIE'LD-SPORTS, n. plu. Diversions of the field, as shooting and hunting.


    FIELD-STAFF, n. A weapon carried by gimners, about the length of a halbert, with a spear at the end ; having on each side ears screwed on, like the cock of a match-lock, where the gunners screw in lighted matches, when they are on com- mand. Encyc.

    FIE'LD- WORKS, n. In the militaty art, works thrown up by an army in besieging a fortress, or by the besieged to defend the place. Encyc.

    FIE'LDY, a. Open like a field. [jVo< in tise.] Wickliffe.

    FIEND, n. [Sax. /eonrf, Goth, fiands, from fian, fieon, figan, to hate; G.feind; D. vyand ; Sw. Dan. fiende. See Feud, con- tention.]

    .An enemy in the worst sense ; an implaca- ble or malicious foe ; the devil ; an infernal being. O woman ! woman ! when to ill thy mind Is bent, all hell contains no fouler fiend.


    FIE'NDFUL, a. Fufl of evil or malignant practices. Marlowe.

    FIE'NDLIKE, a. Resembling a fiend ; ma- liciously wicked ; diabolical.

    FIERCE, n.fers. [Fr.fier ; It. fiero,feroce; Sp. fiero, feroz ; from L. ferus, ferox, the primary sense of which is wild, running, rushing.]

    1. Vehement ; violent ; furious ; rushing ; impetuous ; as a fierce wind. Watts.

    2. Savage ; ravenous ; easily enraged ; as a fierce lion.

    3. Vehement in rage ; eager of mischief; as a fierce tyrant ; a monster fierce for blood.

    4. Violent ; outrageous ; not to be restrain^ ed.

    Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce. Gen. xlix.

    5. Passionate ; angry ; furious.

    6. Wild; staring; ferocious; as a fierce countenance.

    7. Very eager ; ardent ; vehement ; as a man fiierce for his party.

    FIERCELY, adv. fers'ly. Violently ; furi- ously ; with rage ; as, both sides fiercely fought.

    2. With a wild aspect ; as, to \\ook fiercely.

    FIERCE-MINDED, a. Vehement ; of a fu- rious temper. Bp. Wilson.

    FIERCENESS, n. fers'ness. Ferocity ; sav- ageness.

    The defect of heat which gives ^e; '-

    our natures.

    F I F

    F I G

    2. Eagerness for blood ; fury ; as the Jierce- ness of a lion or bear.

    3. Quickness to attack ; keenness in anger and resentment.

    The Greeks arc strong, and skilful to their

    strength, Fierce to their skill, and to their fiercencsi

    valiant. Shak

    4. Violence ; outrageous passion.

    His pride and brutal fierceness I abhor.


    5. Vehemence ; fury ; impetuosity ; as the fierceness of a tempest.

    FIERI FA'CIAS, n. [L.] In /mo, a judicial writ that lies for him who has recovered in debt or damages, commanding the sheriff to levy the same on the goods of him against whom the recovery was had. Cowel.

    FI'ERINESS, n. [See Fiery, Fire.] The quality of being fiery ; heat ; acrimony ; the quality of a substance that excites a sensation of heat. Boyle.

    2. Heat of temper ; irritabihty ; as Jieri- ness of temper. Addison.

    FI'ERY, a. [from fire.] Consisting of fire ; as the fiery gulf of Etna.

    And fiery billows roll below. Walts.

    2. Hot like fire ; as a fiery heart. Skak.

    3. Vehement; ardent ; very active ; impetu- ous ; as a fiery spirit.

    4. Passionate ; easily |)rovoked ; irritable.

    You know the fiery quality of the duke.


    5. Unrestrained ; fierce ; as a fiery steed.

    6. Heated by fire.

    The sword which is inade_^er^. Hooker.

    7. Like fire ; bright ; glaring ; as a fiery ap- pearance.

    FIFE, n. [Fr.//re ; G. pftife. It is radically

    the same as pipe, W. pib, Ir. pib or pip,

    D. pup, Dan. pibe, Sw. pipa, coinciding

    with L.. pipio, to pip or peep, as a chicken.

    The word may liave received its name

    from a hollow stalk, or from its sound.] A small pipe, used as a wind instrument,

    chiefly in martial music with drums. FIFE, V. i. To plav on a fife. FI'FER, n. One vvho plays on a fife. FIFTEE'N, a. [Sax. fijlyn.] Five and ten. FIFTEE'NTH, a. [Sixx. fiflyntha.] The

    ordinal of fifteen ; the fifth after tlie

    tenth. 2. Containing one part in fifteen. FIFTEE'NTH, n. A fifteenth part. FIFTH, a. [Sax. fijla. See Five.] The

    dinal of five ; the next to the fourth. 2. EUiptically, a fifth part ; or the word may

    be considered as a noun, as to give a fifth

    or two fifths. FIFTH, n. In imtsic, an interval consisting

    of three tones and a semitone. Encyc. FIFTH'LY, adv. In the fifth place. FIF'TIETIT, a. [Sax. fifleogetha ; fif five,

    and teogelha, tenth.] The ordinal of fifty ; as the fiftieth part of a

    foot. This may be used elliptically, as a!

    fiftieth of bis goods, part being understood ;i

    or in this case, the word may be treated^

    in grammars as a noun, admitting a plu-j

    ral, as two fiftieths. FIF'TY, a. [Sax. fiflig ; fif five, and Goth.

    tig, ten.] Five tens ; five times ten ; as fifty men. It

    may be used as a noun in the plural. And they sat down by fifties. Mark vi.

    FIG, n. [L.ficus; Up. figo or higo ; lufico;, Fr. figue ; G. ftige ; D. vyg ; Heb. 'J3 ; Ch. ma.]

    1. The fruit of the fig-tree, which is of a round or oblong shape, and a dark pur- plish color, with a i)ulp of a sweet taste. But the varieties are numerous ; some being blue, others red, and others of a dark broAvn color. Encyc.

    2. The fig-tree. Pope. FIG, II. /. To insult with ficoes or contemp- tuous .-notions of the fingers. [Little used.]

    Shak. 2. To put something useless into one's head. [JVot used.] L^ Estrange.

    FIG'-APPLE, n. A species of apple.


    FIG'-GNAT, n. An insect of the fly kind. Johnson.

    FIG'-LEAF, n. The leaf of a fig-tree ; also, a thin covering, in allusion to the first covering of Adam and Eve. FIG-MARIGOLD, n. The Mesembryan- ihemum, a succulent plant, resembling houseleek ; the leaves grow opposite by pairs. Fam. of Plants. Miller.

    FIG'-PECKER, n. [L. ficedula.] A bird. FIG'-TREE, »i. A tree of the genus Ficus, growing in warm climates. The recepta- cle is common, turbinated, carnous and connivent, inclosing the florets either in the same or in a distinct one. The male calyx is tripartite ; no corol ; three sta- mens. T^ie female caly.x is quinquepar- tite ; no corol ; one pistil ; one seed.

    Encyc. To dwell under our vine and fig-tree, is tc

    ive in peace and safety. 1 Kings iv. FIG'- WORT, n. A plant of the genus Scro

    phularia. Figary, for vagary, is not English. FIGHT, II. i. pret. and pp. fought, pro nounced/au<. [Sax. feahtan,ftohtan ; G. fechten ; D. vegten; Sw.fhckta ; Dan. feg- ter; Ir. fichim.]

    . To strive or contend for victory, in battle or in single combat ; to attemjjt to defeat, subdue or destroy an enemy, either by blows or weapons ; to contend in arms. Come and be our captain, that we may fight with the children of .\\ininon. Judges xi.

    When two persons or panies contend in person, fight is usually followed by with. But wlien we speak of carrying on war, in any other form, we may say, to fight against.

    Saul look the kingdom over Israel, and fought against all his enemies on every side. I Sam. xiv.

    Hazael king of Syria went up, and fought against Gath. 2 Kings'xii. It is treason for a man to join an ene- my to fight against his country. Hence, To fight against, is to act in op|)osition ; to ojjpose ; to strive to conquer or resist.

    The stars in their courses /ought against Sisera. Judges v.

    2. To contend ; to strive ; to struggle to resist or check.

    3. To act as a soldier. Shak. FIGHT, V. t. To carry on contention ; to

    maintain a struggle for victory over one mips.

    I have fought a good fight. 2 Tim. iv.

    2. To contend with in battle ; to war againsl. They fought the enemy in two pitched battles. The captain fought the frigate seven glasses. [Elliptical ; teith being un- derstood.]

    FIGHT, n. A battle ; an engagement ; a contest in arms ; a struggle for victory, either between individuals, or between ar- mies, ships or navies. A duel is called a single /g-A< or combat.

    2. Something to screen the combatants in ships.

    Up with your fights and your nettings pre- pare. Dryden.

    FIGHTER, n. One that fights ; a combat- ant ; a warrior.

    FIGHTING, ppr. Contending in battle; striving for victory or conipicst.

    2. a. Qualified for war ; fit for battle.

    A host of fighting men. 2 Chron. xxvi.

    3. Occupied in war ; being the scene of war ; as a fighting field. Pope.

    FIGHTING, n. Contention; strife : quar- rel.

    Without were fightings, within were fears. 2 Cor. vii.

    FIG'3IENT, n. [L. figmentum, from fingo, to feign.]

    An invention; a fiction ; something feigned or imagined. These assertions are the figments of idle brains. Bp. Lloyd.

    FIG'ULATE, a. [L. figulo, to fashion, from fingo, or rather figo, which appears to be the root of fingo.]

    Made of potter's clay; molded; shaped. [Little used.]

    FIGURABIL'IT\\^ n. The quality of being capable of a certain fixed or stable form.

    FIG'URABLE, a. [from figure.] Capable of being brought to a certain fixed form or shape. Thus lead is fig urable, but wa- ter is not. Bacon.

    FIG'URAL, a. Represented by figure or de- lineation ; as figural resemblances.


    Figural numbers, in geometry, such numbers as do or may represent some geometrical figure, in relation to which they arc al- ways considered, and arc either lineary, superficial or solid. Harris.

    FIG'URATE, a. [L. figuratus.] Of a cer- tain determinate form.

    2. Resembling any thing of a determinate form ; as figurate stones, stones or fossiU resembling shells.

    3. Figurative. [J^ot used.]

    Figurate counterpoint, in music, that wherein there is a rai.xture of discords with con- cords. Harris.

    Figurate descant, that in which discords are concerned, though not so much as con- cords. It may be called the ornament or rhetorical part of music, containing all the varieties of points, figures, syncopes, and diversities of measure. Harris.

    FIG'URATED, a. Having a determinate form. Potter.

    FIGURA'TION, n. The act of gi\\ing figure or determinate form. Bacon.

    2. Determination to a certain form. Bacon.

    3. Mixture of concords and discords in mu- sic. Oregon/.

    FIG'URATIVE, a. [Ft. figuratif (rom fig-

    F I G

    F I L

    F I L

    1. Representing something else ; represent- ing by resemblance ; typical.

    This they will say, was figurative, and ser- ved by God's appointment but for a time, to sbadow out the true glory of a more divine sanctity. Hooker.

    2. Representing by resemblance ; not literal or direct. A figurative expression, is one in which the words are used in a seusf different from that in which they are or- dinarily used ; as,

    Slander, Whose edge is sharper than the sword. Shak

    3. Abounding with figures of speech ; as i description highly figurative.

    FIGURATIVELY, adv. By a figure ; in a manner to exhibit ideas by resemblance in a sense different from that whicl words originally imply. Words are used figuratively, when they express something different from their usual meaning.

    FIG'URE, n.fig'ur. [Fr. figure ; U figura, from figo, to fix or set ; W. fugyr, from fugiatv, to feign. See Feign.]

    1 . The form of any thing as expressed by the outline or terminating extremities. Flowers have exquisite figures. A trian- gle is a figure of three sides. A square is a figure of four equal sides and equal angles.

    2. Shape ; form ; person ; as a lady of ele- gant /g-itre.

    A good figure, or person, in man or woman,

    gives credit at first sight to the choice of either.


    3. Distinguished appearance ; eminence ; distinction ; remarkable character. Ames made a figure in Congress ; Hamilton, in the cabinet.

    4. Appearance of any kind ; as an ill_^g-«re; a meanfigiire.

    5. Magnificence ; splendor ; as, to live in figure and indulgence. Law.

    G. A statue ; an image ; that which is form- ed in resemblance of something else ; as the^^g'ure of a man in plaster.

    7. Representation in painting ; the lines and colors which represent an animal, particu- larly a person ; as the principal figures of a picture ; a subordinate /g-ure.

    8. In manufactures, a design or representa- tion wrought on damask, velvet and other stuffs.

    9. In logic, the order or disposition of the middle term in a syllogism with the parts of the question. Woto.

    10. In arithmetic, a character denoting a number; as 2. 7. 9.

    11. In as


    12. In Wico^og'i/, type ; representative.

    Who was ihe figure of him that was to come. Rom. V. 1.3. In rhetoric, a mode of speaking or wri- ting in wlijch words are deflected from their ordinary signification, or a mode more beautiful and einphatical than the ordinary way of expressing the sense; the language of the imagination and passions ; as, knowledge is the light of the mind the sold mounts on the wings of faith youth is the morning of life. In strict ness, the change of a word is a trope, and any affection of a sentence a figure ; but these terms are often confounded.


    14. In grammar, any deviation from the rules of aiialogy or syntax.

    15. In dancing, the several steps which the dancer makes in order and cadence, con- sidered as thev form certain figures on the floor.

    FIG'URE, V. t. fig'ur. To form or mold into any determinate shape.

    Accept this goblet, rough with figured gold. Ihyden.

    2. To show by a corporeal resemblance, as in picture or statuary.

    .3. To cover or adorn with figures or images ; to mark with figures ; to form figures in by art; as, to figure velvet or muslin.

    4. To diversify ; to variegate with adventi-, tious forms of matter

    5. To represent by a typical or figurative] resemblance.

    The matter of the sacraments ^^ureiA theii end. Hooker i

    6. To imagine ; to image in the mind. i


    7. To prefigure ; to foreshow. Shak.:

    8. To form figuratively ; to use in a sensel not literal ; as figured expreasioas. [Int-, tie used.] Locke}

    9. To note by characters. As through a crystal glass the figured hours

    are seen. Dryden.'

    10. In music, to pass several notes for one ;| to form runnings or variations. Enctjc-

    FIG'URE, v. i. To make a figure ; to be dis- tinguished. The envoy figured at the court of St. Cloud. FIG'URE-CASTER, > A pretender to' FIG'URE-FLINGER, ^"- astrology. Obs.\\ FIG'URE-STONE, n. A name of the agal- matolite, or bildstein. I

    FIG'URED, pp. Represented by resem-i blance ; adorned with figures ; formedi info a determinate figure. 1

    3. In music, free and florid. | FIG'URING, />/»•. Forming into determinate

    shape ; representing by types or resem- blances ; adorning with figures; making a distinguished appearance.

    FILA'CEOUS, a. [h. filum, a thread; Fr. file ; Sp. kilo.] Composed or consisting of threads. Bacon.

    FIL'ACER, n. [Norm, filicer, from file, a thread, or file, L.filum, Sp. hilo.]

    An officer in the English Court of Common Picas, so called from filing the writs on which he makes process. There are four- teen of them in their several divisions and counties. They make out all original pro- cesses, real, personal and mixed.


    FIL'AMENT, n. [Fr. from L. filamenta, threads, {rom filum.]

    A thread ; a fiber. In anatomy and natural history, a fine thread of which flesh, nerves, skin, plants, roots, &c., and also some minerals, are composed. So the spider's web is composed offiiaments. The thread like part of the stamens of plants, is called the filament.

    FILAMENT'OUS, a. Like a thread ; c sisting of fine filaments.

    FIL'ANDERS, n. [Fr.filandres, fvomfil a thread.]

    A ilisease in hawks, consisting of filaments

    of coagulated blood ; also, small worn

    wrapt ill a thin skin or net, near the reins

    ol a hawk.


    FIL'ATORY, n. [from L. filum, a thread.] A machine which forms or spins threads.

    This manufactory hasthree//a(orics, each of 640 reels, which are moved by a water-wheel, and besides a smMfitatory turned by men.

    Tooke. FIL'lJERT, n. [L. avellana, with which the

    first syllable corresponds ; _^/, vel.] The fruit of the Corylus or hazel; an egg- shaped nut, containing a kernel, that has a mild, farinaceous, oily taste, which is agreeable to the palate. The oil is said to be little inferior to the oil of almonds.

    Encyc. FILCH, i». t. [This word, Wke pilfer, is proba- bly from the root o{ file or peel, to strip or rub off. But I know not from what source we have received it. In Sp. pellizcar is to pilfer, as filouter, in French, is to pick the pocket.] To steal something of little value ; to pilfer ; to steal; to pillage ; to take wrongfully from another.

    Fain would they filch that little food away.

    Dryden. But he th^t filches from me my good name, Robs me of" that which not enriches him. And makes me poor indeed. Shak.

    FILCH'ED, pp. Stolen ; taken wrongfully

    from another ; pillaged ; pilfered. FILCH'ER, n. A thief; one who is guilty

    of petty theft. FILCH'iNG, ppr. Stealing; taking from

    another wrongfully ; pilfering. FILCH'INGLY, adv. By pilfering; in a

    thievish manner. FILE, n. [Fr. file, a row ; filet, a thread ; L. filum; Sp.hilo; Fort, fila ; It. fila, fUo ; Russ. bid, a thread of flax. The primary sense is probably to draw out or extend, or to twist. W.filliaw, to twist.]

    1. A thread, string or line ; particularly, a line or wire on which papers arc strung in due order for preservation, and for conveniently finding them when wanted. Documents are kept on file.

    2. The svhole number of papers strung on a line or wire; as a file of writs. A file is a record of court.

    3. A bundle of papers tied together, with the title of each indorsed ; the mode of ar- ranging and keeping papers being changed, without a change of names.

    4. A roll, list or catalogue. Shak.

    5. A row of soldiers ranged one behind ano- ther, from front to rear; the number of men constituting the depth of the battalion or squadron.

    FILE, V. t. To string ; to fasten, as papers, on a line or wire for preservation. Decla- rations and affidavits must be filed. An original writ may be filed after judgment.

    2. To arrange or insert in a bundle, as pa- pers, indorsing the title on each paper. This is now the more common mode of filing papers in public and private ofiices.

    3. To ])resent or exhibit officially, or for trial ; as, to file a bill in chancery.

    FILE, V. i. To march in a file or line, as sol- diers, not abreast, but one after another.

    FILE, n. [Sax.feol; D. vyl; G.feile; Sw. and Dan.//, a file ; Russ.'^iVo, a saw ; per- haps connected in origin with polish, which sec. Class Bl. i\\o. ;tO. 32. 33. 4.5.]

    An instrument used in smoothing and polish-

    F I L

    ing metals, formed of iron or steel, and cutl in little fiinovvs. FILE, V. t. [Russ. opilevayu, and spilivayu,] to file.]

    1. To rub and smooth with a file ; to polish.

    2. To cut as with a file ; to wear off or away by friction ; as, to fk off a tooth.

    3. [from dejilt.] To foul or defile. [JVo< used.] Shak.

    FI'LE-eUTTER, n. A maker of files.


    FI'LED, pp. Placed on a line or wire ; pla- ced in a bundle and indorsed ; smoothed or nolished with a file.

    FILE-LE'ADER, n. The soldier placed in the front of a file. Cyc

    FI'LEMOT, n. [Fr./t!(i'He-mor

    FI'LER, Ji. One who uses a file in smooth- ing and polishing.

    FIL' I AL, a. f I' ml. [Fr. Jilial ; \\i.filiale; Si\\i.filial ; from L.JUius, a sois,JUia, a daugh- ter, Sp. hijo, Coptic /ufu. Sans, bala or bali. It agrees in elements with foal and jiullus. The Welsh has hiliaw and eppihaw, to bring forth ; hil and eppil, progeny.]

    1. Pertaining to a son or daughter ; becom- ing a child in relation to his parents. Fil- ial love is such an affection as a child naturally bears to his parents. Filial duty or obedience is such duty or obedience as the child owes to his parents.

    2. Bearing the relation of a son.

    FILIA'TION, n. [Fr. from L.Jilius, a son.]

    1. The relation of a son or child to a father; correlative to paternity. Hale.

    2. Adoption.

    FIL'IFORM, n. [L. filum, a thread, and form.]

    Having the form of a thread or filament ; of eq^ual tliickness from top to bottom ; as n filiform style or peduncle. Marlyn

    FlL'lGRA5fE, n. sometimes written //igree. [L. filum, a thread, and granum, a grain.]

    A kind of enrichment on gold and silver, wrought delicately in the manner of little threads or grains, or of both intermixed.


    FIL'IGRANED, or FIL'IGREED, a. Or- namented with filigrane. Taller.

    FI'LING, ppr. Placing on a string or wire, or in a bundle of papers ; presenting for trial ; marching in a file ; smoothing with a file.

    FI'LINGS, n. plu. Fragments or particlei rubbed off by the act of filing ; asfilitigs of iron.

    FILL, V. t. [Sax.fyUan, ^ffillan ; D. vullen ; G.Jullen; Sw. fylla; Dan. fylder, to m ; Fr. fouler, to fall, to tread, that is, to press to crowd ; foule, a crowd ; Gr. rtoxvs, moMjii. allied perhaps to fold and fell ; Ir. fillim ; Gr. !tAo{ ; naou,, to stuff ; L. pilus, pileus We are told that the Gr. m'^joM, to ap- proach, signified originally to thrust drive, L. pello, and contracted into nx< it is rendered to fiil, and rCKtoi is full. If a vowel was originally used between n and !i, in these words, they coincide with fill and the L. pleo, [for peleo,] in all its com pounds, is the same word. In Russ

    F I L

    Volnei is fidl : polnyu, to fill. See Class ijl. No. 9. 11. 12. 15. 22. 30. 45. 47.]

    1. Properly, to press ; to crowd; to stuff. Hence, to put or pour in, till the thing will hold no more ; as, to fill a basket, a bottle, a vessel.

    FM the walcr-pots with water : and they filled tlieiu to the brim. John ii.

    2. To store ; to supply with abundance. Be fmitful, and multiply, and fill the waters

    I the seas. Gen. i.

    3. To cause to abound ; to make universally prevalent.

    The earth was filled with violence. Gen. vi.

    4. To satisfy ; to content.

    Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fiil so great a multitude .' Matt. XV.

    5. To glut; to surfeit. Things that arc sweet and fat are more filling.

    S. To make plump grain is wcWfilled,

    IS, in a good season the In the summer of 1816; the driest and coldest which the oldest man remembered, the rye was so well filled, that the grain protruded beyond the husk, and a shock yielded a peck more than in common years.

    7. To press and dilate on all sides or to the extremities ; as, the sails werefdled.

    8- To supply with liquor ; to pour into ; as, to fill a glass for a guest.

    9. To supply with an incumbent ; as, to /// an office or vacancy. Hamilton

    10. To hold ; to possess and perform the duties of; to officiate in, as an incum- bent ; as, a king fills a throne ; the presi- dent j?//i theofficeof chief magistrate; the speaker of the house fills the chair.

    11. In seamanship, to brace the sails so thai the wind will bear upon them and dilate them.

    To Jill out, to extend or enlarge to the desired

    limit. To fill up, to make fiill.

    It pours the bliss tlia(/i//s up all the mind.


    But in this and many other cases, the

    use of u/) weakens the force of the phrase.

    2. To occupy ; to fill. Seek to /// up life with useful employments.

    3. To fill ; to occupy the whole extent ; as, to fill up a given space.

    4. lo engage or employ ; as, to fill up time.

    5. To complete ; as, to_^W up the measure of sin. Mutt, xxiii.

    6. To complete ; to accomplish.

    — And fill up what is behind of the affliction; of Christ. Col. i. FILL, V. i. To fill a cup or glass for drink ing ; to give to drink.

    In the cup which she hath filled, fill to he double. Key. xviii.

    2. To grow or become full. Corn fills wel in a warm season. A mill-pond _/5/is dur ing the night.

    3. To glut ; to satiate.

    To fill up, to grow or become full. Th( channel of the river fills iip with sand, every spring.

    FILL, n. Fullness; as much as supplies want ; as much as gives complete satis- faction. Eat and drink to the fill. Take your fiU of joy.

    The land shall yield her fruit, and ye shall your fill, and dwell therein in safety. Lev. xxv

    FILLAGREE. [See Filigrane.]

    F I L

    FILL'ED, pp. Made full ; supplied with

    abundance. FILL'ER, n. One who fills; one whose em-

    ployiuent is to fill vessels.

    'ihey have si.\\ diggers to lour fillers, so as to

    keep thc//tes always at work. Mortimer.

    2. That which fills any space. Dryden.

    3. One that supplies abundantly. FIL'LET, n. [Fr.//e/, a thread, from file,


    1. A little band to tie about the hair of the head.

    A belt her waist, a fillet binds her hair.


    2. The fleshy part of the thigh ; applied to veal ; as afdlel of veal.

    3. Meat rolled together and tied round. Sicifl.

    4. In architecture, a little square member or ornament used in divers places, but gene- rally as a corona over a greater molding ; called also listel.

    try, a kii nly the

    taining only the third or fourth part of the breadth of the common bordure. It runs quite round near the edge, as a lace over a cloke. Encyc.

    6. Among painters and gilders, a httic rule or reglet of leaf-gold, drawn over certain moldings, or on the edges of fi-ames, pan- nols, &c., especially when painted white, by way of enrichment. Encyc.

    7. In the manege, the loins of a horse, begin- ning at the place where the hinder part of the saddle resis. Encyc.

    FIL'LET, r.<. To bind with a fillet or little band.

    2. To adorn with an astragal. Ex. xxxviii.

    FIL'LIBEG, n. [Gaelfilleadh-beg.] A little plaid ; a dress reaching only to the knees, worn in the highlands of Scotland.

    FILL'ING, ppr. Making full ; supplying abundantly; growing full.

    FILL'ING, n. A making full ; supply.

    2. The woof in weaving.

    FILLIP, !•. t. [|)rol)ahly from the root of L. pello, like pell, W.fil. See Filly.]

    To strike with the nail of the finger, first placed against the ball of the thumb, and forced from that position with some vio- lence.

    FIL'LIP, n. A jerk of the finger forced sud- denly from the thumb.

    FIL'LY, n. [W. filawg, from fil, a scud, a dart ; coinciding with Fr. fille, L.filia, Eng. foal, a shoot, issue.]

    1. A female or mare colt ; a young mare.

    2. A young horse. [.Vo< used.] Tusser.

    3. A wanton girl. Beaum, FILM, n. [Sax. film. Qu. W. fylliaw, to

    shade or grow over, or It. velame, a vail, a film, L. velamen, or from L. pellis.]

    A thill skin ; a pellicle, as on the eye. In plants, it denotes the thin slcin which sepa- rates the seeds in pods.

    FILM, V. t. To cover with a thin skin or pellicle. Shak.

    FILM'Y, a. Composed of thin membranes or pellicles. Whose fi/niy cord should bind the struggling ny. Dryden.

    FIL'TER, n. [Fr. fiUre, feutre ; Sp. fiUro ; It. feltro; properly /«/<, fulled wool, lana coacta, this being used for straining liquors.]

    A strainer ; a piece of woolen cloth, paper




    or other substance, through which liquors are passed for defecation. A filter may be made in the form of a hollow inverted cone, or by a twist of thread or yarn, being wetted and one end put in the liquor and the other suffered to hang out below the surface of the liquor. Porous stone ii: often used as a. filler.

    FIL'TER, V. t. To purify or defecate liquor, by passing it through a filter, or causing it to pass through a porous substance that retains any feculent matter.

    FIL'TER, v.i. To percolate ; to pass through a filter.

    FIL'TER, n. [See Philler.]

    FIL'TERED, pp. Strained ; defecated by t filter.

    FIL'TERING, ppr. Straining ; defecating

    FILTH, n. [Sax. fylth, from fuljuta, foul D. vjiilte. See Foul and Defile.)

    1. Dirt ; any foul matter ; any thing that soils or defiles ; waste matter ; nastiness.

    2. Corruption; pollution; any thing that sullies or defiles the moral character.

    To purify the soul from the dross and fiUh of sensual delights. Ti'Uotson.

    FILTH'ILY, arfu. In a filthy manner; foul- ly ; grossly. FILTH'INESS, n. The state of being filthy.

    2. Foulness ; dirtiness ; fiUh ; nastiness.

    Carry forth the filthiness out of the holy place. 2 Chron. xxix.

    3. Corruption ; pollution ; defilement by sin ; impurity.

    Let us cleanse ourselves from -aW filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. 2 Cor. vii. FILTH'Y, a. Dirty ; foul ; unclean ; nasty.

    2. Polluted ; defiled by sinful practices ; mo- rally impure.

    He that in filthy, let him be filthy still. Rev. xxii.

    3. Obtained by base and dishonest means ; as filthy lucre. Tit. i.

    FIL'TRATE, v. t. [Sp. filtrar ; It. filtrare ; Fr.filtrer. See Filter.]

    To filter ; to defecate, as liquor, by straining or percolation.

    FILTRA'TION, n. The act or process of filtering ; defecation by passing liquors through woolen cloth, brown paper, or other porous substance, as certain kinds of stone, which permit the hquor to pass, but retain the foreign matter.

    FIMBLE-HEMP, n. [Fema?e-fcf»i».] Light summer hemp that bears no seed.


    FIM'BRIATE, a. [h. fimbria, a border or fringe.]

    In botany, fringed ; having the edge sur- rounded by hairs or bristles. Martyn

    FIM'BRIATE, I!, f. To hem; to fringe.


    FIM'BRIATED, a. In heraldry, ornamented, as an ordinary, with a narrow border or hem of another tincture. Encyc.

    FIN, «. [Sax. Jinn;; Sw./cna; Dan, finne ; L. pinna or penna. The sense is probably a shoot, or it is fj-om diminish- ing. See Fine. Class Bn.]

    The fin of a fish consists of a membrane sup- ported by rays, or little bony or cartilagi- nous ossicles. The fins of fish serve to keep their bodies upright, and to jirev wavering or vacillation. The fins, except the caudal, do not assist in progressive

    motion ; the tail being the instrument of] swimming.

    FIN, V. t. To carve or cut up a chub,

    FI'NABLE, a. [See Fine.] That admits a fine.

    2. Subject to a fine or penalty ; as a finable person or offense.

    FI'NAL, «. [Fr.Sp. final; L.finalis; It finale. See Fine.]

    \\. Pertaining to the end or concluion; last; ultimate ; as the final issue or event of things ; final hope ; final salvation.

    2. Conclusive ; decisive ; ultimate ; as a final judgment. The battle of Waterloo was final to the power of Buonaparte ; it brought the contest to a final issue.

    .3. Respecting the end or object to be gain- ed ; respecting the purpose or ultimate end in view. The efficient cause is that which produces the event or effect ; the final cause is that for which any thing is done.

    FI'NALLY, adv. At the end or conclusion ; ultimately ; lastly. The cause is expen- sive, but we shall finally recover. The contest was long, but the Komans finally conquered.

    2. Completely; beyond recovery-.

    The enemy was finally exterminated.


    FINANCE, n. fi.nans'. [Fr. and Nonn finance ; Arm. financz, fine, subsidy. Fi- nance is {mm fine, in the sense of a sum of money paid by the subject to the king for the enjoyment of a privilege, a feudal sense. Hcnce/jiance was originally reve- nue arising from_^?ies. See Fine.]

    Revenue ; income of a king or state.

    Bacon. The United States, near the close of the revolution, appointed a superintendent of finance.

    [It is more generally used in the jylural.]

    FINAN'CES, n. phi. Revenue ; funds in the public treasury, or accruing to it ; jjublic resources of money. The finances of the king or government were in a low condi- tion. The finances were exhausted.

    2. The income or resources of individuals, [But the word is most properly applicable to public revenue.]

    FINAN'CIAL, a. Pertaining to public rev-

    me ; as financial concerns or operations,


    FINAN'CIALLY, adv. In relation to finan- ces or pubUc revenue ; in a manner tc produce revenue.

    We should be careful not to consider as financially eifective exports, all the goods and produce which have been sent abroad.


    FINANCIE'R, n. [In France, a receiver oi farmer of the public revenues.]

    1. An otiieer who receives and manages the public revenues ; a treasurer.

    2. One who is skilled in the principles or system of public revenue ; one who un- derstands the mode of raising money by imposts, excise or taxes, and the econom- ical management and application of pub- lic money.

    3. One who is entrusted with the collection and management of the revenues of a poration.

    4. One skilled in banking operations.

    FI'NARY, n. [from fine, refine.] in iron work.s, the second forge at the iron-mill. [See Finery.] Did.

    FINCH, n. [Sax. fine ; G. fink ; D.vink; It. pincione ; W. pine, fine, gay, a finch.]

    A bird. But finch is used chiefly in compo- sition ; as chaffinch, goldfinch. These be- long to the genus Fringilla.

    FIND, V. t. prpt. and pp. found. [Sax. fin- dan ; G.finden ; D. vinden, or i>ynen ; Sw. finna ; Dan. finder. This word coincides in origin with the L. venio ; but in sense, with invenio. The primary sense is to come to, to rush, to fall on, to meet, to set on ; and the Sw. finna is rendered not only by invenire, but by offendere. So in Sp. venir, to come, and to assault. It is probable therefore that find and fend are

    from one root. Ar. • 1. j to come. Class

    Bn. No. 21. See also No. 7.] L Literally, to come to ; to meet ; hence, to discover by the eye ; to gain first sight or knowledge of something lost ; to recover either by searching for it or by accident.

    Doth she not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she^nd it .' and when she hath /ound it — Luke xv.

    2. To meet; to discover something not be- fore seen or known.

    He sdith to him, we have found the Messiah- John i.

    3. To obtain by seeking., and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye hall find. Matt. vii.

    4. To meet with. In woods and forests thou art found.


    5. To discover or know by experience. Tlie torrid zone is now found habitable.


    6. To reach ; to attain to ; to arrive at.

    Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth to life, and few there be that find it. Matt. vii.

    7. To discover by study, experiment or trial. Air and water are found to be compound substances. Alchimists long attempted to

    find the philosopher's stone, but it is not yei found. 6. To gain; to have; as, to/n(2 leisure foi- a visit.

    9. To perceive ; to observe ; to learn. I found his opinions to accord with my own.

    10. To catch ; to detect.

    When first fonnd in a lie, talk to him of it as a strange monstrous matter. Locke.

    In this sense find is usually followed by out.

    11. To meet.

    In ills their business and their glory find.


    12. To have ; to experience ; to enjoy.

    Behold, in the day of your fast ye find pleas- ure. Is. Iviii.

    13. To select ; to choose ; to designate.

    I have found David my servant. Ps. Ixxxix.

    14. To discover and declare the truth of dis- puted facts ; to come to a conclusion and decide between parties, as a jury. The iury find a verdict for the ])laintiff or de- fendant. They find the accused to be guilty.

    15. To determine and declare by verdict. The jury have found a large sum in dam- ages for the plaintiff.

    F I N



    16. To establish or pronounce charges al ledged to be true. The grand jury liavej

    found a bill against the accused, or they find a true bill.

    17. To supply ; to furnish. Who will fii the money or provisions for this expedi- tion ? We will J5»id ourselves with provis ions and clothing.

    18. To discover or gain knowledge of by touching or by sounding. We first sound ed and found bottom at the depth of ninety five fathoms on the So]e bank.

    To find oiie's self, to be ; to fare in regard to ease or pain, health or I'ray, sir, how ilo you find yourself this morning,

    To find in, to supply ; to furnish ; to provide. lie finds his nephew in nionc}', victuals! and clothes. |

    To find out. To invent ; to discover thing before unknown. I

    A man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold — and to find out every device. 2 Chron. ii.

    2. To unriddle ; to solve ; as, to find out the meaning of a parable or an enigma.

    3. To discover; to obtain knowledge of* what is hidden ; as, to find out a secret

    4. To understand ; to comprehend.

    Canst thou by searching jfind out God ? .lob xi.

    5. To detect ; to discover ; to bring to light as, to find out a thief or a theft ; to find out a trick.

    To find fault luilti, to blame ;

    FINDER, n. One who meets or falls on any thing ; one that discovers what is lost or is unknown ; one who discovers by searching, or by accident.

    FIiVOFAULT, n. A ccnsurer; a caviller. Shak.

    FIiVDFAULT'ING, a. Apt to censure; captious. imUock.

    FIN1)1NG, ppr. Discovering.

    FINDING, n. Discovery; the act of dis- covering.

    2. In /a«f, the return of a jury to a bill; a verdict.

    FIN'DY, a. [Sax. findlg, heavy; f^efindig, capacious ; Dan. fyndig, strong, emphati- cal, nervous, weighty, from fi/nd, force, energy, emphasis, strength ; probably from crowding, tension, stretching, {'romfi?id.]

    Full ; heavy ; or fiini, solid, substantial. Obs. A cold May and a windy, ■ Makes the bam fat and /"rfy-

    Old Prov. Junius.

    FINE, a. [¥r. fin, -rnhmcG finesse ; Sp. Port. /no, whence /fne:n ; It./'iio, whence finezxa ; Dan fiin ;' Sw. fin ; G. fin ; D. fyn ; hence to rtfine. The Ir. has fion ; "and the W. fain, fined, signify rising

    - ■? to a point, as a cone. Ar. s\\ afana, to diminish. Class Bn. No 29.]

    1. Small; thin; slender; minute; of very small diameter; as a fine thread; fine silk ; a fine hair. We say also,/)!e .sand, fine particles.

    2. Subtil ; thin ; tenuous ; as, fine spirits evaporate; a finer medium opposed to a grosser. Bacon.

    .'3. Thin ; keen ; smoothly sharp; as the fine

    edge of a razor. 4. Made of fine threads ; not coarse ; as fine

    linen or cambric. 5i Clear ; pure ; free from feculence or for-

    Vol. I.

    eign matter ; as fine gold or silver ; wine is not good iWl fine.

    6. Refined. Those things were too fine to be fortunate,

    and succeed in all parts.

    7. Nice ; delicate ; perceiving or discerning minute beauties or deformities ; as a fim taste ; a fine sense.

    8. Subtil ; urtfiil ; dextrous. [See Finess.] Bacon

    9. .Sublil ; sly ; fraudulent. Hubberd's Tale.

    10. Elegant ; beautiful in thought. To call the trumpet by the name of the metal

    was fine. Dryden

    11. Very handsome ; beautifid with dignity The lady has a fine person, or a fine face

    12. Accomplished ; elegant in manners. He was one of the finest gentlemen of his age.

    13. Accomplished in learning; excellent as afine scholar.

    14. Excellent; superior; brilliant or acute as a man of fine genius.

    35. Amiable; noble; ingenuous; excellent; as a man of a fine mind.

    16. Showy; splendid; elegant; as a range of fine buildings; a_^)ie house or garden ; afine view.

    17. Ironically, worthy of contemptuous no- tice ; eminent for bad qualities.

    That same knave. Ford, her husband, has the finest mad devil of jealousy in him, Master Brook, that ever governed frenzy. Shak.

    Fine Arts, or polite arts, are the arts which depend chiefly on the labors of the mind or imagination, and whose object is pleas- ure ; as poetry, music, painting and sculp- ture.

    The uses of this word are so numerous and indefinite, as to preclude a particular def- inition of each. In general, fine, in pop- ular language, expresses whatever is excellent, showy or magnificent.

    FINE, n. [This word is the basis of finance, hut 1 have not found it, in its simple form in any modern language, except the Eng- lish, .lunius says tliat^u, in Cimbric, is a mulct, and fiinio, to fine. The word seems to be the L. finis, and the applica- tion of It to jiecuniary compensation seems to have proceeded from its feudal use, in the transfer of lands, in which a final agreement or concord was made between the lord and his vassal. See n:3 fanah. Class Bn. No. 23.]

    \\n a feudal sense,a fma\\ agreement between persons concerning lands or rents, or be- tweefi the lord and his vassal, prescribing the conditions on which the latter should hold his lands. . Spelman.

    2. -A sum of money paid to the lord by his tenant, for permission to alienate or trans- fer his lands to another. This in Eng- land was exacted only from the king's tenants in capite. Blackstone.

    3. A sum of money paid to the king or state by way of penalty for an otl'cnse : a mulct : a pecuniary punishment. Fines are usu- ally prescribed by statute, for the several violations of law ; or the limit is prescri- bed, beyond which the judge cannot im- pose afine for a particular offense.

    In fine. [Fr. cnfin ; L. in and /)ns.] In the end or conclusion ; to conclude ; to sum up all. I

    FINE, V. t. [Sec Fine, the adjective.] To clarify ; to refine ; to purify ; to defecate ; to free from feculence or foreign matter; as, to fine wine.

    [This is the most general use of this word.]

    2. To purify, as a metal; as, to fine gold or silver. In this sense, we now generally use refine ; hut fine is proper. Job xxviii. Prov. xvii.

    3. To make less coarse ; as, to fine grass. [JVot tised.] Mortimer.

    4. To decorate ; to adorn. [.Vo< in u«ej


    FTNE, V. t. [See Fine, the noim.] To im- pose on one a pecuniary penalty, payable to tlie government, for a crime or breach of law; to set a fine on by judgment of a court ; to pimish by fine. The trespas- sers were fined ten dollars and in)prisoncd a month.

    2. V. i. To pay a fine. LVot used.] Oldham.

    FI'NEDRAW, V. t. [fine and draw.] To sew up a rent with so much nicety that it is not perceived. Johnson.

    FI'NEDRAWER, n. One who finedraws.

    FI'NEDR AWING, n. Rentering ; a dex- trous or nice sewing up the rentsof cloths or stuffs. Encyc.

    FI'NEFINGERED, a. Nice in workman- ship; dextrous at fine w-ork. Johnson.

    FI'NESPOKEN, a. Using fine phrases.

    1 Chesterfield.

    FI'NESPUN, a. Drawn to a fine thread ; minute ; subtle.

    FI'NESTILL, V. <. To distill spirit from me- lasses, treacle or some preparation of sac- charine matter. Encyc.

    FI'NESTILLER, n. One who distills spirit from treacle or melasses. Encyc.

    FI'NESTILLING, n. The operation of dis- tilling spirit from melasses or treacle.


    FI'NED, pp. Refined ; ])urified ; defecated.

    2. Subjepted to a pecuniary penalty.

    FI'NELESS, a. Endless ; boundless. [M,l used.] Shak.

    FI'NELY, adv. In minute parts ; as a sub- stance finely pulverized.

    2. To a thin or sharp edge ; as an instru- ment finely sharpened.

    .3. Gaily ; handsomely ; beautifully ; with elegance and taste. She was finely at- tired.

    4. With elegance or beauty.

    Plutarch says very finely, that a man should not allow himself to hate even his enemies ; for if you indulge tliis passion on some occasions, it will rise of itself in others. ..iddiaon.

    5. With advantage; very favorably; as a house or garden/neZi/ situated.

    6. Nicely ; delicately ; as a stuff finely wrought.

    7. Purely ; completely. Clarendon.

    8. By u-ay of irony, wretchedly ; in a man- ner deserving of ^contemptuous notice. He is finely caught in his own snare.

    FI'NENESS, 71. [Tr. finesse; It. finezza.] Thinness; smallness; slenderness ; as the /nc»ie«4 of a thread or silk. Hence,

    2. Consisting of fine threads; as _/fnc linen.

    3. Smallness ; minuteness ; as the fineness of sand or particles ; the fineness of soil or mold.


    4. Clearness; .purity ; fieedoin from foreign matter ; as the jineness of wine or other liquor; the Oneness of gold.

    5. Niceness ; delicacy ; as the Jineness of taste.

    G. Ivecimess; sharpness; thinness; as the fineness of an edge.

    7. Elegance ; beauty ; as Jineness of person.

    8. Capacity for delicate or refined concep- tions; as the^neness of genius.

    0. Show ; splendor ; gayety of appearance ; elegance ; as the Jineness of clothes or dress.

    10. Clearness ; as the Jineness of conipl ion.

    11. Subtilty ; artfulness; ingenuity; as the Jineness of wit.

    \\2. Drayton.

    FI'NER, n. One who refines or purifies,

    Prov. XXV. 4. 2. a. Comparative of Jine. FI'NERY, n. Show; splendor; gayety of

    colors or appearance ; as the Jinery of

    a dress.

    2. Showy articles of dress ; gay clothes, jewels, trinkets, &c.

    3. In iron-works, the second forge at the iron-mills. [See Finaru.}

    FINESS', ? „ [Fr. Jinesse ; It.Jinezza ; Sp,

    FINESSE, (, fineza; propeHy,^ncne5S.]

    Artifice ; stratagem ; subtilty of contrivance to gain a point.

    FINESS', V. i. To use artifice or strata gem.

    FINESS'ING, ppr. Practicing artifice to accomplish a purpose.

    FIN'-FISH, n. A species of slender whale.

    FIN-FOOTED, a. Having palmated feet, or feet with toes connected by a mem- brane. Brown

    FIN'GER, n. Jing'ger. [Sax. finger, from fengan, to take or seize ; G. Sw. Dan. id; D. vinger. But n is not radical, for the Goth, isfiggrs.]

    1. One of the extreme parts of the hand, a small member shooting to a point- The fingers have joints which peculiarly fit them to be the instruments of catching, seizing and holding. When we speak ol the fingers generally, we include the thumb; as the /dc fingers. But we often make a distinction. The fingers and thumb consist of fifteen bones ; three to each The word is applied to some other ani mals as well as to man.

    2. A certain measure. We say a finger's breadth, or the breadth of the four^j^ng-ers, or of three /ng-ers.

    3. The hand. Waller

    Who tcacheth my fingers to fight. P;

    4. The finger or fingers of Gorf, in scripture, ."ignify his power, strength or operation.

    Tliu magicians said to Pliaraoh, this is the finger of God. Ex. viii.

    5. In music, ability ; skill in playing on a keyed instrument. She has a good Jinge

    liusby FIN'GER, V. t. To handle with the fingei to touch lightly ; to toy. Tlie covetous man delights to Jfinger money.

    2. To touch or take thievishly ; to pilfer.


    3. To touch an instrument of music ; to play on an instrument. Shak.

    F I N

    4. To perform work with the fingers ; to ex- ecute delicate work. To handle without violence. Bp. Hall.

    FIN'GER, j;. i. To dispose the fingers aptly in playing on an instrument. Busby.

    FINGER-BOARD, »!. The board at the neck of a violin, guitar or the like, where the fingers act on the strings. Wood.

    FINGERED, pp. Played on; handled; touched.

    2. a. Having fingers. In botany, digitate ; having leaflets like fingers.

    FIN'GER-FERN, ji. A plant, asplenium.

    FIN'GERING, ppr. Handhng; touching

    lightly. FIN'GERING, n. The act of touching

    lightly or handling. Grew.

    2. The manner of touching an instrument f music. Shak.

    3. Delicate work made with the fingers. Spenser.

    FIN'GER-SHELL, n. A marine shell re- embling a finger. Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    FIN'GER-STONE, n. A fossil resembling an arrow. Johnson.

    FIN'GLE-FANGLE, n. A trifle. [Vulgar.] Hudibras. FIN'GRIGO, n. A plant, of the genus Piso- ii. The fruit is a kind of berry or plum. Lee. Ed. Encyc. FIN'ICAL, a. [from fine.] Nice ; spruce ; foppish ; pretending to great nicety or su- perfluous elegance ; as a finical fellow. 2. AflTcctedly nice or showy ; as a finical

    dress. FIN'ICALLY, adv. With great nicety or

    pruceness ; foppishly. FIN'I€ALNESS, n. Extreme nicety in dress or manners; foppishness. fVarburton. FI'NING, ppr. [See Fine, the verb.] Clar- ifying ; refining; purifying; defecating; separating from extraneous matter. [See Fine, the noun.] Imposing a fine or pecuniary penaltv. FIN'ING-POT, n.'A vessel in which metals

    e refined. FI'NIS, n. [L.] An end ; conclusion. FIN'ISH, v.t. [Arm. finicza ; Fr.finir; L, finio, from finis, an end, Ir. fitin, W. fin. Class Bn. No. 23.]

    1. To arrive at tlie end of, in performance ; to complete ; as, to finish a house ; lo finish a journey.

    Thus the heavens and (he earth were finish- ed. Gen. ii.

    2. To make perfect. Episodes, taken separately, finish nothing.


    3. Tol end

    an end ; to end ; to put ai

    Seventy weeks are determined on thy peo pie, and on thy holy city, to finish the ti


    and make an end ol sins. Dan. ix.

    4. To perfect ; to accomplish ; to polish to the degree of excellence intended. In this sense it is frequently used in the partici- ple of the perfect tense as an adjective It is a finished performance. He is afin ished scholar.

    FIN'ISHED, jap. Completed ; ended ; done ; perlected.

    2. a. Complete ; perfect ; polished to the highest degree of excellence ; as a finished poem ; a finished education.


    FIN'ISHER, n. One who finishes; one who pletely performs. Shak.

    2. One who puts an end to. Hooker.

    3. One who completes or perfects.

    Jesus, the author and finisher ot'ourfailh. Heb. xii.

    FJN'ISHING, ppr. Completing ; perfecting ; bringing to an end.

    FINISHING or FIN'ISH, n. Completion: completeness ; perfection ; last polish.


    FI'NITE, a. [L.finitus, from finio, to finish, fromfinis, limit.]

    Having a limit ; limited ; bounded ; opposed to infinite, as finite number, finite exist- ence ; applied to this life, we say, a finite being, finite duration.

    Fl'NITELY, adv. Within limits; to a cer- tain degree only. Slillingjleet.

    FI'NITENESS, n. Limitation; confine- ment within certain boundaries ; as the Jiniteness of our natural powers.

    FIN'ITUDE, n. Limitation. [JVot used.]


    FIN'LESS, a. [from fin.] Destitute of fins ; asjinless fish. Shak.

    FIN'LIKE, a. Resembling a fin ; as a fin- like oar. Dryden.

    FINN, n. A native of Finland, in Europe.

    FIN'NED, a. Having broad edges on either side ; applied to a plow. Mortimer.

    FIN'NIKIN, n. A sort of pigeon, with a crest somewhat resembline the mane of a horse. DCct. of.Vat. Hist.

    FIN'NY, a. Furnished with fins ; asfinny fish ; finny tribes ; finny prey.

    Dnjden. Pope.

    FIN'-TOED, a. [fin and toe.] Palmiped ; palmated ; liaving toes connected by a membrane, as aquatic fowls.

    FINO'CHIO, n. [h.finocchio.] A variety of fennel.

    FIN'SCALE, n. A river fish, called the rudd. Chambers.

    FIP'PLE, n. [L. fibula.] A stopper. [A'o* in Bacon.

    FIR, 71. [W. pyr, what shoots to a point, a fir-tree ; Sax furh-wudu, fir-wood ; G. fOhre ; Sw. furu-trh ; Dan. fyrrc-trae. The Dutch call it sparre-boom, spar-tree.]

    The name of several species of the genus Pinus ; as the Scotch fir, the silver fir, spruce fir, hendock fir, and oriental fir.

    FIR-TREE. [See Fir.]

    FIRE, n. [Sax. f^r; G.feuer;D. vuur ; Dan. Sw. yyr; Gr. Jtup. Qu. Coptic, pira, the sun ; New Guinea, for. The radical sense of fire is usually, to rush, to rage, to be violently agitated ; and if this is the sense of fire, it coincides with h.furo. It may be from shining or consuming. See Class Br. No. 2. G. 9. 30.] . Heat and light emanating visibly, percep- tibly and simultaneously from any body ; caloric ; the unknown cause of the sensa- tion of heat and of the retrocession of the homogeneous particles of bodies from one another, producing expansion, and thus enlarging all their dimensions ; one of the causes of magnetism, as evinced by Dr. Hare's calorimotor. Silliman.

    In the popular acceptation of the word, fire is the effect of combustion. The combus- tible body ignited or heated to redness we cMfire ; and when ascending in a stream

    F I R

    • or body, we call it Jlame. A piece of char- coal in combustion, is of a red color and very hot. In this state it is said to be on Jire, or to contain/re. When combustion ceases, it loses its redness and extreme heat, and we say, the^^re is extinct.

    2. The burning of fuel on a hearth, or in any other place. We kindle a Jire in the morning, and at night we rake up tlie/rc. Anthracite will maintain /re during the night.

    S. The burning of a house or town ; a con- flagration. Newouryport and Savannah have suffered immense losses byjire. The great /re in Boston in 1711 consumed s large part of the town.

    4. Light ; luster ; splendor.

    Stars, hide your fires ! Shak

    5. Torture by burning. Prior

    6. The instrument of punishment ; or the punishment of the impenitent in another state.

    Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Is. xxxiu.

    7. Tliat which inflames or irritates the pas-

    What fire is in my ears ? Shnk.

    8. Ardor of temper; violence of passion.

    He had fire in his temper. Atierbury.

    9. Liveliness of imagination ; vigor of fancy ; intellectual activity ; animation ; force of sentiment or expression.

    And warm the critic with a poet's /re.


    10. The passion of love ; ardent affection.

    The God of love retire? ; Dim are his torches, and extinct his fires.


    11. Ardor ; heat ; as the/re of zeal or of love.

    12. Combustion ; tumult ; rage ; conte tion.

    13. Trouble ; affliction.

    When tliou walkest through the /re, thou shalt not be burnt. Is. xliii.

    To set on fire, to kindle ; to inflame ; to cite violent action.

    St. .inthony's fire, a disease marked by an eruption on the skin, or a diffused inflt mation, with fever; the Erysipelas.

    Wild fire, an artificial or factitious fire, which burns even under water. It is made by a composition of sulphur, naph tha, pitch, gimi and bitumen. It is called also Greek fire. Encyc

    FIRE, V. t. To set on fire : to kindle ; as,

    to fire a house or chinmey ; to fire a pile,


    9. To inflame ; to irritate the passions ; as, to/re with anger or revenge.

    3. To animate ; to give life or spirit ; as to /re the genius.

    4. To drive by lire. [Little used.] Shak .'>. To cause to explode ; to discharge ; as, tc

    fire a musket or cannon. 6. To cauterize ; a term in farrieri). FIRE, V. i. To take fire ; to be kindled.

    2. To be irritated or inflamed with passion

    3. To discliarge artillery or firearms. They fired on the town.

    FI'REARMS, n. plu. Arms or weapons which expel their charge by the combus- tion of powder, as pistols, muskets, &c.

    FI'RE-ARROW, h. A small iron dart, fur- nished Willi a match impregnated with powder and sidphur, used to fire the sails of ships. Encyc.

    F I R

    FI'REBALL, n. A grenade ; a ball filled with powiler or other combustibles, in- tended to be thrown among enemies, and to injure by explosion. 2. A meteor which passes rapidly through the air and displodes.

    FIREBARE, n. In old writers, a beacon. Cyc.

    FI'REBARREL, n. A hollow cylinder used in fireships, to convey the fire to the shrouds. Encyc.

    FI'REBAVIN, n. A bundle of brush-wood, used in fireahips. Encyc.

    FI'REBLAST, n. A disease in hops, chief- ly towards the later periods of their growth. Ch/c.

    FI'REBOTE, n. An allowance of fuel, to 1 a tenant is entitled. England.

    Fl KL;BRAND, ji. a piece of wood kindled or on tire.

    . An incendiary ; one who inflames fac- tions, or causes contention and mischief. Bacon.

    FI'REBRICK, n. A brick that will sustain intense heat without fusion. I'RKBRUSH, n. A brush used to sweep the hearth. Swift

    Fl'REBUCKET, n. A bucket to coiivVn water to engines for extinguishing fire.

    FI'RECLAY, n. A kind of clay that will sustain intense heat, used in making fire- bricks. Cyc.

    FI'REeOCK, n. A cock or spout to let out water for extinguishing fire.

    FI'RE-€OMPANY, n. A company of men for managing an engine to extinguish fires.

    FI'RECROSS, n. Sometliing used in Scot- land as a signal to take arms ; the ends be- ing burnt black, and in some parts smear- ed with blood. Johnson.

    FI'RED, pp. Set on fire ; inflamed ; kin died ; animated ; irritated.

    Fl'REDAMP. [See Damp.]

    FI'REDRAKE, n. A fiery serpent.

    2. An ignis fatuus. Beaum

    FI'RE-EN(iINE, n. An engine for throwing water to extinguish fire and save build ings.

    FIRE-ESCA'PE,fi. A machine for escaping from windows, when houses are on fi


    FI'REFLAIR, n. A species of ray-fish or Raja.

    FI'REFL*, n. A species of fly which has its belly a spot which shines ; and another species which emits light from under its wings, as it flies. Encyc.

    FI'REHOOK, n. A large hook for pulling down buildings in conflagrations.

    FI'RELOCK, n. A musket, or other gun, with a lock, which is discharged by strik- ing fire with flint and steel.

    FI'REMAN, Ji. A man whose business is to extinguish fires in towns.

    2. A man of violent passions. [.Xbt used.] Toiler.

    FI'REM>ASTER, n. An oflicer of artillery who superintends the composition of fire- works.

    FI'RENEW, a. Fresh from the forge ; bright Addison.

    FI'RE-OFFICE,ji. An office for making in- surance against fire.

    FIRE-ORDEAL, n. [See Ordeal.]

    F I R

    REPAN, n. A i)aii for holding or con- eying fire. Ex. xxvii.

    FI'REPLACE, JI. The part of a chimney appropriated to the fire ; a hearth.

    FIREPLUG, n. .\\ plug for drawing water from a pipe to extinguish fire.

    FI'REPOT, n. A small earthern pot filled with combustibles, used in niiUtary ope- rations.

    FI'RER, 71. One who sets fire to any thing; an incendiary.

    FI'RESlilP, n. A vessel filled with combus- tibles and furnished with grappling irons to hook and set fire to an enemy's ships. Encyc.

    FI'RESIIOVEL, n. A shovel or instrument for taking u]) or removing coals of fire.

    FIRESIDE, 71. A place near the fire or hearth j home ; domestic life or retire- ment.

    FI'RESTICK, )i. A hghted stick or brand. Diehy.

    FI'RESTONE, n. A fossil, the pyrite. [See Pyrite.]

    2. .\\ kind of freestone which bears a high degree of heat. Cyc.

    IFIREWARD, \\ An officer who has

    IIKKW AKDEN, ^ "' authority to direct

    "IIhi- 111 I he extinguishing of fires. II i;i;\\\\i.)l.)l),7i. Wood for fuel.

    II Ki;\\VuKK, (1. Usually in the plural,/rf- tcorks.

    Preparations of gun-powder, sulphur and other inflammable materials, used for ma- king ex])losions in the air, on occasions of public rejoicing ; pyrotechnical exhibi- tions. This word is applied also to vari- ous combustible ju-eparations used in war.

    FI'REWORKER, n. An oflicer of artilleiy

    subordinate to the firemaster. FI'RING, ppr. Setting fire to ; kindling ; an- imating; exciting ; inflaming ; discharging

    FI'RING, 71. The act of discharging fire- arms.

    2. Fuel ; firewood or coal. Mortimer.

    FIRING-IRON, 71. An instrument used in farriery to discuss swellings and knots.

    I Encyc.

    FIRK, v. t. To beat ; to whip ; to chastise. [JVot ttsed.] Hudibras.

    FIRKIN, 71. fur'hin. [The first syllable is probably the Dan. fire, D. vier, four, and the latter, as in kilderkin.]

    A measure of capacity, being the fourth part of a barrel. It is nine gallons of beer, or eight gallons of ale, soap or herrings. In America, the firkin is rarely used, except for butter or lard, and signifies a small vessel or cask of indeterminate size, or of diflferent sizes, regulated by the statutes of the diflTerent states.

    FIRLOT, 71. A dry measure used in Scot- land. The oat firlot contains 21i pints of that country; the wheat firlot 224 cubic inches; the barley firlot 21 standard pints. Encyc.

    FIRM, a. /erm. [h.firmus; Fr. ferme ; Sp. firme ; U. fenno ; W.fyrv. This Welsh word may be from the Latin. The root of the word is probably Celtic ; W. fer, hard, solid ; fyr, a solid ; feru, to concrete or congeal, to fix, to freeze. This is the root of L./ernim, iron.]

    1. Properly, fixed ; hence, applied to the matter of bodies, it signifies closely coin-

    F I R


    F I S

    pressed; compact; hard; solid; as /nn||4. Certainty; souncbiess; as the Jirmness of 2. Tlie thing first thought or done. [JVof tlesli ; ^'vn muscles ; some species of wood - "' -_:_•. i — ii

    are niore^rm than others; a cloth of _/5n7t texture.

    9. Fixed ; steady ; constant ; stable ; unsha- ken ; not easily moved ; as a Jirm believer a Jinn friend ; a frm adiierent or support er; a Jirm man, or a man of Jirm resolu tion.

    -.'?. Solid; not giving way ; opposed to yZuirf

    nsjirm land. FIRM, n. firm. A partnership or house ; oi the name or title under which a company transact business ; as the Jirm of Hope & Co. FIKM, V. t. firm, [h.firmo.] To fix ; to set tie ; to confirm ; to establish.

    And Jove lias jirni'd it with an awful nod. Dryden

    This word is rarely used, except in poetry In prose, we use conjirm.

    FIRMAMENT, n.firm'ament. [L.ftrmamen- turn, from JirmuSjJirmo.]

    The region of the air ; the sky or heavens. In scripture, the word denotes an expanse, a wide extent ; for such is the signification of the Hebrew word, coinciding with re gio, region, and reach. The original there fore does not convey the sense of solidity but of stretching, extension ; the great arch or expanse over our heads, in whicl are placed the atmosphere and the clouds, and in which the stars appear to be placed, and are really seen.

    And God said, Let there be a Jirmameiit the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from Ihe waters. Gen. i. 6.

    And God said, Let there be lights in the Arm- ament. Ibm. i. 14.

    FIRMAMENT'AL, a. Pertaining to the fir- mament; celestial; being of the upper re- gions. Diyden.

    PIR'MAN, 11. An Asiatic word, denoting a passport, permit, license, or grant of privi leges.

    FIRMED, pp. firm'ed. Established ; con firmed.

    FIRMING, f;)r./er»i'tng-. Settling; making firm and stable.

    FIRMITUDE, n. finn'itude. Strength ; so- lidity. [.Vo< in use.-] Bp. Hall.

    FIRMITY, n. firm'ity. Strength ; firmness. [N'ot used.] Chilling%Borth.

    FIKMLESS, a. firm'less. Detached from substance.

    Does passion still the Jirmless mind control

    TIRMLY, adv. finn'ly. Solidly; coinpactly; closely ; as particles of matter Jirmly liering.

    'i. Steadily ; with constancy or fixedness ; immovably ; steadfastly. He Jirmly be- lieves in the divine origin of the scriptures His resolution is ^rm/i/ fixed. He Jirmly udlieres to his party.

    FIRM'NESS, n. firm'ness. Closeness or denseness of texture or structure ; com- pactness; hardness; solidity; as the^nn- ness of wood, stone, cloth or other sub- stance.

    2. Stability ; strength ; as the Jirmness of a union, or of a confederacy.

    3. Steadfastness ; constancy ; fixedness ; as the/rm?ics.? of a purpose or resolution ; the firmness of a nuin, or of his courage ; jfirm-

    nessof mind or suul.

    notions or opmions. jFIRST, a. fiirst. [Sax. Jirst or fyrst, Sw forsle, Dan. Jorste, first ; G. Jurst, D vorst, Dan. Jyrsle, a prince, that is, Jirst man. It is the superlative of fire, fyr, be fore, advanced, tliat is, forest, fyrest, from Sax. firan, to go, or a root of the same family. See Fare and For.]

    1. Advanced before or further than any otli er in progression ; foremost in place ; as the Jirst man in a marching company or troop is the man that precedes all the rest Hence,

    3. Preceding all others in the order of time, Adam was the Jirst man. Cain was the Jirst murderer. Monday was the first day of January.

    3. Preceding all others in numbers or a pro- gressive series ; the ordinal of the first number.

    4. Preceding all others in rank, dignity or excellence. Demosthenes was the first orator of Greece. Burke was one of the

    first geniuses of his age. Give God the first place in your affections. FIRST, adv. furst. Before anything else in the order of time.

    Adam was Jirst formed, then Eve. 1 Tim. ii

    2. Before all others in place or progression Let the officers enter the gate first.

    3. Before any thing else in order of pro- ceeding or consideration. First, let us at- tend to the examination of the witnesses.

    4. Before all others in rank. He stands or ranks first in public estimation.

    Atfirst,at the first, at the beginning or origin.

    First or last, at one time or another ; at the ginning or end. .\\nd all are fools and lovers first or last.


    FIRST-BEGOT'TEN, a. First produced ; the eldest of children. Milton

    FIRST'-BORN, a. First brouglit forth ; first in the order of nativity ; eldest; as the first-born son.

    9. Most excellent ; most distinguished or exalted. Christ is called the first-hor every creature. Col. i.

    FIRST'-BORN, n. The eldest child ; the first in the order of birth.

    The first-born of the poor are th' wretched. Is. xiv.

    The first-born of death is the most terrible de.ath. Job. xviii.

    FIRST-€REA'TED, a. Created before any other. Milton.

    FIRST-FRUIT, ) „ The fruit or produce

    FIRST-FRUITS, ^ "" first mature.I and col- lected in any season. Of these the Jews made an oblation to God, as an acknowl- edgment of his sovereign dominion.

    2. The first profits of any thing. In the church of England, the profits of every spiritual benefice for the first year.


    3. The first or earliest effect of any thing," in a good or bad sense ; as the first-fruits of grace in the heart, or the first-fruits of vice.

    FIRSTLING, a. Fust produced; as/re<- ling males. Deut. xv.

    FIRST'LING, n. The first produce or off- spring; applied to beasts ; as the firstlings of cattle.


    I The very Jirstlings of my heart shall be

    The /rsHmj-s of my hand. Shak

    FIRST'-RATE, o. Of the highest excel-

    I lence; preeminent; as a yirs*-ra

    I or painter.

    .2. Being of the largest size ; as a first-rate

    i ship.

    FIS€, n. [^cus; Fr. fisc; Sp. fisco; It. id. Fiscus, $t!rxoj, signifies a basket or hauaper, probably from the twigs which composed the first baskets, Eng. whisk. The word coincides in elements with bas- ket, and L. fascia, twigs being the primi- tive bands.]

    The treasury of a prince or state ; hence, to confiscate is to take the goods of a crimi- nal and appropriate them to the public treasury.

    FIS€'AL, a. Pertaining to the public treas- ury or reveinie.

    The Jiscat arrangements of government.

    Hamilton .

    FIS€'AL, n. Revenue ; the income of a


    FISH, n. [Bax.Jisc ; D. visch ; G.fisch ; Dan. and Sw.fisk; Sp.pex; It. pesce; Fr. pois- son; \\crh, p(cher,pescher ; Arm. pesk; W. py-tg; L. piscis; Ir. iasg. This animal may be named from its rapid motion. In W. fysg is hasty, impetuous.]

    An animal that lives in water. Fish is a general name for a class of animals sub- sisting in water, which were distributed by Linne into six orders. They breathe by means of gills, swim by the aid of fins, and are oviparous. Some of them have the skeleton bony, and others cartilagin- ous. Most of the former have the open- ing of the gills closed by a peculiar cov- ering, called the gill-lid ; many of the lat- ter have no gill-lid, and are hence said to breathe through apertures. Cetaceous animals, as the whale and dolphin, are, in popular language, called fishes, and have been so classed by some naturahsts ; but they breathe by lungs, and are vivipa- rous, like quadrupeds. The term^A has been also extended to other aquatic ani- mals, such as shell-fish, lobsters, &c. We use fish, in the singular, for fishes in general or the whole race.

    2. The flesh offish, used as food. But we usually apply fiesh to land animals.

    FISH, V. i. To attempt to catch fish ; to be employed in taking fish, by iiny means, as by angling or drawing nets.

    2. To attempt or seek to obtain by artifice, or indirectly to seek to draw forth ; as, to fish for compliments.

    FISH, V. t. To search by raking or sweep- ing; as, to fish the jakes for papers.


    2. In seamanship, to strengthen, as a mast or yard, with a piece of timber. Mar. Diet.

    3. To catch ; to draw out or up ; as, to fish up a human body when sunk ; to fish an anchor.

    FISH, n. In ships, a machine to hoist and draw up the flukes of an anchor, towards the top of the bow.

    2. A long piece of timber, used to strength- en a lower mast or a yard, when S|>rung or damaged.

    F I S

    F I T

    F I T

    FISH'ER, Ji. One who is employed in catch- ing fish.

    2. A species of weasel. Pennant.

    FISH'ERBOAT, n. A boat employed in catching fish.

    FISH'ERMAN, n. One whose occupation is to catch fish.

    2. A ship or vessel employed in the busi- ness of taking fish, as in the cod and whale fislierv.

    FISH'ERTOWN, n. A town inhabited by fishermen. Came.

    FISH'ERY, n. The business of catching fish. Addison.

    2. A place for catching fish with nets or hooks, as the banks of Newfoundland, the coast of England or Scotland, or on the banks of rivers.

    FISH'FUL, a. Abounding with fish ; as a fishfid pond. Carew.

    FISH'GIG, ( An instrument used for

    FIZ'GIG, i; "■ striking fish at sea, con- sisting of a staflT with barbed prongs, and a line fastened just above the prongs.

    Mar. Did.

    FISH'HOQK, n. A hook for catching fish.

    FISH'ING,-;>p-. Attempting to catch fish ; searching ; seeking to draw forth by arti- fice or indirectly ; adding a piece of tim- ber to a mast or spar to strengthen it.

    FISIl'ING, n. Tiio art or practice of catch- ing fish.

    2. A fislierv. Spenser.

    FISII'ING"-FROG, n. The toad-fish, or Lophius, whose head is larger than the body. Encyc.

    FISH'ING-PLACE, n. A place where fishes are caught with seines ; a convenient place for fishing ; a fishery.

    FISII'KETTLE, n. A kettle made long for boiling fish whole.

    FISII'LIKE, a. Resembling fish. Shak.

    FISH'jMARKET, n. A place where fish are exposed for sale.

    FISH'MEAL, n. A meal of fish ; diet on fish ; abstemious diet.

    FISIMVIONGER, n. A seller of fish ; a dealer in fish.

    FISH'POND, n. A pond in which fishes are bred and kept.

    FISH'ROOM, JI. An apartment in a ship between the after-hold and the spirit room. Mar. Did.

    FISH'SPEAR, n. A spear for taking fish by stabbing them.

    FISH'WIFE, ». A woman that cries fish for sale. Beaum.

    FISH'VVOMAN, n. A woman who sells fish.

    FISH'Y, a. Consisting of fish.

    2. Inhabited by fish ; as the /«Ai/ flood.


    3. Having the qualities offish; like fish ; as a Jish)/ form ; a fish;/ taste or smell.

    FIS'SIIjE, a. [L. fi^silis, from /«sus, divi- ded, from findo, to split.] '

    That may be split, cleft or divided in tlie di- rection of the grain, or of natural joints. This crystal is a pelluciil fissile stone.


    FISSIL'ITY, n. Tlie quality of admitting to be clefr.

    FIS'SIPED, a. [L. ^fissus, divided, and pes. foot.] Having separate toes.

    FIS'SIPED, n. An animal whose toes are

    separate, or not connected by a mem- brane. Broivn. FIS'SURK,'ure. [Fr. from^sura. from findo, to split.]

    1. A cleft ; a narrow chasm made by the parting of any substance ; a longitudinal opening ; as the fissure of a rock.

    2. In surgery, a crack or slit in a bone, either transversely or longitudinally, by means of external foice. " Encijc.

    .3. In anatomy, a deep, narrow sulcus, or de- pression, dividing the anterior and middle lobes of the cerebrum on each side.


    FIS'SURE, V. t. To cleave ; to divide ; to crack or fracture. Wiseman.

    FIS'SURED, pp. Cleft ; divided ; cracked.

    FIrf'l", n. [Sax. fy.^l ,- D. vuist ; G. faust ; Russ. piast ; Buliem. host. Qu. is it from the root of fast ?]

    The hand clinched ; the hand with the fin- gers doubled into the palm.

    FIST, V. t. To strike with the fist.


    2. To gripe with the fist. [Litlte tised.]


    FIST'IeUFFS, n. [ and cuff.] Blows oi a combat with the fist ; a boxing. Swift.

    FIS'TULA, n. [h.;Eiig. whistle.] Properly, a pipe ; a wind histrument of music, origi- nally a reed.

    2. In surgery, a deep, narrow and callou.' ulcer, generally arising from abscesses. It differs from a sinus, in being callous.

    Fistula lachrymalis, a fistula of the lachry- mal sac, a disorder accompanied with n flowing of tears. Coxe. Sharji.

    FIS'TULAR, a. Hollow, like a pipe or reed

    FIS'TULATE, v. i. To become a pipe or fis- tula.

    FIS'TULATE, v. t. To make hollow like a pipe. [Little used.]

    FlS'TUHl'ORM, a. [fistula and /orm.] Be- ing in round hollow columns, as a min- eral.

    Stalactite often occurs fiatuliform.


    FIS'TULOUS, a. Having the form or na tureof a fistula; as & fistulous uXcfr.


    FIT, n. [Qu. W. fith, a gliding or darting motion. The French express the sense of this word by boutade, from bout, the pri mary sense of which is to shoot or piisl out. It seems to be allied to L. peto, im peto, to assault, or to Eng. pet, and prima rily to denote a rushing on or attack, oi a start. See Fit, suitable.]

    1. Tlie invasion, exacerbation or paroxysm of a disease. We apply the word to tl return of an ague, after intermission, as co\\dfit. We apply it to the first attack, or to the return of other diseases, as afit of the gout or stone ; and in general, to a disease however continued, as a^< of sick- ness.

    2. A sudden and violent attack of disorder, in which the body is often convulsed, and sometimes senseless ; as afit of apoplexy or epilepsy ; hy.steric^^.

    3. Any short return after intermission ; a turn ; a period or interval. He moves by

    fits and starts.

    By fitx my -.welling grief appears.


    4. A temporary aflection or attack; as afit

    of melancholy, or of grief; afit of jdeas- urc.

    a. Disorder; distempcrature. Shak.

    a. [Sax.yiH, a song.] Anciently, a song, or part of a song ; a strain ; a canto.

    Lye. Johnson.

    FIT, a. [Flemish, vitten ; G. pass, fit, and a pace ; passen, to be fit, suitable, right. This is from the root of Eng. pass ; D. pas, time, season ; van pas, fitting, fit, conven- ient ; Eng. pat ; Dan. passer, to be fit. In L. competo, whence compatible, signifies properly to meet or to (all on, hence to suit or be fit, from oe/o. This is probably the same word. The primary sense is to come to, to fall on, hence to meet, to ex- lend to, to be close, to suit. To come or fall, is the primary sense of time or season, as in the Dutch. See Class Bd. No. 4r>. 64. and Class Bz. No. 52. 53. 70.]

    1. Suitable; convenient; meet; becoming.

    is it fit to .say to a king, thou art wicked : Job xxxiv.

    Wives, submit yourselves to your husbands, as it \\

    2. Qualified ; as men of \\a\\or fit for war.

    No man having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, iafit for the kingdom of God. Luke ix. FIT, 1'. /. To adapt ; to suit ; to make suita- ble.

    The carpenter — marketh it out with a line, he fitteth it with planes. Is. xliv.

    2. To accommodate a person with any thing ; as, the laWorfits his customer with a coat. The original phrase is, he fits a coat to his customer. But the phrase implies also furnishing, providing a thing suitable for another.

    3. To prepare ; to put in order for ; to fur- nish with things proper or necessary ; as, to fit a ship for a long voyage. Fit your- self _/br action or defense.

    4. To qualifv ; to prepare ; as, to fit a stu- dent/or college.

    To fit out, to furnish ; to equip ; to supply with necessaries or means ; as, to fit out a privateer.

    To fit up, to prepare ; to furnish with things suitable ; to make proper for the reception or use of any person ; as, to fit up a house for a ^uest.

    FIT, V. i. To be proper or becoming.

    fiorfits it to prolong the feast. Pope.

    2. To suit or be suitable ; to be adapted. His coat fits very well. But this is an el- liptical phrase.

    FITCH, n. A chick-pea.

    FITCH'ET, } ^^ A polecat ; a foumart. [W.

    FITCH'E W, ^ ' givicyll or gwicyn.]

    I'TT'FUL, a. Varied by paroxysms; full of , fits. Shak.

    FIT^LY, adv. Suitably ; properly ; with pro- priety. A niaxim/% applied.

    2. Commodiously ; conveniently.

    FIT'MENT, n. Something adapted to a purpose. [M)t used.] Shak.

    FIT'NESS, n. Suitableness: adaptedness ; adaptation ; as the fiiness of things to their use.

    2. Propriety; meetness ; justness; reasona- bleness ; as the fitness of measures or laws.

    3. Preparation ; qualification ; as a student's fitness for college.

    4. Convenience ; the state of being fit.

    F I X

    FIT TED, pp. Made suitable ; adapted ;

    prepared ; qualified. FIT'TER, n. One who makes fit or suita- ble ; one who adapts ; one who prepares, FIT'TING, ppr. Making suitable ; adapt- ing ; preparin;: : qualifying ; providing with. FIT'TINGLY, adv. Suitably. .More.

    FITZ, ^OYm. files, fiuz, or fz, a son, is used in names, as in 'Fitxherhert, Fitzroy, Car- lovitz. FIVE, a. [Snx.fif; D. vuf; G.fiinf; Sw.

    Dan. Jem; \\V.pum,ptimp ; Arm. pemp.] Four and one added ; thehalf of ten ; as five nien ij'i'e loaves. Like other adjectives, it is often used as a noun.

    Five of them were wise, and Jive were fool- ish. Matt. XXV. FI'VEBAR, ) Having five bars ; as

    FFVEBARRRD, l"' a fivebarnd gate. FFVE€I.EFT, a. Quinquefid; divided into

    five segments. FI'VEFbLD, a. In fives; consisting of fiv

    in one ; five-double ; five times repeated. FI'VELEAF, n. Cinquefoil. Drayton.

    FrVELEAFED,«. Having five leaves ; as

    fiveleafed clover, or cinquefoil. FI'VELOBED, a. Consisting of five lobes FI'VEPARTED, a. Divided into five parts FIVES, n. A kind of play with a ball. FIVES or VIVES, n. A disease of horses,

    resembling the strangles. Encuc,

    FI'VETOOTHED, a. Having five teeth. FI'VEVALVED, a. Having five valves.

    Botany. FIX, v.t. [Fr. fixer; Sp. fixar ; It. fissare;

    L.fixiis,figo. Class Bg.]

    1. To make stable; to set or establish im- movably. The universe is governed bv

    fixed laws. ^

    2. To set or place permanently; to establish. The prince fixed his residence at York. The seat of our government is fixed at Washington in the district of Columbia. Some men have no fixed opinions.

    3. To make fast ; to fasten ; to attach firm- ly ; as, to^T a cord or line to a hook.

    4. To set or place steadily ; to direct, as the eye, without moving it ; to fasten. The gentleman fixed his eyes on the speaker and addressed him with firmness.

    5. To set or direct steadily, without wander- ing ; as, to fix the attention. The preacUet

    fixes the attention of his audience, or the hearers fix their attention on the preacher C. To set or make firm, so as to bear a higl degree of heat without evaporating ; t( deprive of volatility. Gold, diamonds, sil ver, platina, are among the most fixed bodies.

    7. To transfi-x ; to pierce. [Little used.]


    8. To withhold from motion.

    i). In popular use, to put in order; to pre- pare ; to adjust ; to set or place in the manner desired or most suitable ; as, to

    fix clothes or dress; to fix the furniture of a room. This use is analogous to that of set, in the phrase, to set a razor. FIX, V. i. To rest ; to settle or remain per- manently ; to cease from wandering. Your kindness banishes your fear, Resolved to^ forever here. Waller.

    2. To become fir

    F I Z

    to become hard and malleable ; as a me tallic substance. Bacon

    To fix on, to settle the opinion or resolu tion on any thing ; to determine on. The contracting parties have fixed on certain leading points. The legislature /x«rf on ^Vcthersfield as the place for a State Prison.

    FIX'ABLE, a. That may be fixed, estab- lished, or rendered firm.

    FIXA'TION, n. The act of fixing.

    2. Stability ; firmness ; steadiness ; a state ofbeing established ; asfixation in matters of religion. King Charles.

    3. Residence in a certain place ; or a place of residence. [Little used.]

    To liglit, created in tlie first day, God gave no certain place or Jixaiion. Raleigh

    4. That firm state of a body which resists evaporation or volatilization by heat ; as the fixation of gold or other metals.

    Bacon. Encyc

    5. The act or process of ceasing to be fluid Hid becoming firm ; state ofbeing fixed.

    r.T^^ T.,^ f'lanville

    i lA'LD, pp. Settled ; estabhshed ; firm ;

    fast ' '


    To cease

    ais to resist volatiliza- ■ be fluid ; to coii?eal

    an invisible and permanently elas tic fluid, heavier than common air and fa- tal to animal life, produced from the com bustion of carbonaceous bodies, as wood or charcoal, and by artificial processes; called also aerial acid, cretaceous acid, and more generally, carbonic acid.

    Fixed bodies, are those which bear a high heat without evaporation or volatilization.

    Fixed stars, are such stars as alwaj's retain the same apparent position and distance with respect to each other, and are thus distinguished from planets and comets, which are revolving bodies.

    Fixed oils, such as are obtained by simple pressure, and are not readilv volatihzed so called in distinction from' volatile or es sential oils.

    FIX'EDLV, adv. Firmly ; in a settled or established manner; steadfttstly.

    FIX'EDNESS, n. A state of being fixed stability; firmness; steadfastness; as ; fixedness in religion or politics ; fixedness of opinion on any subject.

    3. The state of a body which resists evapo- ration or volatihzation by heat; as the fix- edness of gold.

    3. Firm coherence of parts; solidity.

    FIXID'ITY, n. Fixedness. [JVot used.] ^^' Boyh.

    FIXITY, n. Fixedness ; coherence of parts ; that property of bodies by which they re- sist dissipaticm by heat. JVewton

    FIX'TURE, n. Position. Shak.

    2. Fixedness ; firm pressure ; as the fixtxire of the foot. Shak.

    Firmness; stable state.

    4. That which is fixed to a building; any appendage or part of the furniture of a house which is fixed to it, as by nails, screws, &c., and which t!ie tenant cannot legally take away, wlien he removes to another house.

    FIX'URE, n. Position ; stable pressure ; [Little used.] Shak

    FIZ'GIG, n. A fishgig, which see. 2. A gadding flirting girl.


    3. A fire-work, made of powder rolled up in a paper. ^

    FIZZ, > . ^

    FIZ'ZLE, j "• '• ^° "^!»ke a hissing sound.

    FLAB'BINtsS n. [See Flabby.] A soft, flexible state ot a substance, which renders It easily movable and yielding to press-

    FLAB'BY a. [W. llib, a soft, lank, limber state ; lbbi,i, flaccid, lank ; llipa, flaccid, flapping ; IHpdu, to become flabby *^, !"?"'' i "''""'"' ^° maUglib or smooth: tlabby, flap, and glib appear to be from the same root.]

    Soft ; yielding to the touch and easily moved or shaken ; easily bent ; hanging loose bv

    pt'a ^"r.".^^*''sht ; asflabby flesh. Simft.

    FLACCID, a. [L.fiac.cidus, from flacceo, to hang Aov/n to flag; Sp.fioxo ; Port, froio ; Ir. floch ; W. llac, and Hag, slack, sluggish ax ; Itaciaw, to slacken, to relax, to droop • llaca, slop, mud ; lleigiaw, to flag, to la"' to skulk ; lleigus, flagging, drooping, slug- gish, slow. We see that flaccid, flag, slack, sluggish, slow, and lag, are all of this fami-

    ^ ly. See Class Lg. No. 40. 41. 42. 43.]

    boU and weak ; limber ; lax ; drooping hanging down by its own -■' ■ • •

    _ It ; yield- ing to pressure for want of firmness and stifloess ; asa flaccid muscle; flaccid flesh

    FLAe'CIDNESS, ) „ Laxity limberne's-

    FLAeCID'ITY, I "• want of firmnesstr' stittness. fViseman.

    FLAG, V. i. [W. llacdu, or llaciaw, to relax' to droop ; llegu, to flag ; L. flacceo ; Sp! flaquear; Port, fraquear, to flag ; Ir. /no- weak. See Flaccid. The sense is priml- rily to bend, or rather to recede, to fag-.]

    1. To hang loose without stiffness: to bend down as flexible bodies; to be loose and yielding; as the flagging sails. Diyden.

    i. lo grow spiritless or dejected; to droop; to grow languid ; as, the spmts flag.

    3. To grow weak ; to lose vigor ; as, the stiength/ag.s.

    4. To become dull or languid. The pleasures of the town begin to flag.

    FLAG, V. t. To let fall into feeblenessT'ui sufier to drop; as,to flag the wings.

    FLAG, n. [W.llec; Ir. Nag, a brnad'Art stone ; allied perhaps to lay.] A flat stone, or a pavement of flat stones.

    FLAG, V. t. To lay with flat stones.

    The sides and floor were 3.\\\\ flagged witli ex- cellent marble. .Sandys.

    FLAG, n. [W. Wnr, a blade.] An aquatic plant, with a bladed leaf, probably so call- ed from its bending or yielding to the wind.

    FLAG, n. [G.flagge; D. vlag,vlag!re ; Dan. flag ; Sw. fiagg ; allied proba'bly to the preceding word, in the sense of bending or spreading.]

    An ensign or colors ; a cloth on which are usually painted or %vrought certain figures, and borne on a staf}". In the army, a ban- ner by which one regiment is distinguish- ed from another. In the marine, a banner or standard by which the ships of one na- tion are distinguished from those of ano- ther, or by which an admiral is distin- guished from other ships of his squadron. In the British navy, an admiral's flag is displayed at tlie main-top-gallant-niasiT




    head, a vice-admiral's at tlic forc-top-ga lant-mast-licad, and a rear-admiral's f the mizen-top-gallant-iuast-head.

    To strike or lower the Jlag, is to pull it down upon the cap in token of respect or sub- mission. To strike the Jlag in an engage- ment, is the sign of surrendering.

    To hang out the white Jlag, is to ask quarter ; or ill some cases, to manifest a friendly design. The red Jlag, is a sign of defiance or battle.

    To hang the Jlag half mast high, is a token or signal of mourning.

    Flag-officer, an admiral ; the commander of a squadron.

    Flag-ship, the ship which bears the admiral, and in which his flag is displayed.

    Flagstaff, the stafli" that elevates the flag.

    Encyc. Mar. Diet.

    FLAG'BROOM, n. A broom for sweeping flags. Johnson.

    FLAG'STONE, n. A flat stone for pave- ment.

    FLAG'WORM, n. A worm or grub found among flags and sedge. ff'allon.

    FLA6'ELET, n. [Fr. Jlageoht, from h. Jla- tus, by corruption, or Gr. rt>jxyiai)>.05, tfKayu>s, oblique, and av>.05, a flute. Lunier.]

    A little flute ; a small wind instrument of nuisic. More.

    FLA(i'ELLANT, n. [L. Jlagellans, from Jtagello, iojlog.'l

    One who whijis himself in religious disci- pline. The flagellants were a fanatical sect which arose in Italy, AD. 12C0, who maintained that flagellation was of equal virtue with baptism and the sacrament. They walked in procession with shoulders bare, and whipped themselves till the blood ran down their bodies, to obtain the mer- cy of God, and aj)pcase his wrath against the vices of the age. Encyc.

    FLAG'ELLATE, 11. «. To whip; to scourge.

    FLA6ELLA'TION, n. [L.jlagctio, to beat or whip, to Jlo^, from Jlagellum, a whip, scourge or Jlatl, D. viegel, G. Jjegel, Fr. Jleau. See Flail and Flog.]

    A beating or whipping ; a flogging ; the di.s- cipline of the scourge. Garth.

    FLAG'GED, pp. Laid with flat stones.

    FLAG'GINESS, n. Laxity; limberness; want of tension.

    FLAG'GING, ppr. Growing weak ; droop- ing ; laving with flat stones.

    FLAG'GY, a. Weak; flexible; limber; not stiff. Dryden.

    2. Weak in taste ; insipid ; as ajiaggy apple.


    3. Abounding with flags, the plant. FLA6I"TIOUS, a. [L.fagitium, a scanda

    lous crime, probably fro grant

    1. Deeply criminal ; grossly wicked ; villain- ous ; atrocious ; scandalous ; as a flagi- tious action or crime. South.

    2. Guilty of enormous crimes ; corrupt ; wicked ; as a flagitious person. Pope.

    3. Marked or infected with scandalous crimes or vices ; as flagitious times.


    FLAgI'TIOUSLY, adv. With extreme wickedness.

    FLAgI"TIOUSNESS, n. Extreme wicked- ness ; villainy.

    FLAG'ON, Ji. [L. lagena ; Gr. 7ia-/ri'05 ; Ir.

    probably from the root offla

    clagun ; Fr. flacon ; Sam. Castel. col. 3013.]

    A vessel with a narrow mouth, used for hold- ing and conveying liquors.

    Slay me with flagons, comfort mc with ap- ples; lor I am sick of love. Cant. ii.

    FLA'GRANCY, n. [See Flagrant.] A burn- ing ; great heat ; inflammation. Obs. Lust causeth aflagrancy in the eyes.


    2. Excess ; enormity ; as the flagrancy of a crime.

    FLA'GRANT, a. [L.flagrans,(romflagro, to burn, Gr. fJ-eyu, ft.oyou. In D.flakkeren is to blaze.]

    L Burning ; ardent ; eager ; a.s flagrant de- sires. Hooker.

    2. Glowing; red; flushed. j Sec Sapho, at her toilet's greasy task, j Then issuing^a^ra»i< to an evening mask.


    3. Red ; inflamed. The beadle's lash still/agranf on their back. 1

    Prior. [The foregoing senses are unusual.]

    4. Flaming ill notice; glaring; notorious: enormous ; as a. flagrant crime.

    FLAGRANTLY, adv. Ardently; notori- uslv. It'arlon.

    FLA'GRATE, r. /. To burn. [Little used.] Grcenhill.

    FLAGRATION, ;i. A burning. [Littl, used.]

    FLA'IL, ». [D. viegel ; G.flegel ; h.flagelluin Fr. Jleau. We retain the original verb ii flog, to strike, to lay on, L. fligo, whence afltigo, to afilict; Gr. ty-riyr;, L. plaga, a stroke, or perhaps from the same root as lick and lay. See Lick.]

    An instrument for thrashing or beating c from the ear.

    FLAKE, n. [^ax.flace; D. j)?aaA-, a hurdle for wool ; vlok, n flock, a flake, a tuft ; G. flocke,fluge, id.; Dan._^oA', a herd, and lok, a lock or flock of wool; "L.floccus; Gr. fCKoxri, nTMxof ; It. Jlocco ; Ir.flocas. FJake and flock are doubtless the same word, va- ried in orthography, and connected per- liaps with L. plico, Gr. rt^xu. The sense is a complication, a crowd, or a lay.]

    1. A small collection of snow, as it falls from the clouds or from the air; a little hunch or cluster of snowy crystals, such as fall in still moderate weather. "This is a flake, lock or flock of snow.

    2. A platform of hurdles, or small sticks made fast or interwoven, supported by stanchions, on which cod-fish is dried.


    3. A layer or stratum; as a flake of flesh or tallow. Job xli.

    4. A collection or little particle of fire, or of combustible matter on fire, separated and flying off.

    Any scaly matter in layers ; any mass! cleaving off in scales.

    Little _^

    6. A sort of carnations of two colors only, having large stripes going through the! leaves. Encyc]

    JVhiteflckc, in painting, is lead corroded by[ means of the pressing of grapes, or a ce- ruse prepared by the acid of grapes. It' is brought from Italy, and of a quality su-! perior to common white lead. It is used

    in oil and varnished painting, when a clean white is required. Encyc.

    FLAKE, V. t. To form into flakes. Pope.

    FLAKE, V. i. To break or separate in lay- ers ; to peel or scale oft". We more usu- ally say, to flake off.

    FLAKE-WIllTE, n. Oxyd of bismuth.


    FLA'KY, a. Consisting of flakes or locks; consisting of small loose masses.

    2. Lying in flakes ; consisting of layers, or cleaving off in layers.

    FLAM, »i. [Ice. flim; W. H«m, a leap.] A

    freak or whim ; also, a falsehood ; a lie ;

    an illusory pretext; deception; delusion.

    Lies immoitalizcd and consigned over as a

    perpetual abuse anii flam upon posterity.


    FLAM, V. t. To deceive with falsehood; to delude. South.

    FLAM'BEAU, n. flam'ho. [Fr. from h. flam- ma, flame.]

    .\\ light or luminary made of thick wicks covered with wax, and used in the streets at night, at illuminations, and in proces- sions. Flambeaus are made square, and usually consist of four wicks or branches, near an inch thick, and about three feet long, composed of coarse hemi)en yarn, half twisted. Encyc.

    FLAME, n. [Fr.flamme ; h.flamma ; It. Jlumma; S\\i. llama ; D. vlam ; G.flamme.]

    1. Ablaze; burning vapor; vapor in com- bustion ; or according to modern chimis- try, hydrogen or any inflammable gas, in a state of combustion, and naturally as- cending in a stream from burning bodies, being specifically lighter than common air.

    2. Fire in general. Cowley.

    3. Heat of passion ; tumult ; combustion ; blaze ; violent contention. One jealous, tattling mischief maker will set a whole village in aflame.

    4. Ardor of temper or imagination ; bright- ■ i;s3 of fancy ; vigor of thought.

    Great are their faults, and glorious is their flame. Waller.

    5. Ardor of inclination ; warmth of affec- tion.

    Smit with the love of kindred arts wc came,

    And met congenial, mingling flame with flame. Popc.

    a. The passion of love ; ardent love.

    My heart's on flame. Cowley.

    7. Rage; violence; as the^ames of war. FLAME, V. t. To inflame ; to excite.

    Spenser. FLAME, V. i. To blaze ; to burn in vapor,

    r in a current ; to burn as gas emitted

    om bodies in combustion.

    2. To shine like burning gas. In flaming yellow bright. Prior.

    3. To break out in violence of passion. Beaum.

    FLA'ME€0LOR, n. Bright color, as that of flame. B. Jonson.

    FLA'MECOI.ORED, a. Of the color of flame ; of a bright yellow color. Shak.

    FLA'MEEtED, a. Having eyes like a flame.

    FLA'MELESS, a. Destitute of flame ; with- it incense.

    FLA'MEN, n. [L.] In ancient Rome, a priest. Originally there were three priests so called ; the Flamen Dialis, consecrated



    Jupiter; Flamen Martialis, sacred tollFLANK'ED, pp. Attacked

    Mars ; and Flamen (^uirinalis, who

    su- covered or commanded on the flank.


    intended the rites of Quiriniis or Rom- jFLANK'ER, n. A fortification projecting so|


    2. A priest. PopeJ

    FLA'MING,;j/jr. Burnin? in flainc.

    2. a. Bright ; red. Also, violent ; vehement ; as ajlaming harangue.

    FLA'MING, n. A bursting out in a flame.

    FLA'MINGLY, adv. Most brightly; with great show or vehemence.

    FLAMIN'GO, 11. [Sp. and Port. /nmci!co,| fiomjlamma, flame.] I

    A fowl constituting the genus Phcenicopte-I rus, of the grallic order. The beak is iia-j ked, toothed, and bent as if broken ; the feet palmatcd and four-toed. This fowl resembles the heron in shape, but is en- tirely red, except the fpiill-fethers. It is a native of Africa and America. Encyc.

    FLAMIN'IGAL, a. Pertaining to a Roman flamen. Milton.

    FLAMMABIL'ITY, n. The quality of ad- mitting to be set on fire, or enkindled into a flame or blaze ; inflammability.


    FLAM'MABLE, a. Capable of being enkin- dled into flame.

    FLAMMA'TION, n. The act of setting on flame. BrOimi.

    The three last words are little used. In- stead of them are used the compounds, in- Jlammnlle, inJlnmmaUlihi, injlammntion.

    FL\\M'MEOUS, a. Consisting of flame ; like flame. Broion.

    FLAMMIF'EROUS,a. [L.^ammo and/tro, to bring.] Producing flame.

    FLAMMIV'OMOUS, a. [Upmrna and iw- mo, to vomit.] Vomiting flames, as a vol- cano.

    FLA'MY, a. [from flame.] Blazing ; burn- ing ; as /(/my breath. Sidnej/.

    2. Having the nature of flame ; as flamy mat- IQY. Bacon.

    3. Having the color of flame. Herbert FLANK, n. [Fv.flanc ; Sp. and Port. flanco ,

    h.flanco; G.flanke; Sw . and Dun. flank : Gr. ^oo'"" ; I>robably connected with lank W. llac, Kng. flag, Gr. ^oyopoj, and so call- ed from its laxity, or from breadth.]

    1. The fleshy or muscular part of the side of] an animal, between the ribs and the hip. Hence,

    2. The side of an army, or of any division ot an army, as of a brigade, regiment or b talion. To attack an enemy in flank, to attack them on the side.

    3. In fortificalion, that i)art of a bastion which reaches from the curtain to the face, and defends the opposite face, the flank and the curtain ; or it is a line drawn fron the extremity of the face toJ-vards the in side of the work. Harris. Encyc.

    FLANK, v.i. [Fr.flanquer; Sp.flanquea

    1. To attack the side or flank of an army body of troops ; or to place troops so as to command or attack the flank.

    2. To post so as to overlook or command on tlie side ; as, to flank a passage. Dryden.

    3. To secure or guard on the side ; as flank- ed with rocks. Drydtn.

    FLANK, V. i. To border ; to touch.

    Butler. 2. To be posted on the side.

    ominand the side of an assailing body. Knolles. Fairfax.

    FLANK' ER, v. t. To defend by lateral for- tifications. Herbert.

    2. To attack sideways. Evelyn.

    FLAN'NEL, n. [Fr. flaneUe; D. Dan. /«- nel; G.flanell; W. gwlanen, from giilan, wool, L. lana, Fr. laine, Ir. olann, Arm. gloan.]

    A soft napjiy woolen cloth of loose texture.

    FLAP, n. [G. lappen and klappe ; D. lap or klap; Svv. klapp or lapp ; Dan. klnp lap ; Sax. Iceppa, a lap ; W. llab, a stroke, a whijjping ; Uabiaiv, to slap ; L. alapa slap. There is a numerous family of words in Lb, which spring from striking with something broad, or from a noun de- noting something flat and broad. It seems diflicult to separate flap from clap, slap, flabby, lap, &c.]

    L Any thing broad and limber that hangs loose, or is easily moved.

    A cartilaginous '/Za/) on the opening of the laiynx. Brown.

    We say, the flap of a garment, the flap of the ear, the flap of a hat.

    2. The motion of any thing broad and loose, or a stroke with it.

    3. The flaps, a disease in the lips of horses, Farrier's Diet.

    FLAP, V. t. To beat with a flap.

    Yet let me flap this bug with gilded wings. Pope

    2. To move something broad ; as, to flap the wings.

    3. To let fall, as the brim of a hat. [Thi sense seems to indicate a connection with lap.]

    FLAP, V. i. To move as something broad or loose. 2. To fall, as the brim of a hat, or other

    broad thing. FLA P'DR AGON, n. A play in which they catch raisins out of burning brandy, and extinguishing them by closing the mouth, eat them. 2. The thing eaten. Johnson.

    FLAP'DRAGON, v. t. To swallow or de 57mA- FLAP'EARED, a. Having broad loose ears. Shuk. FLAP'.TACK, n. An apple-puff. Shcik.

    FLAP'MOUTHED, a. Having loose hang- ing lips. Shak. FLAP'PED, pp. Struck with something broad ; let down; having the brim fallen, as a flapped hat. FLAP'PER, n. One who flaps another.

    Cheslerfleld. FLAP'PING,ppr. Striking; beating; mov- ing something broad; as flapping wings. The ducks rm\\flapping and fluttering.

    L'Estrang' FLARE, V. i. [If this word is not contract- ed, it may be allied to clear, glare, glory, L. floreo, Eng. floor, the primary sense of which is to open, to spread, from parting, departing, or driving apart. But in Norm. flair is to blow, and possibly it may be 'from L. flo, or it may be contracted from G. flackern.] 1. To waver ; to flutter ; to burn with an unsteady light ; as, the candle flares, that


    the light wanders from its natural mse.

    2. To flutter with splendid show ; t6 be loose and waving as a showy thing. With ribbands pendant /acing 'bout her head. Shak. To glitter with transient luster. — But speech alone Doth vanish like a flaring thing. Herbert. To glitter with painful spleudor. When the sun begins to fling His flaring beams— .ARUon.

    To be exposed to too much light. I cannot Slav Flaring in sun.^hine all the day. [Qu.]

    Prior. G. To open or spread outward. FLA'RING,ppr. or a. Burning with a waver- ing light; fluttering; glittering; show>-. 2. Opening; widening outward ; as a/anng-

    fireplace. FLASH, n. [Ir. lasair, lasrach, a flame, a fleish ; lasadh, lasaim, to burn, to kindle ; leos, light ; leosam, to give light ; also, lois-


    gitn, losgadh, to burn ; loisi, flame ; Dan. lys, light ; lyser, to shine, to glisten or glis- ter ; Sw. lius, lysa, id. Uu. G. blitz, a glance ; blitzen, to lighten, to flash; Russ. blesk, bleschu, id. There is a numerous class of words in Ls, with different prefix- es, that denote to slmie, to throw light, as gloss, glass, glisten, blushf flush, flash, lus- ter, &c. ; but perhaps they are not all of one family, i'he Welsh has llathru, to make smooth and glossy, to polish, to glit- ter; Uethrid,a gleam, a flash. See Class Ld. No. 5. and Ls. No. 25. and see Flvsh.]

    A sudden burst of lic'it ; a flood of light instaiitaiHMiii h (ipineiiuj;- and disappear- ing ; a.< ■.ijhi.^li ni'liiihiiiiiig.

    |2. A sudden Imist f.i'tlanie and light; an in- stantaneous blaze ; as the flctsh of a gim.

    3. A sudden burst, as of wit or merriment ; as a flash of wit; a flash of joy or mirth.

    His companions recollect no instance of pre- n-.ature wit, no striking sentiment, no flash ot fancy— Wirt.

    A short, transient state.

    The Persians and Macedonians had it for a Bacon.

    A body of water driven by violence. [Lo- cal.] Peggc.

    6. A little pool. Qu. plai:li. [Local.]

    FLASH, V. i. To break forth, as a sudden flood of light; to burst or open instantly on the sight, as s|iloiidor. It differs from glitter, glisten and gleam in denoting a flood or wide extent of light. The lat- ter words may express the issuing of light from a small object, or from a pencil of rays. A diamond may glitter or glisten, biit it does wot flash- Flash differs from other words also in denoting suddenness of appearance and disappearance.

    2. To burst or break forth with a flood of flame and light : as, the powder /fl»7i.erf in the i)an. Flashing differs from exploding or diiploding, in not being accompanied with a loud rejwrt.

    3. To burst out into any kind of violence. Every hour

    He flashes into one gross crime or other. •^ Shak.

    4. To break out, as a sudden expression of wit, merriment or blight thought.



    FLASH, V. i. To strike up a body of water

    from the surface. Carew.

    He rudely flashed the waves. Spenser.

    [In this sense I believe this word is not

    used in America.] 2. To strike or to throw like a burst of

    light ; as, lojlash conviction on the mind FLASH'ER, n. A man of more appearance

    of wit than reality. ^ict.

    2. A rower. [JVot in use.] FLASH'ILY, adv. With empty sliow; with

    a sudilcn glare ; without solidity of wit oi

    thought. FLASHING, ppr. Bursting forth as a flood

    of light, or of flame and light, or as wit,

    mirth or joy. FLASH'Y, a. Showy, but empty; dazzhiig

    for a moment, but not solid ; asjlashy wit

    2. Showy ; gay ; as a flashy dress.

    3. Insipid ; vapid ; without taste or spirit as food or drink.

    4. Washy ; i>lashy. [See Plash.] FL'ASK, n. [G. flasche ; ^vt.flaska ; Dan

    Jlaske; T).fles,flesch; Sax. /ora ; Sp. Port frasco; It. fiasco; W._^a«^, a basket.] L A kind of bottle ; as & flask of wine or oil.

    2. A vessel for powder.

    3. A bed in a gun-carriage. Baihy. FLASKET, >i. A vessel in which viands

    are served up. Pope. Ray.

    2. A long sh:illow basket. Spenser.

    FLAT,a. [D.plat; G.platt; Dan.flad; Sw. flat; Fr. plat: Arm. blad, or pladt; It. piatto ; from e.xtcnding or laying. Allied probably to W. llez, lied, llyd ; L. latus, broad; Gr. ntarvs; Eng. blade.]

    1. Having an even surface, without risings or indentures, hills or valleys; as flnt land,

    2. Horizontal ; level ; without inclination as a flat roof: or with a moderate inclina- tion or slope ; for we often apply the word to the roof of a house that is not steep, though inclined.

    3. Prostrate ; lying the whole length on tin ground. He" fell or lay/a< on the ground

    4. Not elevated or erect ; fallen.

    Cease t'admire, and beauty's plumes Fall^af. Milton

    5. Level with the ground ; totally fallen.

    What ruins kingdoms, and lays ciUes flat. ^ Mill:

    C. In painting, wanting reliefer prominence of the figures.

    7. Tasteless ; stale ; vapid ; insipid ; dead as ftmtflat to the taste. Philips.

    8. Dull; unanimated; frigid; without point or spirit; applied to discourses and compo- sitions. The sermon was very flat.

    9. Depressed; spiritless; dejected.

    I feel — my hopes all ^a/. jumuii.

    10. Unpleasing; not affording gratification. How flat and insipid are all the pleasures of this hfe !

    IL Peremptory ; absolute ; positive ; down- right. He gave the petitioner a flat de- nial.

    Thus repulsed, our final hope Is flat despair. Milton.

    12. Not sharp or shrill ; not acute ; as a flat sound. Bacon.

    13. Low, as the prices of goods ; or dull, as sales.

    FLAT, n. A level or extended plain. In America, it is applied particularly to low ground or meadow that is level, but it de

    Vol. I.


    notes any land of even surface and of some extent.

    2. A level ground lying at a small depth un- der the surface of water; a shoal ; a shal- low; a strand ; a .sand bank under water.

    3. The broad side of a blade. Drydtn.

    4. Depression of thought or language. Drydtn.

    . A surface without reliefer prominences.

    Btntley. . In music, a mark of depression in sound. \\flal denotes a fall or depression of half a lone. 7. A boat, broad and flat-bottomed. Aflat- bottomed boat is constructed for conveying passengers or troops, horses, carriages and baggage. FLAT, V. t. [Fr. flalir, applalir.] To level ; to depress ; to lay smooth or even ; to make broad and smooth ; to flatten.


    2. To make vapid or tasteless. Bacon.

    3. To make dull or unanimated. FLAT, V. i. To grow flat ; to fall to an even

    surface. Temple.

    2. To become insipid, or dull and unanima- ted. King Charles.

    FLAT'-BOTTOMED, a. Having aflat bot- tom, as a boat, or a moat in fortification.

    FLA'TIVE, a. [L. flatus, i'romflo, to blow.]

    Producing wind ; flatulent. [JVot in tise.]


    FLAT'LONG, adv. With the flat side downward ; not edgewise. Shak.

    FLAT'LY, adv. Horizontally ; without in- clination.

    2. Evenly ; without elevations and depres- sions.

    3. Without spirit ; dully ; frigidly.

    4. PeremiUorily ; positively ; downright. Vie flatly refused his aid. Sidney.

    FLAT'NESS, n. Evenness of surface ; lev- elness; equality of surface.

    2. Want of relief or prominence ; as the flatness of a figure in sculpture.


    Deadness ; vapidness ; insipidity ; as the

    flatness of cider or beer. Mortimer.

    Dejection of fortune ; low state.

    The flatness of my misery. Shak.

    3. Dejection of mind ; a low state of the spir- its ; depression ; want of life. Collier.

    6. Dullness ; want of point ; insipidity ; fri- gidity.

    Some of Homer's translators have swelled into fusfian, and others sunk into flatness.


    7. Gravity of sound, as opposed to sharp- ness, acuteness or shrillness.

    Flatness of sound— joined with a harshness. Bacon. FLAT-NOSED, a. Having a flat nose.


    FLAT'TED, pp. Made flat : rendered even

    on the surface ; also, rendered vapid or in

    FLAT'TEN, v. t. flat'n. [Fr. flatir, from flat.]

    1. To make flat; to reduce to an equal or even surface ; to level.

    2. To beat down to the ground ; to lay flat, Mortimer.

    3. To make vapid or insipid ; to render stale.

    4. To depre-ss ; to deject, as the spirits dispirit.



    5. In music, to reduce, as sound ; to render less acute or sharp.

    FLAT'TEN, v. i. flat'n. To grow or become even on the surface.

    2. To become dead, stale, vapid or tasteless.

    3. To become dull or spiritless. FLATTENING, ppr. Making flat. FLAT'TER, n. The person or thing by

    which anything is flattened. FLATTER, v. I. [Vr.flaUer; D. vleijen ; Teut. fletsen ; Ice.fladra; Dan. flatterer. In Ir. btadaire is a flatterer ; bUid, a whee- dling ; blaith is plain, smooth ; and blath is praise. Flatter may be from the root of

    flat, that is, to make smooth, to appease, to soothe ; but the Ir. blalh would seem to be connected with L. plaudo. Perhaps

    flat and plaudo are from one root, the rad- ical sense of which must be to e.xleud, strain, stretch.]

    1. To soothe by praise ; to gratify self-love by praise or obsequiousness ; to please a person by applause or favorable notice, by respectful attention, or by any thing that exalts him in his own estimation, or con- firms his good opinion of himself. Wc

    flatter a woman when we praise her chil- dren.

    A man ih^l flattcreth his neighbor, spreadetli a net for his feet. Prov. x.^ix.

    2. To please ; to gratify ; as, to flaUer one's ■anity or pride.

    ,3. To praise falsely ; to encourage by favor- able notice ; as, to flatter vices or crimes.

    4. To encourage by favorable representa- tions or indications ; as, to flatter hopes. We are flattered with the prospect of peace.

    ■. To raise false hopes by representations not well founded ; as, to flatter one with a prospect of success ; to flatter a patient with the expectation of recovery when his case is desperate.

    6. To please ; to soothe.

    A concert of voices — makes a harmony thai flatters the ears. Dryden.

    7. To wheedle ; to coax ; to attempt to win by blandishments, praise or enticements. How many young and credulous persons are flattered out of their innocence and their property, by seducing arts !

    FL.'VT'TERED, pp. Soothed by praise; leased by commendation ; gratified with opes, false or well founded ; wheedled. FLAT'TERER, ti. One who flatters ; a fawner ; a w heedler ; one who praises an- other, with a view to please him, to gain his favor, or to accomplish some purpose. When I tell him he hates flatterers. He says he docs ; being then most flattered. Shak. The most abject J?a(((Ters degenerate into the greatest tyrants. Addison.

    FLAT'TERING,p/>r. Gratifying with praise; pleasing by applause ; wheedling ; coax- ing.

    2. a. Pleasing to pride or vanity ; gratifying to self-love ; as a flattering eulogy. The minister gives a flattering account of his reception at court.

    3. Pleasing; favorable; encouraging hope. We have a flattering prospect of an abun- dant harvest. The symptoms of the dis- ease are flattering.

    4. Practicing adulation ; uttering false praise : as aflattering tongue.



    F L E

    FLAT'TERINGLY, adv. In a flattering

    niauiier ; in a manner to flatter. 2. In a manner to favor ; with partiality.

    Cumbertand. FLAT'TERY, n. [Fr. JJatterie.] False praise ; commendation bestowed for the purpose of gaining favor and influence, oi to accomplish some purpose. Direct >'a<


    Just praise is only a debt, but flattery is a

    present. Rambler.

    2. Adulation ; obsequiousness ; wheedling.


    3. Just commendation which gratifies self- love.

    FLAT'TISH, «. [from flat.] Somewhat flat; ajiproaching to flatness. Woodward.

    FLAT'ULENCE, ) [See Flatulent.]

    FLAT'ULENCY, \\ "' Windiness in the stomach ; air "generated in a weak sto mach and intestines by imperfect diges tion, occasioning distension, uneasiness, pain, and often belchings. Encyc.

    2. Airiness; emptiness; vanity. Glanville.

    FLAT'ULENT,a. [L.flatulentus, flatus, from flo, to blow.]

    1. Windy ; affected with air generated in the stomach and intestines.

    2. Turgid with air ; windy ; as a flatulent tumor. Qiiincy.

    3. Generating or apt to generate wind in the stomach. Pease are a flatulent vegetable.


    4. Empty ; vain ; big without substance or reality ; puffy ; as a flatulent writer ; flatu. lent vanity. Dryden. Glanville.

    FLATUOS'ITY, n. Windiness; fullness of air; flatulence. [JVot used.] Bacon.

    FLAT'UOUS, a. [h.flatuosus.] Windy ; gen- erating wind. [JVb< used.] Bacon.

    FLA'TUS, n. [L. from flo, to blow.] A breath ; a puff of wind. Clarke.

    2. Wind generated in the stomach or other cavities of the body ; flatulence.


    FLAT'WISE, a. or adv. [from flat.] With the flat side downward or ne.\\t to another object ; not edgewise. Woodward.

    FL'AUNT, V. i. [I know not whence we liave this word. It is doubtless of Celtic origin, from the root Ln, bearing the sense of throwing out, or spreading. Qu. Scot. flxinter, to waver. See Flounce.]

    To throw or spread out ; to flutter ; to dis- play ostentatiously ; as a flaunting show. You^a«n( about (he streets in your new gill chariot. Arbulhnot.

    One flaunts in rags, one flutters in brocade. Pope. [This correctly expresses the author'.s meaning, which is, that the proud often at- tempt to make a show and parade of their importance, even in poverty. Johnson'.s remark on the use of the word seems therefore to be unfounded.]

    2. To carry a pert or saucy appearance.


    FL'AUNT, 71. Any thing displayed for show. Shak.

    FL'AUNTING, ppr. Making an ostenta- tious display.

    FLA'VOR, n. [Qu. Fr. flairer, to smell ; ^V.fleirimv.]

    The quahty of a substance which affects the taste or smell, in any manner. We say, the wine has a fine flavor, or a disagree able flavor ; the fruit has a bad flavor ; a rose has a sweet flavor. The word then signifies the quality which is tasted or smelt ; taste, odor, fragrance, smell.

    FLA'VOR, t>. t. To communicate some quality to a tl taste or smell.

    JFLA'VORED, a. Having a quality th; fects the sense of tasting or smelling ; as high-flavored wine, having the quahty in a high degree.

    FLA'VORLESS, a. Without flavor ; taste less ; having no smell or taste. Encyc.

    FLA'VOROUS, a. Pleasant to the taste or smell. Dryden

    FLA'VOUS, a. [L. flavus.] Yellow. '[JVot used.] Smith.

    FLAW, n. [W.flaw, a piece rent, a splinter, a ray, a dart, aflaiv ; flau, a spreading out radiation ; fla, a parting from ; also flo^en a splinter ; flop, a flying about ; flop, to dart suddenly ; flygiaiv, to break out ab- ruptly. The Gr. fXau seems to be con- tracted from ^Xaiu or tXaSu.]

    2. A breach : a crack ; a defect made by breaking or splitting ; a gap or fissure ; as a darv in a sytlie, knife or razor ; a flam in a china dish, or in a glass ; a flaw in a wall.

    2. A defect ; a fault ; any defect made by violence, or occasioned by neglect

    flaiv in reputation ; a flaw in a will, or in a deed, or in a statute.

    3. A sudden burst of wind ; a sudden gust or blast of short duration ; a word of com mon use among seamen. [This proves the primary sense to be, to burst or rush.]

    4. A sudden burst of noise and disorder ; a tumult ; uproar.

    And deluges of armies from the town Came pouring in ; 1 heard the mighty ^au'.

    Ihydeii [In this sense, the word is not used in the United States.]

    5. A sudden comtnotion of mind. [ATol tised.] Shak.

    FLAW, V. t. To break ; to crack.

    The brazen cauldrons with the frosts arc flawed. Dryden.

    2. To break ; to violate ; as, lo flaw a league. [Litlle tised.] Shak.

    FIjAW'ED, jjp. Broken ; cracked

    FLAWING, ppr. Breaking ; cracking.

    FLAWLESS, a. Without cracks ; without defect. Boyk.

    FLAWN, n. [Bnx.flena ; Fr. flaii.] A sort of custard or pie. [06».] Thisser.

    FLAW'TER, I), t. To scrape or pare a skin. [JVot used.] Ainsworth.

    FLAWY, a. Fidl of flaws or cracks; bro- ken ; defective ; faulty.

    2. Subject to sudden gusts of wind.

    FLAX, ji. [Sax. fleai, flex ; G. flachs ; D. vlas. The elements are the same as in flaccid.]

    1. A plant of the genus Linum, consisting of a single slender stalk, the skin or herl of which is used for making thread and cloth, called linen, cambric, lawn, lace, &c. The skin consists of fine fibers,

    which may be so sepaiated as to be spun mto threads as fine as silk.

    2. The skin or fibrous part of the plant when broken and cleaned by hatcheling or combing.

    FLAX'€OMB, n. An instrument with teeth through which flas is drawn for separa- ting from it the tow or coarser part and the shives. In America, we call it a hatchel.

    FLAX'DRESSER, n. One who breaks and swingles flax.

    FLAX'PLANT, n. The Phormium, a plant in New Zealand that serves the inhabi- tants for flax.

    FLAX'RAISER, n. One who raises flax.

    FLAXSEED, n. The seed of flax.

    FLAX'EN, a. Made of flax ; as flaxen thread.

    2. Resembling flax ; of the color of flax ; fair, long, and flowing ; as flaxen hair.

    FLAX'Y, a. Like flax; being of a light co- lor; fair. Sandys.

    FLAY, v. t. [Sax.flean; Dan. flaaer ; Sw. flS, : G. flohen ; Gr. ^iXoiu, fXoi^u, whence i}>Xoto{, bark, rind ; probably a contracted word.]

    L To skm ; to strip off the skin of an ani- mal ; as, to flay an ox.

    2. To take off the skin or surface of any thing. [JVot used.] 5W/?.

    FLA'YED, pp. Skinned; stripped of the skin.

    FLA'YER, n. One who strips off the skin.

    FLA'YING, ppr. Stripping off the skin.

    FLEA, n. [Sax. flea ; G.floh ; D. vloo ; Scot. flech ; Ice. floe ; from Sax. fleogan, to fly. See Flee and Fly.]

    An insect of the genus Pulex. It has two eyes, and six feet ; the feelers are like threads ; the rostrum is inflected, seta- ceous, and armed with a sting. The flea is remarkable for its agihty, leaping to a surprising distance, and its bite is very troublesome.

    FLE'ABANE, n. A plant of the genus Co- nyza.

    FLE'ABITE, / „ The bite of a flea, or

    FLE'ABITING, (, "" the red spot caused by the bite.

    2. A trifling wound or pain, like that of the bite of a flea. Harvey.

    FLE'ABITTEN, a. Bitten or stung by a flea.

    2. Mean ; worthless ; of low birth or station. Cleaveland.

    FLE'AWORT, n. A plant.

    FLEAK, a lock. [See Flake.]

    FLEAM, 71. [D. vlym; W.flaim; Arm. flemm or flem, the sting of a bee, a sharp point. In Welsh, Hem and llym signify sharp, penetrating.]

    In. surgery and farriery, a sharp instrument used for opening veins for letting blood.

    FLECK, ? ^, , [G. fleck, a spot ; flecken,

    FLECK'ER, $^'- to spot; D. vlek, vlak, vlakketi; Sw.fl[ick,flhcka; Dan. flek, Jiek- ker.]

    To spot ; to streak or stripe ; to variegate ; to dapple. Both flecked with white, the true Arcadian strain. Dryden.

    [These words are obsolete or used only in poetry.]

    FLECTION, n. [L.flectio.] The act of bend- ing, or state of being bent.

    F L E

    F L E

    F L E

    TLE€'TOR, n. A flexor, which see. FLED, pret. and pp. of flee ; as, truth has

    fled. PLEDGE, a. flej. [G.fliigge ; D. vlug, fledg- ed, quick, nimble ; connected with G.Jlie- gen, D. vliegen, Sax. fleogan, to fly.] Fethered ; furnished with fethers or wings able to fly.

    His locks behind,

    Illustrious on his shoulders, /ed|ge with wings

    Lay waving round. Milton.

    FLED6E, V. t. To furnish with fethers ; to

    supply with the fethers necessary for


    The birds were not yet fledged enough to

    shift for themselves. L' Estrange.

    FLEDG'ED, pp. Furnished with fethers for

    flight ; covered witli fethers. FLED6'ING, ppr. Furnishing with feth

    ers for flight. FLEE, V. i. [Sa.\\. /eon, flcon, fleogan ; G. flieken.]

    1. To run with rapidity, as from danger ; to attempt to escape ; to hasten from danger or expected evil. The enemy /erf at the first fire.

    Arise, take the young child and his mother, and/ee into Egypt. Matt. ii.

    2. To depart ; to leave ; to hasten away.

    Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.

    3. To avoid ; to keep at a distance from. Flee fornication ; flee from idolatry. 1 Cor. vi. X.

    To flee the question or from the question, in legislation, is said of a legislator who, when a question is to be put to the house, leaves his seat to avoid the dilemma of vo- ting against his conscience, or giving an unpopular vote. In the phrases in which this verb appears to be transitive, there is really an ellipsis.

    FLEECE, n. flees. [Sax. fleos, flys, fli D. vlies ; G. fliess ; most probably from shearing or stripping, as in Dutch thi word signifies a film or membrane, a well as a fleece. The verb to fleece seems to favor the sense of stripping. See Class Ls. No. 25. 38. 30. But Qu. L. veUvs, from vello, to pluck or tear off". Varro. See Class Bl. In Russ. rolos is hair or wool, written also vlas. It was probably the practice to pluck oft' wool, before it was to shear it.]

    The coat of wool shorn from a sliccp at one time.

    FLEECE, V. t. To shear off a covering or growth of wool.

    2. To strip of money or property ; to take from, by severe exactions, under color of law or justice, or pretext of necessity, or by virtue of authority. Arbitrary princes

    fleece their subjects ; and clients complain that they are sometimes fleeced by their lawyers.

    This word is rarely or never tised for plundering in war by a licentious soldiery but is properly used to express a stripping by contributions levied on a conquered ])eople.

    3. To spread over as with wool ; to make white. Thomson.

    FLEE'CED, pp. Stripped by severe exac- tions.

    FLEE'CED, a. Furnished with a fleece or with fleeces ; as, a sheep is well fleeced.

    FLEE'CER, n. One who strips or takes by severe exactions.

    FLEE'CING, ppr. Stripping of money or property by severe demands of fees, taxes or contributions.

    FLEE'CY, a. Covered with wool ; woolly; as a fleecy flock. Prior.

    2. Re.sembling wool or a fleece ; soft ; com- plicated ; as fleecy snow ; fleecy locks ;

    fleecy hosiery. FLF-^"

    EER, V. i. [Scot, flyre, or fleyr, to make wry faces, to leer, to look surly ; Ice. flyra. In D. gluuren signifies to leer, to peep ; Sw. phra ; Dan. plirende, ogling, leering. This word seems to be leer, with a prefix, and leer presents probably the primary sense.]

    1. To deride ; to sneer ; to mock; to gibe to make a wry face in contempt, or l grin in scorn ; as, to fleer and flout.

    Covered with an antic face, To fleer and scorn at our solemnity. Shah i. To leer ; to grin with an air of civility.

    Burton. FLEER, V. I. To mock; to flout at.

    Beau. FLEER, n. Derision or mockery, expressed by words or looks.

    And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notabli scorns. Shak

    2. A grin of civility.

    A treacherous fleer on the face of deceivers South

    FLEE'RER, n. A mocker ; a fawner.

    FLEE'RING, ppr. Deriding; mocking counterfeiting an air of civility.

    FLEET, in Enghsh names, [Sax. fleot,] de- notes a flood, a creek or inlet, a bay or es tuary, or a river ; as in Fleet-street, JVoiih- flcte, Fleet-prison.

    FLEET, n. [Sax. flota,fliel; G. flolte ; D. vloot ; Sw. flotte ; Dan. flode ; Fr. flotte. Fleet and float seem to be allied. But whether they are formed from the root of flow, or whether the last consonant is rad- ical, is not obvious. See Float.]

    A navy or squadron of shij)s; a number of ships in company, whether ships of war, or of commerce. It more generally sign fies ships of war.

    FLEET, a. [Ice. fliotr ; Ir. luath, swift; Russ. letayu, to fly ; Eng. to flit. If the last consonant is radical, this word se to be allied to D. vlieden, to flee, to fly, and possibly to the Shemitic 0*73 ; but from the Ethiopic it would appear that the latter word is our split, the sense being to divide or separate.]

    1. Swift of pace; moving or able to move with rajjidity ; nimble ; light and quick in motion, or moving with lightness and celerity ; as a fleet hor§e or dog.

    2. Moving with velocity ; as fleet winds.

    3. Light ; superficially fruitful ; or thin ; not penetrating deep ; as soil. Mortimer.

    4. Skimming the surface. Ibid. FLEET, J', i. To fly swiftly ; to hasten ; to

    flit as a light substance. To fleet away is to vanish.

    How all the other passions fleet to air.


    2. To be in a transient state.

    3. To float.

    FLEET, t'. t. To skim the surface ; to pass

    over rapidly ; as a ship that fleets the gulf.


    2. To pass lightly, or in mirth and joy ; a<, to /*?« away time. [.Vot used.] Shak.

    3. To skim milk. [Local, in EvgUtnd.] The verb in the transitive form is rarely or

    never used in America.

    FLEE'TFOOT, a. Swift of foot ; running or able to run with rapidity. Shak.

    FLEE'TING, ppr. Passing rapidly ; flying with velocity.

    2. a. Transient ; not durable ; as the fleeting hours or moments.

    FLEE'TING-DISH, n. A skimming bowl. [Local.]

    FLEE'TLY, adv. Rapidly ; lightly and nim- bly ; swiftly.

    FLEE'TNESS, n. Swiftness ; rapidity ; ve- locity ; celerity ; speed ; as the fleeiness of a horse or a deer.

    FLEM'ING, n. A native of Flanders, or the Low Countries in Europe.

    FLEM'ISH, a. Pertaining to Flanders.

    FLESH, n. [Sax. fleec, flee, or flasc ; G. fleisch ; D. vleesch ; Dan.flesk. In Danish, the word signifies the flesh of swine. I know not the primary sense ; it may be sojl.]

    A compound substance forming a lar^e part of an animal, consisting of the softer sol- ids, as distinguished from the bones and the fluids. Under the general appellation of flesh, we include the muscles, fat, glands &c., which invest the bones and are cov- ered with the skin. It is sometimes re- stricted to the muscles.

    2. Animal food, in distinction from vegeta- ble.

    Flesh without being qualified with acids, is too alkalescent a diet. ^rbuthnot.

    3. The body of beasts and fowls used as food, distinct from fish. In Lent, the Catholics abstain from flesh, but eat fish.

    4. The body, as distinguished from the soul.

    As if this flesh, which walls about our life. Were brass impregnable. Shak.

    5. Animal nature ; animals of all kinds.

    The end of all/csA is come before me. Gen. vi.

    6. Men in general ; mankind.

    My spirit .sliall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh. Gen. vi.

    7. Human nature.

    i. Carnality ; coi-poreal appetites. • Fasting serves to mortify the flesh.

    Smatridge. The flesh lusteth against the spirit. Gal. v.

    9. A carnal state ; a state of unrenewed na- ture.

    They that are in the^fsA cannot please God. Rom. viii.

    10. The corruptible body of man, or corrupt nature.

    11. The present life; the state of existence in this world.

    To abide in the flesh is more needful for j-ou. Phil. i. 12- Legal righteousness, and ceremonial services.

    What shall we then say that .Abraham, our father as pertaining to the flesh, hath found Rom. iv. Gal. iii. 13. Kindred ; stock ; family.

    He is our brother, and our flesh. Gen. .vxxvii

    F L E

    14. In botany, the soft pulpy substance of fruit; also, that part of a root, fruit, &c., which is fit to be eaten.

    Onefesh, denotes intimate relation. To be one flesh is to be closely united, as in mar riage. Gen. ii. Eph. v.

    After the flesh, according to outward appear ances, John viii :

    Or according to the common powers of nature. Gal. iv. :

    Or according to sinful lusts and inclina tions. Rom. viii.

    An arm of flesh, human strength or aid.

    FLESH, V. t. To initiate ; a sportsman'; use of the word, from the practice of train- ing hawks and dogs by feeding them wit! the first game they take or other flesh.

    2. To liarden ; to accustom ; to establisli in any practice, as dogs by often feeding on any thing. Men fleshed in cruelty ; wo- men fleshed in malice. Sidney.

    3. To glut ; to satiate.

    Tlie wild dog Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent.


    FLESH'BROTII, n. Broth made by boil- ing flesh in water.

    FLESH'BRUSH, n. A brush for exciting action in the skin by friction.

    FLESH'eOLOR, n. The color of flesh ; carnation.

    FLESH'€0LORED, a. Being of the color of flesh.

    FLESH'DIET, n. Food consisting of flesh.

    FLESH'ED, pp. Initiated; accustomed glutted.

    % Fat; fleshy.

    FLESH'FLY, n. A fly that feeds on flesh, 'and deposits her eggs in it. Ray.

    FLESH'HOQK, n. A hook to draw flesh from a pot or caldron. 1 Sam. ii.

    FLESH'INESS, n. \\ftom fleshy.] Abun- dance of flesh or fat in animals ; plump- ness ; corpulence ; grossness.

    PLESH'ING, ppr. Initiating; making fa- miliar ; glutting.

    FLESH'LESS, a. Destitute of flesh ; lean.

    FLESH'LINESS, n. Carnal passions and appetites. Spenser.

    FLESH'LY, a. Pertaining to the flesh ; corporeal. Denham.

    2. Carnal ; worldly ; lascivious.

    Abstain (mm fleshly lusts. 1 Pet. ii.

    3. Aninial ; not vegetable. Dryden.

    4. Human ; not celestial ; not spiritual or di- vine.

    Vain of /es/i/y arm. Milton.

    Fleshly wisdom. 2 Cor. i. FLESH'MEAT, n. Animal food ; the flesh of animals prepared or used for food.


    FLESH'MENT, n. Eagerness gained by a

    successful initiation. Shale.

    FLESH'MONGER, n. One who deals in

    flesh ; a procurer ; a pimp. {Liltle used.]


    FLESH'POT, n. A vessel in which flesh

    is cooked ; hence, plenty of provisions

    Ex. xvi.

    FLESH'QUAKE, n. A trembling of the

    flesh. [JVbtused.] B. Jonson

    FLESH'Y, a. Full of flesh; plump; mus-


    The sole of his foot is_^csfty. Ray

    2. Fat; gross; corpulent; as a fleshy man

    3. Corporeal, Eccles

    F L E

    4. Full of pulp; pulpous; plump; as fruit Bacon

    FLET, pp. of fleet. Skimmed. [Abtwserf.] Mortimer.

    FLETCH, V. I. [Fr. fleche.] To fetlier an arrow. Warburlon.

    FLETCH'ER, n. [Fr. fleche, an arrow.] An arrow-maker; a manufacturer of bows and arrows. Hence the name of Fletcher.

    But the use of the word as an appellative has ceased with the practice of archery.

    FLETZ, a. [G. flotz, a layer.] In geology. the fletz formations, so called, consist of rocks which lie immediately over the transition rocks. These formations are so called because the rocks usually appear in beds more nearly horizontal than the transition class. These formations consist of sandstone, limestone, gypsum, cala- mine, chalk, coal and trap. They contain abundance of petrifactions, both of animal and vegetable origin. Good.

    FLEW, pret. of fly.

    The people flew upon the spoil. 1 Sam,

    FLEW, n. The lar^e chaps of a deep- mouthed hound. Hanmer.

    FLEW'ED, a. Chapped ; mouthed ; deep- mouthed. Shak.

    FLEXAN'IMOUS, a. [from L.] Having power to change the mind. [JVot used.]


    FLEXIBILITY, n. [See Flexible.] The quality of admitting to be bent ; pliancy ; flexibleness ; as the flexibility of rays of light. JVetvton.

    2. Easiness to be persuaded ; the quality of yielding to arguments, jiersuasion or cir- cumstances; ductility of mind; readiness to comply ; facility ; "as flexibility of tem-

    FLEX'IBLE, a. [h. flexibilis, fromflecto, flexi, to bend, Fr. flechirj coinciding with G. flechten, to braid, D. vlegten. These words have the same elements as L. pi' \\

    1. That may be bent ; capable of being turned or forced from a straight line form without breaking; pliant; yielding to pressure ; not stiff; as a flexible rod ; a flexible plant.

    2. Capable of yielding to intreaties, argu- jnents or other moral force ; that may be persuaded to compliance ; not invincibly rigid or obstinate ; not inexorable.

    Phocion was a man of great severity, and no ways flexible to the will of the people.


    It often denotes, easy or too easy to yield or comply; wavering; inconstant; not firm.

    3. Ductile ; manageable ; tractable ; as the tender and flexible minds of youth. Flex- ible years or time of life, the time when the mind is tractable.

    4. That may be turned or accommodated. This was a principle more flexible to their

    purpose. Rogers.

    FLEX'IBLENESS, n. Possibility to' be bent or turned from a straight line or form without breaking; easiness to be bent ; pliantness ; pliancy ; flexibility.


    2. Facility of mind ; readiness to comply or yield ; obsequiousness ; as the flexibleness of a courtier.

    F L I

    3. Ductility ; manageableneas ; tractable- ness ; as the flexibleness of youth.

    FLEX'ILE, a. [l^.flexilis.] Pliant ; pliable ; easily bent ; yielding to power, impulse or moral force. Thomson.

    FLEX'ION, n. [L.flexio.] The act of ben- ding.

    2. A bending ; a part bent ; a fold. Bacon.

    3. A turn ; a cast ; as a flexion of the eye.


    FLEX'OR, n. In anatomy, a muscle whose office is to bend the part to which it be- longs, in opposition to the extensors.

    FLEX'UOUS, a. [L. flexuosus.] Winding; having turns or windings ; as a flexuous rivulet. Digby.

    2. Bending ; winding ; wavering ; not steady ; as aflexuous flame. Bacon.

    3. In botany, bending or bent ; changing its direction in a curve, from joint to joint, from bud to bud, or from flower to flower.

    Martyn. IFLEX'URE, n. [L. flemra.] A winding or

    bending ; the form of bending ; as the

    flexure of a joint. |2. The act of bending. Shak.

    3. The part bent ; a joint. Sandys.

    14. The bending of the body ; obsequious or

    servile cringe. Shak.

    FLICK'ER, V. i. [Sax. fliccerian ; Scot.

    flecker, to quiver; D.flikkeren, to twinkle;

    firobably a diminutive from the root of


    1. To flutter ; to flap the wings without fly- ing ; to strike rapidly with the wings.

    Am] flickering on her nest made short essays

    to sing. Dryden.

    3. To fluctuate. Burton.

    FLICK'ERING, ^;)r. Fluttering; flapping

    - the wings without flight.

    2. a. With amorous motions of the eye.

    The fair Lavinia — looks a little _^jcfrerm^ after

    Turnus. Dryden.

    FLICK'ERING, n. A fluttering ; short ir>

    regular movements. FLICK'ERMOUSE, n. The bat.

    B. Jonson. FLI'ER, ji. [See Fly. It ought to be flyer.] One that flies or flees.

    2. A runaway ; a fiigitive. Shak.

    3. A part of a machine which, by moving rapidly, equalizes and regulates the mo- tion of the whole; as the}?rerof a jack.

    FLIGHT, n.flile. [Sax.fliht; G.flug,flucld; D. vlugt ; Dan. flugt ; Sw. flycht. See Fly.]

    1. The act of fleeing; the act of running away, to escape danger or expected evil ; hasty departure.

    Pray ye that your flight be not in vrinter. Matt. xxiv.

    - To put to flight, to turn to flight, is to compel to run away ; to force to escape.

    2. The act of flying ; a passing through the air by the help of wings ; volation ; as tlie flight of birds and insects.

    3. The manner of flying. Every fowl has its particular^i;g/i< ; the flight of the eagle is high ; the flight of the swallow is rapid, with sudden turns.

    4. Removal from place to place by flying.

    5. A flock of birds flying in company ; as a flight of pigeons or wild geese.

    6. A number of beings flying or moving through the air together; as a flight of angels. " Milton.

    F L I

    F L I

    F L I

    7. A number of things passing through thel air together ; a volley ; as a flight of] arrows.

    8. A periodical flying of birds in flocks the spring/%-A< or aMtumnB.\\ flight of ducks or pigeons.

    9. In England, tlie birds produced in the same season.

    10. The space passed by flying.

    11. Amounting; a soaring ; lofty elevation and excursion ; as a flight of imagination or fancy ; a. flight of ambition.

    12. Excursion ; wandering ; extravagant sally ; as a. flight of folly. TiUolson.

    IS. The power of flying. Shak.

    14. In certain lead works, a substance that

    flies ofi" i n smoke. E7icyc.

    Flight of stairs, the series of stairs from the

    floor, or from one platform to another. FLIGHTINESS, n. The state of beinj

    flighty ; wildness ; slight delirium. FLIGHT-SHOT, n. The distance which ai

    arrow flies. FLIGHTY, a. Fleeting ; swift.

    The flighty purpose never is o'erlook.


    2. Wild ; indulging the sallies of imagina tion.

    3. Disordered in mind ; somewhat delirious. FLIM'FLAM, n. [Ice. flim.] A freak ; a

    trick. Beaum.

    FLIM'SINESS, n. State or quality of being flimsy ; thin, weak texture ; weakness ; want of substance or solidity.

    FLIM'SY, a. s as z. [VV. llymsi, having a fickle motion ; llymu, to make sharp, quick, pungent. Otcen. But Lluyd renders %»m, vain, weak. The word is retained by the common people in New England in I'imsy, weak, limber, easily bending. See Class Lm. No. 2. 5. C]

    1. Weak ; feeble ; slight ; vain ; without strength or solid substance ; as a flimsy pretext ; a flimsy e.xcuse ; flimsy objec- tions. Milner.

    2. Without strength or force ; spiritless.

    Proud of a vast extent of flimsy lines.


    3. Thin; of loose texture ; as^fm*^ cloth or stuff" [Little used.] I

    FLINCH, V. i. [I have not found this word in any other language ; but the sense of it occurs in blench, and not improbably it is from the same root, with a diflTerent pre- fix.]

    1. To shrink; to withdraw from any sulTer- ing or undertaking, from pain or danger ; to fail of proceeding, or of performing any thing. Never flinch from duty. One of the pan\\es flinched from the combat.

    A child, by a constant course of kindness, may be accustomed to bear very rough usage viilhout flinching or complaining. Locke.

    2. To fail. Shak. FLINCH'ER, n. One who flinches or fails. FLINCH'ING, ppr. Failing to undertake,

    perform or proceed; shrinking ; withdraw- ing. FLIN'DER, n. [D. flenter, a splinter, a tat-

    not radical, as I suppose, this may be thel W. lluciaw, to fling, to throw, to dart, and] L. lego, legare.]

    1. To cast, send or throw from the hand ; to hurl ; as, to fling a 'stone at a bird.

    'Tis fate Ihat flings the dice ; and as ahe flings,

    Of kings makes peasants, and of-peasanLs,

    kings. Dryden.

    2. To dart ; to cast with violence ; to send forth.

    He — like Jove, his lightning flung.

    Dryden. To send forth ; to emit ; to scatter. Every beam new transient colors _^ings.

    Pope 4. To throw ; to drive by violence. I. To throw to the ground ; to prostrate

    The wrestler_^u7ig' his antagonist. 1. To baffle ; to defeat ; as, to fling a party

    in litigation. To fling away, to reject ; to discard.

    Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambi- tion. Shak To fling down, to demolish ; to ruin. 2. To throw to the ground. To fling ofl", to baffle in the chase ; to defeat of prey. Addison. To fling out, to utter ; to speak ; as, to fling

    out hard words against another. To fling in, to throw in ; to make an allow ance or deduction, or not to charge in ai account. In settling accounts, one party flings in a small sum, or a few days work To fling open, to throw open ; to open sud- denly or with violence ; as, to fling open a door. To fling up, to relinquish ; to abandon ; as

    to fly The

    A small piece or splinter ; a fragment.

    .Vcio England.

    [This seems to 6e splinter, without the


    FLING, V. i. prot. and pp. flung. [Ir. lingim,

    to fling, to dart, to fly ofi", to skip. If jj isl

    fling up a design. FLING, V. i. To flounce ; to wince into violent and irregular motions, horse began to kick and fling. 2. To cast in the teeth ; to utter harsh lan- guage ; to sneer ; to upbraid. The scold began to flout and^mg-. To fling out, to grow unruly or outrageous. Shak FLING, n. A throw ; a cast from the hand 2. A gibe ; a sneer; a sarcasm; a severe oi contemptuous remark.

    I, who love to have a fling.

    Both at senate house and k



    FLING'ER, n. One who flings ; one who jeers.

    jING'ING, ppr. Throwing ; casting ; jeer- ing.

    FLINT, »!. [Sax.^i'n*; Sw.flinta. In Dan, flint is a light gun, and flint is called_/?iH?- steen, flint-stone. So also in German, The Dutch and Germans call it also flre- stone. It may be from the root of splen- dor.]

    In natural history, a sub-species of quartz, of a yellowish or bluish gray, or grayish black color. It is amorphous, interspersed in other stones, or in nodules or rounded lumps. Its surface is generally une and covered with a rind or crust, either calcarious or argillaceous. It is very hard strikes fire with steel, and is an ingredient in glass. Kirwan. Encyc.

    2. A piece of the above described stone used n firearms to strike fire.

    3. Anv thing proverbially hard ; as a heart offl'int. Spenser.

    FLINT-HEART, ? Having a hard, FLINT-HEARTED, < "• unfeeling heart.

    FLINT V, o. Consisting of flint ; as a flinty rock.

    2. Like flint; very hard ; not impressible; a, /?in/i/ heart.

    3. Cruel ;iinnierciful; inexorable. Shak.

    4. Full of flint stones; -ds flinty ground. Bacon.

    Flinty-slate, a mineral of two kinds, the com- mon and the Lydian stone. Ure.

    FLU', n. A mixed liquor consisting of beer and spirit sweetened.

    FLIP'DOG, n. An iron used, when heated, to warm flip.

    FLIP'PANCy, n. [See Flippant.] Smooth- ness and rapidity of speech ; volubility of tongue; fluency of .si)eech.

    FLIP'PANT, a. [W. llipanu, to make smooth or glib, from Itib, llipa, flaccid, soft, limber ; allied to flabby, and to glib, and probably to L. labor, to slide or slip, and to liber, free. Class Lb.]

    1. Of smooth, fluent and rapid speech i speaking with ease and rapidity ; having a voluble tongue ; talkative.

    2. Pert ; petulant ; waggish. Away wWh flippant epilogues. Thomson.

    FLIP'PANTLY, adv. Fluently; with ease

    and volubility of speech. FLIP'PANTNESS, n. Fluency of speech ; volubility of tongue; flippancy.

    [This is not a Tow, vulgar word, but well authorized and peculiarly expressive.] FLIRT, V. t. flurt. [This word evidently be- longs to the root of L. Jloreo, or ploro, sig- nifying to throw, and coinciding with blurt. Qu. Sax.Jleardian, to trifle.] L To throw with a jerk or sudden effort or exertion. The bojs Jlirf water in each other's faces. He flirted a glove or a hand- kerchief. 2. To toss or throw ; to move suddenly; as,

    to flirt a fan. FLIRT, V. i. To jeer or gibe ; to throw harsh or sarcastic words ; to utter con- temptuous language, with an air of dis- dain.

    To run and dart about ; to be moving hastily from place to place ; to be unsteady or fluttering. The girls Jiirl about the room or the street. FLIRT, n. A sudden jerk ; a quick throw or cast ; a darting motion.

    In unfurling the (an are several Mitie flirts and vibrations. Addison.

    A young girl who moves hastily or fre- quently from place to place ; a pert girl.

    Several youn^ flirts about town had a design to cast us out of the fasliionable world.

    .iddison. FLIRT, a. Pert ; wanton. Shak.

    FLIRTA'TION, n. A flirting ; a quick sprightly motion.

    Desire of attracting notice. [A cant tcord.J


    FLIRTED, pp. Thrown with a sudden

    jerk. FLIRT'ING, ppr. Throwing ; jerking ; toss- ing ; darting about ; rambling and chan- ging place bastilv. FLIT, I', i. [D. vlleden, to fly or flee ; Dan. flyder, Sw. flyta, to flow, to glide away ; Dan.flytter, Sw.flyttia, to remove ; Ice. Jiiulur, swift. This word coincides in ele- ments with Heb. Ch. Syr. taSiJ. Class Ld. No. 43. It is undoubtedly from the same root as fleet, which see.]

    F L E

    F L E

    F L I

    14. In botany, the soft pulpy substance of fruit ; also, that part of a root, fruit, &c whicli is fit to be eaten.

    One flesh, denotes intimate relation. To be one flesh is to be closely united, as in mar riage. Gen. ii. Eph. v.

    ^Jler the flesh, according to outward appear ances, John viii :

    Or according to the common -powers of nature. Gal. iv. :

    Or according to sinful lusts and inclina- tions. Rom. viii.

    An arm of flesh, human strength or aid

    FLESH, V. t. To initiate ; a sportsman's use of the word, from the practice of train^ ing hawks and dogs by feeding them witli the first game they take or other flesh.

    2. To harden ; to accustom ; to establish in any practice, as dogs by often feeding on any thing. Men fleshed in cruelty ; -no- men fleshed in malice. Sidney.

    3. To glut ; to satiate.

    The wild dog Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent.


    FLESH'BROTII, n. Broth made by boil- ing flesh in water.

    FLESH'BRUSH, n. A brush for exciting action in the skin by friction.

    FLESH'eOLOR, n. The color of flesh ; carnation.

    FLESH' COLORED, a. Being of the color of flesh.

    FLESH'DIET, n. Food consisting of

    FLESH' ED, 2'P- Initiated; accustomed glutted.

    'i. Fat; fleshy.

    FLESH'FLY, n. A fly that feeds on flesh, 'and deposits her eggs in it. Ray.

    FLESH'HQOK, 11. A hook to draw flesh from a pot or caldron. 1 Sam. h.

    FLESH'INESS, n. \\lrom fleshy.] Abun- dance of flesh or fat in animals ; plump- ness ; corpulence ; grossness.

    FLESH'ING, ppr. Initiating; making fa- miliar ; glutting.

    FLESH'LESS, a. Destitute of flesh ; lean.

    FLESH'LINESS, n. Carnal passions and appetites. Spenser.

    FLESH'LY, a. Pertaining to the flesh ; corporeal. Denham.

    2. Carnal ; worldly ; lascivious.

    Abstain {mm fleshly lusts. 1 Pet. ii.

    S. Animal ; not vegetable. Dryden.

    4. Hunian ; not celestial ; not spiritual or di- vine.

    Vain o( fleshly arm. Milton.

    Flefhly 'wisdom. 2 Cor. i. FLESH'MEAT, n. Animal food; the flesh of animals prepared or used for food.

    Sioifl. FLESH'MENT, n. Eagerness gained by a successful initiation. Shale.

    FLESH'MONGER, n. One who deals flesh ; a procurer ; a pimp. [LiUle used.] Shak. FLESH'POT, )i. A vessel in which flesh is cooked ; hence, plenty of provisions Ex. xvi. FLESH'QUAKE, n. A trembhng of the flesh. [JVot used.] B. Jonson

    FLESH'Y, a. Full of flesh; plump; mus- culous.

    The sole of his foot is yZesAy. Bay

    2. Fat; gross; corpulent; as a fleshy man.

    3. Corporeal. Eccks

    4, Full of pulp; pulpous; plump; as fruit. Bacon.

    FLET, pp. of fleet. Skimmed. [JSTot- used.] Mortimer.

    FLETCH, V. t. [Fr. fleche.] To fether an arrow. Warburton.

    FLETCH'ER, n. [Fr. fleche, an arrow.] An arrow-maker ; a manufacturer of bows and arrows. Hence the name o[ Fletcher.

    But the use of the word as an appellative has ceased with the practice of archery.

    FLETZ, a. [G. Jlotz, a layer.] In geology, the fletz formations, so called, consist of rocks which lie immediately over the transition rocks. These formations are so called because the rocks usually appear in beds more nearly horizontal than the transition class. These formations consis of sandstone, limestone, gypsum, cala mine, chalk, coal and trap. They contain abundance of petrifactions, both of animal and vegetable origin. Good.

    FLEW, pret. of fly.

    The people flew upon the spoil. 1 Sam,

    FLEW, n. The lar_ge chaps of a deep- hed hound. Hanmer.

    FLEW'ED, a. Chapped ; mouthed ; deep- mouthed. Shak.

    FLEXAN'IMOUS, a. [from L.] Having l>ower to change the mind. Wot tised.]


    FLEXIBIL'ITY, n. [See Flexible.] The quality of admitting to be bent ; pliancy ; fiexihleness ; as the flexibility of rays of light. Mwton

    2. Easiness to be persuaded ; the quality of yielding to arguments, persuasion or cir- cinnstances ; ductility of mind; readines: to comply ; facility ; "as flexibility of tern per.

    FLEX'IBLE, a. [L. flexibilis, fromfleclo, flexi, to bend, Fr. flechirj coinciding with G. flechten, to braid, D. vlegtcn. These words have the same elements as \\.,. plico.]

    1. That may be bent ; capable of being turned or forced from a straight line or form without breaking ; pliant ; yielding to pressure ; not stiff"; as a flexible rod ; a

    flexible plant.

    2. Capable of yielding to intreaties, argu- ments or other moral force ; that may be persuaded to compliance ; not invincibly rigid or obstinate ; not inexorable.

    Phocion was a man of great severity, and no ways flexible to the will of the people.


    It often denotes, easy or too easy to yield or comply ; wavering ; inconstant ; not firm.

    3. Ductile ; manageable ; tractable ; as the tender and flexible minds of youth. Flex- ible years or time of life, the time when the mind is tractable.

    4. That may be turned or accommodated. This was a principle more flexible to their

    purpose. Boaers.

    FLEX'IBLENESS, n. Possibility to^ be bent or turned from a straight line or forin without breaking ; easiness to be bent ; pliantness ; pliancy ; flexibilitv.


    2. Facility of mind ; readiness to comply or yield ; obsequiousness ; as the fleiibleness of a courtier.

    •3. Ductility ; manageableness ; tractable- ness ; as the flexibleness of youth.

    FLEX'ILE, a. [L.flexilis.] Phant ; pliable ; easily bent ; yielding to power, impulse or moral force. Thomson.

    FLEX'ION, n. [L.flexio.] The act of ben- ding.

    2. A bending ; a part bent ; a fold. Bacon.

    3. A turn ; a cast ; as a flexion of the eye.


    FLEX'OR, 71. In anatomy, a muscle whose office is to bend the part to which it be- longs, in opposition to the extensors.

    FLEX'UOUS, a. [L. flexuosus.] Winding; having turns or windings ; as a flexuous rivulet. Digby.

    2. Bending ; winding ; wavering ; not teady ; as a^earttous flame. Bacon.

    3. In botany, bending or bent ; changing ' its direction in a curve, from joint to joint,

    from bud to bud, or from flower to flower.


    iFLEX'URE, n. [L. flexura.] A winding or

    bending ; the form of bending ; as the

    flexure of a joint. 12. The act of bending. Shak.

    3. The part bent ; a joint. Sandys.

    |4. The bending of the body ; obsequious or

    servile cringe. Shak.

    FLICK'ER, V. i. [Sax. fliccerian ; Scot.

    flecker, to quiver ; D.flikkeren, to twinkle ;

    probably a diminutive from the root of

    1. To flutter ; to flap the wings without fly- ing ; to strike rapidly wth the wings.

    Ani] flickering on her nest made short essays

    to sing. Dryden.

    i. To fluctuate. Burton.

    FLICK'ERING, ;)pr. Fluttering; flapping

    the wings without flight.

    2. a. With amorous motions of the eye.

    The fair Lavinia — looks a little flickering after Turnus. Dryden.

    FLICK'ERING, n. A fluttering ; short ir- regular movements. FLICK'ERMOUSE, n. The bat.

    B. Jonson. FLI'ER, n. [See Fly. It ought to be flyer.] One that flies or flees.

    2. A runaway ; a fugitive. Shak.

    3. A part of a machine which, by moving rapidly, equalizes and regulates the mo- tion of the whole; as the}!»'er of a jack.

    FLIGHT, n.flile. [Sax.fliht ; G.flug,flucht; D. vlugt ; Dan. flugt ; Sw. flycht. See

    1. The act of fleeing; the act of running away, to escape danger or expected evil ; hasty departure.

    Pray ye tliat your flight be not in winter. Matt. xxiv.

    To put to flight, to turn to flight, is to compel to run away ; to force to escape.

    2. The act of flying ; a passing through the air by the help of wings ; volation; as the flight of birds and insects.

    3. The manner of flying. Every fowl has its particular ^i^ftt ; the flight of the eagle is high ; the flight of the swallow is rapid, with sudden turns.

    4. Removal from place to place by flying.

    5. A flock of birds flying in company ; as a flight of pigeons or wild geese.

    6. A number of beings flying or moving through the air together; as a flight of angels. " Milton,

    F L I

    7. A number of things passing through the Hey ; -.•..,


    air togethe


    a fl^M of

    8. A periodical flying of birds in flocks ; as the spring/ig-/i« or autumnal /ig-AJ of ducks or pigeons.

    9. In England, the birds produced in the same season.

    10. The space passed by flying.

    11. Amounting; a soaring ; lofty elevation and excursion ; as a flight of imagination or fancy ; a flight of ambition.

    12. Excursion ; wandering ; extravagant sally ; as a flight of folly. TiUotson.

    13. The power of flying. Shak.

    14. In certain lead works, a substance that flies ofi" in smoke. Encyc.

    Flight of stairs, the series of stairs from the

    floor, or from one platform to another. FLIGHTINESS, n. The state of being

    flighty ; wildness ; slight delirium. FLIGHT-SHOT, n. The distance which an

    arrow flies. FLIGHTY, a. Fleeting ; swift.

    The flighty purpose never is o'ertook.


    2. Wild ; indulging the sallies of imagina- tion.

    3. Disordered in mind ; somewhat delirious. FLIM'FLAM, n. [Ice. flim.] A freak ; a

    trick. Beaum.

    FLIM'SINESS, n. State or quality of being flimsy ; thin, weak texture ; weakness ; want of substance or solidity.

    FLIM'SY, a. s as 2. [VV. llymsi, having a fickle motion ; llymu, to make sharp, quick, pungent. Oicfn. But Lluyd renders Uymsi, vain, weak. The word is retained by the common people in New England in limsy, weak, limber, easily bending. See Class Lm. No. 2. 5. fi.]

    1. We.ik ; feeble ; slight ; vain ; without strength or solid substance ; as a flimsy pretext ; a flimsy excuse ; flimsy objec- tions. Milner.

    Q. Without strength or force ; spiritless. Proud of a vast extent o( flimsy lines.


    3. Thin; of loose texture ; as/tm«y cloth or stuff". [Little used.] I

    FLINCH, V. i. [I have not found this wordj in any other language ; but the sense of it! occurs in blench, and not improbably it is; from the same root, with a different pre fix.]

    1. To shrink; to withdraw from any suffer ing or undertaking, from pain or danger ; to fail of proceeding, or of performing any thing. Never flinch from duty. One of the parties_^tnc/ie(/ from the combat.

    A child, by a constant course of kindness, may be accustomed to bear very rough usage without flinching or complaining. Locke.

    2. To fail. Shak. FLINCH'ER, n. One who flinches or fails. FLINCH'ING, ppr. Failing to undertake,

    perform or proceed ; shrinking ; withdraw- ing.

    FLIN'DER, n. [D. flenter, a splinter, a tat- ter.]

    A small piece or splinter ; a fragment.

    New England. [This seems to le splinter, ivithout the prefix.]

    FLING, V. t. pret. and pp. flung. [Ir. lingim, to fling, to dart, to fly oflT, to skip. If n is

    F L I

    not radical, as I suppose, this may be the W. lludaw, to fling, to throw, to dart, and L. lego, l^are.]

    1. To cast, send or throw from the hand ; to hurl ; as, to fling a 'stone at a bird.

    'Tis fate tlial^mg.^ the dice ; and as she flings.

    Of kings makes peasants, and of-peasants,

    kings. Dryden.\\

    2. To dart ; to cast with violence ; to send forth.

    He — like Jove, his lightning flung.

    Drydeti. To send forth ; to emit ; to scatter. Every beam new transient colors flings.


    4. To throw; to drive by violence.

    5. To throw to the ground ; to prostrate. The wre.stler^ung iiis antagonist.

    6. To baffle ; to defeat ; as, to fling a party in litigation.

    To fling away, to reject ; to discard.

    Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambi- tion. Shak.

    F L I

    To fling doivn, to demolish ; to ruin.

    2. To throw to the ground.

    To fling ofl', to baffle in the chase ; to defeat "prey. Addison.

    To fling out, to utter ; to speak ; as, to fling out hard words against another.

    To fling in, to throw in ; to make an allow- ance or deduction, or not to charge in an account. In settling accounts, one party flings in a small sum, or a few days work.

    To fling open, to throw open ; to open sud- denly or with violence ; as, to fling open a door.

    To fling up, to relinquish ; to abandon ; as, fling up a design.

    FLING, V. i. To flounce ; to wince ; to fly into violent and irregular motions. The horse began to kick and^^ing'.

    2. To cast in the teeth ; to utter harffh lan- guage ; to sneer ; to upbraid. The scold began to flout anil fling.

    To fling ou(, to grow unruly or outrageous.' Shak.

    FLING, n. A throw ; a cast from the hand.

    2. A gibe ; a sneer ; a sarcasm ; a severe or contemptuous remark.

    I, who love to have z fling,

    Both at senate house and king. Swift

    FLING'EK, n. One who flings ; one who jeers.

    FLING'ING, ppr. Throwing ; casting ; jeer- ing.

    FLINT, H. [Sax. flint ; Sw.flinta. In Dan flint is a light gun, and flint is caWedflint- steen, flint-stone. So also in German The Dutch and Germans call it also flre- stone. It may be from the root of splen- dor.]

    1. In nadtraZ /a's/ori/, a sub-species of quartz, of a yellowish or bluish gray, or grayish black color. It is amorphous, interspersed in other stones, or in nodules or rounded lumps. Its surface is generally uneven, and covered with a rind or crust, either calcarious or argillaceous. It is very hard, strikes fire with steel, and is an ingredient in glass. Kirtvan. Encyc.

    2. A piece of the above described stone used n firearms to strike fire.

    3. Any thing proverbially hard ; as a heart offlint. Spenser.

    FLINT-HEART, ? Having a hard, FLINT-HE.\\RTED, \\ °- unfeeling heart.

    FLINTY, u. Consisting of flint ; as a flinty rock.

    2. Like fluit : very hard ; not impressible ; as a .flinty heart.

    3. Cruel; unmerciful; inexorable. Shak.

    4. Full of Hint stones; as flinty ground. Bacon.

    Flinty-slate, a mineral of two kinds, the com- mon and the Lydian stone. Ure.

    FLIP, n. A mixed Uquor consisting of beer and spirit sweetened.

    FLIP'DOG, n. An iron used, when heated, to warm flip.

    FLIP'PANCY, n. [See Flippant.] Smooth- ness and rapidity of speech ; volubility of tongue; fluency of speech.

    FLIP'PANT, a. [W. llipanu, to make smooth or glib, from llib, llipa, flaccid, soft, limber ; allied to flabby, and to glib, and probably to L. labor, to slide or slip, and to liber, free. Class Lb.]

    1. Of smooth, fluent and rapid speech i speaking with ease and rapidity ; having a voluble tongue ; talkative.

    2. Pert ; petulant ; waggish. Avvav w-iih flippant epilogues. Thomson.

    FLIPPANTLY, adv. Fluently; with ease and volubihty of speech.

    FLIP'PANTNESS, n. Fluency of speech ; volubility of tongue; flippancy.

    [This is not a low, vulgar word, but well authorized and peculiarly expressive.]

    FLIRT, V. t. flurt. [This word evidently be- longs to the root of L. Jioreo, or ploro, sig- nifying to throw, and coinciding with blurt. Qu. Sax.fleardian, to trifle.]

    1. To throw with a jerk or sudden eflx)rt or exertion. The boys Jiirt water in each other's faces. He flirted a glove or a hand- kerchief.

    2. To toss or throw: to move suddenly; as, to flirt a fan.

    FLIRT, V. i. To jeer or gibe ; to throw harsh or sarcastic words ; to utter con- tenipluous language, with an air of dis- dain. 2. To run and dart about ; to be moving hastily from place to place ; to be unsteady or fluttering. The girls flirt about the room or the street. FLIRT, n. A sudden jerk ; a quick throw or cast ; a darting motion.

    In unfurling tlie tan are several little ^iXs and vibrations. Addison.

    2. A young girl who moves hastily or fre- quently from place to place ; a pert girl.

    Several yoanc flirts about town had a design to cast us out of the fashionable world.

    jlddison. FLIRT, a. Pert ; wanton. Shak.

    FLIRTA'TION, n. A flirting ; a quick rightly motion.

    esire "of attracting notice. [A cant toord.'}


    FLIRTED, pp. Thrown with a sudden

    jerk. FLIRT'ING, ppr. Throwing ; jerking ; toss- ing ; darting about ; rambling and chan- ging place hastUv. FLIT, I', i. [D. vlieden, to fly or flee ; Dan. flyder, Sw. flyta, to flow, to glide away ; Dan. flytter, Sw. flyitia, to remove ; Ice. ^iuh(r,'swift. This word coincides in ele- ments with Heb. Ch. Syr. oSfl. Class Ld. No. 43. It is undoubtedly from the same root as fleet, which see.]

    F L E

    14. In botany, the soft pulpy substance fruit ; also, that part of a root, fruit, &c., which is fit to be eaten.

    One flesh, denotes intimate relation. To be one flesh is to be closely united, as in mar riage. Gen. ii. Eph. v.

    lifter the flesh, according to outward appear ances, John viii :

    Or according to the common -powers of nature. Gal. iv. :

    Or according to sinful lusts and inclina- tions. Rom. viii.

    An arm of flesh, human strength or aid.

    FLESH, V. t. To initiate ; a sportsman's use of the word, from the practice of train- ing hawks and dogs by feeding them with the first game they take or other flesh.

    2. To harden ; to accustom ; to establish in any practice, as dogs by often feeding on any thing. Men fleshed in cruelty ; wo- men /esAerf in malice. Sidney.

    3. To glut ; to satiate.

    The wild dog Shall flesh his tootli on every innocent.


    FLESH'BROTH, n. Brotli made by boil- ing flesh in water.

    FLESH'BRUSil, n. A brush for e.xciting action in the skin by friction.

    FLESH'€OLOR, n. The color of flesh ; carnation.

    FLESH'€0LORED, o. Being of the color of flesh.

    FLESH'DIET, n. Food consisting of flesh.

    FLESH'ED, pp. Initiated ; accustomed ; glutted.

    ^. Fat; fleshy.

    FLESH'FLY, n. A fly that feeds on flesh, 'and deposits her eggs in it. Ray.

    FLESH'HOQK, n. A hook to draw flesh from a pot or caldron. 1 Sam. ii.

    FLESH'INESS, n. {{mm fleshy.] Abun- dance of flesh or fat in animals ; plump- ness ; corpulence ; grossness.

    FLESHTNG, ppr. Initiating ; making fa- miliar; glutting.

    FLESH'LESS, a. Destitute of flesh ; lean.

    FLESH'LINESS, n. Carnal passions and appetites. Spenser.

    FLESH'LY, a. Pertaining to the flesh ; corporeal. Denham.

    2. Carnal ; worldly ; lascivious.

    Abstain horn fleshly lusts. 1 Pet. ii.

    3. Animal ; not vegetable. Dryden.

    4. Human ; not celestial ; not spiritual or di- vine.

    Vain oi fleshly 3mx. Milton.

    Fleshly 'wisdom. 2 Cor. i. FLESH'MEAT, n. Animal food; the flesh of animals prepared or used for food.


    FLESH'MENT, n. Eagerness gained by a

    successful initiation. Shak.

    FLESH'MONGER, n. One who deals in

    flesh ; a procurer ; a pimp. [Little used.]


    FLESH'POT, n. A vessel in which flesli

    is cooked ; hence, plenty of provisions.

    Ex. xvi.

    FLESH'QUAKE, n. A trembling of the

    flesh. [ JVoJ xised.] B. Jonson.

    FLESH' Y, a. Full of flesh; plump; mus-


    The sole of his foot is _^esAy. R<^y-

    2. Fat; gross; corpulent; as a fleshy man.

    3. Corporeal. Eccles.

    F L E

    4. Full of pulp; pulpous; plump; as fruit, Bacon.

    FLET, pp. of fleet. Skimmed. [JSTol- used.] Mortimer.

    FLETCH, V. t. [Fr. fleche.] To fether an arrow. Warbtirton.

    FLETCH'ER, n. [Fr. fleche, an arrow.] An arrow-maker ; a manufacturer of bows and arrows. Hence the name of Fletcher.

    But the use of the word as an appellative has ceased with the practice of archery.

    FLETZ, a. [G. fliitz, a layer.] In geology the fletz formations, so called, consist of rocks which lie immediately over the transition rocks. These formations are so called because the rocks usually appear in beds more nearly horizontal than the transition class. These formations consist of sandstone, limestone, gypsum, cala- mine, chalk, coal and trap. They contain abundance of petrifactions, both of ani and vegetable origin. Good.

    FLEW, pret. of fly.

    The people flew upon the spoil. 1 Sam.

    FLEW, n. The larjge chaps of a deep- mouthed hound. Hanmer.

    FLEW'ED, a. Chapped; mouthed; deep- mouthed. Shak.

    FLEXAN'IMOUS, a. [from L.] Having -'liver to change the mind. [JVot used.]


    FLEXIBIL'ITY, n. [See Flexible.] The quality of admitting to be bent ; pliancy ; flexibleness ; as the flexibility of rays of light. JVewton.

    3. Easiness to be persuaded ; the quality of yielding to arguments, jiersuasion or cir- cumstances; ductility of mind; readiness to comply ; facility ; "as flexibility of teni per.

    FLEX'IBLE, a. [L. flexibilis, fromflecto, flexi, to bend, Fr. flechir, coinciding with G. flechten, to braid, D. vlegten. These words have the same elements as L. plico.]

    1. That may be bent ; capable of being turned or forced from a straight line or form without breaking; pliant; yielding to jiressure ; not stiflT; as a flexible rod ; a

    flexible plant.

    2. Capable of yielding to intreaties, argu- ments or other moral force ; that may "be persuaded to compliance ; not invincibly rigid or obstinate ; not inexorable.

    Phocion was a man of great severity, and no ways flexible to the will of the people.


    It often denotes, easy or too easy to yield or comply ; wavering ; inconstant ; not firm.

    3. Ductile ; manageable ; tractable ; as the tender and flexible minds of youth. Flex- ible years or time of life, the time when the mind is tractable.

    4. That may be turned or accommodated.

    This was a principle more flexible to their purpose. Rogers.

    FLEX'IBLENESS, n. Possibility to be bent or turned from a straight line or form without breaking; easiness to be bent ; pliantness ; pliancy ; flexibility.


    2. Facility of mind ; readiness to coinply or yield ; obsequiousness ; as the flexibleness of a courtier.

    F L I

    3. Ductility ; manageableness ; tractable- ness ; as the flexibleness of youth.

    FLEX'ILE, a. [h.flexilis.] Pliant ; pliable ; easily bent; yielding to power, impulse or moral force. Thomson.

    FLEX'ION, «. [Uflexio.] The act of ben- ding.

    2. A bending; a part bent; a fold. Bacon.

    3. A turn ; a cast ; as a flexion of the eye.


    FLEX'OR, 71. In anatomy, a muscle whose office is to bend the part to which it be- longs, in opposition to the extensors.

    FLEX'UOUS, a. [L. flexuosus.] Winding; having turns or windings ; as a flexuous rivulet. Digby.

    2. Bending ; winding ; wavering ; not teady ; as a. flexuous flame. Bacon.

    3. In botany, bending or bent ; changing ' its direction in a curve, from joint to joint,

    from bud to bud, or from flower to flower.


    FLEX;URE, n. [L. flexura.] A winding or

    bending ; the form of bending ; as the

    flexure of a joint. i2. The act of bending. Shak.

    3. The part bent ; a joint. Sandys.

    4. The bending of the body ; obsequious or servile cringe. Shak.

    FLICK'ER, v.i. [Sax. fliccerian ; Scot. flecker, to quiver ; D.flikkeren, to twinkle ; jirobably a diminutive fi-om the root of


    1. To flutter ; to flap the wings without fly- ing ; to strike rapidly with the wings.

    Am] flickering on her nest made short essays

    to sing. Dryden.

    ■i. To fluctuate. Burton.

    FLICKERING, ppr. Fluttering ; flapping

    the wings without flight.

    2. rt. With amorous motions of the eye.

    The fair Lavinia — looks a Mtde flickering after Turnus. Hvyden.

    FLICK'ERING, n. A fluttering ; short ir- regular movements. FLICK'ERMOUSE, n. The bat.

    B. Jonson. FLI'ER, n. [See Fly. It ought to be flyer.] One that flies or flees.

    2. A runaway ; a fugitive. Shak.

    3. A part of a machine which, by moving rapidly, equalizes and regulates the mo- tion of the whole; as the_/!?er of a jack.

    FLIGHT, n.flite. [Sax. fliht; G.flug.fluchi; D. vlugt; Dan.flugt; 8w. flycht. See Fly.]

    1. The act of fleeing; the act of running away, to escape danger or expected evil ; hasty departure.

    Pray ye that your flight be not in winter. Matt. xxiv. .

    • To put to flight, to turn to flight, is to compel to run away ; to force to escape.

    2. The act of flying ; a passing through the air by the help of wings ; volation; as the flight of birds and insects.

    .3. The manner of flying. Every fowl has its particular _/Zie:7i< ; the flight of the eagle is higli ; the flight of the swallow is rapid, with sudden turns.

    4. Removal from place to place by flying. ,5. A flock of birds flying in company ; as a

    flight of pigeons or wild geese. G. A number of beings flying or moving through the air together; as aflighi of angels. Milton.

    F L I

    F L I

    F L I

    7. A number of things passing through air together ; a volley ; as a flight of| arrows.

    8. A periodical flying of birds in flocks ; the spring flight or autumnal flight of ducks or pigeons.

    9. In England, tlic birds produced in the same season.

    10. Tlie space passed by flying.

    11. Amounting; a soaring ; lofty elevation and excursion ; as a flight of imagination or fancy ; a flight of ambition.

    12. Excursion ; wandering ; extravagant sally ; as a flight of folly. TiUotson.

    IS. The power of flying. Shak

    14. In certain lead works, a substance that

    flies off" in smoke. Encyc.

    Flight of stairs, the series of stairs from the

    floor, or from one platform to another, FLIGHTINESS, «. The state of being

    flighty; wildness; slight delirium. FLIGHT-SHOT, n. The distance which an

    arrow flies. FLIGHTY, a. Fleeting ; swift.

    The flighty purpose never is o'ertook.


    2. Wild ; indulging the sallies of imagina- tion.

    3. Disordered in mind ; somewhat delirious. FLIM'FLAM, n. [Ice. flim.] A freak ; a

    trick. JBeaum.

    FLIM'SINESS, n. Slate or quality of being flimsy ; thin, weak texture ; weakness ; want of substance or solidity.

    FLIM'SY, a. s as z. [W. llymsi, having a fickle motion ; llymu, to make sharp, quick, pungent. Owen. hutlAuyd renders llymsi, vain, weak. The word is retained by the common people in New England in limsy, weak, limber, easily bending. See Class Lm. No. 2. 5. G.]

    1. Weak; feeble; slight; vain; without strength or solid substance ; as a flimsy pretext ; a flimsy e.xcuse ; flimsy objec- tions. Milner.

    2. Without strength or force ; spiritless.

    Proud of a vast extent of flimsy lines.


    3. Thin; of loose texture ; as/imsy cloth or stufl'. [Little used.] I

    FLINCH, V. i. [I have not found tliis wordj in any other language ; but the sense of itj occurs in blench, and not improbably it is from the same root, with a difierent pre- fix.]

    1. To shrink; to withdraw from any suflbr- ing or undertaking, from pain or danger ;l to fail of proceeding, or of performing anjj thing. Never flinch from duty. One of] the parties_^{nc/ierf from the combat.

    A child, by a constant course of kindness, may be accustomed to bear very rough usage without ^mcAi»g or complaining. Locke.]

    •2. To fail. Shaki

    FLINCH'ER, n. One who flinches or fails.

    FLINCH'ING, ppr. Failing to undertake,! perform or proceed; shrinking ; withdraw-

    not radical, as I suppose, this may be the W. lluciaw, to fling, to throw, to dart, and L. lego, legare.]

    1. To cast, send or tlirow from the hand hurl ; as, to fling a 'stone at a bird.

    'Tis fate tliat/ings tlie dice ; and as she flings,]

    Of kings makes peasants, and of-peasants,

    kings. Drydeii.

    2. To dart ; to cast with violence ; to send forth.

    He— like Jove, his lightning flung.

    Dry den

    3. To send forth ; to emit ; to scatter. Every beam new transient colors _^mgs.


    4. To throw; to drive by violence. To throw to the ground ; to prostrate.

    The wrestler_^!mg liis antagonist. To batlle ; to defeat ; as, to fling a party in litigation.

    To fling away, to reject ; to discard.

    Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambi- tion. Shak.

    To fling down, to demolish ; to ruin. To tlirow to the ground.

    To fling ofl", to baffle in the chase ; to defeat of prey. Addison.

    To fling out, to utter ; to speak ; as, to fling out hard words against another.

    To fling in, to throw in ; to make an allow- ance or deduction, or not to charge in an account. In settling accounts, one parry flings in a small sum, or a few days work.

    To fling open, to throw open ; to open sud- denly or with violence ; as, to fling open a door.

    To fling up, to relinquish ; to abandon ; as,

    FLIN'DER, n. [D. flenter, a splinter, a tat- ter.] A small piece or splinter ; a fragment.

    .Veio England.

    [This seems to ie splinter, without ihe\\


    FLING, V. t. pret. and pp. flung. [Ir. lingim.

    to fling, to dart, to fly off, to'skip. If'n is

    to fling up a design. FLING, V. i. To flounce ; to wince ; to fly

    into violent and irregular motions. The

    horse began to kick and fling. 2. To cast in the teeth ; to utter harSh Ian

    guage ; to sneer ; to upbraid. The scold

    began to flout and fling.

    To fling out, to grow unruly or outrageous.


    FLING, n. A throw ; a cast from the hand

    2. A gibe ; a sneer; a sarcasm; a severe or

    contemptuous remark.

    I, who love to have 3 fling. Both at senate house and king. Swift

    FLING'ER, n. One who flings ; one who

    jeers. FLING'ING, ppr. TInowing ; casting ; jeer-

    FLINT, Ji. [Sax./in«; Sw.flinta. In Dan, flint is a light gun, and flint is calledyZui/- steen, flint-stone. So also in German, The Dutch and Germans call it also flre- stone. It may be from the root of splen- dor.]

    1. In natural history, a sub-species of quartz, of a yellowish or bluish gray, or grayisl; black color. It is amorphous, interspersed in other stones, or in nodules or rounded lumps. Its surface is generally unev and covered with a rind or crust, either calcarious or argillaceous. It is very hard, strikes fire with steel, and is an ingredient in glass. Kinvan. Encyc.

    2. A piece of the above described stone used in firearms to strike fire.

    3. Any thing proverbially hard ; as a heart otflint. Spenser.

    FLINT-HEART, ) Having a hard FLINT-HEARTED, \\ °- unfeeling heart.

    Consisting of flint ; as a flinty liard ; not impressible ;

    FLINT' V, a. rock.

    2. Like flint; very as a, flinty heart.

    3. Cruel; luimerciful; inexorable. Shak.

    4. Full of Hint stones; as ^in<^ ground. Bacon.

    Flinty-slate, a mineral of two kinds, the com- mon anti the Lydian stone. Ure.

    FLIP, n. A mixed hquor consisting of beer and spirit sweetened.

    FLIP'DOG, 71. An iron used, when heated, to warm flip.

    FLIP'PANCy, n. [See Flippant.] Smooth- ness and rapidity of speech ; volubility of tongue; fluency of speech.

    FLIP'PANT, a. [W. llipanu, to make smooth or glib, from Uib, Ihpa, flaccid, soft, limber ; allied to flabby, and to glib, and probably to L. labor, to slide or slip, and to liber, free. Class Lb.]

    1. Of smooth, fluent and rapid speech i speaking with ease and rapidity ; having a voluble tongue ; talkative.

    2. Pert ; ))('tulant ; waggish. Away \\villi/i7)/)an( epilogues. Thomson.

    FLIPPANTLY, adv. Fluently; with ease

    and volubility of speech. FLIP'PANTNESS, n. Fluency of speech ; volubility of tongue; flippancy.

    [This "is not a low, vulgar word, but well authorized and peculiarly expressive.] FLIRT, V. t. flurt. [This word evidently be- longs to the root of L. floreo, or ploro, sig- nifying to throw, and coinciding with blurt. Qu. Sax.Jleardian, to trifle.] To throw with a jerk or sudden efl^ort or exertion. The boys flirt water in each other's faces. He flirted a glove or a hand- kerchief 2. To toss or throw ; to move suddenly; as,

    to flirt a fan. FLIRT, V. i. To jeer or gibe ; to throw harsh or sarcastic words ; to utter con- temptuous language, with an air of dis- dain. 2. To run and dart about ; to be moving hastily from place to place ; to be unsteady or fluttering. The girls flirt about the room or the street. FLIRT, n. A sudden jerk ; a quick throw- er cast ; a darting motion.

    In unfurling the fan arc several little^iXs and vibrations. Addison.

    A young girl who moves hastily or fre- quently from place to place ; a pert girl.

    .Several young ^ir(s about town had a design to cast us out of the fashionable world.

    Addison . FLIRT, a. Pert; wanton. Shak.

    FLIRTA'TION, n. A flirting ; a quick

    sprightly motion. 2. Desire of attracting notice, [•.i cant word.] Addison. FLIRT'ED, pp. Thrown with a sudden

    jerk. FLIRT'ING, ppr. Throwing ; jerking ; toss- ing ; darting about ; rambling and chan- ging place hastUv. FLIT, V. i. [D. vlieden, to fly or flee ; Dan. flyder, Sw. flyta, to flow, to glide away ; Dan. flytier, S\\v.fl.yttia, to remove ; Ice. fliutur, swift. This word coincides in ele- ments with Heb. Ch. Syr. bSs. Class Ld. No. 43. It is undoubtedly from the same root as^eef, which see.]


    1. To 9y away with a rapid motion ; to dart along ; to move with celerity through the air. We say, a bird flits away, or flits in air; a cloud^its along.

    2. To flutter ; to rove on the wing.


    3. To remove ; to migrate ; to pass rapidly, as a light substance, from one place to another.

    It became a received opinion, that the souls of men, departing this life, did flit out of one body into some other. Hooker.

    4. In Scotland, to remove from one habita- tion to another.

    .5. To be unstable ; to be easily or often

    moved. And the free soul to flitting air resigned.

    Drydeyi. FLIT, a. Nimble; quick; swift. Obs. [See

    Fleet.] FLITCH, n. [Sax.flicce; Ft. fleche, an ar- row, a coach-beam, a flitch of bacon.] The side of a hog salted and cured.

    Dryden. Swifl. FLIT'TER, I', i. To flutter, which see.

    Chaucer. FLIT'TER, n. A rag ; a tatter. [See

    Fritter.] FLIT'TERMOUSE, n. [Flit, flitter and

    mouse. ] A bat ; an animal tliat has the fur of a mouse,

    and membranes which answer tlie purpose

    of wings, and enable the animal to sustain

    itself in a fluttering flight. FLIT'TINESS, n. [from flit.] Unsteadi

    ness ; levity ; lightness. Bp. Hopkins

    FLiTTmG, ppr. Flying rapidly ; flutter

    ing ; moving swiftly. FLIT'TING, n. A flying with lightness and

    celerity ; a fliutering. FLIT'TY, a. Unstable ; fluttering. More. FLIX, n. [Qu. from flax.] Down ; fur.

    [.Vo< used.] Dryden.

    FLIX'WEED, n. The Sisymbrium sopkia,

    a species of water-cresses, growing on

    walls and waste grounds. Encyc.

    FLO, n. An arrow. [JVbt in use.]

    Chaucer. FLOAT, n. [Sax.flota; G. floss; D.vlot

    vloot; Dan. flode; Sw.JloUe ; Fr.flotte .

    B\\>.flota; II. flotta; Russ.ptot.]

    1. That which swims or is borne on water : as a float of weeds and rushes. But par- ticularly, a body or collection of timber, boards or planks fastened together and conveyed down a stream; a raft. [The latter word is more generally used in the U. States.]

    2. The cork or quill used on an angling line, to support it and discover the bite of a fisli.

    Encyc. JVaUon.

    3. The act of flowing ; flux ; flood ; the primary sense, but obsolete. Hooker.

    4. A quantity of earth, eighteen feet square and one deep. Mortimer.

    r>. A wave. [French/o( ; hat.fluctus.] FLOAT, v.i. [Sax.fl^otan,flotan ; G.flossen:

    T>. vlooten, vlotten ; Fr. flolter; Dan. floder.

    Either from the noun, or from the root

    of the h.fluo, to flow.] 1. To be borne or sustained on the surface

    of a fluid ; to swim ; to be buoyed up

    not to sink ; not to be aground. We say

    the water is so .shallow, the ship will nol



    3. To move or be conveyed on water ; tol swim. The raftfloats down the river. Three blustering nights, borne by the southemi

    blast, Ifloated. Dryden.

    3. To be buoyed up and moved or conveyed 1 a fluid, as in air. They stretch their plumes and float upon the

    wind. Pope.

    4. To move with a light irregular course. Qu. Locke.

    FLOAT, V. t. To cause to pass by swim- ming ; to cause to be conveyed on water. Tlie tidejloated the sliip into the harbor.

    9. To flood ; to inundate ; to overflow ; to cover with water. Proud Pactolus _^oafs the fraitful lands.


    FLO'ATAgE, n. Any thing that floats on the water. Encyc.

    FLO'AT-BOARD, n. A board of the water- wheel of undershot mills, which receives the impulse of the stream, by which the wheel is driven.

    FLO'ATED, pp. Flooded ; overflowed. Borne on water.

    FLOATER, n. One that floats or swims.


    FLO'ATING, ppr. Swimming ; conveying on water ; overflowing.

    i. Lying flat on the surface of the water as afloating leaf Martyn.

    FLOATING-BRIDGE, w. In the U. States, a bridge, consisting of logs or timber with a floor of i)Iank, supported wholly by the water

    2. In tvar, a kind of double bridge, the upper oue projecting beyond the lower one, and capable of being moved forward by pu leys, used for carrying troops over narrow moats in attacking the outworks of a fort

    FLO'ATSTONE, n. Swimming flint, spun giform quartz, a mineral of a spungy tex- ture, of a whitish gray color, often witl tinge of yellow. It frequently contains a nucleus of common flint. Cteaveland.

    FLO'ATY, a. Buoyant; swimming on the surface ; light. Raleigh

    FLOe'€ULENCE, n. [L. flocculus, floccus. See Flock.]

    The state of being in locks or flocks ; adhe sion in small Bakes.

    Higgins, Med. Rep

    FLOeXULENT, a. Coalescing and adhe ring in locks or flakes.

    I say the liquor is broken to flocculence, when the particles of herbaceous matter, seized by those of tlie Ume, and coalescing, appear large and flocculent. Ibm .

    FLOCK, n. [Sax.^c* ; h. floccus ; G.flocke ; D. vlok ; Dan. flok ; Sw. flock, a crowd ; ulle-lock, wool-lock ; Gr. rfKoxr;, TfKoxoi Russ. klok. It is the same radically as flake, and applied to wool or hair, we write ■ lock. See Flake.'

    1. A company or collection ; applied to sheep and other small animals. A flock of slieep answers to a herd of larger cattle. But the word may sometimes perhaps be applied to larger beasts, and in the plural, flocks may include all kinds of domesticated ani- mals.

    2. A company or collection of fowls of anj kind, and when apjilied to birds on the wing, a flight ; as a flock of wikl-geese ; a /ocA: of ducks ; a /oc/c of blackbirds. In


    the U. StateSj^ocis of wild-pigeons some- times darken the air. 3. A body or crowd of people. [Little used. <4,». Gr. xo;to{, a troop.] A lock of wool or hair. Hence, a flock- bed. FLOCK, V. t. To gather in companies or crowds ; applied to men or other animals. People flock together. They flock to the play-house.

    Friends liaWy flock. Dryden.

    FLOCK'ING, ppr. Collecting or running

    together in a crowd. FLOG, V. t. [L.fligo, to strike, that is, to lay ori ; L.flagrum,flagellum, Eng. flail; Goth. bliggwan, to strike ; Gr. rfkcuya, n^ijyr;, L. plaga, a stroke, Eng. plague. We have lick, which is probably ofthe same family ; as is D. slag, G. schlag, Eng. slay.] To beat or strike with a rod or whip; to whip ; to lash ; to chastise with repeated blows ; a colloquial word, applied to tvhip- ping or beating for punishment ; as, to flog a schoolboy or a sailor. FLOG'GED, pp. Whipped or scourged for

    punishment ; chastised. FLOGGING, ppr. Whipping for punish- ment ; chastising. FLOG'GING, n. A whipping for punish- ment. FLOOD, n. flud. [Sax. flod ; G.fluth ; D. vloed: Hw.flod; Dan. flod ; fromfloto.] A great flow of water ; a body of moving water ; particularly, a body of water, ri- sing, swelling and overflowing land not usually covered with water. Thus there is a flood, every spring, in the Connecticut, which inundates the adjacent meadows. There is an annual flood in the Nile, and in the Missisippi.

    2. The flood, by way of eminence, the deluge ; the great body of water which inundated the earth in the days of Noali. Before the

    flood, men lived to a great age.

    3. A river; a sense chiefly poetical.

    4. The flowing ofthe tide; the semi-diurnal swell or rise of water in the ocean ; oppo- sed to ebb. The ship entered the harbor on the flood. Hence flood-tide ; young flood ; high flood.

    5. A great quantity ; an inundation ; an over- flowing; abundance; superabundance; as a flood of bank notes ; a flood of paper currency.

    6. A great body or stream of any fluid sub- stance ; as a flood of light ; a flood of lava. Hence, figuratively, a flood of vice.

    7. Menstrual discharge. Harvey.^ FLOOD, V. t. To overflow ; to inundate ; to

    deluge ; as, to flood a meadow.


    FLOODED, pp. Overflowed ; inundated.

    FLOODGATE, n. A gate to be opened for letting water flow through, or to be shut to prevent it.

    |2. An opening or passage ; an avenue for a flood or great body.

    jFLOOD'iNG, ppr. Overflowing; inunda- ting.

    FLOODING, n. Any preternatural dis- |

    I chargeof blood from the uterus. Cyc. ^

    IFLOOD'-MARK, n. The mark or line to

    1 which the tide rises ; high-water mark.

    FLOOK. [See Fluke, the usual orthogra-

    I phy.]



    F L O

    TLOOK ING, n. In mtmng-, an interruplion or shifting of a load of ore, by a cross vein or fissure. Kncyc.

    FLOOR, n. Jlore. [Sax. for Jioie ; D. ..'ocr W. llawr, and clawr, the earth or ground an area, or ground plot, a floor ; Ir. tar, and urlar ; Basque, or Cuntabrian, litrra ; Ann. leur, flat land or floor ; G.flur, a field, level ground or floor. In early ages, the inhabitants of Europe had no floor in their huts, but the ground. The sense of the ■word is probably that which is laid or spread.]

    1. That part of a building or room on which we walk ; the bottom or lower part, con- sisting, in modern liouses, of hoards, planks or pavement ; as the^oorof ahouse, room, barn, stable or outhouse.

    2. A platform of boards or |)lanks laid on timbers, as in a bridge ; any similar plat form.

    3. A story in a building ; as the first or sec ond_^oor.

    4. A floor or earthen floor is still used in some kinds of business, made of loam, or of lime, sand and iron dust, as in malting.


    5. The bottom of a ship, or that part which is nearly horizontal. Mar. Did.

    FLOOR, V. t. To lay a floor ; to cover timbers

    with a floor; to furnish with a floor; as,

    to floor a house with pine boards. FLOOR'ED, pp. Covered with boards, plank

    or pavement ; furnished with a floor. FL0OR'ING,p/)r. Laying a floor; furnish

    ing with a floor. FLOOR'ING, n. A platform ; the bottom of

    a room or building ; pavement. 2. Materials for floors. FLOOR-TIMBERS, n. The timbers o

    which a floor is laid. FLOP, v.t. [A different spelling of flap. L To clap or strike the wings. 2. To let down the brim of a hat. FLO'RA, )i. [See Floral.] In antiquity, the

    goddess of flowers. 2. In modern usage, a catalogue or account

    of flowers or plants. FLO'RAL, a. [L.floralis, fromflos, a flower,

    which see.]

    1. Containing the flower, as a floral bud ; mediately attending the flower, as afloral leaf Marty n.

    2. Pertaining to Flora or to flowers; as flo- ral games ; floral play. Prior.

    FLOR'EN, I An"ancient srold coin ol

    FLORENCE, ^ "Edward HI. of six shil- lings sterling value, about 134 cents.


    FLOR'ENCE, n. A kind of cloth.

    2. A kind of wine from Florence in Italy.

    FLOR'ENTINE, 71. A native of Florence.

    2. A kind of silk cloth, so called.

    FLORES'CENCE, n. [h.florescens,floresco. See Flower.]

    In botany, the season when plants expand their dowers. Martyn.

    FLO'RET, n. \\¥r.fleurette ; Jt.floretto.] A little flower; the partial or separate httle flower of an aggregate flower. Martyn.

    FLOR'ID, a. [L. floridus, from floreo, to flower.]

    1. Literally, flowery ; covered or abounding with flowers; but in this sense little used.

    2. Bright in color ; flushed with red ; of a

    lively red color ; as a florid countenance a florid cheek.

    3. Embellished with flowers of rhetoric ; en riched with lively figures ; splendid ; bril- liant ; as a florid style ; Jlorid eloquence.

    FLORID'ITY, n. Freshness or brightness of color ; floridness. Floyer.

    FLOR'JDNESS, n. Brightness or freshness of color or complexion.

    2. Vigor ; spirit. [Unusual.] Feltham

    3. Embelhshment ; brilliant ornaments; am- bitious elegance ; applied to style. Boyle.

    FLORIF'EIIOUS, a. [L. fl^fer, from flos . a flower, and fero, to bear.] Producing flowers.

    FLORIFICA'TION, n. The act, process or time of flowering.

    Williams. Joum. of Science

    FLOR'IN, n. [Fr. florin; lt.fiorino^ A coin, originally made at Florence. The name is given to different coins of gold or silver, and of different values in different coun ■ tries. It is also used as a money of ac count.

    FLO'RIST, n. [Fr.fleuriste.] A cultivator of flowers; one skilled in flowers.


    2. One who writes a flora, or an account of plants. Encyc.

    FLOR'ULENT, a. Flowery; blossoming. [JVot in use.]

    FLOS'€ULAR, > [infra.] In botany, a

    FLOS'€ULOUS, $ "• flosculous flower is a compound flower, composed entirely of florets with funnel-sha|)ed petals, as in bur- dock, thistle and artichoke. This is the teiTii used by Tournefort. For this Linne used tubulous. Milne. Martyn.

    FLOS'€ULE, n. [L. flosculus.] In botany, a partial or lesser floret of an aggregate flower. Milne.

    FLOS FERRI, n. [L. flower of iron.] A mineral, a variety of arragonite, called by Jameson, after HaOy, coralloidal arrago- nite. It occurs in little cylinders, some- times diverging and ending in a point, and sometimes branched, like coral. Its struc ture is fibrous, and the surface, which i: smooth, or garnished with little crystnline points, is often very white, with a silken luster. It takes tliis name from its being often found in cavities in veins of sparry iron. Cleaveland.

    FLOSS, »i. [L. flos.] A downy or silky sub- stance in the husks of certain plants.


    FLOSSIFl€A'TION, n. A flowering ; ex- pansion of flowers. [jVorei.]

    Med. Rcpos.

    FLO'TA, n. [Sp. See Fleet.] A fleet; but appropriately a fleet of Spanish sh _ which formerly sailed every year from Cadiz to Vera Cruz, in Me.xico, to trans- port to Spain the productions of Spanish America.

    FLO'TAciE. n. [Ft. flottage.] That which floats on the sea, or on rivers. [Little used.] Chambers.

    FLOTE, V. t. To skim. [Xol used or local.] Tusser.

    FLOTIL'LA, n. [dim. of flota.] A little fleet, fleet of small vessels.

    FLOTSAM, I [from float.] Goods

    FLOT'SON, ^ "• by shipwreck, and float-l ing on the sea. When such goods are!

    cast on shore or found, the owner being unknown, they belong to the king.

    English Law. Blackalont.

    FLOT TEN, pp. Skimmed. [Xot in use.]

    FLOUNCE, V. i.flouns. [D. plonssen. See Flounder.]

    To throw the limbs and body one way and the other ; to spring, turn or twist with sudden effort or violence; to struggle as a horse in mire.

    Vou neither fume, nor fret, nor flounce.


    2. To move with jerks or agitation.

    FLOUNCE, f. t. To deck with a flounce; as, to flounce a petticoat or frock. Pope.

    FLOUNCE, n. A narrow piece of cloth sewed to a petticoat, frock or gown, with the lower border loose and spreading. The present is the age of flounces. 1827.

    FLOUN'DER, n. [Sw.flundra; G.fliinder.] A flat fish of the genus Pleuronectes.

    FLOUNDER, r. i. [This seems to be alUed to flaunt and flounce.]

    To fling the limbs and body, as in making efforts to move ; to struggle as a horse in the mire ; to roll, toss and tumble. Pope.

    FLOUN'DERING, ppr. Making irregular motions ; struggling with violence.

    FLOUR, n. [originally flower; Fr. ^etir; Sp. flor ; It.flore ; L. Jlos,floris, flow flo- reo, to flourish.]

    The edible part of corn ; meal. Johnson.

    In the United States, the modern prac- tice is to make a distinction between flour and meal ; the word flour being more usu- ally applied to the finer part of meal, sep- arated from the bran, as wheat flour, ryo flour. This is a just and useful distinction.

    FLOUR, V. t. [Sp. florear.] To grind and bolt; to convert into flour. Wheat used formerly to be sent to market ; but now great quantities of it are floured in the in- terior country.

    2. To sprinkle with flour.

    FLOUR'ED, pp. Converted into flour ; sprinkled with flour.

    FLOUR'ING, ppr. Converting into flour; sprinkling with flour.

    FLOURISH, V. i. flur'ish. [h. floresco, from floreo ; Fr. fleurir,fleurissant ; Sp. florear ; It. florire. The jjrimary sense is to open, e.vpand, enlarge, or to shoot out, as in glo- ry, L. ploro, or in other words in Lr.]

    1. To thrive; to grow luxuriantly; to in- crease and enlarge, as a healthy growing plant. The beech and the maple flourish best in a deep, rich and moist loam.

    2. To be prosperous; to increase in wealth or honor.

    Bad men as frequently prcsper and flourish, and tiiat by the means of tlicir wickedness.


    When all the workers of iniquity do flourish. Ps. xcii.

    3. To grow in grace and in good works ; to abound in the consolations of religion.

    The righteous shall flourish like the pahn- tree. Ps. xcii.

    4. To be in a prosperous state ; to grow or be augmented. We say agriculture ^ar- ishes, commerce flourishes, manufactures flourish.

    5. To use florid language ; to make a dis- play of figures and lofty expressions ; to be copious and flowery.

    They dilate and flourish long on little inci- dents, ffr^tts.


    6. To make bold strokes in writing ; to make large and iiTegular lines ; as, to

    flourish with the pen.

    7. To move or play in bold and irregular figures.

    ImpeUious spread The stream, and smoking, flourished o'e-! his head. Pope.

    8. In music, to play with bold and irregular notes, or without settled form; as, toj^our- ish on an organ or violin.

    9. To boast ; to vaunt ; to brag. FLOURISH, V. t.flur'ish. To adorn with

    flowers or beautiful figures, either natural or artificial ; to ornament with any thing showy.

    2. To spread out ; to enlarge into figures.


    3. To move in bold or irregular figures ; to move in circles or vibrations by way of show or triumph ; to brandish ; as, to

    flourish a sword.

    4. To embellish with the flowers of diction; to adorn with rhetorical figures ; to grace with ostentatious eloquence ; to set oflT with a parade of words. Collier.

    5. To adorn ; to embellish. Shak.

    6. To mark with a flourish or irregular stroke.

    The day book and inventory book shall be flnuri.ihed. French Com. Code. Walsh.

    FLOURISH, n. flur'ish. Beauty ; showy splendor.

    The flourish of his sober youth. Crashaw.

    2. Ostentatious embellishment ; ambitious copiousness or amplification ; parade of wolds and figures ; show ; as a flourish of rhetoric ; a. flourish of wit.

    He lards with flourishes his long harangue. Oryden.

    3. Figures formed by bold, irregular lines, or fanciful strokes of the pen or graver ; as the flourishes about a great letter.


    4. A brandisliing; the waving of a w^eapon or other thing ; as the flourish of a sword.

    FLOVRISHEH, pp. fluv'ished. Embellished ; adorned with bold and irregular figures or lines ; brandished. FLOURISHER, n. flur'isher. One who

    flourishes ; one w ho thrives or prospers. 2. One who brandishes, n. One who adorns with fanciful figures. FLOURISHING, ppr. or a. flur'ishing. Thiiving ; prosperous ; increasing ; mak- ing a show. FLOURISHINGLY, adv.flur'ishingly. With

    flourishes ; ostentatiously. FLOUT, V. t. [Scot.flyte, to scold or brawl ;


    To mock or insult; to treat with contempt.

    Phillida /oufs me. IValloti.

    Be flouted us downright. Shah.

    FLOUT, V. i. To practice mocking ; to

    sneer ; to behave with contempt.

    Fleer and gibe, and laugh -iml flout. Shak. FLOUT, n. A mock; an insult. FLOUT'ED, pp. Mocked ; treated with con- tempt. FLOUT'ER, n. One who flouts and flings ;

    a mocker. FLOUT'ING, ppr. Mocking ; insulting

    fleering. FLOUTINGLY, arff. With flouting ; insult iugly.


    FLOW, V. i. [Sax.flowan ; D. vloeijen. If the last radical was originally a dental, this word coincides with the D. vlieten, G. fliessen, Sw.jlyta, Dan. flyder, to flow. If g was the last radical, flaw coincides with the L. Jiuo, contracted from flugo, for it forms Jluxi,fluclum. In one case, the word would agree with the root of blow, h.flo ; in the other, with the root offly.]

    1. To move along an inclined plane, or on descending ground, by the operation of gravity, and with a continual change of place among the particles or parts, as a fluid. A solid body descends or moves in mass, as a ball or a wheel ; but in they/o?t'- ing- of liquid substances, and others con- sisting of very fine particles, there is a constant change of the relative position of] some parts of the substance, as is the case with a stream of water, of quicksilver, and of sand. Particles at the bottom and sides of the stream, being somewhat checked by friction, move slower than those in the middle and near the surface of the cur- rent. Rivers^'ouJ from springs and lakes ; tears flow from the eyes.

    2. To melt ; to become liquid. That the mountains might flow down at thy

    3. To proceed ; to issue. Evils flmo from different sources. Wealth flotvs from in- dustry and economy. All our blessings r'otv from divine bounty.

    4. To abound ; to have in abundance. In that day the mountains shall drop down

    iw wine, and tlie hills shall flow with milk. )el iii. .5. To be full ; to be copious ; as fl^oioing cups

    or goblets. 6. To glide along smoothly, without harsh- ness or asperity ; as a flowing period: flowing numbers.

    , To be smooth, as composition or utter- ance. The orator has a flowing tongue. Virgil is sweet and ^ou-mg in his hexameters. Dryden.

    8. To hang loose and waving; as afloicing mantle ; flowing locks.

    The imperial purple flowing in liis train.

    Federalist, Hamilton.

    9. To rise, as the tide ; opposed to ehb. The iide flows twice in twenty four hours.

    10. To move in tlie arteries and veins of the body; to circulate, as blood.

    11. To issue, as rays or beams of hght. Light./';ou'« from the sun.

    12. To tuove in a stream, as air.

    FLOW, V. t. To cover witli water ; to over- flow ; to inundate. T)]e low grounds along the river are aniuially./?o«ied.

    FLOW, n. A stream of water or other fluid ; a current ; as a floiv of water ; a flow of blood.

    2. A current of water with a swell or rise ; as the/o)» and ebb of tides.

    3. A stream of any thing ; as a flow of wealth into the country.

    4. Abundance ; copiousness with action ; as a flow of spirits.

    5. A stream of diction, denoting abundance of words at command and facility of speak- ing ; volubility.

    6. Free expression or communication of gen- erous feelings and sentiments.

    The feast of reason, and the flow of soul FLOWED, /)/?. Overflowed; inundated.


    FLOWER,™. \\FT.fleur; Sp.ftor: It.fiore

    Basque, lora; W.flur, hloSm ; fluraw, to bloom, to be bright ; L.flos,floris, a flower ■ Joreo, to blossom. See Flourish.] '

    1. In botany, that part of a plant which con- tains the organs of fructification, with their coverings. _ A flower, when com- plete, consists of a calyx, corol, stamen and pistil; but the essential parts are the anther and stigma, which are sufficient to constitute a flower, either together in her- maphrodite flowers, or separate in male and female flowers. Martyn. Milne.

    2. In vulgar acceptation, a blossom or flower is the flower-bud of a plant, when the pe- tals are expandetl ; open petals being con- sidered as the principal thing in constitu- ting a flower. But in botany, the petals are now considered as a finer sort of cov- ering, and not at all necessary to consti- tute a flower. Milne.

    3. The early part of life, or rather of man- hood; the prime ; youthful vigor; youth ; as the/oicer of age"or of life.

    The best or finest part of a thing ; the most valuable part. The most active and vigorous part of an army are called the flower of the troops. Young, vigorous and brave men are called the flower of a na- tion. Addison.

    5. The finest part ; the essence.

    The choice and flower of all things profita- ble the Psalms do more briefly contain.

    Hooker. He or that which is most distinguished for any thing valuable. We say, the youth are the ; 0M;er of the country.

    7. Tlie finest part of grain pulverized. In this sense, it is now always vi nlten flour, which see.

    Flotvcrsi in chimist?-y, fine particles of bodies, especially wlien raised by fire in sublimation, and adhering to the heads of vessels in the form of a powder or mealy substance; as the flowers of sulphur.

    Encyc. A substance, somewhat similar, formed spontaneously, is called efflorescence.

    2. In rhetoric, figures and ornaments of dis- course or composition.

    3. Menstrual discharges.

    FLOWER, V. i. [from the Noun. The cor- responding word in L. is Jloreo, Fr.fleurir, It. florire, Sp. Port, florecer, W. fluraio.]

    1. To blossom ; to bloom ; to expand the pe- tals, as a plant. In New England, peach- trees usually flower in April, and apple- trees in May.

    2. To be in the prime and spring of life; to flourish ; to be youthful, fresh and vigor- ous.

    V,'hen flowered my yo\\ithful spring. Spenser.

    3. To froth ; to ferment gently ; to mantle, as new beer.

    The beer did_;?o«'er a little. Bacon.

    4. To come as cream from the surface.


    FLOWER, i>. t. To embellish with figures of flowers ; to adorn with imitated flow- ers.

    FLOWER-DE-LIS, n. [Fr. fleur de lis, flower of the lily.]

    1. In heraldry, a hearing representing a lily, the hieroglyjdiic of royal majesty.


    2. In botany,thc Iris, a genus of monogynian




    trianders, called also flag-flower, and of- ten written incorrectly Jiower-de-luce. Tlic species are numerous.

    FLOWERED, pp. Embellished with fig- ures of flowers.

    FLOWERET, n. [Fr. feuretie.] A small flower; a floret.

    Shak. Milton. Dry den. [In hotany, Jlortl is solely used.]

    FLOWER-FENCE, n. The name of cer- tain plants. The Jlotver-fence of Barba- does is of the genus Poinciana. The bas- tard Jlower-fence is the Adenanthera.

    Fam. of Plants.

    FLOWER-GARDEN, n. A garden in which flowers are chiefly cultivated.

    FLOWER-GENTLE, n.A plant, the am- aranth.

    FLOW'ERINESS, n. [from/ojceri/.] The state of being flowery, or of abounding with flowers.

    2. Floridness of speech ; abundance of fig- ures.

    FLOWERING, ppr. Blossoming ; bloom ing ; expanding the petals, as plants.

    2. Adorning with artificial flowers, or fig ures of blossoms.

    FLOWERING, ji. The season when plants blossom.

    2. The art of adorning with flowers.

    FLOWER-INWOVEN, a. Adorned with flowers. Milton.

    FLOWER-KIRTLED, a. Dressed witli garlands of flowers. Milton.

    FLOWERLESS, a. Having no flower.


    FLOWER-STALK, n. In botany, the pe- duncle of a plant, or the stem that sup- ports the flower or fructification.

    FLOWERY, a. FuU of flowers ; abound- ing with blossoms ; as ajtoioert/ field.


    2. Adorned with artificial flowers, or the figures of blossoms.

    3. Richly embellished with figurative lan- guage ; florid ; as ajlowcry style.

    FLOWING, ppr. Moving as a fluid ; issu- ing ; proceeding; abounding; smooth, as style ; inundating.

    FLOWING, n. The act of running or mov- ing as a fluid ; an issuing ; an overflowing ; rise of water.

    FLOWINGLY, adv. With volubiUty ; with abundance.

    FLOWINGNESS, n. Smoothness of dic- tion ; stream of diction. J^ichols.

    FLOWK,^„ [Sax.>c.] A flounder.

    FLUKE, I"- Carew.

    FLOWN, had fled, in the following phrases, is not good English.

    Was reasonjlown. Prior.

    Sons of BeUaX, fiou^n with insolence and wine.


    In the former jiassage, Jlown is used as the participle of ^^ or /ce, both intransitive verbs, and the iihrase should have been, had reason Jlown or fled. In the latter passage,^oit>n is used for blown, inflated but most improperly. Flown is the parti ciple of the perfect or past tense of fly, bu cannot regularly be used in a passive sense.

    FLU'ATE, n. [fromJJuor, which see.J In chimistry, a salt formed by the fluoric acid

    Vol. I.

    combined with a base; as Jiiuite of !i\\umin, or of soda.

    FLUCTUANT, a. [L.fluctuans. See Fluc- tuate.]

    Moving like a wave ; wavering ; unsteady. L'Estrange.

    FLUCTUATE, v. i. [L. fluctuo, from flue- tus, a wave, froin^wo, tojlow.]

    1. To move as a wave; to roll hither and thither ; to wave ; as a fluctuating field of air. Blackmoic.

    2. To float backward and forward, as on waves.

    1. To move now in one direction and now in another ; to be wavering or unsteady, Public opinion often^uc/j/aie*. Men often

    fluctuate between ditiercnt parties and opinions. Hence,

    4. To be irresolute or undetermined.

    5. To rise and fall ; to be in an unsettled state ; to experience sudden vicissitudes The funds or the prices of stocks fluctuate with the events of the day.

    FLUCTUATING, ppr. Wavering; rolling IS a wave ; moving in this and that di- ection ; rising and falling.

    3. a. Unsteady ; wavering ; changeable We have little confidence in fluctuating opinions.

    FLU€TUA'TION, n. [L./uchw/i'o.] A mo- tion like that of waves; a moving in this and that direction ; as the fluctuations of the sea.

    a. A wavering; unsteadiness; as fluclua tions of opinion.

    3. A rising and falling suddenly ; asfluctua tions of prices or of the funds.

    FLUD'ER, I An aquatic fowl of the di

    FLUD'DER, ^"'ver kind, nearly as large as a goose. Diet. of.Yat. Hist.

    FLUE, JI. [probably contracted from_^ume, L. flumen, from fluo.]

    A passage for smoke in a chimney, leading from the fireplace to the top of the chini ney, or into another passage ; as a chim ney with four flues.

    FLUE, n. [G.flaum : L. pluma.] Soft down or fur ; very fine hair. [Local.] Tooke.

    FLUEL'LEN, n. The female speedwell, a plant of the genus Antirrhinum, or snap- dragon.

    FLUENCE, for fluency, is not used.

    FLU'ENCY, n. [L. fluens, from fluo, tc flow.]

    1. The quality of flowing, applied to speech or language ; smoothness ; freedom from harshness ; as fluency of numbers.

    2. Readiness of utterance ; facility of words ; volubility ; as fluency of speech ; a speaker of remarkable^ufJici/.

    3. Affluence; abundance. Obs. Sandys, FLU'ENT, a. [See Fluency.] Liquid ; flow- ing. Bacon.

    2. Flowing ; passing.

    Motion being a fluent thing. Ray

    3. Ready in the use of words; voluble ; co- pious ; having words at command and ut- tering them with facility and smoothness ; as afluent speaker.

    4. Flowing ; voluble ; smooth ; as fluent speech.

    FLU'ENT, ?i. A stream; a current of wa ter. [Little used.] Philips.

    2. The variable or flowing quantity in flux- ions. Berkeley.


    FLU'ENTLY, adv. With ready flow ; volu- bly ; without hesitation or obstruction ; as, to speak^«en%.

    FLU'GELMAN, n. [G. from fliigel, a wing.]

    In German, the leader of a file. But with us, a soldier who stands on the wing of a body of men, and marks time for the motions.

    FLU'lD, a. [L. Jhiidus, fromfluo, to flow.] Having parts which easily move and change their relative position without sep- aration, and which easily yield to pres- sure ; that may flow; "liquid. Water, spirit, air, are _/2utrf substances. All bodies may be rendered yfuid by heat or caloric.

    FLU'lD, n. Any substance whose parts ea- sily move and change their relative posi- tion without separation, and which yields to the sUghtcst pressure; a substance which flows, or which moves spontane- ously on a plane with the least inclination ; a liquid ; liquor ; opijosed to a solid. Wa- ter, blood, chyle, are fluids.

    FLUIDITY, n. The quality of being capa- ble of flowing ; that quality of bodies which renders them impressible to the slightest force, and by which the parts easily move or change their relative posi- tion without a se|iaration of the mass ; a liquid state ; opposed to solidity. Fluidity is the effect of heat.

    FLU'IDNESS, n. The state of being fluid ; fluidity, which see.

    FLUKE, n. [supposed to be D. ploeg, G. Pfi^'g^ a plow.]

    The part of an anchor which fastens in the ground.

    FLUKE, \\ » n ,

    FLOWK, \\ "■ ^ """"''cr.

    FLU'KE-AVORM, n. The gourd-worm, a species of Fasciola.

    FLUME, n. [.Sax. /um, a stream ; L. flu- men, fromfluo, to flow.]

    Literally, a flowing ; hence, the passage or channel for the water that drives a mill- wheel.

    FLUMMERY, n. [W. llymry, from llymyr, harsh, raw, crude, from lli/m, shai-p, se- vere. In Welsh, a kind of food made of oatmeal steeped in water, until it has turn- ed sour. See Lumber.]

    1. A sort of jelly made of flour or meal : pap.

    Milk and flummery are very fit for children. Locke.

    2. In vulgar tise, any thing insi])id or notli- ine to the purpose : flatterv.

    FLUNG, pref. and pp. of fling.

    Several statues the Romans them5clves_^ttn^

    into the river. Jlddison.

    FLUOBO'RATE, ji. A compound of fluo-

    boric acid with a base. FLUOBO'RI€, a. The fluoboric acid or gas is a compound of fluorine and boron.

    Davy. FLUOR, Ji. [Low L. from^uo, to flow.]

    1. A fluid state. J^ewton.

    2. IMenstrual flux. [Little tised in either sense.]

    3. In jniJicra/ogT/, fluate of lime. Fluorspar is the foliated fluate of lime. This mine- ral, though sometimes massive, is almost always regularly crystalized. Its crystals present most frequently the form of a

    I, storm


    cube, often perfect, sometimes truncated on all its edges by planes, which form with the sides of the cube an angle of 135°. The colors are very numerous and beau- tiful.

    The fluate of lime, _^uor, was so named from its use as a flux for certain ores.


    FLU'OR-ACID, n. . The acid of fluor.

    rLU'ORATED, a. Combined with fluoric acid.

    FLUOR'I€, a. Pertaining to fluor; obtain ed from fluor; txsjluoric acid.

    FLUORIN, > The supposed basis of

    FLU'ORINE, I "• fluoric acid. D

    FLU'OROUS, a. The fluorous acid is the acid of fluor in its first degree of oxygen ation. Lavoisier.

    FLUOSIL'ICATE, n. [fluor and silex silica.]

    In chimistri/, a compound of fluoric acid, containing silex, with some other sub stance. Silliman

    FLUOSILICTe, a. Composed of or con- taining fluoric acid with silex

    FLUR'RY, n. A sudden blast or gust, or a light temporary breeze ; as a flurry of wind. His never with us applied to of duration.

    2. A sudden shower of short duration ; as a flurry of snow.

    3. Agitation ; commotion ; bustle ; hurry. FLUR'RY, V. t. To put in agitation ; to ex- cite or alarm. Stvinbume.

    FLUSH, V. i. [G. fliessen, imperf floss, to flow ; D. vlieten, in a different dialect. It coincides in elements with hlush, blaze and flash.] 1. To flow and spread suddenly

    blood ^«s/ics into the face. *}. To come in haste ; to start. B. Jonson. X To appear suddenly, as redness or a blush.

    A blush rose on then- cheeks, Flushing and fading like the changeful play Of colors on a dolphin. Percival.

    1. To become suddenly red; to glow : as, the cheeks flush.

    .'>. To be gay, splendid or beautiful. At once, arrayed In all the colors of the/jisfting year, The garden glows. Thomson

    FLUSH, V. t. To redden suddenly; tc cause the blood to rush suddenly into the face.

    Nor flush with shame the passing

    cheek. Gay.

    2. To elate ; to elevate ; to excite the spirits to animate with joy ; as, to flash with vie tory



    FLUSH, a. Fresh; full of vigor; glowing; bright.

    Flush as May. Shak.

    1. Affluent; abounding; well furnished. Lord Strut was not very flush in ready.

    Arbuthnot. 3. Free to spend ; liberal ; prodigal. He is very flush with his money. This is a popu- lar use of the word in America. A flush deck, in seamen's language, is a deck without a half-deck or forecastle. [Q,u. Russ. ploskei, flat. The sense of spreading naturally results from that of flowing.^ FLUSH, n. A sudden flow of blood to the face ; or more generally, the redness of face which proceeds from such anil

    aflSux of blood. Hectic constitutions are often known by a frequent flush in the cheeks. 3. Sudden impulse or excitement ; sudden glow ; as a flush of joy.

    3. Bloom ; growth ; abundance. Goldsmith.

    4. [Fr. Sp. flux.] A run of cards of the same suit.

    5. A term for a number of ducks. Spenser. FLUSH'ED, pp. Overspread or tinged with

    a red color from the flowing of blood to

    the face. We say, the skin, face or check

    is flushed. 2. Elated; excited; animated; as flushed

    with joy or success. FLUSH'ER, 71. The lesser butcher-bird

    Chambers. FLUSH'ING,;*?)-. Overspreading with red

    glowing. FLUSH'ING, n. A glow of red in the face. FLUS'TER, V. f. To make hot and rosy, with drinking ; to heat ; to hurry ; to

    ^.f^itate ; to confuse. Swift

    FLUS'TER, V. i. To be in a heat or bustle

    to be agitated. FLUS'TER, n. Heat; glow; agitation

    confusion ; disorder. FLUS'TERED, pp. Heated with liquor

    itated ; confused. FLUTE, n. [Vr.flide ; Arm. fleut ; D.fluit ;

    G. flote ; Dan. flojtc ; Sp. flauta ; Port

    fruida; It. flauto; h.flo, flatus, to blow

    or h.fluta, a lamprey, with the same nuiii ber of boles.]

    1 . A small wind instrument ; a pipe with lateral holes or sto])S, played by blowing with the mouth, and by stopping and open jng the holes with the lingers.

    2. A channel in a column or pillar ; a per jiendicular furrow or cavity, cut along th. shaft of a column or pilaster; .so called from its resemblance to a flute. It is used chiefly in the Ionic order ; sometimes the Composite and Corinthian ; rarely the Doric and Tuscan. It is called also a reed. Encyc.

    3. A long vessel or boat, with flat ribs or floor timbers, round behind, and swelled in the middle ; a different orthography of

    float,flota. Encyc.

    Armed in flute. An armed ship, with her guns

    of the lower tier and part of those of the

    upper tier removed, used as a transport,

    is said to be armed in flute. Lunier

    FLUTE, V. i. To play on a flute. Chaucer.

    FLUTE, V. t. To form flutes or channels ii

    a column. FLU'TED, pp. or a. Channeled ; furrow

    ed ; as a column. 2. la music, thin; fine; flutelike; as fluted notes. Bushy

    FLU'TING, ppr. Channeling; cutting fur- rows; as in a column. FLU'TING, n. A channel or furrow in a

    column ; fluted work. FLU'TIST, n. A performer on the flute.

    Busby. FLUT'TER, V. i. [Sax. floteran ; I). flodderen ; G. Jlaltem. Qu. Fr. flatter, to waver, from flat, a wave. It is possible that the word is contracted.] L To move or flap the wings rapidly, with- out flying, or with short flights ; to hover. As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttercth over her young, spreadeOi abroad her wings — Deut. ssxii.


    2. To move about briskly, irregularly or with great bustle and show, without con- sequence.

    No rag, no scrap of all the beau or wit, That once so fluttered, and that once so writ. Pope.

    3. To move with quick vibrations or undula- tions ; as aflidtering fan ; a fluttering sail.


    4. To be in agitation ; to move irregularly ; to fluctuate ; to be in uncertainty.

    How long we fluttered on the wings of doubt- ful success. Howell. His thoughts are very fluttering and wand- ering. Watts. FLUT'TER, V. I. To drive in disorder. [Little used.] Shak.

    2. To hin-ry the mind ; to agitate.

    3. ~ ■• ■

    To disorder ; to throw into confusion. FLUT'TER, n. Quick and irregular mo- tion ; vibration ; undulation ; as the flutter of a fan. Addison.

    2. Hurry ; tumult ; agitation of the mind.

    3. Confusion; disorder; inegularity in po- sition.

    FLUT'TERED, pp. Agitated ; confused ; dis- ordered.

    FLUT'TERING, ppr. Flapping the wings without flight or with short flights; hov- ering ; fluctuating ; agitating ; throwing into confusion.

    FLUT'TERING, n. The act of hovering, or flapping the wings without flight ; a wavering ; agitation.

    FLUVIAT'I€, } [L. fluviaticvs, fromfluvi-

    FLU'VIAL, S°' us, a river ;^«o, to flow.]

    Belonging to rivers ; growing or living in streams or ponds ; as afluviatic plant.

    FLU'VIATILE, a. [L. fluviatUis.] Belong- ing to rivers. Kirtvan.

    [Fluviatic is the preferable word.]

    FLUX, n. [h.fluxus; Sp. fluxo ; Fr.flux; It. flusso ; from L.fluo, fluii.]

    I. The act of flowing ; the motion or pas- sing of a fluid.

    The moving or passing of any thing in continued succession. Things in this life^ are in a continual ^ur.

    3. Any flow or issue of matter. In medicine, an extraordinary issue or evacuation from the bowels or other part ; as the bloody flux or dysentery, hepatic /zix, &c.

    4. In hydrography, the flow of the tide. The ebb is called reflux.

    5. In metallurgy, any substance or mixture used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals, as alkalies, borax, tartar and other saline matter, or in large operations limestone or fluor. Alkaline fluxes are either the crude, the white or the black flux. J^'icholson. Encyc.

    f). Fusion ; a liquid state from the operation of heat. Encyc.

    7. That which flows or is discharged.

    S. Concourse ; confluence. [Little used.]


    FLUX, a. Flowing; moving; maintained by a constant succession of parts ; incon- stant ; variable. [JVot well authorized.]

    FLUX, V. t. To melt ; to fuse ; to make fluid.

    One part of mineral alkali will flux two of .siliceous eaith with effervescence. Kirwan.

    2. Tosalixate. [Little used.] South.

    FLUXA'TION, n. A flowing or passing away, and giving place to others.



    FLUX'ED, pp. Melted ; fused ; reduced to

    a flowing state. FLUXIBIL'ITY, n. Tl.e quality of ad

    ting fusion. FLUX'IBLE, a. [frotii Low L.] Capable

    of being melted or fused, as a mineral. FLUXIL'ITY, n. [Low L. fluxUis.] The

    quality of admitting fusion; possibility of

    being fused or liquified. Boyk.

    FLUX' ION, n. [\\..Jluxio, from/ito,to flow.]

    1. The act of flowing.

    2. The matter that flows. Wiseman.

    3. Fluxions, in mathematics, the analysis of infinitely small variable quantities, or a method of finding an infinitely small quan- tity, which being taken an infinite number of times, becomes equal to a quantity given. Harris.

    In Jluxions, magnitudes arc supposed to be generated by motion ; a Une by the mo-

    lion of a point, a surface by the motion of of n line, and a solid by the motion of a surface. And sotne i»art of a figure is supposed to be generated by a uniform motion, in consequence of which the other parts may increase uniformly, or with an accelerated or retarded motion, or may decrease in any of these ways, and the computations are made by tracing the com|jarative velocities with which the parts flow. Encyc.

    AJluxion is an infinitely small quantity, an increment; the infinitely small increase of the fluent or flowing quantity.


    FLUX'IONARY, a. Pertaining to mathe- matical fluxions.

    FLUX'IONIST, n. One skilled in fluxions. Berkeley.

    FLUX'IVE, a. Flowing; wanting solidity, [JVot xised.] B. Jonson.

    FLUX'URE, n. A flowing or fluid matter. [Not used.] Drayton.

    FLY, V. i. pret./eio ; part. f own. [Sax.'feo-

    ?-an; G. fliegen ; D. vliegen ; Sw. Jtyga; )an. flyver. In Saxon, the same verb signifies to Jly and to/ce ; in German, dif- ferent words are used.]

    1. To move through air by the aid of wings, as fowls.

    2. To pass or move in air, by the force of wind or other impulse ; as, clouds and va Y>orsjly before the wind. A ha.\\\\ flies from a cannon, an arrow from a bow.

    3. To rise in air, as light substances, by means of a current of air or by having less specific gravity than air, as smoke.

    Man is born to trouble, as the sparks _^y up ward. Job v.

    4. To move or pass with velocity or celer- ity, either on land or water. He flew to the relief of his distressed friend. The ship fiies upon the main.

    5. To move rapidly, in any manner ; as, a

    top^ie* about. G. To pass away ; to depart ; with the idea of liaste, swiftness or escape. The bird has flown.

    7. To pass rapidly, as time. Swift fly the fleeting hours.

    8. To part suddenly or with violence ; to burst, as a bottle. Swift.

    9. To spring by an elastic force.

    10. To pass swiftly, as rumor or report.

    11. To flee : to run away ; to attempt to es- cape ; to escape.

    F L Y

    I'll fly from slieplicrds, flocks, and llowci-y

    plains. Po]ie.

    12. To flutter ; to vibrate or play ; as a flag

    in the wind. To fly at, to spring towards ; to rush on ;

    to fall on suddenly. A hen flies at a dog

    or cat ; a dog flies at a man. To fly in the face, to insult. 3. To assail ; to resist ; to set at defiance ;

    to oppose with violence ; to act in direct

    opposition. To fly off, to separate or depart suddenly 2. To revolt.

    To fly open, to open suddenly or with vio- lence ; as, the doors flew open. To fly out, to rush out; also, to burst into

    a passion. 2. To break out into licence. ■i. To start or issue with violence from any

    lircction. To let fly, to discharge ; to throw or drive

    with violence ; as, to hi fly a shower ofj

    darts. 2. In seamanship, to let go suddenly. Lett

    fly the sheets. FLY, V. t. [This is used for flee, and from

    understood after^y, so that it can hardly

    be called a transitive verb.]

    1. To shun ; to avoid ; to decline; as, tofly\\ the sight of one we hate. That is, prima- rily, to flee from.

    Sleep flies the wrelch. Dryd,

    2. To quit by flight.

    3. To attack by a bird of jney. [JVut used.]\\ Bacon.

    4. To cause to float in the air. FLY, n. [Sax. fleoge; Sw.fltiga; Dan. flue;

    G.fliege ; D. vlieg ; from the verb, fleogan, to fly.]

    1. In zoology, a winged insect of various species, whose distinguishing characteris- tic is that the wings are transparent. By this flies are distinguished from beetles, butterflies, grasshoppers, &c. Of flics, some have two wings and others four.

    Encyc. In common language, fly is the house fly, of the genus Musca.

    2. In mechanics, a cross with leaden weights at the ends, or a heavy wheel at right an- gles with the axis of a windlass, jack or the like. The use of this is, to regulate and equalize the motion in all parts of the revolution of the machine. Encyc.

    3. That part of a vane which points and shows which way the wind blows

    4. The extent of an ensign, flag or pendant from the staff to the end that flutters loose in the wind. Mar. Did.

    FLY'BANE, n. A plant called catch-fly, of

    the genus Silene. FLYBITTEN, a. the bite of flies.

    FLYBLOW, I!. /. To deposit an egg in any thing, as a fly ; to taint with the eggs which produce maggots.

    Uke A flyblown cTike of tallow. Swift.

    FLYBLOW, n. The egg of a fly.

    FLYBOAT. n. A \\arge flat-bottomed Dutch vessel, whose burden is from 600 to 1200 tons, with a stern remarkably high, re sembling a Gothic turret, and very broad buttocks below. Encyc.

    FLYCATCHER, n. One that hunts flies.

    2. In zoology, a genus of birds, the Muscica- pa, with a bill flatted at the base, almost

    F O A

    triangular, notched at the upper mandi- ble, and beset with bristles. These birds are of the order of Passers, and the species are veiy mmierous. Encyc.

    FLYER, n. One that flies or flees; usually written flier.

    2. One that uses wings.

    3. The fly of a jack.

    4. In architecture, stairs that do not wind, but are made of an oblong square figure, and whose fore and back sides are paral- lel to each other, and so are their ends. The second of these flyers stands parallel behind the first, the 'third behind the sec- ond, and so are said to fly off from one

    _ another. Moxon.

    5. A performer in Mexico, who flics round an elevated post.

    FLYFISII, V. I. To angle with flics for bait.

    FLYFISHING, n. Angling; the art or prac- tice of angling for fish with flies, natural or artificial, for bait. Walton.

    FLYFLAP, n. Something to drive away flies. Congreve.

    FLY-HONEYSUCKLE, n. A plant, the Lonicera. The .ifrican fly-honeysuckle is the Halleria. Fnm. of Plants.

    FLYING, ppr. Moving in air by means of wings ; passing rapidly ; springing ; bursting ; avoiding.

    2. a. Floating ; waving; as flying colors.

    3. a. Moving ; light, and suited for prompt motion ; as a flying catnp.

    Flying colors, a phrase expressing triumph. FLYlNG-BRIDtiE, n. A bridge of pon- toons ; also, a bridge composed of two

    FLYING-FISH, n. A small fish which flics by means of its pectoral fins. It is of the genus Exocoetus.

    FLYING-PARTY, n. In military affairs, a detachment of men employed to hover about an enemy.

    FLYING-PINION, n. The part of a clock, having a fly or fan, by which it gathers air, and checks the rapidity of the clock's motion, when the weight descends in the striking part. Encyc.

    FLYTRAP, n. In botany, a species of sensi- tive plant, called Venus'' Fly-trap, the Di- oncea Musripula ; a plant that has the power of seizing insects that light on it. Encyc.

    FLYTREE, n. A tree whose leaves are said to produce flies, from a little bag on the surface. Encyc.

    FOAL, n. [Sax. fola, fole ; G.mien; D. veulen ; Dan. fdl ; Sw. fala ; h r. poulain ; Arm. poull, pull or heubeul ; \\\\ . tbawl; Corn, ebol ; L. pullus ; Gr. «uX.oj ; Ch. nSi£) ;

    Ar. ^ils to rise or to set as the sun, to bear young, and ^iio pullus. The pri- mary sense of the verb is to shoot, to cast or throw, to fall. The same verb in Heb. and Ch. signifies to unite, to fasten ; ju Syr. to foul, to defllc ; both senses from that of putting or throwing on. The verb belongs probably to the root of Eng. fall amVfoitl, that is Ssj with a different pre-

    F O D

    fix. Foal is literally a shoot, issue, or that which is cast, or which falls.] The young of the equine genus of quadru- peds, and of either sex ; a colt ; a filly. FOAL, V. t. To bring forth a colt or filly ; to

    bring forth young, as a mare or a s FOAlj, V. i. To bring forth young, as a mare

    and certain other beasts. FOALBIT, n. A plant. FOALFOQT, n. The colt's-foot, Tussilago. FOAM, n. [Sax./oBm, fam, G.faum, foam ;

    h.fmno, to smoke, to foam.] Froth ; spume ; the substance which is form ed on the surface of liquors by fermenta tion or violent agitation, consisting of bubbles. FOAM, V. i. To froth ; to gather foam. The billows^oa»n. A hone foams at the mouth, when violently heated. 2. To be in a rage ; to be violently agitated He foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth Mark ix. FOAM, V. t. To throw out with rage or vio- lence ; with out.

    Foaming out their own shame. Jude 13. FOAMING, ppr. Frothing ; fuming. FOAMINGLY, adv. Frothily. FOAMY, a. Covered with foam; frothy. Beliold how higli ihe foamy billows ride !

    D,-yden FOB, n. [Qu. G. fuppe. I have not found

    the word.] A little pocket for a watch. FOB, V. t. [G.foppen.] To cheat ; to trick ;

    to impose on. To fob off, to shift off by an artifice ; to pii aside ; to delude with a trick. [A low word.] Shak.

    FOB'BED, pp. Cheated ; imposed on. FOB'BING, p/);-. Cheating; imposing on. FO'CAL, a. [from L. focus.] Belonging ; a focus ; as a focal point ; focal distance. FO'CLL, 71, [Fr. focile.] The greater focil the idna or tibia, the greater bone of the fore-arm or leg. The lesser focil is the radius or fibula, the lesser bone of the fore- arm or leg. Coxe. IViscman FO'CUS, n. plu./ociwM, or foci. [h. focus, t fire, the hearth ; Sp. fuego ; Port, fogo It./uoco; Fr. feu;] 1. [n optics, a point in which any number of rays of light meet, after being reflected or refracted ; as the/oci(s of a lens.

    Encyc. J^ewton. 1. In geometry and conic sections, a certain point in the parabola, ellipsis anil hyper- bola, where rays reflected from all parts of these curves, concur or meet. Encyc. The focus of an ellipsis, is a point to- wards each end of the longer axis, from which two right lines drawn to any point in the circumference, shall together be equal to the longer axis. Harris.

    The focus of a parabola,is a jioint in the axis within the figure, and distant from the vertex by the fourth part of the pa- rameter. Harris. The focus of a hyperbola, is a point in the principal axis, witliin the opposite hy perbolas, from which if any two lines are drawn, meeting in either of the opposite hyperbolas, the difference will be equal to the principal axis. Diet. 3. A central point ; point of concentration. FOD'DER, n. [Sax. foddor, or fother ; G. futter; D.voeder; Dan. foeder; Sw.foder; from the root of feed, the sense of which


    is to thrust in, to stuff. Hence in German, futter is a lining as well as fodder.]

    1. Food or dry food for cattle, horses and sheep, as hay, straw and other kinds of vegetables. The word is never applied tt pasture.

    In mining, a measure containing 20 hun dred, or 22i hundred. Encyc.

    FOD'DER, V. t. To feed with dry food, cut grass, &c.; to furnish with hay, straw, oats, &c. Farmers fodder their cattle twice or thrice in a day.

    FODDERED, pp. Fed with dry food, or cut grass, &c.; as, to fodder cows.

    FOD'DERER, n. He who fodders cattle.

    FOD'DERING, ppr. Feeding with dry food. &c.

    FO'DIENT, a. [L.fodio, to dig.] Digging : throwing up with a spade. [lAttle used.]

    FOE, n. fo. [Sax.fah, from fean,feon,Jigan. to hate; the participle is used in the other Teutonic dialects. See Fiend.] An enemy ; one who entertains personal enmity, hatred, grudge or malice against another.

    A man's foes shall be they of his own house- hold. Matt. X.

    An enemy in war; one of a nation at war with another, whether he entertains en- mity against the opposing nation or not ; an adversary.

    Either tliree years famine, or three months to be destroyed before thy foes. 1 Cliron. xxi.

    3. Foe, like enemy, in the singular, is used to denote an opposing army, or nation at

    4. An opponent; an enemy ; one who oppo ses any thing in principle ; an ill-wisher as a foe to religion ; a foe to virtue ; a foe to the measures of the administration.

    FOE, r. t. To treat as an enemy. Obs.


    FOEHPOD, 71. Enmity. [Not in use.]


    FOELIKE, a. Like an enemy. Sandys,

    FOEMAN, n. An enemy in war. Obs.


    FCETUS. [See Fetus.]

    FOG, n. [In Sp. vako is steam ; vakar, to ex- hale. In Italian, sfogo is exhalation ; sfo- gare, to exhale. In Scot, fog is moss. In Italian, affogare is to suffocate, Sp. ahocnr. The sense probably is thick or that which it exhaled.]

    1. A dense watery vapor, exhaled from the earth, or from rivers and lakes, or genera- ted in the atmosphere near the earth. It differs from mist, which is rain in very small drops.

    2. A cloud of dust or smoke. FOG,™. [W./«'g-, long dry grass. Johnson

    quotes a forest law of Scotland, which mentions fogagium. It may be allied to Scot, fog, moss.]

    After-grass; a second growth of grass; but it signifies also long grass that remains on land. I

    Dead grass, remaining on land during win-: called in New England, the old tore.'

    FOG'BANK, 71. At sea, an appearance inl hazy weather sometimes resembling land' at a distance, but which vanishes as it is| approached. Mar. Diet.

    FOG'GA6E, n. Rank grass not consumedj or mowed in summer. Encyc.

    FOG'GINESS, n. [from foggy.] The state

    F O I

    of being foggy ; a state of tlie air filled with watery exhalations. FOG'GY, a. [&om fog.] Filled or aboun- ding with fog or watery exhalations ; as a/og^g"^ atmosphere ; a foggy morning.

    2. Cloudy; misty ; damp with humid vapors.

    3. Producing frequent fogs ; as a foggy cli- mate.

    4. Dull ; stupid ; clouded in understanding.

    Johnson. FOH, an exclamation of abhorrence or con- tempt, the same as poh and fy. FOI'BLE, a. Weak. [JVoi used.]

    Herbert. FOI'BLE, n. [Fr. foible, weak. See Feeble.] A particular moral weakness ; a failing. When we speak of a man's foible, in the singular, which is also called his iveak side, we refer to a predominant failing. We use also the plural,/otW&f, to denote moral failings or defects. It is wise in every man to know his ovrn foibles. FOIL, V. t. [In Norm, afolee is rendered crip- pled ; and afo^da, damaged, wasted. If the primary or true literal sense is, to blunt, this word may be from the same root as fool ; if, to render vain, it would naturally be alUed to/ai7.] 1. To frustrate; to defeat ; to render vain or nugatory, as an effort or attempt. The enemy attempted to pass the river, but was foiled. He foiled his adversaries. And by a mortal man at length am foiled.

    Dry den. To blunt ; to dull.

    When light wing'd toys Of feathered Cupid /oiZ— Shak.

    3. To defeat ; to interrupt, or to render ijn- percejjtible ; as, to/oi7 the scent in a chase. Mdison. FOIL, ji. Defeat; frustration; the failure of success when on the point of being secu- red ; miscarriage. Death never won a stake with greater toll. Nor e'er was fate so near a/oi/. Dryden.

    FOIL, n. [W. furyl, a driving, impulsion, a

    stroke, a/oi7.] A blunt sword, or one that has a button at the end covered with leather ; used in fencing.

    Isocrates contended with a foil, against De- mosthenes with a sword. JUitford. FOIL, 71. [Fr. feuille ; It.foglia ; Port.folha;

    Sp. hoja ; h. folium ; Gr. ifn'^Xoi.] 1. A leaf or thin plate of metal used in gild-


    . Among jewelers, a tliin leaf of metal pla- ced under precious stones, to make them appear transparent, and to give them a particular color, as the stone appears to be of the color of tlie_/bi7. Hence,

    3. Any thing of another color, or of different qualities, which serves to adorn, or set off another thing to advantage.

    Hector has a/oS to set him off. Broome.

    4. Athin coat of tin, with quicksilver, laid on the back of a looking glass, to cause re- flection. Encyc.

    FOIL'ED, ;)p. Frustrated; defeated. FOIIj'ER, n. One who frustrates another,

    and gains an advantage liimself. FOIL'ING, ppr. Defeating ; frustrating ;

    disappointing of success. FOIL'ING, n. Among hunters, the slight

    mark of a passing deer on the grass.

    Todd. FOIN, V. t. [Fr. poindrc, to sting, to dawn ;

    F O L

    L. pwigo. The sense is to push, thrust, shoot.]

    1. To push in fencing. Spenser.

    2. To prick ; to sting. [JVol in use.] FOIN, n. A push ; a thrust. Robinson. FOlN'WCs,pp,: Pushing; thrusting. FOIN'INGLY, adv. In a pushing manner. FOIS'ON, ». [L. ftisio.] Plenty ; abun- dance. [Mot used.] Tusser.

    FOIST, V. t. [Usually supposed to be from

    Fr. fausser, to violate, literally, to falsify ;

    Norm./ouscr. This is doubtful.] To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or

    without warrant.

    Lest negligence or parliality might admit oi

    foist in abuses and corruption. Careiv.

    FOIST, n. A light and fast saiHng ship. Obs.


    FOIST' ED, p;j. Inserted wrongfully.

    FOIST'ER, n. One who inserts without

    authority. FOIST'IED, a. Mustied. [See Fusty.] FOIST'INESS, n. Fustiness, wliich see. FOIST'ING, ppr. Inserting surreptitiously

    or without authority. FOIST'y, a. Fusty, which see. FOLD, n. [Sax. fold, /aide ; W.fald;h:fal.

    a fold, a wall or hedge ; Dan. fold. See

    the verb, to^W.]

    1. A pen or inclosure for sheep ; a place where a flock of sheep is kept, whether in the field or under shelter.

    2. A flock of sheep. Hence in a scriptural sense, the church, the flock of the Shep herd of Israel.

    Other sheep I have, whicli are not of thi

    fold. Jolin \\. S. A limit. [JVot in «.?«.] FOLD, n. [Sax.feald; Sw.fSlt; G. folic;

    Kuss. phalda ; but the same word as the


    1. The doubling of any flexible substance, as cloth ; complication ; a plait ; one part turned or bent and laid on another ; ; fold of linen.

    2. In composition, ;he same quantity added ; as tiBofold, fourfold, tenfold, that is, twice as much, four times as much, ten times as much.

    FOLD, V. t. [Sax. fcaldan ; Golh. faldan ; G.faiien; Ban. folder; Sw. fSila. Qu. Heb. SSJ Ch. hsp, to double. Class Bl. No. 47. 5L See also No. 22. The primary sense is to fall, or to lay, to set, throw oi- press together.]

    1. To double ; to la]) or lay in plaits ; as, to fold apiece of cloth.

    2. To double and insert one part in another ; as, to fold a letter.

    3. To double or lay together, as the arms. He folds his arms in despair.

    4. To confine sheep in a fold.

    FOLD, v.i. To close over another of the same kind ; as, the leaves of the door fold.

    FOLDAfiE, n. The right of folding sheep.

    FOLDED, pp. Doubled ; laid in plaits ; com- plicated ; kept in a fold.

    FOLDER, ?i. An instrument used in folding paper.

    2. One that folds.

    FOLDING, p;)r. Doubling; laying in plaits ; Utoping in a fold.

    2. a. Doubling; that may close over another, or that consists of leaves which may close one over another ; as a folding door.

    F O L

    FOLDING, n. A fold ; a doubling.

    2. Among farmers, the keeping of sheep in inclosures on arable land, &c.

    FOLIA'CEOUS, a. [L. foliaceus, from fo- lium, a leaf See Foil.]

    1. Leafy ; having leaves intermi,\\ed witl flowers ; as a foliaceous s]>ike. Foliaceous glands are those situated on leaves.

    2. Con.sisting of leaves or thin lamins; having the form of a leaf or plate ; as foliaceous spar. Woodward.

    FO LIA6E, n. [Fr. feuillaj^e, from feuille, L. folium, a leaf; It. foghame ; Sp. foliage. See Foil.]

    1. Leaves in general ; as a tree of beautiful foliage.

    2. A cluster of leaves, flowers and branches ; particularly, the representation of leaves, flowers and branches, m architecture, in- tended to ornament and enrich capitals, friezes, pediments, &c.

    FOLIAGE, V. t. To work or to form into the representation of leaves. Drummond.

    FO'LIAgED, o. Furnished with foliage.


    FO'LIATE, V. t. [L.foliatus, from folium, v leaf, Gr. ^-M-ov.]

    1. To beat into a leaf, or thin plate or lamin.


    2. To .spread over with a thin coat of tin and (juicksilver, &c.; as, to foliate a looking glass.

    FO'LIATE, a. In bota/vj, leafy ; furnished

    with leaves ; as a foliate stalk.

    Martyn. Lee. FO'LIATED, »;». Spread or covered with a

    thin plate or foil. 2. In mineralogy, consisting of plates; re

    sembling or in the form of a plate ; latnel

    lar ; as a foliated fracture.

    Minerals that consist of grains, and are at the

    same time foliated, are called granularly folia

    ted. Kirwan

    FO'LIATING,;)pr. Covering with a leaf or

    foil. FOLIA'TION, n. [L./o/m/jo.] In botany,

    the leafing of plants ; vernation; the

    ])0.'!iliou of the nascent leaves within the

    bud. Martyn

    2. The act of beating a metal into a tiiii: plate, leaf or foil.

    3. The act or operation of spreading foil over the back side of a mirror or looking glass

    FO'LIATURE, n. The state of being beaten into foil.

    FO'LIER, n. Goldsmith's foil.

    FOLIF'EROUS, a. [I., folium, leaf, and/t to hear.] Producing leaves.

    FO'LIO, n. [I., folium, a leaf; in folio.] A book of the largest size, formed by once doubhng a sheet of paper.

    2. Among merchants, a page, or rather both the right and left hand pages of an ac- count-book, expressed by the same figure. Encyc.

    FO'LIOLE, n. [from h. folium, a leaf] A leaflet ; one of the single leaves, which togetherconstitute a compound leaf Lee.

    FO'LIOMORT, a. {L. folium moHuum.] Of a dark yellow color, or that of a faded leaf; fileraot. Woodward.

    FO'LIOUS, a. Leafy ; thin ; unsubstantial. Brotv7i.

    2. In botany, having leaves intermixed with the flowers.

    FOLK, n. foke. [Sa\\.folc ; D. volk ; G. volk :

    F O L

    Sw. folrk ; Ban. folk ; L. nUgus. The sense is a crowd, from collecting or press- ing, not from folloieing, but from the same root, as to follow is to press toward. It may be allied to Sax. fela, G. viel, D. veel, Gr. rto?iv5 and rto7.xoi. Originally and pro- perly it had no plural, being a collective noun ; but in modern use, in America, it has lost its singular number, and we hear it only in the plural. It is a colloquial

    1 word, not admissible into elegant style.]

    1. People in general, or any part of them without distinction. What i\\o folki say respecting the war? Men love to talk

    I about the affairs of other/o/As.

    ,2. Certain people, discriminated from others;

    1 as old folks, and young folks. Children

    I sometimes call their i)arents, the old/o/A,?. So we say sick folks ; poor folks ; proud

    I folks.

    3. In scripture, the singidar number is used ; as a few sick/ott; inqiotent /ott. Mark vi. John v.

    4. Animals.

    The coneys are but a feeble /o/A-. Prov. x.\\x. FOLK LAND, 71. [Sax. fokland.] In Eng- lish laic, coi)yhold land ; land held by the conniion people, at the will of the lord.

    Blackslone. FOLKMOTE, n. [Rax. folcmote, fo\\k-mcet-

    An assembly of the people, or of bishops, thanes, aldermen and freemen, to consult respecting public affairs ; an annual con- vention of the people, answering in some measure, to a modern parliament ; a word used in England before the Norman con- quest, after which, the national Council was called a parliament. Somner. Spelman.

    But some authors alledge that the folk-

    j mote was an inferior meeting or court.

    jFOL'Ll€LE, n. [L. folliculus, fromfollis, n bag or bellows.]

    1. In Wan?/, a univalvular pericarp ; u seed vessel opening on one side longitudinally,

    i and having the seeds loose in it. Martyn.

    2. An air bag; a vessel distended with air; 1 as at the root in Utricidaria, and on the I leaves in Aldrovanda. Martyn.

    3. A little bag, in animal bodies ; a gland ; I a folding ; a cavity. Coxe. FOLLIeTLOUS, a. Having or producing

    follicles. FOLLIFUL, a. FuU of folly. [jYot used.] Shenslone. FOL'LOW, V. t. [Sax. fotgian, filian, fyl-

    fan; D. volgen ; G. folgen ; Dan folger ; w. folja ; Ir. foUcanam. The sense is, to urge forward, drive, press. Class Bl. No. 14.46.]

    1. To go after or behind ; to walk, ride or move behind, but in the same direction. Soldiers will usually follow a brave officer.

    2. To pursue ; to chase ; as an enemy, or as game.

    3. To accompany ; to attend in a journey.

    iind Rebekah arose, and her damsel?, and they rode on the camels, and followed the man. Gen. xxiv.

    4. To accompany ; to be of the same compa- ny ; to attend, for any purpose. Luke v.

    5. To succeed in order of time ; to come after ; as, a storm is followed by a calm.

    Sign.s following signs lead on the mighty "year. " Pope.

    6. To be consequential ; to result from, as

    F O L

    eflfect from a cause. Intemperance is often folloived by disease or poverty, or by

    ^°<^^- „ , n

    7. To result from, as an inference or deduc- tion. It foHoics from these facts tliat tlie accused is guilty. 9. To pursue with the eye ; to keep the eyes flxed on a moving body. He follotved or his eyes followed the ship, till it was be- yond sistht.

    He followed with Iiis eyes the fleeting shade Dryden

    9. To imitate : to copy ; as, to follow a pat tern or tnodel ; to follow fashion.

    10. To embrace ; to adopt and maintain ; to have or entertain like opinions ; to think or believe like another ; as, to follow tlie opinions and tenets of a philosophic sect; to follow Plato.

    11. To obey ; to observe ; to practice ; to act in conformity to. It is our duty to follow the commands of Christ. Good soldiers

    follow the orders of their general ; good servants /oWou) the directions of their mas

    F O N

    12. To pursue as an object of desire ; to en deavor to obtain.

    Follow peace with all men. Heb. xii.

    13. To use ; to practice ; to make the chief business ; as, to follow the trade of a car- penter ; to follow the profession of law.

    14. To adhere to ; to side with. The house of Judnh followed David. 2 Sam. ii

    15. To adhere to ; to honor ; to worship ; to serve.

    If the Loidbe GoA,follow him. 1 Kings .xvm

    16. To be led or guided by.

    Wo to the foohsh prophets, who follow then own spiiit, and have seen nothing. Ezek. xiii.

    17. To move on in the same course or direc- tion ; to be guided by ; as, to follow a track or course.

    FOL'LOW, II. i. To come after another. The famine— shall follow close after yo Jer. xlii.

    2. To attend ; to accompany. Shak.

    3. To be posterior in time ; as following ages,

    4. To be consequential, as effect to cause From such measures, great mischiefs must follow.

    5. To result, as an inference. The facts may be admitted, but the inference drawn from them does not follow.

    To follow on, to continue pursuit or en- deavor ; to persevere.

    Then shall we know, if we follow on to know

    the Lord. Hosea vi.

    FOL'LOAVED, pp. Pursued ; succeeded

    accompanied ; attended ; imitated ; obey

    ed ; observed ; practiced ; adhered to.

    FOL'LOWER, n. One who comes, goes or

    moves after another, in the same course- 2. One that takes another as his guide in doctrines, opinions or example; one who receives the opinions, and imitates the ex ample of another ; an adherent ; an imi tator.

    That ye be not slothful, but followers of then who, through faith and patience, inherit tli promises. Heb. vi.

    3. One who obeys, worships and honors.

    Be yc followers of God, as dear children Eph. v.

    4. An adherent ; a disciple ; one who

    5. An attendant ; a companion ; an asso- ciate or a dependent. The warrior dis- tributed the plunder among his followers.

    iio follower, but a friend. Pope.

    6. One under the command of another.

    Spenser. Dryden

    7. One of the same faction or party. FOL'LOWING, ;>;))•. Coming or going aftei

    or behind; pursuing; attending; imitat ing ; succeeding in time ; resulting from, as an effect or an inference ; adhering to : obeying, observing ; using, practicing ; pro- ceeding in the same course. FOL'LY, n. [Fr. foHe, from fol, fou ; Arm follez; h.follia. See Fool.]

    1. Weakness of intellect; imbecility of mind ; want of understanding.

    A fool layeth open his folly. Prov- xiii,

    2. A weak or absurd act not highly cri al ; an act which is inconsistent with the dictates of reason, or with the ordinary rules of prudence. In this sense it may be used in the singular, but is generally in the plural. Hence we speak of the follies of youth.

    Wliom folly pleases, or whose follies pli


    3. An absurd act which is highly sinful ; any conduct contrary to the laws of God or man; sin ; scandalous crimes ; thatwhichi violates moral precepts and dishonors the offender. Shechem wrought folly in Is- rael. Achan wrought /oWj/ in Israel. Gen. xxxiv. Josh. vii.

    Criminal weakness ; depravity of mind. Johnson. FO'MAHANT, n. A star of the first mag- nitude, in the constellation Aquarius.

    En eye. FOMENT', V. t. [L. fomento, from foveo. to warm; Fr. fomenler; &{}. fomentar ; It. fomentare.]

    1. To apply warm lotions to ; to bathe with warm medicated liquors, or with flannel dipped in warm water.

    2. To cherish with heat ; to encourage growth. [JVb< usual] Millon.

    3. To encourage; to abet; to cherish and promote by excitements; in a hod sense; as, to foment ill humors. Locke.

    So we say, to foment troubles or distur- bances ; to foment intestine broils. FOMENTA'TION, ?i. The act of applying warm liquors to a part of the body, by means of flannels dipped in hot water or medicated decoctions, for the purpose of easing pain, by relaxing the skin, or of discussing tumors. Encyc. Quincy.

    2. The lotion applied, or to be applied to a I diseased part. Arhuthnol.

    5. E.xcitation; instigation

    F O N

    FOND, o. [Chaucer,/onne, a fool ; Scot./on, to play the fool ;/ojic, to fondle, to toy ; Ir./oiin.

    delight, desire, a longing. Q,u. Ar. ^iS which signifies to diminish, to impair men- tal powers, to make foolisli, to be destitute

    of reason ; and

    to fail. These

    FOMENT' ED, pp. Bathed with warm lo- tions ; encouraged.

    FOMENT'ER, n. One who foments; one who encourages or instigates ; as afoment- er of sedition.

    FOMENT'ING, ppr. Applying warm lo- tions.

    2. Encouraging; abetting; promoting.

    braces the same system ; as a follower ofi FON, n. [Chaucer, /onnc, a fool ; Ice. /aa Plato. 11 A fool ; an idiot. Obs. Spenser.

    are the most probable aftinities I have been able to find.]

    Foolish ; silly ; weak ; indiscreet ; impru- dent.

    Grant I may never prove so fond To trust man on his oath or bond. Shak.

    Fond thoughts may fall Into some idle brain. Savies. 3. Foolishiy tender and loving; doting; weaklv indulgent; as a. fond mother or wife. " Addison.

    .3. Much pleased; loving ardently; dehght- ed with. .\\ child is fond of play ; a gen- tleman is/onrfof his sports, or of his coun- try seat. In present usage, fond does not always imply weakness or folly. Relishing highly. The e])icure is fond of high-seasoned food. Multitudes of men are too fond of strong drink. 5. Trifling ; valued by folly. [lAtlle used.]

    Shak. FOND, V. t. To treat with great indulgence or tenderness ; to caress ; to cocker.

    The Tyrian hugs and fonds thee on her

    breast. Dryden.

    Fond is thus used by the poets only. We

    now use fondle.

    FOND, I', i. To be fond of; to be in love

    with ; to dote on. [Ldtlle used.] Shak.

    FOND'LE, D. /. To treat with tenderness ;

    to caress ; as, a nurse fondles a child. FOND'LED, pp. Treated with affection;

    caressed. FOND'LER, n. One who fondles. FOND'LlNG,;>;)r. Caressing; treating with,

    tenderness. FOND'LING, n. A person or thing fondled or caressed. L'Estrange.

    FONDLY, adv. Foolishly ; weakly ; im- prudently; with indiscreet affection. Fondly we think we merit honor then. When we but praise ourselves in other men. Pope. 2. With great or extreme affection. We fondh/ embrace those who are dear to us. FOND"'NESS, n. Foolishness; weakness; want of sense or judgment. Obs.


    2. Foolish tenderness.

    3. Tender passion ; warm affection. Her /onrfness for a certain earl Began when I was but a girl. Swift.

    4. Strong inclination or propensity ; as a fondness for vice or sin. Hammond.

    5. Strong appetite or relish ; as fondness for ardent spirit, or for a particular kind of food.

    [It is noiv used chiefly in lite three latter

    FONT,n. [Fr./on(s; Sp. fuente ; It. fonte; L. fans; W. fynnon, a fountain, and fyn- iaw, to produce, to abound ; allied to L. fundo, to pour out.]

    A large bason or stone vessel in which wa- ter is contained for baptizing children or other persons in the church.

    FONT, n. [Fr.foiUe, from fondre, to melt or

    F O O

    pour out ; Sp. fundir ;\\

    cast ; L. /undo.

    It. fondere; properly, a casting

    A complete assortment of printing types of one size, including a due proportion of all the letters in the alphabet, large and small, points, accents, and whatever else is ne- cessary for printing with that letter.

    FONT'AL, a. Pertaniing to a fount, foun- tain, source or origin.

    Trans, of Pausanias.

    FONT'ANEL, n. [from the Fr.] An issue for the discharge of humors from the body. Hall.

    2. A vacancy in the infant cranium, between the frontal and parietal bones, and also be- tween the parietal and occipital, at the two extremities of the sagittal suture.

    Cyc. Parr.

    FONTAN(iE, n. fontanj'. [Fr. from the name of the first wearer.]

    A knot of ribins on the top of a bead-dress. Addison.

    FOOD, n. [Sa.\\. fod, foda ; G. fuller; D, voedzd ; Dan. feeder; Sw.fbda; i'rom feed- ing. See Feed.]

    1. In a general sense, whatever is eaten by animals for nourishment, and whatever supplies nutriment to plants. |

    2. Meat ; aliment ; flesh or vegetables eateui for sustaining human hfe ; victuals ; pro-| visions ; whatever is or may be eaten for nourishment. |

    Feed me with /bod convenient for mc. Prov.|

    XXX. I

    3. Whatever supplies nourishment and growth to plants, as water, carbonic acid, gas, &c. Manuring .substances furuishi plants with food. \\

    4. Something that sustains, nourishes andl augments. Flattery is the, food of vanity'

    FOOD, V. I. To feed. [Aoi in me.]


    FOOD'FUL. a. Supplying food; full of food. Dryden.]

    FOOD'LESS, a. Without food ; destitute of provisions ; barren. Siindys.

    FOOD'Y, a. Eatable; fit lor food. [.Vol used.] Chapman.

    FOOL, n. [Fr. fol, frn ; It. folk, mad, fool- ish ; Ice. fol ; Ann. foil ; W. fol, round, blunt, foolish, vain ; fwl, a fool, a blunt, one, a stupid one ; Russ. phalia. It would seem from the Welsh that the primary sense of tho adjective is thick, blunt, lumpish. Ho! I. '?3n.]

    1. One who is destitute of reason, or the common powers of understanding; an id-j eot. Some persons are born fools, and' are called natural fools ; others may be-| come fools by some injury done to thel brain.

    2. In common language, a person who is somewhat deficient in intellect, but not an ideot ; or a person who acts absurdly ; one who does not exercise his reason ; one| who pursues a course contrary to the dic-i tates of wisdom. j

    Experience keep.s a dear school, but fools, will learn in no other. Franklin.

    3. In scripture, fool is often used for a wick- ed or depraved person ; one who acts con- trary to sound wisdom in his moral de- portment; one who follows his own incli- nations, who prefers trifling and tempora-j ry pleasures to the service of God and^ eternal happiness. *

    F O O

    The fool halh said in his heart, there is no God. Ps. xiv.

    4. A weak christian ; a godly person who has much remaining sin and unbelief

    fools, and slow of heart to believe all the prophets have written. Luke x.\\iv.

    Also, one who is accounted or called fool by ungodly men. 1 Cor. iv. 10.

    5. A term of indignity and reproach. To be thought knowing, you must first put

    the fool upon all mankind. Dryden

    6. One who counterfeits folly ; a bufloon as a king's fool.

    1 scorn, although their drudge, to be theii fool or jester. Milton

    To play the fool, to act the buffoon ; to jest;

    to miike sport. 2. To act like one void of understanding. To put the fool on, to impose on ; to delude. To make a fool of, to frustrate ; to defeat

    to disappoint. FOOL, V. i. To trifle ; to toy ; to spend time in idleness, sport or mirth.

    Is this a time (or fooling ? Dryden,

    FOOL, V. I. To treat with contempt ; to dis- appoint ; to defeat ; to frustrate ; to de- ceive ; to impose on.

    When 1 consider life, 'lis all a cheat ; For fooled with hope, men favor the deceit. Dryden.

    2. To infatuate ; to make foolish. Shak.

    3. To cheat ; as, to fool one out of his mo- ney.

    To fool away, to spend in trifles, idleness, fol- ly, or without advantage ; as, to fool away time.

    2. To spend for things of no value or use ; to expend improvidently ; as, to fool away inoney.

    FOOL, n. A liquid made of gooseberries Ided and pounded, with cream.


    FOOL'BORN, a. Foolish from the birth.


    FOOL'ED, pp. Disappointed ; defeated ; de- ceived ; imposed on.

    FOOL'ERY, n. The practice of folly ; ha- bitual folly ; attention to trifles. Shak.

    ?. .An act of folly or weakness. Walts.

    i. Object of folly. Raleigh.

    FOOL'HAPPY, a. Lucky without judg- ment or contrivance. Spenser.

    FOOLH'ARDINESS, n. Courage without or judgment ; mad rashness.


    FOOLHARDISE, n. Foolhardiness. [JVot\\ in use.] Spenser.\\

    FOOLHARDY, a. [fool ami hardy.] Dar- ing without judgment ; madly rash and adventurous; foolishly bold. Howell.

    FOOh'ltiG, ppr. Defeating; disappointing; deceiving. I

    FOOLISH, a. Void of understanding or p- I" P'"'''!/' » certain number of syllables, sound judgment ; weak in intellect; ap- fonstitutmg part of a verse ; as the iam- plied to general character. \\ bus, the dactyl, and the spondee.

    2. Unwise; imprudent ; acting withoutjudg- '0. Step; pace. VEstrange. ment or discretion in particular things. 11. Level ; par. Obs. Bacon.

    3. Proceeding from folly, or marked with :12. The part of a stocking or boot which folly ; silly ; vain ; trifl"ing. ! „ receives the foot.

    B^xx foolish questions avoid. 2 Tim. u. ^yf""'^ "' rather, on foot, by walking, as to

    „. ,. , ,1, I go or pass on foot ; or bv fording, as to

    Ridiculous ; despicable. ,,3^, „ g,rea,„ on foot. See the next defi-

    A foolish figure he must make. Prior. nition.

    In scripture, wicked : sinful ; acting with- 'To set on foot, to originate ; to begin ; to put out regard to the divine law and glory, or I in motion ; as, to sd on foot a subscription, to one's own eternal happiness. | Hence, to he on foot, is to be in motion, ac-

    0/oolish Galaljans— Gal. iii. 1 tion or process of execution.

    F O O

    6. Proceeding from depravity ; sinful ; as

    foolish htsts. 1 FOOL'ISHLY, adv. Weakly ; without un- derstanding or judgment ; unwisely ; iu- discretely. 2. Wickedly; sinfully.

    1 have (lone very foolishly. 2 Sam. xxiv. FOOL'ISHNESS, n. Folly; want of under- standing.

    2. Foolish practice ; want of wisdom or good judgment.

    3. In a scriptural sense, absurdity ; folly. The preacliing of the cross ib" to them that

    perish foolishness. 1 Cor. i.

    FOOLS' CAP, n. [Qii. full and L. scapus, or folio and shape.] A kind of paper of small size.

    FOOL'S-P'ARSLEY, n. A plant, of the ge- nus jEthusa.

    FOOL'STONES, n. A plant, the Orchis.

    FOOL'TRAP, n. A trap to catch fools; as a fly trap. Dryden.

    F09T,n. plu./ee<. [Sax./o(,/e/ ; D.voet; G. fuss; Sw.fot; Dau. fod ; Gr. nov{, itoSof ; L. pes, pedis ; Sanscrit, pad; Siam. 6a/; Fr. pied, pie ; Sp. pie ; Port, pe ; It. piede, pii ; Copt, bat, fat. Probably this word is allied to the Gr. rta-rto, to walk, to tread ; as the W. Iroed, foot, is to the Eng. verb, to tread.]

    1. In animal bodies, the lower extremity of the leg ; the i)art of the leg which treads the earth in standing or walking, and by which the animal is sustained and enable

    2. That which bears some resemblance to an animal's foot in shape or oflice ; the lower end of any thing that supports a body ; as the foot of a table.

    3. The lower part ; the base; as the /oo< of a column or of a mountain.

    4. The lower pan ; the bottom ; as the foot of an account ; the foot of a sail.

    Foundation ; condition ; state. We are t not on the same foot with our fellow citi- zens. In this sense, it is more common, in America, to use /00/tng; and in this sense the plural is not used.

    6. Planof estabhshment ; fundamental prin- ciples. Our constitution may hereafter be placed on a better /oo<. [In this sense the

    I plural is 7iot used.]

    7. In military language, soldiers who march and fight on foot; infantry, as distinguish- ed from cavalry. [In this sense the plural is not used.]

    8. A measure consisting of twelve inches ; supposed to be taken from the length of a man's foot. Geometricians divide the foot into 10 digits, and the digit into 10 lines.


    F O O

    FOOT, V. i. To dance ; to tread to measure

    or music ; to skip. Dryden.

    2. To walk ; opi)osed to ride or fly. In this

    sense, the word is commonly followed

    by it.

    If you are for a merry jaunt, I'U tiy, for once

    who can foot it farthest. Dryden

    FOOT, V. t. To kick ; to strike with the

    foot ; to spurn. Shak.

    2. To settle ; to besin to fix. [Little used.]


    3. To tread ; as, to foot the green. Ticket.

    4. To add the numbers in a column, and set the sum at the foot ; as, to foot an account,

    5. To seize and hold with the foot. [J^ot used.] Hcrbcii.

    6. To add or make a foot ; as, to foot a stock- in;; or boot.

    FOOT'BALL, ?;. A ball consisting of an infla- ted bladder, cased in lethcr, to be driver by the foot. IValler.

    2. The sport or practice of kicking the foot- ball. Jlrbuthnot

    FOOT'BAND, n. A band of infantry.

    FOOT'BOY, n. A menial ; an attendant livery. Swifl.

    FOOT'BREADTH, n. The breadth of the foot. Deut. ii.

    F0OT'BRID(iE, n. A narrow bridge for foot passengers. Sidney,

    FO0T'€LOTH, n. A sumpter cloth. Shak

    FOOT'ED, pp. Kicked ; trod ; summed up furnished with a foot, as a stocking.

    FOOT'ED, a. Shaped in the foot ; as footed like a goat. Grew.

    FOOT'FALL, V. A trip or stumble. .Si

    FOOT'FiGHT, n. A conflict by persons foot, in opposition to a tight on horseback, Sidney.

    FOOT'GU^ARDS, 7i. plu. Guards of in- fantry.

    FOOT'HaLT, )i. a disease incident to sheep, and said to proceed from a worm, which enters between the claws. Encyc.

    FOQT'HOLD, n. That which sustains the feet firmly and prevents them from slip- ping or moving ; that on which one may treail or rest securely. V Eslraixge.

    FOOT'IIOT. adv. Immediately ; a word borrowed from hunting. Gower.

    FOOT'ING, ppr. Dancing ; treadin; tling ; adding a new foot.

    FOOT'ING, n. Ground for the foot; that which sustains; firm foundation to stand on.

    In ascents, every step gained is a footing help to the next. Holder.

    2. Support; root. Dryden.

    3. Basis; foundation. Locke.

    4. Place ; stable position. Dryden

    5. Permanent settlement. Let not these evils gain footing.

    6. Tread ; step ; walk. Milton

    7. Dance ; tread to measure. Shak

    8. Steps ; road ; track. [Lillle used.]


    9. State ; condition ; settlement. Place both jiarties on an equal footing.

    FOOT'LICKER, n. A mean flatterer ; a syc- ophant; a fawner. Shak.

    FOOT'MAN, >i. A soldier who marches and fights on foot.

    2. A menial servant ; a runner ; a servant in livery.

    FOOT'MANSIIIP, )!. The art or faculty of|| a runner. Hayward


    FOOT'MANTLE, n. A garment to keep the

    gown clean in riding. FOOT' PACE, Ji. A slow step, as in walk- ing ; a broad stair. Johnson. FOOT'PAD, n. A highwayman or robber on

    foot. FOOT'P'ATH, »t. A narrow path or way

    for foot passengers only.

    FOOT'PLOW, n. A kind of swing-plow.

    FOOT'POST, n. A post or messenger that

    travels on foot. Carew.

    FOOT'ROPE, n. The lower boltrope

    wliich the lower edge of a sail is sewed. [

    Also, a horse or rope to support men when

    reefing, &c. Mar. Did.

    F00T'ROT,?i. An ulcer in thefeet of sheep.

    FOOT'SOLDIER, n. A soldier that serves

    on foot. FOOT'STALL, n. A woman's stirrup.

    Johnson. FOOT'STEP, n. A track ; the mark or im- pression of the foot. Locke. Token ; mark ; visible sign of a course pursued ; as the footsteps of divine wis- dom. Bentley. Footsteps, plural, example ; as, follow the

    footsteps of good men. 2. Way ; course. Ps. lx.xvii. FOOT' STOOL, n. A stool for the feet ; that which supports the feet of one when sit- ting. To make enemies a footstool, is to reduce

    them to entire subjection. Ps. ex. FOOT'-WALING, n. The whole inside jiianks or lining of a ship. Cyc.

    FOP, n. [Sp. and Port, guapo, spruce, gay, affected, tbppish, aflectedly nice ; also in Sp. stout, bold, from the root of t'a;?o)-, vt pid ; Sp. guapear, to brag. The Lat vappa, a senseless fellow, is evidently from the same root, with the sense of empti ness or lightness.] A vain man of weak understanding and much ostentation ; one whose ambition ' to gain admiration by showy dress and pertiiess ; a gay trifling man ; a coxcomb. FOP'DOODLE, n. An insignificant fellow. [ Vulgar and not used.] Hudibras.

    FOP'LING, n. A petty fop. Tickell.

    FOP'PERY, n. Aflectation of show or im- portance ; showy folly ; as the foppery of dress or of manners.

    2. Folly ; impertinence. Let not the sound of sha.\\iow fopjiery enter My soher house. Shak.

    3. Foolery ; vain or idle practice ; idle aifec- tation. Swift.

    FOP'PISH, a. Vain of dress; making an ostentatious display of gay clothing ; dress- ing in the extreme of fashion.

    2. Vain ; trifling ; affected in manners.

    FOP'PISHLY, adv. With vain ostentation

    1 of dress ; in a trifling or aflected manner.

    IFOP'PISIINESS, n. Vanity and extrava-

    I gance in dress ; showy vanity.

    FOR, prep. [Sax. for or fore ; D. voor, for and before ; G. fur and vor ; Sw. for ; Dan. for, for; Ir. far ; Fr. pour ; Sp. Port. por,para ; It. per, which unites/or and L. per, and if this is the same word, so is the Fr. par. Indeed far seems to be radically the same word ; for the Germans a Dutch use ver, far, in composition, in t same manner, and in the same words, the English, Danes and Swedes use for.


    Thus, Ger. verbieten, D. verbieden, Dan. forbyder, Sw. fbrbiuda, are all the same

    word, Eng. to forbid. The French use par,

    as we use for, in pardonner, to pardon, to forgive. It. perdonare. Arm. par and pour,

    in composition ; Hindoo, para ; Per?.

    bar or I


    behr. For cor-

    J.J ^„. „. „v., """^^j responds in sense with the L. pro, as fore does with pr(e, but pro and prm are proba- bly contracted from prod, prced. The Latin por, in composition, as in porrigo, is probably contracted from porro, Gr. rtoppw, which is the English far. The Gr. rtopo, and probably, nifa, rtepai', are from the same root. The radical sense of for is to go, to pass, to advance, to reach or stretch ; and it is probably allied to the Sax. faran, to fare, W. for, a pass, foriaw, to travel. Class Br. No 23. 37. 41. To go towards, to meet or turn to, is the primary sense of for, in two of its most conmion uses ; one implying opposition, against ; the other, a favor or benefit : or for may be from fore, hence opposite. To sell or exchange a hat for a guinea, is to set or pass one agatnst the other ; this is tlie primarj sense of all prepositions which are placed before equivalents in sale and barter. Ben- efit or favor is expressed by moving towards a person, or by advancing him. This present is for my friend ; this advice for his instruction. And in the Old Testa- ment, the face or front is taken for favor. For, in some phrases, signifies during, that is, passing, continuing in time. I will lend a book for a day or a month. In composition, ybr is used to give a negative sense, as in forbid, which is forebid, to command before, that is against, and in forgive, to give back or away, to remit, to send back or to send away.]

    1. Against ; in the place of ; as a substitute or equivalent, noting equal value or satis- factory compensation, either in barter and sale, in contract, or in punishment. " And Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for flocks, and for the cattle of the herds;" that is, according to the original, lie gave them bread against horses, like the Gr. avn and Fr. contre. Gen. xlvii. 17.

    Buy us and our land fur bread. Gen. xlvii. 19.

    And if any mischief follow, then thou shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot/or foot. Ex. xxi.

    As the son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. Matt. xx. See also Mark viii. 37. Matt. xvi. 26.

    2. In the place of; instead of; noting sub- stitution of persons, or agency of one in the place of another with equivalent au- thority. An attorney is empowered to act for his principal. Will you take a letter

    and deliver it ybr me at the post office? that is, in my place, or for my benefit.

    3. In exchange of; noting one thing taken or given in place of another ; as, to quit the profession of law/or that of a clergyman.

    4. In the place of; instead of; as, to trans- late a poem line/or line.

    5. In the character of; noting resemblance ; a sense derived from substitution or stand- ing in the place of, like avtt9eos in Greek.


    If a man can be fully assured of any thine/oi a truth, without having examined, what is thcr< that he may not embrace for truth ? Ij>cke

    But let her go for an ungrateful woman.

    Philips I hear /or certain, and do speak the truth.


    He quivered with his feet and lay for dead


    G. Towards ; with the intention of going to.

    We sailed from Peru far China and Japan.


    We sailed directly for Genoa, and had a fai

    wind. Addison

    So we say, a ship is bound for or to


    7. In advantage of; for the sake of; on ac- count of ; that is, towards, noting use, benefit or purpose.

    An ant is a wise creature far itself. Sacor<

    Shall 1 Uiinlt the world was made /or one

    And men are born for kings, as beasts foj

    men, Not /or protection, but to be devoured.


    8. Conducive to ; beneficial to ; in favor of

    It is for the general good of human society, and consequently of particular persons, to be true and just ; and it is for men's health to bi temperate. TiUotson

    9. Leading or inducing to, as a motive.

    There is a natural, immutable, and eternal reason /or that which we call virtue, and againsi that which we call vice. TiUotson.

    10. Noting arrival, meeting, coming or pos- session. Wait patiently for an expected good. So in the phrases, looking for, slay xngfor.

    11. Towards the obtaining of; in order tc the arrival at or possession of After all our exertions, we depend on divine aid for success.

    12. Against ; in opposition to ; with a ten dency to resist and destroy ; as a remedy

    for the head-ache or tooth-aclie. Alkalies are good for the heart-burn. So to provide clothes or stores for wniter, or against winter.

    13. Against or on account of; in prevention of.

    She wrapped him close/or catching cold.

    Richardson And, /or the time shall not seem tedious —

    Shak This use is nearly obsolete. The sense however is derived from meeting, opposing, as in No. 12.

    14. Because ; on account of; by reason of He cried out for anguish. I cannot go /or want of time. Fortius cause, I can- not believe the report.

    That which we for our unworthiness are afi-aid to crave, our prayer is, that God fur the worthiness of his son would notwithstanding vouchsafe to grant. Hookei

    Edward and Richard, With fiery eyes sparkling/or very wrath. Are at our backs. Shak

    How to choose dogs/w scent or speed,

    Waller. For as much as it is a fundamental law


    13. With respect or regard to ; on the part of

    It was young counsel for the persons, and

    violent counsel /or the matters. Bacon.

    Thus much /or the beginning and progress of

    the deluge. Burnet.

    So we say, for me, for myself, or as for

    me, I have no -dn.xiety, but for you I have

    Vol. I.


    apprehensions ; all implying towards or on the side of.

    16. Through a certain space ; during a cer- tain time; as, to travel for three days ; to sail/or seven weeks ; he holds his office /or life; he traveled on sand for ten miles to- gether. These senses seem to imply pass ing, the pro|)er sense offer.

    17. In quest of ; in order to obtain ; as, to search /or arguments ; to recur to antiqui- ty/or examples. See No. 11.

    18. According to ; as far as. Chimists have not been able, for aught is

    \\nilgarly known, by fire alone to separate true sulphur fiom antimony. Boyle

    I. Noting meeting, coming together, or re- ception. 1 am ready for you ; that is, I am ready to meet or receive you. I. Towards ; of tendency to ; as an incli nation /or drink.

    21. Ill favor of; on the part or side of; that is, towards or inclined to. One is fo free government ; another is for a limited monarchy.

    Aristotle is for poetical justice. Dennis.

    22. With a view to obtain ; in order to pos- sess. He writes for money, or for fame ; that is, towards meeting, or to have in re- turn, as a reward.

    t. Towards ; with tendency to, or in favoi of It is/or his honor to retire from office. It is for our quiet to have few intimate connections.

    24. Notwithstanding; agamst; m opposition to. The fact may be so,/orany thing tl has yet appeared. The task is great, but

    for all that, I shall not be deterred from uii dertaking it. This is a different applica (ion of the sense of No. 1. 2. 3. 4. [Hoc non obstante.]

    The writer will do what she pleases foi me. Spnct. No.

    25. For the use of ; to be used in ; that is. towards, noting advantage.

    The oak for nothing ill, Tlie osier good for twigs, the poplar /o

    mill. Spenser.

    26. In recompense of; in return of Now, for so many glorious actions done, For peace at home,'and/or the public wealth, I mean to crown a bowl /or Cesar's health.

    Dryden. [See No. 1.]

    27. In proportion to ; or rather, looking wards, regarding. He is tall for one ofl his years, or tall/or his age.

    28. By means of. Moral consideration can no way move the

    sensible appetite, were it not/or the will.

    Hale By the want of

    The inhabitants suffered severely both fc

    provisions and fuel. Marshall

    30. For my life or heart, tliough my life were

    to be given in exchange, or as the price of ipORBAD', »rff. of forbid.

    purchase. I cannot, for my life, under stand the man. No. 1.

    31. For to, denoting purpose. For was ciently placed before the infinitives of verbs, and the use is correct, but now ob solete except in vulgar language. I came for to see you ; pour voiis voir.

    FOR, con. The word by which a reason introduced of something before advanced "That ye may be the children of your fa- ther who is in heaven ■,for he maketli his sun to rise on the evil and on the good


    F O R

    In such sentences,/or has the sense of be- cause, by reason that, as in No. 14 ; with this difference that in No. 14, the word jirecedes a single noun, and here it pre- cedes a sentence or clause : but the phrase seems to be elliptical, /or this cause or rea- son, which follows, he maketh his sun to rise, &c. In Romans, xiii. 6. we find the word in both its ajiplications, " For, for this cause ye pay tribute also — ;" the first for referring to the sentence following ; the latter to the noun cause.

    2. Because; on this account that ; properly, for that.

    For as much, compounded, forasmuch, is equivalent to, in regard to that, in consid- eration of. Forasmtich as the thirst is in- tolerable, the patient may be indulged in a little drink.

    For why, Fr. pour quoi, [per quod, pro quo.] because ; for this reason.

    FOR'ACiE, n. [Fr.fourra^e ; Arm. fouraich ; It. foraggio ; Sp.forrage ; I'ort. forragem ; D. voeraadge. R tliis word signifies pri- marily food or fodder, it is connected with W.pori, to feed, and L. voro. But I take it to be from the root of Sax. /aran, to go, and primarily to signify that which is col- lected in wandering, roving, excursion. In Porl.foragido is a vagabond, and/orre- jar is to waste, to ravage.]

    1. Food of any kind for horses and cattle, as grass, pasture, hay, corn and oats.

    2. The act of providing forage. Col. Mawhood completed his forage unmo- lested. Marshall.

    If the forage is to be made at a distance from the camp — Encyc.

    3. Search for provisions ; the act of feeding abroad. Milton.

    FOR' AGE, tJ. i. To collect food for horses and cattle, by wandering about and feed- ing or stripping the country. Marshall.

    2. To wander far ; to rove. Obs. Shak.

    3. To ravage ; to feed on spoil. Shak. FOR'AgE, v. t. To strip of provisions for

    horses, &c. Encyc.

    FOR'A6ER, n. One that goes in search of food for horses or cattle.

    FOR'AGING, ppr. or a. Collecting provis- ions for horses and cattle, or wandering in search of food ; ravaging ; stripping. The general sent out a foraging party, with a guard.

    FOR'AGING, n. An inroad or incursion for forage or plunder. Bp. Hall.

    FORAM'INOUS, a. [L. foramen, a hole, from/oro, to bore.]

    Full of holes ; perforated in many places ; porous. [Little used.] Bacon.

    FOR, as a prefix to verbs, has usually the force of a negative or privative, denoting against, that is, before, or away, aside.

    FORBA'THE, v. t. To bathe. [.Vo< in use.] I Sacki-aU.

    FORBEAR, v.i. pret. forbore ; pp. forborne.

    [Sax. forbwran ; for and bear.] 11. To stop ; to cease ; to hold from proceed- j ing ; as, forbear to repeat these reproach- I ful words.

    [2. To pause ; to delay ; as, forbear a while. |3. To abstain ; to oinit ; to hold one's self : from motion or entering on an affair.

    Shall I go against Ramoth Gilead to battle, ' or shall I /ortear? 1 Kings ssii.

    F O R



    4. To refuse ; to decline.

    Whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear. Ezek. ii.

    5. To be patient ; to restrain from action or violence. Prov. xxv. 15.

    FORBEAR, V. t. To avoid voltintarily ; to decline.

    Forbear his presence. Shak

    2. To abstain from; to omit; to avoid do- ing. Learn from the scriptures what you ought to do and what to forbear.

    Have we not power to forbear working Cor. i.^.

    3. To spare ; to treat with indulgence and patience.

    Forbearing one another in love. Eph. iv.

    4. To withhold.

    Forbear thee from meddling with God, wh( is n ith me, that he destroy thee not. 2 Chron


    FORBEARANCE, >i. The act of avoiding, shunning or omitting ; either the cessation or intermission of an act commenced, or a withholding from beginning an act. Liberty is the power of doing or forbear- ing an action, according as the doing or forbearance has a preference in the mind. The forbearance of sin is followed with satisfaction of mind.

    !?. Command of temper ; restraint of pas sions.

    Have a continent forbearance, till the speed of his rage goes slower. Shak

    3, The exercise of patience ; long suffering; indulgence towards those who injure us lenity ; delay of resentment or punish inent.

    Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance, and long suffering ? Rom. ii

    FORBEARER, n. One that intermits or in tercepts. Tusser.

    FORBEARING, ppr. Ceasing; pausing; withholding from action ; exercising pa- tience and indulgence.

    2. a. Patient ; long suffering.

    FORBEARING, n. A ceasing or restrain- ing from action ; patience ; long suffer- ing.

    FORBID', V. I. pret. forbad; f)p. forbid, for- bidden. [Sa\\.forbeodan;D. verbieden ; G- verbiden ; Dan. forbyder ; Sw. forbiuda ; for and bid.] Literally, to bid or com- mand against. Hence,

    1. To prohibit; to interdict ; to command to forbear or not to do. The laws of God

    forbid us to swear. Good manners also forbid us to use ])rofane language. All

    servile labor and idle amusements on the

    sabbath are forbidden.

    2. To command not to enter; as, I lm\\e for- bid him my house or presence. This phrase seems to be elliptical ; to forbid

    from entering or approaching.

    3. To oppose ; to hinder ; to obstruct. An impassable river forbids the approach of the army.

    A blaze of glory that forbids the sight.


    4. To accurse ; to blast. 06*. Sfrnk. FORBID', V. i. To utter a prohibition ; hut

    in the intransitive form, there is always an ellipsis. I would go, but my state of health /oriirfs, that is, forbids me to go, or my going. FORBID', ) ^„ Prohibited ; as the

    FORBID'DEN, \\ PP' forbidden fruit. 2. Hindered ; obstructed.

    FORBID'DANCE, n. Prohibition ; com niand or edict against a thing. [Littl< used.] Shak.

    FORBID'DENLY, adv. In an unlawful manner. Shak

    FORBID'DENNESS, n. A state of being prohibited. [JVot used.] Boyle

    FORBID'DER, n. He or that which for bids or enacts a prohibition.

    FORBID'DING, ppr. Prohibiting; hinder- ing.

    2. a. Repelling approach ; repidsive ; rais- ing abhorrence, aversion or dislike ; disa- greeable ; as a forbidding aspect ; a for- bidding formality ; a forbidding air.

    FORBID'DING, n. Hindrance ; opposition. Shak

    FORBO'RE, pret. of forbear.

    FORBORNE, pp. of forbear.

    Few ever repented of having /orJorne to speak. Ramble

    FORCE, n. [Fr. force ; ll. forza ; Sp. fuei za ; Port, forfa ; from L. fortis. All words denoting force, power, strength, are from verbs which express straining, or driving, rushing, and this word has the el ements of Sax. foran, and L. vireo.] Strength ; active power ; vigor ; might ; energy that inay be exerted ; that physi cal |)roperty in a body which may produc action or motion in another body, or may counteract such action. By the force of the muscles we raise a weight, or resist an assault.

    2. Momentum ; the quantity of power pro- duced by motion or the action of one body on another; as the force of a cannon ball.

    3. That which causes an operation or moral effect ; strength ; energy ; as the force of the mind, will or understanding.

    4. Violence ; power exerted against will or consent ; compulsory power. Let con querors consider that force alone can keep what /orce has obtained.

    5. Strength ; moral power to convince the mind. There is great force in an argu- ment.

    6. Virtue; efficacy. No presumption or hy- pothesis can be of force enough to over- throw constant experience.

    7. Vahdity ; power to bind or hold. If the conditions of a covenant are not fulfilled, the contract is of no force. A testament is of force after tlie testator is dead. Heb. ix. 17.

    Strength or power for war ; armament ; troops ; an army or navy ; as a military or naval /orcc ; sometimes in the plural'; as military /orcej.

    9. Destiny ; necessity ; compulsion ; any ex- traneous power to which men are subject ; as ihe force of fate or of divine decrees.

    10. Internal power ; as the/orce of habit.

    11. Intoip, any unlawful violence to person or property. This is simple, when no oth- er crime attends it, as the entering into an- other's possession, without committing any other unlawful act. It is compound, when some other violence or unlawful act is committed. The law also implies force, as when a person enters a house or inclo- sure lawfully, but afterwards does an un- lawful act. In this case, the law supposes the first entrance to be for that purpose, and therefore by force.

    Physical force, is the force of material bodies.

    Moral force, is the power of acting on the reason in judging and determining.

    Mechanical force, is the power that belongs to bodies at rest or in motion. The pres- sure or tension of bodies at rest is called a mechanical force, and so is the power of a body in motion. There is also the force of gravity or attraction, centrifugal and cen- tripetal/orcfcs, expansive /orcc, &c.

    FORCE, V. t. To compel ; to constrain to do or to forbear, by the exertion of a pow- er not resistible. Blen are forced to sub- mit to conquerors. Masters force their slaves to labor.

    2. To overpower by strength. I should have forced thee soon with other

    arms. Milton.

    3. To impel ; to press ; to drive ; to draw or push by main strength ; a sense of very extensive use ; as, to force along a wag- on or a ship ; to force away a man's arms; water/orce« its way through a nar- row channel ; a man may be forced out of his possessions.

    4. To enforce ; to urge ; to press. Forcing my strength, and gathering to the

    shore. Dryden.

    5. To compel by strength of evidence ; as, to force conviction on the mind; to force one to acknowledge the truth of a propo- sition.

    6. To storm ; to assault and take by vio- lence ; as, to force a town or fort.

    7. To ravish ; to violate by force, as a fe- male.

    8. To overstrain; to distort; as a forced conceit.

    0. To cause to produce ripe fruit prema-

    tin-ely, as a tree ; or to cause to ripen ])re-

    maturely, as fruit. 10. To man ; to strengthen by soldiers ; to

    garrison. Obs. Shak. Raleigh.

    To force from, to wrest from ; to extort. To force out, to drive out; to compel to

    out or to leave ; also, to extort. To force wine, is to fine it by a short process,

    or in a short time. To force plants, is to urge the growth of

    idants by artificial heat. To force meat, is to stuff it. FORCE, V. i. To lay stress on. Obs.


    2. To strive. 04*. Spenser.

    3. To use violence. Spenser.

    FORCED, pp. Compelled ; impelled ; driv- en by violence ; urged ; stormed ; ravish- ed.

    2. a. Affected ; overstrained ; unnatural ; as a forced style.

    FORCEDLY, adv. Violently ; constrainedly ; unnaturally. [Little used.]

    FORCEDNESS, n. The state of being for- ced ; distortion.

    FORCEFUL, a. Impelled by violence; driv- en with force; acting with power. Against the steed he threw tiis forceful spear. Dryden.

    2. Violent ; impetuous.

    FORCEFULLY, adv. Violently; impetu- ously.

    FORCELESS, a. Having little or no force ; feeble; impotent. Shak.

    FORCEMEAT, n. A kind of stuffing in cookery.

    FOR'CE'PS, n. [L.] Literally, a pair of pinchers or tongs.


    In surgery, an instrument for extracting any

    thing from a wound, and for like purposes,


    A pair of scissors for cutting off or dividing

    tlie fleshy membranous parts of the body.


    FORCER, n. He or that which forces,

    drives or constrains. 2. The embolus of a pump; the instrument by which water is driven up a pump.

    ffUkins FORCIBLE, «. Powerful; strong; mighty; as a punishment forcible to bridle sin.

    Hooker. 2. Violent ; impetuous ; driving forward with

    force ; as a. forcible stream. ;?. Efficacious ; active ; powerful.

    Sweet smells arc most forcible in dry sub- stances, when broken. Bacon.

    1. Powerful; acti ig with force; impres- sive; &fi forcible words or arguments.

    5. Containing force ; acting by violence ; as forcible means.

    6. Done by force ; suffered by force. The abdication of James, his advocates hold to have been forcible. Swifl.

    7. Valid ; binding ; obligatory. [JVbl used.]


    8. In law, forcible entry is an actual violent entry into houses or lands.

    Forcible detainer, is a violent withhold- ing of the lands, &c. of another from his possession.

    Forcible abduction, is the act of taking away wrongfully, as a child without tlie consent of the father, a ward without the consent of the guardian, or any person contrary to his or her will. Blackstone.

    FORCIBLENESS, n. Force ; violence.

    FORCIBLY, adv. ^y violence or force.

    M. Strongly ; powerfully ; with power or energy ; impressively.

    The gospel offers such considerations as are

    fit to work very forcibly on our hopes and fears


    .3. Impetuously ; violently ; with great strength ; as a stream rushing forcibly down a precipice.

    FORCING, ppr. Compelling; impelling; driving ; storming ; ravishing.

    2. Causing to ripen before the natin-al sea- son, as fruit ; or causing to produce ripe fruit prematurely, as a tree.

    3. Fining wine by a speedy process.

    FORCING, n. In gardenine;, the art of rais- ing plants, flowers, and fruits, at an ear- lier season than the natural one, by artifi- cial heat. Cyc.

    2. The operation of fining wines by a speedy

    process. FOR'CIPATED, a. [from forceps.] Formed

    like a pair of pinchers to open and inclose ;

    as a forcipated month. Derham.

    FORD, n. [Sax. ford,fyrd; G. furt ; from

    the verb faran, to go or pass, or its root.]

    1. A place in a river or other water, where it may be passed by man or beast on foot, or by wading.

    2. A stream ; a current.

    Permit my ghost to pass the Stygian ford. Dryden. FORD, V. t. To pass or cross a river or other water by treading or walking on the bottom ; to pass through water by wa- ding ; to wade through.


    FORDABLE, a. That may be waded or passed through on foot, as water.

    FORDED, pp. Passed through on foot waded.

    FORDING, ppr. Wading ; passing througl on foot, as water.

    FORDO', V. t. [Sax. fordon ; for and do.] To destroy ; to undo ; to ruin ; to weary. \\M>t in use.] Chaucer.

    FORE, a. [Sax. fore, foran ; G. vor ; D voor ; Sw. for; Dan. ybr ; Hindo, para, Ir. for. This is the same word in origin as for, from the root of Sax. faran, to go, to advance.]

    1. Properly, advanced, or being in advance of something in motion or progression as the /ore end of a chain carried in meas uring land ; the fore oxen or horses in a team.

    2. Advanced in time ; coming in advance of something ; coming first ; anterior ; prece ding ; prior ; as the fore part of the last century ; the fore part of the day, week or year.

    3. Advanced in order or series ; antecedent I theybre part of a writing or bill.

    4. Being in front or towards the face ; oppo- sed to back or behind; as the fore part of a garment.

    .5. Going first ; usually preceding the other part; as the fore part of a ship, or of a coach.

    FORE, ado. In the part that precede goes first.

    In seamen's language, fore and aft signifies the whole length of the ship, or from end to end, from stem to stern. Mar. Did.

    Fore, in composition, denotes, for the most part, priority of time ; sometimes, advance in place.

    For tlie etymologies of the compounds of fore, see the principal word.

    FOREADMON'ISH, v. t. To admonish be forehand, or before the act or event.

    FOREADVI'SE, v. t. s as z. To advise or counsel before the time of action or before the event ; to preadmonish. Shak

    FOREALLEDgE, v. t. foreallej'. To alledge or cite before. Fotherbii

    FOREAPPOINT', 11. t. To set, order oi appoint beforehand. Sherwood.

    FOREAPPOINT'MENT, n. Previous ap- pointment ; preordination. Sherwood.

    FORE>ARM, V. t. To arm or prepare for attack or resistance before the time of| need. South

    FOREBO'DE, v. t. To foretell; to prog- nosticate.

    a. To foreknow ; to be prescient of; to feel a secret sense of something future ; as my heart forebodes a sad reverse.

    FOREBO'DEMENT, n. A presaging ; pre sagement.

    FOREBO'DER, n. One who forebodes ; e prognosticator ; a soothsayer.


    2. A foreknower.

    FOREBO'DING,p;)r. Prognosticating ; fore- telling ; foreknowing.

    FOREBODING, n. Prognostication.

    FOREBRACE, n. A rope applied to the fore yard-arm to change the position of the foresail. Mar. Diet.

    FOREBY', prep, [fore and by.] Near ; hard by ; fast by. Obs. Spenser.


    FOREC^AST, V. t. To foresee ; to provide against.

    ll is wisdom to forecast consequences.

    L' Estrange.

    2. To scheme ; to plan before execution. He shall forecast his devices against the

    tronft holds. Dan. xi.

    3. To adjust, contrive or appoint before- hand.

    The time so well/orecos^ Dryden.

    FORECAST, r. i. To form a scheme pre- viously ; to contrive beforehand.

    Forecasting how his foe he might annoy.


    FO'REe^AST, n. Previous contrivance; tbresight, or the antecedent determina^ tion proceeding from it; as a man of little forecast.

    FORECASTER, n. One who foresees or contrives beforehand.

    FORECASTING, ppr. Contriving previ- ously.

    FO'RECASTLE, n. A short deck in the forepart of a ship above the upper deck, usually terminated in ships of war with a breast-work ; the foremost part forming the top of the beak-head, and the hind part reaching to the after part of the fore chains. Mar. Diet.

    ORECHO'SEN, a. forecho'zn. Preelected ; chosen beforehand.

    FORECITED, a. Cited or quoted before or aljove. Arbuthnot.

    FORECLOSE, v. t. s as z. To shut up; to preclude ; to stop ; to prevent.

    The embargo with Spain/oreriosed this trade. Carew.

    To foreclose a mortgager, in law, is to cut him off from his equity of redemption, or the power of redeeming the mortgaged premises, by a judgment of court.


    [To foreclose a mortgage is not technically correct, but is often used.]

    FORECLOSURE, h. s as :. Prevention.

    2. The act of foreclosing, or depriving a mortgager of the right" of redeeming a mortgaged estate. Blackstone.

    FORECONCEI'VE, v. t. To preconceive. Bacon.

    FOREDA'TE, i-. t. To date before the true time.

    FOREDA'TED, pp. Dated before the true time. Milton.

    FO'REDECK, n. The forepart of a deck, or of a ship.

    FOREDESI'GN, v. t. To plan beforehand ; to intend previously. Cheune

    FORE-DETERM'INE, v. t. To decree be- forehand. Hopkins.

    FOREDOOM', V. t. To doom beforehand ; to predestinate.

    Thou art foredoomed to view the Stjgian state. Dryden.

    FOREDOOM', n. Previous doom or sen-

    FORElioOR, 71. The door in the front of a house.

    FORE-END', n. The end which precedes ; the anterior part. Bacon.

    FOREFATHER, n. An ancestor; one who precedes another in the line of genealo- gy, in any degree ; usually in a remote degree.

    FOREFEND', v. t. To hinder ; to fend off; to avert; to prevent approach; to forbid or prohibit. Dryden.

    F O R

    2. To defend ; to guard ; to secure. Shak.

    This word, like tlie L. arceo, is applied to tlie thing assailing, and to the thing assailed. To drive back or resist that which assails, is to hinder its approach, to forbid or avert, and this act defends the thing threat- ened or assailed.

    FOREFIN'GER, n. The finger next to the thumb ; the index ; called by our Saxon ancestoi-s, the shoot-finger, from its use in archery.

    FOREFLQW, v. t. To flow before.


    FOREFOOT, n. One of the anterior feet of a quadruped or multiped.

    2. A hand, in contempt. .STiaA:.

    rt. In a ship, a piece of timber which termi- nates the keel at the fore-end.

    FOREFRONT', n. The foremost part. The forefront of the battle, is the part where the contest is most warm, and where a soldier is most exposed. 2 Sam. xi. 15.

    FO'REGAME, n. A first game ; first plan. IVhitlock.

    FOREGO', V. t. [See Go.] To forbear to possess or enjoy ; voluntarily to avoid the enjoyment of good. Let us forego the pleasures of sense, to secure immortal bliss.

    2. To give up ; to renounce ; to resign. But this word is usually applied to things not possessed or enjoyed, and which cannot he resigned.

    3. To lose.

    4. To go before ; to jirecede. Ohs. Shak. FOREGO'ER, n. An ancestor ; a progeni- tor. [JVot used.] Shak.

    2. One who goes before another. Davies. .3. One who forbears to enjoy. FOREGO'ING, ppr. Forbearing to have,

    possess or enjoy. 2. a. Preceding ; going before, in time or

    place ; antecedent ; as a foregoing period

    of time ; a foregoing clause in a writing. FOREGONE, pp. foregawn'. Forborne to

    be possessed or enjoyed. Spenser.

    2. Gone before ; past. 06s. Shak.

    FO'REGROUND, n. The part of the field

    or expanse of a picture which seems to

    lie before the figures. Dryden. Johnson.

    FOREGUESS', v. t. To conjecture. [Bad.]


    FO'REHAND, n. The part of a horse

    whiclj is before the rider. 2. The chief part. Shak.

    FO'REHAND, a. Done sooner than is reg


    And so extenuate W\\e forehand sin. Shak FO'REHANDED, a. Early ; timely ; sea

    sonable ; as a forehanded care. Taylor.

    2. In America, in good circumstances a property ; free from debt and possessed ofl property ; as a forehanded farmer.

    3. Formed in the foreparts.

    A substantial true-bred beast, bravely fore- handed. Dryden.

    FOREHEAD, n. for'hed, or rather for'ed. The i)art of the face which extends from the hair on the top of the head to tlie eyes.

    2. Impudence ; confidence ; assurance ; au- daciousness. Bp. Hall. Swift.

    FOR'HE AD-BALD, a. Bald above the forehead. Levit. xiii. 47.

    FOREHE'AR, v. i. To be informed before.


    FOREHEND', v. t. To seize. [JVot in use.]

    FOREHEW, V. t. To hew or cut in front, Sackville.

    FOREHOLDING, n. Predictions ; ominous forebodings ; superstitious prognostica- tions. [JVot used.] L' Estrange.

    FO'REHOQK, n. In ships, a breast-hook ; a piece of timber placed across the stem to unite the bows and strengthen the forepart of the ship. Mar. Diet

    FO REHORSE, n. The horse in a team which goes foremost.

    FOREIGN, a. for'an. [Ft. forain ; Norm forein ; Sp. foraneo ; from the root of Sax faran, to go or depart ; L.foris, foras, Fr. hors, abroad.]

    1. Belonging to another nation or country ; alien ; not of the country in which one re sides ; extraneous. We call every conn try foreign, which is not within the juris diction of our own government. In this sense, Scotland before the union wasybr- eign to England, and Canada is now for- eign to the United States. More general- ly foreign is applied to countries more re- mote than an adjacent territory ; as aybr- eign market ; a foreign prince. In the United States, all transatlantic countriei are foreign.

    2. Produced in a distant country or jurisdic tion ; coming from another country ; ai foreign goods ; goods of foreign manufac- ture ; aforeig7i minister.

    3. Remote ; not belonging ; not connected ; with to or from. You dissemble ; the sen- timents you express are foreign to your heart. This design is foreign from my thoughts. [The use o{ from is preferable and best authorized.]

    4. Impertinent ; not pertaining ; not to the liurpose. The observation is foreign from the subject under consideration.

    5. Excluded ; not admitted ; held at a dis tance. Shak.

    6. Extraneous ; adventitious ; not native or natural.

    7. In law, a foreign attachment is an attach- ment of the goods of a foreigner within a city or liberty, for the satisfaction of a debt due from the foreigner to a citizen ; or an attachinent of the money or goods of a debtor, in the hands of another per- son.

    A foreign bill of exchange, is a bill drawr by a person in one country, on his corres- pondent or agent in another, as distin- guished from an inland bill, which h drawn by one person on another in the same jurisdiction or country.

    Foreign plea, a plea or objection to a judge as incompetent to try the question, on the ground that it is not within his juris- diction. Encyc

    FOR'EIGNER, n. for'aner. A person bdri in a foreign country, or without the coun- try or jurisdiction of which one speaks. A Spaniard is a/oreig'ner in France and Eng- land. All men not born in the United States are to them foreigners, and they are aliens till naturalized. A naturalized person is a citizen ; but we still call hin a foreigner by birth.

    FOR'EIGNNESS, n. for'anness. Remote ness; want of relation ; as the foreignnes. of a subject from the main business.


    FORE-IMAG'INE, v. t. To conceive or fan- cy before proof, or beforehand.

    FOREJUDGE, v.t. forejuf. To prejudge; to judge beforehand, or before hearing the facts and proof

    2. In late, to expel from a court, for mal- practice or non-appearance. When an attorney is sued, and called to appear in court, if he declines, he is forejudged, and his name is struck from the rolls.

    FOREJUDG'MENT, n. Judgment previ- ously formed. Spenser.

    FOREKNOW, V. t. [See Know.] To have previous knowledge of; to foresee.

    Who would the miseries of man foreknow ? Dryden. For whom he diiforekjiow, he also did pre- destinate to be conformed to the image of his Son. Rom. viii.

    FOREKNOWABLE, a. That may be fore- known. More.

    FOREKNOWER, n. One that foreknows.

    FOREKNOWLEDGE, n. Knowledge of a thing before it happens ; prescience. If I foreknew. Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault. Milton.

    FOR'EL, n. A kind of parchment for the cover of books.

    FO'RELAND, n. A promontory or cape; a point of land extending into the sea some distance from the line of the shore ; a head land ; as the North and South Foreland in Kent, in England.

    FORELA'Y, V. t. To lay wait for ; to en- trap by ambush. Dryden.

    2. To contrive antecedently. Johnson.

    FORELE'ADER, n. One who leads others by his example.

    FORELEND', r. t. To lend or give before- hand. Spenser.

    FORELOCK, n. The lock or hair that grows from the forepart of the head. Take time by ihe forelock. Sunft.

    2. In sea language, a Utile flat pointed wedge of iron, used at the end of a bolt, to retain it firmly in its place.

    Mar. Did.

    FORELQOK', v. t. To look beforehand or forward. Spenser.

    FO'REMAN. n. The first or chief man ; particularly, the chief man of a jury, who acts as their speaker.

    2. The chief man in a printing office or other establishment, who conducts the whole work.

    FO'REMAST, n. The mast of a ship or other vessel which is placed in the fore- part or forecastle, and carries the fore- sail and foretop-sail yards. Encyc.

    Foremast-men, on board of ships, the men who take in the top-sails, sling the yards, furl the sails, &;c. Encyc.

    FOREMEANT', a. forement'. Intended be- forehand. Spenser.

    FOREMEN'TIONED, a. Mentioned be- fore ; recited or written in a former part of the same writing or discourse.

    FOREMOST, a. First in place ; most ad- vanced ; as the foremost troops of an army.

    2. First in dignity. In honor he held the foremost rank.

    FO'REMOTHER, n. A female ancestor. Prideaux.


    FO'RENAMED, a. Named or nominated 2. Mentioned before in the same writing or

    FO'RENOON, n. Tlie former part of the day, from the morning to meridian or noon. We usually call the first part of the day, from the dawn to the time ol breakfast, or the hour of business, the morning, and from this period to noon, the forenoon. But the limits are not pre- cisely defined by custom.

    FORENO'TICE, n. Notice or information of an event before it happens. Rymer.

    FOREN'SIe, a. [from L. forensis, from fo- rum, a court.]

    Belonging to courts of judicature ; used in courts or legal proceedings ; as a forensic term ; forensic eloquence or disputes.

    Locke. Walls.

    FOREORDA'IN, v. I. To ordain or appoint beforehand ; to preordain ; to predesti- nate ; to predetermine. Hooker

    FOREORDINA'TION, n. Previous ordina tion or appointment ; predetermination predestination. Jackson.

    FO'REPART, n. The part first in time ; as the forepart of the day or week.

    2. The part most advanced in place ; the anterior part ; as the forepart of any mo- ving body.

    3. The beginning ; as the forepart of a se- ries.

    FO'REPAST, a. Past before a certain time ; as forepart sins. [Little used.]


    FORE-POSSESS'ED, a. Holding formerly in possession ; also, preoccupied ; prepos- sessed ; preengaged. Sanderson.

    FOREPRI'ZE, V. t. To prize or rate be- forehand. Hooker.

    FOREPROM'ISFJ), a. Promised before- hand ; preengaged.

    FOREQUO'TED, a. Cited before ; quoted in a foregoing part of the work.

    FO'RERANK, n. The first rank ; the front. Shak.

    FORERE'ACH upon, v. t. In naoigation, to gain or advance upon in progression or motion. Mar. Did.

    FORERE'AD, i'. t. To signify by tokens. Obs. Spenser.

    FORERE'ADING, n. Previous perusal.


    FORERECI'TED, a. Named or recited before. Shak.

    FOREREMEM'BERED, a. Called to mind previously. Mountagu.

    FO'RERIGHT, a. Ready ; forward ; quick. Ma.isinger.

    FO'RERIGHT, adv. Right forward ; on- ward. Btaum.

    FORERUN', V. t. To advance before ; to come before as an earnest of something to follow ; to introduce as a harbuiger.

    Heaviness /orerwns the good event. Slmk.

    2. To precede ; to have the start of.


    FORERUN'NER, n. A messenger sent be- fore to give notice of the approach of oth- ers ; a harbinger. My elder brothers, my forerunners came.

    Dry den.

    2. An ancestor or predecessor. Obs.

    3. A prognostic ; a sign foreshowing some-


    thing to follow. Certain pains in the head back and limbs are the forerunners of a fever.

    FO'RESAID, a. Spoken before. [See ./Iforesaid.]

    FO'RESAIL, n. A sail extended on the fore- yard, which is supported by the foremast.

    FORESA'Y, V. t. To predict ; to foretell. Shak.

    FORESA'YING, n. A prediction.


    FORESEE', u. <. To see beforehand; to see or know an event before it happens; to have prescience of; to foreknow.

    FORESEE' ING, ppr. Seeing before tlie event.

    FORESEE'N, pp. Seen beforehand.

    FORESEE'R, n. One who foresees or fore- knows.

    FORESE'IZE, v.t. To seize beforehand.

    FORESHAD'OW, v. t. To shadow or typify beforehand. Dryden.

    FORESHA'ME, t>. «. To shame; to bring reproach on. Shak.

    FORESHEW. [See Foreshow.]

    FO'RESHIP, n. The forepart of a ship Acts xxvii.

    FORESHORT'EN, v. t. In painting, tc shorten figures for the sake of showing those behind. Dryde

    FORESHORT'ENING, n. In painting, tl act of shortening figures for the sake of showing those behind. Drydi

    The art of conveying to the mind the impression of the entire length of an ob ject, when represented as viewed in an oblique or receding position. Cyc.

    FORESHOW, V. t. To show beforehand ; to prognosticate. Next, like Aurora, Spenser rose, WTiose purple blush the d^- foreshows.


    3. To predict ; to foretell.

    3. To represent betbrehand, or before ii comes. Hooker.

    FORESHOWER, )i. One who predicts.

    FORESHROUDS', n. The shrouds of a ship attached to the foremast.

    FO'RESIDE, n. The front side ; also, a spe- cious outside. Spenstr.

    FO'RESIGHT, n. Prescience ; foreknow- ledge ; prognostication ; the act of fore- seeing. .Milton.

    3. Provident care of futurity ; foreknowledge accompanied witli prudence in guarding against evil. Spenstr.

    FORESIGHTFUI., a. Prescient; j.rovi- dent. [Liltte used.] Sidncn.

    FORESIG'NIFY, v. t. To signify before- hand ; to betoken previmisly ; to foreshow ; to typify. Hooker.

    FO RESKIN, »i. The skin that covers the glans penis; the prepuce.

    FO'RESKIRT, n. The loose and pendu-

    lous part of a coat before. ORESLACK', V. t. To neglect by idlene

    Shak. FORESLACK'

    \\J\\tot used.] Spenser.

    FORESLOW, J., t. To delay; to hinder; to impede ; to obstruct. [JVol used.] No stream, no wood, no mouiilain could/orf-

    slow Their hasty pace. Fairfax

    3. To neglect ; to omit. [Xot used.]


    F O R

    FORESLOW, V. i. To be dilatory ; to loiit. . [jYot used.] Shak.

    FORESPE'AK, v.t. Toforesay; to fore- show ; to foretell or predict. Camden.

    2. To forbid. [.Vol used.] Shak.

    3. To bewitch. [ATot used.] Drayton. FORESPE'AKING, n. A prediction ; also,

    a preface. [J^'ot used.] FORESPKE'CH, n. A preface. [.Vol used.]

    Wasted in strength ;

    FORESPENT', a. tired ; exhausted.

    2. Past; as life/orespfn*. [Little used.]


    FORESPUR'RER, n. One that rides before.

    [Mtt used.] Shak.

    FOR'EST, n. [It. foresta; Fr.foret; Arm.

    forest ; G. forst ; Ir. foraois, foraighis ; Norm, fores ; from the same root as L.

    foris, Fr. hors, and the Sa.x. faran, to go, to depart. Hence the It. forestiere, Sp.

    forastero, signifies strange, foreign ; It.

    foresto, wild, savage ; Port, forasleiro, a stranger. This enables us to understand the radical meaning of other words which signify strange, wild, barbarous, &c. They all express distance from cities and civili- zation, and are from roots expressing de- parture or wandering.] 1. An extensive wood, or a large tract of land covered with trees. In America, the word is usually applied to a wood of na- tive growth, or a tract (if woodland which has never been cultivated. It differs from wood or woods chiefly in extent. We read of the Hercynian/orcsi, in Germany, and the forest of Ardennes, in France or Gaul.

    3. In law, in Great Britain, a certain territo- ry of woody grounds and pastures, privi- leged for wild beasts and fowls of forest, chase and warren, to rest and abide in, under the protection of the king, for his ])lpasure. In this sense, the word has no ap- plication in America.

    Forest laws, laws for governing and regida- ting forests, and preserving game.

    England. FOR'EST, r. t. To cover with trees or

    wood. FO'REST'AFF, n. An instrument used at sea, for taking the altitudes of heavenly bodies : called also cross-staff. Encyc.

    FOR'ESTA6E, n. An ancient service paid by foresters to the king ; also, the right of foresters. England.

    FORESTALL', v. t. [See Stall.] To anti- cipate ; to take betbrehand. Why need a maa forestall his date of grief. And run to meet what he would most avoid? Milton.

    2. To hinder by preoccupation or preven- tion.

    I will not forestall your judgment of the rest. Pope.

    3. In law, to buy or bargain for corn, or pro- visions of any kind, before they arrive at the market or fair, with intent to sell them at higher prices. This is a penal offense.


    4. To deprive by something prior. [JVol in e.] Shak.

    FORESTALLED, pp. Anticipated; hin-

    lered ; purchased before arrival in market.

    FORESTALL'ER, n. One who forestaUs ;

    iwrson who purchases provisions before




    tliey come to the fair or market, with a view to raise the price. Locke.

    FORKSTALL'ING, ppr. Anticipating ; hin- dering ; buying provisions before they ar- rive in market, with intent to sell them at higher prices.

    FORESTALL'ING, n. Anticipation ; pre- vention ; the act of buying provisions be- fore they are offered in market, with intent to sell them at higher prices.

    FORESTAY, ji. \\n a ship^s rigging, &\\ar^e strong rope reaching from the foremast head towards the bowsprit end, to support the mast. Mar. Did.

    FOR'ESTED, pp. Covered with trees ; wooded. Tooke.

    FOR'ESTER, n. In England,an officer ap- jiointed to watch a forest, preserve the game, and institute suits for trespasses.


    2. An inhabitant of a forest. Shak.

    3. A forest tree. Evelyn. FO'RESVVaT, a. [See Sweat.] Exhausted

    by heat. Obs. Sidney.

    FORETACK'LE, n. The tackle on the

    foremast. FORETASTE, n. A taste beforehand ; an- ticipation. Tlie pleasures of piety are a foretaste of lieaven. FORETA'STE, v. t. To taste before pos- session ; to have previous enjoyment or experience of something; to anticipate. 2. To taste before another. FORETA'STED, pp. Tasted beforehand or before another. Milton.

    FORETA'STER, n. One that tastes before- hand or before another. FORETA'STING, ppr. Tasting before. FORETE'ACH, v. t. To teach beforehand. Spenser. FORETELL', v. t. To predict ; to tell be- fore an event happens ; to pro])hesy.

    Milton. Pope. 2. To foretoken ; to foreshow. Warton.

    FORETELL', i'. i. To utter prediction or prophecy.

    All the prophets from Samuel, and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have like- wise /orefoM of these days. Acts iii. FORETELL' ER, n. One who predicts or propliesies; a foreshower. Boyle.

    FORETELLING, n. Prediction. FORETHINK;, v. t. To think beforehand ; to anticipate in the mind.

    The soul of every man Perpetually does forethink thy fall. Shak. 2. To contrive beforeliand. Bp. Hall.

    FORETHINK', !'. i. Tx, contrive before- hand. Smith. FORETHOUGHT', /orefAaui'. pret. of fure-

    think. FO'RETHOUGHT, n. fo rethaut. A think- ing beforehand ; anticipation ; prescience : premeditation. 2. Provident care. Blacksione.

    FORETO'KEN, v. t. To foreshew ; to pre- signify ; to prognosticate. Whilst strange prodigious signs foretoken Wood. Daniel.

    FORETO'KEN, n. Prognostic; previous sign. Sidney.

    FO'RETOOTH, n. p\\a. foreteeth. One of| the teeth in the forepart of the mouth ; an incisor. FO'RETOP, 71. The hair on the forepart of the head.

    2. That part of a woman's headdress that is forward, or the top of a periwig.

    3. In ships, the platform erected at the head of the foremast. In this sense, the accent on the two syllables is nearly equal.

    FORETOP'-MAST, n. The mast erected at the head of the foremast, and at the head of which stands the foretop-gallant- niast.

    FOREVOUCH'ED, pp. Affirmed before ; formerly told. Shak.

    FO'REVVARD, n. The van ; the front. 1 Maccabees.

    FOREWARN', v. t. foreivaurn'. To admon- ish beforehand.

    I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear.

    2. To inform previously ; to give previous notice. Milton.

    3. To caution beforehand. Dryden. FOREVVARN'ED, pp. Admonished, cau- tioned or informed beforehand.

    FOREWARN'ING,;);)r. Previously admon- ishing or informing.

    FOREVVARN'ING, n. Previous admoni- tion, caution or notice.

    FOREWEND', v. I. To go before. 05.t.


    FOREWISH', V. t. To wish beforehand.


    FO'REVVoMAN, n. A woman who is chief; the head woman. Taller.

    FOREVVORN, /?;>. [See mar.] Worn out; wasted or obliterated by time or use.


    FOR'FEIT, v.t.for'fit. [Fr.forfaire,forfa{t; Low L. forisfacere, from L. foris, out or abroad, and facio, to make; Norm./or/Uee, forfeit, and forfist, forfeited.]

    To lose or render confi.scable, by some fault, offense or crime ; to lose the right to some species of property or that which belongs to one ; to alienate the right to possess by some neglect or crime ; as, to forfeit an estate by a breach of the condition of ten- ure or by treason. By the ancient laws of England, a man forfeited his estate by neglecting or refusing to fulfill the condi- tions on which it was granted to him, or by a breach of fealty. A man now forfeits his estate by committing treason. A man forfeits his honor or reputation by a breach of promise, and by any criminal or dis- graceful act. Statutes declare that by cer- tain acts a man shall forfeit a certain sum of money. Under the feudal system, the right to the land forfeited, vested in the lord or superior. In modern times, the right to things forfeited is generally regu lated by statutes ; it is vested in the state, in corporations, or in prosecutors or in- formers, or partly in the state or a corpo- ration, and partly in an individual.

    The duelist, to secure the reputation of brave- ry, /o»/ei(s the esteem of good men, and the fa- vor of heaven.

    FOR'FEIT, n. for'Jit. [Fr. forfail; W.for- fed; how L.foyisfactura. Originally, and still in French, a trespass, transgression or crime. But with us, the effect of some transgression or offense.]

    1. That which is forfeited or lost, or the ri, to which is alienated by a crime, offense, neglect of duty, or breach of contract; hence, a fine ; a mulct ; a penalty. He that murders pays the forfeit of his life.

    When a statute creates a penalty for a transgression, either in money or in corpo- ral punishment, the offender who, on con- viction, pays the money or suffers the pun- ishment, pays the forfeit.

    2. One whose life is forfeited. [Not used.]


    FOR'FEIT, part. a. used for forfeited. Lost or alienated for an offense or crime ; liable to penal seizure. And his long toils vseie forfeit for a look.


    FORFEITABLE, a. Liable to be forfeited ; subject to forfeiture.

    — For the future, uses shall be subject to the statutes of mortmain, and forfeitable like the lands themselves. Blacksione.

    FOR'FEITED, pp. Lost or alienated by an offense, crime or breach of condition.

    FOR'FEITING, ppr. Alienating or losing, as a right, by an offense, crime or breach of condition.

    FOR'FEITURE, n. The act of forfeiting ; the losing of some right, privilege, estate, honor, office or effects, by an offense, crime, breach of condition or other act. In regard to property, forfeiture is a loss of the right to possess, but not generally the actual possession, which is to be transfer- red by some subsequent process. In the feudal system, a forfeiture of lands gave him in reversion or remainder a right to enter.

    2. That which is forfeited; an estate forfeit- ed ; a fine or mulct. The prince enriched his treasury by fines andyo

    forfe of S(


    FOViG\'YF, pret. of forgive, which see.

    FORGE, n. [Fr. forge ; Sp. Port, forja ; probably from L. ferrum, iron ; It. fer- riera, a forge ; Port, ferragem, iron-work.]

    1. A furnace in which iron or other metal is heated and hammered into form. A lar- ger forge is called with us iron-works. ' Smaller forges consisting of a bellows so placed as to cast a stream of air upon igni- ted coals, are of various forms and uses. Armies have travelling forges, for repair- ing gun-carriages, &c.

    2. Any place where any thing is made or shaped. Hooker.

    3. The act of heating or working iron or steel ; the manufacture of metalline bodies.

    In the greater bodies the forge was easy.


    FORgE, v. t. To form by heating and ham- mering ; to beat into any particular shape, as a metal.

    2. To make by any means.

    Names that the schools forged, and put into the mouths of scholars. Locke.

    2. To make falsely ; to falsify ; to counter- feit ; to make in the likeness of something else ; as, to forge coin ; to forge a bill of exchange or a receipt.

    FORGED, pp. Hammered ; beaten into shape; made; counterfeited.

    FORgER, n. One that makes or forms.

    2. One who counterfeits ; a falsifier.

    FORGERY, n. The act of forging or work- ing metal into shape. In this sense, rarely or never now used.

    2. The act of falsifying; the crime of coun- terfeiting; as the forgery of coin, or of bank notes, or of a bond. Forgery may




    consist ill counterfeiting a writing, or setting a false name to it, to the prejudice of another person.

    3. That which is forged or counterfeited Certain letters, purporting to be written by Gen. Washington, during the revolution, were forgeries.

    FORGET', v.t. pret. forgot, [forgat, ohs.] ][,\\y. forgot, forgotten. [Sax. forgetan,forgi tan, forgylan ; G. vergessen ; D. vergeettn Sw. forgbta ; Dan. forgietter ; for and

    1. To lose the remembrance of; to let go from the memory.

    Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits. Ps. eiii.

    2. To slight ; to neglect.

    Can a woman/orgcf her sucking child — .' Yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee. Is. xlix. FORGET'FUL, a. Apt to forget ; easily losing the remembrance of A forgetful'^ man should use helps to strengthen his memory.

    3. Heedless ; careless ; neglectful ; inatten- tive.

    Be not forgetful to entertain strangers Heb. xiii. 3. Causing to forget ; inducing oblivion ; ob- livious ; as forgetful draughts. Dryden FORGET'FULNESS, n. The quality of losing the remembrance or recollection of a thing ; or rather, the quality of being; apt to let any thing slip from the mind.

    2. Loss of remembrance or recollection ; a ceasing to remember ; oblivion.

    A sweet forgetfulness of human care. Pope.

    3. Neglect ; negligence ; careless omission ; inattention ; as forgetfulness of duty.


    FORGET'TER, n. One that forgets; a heedless person.

    FORGET'TING, ppr. Losing the remem- brance of.

    FORGET'TING, n. The act of forgetting; forgetfulness ; inattention.

    FORGET'TINGLY, adv. By forgetting or forKCtfuliiess. B. Jonson.

    FORGIVABLE, a. [See Forgive.] That may be pardoned. Sherwood.

    FORGIVE, v.t. forgiv'. pret. forgave ; pp.' forgiven, [/or and give ; Sa.x. forgifan ; GoXh.fragiban ; G. vergeben ; D. vergeeven j Dan. forgiver; Sw. tilgifva. Tlie sense is to give from, that is, away, as we see by tlie Gothic fra, from. The English for, and G. and D. tier, are the same word, or from the same root ; ver is the Eng. far. The Swedish HI signifies to, and in this coiiipiiund, it signifies toward or back ill L. remitto. See Give.]

    i. To pardon ; to remit, as an offense or debt ; to overlook an offense, and treat the offender as not guilty. The original and proper phrase is to forgive the offense, send it away, to reject it, that is, not to impute it, [|iiit it to] the offender. But by an easy transition, we also use the phrase, o forgive the person offending. Forgive us our debts. Lord's Prayer.

    11 ye forgive men their trespasses, your hca- \\ I Tily fatlier will also/oigiue you. Matt. vi.

    As savages never forget a favor, so they never

    ,'"<;;([•(■ an injury. jV. Chipman.

    It is to be noted that pardon,iike forgive,

    may be followed by the name or person.

    and by the offense ; but remit can be fol-l lowed by the offense only. We forgive ori pardon the man, but we do not remit him.

    2. To remit as a debt, fine or penalty. FORGIVEN, p». Pardoned; remitted. FORGIVENESS, n. forgiv' iiess. The act

    of forgiving ; the pardon of an offender, by which he is considered and treated as not guilty. The forgiveness of enemies is a christian duty.

    3. The pardon or remission of an offense or crime; as the forgiveness of sin or of inju- ries.

    3. Disposition to pardon ; willingness to forgive.

    And mM forgiveness intercede

    To stop the coming blow. Dryden

    4. Remission of a debt, fine or penalty. FORGIVER, n. One who pardons or


    FORGIVING, ;)pr. Pardoning; remitting.

    2. a. Disposed to forgive ; inclined to over- look offenses ; mild ; merciful ; compas- sionate ; as a forgiving temper.

    FORGOT', I f f t

    FORGOTTEN, \\ PP- °' f^'S^*'

    FORHA'IL, f. «. To draw or distres.s. [Kol used.] Spenser.

    FORIN'SECAL, a. [L. forinsecus.] For- ign ; alien. [Little used.]

    FORISFAMIL'IATE, v.t. [L./om, with- out, and familia, family.]

    To renounce a legal title to a further share of paternal inheritance. Literally, to put one's self out of the family.

    El. of Criticism.

    FORISFAMILIA'TION, n. When a child has received a portion of his father's es- tate, and renounces all title to a further share, his act is caWed forisfamitiation, and he is said to he forisfamiliated. Encyc.

    FORK, n. [Sax. fore ; B. vork ; W.forc; Fr.fourche ; Arm. fork; Sp. horca ; Port. It.forca; L.furca.]

    1. An instrument consisting of a handle, and a blade of metal, divided into two or more points or prongs, used for lifting or pitch- iny any thing ; as a tablefork for feeding ; a pitchfork; a. dung fork, &c. Forks are, also made of ivorv, wood or other mate-' rial. " I

    2. A point ; as a thunderbolt with three forks. Shakspeare uses it for the point of

    an arrow.

    3. Forks, in the plural, the point where aj road parts into two ; and the point where a river di\\ ides, or rather where two rivers meet and unite in one stream. Each branch is called a fork.

    FORK', v. i. To shoot into blades, as corn. JHortimcr. To divide into two ; as, a road forks. FORK, V. t. To raise or pitch with a fork,

    as hay. !. To dig and break ground with a fork. 3. To make sharp ; to point. FORK'ED, pp. Raised, pitched or dug with a fork. . a. Opening into two or more parts, points or shoots ; as a forked tongue ; the forked lightning. . Ilaving two or more meanings. [A'ot in use.] B. Jonson.

    FORK'EDLY, adv. In a forked form. FORK'EDNESS, n. The quality of open- ing into two or more parts.

    FORKTAIL, n. year's growth. FORK'Y, a.

    FORK'HEAD, n. The point of an arrow.

    Spenser. A salmon, in his fourth [Local.] Forked ; furcated ; opening into two or more parts, shoots or points ; as aforky tongue. Pope.

    FORLO'RE, a. Forlorn. [Xot in use.] FORLORN', a. [Sax.forloren, fromforleoran, to send away, to relinquish, to desert, to lose ; leoran, to pass, to migrate ; D. verlooren; Dan. forloren, from fortorer, Sv/.furlora, to lose. Class Lr.J

    1. Deserted; destitute; stripped or dei»ri- ved ; forsaken. Hence, lost; helpless; wretched ; solitary.

    Of fortune and of hope at once forlorn.

    Hubbcrd. To live again in these wild woods/or/orn. Milton. For here forlorn and lost I tread.


    2. Taken away. Obs. When as night hath us of liglit/or/oni.


    3. Small ; despicable ; in a ludicrous sense. Shak.

    Forlorn hope, properly, a desperate case; hence in military affairs, a detachment of men appointed to lead in an assault, to storm a counterscarp, enter a breach, or perform othe*- service attended with un- common peril. FORLORN', n. A lost, forsaken, solitary person. Shak.

    FORLORN'NESS, n. Destitution ; misery ; a forsaken or wretched condition.

    Boyle. FORLyE, V. i. To lye before. [Ao/ used!]

    Spenser. FORM,)!. [L. forma; Fr. forme; Sp. forma, horma; It. forma ; Ir. foirm; h.vorm; G. form ; Sw. and Dan. form. The root of this word is not certainly known. The primary sense is probably to set, to fix, to fit. The D. vormen, is rendered, to form, to shape, to mold, to confirm ; and form may be allied to firm.]

    . The shape or external appearance of a body ; the figure, as defined by lines and angles ; that manner of being peculiar to each body, which exhibits it to the eye as distinct from every other body. Thus we speak of the form of a circle, the form of a square or triangle, a circular form, the form of the head or of the human body, a handsome form, an ugly form, a frigh'tful form.

    Matter is the basis or substratum of bod- ies ;/orm is the iiarticular disposition of matter in each body whicli distinguishes its appearance from that of every other body. the form of his visage was changed. Dan.iii. After that he appeared in another/oj-;H to two of them, as they walked. Mark xvi.

    2. Manner of arranging particulars; disposi- tion of particular things ; as a form of words or expressions.

    3. Model ; draught ; pattern. Hold fast the form of pound words, which

    thou hast heard of me. 2 Tim. i.

    4. Beauty ; elegance ; splendor ; dignity. He hath no form nor comeliness. Isa. liii.

    Regularity ; method ; order. This is a •ough draught to be reduced to form.




    6. External appearance without the esseU' tial qualities ; empty show.

    Having the form of godliness, but denying the power thereof. 2 Tim. iii.

    7. Stated method ; established practice ; rit- ual or prescribed mode ; as the forms of public worship ; the/orm» of judicial pro- ceeding ; forma of civility.

    8. Ceremony ; as, it is a mere matter of form.

    9. Determinate shape.

    The earth was without/orm, and void. Gen. i.

    10. Likeness ; image.

    Who, being in the form of God— Phil. ii. He took on him the /orm of a servant. Ibm.

    11. Manner; system; as a form of govern- ment; a monarchical or republican /onn

    12. Manner of arrangement ; disposition ofj component parts ; as the interior form or structure of the flesh or bones, or of other bodies.

    13. A long seat ; a bench without a back.


    14. In Kftoois, a class ; a rank of students.


    15. The seat or bed of a hare. Prior.

    16. A mold ; something to give shape, or on which things are fashioned. Encyc.

    17. In /))in

    18. Essential form, is that mode of existence which constitutes a thing what it is, and without which it could not exist. Thus water and light have each its particular form of existence, and the parts of water being decomposed, it ceases to be water AccidKnlal form is not necessary to the ex- istence of a body. Earth is earth still, whatever may be its color.

    FORM, V. t. [L.formo.] To make or cau; to exist.

    And the Lord GoA formed man of the dust of the ground. Gen. ii.

    2. To shape ; to mold or fashion into a par- ticular shape or state : as, to form an im- age of stone or clay.

    3. To plan ; to scheme ; to modify.


    4. To arrange ; to combine in a particular manner ; as, to form a line or square of troops.

    5. To adjust ; to settle.

    Our differences with the Romanists are thus formed into an interest — Decay of Piety.

    6. To contrive ; to invent ; as, to form a de- sign or scheme.

    7. To make up ; to frame ; to settle by de- ductions of reason ; as, to form an opinion or judgment ; to form an estimate.

    8. To mold ; to model by instruction and discipline ; as, to form the mind to virtu- ous habits by education.

    9. To combine ; to unite individuals into a collective body ; as, to form a society for

    The senate and house of representatives forin the legislative body.

    13. In grammar, to make by derivation, or by affixes or prefixes. L. do, in the pre- terit, forms dedi.

    14. To enact ; to make ; to ordain ; as, to form a law or an edict.

    FORM, V. i. To take a form.

    FORM'AL, a. According to form ; agreea- ble to established mode ; regular ; me- thodical.

    2. Strictly ceremonious ; precise ; exact to affectation ; as a man formal in his dress, bis gait or deportment.

    3. Done in dne form, or with solemnity ; ex- press ; according to regular method ; not incidental, sudden or irregular. He gave lus formal consent to the treaty.

    4. Regular; methodical ; as the/ormaZ stars.


    5. Having the form or appearance without the substance or essence ; external ; as

    format duty ; formal worship.

    6. Depending on customary forms.

    Still in constraint your sufl'ering sex remains. Or bound in/or/no/ or in real chains. Pope.

    7. Having the power of making a thing what it is ; constituent ; essential.

    Of letters the material part is breath and voice ; the formal is constituted by the mo- tions and ligure of the organs of speech. Holder.

    8. Retaining its proper and essential char- acteristic; regular; proper.

    To make of him a formal man again. Shak. FORM'ALISM, n. Formality. [The latter

    is generally used.] Burke.

    FORM'ALIST, n. One who observes forms,

    or practices external ceremonies. More

    10. To make ; to establish. The subscri-1 bers are formed by law into a corporation.! They have formed regulations for their! government. I

    11. To compile ; as, to form a body of laws or customs ; to form a digest.

    19. To constitute ; to make. Duplicity /orwis no part of his character. Tliese facts fomil a safe foundation for our conclusions.!

    2. One who regards appearances only, or observes the forms of worship, without possessing the life and spirit of religion ; a hypocrite. A grave face and the regular practice of ceremonies have often gained to R formalist the reputation of piety.

    FORMAL'ITY, n. The practice or obser- vance of forms.

    Formalities of extraordinary zeal and piety are never more studied and elaborate than in desperate designs. K. Charles.

    2. Ceremony ; mere conformity to customa- ry modes.

    Nor was his attendance on divine offices a matter o( formality and custom, but of con- science. Mterbury.

    .3. Established order ; rule of proceeding ; mode ; method ; as the formalities of judi- cial process; formalities of law.

    4. Order ; decorum to be observed ; custom- ary mode of behavior. L' Estrange.

    5. Customary mode of diess ; habit ; robe.


    6. External appearance. Glanville.

    7. Essence ; the quahty which constitutes a thing what it \\s.

    The formality of the vow lies in the promise made to God. Stilling^fleet.

    8. In the schools, the manner in which a thing is conceived ; or a manner in an ob- ject, importing a relation to the under- standing, by which it may be distinguish- ed from another object. Thus animality and rationality are formalities. Encyc.

    FORM'ALIZE, v. t. To model. [ATot used.]


    FORM'ALIZE, v. i. To affect formality.

    [Lillle used.] Hales.

    FORM' ALLY, adv. According to establish- ed form, rule, order, rite or ceremony. A treaty was concluded and formally ratified by both parties.

    2. Ceremoniously ; stiffly ; precisely ; as, to be stiff and /orma% reserved.

    3. In open appearance ; in a visible and ap- parent state.

    You and your followers do stand formally divided against the authorized guides of the church, and the rest of the people. Hooker.

    4. E.ssentially ; characteristically.

    That which formally makes this [charity] a christian grace, is the spring from which it flows. Smalridge.

    FORMA'TION, n. [Fr. from L./ormofio.] The act of forming or making ; the act of creating or causing to exist ; or more gen- erally, the operation of composing, by bringing materials together, or of shaping and giving form ; as the formation of the earth ; the formation of a state or consti- tution.

    2. Generation ; production ; as the forma- tion of ideas.

    .3. The manner in which a thing is formed. Examine the peculiar formation of the heart.

    4. In grammar, the act or manner of form- ing one word from another, as controller from control.

    5. In geology, formation may signify a sin- gle mass of one kind of rock, more or less extensive, or a collection of mineral sub- stances, formed by the same agent, under the same or similar circumstances ; or it may convey the idea, that certain masses or collections of minerals were formed not only by the same agent, but also at the same time. In this latter sense the term is almost always employed. Cleaveland.

    FORM'ATIVE, a. Giving form; having the power of giving form ; plastic.

    The meanest plant cannot be raised without seeds, by any formative power residing in the soil. Bentley.

    2. In grammar, serving to form ; derivative ; not radical ; as a termination merely _/bnn- ative.

    FORM'ED, pp. Made ; shaped ; molded ; planned ; arranged ; combined ; enacted ; constituted.

    FORM'EDON, Ji. [forma doni.] A writ for the recovery of lands by statute of West- minster. Eng. Law.

    FORM'ER, n. He that forms; a maker; an author.

    FOR'MER, a. comp. deg. [Sax./orm,/onn,n, but it is rendered primus, first. The Sax- on word seems to be composed of fore and ma, more ; but of this I am not confident.]

    1. Before in time ; preceding another or something else in order of time ; opposed to latter.

    Her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be bis wife, after that she is defiled. Deut. xxiv.

    The former and the latter rain. Jcr. 5.

    2. Past, and frequently ancient, long past.

    For inquire, 1 pray tli Job viii.

    pray tliee, of the former age.

    3. Near the beginning; preceding; as the' former part of a discourse or argument. . Mentioned before anotlier.

    A bad author deserves better usage than a critic ; a man may br: the formcrmcieW tliiouirlt


    the misfortune of want of judgment ; hut he cannot be the latter without both that and an ill temper. Pop^-

    FOR'MERLY, adv. In time past, either in time immediately preceding, or at any in- definite distance; of old; heretofore. We formerly imported slaves from Africa. Na- tions formerly made slaves of prisoners taken in war.

    FORM'FUL, a. Ready to form ; creative ; imaginative. Thomson.

    FOR'MIATE, n. [from L. formica, an ant.] A neutral salt, composed of the formic acid and a base.

    FOR'MI€, a. [L. formica, an ant.] Pertain- ing to ants ; as the formic acid, the acid of ants.

    FORMIeA'TION, n. [L. formicatio, from formica, or formica, an ant ]

    A sensation of the body resembling that made by the creeping of ants on the skin.

    FORM'IDABLE, a. [L. formidabUis, from formido, fear.]

    Exciting fear or apprehension ; impressing dread; adapted to excite fear and deter from approach, encounter or undertaking It expresses less than terrible, terrific, tre- mendous, horrible, atii\\ frightful.

    They seemed to fear the formidable sic;ht.

    Dryden 1 swell my preface into a volmne, and make it formidable, when you see so many pages be- hind. Ih-yden

    FORM'IDABLENESS, n. The quality of being formidable, or adapted to excite dread.

    FORM'IDABLY, adv. In a manner to im press fear.

    FORM'LESS. a. [from form.] Shapeless; without a determinate form ; wanting reg- ularity of shape. Shak

    FORM'ULA, } [L.] A prescribed form ; a

    FORM'ULE, S "■ rule or model.

    9. In medicine, a prescription.

    3. In church affairs, a confession of faith.


    4. In mathematics, a general expression tor resolving certain cases or problems.

    Cyc. FORM'ULARY, n. [Fr. formulaire, from

    h.formula.] A book containing stated and prescribed forms, as of oaths, declarations, prayers and the like ; a book of precedents.

    Encyc. 2. Prescribed form.

    FORMULARY, a. Stated; prescribed; rit- ual. Johnson. FORN'I€ATE, ? „ [L. fornicatus, from FORN'I€ATED, S fornix, an arch.] Arched ; vaulted like an oven or furnace.

    Encyc. FORN'I€ATE, V. i. [L. fornicor, from for- nix, a brothel.] To commit lewdness, as an unmarried man or woman, or as a married man with unmarried woman.

    If a brahmen fornicate with a Nayr woman, he shall not thereby lose his cast.

    .is. Besearches FORNI€A'TION, n. [L. fornicatio.] The incontinence or lewdness of immarried persons, male or female ; also, the criminal conversation of a married man with an unmarried woman.

    Laws of Connecticut.

    Vol. I.


    2. Adultery. Matt. v.

    3. Incest. 1 Cor. v.

    4. Idolatry ; a forsaking of the true God, and worshipping of idols. 2 Chron. xxi. Rev. xix.

    5. An arching ; the forming of a vault. FORNICATOR, n. An unmarried person,

    male or female, who has criminal conver- sation with the other sex ; also, a niarried man who has sexual commerce with an unmarried woman. [See Adultery.']

    2. A lewd person.

    3. An idolater. FORNICATRESS, n. An unmarried fe

    male guilty of lewdness. Shak.

    FORP'ASS, V. i. To go by ; to pass unuo ticed. Obs. Spenser.

    FORPI'NE, V. i. To pine or waste away. Obs. Spenser.

    FORRA'Y, V. t. To ravage. Obs. Spenser. [Q,u. forage.]

    FORRA'Y, 71. The act of ravaging. Obs.

    FORSA'KE, J'. <. pret. /or«ooft; pp. forsa- ken. [Sax. forsacan,forsa:can; for, a nega- tive, and secan, to seek. See Seek. Sw. forsaka, Dan. forsager, G. versagen, D. verzaaken, to deny, to renounce. See Seek and Say.] . To quit or leave entirely; to desert; to abandon ; to depart from. Friends and flatterers forsake us in adversity. Forsake the foolish, and live. Prov. ix.

    2. To abandon ; to renounce ; to reject.

    If his children /orsaAre my law, and walk nol in my judgments — Ps. Ixxxix.

    Cease from anger, and forsake wrath. Ps

    3. To leave ; to withdraw from ; to fail. In anger, the color forsakes the cheeks. In severe trials, let not fortitude forsake you

    4. In scripture, God forsakes his people when he withdraws his aid, or the light of his countenance. Brown

    FORSA'KER, n. One that forsakes or de- serts. FORSA'KEN, pp. Deserted; left; aban- doned. FORSA'KING, ;>;»•. Leaving or deserting. FORSA'KING, n. The act of deserting;

    dereliction. FORSA'Y, V. t. To forbid; to renounce Obs. Spenser

    FORSLACK', i;. t. To delay. Obs.

    Spenser. FORSOOTH', adv. [Sax. forsothe ; for and

    soth, true.] In truth ; in fact ; certainly ; very well. A fit man, forsooth, to govern a realm.

    Hayward. It is generally used in an ironical or con- temptuous sense. FORS'TER, n. A forester. Obs.


    FORSWEAR, V. t. pret. forswore ; pp. for- sworn. [Snx.forstccerian ; Dan. forsvarer ; Sw. fh'svhra ; G. verschworen, abschworen ; D. afzioeeren. See Stvear and Answer.]

    1. To reject or renounce upon oath. Shak,

    2. To deny upon oath. Like innocence, and as serenely bold


    To forswear one''s self, is to swear falsely ; to perjure one's self

    tbou shall not /oisii-ear thyself. Malt

    FORSWEAR, t'. i. To swear falsely; to

    commit perjury. Shak.



    FORSWEABER, n. One who rejects on oath ; one who is perjured ; one that

    swears a false oath. FORSWEARING, ppr. Denying on oath ;

    swearing falsely. FORSWONK', a. fSax. «M;tncan, to labor.]

    Overlabored. Obs. Spenser.

    FORSWORE, prc<. of forswear. FORSWORN, /jip. of forswear. RenouBced

    1 oath ; perjured. FORSWORNNESS, n. The state of being

    forsworn. Manning.

    FORT, 71. [Fr. fort; It. Vort. forte; Sp. fuerte, fiierza ; h.foriis, strong.]

    1. A fortified place ; usually, a small forti- fied place ; a place surrounded with a ditch, rampart, and parapet, or with pali- sades, stockades, or other means or de- fense ; also, any building or place fortified for security against an enemy ; a castle.

    2. A strong side, opposed to weak side or foible.

    FORTE, adv. [Ital.] A direction to sing with strength of voice.

    FORTED, a. Furnished with forts ; guard- ed by forts. Shak.

    FORTH, adv. [Sax. foiih; G.fort ; D. voort ; from fore, for, faran, to go, to advance.]

    1. Forward ; onward in time ; in advance ; as from that day forth ; from that time forth.

    2. Forward in place or order ; as one, two, three, and so forth.

    3. Out ; abroad ; noting progression or ad- vance from a state of confinement ; as, the plants in spring put forth leaves.

    When winter past, and summer scarce begun, Invites theni/or(A to labor in the sun.


    4. Out ; away ; beyond the boundary of a place ; as, send h\\m forth of France. [Lit- tle used.]

    5. Out into public view, or public character. Your coimtry calls you forth into its ser- vice.

    6. Thoroughly ; from beginning to end. Obs. Shak.

    7. On to the end. Obs. FORTH, prep. Out of.

    From forth the streets of Pomfrel. Shak.

    Some forth their cabins peep. Donne.

    FORTH-COM'ING, a. [See Co7ree.] Ready

    to appear ; making appearance. Let the

    prisoner be forth-coming.

    FORTHINK', V. t. To repent of. [A"o< in

    use.] Spenser.

    FORTH-ISSUING, a. [See /ss»e.] Issuing;

    coming out ; coming forward as from a

    covert. Pope.

    FORTHRIGHT, adv. [See Right.] Straight

    forward ; in a straight direction. Obs.

    Sidney. FORTHRIGHT, 7i. A straight path. Obs. Shak. FORTHWARD, adv. Forward.

    Bp. Fisher. FORTHWITH', adv. [forth and leith.] Im- mediately ; without delay ; directly.

    Immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales ; and he received his sight forth- with. Acts ix. FO'RTHY, adv. [Sax. forthi.] Therefore. [.\\ot used.] Spenser.

    FOR'TIETH, a. [See Forty.] The fourth tenth ; noting the number next after the thirty ninth.


    FOR'TIFIABLE, a. That may be fortifieil

    FORTIFleA'TION, n. [See Fortify.] The act of fortifying. „ , .^ . ,

    o The art or science of fortifying places defend them against an enemy, by means of moats, ramparts, parapets and other bulwarks. „ , -Enci/c.

    3. The worlss erected to defend a place against attacl?.

    4. A fortified place ; a fort ; a castle

    5. Additional strength. FOR'TIFIER, n. One who erects works

    for defense. C-'orei*.

    2 One who strengthens, supports and up

    holds ; that which strengtliens. Sidney. FOR'TIFY, V. t. [Fr. foHijitr ; Sp. forbji-

    car; It. foHificare.]

    1 To surround with a wall, ditch, palisades or other works, with a view to defend against the attacks of an enemy ; to strengthen and secure by forts, batteries and other works of art ; as, to fortify a city, town or harbor.

    2 To strengthen against any attack ; as, to foHify the mind against siulilen calamity

    3. To confirm ; to add strength and tirii nessto ; as,io fortify an opinion or resol tion ; to fortify hope or desire.

    4. To furnish with strength or means of re- sisting force, violence or assauh.

    FOR'TIFY, V. i. To raise strong places,

    Milton. FORTILAgE, jj. a little fort ; a block

    house, [mtused.] JP'"^^''-\\

    FORTIN, n. [Fr.] A little fort ; a field fort ; I a sconce. t^iiciK.

    FORTITUDE, n. [L. fortitudo, from /or/is, strong.] „ . , ,

    Tiiat strength or firmness of mina or soul which enables a person to encounter dan- ger with coolness and courage, or to bear pain or adversity without murmurmg, de- pression or despondency. Fortitude is the basis or source of genuine courage or intrepidity in danger, of patience in suf ferin", of forbearance under injuries, and of mlignanimity in all conditions of life. We sometimes confound the eflfect with the cause, and use fortitude as synonymous with courage or patience; but courage is an active virtue or vice, and patience is the effect of fortitude.

    Fortitude is the guard and suppoitof the oth^ er virtues. FORTLET, n. A little fort. FORT'NIGHT, n.foH'nit. [contracted froml fourteen nights, our ancestors reckoning time by nights and winters ; so also, seven- nights, sennight, a week. Non dieruin numerum, ut nos, sed noctium compiitant. Tacitus.] The space of fourteen days ; two weeks. FOR'TRESS,K. [Fr. forleresse ; It.fortezza;

    {tomfoH,foHe, strong.] 1 Any fortified place ; a fort ; a castle ; a strong hold; a place of defense or secu rlty. The English have a strong fortress on the rock of Gibraltar, or that rock is fortress. 2. Defense ; safety ; security.

    The Lord is my rock, and my fortress. Ps.

    FOR'TRESS, V. t. To furnish with fortres- ses ; to guard ; to fortify. Shak.


    FOR'TRESSED, a. Defended by a for- tress ; protected ; secured. Spenser. FORTUITOUS, a. [L. fortuitus, from the root of/ora, foiie,fortuna ; Fr. fortuit ; It. Sp. fortuito. The primary sense is to come, to fall, to happen. See Fare.] Accidental ; casual ; happening by chance coming or occurring unexpectedly, or without any known cause. We speak ot fortuitous events, when they occur with- out our foreseeing or expecting them, and of a fortuitous concourse of atoms, when we suppose the concourse not to result from the design and power of a control ling agent. But an event cannot be in fact fortuitous. [See Accidental and Cas- ual] FORTU'ITOUSLY, adv. Accidentally ; cas- ually ; by chance. ,. /• FORTUITOUSNESS, n. The quality of

    being accidental ; accident ; chance.

    FOR'TUNATE, a. [L. fortunatus. See

    , Fortune.] , , ,

    Coming by good luck or favorable chance ;

    bringing some unexpected good ; as a


    of circumstances; a fortunate ticket in


    4. The chance of life ; means of living : wealth.

    His father dying, he was driven to London to seek \\v\\s fortune. Swift.

    5. Estate ; possessions ; as a gentleman of small fortune.

    6. A large estate ; great wealth. This is often the sense of the word standing alone or unqualified; as a gentleman or lady of fortune. To the ladies we say, beware of /oritme-hunters.

    7. The portion of a man or woman ; gener- ally of a woman.

    i. Futurity ; future state or events ; destinj-. The young are anxious to have their for- tunes told.

    You who men's fortunes in their faces read.


    FOR'TUNE, I', t. To make fortunate. [J^ot

    used.] Chaucer.

    2. To dispose fortunately or not ; also,



    '.. Lucky ; successful ; receiving soi foreseen or unexpected good, or some good which was not dependent on one's own skill or efibrts ; as a fortunate adventurer in a lottery. I was most fortunate thus unexpectedly to meet my friend.

    3. Successful ; happy ; prosperous ; receiv- ing or enjoying some good in consequence of efforts, but where the event was uncer- I tain, and not absolutely in one's power. The brave man is usually fortunate. We say, a fortunate competitor for a fair lady, or for a crown.

    FOR'TUNATELY, adv. Luckily ; success- fully ; happily ; by good fortune, or favor- able chance or issue.

    FOR'TUNATENESS, n. Good luck ; suc- ness. Sidney.


    ss ; happii FOR'TUNE, n. [Fr. from h.fortuna; Sp, and ll.fortuna; Ann. forlun; from the root of Sax. faran, to go, or L. fero or porta. So in D. gcbeuren, to happen, to fall, from the root of Icar; gebeurtenis, an

    Obs. Dryden.

    FOR'TUNE. V. i. To befall ; to fall out ; to happen ; to come casually to pass.

    It fortuned the same night that a christian serving a Turk in the camp, secretly gave the watchmen warning. KnoUes.

    FOR'TUNEBOOK, n. A book to be con- sulted to discover future events.

    Crashaw. FOR'TUNED, a. Supplied bv fortune.

    Shak. FOR'TUNE-HUNTER, n. A man who seeks to marry a woman with a large portion, with a view to enrich himself

    Addison. FORTUNELESS, a. Luckless ; also, des- titute of a fortune or portion. FOR'TUNETELL, v. t. To tell or pretend to tell the future events of one's life ; to reveal futurity. Shak.

    FOR'TUNETELLER, n. One who tells or pretends to foretell the events of one's life ; an impostor who deceives people by pretending to a knowledge of future events. FOR'TUNETELLING, jppr. Telling the

    future events of one's life. FOR'TUNETELLING, n. The act or prac- tice of foretelling the future fortune or events of one's life, which is a punishable

    ent. We find the same word in o;)por- IpoR'TUNIZE, v. t. To regulate the for-

    The I

    tunus, [ob-portmius,]


    of. [JVot in use.]


    So Fr. heureux, from hevre, hour, that is, time, season, and L. tempestivus. See Hour and Time. The Russ. ;)ora, time, season, is of this family, and fortune is closely allied to it.] Properly, chance; accident; luck arrival of something in a sudden c expected manner. Hence the heathens deified chance, and consecrated temples and altars to the goddess. Hence the modern use of the word, for a power su[ posed to distribute the lots of life, accor- ding to her own humor. Though /orfune's malice overthrow my state

    2. The good or ill that befalls man. In vou the fortune of Great Britain lies.

    ■' Dryden.

    3. Success, good or bad ; event.

    event, that which poR/xY, a. [Sax. feoivertig ; ft


    and tig, ten. See Four.^ I. Four times ten.

    All indefinite number; n colloquial use. A, B and C, and forty more. Sunfl.

    FO'RUM. n. TL. See Fair.] In Rome, a public place,' where causes were judicially tried, and orations delivered to the people ; also, a market place. Hence, A tribunal; a court; any assembly em- powered to hear and decide causes ; also, jurisdiction. FORWANDER, v.i. To wander away; to e wildly. [ATot used.] Spenser.

    FOR'WARD, adv. [Sax. foriveard ; for, fore, and wcard, turned, L. versus ; directed to the forepart. Forwards is also used, but it is a corruption.] Toward a part or place before or in front ; onward ; progressively ; opposed to back- ward. Go forward ; move forward. He I ran backward and fonvard.

    F O S

    F O S

    F O U

    In a Bhip, forward denotes toward the fore

    part. FOR'WARD, a. Near or at the forepart ; in advance of something else ; as tlie for ward gun in a sliip, or the/orioarrf ship ii a fleet ; the forward horse in a team. % Ready ; prompt ; strongly inclined.

    Only they would that we sliould lemembe the poor ; the same which I also was forward to do. Gal. u. .'?. Ardent ; eager ; earnest ; violent.

    Or lead the forward youth to noble war.


    4. Bold ; confident ; less reserved or modest than is proper ; in an ill sense ; as, the boy is too forward for his years.

    5. Advanced beyond the usual degree ; ad- vanced for the season. The grass or the grain is forward, or forward for the sea- son ; we have a. forward spring.

    6. Quick ; hasty ; too ready. Be not for- ward to speak in public. Prudence directs that we be not too forward to believe cur- rent reports.

    7. Anterior ; fore.

    Let us take the instant by the forward top. .SVioA-.

    8. Advanced ; not behindhand. Shak.

    FOR'WARD, V. t. To advance ; to help on- ward ; to promote ; as, to forward a good design.

    2. To accelerate ; to quicken ; to hasten ; as, to forward the growth of a plant ; to for- ward one in improvement.

    3. To send forward ; to send towards the place of destination ; to transmit ; as, to

    fonvard a letter or dispatches.

    FORWARDED, pp. Advanced; promo- ted ; aided in progress ; quickened ; sent onward ; transmitted.

    FOR'WARDER, n. He that promotes, or advances in progress.

    FOR' WARDING, ppr. Advancing; pro- moting; aiding in progress; accelerating in growth ; sending onwards ; transmit- ting.

    FOR'WARDLY, adv. Eagerly; hastily; quickly. Mterbury.

    FOR'WARDNESS, n. Cheerful readiness ; promptness. It expresses more than wil- lingness. We admire the forwardness of christians in propagating the gospel.

    2. Eagerness ; ardor. It is sometimes diffi- cult to restrain the forwardrtess of youth.

    3. Boldness; confidence; assurance; want of due reserve or modesty.

    In France it is usual to brine children into company, and cherish in them, from their infan- . cy, a kind of forwardness and assurance.


    4. A state of advance beyond the usual de- gree ; as the forwardness of spring or of

    FORWA'STE, J', t. To waste ; to desolate. [JVot in use.] Spenser.

    FORWE'ARY, v. I. To dispirit. [JVol in •use.] Spenser.

    FORWEE'P, V. i. To weep much.


    FOR'WORD, n. [fore and word.] A prom- ise. [J^ot in use.] Spenser.

    FOSS, 71. [Fr. fosse; Sp. fosa ; L. h. fossa ; from fossus, fodio, to dig. Class Bd.]

    1. A ditch or moat; a word used in fortifica- tion.

    2. In anatomy, a kind of cavity in a bone, with a large aperture. Eno/c.

    FOS'SIL, a. [Fr.fosfile; Sp. fosU; It. fos- site ; L.fosstlis, from fodio, fossus, to dig.]

    I. Dug out of tlie earth ; as fossil coeil; fos- sil salt. The term fossil is now usually appropriated to those inorganic substan ces, whicli have become penetrated by earthy or metallic i)articles. Thus we say, fossil sheWs, fossil bones, fossil wood, Cleaveland,

    3. That may be taken from the earth by dig-

    QS'SIL, n. A substance dug from tlie earth, or penetrated with earthy or metal- lic particles.

    Fossils are native or extraneous. ATative fos- sils are minerals, i)roperly so called, as earths, salts, combustibles and metallic bodies. Extraneous fossils are bodies of vegetable or animal origin accidentally buried in the earth, as plants, shells, bones and other substances, many of which are petrified. Encyc.

    FOSSIL-COP.'VL, n. Highgate resin; a resinous substance found in perforating the bed of blue clay at Highgate, near London. It appears to be a true vegeta- ble gum or resin, partly changed by re- maining in the earth. Cyc. Aikin.

    FOS'SILIST, n. One who studies the na- ture and properties of fossils ; one who is versed in the science of fossils. Black.

    FOSSILIZA'TION, n. The act or process

    of converting into a fossil or petrifaction.

    Journ. of Science.

    FOS'SILIZE, V. t. To convert into a fossil; , to fossilize bones or wood. Ibm.

    FOS'SILIZE, ?,'. i. To become or be chang- ed into a fossil.

    FOS'SILIZED, pp. Converted into a fossil.

    FOS'SILIZING, ppr. Changing into a fos- sil.

    FOSSIL'06Y, n. [fossil, and Gr.Tioyo;, dis- course.]

    A discourse or treatise on fossils ; also, the ience of fossils.

    FOSS'ROAD, I „ A Roman mihtary way

    FOSS'WAY, S '"' England, leading from Totness through Exeter to Barton on the Humber; so called from the ditches on each side. Encyc.

    FOS'TER, V. t. [Sax. fostrian, from foster, a nurse or food ; Sw. and Dan. foster, a child, one fed ; Dan. fostrer, to nurse. I suspect this word to "be from food, quasi, foodster, for this is the D. word, voedsler, a nurse, from roerfcn, to feed ; D. voedsterheer, a foster-father.]

    1. To feed ; to nourish ; to support ; to bring up.

    Some say that raxens foster forlorn children. Shak.

    3. To cherish ; to forward ; to promote growth. The genial warmth of spring fosters the plants.

    3. To cherisli ; to encourage ; to sustain and promote ; as, to foster passion or ge- nius.

    FOS'TER, V. i. To be nourished or trained up togetiier. Speriser.

    FOS'TERAgE, n. The charge of nursing. Raleigh.

    FOSTER-BROTHER, n. A male nui-sed at the same breast, or fed by tiie same nurse.

    FOSTER-CHILD, n. A child nursed by a woman not the mother, or bred by a man not the father. Addison.

    FOSTER-DAM, n. A nurse ; one that per- foniis the office of a mother by giving food to a child. Dryden.

    FOS'TER-EARTH, n. Earth by which a plant is nourished, though not its native soil. Philips.

    FOSTERED, pp. Nourished ; cherished ; promoted.

    FOSTERER, n. A nurse ; one that feeds and nourishes in the place of parents.


    FOS'TER-F ATHER, n. One who takes the place of a father in feeding and educating a child. Bacon.

    FOS'TERING, ppr. Nursing ; cherishing ; bringing up.

    FOS'TERING, n. The act of nursing, nour- shing and cherishing.

    2. Nourishment. Chaucer.

    FOSTERLING, n. A fostcrcliild.

    B. Jonson.

    FOS'TERMENT, n. Food ; nourishment. [N'ot used.]

    FOS'TER-MOTHER, n. A nurse.

    FOSTER-NURSE, n. A nurse. [Tautologi- cal.]

    FOSTER-SISTER, n. A female nursed bv the same person. Swift.

    FOSTER-SON. n. One fed and educated, like a son, though not a son by birth.


    FOS'TRESS, n. A female who feeds and cherishes ; a nurse. B. Jonson.

    FOTH'ER, n. [G. fuder, a tun or load ; D. voeder ; Sax. fother, food, fodder, and a mass of lead, from the sense of stuffing, crowding. See Food.]

    A weight of lead containing eight pigs, and every pig twenty one stone and a half. But the fother is of different weights. With the |)himbers in London it is nine- teen hundred and a half, and at the mines, it is twenty two hundred and a half


    FOTH'ER, r. I. [from stuffing. See the pre- ceding word.]

    To endeavor to stop a leak in the bottom of a ship, while afloat, by letting down a sail by the corners, and putting chopped yarn, oakum, wool, cotton, &c. between it and the ship's sides. These substances are sometimes sucked into the cracks and the leak stopped. Mar. Did.

    FOTH'ERING, ppr. Stopping leaks, as above.

    FOTH'ERING, n. The operation of stop- ping leaks in a ship, as above.

    FoUG'ADE, n. [Fr. fougade ; Sp.fogada: from I,, focus.]

    In the art of war, a little mine, in the form of a well, 8 or 10 feet wide^ and 10 or 12 deep, dug under sornc work, fortification or post, charged with sacks of powder and covered with stones or earth, for des- troying the works by explosion. Encyc.

    FOUGHT, pret. and pp. of fight ; pron. faut. [See Fisht.]

    FOUGHTEN, for/oi

    FOUL, a. [Sax.fttl,faul; M.vuil; G.faid; Dan. fwl. In Ch. with a prefix, S3: na- bail, to defile. The Syr. with a different prefi.v, ^a.^ tafel, to

    F O U

    in elements with full, and probably thej primary sense of both is to put or throw| on, or to stuff, to crowd. See the significa- tion of the word in seamen's language.]

    1. Covered with or containing extraneous; matter which is injurious, noxious or of-j fensive ; filthy ; dirty ; not clean ; as a foul cloth ; foul hands ; a/ouJ chimney.

    My face k/ouI with weeping. Job xvi.

    2. Turbid; thick; muddy; as /ouZ water; a foul stream.

    3. Impure ; polluted ; as s.foxd mouth. Shak.

    4. Impure ; scurrilous ; obscene or profane ;| asfoul words ; foul language.

    5. Cloudy and stormy ; rainy or tempestu ous; as foul weather.

    6. Impure ; defiling ; as afotil disease.

    7. Wicked ; detestable ; abominable ; as : foul deed ; afoul spirit.

    Babylon— the hold of every foul spirit. Rev sviii.

    8. Unfair ; not honest ; not lawful or accor- fqUL'SPOKEN, ding to estabHshed rules or customs ; as

    9. Hateful ; ugly ; loathsome.

    Hast thou forgot The /ouJ witch Sycorax. ,,^

    10 Disgraceful; shameful; as a/ou/ defeat, Wlio lirst seduced them to that /birf revolt : Milton.

    11. Coarse; gross. ^ , ^ ,■

    Thev are all for rank and/o«( feeding.

    •' Felton.

    12. Full of gross humors or impurities.

    You perceive the body of our bingdom, How/o«/ it is. ^'"''f

    13. Full of weeds ; as, the garden is very

    14. Among seamen, entangled; hindered from motion ; opposed to char ; as, a rope isfoul.

    15. Covered with weeds or barnacles; as, the ship has afoul bottom.

    16 Not fair ; contrary ; as afoul wind.

    17. Not favorable or safe ; dangerous ; as a

    foul road or bay. To fall foul, is to rush on with haste, rough

    force and unseasonable violence. 2. To run against ; as, the ship fell foul of Ler consort. , , .

    These latter phrases show that this word is allied to tlie Fr. fouler, Eng. full, the sense of vvliich is to press. FOUL, V. t. [Sax.fulian, gefylan.] To make filthy ; to defile ; to daub ; to dirty ; to be mire; to soil; as, to foul tlie clothes ; to foul the face or hands. Ezek. xxxiv. 18. FOUL'DER, V. i. To emit great heat. [Jvot used.] Spenser.

    POUL'ED, pp. Defiled ; dirtied. FOUL'FACED, a. Having an ugly or hate- fid visage. ^ ,. *;'"'«• FOULFEE'DING, a. Gross ; feeding gross- jy_ Hall. FOUL'ING, ppr. Making foul ; defiling. FOUL'LY, adv. Filthily ; nastily ; hatefully; scandalously ; disgracefully ; shamefully

    F O U

    So foulmouthed a witness never appeared in

    ny cause. Mdison.

    FOUL'NESS, n. The quality of being foul

    or filthy ; filthiness ; defilement. 2. The quality or state of containing or be- ing covered with any thing extraneous which is noxious or offensive ; as the/ou(- 7iess of a cellar, or of a well ; the foulness of a musket ; the foulness of a ship's bot-


    chaste a nation as this, nor Bacon

    3. Pollution There is free from all pollution or foulne:

    4. Hatefulness; atrociousness ; as the/oi«i- ness of a deed.

    5. Ughness; deformity. The fmdness of th' infernal form to hide.


    6. Unfairness; dishonesty; want of candor. Piety is opposed to hypocrisy and insincerity

    and all falseness or foulness of intentions.


    Slanderous. Shak.

    2. Using profane, scurrilous or obscene Ian

    guage. FoU'MaRT, n. [Scol. foumaHe. Q,u. foul- martin.] The polecat. FOUND, pret. arxApp. of find.

    I ara found of them that sought me not. Is

    FOUND, I', t. [L. fundo, fundare ; Fr. fon- der; It. fondare; Sp. /undar; Ir. bun, stump, bottom, stock, origin; bunadhu, bunait, foundation. If n is radical in found, as I suppose, it seems to be the Ar

    I foully wronged him ; do, iorgiv


    2. Unfairly ; not honestly.

    Thou play'dst most foully for it.

    FOUL'MOUTHED, a. Using language scurrilous, opprobrious, obscene or pro- fane ; uttering abuse, or profane or ob scene words ; accustomed to use bad Ian guage.

    U J Heb. Ch. n:3 to build, that is, to set, found, erect. Class Bn. No. 7.]

    1. To lay the basis of any thing; to set, or place, as on something solid for support.

    It fell not, for it was founded on a rock Matt. vii. , „

    2. To begin and build ; to lay the foundation, and raise a superstructure ; as, to found a city.

    3. To set or place ; to establish, as on some thing solid or durable ; as, to found a gov ernment on principles of liberty.

    4. To begin ; to form or lay the basis ; as, to found a college or a library. Son " times to endow is equivalent to found.

    5. To give birth to ; to originate ; as, to found an art or a family. .

    6. To set ; to place ; to establish on a basis. Christianity is/ounderf on the rock of ages. Dominion is sometimes founded on con- quest ; sometimes on choice or voluntary consent.

    Power, founded on contract, can descend| only to him who has right by that contract. ■' Locke.

    . To fix firmly.

    I had else been perfect, WTiole as the m3.rh\\e, founded as the rock. Shak. FOUND, V. t. [L. fundo, fudi, fusum ; Fr. fondre ; Sp.fundir, or hundir ; It. fondere. The elements are probably Fd ; n being Q adventitious.]

    To cast ; to form by melting a metal and

    pouring it into a mold. Millon.\\

    [This verb is seldom used, but the derivative

    foundery is in common use. For found\\

    we use casf] ^ ^

    FOUNDA'TION, n. [L. fundatio ; Fr.fon-

    ' dalion; from h. fundo.]

    F O U

    1. The basis of an edifice; that part of n building which lies on the ground ; usually a wall of stone which supports the edi- fice.

    2. The act of fixing the basis. Tickel.

    3. The basis or ground-work, of any thing ; that on which any thing stands, and by which it is supported. A free govern- ment has its foundation in the choice and consent of the people to be governed. Christ is the /ounrfafion of the church.

    Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation, a stone — a jprecious corner-stone. Is. xxviii.

    Other foundation can no man lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 1 Cor,

    4. Original ; rise ; as the foundation of the world.

    5. Endowment ; a donation or legacy ap- propriated to support an institution, and constituting a permanent fund, usually for a charitable purpose.

    Establishment; settlement.

    FOUNDA'TIONLESS, a. Having no foun- dation. Hammond.

    FOUND'ED, ;>;). Set; fixed; estabhshed on a basis; begun and built.

    FOUND'ER, n. One that founds, establish- es and erects ; one that lays a foundation ; is the/oitndcr of a temple or city.

    2. One who begins ; an author ; one from whom any thing originates ; as the found- er of a sect of philosophers ; the founder of a family or race.

    .3. One who endows ; one who furnishes a permanent fund tor the support of an in- stitution ; as the founder of a college or hospital.

    [Fr. fondeur.] A caster ; one who casts metals in various forms ; as a founder of cannon, bells, hardware, printing types, &c.

    FOUND'ER, V. i. [Fr. fondre, to melt, to

    1. In seamen^s language, to fill or be filled and sink, as a ship.

    2. To fail : to miscari-y. Shak.

    3. To trip ; to fall. Chaucer.

    FOUND'ER, V. t. To cause internal inflam- mation and great soreness in the feet of a horse, so as to disable or lame hi—

    me, dc


    FOUND'ERED, pp. Made lame in the feet by inflammation and extreme tenderness.

    FOUND'EROUS, a. Failing ; liable to per- ish ; ruinous. [JVot in use.] Burke.

    FOUND'ERY, n. [Fi. fondeHe.] The art of casting metals into various forms for use ; the casting of statues.

    2. The house and works occupied in casting metals ; as a foundery of bells, of hollow ware, of cannon, of types, &c.

    FOUND'LING, n. [from found, find.] A deserted or exposed infant ; a child found without a parent or owner. A hospital for such children is called a foundling hos-

    FOUND'RESS, n. A female founder ; a woman who founds or establishes, or who endows with a fund.

    FOUNT', ? [L.fons; Fr. fontaine;

    FOUNT' AIN, S "■ Sp./iten

    F O W

    1. A spring, or source of water ; properly, a spring or issuing of water from the earth. This word accords in sense with wdl,ia our mother tongue ; but we now distin- guish them, applying/oun/ain to a natural spring of water, and well to an artificial pit of water, issuing from the interior of the earth.

    2. A small basin of springing water.


    3. A jet ; a spouting of water ; an artificial spring. Bacon.

    4. The head or source of a river. Drydtn.

    5. Original ; first principle or cause ; the source of any thing.

    Almighty God, the fountain of all goodness. Common Prayer.

    Fount of types. fSee Font.]

    FOUNTAIN-HEAD, «. Primary source; original ; first principle. Young.

    FOUNT'AINLESS, a. Having no fountain ; wanting a spring.

    A barren desert fountainless and dry.


    FOUNT'AIN-TREE, n. In tlie Canary isles, a tree which distills water from its leaves, in sufficient abundance for the in- habitants near it. Encyc.

    FOUNT'FUL, a. Full of springs ; as fount- ful Ida. Chapman.

    FOUR, a. [Sax. feowtr ; G. vier ; D. vier ; Sw.Jyra; Uan.fre. I suspect this word to be contracted from Goth. Jidwor, W. pedwar, Arm. pcvar, peder or petor, peoar. from which L. petoritum, petorritum, a car- riage with four wheels, petor-rota.]

    Twice two ; denoting the sum of two and two.

    F6URBE, n. [Fr.] A tricking fellow; a cheat. [J^Tot English.] Denham.

    FOURFOLD, a. Four double; quadruple;

    He shall restore I

    ) fourfold. 2 Sa

    FOURFOLD, n. Four times as much.

    FOURFQOTED, a. Quadruped ; having four feet ; as the horse and the o.\\.

    F6URRIER, n. [Fr.] A harbinger. [Xot English.] Buck.

    FOURSeORE, a. [See Score.] Four times twenty ; eighty. It is used elliptically for fourscore years ; as a man of fourscore.


    FOURSQUARE, a. Having four sides and four angles equal ; quadrangular.


    FOURTEEN, a. [four and ten ; Sax. feou- ertyn.] Four and ten ; twice se\\en.

    FOURTEENTH, a. The ordinal of four- teen ; the fourth after the tentli.

    FOURTH, a. The ordinal of four; the next after the third.

    FOURTH, n. In music, an interval conipo sed of two tones and a semitone. Three full tones compose a triton, or fourth re dundant.

    FOURTHLY, adv. In the fourth place.

    FOURWHEELED, a. Having or running on four wheels.

    FOVILLA, n. [L.foveo.] A fine substance, imperceptible to the naked eye, emitted from the pollen of flowers. Marfyn.

    FOWL, n. [Sax.fugeljugl ; G. and D. vo- gel; Dan. fugl; Sw.fogel; from the root of the L.fugto,fugo, Gr. ^(vyu, and signi- fying the flying animal.]

    F R A

    A Bying or winged anitnal ; the generic name of certain animals that move through the air by the aid of wings, Fowls have two feet, are covered with fethers, and have wings for flight. Bird is a young fowl or chicken, and may well be applied to the smaller species of fowls. But it has usurped the place of fowl, and is used improperly as the gene ric term.

    Fowl is used as a collective noun. We dined on fish a.nd fowl.

    Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the /oi/)< of the air. Gen. i.

    But this use in America is not frequent. We generally use the plural, fowls. The word is colloquially used for poultry, or rather, in a more limited sense, for barn door fowls.

    FOWL, V. i. To catch or kill wild fowls for game or food ; as by means of bird-li decoys, nets and snares, or by pursuing them with hawks, or by shooting.

    FOWL'ER, n. A sportsman who pursues wild fowls, or takes or kills them for f

    FOWL'ING, ppr. Pursuing or taking wild fowls.

    FOWL'ING, n. The art or practice of catching or shooting fowls ; also, falcon

    FOWL'INGPIECE, n. A light gun for shooting fowls.

    FOX, n. [Sax. fox ; G. fuchs ; D. vos.] An animal of the genus Canis, with a straight tail, yellowish or straw-colored hair, and erect ears. This animal burrows in tl earth, is remarkable for his cunning, ar preys on lambs, geese, hens or other small animals.

    2. A sly, cunning fellow.

    3. In seaman's language, a seizing made by twisting several rope-yarns together.

    4. Formerly, a cant expression for a sword,

    Shak FOX, V. t. To intoxicate ; to stupify. [JVot

    ^ised.] Boyle.

    FOX'€ASE, n. The skin of a fox. [^'ot

    itsed.] VEstrange.

    FOX'CHASE, n. The pursuit of a fox with

    hounds. Pope

    FOX'ERY, )i. Behavior like that of a fox,

    [N'ot in use.] Chaucer.

    FOX'EVIL, n. A kind of disease in which

    the hair falls ofi". Diet.

    FOX'GLOVE, n. The name of a plant, the

    Digitalis. FOX'HOUND, n. A hound for chasing fox

    es. Shenslone.

    FOX'HUNT, n. The chase or bunting of a

    fox. FOX'HUNTER, n. One who hunts or pur

    sues foxes witli hounds. _ FOX'ISH, \\ Resembling a fox in quali- FOX'LIKE, \\ "-ties ; cunning. FOX'SHIP, n. The character or qualitiei

    of a fox; cunning. Shak.

    FOX'TAIL, n. A species of grass, the Alo-

    pecurus. FOX'TRAP, 71. A trap, or agin or snare to

    catch foxes. FOX' Y, a. Pertaining to foxes ; wily. [J^ot

    FOY, n. [Fr. /oi.] Faith. [Xot used.]


    FRA'CAS, n. [Fr.] An uproar ; a noisy quarrel ; a disturbance.

    F R A

    FRA€T, V. t. To break. [A'bJ used.] FRACTION, n. [L. fraclio ; Fr. fraction ;

    from L. frango, fraclus, to break. See


    1. The act of breaking or state of being bro- ken, especially by violence. Burnet.

    2. In arithmetic and algebra, a broken part of an integral or integer ; any division of a whole number or unit, as j, two fifths, \\, one fourth, which are called vulgar frac- tions. In these, the figure above the line is called the numerator, and the figure be- low the line the denominator. In decimal fractions, the denominator is a unit, or 1,

    with as many cyphers annexed, as the numerator has places. They are com- monly expressed by writing the numera- tor oidy, with a point before it by which it is separated from the whole number: thus .5, which denotes five tenths, j%, or half the whole number ; .25, that is, /„\\, or a fourth part of the whole number.

    FRACTIONAL, a. Belonging to a broken number ; comprising a part or the parts of a unit ; as fractional numbers.

    FRA€'TIOlJS, a. Apt to break out into a passion ; apt to quarrel ; cross ; snappish ; as a fractious man.

    FRAC'TIOUSLY, adv. Passionately ; snap- pishlv.

    FRAC'TIOUSNESS, n. A cross or snap- pish temper.

    FRACTURE, n. [L./radura. See Break.] A breach in any body, especially a breach caused by violence ; a rupture of a solid body.

    2. In surgery, the rupture or disruption of a bone. A fracture is simple or compound ; simple, when the bone only is divided; compound, when the bone is broken, with a laceration of the integuments.

    3. In mineralogy, the manner in which a mineral breaSs, and by which its texture is displayed ; as a compact fracture ; a ^i- brous fracture ; foliated, striated or con- choidal fracture, &c. Kirwan.

    FRA€'TURE, v. t. To break ; to burst asunder; to crack ; to separate continuous parts ; as, to fracture a bone ; to fracture the skull. Wiseman.

    FRAC'TURED, pp. Broken ; cracked.

    FRACTURING, ppr. Breaking ; bursting asunder ; cracking.

    FRAti'ILE, a. [L. fragUis, from frango, to break.]

    1. Brittle ; easily broken.

    The stalk of ivy is tough, and not fragile.


    2. Weak ; liable to fail ; easily destroyed ; as fragile arms. Milton.

    FRAgIL'ITY, n. Brittleness; easiness to be broken. Bacon.

    2. Weakness ; liableness to fail. Knolles.

    3. Frailty ; liableness to fault. Wotton. FRAG'MENT, n. [L. fragmentum, from

    frango, to break.]

    1. A part broken oflf; a piece separated from any thing by breaking.

    Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. John vi.

    2. A part separated from the rest ; an im- perfect part ; as fragments of ancient wri- tings.

    3. A small detached portion ; as fragmoils of time. Franklin.

    F R A

    I'RAG'MENTARY, a. Composed of frag- ments. Donne. FRA'GOR, n. [L. See Break.] A loud and 1 2 sudden sound ; the report of any thing bursting ; a loud harsh sound ; a crash. 2. A strong or sweet scent. Obs. \\ i'RA'GRANCE, ) [L. fragrantia, from y, ^ fiagro, to smell strong.


    1 to emit or diffuse odor.

    F R A

    union of various parts ; as, to frame a house or other building. f o fit one thing to another ; to adjust ; to make suitable. Abbot.

    3. To make ; to compose ; as, to frame a law.

    For thou art framed of tlie linn truth of valor. Shak.




    Arabic is without a prefix, and the word belongs probably to the great family of reach, stretch.] Sweetness of smell ; that quahty of bodie which affects the olfactory nerves with an agreeable sensation ; pleasing scent ; grate- ful odor.

    Eve separate he spies. Vailed in a cloud of fragrance— .miton.

    The goblet crown'd, Breathed aroruatic fragrancies around . Pope. FRA'GRANT, a. Sweet of smell ; odor- ous.

    Fragrant the fertile earth

    After soft showers. Milton.

    FRAGRANTLY, adv. With sweet scent.


    FRAIL, a. [sui>posed to be from Fr. frHe

    It. f rale. Qu. L.fragilis, or from a dift'er-

    ent root.]

    1. Weak ; infirm ; liable to fail and decay

    subject to casualties ; easily destroyed

    4. To regulate ; to adjust ; to shape ; to con form ; us, to frame our lives according to the rules of the gospel,

    5. To form and digest by thought ; as, to frame ideas in the mind.

    How many excellent reasonings are framed in the mind of a man of wisdom and study in a length of years ! Watts

    6. To contrive; to plan; to devise; as, to frame a project or design.

    7. To invent ; to fabricate :

    bad sense ;

    perishable ; not firm or durable.

    That I may know how frail I am. Ps xxxix.

    2. Weak in mind or resolution ; liable to error or deception.

    Man is frail, and prone to evil. Taylor.

    3. Weak ; easily broken or overset ; as a frail bark.

    FRAIL, n. [Norm, fraile.] A basket made of rushes.

    2. A rush for weaving baskets. Johnson.

    3. A certain quantity of raisins, about 75 pounds. Encyc.

    FRA'ILNESS, n. Weakness; infirmity; as the frailness of the body.

    FRA'ILTY, n. Weakness of resolution ; in- firmity ; liableness to be deceived or se- duced.

    God knows our frailly, and pities our weak- ness. Locke

    2. Frailness; infirmity of body.

    3. Faidt proceeding f\\om weakness ; foible ; sin of infirmity ; in this sense it has a plu ral.

    FRAISCHEUR, n. [Fr.] Freshness; cool- ness. [Not English.] Dry den.

    FRAISE, n. [Fr. from It.fregio, ornament, frieze.]

    1. In fortifkation, a defense consisting of pointed stakes driven into the retrench inents, parallel to the horizon. Encyc.

    2. A pancake with bacon in it. Obs.

    Johnson FRAME, V. t. [Sax. fremman, to frame, to effect or perform ; Arm. framma, to join D. raam, a frame, G. rahm, a frame and cream ; Dan. rame ; Sw. ram ; Russ. ra- ma. Qu. Class Rm. No. 6. In Russ. to- mM is a frame, and ramo, the shoulder, L armus, Eng. arm.] 1. To fit or prepare and unite several parts in a regular structure or entire thing to fabricate by orderly construction and

    as, to frame a story or lie.

    FRAME, V. i. To contrive. Judges xii. 6.

    FRAME, n. The timbers of an edifice fitted and joined in the form proposed, for the purpose of supporting the covering; as the frame of a house, barn, bridge or ship.

    2. Any fabric or structure composed of parts united ; as the frame of an ox or horse. So we say, the frame of the heavenly arch ; the frame of the world.

    Hooker. TiUotson.

    3. Any kind of case or structure made for admitting, inclosing or supporting things; as the frame of a window, door, picture or looking glass.

    Among printers, a stand to support the cases in which the types are distributed.

    5. Among founders, a kind of ledge, inclos- ing a board, which being filled with wet sand, serves as a mold for castings.


    6. A sort of loom on which linen, silk, &c. stretched for quilting or embroidering.


    7. Order ; regularity ; adjusted series or composition of parts. We say, a person is out of frame ; the mind is not in a good

    Your steady soul preserves het frame.


    8. Form ; scheme ; structure ; constitution system ; as a. frame of government.

    9. Contrivance ; projection. John the bastard,

    Whose spirits toil in frame of villainies.

    F R A

    er court ; to have waifs, wrecks, treasure- treve, or forfeitures. So the right to vote for governor, senators and representatives, is a franchise belonging to citizens, and not enjoyed by aliens. The right to es- tablish a bank, is a franchise.

    2. Exemption from a burden or duty to which others are subject.

    3. The district or jurisdiction to which a particular privilege extends ; the limits of an immunity. Spenser.

    4. An asylum or sanctuary, where persons are secure from arrest.

    Churches and monasteries in Spain are fran- chises for criminals. Encyc.

    FRAN'CHISE. v. t. To make free ; but en- franchise is more generally used. Shak.

    FRAN'CHISEMENT, >i. Release from bur- den or restriction ; freedom. Spenser.

    FRAN'CIC, a. Pertaining to the Franks or French.

    FRANCIS'CAN, a. Belonging to the order of St. Francis.

    FRANCIS'CAN, n. One of the order of St. Francis ; an order of monks founded by him in 1209. They are called also Gray Friars.

    FRANcilBIL'ITY, n. The state or quality of being frangible.

    FRANGIBLE, a. [from L./mng-o, to break.} That may be broken ; brittle ; fragile ; easily broken. Boyle.

    FRAN'ION, n. A paramour, or a boon com- panion. [Mit used.] Spenser.

    FRANK, a. [Fr. franc ; Jt. Sp. franco ; G.

    10. Shape; form; proportion. Hudibras.

    FRA'MEWORK,n. Work done in a frame Milton

    FRA'MED, pp. Fitted and united in due form ; made ; composed ; devised ; ad- justed.

    FRA'MER, n. One who frames ; a maker

    FRA'MING, ppr. Fitting and joining in due construction; making; fabricating posing ; adjusting ; inventing

    FRAM'POLb, a. Peevish; rugged. [Lore and not in use.] Haeket.

    FRAN'CHISE, n. fran'chiz. [Fr. from/ranc free ; It. franchezza ; Sp. Port, franqueza See Frank.] Properly, liberty, ireedoiri Hence,

    1. A particular privilege or right granted by a prince or sovereign to an individual, or to a number of persons ; as the right to be a body corporate with perpetual succes sion ; the right to hold a court leet oroth

    frank; \\).vrank. Qu. Ar. k ^i to free. Class Br. No. 36. or Class Erg. No. 5. 6. 7. 8. Free and frank may be from the same root or family, for free in Saxon is frigan, coinciding in elements with break, and the nasal sound of ^ would give frank. The French franchir gives the sense of break- ing out or over limits.]

    1. Open; ingenuous; candid; free in utter- ing real sentiments ; not reserved ; using no disguise. Young persons are usually

    frank ; old persons are more reserved.

    2. Open ; ingenuous ; as a frank disposition or heart.

    :. Liberal; generous; not niggardly. [TTiis sense is now rare.'] Bacon.

    4. Free ; without conditions or compensa- tion ; as a frank gifV.

    5. Licentious ; unrestrained. [JVot used.] Spenser.

    FRANK, I An ancient coin of France.

    FRANC, S "■ The value of the gold frank was something more than that of the gold crown. The silver franc was in value a third of the gold one. The gold coin is no longer in circulation. The present franc or frank, is a silver coin of the value nearly of nineteen cents, or ten pence sterling.

    2. A letter which is exempted from postage ; the writing which renders it free.

    3. A sty for swi))e. [Not used.] Shnk. FRANK, n. A name given by the Turks,

    Greeks and Arabs to any of the inhabi- tants of the western paits of Europe, Enghsh, French, Italians, &c.

    3. The people of Franconia in Germany.

    FRANK, V. f. To exempt, as a letter from the charge of postage.

    2. To shut up in a sty or frank. [.Vof used.]


    F R A

    F R A

    F R E

    3. To feed high ; to cram ; to fatten. [J^ot used.]

    FRANKALMOIGNE, n. frankalmoin' . [frank and Norm, almoignes, alms.]

    Free alms ; in English law, a tenure by which a religious corporation holds lands to them and their successors forever, on condition of praying for the souls of the donor. Rlackstone.

    FRANK'CHASE, n. A liberty of free chase, whereby persons having lands within the compass of tiie same, are prohibited to cutj down any wood, &c. out of the view of the forester. Cowel.

    Free chase, is the liberty of keeping beasts of chase or royal game therein, protected even from the owner of the land himself, with a power of Imnting them thereon. Blackstone.

    FRANK'P^D, pp. E.\\empted from postage.

    FKANK'FEE, n. Freehold ; a holding of lands in fee simple. Encyc.

    FRANKIN'CENSE, n. [frank and incense.] A dry resinous substance in pieces or drops, of a pale yellowish white color, of| a bitterish acrid taste, and very inflamma- ble ; used as a perfume. Hill. Encyc

    FRANK'ING, ppr. Exempting from post age.

    FR.iVNK'LAW, n. Free orcommon law, or the benetit a person has by it. Encyc.

    FRANK'LIN, n. A freeholder. Obs.


    FRANK'LINITE, n. A mineral compound of iron, zink and manganese, found in New Jersey, and named from Dr. Frank- lin. Cleaveland.

    FRANK'LY, adv. Openly; freely; ingen uously; without reserve, constraint or dis- guise ; as, to confess one's faults frankly.

    2. Liberally ; freely ; readily. Luke vii.

    FRANK'MARRIA6E, n. A tenure in tai special ; or an estate of inheritance givei: to a person, together with a wife, and de- scendible to the heirs of their two bodies begotten. Blackstone.

    FRANK'NESS, n. Plainness of speech ; candor ; freedom in communication ; open- ness ; ingenuousness. He told me his opinions with /ronfenes*.

    2. Fairness ; freedom from art or craft ; as frankness of dealing.

    3. Liberality ; bounteousness. [lAttle used.] FRANK'PLEDliE, ii. A pledge or surety

    for the good behavior of freemen. An- ciently in England, a number of neighbor.* who were bound for each other's good be- havior. Encyc.

    FRANKTEN'EMENT, n. An estate of freehold ; the possession of the soil by a freeman. Blackstone.

    FRAN'TIe, a. [L. phreneticiis ; Gr. ffiivr;- tixoi, from ^pfurtf, delirium or ravinfr, from ^fitji', mind, the radical sense of which is to rush, to drive forward. So animus sig- nifies mind, soul, courage, spirit ; and ani- ma- signifies soul, wind, breatli.]

    1. Mad; raving; furious; outrageous; wild and disorderly ; distracted ; as a frantic person ; frantic willi fear or grief.

    2. Characterized by violence, fury and dis- order ; noisy ; mad ; wild ; irregular ; as thf frantic rites of Bacchus.

    FRAi\'Tl€LY, adv. Madly ; distractedly outrageously.

    FRAN'TICNESS, n. Madness ; fury of

    passion ; distraction. FRAP, V. t. In seamen^s language, to cross

    and draw together the several parts of a

    tackle to increase the tension. Mar. Diet. FRATERN'AL, n. [Fr. fraiemel; L. fra-

    ternus, from frater, brother.] Brotherly ; pertaining to brethren ; becoming

    brothers ; as fraternal love or aflection

    a fraternal embrace. FRATERN'ALLY, adv. In a brotherly

    manner. FRATERN'ITY, n. [L. fratemitas.] The

    state or quality of a brother ; brotherhood,

    2. A body of men associated for their com- mon interest or pleasure ; a company ; a brotherhood ; a society ; as the fraternity of free masons.

    3. Men of the same class, profession, occu- pation or character.

    W ill) what Icniis of respect knaves and sots will speak of tlicirown fraternity. South

    FRATERNIZA'TION, n. The act of asso- ciating and holding fellowship as breth- ren. Burke.

    FRATERN'IZE, v. i. To associate or hold fellowship as brothers, or as men of lik occupation or character.

    FRAT'RICIDE, «. [L.fratricidium ; frater, brother, and cado, to kill.]

    1. The crime of nunderinga brother.

    2. One who murders or kills a brother.

    L. Addison.

    FRAUD, n. [L. /;•«««; Fr. Sp. It. Port, fraudc. This agrees in elements with Sa.v, bra:d, bred, fraud, which is contracted from brtcgden, fraud, guile, disguise ; and hra:g coincides with brigue. But I know not that these words are connected with the Latin/raus.]

    Deceit ; deception ; trick ; artifice by which the right or interest of another is injured ; a stratagem intended to obtain some un- due advantage ; an attempt to gain or the obtaining of an advantage over another by imposition or immoral means, particu- larly deception in contracts, or bargain and sale, either by stating falsehoods, or suppressing truth.

    If success a lover's toil attends. Who asks if force ot fraud obtained his ends Pope

    FRAUD'FUL, a. Deceitful in making bar gains; trickish ; treacherous; applied to persons. Shak.

    2. Containing fraud or deceit ; applied to things. Dryden.

    FRAUD'EULLY, adv. Deceitfully; with intention to deceive and gain an undue advantage ; trickishly ; treacherously ; by stratagem.

    FRAUD'ULENCE, > Deceitfulness; trick-

    FRAUD'ULENCY,^"-ishness in making bargains, or in social concerns. Hooker.

    FRAUDULENT, a. Deceitful in making contracts ; trickish ; applied to persons.

    3. Containing fraud ; founded on fraud ; pro- ceeding from fraud ; as a fraudulent bar- gain.

    Deceitful ; treacherous ; obtained or per- formed by artifice. Milton.

    FRAUDULENTLY, adv. By fraud; by deceit ; bv artifice or imposition.

    FRAUGHT, a. fraut. [D.vragl: G.fracht: Dan. fragt; S\\\\. fracht. A difl%rent or- thography affreight, wlijch see.]

    1. Laden; loaded; charged; as a vessel richly fraught with goods from India. This sense is used in poetry ; but in com- mon husmess, freighted only is used.

    2. Filled ; stored ; full ; as a scheme fratight with mischief; the scriptures are fraught with excellent precepts. Hooker.

    FRAUGHT, n. A freight ; a cargo. [M>t nou' used.] Dryden.

    FRAUGHT, v. t. To load ; to fill ; to crowd.

    I Obs. Shak.

    FRAUGHT'AtiE, M. Loading ; cargo. [J\\ot

    I used.] Shak.

    FRAY, n. [Fr. fracas. It. fracasso, a great crash, havoc, ruin ; Fr. fracasser. It. fra- cassare, to break ; coinciding with L.frac- tura, fi-om frango. Under Affray, this is referred to Fr. effrayer, to fright, but in- correctly, unless fright is from tlie same root. In the sense of rubbing, fretting, this is from the L. fricu, Sj). fregar. But break, fright and frico, all have the same radicals.]

    1. A broil, quarrel or violent riot, that puts men in fear. This is the vulgar word for affray, and the sense seems to refer the word to Fr. effrayer.

    2. A combat ; a battle ; also, a single com- b.v. or duel. Pope.

    3. A contest ; contention. Milton.

    4. A rub ; a fret or chafe in cloth ; aplace injured by rubbing. Toiler.

    FRAY, V. t. To fright ; to terrify. Obs.

    Spenser. Bacon.

    FRAY, V. t. [Fr.frayer, h. frico, to rub.] To rub ; to fret, as cloth by wearing.

    2. To rub ; as, a deer frays his bead.

    VRA'YElt, pp. Frightened; rubbed; worn.

    FRA'YING, ppr. Frightening; terrifying; rubbing.

    FRA'YING, n. Peel of a deer's horn.

    B. Jonson.

    FREAK, n. [Ice.freka. Qu. G.frech, bold, saucy, petulant; Dan./reA-, id.; Scot./racA, active. The English word does not ac- cord perfectly with the Ger. Dan. and Scot. But it is probably from the root of break, denoting a sudden start.]

    |1. Literally, a sudden starting or change of place, ilence,

    2. A sudden causeless change or turn of the mind ; a whim or fancy ; a capricious prank.

    She is restless and peevish, and sometimes

    in a freak will instantly cliange her habitation.


    FREAK, r. /. [from the same root as the preceding, to break ; W. bryc. It. breac, speckled, party-colored ; like pard, from the Heb. Tli) to divide.]

    To variegate ; to checker.

    Freaked with many a mingled hue.

    Thomson .

    FRE'AKISH, a. Apt to change the mind suddenly ; whimsical ; capricious.

    It may be a question, whether the wife or the woman was the more freakish of the two.


    jFRE'AKISHLY, adv. Capriciously; with sudden change of mind, witliout cause.

    FRE'AKISHNESS, n. Capriciousness ; whimsicalness.

    FRECKLE, 71. [from the same root as freak : W. bryc, Ir. breac, spotted, freck- led : W. brycu, to freckle ; from breaking, unless by a change of letters, it has been

    F R E

    corrupted from G. Jleck, D. vlak or vlek,, Dan. Jlek, a spot ; which is not


    1. A spot of a yellowish color in the skin,

    on the face, neck and hands.

    may be natural or produced by the action of the sun on the skin, or from the jaundice.

    2. Any small spot or discoloration.


    FRECK'LED, a. Spotted; having small yellowish spots on the skin or surface ; as a freckled face or neck.

    2. Spotted ; as a freckled cowslip. Shak.

    FRECK'LEDNESS, n. The state of being freckled. Shencood.

    FRECK'LEFACED, a. Having a face ftdl of freckles. Beaum.

    FRECK'LY, o. Full of freckles; sprinkled with spots.

    FRED, Sax. frith, Dan. fred, Sw. frid, G. friede, D. vreede, peace ; as in Frederic, do- minion of peace, or rich in peace ; tVin- fred, victorious peace. Our ancestors call- ed a sanctuary, fredstole, aseat of peace.

    FREE, a. [Sax. frig, freoh, free; frigan, freogan, to free; G.frei ; D. my ; Dan. fri ; Sw. fri; all contracted from frig, which corresponds with Heb. and Ch. plS, Syr

    ^.gj^Sam.vsa, Ar. o^i faraka, to break, to separate, to divide, to free, to re deem, &,c. See Frank.]

    1. Being at liberty; not being under neces sity or restraint, physical or moral ; a word of general application to the body, the will or mind, and to corporations.

    2. In government, not enslaved ; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to a regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord ; as a free state, nation or people

    3. Instituted by a free people, or by consent or choice of those who are to be subjects, and securing private rights and privileges by lixed laws and ))rinciples ; not arbitrary or despotic ; as a free constitution or gov- ernment.

    There can be no free government without a democratlcal branch in the constitution.

    J. Mams

    4. Not imprisoned, confined or under ari-est; as, the prisoner is setfree.

    5. Unconstrained ; unrestrained ; not under comi)ulsion or control. A man is free to pursue his own choice ; he enjoys free will.

    6. Permitted; allowed; open; not appro priated ; as, places of honor and confi dence are free to all ; we seldom hear of a commerce perfectly /rce.

    7. Not obstructed ; as, the water has a ft passage or channel ; the house is open to a free current of air.

    8. Licentious; unrestrained. The reviewer is very free in his censures.

    9. Open; candid; frank; ingenuous; served ; as, we had a free conversation together.

    Will you be free and candid to your friend > Otway

    10. Liberal in expenses ; not parsimonious as a free purse ; a man is free to give tc all useful institutions.

    F R E

    11. Gratuitous ; not gained by importunity or purchase. He made him a free offer of his services. It is a free gift. The salva- tion of men is of free grace.

    12. Clear of crime or offense ; guiltless ; innocent.

    My hands are guilty, but my heart \\s/ree.


    13. Not having feeling or suffering ; clear ; exempt ; with/ro»ft ; as free from pain or disease ; free from remorse.

    14. Not encumbered with ; as free from a burden.

    15. Open to all, without restriction or with out expense ; as a free school.

    16. Invested with franchises ; enjoying cer- tain immunities ; with of; as a man free of the city of London.

    17. Possessing without vassalage or slavish conditions; as/rce of his farm. Dryden.

    18. Liberated fi-om the government or con- trol of parents, or of a guardian or master A son or an apprentice, when of age, is

    19. Ready ; eager ; not dull ; acting without spurring or whipping ; as a free horse.

    20. Genteel ; charming. [N'ol in use.] Chaucer.

    FREE, V. t. To remove from a thing any encumbrance or obstruction ; to disengage from ; to rid ; to strip ; to clear ; Jj-ec the body from clothes; to free the feet from fetters ; to free a channel from sand

    2. To set at liberty ; to rescue or release from slavery, captivity or confinement ; to loose. The prisoner is freed from arrest,

    3. To disentangle ; to disengage.

    4. To exempt. He that is dead is freed from sin. Rom. vi.

    5. To manumit ; to release from bondage as, to free a slave.

    6. To clear from water, as a ship by pump- ing.

    7. To release from obligation or duty, To free from or free of, is to rid of, by remo-

    A widow's dower in a copyhold. Blackstone.

    FREE'BOOTER, n. [D. vrybuiter ; G.frei- heuter. See Booty.]

    One who wanders about for plunder; a rob- ber ; a pillager ; a plunderer. Bacon

    IFREE'BOOTING, n. Robbery; plunder

    1 a pillaging. Spenser.

    ;FREE'B0RN, o. Born free ; not in vassal- age; inheriting libertv.

    FREECHAP'EL, n. In England, a chapel founded by the king and not subject to the jurisdiction of the ordinary. The king may also grant license to a subject to found such a chapel. Cowel.

    Free city, in Germany, an imperial city, not subject to a prince, but governed by its own magistrates. Encyc.

    FREE'€OST, n. Without expense ; free dom from charges. South.

    FREED, pp. Set at liberty ; loosed ; deliv ered from restraint ; cleared of hinderance or obstruction.

    FREEDEN'IZEN, 91. A citizen. Jackson

    FREE'DMAN, n. A man who has been slave and is manumitted.

    IfREE'DOM, n. A state of exemption from the power or control of another ; liberty

    I exemption from slavei-y, servitude or con

    F R E

    finement. Freedom is personal, civil, politi cal, and religious. See Liberty.]

    2. Particular privileges ; franchise ; immu- nity ; as the freedom of a city.

    3. Power of enjoying franchises. Swift.

    4. Exemption from fate, necessity, or any constraint in consequence of predeter- mination or otherwise ; as the freedom of the will.

    5. Any exemption from constraint or con- trol.

    6. Ease or facility of doing any thing. He speaks or acts w'nh freedom.

    7. Frankness ; boldness. He addressed his audience With freedom.

    8. License ; improper familiarity ; violation of the rules of decorum ; with a plural. Beware of what are called innocent free- doms.

    FREEFISH'ERY, n. A royal franchise or exclusive privilege of fishing in a public river. Encyc.

    FREE'FOOTED, a. Not restrained in marching. [Xot used.] Shak.

    FREEHEARTED, a. [See Heart.] Open; frank ; unreserved.

    2. Liberal ; chaiitable ; generous.

    FREEHEARTEDNESS, n. Frankness; openness of heart; hberality. Burnet.

    FREEHOLD, n. That land or tenement which is held in fee-simple, fee-tail, or for term of life. It is of two kinds ; in deed, and in law. The first is the real possess- ion of such land or tenement ; the last is the right a man has to such land or tene- ment, before his entry or seizure.

    Eng. Latv.

    Freehold is also extended to such offices as a man holds in fee or for life. It is also taken in opposition to villenage. Encyc.

    In the United States, a freehold is an estate which a man holds in his own right, sub- ject to no superior nor to conditions.

    FREE'HOLDER, n. One who owns an es- tate in fee-simple, fee-tail or for life ; the possessor of a freehold. Every juryman must be a freeholder.

    FREE'ING, ppr. Dehvering from restraint ; releasing from confinement ; removing incumbrances or hinderances from any thing ; clearing.

    FREE'LY, arft). At liberty; without vassal- age, slavery or dependence.

    2. Without restraint, constraint or compul- sion ; voluntarily. To render a moral agent accountable, he must act freely.

    3. Plentifully; in abundance; as, to eat or drmkfreely.

    Without scruple or reserve ; as, to censure freely. 5. Without impediment or hinderance.

    Of every tree of the garden thou mayestfieely

    G. Without necessity, or compulsion from divine predetermination. Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. Milton.

    7. Without obstruction ; largely ; copiously. The patient hied freely.

    8. Spontaneously ; without constraint or persuasion.

    9. Liberally ; generously ; as, to give freely to the poor.

    10. Gratuitously; of free will or grace, with- out jiurchase or consideration.

    F R E

    '"'Freely ye have received, /rce/y give. Matt FREE'MAN, n. [/ree and man.] One wlio - enjoys liberty, or who is not subject to the will "of another ; one not a slave Of vassal. 2. One who enjoys or is entitled to a fran- chise or peculiar privilege ; as the freemen of a citv or state.

    01 a citv or state. ,^^~ j^,.. ,^» «,^-.... r 1 1 j

    FREE-MASON, n. One of the fraternity of 3. To chill ; to give the sensation of cold and

    masuns shivering. This horrid tale freezes my

    Not perplexed ; free Bacon

    iiiasuns, FREE'MINDED,

    from care. FREE'NESS, n. The state or quality

    being free, unconstrained, unconiined, u

    incumbered, or unobstructed.

    2. Openness ; unreservedness ; frankness ; ingenuousness ; candor ; as tlic/re«ncsi of a confession.

    3. Liberality ; generosity ; as freeness in giving. Spratt.

    4. Gratuitousness; as the /reenfM of divine grace.

    FREE'S€HOOL, n. A school supported by funds, &c., in which pupils are taught without paying for tuition.

    2. A school open to admit pupils without restriction.

    PREE'SPOKEN, a. Accustomed to speak without reserve. Bacon.

    FREE'STONE, n. Any species of stone composed of sand or grit, so called be- cause it is easily cut or wrought.

    FREE'THINKER, n. A softer name for a deist ; an unbeliever ; one who discards revelation.

    FREE'THINKING, n. Unbelief.


    FREE'TONGUED, a. Speaking without reserve. Bp. Hall.

    FREEWAR'REN, n. A royal franchise or exclusive right of killing beasts and fowls of warren within certain limits. Encyc.

    FREEWILL', n. The power of directing oiu- own actions without restraint by ne- cessity or fate. Locke.

    2. Voluntai-iiiess ; spontaneousness.

    FREE'WOMAN, n. A woman not a slave.

    FREEZE, v.i. pret. /rote ; pp./ro:en, or froze. [Sax. frysan ; D. vriexen ; Dan. fryser ; Sw. frysa. It coincides in ele- ments with D. vreezen, to fear, that is, to shrink, contract, tremble, shiver, Fr. friser, to curl, whence frlssoner, to shiver, Sp. frisar. These are of one family, unless 't4iere has been a change of letters. The Itahan has fregio, for frieze, and the Gr. ^pitiou had" for its radical letters $pi|. These may be of a difierent iamily. To freeze is to contract. See Class Rd. Rs. No. 14 19. 25. Qu. Russ. mroz, frost.]

    \\. To be congealed by cold ; to be changed from a liquid to a solid state by the ab- straction of heat ; to be hardened into ice or a like solid body. VVater/reeic* at the temperature of 32° above zero by Fahren- heit's thermometer. Mercury freezes at 40° below zero.

    2. To be of that degree of cold at which water congeals. Shak.

    3. To chill ; to stagnate, or to retire from the extreme vessels ; as, the blood freezes in the veins.

    4. To be chilled ; to shiver with cold.

    SL. To die by means of cold. We say a man freezes to deatii.

    Vol. I.

    F R E

    FREEZE, V. t. To congeal ; to liarden into ice ; to change from a 3uid to a solid form by cold or abstraction of heat. This weather will/rec:e the rivers and lakes.

    2. To kill by cold ; but we often add the words to death. This air will/jv>c:e you, or freeze you to death


    FREEZE, in architecture. [See Frieze.] FREIGHT, 71. frate. [D. vragt ; G.fracht ;

    Sw. fracht: Tfan.fragt; Fi: fret; Port.

    frete ; Sp. flete ; Arm. fret. See Fraught.

    Qu. from the root of h.fero ; formed like

    bright, from the Ethiopic harah.]

    1. The cargo, or any part of the cargo of a ship; lading; that which is carried by water. The freight of a ship consists of cotton ; the ship has not a fu\\l freight ; the owners have advertised {or freight ; freight will be paid for by the ton.

    2. Transportation of goods. We paid four dollars a ton for the freight from London to Barcelona.

    3. The hire of a ship, or money charged or paid for the transportation of goods. After paying freight and charges, the profit is trifling.

    FREIGHT, V. t. To load with goods, as a ship or vessel of any kind, for transporting them from one place to another. We freighted the ship for Amsterdam ; the ship was freighted with floui- for Huvanna.

    2. To load as the burden. Shak.

    FREIGHTED, pp. Loaded, as a ship or

    FREIGHTER, n. One who loads a ship, or one who charters and loads a ship.

    FREIGHTING, ppr. Loading, as a ship or vessel.

    FREISLEBEN, n. A mineral of a blue or bluish gray color, brittle and soft to the touch. Cleaveland.i

    FREN, n. A stranger. [JVot used.] Spe/iser.l

    FRENCH, a. Pertaining to France or its; inhabitants.

    French Chalk, scaly talck, a variety of indu-] rated talck, in masses composed of small scales ; its color is pearly white or gray- ish. Cleaveland.

    FRENCH, n. The language spoken by the people of France

    FRENCH-HORN', n. A wind instrument of music made of metal.

    FRENCHIFY, V. t. To make French ; to infect with the manner of the French.


    FRENCH'LIKE, a. Resembling the French. Bp. Hail

    FRENET'le, a. [See Frantic and Phre- nelit\\]

    FREN'ZIED, paH. a. Affected with mad- ness.

    FRENZY, n. [Fr.frenesie ; It.frenesia; from L. phrenitis, Gr. fpivirtf, fi-om tP"?"! mind, which is from moving, rushing Frantic]

    3Iadness ; distraction ; rage ; or any violent agitation of the mind approaching to dis traction.

    All else is towering frenzy and distraction.

    FRE'QUENCE, n. [Pr. from h.frequentia. A crowd ; a throng ; a concourse ; an as sembly. [Little used.] Shak. Milan.

    F R E

    FRE'QUENCY,n. A return or occurrence of a thing often repeated at short inter- vals. Thv frequency of crimes abates our horror at the commission ; \\he frequency o{ capital punishments tends to destroy their proper effect.

    2. A crowd ; a throng. [.Xot used.]

    B. Jonson.

    FREQUENT, a. [Fr. from L. frequens.]

    1. Often seen or done ; often happening at short intervals ; often repeated or occur- ring. We made frequent visits to the hos- [lital.

    2. Used often to practice any thing. He was frequent and loud^ in his declamations against the revolution.

    3. Full ; crowded ; thronced. [.Vol used.] .MUlon.

    FRE'QUENT, v. t. [h. frcquento ; Ft. fre- quenter.]

    To visit often ; to resort to often or habitu- ally. The man who freqiicnts a dram-shop, an ale house, or a gaming table, is in the road to poverty, disgrace and ruin. He frequented the court of .Vugustus.

    Dry den.

    FREQUENT'ABLE, a. Accessible. iJVot usad.] Sidney.

    FREQUENTA'TION, n. The act of fre- quenting. Chesterfield.

    j2. The habit of visiting often.

    JFREQUENT'ATIVE, a. [\\l. frequentativo : Fr. frequentatif]

    In grammar, signifying the frequent repeti- tion of an action; as a frequentative wrh.

    FRE'QUENTED, pp. Often visited.

    FREQUENTER, n. One who often visits or resorts to customarily.

    FREQUENTLY, adv. Often; many times ; at short intervals ; commonly.

    FRE'QUENTNESS, «. The quality of be- ing frequent or often repeated.

    FRES'CO, n. [It. fresco, fresh.] Coolness ; shade ; a cool relreshing state of the air ; duskines.<. Prior.

    2. A picture not drawn in glaring light, but in dusk. Pope.

    3. A method of painting in relief on wallfe, performed with water-colors on fresh plas- ter, or on a wall laid with mortar not yet dry. The colors, incorporating with the mortar, and drying with it, become very durable. It is called yi'esfo, either because it is done on fresh plaster, or because it is used on walls and buildings in the open air. Encyc.

    4. A cool refreshing liquor. FRESH, a. [Sax.fersc; D.versch ; G.frisch:

    Ban.fersk, and frisk : Sw. frisk ; It. fresco; Sp. Port. id. ; Fr. frais, fraiche ; Arm. fresq ; W. fres, fresg. This is radically the same word as frisk, and it coincides also in elements with brisk, W. brysg, which is from rhys, a rushing, extreme ardency, Eng. rush, which gives the radi- cal sense, though it may not be the same word.]

    1. Jloviug w ith celerity ; brisk ; strong ; somewhat vehement; as afresh breeze;

    fresh wind ; the primary sense.

    2. Having the color and appearance of young thrifty plants ; lively ; not impaired or faded ; as when we say, the fields look

    fresh and green.

    3. Having the appearance of a healthy

    F R E

    youth ; florid ; ruddy ; as a /ccsft-colored



    4. New J recently grown ; as fresh vegeta- hles.

    5. New; recently made or obtained. We liave a fresh supply of goods from the manufactory, or from India. ; fresh tea; fresh raisins.

    6. Not impaired by time ; not forgotten or obliteiiited. The story is fresh in my mind ; the ideas are fresh in my recollec-

    7. Not salt ; as fresh water ; fresh meat.

    8. Recently from the well or spring; pure and cool; not warm or vapid. Bring a glass of fresh water. .

    9. In a state like tliat of recent growth or and

    recentness; as, to preserve flow fruit /;esA.

    Fresh as April, sweet as May. Careiv

    10. Repaired from loss or diminution ; hav ing new vigor. He rose fresh for the com bat.

    11. New; that has lately come or arrived ; as fresh news ; fresh dispatches.

    12. SvFeet ; in a good state ; not stale.

    13. Unpracticed ; unused ; not before em- ployed ; as afresh hand on board of a ship.

    14. Moderately rapid ; as, the ship makes fresh way.

    FRESH, n. A freshet.

    Beverly, Hist. Virginia,

    FRESH'EN, r. t. fresh'n. To make fresh to dulcify ; to separate, as water from sa- line particles ; to take saltness from any thing ; as, to freshen water, fish or flesh.

    2. To refresh ; to revive. [JVot used.]


    3. In seaman's language, to apply new ser- vice to a cable ; as, to freshen hawse.

    FRESH'EN, V. i. To grow fresh ; to lose salt or

    2. To grow brisk or strong ; as, the wind freshens.

    FRESHENED, pp. Deprived of saltness; sweetened.

    FRESH'ES, n. The mingling of fresh wa- ter with salt water in rivers or bays, or the increased current of an ebb tide by means of a flood of fresh water, flowing towards or into the sea, and discoloring the water. Beverly. Encyc.

    2. A flood ; an overflowing ; an inundation ; a freshet

    FRESH'ET, n. A flood or overflowing of a river, by means of heavy rains or melted snow; an inundation. jVeio England.

    2. A stream of fresh water. Browne.

    FRESH'LY, adv. Newly ; in the former state renewed ; in a new or fresli state.

    2. With a healthy look ; ruddily. Shak

    3. Briskly ; strongly.

    4. Coolly. FRESH'MAN, n. A novice ; one in the ru

    diments of knowledge. 2. In colleges, one of the youngest class of

    students. FRESH'MANSHIP, n. The state of a fresh- man. FRESH'NESS, J^ Newness; vigor; spirit;

    the contrary to vapidness ; as the freshness

    of liquors or odors. 2. Vigor; liveliness; the contrary to a faded

    state ; as the freshness of plants or of

    green fields.

    F R E

    3. Newness of strength ; renewed vigor ; op- posed to weariness or fatigue.

    Tlie Scots had tlie advantage both for num- ber and freshness of men. Hayward.

    4. Coolness ; invigorating quality or state.

    And breathe the freshness of the open air.

    Dryden. Color of youth and health ; ruddiness.

    Her cheeks their freshness lose and wonted grace. Granville

    G. Freedom from saltness ; as the freshness of water or flesh.

    7. A new or recent state or quality ; raw

    8. Briskness, as of wind. FRESIl'NEW, a. Unpracticed. [jVo< used.


    FRESH'WATER,a. Accustomed to sail on freshwater only, or in the coasting trade; as a freshwater sailor.

    2. Raw ; unskilled. Knolles.

    FRESH'WATERED, a. 'Newly watered ; supplied with fresh water.

    FRET, V. t. [Sw. frhtn, to fret, to corrode Vr.frotter, to rub ; Arm. /rota. This seems to be allied to Goth, and Sax. freian, to eat, to gnaw, G.fressen, D. vreeten, whici may he formed from the root of L. rodo. rosi, Sp. rozar, or of L. rado, to scrape, To fret or gnaw gives the sense of une venness, roughness, in substances ; the like appearance is given to fluids by agita tion.]

    To rub ; to wear away a substance by friction ; as, to fret cloth ; to fret a piece of gold or other metal. jVeuVo

    2. To corrode ; to gnaw ; to cat away ; as, a worm frets the planks of a ship.

    3. To impair ; to wear away. By starts.

    His fretled fortunes give him hope and fear


    4. To form into raised work. Milton

    5. To variegate ; to diversify. Yon gray lines

    That/)e( the clouds are messengers of day

    (3. To agitate violently. Shak

    7. To agitate : to disturb ; to make rough to cause to ripple ; as, to fret the surface of water.

    8. To tease ; to irritate ; to vex ; to make angry.

    Fret not thyself because of evil doers. Ps

    9. To wear away ; to chafe ; to gall. Let

    not a saddle or harness fret the skin of

    your horse. FRET, V. i. To be worn away ; to be cor

    roded. Any substance will in time fret

    away by friction.

    2. To eat or wear in ; to make way by attri- tion or corrosion.

    Many wheals arose, and fretted one into an- otlier with groat excoriation. Wiseman.

    3. To be agitated ; to be in violent commo- tion ; as the rancor t\\iat frets in the malig- nant breast.

    4. To be vexed ; to be chafed or irritated ; to be angry ; to utter peevish expres- sions.

    He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the

    ground. jyrydi

    FRET, n. The agitation of the surface' of

    fluid by fermentation or other cause ;

    rippling on the surface of water ; small u

    dulations continually repeated. Addison.

    F R I

    . Work raised in protuberances ; or a kind of knot consisting of two lists or small fil- lets interlaced, used as an ornament in architecture. ;. Agitation of mind ; cotnmotion of temper ; irritation ; as, he keeps his mind in a con- tinual /rei.

    Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret.


    4. A short piece of wire fixed on the finger- board of a guitar, &c., which being press- ed against the strings varies the tone.


    5. In heraldry, a bearing composed of bars crossed and interlaced.

    FRET, V. t. To furnish with frets, as an in- strument of music. As. Res.

    FRET, 71. [L.fretum.] A frith, which see.

    FRET'FUL, a. Disposed to fret ; ill-humor- ed ; peevish ; angry ; in a state of vexation ; as a fretful temper.

    FRET'FULLY, adv. Peevishly ; angrily.

    FRET'FiJLNESS, ji. Peevishness ; iU-hu- mor ; disposition to fret and complain.

    FRETT, n. With miners, the worn side of the bank of a river. Encyc.

    FRET'TED, pp. Eaton ; corroded ; rubbed or worn away ; agitated ; vexed ; made rough on the surface ; variegated ; orna- mented with fretwork ; furnished witlj frets.

    FRET'TER. n. That which frets.

    FRETTING, ppr. Corroding; wearing away ; agitating ; vexing ; making rough on the surface ; variegating.

    FRET TING, n. Agitation ; commotion.

    FRET'TY, a. Adorned with fretwork.

    FRE'TUM, n. [L.] An arm of the sea.


    FRETWORK, n. Raised work; work adorned with frets.

    FRIABILITY, ? , [See Fnahle.] The

    FRI'ABLENESS, S quality of being ea- sily broken, crumbled and reduced to powder. Locke.

    FRI'ABLE, a. [Fr.friahle ; h. friabilis, from frio, to break or crumble. Frio is proba- bly a contracted word. Ch. "jlfl or Ch. Heb. pis to break.]

    Easily crumbled or pulverized ; easily redu- ced to powder. Pumice and calcined stones are very friable.

    FRI'AR, n. [Fr. frere, a brother, contracted from h.frater. See Brother.]

    1. An appellation common to the monks of all orders ; those who enter religious or- ders considering themselves as a frater- nity or brotherhood. Friars are generally distinguished into four principal branches, viz. : I. Minors, gray friars or Francis- cans; 2. Augustines; 3. Dominicans or black friars ; 4. White Friars or Carme- lites.

    2. In a restricted sense, a monk who is not a priest ; those friars who are in orders being called fathers.

    FRI'ARLIKE, a. Like a 'friar ; monastic;

    unskilled in the world. Knolles.

    FRI' ARLY, a. Like a friar ; untaught in the

    affairs of life. Bacon,

    FRI'AR'S-eOWL, n. A plant, a species of

    Arum, with a flower resembling a cowl.

    Johjison. Fam. of Plants.

    FRIAR'S-LAN'TERN, n. The ignis fatuu.


    F R I

    FRI'ARY, n. A monastery ; a convent of fiiars. Dugdale.

    I'Rl'ARY, a. Like a friar ; pertaining to friars. Camden.

    FRIB'BLE, a. [h.frivolus, Fr. frivote, from rubbing ; from rub, if b is radical, or from frico, if the b represents a palatal letter. If 6 is radical, the word accords with Dan. rips, trifles, frivolousness.]

    Frivolous ; trifling ; silly. Bi-U. Crit.

    FRIB'BLE, n. A frivolous, trifling, con- temptible fellow.

    FRIB'BLE, V. i. To trifle ; also, to totter. Tatler.

    FRIB'BLER, n. A trifler. Spectator.

    FRl'BORG, n. [free and burg.] The same as frankpledge. Cowel.

    FRIG' ACE, n. [See Fricassee.] Meat sliced and dressed with strong sauce ; also, an unguent prepared by frying things to- gether. 06s. B. Jonson.

    FRI€ASSEE',»i. [Fr.; It. frigasea;Sp. fric- asea; Port, fricas.i^; from Fr. fricasser, to fry, It. friggere, Port, frigir, Sp. freir, L. frigo.]

    A dish of food made by cutting chickens, rabbits or other small animals into pieces, and dressing them in a frying pan, or a like utensil. King.

    FRIeASSEE', V. t. To dress in fricassee.

    FRIeA'TION, n. [L.fricatio, from frico, to rub.]

    The act of rubbing; friction. [Little used.] Bacon.

    FRICTION, n. [L. frictio ; Fr. friction ; from L./r!CO,to rub. It. fregare, Sp. fricar.]

    1. The act of rubbing the surface of one body against that of another ; attrition. Many bodies by friction emit light, and friction generates or evolves heat.

    2. In mechanics, the effect of rubbing, or the resistance which a moving body meets with from the surface on which it moves.


    3. In medicine, the rubbing of the body with the hand, or with a brush, flannel, &c. ; or the rubbing of a diseased part with oil, unguent or other medicament. Encye.

    FRI'DAY, n. [Sax. fig-dieg ; G. freitag ; D. vrydag ; from Frigga, t]ie Venus of the north ; D. vrouw, G. /rait, Ir. frag, a wo- inan.]

    The sixth day of the week, formerly conse- crated to Frigga.

    FRID6E, r. t. [Sax.frician.] To move lias- tily. LYot in use.] Hallywell.

    FRID-STOLE. [See Fred.]

    FRIEND, n.frend. [Sa.x.fnond, the partici- ple of freon, to free, to love, contracted from frigan, to free ; G.freund ; D. vriend ; nan. frende; Sw. fr&.nde. We see the rad- ical sense is to free ; hence, to be ready, willing, or cheerful, joyous, and allied per- haps to froHck.]

    1. One who is attached to another by affec- tion ; one who entertains for another sen- timents of esteem, respect and affection, which lead him to desire his company, and to seek to promote his happiness and prosperity ; opposed to foe or enemy.

    A friend lovcth at all times. Prov. xvii. There is a friend that stickcth closer than a brolher. Prov. xviii.

    2. One not hostile; opposed to an enemy in tear. Shak.

    F R I

    One reconciled after enmity. Let us be fiends again.

    4. An attendant; a companion. Dryden.

    5. A favorer; one who is propitious; as a friend to commerce ; afnend to poetry ; a friend to charitable institutions.

    (5. A favorite. Hushai was David's friend. 7. A term of salutation ; a familiar compel- lation.

    Friend, how earnest thou in hither .' Matt,

    So Christ calls Judas his friend, though a traitor. Matt. xxvi. Formerly, a paramour. 9. .^friend at court, one who has suflicient interest to serve another. Chaucer,

    FRIEND, v.t.frend. To favor; to counte- nance ; to befriend ; to support or aid [But we now use befriend.] Shak.

    FRIEND'ED, pp. frend'ed. Favored; be- friended. 3. a. Inclined to love ; wefl disposed.


    FRIEND'LESS, a. frend'less. Destitute of

    friends ; wanting countenance or support

    forlorn. Pope

    FRIEND'LIKE, a. frend'like. Having the

    dispositions of a friend. FRIEND'LINESS,n./ren

    Taylor FRIEND'LY, a. frend'hj. Having the tem- per and disposition of a friend ; kind ; fa- vorable ; disposed to promote the good of another.

    Thou to mankind Be good and friendly still, and oft return.


    2. Disposed to pence. Pope

    3. Amicable. We are on friendly terms.

    4. Not hostile ; as a friendly power or state

    5. Favorable ; propitious ; salutary ; promo- ting the good of; as a friendly breeze or gale. Excessive rains are not friendly to the ripening fruits. Temperance isfriend- ly to longevity.

    FRIEND'LY, adi: frend'ly. In the manner of friends ; amicably. [JVbt much tised.] Shak FRIEND'SHIP, n. frend'ship. An attach- ment to a person, proceeding from inti-^ mate acquaintance, and a reciprocation of kind offices, or from a favorable opinion of the amiable and respectable qualities of his mind. Friendship differs from benevo lence, which is good will to mankind ii general, and from that love which springs from animal appetite. True friendship is a noble and virtuous attachment, spring ing from a pure source, a respect for worth or amiable qualities. False friend ship may subsist between bad men, as be- tween thieves and pirates. This is a tem- porary attachment springing from inter- est, and may change in a moment to en- mity and rancor.

    Tiiere can be no friendship without confi- dence, and no confidence without integrity.

    Rambler. There is Utile friendship in the world.

    Bacon. The first law o( friendship is sincerity. i

    Anon.l 2. Mutual attachment ; intimacy.

    F R I

    If not \\d friendship, live at least in peace.


    3. Favor ; personal kindness. l\'\\^ friendships, stili to few confined, Were always of the middling kind. Steifi.

    4. Friendly aid ; help ; assistance. Shak. ■"i. Conformity ; affinity ; correspondence ;

    aptness to unite.

    We know those colors which have a friend- ship vs\\t\\\\ each other. Dryden. [Mil common and hardly legitimate.] FRIEZE,? . [Sp. /ma, frieze ;/ri- FRiZE, ^ J sar, to raise a nap on cloth, to frizzle ; Fr. friser, to curl or crisp, , to shiver, to ruffle; Port. /mar; Arm. /run. Qu. Sp. n;ar, to crisp or curl, to frizzle ; Or. ()ij:to5, (J>pi|. Iffrieze, in architecture, is the same word, which seems to be the fact, we have evidence that the elements are Frg, for in Italian, frieze is fregio. The primary sense is jirobably to draw or contract.]

    1. Properly, the nap on woolen cloth ; hence, a kind of coarse woolen cloth or stuff, with a nap on one side.

    2. In architecture, that part of the entabla- ture of a column which is between the architrave and cornice. It is a flat mem- ber or face, usually enriched with figures of animals or other ornaments of sculp- ture, whence its name.

    Cornice or frieze with bossy sculptures gra- ven. Millmi.

    FRIE'ZED, a. Napped ; shaggy with nap or frieze.

    FRIE'ZELIKE, a. Resembling frieze.


    FRIG'ATE,)!. [Tr.fregate; U.fregata;Sp. I'ort. fragata ; Turkish, j'orgata ; perhaps Gr. tufpaxrof, L. aphractum, an open ship or vessel, for in Portuguese it signifies a boat as well as a frigate. The Greek word otpoxToj signifies not fortified ; o and ^paidiD. It was originally a vessel without decks used by the Rhodians. The frigate was originally a kind of vessel used in the Mediterranean, and propelled both by sails and by oars. Lunier.]

    A ship of war, of a size larger than a sloop or brig, and less than a ship of the line ; usually having two decks and carrying from thirty to forty four guns. But ships mounting a less number than thirty guns are sometimes called frigates ; as are ships carrying a larger number.

    2. Any small vessel on tlie water. [.Vot used.] Spenser.

    FRIGATE-BUILT, a. Having a quarter deck and forecastle raised above the main deck.

    FRIGATOON', n. A Venetian vessel with a square stern, without a foremast, having only a mainmast and mizenmast.


    FRI6EFA€'TION, n. [L.frigus, cold, and facio, to make.]

    The act of making cold. [Little used.]


    FRIGHT, n. file. [Dan. frygt ; Sw.fruch- tan ; Sax. fyrhto, fyrhtu, fyrhtnis, fright, and frhted, frighted, frihtan, to frighten ; G. furckt, fiirchten ; 1). vrugten, to fear ; Fr. effrayer. Qu. Gr. ifiptaou, $pi|u, to (lar, that is, to shrink or shiver. But

    F R I

    flight, or the Sax. fi/rldo, is precisely the Ethiopic participle 'I^'^U'^ ferht, from ({.QU ferah, to fear, which seems to be allied to L. vereor. Class Br. No. 33.] Sudden and violent fear ; terror ; a passion excited by the sudden appearance of dan ger. It expresses more than fear, and is distinguished from fear and 'dread, by its sudden invasion and temporary existence

    fright being usually of sliort duration, whereas fear and dread may be long con- tinued. FRIGHT, I . To terrify ; to scare ; to FRIGHTEN, S ^'' alarm suddenly with danger; to shock suddenly with the ap- proach of evil ; to daunt ; to dismay. Nor exile or danger can fright a brave spirit. Drydeii. FRIGHTED, ) Terrified ; sudden- FRIGHTENED, S '''' ly alarmed with

    danger. FRIGHTFUL, a. Terrible; dreadful; exci ting alarm ; impressing terror ; as a. fright fid chasm or precipice ; a frighffid tem-

    FRIGHTFULLY, adv. Terribly; dread fully ; in a manner to impress terror and alarm ; horribly.

    9. Very disagreeably ; shockingly. She looks frightfidly to day.

    FRIGHTFULNESS, n. The quality of im

    D" a. [h.frigidus, from frigeo, to bi grow cold ; rigeo, to be stiff or fro zen; Gr. ptytu. If the radical sense is to be stiff, the root coincides nearly with that of right, rectus, or with that of reach, region, which is to stretch, that is, to draw or con- tract.] 1. Cold ; wanting heat or warmth ; as the

    F R I

    PRILL, V. i. [Fr. frileux, chilly. We have the word in trill, D. trillen, to shake, G. liiUern ; all with a different prefix. Class

    To shake ; to quake ; to shiver as with cold ;

    as, the hawk/n7/s. Encyi

    FRIM, a. [Sax. /reom.] Flourishing. [JVof

    .] Drayt

    FRINGE, n. fnnj. [Fr. /ra»i^e ,• ll.frangia ; Port, franja; Arm. frainch, or flainchj

    G. franse ; fi. franje ■ Dan. fiynse. It seems to be from L.frango, to break, Sp. frungir.] 1. An ornamental appendage to the borders of garments or furniture, consisting of loose threads.

    The golden fringe ev'n set the ground on flame. Itryden

    frigid zone.

    2. VVanting warmth of affection; unfeel as a frigid temper or constitution.

    3. Wanting natural heat or vigor sufficient to excite the generative power; impo tent.

    4. Dull; jejune; unanimated ; wanting the fire of genius or fancy ; as a fiigid styl frigid rhymes.

    5. Stiff; formal ; forbidding ; as a frigid look or manner

    6. Wanting zeal ; dull ; formal ; hfeless ; as frigid services.

    FRIGID'ITY, n. Coldness ; want of warmth. But not applied to the air or weather.

    2. Want of natural heat, life and vigor of body ; impotency ; imbecility ; as the fri- gidity of old age.

    3. Coldness of affection.

    4. Dullness; want of animation or intellec- tual fire ; as the frigidity of eentiments or style.

    FRIGIDLY, ad

    Coldly; dully; without affection. FRIG'IDNESS, n. Coldness; dullness want of heat or vigor ; want of aflTection

    FRIGORIF'le, a. [Fr.frigorifque ; h.frig orificus ; frigus, cold, and facto, to make.

    Causing cold ; producing or generating cold Encyc. Quincy.

    FRILL, n. [infra.] An edging of fine linen on the bosom of a shirt or other similar tbiiisr ; a rnllle. Mason.

    2. Something resembling fringe ; an open broken border. Mountagu

    FRINGE, 1). t. To adorn or border with fringe or a loose edging.

    FRING'ED, pp. Bordered with fringe.

    FRINgEMAKER, n. One who makei fringe.

    FRINGING, ppr. Bordering with fringe.

    FRING'Y, a. Adorned with fringes. Shak.

    FRIPT'ERER, n. [See Frippery.] One who deals in old cloths.

    FRIP'PERY, n. [Fr. friperie, from friper, to fumble, to ruffle, to wear out, to waste ; Arm. fripa, or Jlippa ; Sp. roperia, ropa- vejeria, from ropa, cloth, stufi', apparel, which seems to be the Eng. robe ; Port. roupa, clothes, furniture ; farrapo, a rag perhaps from the root of Eng. rub, that is, to wear, to use, as we say wearing a rel, for to loear is to rub. See Robe.]

    1. Old clothes ; cast dresses ; clothes thrown aside, after wearing. Hence, waste mat ter ; useless things ; trifles; as the frippery of wit. B. Jonson

    2. The ulace where old clothes are sold. Shak.

    The trade or traftick in old clothes.

    Encyc. FRISEU'R, 11. [Fr. from friser, to curl.] A hair dresser. IVarton.

    FRISK, V. i. [Dan. frisk, fresh, new, green 6mA:, lively, gay, vigorous; frisker, tc freshen, to renew; friskhcd, coolness, freshness, briskness ; Sw. frisk; G.frisch,\\ fresh, brisk. This is the same word as fresh, but from the Gothic. If it is radi- cally the same as brisk, it is W. brysg, speedy, nimble, from rhys, a rushing. But! this is doubtful. In some languages,/res/i] is written fersc, versch, as if from the root: Br. But I think it cannot be the Ch. D313 to be moved, to tremble.] ]

    . To leap ; to skip ; to spring suddenly one way and the other. \\

    The fish fell a frisking in the net. ]

    L'Estrange. frolick and

    F R I

    FRISK'ER, n. One who leaps or dances in gayety ; a wanton ; an inconstant or unsettled person. Camden.

    FRISK'ET, ji. [Fr. frisquette. So named from the velocity or frequency of its mo- tion. See jFWsA:.]

    In printing, thejight frame in which a sheet of paper is confined to be laid on the form for impression.

    FRISK'FUL, a. Brisk ; Uvely. Thomson.

    FRISKTNESS, n. Briskness and frequency of motion ; gayety ; liveliness ; a dancing or leaping in frohck.

    FRISKTNG, ppr. Leaping ; skipping ; dan- cing about ; moving with life and gayety.

    FRISK'Y, a. Gay ; hvely.

    FRIT, n. [Fr. fritte ; Sp. frita ; It. fritto, fried, from L. f rictus, frigo, Eng. to fry.]

    In the manufacture of glass, the matter of which glass is made after it has been cal- cined or baked in a furnace. It is a com- position of silex and fixed alkah, occasion- ally with other ingredients.

    FRITH, n. [L. fretum ; Gr. jtopflftof, from rtitftu, to pass over, or ,-topfuu, Ttofevo/mi,, to

    pass ; properly, a passage, a narrow chan- nel that is passable or passed.""

    3. To dance, skip and gambol gayety.

    The/risking satyrs on the summits danced. Addiso7i. In vain to frisk or climb he tries. Swift. FRISK, a. Lively; brisk; blithe. Hall FRISK, 11. A frolick ; a fit of wanton gay- ety. Johnson FRISK'AL, n. A leap or caper. [j\\ot in xise.] B. Jonson.'

    A narrow passage of the sea ; a strait. It s used for the opening of a river into the iea ; as the frith of Forth, or of Clyde.

    2. A kind of wear for catching fish. Careu).

    FRITH, n. [W. frith or friz.] A forest; a woody place. Drayton.

    3. A small field taken out of a common. JVynne.

    [jYot used in ..Imerica.]

    TH'Y, a. Woody. [JVot in use.]

    Skellon. FRIT'ILLARY, n. [h.fritillus, a dice-box.] The crown imperial, a genus of plants, called in the Spanish dictionary checker- ed lily. De Theis. FRIT'TEB, n. [It. frittella ; Sp. fritillasi plu. ; from h.fnctus, fried; Dan. fritte.]

    1. A small pancake ; also, a small piece of meat fried.

    2. A fragment ; a shred ; a small piece. And cut whole giants into fritters.

    Hudihras. FRIT'TER, V. t. To cut meat into small pieces to be fried.

    3. To break into small pieces or frag- ments.

    Break all their nerves, and fritter all their sense. Pope.

    To fritter away, is to diminish ; to pare off; to reduce to nothing by taking away a little at a time.

    FRIVOLTTY, n. [See Frivolousness.]

    FRIVOLOUS, a. [h.frivolus, from the root of/no, to break into small pieces, to crum- ble ; Fr. frivolr : Sp. It. frivolo. We ob- serve the same radical letters, Rb, Rv, in trivial, trifle, L. iero, trim, to rub or wear out. Class Rb.]

    Slight; trifling; trivial; of little weight, worth or importance; not worth notice; as afivolous argument ; a frivolous objec- tion or pretext. Swifl.

    FRIVOLOUSNESS, n. The quality of being trifling or of very little worth or importance ; want of consequence.

    FRIVOLOUSLY, adv. In a triflhig man-





    Fr. fr

    form into small

    FRIZ, v.t. [Sp. frisar; Frkze.]

    1. To curl ; to crisp ; to curls with a crisping-pin

    2. To form the nap of cloth into little bard burs, prominences or knobs.

    FRIZ'ED, pp. Curled ; formed into little burs on cloth.

    FRIZ'ING, ppr. Curling ; forming little hard burs on cloth.

    FRIZ'ZLE, V. t. To curl ; to crisp ; as hair. Gay.

    FRIZ'ZLED, pp. Curled ; crisped.

    FRIZ'ZLER, n. One who makes short curls.

    FRIZ'ZLING, ppr. Curling ; crisping.

    FRO, adv. [Sax./ra; Scot, frajrat; Dan. fra. It denotes departure and distance, like from, of which it may be a contrac-j tion. In some languages it is a prefix,! having the force of a negative. Thus in; Danish, frahringer, to bring from, is to avert, to dispel ; frakalder, to recall. In' Goth, bugyan is to buy ; frabugi/an is to! sell, that is, in literal English,/rom6My.] I

    From ; away ; back or backward ; as in the phrase, to and fro, that is, /o and /com, forward or toward and backward, hither and thither.

    FROCK, n. [Fr.froc; Arm. fiocq; G.frack; Scot, frog.] I

    An upper coat, or an outer garment. The word is now used for a loose garment or shirt worn by men over their other; clothes, and for a kind of gown open be-, hind, worn by females. Tlie frock was formerly a garment worn by monks. I Ingulphus. Spelman:

    FROG, n. [Sax. froga, frogga ; Dan. /rcie.i Qu. from the root of break, as L. rana, from the root of rend, from its broken shape, or from leaping, or its fragor or hoarse voice.] j

    1. An amphibious animal of the genus Rana, with four feet, a naked body, and without a tail. It is remarkable for swim-; miug with rapidity, and for taking large; leaps on land. Frogs lie torpid during! winter. Encyc'

    2. In fan-iery. [See Frush.] I FROCi'BIT, n. A plant, the Hvdrocharis. FROG'FISH, n. An animal of. Surinam,

    which is said to change from a fish to a frog and then to a fish again. It is car- tilaginous, and exquisite food.


    2. The Lophius, or fishing-frog. j

    FROG'GRASS, n. A plant.

    FROG'GY, «. Having frogs. S)ierxuood,\\

    FROISE, n. [Yr. froisser, to bruise.] A kind of food made by frying bacon inclo- sed in a pancake. Todd.y

    FROL'ICK, a. [G. frohlich ;froh, g\\aA, and lich, like; D. vrolyk; Dan. fro, glad; Sw. frbgddig, from fr'ogd, joy, frbgda, to ex- hilarate ; Ar. -, j.i faracha, to be glad, to

    rejoice. Class Brg. No. 6. Probably allied

    to/rec] Gay; merry; full of levity; dancing, play- ing or frisking about ; full of pranks. The /roKcfc wind that breathes the spring.

    Milton. The gay, the fiolick, and the loud. H'aller.

    [This adjective is seldom Used except in po etry. As a noun and a verb, its use is common.]

    FROL'ICK, n. A wild prank ; a flight of levity, or gayety and mirth.

    He would be at his frolick once again.


    2. A scene of gayety and mirth, as in dan- cing or play. [This is a popular use of the word in Amenca.]

    FROL ICK, V. i. To play wild pranks ; to play tricks of levity, mirth and gayety. The buzzing insects frolick in the air. Anon

    FROL'ICKLY, adv. With mirth and gaye- ty. Ohs. Beaum.

    FROL'ICKSOME, a. Full of gayety and mirth ; given to pranks.

    FROL'ICKSOMENESS, n. Gayety ; wild pranks.

    FROM, prep. [Sax. f ram, from ; In Swedish, it signifies before or forward, but its sense is, past or gone, Corframling is a stranger, and framgH is to go out, to depart. Dan. frem, whence fremmer, to forward, to promote, fremmed, strange, fremkommer, to come forth or out; G. fremd, strange, foreign ; D. vreemd, id. If 7)1 is radical, this word is probably from the root of room, ramble, primarily to pass, to go.]

    The sense of from may be expressed by the noun distance, or by the adjective distant, or by tlie participles, departing, removing to a distance. Thus it is one hundred miles from Roston to Hartford. He took his sword from his side. Light proceeds from the sun. Water issues from the earth in springs. Separate the coarse wool from the fine. Men have all sprung from Adam. Men often go from good to bad, and from bad to worse. The merit of an action depends on the principle/com which it proceeds. Men judge of facts from personal knowledge, or from testimo- ny. ^\'e should aim to judge _/>-o»t unde- niable premises.

    The sense o{ from is literal or figurative, but it is uniformly the same.

    In certain phrase.*!, generally or always el- liptical, from is followed by certam ad- verbs, denoting place, region or position, indefinitely, no precise point being ex- pressed ; as.

    From above, from the upper regions.

    From afar, from a distance.

    From beneath, from a place or region below.

    From beloie, from a lower place.

    From behind, from a place or position in the rear.

    From far, from a distant place.

    From high, from on high, from a high place, fiom an upper region, or from heaven.

    From hence, from this place; but from is su- perfluous before hence. The phrase how- ever is common.

    From thence, from that place ; from being su- perfluous.

    From whence, from which place : from being superfluous.

    From where, from which place.

    From ivithin, from the interior or inside.

    From without, from the outside, from abroad.

    From precedes another preposition, followed by its proper object or case.

    From amidst, as from amidst the waves. From among, as from among the trees. From beneath, as from beneath my head. Fro7n bei/ond, as from beyond the river. From forth, as from forth his bridal bower. But this is an inverted order of the words ;

    forth from his bow< From of

    #1 as from off the mercy seat, that is, from the top or surface.

    From out, as from out a window, that is, through an opening or from the inside.

    From out of, is an ill combination of words and not to be used.

    From under, as from under the bed,/rom un- der the ashes, that is, from beneath or the lower side.

    From within, as from within the liouse, that is, from the inner part or interior.

    FROM'WARD, adv. [Sax./ram andweard.] Away from ; the contrary of toward.

    FROND, n. [L./rons, frondis. The sense is a shoot or shooting forward, as iufrons, frontis.]

    In botany, a term which Liime applies to the peculiar leafing of palms and ferns. He defines it, a kind of stem which has the branch united with the leaf and frequently with the fructification. The term seems to imjKirt the union of a leaf and a branch. Martyn. Milne.

    FRONDA'TION, n. A lopping of trees.


    FRONDES'CENCE, n. [h. frondesco, from frons.]

    In botany, the precise time of the year and month in which each species of plants un- folds its leaves. Milne. Martyn.

    FRONDIF'EROUS, a. [L. frons, and Jero, to bear.] Producing fronds.

    FROND'OUS, a. A frondous flower is one which is leafy, one which produces branches charged with both leaves and flowers. Instances of this luxuriance sometimes occur in the rose and anemone. Milne.

    FRONT, n. [L.fro7is, frontis; Fr. front; Sp. f rente, fronte; It. fronte; from a root sig- nifying, to shoot forward, to project, as in Gr. pir, the nose, W. tnvyn and rhon, a pike. Class Rn.]

    1. Properly, the forehead, or part of the face above the eyes ; hence, the whole face.

    His /ron( yet threatens, and his frowns com- I mand. Prior.

    .2. The forehead or face, as expressive of the temper or disposition ; as a bold front, equivalent to boldness or impudence. So j a hardened front is sliamelessness. j3. The forepart of any thing ; as the front I of a house, the principal face or side.

    4. The forepart or van of an army or a body of troops.

    5. The part or place before the face, or op- posed to it, or to the forepart of a thing. He stood in front of his troops. The road passes in front of his house.

    6. The most conspicuous part or particular.

    7. Impudence ; as men of front. Tatter. FRONT, V. t. To oppose face to face ; to

    oppose directly.

    1 shall front thee, like some staring ghost, With all my wrongs about me. Dn^den.

    2. To stand opposed or opposite, or over against any thing; as, his house fronts the church.



    F R U

    FRONT, V. i. To stand foremost. Shah. 2. To have the face or frotjt towards any

    pouit of compass. FRONT'AL, n. [L. frontale ; Fr. frontal:

    from L.frons.]

    1. In medicine, a medicament or preparation to be ajiplied to the forehead. Quincy.

    2. In architecture, a httle pediment or front piece, over a small door or window.


    3. In Jewish ceremonies, a frontlet or brow- band, consisting of four pieces of vellum, laid on lether, and tied round the fore liead in the synagogue ; each piece con- taining some text of scripture. Encyc

    FRONT'BOX, n. The box in a playhouse before the rest. Pope.

    FRONT'ED, a. Formed with a front.


    FRONTIE'R,n. [Fr.frontiere ; It. frontiera ; S'p.frontera.]

    The marclies ; the border, confine, or ex treme part of a country, bordering on an other country ; that is, the part furthest advanced, or the part that fronts an ene- my, or which an invading enemy meets in front, or which fronts another country.

    FRONTIE'R, a. Lying on the exterior part : bordering; conterminous; as a. frontier town.

    FRONTIE'RED, a. Guarded on the fron- tiers. Spenser.

    FRONTINAC, > A species of French

    FRONTINIA€', S "■ wine, named from the place in Languedoc where it is pro duced.

    FRONTISPIECE, n. [L. frontispicium frons and specio, to view.]

    1. In architecture, the principal face of a build ing ; the face that directly presents itself to the eye.

    2. An ornamental figure or engraving front ing the first page of a book, or at the be ginning.

    FR5NT''LESS, a. Wanting shame or mod esty ; not diffident ; as frontless vice ; front less flatterv. Druden. Pope

    FRONTLET, n. [from front] A frontal or browband ; a fillet or band worn on the forehead. Deut. vi.

    FRONTKOOM, n. A room or apartment in the forepart of a house. Moxon.

    FROP'PISH, a. Peevish; froward. [jVot in use.] ■ Clarendon.

    FRORE, a. [G. for, gefroren ; D. vroor, be

    vrooren.] Frozen.

    [.Wot in use.] Milton

    FRORNE, a. Frozen.

    FRO'RY, a. Frozen. Spenser.

    2. Covered with a froth resembling hoar- frost. [JVot in use.] Fairfax.

    FROST, n. fraust. [Sax. G. Sw. and Dan. frost ; D. vorst ; from freeze, froze. Qu. Slav, mraz, mroz, id.]

    1. A fluid congealed by cold into ice or crys- tals ; as hoar-frost, which is dew or vapor congealed.

    He scattereth tho hoar-/ros( like ashes. Ps, cxivii.

    2. The act of freezing ; congelation of] fluids.

    The third day comes a frost, a killing/rosf. .Shak.

    3. In physiology, that state or temperature of the air which occasions freezing or the congelation of water. Encyc.

    4. The appearance of plants sparkling with icy crystals. Pope.

    FROST, V. t. In cookery, to cover or sprin- kle with a composition of sugar, resem- bling hoar-frost ; as, to frost cake.

    2. To cover with any thing resembUng hoar frost.

    FROSTBITTEN, a. Nipped, withered or aflfected by frost.

    FROST'ED, pp. Covered with a composi tion like white frost.

    2. a. Having hair changed to a gray oi white color, as if covered with hoar-frost as a heai frosted by age. .Y, adv. Wi ■ -

    FROSTILY, adv. With frost or excessive coVl.

    2. Without warmth of afl'ection; coldly

    FROST'INESS, ?i. The state or quality of being frosty ; freezing cold.

    FROST'ING, ppr. Covering with some thing resembling hoar-frost.

    FROST'ING, n. The composition resem- bling hoar-frost, used to cover cake, &c.

    FROST'LESS, o. Free from frost; as a frostless winter. Swifl.

    FROST'NAIL, «. A nail driven into a horse-shoe, to prevent the horse from slip- ping on ice. In some of the United States, the ends of the shoe are pointed for this purpose, and these points are called calks.

    FROST'WORK, n. Work resembling hoar- frost on shrubs. Blackmore

    FROST'Y, a. Producing frost; having power to congeal water ; as a frosty night ; frosty weather.

    2. Containing frost ; as, tlie grass is frosty.

    3. Chill in affection ; without warmth of af- fection or courage. Johnson.

    4. Resembling hoar-frost ; white ; gray-hair- ed ; as a frosty head. Shak.

    FROTH, n. frauth. [Gr. atpoj ; Sw.fradga. It is allied perhaps to G. brausen, to roar, fret, froth ; Ir. bruithim, to boil ; W. bry- diaw, to heat.]

    1. Spume ; foam ; the bubbles caused in liquors by fermentation or agitation.

    Bacon. Milton.

    2. Any empty, senseless show of wit or elo- quence. , Johnson.

    3. Light, unsubstantial matter. Tusser. FROTH, V. t. To cause to foam. Beaum. FROTH, I), i. To foam ; to throw up .spume ;

    to throw out foam or bubbles. Beer froths in fermentation. The sea froths when violently agitated. A horse froths at the mouth when heated.

    FROTH'ILY, adv. With foam or spume.

    2. In an empty trifling manner.

    FROTH' INESS, n. The state of being frothy ; emptiness ; senseless matter.

    FROTH' Y, a. Full of foam or froth, or con- sisting of froth or light bubbles.

    2. Soft ; not firm or solid. Bacon.

    .3. Vain ; light ; empty ; unsubstantial ; as a vain frothy speaker ; a frothy harangue.

    FROUNCF!, n. A distempel- of hawks, in which white spittle gathers about the bill. [See the Verb.] Skinner.

    FROUNCE, V. t. [Sp. fruncir, to plait or gather the edge of cloth into plaits, to friz- zle, to wrinkle ; Fr. froncer, to gather,

    FROUNCE, n. A wrinkle, plait or cuil ; an ornament of dress. Beaum.

    FROUN'CED, pp. Curled ; frizzled.

    FROUN'CELESS, a. Having no plait or wrinkle. Chaucer.

    FROUN'CING,D;)r. Curling; Crispin?.

    FROU'ZY, a. Fetid; musty ; ral.k f dim; cloudy. Swift.

    FROW, n. [G.frau; D. vrouw ; Dan./ruie.] A woman. [JVbi used.] Beaum.

    FRO'WARD, a. [Sax. framtveard ; fram ot fra and weard, L. versus ; turned or looking from.]

    Perverse, that is, turning from, with aver- sion or reluctance ; not willing to yield or comply with what is required ; unyield- ing ; ungovernable ; refractory ; disobe- dient ; peevish ; as a froward child.

    They are a very froward generation, children in whom is no faith. Deut. ,\\xxii.

    FRO'WARDLY, adv. Perversely ; in a peevish manner.

    FRO'WARDNESS, n. Perverseness ; re- luctance to yield or comply ; disobedience ; peevishness. South.

    FROW'ER, n. A sharp edged tool to cleave laths. Txisser.

    FROWN, V. i. [Fr. refrogner, properly to knit the brows. Frogner, the primitive word, is not used. It is allied perhaps to frounce, from the root Rn.]

    1. To displeasure by contracting the brow, and looking grim or surly ; to look stern ; followed by on or at ; as, to frown on a profligate man, or to froiun at liis vices.

    Heroes in animated marble /coicn. Pope.

    2. To manifest displeasure in any maimer. When providence /;-o«'n« on our labors, let us be bumble and submissive.

    To lower ; to look threatening. FROWN, v.t. To repel by e.xpressing dis- pleasure; to rebuke. Froion the impu- dent fellow into silence. FROWN, re. A wrinkled look, particidarly expressing dislike; a sour, severe or stern look, expressive of displeasure. His front yet threatens and his frowns com- mand. Prior.

    2. Any expression of displeasure; as the frowns of providence ; the frowns of for- tune.

    FROWN'ING, ppr. Knitting the brow in anger or displeasure ; expressing displea- sure by a surly, stern or angry look ; lower- inff; threatening.

    FROWN'INGLY, o of displeasure.

    FROW'Y, a. [The same as frouzy; perhaps a contracted word.] Musty ; rancid ; rank ; as frowy butler.

    FRO'ZEN, pp. of freeze. Congealed by cold.

    i. Cold ; frosty ; chill ; as thc/ro:en climates of the north.

    3. Chill or cold in aflection. Sidney.

    4. Void of natural heat or visor. Pope. F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society. FRUBISH, for furbish, i '


    To curl or frizzle the hair about the face. Not tricked and /louncfd as she was wont.


    V. Sternly ; with a look

    knit, to contract ; Arm. frongza. See FRUCT'ED, a. [L. fructus, fruit.] In he.

    aldn/, bearing fruit. FRUCTES'CENCE, n. [from L. fructus,

    fruit. See Fruit.] In botany, the i)recise tinie wlien the fruit of

    F R U

    F R U

    F R U

    n plant arrives at maturity, and its seeds are dispersed ; tiie fruiting season.

    Milne. Mitriyn. Encyc.

    FRUeTIF'EROUS, a. [L./rud«s, fruit, and /era, to liear.] Bearing or producing fruit.

    FRU€TIFl€A'TION, n. [See Fruclify.]

    1. The act of fructifying, or rendering pro- ductive of fruit; fecundation.

    2. In botany, tlie temporary part of a plant appropriated to generation, terminating the old vegetable and beginning the new. It consists of seven parts, the calyx, em- ])alement or flower-eup, the corol or pe- tals, the stamens, and the pistil, which be- long to the flower, the pericarp and seed, which pertain to the fruit, and the recepta- cle or base, on which the other parts are seated. The receptacle belongs both to the flower and fruit. Ldnne. Milne.

    FRUCTIFY, V. t. [Low L.*fruclifico ; Fr. fructijier ; fructiis, fruit, and facio, to make.]

    To make fruitful; to render productive ; to fertilize ; as, to fruclify the earth.


    FRUe'TIFY, jj. i. To bear fruit. [Unu.iual.] Hooker.

    FRU€TUA'TION, n. Produce ; fruit. [JVo< used.] Poivmll.

    FRUC'TUOUS, a. [Fr.fructueux.] Fruit- ful ; fertile : 'also, impregnating with fer- tility. Philips

    FRUC TURE, n. Use ; fruition ; enjoyment [JVot used.]

    FRU'GAL, a. [L.frugalis; Fr. Sp. frugal ; said to be from fniges, corn, grain of any kind. Most probably it is from th^root of fruor, for frugor, to use, to take the profit of, which coincides in elements and sense with G. brauchen, Sax. brucan. See Fruit.]

    Economical in the use or appropriation of money, goods or provisions of any kind ; saving unnecessary e.xjiense, either of money or of any thing else which is to be used or consumed ; sparing ; not pro- fuse, prodigal or lavish. We ought to be frugal not only in the expenditure of mo- ney and of goods, but in the eni^loyment of time. It is followed by of, before the thing saved ; as frugal of time. It is not synonymous with parsimonious, nor with thrifty, as now used.

    FRUGALITY, re. Prudent economy ; good husbandry or housewifery ; a sparing use or appropriation of money or commodi- ties ; a judicious use of any thing to be ex- pended or employed ; that careful manage- ment of money or goods which expends nothing unnecessarily, and applies what is used to a profitable purpose ; that use in which nothing is wasted. It is not equiva- lent to parsimony, the latter being an ex- cess of frugality, and a fault. Frugality is always a virtue. Nor is it synonymous with thrift, in its proper sense ; for thrift is the effect of frugality.

    Viilhoat frugality none can become rich, and with it few would be poor. Johnson.

    2. A prudent and sparing use or appropria- tion of any thing; as frugality of praise.


    FRU'GALLY, adv. With economy ; with

    good management ; in a saving manner.

    He seldom lives frugally, that lives by

    chance. I

    FRUGIF'EROUS, a. [L. frugifer ; frvg, corn, and fero, to bear.] Producing fruit or corn.

    FRUgIV'OROUS, a. [L.fruges, corn, and ■ voro, to eat.]

    Feeding on fruits, seeds or corn, as birds and other animals. J^Tat. Hist.

    FRUIT, n. [Fr. fruit; It. frutto; Sp./ruto; fromlj.fructus ; Arm. frouczen, or froehen ; V.vrught; G. frucht ; Dan.jfrugt; Svv. fnicht. The Latin word is the participle of//-»o)-, contracted from frugor, or fnicor. to use, to take the profit of; allied perhaps to Sax. brucan, brycean, G. brauchen, use, to enjoy. Class Brg. No. 6. 7.]

    1. In a general sense, whatever the earth produces for the nourishment of animals, or for clothing or profit. Among the/rui(« of the earth are included not only corn of all kinds, but grass, cotton, flax, grapes and all cultivated plants. In this compre- hensive sense, the word is generally used in the plural.

    2. In a more limited sense, the produce of a tree or other plant ; the last production for the propagation or multiplication of its kind ; the seed of plants, or the part that contains the seeds; as wheat, rye, oats, apples, quinces, pears, cherries, acorns, melons, &;c. In botany, the seed of a plant, or the seed

    with the pericarp. Production ; that which is produced.

    The fruit of the spirit is in al! goodness, and righteousness, and truth. Eph. v. The produce of animals ; ofl[spring ; young ; as the fruit of the womb, of the loins, of the body. Scripture.

    Effect or consequence.

    They shall eat the fruit of their doings. Is. iii. Advantage ; profit ; good derived.

    y>'hat fruit had ye then in those things where- of ye are now ashamed ? Rom. vi. Production, effect or consequence ; jn oh ill sense; as the/nu7s of sin ; the /n*i/.s of intemperance. FRUIT, V. i. To produce fruit. [JVol well authorized.] Chesterfield.

    FRCITACE, n. [Fr.] Fruit collectively : various fruits. Milton.

    FRUITBEARER, n. That which produces fruit. Mortimer.

    FRUlTBE.iRING, a. Producing fruit having the quality of bearing fruit.

    Mortimer. FRUITERER, n. One who deals in fruit

    a seller of fruits. FRUITERY, n. [Fr.fruiterie.] Fruit col- lectively taken. " Philips. 2. A fruitloft ; a repository for fruit.

    Johnson. PRClTFyL, a. Very productive; produ- cing fruit in abundance; BS fruitful soil a fruitful tree ; a fruitful season.

    2. Prolific; bearing children ; not barren. Be /7-«?(/it?, and multiply — Gen. i.

    3. Plenteous ; abounding in any thing. Pope

    . Productive of any thing ; fertile ; as fruit- ful in expedients.

    4. Producing in abundance ; generating ; as fruitful in crimes.

    FRtrlTFULLY, adv. In such a manner as to be prolific. Roscommon.

    Plenteously; ahumlantly Shak.

    FRCITFULNESS, n. The quality of pro.iu- emg fruit in abundance; productiveness; iijrtility; as the /nnV/u/nesa of land.

    2. Fecundity ; the quality of being prolific, or producing many young ; applied to animals.

    3. Productiveness of the intellect; as the fruitfulness of the brain.

    4. Exuberant abundance. B. Jonson. FRUIT-GROVE, n. A grove orclose planta- tion of fruit-trees.

    FRUI'TION, n. [from L. fruor, to use or

    enjoy.] Use, accompanied with pleasure, corporeal or intellectual ; enjoyment ; the pleasure derived from use or possession.

    If the affliction is on his body, his appetites are weakened, and capacity oi fruition des- troyed. Rogers. FROITIVE, a. Enjoying. Boyle. FRCITLESS. a. Not bearing fruit ; barren ; destitute of fruit ; as a fruitless plant.


    2. Productive 'of no advantage or good ef- fect; vain; idle; useless; unprofitable; as a fruitless attempt ; a fruUless contro- versy.

    3. Having no offspring. Shak.

    FRUITLESSLY, o. [from fruitless.] With- out any valuable effect; idly; vainly; unprofitably. Dryden.

    FROITLESSNESS, n. The quality of being vain or unprofitable.

    FRUIT-LOFT, n. A place for the preserva- tion of fruit.

    FRCIT-TIME, 71. The time for gathering fruit.

    FRUIT-TREE, n. A tree cultivated for its fruit, or a tree whose principal value con- sists in the fruit it produces, as the cherry- tree, apide-tree, pear-tree. The oak and beech produce valuable fruit, but the fruit is not their principal value.

    FRUMENTA'CEOUS, a. [h.frumentaceus.]

    1. Made of wheat, or like grain.

    Resembling wheat, in respect to leaves, ears, fruit, and the like. Encyc.

    FRUMENTA'RIOUS, a. [h. frumentarius, from frumentum, corn.] Pertaining to wheat or grain.

    FRUMENTA'TION, n. [L. Jhimentatio.] Among the Romans, a largess of grain be- stowed on the people to quiet them when uneasy or turbident. Encyc

    FRU'MENTY, n. [L. frumentum, wheat or grain.] Food made of wheat boiled in milk.

    FRUMP, n. Ajoke,jeeror flout. [.\\%t used.] Bp. Hall.

    FRUaiP, V. t. To insult. [Xoi in tise.]


    FRUSH, ,.. t. [Fr. froisser.] To bruise ; to crush. 06s. STiak.

    FRLfeH,n. [G.frosch,afrog.] It^ farriery, a sort of tender liorn that grows in the middle of the sole of a horse, at some dis- tance from the toe, dividing into two branches, and running toward the heel in the form of a fork. Farrier's Diet.

    FRUS'TRABLE, a. [See Frustrate.] That

    may be frustrated or defeated. FRUSTRA'NEOUS, a. [See Frustrate.] Vani ; useless ; unprofitable. [LitUe used.]

    FRUS'TRATE, v. t. [h.frus'troT'FrJht trer; Sp. frustrar ; allied probably to Fr.

    F U C


    F U L

    Jroisser, briser, Arm. brousta, freuza, to break. Class Rd or Rs.]

    1. Literally, to break or interrupt; hence, defeat ; to disappoint ; to balk ; to bring to nothing ; as, to frustrate a ])lan, design or attempt ; to frustrate the will or purpose

    2. To disappoint ; applied to persons.

    3. To make null ; to nullify ; to render of nc eft'ect ; as, to frustrate a conveyance or deed.

    FRUS'TRATE, part. a. Vain ; ineffectual useless ; unproiitable ; null; void; of no effect. Hooker. Dryden.

    FRUS'TRATED, pp. Defeated ; disappoint- ed ; rendered vain or null.

    FRUSTRATING, })pr. Defeating; disap- pointing; making vain or of no effect.

    FRUSTRATION, n. The act of frustra- ting ; disappointment ; defeat ; as thefrus- tration of one's attempt or design. South.

    FRUS'TRATIVE, a. Tending to defeat; fallacious. Diet.

    FRUS'TRATORY, a. That makes void; that vacates or renders null; as a frusta- tory appeal. -flyliffe.

    FRUS'TUM, ?!. [L. ^ee Frustrate.] Apiece or part of a solid body separated from the rest. Tlie frustum of a cone, is the part that remains after the top is cut off by a plane parallel to the base ; called otlier- wise a truncated cone. Encyc.

    FRUTES'CENT, a. [L. frutex, a shrub.] In botany, from herbaceous becoming shrubby ; as afrutescent stem. Martyn.

    FRU'TEX, n. [L.] In botany, a shrub ; a plant having a woody, durable stem, but less than a tree. Milne.

    FRU'TIeANT, a. Full of shoots. Evelyn.

    FRU'TIeOUS, a. {l..fmticosus.] Shrubby; as afruticous stem.

    FRY, V. t. [Ufrigo; Gr. $pi.yu; Sp./m>; It, friggere; Port, frigir ; Ft. fnre ; Ir. friochialaim. The sense is nearly the same as in boil or broil, to agitate, to fret.]

    To dress with fat by heating or roasting in a pan over a fire ; to cook and prepare for eating in a fryingpan ; as, to fry meat or vegetables.

    FRY, V. i. To be heated and agitated ; to suffer the action of fire or extreme heat.

    2. To ferment, as in tlie stomach. Bacon.

    3. To be agitated ; to boil. Dn/den. FRY, n. [Fr. frai, from the verb.] A swarm

    or crowd of little fish ; so called from their crowding, tumbling and agitation. [So Sp. hervir, to swarm or be crowded, from L. ferveo, and vulgarly boiling is used for a crowd.] Milton.

    2. A dish of any thing fried.

    3. A kind of sieve. [JVol used in Jimerica.]


    FRY'ING, ppr. Dressing in a fryingpan ; heating ; agitating.

    FRY'INGPAN, n. A pan with a long ban die, used for frying meat and vegetables.

    FUB, n. A plump boy ; a woman. [Mt in use.] Todd

    FUB, II. «.. To put off; to delay ; to cheat. [See Fob.] Shak.

    FU'€ATE, I [L.fucatus. from fuco, to

    FU'€ATED, I "• stain.]

    Fainted ; disguised with paint ; also, disgui- sed with false show. Johnson

    FU'eUS, n. [h. See Feign.] A paint ; a dye ; also, false show. B. Jonson. Sandys,

    2. pki. fucuses, in botany, a genus of Algte, or sea-weeds ; the sea-wrack, &c.


    FUDDER of lead. [See Father.]

    FUDDLE, V. t. To make drunk ; to intoxi- cate. Thomson

    FUD'DLE, V. i. To diink to excess.


    FUD'DLED, pp. Drunk ; intoxicated.

    FUD'DLING, ppr. Intoxicating ; drinking to excess.

    FUDGE, a word of contempt.

    FU'EL, n. [from Fr. feu, fire, contracted from Sp. fuego, It. fuoco, L. focus.]

    1. Any matter which serves as aliment to fire ; that which feeds fire ; combustible matter, as wood, coal, peat, &c.

    2. Any thing that serves to feed or increase flame, heat or excitement.

    FU'EL, V. t. To feed with combustible matter. Never, alas ! the dreadful name, That/iiris theinferniJ flame. Cowley.

    2. To store with fuel or firing. Jfotton.

    FUELED, pp. Fed with combustible mat- ter ; stored with firing. FU'ELER, n. He or that which supplies fuel. Donne.

    FU'ELING, ppr. Feeding with fuel ; sup- plying with fuel. FUGA'CIOUS, a. [h.fugax, from fugo, to chase, or fvgio, to flee.] Flying or fleeing away ; volatile. FUGA'CIOUSNESS, n. The quality of fJy-

    ng away; volatility. FUGAC'ITY, n. [h.fugax, supra.] Vola- tihty ; the quality of fiying away ; as the fugacity of spirits. Boyle.

    2. Uncertainty ; instability. Johnson.

    FUGH, or FOH, an exclamation expressing abhorrence. Dryden.

    FU'GITIVE, a. [Fr. fugitif;L.fugitivus, fromfugio, to flee, Gr. $f»yu.] . Volatile ; apt to fiee away ; readily wafted by the wind.

    The more tender a.nd fugitive parts—


    2. Not tenable ; not to be held or detained ; readily escaping; as a fugitive idea.


    3. Unstable ; unsteady ; fleeting ; not fixed durable. Johnson.

    4. Fleeing; running fi-om danger or pursuit. Milton.

    5. Fleeing from duty ; eloping ; escaping.

    Can a fugitive daughter enjoy herself, while her parents are in tears ? Clarissa.

    6. Wandering ; vagabond ; as a fugitive physician. ffotton.

    7. In literature, fugitive compositions are such as are short and occasional, written in haste or at intervals, and considered to be fleeting and temporary.

    FU'GITIVE, n. One who flees fi-om his sta- tion or duty ; a deserter ; one who flees from danger. Bacon. Milton.

    2. One who has fled or deserted and taken refuge under another power, or one who has fled from punishment. Dryden.

    3. One hard to be caught or detained.

    Or catch that ^iry fugitive, called wit.


    FU'GITIVENESS, n. Volatility; fugacity

    an aptness to fly away. Boyle

    2. Instabilitv ; unsteadiness. Johnson

    FUGUE, 71. fug. [Ft. fugue; L. Sp. It.fuga.] In music, a chase or succession in the parts ; that which expresses the capital thought or sentiment of the piece, in causing it to pass successively and alternately fronj one part to another. Encyc.

    FU'GUIST, 71. A musician who composes fugues, or performs them extemporane- ously. Busby.

    FUL'CIMENT, ». [L. fulcimentum, froiu fulcio, to prop.]

    A prop ; a fulcrum ; that on which a bal- ance or lever rests. [Little used.]


    FUL'eRATE, a. [from L./it/cr«7K, a prop.]

    1. In botany, a fulcrate stem is one whose branches descend to the earth, as in Fi- cus. Lee.

    2. Furnished with fulcres. FUL'CRUM, > rr 1 A

    FtJL'€RE, \\ "• [^-1 ^ P''°P *"■ suPPoJ't-

    2. In mechanics, that by which a lever is sustained.

    |3. In botany, the part of a plant which serves to support or defend it, or to facili- tate some necessary secretion, as a sti- pule, a bracte, a tendril, a gland, &c.

    Milne. Martyn.

    FULFILL', V. I. [A tautological compound of full andfll.]

    1. To accomplish ; to perform ; to complete ; to answer in execution or event what has been foretold or promised ; as, to fulfill a prophecy or prediction ; to fulfill a pro- ihise.

    2. To accomplish what was intended ; to answer a design by execution.

    Here nature seems fulfilled in all her ends.


    3. To accomplish or perform what was de- sired ; to answer any desire by compli- ance or gllatification.

    He will fulfill the desire of theih that fear him. Ps. cxiv.

    4. To perform what is required ; to answer a law by obedience.

    If ye fulfill the royal law according to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy- self, ye do well. James ii.

    5. To complete in time.

    Fulfill her week. Gen. .xxix.

    6. In general, to accomplish ; to complete : to carry into effect.

    FULFILL'ED, pp. Accomplished ; perform- ed ; completed ; executed.

    FULFILL'ER, ?i. One that fulfills or ac- complishes.

    FULFILL'ING, ppr. Accomplishing; per- forming ; completing.

    FULFILL'MENT, } Accomplishment i

    FULFTLL'ING, $ completion ; as the /u{/5M7nc7i< of prophecy.

    2. Execution ; performance ; as the fulfill- ment of a promise.

    FUL'FRAUGHT, a. [full and fraught.] Full-stored. Shak.

    FUL'GENCY, 71. [L. fulgens, from fulgeo, to shine. See Effulgence.] Brightness ; splendor; glitter. Diet.

    FUL'gENT, a. Shining ; dazzling ; exquis- itely bright. MiltoH.

    FUL'GID, a. [L. fulgidus, from fulgeo, to shine.] Shining ; glittering ; dazzHng. [JVb< in use.]

    FUL'GOR, 71. [L.] Splendor; dazzling

    j brightness. [Little used.] Brown. More.

    F U L

    FUL'GURANT,a. Lightening. [.VoJiwcrf.]

    FUL'GURATE, v.i. To ilusli as lightning. {J\\rot used.] Chambers.

    FULGURA'TION, n. [h. falguratio, from fulgur, hghming.]

    Lightning ; tlie act of hghtening. [LUlle used or not at all.]

    FULKilNOS'ITY, 11. [L./i(%o, soot, prob- ably from the root ot'/oul.]

    Sootiness ; matter deposited by smoke.

    Kirwan, Geol.

    FULKi'INOUS, a. [L. fuUgineus, fidigino- sus, from fuligo, soot.]

    1. Pertaining to soot ; sooty ; dark ; dnsky.

    2. Pertaining to smoke ; resemhluig sinoke dusky. Shenstone.

    FULl6'INOUSLY, a. By being sooty.

    FU'LIMART. [See FoumaH.]

    FULL, a. [Sax. Sw. /u« ,• G.voll; D. vol; Goth, fulds; Dan. fuld; W. gwala, full- ness. Qu. It. vole, in composition. See Fill and to FuU.]

    1. Replete ; having within its hmits all that it can contain ; as a vessel full of liquor.

    2. Abounding with ; having a large quanti ty or abundance ; as a house full of fur niture ; life is full of cares and perplexi ties.

    3. Supplied ; not vacant.

    Had the throne been full, their meeting would not have been regular. BlacUstonc

    4. Plump ; fat ; as a. full body.

    5. Saturated ; sated.

    I am/t(H of the burnt offerings of rams. Is. i. (). Crowded, with regard to the imagination or memory.

    Every one is full of the miracles done by

    cold baths on decayed and weak constitutions.


    7. Large ; entire ; not ])artial ; that fills; as ■dfuU meal.

    8. Complete ; entire ; not defective or par- tial ; as the full aceomplishtnent of a pro- phecy.

    D. Complete ; entire ; without abatement. It came to i>ass, at the end of two full years that Pharaoh dreamed — Gen. xli.

    F U L

    n. Complete measure; utmost ex- ThLs instrument answers to the

    10. Containing the whole matter ; express- ing the whole ; as a full narration or de- scription.

    IL Strong; not faint or attenuated; loud; clear ; distinct ; as a full voice or sound

    13. Mature; perfect; as a person of full age.

    13. Entire ; complete ; denoting the com pletion of a sentence ; as a full stop 01 point.

    14. Spread to view in all dimensions ; as a head drawn with a full face. Addison

    15. Exhibiting the whole disk or surface il luminated ; as the full moon.

    16. Abundant ; plenteous ; sufficient. We have a full supply of provisions for the year.

    17. Adequate ; equal ; as a full compensa- tion or reward for labor.

    18. Well fed.

    19. Well supplied or furnished ; abounding.

    20. Copious; ample. The speaker or the writer was full upon that point. Mitford.

    A full band, in music, is when all the voices

    and instruments are employed. A full organ, is when all or most of the stopi

    are out.

    Vol. I.

    FULL, tent. fuU.

    2. The highest state or degree. The swan's down feather,

    Tliat stands upon the swell ztfull of tide — Sbak

    3. The wliolc; the total; in the phrase, at full. Shale.

    4. The state of satiety ; as fed to the full. The full of the moon, is the time when it

    presents to the spectator its whole face il luminated. as it always does when in op position to the sun. FULL, adv. Quite; to the same degree; without abatement or diminution. The pawn I proffer shall be full as good.


    2. With the whole effect, diapason closing full in man. Dryden

    3. Exactly. FuU in the center of the sacred wood.


    4. Directly ; as, he looked him fxdl in the face.

    It is placed before adjectives and ad verbs to heighten or strengthen their sig

    nification ; asyiiH sad. Milton.

    Full well ye reject the command

    God, that ye may keep your own tradition

    Mark vii. Full is prefixed to other words, chiefly par

    ticiples, to express utmost extent or de- gree. FULL-ACORNED, o. Fed to the full with Shak. FyLL-BLOOMED,o.Havingperfect bloom. Crashaw. FULL-BLOWN, a. Fully expanded, as a

    blossom. Denham.

    2. Fully distended with wind. Dryden.

    FULL-BOTTOM, n. A wig with a large

    bottom. FULL-BOTTOMED, a. Having a large

    bottom, as a w' FULL-BUTT, adv. Meeting directly and

    with violence. [Vulgar.] UEstrange.

    FULL-CIIARgED, a. Charged to fullness.


    FULL-CRAMMED, a. Crammed to fullness,


    FULL-DRESSED, a. Dressed in form or

    costume. FULL-DRIVE, a. Driving with full speed- Chaucer. FULL-EARED, a. Having tlie ears or

    heads full of grain. Denham.

    FULL-EYED, a. Having large prominent

    eves. FULL-FACED, a. Having a broad face FULL-FED, a. Fed to fullness; plump with

    fat. FULL-FRAUGHT, a. Laden or stored to

    fullness. Shak.

    FULL-GORtJED, a. Over fed ; o term of

    hawking. Shak,

    FyLL-GRO\\VTS[, a. Grown to full size.

    Milton, FULL-HEARTED, a. Full of courage or

    confidence. Shak.

    FULL-HOT, a. Heated to the utmost.

    Shak. 2. Quite as hot as it ought to be. FULL-LADEN, a. Laden to the full. FULL-MANNED, a. Completely furnished

    with men.


    F U L

    FULL-MOUTHED, a. Having u full or strong voice.

    FULL-ORBED, a. Having the orb com- plete or fully illuminated, as the moon ; like the full moon. .'Iddison. Mcuon.

    FULL-SPREAD, a. Extended to the ut- most. Dryden.

    FULL-STOMACHED, a. Having the stom- ach crammed.

    FULL-STUFFED, a. Filled to the utmost

    n. Complete

    Drayton. all its Howell. ompletc Shak. Beaum.

    FULL-WINGED, a. Having

    wings or large strong wings. 2. Ready for flight; eager. FULL, V. t. [Sax. fullian ; h.fullo ; D. vol- len, vidlen ; Fr. fouler, to tread, to press, to full ; foule, a crowd ; It. folia, and/otta, a crowd ; folto, dense ; allied to Eng. felt, filer, It. feltro, from being thick or fulled. Sax. feala, many, Gr. rtoy.%01, that is, a crowd, a throng. Foul and defle are prob- ably of the same family. As the French folder signifies to tread and to full cloth, so walker, a fuller, is from the root of tealk.]

    To thicken cloth in a mill. This is the pri- mary sense : but in ])ractifc, to full is to mill' ; to make coujpact ; or to scour, cleanse and thicken in a mill.

    FULL'AgE, n. Money paid for fulling cloth.

    FULLED, pp. Cleansed ; thickened ; made dense and firm in a mill.

    FULL'ER, n. One whose occupation is to full cloth.

    FULLER'S-EARTH, n. A variety of clay, compact, but friable, unctuous to the touch, and of various colors, usually with a shade of green. It is useful in scour- ing and cleansing cloth, as it imbibes the grease and oil used in preparing wool.

    Cleaveland. Encyc.

    FULL'ER'S-TIIISTLE, I Teasel, a plant

    FULL'ER'S-WEED, S;"of the genus -bipsacus. The burs are used in dressing cloth.

    FULL'ERY, n. The place or the works where the fidling of cloth is carried on.

    FULL'ING, ppr. Thickening cloth in a mill; making compart.

    FULL'ING, )i. The art or practice of thick- ening cloth and making it compact and firm in a mill, at the same time the cloth is cleansed of oily matter.

    FULL'INGMILL, n. A mill for fulling cloth by means of pestles or stampers, which beat and press it to a close or com- pact state and cleanse it.

    FULL'NESS, n. [from full.] The state of being filled, so .is to leave no part vacant.

    ■3. The state of abounding or being in great plenty ; abundance.

    3. Completeness ; the state of a thing in which nothing is wanted ; perfection.

    In thy presence is fullness of joy. Ps. xvi.

    4. Repletion ; satiety ; as from intemperance. Taylor.

    5. Repletion of vessels; as/uKnfw of blood. j6. Plenty; wealth; affluence. Shak. 7. Struggling perturbation ; swelling ; as the

    /uKnfss of the heart. !8. Largeness; extent.

    F U L

    There wanted the fullness of a plot, and va- riety of characters to form it as it ought.


    9. Loudness; force of sound, such as fills the ear. Pope.

    FULL'SOME, a. [Sax. fid, foul or full.] Gross ; disgusthig by plainness, grossness or excess ; asfidLsome flattery or praise.

    FULL'SOMELY, adv. Grossly ; with dis- gusting plainness or excess.

    FULL'SOMENESS, n. Offensive gross- ness, as of praise.

    [These are the senses of this word and the only senses used in New England, as far as my knowledge extends.]

    FUL'LY, adv. Completely; entirely; with- out lack or defect ; in a manner to give satisfaction ; to the e.xtent desired ; as, to he fully persuaded of the truth of a propo- sition.

    2. Completely ; perfectly. Things partially known in this life will be hereafter fully disclosed.

    FUL'MAR, n. A fowl of the genus Procel- laria, or petrel kind, larger than a gull, possessing the singular faculty of spouting from its bill a quantity of pure oil against its adversary. It is an inhabitant of the Hebrides ; it feeds on the fat of whales, and when one of them is taken, will perch on it even when alive and pick out pieces of flesh. Did. of Md. Hist.

    2. The foulemart or fidimart. [See Fou- mart.]

    FUL'MINANT, a. [Fr. from h.fubmnans.] Thundering.

    FUL'MINATE, v. i. [L. fulmino, from ful men, thunder, from a root in Bl, which sig nities to throw or to burst forth.]

    1. To thunder. Davies. U. To make a loud sudden noise, or a sud-

    den sharp crack ; to detonate ; as fulmina- ting goW. ■ ^ Boyle.

    3. To hurl papal thunder ; to issue forth ec- clesiastical censures, as the pope.


    FUL'MINATE, v. t. To utter or send out,

    as a denunciation or censure ; to send ou

    as a menace or censure by ecclesiastical

    authority. fVarburton. Ayliffe.

    2. To cause to explode. Sprat. FUL'MINATING, ppr. Thundering ; crack- ling ; exploding ; detonating.

    2. Hurling papal denunciations, menaces oi

    censures. Fulminaline: powder, s. Aeion&ung compound

    of sulphur, carbonate of potash and niter. FULMINA'TION, n. A thundering.

    2. Denunciation of censure or threats, as by papal authority.

    The fuhninations from the Vatican were turned into ridicule. Jiyliff'

    3. The explosion of certain cliimical pre parations; detonation. Encyc.

    FUL'MINATORY, a. Thundering ; striking

    terror. Johnson.

    FUL'MINE, v.t. To thunder. [Xotinuse.']

    Spenser. Milton.

    FULMIN'IC, a. Fulminic acid, in chimistry,

    is a peculiar acid contained in fulminating

    silver. Henry.

    FUL'SOME, a. [Sax. /ui, foul.] Nauseous;


    He that hnngs fulsome objects to my view, With nauseous images my fancy fills.


    F U M

    1. Rank ; offensive to the smell ; as a rank and fulsome smell. Bacon.

    3. Lustful ; as fulsome ewes. Shak.

    4. Tending to obscenity ; as a fulsome epi- gram. Dryden.

    These are the English definitions of/u(- some, but 1 have never witnessed such ap- plications of the word in the United States. It seems then that full and foul are radi- cally the same word, the primary sense of which is stuffed, crowded, from the sense of putting on or in. In the United States, the compound fidlsome takes its significa- tion from full, in the sense of cloying or satiating, and in England,/u^ome takes its predominant sense from foulness.

    FUL'SOMELY, adv. Rankly ; nauseously; obscenely. -Eng--

    FUL'SOMENESS, n. Nauseousness ; rank smell; obscenity. Eng

    FUL'VID, a. [See F^dvous, which is gene- rail v used.]

    FUL'VOUS, a. [h.fulvus.] Yellow ; tawny : saffron-colored. Encyc.

    FUMA'DO, )i. [L. fumus, smoke.] A smo- ked fish. CareiD.

    FU'MATORY, n. [L. fumaria herba ; Fr, fumeterre ; ivom fumus, smoke.]

    A plant or genus of plants, called Fumaria of several species. Encyc

    FUM'BLE, V. i. [D. fommelen ; Dan. fam- ler; Sw. favda ; properly, to stop, stam- mer, falter, hesitate, to feel along, tc

    1. To feel or grope about ; to attempt awk- Yjrardlv. Cudworth.

    2. To grope about in perplexity; to seek kwardly ; as, to fumble for an excuse.

    Dryden. .3. To handle much ; to play childishly ; to

    turn over and over.

    I saw him fu7nble with the sheets, and play

    with flowers. Sf>uk

    FUM'BLE, V. t. To manage awkwardly ;

    to crowd or tumble together. Shak.

    FUM'BLER, n. One who gropes or mana

    ges awkwardly. FUM'BLING, ppr. Groping ; inanaginj

    awkwardly. FUM'BLINGLY, adv. In an awkward

    manner. FUME, n. [L. fumus, Fr. fum^e, smoke.]

    Smoke ; vapor from combustion, as from

    burning wood or tobacco. Bacon.

    2. Vapor; volatile matter ascending in a dense body. Woodward.

    3. Exhalation from the stomach ; as the /wmes of wine. Dryden.

    4. Rage; heat; as the /ume« of passion. South

    5. Any thing unsubstantial or fleeting. Sliak.

    C. Idle conceit; vain imagination. Bacon. FUME, v.i. [L./umo, Fr./umer,Sp. /umar. It. /umare, to smoke.]

    1. To smoke ; to throw off vapor, as in com- bustion.

    Where the golden altar/umed. Mdton.

    2. To yield vapor or visible exhalations. Silenus lay.

    Whose constant cups lay /uming to his brain Roscommon

    3. To pass off in vapors. Their parts are kept from fuming away by

    their fi.-iity. Cheyne

    |4. To be in a rage ; to be hot with anger.


    He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground. Dryden.

    FUME, V. t. To smoke ; to dry in smoke.


    2. To perfume.

    She fumed the temples with an od'rous flame. Ihryden.

    3. To disperse or drive away in vapors.

    The heat will/unie away most of the scent.


    FU'MET, n. The dung of deer. B. Jonson.

    FU'MID, a. [h. fumidus.] Smoky; vapor-


    FU'MIGATE, V. t. [L. fiimigo ; Fr. fumi- er ; from fumus, smoke.]

    1. To smoke ; to perfume. Dryden. To apply smoke to ; to expose to smoke ; as in chimistry, or in medicine by inhaling it, or in cleansing infected apartments.

    FU'MIGATED, pp. Smoked ; exposed to smoke.

    FU'MIGATING, ppr. Smoking; applying smoke to.

    FUMIGA'TION, n. [L. fiimigatio.] The act of smoking or applying smoke, as in chimistry for softening a metal, or in the healing art by inhaling the smoke of cer- tain substances. Expectoration is often assisted and sometimes ulcers of the lungs healed hy fumigation. Fumigation is also used in cleansing infected rooms.

    2. Vapors ; scent raised by fire. FU'MING, ppr. Smoking; emitting vapors;

    raging ; fretting. FU'MINGLY, adv. Angrily; in a rage.

    Hooker. FU'MISH, a. Smoky; hot; choleric. [Lit- tle used.] FU'MITER, n. A plant. FU'MOUS, I Producing fume ; full of va- FU'MY, S "■ Por.

    From dice and wine the youth retir'd to rest.

    And putf'cd the fumy god from out his breast.


    FUN, n. Sport ; vulgar merriment. A low

    u-ord. [Qu. Eth. Q^P wani, to play.]

    FUNAM'BULATORY, a. Performing like

    a rope dancer ; narrow like the walk of

    a rope dancer. Broicn. Chambers.

    FUNAM'BULIST, n. [L./unu,rope, and am-

    bido, to walk.] A rope walker or dancer.

    FUN€'TION, n. [L. functio, from fungor,

    to perform.]

    In a general sense, the doing, executing or performing of any thing ; discharge ; performance; as the function of a calling or office. More generally,

    2. Office or employment, or any duty or business belonging to a particular station or character, or required of a person in that station or character. Thus we speak of the functions of a chancellor, judge or bishop ; the functions of a parent or guar- dian.

    3. Trade; occupation. [Less proper.]

    4. The office of any particular part of ani- mal bodies ; the peculiar or appropriate action of a member or part of the body, by which the animal economy is carried on. Thus we speak of the functions of the brain and nerves, of the heart, of the liv- er, of the muscles, &c.

    5. Power ; faculty, animal or intellectual. As the mind opens, and its functions spread.




    F U K,

    a 111 mathematics, the function of a variable quantity, is any algebraic expression into which that quantity enters, mixed with other quantities that liave invariable val ues. Cyc.

    FUNCTIONALLY, adv. By means of the functions. Lawrence, Led.

    FUNCTIONARY, n. One who holds an of- fice or trust ; as a ^\\ih\\\\c functionary; sec- ular functionaries. Walsh.

    FUND, n. [Fr. fond; Sp. fondo, funda : L. fundus, ground, bottom, foundation ; con nected with L. fundo, to found, the sensi of which is to throw down, to set, to lay; Ir. bon or hun, bottom; Heb. Ch. Syr.

    nJ3, Ar. Lij to build. Class Bn. No. 7.

    The L. funda, a sling, a casting net or purse, It. fonda, is from the same source.]

    1. A stock or capital; a sum of money ap- propriated as the foundation of some com- mercial or other operation, undertaken with a view to profit, and by means oti which expenses and credit are supported. Thus the capital stock of a banking insti- tution is called its fund ; the joint stock of a commercial or manufacturing house con- stitutes its /unrf or /ujirfs ; and hence the word is applied to the money which an in- dividual may possess, or the means he can employ for carrying on any enterprise or operation. No prudent man undertakes an expensive business without funds.

    2. Money lent to government, constituting a national debt ; or the stock of a na- tional debt. Thus we say, a man is inter- ested in the funds or public funds, when he owns the stock or the evidences of the public debt ; and the funds are said to rise or fall, when a given amount of that debt sells for more or less in the market.

    3. Money or income destined to the payment of the interest of a debt.

    4. A sinking fund is a sum of money appro- priated to the purchase of the public stocks or the payment of the public debt.

    5. A stock or capital to aflbrd supplies of any kind ; as a fund of wisdom or good sense ; a fund of wit. Hence,

    6. Abundance ; ample stock or store. FUND, V. t. To provide and appropriate a

    fund or permanent revenue for the pay- ment of the interest of; to make perma- nent provision of resources for discharging the annual interest of; as, to fund exche- quer bills or government notes ; to fund a national debt. Bolingbroke. Hamilton.

    2. To place money in a fund.

    FUND'AMENT, n. [L. fundamentum, from fundo, to set.]

    1. The sent ; the lower part of the body or of the intestinum rectum. Hume.

    2. Foundation. [JVbt in use.] Chaucer. FUNDAMENT' AL, a. Pertaining to the

    foundation or basis ; serving for the foun- dation. Hence, essential ; important ; as a fundamental truth or principle ; a funda- mental law ; a fundamental sound or chord in music. FUNDAMENT' AL, n. A leading or prima- ry principle, rule, law or article, which serves as the ground work of a system ; essential part ; as the fandameyitah of the christian faiili.

    FUNDAMENTALLY, n. Primarily ; orig inally ; essentially ; at the foundation. All power is fundamentally in the citizens of a state.

    FUNDED, pp. Furnished with funds for regular payment of the interest of

    FUND'ING, ppr. Providing funds for tli payment of the interest of

    FUNE'BRIAL, a. [L.funcbris.] Pertaining to funerals. Brown

    FU'NERAL, n. [It. funerale ; Fr. fune- railles ; from L.funus, (romfunale, a cord, a torch, from funis, a rope or cord, as torches were made of cords, and were used in burials among the Romans.]

    L Burial ; the ceremony of burying a dead body ; the solemnization of interment ; oh sequies.

    3. The procession of persons attending the burial of the dead. Pope,

    3. Burial ; interment. Denham

    FU'NERAL, a. Pertaining to burial; used at the interment of the dead ; as funeral rites, honors or ceremonies ; a funeral torch ; funeral feast or games ; funeral oration. Encyc. Dryden.

    FUNERA'TION, n. Solemnization of a fu- neral. [JVot used.]

    FUNE'REAL, a. Suiting a funeral ; pertain- ing to burial. Shak.

    2. Dark ; dismal ; mournful. Taylor.

    FUN'GATE, n. [fromfungus.] A compound of fungic acid and a base. Coxe.

    FUN'Gl€, a. Pertaining to or obtained from mushrooms ; as fungic acid.

    FUN'tilFORM, a. [fungus and form.] In mineralogy, having a termination similar to the head of a fungus. Philips.

    FUN'GIN, n. The fleshy part of mushrooms, now considered as a pecuhar vegetable principle. Coxe.

    FUN'GITE, n. [from fungus.] A kind of fossil coral.

    FUNGOS'ITY, n. Soft excrescence,

    FUN'GOUS, a. [See Fungus.] Like fungus or a mushroom ; excrescent ; spungy ; soft.

    2. Growing suddenly, but not substantial or durable. Harris.

    FUN'GUS, 71. [L.] A mushroom, vulgarly called a toadstool. The Fungi constitute an order of plants of a pecuhar organiza tion and manner of growth. The word is also applied to excrescences on plants.


    2. A spungy excrescence in animal bodies,

    as proud flesh formed in wounds. Coxe

    The term is particularly applied to any

    morbid excrescence, whether in wound;

    or arising spontaneously. Cyc. Cooper

    FU'NICLE, n. [L. funiculus, dim. of funis, a cord.]

    A small cord ; a small ligature ; a fiber.


    FUNICULAR, a. Consisting of a small cord or fiber.

    FUNK, n. [Qu. Arm. fancq, Fr.fange, mud, mire, matter.] An offensive smell. [ Vul- gar.]

    FUN'NEL, n. [W.fynel, an air-hole, funnel or chimney, from fwn, breath, source, connected with/oi(j!<, which see.]

    1. A passage or avenue for a fluid or fl9w- ing substance, particularly the shaft or hollow channel of a chimney through which smoke ascends.

    ;2. A vessel for conveying fluids into close llo

    kind of hollow cone with a pipe ; a tunnel. Hay.

    FUN'NELFORM, ) Having the form

    FUN'NELSHAPED, P" of a funnel or in- serted hollow cone. Earn, of Plants.

    FUN'NY,a. [from/«n.] Droll; comical.

    FUN'NY,«. A light boat.

    FUR, n. [Fr. fournire, from fourrer, to put on, to thrust in, to stuff'; Sp. aforrar ; Arm. feura. The sense seems to be, to stuflT, to make thick, or to put on and thus make thick. In Welsh, /er is dense, solid.] The short, fine, soft hair of certain an- imals, growing thick on the skin, and distinguished from the hair, which is long- er and coarser. Fur is one of the most perfect non-conductors of heat, and serves to keep animals warm in cold climates.

    2. The skins of certain wild animals with the fur ; peltry; as a cargo of furs.

    3. Strips of skin with fur, used on garments for lining or for ornament. Garments are lined or faced with fur.

    4. Hair in general ; a loose application of the word.

    5. A coat of morbid matter collected on the tongue in persons afl^ected with fever.

    FUR, V. t. To line, face or cover with fur ; a furred robe.

    2. To cover with morbid matter, as the tongue.

    3. To line with aboard, as in carpentry. FUR-WROUGHT, a. fur'-raul. Made of

    fur. Gay.

    FURA'CIOUS, a. [L. furax, from furor, to

    steal.] Given to theft; inclined to steal; thievish.

    [Little used.] FURAC'ITY, n. Thievishness. [Little used.] FUR'BELOW, n. [Fr. It. Sp. falbala.] A

    piece of stuff plaited and puckered, on a

    gown or petticoat ; a flounce ; the plaited

    border of a petticoat or gown. FUR'BELOW, V. t. To put on a furbelow ;

    to furnish with an ornamental appenilage

    of dress. Prior.

    FUR'BISH, V. t. [It. forbire ; Fr. fourbir.] To rub or scour to brightness; to polish ; to

    burnish ; as, to furbish a sword or spear ;

    to furbish ai-ms. FURBISHED, pp. Scoured to brighuiess ;

    polished ; burnished. FUR'BISHER, «. One who polishes or

    makes bright by rubbing: one who cleans. FURBISHING, ppr. Rubbing to bright- ness ; polishing. FL'R'€ATE, a. [L. furca, a fork.] Forked ;

    branching like the prongs of a fork.

    Lee, Botami. FURCATION, n. A forking; a branching

    like the tines of a fork. Breton.

    FUR'DLE, V. t. [Vr.fardeau, a bundle.] To

    draw up into a bundle. [Xol used.]

    Brown. FURFUR, ji. [L.] Dandruff; scurf; scales

    like bran. FURFURA'CEOUS, a. [L. furfuraceus.] : like bran.

    Scalv; brannv ; scurfv : FURIOUS, a. [Ufurio'sus ; It.furioso ; Fr. furieux. See Fury.]

    1. Rushing with impetuosity ; moving with violence ; as a furious stream ; a furious wind or storm.

    2. Raging ; violent ; transported with pas- sion ; as a furious animal.



    F U S

    afir feir

    fastening to a yard, &c. FUR'LONG, n. [Sax. fnrlang ; far or fur

    .1. Mad ; ])brcnetic.

    FU'RIOUSLY, adv. With impetuous mo- tion or agitation ; violently ; vehemently ; as, to run furiously ; to attack one fuiiously.

    FU'RIOUSNESS, n- Impetuous motion or rushing ; violent agitation.

    2. Madness ; phrensy ; rage.

    FURL, V. t. [Fr. ferler ; Arm. farha ; Sp, •, to grapple, to seize, to furl ; Port, iiTar.]

    To draw up ; to contract ; to wrap or roll a sail close to the yard, stay or mast, and fasten it by a gasket or cord. Mar. Did.

    FURL'ED, pp. Wrapped and fastened to a yard, &c.

    FURL'ING, ppr. Wrapping or rolling and

    " '"A ■ "

    and long.]

    A measure of length ; the eighth part of a mile ; forty rods, poles or perches.

    FUR'LOW, n. [D. verlof; G. urlaub ; Dan, orlov ; Sw. orlof; compounded of the root of fare, to go, and leave, permission. See Fare and Leave. The common orthogra- phy /urZoug-A is corrupt, as the last syllable exhibits false radical consonants. The true orthography is furlow.]

    I.oave of absence; a word used only in mil- itary affairs. Leave or license given by a commanding officer to an officer or soldier to be absent from service for a certain time.

    FUR'LOW, V. t. To furnish with a furlow ; to grant leave of absence to an officer or soldier.

    FUR'MENTY, ?i. [See Frumenty.]

    FUR'NACE, n. [Fr.foumaise,foumeau ; It. furnace; Sp.homo; fi:on\\h.fornax,furnus, either from burning, or the sense is an arch.]

    1. A place where a vehement fire and heat may be made and maintained, for melting ores or metals, &c. A furnace for cast- ing cannon and other large operations is inclosed with walls through which a cur- rent of air is blown from a lai-ge bellows. Jn smaller operations a vessel is construct- ed with a chamber or cavity, with a door and a grate.

    3. In scripture, a place of cruel bondage and affliction. Deut. iv.

    ;5. Grievous afflictions by which men are tried. Ezek. xxii.

    4. A place of temporal torment. Dan. iii.

    5. Hell; the place of endless torment. Matt. xiii.

    FUR'NACE, V. t. To throw out sparks as a furnace. Shak.

    FUR'NIMENT, n. [Fr. fourmment.] Furni- ture. [JVot in use.] Spe7iser.

    [''UR'NISH, V. t. [Fr. fow-nir ; Arm. four- nicza; It. fornire. There is a close affinity, in'sense and elements, between furnish, garnish, and the L. orno, which may have been forno or homo. We see in furlow, above, the/is lost in three of the langua- ges, and it may be so in orno. The pri mary sense is to put on, or to set on.]

    i. To supply with any thing wanted or ne cessary : as, to furttish a family with pro visions ; to furnish arms for defense ; to furnish a table ; to furnish a library ; furnish one with money or implements.

    2. To supply ; to store ; as, to furnish the mind .with ideas ; to furnish one with knowledge or principles.

    3. To fit up ; to supply with the prope: goods, vessels or ornamental appendages as, to furnish a house or a room.

    4. To equip ; to fit for an expedition ; to supply.

    FUR'NISHED, a. Supplied ; garnished ; fit

    ted with necessaries. FUR NISHER, n. One who supplies or fits

    out. FUR'NISIIING, ppr. Supplying ; fitting

    garnishing. FUR'NITURE, n. [Fr. fourniture; It. fomi-

    mento ; Arm. fournimand.]

    1. Goods, vessels, utensils and other appen dages necessary or convenient for house- keeping ; whatever is added to the interi or of a house or apartment, for use or con venience.

    2. Appendages; that which is added for use or ornament ; as the earth with all its/i niture.

    3. Equipage; ornaments; decorations; iri very general sense.

    FUR'RED, pp. [See Fur.] Lined or om

    mented with fur; thickened by the ad(

    tion of a board. FUR'RIER, n. A dealer in furs ; one who

    makes or sells muffs, tippets, &c. FUR'RIERY, n. Furs in general. Tooke. FUR'RING, ppr. Lining or ornamenting

    with fur ; lining with a board. FUR'ROW, 71. [Sax./«Tor/«r/t; G.furche;

    Dan./itrre ; Sw. fora. Qu. Gr. ^apow,

    ])low.] A trench in the earth made by


    2. A long narrow trench or channel in wood or metal ; a groove.

    3. A hollow made by wrinkles in the face. FUR'ROW, V. t. [Sax./i/na«.] To cut a fur- row; to make furrows in ; to plow.

    a. To malie long narrow channels or grooves

    3. To cut ; to make channels in ; to plow ; as, to furrotv the deep.

    4. To make hollows in by wrinkles. Sorrow furrows the brow.

    FUR'ROWFACED, a. Having a wrinkled

    or furrowed face. B. Jonson.

    FUR'ROWWEED, n. A weed growing on

    plowed land. Shnk.

    FUR'RY, a. [from fur.] Covered with fur ;

    dressed in fur. 3. Consisting of furor skins ; as furry spoils. Dnjdtn. FUR'THER, a. [Sax. further, comparative

    of forth, from the root of far, faran, to go,

    to advance.]

    1. More or most distant ; as the further end of the field.

    2. Additional. We have a further reason for this opinion. We have nothing fur- ther to suggest.

    FUR'THER, adv. To a greater distance. He went further.

    FUR'THER, V. t. [Sax. fyrthrian ; G. fdr- dern ; D. vorderen ; Sw. befordra ; Dan. befordrer.]

    To help forward; to promote; to ad- vance onward ; to forward ; hence, to help or assist. • This binds thee then to further my design.


    PUR'THERANCE, n. A helping forward ; promotion ; advancement.

    I know that I shall abide and continue with you all, for your furtherance and joy of faith. Phil. i.

    FURTHERED, pp. Promoted ; advanced.

    FUR'THERER, n. One who helps to ad- vance ; a promoter.

    FURTHERMORE, adv. 3Ioreover ; be- sides ; in addition to what has been said.

    FURTHEST, a. Most distant either in time or place.

    FUR'THEST, adv. At the greatest distance.

    FUR'TIVE, a. [L.furtivus; Fr. furtif; from fur, a thief, /uror, to steal.]

    Stolen ; obtained by theft. Prior.

    FU'RUN€LE, n. [1.. furunculus ; Fr.furon- cle; Sp. hura; from h.furia,furo.]

    A small tumor or boil, with inflammation and pain, arising under the skin in the adi- pose membrane. Encyc.

    FU'RY, »!. [L. furor, furia; Fr. fureur,func ; Sp. furia ; from L. furo, to rage ; W. fu-if- raw, to drive. Class Br.] A violent rushing ; impetuous motion ; a* the fury of the winds. Rage ; a storm of anger ; madness ; tiu- bulence.

    I do oppose my patience to hhfury. Shak.

    3. Enthusiasm; heat of the mind. Dryden.

    4. In mythology, a deity, a goddess of ven- geance ; hence, a stormy, turbident, vio- lent woman. Addison.

    FU'RYLIKE, a. Raging; furious; violent. Thomson.

    FURZ, n. [Sax. fyrs ; probably W. ftrx. thick.]

    Gorse ; whin ; a thorny plant of the genus Ulex. Miller. Fam. of Plants.

    FURZ'Y, a. Overgrown with furz; full of gorse. Gay.

    FUS'CITE, n. A mineral of a grayish or greenish black color, found in Norway.


    FUS'€OUS, a. [L. fuscus.] Brown; of a dark color. Ran.

    FUSE, V. t. s as z. [L.fundo,fusum, out.]

    To melt ; to liquefy by heat ; to render flu- id ; to dissolve. Chimistry.

    FUSE, v. i. To be melted ; to be reduced from a solid to a fluid state by heat.

    FU'SED,jDp. Melted; liquefied.

    FUSEE', n. sasz. [Fr. fusee, fuseau; It. fuso; Sp. huso; Port, fuso ; from h.fusus, a spindle, from fundo, fudi,fusum.]

    The cone or conical part of a watch or clock,

    round which is wound the chain or cord.

    Encyc. Johnson.

    FUSEE', ji. s as :. [Fr. a squib.] A small neat musket or firelock. But we now use fusil.

    3. Fusee or fuse of a bomb or granade, a small pipe filled with combustible matter by which fire is communicated to the powder in the bomb ; but as the matter burns slowly, time is given before the charge takes fire, for the bomb to reach its destination.

    3. The track of a buck.

    FUSIBIL'ITY, n. [See Fusible.] The qual- ity of being fusible, or of being convert- ible from a solid to a fluid state by heat.

    FU'SIBLE, a. s as z. [Fr. from L. fusus, from fundo.]

    That may be melted or liquefied. The earths

    I are found to he fusible.


    FU'SIFORJM, a. [L. fusus, a spindle, and

    Shaped like a spindle. Pennant.

    FU'SIL.a. s as 2. [f r./im/e ; L.fusitis, from fusuSffundo.]

    1. Capable of being melted or rendered fluid by beat.

    'X Running ; flowing, as a liquid.

    Milton. Philips.

    FU'SIL, n. s as z. [Fr. from h. fusus, /undo.]

    1. A liglit musket or firelock.

    a. A bearing in heraldry of a rbomboidal figure, named from its shape, which re- sembles that of a spindle. Encyc.

    FUSILEE'R,n. [from/im7.] Properly,a sol- dier armed with a fusil ; but in modern times, a soldier armed like others of the infantry, and distinguished by wearing a cap like a grenadier, but somewh shorter.

    FUSION, n. sasi. [L. /ksio; FT.fusioi from \\j. /undo, fiisum.]

    1. The act or operation of melting or ren- dering fluid by heat, without the aid of a solvent; as the /usion of ice or of metals.

    2. The state of being melted or dissolved by heat; a state of fluidity or flowing in con- sequence of heat; as metals infusion.

    Watery fusion, the'meltihg of certain crystals

    by heat in theirown water of crystahzation.


    FUSS, ji. [allied perhaps to Gr. ^aau, to blow or puff.]

    A tumult ; a bustle ; hut the word is vulgar.

    FUST, 71. [Fr. fiU ; It. fusta ; L. fustTs, a staff".] The shaft of a column.

    FUST, n. [Fr. /!((.] A strong musty smell.

    FUST, I', t. To become moldy ; to smell ill. Shak.

    FUST'ED, a. Moldy; ill smelling.

    FUS'TET, n. [Fr. ; Sp. Port, fustete.] The wood of the Rhus cotinus, which yields a fine orange color. Ure.

    FUS'TIAN, n. [Fr. futaine ; Arm. fuslenn ; Sp. fustan, the name of a place.]

    1. A kinil of cotton stuff", or stuff" of cotton and hneii.

    2. An inflated style of writing ; a kind of writing in which high sounding words are used, aliove the dignity of the thoughts or subject ; a swelling style ; bombast.

    Fustian is thoughts and words ill sorted.


    FUS'TIAN, a. Made of fustian.

    2. In style, swelling above the dignity of the thuiijL'iiis or subject; too pompous; ridi- oidously tumid ; bombastic. Dryden.

    FUS'TIANIST, n. One who writes b bast. Millon.

    FUS'TIC, ).. [Sp. fuste, \\vood, timber ; L. fuslis.]

    The wood of the Mortis linctoria, a tree growing in the West Indies, imported and used in dyeing yellow. Encyc.

    FUSTIGA'TION, n. [L. fustigalio, from fustigo, to beat with a cudgel, from fuslis, a stick or club.]

    Among the ancient Romans, a punishment by beating with a stick or club, inflicted on freemen. Encyc.

    FUST'INESS, n. A fusty state or quality ; an ill smell from moldiness, or moldiness itself.

    FUST'Y, a. [See Fust.] Moldy ; musty ; ill- smelling; rank; rancid. Shak.

    FU'TILE, a. [Fr. ; L. fulilis, from futio, to pour out ; effutio, to prate or bab- ble ; Heb. Ch. ND3 to utter rashly or fool- ishly. Class Bd. No. 2. 6. 15.]

    1. Talkative; loquacious; tailing. Ohs.


    2. Trifling ; of no weight or importance ; an- swering no valuable purpose ; worthless.

    3. Ofnoeff"ect.

    FUTIL'ITY, 71. Talkativeness ; loqua- ciousness ; loquacity. [In this sense, not now used.] UEstrange.

    2. Triflingness ; unimportance ; want of weight or eflfect ; as, to expose the futility of arguments.

    3. The qualify of producing no vaiuablr ef- fect, or of coming to nothing ; as the futil- ityof measures or schemes.

    FU'TILOUS, a. Worthless; trifling. [JVo« usedj HouxU.

    FUT'TOCK,7i. [Qu. foot-hook. It is more probably corrupted from fool-lock.]

    In a shiv, the futtocks are the middle tim- bers, between the floor and the upper tim- bers, or the timbers raised over the keel which form the breadth of the ship.

    FU'TURE,n. [L.futunis; Fr. futur.] That is to be or come hereafter; that will exist at any time after the present, indefinitely. The next moment ia future to the present.

    2. The/«

    FU'TURE, 71. Time to come ; a time subse- quent to the present ; as, the future shall be as the present ; in future ; for the future. In such phrases, time or season is implied.

    FU'TURELY, adv. In time to come. [Mt rised.] Raleigh.

    FUTURI"TION, 71. The state of being to come or exist hereafter. South. Stiles.

    FUTU'RITY, Ji. Future time ; time to come.

    2. Event to come.

    AW futurities arc naked before the all-seeing eye. South.

    3. The state of being yet to come, or to come hereafter.

    FUZZ, r. I. To fly off' in minute particles.

    FUZZ, n. Fine, light particles ; loose, vola- tile matter.

    FUZZ'BALL, 71. A kind of fungus or mush- room, which when pressed bursts and scatters a fine dust.

    2. A puff".

    FUZ'ZLE, V. t. To intoxicate. Burton.

    FY, exclam. A word which expresses blame, dislike, disapprobation, abhorrence or con- tempt. Fy, my \\ori,fy! a soldier, and afraid ? Shak.


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