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Letter "" Below


    "G" is the seventh letter and the fifth articulation of the English Alphabet, is derived to us, through the Latin, Greek, and Assyrian languages ; it being found in the Chaldee, Syriac, Hebrew, Samaritan, Phenician, Ethiopic and Arabic languages.

    In the latter language, it is called giim or jim ; but in the others, gimel, gonial or gamal, that is, camel, from its shape, which resembles the neck of that animal, at least in the Chaldee and Hebrew.

    It is the third letter in the Chaldee, Syriac, Hebrew, Samaritan and Greek ; the fifth in the Arabic, and the twentieth in the Ethiopic.

    The Greek r (g)gamma is the Chaldaic J inverted.

    The early Latins used C for the Greek gamma, and hence C came to hold the third place in the order of the Alphabet; the place which gimel holds in the oriental languages.

    The two loiters are primarily palatals, and so nearly allied in sound that they are easily convertible ; and they have been reciprocally used the one for the other.

    But in the Assyrian languages, gimel (G) had two sounds ; one hard or close, as we pronounce the letter in gave, good [A 'GUH' sound]; The other (G) sound is soft, or rather compound, as the English 'j' [A JUH sound] or as ch in chase.

    In the Arabic, this letter has the sound of the English 'j' or dzh, and this sound it has in many English words, as in genius, gem, ginger. It retains its hard sound in all cases, before a, and h ; but before e, i and y, its sound is hard or soft, as custom has dictated, and its different sounds are not reducible to rules.

    It is silent in some words before 'n', as in benign, condign, malign, campaign ; but it resumes its sound in benignity and malignity. G is mute before 'n' in gnash ; it is silent also in many words when united with h. as in bright, might, night, nigh, high.

    The Saxon 'g' has in many words been softened or liquefied into 'y' or 'ow' ; as Sax. dog, gear, Eng. day, year ; Sax. hugan, Eng. to how.

    The Celtic nations had a peculiar manner of beginning the sound of vowels as in 'u' with the articulation g, or rather prefixing this articulation to that vowel. Thus guard for ward, gioain for wain, guerre for war, gicell for well.

    Whether this g has been added by the Celtic races, or whether the Teutonic nations have lost it, is a question 1 have not examined with particular attention.

    'G' is also a numeral - G was anciently used to denote 400, and with a dash over it G, 40,000. As an abbreviation, it stands for Gaius, Gellius, &c.

    In music, it is the mark of the treble clef; and from its being placed at the lead or marking the first sound in Guido's scale, the whole scale took the name, Gainmut, from the Greek name of the letter.

    GA, in Gothic, is a prefix, answering to ge in Saxon and other Teutonic languages. It sometimes has the force of the Latin cum or. con, as in gawilhan, to conjoin.

    But in most words it appears to have no use, and in modern English it is entirely lost. Y-cleped, m which ge is changed into y, is the last word in which the English retained this prefix.

GAB, n.
    [Scot, gab, Dan. gab, the mouth, aud a. gap or gaping; Sw. gap; Russ. guba, a lip, a bay or gulf, the mouth of a river ; Ir. cab, the mouth ; connected probably with gabble, giberish, Sax. gabban, to mock, perhaps to make mouths. See Gabble and Gape.]

    The mouth ; as in the phrase, the gift of the gab, that is, loquaciousness. But the word is so vulgar as barely to be used.

    , [Sp. gabardina ; gaban, a great coat with a hood and close sleeves; gabacha, a loose garment ; Port, gabam, a frock ; It. gavardina ; Fr. gaban.]

    A coarse frock or loose upper garment ; s mean dress. Shak

GAB'BLE, i. i.
    [D. gabberen, to prate ; Sax gabban, to jeer or deride ; Fr. gaber, id. ; Eng. to gibe ; Sw. gabberi, derision ; It gabbare, to deceive ; gabbo, a jeering These may all be from one root. See Class Gb. No. 7.]

    1. To prate ; to talk fast, or to talk without meaning.

    Such a rout, and such a rabble, Run to hear Jack Pudding gabble. Swift. 9. To utter inarticulate sounds with rapid- ity ; as gabbling fowls. Dryden. GAB'BLE, n. Loud or rapid talk without meaning. Milton.

    2. Inarticulate sounds rapidly uttered, as of fowls. Shak.

    A prater ; a noisy talker :

    one that utters inarticulate sounds.

    Prating ; chattering ; uttering unmeaning or inarticulate sounds. GAB'BRO, n. In mineralogy, the name giv- en by the Italians to the aggregate of di ullage and saussurite. It is the euphotide of the French, and the rerde di Corsica duro of artists. Cleaveland.

    GA'BEL, »i. [Fr. gabelle ; It. gabella; Sp. gabela ; Sax. gafel or gafoL] A tax, impost or duty ; usually an excise. GA'BEL ER, n. A collector of the gabel or of taxes. Wright.

    [Fr. id. ; It. gabUone, a large cage ; gabbia, a cage ; Sp. gavion, gabion. a basket. In Ir. gabham signifies to take or hold ; W. gavaelu, id.] In fortificaiion, a large basket of wicker- work, of a cylindrical form; filled with earth, and serving to shelter men from an enemy's fire. Encyc.

GA'BLE, n.
    [W. gavael, a hold or grasp, the gable of a house ; gavaelu, to grasp hold, arrest, Ir. gabham. Qu. G. gabel, Ir. gabhlan, a fork.] The triangular end of a house or oth( building, from the cornice or eaves to tl top. In America, it is usually called the gable-end.


    In ecclesiastical history, a sect of anabaptists in Pomerania, so cal- led from one Gabriel Scherling.

    A mineral, supposed to be a variety o(fettstein. It occurs in masses, whose structure is more or less foliated, or sometimes compact. Its colors are gray, bluish or greenish gray, and some- times red. Cleaveland.

    GAD, n. [Sax. gad, a goad and a wedge ; Ir. gadh, a dart.]

    1. A wedge or ingot of steel. Moron.

    2. A style or graver. Shak.

    3. A punch of iron with a wooden handle, used by miners. Encyc.

    GAD, I', i. [Ir. gad, a stealing, properly a roving, as rob is connected with rove ; gadaim, to steal. It coincides with the Russ. chod, a going or passing ; choju, to go, to pass, to march. See Class Gd. No. 17. Eth. and No. 38.]

    1. To walk about; to rove or ramble idly or without any fixed purpose.

    Give the water no passage, neither a wicked woman liberty to gad abroad. Ecclus.

    2. To ramble in growth ; as the gadding \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\nc. Milton.

    GAD'DER, n. A rambler; one that roves about idlv.

    GAD'BING, ppr. Rambling ; roving ; walk- ing about.

    GAD'FLY, n. [Sax. gad, a goad, and Jly.] An insect of the genus Oestrus, whicli stings cattle, and deposits its eggs in their skin ; called also the breeze.

    GADO'LINITE, n. A mineral, so called from Professor Gadolin, usually in amor- ])hous masses of a blackish color, and hav- ing the appearance of vitreous lava. It contains a new earth called yttria.

    Did. nfJVat. Hist.

    GAD'VVALL, n. A fowl of the genus Anas, iihabiting the north of Europe.


    GA'ELIe, I [from Gael, Gaid, Gallia.]

    GA'LI€, I "■ An epithet denoting what belongs to the Gaels, tribes of Celtic ori- gin inhabiting the highlands of Scotland as the Gaelic language.

    GA'ELIC, n. The language of the highlan- ders of Scotland.

    GAFF, n. [Ir. gaf, a hook ; Sp. and Port gafa ; Sheniitic '\\\\\\\\S3, nSO to bend.]

    1. A harpoon.

    2. A sort of boom or pole, used in small ships, to extend the upper edge of the niizen, and of those sails whose foremost edge is joined to the mast by hoops or lacings, and which are extended by a boom below, as the main-sail of a sloop, [Qu. Sax. geafe, a pole.] Mar. Did.

    GAF'FER, n. [Qu. Chal. and Ileb. 13: ge- bar, a man, vir ; or Sax. gefere, a compan- ion, a peer ; or Sw. gubbe, an old man.]

    A M'ord of respect, which seems to have de- generated into a term of familiarity or contempt. [lAttle used.] Gay.

    GAF'FLE, n. [Sax. geajlas, chops, spurs on cocks.]

    1. An artificial spur put on cocks when they are set to fight.

    2. A steel lever to bend cross-bows. Jlinsworth

    GAG, I', t. [W. eegiaw, to choke, to strangle, from c^g, a choking. Ceg signifies the mouth, an opening.]

    . To stop the mouth by thrusting something

    into the throat, so as to hinder speaking.


    2. To keck; to heave with nausea. [In Welsh, g-ag is an opening or cleft ; gagenu, to open, chap or gape.]

    GAG, n. Something thrust into the mouth and throat to hinder speaking.

    GA(iE, n. [Fr. gage, a pledge, whence ga- ger, to pledge ; engager, to engage ; G. xvagen, to wage, to hazard or risk ; wage, a balance ; D. ivaagen, to venture, Sw. vaga, Eng. to wage. It seems to be allied to ivag, iveigh. The primary sense is to throw, to lay, or deposit. If the elements are Bg, ff'g, the original French orthog- raphy was guage.]

    1. A pledge or pawn ; something laid down or given as a security for the performance of some act to be done by the person de- positing the thing, and which is to be for- feited by non-performance. It is used of a movable thing; not of land or other im- movable.

    There I throw my gage. Shak.

    2. A challenge to combat; that is, a glove, a caj), a gauntlet, or the like, cast on the ground by the challenger, and taken upby the accepter of the challenge. Encyc.

    3. A measure, or rule of measuring ; a stand- ard. [See Gauge.] Young.

    4. The number of feet which a ship sinks in the water.

    5. Among letter-founders, a piece of hard wood variously notched, used to adjust the dimensions, slopes, &c. of the various sorts of letters. Encyc.

    6. An instrument in joinery made to strike a line parallel to the straight side of a board. Encyc.

    A sliding-gage, a tool used by mathematical instrument makers for measuring and set- ting off distances. Encyc.

    Sea-gage, an instrument for finding the depth of the sea. Encyc.

    Tide-gage, an instrument for determining tne liighth of the tides. Encyc.

    Wiiid-gage, an instrument for measuring the force of the wind on any given surface.


    IVeather-gage, the windward side of a ship.

    GA(iE, v. t. To pledge ; to pawn ; to give or deposit as a pledge or security for some other act ; to wage or wager. Obs.


    2. To bind by pledge, caution or security ; to engage. Shak.

    3. To measure ; to take or ascertain the con- tents of a vessel, cask or ship ; written also gauge.

    GA'GED, pp. Pledged; measured. GA'GER, n. One who gages or meascn-es

    the contents. GAG'GER, )!. One that gags. GAG'GLE, V. i. [D. gaggelen ; G. gacktrn ;

    coinciding with cackle.] To make a noise

    like a goose. Bacon.

    GAG'GLING, n. The noise of geese. GA'(5ING, ppr. Pledging ; measuring the

    contents. G'AHNITE, n. [from Gahn, the discoverer.]

    A mineral, called also automalite and oc-

    G A I

    G A I

    G A I.

    t.'iliedral corundum. It is always crystal- ized in regular octahedrons, or in tetrahe- drons with truncated angles.

    Ckaveland. lire.

    GA'ILY, adv. [from gay, and better written


    1. Splendidly; with finery or showiness,

    2. Joyfully ; merrily. GAIN, t). <. [Fr. gagner ; Arw. gounit ; Sw.

    gagna ,- Sax. gynan ; Sp. ganar ; Port.

    garthar; Heb. Ch. Syr. HJp, Ar. Uji to gain, to possess. Class Gn. No. 49, 50.

    .'jl. The radical sense is to tal

    1. To obtain by industry or the employment of capital; to get as profit or advantage; to acquire. Any industrious person mayj gain a good living in America ; but it is less difficult to gain property, than it is to use it with prudence. Money at inter- est may gain five, six, or seven per cent.

    What is a man profited, if he shall gam thej whole world, and lose his own soul ? Matt, xvi

    2. To win ; to obtain by superiority or suc- cess ; as, to gain a battle or a victory ; tc gain a prize ; to gain a cause in law.

    3. To obtain ; to ac(iuire ; to procure ; tc receive ; as, to gain favor ; to gain reputa- tion.

    For fame witli toil wc gain, but lose with| ease. Pope.

    4. To obtain an increase of any thing ; as, to gain time.

    5. To obtain or receive any thing, good orl bad ; as, to gain barm and loss. Acts xxvii. I

    C. To draw into any interest or party ; to win to one's side ; to conciliate.

    To gratify the queen, and gain the court.

    Dry den. If he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. Matt, xviii.

    7. To obtain as a suitor. Millon.

    8. To reach ; to attain to ; to arrive at ; as, to gain the top of a mountain ; to gain a good harbor.

    To gain into, to draw or persuade to join in He gained Lepidus into his measures.

    Middhton To gain over, to draw to another party or

    interest ; to win over. To gain ground, to advance in any underta- king; to prevail; to acquire strength or extent ; to increase. GAIN, V. i. To have advantage or profit to grow rich ; to advance in interest o; happiness.

    Thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbors by extortion. Ezek. xxii.

    2. To encroach ; to advance on ; 1o come forward by degrees ; with on ; as, thi ocean or river gains on the land.

    3. To advance nearer; to gain ground on; with on ; as, a fleet horse gains on his competitor.

    4. To get ground ; to prevail against or liave the advantage.

    The English have not only gained upor the Venetians in the Levant, but have Ihei cloth in Venice itself Addison

    5. To obtain influence with.

    My good behavior had so far gained on thi emperor, that I began to conceive hopes ol liberty. Swifi

    To gain the wind, in sea language, is to

    arrive on the windward side of another

    ship. GAIN, n. [Fr. gain.] Profit; interest

    something obtained as an advantage. But what things were gain to me, those i

    counted loss for Christ. Phil. iii.

    2. Unlawful advantage. 2 Cor. xii.

    3. Overi)lusin computation; any thing op- posed to loss.

    GAIN, n. [W. gdn, a mortise ; ganu, U contain.]

    In architecture, a beveling shoulder ; a lap- ping of timbers, or the cut that is made for receiving a timber. Encyc.

    GAIN, a. Handy ; dextrous. Obs.

    GA'INABLE, a. That may be obtained or ched. . Sherwood.

    GA'INAGE, n. In oldlaws, the same as wain- age, that is, guninage ; the horses, oxen and furniture of the wain, or the instru- ments for carrying on tillage, which, whenl a villain was amerced, were left free, that cultivation might not be internipted. The word signifies also the land itself, or the profit made by cultivation. Encyc.

    GA'INED, ^p. Obtained as profit or advan tage ; won ; drawn over to a party ; reached.

    GA'INER, n. One that gains or obtains profit, interest or .idvantage.

    GA'INFUL, a. Producing profit or advan tage ; profitable ; advantageous ; advan cing interest or happiness.

    2. Lucrative ; productive of money ; adding to the wealth or estate.

    GA'INFULLY, adv. With increase of wealth ; profitably ; advantageously.

    GA'INFULNESS, n. Profit ; advantage.

    GA'INGiVING, n. [from the root of again, against, and give. See Gainsay.]

    A misgiving ; a giving against or awav. [Mt used.] Sha'k.

    GA'INLESS, a. Not producing gain ; un- profitable ; not bringing advantage.


    GA'INLESSNESS, n. Unprofitableness want of advantage. Decay of Piety.

    GA'INLY, adv. Handily; readily; dex trously. Obs.

    GAINSA'Y, V. t. [Sax. gean, or ongean, and say ; Eng. against ; Sw. igen ; Dan. gien, igien. See Again, Jigainst.]

    To contradict ; to oppose in words ; to deny or declare not to be true what another says; to controvert ; to dispute; applied to persons, or to jjropositions, declarations or facts.

    I will give you a mouth and wisdom, nhich all your adversaries shall not be able to gain- say nor resist. Luke xxi.

    GAINSA'YER, n. One who contradicts or denies what is alledged ; an opposer. Tit. i.

    GAINSA'YING, ppr. Contradicting ; deny- g ; opposing.

    GAINST. [See Against.]

    GA'INSTAND, v.t. [Sax., against, and stand.] To withstand ; to oppose ; to resist. Obs. Sidney.

    GA'INSTRIVE, V. I. [Sax.g'ean a.nA stnve.] To make resistance. Obs. Spenser.

    GA'INSTRIVE, v. t. To withstand. Obs.

    GA'IRISH, a. [Qu. from the root of gear, Sax. gearwian, to prepare or dress ; or Scot, g-air, a strijie, whence gaired, gairie,

    striped, streaked. In Gr. yoipoj is proud, boasting.]

    . Gaudy; showy; fine; affectedly fine; tawdry. Monstrous hats and gairish colors.

    Aschani. . Extravagantly gay ; flighty.

    Fame and glory transport a man out of him- self; it makes the mind loose and gairish.

    South. GA'IRISHNESS, n. Gaudiness; finery;

    affected or ostentatious show. 2. Flighty or extravagantjoy, or ostentation. Taylor. GAIT, n. [This word is probably connected with go or gad.]

    1. A going ; a walk ; a march ; a way. Shak. Spenser.

    2. Manner of walking or stepping. Every man has his peculiar gait.

    GA'ITER, n. A covering of cloth for the leg.

    GA'LA, n. [Sp. gala, a court dress ; It. gala, finery ; Fr. gala, show, pomp.]

    A gala day is a day of pomp, show or festivi- ty, when persons ajipear in their best apparel.

    GALA€'TITE, n. [Gr.ya?La.,yo;uixro;,milk.] A fossil substance resembling the moroch- thus or French chalk in many respects, but dififerent in color. Immersed or tritu- rated in water, it gives it the color of milk. Encyc. Morin. Lunier.

    GALA'gE, n. [Sp. gaiocha. See Galoche.] A wooden slioe. Obs. Spenser.

    GALAN'GA, n. A plant, a species of the Mai anta or Indian Arrow-Root, so called because the root is used to extract tlie viius communicated by poisoned arrows. This plant has thick, knotty, creeping roots, crowned with long, broad, arundina- ceous leaves, with stalks half a yard high, terminated by bunches of raonopetalousj ringent flowers. Encyc.

    GALAN'GAL, n. Zedoary, a species of Kiemi)feria. It has tuberous, thick, ob- long, fleshy roots, crowned with oval close-sitting leaves, by pairs, without foot- stalks. Encyc.

    GALA'TIANS, n. Inhabitants of Galaua, in the Lesser Asia, said to be descendants of the Gauls. [See Paul's epistle to them.]

    GAL'AXY, n. [Gr. yoXolia,-, from yoXa, milk ; Ir.geal, white ; W. gal, clear, fair, whence galaeth, the milky way ; Gr. xaxoj, fair.]

    1. The milky way ; that long, white, lumi- nous track w hich seems to encompass th« heavens like a girdle. This luminous ap- pearance is found by the telescope to be occasioned by a multitude of stars, so small as not to be distinguished by the naked eye. Encyc.

    2. An assemblage of splendid persons or things. Bp. Hall.

    GAL'BAN, > , [Hcb. maSn, and in GAL'BANUM, ^ "• Ch. and Syr. varied in

    orthography, from aSn to milk.] The concrete gummy resinous juice of an umbelhferous plant, called Ferula Africana, &c., and by Linne, Bubon gnlbanum, which grows in Syria, the East Indies and Ethio- pia. Tliis gum comes in pale-colored, semitransparent, soft, tenacious masses, of dififerent shades, from white to brown. It is rather resinous than gummy, and has


    a strong unpleasant smell, \\\\\\\\vitli a bitterish warm taste. It is unctuous to the touch, and softens between the fingers. When distilled with water or spirit, it yields an essential oil, and by distillation in a retort without mixture, it yields an empyreumatic oil of a fine blue color, but this is changed in the air to a purple. Parr.

    GALE, n. [luDan.g-aZis furious, and kuler is to blow strong, kuling, a gentle gale, from the root of coal and cold. In Ir. gal is a puft', a blast, and steam. The seuse is obvious.]

    A current of air ; a strong wind. The sense of this word is very indefinite. The poets use it in the sense of a moderate breeze or current of air, as a gentle gale. A stronger wind is called afresh gale.

    !n the language of seamen, the word gale, unaccompanied by an epithet, signifies a vehement wind, a storm or tempest. They say, the ship carried away her top-mast in a gale, or gale of wind ; the ship rode out the gale. But the word is often quali- fied, as a hard or strong gale, a violent gale A current pf wind somewhat less violent is denominated a stiff gale. A less vehe ment wind is called a fresh gale, which is a wind not too strong for a ship to carry single reefed top-sails, when close hauled When the wind is not so violent but that

    • a ship will carry her top-sails a-trip or fiiU spread, it is called a loom-gale.

    Mar. Diet. Encyc.

    GALE, V. i. In seamen^s language, to sail, or sail fast.

    GA'LEA, »i. [L. galea, a helmet.] A of sea hedge-hogs.

    GAL'EAS, »!. A Venetian ship, large, but low built, and moved both by oars and sails.

    GA'LEATED, a. [L. galtatus, from gah a helmet.]

    1. Covered as with a helmet. Woodward.

    2. In botany, having a flower like a helmet, as the monk's-hood.

    GALEE'TO, n. A fish of the genus Blen- nius, of a greenish color, sometimes va- riegated with blue transverse lines, and like the eel, living many hours after being taken from the water. GALE'N.\\\\\\\\, n. [Gr. yaXrivri, tranquillity, sc named from its supposed effects in mitiga- ting the violence of disease.] Originally the name of the theriaca. Parr

    2. Sulphuret of lead ; its common color is that shining bluish gray, usually called lead gray ; sometimes it is nearly steel gray. Its streak has a metaUic luster, but its fine powder is nearly black. Its struc ture is commonly foliated, sometimes granular or compact, and sometin ted or fibrous. It occurs in regular crys- tals, or more frequently massive.

    Cleaveland. GALEN'IC, \\\\\\\\ Pertaining to or con GALEN'I€AL, \\\\\\\\ "" taining galena.

    Encyc '-% [from GoZen, the physician.] Relating to Galen or his principles and method of treating diseases. The galenic remedies consist of preparations of herbs and roots, by infusion, decoction, &c. The chimi- cal remedies consist of preparations by means of calcination, digestion, fertnenta-

    tioM, &C.


    GA'LENISM, )!. The doctrines of Galen. GA'LENIST, n. A follower of Galen in the

    preparation of medicine and modes of

    treating diseases ; opposed to the chim-

    ists. GA'LERITE, n. [L. gaierus, a hat or cap.]

    A genus of fossil shells. GALILE'AN, n. A native or inhabitant of

    Galilee, in .Tudea. Also, one of a sect

    among the Jews, who opposed the pay

    ment of tribute to the Romans. GALIMA'TIA, n. [Fr. galimatias.] Non use. Mdison.

    GAL'IOT, n. [Yv. galiote ; Sp. galeota ; It. galeotta ; L. galea.]

    A small galley, or sort of brigantine, built for chase. It is moved both by sails and oars, having one mast and sixteen or twenty seats for rowers. Diet.

    2. Galiot or galliott, a Dutch vessel, carry ing'a main-mast and a mizen-mast, and a large gaff main-sail. Mar. Diet.

    GAL'IPOT, n. [Sp.l A white resin or res- inous juice which flows by incision from the pine tree, especially the maritime pine. Sp. Diet. Fourcroy. Did. Mit. Hist GaHpot encrusts the wounds of fir trees during winter. It consists of resin and oil. Coxe.

    GALL, n. [Sax. gealla ; G. galle ; D. gal ; Dan. galde ; Sw. galle ; Gr. xo>.jj ; proba- blv from its color. Sax. gealew, yellow. See Yellow and Gold.] In the animal economy, the bile, a bitter, yellowish green fluid, secreted in the glan- iluLar substance of the liver. It is gluti- nous or imperfectly fluid, like oil.

    Encyc. A'icholson.

    2. Any thing extremely bitter. Dryden.

    3. Rancor ; malignity. Spenser. Anger ; bitterness of mind. Prior.

    GALLBLADDER, »i. A small membranous sack, shaped like a pear, which receives the bile from the Hver by the cystic duct.

    GALLSICKNESS, n. A remitting bilious fever in the Netherlands. Parr.

    GALLSTONE, n. A concretion formed in the gallbladder.

    GALL, n. [L. galla ; Sax. gealla ; Sp. agal- la ; It. galla.]

    A hard round excrescence on the oak tree in certain warm climates, said to be the nest of an insect called cynips. It is form- ed from the tear issuing from a puncture made by the insect, and gradually increas- ed by accessions of fresh matter, till it forms a covering to the eggs and succeed ing insects. Galls are used in making ink ; the best are from Aleppo. Pi

    GALL, V. t. [Fr. galer, to scratch or rub ; gale, scab.]

    To fret and wear away by friction ; to excoriate ; to hurt or break the skin by nibbing ; as, a saddle galls the back of a horse, or a collar his breast.

    Tyrant, I well deserve thy galling chain.


    2. To impair; to wear away ; as, a stream galls the ground. Ray.

    3. To tease; to fret; to vex; to chagrin; as, to be galled by sarcasm.

    4. To wound ; to break the surface of any thing by rubbing; as, to g-aH a mast or a cable.


    5. To injure ; to harass; to annoy. The troops were galled by the shot of the ene- my.

    In our wars against the French of old, wc us( i' to gall them with our long bows, at a greatt r distance than they could shoot their arrows.


    GALL, V. i. To fret ; to be teased. Shak.

    GALL, It. A wound in the skin by rubbinjr.

    GAL'LANT, a. [Fr. galant; Sp. galante :

    It. id. This word is from the root of tin

    W. gallu, to be able, to have power; Eng.

    could ; L. gallus, a cock. See Could, Call.

    and Gala. The primary sense is to stretch,

    strain or reach forward.]

    . Gay ; well drcs.sed ; showy ; splendid :


    Neither shall gallant ships pass thereby. Is. xxxiii. The gay, the wise, the gallant, and the grave. Waller. [This sense is obsolete.]

    2. Brave; high-spirited; courageous; hero- ic ; magnanimous ; as a gallant youth ; a gallant officer.

    3. Fine ; noble. Shnk.

    4. Courtly ; civil ; pohte and attentive to la- dies ; courteous. Clarendon.

    GALLANT', n. A gay, sprightly man ; a courtly or fashionable man. Shak.

    2. A man who is polite and attentive to la- dies; one who attends upon ladies at par- tics, or to places of amusement.

    3. A wooer; a lover; a suitor.

    4. In an ill sense, one who caresses a wo- man for lewd purposes.

    GALLANT', v. t. To attend or wait on, as a lady.

    2. To handle with grace or in a modish manner ; as, to gallant a fan. Connoisseur.

    GAL'LANTLY, adv. Gaily ; splendidly.

    2. Bravely ; nobly ; heroically ; generously : as, to fight gallantly ; to defend a place ga/- lantly.

    GAL'LANTNESS, n. Elegance or com- pleteness of an acquired qualification.


    GAL'LANTRY, n. [Sp. galanteria ; Fr. galanterie.]

    1. Splendor of appearance ; show; magnifi- cence ; ostentatious finery. [Obsolete or obsolescent] Wcdler.

    2. Bravery ; coiu-ageousness ; heroism ; in- trepidity. The trooi)s entered the fort with great gallantly.

    3. Nobleness; generosity. Glanville.

    4. Civility or polite attentions to ladies.

    5. Vicious love or pretensions to love ; civili- ties paid to females for the purpose of win- ning favors; hence, lewdness ; debauche-


    GAL'LATE, n. [from gaU.] A neutral salt formed by the gallic acid combined with a base. Lavoisier.

    GAL'LEASS. [See Galeas.]

    IgALL'ED, pp. [See GoH, the verb.] Hav- ing the skin or surface worn or torn by wearing or rubbing ; fretted ; teased ; injured ; vexed.

    GAL'LEON, [Sp. galeon ; Port, galeam ; It. gateone. See Galley.]

    A large ship formerly used by the Spaniards, in their commerce with South America,

    1 usually furnished with four decks.

    ! Mar. Diet.


    GAL'LERY, n. [Fr. galerie ; Sp. Port, ga- leria ; It. galleria ; Dan. gallerie ; G. id. , D. galdery ; Sw. galkr-vtrck, and gall-rad. Lunier supiroses tljis word to be from the root of G. ivallen, to walk.]

    1. In architecture, a covered part of a build- ing, commonly iu the wings, used as an ambulatory or place for walking. Enciji

    2. An ornamental walk or apartment in gardens, formed by trees. Encyc.

    3. In churches, a floor elevated on colunms and furnished with pews or seats ; usually ranged on three sides of the edifice. A similar structure in a play-house.

    4. In fortification, a covered walk across the ditch of a town, made of beams covered with planks and loaded with earth.


    5. In a mine, a narrow passage or branch of the mine carried under ground to u work designed to be blown up. Encyc.

    C. In a ship, a frame like a balcony project- ing from the stern or quarter of a ship of war or of a large merchantman. That part at the stern, is called the stem-gallery ; that at the quarters, the quarter-gallery.

    GAL'LETYLE, n. Gallipot. Bacon.

    GAL'LEY, n. plu. galleys. [Sp. galera It. galera or galea ; Fr. gaUre ; Port, gale L. galea. The Latin word signifies a hel met, the top of a mast, and a galley ; ant the name of this vessel seems to have been derived from the head-piece, or kind of basket-work, at mast-head.]

    1. A low flat-built vessel, with one deck and navigated with sails and oars; used in the Mediterranean. The largest sort of galleys, employed by the Venetians, are 163 feet in length, or 133 feet keel. They have three masts and thirty two banks of oars ; each bank containing two oars, and each oar managed by six or seven slaves. In the fore-part they carry three small bat- teries of cannon. Encyc. Mar. Diet.

    2. A place of toil and misery. South.

    3. An open boat used on the Thames l)y custom-house officers, press-gangs, anil for pleasure. Mar. Diet.

    4. The cook room or kitchen of a ship of war ; answering to the caboose of a mer- chantman. Mar. Diet.

    5. An oblong reverberatory furnace, with a row of retorts whose necks protrude through lateral openings. J\\\\\\\\/'icholson.

    GAL'LEYFOIST, «. A barge of state.

    Hakewell. GAL'LEY-SLAVE, n. A person condemn

    ed for a criine to work at the oar or

    board of a galley. GALL'FLV, n. The insect that punctures

    plants and occasions galls; the cynips.

    Encyc GAL'LIARD, a. [Fr. gaiUard, from gai,

    gay.] Gay ; brisk ; active. Obs.

    Chaucer. GAL'LIARD, n. A brisk, gay man ; also, a

    lively dance. Obs. Bacon.

    GAL'LIARDISE, n. Merriment ; excessive

    gavetv. Obs. Brown.

    GAL'LIARDNESS, n. Gayety. Obs.

    Gaylon. GAL'LI€, a. [from Gallia, Gaul, now

    France.] Pertaining to Gaul or France. GAL'LI€, a. [from gall.] Rclonging to

    galls or oak apjdes ; derived from galls;

    as the gallic acid.

    Vol. I.


    GAL'LICAN, a. [L. Gallicus, from Gallia, Gaul.] Pertaining to Gaul or France ; as the Gnllican church or clergy.

    GAL'LICISM, n. [Fr.gallicigme, from Gal- lia, Gaul.] A mode of speech peculiar tc the French nation ; an idiomatic manner of using words in the French language.

    GALLIGASKINS, n. [Qu. Caligm Vasco 7ium, (iascon-hose.] Large open hosc\\\\\\\\used only in ludicrous language. Philips.

    GAL'LIMAIJFRY, »i. [Fr. galimafrh.] A hash ; a medley ; a hodge-jiodge. [Little tised.] .Spenser.

    2. Any inconsistent or ridiculous medley. Dryden

    3. A woman. [JVot in tise.] Shak GALLINA'CEOUS, a. [L.gallinac€us,fiom

    gallina, a hen, gallus, a cock, whose name is from crowing, W. galw, Eng. to call.] 1. Designating that order of fowls callec gaUinee, including the domestic fowls oi those of the pheasant kind. Gallitiacetis Lapis, a glossy substance pro- duced by volcanic fires ; the lapis oh- sidianus of the ancients. A kind of il brought from Peru is of a beautiful black, or crow-color, like the gallinaco. Encyc.

    GALL'ING, ppr. [See GaU, the verb.]

    '. Fretting the skin ; excoriating. . a. Adapted to fret or chagrin ; vexing.

    GAL'LINULE, n. [L. gallimda, dim. of] gallina, a hen.]

    A tribe of fowls of the grallic order, included under the genus Fulica, with the coot.

    GALLIOT, > re r^ r .^

    GALLEOT, I ^^"^ ^"''"'-l

    GAL'LIPOT, n. [D. gleye, potter's clay, and pot.]

    A small pot or vessel painted and glazed, used by druggists and apothecaries for containing medicines.

    GALLIT'ZINITE, n. Rutile, an ore of ti taniuni. Ure.

    GAL'LIVAT, n. A small vessel used on the Malabar coast. Todd.

    GALL'LESS, a. [from gaU.] Free from gall or bitterness.

    GAL'LON, n. [Sp. galo7i ; Law l..galona. In French, galon is a grocer's box. See GUI.]

    A measure of capacity for dry or liquid things, but usually for liquids, containing four quarts. Hut the gallon is not in all cases of uniform contents or dimensions. The gallon of wine contains 231 cubic inches, or eight pounds avordupois of pure water. The gallon of beer and ale contains 281 cubic inches, or ten pounds three ounces and a quarter avordupois of water ; and the gallon of corn, meal, &c., 272i cubic inches, or nine pounds thir- teen ounces of pure water. Encyc.

    GALLOON", 71. [Fr. galon; Sp. galon ; It.

    f«//o;ie ; Port, galam.] ind of close lace made of gold or silver, or of silk only. Taller.

    GAL'LOP, V. i. [Fr. galoper ; Sp.galopear; Port. id. ; It. galoppare ; Arm. galoupat or galompal ; G. gatoppire.n. If this word is fiom the elements Gl, I know not the origin or meaning of the last constituent part of the word. I suppose it to be form- ed with the prefix ga on leap, G. lav/en, D. loopen, geloopen. See Leap.]



    1. To move or run with leaps, as a horse to run or move with speed.

    But gallop lively down the western hill.


    2. To ride with a galloiiing pace. We gal- loped townrds the enemy.

    ■3. To move very fast ; to run over.

    Sucli superficial ideas he may collect in gal- loping over it. Locke.

    G.AL'LOP, 71. The movement or pace of a quadruped, particularly of a horse, by springs, reaches or leaps. The animal lifts his fore feet nearly at the same time, and as these descend and are just ready to touch the ground, the hind feet are lift- ed at once. The gallop is the swiftest pace of a horse, but it is also a moderate pace, at the pleasure of a rider.

    GALLOPER, 71. A horse that gallops; al- so, a rnan that gallops or makes haste.

    2. In artillery, a carriage which bears a gun of a pound and a half ball. It has shafts so as to be drawn without a limbon, and it may serve for light three and six pound- ers.

    GAL'LOPIN, n. [Fr.] A servant for the kitchen. Obs.

    GAL'LOW, V. I. [Sax. aga:lwan.] To fright or terrify. Oi*. Shak.

    GAL'LOVVAY, ti. A horse or species of horses of a small size, bred in Galloway in Scotland. Hawkesworth.

    GAL'LOWGLASS, ti. An ancient Irish foot soldier. Spenser.

    GAL'LOWS, 71. singular. [Sax. galg, geal- ga; Goth, galga; G. galgen ; D.galg; Sw. galge ; Dan. id. Gallows is in the singular number and should be preceded by a, a gallows. The plural is gallowses.]

    1. An instrument of ]>unishmcnt whereon criminals are executed by hanging. It consists of two posts and a cross beam on the top, to which the criminal is suspend- ed by a rope fastened round his neck.

    2. A wretch that deserves the gallows. [JVot "««''•] Shak.

    GAL'LOWSFREE, a. Free from danger of the gallows. Druden.

    GAL'LOWTREE, ti. The tree of e.xecu- •'"»■ Spenser.

    GALL'Y, a. Like gall ; bitter as gall.


    GAL'LY, 71. [Port, gal^, a galley, and a printer's frame ; Fr. gal6e.]

    A i)rinter's frame or oblong square board with a ledge on three sides, into which tyi)es are emptied from the composing stick. It has a groove to admit a false bottom, called a gally-slice. Encyc.

    GAL'LY-WORM, ti. An insect of the cen- tiped kind, of several species.

    GALO'CHE, 71. [Fr. from Sp. galocha, a clog or wooden shoe.]

    \\\\\\\\ patten, clog or wooden shoe, or a shoe to be worn over another shoe to keep the foot dry. It is written also galoshe.

    GALSOME, a. gaul'som. [from gall.] An- gry : malignant. Obs. Morton.

    GALV.\\\\\\\\N'IC a. Pertaining to galvanism ; containing or exhibiting it.

    GALVANISM, ti. [from Galvani of Bo- logna, the discoverer.]

    Electrical phenomena in which the electri- city is developed without the aid of fi-ic-

    G A INI

    tion, and in which a chimical action takes place between certain bodies.

    Edin. Encyc. Galvanism is heat, hght, electricity atid magnetism, united in combination or m simultaneous action ; sometimes one and sometimes another of them predomina- ting, and thus producing more or less al' the eflfects of each : usual means of ex citement, contact of dissimilar bodies, especially of metals and fluids.

    Hare. Silliman GAL'VANIST, n. One who believes in gal

    vanism ; one versed in galvanism. GAL'VANIZE, v. t. To affect with galvan

    ism. GALVANOL'OGIST, n. One who describes

    the phenomena of galvanism. GALVANOL'OGY, ji. [galvanism, and Gr.

    ■Aoyos, discourse.] A treatise on galvanism, or a description of

    its phenomena. GALVANOM'ETER, n. [galvanism, and

    Gr. iittpM, measure.] An instrument or apparatus for measuring minute quantities of electricity, or the op- erations of galvanism. Ure. GAMASH'ES, ji. Short spatterdashes worn by plowmen. Shdton GAMBA'DOES, n. Spatterdashes. [It

    samba, the leg.] GAM'BET, ?i. A bird of the size of the creenshank, found in the Arctic sea, and in Scandinavia and Iceland, o™..-.-»


    which in Saxon and other northern dia- lects signifies a combat.] . Sport of any kind. khak.

    2. Jest; opposed to earnest; as, betwixt earnest and game. [M)t used.] Spenser.

    3. An exercise or play for amusement or ' winning a stake ; as a game of cricket ; a

    of chess ; a game of whist. Some

    on skill ; others on hazard



    GAM'BLE, V. i. [from g-a«ie.] To play or game for money or other stake.

    GAM'BLE, V. t. To gamble away, is to squander by gaming.

    Bankrupts or sots who have gambled or slept awai/ their estates. j3mes.

    GAM'BLER, n. One who games or plays for money or other stake. Gamblers often or usually become cheats and knaves.

    GAM'BLING, ppr. Gaming for money

    CiAMBO'uE, 71. A concrete vegetable juice or gnm-resin. It is brought in orbicular masses or cylindrical rolls, from Cambaja, Cambodja, or Cambogia, in the E. Indies, whence its name. It is of a dense, coin- jiact texture, and of a beautiful reddish yellow. It is used chiefly as a pigment. Taken internally, it is a strong and harsl cathartic and emetic. JVicholson

    G AM'BOL, V. i. [Fr. gambiller, to wag the leg or kick, from It. gamba, the leg, F Jamie, Sp. g-am6a.] 1. To dance and skip about in sport; to frisk ; to leap ; to play in frolick, like boy and lambs. Milton. Dryden.


    games depend

    4. A single match at play

    5. Advantage in play ; as, to play the game into another's hand.

    (5. Scheme pursued ; measures planned.

    This seems to be the present game of that crown. ^ , p^-P'^

    7 Field sports ; the chase, falconry, &c.

    Shak. Waller.

    8. Animals pursued or taken in the chase

    or in the sports of the field ; animals ap

    propriated in England to legal sportsmen

    as deer, hares, &c.

    ). In antiquity, games were public diver

    sions or contests exhibited as spectacles

    for the gratification of the people. These

    games consisted of running, leaping, wrest

    lin", riding, &c. Such were the Olympic

    games, the Pythian, the Isthmian, the "

    mean, &c. among the Greeks; and among

    the Romans, the Apollinarian, the Circen-

    sian, the Capitoline, &c. Encyc

    10. Mockery ; sport ; derision ; as, to make

    game of a person. GAME, v.i. [Sax. g-anuan.] To play at any

    sport or diversion. •2. To play for a stake or prize ; to use cards, dice, billiards or other instruments, ac cording to certain rules, with a view t( win money or other thing waged upon the issue of the contest. 3. To practice gaming. GAMECOCK, n. A cock bred or used

    G A N

    GA MING-HOUSE, n. A house where ga- practiced. Blackstone,

    GA'MlNG-TABLE, n. A table appropria- ted to gaming.

    GAM'MER, n. [Sw. gammal, Dan. gayn- mel, old ; Sw. gumma, an old woman.]

    The compellation of an old woman, answer- ing to gaffer, applied to an old man.

    GAM'MON, n. [It. gamba ; Fr. jambe, a

    2. To leap ; to start.


    GAM'BOL, n. A skipping or leaping abouti in frolick ; a skip ; a hop ; a leap ; a sport- ive prank. Dryden. GAM'BOLING, ppr. Leaping; frisking;

    plaving pranks. GAM'BREL, n. [from It. gamba, the leg.] The hind leg of a horse. Hence, in Amer- ica, a crooked stick used by butchers. A hipped roof is called a gambrel-roof. GAM'BREL, v. t. To tie by the leg.

    Beaum. GAME, n. [Xee.gaman; Sax. gamen, a jest sport ; gamian, to jest, to sport ; It. giam- bare, to jest or jeer ; W. camp, a feat, a game ; campiaw, to contend in games. The latter seems to unite game with camp

    GA'ME-EGG, n. An egg from winch a fighting cock is bred. Garth.

    GA'MEKEEPER, n. One who has the care of game ; one who is authorized to preserve beasts of the chase, or animals kept for sport. Blackstone

    GA'MESOME, a. Gay; sportive; playful frolicksome.

    This o-aniesomf humor of children. Locke GA'MESOMENESS, n. Sportiveness ; mer- riment. ., , „ „ GA'MESOMELY, adv. Merrily ; playfully. GA'jMESTER, ji. [game, and Sax. steora, a 1 director.] . 1. A person addicted to gaming ; one who is accustomed to play for money or other stake, at cards, dice, billiards and the like ; a gambler; one skilled in games. " Addison It is as easy to be a scholar as a gamest:

    leg ; jambon, a leg of baton.]

    1. The buttock or thigh of a hog, pickled and smoked or dried ; a smoked ham.

    2. A game, called usually back-gammon, which see.

    GAM'MON, V. t. To make bacon; to pickle

    and dry in smoke. 2. To fasten a bowsprit to the stem of a ship by several turns of a rope. Mar. Diet.

    GAM'MON, V. t. In the game of back-gam- mon, the party that, by fortunate throws of the dice or by superior skill in moving, withdraws all his men from the board, be- fore his antagonist has been able to get his men home and withdraw any of them from his table, gammons his antago- nist.

    GAM'MUT, n. [Sp. gamma ; Port, id.; Fr. gamme ; from the Greek letter so named.] . A scale on which notes in music are writ- ten or printed, consisting of lines and spa- ces, which are named after the seven first letters of the alphabet.

    2. The first or gravest note in Guido's scale of music, the modern scale.

    GAN, a contraction of began, or rather the original simple word. Sax. gynnan, to be- gin.

    GANCH, t>. t. [It. gancio, a hook.] To drop from a high place on hooks, as the Turks do malefactors, by way of punishment.

    GAN'DER, n. [Sax. gandra, ganra ; Ir.

    fanra. In Ger. and D. gans is a goose ; ». ganserick, a gander ; Gr. xn^, and proba- bly L. anser. Pliny says, that in Germany the small white geese were called ganzce. Lib. 10. 22.] The male of fowls of the goose kind. GANG, 1

    2. One engaged at play.

    Harrh Bacor,

    3. A merry, frolicksome person. [Not used.

    4. A prostitute. [J^ot in use.] Shak GA'MING, ppr. Playing ; sporting ; play

    ing for money. .

    GA'MING, JI. The act or art of playing

    any game in a contest for a victory, or

    for a prize or stake. |2. The practice of using cards, dice, bil

    liards and the like, according to certain I rules, for winning money, &c.

    [Sax. gangan ; Goth, gaggan.] To go ; to walk. [Local, or used only in ludicrous language.] GANG, n. [Goth, gagg, a street.] Properly, a going ; hence, a number going in com- pany ; hence, a company, or a number of persons associated for a particular pur- pose ; as a gang of thieves. 2. In scojiicn's language, a select number of a ship's crew appointed on a particular service, under a suitable officer.

    Mar. Diet. GANG'BOARD, ji. A board or plank with cleats for steps, used for walking into or out of a boat. GANG'DAYS, ji. Bays of perambulation. GANG'HON, n. A flower. AinswoHh.

    GANG'LION, n. [Gr. 7077*101-.] In anato- my, a small circumscribed tumor, found iu certain parts of the nervous system.

    }Vistar. Cyc. 2. In surgery, a movable tumor formed on the tendons, generally about the wrist.


    GAN'GRENATE, v. t. To produce a gan-

    iirene. Btoxvti^

    GAN'GRENE, ji. [Fr. from L. gangxmna ;

    ll Gr. voyypoHO ; Syr. gangar.]

    G A O



    A mortification of living flesh, or of some part of a living animal body. It is par- ticularly applied to tiie first stage of morti- fication, before the life of the jiart is com pletely extinct. When the part is com- pletely dead, it is called sphacelus.

    Encyc. Cyc.

    GAN'GRENE, v. t. To mortify, or to beg' mortification in.

    GAN'GRENE, v.i. To become mortified.

    GANGRENES'CENT, a. Tending to mo tification ; beginning to corrupt or putrefy, as living

    GAN'GRENOUS, a. Mortified ; indicating mortification of living flesh.

    GANGUE, n. gang. [See Gang.] In mi- ning, the earthy, stony, saline, or combus tible substance, which contains the ore of metals, or is only mingled with it without being chimically combined, is called the gangue or matrix of the ore. It diflfers from a mineralizer, in not being combined with the metal. Cteaveland.

    GANG'WAY, n. A passage, way or avenue into or out of any inclosed place, especially a passage into or out of a ship, or from one part of a ship to another ; also, a nar- row platform of planks laid horizontally along the upper part of a ship's side, from the quarter deck to the forecastle.

    To bring to the gaiigway, in the discipline of ships, is to punish a seaman by seizing him up and flogging him.

    GANG'WEEK, n. Rogation week, n'hen processions are made to lustrate or sui-vey the bounds of parishes. Diet.

    GAN'IL, n. A kind of brittle limestone.


    GAN'NET, n. [Sax. ganot. See Gander.] The Solan Goose, a fowl of the genus Pelicanus, about seven pounds in weight, with a straight bill, six inches long, and palmated feet. These fowls frequent the isles of Scotland in summer, and feed chiefly on herrings. Eneyc.

    GANT'LET, ? , [FT.gantehlJiomganl,

    GAUNT'LET, J "• a glove; U.guanio; D. want ; Dan. and Sw. vante, a glove.]

    A large iron glove with fingers covered with small plates, formerly worn by cavaliers, armed at all points.

    To throw the gantlet, is to challenge ; and

    To take %ip the gantlet, is to accept the chal- lenge.

    GANTLOPE, n. [The last syllable is from the Teutonic, D. loopen, to run. The first is probably from gang, a passage.]

    A miUtary punishment inflicted on criminals for some hainous offense. It is executed in this manner ; soldiers are arranged in two rows, face to face, each armed with a switch or instrument of punishment ; be tween these rows, the oflTender, stripped to his waist, is compelled to pass a certain number of times, and each man gives him a stroke. A similar punishment is used on board of ships. Hence this word is chief- ly used in the phrase, to run the gantlet or gantlope. Dryden. Mar. Diet

    GAN'ZA, n. [Sp. ganso, a goose. See Gan- der.] A kind of wild goose, by a flock of which a virtuoso was fabled to be carried to the lunar world. Johnson. Hudibras.

    GAOL, n. [Fr. geole ; Arm. geol or jol ; W. geol ; Norm, geaule, geole ; Sp. jaula.

    cage, a cell ; Port, gaiola. Qu. Class Gl.^ No. 11. 3G. Ar. As the pronunciation gole accords with that of goal, a diflferent word, it would be convenient to write and pro nounce this word uniformly jai/.]

    A prison ; a place for the confinement of debtors and criminals.

    GAOL, V. t. To imprison ; to confine in jtrison. Bacon.

    GAOLD ELI VERY, n. A judicial process' for clearing jails of criminals, by trial and condemnation or acquittal.

    GAOLER, ji. The keeper of a gaol or pris- oner; a jailor.

    GAP, n. [See Gape and Gab. Gipsey, geb, Hindoo, gibah, a hole.]

    1. An opening in any thing made by break- ing or parting; as a gap in a fence oi wall.

    2. A breach.

    Manifold miseries ensued by the opening oi tli-at gap to all that side of Christendom.


    3. Any avenue or passage; way of entrance or departure. Dryden.

    4. A breach ; a defect ; a flaw ; as a gap in honor or reputation. Shak. More.

    5. An interstice ; a vacuity.

    A third can fill the gap with laughing.


    6. A hiatus ; a chasm ; as a gap between words. Pope

    To stop a gap, to secure a weak point ; to repair a defect.

    To stand in the gap, to expose one's self for the protection of something; to make de- fense against any assailing danger. Ezek xxii.

    G'APE, V. i. [Sax. geapan ; Sw. gapa ; D.

    gaapen ; G. gaffen ; Dan. gaber ; Ar. cj lj:» jauba, to split, tear or cut open.]

    1. To open the mouth wide, from sleepiness, drowsiness or dullness; to yawn. Swi/l

    2. To open the mouth for food, as young birds. Dryden.

    3. To gape for or after, to desire earnestly to crave ; to look and long for ; as, men

    often gape after court favor. The hungry grave/or her due tribute ga/)fs.

    henham To gape at, in a like sense, is hardly correct.

    4. To open in fissures or crevices; as a gaping rock.

    May that ground gape, and swallow me alive, Shak.

    5. To have a hiatus ; as one vowel gaping on another. Dryden.

    6. To open the mouth in wonder or siir prise ; as the gaping fool ; the gaping crowd.

    7. To utter sound with open throat.

    Hoscommon. . To open the mouth with hope or expecta- tion. Hudibras. . To open the mouth with a desire to in- jure or devour.

    Tliev have gaped upon me with their mouth. Job xvi. G>APE, ri. A gaping. Addison.

    G'APER, n. One who gapes; a yawner

    2. One who opens his mouth for wonder and stares foolishly.

    3. One who longs or traves. Carew.

    4. A fish with six or seven bands and tail undivided. Pennant.

    GAPING, ppr. Opening the mouth wide from sleepiness, dullness, wonder or admi- ration ; yawning; opening in fissures; craving.

    GAP'TOOTHED, a. Having interstices be- tween the teeth. Dryden.

    GAR, in Saxon, a dart, a weapon ; as in

    Edgar, or Eadgar, a haijjiy weapon ;

    Ethelgar, noble weapon. Gibson.

    This may be the Ch. XTJ or imj an

    arrow, a dart ; Sam. an arrow.

    GAR'AGAY,7i. A rapacious fowl of Mexico, of the size of the kite. Did.

    G'ARU, n. [Fr. garbe, looks, countenance ; It. fii>. garbo; Norm, ^arts, clothes, dress; Russ. gerb, arms ; from the root of gear.]

    1. Dress; clothes; habit; as the g-art of a clergyman or judge.

    2. Fashion or mode of dress. Denham.

    3. Exterior appearance ; looks. Shak.

    4. In heraldry, a sheaf of corn. [Fr. gtrbe; Sp. garba.]

    GARBAGE, n. [I know not the component parts of this word.] The bowels of an animal ; refuse parts of flush ; offal.

    Shak. Dryden.

    G^ARBAgED, a. Stripped of the bowels.


    G'ARBEL, »i. The jdank next the keel of a sliip. [See Garboard-streak.]

    G .\\\\\\\\RBLE, V. t. [Sp. garbiilar ; It. cribrare, crivellare ; Fr. cnbler ; L. cribro, cribello.

    Qu. Ar. J.jj.i or Ch. ^yy^ to sift, to bolt. Class Rb. No. 30. 34. 40.] . Properly, to sift or bolt ; to separate the fine or valuable parts of a substance from the coarse and useless parts, or from dross or dirt ; as, to garble spices.

    2. To separate ; to pick ; to cull out.

    Dryden. Locke.

    G^ARBLED, pp. Sifted ; bolted ; separated ; culled out.

    G'ARBLER, n. One who garbles, sifts or separates. A^arWerof spices, is an officer of great antiquity in London.

    2. One who picks out, culls or selects.

    G'ARBLES, n. phi. The dust, soil or filth, ered from good spices, drugs, &c. Cyc.

    G'ARBLING, ppr. Sifting; separating; sorting ; culling.

    GARBOARD, n. The garboard plank, in a sliip, is the first plank fastened on the keel on the outside. Bailey.

    Garboard-streak, in a ship, is the first range or streak of planks laid on a ship's bottom, next the keel. Mar. Diet.

    G'ARBOIL, n. [Old Fr. g-nr6oH(7; It. s-nc- buglio.] Tumult: uproar. [.Vo< usf(^}

    GARD. [See Guard and Ifard)

    GARDEN, n. [G. garten : W. garth; It. giardino ; Sp.jardin ; Fr. id.; ¥on.jardim ; Arm. jardd, jardin or gardd. The first syllable is the Sax. geard, Goth, gards, ling, yard, an inclosed place. The Saxon is ortgeard, Dan. urtegaard, Sw. brteg&rd, wortyard, an inclosure for herbs. The Irish \\\\\\\\s gairdin or garrdha ; Hungarian, korth ; L. hortus. In Slavonic, gard, Russ. gorod, signifies a town or city, and the de- rivative verb goroju, to inclose with a hedge. Hence Stuttgard^ JVbvogrod or J\\\\\\\\i'ovogardia. The primary sense of gar-




    den is an inclosed place, and inclosures were originally made witli hedges, stakes or palisades. It is probable that in the east, and in the pastoral state, men had little or no inclosed land except such was fenced for the protection of herbs and fruits, and for villages. See Coxe's Russ. B. 4.]

    1. A piece of ground appropriated to the cultivation of herbs, or plants, fruits and flowers; usually near a mansion-house Land appropriated to the raising of culi nary herbs and roots for domestic use, i called a kitchen-garden ; that appropriated to flowers and shrubs is called a Jlower garden ; and that to fruits, is called a. fruit- garden. But these uses are sometimes blended.

    9. A rich, well cidtivated spot or tract ofl country; a delightful spot. The intervals on the river Connecticut are all a garden. Lombardy is the garden of Italy.

    Garden, in composition, is used adjective- ly, as garden-mold, a rich fine mold or soil ; garden-tillage, the tillage used in cul- tivating gardens.

    G'ARDEN, V. i. To lay out and to cultivate a garden ; to prepare ground, to plant and till it, for the purpose of producing plants, shrubs, flowers and fruits.

    G'ARDENER, n. One whose occupation is to make, tend and dress a garden.

    (J'ARDENING, ppr. Cultivating or tilling a garden.

    ♦ GARDENING, n. The act of laying out and cultivating gardens ; hoi'ticulture.


    G'ARDEN-PLOT, n. The plot or planta- tion of a garden. Milton.

    G-ARDEN-STUFF, n. Plants growing in a garden ; vegetables for the table. [./J word in popular use.]

    G'ARDEN-WARE, n. The produce of gardens. [JVot in use.] Mortimer.

    G'ARDON, n. A fish of the roach kind.

    GARE, n. Coarse wooJ growing on the legs of sheep. Diet.

    G'ARGARISM, n. [L. gargarismus ; Gr. yopyapifu, to wash the mouth ; allied pro- bably to gorge, the throat.]

    A gargle ; any liquid preparation used to wash the mouth and throat, to cure inflam- mations or ulcers, &c. Encyc.

    G'ARGARIZE, v. t. [Fr. gargariser; L. gargarizo ; Gr. yapyapifu.]

    To wash or rinse the niuuth with any medi- cated liquor. Bacon.

    G'ARGET, n. [See Gorge.] A distemper in cattle, consisting in a swelling of the throat and the neighboring parts.


    G'ARGIL, n. A distemper in geese, which stops the head and often proves fatal.


    G-ARGLE, II. t. [Fr. gargouiller, to paddle or dabble ; It. gargaghare, to murmur ; Eng. to gurgle ; D. gorgelen ; G. gurgeln ; allied to gorge, gurges.]

    1. To wash the throat and mouth with a liquid preparation, which is kept from de- scending into the stomach by a gentle ex- piration of air.

    1. To warble; to play in the throat. [Unu- ■mal.] trailer

    G^ARGLE, n. Any liquid preparation for washing the mouth and throat.


    G~ARGLION, n. An exsudation of nervous juice from a bruise, which indurates into a tumor. ^uincy.

    G'ARGOL, n. A distemper in swine.


    GARISH. [See Gairish.]

    G'ARLAND, n. [Fr. guirlande; It. ghir landa ; Sp. guirnalda ; Port, grinalda ; Arm. garlantez. This word has been re ferred to the L. gyrus, and it may be from the same root, ft seems to denote some thing round or twisted, for in Spanish it is used for a wreath of cordage or pudden

    1. A wreath or chaplet made of branches, flowers, fethers and sometimes of pre cious stones, to be worn on the head like a crown. Pope. Encyi

    2. An ornament of flowers, fruits and leavesl intermixed, anciently used at the gates of temples where feasts and solemn rejoi- cings were held. Encyc.

    3. The top ; the principal thing, or thing most iirized. Shak.

    4. A collection of httle printed pieces. Percy.

    5. In ships, a sort of net used by sailors in- stead of a locker or cupboard.

    Mar. Diet.

    G'ARLAND, v. t. To deck with a garland. B. Jonson

    G'ARLIe, n. [Sax. garlec or garleac ; gar, a dart or lance, in Welsh, a shank, and leac, a leek ; Ir. gairliog ; W. garlleg. The Germans call it knoblauch, knobleek; D. knoflook ; Gr. axopoiou.]

    A plant of the genus Allium, having a bulb- ous root, a very strong smell, and an acrid, pungent taste. Each root is composed of several lesser bulbs, called cloves of gar- lic, inclosed in a common membranous coat and easily separable. Encyc.

    G'ARLI€EATER, n. A low fellow.


    GARLICPEAR-TREE, n. A tree in Ja- maica, the Crateva, bearing a fruit which has a strong scent of garlic. Miller.

    G^ARMENT, n. [Norm, ganiament ; Old Fr. guarniment ; It. guarnimento, furnitiu-e, ornament ; from the root of garnish, and denoting what is put on or furnished.]

    Any article of clothing, as a coat, a gown, &e. Garments, in the plural, denotes clo- thing in general ; dress.

    No man putteth a piece of new cloth to an old garment. Matt. ix.

    G^ARNER, n. [Fr. grenier ; Ir. geimeal ; Norm, guernier, gamier. See Grain.]

    A granary ; a building or place where grain is stored for jireservation.

    G'ARNER, V. t. To store in a granary.


    G'ARNET, «. [U.granato: Fr.grenat; Sp. granule ■; L. granatus, from granum, or granatum, the pomegranate.]

    1. A mineral usually occurring in crystals more or less regular. The crystals have numerous sides, frotn twelve to sixty or even eighty four. Its prevailing color is red of various shades, but often brown, and sometimes green, yellow or black. It sometimes resembles the hyacinth, the leucite, and the idocrase. Of this gem

    there are several varieties, as the precious or oriental, the pyrope, the topazolite, the succinite, the common garnet, the melan- ite, the pyreneite, the grossular, the al- lochroite, and the colophonite.

    Haiiy. Cleaveland.

    2. In ships, a sort of tackle fixed to the main stay, and used to hoist in and out the cargo.

    GARNISH, v.t. [Fr.gamir; Arm. goar- ni^a ; Sp. guarnecer ; It. guamire, guer- mre ; Norm, garner, gamisher, to warn, to summon. The latter sense is still used in law language, and it would seem that warn and garnish are from the same root, for warn, written in the Celtic manner, would be guam.]

    1. To adorn ; to decorate with appendages ; to set ofl^.

    All within with flowers was garnished.


    2. To fit with fetters ; a cant term.

    3. To furnish; to supply; as a fort ^araisAcrf ■with troops.

    4. In laio, to warn ; to give notice. [See Garnishee.]

    G'ARNISH, n. Ornament ; something ad- ded for embellishment ; decoration. Matter and figure they produce ; For garnish this, and that for use. Prior.

    2. In jails, fetters ; a cant term.

    3. Pensiuncula carceraria ; a fee ; au ac- knowledgment in money when first a pris- oner goes to jail. Ainstvorth.

    G>ARNISHED, pp. Adorned ; decorated ; embellished.

    2. Furnished.

    3. Warned ; notified. GARNISHEE', n. In law, one in whose

    hands the property of an absconding or absent debtor is attached, who is warned or notified of the demand or suit, and who may appear and defend in the suit, in the place of the principal.

    Stat, of Connecticut.

    G^ARNISIHNG, ppr. Adorning; decora- ting; warning.

    GARNISHMENT, n. Ornament; embel- lishment. Wotton.

    2. Warning ; legal notice to the agent or attorney of an absconding debtor.

    3. A fee.

    G^ARNITURE, n. Ornamental appendages ; embellishment; furniture; dress.

    Mdison. Beattie. Gray.

    GA'ROUS, a. [L. garum, pickle.] Resem- bling pickle made offish. Broien.

    GAR'RAN, \\\\\\\\ [Ir. g-orron; Scot, ffarron ;

    GAR'RON, S G.gurre.]

    A small horse ; a highland horse ; a hack; a

    jade ; a galloway. [JVot used in America.]


    GARRET, )!. [Scot, garret, a watch-tower, the top of a hill ; garritour, a watchman on the battlements of a castle ; Fr. guerile, acentinel-box; Sp. guardilla ; Arm. garid; from the root of ward, guard, which see.]

    1. That part of u house which is on the up- per floor, inmiediately under the roof.

    2. Rotten wood. [JVot in itse.] Bacon. GAR'RETED, a. Protected by turrets.

    Careiv. GARRETEE'R, n. An inhabitant of a gar- a poor author.




    GARRISON, n. [Fr. gamison ; Arm,

    foamison ; Sp. guamicion, a garrison, a ounce, furbelow or trimming, the setting of any thing in gold or silver, the guard of a sword, garniture, ornament ; It. g-uer nigione; Port, guarnicam; D. waarison The French, English,' Artnoric, Spanish and Italian words are from garnish ; the Dutch is from waaren, to keep, to guard, Eng. warren, and from this root we have warrant anA guaranty, as well as gitarrfand regard, all from one source. See Warren.]

    1. A body of troops stationed in a fort or for- tified town, to defend it against an enemy, or to keep the inhabitants in subjection.

    2. A fort, castle or fortified town, furnished with troops to defend it. Waller.

    3. The state of being placed in a fortifica- tion for its defense ; as troops laid in gar- rison. Spenser.

    GAR'RISON, V. t. To place troops in a for- tress for its defense ; to furnish with sol diers ; as, to garrison a fort or town.

    2. To secure or defend by fortresses manned with troops ; as, to garrison a conquered territory.

    GARRU'LITY, n. [L. garrulilas, from garrio, to prate ; Gr. yapuu, ytjiivu ; Ir. gairim ; W. gair, a word. Class Gr. No. 2. 9. 15. 49.]

    Talkativeness ; loquacity ; the practice or habit of talking much ; a babbling or tat- ling. Ray.

    GAR'RULOUS, a. Talkative; prating; as garrulous old age. Thomson.

    G'ARTER, n. [Fr.jarretiere, from W. gar, Arm. garr, the leg, ham or shank.]

    1. A string or band used to tie a stocking to the leg.

    2. The badge of an order of knighthood in Great Britain, called the order of the garter, instituted by Edward III. This order is a college or corporation.

    3. The principal king at arms. Johnson.

    4. A term in heraldry, signifying the half of a bend. Encyc.

    G'ARTER, V. t. To bind with a garter. 2. To invest with the order of the garter.

    If'arton G^ARTERFISH, n. A fish having a long

    depressed body, hke the blade of a sword ;

    the Lepidopus. Diet. JVat. Hist.

    GARTH, n. [W. garz. See Garden.]

    1. A dam or wear for catching fish.

    2. A close ; a little backside ; a yard ; a croft ; a garden. [JVot used.]

    GAS, n. [Sax. gast, G. geist, D. geest, spirit, ghost. The primary sense of air, wind, spirit, is to flow, to rush. Hence this word may be allied to Ir. gaisim, to flow ; ga- saim, to shoot forth, to gush ; gast, a blast of wind. It may also be allied to yeast, which see.]

    In chimistry, a permanently elastic aeriform fluid, or a substance reduced to the state of an aeriform fluid by its permanent com- bination with caloric. Did. JVat. Hist.

    Gases are invisible except when colored, which happens in two or three instances.

    GAS'eON, n. A native of Gascony in France.

    GAS'CONADE, n. [Fr. from Gascon, an inhabitant of Gascony, the people of which are noted for boasting.]

    A boast or boasting ; a vaunt ; a bravado ; a bragging. Swijl.

    GASCONA'DE, v. i. To boast ; to brag ; to vaunt ; to bluster.

    GAS'EOUS, a. In the form of gas or an aeriform fluid.

    GASH, n. [I know not through what chan- nel we have received this word. It may be allied to chisel. See Class (is. No. 5. C. 13. 28.]

    A deep and long cut; an incision of consid- erable length, particularly in flesh.


    GASH, V. i. To make a gash, or long, deep incision ; applied chiefly to incisions in flesh.

    GASH'ED, pp. Cut with a long, deep incis- ion.

    GASH'FUL, a. Full of gashes ; hideous.

    GASH'ING, ppr. Cutting long, deep in cisions.

    GASIFICA'TION, n. [See Gasify.] The act or process of converting into gas.

    GAS'IFIED, pp. Converted into an aeri form fluid.

    GAS'IFY, V. t. [gas and L. fcxio, to make.] To convert into gas or an aeriform fluid by combination with caloric.

    GAS'IFYING, ppr. Converting into gas.

    GAS'KET, n. [Sp. caxeUi. See Case.] A plaited cord fastened to the sail-yard of a ship, and used to furl or tie the sail to the yard. Mar. Diet.

    GAS'KINS, )!. plu. Galligaskins; wide open hose. [See Galligaskins.] Shak.

    GASLIGHT, n. Light produced by the combustion of carbureted hydrogen gas. Gaslights are now substituted for oil- hghts, in illuminating streets and apart- ments in houses.

    GASOM'ETER, n. [gas and fttrpor.] In chimistry, an instrument or apparatus, in- tended to measure, collect, preserve or mix different gases. Coxe.

    An instrument for measuring the quantity of gas employed in an experiment ; also, the j)laoe where gas is prepared for light- ing streets. R. S. Jameson.i

    GASOM'ETRY, n. The science, art or practice of measuring gases. It teaches also the nature and properties of these elastic fluids. Coxe

    G^ASP, V. i. [Sw. gispa, Dan. gisper, tc gape, to yawn.]

    1. To open the mouth wide in catching the breath or in laborious respiration, partic xilarly in dying. Mdison.

    2. To long for. [Ao« in use.] G'ASP, v.t. To emit breath by opening

    wide the mouth.

    And with short sobs he gasps away hi- breath. Drydeii

    G"ASP, n. The act of opening the mouth to catch the breath.

    2. The short catch of the breath in the ago- nies of death. Mdison.

    G'ASPING, ppr. Opening the mouth to catch the breath.

    G'AST, ^ , , To make aghast ; to frigl:

    G- ASTER, (, ^- '■ ten. [JVot used.] Shal

    G'ASTNESS, Ji. Amazement; fright. [JVot used.] Shak.

    GAS'TRIC, a. [from Gr. yaj-ijp, the belly or stomaoli.]

    Belonging to the belly, or rather to the stom- ach. The gastric juice is a thin, pellucid licjuor, separated by the capillary exhaling

    arteries of the stomach, which open upon its internal tunic. It is the principal agent in digestion. Hooper.

    GASTRIL'OaUIST, n. [Gr. yay^p, belly, and L. loquor, to speak.]

    Literally, one who speaks from his belly or stomach ; hence, one who so modifies his voice that it seems to come from another person or place. Reid.

    GAS'TROCELE, n. [Gr. yas^p, the stom- ach, and Jt);Xi;, a tumor.] A rupture of the stomach. QutKcy.

    GAS'TROMANCY, n. [Gr. yaf,p, belly, and navrtia, divination.]

    A kind of divination among the ancients by means of words seeming to be uttered from the belly. Encyc.

    GASTROR'APHY, n. [Gr. ya;r,f,, belly, and poKjij;, a sewing or suture.]

    The operation of sewing up wounds of the abdomen. Quinci/.

    GASTROT'OMY, n. [Gr. yof^p, belly, aiid rtfivu, to cut.]

    The operation of cutting into or opening the abdomen. Encyc.

    GAT, prel. ofget.

    GATE, n. [Sax. gate, geat ; Ir. geala; Scot. gait. The Goth, gatwo, Dan. gade, Sw. gala, G. ga.fse, Sans, gaut, is a way or street. In D. gat is a gap or channel. If the radical letters are gd or gt, it may be connected with gad, to go, as it signifies a passage.]

    1. A large door which gives entrance into a walled city, a castle, a temple, palace or other large edifice. It differs from door chiefly in being larger. Gate signifies both the opening or passage, and the frame of boards, planks or timber which closes the passage.

    2. A frame of timber which opens or closes a passage into any court, garden or other inclosed ground; also, the passage.

    .3. The frame which shuts or stops the pas- sage of water through a dam intp a

    4. An avenue ; an opening ; a way.


    In saipture, figuratively, power, dominion. •'Thy seed shall possess the gate of his en- emies ;" that is, towns and fortresses. Gen. xxii.

    The gates of hell, are the power and domin- ion of the devil and his instruments. Matt, xvi.

    lie gates of death, are the brink of the grave. Ps. ix.

    GATED, a. Having gates. Young.

    GA'TEVEIN, n. The vena porta;, a large vein which conveys the blood from the abdominal viscera into the hver.

    Bacon. Hooper.

    GA'TEWAY, 71. A way through the gate of some inclosure. Mortimer.

    2. A building to be passed at the entrance of the area before a mansion. Thdd.

    GATHER, 1'. t. fSax. gaderian, or gaiheri- an ; D. gaderen. I know not whether the first syllable is a prefix or not. The Ch. "nj signifies to inclose, taiAlo gather dates. If the elements are primarily Gd, the word coincides with the Ger. gattem , Ch. njK to gather, to bind.]

    G A T

    G A U

    G A W

    1. To bring together ; to collect a number of separate things into one place or into one aggregate body.

    Gather stones : and they took stones, and made a heap. Gen. xxxi.

    2. To get in harvest ; to reap or cut and bring into barns or stores. Levit. xxv. 20.

    •3. To pick up ; to glean ; to get in small parcels and bring together. Gather out the stones. Is. Ixii. He must gather up money by degrees.


    4. To pluck ; to collect by cropping, pick- ing or plucking.

    Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Matt. vii.

    5. To assemble; to congregate; to bring persons into one place. Ezek. xxii. 19.

    6. To collect in abundance ; to accumulate ; to amass.

    I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings. Eccles. ii.

    7. To select and take ; to separate from others and bring- together.

    Save us, O Lord our God, and gather us from among the heathen. Ps. cvi.

    8. To sweep together.

    The kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind. Matt. xiii.

    9. To bring into one body or interest.

    Yet will I gather others to him. Is. Ivi.

    10. To draw together from a state of expan- sion or diffusion ; to contract.

    Gathering his flowing robe he seemed to

    In act to speak, and graceful stretch'd his liand. Pope.

    11. To gain.

    He gathers ground upon her in the chase. Dry den.

    12. To pucker ; to plait.

    13. To deduce by inference ; to collect or learn by reasoning. From what I hear I gather that he was present.

    After he had seen the vision, immediately we endeavored to go into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord had called us to preach the gospel to them. Acts xvi.

    14. To coil as a serpent.

    To gather breath, to have respite. Obs.

    Spenser. GATH'ER, V. i. To collect ; to unite ; to

    increase ; to be condensed. The clouds

    gather in the west.

    2. To increase ; to grow larger by accre- tion of like matter.

    Their snow ball did not gather as it went.


    3. To assemble. The people gather fast.

    4. To generate pus or matter. [See Gath- ering.]

    GATH'ERABLE, a. That may be collect

    ed ; that may be deduced. [Unu.'sual.]

    Godiein. GATII'ERED, pp. Collected ; assembled ;

    contracted ; plaited ; drawn by inference. GATH'ERER, n. One who gathers or col

    lects ; one who gets in a crop. GATH'ERING, ppr. Collecting; assem

    bling ; drawing together ; plaiting ; wrink

    ling. GATH'ERING, n. The act of collecting oi


    2. Collection ; a crowd : an assembly.

    3. Charitable contribution. 1 Cor. xvi.

    4. A tumor suppurated or maturated ; a col lection of pus; an abscess.

    GATH'ERS, n. Plaits; folds; puckers; wrinkles in cloth. Hudibras.

    GAT'TERTREE, n. A species of Cornus or Cornelian cherry. Fam. of Plants.

    GAT-TOOTHED, a. Goat-toothed; ha- ving a lickerish tooth. Obs. Chaucer.

    GAUD, V. i. [L. gaudeo, to rejoice.] To ex- ult ; to rejoice. Obs. Shak.

    GAUD, n. [L. gaudium.] An ornament ; something worn for adorning the person ; a fine thing. Obs. Shak.

    G.\\\\\\\\UD'ED, a. Adorned with trinkets ; col- ored. Obs. CJiaucer. Shak.

    GAUD'ERY, n. Finery ; fine things ; orna- ments. Bacon. Dryden.

    GAUD'ILY, adv. Showily; with ostenta- tion of line dress. Guthrie.

    GAUD'INESS, n. Showiness; tinsel ap- pearance ; ostentatious finery. TVhitlock.

    GAUD'Y, a. Showy; splendid; gay.

    A goldfinch there I saw, with gaudy pride Of painted plumes — bryden.

    2. Ostentatiously fine ; gay beyond the sim- plicity of nature or good taste.

    Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. But not express'd in fancy ; rich, not gaudy. Shak.

    GAUD'Y, n. A feast or festival ; a word ■■ the university. Cheyne.

    GAUGE, V. t. gage. [Fr. jauger, to gage ; jauge, a measuring rod ; Arm. jauja, or jauchi, to gage ; jauch, a rod. It is suppo- sed by J. Thomson, that this is contracted from jaulge, from gaule, a rod or pole. But qu.]

    To measure or to ascertam the contents of a cask or vessel, as a pipe, puncheon, hogshead, barrel, tierce or keg.

    2. To measure in respect to proportion. The vanes nicely gauged on each side —




    2. Measure ; dimensions. Burke.

    GA'UgED, pp. Measured.

    GA'UgER, n. One who gauges; an officer whose business is to ascertain the con- tents of casks.

    GA'UgING, ppr. Measuring a cask ; ascer- taining dimensions or proportions of quan- tity.

    G.\\\'UgING, n. The art of measuring the contents or capacities of vessels of any form. Ed. Encyc

    G.\\\'UgING-ROD, n. An instrument to be used in measuring the contents of casks or vessels.

    GAUL, n. [L. Gallia.] A name of ancient France ; also, an inhabitant of Gaul.

    GAUL'ISH, a. Pertaining to ancient France or Gaul.

    GAUNT, I . [The origin is uncer

    GANT, ^ "•^""^- tain. Qu. Sax. geioa- nian, ivanian, to wane. In W. gwan it weak, poor.]

    Vacant ; hollow ; empty, as an animal after long fasting; hence, lean; meager; thin slender. Shak. Dryden.

    GAUNT'LY, adv. gant'ly. Leanly ; mea- gerly.

    GAUNT'LET, n. [See Gantlet.]

    GAUZE, n. [Sp. gasa ; Fr. gaze ; Arm. ga- zen. Qu. L. gausape, or gossipium.]

    A very thin, slight, transparent stuff, of silk or linen. Encyc.

    GAUGE, n. gage. A measure ;

    GAUZELOOM, n. A loom in which gauze

    is wove. G.\\\\\\\\UZ'Y, a. Like gauze ; thin as gauze. GAVE, pret. of give. GAVEL, n. In law, tribute ; toll ; custom.

    [See Gabel.] GAVEL, ji. [Fr. javelle ; Port, gavela, a

    sheaf; W. gavael, a hold or grasp.]

    1. A small parcel of wheat, rye or other grain, laid together by reapers, consisting of two, three or more handfuls.

    JVeto England.

    2. In England, a provincial word for ground.

    Eng. Did.

    GAVEL, tor gable or gable-end. [See Gable.]

    GAV'ELET, n. An ancient and special cessavit in Kent, in England, where the custom of gavelkind continues, by which the tenant, if he withdraws his rent and services due to his lord, forfeits his lands and tenements. Encyc.

    2. In London, a writ used in the hustings, given to lords of rents in the city. Encye.

    GAVELKIND, n. [This word gavet is British. In W. gavael signifies a hold, a grasp, tenure ; gavael-cenedyl, the hold or tenure of a family, [not the kind of ten- ure ;] gavaelu, to hold, grasp, arrest. Jr. gabhail, gabham, to take ; gabhail-cine, gavelkind. In Ir. gabhal is a fork, [G. ga- bel,] and the groin, and it expresses the collateral branches of a family ; but the Welsh application is most probably the true one.]

    ■V tenure in England, by which land des- cended from the father to all his sons in equal portions, and the land of a brother, dying without issue, descended equally to his brothers. This species of tenure pre- vailed in England before the Norman con- quest, in many parts of the kingdom, per- ha])s in the whole realm ; but particularly in Kent, where it still exists.

    Selden. Cowel. Blackstone. Cyc.

    GAVELOCK, n. [Sax.] An iron crow.

    G.WILAN, n. A species of hawk in the Philippine isles; the back and wings yel- low ; the belly white.

    GAVOT, n. [Fr. gavotte ; It. gavotta.] A kind of dance, the air of which has two brisk and lively strains in common time, each of which is played twice over. The first has usually four or eight bars, and the second contains eight, twelve or more. Encyc.

    GAWBY, n. A dunce. [JVot in use.]

    GAWK, n. [Sax. gcec, geac, a cuckoo ; G. gauch, a cuckoo, and a fool, an unfledged fop, a chough ; Scot, gaukie, gauky, a fool ; D. gek; Sw. ghck, a fool, a buffoon ; Dan. giek, a jest, a joke. It seems that this word is radically one \\\\\\\\y\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ joke, juggle, which see.]

    1. A cuckoo.

    2. A fool ; a simpleton. [In both senses, it is retained in Scotland.]

    GAWK'Y, a. Foolish ; awkward ; clumsy ; clownisli. [In this sense it is retained in vulgar use in America.]

    [Is not this allied to the Fr. gauche, left, un- toward, unhandy, Eng. awk, awkward; gauchir, to shrink back or turn aside, to use shifts, to double, to dodge. This verb well expresses the actions of a jester or buffoon.]

    G A Z

    GAWK'Y, n. A stupid, ignorant, awkward fellow.

    GAY, a. [Fr. gai ; Ann. gat ; It. gaio, gay. In Sp. gaya is a stripe of different colors on stuffs ; gaytero is gaudy ; and gayo is a jay. The W. has gicyc, gay, gaudy, brave. This is a contracted word, but whether from the root of gaudy, or not, is not ob- vious. In some of its applications, it seems allied tojo^.]

    1. Merry; airy; jovial; sportive; frolick- some. It denotes more life and animation than cheerful.

    Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay. Pope.

    2. Fine ; showy ; as a gay dress.

    3. Inflamed or merry with liquor; intoxi- cated ; a vulgar use of the word in Amer- ica.

    GAY, n. An ornament. [JVoi used.]

    VEstrange. GA'YETY, n. [Fr. gaieti ; It. gaiezza.]

    1. Merriment ; mirth ; airiness ; as a compa- ny full of gayety.

    2. Act of juvenile pleasure ; the gayeties of youth. Denham

    3. Finery ; show ; as the gayety of dress. GA'YLY, adv. Merrily; with mirtli and


    2. Finely ; splendidly ; pompously ; as la

    dies gayly dressed ; a flower gayly bloom

    ing. Pope.

    GA'YNESS, n. Gayety; finery.

    GA'YSOME, a. Full of gayety. [Little

    used.] GAZE, V. i. [Qu. Gr. a/ya^onai,, to be tonished, and Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. nin chazab, to see or look, that is, to fix the eye or to reach with the eye.] To fix the eyes and look steadily and ear- nestly ; to look with eagerness or curios- ity ; as in admiration, astonishment, or in study.

    A lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind.

    Shak, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven ? Acts i. GAZE, V. t. To view with fixed attention. And gazed awhile the ample sky. Milton. [It is little used as a transitive verb.] GAZE, )i. A fixed look ; a look of eager- ness, wonder or admiration ; a continued look of attention.

    With secret gaze. Or open admiration, him behold — Jirilti 2. The object gazed on; that which causes one to gaze.

    Made of my enemies the scoin and gaze.

    Miltim GA'ZEFyL, a. Looking with a gaze ; look- ing intently. Spenser GA'ZEHOUND, n. A hound that jiursues by the sight rather than by the scent.

    Encyc. Johnson. GAZ'EL, n. [Fr. gazelle ; Sp. gazela ; Port gazella ; from the Arabic. The verb un- der which this word is placed J-.i is rendered to remove, withdraw, retire or be separate.] An animal of Africa and India, of the genus Antilope. It partakes of the nature of tlie goat and the deer. Like the goat, the gazel has hollow permanent horns, and it feeds on shrubs ; but in size and dehcacy, and

    G E C

    in the nature and color of its hair, it resem- bles the roe-buck. It has cylindrical horns, most frequently annulated at the base, and bunches of hair on its fore legs. It has a most brilliant, beautiful eye.

    Goldsmith. Ed. Encyc.

    GA'ZEMENT, n. View. \\\\\\\\JVot in use.]


    GA'ZER, n. One who gazes ; one who looks steadily and intently, from delight, admiration or study. Pope.

    GAZETTE, n. gazet'. [It. gazzella; Fr. gazette. Gazetta is said to have been a Venetian coin, which was the price of the first newspaper, and hence the name.]

    A newspaper ; a .sheet or half sheet of pa- per containing an account of transactions and events of public or private concern, which are deemed important and interest- ing. The first gazette in England was published at Oxford in 1665. On the moval of the court to London, the title was changed to the London Gazette. It is now the official newspaper, and published on Tuesdays and Saturdays. Encyc.

    GAZETTE, V. t. gazet'. To insert in a ga- zette ; to announce or publish in a ga- zette.

    GAZETT'El), pp. Published in a gazette.

    GAZETTEER, n. A writer of news, or an officer appointed to publish news by au- thority. Johnson. Pope.

    3. The title of a newspaper.

    3. A book containing a brief description of empires, kingdoms, cities, towns and riv- ers, in a country or in the whole world, alphabetically arranged ; a book of topo- graphical descriptions.

    GA'ZING, ppr. [See Gaze.] Looking with fixed attention.

    GA ZINGSTOCK, n. A person gazed with scorn or abhorrence ; an object of curiosity or contempt. Bp. Hall.

    GAZ6N, n. [Fr. turf.] In foHification, pie ces of turf used to line parapets and the traverses of galleries. Harris.

    liEAL, v.i. [Vr.geler; h. gelo.] To con-

    1 geal. Ohs.

    GEAR, )i. [Sax. geanvian, gyrian, to pre- pare ; gearu; prepared, prompt ; gearwa., habit, clothing, apparatus; G.g^ar, li.gaar, dressed, done, ready ; perhaps Sw.g'ur/Va. to tan.]

    1. Apparatus; whatever is prepared ; hence, habit ; dress ; ornaments.

    Array thyself in her most gorgeous gear.


    2. More gcneridly, the harness or furniture of beasts ; whatever is used in equipping horses or cattle for draught ; tackle.

    3. In Scotland, warlike accouterments ; also, goods, riches. _ Jamieson.

    4. Business ; matters. Obs. Spenser.

    5. By seamen |)ronounced jears, which see, GEAR, V. t. To dress ; to put on gear ; to

    harness. GE'ARED, p;j. Dressed; harnessed. GE'ARING, ppr. Dressing; harnessing. GE'ASON, n. s as z. Rare ; uncommon ;

    wonderful. Obs. Spenser.

    GEAT, n. [D. gal. See Gaff.] The hole

    through which metal runs into a mold in

    castings. Moion.

    GECK, n. [G.geck; Sw.gick; Dan. giek.]

    A dupe. Obs. Shak.

    GECK, V. I. To cheat, trick or gull. Obs.


    (iEE. ) A word used by teamsters, direct-


    GEESE, n. plu. of goose.

    .GEEST, n. Alluvial matter on the surface

    I of land, not of recent origin. Jameson.

    GEHEN'NA, n. [Gr. y»no, from the Heb. ge-hinom, the valley of Ilinom, in which was Tophet, where the Israelites sacrifi- ced their children to Moloch. 2 Kings xxiii. 10.]

    This word has been used by the Jews as equivalent to hell, place of fire or tor- ment and punishment, and the Greek word is rendered by our translators by hell and hell-fire. Matt, xviii. 9. xxiii. 15.

    GEIILENITE, n. [from Gehten, the chim- ist.]

    A mineral recently discovered, in the de- scription of which authors are not per- fectly agreed. According to the descrip- tion and analysis of Fiichs, it appears to be a variety of idocrase; but according to the observations of Prof. Clarke, it is prob- ably a new species. CUavtland.

    (iEL'ABLE, a. [from L. gelu, frost, or gelo, to congeal.]

    That may or can be congealed ; capable of being converted into jelly.

    GEL'ATIN, n. [It. Sp. gdalina, from L. gelo, to congeal, to freeze.]

    A concrete animal substance, transparent, and soluble slowly in cold water, but rap- idly in warm water. With tannin, a yel- lowish white precipitate is thrown down from a solution of gelatin, which forms an elastic adhesive mass, not unlike vegeta- ble gluten, and is a compound of tannin and gelatin. Parr.

    GEL'ATIN, \\\\\\\\ Ofthe nature and con-

    liELAT'INOUS, S ""sistence of gelatin; re- sembling jelly ; viscous ; moderately stiff and cohesive.

    (iELAT'INATE, v. i. To be converted into gelatin or into a substance like jelly.

    Lapis lazuli, if calcined, does not effervesce, but gelatinates with the mineral acids.


    GELAT INATE, V. t. To convert into gel- atin or into a substance resembling jeljy.

    gELATINA'TION, n. The act or process of converting or being turned into gelatin, or into a substance like jelly. Kirwan.

    GEL'ATINIZE, t'. i. The same as gelatin- Fleming.

    GELD, n. [Sax. gild; Sw. gldd; Dan. gield; G.D. geld.]

    Money ; tribute ; compensation. This word is obsolete in English, but it occurs in old laws and law books in composition ; as in Danegeld, or Danegelt, a tax imposed by the Danes ; Jf'eregeld, compensation for the life of a man, &,c.

    GELD, V t. pret. gelded or gilt ; pp. gelded


    gelt. [G. geilen, gelten ; Sw. ghlla ; Dan. gilder, to geld, and to cut off the gills of herrings ; Ir. caillim, to geld, to lose, to destroy. Qu. W. colli, to lose, or Eth. TAP gab, to cutoff.]

    1. To castrate ; to emasculate.

    2. To deprive of any essential part. Shak

    3. To deprive of any thing immodest or ex- ceptionable. Dryden.

    G E M

    GELDED, I „„ Castrated ; oinascula GELT, 5 PP- ted.

    GELD'ER, n. One who castrates. GELD'ER-ROSE, [Qu. from GueUerland.

    A plant, a species of Viburnum ; also, i

    species of Spirsea. GELD'ING, ppr. Castrating. GELD'ING, n. A castrated animal, bul

    chiefly a horse. (iEL'ID, a. [L. gelidiie, from gdo, to freeze

    Fr. geler. See Cool, Cold.]

    Cold ; very cold. Thomson

    GEL'IDNESS, n. Coldness.

    GEL'LY, n. [Fr. geUe; Port, gelea; Sp.

    jalea ; L. gelo, gelattis. It is now more

    generally written jelly.]

    1. The inspissated juice of fruit boiled witi sugar.

    2. A viscous or glutinous substance ; a glu ey substance, soft, but cohesive. [See Jelly.]

    GELT, pp. of geld.

    GELT, n. {or gelding. [JVot ttsed.]

    GELT, for gilt. Tinsel, or gilt surface. [ATot tised.] Spenser.

    (iEM, n. [L. gemma ; It. id. ; Sp. yema ; Port, gomo ; Ir. geam ; G. Arcm ; D. kiem. The sense is probably a shoot. See Class Gm. No. 5. Ar.]

    \\\\\\\\. A bud. In botany, the bud or compendi- um of a plant, covered with scales to pro- tect the rudiments from the cold of winter and other injuries ; called the hybernacle or winter quarters of a plant. Encyc.

    2. A precious stone of any kind, as the ru- by, topaz, emerald, &c.

    6EM, V. t. To adorn with gems, jewels or jirecious stones.

    2. To bespangle ; as foliage gemmed will dew drops.

    3. To embellish with detached beauties.

    England is studded and gemmed with castles and palaces. iivmg

    GEM, V. i. To bud ; to germinate. Milton.

    GEMAR'A, »^ [Ch.lDJ to finish.] The sec- ond part of the Talmud or commentary on the Jewish laws.

    GEMAR'I€, a. Pertaining to the Gemara. Encyc.

    (iEM'EL, 11. [L. gemellus.] A i)air ; a term in heraldry. Drayton.

    GEMELLIP'AROUS, a. [L. gemellus and pario.] Producing twins. Diet.

    GEM'INATE, V. t. [L. gemino.] To double. [Utile used.]

    6EMINA'TION, n. A doubling ; duplica- tion ; repetition. Boyle.

    GEM'INI, n. plu. [L.] Twins. In astronomy, a constellation or sign of the zodiac, rep- resenting Castor and Pollux. In the Bri- tannic catalogue, it contains 85 stars.


    6EM'IN0US, a. [L. geminus.] Double ; in pairs. Brown.

    GEM'INY, n. [supra.] Twins ; a pair ; a couple. Shak.

    CEM'MARY, a. [from gem.] Pertaining to gems or jewels.

    CEMMA'TION, n. [L. gemmaiio, from gemma.]

    In botany, budding ; the state, form or con- struction of the bud of plants, of the leaves, stipules, petioles or scales. Martyn.

    ("jEM'MEOUS, a. [h.gemmeus.] Pertaining to gems ; of the nature of gems ; resem- bling gems. I


    gERIMIP'AROUS, a. [L. gemma, a bud, and pario, to bear.] Producing buds or gems. Martyn. GEM'MULE, n. A little gem or bud.

    Eaton. GEM'MY, a. Bright ; glittering ; full of

    gems. 2. Neat ; spruce ; smart. GEMO'TE, n. [Sax.] A meeting. Obs.

    [See Meet.] (iEMS'BOK, n. The name given to a va- of the antelope. J. Barroio.

    GEND'ARM, n. In France, gens d'armes is the denomination given to a select body of troops, destined to watch over theinte rior public safety. In the singular, gen- darme, as written by Limier, is properly zed gendarm.

    gEND-ARMERY, 71. [supra.] The body of I g-^era^interest or safety of a nation eendarms. Hume. ! , ^° "" ^"'«™' purposes, we have un

    Hume. GEN'DER, n. [Fr. genre; Sp. genera; It, genere ; from L. genus, from geno, gigno. Gr. ysymu, yuo^uai, to beget, or to be born ; Ir. geinim ; W. geni, to be born ; gdn, a birth ; cenaw, offspring ; Gr. ytios, 70x05 ; Eng. kind. Fiom the same root, Gr. ywrj. a vvoman, a wife ; Sans, gena, a wife, and genaga, a father. We have begin fron the same root. See Begin and Can.] Properly, kind ; sort. Obs. Shak

    2. A sex, male or female. Hence,

    3. In grammar, a difference in words to ex- press distinction of sex ; usually a differ- ence of termination in nouns, adjectives and participle.s, to express the distinction of male and female. But although this was the orginal design of different termina tions, yet in the progress of language, oth er words having no relation to one sex or the other, came to have genders assigned them by custom. Words expressing males are said to be of the masculine gender; those expressing females, of the feminine gender; and in some languages, words ex pressing things having no sex, are of the neuter or neither gender.

    GEN'DER, V. t. To beget ; but engender is

    more generally used. GEN'DER, II. i. To copulate ; to breed.

    Levit. xix. GENEALOG'ICAL, a. [frotn genealogy.

    1. Pertaining to the descent of persons 01 families; exhibiting the succession of fam dies from a progenitor ; as a genealogical table.

    2. According to the descent of a person or family from an ancestor ; as genealogical order.

    gENEAL'OgIST, n. He who traces de- scents of persons or families.

    GENEAL'OgIZE, v. i. To relate the his- tory of descents. Trans, of Pausanias.

    GENEAL'OgY, 71. [L. genealogia; Gr. ■yfifaJLoyia ; yivof, race, and J.oyo{, discourse : Sax. cyn, gecynd ; Eng. t?nrf.]

    1. An account or history of the descent of a person or family from an ancestor ; enu- meration of ancestors and their children in the natural order of succession. , Pedigree ; lineage ; regular descent of a person or family from a progenitor.

    (iEN'ERABLE, a. That may be engender- ed, begotten or produced. J5e7i(/f^.


    gEN'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. generalis, from genus, a kind.]

    1. Properly, relating to a whole, genus or kind ; and hence, relating to a whole class or order. Thus we speak of ag-ewcranaw of the animal or vegetable economy. This word, though from genus, kind, is used to express whatever is common to an order, class, kind, sort or species, or to any com- pany or association of individuals.

    2. Comprehending many species or individ- uals ; not special or particular ; as, it is not logical to draw a general inference or con- clusion from a particular fact.

    3. Lax in signification ; not restrained or limited to a particular import ; not specif- ic ; as a loose and general expression.

    Public ; common ^ relating to or compre- hending the whole community ;


    ^ been one people. Federalist, Jay.

    i5. Common to many or the greatest num-

    i ber ; as a general opinion ; a general cus-

    I torn.

    jC. Not directed to a single object.

    I If the same thing be peculiarly evil, that gen-

    eral aversion will be turned into a particular hatred against it. Spralt.

    7. Having a relation to all ; common to the

    I whole. Adam, our general sire. Milton.

    S. Extensive, though not universal; com- mon; usual.

    This word is prefixed or annexed to words, to express the extent of their applica- tion. Thus a general assembly is an as- sembly of a whole body, in fact or by rep- resentation. In Scotland, it is the whole church convened by its representatives. In America, a legislature is sometimes call- ed a general assembly.

    In logic, a general term is a term which is the sign of a general idea.

    An attorney general, and a solicitor general, is an officer who conducts suits and pros- ecutions for the king or for a nation or state, and whose authority is general in the state or kingdom.

    A vicar general has authority as vicar or sub- stitute over a whole territory or jurisdic- tion.

    An adjutant general assists the general of an army, distributes orders, receives returns, &c.

    The word general thus annexed to a name of oflice, denotes chief or superior; as a commissary general, qttarter-master general.

    In the line, a general oflicer is one who com- mands an army, a division or a brigade.

    GEN'ERAL, n. The whole; the total; that which comprehends all or the chief part ; opposed to particular.

    In particulars our knowledge begins, and so spreads itself by degrees to generals. Lj>cke. A Mstory p.-iinter paints man in general.


    2. In general, in the main ; for the most part; not always or universally.

    I have shown that he excels, in general, un- der each of these heads. Addison.

    3. The chief commander of an army. But to distinguish this officer from other gen- erals, lie is often called general in chief. The officer second in rank is called lieu- tenant general.




    4. The commander of a division of an army or militia, usually called a major general.

    5. The commander of a brigade, called a bngadier general.

    6. A particular beat of drum or march, be- ing that which, in the morning, gives no- tice for the infantry to be in readinosa to march. Enxyc.

    7. The chief of an order of monks, or of all the houses or congregations established imder the same rule. Encyc.

    S. The public ; the interest of tlie whole ; the vulgar. [JVot in use.] Shak

    GENERALISSIMO, n. [It.] The chief commander of an army or military force

    :7. The supreme commander; sometimes a title of honor ; as Alexander ^fjiera/tsfrtmo of Greece. Brown

    GENERALITY, n. [Fr. generaliU; It. gen- eralita.]

    1. The state of being general; the quality of including species or particulars. Hooker,

    '2. The main body ; the bulk ; the greatest part ; as the generality of a nation or of mankind. Addison.

    GENERALIZA'TION, n. The act of ex tending from particulars to generals ; tlie act of making general.

    GEN'ERALIZE, v. t. To extend from par ticulars or species to genera, or to whole kinds or classes; to make general common to n number.

    Copernicus generalized the celestial motions, by merely referring them to the moon's motion Newton generalized them still more, by refer- ring this last to the motion of a stone through the air. A''ichohon.

    2. To reduce to a genus. Reid.

    (iEN'ERALLY, adv. In general ; common- ly ; extensively, though not universally ; most frequently, but not without excep- tions. A hot summer generally follows a cold winter. Men are genercdiy more dis- posed to censure than to praise, as they generally suppose it easier to depress ex- cellence in others than to equal or surpass it by elevating themselves.

    2. In the main ; without detail ; in the whole taken together.

    Generally speaking, they live very quietly.

    gEN'ER ALNESS, n. Wide extent, though short of universality ; frequency ; com- monness. Sidney.

    gEN'ERALSHIP, n. The skill and conduct of a general officer ; military skill in a commander, exhibited in the judicious ar- rangements of troops, or the operations of war.

    GEN'ER.'XLTY, n. The whole : the total- ity. [Little used.] Hale.

    uEN'ERANT, n. [L.gaurans.] The power that generates ; the power or principle that produces. Glanvillc. Ray.

    liEN'ERATE, v. t. [L. gewro. See Gen- der.]

    1 . To beget ; to procreate ; to propagate ; to produce a being similar to the parent. Every animal generates his own species.

    2. To produce ; to cause to be ; to bring in- to life ; as great whales which the waters generated. Milton.

    3. To cause ; to produce ; to form.

    Soimds are generated where there is no air at all. £aeon,

    Vol. I.

    WTiatcvcr generates a quantity of good chyle must likewise generate milk. .Arbuthnot

    In music, any given sound generates witl: itself its octave and two other sounds ex- tremely sharp, viz. its twelfth above or the octave of its fifth, and the seventeentli above. Encyc

    GEN'ERATED,p/>. Begotten ; engendert'd

    procreated ; produced ; formed. GEN'ERATING, ppr. Begetting ; procre- ating ; producing ; forming. (iENERA'TION, n. The act of begetting ; procreation, as of animals.

    2. Production ; formation ; as the generation of sounds or of curves or equations.

    3. A single succession in natural descent, as the children of the same parents ; hence, an age. Thus we say, the third, the fourth, or the tenth generation. Gen. xv. 16.

    4. The people of the same period, or living at the same time.

    faithless and perverse generation. Luke ix,

    5. Genealogy ; a series of children or des- cendants from the same stock.

    6. A family ; a race. Shak

    Progeny ; oflspring. Shak.

    OEN'ERATIVE, a. Having the power of generating or propagating its own spe- cies. Raleigh. Having the (lower of producing.

    Bentley. Prolific. Bentley.

    GEN'ERATOR, n. He or that which be- gets, causes or ])roduces.

    2. In music, the principal sound or sounds by which others are produced. Thus the lowest C for the treble of the harpsichord.

    octave, will strike an attentive ear with its twelfth above, or G in alt., and with its seventeenth above, or E in alt. Hence C is called their generator, the G and E its products or harmonics. Encyc.

    3. A vessel in which steam is generated


    GENER'Ie, ) [It. and Sp. generico ;

    (iENER'I€AL, S"' Fr. geneiique; from L. genus.]

    Pertaining to a genus or kind ; comprehend- ing the genus, as distinct from species, or from another genus. A generic descrip- tion is a descri])tion of a genus ; a generic difference is a difference in genus ; a gen- eric name is the denomination which com- prehends all the species, as of animals, plants or fossils, which have certain essen- tial and pecuhar characters in common. Thus Canis is the .generic name of animals of the dog kind ; Felis'. of the cat kind ; Cervus, of the deer kind.

    GENER'ICALLY, adv. With regard to ge- nus ; as an animal generically distinct from anotlier, or two aa'nnah genericcUly allied. Ji'oodivard.

    GENEROS'ITY, 71. [Fr. generosite ; h. gen- erositas, from genus, race, kind, with refer- ence to birth, blood, family.]

    1. The quality of being generous; liberality in principle ; a disposition to give liberally or to bestow favors ; a quality of the heart or mind opposed to meanness or parsi- mony.

    2. Liberality in act ; bounty.


    3. Nobleness of soul ; magnanimity. [This is the primary seyise, but is now litlie used.)

    gEN'EKOUS, a. [L. generosus; Fr. gette- reux; from genus, birth, extraction, family. See Gender^

    Primarily, being of honorable birth or or- igin ; hence, noble ; honorable ; magnani- mous ; applied to persons ; as a generous foe ; a generous critic.

    2. Noble ; honorable ; applied to things ; as a generous virtue ; generous boldness. It is used also to denote like qualities in ir- rational animals; as a generous pack of hounds. Addison.

    3. Liberal ; bountiful ; munificent ; free to give ; as a generous friend ; a generous father.

    4. Strong; full of spirit; as g-enerouj wine. I Boyle. Swift.

    5. Full ; overflowing ; abundant ; as a g-e»i- j erotis cup ; a generous table. C. Sprightly ; courageous ; as a generous I steed.

    GENEROUSLY, adv. Honorably; nol I meanly.

    2. Nobly; magnanimously. Drydtn.

    j.3. Liberallv ; mnnificeiitly. (SEN'EROUSNESS, n. The quality of be-

    inggenerous; magnanimity; nobleness of

    mind. 2. Liberality ; munificence ; generosity. GEN'ESIS, n. [Gr. ytrtaif, from ytwou, yiv-

    ofmi. See Gcjirfer.]

    1. The first book of the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament, containing the history of the creation, of the apostasy of man, of the deluge, and of the first patriarchs, to the death of .loseph. In the original He- brew, this book has no title ; the present title was prefixed to it by those who trans- lated it into Greek.

    2. In geometry, the formation of a line, plane or solid, by the motion or flux of a point, line or surface. Encyc.

    GENET, n. [Ft.] A small-sized, well-pro- portioned Spanish hoi-se. Johnson.

    2. An animal of the weasel kind, less than the martin.

    (iENETHLI'A€AL, ? [Gr. y«f9x«ixof,

    |(iENETH LIA€, ^ "' from yitouo., to be born.]

    Pertaining to nativities ns calculated by as- trologers : showing the positions of the stars at the birth of any person. [Little used.] Howell.

    (iENETH'LIACS, n. The science of cal- culating nativities or predicting the future events of life from the stars which preside at the birth of persons. [Little used.]


    gENETHLIAT IC, n. He who calculates nativities. [Liltle used.] Drummond.

    gENE'V'A, j!. [Fr. genevre or genievre, a jimiper-berry ; It. ginepra; Arm. genevra. The Spanish word is nebrina, and the tree is called enebro. Port, zimbro.]

    A spirit distilled from grain or malt, with the addition of juniper berries. But in-

    j stead of these berries, the spirit is now flavored with the oil of turjientine. The word is usually .eentracted and pronoun- ced Erin. Encyc.

    gENE'VANISM, n. [from Geneva, where

    Calvin resided.] Calvinism. Mountagu.

    iENEVOIS, n. plu. jeneva'y. People of

    Geneva. Addisoti.




    (iE'NIAL, a. [L. genialis, fvom geno, ^gno, Gr. yfi'row, ytvo^at.]

    1. Contributing to propagation or produc- tion ; that causes to produce.

    Creator, Venus, genial power of love.


    2. Gay ; merry. Warton.

    3. Enlivening ; contriljuting to life and clieerfulness ; supporting life.

    So much I feel my genial spirits droop.


    4. Native ; natural. [JVot nsital.] Brown. The genial gods, in pagan antiquity, were

    .supposed to preside over generation, as earth, air, fire and water.

    IJF. iN'IALLY, adv. By genius or nature; naturally. [Little used.] Glanmlle.

    2. Gayly ; cheerfully. Johnson.

    ciENIC'ULATED, a. [L. geniculatus, from genicidum, a knot or joint, from the root oi'genu, the knee. See Knee.]

    Kneed; knee-jointed; having joints like the knee a little bent ; as a geniculated stem or peduncle. Marlyn.

    (•;ENICULA'TION,n. Knottiness; the state of having knots or joints like a knee.


    (iE'NlI, n. [L. phi.] A sort of imaginary intermediate beings between men and ^ angels : some good and some bad.


    liE'NIO, n. [It. from L. genius.] A man of a particular linn of mind. Tatler.

    ^EN'ITAL, a. [L. genitalis, from the root of gigno, Gr. yfnuu, to beget.]

    I'ertaining to generation or the act of be- getting.

    (iEN'ITALS, n. plu. The parts of an ani- mal which are the immediate instruments of generation.

    (;EN'ITING, n. [Fr.janeton.] A species of apple that ripens very early.

    (iEN'ITIVE, a. [L. g-e)ij(tfi(s, from the root of gender.]

    Ill grammar, an epithet given to a case in the declension of nouns, expressing pri- marily the thing from which something else proceeds ; asjilius patris, the son of a father ; aqnafontis, the water of a fountain. But by custom this case expresses other relations, particularly possession or own- ership ; as animi magnitudo, greatness of mind, greatness possessed by or inherent in the mind. This case often expresses also that which proceeds from something else ; as pater septem filiorum, the father of seven sons.

    GEN'ITOR, n. One who procreates; a sire ; a father. Sheldon.

    (iEN'ITURE, n. Generation ; procreation ; birth. Burton.

    tiE'NlUS, n. [L. from the root of gigno, Gr. ymcuo, to beget.]

    1. Among the ancients, a good or evil spirit or demon supposed to preside over a man's destiny in hfe, that is, to direct h' birth and actions and be his guard and guide ; a tutelary deity ; the ruling and protecting power of men, places or tl ' This seems to be merely a personification or deification of the- p.articular structure or bent of mind which a man receives from nature, which is the primary signifi cation of the word.

    2. The peculiar structure of mind which is given by nature to an individual, or tli

    disposition or bent of mind which is pe- culiar to every man, and which qualifies liim for a ])articular employment ; a par- ticular natural talent or aptitude of mind for a particular study or course of life ; as a genius for history, for poetry or painting. 3. Strength of mind ; tmcommon powers of intellect, particularly the power of inven- tion. In this sense we say, Homer was a man of genius. Hence, . A man endowed with uncommon vigor of mind ; a man of EU|)erior intellectual faculties. Shakespeare was a rare genius. Addison.

    5. Mental powers or faculties. [See No. 2.]

    6. Nature ; disposition ; peculiar character ; as the genius of the times.

    GENT, a. Elegant ; pretty ; gentle. [JVot in use.] Spenser.

    6ENTEE'L, a. [Fr. gentil; It. gentile ; Sp. gentil ; L. gentilis, from g-ejis, race, stock, family, and with the sense of noble or at least "respectable birth, as we use hirth and family.]

    1. Polite ; well bred ; easy and graceful in manners or behavior ; having the man- ners of well bred people ; as genteel com- pany ; genteel guests.

    2. Polite ; easy and gracefid ; becoming well bred persons ; as genteel manners or be- havior ; a genteel address.

    3. Graceful in mein or form ; elegant ; as the lady has a genteel person.

    4. Elegantly dressed. Law.

    5. Decorous ; refined ; free from any thing low or vulgar ; as genteel comedy.


    GENTEE'LLY, adv. Politely ; gracefully ; elegantly ; in the manner of well bred peo- ple.

    GENTEE'LNESS, n. Gracefidness of man- ners or person ; elegance ; politeness. We speak of the genleelness of a person or of his deportment.

    2. Quahties befitting a person of rank.


    GEN'TIAN, n. [h. gentiana ; Fr.gentiane;

    Ar. Lki:


    A genus ofplants, of many species. The com- mon gentian is a native of the mountain- ous parts of Germany. The root, the on- ly part used, has a yellowish brown color and a very bitter taste, and is used as an ingredient in stomachic bitters. It is sometimes taWed/ehvort. Encyc.

    GEN'TIL, n. A species of falcon or hawk.

    GEN'TILE, n. [L. gentilis ; Fr. gentil ; Sp, gentil; from L. g-cn«, nation, race; appliedl to pagans.] \\\\\\\\

    In the scriptures, a pagan ; a worshipper of false gods ; any person not a Jew or a' christian ; a heathen. The Hebrews in- cluded in the term goim or nations, all the tribes of men who had not received the true faith, and were not circumcised. The christians translated goim by the L. gentesj and imitated the Jews in giving the name gentiles to all nations who were not Jews nor christians. In civil afiairs, the denom- ination was given to all nations wlio were

    I not Romans. Encyc.

    gEN'TILE, a. Pertaining to pagans or

    I heathens.

    gENTILESSE, n. Complaisance. [Mt i,f use.] Hudibras.

    GEN'TILISH, a. Heathenish ; pagan.


    (iEN'TILISM, n. Heathenism; paganism;

    he worship of false gods. StiUingfleet.

    GENTIL1"TI0US, a. [L. gentililius, from


    1. Peculiar to a people or nation ; national. Brown.

    2. Hereditary ; entailed on a family. Arhuthnot.

    GENTIL'ITY, n. [Fr. gentUiti, heathenism. So in Sp. and It. from the Latin ; but we take the sense from genteel.]

    1. Politeness of manners; easy, graceful be- havior ; the manners of well bred people ; gentcelness.

    2. Good extraction ; dignity of birth. Edward.

    3. Gracefulness of mien. Shah.

    4. Gentry. [J\\\\\\\\l'ot in use.] Davies.

    5. Paganism ; heathenism. [.Yot in use.] Hooker.

    GEN'TILIZE, v. i. To live like a heathen. Milton.

    (iEN'TLE, a. [See Genteel.] Well born ; of a good family or respectable birth, though not noble ; as the studies of noble and gentle youtli ; gentle blood. Obs.

    Milton. Pope.

    2. Mild ; meek ; soft ; bland ; not rough, harsh or severe ; as a gentle nature, tem- per or disposition ; a gentle maimer ; a gentle address ; a gentle voice. 1 Thess. xxvii. 2 Tim. ii.

    .3. Tame ; peaceable ; not wild, turbulent or refractory ; as a gentle horse or beast.

    4. Soothing ; pacific. Davies.

    '). Treating with mildness ; not violent.

    A gentle hand may lead the elephant with a hair. Persian Mosary.

    GEN'TLE, n. A gentleman. Obs. Shak.

    2. A kind of worm. fValton.

    (iEN'TLE, V. t. To make genteel ; to raise from the vulgar. Obs. Shak.

    GEN'TLEFOLK, n. [gentle and folk.] Per- sons of good breeding and family. It is now used only in the plural, gentlefolks^ and this use is vulgar.

    GEN'TLEMAN, n. [gentle, that is, genteel, and man. So in Fr. gentilhomme, It. gen- tiluomo, Sp. gentilhombre. See Genteel.]

    1. In its most extensive sense, in Great Bri- tain, every man above the rank of yeo- men, comprehending noblemen. In a more limited sense, a man, who without a title, hears a coat of arms, or whose an- cestors have been freemen. In this sense, gentlemen hold a middle rank between the nobility and yeomanry.

    2. In the United States, where titles and dis- tinctions of rank do not exist, the term is applied to men of education and of good breeding, of every occupation. Indeed this is also the popular practice in Great Britain. Hence,

    3. A man of good breeding, politeness, and civil manners, as distinguished from the vulgar and clownish.

    A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen- tleman on his knees. Franklin.

    4. A term of com])laisance. In the plural, the appellation by which men are address- ed in popular assemblies, whatever may be their condition or character.


    5. In Great Britain, the servant of a man of rank, wiio attends liis person. Camden,

    (iEN'TLEMANLIKE, ) „ Pertaining to oi

    (iEN'TLEMANLY, S becoming a gen- tleman, or a man of good family and breed- ing ; polite ; complaisant ; as gentlemanly manners.

    3. Like a man of birth and good breeding ; as a gentlemanly officer.

    GEN'TLEMANLINESS, n. Behavior of a well bred man. Sherwood.

    GEN'TLENESS, n. [See Gentle.] Dignity of birth. [LUUeused.]

    2. Genteel behavior. Obs.

    3. Softness of manners ; mildness of temper; sweetness of disposition ; meekness.

    The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith. Gal. v.

    4. Kindness; benevolence. Ohs. Shak.

    5. Tenderness ; mild treatment. GEN'TLESHIP, n. The deportment of a

    gentleman. Obs. Aseham.

    (iEN'TLEWoMAN, n. [ge?itfe and icoman.] A woman of good family or of good breed- ing ; a woman above the vulgar.

    2. A woman who waits about the person of one of high rank.

    3. A term of civility to a female, sometimes ironical. Dryden.

    gEN'TLY, adv. Softly ; meekly ; mildly ; with tenderness.

    My mistress gently chides the fault I made.


    2. Without violence, roughness or asperity-


    6ENTOO', n. A native of India or Hin

    doostan ; one who follows the religion of

    the Bramins. Enci/c.

    gEN'TRY, n. Birth ; condition ; rank by

    birth. Skak.

    2. People of education and good breeding. In Great Britain, the classes of people be- tween the nobility and the vulgar.

    3. A term of civility ; civility; compli

    (GENUFLECTION, n. [L. genu, the knee, andfectio, a bending.]

    The act of bending the knee, particularly in worship. Stilling/leei.

    gEN'UINE, a. [L. genuinns, from geniis or its root. See Gender.]

    Native ; belonging to the original stock hence, real ; natural ; true ; pure ; not spu rious, false or adulterated. The Gaels are supposed to be genuine descendants of the Celts. Vices and crimes are the genuine eftects of depravity, as virtue and' piety are the genuine fruits of holiness.] It is supposed we have the genuine text of Homer.

    gEN'UINELY, adv. Without adulteration or foreign admi.\\\\\\\\ture; naturally. Boyle.

    GEN'UINENESS, n. The state of being native, or of the true original ; hence, free- dom from adulteration or foreign admix- ture ; freedom from any thing false or coimterfeit ; purity ; reality ; as the gen- uineness of Livy's history ; the genuine- ness of faith or repentance.

    gE'NUS, n. plu. genuses or genera. [L. g-e- nus, Gr. ytvo;, Ir. gein, offspring, race or family. Sans, jana ; hence, kind, sort. See Gender.]

    1. In logic, that which has several species under it ; a class of a greater extent than


    species ; a universal which is predicablc of several things of ditierent .species.


    2. In natural history, an assemblage of species possessing certain characters in common, by which they are distinguished from all others. It is subordinate to class and or der, and in some arrangements, to tribe ano family. A single species, possessing cer

    tain peculiar characters, which belong to no other species, may also constitute a ge- nus ; as the camelopard, and the flamin- go.

    3. In botany, a genus is a subdivision con- taining plants of the same class and order, which agree in their parts of fructification,


    GEOCEN'TRIC, a. [Gr. yr,, earth, and urpov, center.]

    Having the earth for its center, or the same center with the earth. The word is ap- plied to a planet or its orbit.

    Harris. Encyc.

    GE'ODE, n. [Gr. yaiuSrji, earthy, from -/aia or yr;, earth. Plin. gwadcs, Lib. 36. 19.]

    In mineralogy, a round or roundish lump of] agate or other mineral, oi' a mere incrust- ation. Its interior is sometimes empty, and in this case the sides of its cavity are lined with crystals, as in agate balls, Sometimes it contains a solid movable nu- cleus; and sometimes it is filled with an earthy matter different from the envelop, Cleaveland.

    GE'ODESY, n. [Gr. ycuJoKJia ; yso, the earth, and Saiu, to divide.]

    That part of geometry which respects thi doctrine of measuring surfaces, and find- ing the contents of all plain figures.


    GEODET'IC, } Pertaining to the art

    GEODET'l€AL, S of measuring surfaces.

    GE'OGNOST, n. [See Geognosy.] One versed in geognosy ; a geologist.

    GEOGNOS'TIe, a. Pertaining to a knowl edge of the structure of the earth ; geo- logical.

    GE'OGNOSY, 71. [Gr. y,, the earth yvaais, knowledge.]

    That part of natural history which treats of the structure of the earth. It is the of the substances which compose the earth or its crust, their structure, position, relative situation, and properties.

    Cleaveland. [This word originated among the Ger- man mineralogists, and is nearly synony- mous with geology. But some writers consider geognosy as only a branch of geology ; including in the latter, hydrogra phy, geogony, meteorology and even ge

    [Gr. y)j, the earth, and yoti; The doctrine of tlie forma


    GEOG'ONY, n. generation.] tion of the earth,

    GEOG'RAPHER, n. [See Geography.] One who describes that part of this globe earth, which is exhibited upon the surface, as the continents, isles, ocean, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, countries, &c. One who is versed in geography, or one wIk) compiles a treatise on the subject,

    GEOGRA PH'I€, ) Relating to or con

    GEOGRAPH'IeAL, ^"-taining a descrip


    GEOGRAPHICALLY, adv. In a geograph- ical manner; accorduig to the usual prac- tice of describing the surface of the earth.

    GEOGRAPHY, 71. [Gr. y^, the earth, and ypoijiu, to write, to describe.]

    L Properly, a description of the earth or terrestrial globe, particularly of the divi- sions of its surface, natural and artificial, and of the position of the several coun- tries, kingdoms, states, cities, &.c. As a science, geography includes the doctrine or knowledge of the astronomical circles or divisions of the sphere, by which the relative position of places on the globe may be ascertained, and usually treatises of geography contain some account of the inhabitants of the earth, of their govern- ment, manners, &.c., and an account of the principal animals, plants and minerals.

    2. A book containing a description of the earth.

    (iEOLO(i'l€AL, a. [See Geology.] Pertain- ing to geology ; relating to the science of the earth or terraqueous globe.

    GEOL 061ST, 77. One versed in the science of geology.

    (iEOL'OG Y, n. [Gr. yr;, the earth, and Xoyoj, discourse.]

    The doctrine or science of the structure of the earth or terraqueous globe, and of the substances which compose it ; or the sci- ence of the compound minerals or aggre- gate substances which compose the earth, tiie relations which the several constitu- ent masses bear to each other, their forma- tion, structure, position and direction : it extends also to the various alterations and decompositions to which minerals are sub- ject. Diet. JVat. Hist. Cleaveland.

    GE'OMANCER, 71. [See Geomancy.] One who foretells or divines, by means of lines, figures or points on the ground or on pa- per. Encyc.

    GEOMANCY, 71. [Gr. yr,, the earth, and ItavTiia, divination.]

    A kind of divination by means of figures or lines, formed by little dots or points, origi- nally on the earth and afterwards on pa- per. Encyc.

    JgEOMAN'TIC, a. Pertaining to gcoiiian-

    [Gr. yfu^Tpifs. See Gc-



    One skilled in geometry. [^See Geometrician, which is generally used.] Il'atts.

    gEOM'ETR.AL, a. Pertaining to geome- try.

    GEOMETRIC, I [Gr. ytufiitpcxof.]

    iGEOMET'RICAL, S Pertaining to ge-

    , ometry.

    2. According to the rules or principles of I geometry ; done by geometry.

    3. Disposed according to geometry. \\\\\\\\ Geometrical progression, is when the terms in- ( crease or decrease by equal ratios ; as 2. 1 4. 8. 16. .32. or 32. 16. 8. 4. 2. gEOMET'RICALLY, adv. According to i the rules or laws of geometrv- GEOMETRP'CIAN, 71. One skilled in ge- i ometry ; a geometer. H'aits. tiEOM'ETRIZE, v. t. To act according to

    the laws of geometry ; to jTerform geo- 1 metrically. Boyle.

    tion of the terraqueous globe^; pertainiiigliGEOM'ETRY, n. [Gr. yfuptrpio ; yr, the to geography. It earth, and /iitfoi; measure.]

    G E R

    Originally and properiy, the art of nieasirr-i ing the earth, or any distances or dimen- sions on it. But geometry now denotes tlie science of magnitude in general, com-J prehending the doctrine and relations of whatever is susceptible of augmentatioii^ and diminution ; as the mensuration of lines, surfaces, solids, velocity, weight, &c. with their various relations.

    Bailey. Encyc: OEOPON'IC, a. [Gr. y>j, the earth, and rtwof,

    labor.] Pertaining to tillage of the earth, or agricul- ture. [JVow little used.] gEOPON'ICS, 71. The art or science of cultivating the earth. ' Evelyn.

    tiE'ORAMA, n. [Gr. ytj, the earth, and

    opafia, view.] An instrument or machine which exhibits s very complete view of the earth, lately in- vented in Paris. It is a hollow sphere of for- ty feet diameter, formed by thirty six bars of, iron representing the parallels and meridi ans, and covered with a bluish cloth, in tended to represent seas and lakes. The land, mountains and rivers are painted on paper and pasted on this coyer.

    Joum. of Science.

    gEORgE, n. A figure of St. George on'

    horseback, w(jrn by knights of the garter.]


    2. A brown loaf Dryden}

    (iEORGE-NOBLE, n. A gold coin in the'

    time of Henry VIII. of the value of 6s. 8d.|


    GEOR'Gle, n. [Gr. ytui.ytxo,-. rustic; yijj

    and fpyoi', labor.] _ |

    A rural poem ; a i)oetical composition on the

    subject of husbandry, containing rules for

    cultivating lands, in a poetical dress ; as

    the Georgics of Virgil.

    CEOR'GIC, o. Relating to the doctrine of

    agriculnire and rural affairs. gEORGIUM SIDUS. [See Herschel] gEOS'COPY, n. [Gr. -/i; and o^cortsco. Knowledge of llie earth, ground or soil, obtained by inspection. Chambers.

    GERA'NIUM, n. [L. from Gr. ytpa.™,', from

    yfpowos, a crane.] Crane's-bill, a genus of plants, of numerous species, some of which are cultivated for their fragrance or the beauty of their flowers. (iE'RENT, a. [L. gcrens.] Bearing ; used in] Vicegerent. |

    GERFALCON. [See Gyifakon.] GERM, n. [L-germen.] In botany, the ova- ry or seed-bud of a plant, the rudiment of fruit yet in embryo. It is the base or lower part of the pistil, which, in the pro- gress of vegetation, swells and becomes the seed-vessel. Martyn. Milne.

    9. Origin; first principle; that from which any thing springs ; as the germ of civil liberty, or of prosperity. GER'MAN, a. [L.gerrtmnus, a brother; Fr. germain.]

    1. Cousins german, are the sons or daugh- ters of brothers or sisters; first cousins.

    2. Related. Obs. Shak. CER'MAN, a. Belonging to Germany. GER'MAN, n. A native of Germany ; and

    by ellipsis, the German language. CERMAN'DER, n, A plant, or rather the name of several plants, as the rock ger-

    G E S

    mander, of the genus Veronica, and the

    common and loater gennander, of the genus

    Teucrium. (iERMAN'ie, a. Pertaining to Germany;

    as the Germanic body or confederacy. (SER'MANISM, n. An idiom of the German

    language. Chesterfield.

    GERM'EN, Ji. plu. germens. Now contract- ed to g'frm, which see. GERM'INAL, a. [from germen. See Germ.]

    Pertaining to a germ or seed-bud.

    Med. Repos. (iERM'lNANT, a. Sprouting. GERM'INATE, v. i. [L. germino, from ger- men.] To sprout ; to bud ; to shoot ; to begin to

    vegetate, as a plant or its seed. Bacon CERM'INATE, v. t. To cause to sprout

    [Unusual.] Price.

    (iERMINA'TION, n. The act of sprout

    ing; the first beginning of vegetation in i

    seed or plant. 2. The time in which seeds vegetate, after

    being planted or sown. Martyn.

    GERO€OM'I€AL, a. Pertaining to gero-

    comy. [Little used.] Smith

    GEROC'OMY, n. [Gr. yspw and xo/iiu.]

    That part of medicine which treats of the

    proper regimen for old people.

    ER'UND, n. [L. genmdi.


    from g-ero, bear.] In the Latin grammar, a kind of verbal noun partaking of the nature of a participle.

    Encyc. GESLING, for gosling. [Mt in use.] gEST, n. [L. gestum, from gero, to carry to do.] A deed, action or achievment. Obs.

    Spenser 9. Show ; rejjresentation. Obs.

    3. [Fr. gite, for giste, from gesir, to lie.] A stage in travelling ; so much of a journey as is made without resting ; or properly, a rest : a stop. Obs. Broivn.

    4. A roll or journal of the several days and stages prefixed, in the journeys of th' English kings, many of which are e.xtant in the herald's office. Hanmer.

    GESTA'TION, n. [L. gestalio, from gero, to carry.]

    1. The act of carrying young in the womb from conception to delivery ; pregnancy.

    Ray. Coxe.

    2. The act of wearing, as clothes or orna- ments. Brown.

    3. The act of carrying sick persons in car- riages, as a salutary exercise, by which fevers have often been cured. Med. Repos.

    GES'TATORY, o. That may be carried or worn. Broivn.

    GES'TIC, a. Pertaining to deeds; legenda- ry. Goldsmith.

    GESTI€'ULATE, v. i. [L. gesliculor, from gestum, gero, to bear or carry, or gestio.]

    To make gestures or motions, as in speak- ing ; to use postures. Herbert.

    GESTICULATE, v. t. To imitate ; to act. "^. Jonson.

    (JESTICULA'TION, n. [L. gesticulatio.

    1. The act of making gestures, to expres passion or enforce sentiments.

    2. Gesture ; a motion of the body or limbs iu speaking, or in representing action or passion, and enforcing arguments and sentiments.

    3. Antic tricks or motions.

    GESTICULATOR, ji. One that shows pos- tures, or makes gestures.

    GESTIC'ULATORY, a. Representing in gestures. JVarton.

    GES'TURE, n. [L. gestus, from gero, to bear, to do ; Fr. geste.]

    1. A motion of the body or limbs, expres- sive of sentiment or passion ; any action or posture intended to express an idea or a passion, or to enforce an argument or opinion. It consists chiefly in the actions or movements of the hands and face, and should be suited to the subject. Encyc.

    2. 3Iovement of the body or limbs. Grace was in all her steps, heaven in her eye, In every gesture dignity and love. Milton.

    gES'TURE, v. t. To accompany with ges- ture or action. Hooker. Wotton.

    GET, V. t. pret. got, [gat, obs.J pp. got, gotten. [Sax. gelan, gytan or geatan, to get ; agytan, to know or understand ; angitan, andgitan, to find, to understand. The Danish has jbrgietler, to forget, but gietter signifies to gxtess, or to suppose, to think; the Swedish also has for^aia, to forget, to give to oblivion, ex ammo eji- cere. The simple verb gietter, gbta, coin- cides with the D. gieten, G. giessen, to cast, to pour out, to found, as vessels of metal, Sax-g-foton. To get, then, is pri- marily, to throw, and with respect to ac- quisition, it is to rush on and seize. The Italian ha&catlare, to get ; raccattare,lo re- gain, to acquire. Qu. Sp. rescatar. Port. resgatar, to redeem, to ransom. See -Res- cue]

    1. To procure ; to obtain ; to gain posses- sion of, by almost any means. We get favor by kindness ; we get wealth by in- dustry and economy ; we get land by pur- chase ; we get praise by good conduct ;

    j and we get blame by doing injustice. The merchant should get a profit on his goods ; the laborer should get a due reward for his labor ; most men get what they can for their goods or for their services. Get dif- fers from acquire, as it does not always express permanence of possession, which is the appropriate sense of acquire. We get a book or a loaf of bread by borrow- ing, we do not acquire it ; but we get or acqxiire an estate.

    2. To have. Thou hast got the face of a man. Herbert. This is a most coimnon, but gross

    abuse of this word. We constantly hear it said, I have got no corn^ I have got no money, she "lias got a fair complex- ion, when the person means only, I have- no corn, I have no money, she has a fair complexion.

    4. To learn ; as, to get a lesson.

    5. To prevail on ; to induce; to persuade.

    Though the king could not get him to engage in a life of business. Spectator.

    [This is not elegant.] C. To jjrocure to be. We could not get the

    >vork done. [jVot elegant.] To get off, to put oft'; to take or pull off; as, to get o/ a garment: also, to remove ; as,, to get off a ship from shoals.


    G ET

    2. To sell; to dispose of; as, to gel off

    goods. To get on, to put on ; to draw or pull on

    as, to get on a coat ; to get on boots. To gel in, to collect and shelter

    under cover ; as, to get in corn. To get out, to draw forth ; as, to get out a

    secret. 2. To draw out ; to disengage. To gel the day, to win ; to conquer ; to

    gain the victory. To get together, to collect ; to amass. To get over, to surmount ; to conquer ; to

    pass without being obstructed ; as, to get

    over difficulties : also, to recover ; as, to get

    over sickness. To get above, to surmount ; to surpass. To get up, to prepare and introduce upon

    the stage ; to bring forward With a pronoun following, it signifies to

    betake ; to remove ; to go ; as, get you to

    bed ; get thee out of the land. But this

    mode of expression can hardly be deemed

    elegant. GET, V. i. To arrive at any place or state

    followed by some modifying word, and

    sometimes implying difficulty or labor; as To get away or aioay from, to depart ; ti

    quit ; to leave ; or to disengage one'

    self from. To gel among, to arrive in the midst of; to

    become one of a number. To gel before, to arrive in front, or more for

    ward. To get behind, to fall in the rear ; to lag. To get back, to arrive at the place from

    which one departed ; to return. To gel clear, to disengage one's self; to be

    released, as from confinement, obligation

    or burden ; also, to be freed from danger

    or embarrassment. To gel doten, to descend ; to come from

    elevation. To get home, to arrive at one's tl welling. To get in or into, to arrive within an

    closure, or a mixed body ; to pass in ; lo

    insinuate one's self. To gel loose or free, to disengage one's self;

    to be released from confinement. To gel off, to escape ; to depart ; to get clear

    also, to alight ; to descend from. To get out, to depart from an inclosed place

    or from confinement ; to escape ; to free

    one's self from embarrassment. To gel along, to proceed ; to advance. To get rid of, to disengage one's self from

    also, to shift ofi"; to remove. To get together, to meet ; to assemble ; to

    convene. To gel up, to arise ; to rise from a bed or a

    seat ; also, to ascend ; to climb. To gel through, to pass through and reach

    point beyond any thing ; also, to finis!

    10 accomplish. To gel quit of, to get rid of; to shift off, or

    to disengage one's self from. To get fonvard, to proceed ; to advance

    also, to prosper; to advance in wealth. To get near, to approach within a small dis- tance. To get ahead, to advance ; to prosper. To get on, to proceed ; to advance. To get a mile or other distance, to pass over

    it in traveling. To get at, to reach ; to make way to.

    G I A

    To gel asleep, to fall asleep.

    To get drunk, to become intoxicated,

    To get betieeen, to arrive between.

    To gel to, to reach ; to anive.

    GET'TER, )t. One who gets, gains, obtains

    or acquires. 2. One who begets or procreates. GETTING, ppr. Obtaining; procuring

    gaining; winning; begetting. GET'TING, jt. The act of obtaining, gain ing or acquiring ; acquisition.

    Get wisdom ; and with all thy getting, get understanding. Prov. iv. 2. Gain ; profit. Sunft

    GEWGAW, n. [Qu. Sax. gt-gaf a tritle, or Fr. joujou, a plaything, or from the root of gaud, joy, jewel.' A showy trifle ; a pretty thing of little worth ; a toy ; a bauble ; a splendid play thing.

    A lieavy gewgaw, called a crown. Drydet GEW'GAW, a. Showy without value.

    Lau GH^ASTFUL, a. [See Ghastly.] Dreary; dismal ; fit for walking ghosts. Obs.

    Spenser. GH'ASTFULLY, adv. Frightfullv. Pope GH'ASTLINESS, «. [from gluistty.] Hor ror of countenance ; a deathlike look ; resemblance of a ghost ; paleness, GHASTLY, a. [Sax. gastlic, from gast, spirit, G. geist, D. geest. In Sax. gast is both a ghost and a guest, both from the same radical sense, to move, to riish ; Ir, gaisim, to flow ; Eng. gush, gust.] Like a ghost in appearance ; deathlike pale ; dismal ; as a ghastly face ; ghastly smiles. Milton.

    2. Ilorribte; shocking; dreadful

    Mangled with gliastly wounds. Milton

    GirASTNESS, n. Ghastlincss. Wot used.] Shak GHER'KIN, ». [G. gurke, a cucumber.] A small pickled cucumber. Skinne,

    GHESS, for guess. [Mot nsed.] GHOST, n. [Sax. gast ; G. gniM ; D. geest ;'

    Ir. gasda. See Ghastly.]

    i. Spirit; the soul of man. Shak.l

    In this sense seldom used. But hence, [

    2. The soul of a deceased jierson ; the soul:

    or spirit separate fiom the body ; an aj)-!


    G I B

    (ilAM'BEAUX, n. [Fr. jambe, the leg.J Greaves ; armor for the legs. 06s.

    6I'ANT, n. [Fr. geanl ; Sp. gigante ; It. id. ; L. gigas ; Gr. 71705, probably from ■jt;, tlift earth, and you or ytioftoi. The word originally signified earth-born, terrigena. The ancients believed the first inhabitants of the earth to be produced from the ground and to be of enormous size.]

    1. A man of extraordinary bulk and stature.

    Giants of mighty bone, and bold emprise.


    2. A person of extraordinary strength or powers, bodily or intellectual. The judge is a giant in his profession.

    Giants-causey, a vast collection of basaltic pillars in the county of Antrim, in Ire- land. Encyc.

    Gl'ANT, a. Like a giant ; extraordinary in size or strengh ; as giant brothers ; a. giant son. Dnjden. Pope.

    (ii'ANTESS, n. A female giant ; a female of extraordinary size and stature. Shak.

    (>rANTIZE, V. i. To play the giant.


    Gl'ANT-KILLING, a. Killing or destroy- ing giants. Cowper.

    JGI'ANTLIKE, 'I ^ Of unusual size; re.sem-

    iGl'ANTLY, (f ■ bling a giant in bulk or stature ; gigantic ; huge. South.

    [Giantly is not much used.]

    GI'ANTRV, n. The race of giants. [Little

    I used.]

    6I'ANTSHIP, n. The state, quality or char- acter of a giant.

    His giantship is gone somewhat crestfallen. Milton.

    GIB, n. A cat. [JVot in use.] SkeUon.

    GIB, V. i. To act like a cat. [JVo< in use.]

    The mightv ghosts of our great Harrys rose. <^IB'BET, n. [Fr. gibet ; Arm. gibel.]

    i>^..j„.. (r:i nws ; n nnst or Tnftpninp in lorni


    To give up the ghost, is to die ; to yield up the breath or spirit ; to expire. Scripture.

    The Holy Ghost, is the third person in the adorable Trinity. Scripture.

    GHOST, V. i. To die ; to expire. Obs.


    GHOST, t'. t. To haunt with an n|)parition. Obs. Shak.

    GHOSTLIKE, a. Withered ; having sunk- en eyes ; ghastly. Sherwood.

    GHOSTLINESS, n. Spiritual taidency. [lAltle used.] Johnson.

    GHOSTLY, a. Spiritual ; relating to the soul ; not carnal or secular.

    Save and defend us from our ghostly ene- mies. Com. Prayer.

    2. Spiritual ; having a character from reli- gion ; as a ghostly father. Shak.

    3. Pertaining to apparitions. Menside. GIALLOLINO, ?i. [It. g-i"a«o ; Eng. yellow.]

    A fine yello^v pigment much used under the name oiJVaples Yellow. Encyc.

    GIBBE, n. An old worn-out animal. [Muf

    used.] Shak.

    GIB'BER, V. i. [See Gabble. It is probably

    allied to gabble, and to jabber.] To speak rapidly and inarticulately. [JVol

    used.] Shak.

    GIB'BERISH, n. [from gibber.] Rapid and

    inarticulate talk ; unintelligible language ;

    unmeaning words. GIB'BERISH, a. Unmeaning, as words.


    gallows; a post or machine in form of a gallows, on which notorious malefactors are hanged in chains, and on which their bodies are suffered to remain, as specta- cles in lerrorem. Sivift.

    2. Any traverse beam. Johnson.

    GIBBET, V. t. To hang and expose on a gibbet or gallows.

    2. To hang or expose on any thing going travers, as the beam of a gibbet. Shak.

    GIBBETED, pp. Hanged and exposed on a gibbet.

    (ilB'BETING, ppr. Hanging and exposing on a gibbet.

    (ilBBIER, n. [Fr.] Wild fowl; game. LYot used.] Addison.

    GIBBOSITY, n. [Fr. gibbosite, from L. gibbosus. See Gibbous^

    Protuberance ; a round or swelhng promi- nence ; convexity. Ray.

    GIB'BOUS, a. [L. gibbus ; Fr. gibbeux ; It. gibboso ; Sp. giboso; Gr. xiifo;, from xvn-tu. to bend. Class Gb. No. 1. 2. a 4. 5.]

    G I D

    G I F


    1. Swelling-; protuberant;


    ('nil moon ; the enlightened part being tlien convex

    The bones will rise, ami make a gibbous member. Wiseman.

    3. Hunched ; hump-backed ; crook-backed. Brown. OIB'BOUSLY, adv. In a gibbous or protu berant form. Eaton.

    GIB'BOUSNESS, n. Protuberance ; a round l)roniinence : convexity. [This word is l)referable to gibbosity.] OIBBS'ITE, n. A mineral found at Rich niond, in Massachusetts, and named ii honor of George Gibbs, Esq. It occurs in irregular stalactical masses, whicl sent an aggregation of elongated, tuber- ous branches, parallel and united. Its structure is fibrous, the fibers radiating from an axis. Its colors are a dirty white, greenish white and grayish. Cleaveland, GIB'€AT, n. A he-cat, or an old worn-out cat. Shak.

    GIBE, v.i. [Sax, gahhan ; Fr. gaher ; It. gabbare. See Gabble. The sense is prob- ably to throw or cast at, or make mouths. But see Class Gb. No. 67. 79.] To cast reproaches and sneering expres- sions ; to rail at ; to utter taunting, sarcas- tic words ; to flout ; to fleer ; to scoff. Fleer and gibe, and laugh and flout. Sivift. (ilBE, V. t. To reproach with contemptuous words ; to deride ; to scofl' at ; to treat with sarcastic reflections ; to taunt. Draw the beasts as I describe them. From their features, while I gibe them.

    Swift. (ilBE, n. An expression of censure mingled with contempt ; a scoff; a railing; an ex- pression of sarcastic scorn. Mark the fleers, the gibes, and the notable

    scorns. That dwell in eveiy region of his face.

    Shak. GIB'ELINE, n. The Gibellnes were a faction in Italy, that opposed another fac- tion called Guelfs, in the 13th century.

    J. Mams. (il'BER, n. One who utters reproachful, censorious and contetnptuous expressions, or who casts cutting, sarcastic reflections ; one who derides ; a scoffer. B. Jonson. Gl'BING, ppi: Uttering reproachful, con- temptuous and censorious words; scoffing. (JI'BINGLY, adv. With censorious, sarcas- tic and contemptuous expressions ; scorn- fidly. Shak.

    GIB'LETS, n. [Qu. Fr. gibier, game, or

    Goth, gibla, a wing. See Gip.] Tlie entrails of a goose or other fowl, as the heart, liver, gizzard, &c. ; a considera- ble article in cookery ; as, to boil or stew giblets. It is used only in the jjlural, ex- cept in composition ; as a giblei-pie. GIB'STAFF, n. A staff to gauge water or to push a boat ; formerly, a staflT used in fighting beasts on the stage. Did.

    GID'DILY, adv. [See Giddy.] With the

    head seeming to turn or reel. 2. Inconstantly ; unsteadily ; with various turnings ; as, to roam about giddily.

    Donne X Carelessly ; heedlessly ; negligently.


    GID'DINESS, n. The state of being giddy or vertiginous ; vertigo ; a sensation of reeling or whirling, when the body loses the power of preserving its balance or a steady attitude, or when objects at rest appear to reel, tremble or whirl ; a swim- ming of the head.

    2. Inconstancy ; unsteadiness ; mutability.

    3. Frolick; wantonness; levity. Donne. South.

    GID'DY, a. [Sax. gidig. Class Gd.] Ver- tiginous ; reeling ; whirling ; having in the head a sensation of a circular motion or swimming ; or having lost the power of preserving the balance of the body, and therefore wavering and inclined to fall, as in the case of some diseases and of drunk- enness. In walking on timber aloft, or looking down a precipice, we arc apt to be giddy.

    2. That renders giddy ; that induces giddi- ness ; as a giddy highth ; a giddy preci- pice. Prior.

    3. Rotary ; whirling ; running round with celerity.

    The giddy motion of the whirling mill.


    4. Inconstant ; unstable ; changeable. You are as giddy and volatile as ever.


    5. Heedless ; thoughtless ; wild ; roving.

    Botce. : Tottering; unfixed.

    As we have paced along Upon the giddy footing of the hatches.

    Shak. 7. Intoxicated ; elated to thoughtlessness : rendered wild by excitement or joy. Art thou not giddy with the fashion loo ?

    Shak. GID'DY, V. i. To turn quick. Chapman.

    GID'DY, V. t. To make reeling or unsteady, Farindon.

    GIDDY-BRAINED, a. Careless; thought- less ; unsteady. Olway. GIDDY-HEAD, n. A person without

    bought or judgment. GID'DY-IIEADED,a. Heedless; unsteady volatile ; incautious. Donne.

    GID'DY-PACED, a. Moving irregularly.

    Shak GIE, a contraction of guide. [.Yot in use.]

    Chaucer. (5IE'R-EAGLE, n. [Qu. D. gier, a vulture.] A fowl of the eagle kind, mentioned in Le- viticus ii. GIE'SECKITE, n. A mineral of a rhom- boidal form and compact texture, of a gray or brown color, and nearly as hard as cal- carious spar. Cleaveland.

    GIF, V. t. [from Sax. gifan.] The old but

    true spelling oft/". GIFT, n. [from g-i»e.] A present; anything given orbestowed ; any thing, the property of which is voluntarily transferred by one person to another without compensation ; a donation. It is applicable to any tli movable or immovable.

    2. The act of giving or conferring. Milton.

    3. The right or power of giving or bestow ing. The prince has the gift of many hi crative offices.

    4. An offering or oblation. If thou bring thy gift to the altar. Matt. v.

    5. A reward. Let thy gifts be to thyself. Dan. v.

    6. A bribe ; any thing given to corrupt itie judgment.

    Neither take a gift ; for a gift doth blind the eyes ol the wise. Deut. xvi.

    7. Power ; faculty ; some quality or endow- ment conferred bv the author of our na- ture ; as the gift of wit ; the gift of ridi- t^iile- Addison.

    GIFT, V. t. To endow with any power or

    faculty. GlFT'ED.pp. or a. Endowed by nature with

    any power or faculty; furnished with any

    particular talent. GIFT'EDNESS, n. The state of being

    gifted. Echard.

    GIFT'ING, ppr. Endowing with any power

    or faculty. GIG, ii. t. [L. gigno.] To engender. [JVot

    in use.] Dryden.

    2. To fish with a gig or fishgig. GIG, n. [It. giga, a jig ; Fr. gigue, a jig, a

    romp ; few. giga, a jews-harp ; Ice. gigia,

    a fiddle.]

    Any little thing that is whirled round in

    play. Locke.

    2. A light carriage with one pair of wheels, drawn by one horse ; a chair or chaise.

    3. A fiddle.

    4. A dart or harpoon. [See Fishgig.]

    5. A ship's boat. A wanton girl.

    (ilGANTE'AN, a. [L. giganteus. See Giant.] Like a giant ; mighty. More.

    GIGAN'TIC, a. [L. giganiicus.] Of extra- ordinary size ; very large ; huge ; like a giant. A man of gigantic stature.

    2. Enormous ; very great or mighty ; as gi- gantic deeds ; gigantic wickedness.

    Gtgantical and gigantine, for gigantic, rarely or never used.

    GIGANTOL'OgY, n. [Gr. y^yof, a giant, and >.oyo5, discourse.] An account or de- scription of giants.

    GIG'GLE, n. [Sax. geagl ; Scot, geek.] A kind of laugh, with siiort catches of the voice or breath.

    GIG'GLE, v. i. [D. gichgelen ; Sax. geagl, a. laugh or sneer, and gngol, sportive, wan- ton ; It. ghignare, to simper ; ghignazzare, to laugh or grin. In Ir. giglim is to tickle ; Gr. ytyyXtff^oj.]

    To laugh with short catches of the breather voice ; to laugh in a silly, puerile manner; to titter ; to grin with childish levity or mirth. Garrick.

    GIG'GLER, 11. One that giggles or titters.

    GIG'LET, ^^ [Sax. geagl, wanton; Fr.

    GIG'LOT, 5 ■ g-fg-wer, to romp, to frisk. See Gig-.] A wanton ; a lascivious girl.


    GIGLOT, a. Giddy; light; inconstant; wanton. Shak.

    GIG'OT, n. [Fr.] The hip-joint; also, a slice. [.Vot Etiglish.]

    GIL'BERTINE, n. One ofa religious order, so named from Gilbert, lord of Sempriug- hani, in Lincolnshire, England.

    GIL'BERTINE, a. Belonging to the mo- istic order, mentioned above. IVeever.

    GILD, II. i. pret. a\\\\\\\\iA\\\\\\\\^\\\\\\\\). gilded or gilt. [Sax. gildan, gyldan, geldan, to pay a debt, to gild, and gild, tribute, tax, toll ; D. and G. geld, money ; Dan. gield, a debt ; Sw. giUd. To gild is to cover witlig-oW; G, vergolden ; D. vergulden ; Dan. forgi/lder ; Sw. Jbrgylla; from gold, or its rootj Dan,

    G I L

    guul, Sw. gill, Sax. gealew, yellow, con- nected with Ir.geal, \\\\\\\\V.golau, light, bright Class Gl. No. 6. 7.]. 2. To overlay with gold, either in leaf oi powder, or in amalgam with quicksilver; to overspread with a thin covering of gold ; as the gitt frame of a mirror. Cyc

    Her joy in gilded chariots when alive. And love ol ombre after death survive.


    2. To cover with any yellow matter.


    3. To adorn with luster; to render bright.

    No more the rising sun shall gild tlie morn. Pope

    4. To illuminate ; to brighten. South,

    Let oft good humor, mild and gay. Gild the calm evening of your day.


    5. To give a fair and agreeable external ap- pearance ; to recommend to favor and re- ception by superficial decoration ; as, to gild flattery or falsehood.

    GILD'EU, pp. Overlaid with gold leaf or liquid ; illuminated.

    GILD'ER, n. One who gilds ; one whose oc cupation is to overlay things with gold.

    2. A Dutch coin of the value of 20 stivers about 38 cents, or one shilling and nine pence sterling. It is usually written guilder.

    GILD'ING, ppi: Overlaying with gold; giving a fair external appearance.

    GILD'ING, n. The art or practice of over laying things with gold leaf or liquid.

    2. That which is laid on in overlaying with gold.

    GILL, n. [Sw. gel ; Sp. agalla, a gland the throat, a gall-nut, a wind-g.iU on a horse, the beak of a shuttle, and tlie gill of a fish ; Port, guelra or guerra. Hence it would seem that gill is a shoot or promi- nence, the frifige-like substance, not the aperture. In Danish, gilder signifies to geld, and to cut off the gills of herrings, and in Scot, gil or gul is a crack oi fissme.]

    1. The organ of respiration in fishes, consist- ing of a cartilaginous or bony arch, at- tached to the bones of the head, and fur- nished on the exterior convex side with a multitude of fleshy leaves, or fringed vas- cular fibrils, resembling plumes, and of a red color in a healthy state. The water is admitted by the gill-opening, and acts upon the blood as it circulates in the fibrils. Other animals also breathe by gills, as frogs in their tadpole state, lob- sters, &.C. Ed. Enctjc.

    Fishes perform respiration under water by the gills. Ray.

    2. The flap that hangs below the beak of a fowl. Bacon.

    3. The flesh under the chin.

    Bacon. Swift.

    4 In England, a pair of wheels and a frame on which timber is conveyed. [Local.]

    GILL-FLAP, n. A membrane attached t the posterior edge of the gill-lid, immed ately closing the gill-opening.

    GILL-LID, J!. The covering of the gills.

    GILL-OPENING, n. The aperture of fish or other animal, by which water admitted to the gills. Ed. Encyc.

    GILL, n. [Low L.gilla, gillo or gcllo, a drink- ing glass, a gill. This word has the samel

    G I M

    elementary letters as Gr. yonJ-oj, a pail or bucket, and Eng. gallon, probably from one of the roots in CI, which signify to hold or contain.]

    1. A measure of capacity, containing the fourth part of a pint. It is said to be in some places in England, half a pint.


    2. A measure among miners, equal to a pint,


    GiLL, »i. A plant, ground-ivy, of the genus

    Glechoma. Fam. of Plants.

    2. Malt liquor medicated with ground-ivy.

    (ilLL, n. [In Sw. gilja signifies to woo.]

    1. In ludicrous language, a female ; a v ton girl.

    Each Jack with his Gill. B. Jon

    2. A fissure in a hill ; also, a place between steep banks and a rivulet flowing through it ; a brook. Bay. Grose.

    GILLHOUSE, n. A place where gill is sold. Pope.

    GIL'LIAN, n. A wanton girl. 04*.


    (ilL'LYFLOWER, »i. [supposed to be a corruption of Jidy-fimver. But qu. is it not a corruption of Fr. girojlee, giroflier. The corres|)onding word in Arm. is geno- Jles or genoflen.]

    Tlio name of certain plants. The clove gilly- Jloiver is of the genus Dianthus, or carna- tion pink ; the stock gUlyJloiver is the Chei- ranthus ; the queen's giliydower is the Hes- peris. Fam. of Plants.

    GILSE, n. A young salmon.

    GILT, pp. of gild. Overlaid with gold leaf, or washed with gold ; illuminated ; adorned.

    GILT, n. Gold laid on the surface of a thing ; gilding. Shak.

    2. In England, a young female pig. Cyc.

    GILT'HEAD, n. [gilt and head.] In ich- thyology, a fish or a genus of fishes, the Sparus, of many species ; so named from their color, or frotn a golden spot between the eyes. £iic^c.

    2. A bird. Hakeudll.

    GILTTAIL, n. A worm so culled from its yellow tail. Johnson.

    (ilM, a. [contracted from g-emmj/.] Neat;; spruce ; well dressed.

    GIM'BAL, n. A brass ring by which a seal compass is suspended in its box, by means of which the card is kept in a horizontaf position, notwithstanding the rolling of the ship. Mar. Diet.

    G IMP.' LET, H. [Fr. gibelet; Arm. guymeled. Gimblet seems to be the same word as vximble, with the Celtic pronunciation, guimhle, and if m is casual, and the prima- ry word is gibelet or guihelet, the elements of the word coincide with wabble, quibble, and with the W. gieib, a serpentine mo- tion, gwibiaw, to wander, to move in a circular direction, gwiber, a serpent, a viper, and the primary sense is to turn.]

    A borer; a small instrument with a pointed screw at the end, for boring holes in wood by turning. It is applied only to small in- struments; a large instrument of the like kind is called an auger.

    GIMB'LET, V. t. In seamen's language, to turn round an anchor by the stock ; a mo- tion resembling that of the turning of a gimblet. ' Mar. Diet

    G I N

    GIMXKACK, n. A trivial mechanism ; u device ; a toy ; a pretty thing.

    Prior. Arbuthnot.

    GIM'MAL, n. Some device or machinery.


    GIM'MAL, a. Consisting of links. Shak.

    GIM'MER, n. Movement or machinery. Obs. More.

    GIMP, n. [Fr. guiper, to cover or whip about with silk ; Lng. to whip.] A kintl of silk twist or edging.

    GIMP, a. [W. gwymp.) Smart ; spruce ; trim ; nice. [M)t in use.]

    (ilN, n. A contraction of Geneva, a distilled siiirit. [See Geneva.]

    (ilN, n. [A contraction of eyigine.] A ma- chine or instrument by which the mechan- ical powers are employed in aid of human strength. The word is applied to various engines, as a machine for driving piles, another for raising weights, &.C.; and a macliine for separating the seeds from cot- ton, invented by E. Whitney, is called a cotton-gin. It is also the name given to an engine of torture, and to a pump moved by rotary sails.

    2. A trap ; a snare. Milton. Shak.

    (5 IN, V. t. To clear cotton of its seeds by a machine which .separates them with expe- dition. Trans, of Society of Arts.

    2. To catch in a trap.

    GIN, V. i. To begin. [Sax. gynnan.]

    61N'(iER, n. [It. gen^ovo ; Sp. gengibre ; Port, gengivre ; Fr. gmgembrc ; G. ingber ; Ji.gember; Sw. ingefara ; Dan. ingefer ; L. zinziber; Gr. ftyyiSfpis; Arm. zindilel or sin^ehel ; Ar. Pers. and Turk, ^dngibil or zinjibil; Syr. Ch. nearly the same.]

    A plant, or the root of a species of Amo- mum, a native of the East and West In- dies. The roots are jointed, and the stalks rise two or three feet, with narrow leaves. The flower stems arise by the side of these, immediately from the root, naked and end- ing in an oblong scaly spike. The dried roots are used for various pur[>oses, in the kitchen and in medicine. Encyc.

    GIN'GERBREAD, 71. [ginger and bread.] A kind of cake. com])osed of flour with an admixture of butter, pearlash and ginger, sweetened.

    eiN'GERLY, adv. Nicely ; cautiously. [JVot used.] Skelton.

    GIN'GERNESS, n. Niceness; tenderness. [.Vol used.]

    GINO'IL-VIM, 71. A kind of striped cotton cloth.

    (ilN'GlNG, 71. In mining, the lining of a mine-shaft with stones or bricks for its support, called steining or staitiing, which I suppose is from Sax. stan, stone. Cyc.

    GiN'GlVAL, a. [L. gingiva, the gum.] Per- taining to the gums. Holder.

    GIN'GLE, I „ . [In Pers. zangl is a little

    JIN'GLE, I ^- '■ bell. In Ch. and Syr. Njr is the same. Qu. its alHance to chink and jangle.]

    1. To make a sharp clattering sound ; to ring as a little bell, or as small pieces of sonorous metal ; as gingling halfpence.


    2. To utter affected or chiming sounds in periods or cadence. Johnson.

    G I R

    G I R

    G I S

    (';Ii\\\' GLE,i'. t. To shake so as to make clat- tflring sounds in quick succession; to ring, as a little bell, or as small coins.

    The bells she gingkd, and the whistle blew. Pope

    ('ilN'GLE, n. A shrill clattering sound, or a succession of sharp sounds, as those made by a little bell or by small coins.

    Q. Aftectation in the sounds of periods in reading or speaking, or rather chiming sounds.

    (MN'GLYMOID, a. [Or. yiyy>.npo{, a hinge, and £i5o5, form.] Pertaining to or resem- bling a ginglymus.

    GIN'GLYMUS, n. [Gr. yiyf^viiot.] In anato- 11!)/, a species of articulation resembling a hinge. That species of articulation in which each bone partly receives and is partly received by the other, so as to ad- mit only of fle.xion and extension, is called angular ginglymus. Parr.

    GiN'NET, n. A nag. [See Jennet.']

    GIN'SENG, n. [This word is probably Chi- nese, and it is said by Grosier, to signify the resemblance of a man, or man's thigh. He observes also that the root in the lan- guage of the Iroquois is called garent- oquen, which signifies legs andtliighs sepa- rated. Grosier''s China, i. 534.]

    A plant, of the genus Panax, the root of which is in great demand among the Chi- nese. It is found in the Northern parjs of Asia and America, and is an article of ex- port from America to China. It has a jointed, fleshy, taper root, as large as a man's finger, which when dry is of a yel- lowish white color, with a mucilaginous sweetness in the taste, somewhat resem- bling that of liquorice, accompanied with a slight bitterness. Encyc.

    GiP, V. t. To take out the entrails of her- rings. Bailey.

    6IP'SEY, n. The Gipseys are a race of vagabonds which infest Europe, Africa and Asia, strolling about and subsisting mostly by theft, robbery and fortune-tell- ing. The name is supposed to be cor- rupted from Egyptian, as they were thought to have come from Egypt. But their language indicates that they origina- ted in Hindoostan. Grellman.

    9. A reproachful name for a dark complex- ion. Shak

    3. A name of slight reproach to a woman ; sometimes implying artifice or canning. A slave I am to Clara's eyes : The gipsei) knows hci- power and flies.


    GIP'SEY, n. The language of the gipseys,

    GlP'SEYISM, n. The arts and practices of| gipseys ; deception ; cheating ; flattery. Grellman

    2. The state of a gipsey.

    GIRAFF', )!. [Sp.girafa; It. giraffa ; Av.

    *9 \\\\\\\\ , •, so called from leaping or the ex

    treme length of its neck, from Ojj rafa, to leap on, to liasten.] 'he camelopard, a quadruped.

    ee Came

    (ilRANDOLE, n. [It. girandola, from gir a turn, and andnre, to go.]

    A chandelier; a large kind of branched can- dlestick.

    GiR'ASOL, n. [Fr. Sp. ; It. girasole ; giro L. gyrus, a turn, It. girare, to turn, and sole, L. sol, the sun.]

    1. The turnsole, a plant of the genus Helio tropium.

    9. A mineral usually milk white, bluish white or sky blue, but when turned towards the sun or any bright hght, it constantly re- fleets a reddish color ; hence its name. It sometimes strongly reselnbles a translucid jelly. Cleaveland.

    GIRD, n. gurd. [Sax. geard, or gyrd, gijrda, a twig, branch, rod, pole, Eng. .. yard ; G. gurt, a girth, a girdle ; Dan. gierde, a hedge, a rail. This word signi- fies primarily a twig, shoot or branch ; hence a pole or stick, used in measuring. In measuring land, among our Saxon an- cestors, the gyrd seems to have been a cer- tain measure like our rod, perch or pole, all of which signify the same thing, a branch or shoot, a little pole. We now apply the word yard, to a measure of three feet in length. In rude ages, gyrds, shoots of trees, were used for binding things to- gether, whence the verb to gird. See fVilhe. Gyrds were also used for driv" or for punishment, as we now use whips ; and our common people use gird, for a vere stroke of a stick or whip. See Lajc, under gyrd and leeal-stylling.]

    1. A twitch or pang ; a sudden spasm, which resembles the stroke of a rod or the press ure of a band.

    9. In popular language, a severe stroke of i k or whip.

    GIRD, V. t. gurd. pret. and i)p. girded or girt. [^&x. gyrdan ; G.giirlen; D. garden; Sw. giorda, to gird or surround ; Dan gierder, to hedge, to inclose. See the Noun It is probable, that garden, Ir. goii, is from the same root ; originally an inclosed field, a piece of groimd surrounded with poles, stakes and branches of trees. If the noun is the primary word, the sense of the root is to shoot, as a branch ; if the verb is the root, the sense is to surround, or rather to bind or make fast. The former is the most probable.]

    1. To bind by surrounding with any flexible substance, as with a twig, a cord, bandage or cloth ; as, to gird the loins with sack- cloth.

    2. To make fast by binding ; to put on ; usually with on ; as, to gird on a harness ; to gird on a sword.

    3. To invest ; to surround. The Son appeared,

    Girt with omnipotence. .Milton.

    4. To clothe ; to dress ; to habit. I girded thee about with fine linen. Ezek

    5. To furnish ; to equip. Girded with snaky wiles. Milton

    6. To surround ; to encircle ; to inclose ; to encompass.

    The Nyseian isle, Girt with the river Tdton. Mlion

    7. To gibe; to reproach severely ; to lash. Shak.

    GIRD, I', i. To gibe ; to sneer; to break a scornful jest ; to utter severe sarcasms. Men of all sorts take a pride to gird at me. Shak GIRD'ED, pp. Bound ; surroimded ; invest ed ; put on.

    GIRD'ER, li. In arckiteclure, the principal piece of timber in a floor. Its end is usu- ally fastened into the summers or breast summers, and the joists are framed into it at one end. In buildings entirely of tim- ber, the girder is fastened by tenons into the posts.

    9. A satirist. Lilly.

    GIRDING, ppr. Binding; surrouDding: vesting.

    GIRDING, n. A covering. Is. iii.

    GIRD'LE, n. [Sax. gyrdle, gyrdl ; Sw. gdrdel; G. ^irtel ; B. gordel.] A band or belt ; something drawn round the waist of a person, and tied or buckled; as a girdle of fine linen ; a leathern girdk.

    9. Inclosure; circumference.

    Within the girdle of these walls. Shak.

    3. The zodiac. Bacon.

    4. A round iron plate for baking. Pegge. Qu. griddle.

    5. Among jeivelers, the line which encom- passes the stone, parallel to the horizon.


    GIRD'LE, V. t. To bind with a belt or sash;

    to gird. Shak.

    2. To inclose ; to environ ; to shut in. Shak.

    3. In America, to make a circular incision, like a belt, through the bark and albur- num of a tree to kill it.

    New England. Belknap. Dteight.

    GIRDLE-BELT, n. A belt that encircles the waist. Dryden.

    GIRD'LER, n. One who girdles; a maker of girdles. Beaum.

    GIRDLE-STEAD, n. Thepart of thebody where the girdle is worn. Mason.

    GiRE, n. [L. gyrus.] A circle, or circular motion. [See Gyre.]

    GIRL, n. gerl. [Low L. gerula, a young woman employed in tending children and carrying them about, from gcro, to carry ; a word probably received from the Ro- mans while in England.]

    1. A female child, or young woman. In fa- miliar language, any young unmarried woman. Dryden.

    2. Among spoiismen, a roebuck of two years old.

    GIRLHOOD, ji. The stateofagiri. \\\\\\\\Little used.] Miss Seward.

    GIRL'ISH, a. Like a young woman or child ; befitting a girl.

    3. Pertaining to the youth of a female.


    GIRL'ISHLY, adv. In the manner of a girl.

    GIR'ROCK, n. A species of gar-fish, the lacertus. Cyc.

    GIRT, pret. and pp. of gird.

    GIRT, V. t. To gird ; to surround.

    Thomson. Tookc. [This verb, if derived from the noun, girl, may be proper.]

    GIRT, I The band or strap by which a

    GIRTH, ^ ■ saddle or any burden on a horse's back is made fast, by passing un- der his belly.

    2. A circular bandage. Wiseman.

    .3. The compass measured by a girth or in- closing bandage.

    He's a lusty, jolly fellow, tliat lives well, at least three yards in the girth. .Addison.

    GIRTH, V. t. To bind with a girth.

    GISE, V. t. To feed or pasture. [See Jgist.]

    GIS'LE, II. A pledge. [JVoi in use.]

    G I V

    G I V

    G L A

    tilST, n. [Fr. gesh; to lie ; gite, a lodging- place.]

    In laiv, the main point of a question ; the point on which an action rests.

    GITH, n. Guinea pepper.

    GIT'TERN, n. [L. ciihara.] A guitar. [See Guitar.]

    GIT'TERN, II. i. To play on a gittern.


    GIVE, V. t. giv. pret. gave ; pp. c-iven. [Sax. gifan, gyfan ; Goth, giban ; G. geben ; D. geeven ; Sw. gifva ; Dan. giver. Hence Sax. gi_f, Goth, iabai or yabai, now con- tracted into if. Chaucer wrote yeve, yave- Qu. Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. an' to give. See Class Gb. No. 3. 26. 43. The sense of give is generally to pass, or to transfer, that is, to send or throw.]

    1. To bestow; to confer; to pass or trans- fer the title or property of a thing to an- other person without an equivalent or com- pensation.

    For generous lords had rather give than pay. Young.

    % To transmit from himself to another by hand, speech or writing ; to deliver.

    Tlie woman whom Uiou gavest to be with me.shegoueme of the tree, and I did eat. Gen

    3. To impart ; to bestow. Give us of yoiu- oil, for out. Matt. XXV.

    17. To cause to exist ; to excite in another ; as, to give offense or umbrage; to give' pleasure.

    18. To send forth ; to emit ; as, a stone gives sparks with steel. | . To addict ; to apply ; to devote one's self, followed by the reciprocal pronoun. The soldiers give themselves to plunder. The passive participle is much used in this sense ; as, the people are given to lux- ury and pleasure ; the youth is given to study.

    Give thyself wholly to tliem. 1 Tim. iv. I. To resign ; to yield up ; often followed by up.

    Who say, I care not, those I give for lost.


    21. To pledge ; as, I give my word that the debt shall be paid.

    22. To present for taking or acceptance ; as.

    lamps ;

    4. To communicate ; as, to give an opinion Xogive counsel or advice ; to give notice.

    5. To pass or deliver the property of a thing to another for an equivalent ; to pay. We give the full value of all we pui-chase. A dollar \\\\\\\\s given for a day's labor.

    What shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? Matt. xvi.

    6. To yield ; to lend ; in the phrase to give ear, which signifies to listen ; to hear.

    7. To quit ; in the phrase to give place, which signifies to withdraw, or retire to make room for another.

    8. To confer ; to grant.

    What wilt thou give me, seeing I go child- less ? Gen. XV.

    9. To expose ; to yield to the power of.

    Give to the wanton wmds their flowing hair Dryden.

    10. To grant ; to allow ; to permit.

    It is given me once again to behold my friend Rowe.

    11. To afford; to supply; to furnish.

    Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt- oflerings. Ex. x.

    12. To empower ; to license ; to commis- sion.

    Then give thy friend to shed tlie sacred wine Pope.

    But this and similar phrases are proba- bly elliptical ; give for give power or li- cense. So in the phrases, give me to un derstand, give me to know, give the flow ers to blow, that is, to give power, to ena ble.

    13. To pay or render ; as, to give praise, ap plause or approbation.

    14. To render; to pronounce; as, to givi sentence or judgment ; to give the word of command.

    15. To utter ; to vent ; as, to give a shout.

    16. To produce ; to show ; to exhibit as a product or result ; as, the number of men divided by the number of ships, gives four hundred to each ship.

    Vol. I.

    I give you my hand,

    23. To allow or admit by way of supposi- tion.

    To give away, to alienate the title or prop- erty of a thing ; to make over to another ; to transfer.

    Wliatsoever we employ in charitable uses,

    during our lives, is given away from ourselves.

    After bury.

    To give back, to return ; to restore.


    To give forth, to publish ; to tell ; to report publicly. Hayward.

    To give the hand, to yield preeminence, as being subordinate or inferior. Hooker.

    To give in, to allow by way of abatement or deduction from a claim ; to yield what may be justly demanded.

    To give over, to leave ; to quit ; to cease ; abandon ; as, to give over a pursuit.

    2. To addict ; to attach to ; to abandon.

    ! When the Babylonians had given themselves

    I over to all manner of vice. Grew.

    ,3. To despair of recovery ; to believe to be lost, or past recovery. The physician had given over the patient, or given the patient ovei: Addison.

    4. To abandon. Milton

    To give out, to utter publicly ; to report ; to proclaim ; to publish. It was given out that parhament would assemble in No vember.

    2. To issue ; to send forth ; to publish. The night was distinguished by the orders

    which he gave out to his army. Addison.

    3. To show ; to exhibit in false appearance. Sluik

    4. To send out ; to emit ; as, a substance gives out steam or odors.

    To give up, to resign ; to quit ; to yield as hopeless ; as, to give up a cause ; to give up the argument.

    12. To surrender ; as, to give up a fortress

    I to an enemy.

    i3. To relinquish ; to cede. In this treaty

    I the Spaniards gave up Louisiana.

    i4. To abandon ; as, to give up all hope.

    I They areg-u'en up to believe a lie.

    5. To deliver. And Joab gave up the sum of tlie number of

    the people to the king. 2 Sam. xxiv.

    To give one''s self up, to despair of one's re- covery ; to conclude to be lost.

    2. To resign or devote.

    Let us give ourselves wholly up to Christ in heart and desire. Taylor.


    3. To addict ; to abandon. He gave himself

    up to intemperance. To give way, to yield ; to withdraw to make

    room for. Inferiors shoiUd give way to


    2. To fail ; to yield to force ; to break or fall. The ire g-arc ivay and the horses were drowned. The scaflblding gave way. The wheels or axletree gave way.

    3. To recede ; to make room for.

    In seamen^s language, give way is an or- der to a boat's crew to row after ceasing, or to increase their exertions.

    Mar. Diet.

    GIVE, V. i. giv. To yield to pressure. The

    earth gives under the feet.

    To begin to melt ; to thaw ; to grow soft,

    so as to yield to pressure. Bacon.

    3. To move ; to recede.

    Now back he gives, tlien rushes on amain. Daniel's Civil War. To give in, to go back ; to give way. [JVot

    in use.j To give into, to yield assent ; to adopt.

    This consideration may induce a translator to give in to those general phrases — P<^e.

    To give off, to cease; to forbear. [Little used.] Locke.

    To give on, to rush ; to fall on. [jVoI in use.] To give out, to publish ; to proclaim. 2. To cease from exertion ; to yield ; applied to persons, lie labored hard, but gave out at last. To give over, to cease ; to act no more ; to desert.

    It would be well for all authors, if they knew when to give over, and to desist from any fur- ther pursuits after fame. Addison. GIV'EN, pp. giv'n. Bestowed ; granted ; conferred ; imparted ; admitted or sup- posed. GIVER, n. One who gives ; a donor ; a

    bestower ; a grantor ; distributes.

    It is the giver, and i

    rho imparts or

    the gift, that engross- es the heart of the christian. ' Kollock.

    GIVES, n. plu. [Iv. geibhion, from geibhim, to get or hold.]

    Fetters or shackles for the feet. [See Gyves.]

    G\\\'lNG,ppr. Bestowing; confeiTing ; im- parting; granting; delivering.

    GIVING, J!. The act of conferring.


    2. An alledging of what is not real. Shak.

    GIZ'ZARD, n. [Vr.gesier.] The strong mus- culous stomach of a fowl.

    Ray. Diyden.

    To fret the gizzard, to harass ; to ve.x one's self, or tobe vexed. Hudibras.

    GLA'BRIATE, v. t. [L. glabro.] To make smooth. [JVot used.]

    GLABRITY, n. Smoothness. [.Vol tised.]

    GLA'BROUS, a. [L. glaber, allied to Eng. glib. Class Lb. No. 10. 24. 27. 34. 37.]

    Smooth ; having an even surface.

    GLACIAL, a. [Fr. glacial ; L. glacialis, from glades, ice.] Icy; consisting of ice; frozen.

    GLA'CIATE, V. i. To turn to ice. Diet.

    GLACIA'TION, n. [supra.] The act of freezing : ice formed. Brown.

    GLA'CIER, n. [Fr. glaciere, an ice-house, from glace, It. ghiaccio, ice. See Gla- cial.]

    A field or immense mass of ice, formed in deep but elevated valleys, or on the sides

    G L A

    of the Alps or other mountains. These masses of ice extend many miles in length and breadth, and remain undissolved by the heat of summer. Coxe.

    GLA'CIOUS, a. Like ice ; icy. Brown.

    GLA'CIS, n. [Fr.] In building, or gardening, an easy, insensible slope. Encyc.

    2. In fortification, a sloping bank ; that mass of earth which serves as a parapet to the covered way, having an easy slope or de- clivity towards the champaign or field.


    GLAD, a. [Sax. glccd or glad; Sw.glad; Dan. glad; perhaps L. latus, without a prefix. See Class Ld. No. 2. Ar.]

    1 . Pleased ; affected with pleasure or mode- rate joy ; moderately happy.

    A wise son maketh a glad father. Prov. x. It is usually followed by of. I am glad of

    an opportunity to oblige my friend. It is sometimes followed by at.

    He that is glad at calamities shall not be un- punisheil. Piov. xvii. It is sometimes followed by with.

    Tlie Trojan, giad with sight of hostile blood— Dryden. If'iih, after glad, is unusual, and in this pas- sage at would have been preferable.

    2. Cheerful ; joyous.

    They blessed the king, and went to their tents, joyful and glad of heart. 1 Kings viii.

    3. Cheerful ; wearing the appearance of joy ; as a glad countenance.

    4. Wearing a gay appearance ; showy bright.

    the wilderness and the solitary place shall be glail for them. Is. xxxv.

    Glad evening and glad morn crown'd the fourtli day. Milton.

    5. Pleasing; exhilarating.

    More glad to me than to a miser money is.


    0. Expressing gladness or joy; exciting joy

    Hark ! a glad voice the lonely desert cheers.


    GLAD, V. f. [The pret. and pp. gladed is

    not used. See Gladden.] To make glad ; to affect with pleasure cheer ; to gladden ; to exhilarate.

    Each drinks the juiec that glads the heart of man. ' Pope

    GLAD'DEN, i'. t. glad'n. [Sax. gladian

    Dan. glccder ; Sw. gUidia.] To make glad ; to cheer ; to please ; to ex- hilarate. The news of peace gladdens our hearts.

    Churches will every where gladden his eye, and hymns of praise vibrate upon his car.

    Dwight. GLAD'DEN, v. i. glad'n. To become glad : to rejoice.

    So shall your country ever gladden at the sound of your voice.

    Adams' Inaugural Oration GLAD'DER, n. One that makes glad, or gives joy. Dryden

    GLAD '

    G L A

    GLADE, n. [D. glad, G. glatl, smooth.]

    Smooth ice. M'ew England.

    GLA'DEN, ^ [h.gladins, a sword.] S word-

    GLA'DER. I "■ grass ; the general name of

    plants that rise with a broad blade like

    sedge. Junius.

    GLAD'FUL, a. Fidl of gladness. Obs.


    GLAD'FULNESS, n. Joy ; gladness. Obs.


    GLA'DIATE, o. [L. gladius, a sword.]

    Sword-shaped ; resembling the form of a

    sword ; as the legume of a plant.

    Martyn. GLADIA'TOR, n. [L. from gladius, a

    sword.] A sword-player; a prize-fighter. The gla- diators, inRome, were men who fought in the arena, for the entertainment of the people. GLADIATO'RIAL, a. Pertaining to glad ators, or to combats for the entertainment of the Roman people. Bp. Reynolds.

    GLA'DIATORY, a. Relating to gladiators Bp. Porteus. GLA'DIATURE, n. Sword-play; fencing. [jVot in use.] Gayton.

    GLAD'IOLE, n. [L. gladiolus, a dagger.] A plant, the sword-lily, of the genus Gla- diolus. The ivater gladiole is of the genus Butonius or flowering rush, and also of the genus Lobelia or cardinal flower.

    Cyc. Fam. of Plants. GLAD'LY, adv. [See Glad.] With pleas- ure ; joyfully ; cheerfully.

    The common people heard him glaJli/. Mark xii. GLAD'NESS,n. [See Glad.] Joy,oramod- erate degree of joy and exhilaration ; plea- sure of mind ; cheerfulness.

    They— did eat their meat with gladness am singleness of heart. Acts ii. [Gladness is rarely or never equivalent to ' ill, merriiiieni, gayely and triumj)h, ani"

    G L A


    shoot of light, spFendor; D. glana ; Dan. glands; Sw. glans. The primary sense is to shoot, to throw, to dart.]

    1. A sudden shoot of light or splendor. Milton .

    2. A shoot or darting of sight ; a rapid or Hiomentary view or cast ; a snatch of sight ; as a sudden glance ; a glance of the eye. Dryden. Walts,

    GL^ANCE, V. i. To shoot or dart a ray of light or splendor.

    When through the gloom the glancing light- nings fly. Howe.

    2. To fly off in an oblique direction; to dart aside. The arrow struck the shield and glanced. So we say, a glancing ball or shot.

    3. To look with a sudden, rapid cast of the eye ; to snatch a momentary or hasty

    ally expresses less than delight.


    reat joy. Esther

    >AD'blNG, ppr. Making glad ; giving joy.


    GLADE, n. [Ice. Mad. Qu.] An openm^, „. passage made through a wood by lop- ping off the branches of the trees. Lo caliy, in the U. States, a natural opening or open place in a forest.

    There interspersed in lawns and opening glades. Pope

    2. In JVew England, an opening in the ice of rivers or lakes, or a place left unfrozen.

    sometmies expresses

    viii. ix.] GLAD'SOME, a. Pleased ; joyful ; cli

    ful. Spenser.

    2. Causing joy, pleasure or cheerfulness ;

    having the appearance of gayety ; pleas


    Of opening heaven they suug, and gladsome

    day. Prior.

    GLAD'SGMELY, adv. With joy ; with

    pleasure of mind. GLAD'SOMENESS, n. Joy, or moderate

    joy ; pleasure of mind.

    2. Showiness. Johnson. GLAD'WIN, n. A plant of the genus Iris.

    I'hm. of Plants.

    GLAIR, n. [Fr. glaire. In Sax. glare is ain- ber, or any thing transparent. This coin- cides with W. eglur, Eng. clear, L. clarus, and with Eng. glare, and L. gloria ; per- liaps with L. glarea, gravel, or pieces of quartz.]

    I. The white of an egg. It is used as a var- nish for preserving paintings. Encyc.

    |2. Any viscous transparent substance, re- sen)bling the white of an egg.

    3. A kind of halbert. Diet. GLAIR, V. t. To smear with the white of

    an egg ; to varnish. GLA'IRY, o. Like glair, or partaking of its qualities. Fleming

    Then sit again, and sigh and glance.

    Suckling. To hint ; to cast a word or reflection ; as, ;o glance at a different subject. 5. To censure by oblique hints. Shak.

    GL'ANCE, V. t. To shoot or dart suddenly or obliquely ; to cast for a moment ; as, to glance the eye. Shak.

    GL'ANCE-COAL, n. Anthracite ; a mine- ral composed chiefly of carbon. [See .dnthrncite.] Cyc.

    GL'ANCING, ppr. Sliooting ; darting; cast- ing suddenly ; flying oft" obliquely. GL'ANCINGLY, "adv. By glancing; in a glancing manner ; transiently.

    Hakewill. GLAND, n. [L. glans, a nut; glandula, a gland ; Fr. glande. Qu. Gr. tSoXaioj, with a different prefix.] 1. In anatomy, a distinct soft body, formed by the convolution of a great number of vessels, either constituting a part of the lymphatic system, or destined lo secrete some fluid from the blood. Glands have been divided into conglobate and conglom- erate, from their structure ; but a more jjroper division is into lymphatic and secre- tory. The former are found in the course of the lymphatic vessels, and are conglo- bate. The latter are of various structure. They include the mucous follicles, the conglomerate glands, properly so called, such as the parotid glands and the pan- creas, the liver, kidneys, &c. The term has also been applied to other bodies of a similar appearance, neither lymphatic nor secretory ; such as the thymus and thy- roid glands, whose use is not certainly known, certain portions of the brain, as the pineal and pituitary glands, &c. [See Conglobate and Conglomerate.]

    Encyc. P^rr. Coxe. In botany, a gland or glandule is an excre- tory or secretory duct or vessel in a plant. Glands are found on the leaves, petioles, peduncles and stipules. Martyn.

    GLAND'ERED, a. Affected with glanders. BerkUy. GLAND'ERS, n. [from g-fonrf.] In farriery, the rmniing of corrupt slimy matter from the nose of a horse. ' Cyc.

    GLANDIF'EROUS, a. [L. glandifer ; glans,

    an acorn, and/ero, to bear.] Bearing acorns or other nuts; producing

    G L A

    nuts or mast. The beech and tho. oak are glandiferous trees.

    GLAND'IFORM, a. [L. gtans and forma, form.]

    lu the shape of a gland or nut ; resembling a gland.

    GLAND'ULAR, a. Containing glands ; con- sisting of glands ; pertaining to glands.

    GLANUULA'TION, n. In botany, the situa- tion and structure of the secretory vessels in plants. Marlyn.

    Olandulation respects the secretory vessels, xvhich are either glandules, follicles or utricles Lee

    OLAND'ULE, n. [L. glandula.] A small gland or secreting vessel.

    GLANDULIF'EROUS, a. [L. glandula and fero, to bear.] Bearing glands. Lee.

    GLAiMDULOS'ITY, n. A collection of glands. flAttle used.] Brown

    GLAND'ULOUS, o. [L. glandulosus.] Con- taining glands ; consisting of glands ; per- taining to glands; resembling glands.

    GLARE, n. [Dan. g-far, Ice. gler, glass. It coincides with clear, glory, glair, wliich

    1. A bright dazzling light; clear, brilliant luster or splendor, that dazzles the eyes.

    The frame of burnished steel that cast a ^lare. Dry den.

    2. A fierce, piercing look.

    About them round,

    A lion now he stalks with fiery glare.

    Millon. .^. A viscous transparent substance. fSee

    Glair.] GLARE, V. i. To shine with a clear, bright, dazzling light ; as glaring light.

    The cavern glares with new admitted light. Dryden. 2. To look with fierce, piercing eyes.

    They glared, like angry lions. Dryden.

    8. To shine with excessive luster ; to be os- tentatiously splendid ; as a glaring dress. Milton. She glares in balls, front boxes and the ring. Pope.\\\\\\\\ GLARE, V. t. To shoot a dazzling light. GLA'REOUS, a. [Fr. glaireux. See Glair.] Resembling the white of an egg ; viscous and transparent or white. GLARING, ppr. Emitting a clear and bril- liant light ; shining with dazzling luster. 2. a. Clear ; notorious ; open and bold ;

    barefaced ; as a glaring crime. GLA'RINGLY, adv. Openly ; clearly ; no- toriously. GL>ASS, n. [Sax. glees ; Sw. Dan. G. and D. glas; so named from its color; W. glds, from lids, blue, azure, green, fresh, pale ; glasu, to make blue, to become green or verdant, to grow pale, to dawn : glaslys, woad, L. glastum ; glesid, blueness. Ta- citus, De Mor. Ger. 45, mentions gtesum, amber collected in the Baltic, probably the same word, and so named from its clearness. Greenness is usually named from vegetation or growing, as L. viridis, from vireo.] 1. A hard, brittle, transparent, factitious sub- stance, formed by fusing sand with fixed alkalies. Encyc.l

    In chimistry, a substance or mixture,! earthy, saline or metallic, brought by fu- sion to the state of a hard, brittle, trans-| parent mass, whose fracture is conchoidal.: .iikin.

    G L A

    2. A glass vessel of any kind ; as a drinking- glass.

    3. A mirror; a looking-g-tojis.

    4. A vessel to be filled with sand for meas- uring time ; as an hour-glass.

    5. The destined time of man's life. Ui> glass is run.

    6. The quantity of liquor that a glass vessel contains. Drink a glass of wine with me.

    7. A vessel that shows the weight of the air. Tatler.

    8. A perspective glass ; as an optic glass. Milton.

    9. The time which a glass runs, or in which it is exhausted of sand. The seamen''s watch-glass is Iialf an hour. We say, a ship fought three glasses.

    10. Glasses, in tlie plural, spectacles. GL'ASS, a. Made of glass ; vitreous ; as a

    lass bottle. Gt^ASS, V. t. To see as in a glass. [JVo( ■used.] Sidney.

    2. To case in glass. [Little used.] Skak.

    3. To cover with glass ; to glaze. Boyl [In the latter sense, glaze is generally

    used.] GL'ASSBLOWER, n. One whose business

    blow and fashion glass.

    GL'ASSFULL, »i. As much as a glass hold.«i.

    GL>ASSFURNACE, n. A furnace in whicl

    the materials of glass arc melted. Cue

    GL>ASS-GAZING, a. Addicted to viewing

    ' self in a glass or mirror; finical.

    Shah. GL^ASSGRINDER, n. One whose occupa- tion is to grind and polish glass. Boyle. GL>ASSHOUSE, n. A house where glass is made. Addison. GL>ASSINESS, n. The quality of being

    flassy or smooth ; a vitreous appearance 'ASSLIKE, a. Resembling glass. GL'ASSMAN, n. One who sells glass.

    Swift. GL'ASSMETAL, n. Glass in fusion.

    Boyle. GL>ASSPOT, n. A vessel used for melting

    glass in manufactories. Cm

    GL-ASSWoRK, n. Manufacture of glass. GL'ASSVVORKS, n. plu. The place or

    buildings where is made. GL'ASSWORT, n. A plant, the Salsola, of several species, all which may be used in the manufacture of glass. The Barilla of commerce, is the scmifused ashes of the Salsola soda, which is largely cultivated on the Mediterranean in Spain.

    Encyc. ff'ebsler's Manual.

    GL'ASSY, a. Made of glass ; vitreous ; as

    a glass;/ substance. Bacon.

    2. Resembling glass in its properties, as in

    smoothness, brittleness, or transparency ;

    as a glassy stream ; a glass}) surface ; the

    glassy deeji. Shak. Dryden.

    GLAUB'ERITE, n. A mineral of a grayish

    white or yellowish color, consisting of dry

    sulphate of lime and dry sulphate of soda.


    soda, a

    GLAUB'ER-SaLT, n. Sulphate

    well known cathartic. GLAUeO'MA, ji. [Gr.] A fault in the eye, in which the crystaline humor becomes gray, but without injury to the sight.

    Quincy. A disease in the eye, in which the crys- taline humor becomes of a bluish or

    G L E

    greenish color, and its transparency is di- minished. Encyc. An opacity of the vitreous humor.


    According to Sharp, the glaucoma of the

    Greeks is the same as the cataract ; and

    according to St. Yves and others, it is a

    cataract with amaiu-osis. Parr.

    GLAUCOUS, a. [L. glaucus.] Of a sea

    green color ; of a light green. GLAVE. n. [Fr. glaive ; W. glaiv, a bill- hook, a crooked sword, a cimiter ; Arm.

    A broadsword ; a falchion. [Ao/ used.'j

    Fairfax. Hudtbras. GLA V'ER, V. i. [W. glavru, to flatter ; glav,

    something smooth or shining ; L. glaber,

    leevis, or lubricus : ICng. glib?] To flatter ; to wheedle. [Little used and

    vidgar.] VEslrange.

    GLAV'ERER, ». A flatterer, [supra.] GLAZE, v.t. [Worn glass.] To furnish with

    windows of glass ; as, to glaze a house.

    2. To incrust with a vitreous substance, the basis of which is lead, but combined with sile.x, pearl-ashes and common salt ; as, to glaze earthern ivarc.

    3. To cover with any thing smooth and shining; or to render the exterior of a thing smooth, bright and showy.

    Though with other ornaments lie may glaze and l)randisli the weapons. Grew.

    4. To give a glassy surface ; to make glossy ; as, to glaze cloth.

    GLA'ZED, pp. Furnished with glass win- dows ; incrusted with a substance resem- bling; rendered smooth and shining.

    GLA'ZIER, JI. gla'zhur. [from glaze or glass.] One whose business is to set window glass, or to fix panes of glass to the sashes of windows, to pictures, Sec.


    GLA'ZING, ppr. Furnishing with window glass.

    2. Crusting with a vitreous substance, as potter's ware.

    .3. Giving a smooth, glossy, shining surface, as to cloth.

    GLA'ZING, n. The vitreous substance with potter's ware is incrusted.

    GLE.AJl, n. [Sax. g-/eam or gl(em, properly a shoot of light, coinciding with glimmer,, Ir. laom, [perhaps L. flamma.] The radical sense is to throw, to shoot or dart, and it may be of the same family as clamo, clamor, a" shoot of the voice, and VV.

    Kant, Ir. /earn, a leap, Ar. «^J Class Ln). No. 8.] *"

    1. A shoot of hght; abeam; a ray; a small stream of light. A gleam of dawning light, metaphorically, a gleam of hope.

    2. Brightness ; splendor. In the clear azure gleam the flocks are seen.


    GLEAM, II. i. To shoot or dart, as rays of

    li*ht. At the dawn hght glea^ns in the

    2. To shine; to cast hght. Thomson.

    3. To flash ; to spread a flood of light. [Less common.]

    4. Among falconers, to disgorge filth, as a hawk. Encyc.

    GLE'AMING, ppr. Shooting as rays of light ; shining.

    G L E

    GLE' AMINO, n. A shoot or slieoting of iGLEEK,

    light. 1 ciaii.

    GLE'AMY, o. Dartuig beams of hght; cast iiig hght ill rays. In brazen arms, that cast a gkamy ray. Swift through the town the warrior bends his way. Pope

    GLEAN, V. t. [Fr. glaner, to glean.; glane. a handful or cluster. In W.gldn is deaii.] 1. To gather the stalks and ears of grain which reapers leave behind them.

    Let me now go to the field, and g/ean cars of com — Ruth ii. % To collect things thinly scattered gather what is left in small parcel: numbers, or what is found in detached paicels ; as, to glean a few passages from an author.

    Tliey gleaned of thera in the highways five thousand men. Judges xx. GLEAN, V. i. To gather stalks or ears of grain left by reapers.

    And she went, and came and gleaned in tlie field after tlie reapers. Ruth ii. GLEAN, n. A collection made by gleaning or by gathering here and there a Uttle. The gleans of yellow thyme distend his thighs. Dryd:

    GLE'ANED, pp. Gathered after reapers ; collected from small detached parcels ; as grain gleaned from the field. 3. Cleared of what is left ; as, the field

    gleaned. 3. Having suffered a gleaning. The piil

    prints have been gleaned. GLE'ANER, n. One wlio gathers after

    G L I

    n. [See Glee.] Music, or a musi ifts. Shak.

    2. A scoff; a game at cards. Obs. GLEEK, II. i. To make sport of; to gibe ;

    to sneer ; to spend time idly. Obs.

    Shak GLEE'MAN, n. A musician. Obs. IgLEEN, v. i. [W. glan, clean, pure, holy,

    bright ; gleiniatv, to purify, to brighten ; Ir.

    glan.] To shine ; to glisten. [JVot used.] Prior. GLEE'SOME, a. Merry ; joyous. 06s. GLEET, n. [from Sax. glidan, to glide, oi

    hlyttrian, to melt; Ice. glat.] The Rax of a thin humor from the urethra ;

    a thin ichor running from a sore.

    Encyc. Wiseman. GLEET, V. i. To flow in a thin hmpid hu- mor ; to ooze. Wiseman. J2. To flow slowly, as water. Cheyne. 'GLEET'Y, a. Ichorous ; thin ; limpid. GLEN, n. [W. glyn, a valley in which a

    river flows, as if from llyn, liquor, water ;

    Sax. glen ; Ir. glean.] A valley ; a dale ; a depression or space be I tween hills. GLENE, ji. [Gr. -y^vi-] I" anatomy, the

    cavity or socket of the eye, and the pupil

    any slight depression or cavity receivhig

    GLEW. [See G/i

    GLI'ADINE, 71. [G'r. y?.m, glue.] One of



    a bone in articulation.


    2. One who collects detached parts or num- bers, or who gathers slowly with labor.


    GLE'ANING, ppr. Gathering what reaji- ers leave ; collecting in small detached parcels.

    GLE'ANING, n. The act of gathering after reapers.

    2. That which is collected by gleaning,

    GLEBE, n. [L. gleba, a clod or lump of earth ; Fr. gleb'e, land, ground ; probably from collecting, as in globe, club.]

    1. Turf; soil ; ground.

    Till the glad summons of a genial lay Unbinds the giete— Garth.

    2. The land belonging to a parish church or ecclesiastical benefice. Spehnan. Encyc.

    3. A crystal. Obs. Arbuthnot

    4. Among miners, a piece of earth in whicli is contained some mineral ore. Encyc

    GLE'BOUS, a. Gleby ; turfy. Did

    GLE'BY, o. Turfy ; cloddy.

    tjLEDE, n. [Sax. glida, from glidan, to

    glide; Sw. glada.] A fowl of the rapacious kind, the kite, a

    species of Falco. The word is used in

    Deut. xiv. 13. but the same Hebrew word.

    Lev. xi. 14. is rendered a vulture. GLEE, n. [Sax. glie, from glig, gligg, sport,


    1. Joy; merriment; mirth ; gayety; partic ularly, the mirth enjoyed at a feast.


    2. A sort of catch or song sung in parts

    Mason. Busby. GLEED, n. [Sax. gled.] A glowing coal. Obs. Chaucer.

    GLEE'FUL, a. Merry ; gay ; joyous.


    the constituents of gluten, a slightly trans parent, brittle substance, of a straw-yellow color, having a slight smell, similar to that of honeycomb. lire.

    GLIB, a. [D. glibberen, glippcn, to slide; glibberig, glib, slijipery ; W. llipyr ; L, glaber, smooth ; labor, to slide. This word contains the elements of slip. Qu. L.g^it " No. 27. 37.1

    bo, Gr. yXv^u. Class Lb.

    1. Smooth; slippery; admitting a body to slide easily on the surface ; as, ice is glib.

    2. Smooth ; voluble ; easily moving ; as a

    flib tongue. IB, n. A thick curled busli of hair hang- ing down over the eyes. [JVoi in use.]

    Spense GLIB, V. t. To castrate.

    smooth, glubo, yjiv^u.] 2. To make smooth. GLIB'LY, adv. Smoothly


    to make Shak Bp. Hall olubly ; a

    G L I

    GLIDE, n. The act or manaer of moving smoothly, swiftly and without labor oi obstruction. Shak

    GLI'DER, n. He or that which glides.


    GLI'DING, ppr. Passing along gently and smoothly ; moving rapidly, or with ease.

    GLIM'MER, v.i. [G.glimmen,glimm^m,to gleam, to glimmer ; D. glimmen ; Sw. glimma ; Dan. glimrer ; Ir. loom, flame.]

    1. To shoot feeble or scattered rays of light ; as the glimmering dawn; a glimmering lamp.

    When rosy morning glimmered o'er the dales.


    The west yet glimmers with some streaks of

    day. Shak.

    2. To shine faintly ; to give a feeble light. Mild evening glimmered on the lawn.


    GLIM'MER, n. A faint light ; feeble scat- tered rays of light.

    2. In mineralogy, mica, glist, muscovy-glass ; a mineral resulting from crystalization, but rarely found in regular crystals. Us- ually it appears in thin, flexible, elastic la- mins, which exhibit a high polish and strong luster. It is an essential ingredi- ent in granite, gneiss, and mica slate.


    GLIM'MERING, ppr. Shining faintly; shooting feeble scattered rays of light.

    GLIM'MERING, n. A faint beaming of light.

    2. A faint view.

    GLIMPSE, n. glims. [D. glimp, from glim-

    1. A weak taint light. Such vast room in Nature,

    Only to sliine, yet scarce to contribute

    Each orb a glimpse of light. Milton.

    2. A flash of light ; as the lightning's gMmpse. Milton.

    3. Transient luster. One glimpse of glory to my issue give.


    4. A short transitoi-y view. He saw at a glimpse the design of the enemy.

    5. Short fleeting enjoyment ; as a glimpse of delight. Prior.

    6. Exhibition of a faint resemblance.

    e glibly ; to speak gftoti/.

    GLIB'NESS, n. Smoothness ; slipperiness

    polished ice-like glibness. Chapman

    2. Volubility of the tongue. Government of the Tongue.

    GLIDE, V. i. [Sax. glidan ; G. gleiten ; D. glyden ; Dan. glider. Qu. Fr. glisser, in a difierent dialect. It has the elements of slide, as glib has of slip.] 1. To flow gently ; to move without noise or violence ; as a river. By east, among the dusty vallies glide The silver streams of Jordan's crystal ftood.


    3. To move silently and smoothly ; to pass along without apparent effort ; as a hawk or an eagle gliding through the air.

    3. To move or pass rapidly and with ap parent ease ; as, a ship glides through the water.

    4. In a general sense, to move or slip along with ease as on a smooth surface, or to pass along rapidly without apparent effort and without obstructioa.

    GLIMPSE, V. i. To appear by glimpses.


    GLIS'SA, n. A fish of the tunny kind, with- out scales. Diet. JVat. Hisf^

    GLIST, n. [from glisten.] Glimmer; mica. [See Glimmer.]

    GLIS'TEN, r. i. glis'n. [Sax. glisnian ; G. gleissen. This word and glitter are prob- ably dialectical forms of the same word. In Irish lasadh, lasaim, is to burn, to light ; Dan. lyser, Sw. tysa, to shine ; Russ. oblis- tayu. In W. llathru is to make smooth and glossy, to polish, to glitter. Qu. Heb. tySj to shine, L. glisco, Eng. gloss.]

    To shine ; to sparkle with light ; as the glis- tening stars. The ladies' eyes glistened with pleasure.


    GLIS'TENING, ppr. Shining; sparkling; emitting rays of light.

    GLIS'TER, V. i. [See Glisten.] To shine j to be bright ; to sparkle ; to be brilliant. All that s^listcns is not s;old. Shak.

    glister: [See Clyster.]

    G L O

    G L O

    G L O

    GLIS'TERING, ppr. Shining; sparkling with light.

    GLIS'TERINGLY, adv. With shining lus- ter.

    GLIT'TER, j;. i. [Sax. glitenan ; Sw. glit- tra. See Glisten.]

    1. To shine ; to sparkle with light ; to gleam to be splendid ; as a glittering sword.

    The field yet glitters with the pomp of war. Dryden

    2. To be showing, specious or striking, and hence attractive ; as the glittering scenes o " a court.

    GLIT'TER, n. Brightness ; brilliancy ;

    splendor ; luster ; as the glitter of arms ;

    the glitter of royal equipage ; the glitter of

    dress. GLIT'TERAND, ppr. or a. Sparkling. [JVot

    in use.] Chaucer.

    GLIT'TERING, ppr. Shining; splendid;

    brilliant. GLIT'TERINGLY, adv. With sparklinj

    luster. GLOAM, V. i. To be sullen. [See Glum.] GLOAR, V. i. [D. gluuren, to leer.] To

    squint ; to stare. Obs. GLOAT, V. i. [Sw glulta, to peep.] To cast

    side glances ; to stare witli eagerness or

    admiration. Obs. Rowe.

    GLO'BATE, } [L. globulus.] Having the GLO'BATED, J "• form of a globe ; splieri-

    cal ; spheroidal. GLOBE, n. [L. globus; Fr. globe; Sp. It

    globo ; Sax. ckow, cliwe or cliaiv ; Eng.

    cleto. See Clew. Russ. klub, a ball.]

    1. A round or spherical solid body ; a ball a sphere ; a body whose surface is in ev- ery part equidistant from the center.

    2. The earth ; the terraqueous ball ; so call- ed, though not perfectly spherical.


    3. An artificial sphere of metal, paper or other matter, on whose convex surface is drawn a map or representation of the earth or of the heavens. That on which the several oceans, seas, continents, isles and countries of the earth are re- presented, is called a terrestrial globe. That which exhibits a delineation of the con- stellations in the heavens, is called a celes- tial globe.

    4. A body of soldiers formed into a circle.

    Milton. GLOBE, V. f. To gather round or into a cir- cle. Milton. GLOBE-AMARANTH, n. A plant of the genus Gomphrcna. [See Arnaranth.]

    Fam. of Plants. GLOBE-ANIMAL, n. A species of ani- malcule of a globular form. Ena/c. GLOBE-DAISY, n. A plant or flower of the genus Globularia.

    Fam. of Plants.

    GLO'BE-FISH, n. A fish of a globular

    shape, the Ostracion. Johnson, Encyc.

    GLO'BE-FLOWER, n. A jilant or flower

    of the genus Sphasranthus.

    Fam. of Plants. GLOBE-RANUN'CULUS, n. A plant, the Trollins europaeus.

    Fam. of Plants. Lee.

    GLO'BE-THISTLE, «. A plant of the

    genus Echinops. Fam. of Plants.',

    GLOBO'SE, a. [L. globosus, from globe.]]

    spherical; globular. Milton.]

    GLOBOSITY, n. The quahty of being round ; sphericity. Roy

    GLO'BOUS, a. [L.globosus.] Round ; spher ical. Milton.

    GLOB'ULAR, a. [from globe.] Round spherical ; having the form of a small ball or sphere ; as globular atoms. Grew,

    GLOBULARIA, n. A flosculous flo


    GLOB'ULE, n. [Fr. globule; L. globulus. dim. of globus.]

    A little globe ; a small particle of matter of a spherical form ; a word particularly ap plied to the red particles of blood, which swim in a transparent serum, and may be discovered by the microscope.

    Quincy. Arbulhnot. Encyc. Hail stones have opake globules of snow their center. jVeivton.

    GLOB'ULOUS, «. Round ; globular ; ha ing the form of a small sphere. Boyle.

    GLO'BY, a. Round ; orbicular.


    GLODE, old pret. of glide. Obs.

    GLOME, n. [L. glomus, a ball ; Heb. Ch

    d'^J, Ar. ^J lamma, to wind, convolve, or collect into a mass. Class Lm. No. 5. 11. Qu. its alliance to lump, clump, plumbum.]

    In botany, a roundish head of flowers.


    GLOMERATE, i-. /. [L. glomero, from glomus, supra.]

    To gather or wind into a ball ; to collect into a spherical form or mass, as threadi

    GLOM'ERATED, pp. Gathered into a ball or round mass.

    GLOM'ERATING, ppr. Collecting or wind ing into a ball or round mass.

    GLOMERA'TION, n. [L. ghmeratio.] The act of gathering, winding or forming into a ball or spherical body.

    •■J. A body formed into a ball. Bacon.

    GLOM'EROUS, a. [L. glomerosus.] Gath- ered or formed into a ball or round mass, [Qu. the use.]

    GLOOM, n. [Scot, gloum, gloom, a frown. In D. lommer is a shade, and loom is slow, heavy, dull. In Sax. glomung is twi light.]

    I. Obscurity ; partial or total darkness thick shade ; as the gloom of a forest, oi the gloom of midnight.

    3. Cloudiness or heaviness of mind ; melan- choly ; aspect of sorrow. We say, the mind is sunk into ^loom ; a gloom over- spreads the mind.

    3. Darkness of prospect or aspect.

    4. Sullenness.

    GLOOM, V. i. To shine obscurely or im- jjcrfectly. Spenser.

    3. To be cloudy, dark or obscure.

    3. To be melancholy or dejected.


    GL003I, V. t. To obscure ; to fill with gloom ; to darken ; to make dismal.


    GLOOM'ILY, adv. [from gloomy.] Ob- scurely ; dimly ; darkly ; dismally.

    2. With melancholy aspect; sullenly; not cheerfully. Dryden. Thomson.

    GLOOMINESS, n. Want of light ; obscu- rity ; darkness ; disraalness.

    2. Want of cheerfulness ; cloudiness of look ; heaviness of mind ; melancholy ; as, to in- ^ volve the mind in gloominess. Addison.

    GLOOM'Y, a. [from gloom.] Obscure ; im- perfectly illuminated ; or dark ; dismal ; as the gloomy cells of a convent ; the gloomy shades of night.

    2. Wearing the aspect of sorrow ; melan- choly ; clouded ; dejected ; depressed ; heavy of heart ; as a gloomy countenance or state of mind ; a gloomy temper.

    3. Of a dark complexion. [Little used.] MUlon.

    GLORIA'TION, n. [L. gloriatio.) Boast; a triumphing. [JYot used.] Richardson.

    GLO'RIED, a. [See Glory.] Illustrious ; honorable. [jVot used.] Milton.

    GLORIFICATION, n. [See Glorify.] The act of giving glory or of ascribing honors to. Taylor.

    2. Exaltation to honor and dignity ; eleva- tion to glory ; as the glorification of Christ after his resurrection.

    GLO'RIFIED, pp. Honored ; dignified ; ex- alted to glory.

    GLO'RIFY, V. t. [Fr. glorifcr ; L. gloria and facio, to make.]

    1. To praise ; to magnify and honor in wor- shiii ; to ascribe honor to, in thought or words. Ps. Ixxxvi.O.

    God is glorified, when such his excellency, above all things, is with due admiration ac- knowledged. Hooker.

    2. To make glorious ; to exalt to glory, or to celestial happiness.

    Whom he justified, them he also glorified. Rom. viii.

    The God of our fathers hath glorified his son Jesus. Acts iii.

    3. To praise ; to honor; to extol. Whomsoever they find to be most licentious

    of life— him they set up and glorify. Spenser.

    4. To procure honor or praise to. Shak. GLO'RIFYING, ppr. Praising; honoring

    in worship ; exalting to glory ; honoring ; extolling. GLO'RIOUS, a. [Fr. glorieux ; L. eloriosus. See Glory.] . Illustrious; of exalted excellence and splendor; resplendent in majesty anil d'l- \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\iic altribules; applied to God. E.\\\\\\\\. xv. 11. 2. Noble ; excellent ; renowned ; celebrated ; illustrious ; very honorable ; applied to men, their achievments, titles, &c.

    Let us remember we are Calo's friends. And act like men who claim that glorious title. Addison.

    •3. Boastful ; self-exulting ; haughty ; osten- tatious. Obs. Bacon. GLO'RIOUSLY, adv. Si)lendidly ; illustri- ously ; with great renown or dignity.

    Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously. Ex. xv. GLO'RY, n. [L. gloria ; Fr. gloire ; Sp. and It. gloria ; Ir. gloir, glory, and glor, clear; W. cglur, clear, bright ; Arm. gloar, glory. It coincides with clear, and the primary sense seems to be to open, to expand, to enlarge. So splendor is from the Celtic ysplan, open, clear, plain, L. planus; hence, bright, shining. Glory, then, is brightness, splendor. The L. floreo, to blossom, to Jlower, to Jlourish, is probably of the same family.] 1. Brightness ; luster ; splendor.

    The mooD, serene in glory, mounts tlie sky. Pojje.

    G L O

    G L O

    G L O

    which honors or makes renowned ; that of which one may boast. Babylon, the ^lory of kingdoms. Is. xiii.

    11. Pride ; boastfulness ; arrogance ; as vain glory.

    12. Generous pride. Sidney. GLO'RY, V. i. [L. glorior, from gloria.] To

    exult with joy ; to rejoice.

    Glory ye in his holy name. Ps. cv. 1 Chron. xvi. 2. To boast ; to be proud of.

    No one should glory in his prosperity.

    Hiehardson, with joy :

    GLORYING, ppr. ExuUing boasting.

    GLO'RYING, n. The act of exulting; ex

    nltation ; l)oasting ; display of pride.

    Vour glorying is not good. 1 Cov. v.

    GLOSE, GLOSER. [See Gloze.]

    GLOSS, n. [G. glosse, a gloss or comment ; glotzen, to gleam, to glimmer. In Sax. glcsan signifies to explain, to flatter, to gloze. From the Gr. yXuosa, the tongue, and a strap, the L. has glossa, a tongue and interpretation. In Heb. ehi signifies to shine, but from the sense of smooth ness; Syr. t* ^ to peel, to shave, t( make bald. Whether these words an all of one family, let the reader judge. The radical sense appears to be, to open to make clear, and the sense of tongue is probably to extend. If the first letter is a prefix, tlie other letters La are the elements of Jr. leos, light, L. lustro, Eng, luster ; and it is remarkable that in Russ losk is luster, polish, and laskayu is tc flatter. The Gr. yXurta, in the Attic dia- lect, is a tongue, and in Swedish and Ger- man, glatt, jian.glat, D. glad, is smooth.] 1. Brightness or luster of a body proceeding from a smooth surface ; as tlie gloss of. silk ; cloth is calendered to give it a gtt

    For he received from God the Father honor [2, and glory, when there came such a voice to him fiom the excellent glory. 2 Pet. i.

    In this passage of Peter, the latter word gjory refers to the visible splendor or bright cloud that overshadowed Christ at his transfiguration. The former word glory, though the same in the original, is to be understood in a figurative sense. 2. Splendor ; magnificence.

    Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these. Matt. vi. 0. The circle of rays surrounding the head of a figure in painting.

    4. Praise ascribed in adoration ; honor.

    Glory to God in the highest. Luke ii.

    5. Honor ; praise ; fame ; renown ; celebrity. The hero pants for gloiy in the field. It was the glory of Howard to relieve the wretched.

    6. The felicitv of heaven prepared for the children of God ; celestial bliss.

    Thou shall guide me with thy counsel, and afterwards receive me to glory. Ps. Ixxiii.

    7. In scripture, the divine presence ; or the ark, the manifestation of it.

    The glory is departed fiom Israel. 1 Sam. iv.

    8. The divine perfections or excellence.

    The heavens declare the gl(n'y of God. Ps. xix.

    9. Honorable representation of God. 1 Cor. xi. viii.

    10. Distinguished honor or ornament ; that

    A specious appearance or representation ; jxternal show that may mislead opinion.] It is no part of my secret meaning to set onl the face of this cause any fairer gloss than the' naked truth doth afford. Hooker.\\\\\\\\

    An interpretation artfully specious. j


    4. Interpretation ; comment ; explanation ; remark intended to illustrate a subject, i

    .M\\\\\\\\ this, without a gloss or comment, |

    He would unriddle in a moment. Hudibras.' Explaining the text in short glosses. Baker.l

    5. A literal translation. Encyc. GLOSS, V. t. To give a superficial lusterj

    to ; to make smooth and shining ; as, toj gloss cloth by the calender ; to gloss ma-: hogany. |

    . To explain ; to render clear and evident by comments ; to illustrate. j

    . To give a specious appearance to ; to ren- der specious and plausible ; to palliate by specious representation.

    You have the art to gloss the foulest cause.' Philips.l

    GLOSS, V. i. To comment ; to write orl make explanatory remarks. Di-yden.\\\\\\\\

    To make sly remarks. Prior),

    GLOSSA'RIAL, a. Containing explana- tion.

    GLOSS'ARIST, n. A writer of glosses or comments. Ti/rwhitt.\\\\\\\\

    GLOSS'ARY, n. [Fr. glossaire; Low L.] glossarium.]

    A dictionary or vocabidary, explaining ob-! scnre or antiquated words found in old, autiiors ; such as Du Cange's Glossary Spelman's Glossary.

    GLOSSA'TOR, n. [Fr. glossateur.] A wri ter of comments; a connnentator. [JVot used.] Jiyliffe.

    GLOSS'ED, pp. Made smooth and shi- ng ; explained.

    GLOSS'ER, n. A writer of glosses ; a scho- liast ; a commentator. A polislier; one who gives a luster.

    GLOSS'INESS, n. [from glossy.] The

    ustcr or brightness of a smooth surface.


    GLOSS'ING, ppr. Giving luster to ; polish- ing ; explaining by comments ; giving a specious appearance.

    GLOSS'IST, n. A writer of comments. [jYot in use.] Htlton.

    GLOSSOG'RAPHER, n. [gloss and Gr. 7po4)u, to write.]

    A writer of glosses; a cotnmentator; ascho- "last. Hauward.

    GLOSSOG'RAPHY, n. The writing of comments for illustrating an author.

    GLOSSOL'OGIST, n. [gloss and Gr. Tioyoj.] One who writes glosses ; a commentator.

    GLOSSOL'OgY, H. [gloss andGr.J.oyo5, dis- coiu'se.]

    Glosses or commentaries ; explanatory notes for illustrating an author.

    GLOSS'Y, a. Smooth and shining ; refiec- ting luster from a smooth surface ; highly polished ; as glossy silk ; a glossy raven ; a glossy plum. Dryden.

    GLOT'TIS, 71. [Gr. ykutta., the tongue.]

    The narrow opening at the upper part of t!ie aspera arteria or windpipe, which, by its dilatation and contraction, contributes to the modulation of the voice.

    Encyc. Parr.

    GLOUT, V. i. [Scot.] To pout ; to look sul- len. [JVot used.] Garth.

    GLOUT, V. I. To view attentively. [JVot in use.^

    GLOVE, n. [Sax. glof. Qu. W. golov, a cover. Tlie G. D. Svv. Dan. call it a hand-shoe.]

    A cover for the hand, or for the hand and arm, \\\\\\\\vith a separate sheath for each fin- ger. The latter circumstance distinguish- es the glove from the mitten.

    To throw the glove, with our ancestors, was to challenge to single combat.

    GLOVE, V. t. To cover with a glove.


    GLOVER, n. One whose occupation is to make and sell gloves.

    GLOW, V. {. [Sax. glowan, G. gliihen, D. gloeijen, Dan. gloder, to glow, to be red with heat ; Dan. glod, gloe. Sax. gled, D. gloed, G. gluth, Sw. gUd, W. glo, Corn. glou. Arm. glaouen, a live coal ; W. gla or glaw, a sliining ; gloyw, bright ; gloyun, to brighten or make clear.]

    1. To shine with intense heat; or perhaps more correctly, to shine with a white heat; to exhibit incandescence. Hence, in a more general sense, to shine with a bright luster.

    Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees. Pope.

    2. To burn with veheinent heat.

    The scorching fire that in their entrails glows. Jlddison.

    3. To feel great heat of body ; to be hot.

    Did not his temples glow In the same sultry winds and scorching heats .' Jiddison .

    4. To exhibit a strong bright color ; to be red.

    Clad in a gown that glows with Tynan rays.

    Dryden .

    Fair ideas flow,

    Strike in the sketch, or in the picture glow.


    5. To be bright or red with heat or anima- tion, or with blushes; as glowing cheeks.

    6. To feel the heat of passion ; to be ardent ; to be animated, as by intense love, zeal, anger, &c.

    We say, the heart glows with love or zeal ; the glowing breast.

    When real virtue fires the glowing bard.


    If you have never glowed with gratitude to

    the author of the christian revelation, you know

    nothing of Christianity. Buckminster.

    7. To burn with intense heat ; to rage ; as passion.

    With pride it mounts, and with revenge it

    glows. Dryden.

    GLOW, V. i. To heat so as to shine. [JVot

    used.] Shak.

    GLOW, n. Shining heat, or white heat.

    2. Brightness of color ; redness; as tlieg'Zojo of health in the cheeks.

    A "H a\\\'ing glow his bloomy beds display. Blushing in bright diversities of day. Pope.

    3. Vehemence of passion. GLOWING, ;^pr. Shining with intense heat;

    white with heat.

    2. Burning with vehement heat.

    3. Exhibiting a bright color ; red ; as a glotoing color ; glowing cheeks.

    4. Ardent ; vehement ; animated ; as glow ing zeal.

    5. Inflamed ; as a glowing breast.

    G L U

    G L L

    G N A

    GLOWINGLY, adv. With great brightness with ardent heat or passion.

    GLOWWORM, n. The female of the Lam pyri^ nocHluca, an insect of the order of Coleopters. It is without wings and sembles a caterpillar. It emits a shining green light from the extremity of the ab- domen. The male is winged and flies about in the evening, when it is attracted by the light of the female. Encyc.

    GLOZE, v.i. [Sax. glesan. See Glosa.] To flatter; to wheedle; to fawn ; that is. to smooth, or to talk smoothly. So glozed the tempter, and his proem tun'd.


    A false glazing parasite. South

    GLOZE, n. Flattery ; adulation 2. Specious show; gloss. [JVb< ustd. See Gloss.] Sidney.

    GLO'ZER, n. A flatterer. Gifford.

    GLO'ZING, ppr. Flattering ; wheedling, GLO'ZING, )!. Specious representation.


    GLU'CIN, n. [Gr. y\\\\\\\\i,xvi.] A soft white

    earth or powder obtained from the beryl

    and emerald ; so named from its forming

    with acids, salts that are sweet to the taste


    Glucin is a compound, of which gluci-

    7ium is the base. Davy.

    GLUE, n. glu. [Fr. glu ; W. glyd ; Arm.

    glud ; Ir. glydh, gliu, gleten ; L. gluten ; Gr. yxia ; Russ. kUi. See Class Ld. No. 8. 9. 10.]

    Inspissated animal gluten ; a tenacious, vis- cid matter, which serves as a cement to unite other substances. It is made of the skins, parings, &c. of animals, as of ox en, calves or shee|>, by boiling them to a jelly. Encyc. Par

    r;LUE, V. t. [Vr.gluer.l To join with gli or a viscous substance. Cabinet makers glue together some parts of furniture.

    2. To unite ; to hold together. JVewlon.

    [This word is now seldom used in a figura tive sense. The phrases, to glue friend: together, vices glue us to low pursuits or pleasures, found in writers of the last cen tury, are not now used, or are deemed in elegant.]

    GLU'EBOILER, n. [glue and ioi7.] One whose occui)ation is to make glue.

    GLU'ED, pp. United or cemented with glue.

    GLU'ER, n. One who cements with gl

    GLU'EY, a. Viscous; glutinous.

    GLU'EYNESS, n. The quality of being

    gluey. JLU'ING, ppr. Cementing

    GLU'ING, ppr. Cementing with glue.

    GLU'ISH, o. Having the nature of glue.


    GLUM, a. [Scot. ghum. a frown.] Frown- ing; sullen. [Little used.]

    GLUM, «. Sullenness ; and, as a verb, to look sullen. [.Vo( in use.]

    GLUMA'CEOUS, a. Having glumes; con- sisting of glumes. Barton.

    GLUME, Ji. [L. gluma, from glubo, to bark or peel, or Gr. yXu^u.]

    In botany, the calyx or corol of corn and grasses, formed of valves embracing the seed, often terminated by the arista or beard ; the husk or chafl".

    Milne. Martyn.

    GLUM'MY, a. Dark ; gloomy ; dismal. !

    GLU'MOUS, a. A glumous flower is a khid of aggregate flower, having a filiform re ceptacle, with a common glume at the base. Martyn.

    GLUT, w. r. [L.g-/u(io; Fr. cng-/ou; Russ. glotayu, to swallow ; W. glulh, a glutton glylhu, to gormandize ; from llwlh, a swal low, greediness ; It. ghiotto, Low L. gluto,

    GLUT, 71. Tliat which :

    a glutton ; Heb. Ch. oA [See Ar. tii.i.] Class Ld. No. 17. The sense is to crowd, to stuff".]

    . To swallow, or to swallow greedily ; to gorge. Milton

    2. To cloy; to fill beyond sufficiency; tc sate ; to disgust ; as, to glut the appetites.


    3. To feast or delight even to satiety. His faithful heart, a bloody sacrifice, Tom from his breast, to glut tlie tyrant';

    eyes. Dryden

    4. To fill or furnish beyond sufficiency ; as to glut the market.

    To saturate. Boyle.



    2. Plenty even to lothing. He shall find himself miserable, even in the ry glut of his delights. L'Estrange. A glut of study and retirement. Pope.

    3. More than enough ; superabundance.

    B. Jonson. Any thing that fills or obstructs the pas- sage. Woodward.

    5. A wooden wedge. JsTew England. GLU'TEAL, a. [Gr. •j'Xoi.rof, nates.] The

    gluteal artery, is a branch of the hypogas- tric or internal iliac artery, which supplies the gluteal muscles. Coxe. Hooper.

    The gluteal muscles, are three large muscles on each side, which make up the fleshy part of the buttocks. Parr.

    GLUTEN, n. [L. See Glue.] A tough elas- tic substance, of a grayish color, which becomes brown and brittle by drying ; found in the flour of wheat and other grain. It contributes much to the nutri- tive quality of flour, and gives tenacity to its paste. A similar substance is found in the juices of certain plants.

    Jfebster's Manual.

    2. That part of the blood which gives firm- ness to its texture. Parr.

    GLU'TINATE, v. t. To unite with glue ; to cement. Baileij.

    GLUTINA'TIO.N, „. The act of uniting with glue. Bailey.

    GLU'TINATIVE, a. Having the quality ofj cementing ; tenacious.

    GLUTINOS'ITY, n. The quality of being glutinous; viscousness.

    GLU'TINOUS, n. [L. glutinosus.] Viscousj, viscid ; tenacious ; having the quality of glue ; resembling glue. Starch is gluti


    In botany, besmeared with a slippery

    moisture ; as a glutinoits leaf. Martyn.

    GLU'TINOUSNESS, n. Viscosity ; viscidity ;

    the quality of glue, tenacity. Cheyne.

    GLUT'TON, n. glut'n. [Low L. gluto ; Fr.

    glouton. See Glut.] One who indulges

    to excess in eating.

    2. One eager of any thing to excess.

    Gluttons in murder, wanlon to destroy.


    . In zijotogy, an animal of the genus ^'rsu^■, found in the N. of Europe and Siberia. It grows to the length of three feet, but has short legs and moves slowly. It is a car- nivorous animal, and in order to catch ltd prey, it clin)bs a tree and from that darts



    deer or other animal. It is

    named from its voracious appetite.

    Diet. Mat. Hist.

    GLUT'TONIZE, v. i. To eat to excess; to eat voraciouslj' ; to indulge the appetite to excess ; to be luxurious.

    Trans, of Grellman.

    GLUT'TONOUS, a. Given to excessive eating ; indulging the appetite for food to excess ; as a gluttonous age. llaleigh.

    2. Consisting in excessive eating ; asgluUon- ous delight. Milton.

    GLUT'TONOUSLY, adv. With the voraci- ty of a glutton j with excessive eating.

    GLUT'TONY, n. Excess in eating; ex- travagant indulgence of the appetite for food.

    2. Luxury of the table. Their sumptuous gluttonies and gorgeous

    feasts. Milton.

    3. Voracity of appetite. Encyc. GLYCO'NIAN, \\\\\\\\ [Low L. glyconiu'm.] GLYCON'IC, \\\\\\\\"' Denoting a kind of

    verse in Greek and Latin poetry, consist- ing of three feet, a spondee, a choriamb, and a pyrrhich ; as Glyconic measure.


    GLYN. [See Glen.]

    GLYPH, n. [Gr. y^v^, from -^v^u, to carve.]

    In sculpture and architecture, a canal, chan- nel or cavity intended as an ornament.


    GLYPH'I€, 7!. A picture or figure by which a word is implied. [See Hieroglyphic]

    GLYP'T1€, 71. [supra.] The art of engra- ving figures on precious stones.

    GLYPTOGRAPH'Ie, a. [Gr. yXvMtos, and ypa^u.]

    Describing the methods of engraving on precious stones.

    GLYPTOG'RAPHY, n. [supra.] A des- cription of the art of engraving on pre- cious stones. British Critic.

    GX'AR, ^ J, ,- ""or. ) [Sax. gnyrran,

    GN\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\RL, ^ ■ ■ n'arl. ^ gnornian ; Dan. knurrer ; Sw. knarra ; D. gnorrtn, knorren ; G. g-imrren, knarren.] To growl ; to mur- mur ; to snarl.

    And wolves are gnarling which shall gnaw thee first. Sliak.

    [Gnar is nearly obsolete.]

    GNARLED, a. n'arled. Knotty; full of knots ; as the gnarled oak. Shak.

    GNASH, v. t. nash. [Dan. knasker; Sw. gnissla and knastra. Qu. D. knarzen, G. knirrschen, to gnash, and It. ganascia, tlie jaw.]

    To strike the teeth together, as in anger or pain ; as, to gnash the teeth in rage.


    GNASH, V. i, nash. To grind the teeth. He shall gnash with his teeth and melt away. Ps. cxii.

    2. To rage even to collision with the teeth ; to growl. ,

    They gnashed on me with their teeth. Ps.


    GNASH'ING, ppr. nash'ing. Striking tJie teeth together, as in anger, rage or pain.

    G N O

    GNASH'ING, n. nash'ing. A griudiiig or striking of the teeth in rage or anguish.

    There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Matt. viU.

    GNAT, n. nat. [Sax. grKtt. Qu. Gr. x«('«4.] A small insect, or rather a genus of in- sects, the Culex, whose long cylindric body is composed of eight rings. They have six legs and their mouth is formed by a flexible sheath, inclosing bristles pointed like stings. The sting is a tube containing five or six spicula of exquisite fineness, dentated or edged. The most troublesome of this genus is themusketoe. Encyc. Cyc,

    9. Any thing proverbially small.

    Ye blind guides, who strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. Matt, xxiii.

    GNAT'FLOWER, n. A flower, called bee-flower. Joh

    GNAT'SNAPPER, n. A bird that catches gnats. HakeicUl.

    GNAT'WORM, n. A small water insect produced by a gnat, and which after its several changes is transformed into o gnat; the larva of a gnat. Cyc

    GNAW, V. t. naw. [Sax. gnagan ; G. nii- gen ; D. knaagen ; Svv. gnaga ; W. cnoi Gr. xvaa, to scrape ; Ir. cnagh, cnaoi, con- sumption ; cnuigh, a maggot ; cnaoidhim to gnaw, to consume.]

    1. To bite off" by little and little; to bite oi scrape off" with the fore teeth ; to wear

    away by biting




    G O

    GNOMIOMET'RieAL, a. [Gr. ■y^a/««>', ani index, and fiitpiu, to measure.]

    The gnomiormtrical telescope and micro- scope is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals by reflection, and for as- certaining the incbnation of strata, and the apparent magnitude of angles when the eye is not placed at tlie vertex. Brmsler.

    GNOMOLOG'le, \\\\\\\\ „ Pertaining to gno-

    GNOMOLOG'ICAL, S mology.

    GNOMOL'OgY, n. [Gr. yvojtri, a maxim or sentence, and t~oyo<;, discourse.]

    A collection of maxims, grave sentences or reflections. {LittU used.] Milton.

    GNO'lVION,n. no'mon. [Gr. yi-wfiur, an index, from the root of yii'uffjcu, to know.]

    1. In dialling, the style or pin, which by its shadow shows the hour of the day. It represents the axis of the earth. Encyc. In astronomy, a style erected perpendicu- lar to the horizon, in order to find the alti- tude of the sun. Encyc.

    3. The gnomon of a globe, is the index of the hour-circle. Encyc.

    GN0M0N'I€, I Pertaining to the art

    GNOMON'I€AL, ^ "" of dialling.


    GNOMON'l€S, n. The art or science of dialling, or of constructing dials to show the hour of the day by the shadow of a

    or plank ; a worm gnaws the wood of a tree or the plank of a ship.

    2. To eat by biting ofi"small portions of food with the fore teeth.

    3. To bite in agony or rage.

    They gnawed their tongues for pain. Rev.

    4. To waste; to fret; to corrode.

    5. To pick with the teeth.

    His bones clean picked ; his veiy bones they gnaw. Dryden.

    GNAW, V. i. naw. To use the teeth in biting.

    I mic;ht well, like the spaniel, gnau) upon the chain that ties me. Sidney

    GNAWED, p/>. naw'ed. Bit; corroded. GNAWER, n. naw'er. He or that whicl

    gnaws or corrodes. GNAWING, p;)r. naw'ing. Biting off by little and little ; corroding ; eating by slow degrees. GNEISS, 71. ne'is. [Qu. Dan. gnisler, Svv.

    gnistas, to sparkle.] In mineralogy, a species of aggregated rock, composed of quartz, feldspar and mica, of a structure more or less distinctly slaty. The layers, whether straight or curved, are frequently thick, but often vary con- siderably in the same specimen. It passes on one side into granite, from which it diff"ers in its slaty structure, and on the other into mica slate. It is rich in metal- lic ores. Kirwan. Cleavdand. GNOFF, n. nof. A miser. [ATot in use.] GNOME, n. nome. [Gr. yvaut;.] An ima- ginary being, supposed by the cabalists, to inhabit the inner parts of the earth, and to bo the guardian of mines, quarries, &c. Encyc. 2. A brief reflection or maxim. [M'ot used.] GNO'MICAL, a. nomical. [Gr. yicoftj;.] Sen tPtitious ; containing maxim:-. [Litlle v.sed.]

    GNOS'TIe, n. nostic. [L. gnosticus ; Gr.

    yt'tdf txoy, from ywuaxi^, to know.] The Gnostics were a sect of philosophers that arose in tlie first ages of Christianity, who jjretended they were the only men who had a true knowledge of the christian re- ligion. They formed for themselves asys- tem of theology, agreeable to the philoso- phy of Pythagoras and Plato, to which they accommodated their interpretations of scripture. They held that all natures, in- telligible, intellectual and material, arc de rived by successive emanations from the infinite fountain of deity. These emana- tions they called (tons, aiuifj. These doc- trines were derived from the oriental phi- losophy. Encyc. Enfield. GNOS'TI€, a. nostic. Pertaining to the

    Gnostics or their doctrines. GNOS'TICISM, n. nos'tidsm. The doc- rines, principles or system of philosopliy aught by the Gnostics. Enfield.

    GNU, n. A speciesof Antelope, in Southern Africa, whose form partakes of that of the horse, the ox, and the deer. GO, V. i. pret. went ; pp. gone. Went belongs to the root. Sax. wendan, a different word [Sax. g-on; G.gehen; Dan. g-aaer ; Sw. gii ; D. gaan ; Basque, gan. This is proba- bly a contracted word, but the original is obscin-e. In Goth, gaggan, to go, seems to be the Eng.gang'; andgad may belong to a different family. The primary sense is to pass, and either to g-o or come. Sax ga forth, go forth ; ga hither, come hitlier her gwlh, he comes. ] 1. In a general sense, to move ; to pass ; tc proceed from one place, state or station to another ; opposed to resting. A mill g-oes by water or by steam ; a ship goes at the rate of five knots an hour; a clock g-oes fast or slow ; a horse goes lame ; a fovvl or a ball goes with velocity through the air. The inourners go about the streets. Eccles

    G O

    To walk ; to move on the feet or step by step. The child begins to go alone at a year old.

    You know that love Will creep in service where it cannot go.


    3. To walli leisurely ; not to run. Thou must run to him ; for thou hast staid so

    long that going will scarce serve the turn. Shall.

    4. To travel ; to journey by land or water. I must g-o to Boston. He has gone to Philadelphia. The minister is going to France.

    5. To depart ; to move from a place ; op- posed to come. The mail g-oes and comes every day, or twice a week.

    I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice. Ex. viii.

    6. To proceed; to pass. And so the jest goes round. Dryden.

    To move ; to pass in any manner or to any end ; as, to go to bed ; to g-o to din- ner ; to go to war. 8. To move or pass customarily from place to place, denoting custom or practice. The child g-oes to school. A ship g^oes regu- larly to London. We g-o to church. To proceed from one state or opinion to another; to change. He goes from one opinion to another. His estate is goiiig to ruin.

    10. To proceed in mental operations; to advance ; to penetrate. We can go but a vei-y little way in developing the causes of things.

    11. To proceed or advance in accomplish- ing an end. This sum will not g-o far towards full payment of the debt.

    12. To apply ; to be applicable. The argu- ment g-oes to this point only ; it g-oes to prove too much.

    13. To apply one's self Seeing himself confronted by so many, like a

    resolute orator, he went not to denial, but to jus- tify his cruel falsehood. Sidney.

    14. To have recourse to ; as, to go to law.

    15. To be about to do ; as, 1 was going to say. I am going to begin harvest. [This use is chiefly confined to the participle.]

    16. To pass ; to be accounted in value. All this g-oes for nothing. This coin g-oes for a crown.

    17. To circulate ; to pass in report. The tory g-oes.

    18. To pass ; to be received ; to be account- ed or understood to be.

    And the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul. 1 Sam. xvii.

    19. To move, or be in motion ; as a machine. [See No. 1.]

    . To move as a fluid ; to flow. The god I am, whose yellow water flows Around these fields, and fattens as it g-oes, Tiber my name. Dryden .

    21. To have a tendency. Against right reason all your counsels go.


    22. To be in compact or partnership. They were to go equal shares in the booty.


    23. To be guided or regulated ; to proceed by some principle or rule. We are to go by the rules of law, or according to the precepts of scripture.

    We are to go by another measure. Sprat.

    24. To be pregnant. The females of diflTer- ent animals g-o some a longer, some a shorter time.

    G O


    G O A

    35. To pass ; to be alienated in payment or exchange. If our exports are of less value tlian our imports, our money must go to pay the balance.

    26. To be loosed or released ; to be freed from restraint. Let me go ; let go the hand.

    27. To be expended. His estate goes or has gone for spirituous liquors. [See No. 24.]

    28. To extend ; to reacli. The line goes from one end to the other. His land goes to the bank of the Hudson.

    29. To extend or lead in any direction. This roadg-oes to Albany.

    30. To proceed ; to extend. This argument goes far towards proving the point. It goes a great way towards establishing the innocence of the accused.

    31. To have effect ; to extend in cffe avail ; to be of force or value. Money goes farther now than it did during th( war.

    32. To extend in meaning or purport.

    His amorous expressions go no further than virtue may allow. Dryden.

    [In the three last examples, the sense of go depends on far, farther, further.] 3.3. To have a currency or use, as custom, opinion or manners.

    I think, as the world goes, he was a good sort of man fenough. Arbuthnol.

    34. To contribute ; to conduce ; to concur to be an ingredient ; with lo or into. The substances which go into this composi- tion. Many qualifications go to make up the well bred man.

    35. To proceed ; to be carried on. The bu s'mess goes on well.

    36. To proceed to final issue ; to terminate to succeed.

    Wliether the cause goes for me or against me, you must pay me the reward. Watts

    37. To proceed in a train, or in consequen- ces.

    How goes the night, boy ? Shak.

    38. To fare ; to be in a good or ill state How goes it, comrade ?

    39. To have a tendency or effect ; to ope- rate.

    These cases go to show that the court will vary the construction of instruments.

    Mass. Reports

    To go about, to set one's self to a business to attempt ; to endeavor.

    They never go about to hide or palliate their vices. Swi/l.

    2. In seaman''s language, to tack; to turn the head of a ship.

    To go abroad, to walk out of a house.

    2. To be uttered, disclosed or published.

    Togo against, to invade : to march to attack

    2. To be ill opposition ; to be disagreeable.

    7h go aside, to withdraw ; to retire into a private situation.

    2. To err; to deviate fi-om the right way.

    To go astray, to wander ; to break from an inclosure ; also, to leave the right course ; to depart from law or rule ; to sin ; to transgress.

    To go away, to depart ; to go to a distance.

    To go between, to interpose ; to mediate ; to at- tempt to reconcile or to adjust differences.

    Togo by, to pass near and beyond.

    2. To pass away unnoticed ; to omit.

    3. To find or get in the conclusion.

    Vol. I.

    In argument with men, a woman ever Goes by the worse, whatever be her cause.

    Mtlton. [A phrase now little used.] To go down, to descend in any manner.

    2. To fail ; to come to nothing.

    3. To be swallowed or received, not reject- ed. The doctrine of the divine right ofl kings will not go doivn in this period of the world.

    To go forth, to issue or depart out of a place.

    To go fonvard, to advance.

    To go hard vnth, to be in danger of a fatal

    issue; to have difficulty to escape. \\\\\\\\To go in, to enter. To go in to, to have sexual commerce with.

    Scripture. ess of life.

    as a garment. The coat

    To go in and out, to do the busine: 2. To go freely ; to be at liberty. John x. To go off, to depart to a distance ; to leave place or station.

    2. To die ; to decease.

    3. To be discharged, as fire arms ; to e: l)lode.

    To go on, to proceed ; to advance forward. 2. To be ])ut 01 ~

    will not go on. To go out, to issue forth ; to depart from.

    2. To go on an expedition. Shak,

    3. To become extinct, as light or life ; to ex- pire. A candle goes out ; fire goes out.

    And life itself g-oes out at lliy displeasure.


    4. To become public. This story goes out to the world.

    To go over, to read ; to peruse ; to study.

    2. lo examine; to view or review ; as, tc go over an account.

    If we ^0 over the laws of Christianity —


    3. To think over; to proceed or pass in I mental o])eration.

    |4. To change sides ; to pass from one party j to another.

    5. To revolt. (6. To pass from one side to the other, as

    river. To go through, to pass in a substance ; as, to go through water.

    2. To execute ; to accomplish ; to perform thoroughly; to finish ; &s, to go through undertaking.

    3. To suffer ; to bear ; to undergo ; to s tain to the end ; as, to go through a long sickness ; to g^o through an operation.

    To go through unth, to execute effectually.

    To go under, to be talked of or known, as by a title or name ; as, to go under the name of reformers.

    To go up, to ascend ; to rise.

    To go upon, to proceed as on a foundation ; to take as a principle supposed or settled : as, to go upon a supposition. |

    To go unth, to accompany ; to pass with others.

    2. To side with ; to be in party or design with.

    To go ill with, to have ill fortune ; not to prosper.

    To go u'dl ivith, to have good fortune ; to prosper.

    To go without, to be or remain destitute.


    GO'-BETWEEN, n. [go and between.] An interposer ; one who transacts business between parties. Shak


    GO'-BY, [go and by.] Evasion ; escape by artifice. Collier.

    2. A passing without notice ; a thrusting away ; a shifting off.

    GO'-CART, n. [go and carl.] A machine with wheels, in which children learn to walk without danger of falling.

    GOAD, n. [Sax. gad, a goad ; Sw. gadd, a sting ; Scot, gad, a goad, a rod, the point of a si>ear ; Ir. gath, goth, a goad ; W. golh, a push. The sense is a shoot, a point.]

    A pointed instrument used to stimulate a beast to move faster.

    GOAD, V. t. To prick ; to drive with a goad.

    2. To incite; to stimulate ; to instigate; to urge forward, or to rouse by any thing pungent, severe, irritating or inflaming. He was goaded by sarcastic remarks or by abuse ; goaded by desire or other passion.


    pp. Pricked ; pushed on by . oad ; instigated. GOADING, ppr. Pricking ; driving with a

    d; inciting; urging on; rousing. GOAL, n. [Fr. gaule, a long pole; W.gwyal; Arm. goalenn, a staff.]

    1. The point set to bound a race, and to which they run ; the mark.

    Part curb their fiery steeds, or shun the goal With rapid wheels. Milton.

    2. Any starting post. Milton.

    3. The end or final purpose ; the end to which a design tends, or which a'person aims to reach or accomplish.

    Each individual seeks a several goal. Pope.

    GOAR, n. More usually gore, which see.

    GOARISH, a. Patched ; mean. Obs.


    GOAT, Ji. [Sax. gait; U. geil ; G.geiss; Sw. get ; Dan. gedebuk, a he-goat ; Russ. koza.]

    An animal or quadruped of the genus Capra. The horns are hollow, turned upwards, erect and scabrous. Goats are nearly of the size of sheep, but stronger, less timid and more agile. They delight to frequent rocks and mountains, and subsist on scanty coarse food. The milk of the goat is sweet, nourishing and medicinal, and tlie flesh furnishes provisions to the inhabi- tants of countries where thev abound.

    GOAT-CHAFFER, n. An int'ect, a kind of beetle. Bailey.

    GOATFISH, n. A fish of the Mediterra- nean.

    GOATHERD, n. One whose occupation is to tend goats. Spenser.

    GOATISH, a. Resembling a goat in any quality ; of a rank smell. More.

    2. Lustful. Shak.

    GOAT-MILKER, n. A kind of owl, so called from sucking goats. Bailey.

    GOAT'S-BEARD, n. In botany, a plant of the genus Tragopogon.

    GOATSKIN, n. The skin of a goat.


    GOAT'S-RUE, n. A plant of the genus Galega.

    GOAT'S-STONES, ji. The greater goat's stones is the Satyrium ; the lesser, the Orchis.

    GOAT'S-THORN, n. A plant of the genus Astragalus.

    GOAT-SU€KER, n. In ornithology, a fowl of the genus Caprimidgus, so called from

    I the opinion that it would suck goats. It


    is called also the fern-owl. In Bailey, it is called a goat-milker.

    GOB, n. [Fr. gobe ; W. gob, a heap. Qu. Ileb. 3J a hill, a boss; Ch. X3J geba, to raise.]

    A little mass or collection ; a mouthful. [^ low loord.] L'Estrange.

    GOB'BET, n. [Fr. gobe, supra.] A mouth- ful ; a lump. Shak. Addison.

    GOB'BET, V. t. To swallow in large masses or mouthfuls. [A low word.]


    GOB'BLE, V. t. [Fr. gober, to swallow.] To swallow in large pieces ; to swallow hastily. Prior. Swift.

    GOB'BLE, V. i. To make a noise in the throat, as a turkey. Prior.

    GOB'BLER, n. One who swallows in haste ; a greedy eater ; a gormandizer.

    2. A name sometimes given to the turkey cock.

    GOB'LET, n. [Fr. gobeld ; Arm. gob or gobded; Heb.jrnj.j

    A kind of cup or drinking vessel without a handle.

    We love not loaded boards, and goblets croivn'd. Denhain.

    GOB'LIN, ji. [Vr. gobelin; G. ioloW, a gob- lin ; D. kabouter, a boy, an elf; kctbouter- mannetje, a goblin ; Arm. gobylin ; W. r.oblyn, a knocker, a thumper, a pecker, a fiend ; cobiaw, to knock ; from cob, a top, a thump.]

    1. An evil spirit; a walking spirit ; a fright- ful phantom.

    To whom the gubliii, full of wrath, replied.


    2. A fairy ; an elf. Shak. GOD, 71. [Sax.g-orf; O.gotl; D.god; Sw.

    and Dan. g'urf; Goth, gothorguth; Pers.

    ! Jv^ goda or choda ; Hindoo, khoda, codam. As this word and good are written exactly alike in Saxon, it has been infer- red that God was named from his good- ness. But the corresponding words in most of the other languages, are not the .same, and I believe no instance can be found of a name given to the Supreme Being from the attribute of goodness. Jt is probably an idea too remote from the rude conceptions of men in early ages. Except the word Jehovah, I have found the name of the Supreme Being to be usu- ally taken from his supremacy or power and to be equivalent to lord or ruler, from some root signifying to press or exert force Now in the present case, we have evi- dence that this is the sense of this word, for in Persic goda is rendered domimis. possessor, princeps, as is a derivative of the same word. See Cast. Lex. Col. 23L] L The Supreme Being ; Jehovah ; the eter nal and infinite spirit, the creator, and the sovereign of the universe.

    God is a spirit ; and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth. John

    2. A false god ; a heathen deity ; an idol.

    Fear not the gods ot the Amorites. Judges vi

    3. A prince; a ruler; a magistrate or judge ; an angel. Thou shall not revile the gods, nor curse the rider of thy people. Ex, xxn.^ Ps. xcvii.

    [Oods here is a bad translation.]


    4. Any person or thing exalted too much in estimation, or deified and honored as the chief good.

    Whose god is their belly. Phil. iii.

    GOD, V. t. To deify. [JVoi used.] Shak.

    GOD'CHILD, 71. [god and child.] One for whom a person becomes sponsor at bap- tism, and promises to see educated as a christian.

    GOD'DAUGHTER, n. [god and davghter.] A female for whom one becomes sponsor at baptism. [See Godfather.]

    GOD'DESS, n. A female deity ; a heathen deity of the female sex.

    When the daughter of Jupiter presented her- self among a crowd of goddesses, she was dis- tinguished by her graceful stature and superior beauty. Addison.

    2. In the language of love, a woman of supe- rior charms or excellence.

    GOD'DESSLIKE, a. Resembling a god- dess. Pope.

    GOD'F'ATHER, n. [Sax.g'orf and>rfer. The Saxons used also godsibb, good relation.]

    Tlie man who is sponsor for a child at bap- tism, who promises to answer for his fu- ture conduct and that he shall follow a life of piety, by this means laying himseU]| under an indispensable obhgation to in struct the child and watch over his con- duct. This practice is of high antiquity in the christian church, and was probably intended to prevent children from being brought up in idolatry, in case the parents died before the children had arrived to years of discretion. In the catholic church the number of godfathers and godmothers is reduced to two ; in the church of Eng- land, to three; but formerly the nunibe was not limited. Encyc.

    GOD'F'ATHER, t'. <. To act as godfather ; to take under one's fostering care. Burke.

    GOD'HEAD, n.god'hed. [gorfand Sax.had state.]

    1. Godship; deity; divinity; divine natur or essence ; applied to the true God, and to heathen deities. Milton. Prior.

    2. A deity in person ; a god or goddess. Dryden.

    GOD'LESS, a. Having no reverence for God ; impious ; ungodly ; irreligious wicked. Hooker.

    2. Atheistical ; having no belief in the exist- ence of God. Milton.

    GOD'LESSNESS,n. The state of being im- pious or irreligious. Bp. Hall.

    GOD'LIKE, a. Resembling God ; divine.

    2. Reseinbhng a deity, or heathen divinity.

    3. Of superior excellence; as godlike virtue ;

    a godlike prince. GOD'LILY, ■

    V. Piously ; rigliteously.

    H. fVharton.'i GOD'LINESS, ;i. [from godly.] Piety; be lief in God, and reverence for his charac ter and laws.

    2. A religious life ; a cai-eful observance of the laws of God and performance of reli- gious duties, proceeding from love and reverence for the divine character and commands ; christian obedience.

    Godliness is profitable unto all things. 1 Tim. iv.

    3. Revelation ; the system of Christianity.

    Without controversy, great is the mystery ol godliness ; God was manifest in the flesh


    GOD'LING, n. A little deity ; a diminutive god ; as a puny godling. Dryden.

    GOD'LY, o. [god-like.] Pious ; reverencing God, and his character and laws.

    2. Living in obedience to God's commands, from a principle of love to him and rever- ence of his character and precepts ; reli- gious ; righteous ; as a godly person.

    3. Pious ; conformed to God's law ; as a godly life.

    GOD'LY, arfr. Piously; righteously.

    All that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. 2 Tim. iii.

    GOD'LYHEAD, n. [Sax. god, good, and head.] Goodness. Obs. Spenser.

    GOD'MOTHER, n. [god and mother.] A wo- man who becomes sponsor for a child in baptism.

    GOD'SHIP, n. Deity; divinity ; the rank or character of a god.

    O'er hills and dales then godships came.


    GOD'SMITII, n. A maker of idols. Dryden.

    GOD'SON, n. [Sax. godsunii.] Oneforwhom

    I another has been sponsor at the font.

    GOD SPEED, n. Good speed, that is, suc-

    I cess. 2 John 10.

    GOD'S-PENNY, n. An earnest-penny.


    GOD'WARD. Toward God. [.4/1 ill-formed icord.]

    GOD'WIT, 71. [Ice. god, and veide.] A fowl of the grallic order and genus Scolopax. It has a bill four inches long ; the fethers on the head, neck and back are of a light reddish brown ; those on the belly white, and the tail is regularly barred with black and white. This fowl frequents fens and the banks of rivers, and its flesh is esteemed a great delicacy. Encyc.

    GOD'YELD, ? ., [Supposed to be con-

    GOD'YIELD, <, '^^- traded from good or god, and shield.]

    k term of thanks. Obs. Shak.

    GO'EL, a. [Sax. gealew.] Yellow. Obs.


    GO'ER, 71. [fromg-o.] One that goes; a run- ner or walker ; one that has a gait good or bad. Wotton.

    2. One that transacts business between par- ties ; 111 ail ill sense. Shak.

    3. A foot. Chapman.

    4. A term applied to a horse ; as a good go- er ; a safe goer. [ Umisual in the U. Stales.]


    GO'ETY, n. [Gr. yo)jT«o.] Invocation of evil

    spirits. [JVot in iise.] Hallywell.

    GOFF, n. [Qu. W. gofol, contracted, a word

    composed of go and fijl, foolish ; or Fr.

    goffe ; or a contraction of D. kolf, a club.]

    \\\\\\\\ foolish clown ; also, a game. Obs. [See

    Golf] GOFF'ISH,a. Foolish; stupid. 06s.

    Chaucer. GOG, n. [W. gog, activity, rapidity ; proba- bly allied to gig. See Agog.] Haste ; ardent desire to go. Beaum.

    GOG'GLE, V. i. [W. gogelu, to shun ; go, a prefix, and gelu, from c(l, a shelter, co- inciding with L. celo ; or from gog.] To strain or roll the eyes.

    And wink and goggle like an owl.

    Hudibras. GOG'GLE, a. Having full eyes; staring.

    B. Jonson. GOG'GLE, n. A strained or affected roll- ing of the eye.

    G O L

    G O L

    G O N

    GOG'GLED, a. Prominent ; staring, as the

    eye. Herbert.

    GOG'GLE-EYE, n. A rolling or staring

    eye. B. Jonson.

    GOG'GLE-EVED, a. Having prominent,

    distorted or rolling eyes. Jhcham.

    GOG'GLES, n. plu. [VV. gogelu, to slielter.

    See Goggle, the verb.]

    1. In surgcn/, instruments used to cure squint- ing, or the distortion of the eyes which oc- casions it. Encyc.

    2. Cylindrical tubes, in which are fixed

    f lasses for defending the eyes from cold, ust, &c. and sometimes with colored glasses to abate the intensity of light.

    3. Blinds for horses that are apt to take fright.

    GO'ING, ppr. [from g'o.] Moving; walking; traveling; turning ; roUing ; flying; sail- ing, &c.

    GO'ING, n. The act of moving in any man-

    2. The act of walking. Skak.

    3. Departure. Milton.

    4. Pregnancy. Grew.

    5. Procedure ; way ; course of life ; beha- vior; deportment; used chiefly in the plu- ral.

    His eyes are on the ways of man, and he see- elh all his goings. Job xxxiv.

    C. Procedure; course of providential agency or government.

    They have seen thy goings, O God ; even the goings of my God, my King, in tlie sanctu- ary. Ps. Ixviii.

    Going' out, ) in scripture, utmost extremity

    Goings out, 5 or limit ; the point where an extended body terminates. Num. xxxiv. 5.9.

    9. Departure or journeying. Num. xxxiii.

    GOIT'ER, n. [Fr. goitie.] The bronchocele ; a large tumor that forms gradually on the human throat between the trachea and the skin. Encyc.

    The inhabitants of this part of the Valais arc subject to goiters. Coxe, Swilz.

    GOIT'ROUS, a. [Fr. goitreux.] Pertaining to the goiter ; partaking of the nature of bronchocele.

    2. Affected with bronchocele.

    Journ. of Science.

    Let me not be understood as insniuating that

    the inhabitants in general are either ^oilruus or

    idiots. Coxe, Switz.

    GO'LA, n. In architecture, tlie same as cyma- tium.

    GOLD, n. [Sax. G. gold ; D. goud, a contract- ed word ; Sw. and Dan. guld, from gul, guul, yellow. Hence the original pronun- ciation g'OoW, still retained by some peo- ple. The Dan. guul is in Sax. genlew, whence our yelloio, that is, primarily, bright, from the Celtic, W. gawl, galau, gole, light, splendor; Gaelic, geal, bright; Ar.

    5)^-» to be clear or bright. Class Gl.

    No'. 7.] 1. A precious metal of a bright yellow col or, and the most ductile and malleable of| all the metals. It is the heaviest metal ex cept platina ; and being a very dense, fixed substance, and not liable to be injured by air, it is well fitted to be used as coin, or a representative of commodities in com- merce. Its ductility and malleability ren- der it the most suitable metal for gilding.

    It IS often found native in solid masses, as

    in Hungary and Peru ; tliough generally

    in combination with silver, copper or iron.


    2. Money. For me, the gold of France did not seduce—


    3. Something pleasing or valuable ; as a heart of gold. Shak.

    4. A bright yellow color ; as a flower edged with gold.

    5. Riches; wealth. Gold of pleasure, a plant of the genus Mya-


    GOLD, rt. Made of gold ; consisting of gold ; as a gold chain.

    GOLDBEATEN, a. Gilded. [Little used.]

    GOLDBEATER, n. One whose occupation beat or foliate gold for gilding. Boyle.

    Goldbeater's skin, the intestinum rectum of" an ox, which goldbeaters lay between the leaves of the metal while they beat it, whereby the metrihrane is reduced very thin, and made fit to be applied to cuts and fresh wounds. Quincy.

    GOLDBOUND, a. Encompassed with gold. Shak.

    GOLD eOAST, n. In geography, the coast of .Africa where gold is found ; being a part of the coast of Guinea.

    GOLDEN, a. goldn. Made of gold ; consist- ing of gold.

    2. Bright; shining; splendid; as the g-oWen sun.

    Reclining soft on many a golden cloud.


    3. Yellow ; of a gold color; as agolden har- vest ; golden fruit.

    4. Excellent ; most valuable ; as the golden rule. fVatts.

    Happy; pure; as the g'oWen age, the age

    of .simplicity and purity of manners.

    G. Preeminently favorable or auspicious.

    Let not slip the golden opportunity.

    Hamilton. Golden number, in chronology, a number

    showing the year of the moon's cycle. Golden rule, in arithmetic, the rule of three

    or rule of proportion. GOLDEN-€UPS, n. A plant, theRanunculus. GOLDEN-LUNGWORT, n. A plant of the

    genus Hieracium. GOLDENLY, adv. Splendidly ; delightfully.

    [JVot vsed.] Shak.

    GOLDEN-MAIDENHAIR, n. A plant of

    the genus Polytrichum. GOLDEN-MOUSEEAR, n. A plant of the

    genus Hieracium. GOLDENROD, n. A plant, the Solidago. GOLDENROD-TREE, n. A plant, the Bo- sea. GOLDEN-SAMPHIRE, n. A plant, the

    Inula crithmifolia. Lee.

    GOLDEN-SAX'IFRAgE, n. A plant, the

    Chrysosplenium. GOLDEN-THISTLE, ra. A plant of the

    genus Scolymus. GOLDFINCH, n. [Sax. goldfnc.] The Frin-

    gilla carduelis, a bird so named from the

    color of its wings. GOLD-FINDER, n. One who finds gold;

    one who empties jakes. [.Vo< much used.]


    GOLDFISH, I A fish of the genus Cv-

    GOLDENFISH, S prinus, of the size of"a

    pilchard, so named from its bright color.

    These fishes are bred by the Chinese, ui small ponds, in basons or porcelain ves- sels, and kept for ornament.

    GOLD-HAMMER, n. A kind of bird.


    GOLD-HILTED. a. Having a golden hilt.

    GOLDING, n. Asortofapple. Did.

    GOLDLACE, n. A lace wrought with gold.

    GOLDLACED, a. Trimmed with gold lace.

    GOLDLE.\\\\\\\\F, n. Gold foliated or beaten into a thin leaf

    GOLDNEV, n. A fish, the gilthead.


    GOLD-PLEASURE, for gold of pleasure, a plant of the genus Myagrum.

    GOLD-PROOF, a. Proof against bribery or temptation by money. Beaum.

    GOLD-SIZE, n. A size or glue for burnish- ing gilding. Encyc.

    GOLDSMITH, n. An artisan who manufac- tures vessels and ornaments of gold and

    2. A banker; one who manages the pecun- iary concerns of others. [ Goldsmiths were formerly bankers in Eugland,but in Ame- rica the practice does not exist, nor is the word used in this sense.]

    GOLDTHREAD, n. A thread formed of flat- ted gold laid over a thread of silk, by twisting it with a wheel and iron bobbins. Encyc.

    2. A plant, the Helleborus trifolius ; so called from its fibrous yellow roots. U. Stales.

    GOLDWIRE, n. An ingot of silver, super- ficially covered with gold and drawn through small round holes. Encyc.

    GOLDYLOCKS, n. A name given to cer- tain plants of the genera Chrysocoma and Gnaphalium.

    GOLF, n. [D. kolf, a club or bat ; Dan. koh; the butt end of a gun-stock.]

    A game with ball and bat, in which he who drives the ball into a hole with the fewest strokes is the winner. Strutt.

    GOLL, n. [Gr. TaaXof, a cavity, and the hol- low of the hand. Qu. is this the Celtic form of vola ?]

    Hands ; [)aws ; claws. [JVot in use or local.] Sidney.

    GOLO'E-SHOE, n. [Arm. golo or golei, to cover.]

    An over-shoe ; a shoe worn over another to keep the foot dry.

    GOM, n. [Sax. gttm ; Goth, guma.] A man. Obs.

    GONDOLA, n. [It. irf.; Fr.gondole; Arm. gondolenn.]

    A flat-bottomed boat, very long and narrow, used at Venice in Italy on the canals. A gondola of middle size is about thirty feet long and four broad, terminating at each end in a sharp point or peak rising to the highth of a man. It is usually rowed by two men, called gondoliers, who jjropel the boat by jjushing the oars. The gondola is also used in other parts of Italy for a passage boat. Encyc.

    GONDOLIE'R, Ji. A man who rows a gon- dola.

    GONE, pp. of go ; pronounced nearly g-atrti.

    L Departed.

    It was told Solomon that Shimei had gone from Jerusalem to Gath. 1 Kings ii.

    2. Advanced ; forward in progress; with /or, farther, or further; as a man far gone in intemperance.


    3. Ruined ; undone. Exert yourselves, or we are gone.

    4. Past ; as, these happy days are gone ; sometimes with by. Those times are gone by.

    5. Lost.

    When her masters saw that the hope of their

    gains was gone —

    Acts XV

    6. Departed from life ; deceased ; doad.

    GON'FALON, ? „ [gonfanon, Chaucer;

    GON'FANON, S "' Fr. gonfalon ;_ Sax. guth-fana, war-flag, composed of guth, war, Ir. cath or cad, W. cad, and Sax. and Goth, fana, L. pannus, cloth ; in Sax,

    An ensign or standard ;

    colors. Obs.


    GONFALONIE'R, n. A chief standard- bearer. Obs. Bp. Wren GONG, n. [Sas.. gang.] A privy or jakes

    Obs. Chaucer.

    2. An instrument made of brass, of a circu

    lar form, which the Asiatics strike wUh a

    wooden mallet. GONIOMETER, n. [Gr. yuvia,

    liitjiov, measure. An instrument for measuring solid angles, or

    the inclination of planes. Cyc.

    GONIOMET'RIeAL, a. Pertaining to a

    goniometer. Goniometrical lines are used

    for measuring the quantity of

    Todd iigle, and

    ..gles. Chambt


    GONORRHEA, 71. [Gr. yoro;, semen, and piu, to flow.] A morbid discharge in ven ereal complaints.

    GOOD, a. [Sax. g'oiZ or good ; Goth, goda gods,goth; G. gut; D. goed; Sw. and Dan. god; Gr. ayaSo;; Pers. i^j=.. I" Russ. godnei, fit, suitable, seems to be the same word. The primary sense is strong, from extending, advancing, whence free, large, abundant, fit, and particularly, strong, firm, valid, [like valid, from vnleo ; icorth, virtue, from vireo ; Sax. dugulh, vir- tue, from dugan, to be strong.] In the phrase, a good deal, we observe the sense of extending ; in the phrases, a good title, a medicine good for a disease, we observe

    the sense of strong, efficacious. Ar. .ils. to be liberal or copious, to overflow, to be good, to become better or more firm.

    See also ?0k-. to be useful, profitable or convenient. This word good has not the comparative and superlative degrees of comparison ; but instead of them, belter and best, from another root, are used. Class Gd. No. 3. and 8.]

    1. Valid ; legally firm ; not weak or defec live ; having strength adequate to its sup port ; as a good title ; a good deed ; a good claim.

    2. Valid ; sound ; not weak, false or falla- cious ; as a good argument.

    3. Complete or sufficiently perfect in it; kind; having the physical qualities best adapted to its design and use ; opposed to bad, imperfect, corrupted, impaired. We say, good timber, good cloth, a good soil, a good color.

    And God saw every lliing that he had made and behold, it was very good. Gen. i.


    4. Having moral qualities best adapted to its design and use, or the qualities which God's law requires ; virtuous ; pious ; re- ligious; applied to persons, and opposed to bad, vitious, wicked, evil.

    Yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. Rom. v.

    5. Conformable to the moral law ; virtuous applied to actions.

    In all things showing thyself a pattern of

    food works. Tit. U. roper ; fit ; convenient ; seasonable well adapted to the end. Itwasag-oorf time to commence operations. He arriv- ed in good time.

    7. Convenient; useful; expedient; condu- cive to happiness.

    It is not good that the man should be alone Gen. ii.

    8. Sound ; perfect ; uncorrupted ; undam- aged. This fruit will keep good the whole

    some ; salubrious ; palatable ; not disa greeable or noxious ; as fruit g-oorf to eat a tree good for food. Gen. ii.

    10. Suited to pi-oduce a salutary effect ; adapted to abate or cure ; medicinal ; sal utary ; beneficial ; as, fresh vegetables an good for scorbutic diseases.

    11. Suited to strengthen or assist the health ful functions; as, a little wine ia good for a weak stomach.

    12. Pleasant to the taste ; as a good apple My son, eat thou honey, because it is good,

    and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste. Prov. xxiv.

    13. Full; complete. The protestant subjects of the abbey make uj

    a good third of its people. Addison

    14. Useful ; valuable ; having qualities or a tendency to produce a good effect.

    All quality, that is good for any thing, ginally founded on merit. Collier

    15. Equal; adequate; competent. His se curity is good for the amount of the debt applied to persons able to fulfill contracts.

    Antonio is a good man. Shalt

    16. Favorable; convenient for any luirpose as a g'oorf stand for business ; a good sta- tion for a camp.

    17. Convenient ; suitable ; safe ; as a good harbor for ships.

    18. Well qualified ; able ; skillful; or per- forming duties with skill and fidelity ; as a good prince ; a good commander ; a. good officer ; a good physician.

    19. Ready ; dextrous. Those are generally good at flattering who are

    good for nothing else. South.

    20. Kind ; benevolent ; affectionate ; as a good father ; good will.

    21. Kind ; affectionate ; faithful ; as a good friend.

    22. Promotive of happiness ; pleasant ; agreeable ; cheering ; gratifying.

    Behold, how good and how pleasant it is fc brethren to dwell together in unity. P:

    23. Pleasant or prosperous; as, good mor- row. Sir ; g'oorf morning.

    24. Honorable ; fair ; unblemished ; unim- peacbed ; as a man of good fame or re- port.

    A good name is better than precious ointment Eccles. vii.

    25. Cheerful ; favorable to happiness. Be of good comfort.


    ;. Great or considerable ; not small nor very great; as a g'oorf while ago ; he is a good way off, or at a good distance ; he has a good deal of leisure ; I had a g'oorf share of the trouble. Here we see the primary sense of extending, advancing.

    27. Elegant ; polite ; as good breeding.

    28. Real ; serious ; not feigned.

    Love not in good earnest. Shak.

    29. Kind; favorable; benevolent; humane.

    The men were very good to us. 1 Sam. xxv.

    30. Benevolent ; merciful ; gracious.

    Truly God is good to Israel, even to such as are of a clean heart. Ps. Ixxiii.

    31. Seasonable ; commendable ; proper. VVhy trouble ye the woman, for she hath ought a good work on me. Matt. xxvi.

    32. Pleasant ; cheerful ; festive.

    We come in a good day. 1 Sam. xxv.

    33. Companionable ; social ; merry.

    It is well known, that Sir Roger had been a good fellow in his youth. Arbuthnot.

    \\\\\\\\. Brave ; in familiar language. You are a good fellow.

    35. In the phrases, the g'oorf man, applied to the master of the house, and good woman, applied to the mistress, g'oorf sometimes expresses a moderate degree of respect, and sometimes slight contempt. Among the first settlers of New England, it was used as a title instead of Mr. ; as Good- man Jones ; Goodman Wells.

    3G. The phrase good tvill is equivalent to be- nevolence ; but it signifies also an earnest desire, a hearty wish, entire willingness or fervent zeal ; as, we entered into the ser- vice with a g'oorf will: he laid on stripes with a good will.

    37. Comely ; handsome ; well formed ; as a good person or shape.

    38. Mild ; pleasant ; expressing benignity or other estimable qualities ; as a good coun- tenance.

    39. Mild ; calm ; not irritable or fractious ; as a good temper.

    40. Kind ; friendly ; humane ; as a good heart or disposition.

    Goorf advice, wise and prudent counsel.

    Good heed, great care ; due caution.

    In good sooth, in good truth ; in reality. Obs.

    To make good, to perform ; to fulfill ; as, to make good one's word or promise ; that is, to make it entire or unbroken.

    2. To confirm or estabUsh ; to prove ; to ver- fy ; as, to 7nake good a charge or acciisa-

    3. To supply deficiency ; to make up a de- fect or loss. I will make good what is wanting.

    4. To indemnify; to give an equivalent for damages. If you suffer loss, I will make it good to you.

    5. To maintain ; to carry into effect ; as, to make good a retreat.

    To stand good, to be firm or valid. His word

    or promise stands good. To think good, to see good, is to be pleased or

    satisfied ; to think to be expedient.

    If ye Ihink good, give me my price. Zech.

    As good as, equally ; no better than ; the

    game as. We say, one is as good as dead.

    Heb. xi. As good as his word, equaling in fulfillment

    what was promised ; performing to the




    G O R

    OQOD, n. That which contributes to dimin ish or remove pain, or to increase liappi- ness or prosperity ; benefit ; advantage ; opposed to evil or misery. The medicine will do neither good nor harm. It does my heart good to see you so happy.

    There are many that say, who will show us any good? Ps. iv.

    2. Welfare; prosperity; advancement of in- terest or happiness. lie labored for the good of the state.

    The good of the whole community can be promoted only by advancing the good of each of the members composing it.

    Federalist, Jay

    3. Spiritual advantage or improvement ; as the good of souls.

    4. Earnest ; not jest.

    The good woman never died after this, till she came to die for good and all.


    The phrase, for good and all, signifies, finally ; to close the whole business ; for the last time.

    5. Moral works; actions which are just and in conformity to the moral law or divine precepts.

    Depart from evil, and do good. Ps. x.xxi C. Moral qualities ; virtue ; righteousness.

    I find no good in this man. 7. The best fruits ; richness ; abundance. I will give you tlie good of the land. Gen. xlv. GQQD, V. t. To manure. [jVot in use.]


    OQQT), adv. As good, as well ; with equal

    advantage. Had you not as good go with

    me ? In America we use goods, the Goth

    ic word. Had you not as goods go ?

    In replies, g'oorf signifies well ; right ; it is satisfactory ; I am satisfied. I will be with you to morrow ; answer, g-oorf, very good. So we use ivell, from the root of L. vako, to be strong. GOOD-BREfi'DING, n. Polite manners, formed by a good education ; a polite ed

    GOQD-BY. [See By.] GOpD-eONDI'TIOiVED, a. Being in a good state ; having good qualities or fa- vorable symptoms. Sharp. GpOD-FEL'LOW, n. A jolly companion. [Thisis hardly lo he admitted as a compound tvord.] GOQD-FEL'LOW, v. t. To make a jolly

    companion ; to besot. [Little used.] GQQD-FEL'LOWSHIP, n. Merry society. GQQD-FRI'DAY, n. A fast of the christian church, in memory of our Savior's suffer- ings, kept in passio7i week. GQQD-HU'MOR, n. A cheerful temper or

    state of mind. GOOD-HU'MORED, a. Being of a cheeiful

    temper. GQQD-HU'MOREDLY, adi: With a clieer- i fill temper ; in a cheerful way. 1 G00D-3IAN'NERS, n. Propriety of beha- I vior ; politeness ; decorum. 1 GOOD-NA'TURE, n. Natural mildness and j kindness of disposition.

    GOOD-NA'TURED, a. Naturally mild in

    temper; not easily provoked. GOQD-NA'TUREDLY, adv. With mildness of temper. \\\\\\\\ GOOD-NOW. An exclamation of wonder or surprise. Lhyden.

    2. An exclamation of entreaty. [M'olused.]


    GQOD-SPEED, n. Good success ; an old

    form of wishing success. [See Speed.] GOQD-WIFE, n. The mistress of a family Burton GQQD-WILL, n. Benevolence. GQOD-WOMAN, n. The mistress of a fam- ily- GOQD'LESS, a. Having no goods. 06*.


    GQQD'LINESS, n. [from goodly.] Beauty

    of form ; grace ; elegance.

    Her goodliness was full of harmony lo his

    eyes. Sidney

    GQQD'LY, adv. Excellently. Spenser.

    GQQD'LY, a. Being of a handsome form ;

    beautiful ; graceful ; as a goodly person ;

    goodly raiment ; goodly houses. Shak.

    2. Pleasant; agreeable ; desirable; as good- ly days. Stuxk

    3. Bulky ; swelling ; affectedly turgid. Obs.


    GQOD'LYIIEAD, n. Goodness ; grace

    [J^ot in use.] Spenser.

    GQQD'MAN, n. A familiar appellation of

    civility ; sometimes used ironically.

    Witli you, goodman boy, if you please.


    2. A rustic term of compUment; as old g'oorf- an Dobson. Swijl.

    3. A familiar appellation of a husband ; also, the master of a family. Prov. vii. Matt x.xiv.

    GQOD'NESS, n. The state of being good the physical quahties which constitute value, excellence or perfection ; .as the goodness of timber ; the goodness of a soil.

    2. The moral qualities which constitute christian excellence ; moral virtue ; reli- gion.

    The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith Gal. v.

    3. Kindness ; benevolence ; benignity of heart ; but more generally, acts of kind ness ; charity ; humanity e.xercised. ] shall remember liis goodness to me with gratitude.

    4. Kindness ; benevolence of nature ; mer- cy.

    The Lord God — abundant in goodness and truth. Ex. xxxiv.

    5. Kindness; favor shown ; actsofbenevo lence. compassion or mercy.

    Jethro rejoiced for all the which Jehovah had done to Israel. Ex. xviii. GOODS, ?i. plu. Movables ; household fur-

    2. Personal or movable estate ; as horses, cattle, utensils, &c.

    3. Wares ; merchandize ; connnodities bought und sold by merchants aud traders.

    GOQU'SlilP, «. Favor ; grace. [JVot in use.]

    GOOU'Y, n. [Qu. goodunfe.] A low term of civility ; as ^oorfj/ Dobson. Swift. Gay.

    GOOD'YSIIIP, «. The state or quality of a goody. [Ludicrous.] Hudibras.

    GOOti INGS, } In seamen's language,

    G0QI)'1XG.S, ^ • clamps ofiron bolted on the stern-post of a shi]), whereon to hang the rudder. Mar. Diet

    GOOM, n. [Sax. and Goth, guma, a man.^ A man recently married, or who is at- tending his proposed spouse for the pur- pose o( marriage ; used in composition

    as in bridegoom. It has been corrupted into groom.

    GOOSANDER, n. A migratory fowl of the genus Mergus, the diver or plunger ; call- ed also merganser.

    GOOSE, n. goos. plu. geese. [Sax. gas ; Sw. g&s ; UsLti. gaas ; Arm. goas ; W. gwyz;

    Russ. gus; Ir. gedh or geadh ; Pers. jti'. The G. and D. is gans, but whether the same word or not, let the reader judge. The Ch. nx or NIIX, and the correspond- ing Arabic and Syriac words, may possi- bly be the same word, the Europeans pre- fixing g in the Celtic manner.]

    1. A well known aquatic fowl of the genus Anas; but the domestic goose lives chief- ly on land, and feeds on grass. The soft fethers are used for beds, and the quills for pens. The wild goose is migratory.

    2. A tailor's smoothing iron, so called from its handle which resembles the neck of a goose.

    GOOSEBERRY, «. goos'berry. |ln Ger. hauselbcere, from kraus, crisp ; D. kruis- bes, from kruis, a cross ; L. grossula ; W. grivys, from rhwys, luxuriant. The Eng- lish word is undoubtedly corrupted from crossberry, grossberry, or gorsebern/ ; a name taken from the roughness of the shrub. See Cross and Gross.]

    The fruit of a shrub, and the shrub itself, the Ribes grossularia. The shrub is armed with spines. Of the fruit there are seve- ral varieties.

    The American gooseberry belongs to the genus JMelastoma, and the fVest Indian ^ gooseberry to the genus Cactus. Lee.

    G0OSE€AP, n. goos'cap. A silly person.

    Beaum. Johnson.

    GOOSEFOOT, n. goosfoot. A plant, the Clienopodium.

    GOOSEGR'ASS, n. goos'grass. A plant of the genus Galium. Also, the name of certain plants of the genera Potentilla and Asperugo.

    GOOSENECK, n. goos'neck. In a ship, a piece ofiron fi.xed on one end of the tiller, to which the laniard of the whip-staff or wheel-rope comes, for steering the ship ; also, an iron hook on the iimer end of a boom. Encyc. Mar. Did.

    GOOSEai'ILL, If. goos'quUl. The large fether or quill of a goose ; or a pen made with it.

    GOOSETONGUE, n. goos'tung. A plant of the genus Achillea.

    GOOSEVVING, n. goos'uittg. In seanien's language, a sail set on a boom on the lee side of a ship ; also, the clues or lower corners of a slii]>'s main-sail or fore-sail, when the middle part is furled.

    Encyc. Mar. Diet.

    GOP'PISH, a. Proud; pettish. [JVot in «««.] Hay.

    GOR'-BELLIED, a. Big-belHed. Shak.

    GOR'-BELLY, n. [In W. gor signifies reme, over.] A prominent


    belly. [.Vo/ jn use.]

    GOR'-COCK, n. The moor-cock, red- grouse, or red-game; a fowl of the gal- linaceous kind. Diet. JVat. Hist

    GOR'-eROW, n. The carrion-crow.


    GORD, n. An instrument of gaming.


    3. Ruined ; undone. Exert yourselves, or we are gone.

    4. Past ; as, these happy days are gone sometimes with hy. Those times are gone by.

    5. Lost.

    When her masters saw that the hope of their gains was gone — Acts xvi.

    6. Departed from life ; deceased ; dead. GON'FALON, ? [gonfanon, Chaucer; GON'FANON, (, "' Fr. gonfalon ; Sax.

    guth-fana, war-flag, composed of guth, war, Ir. calh or cad, W. cad, and Sax. and Goth, fana, L. pannus, cloth ; in Sax. a flag.]

    An ensign or standard ; colors. Obs.


    GONFALONIE'R, n. A chief standard- bearer. Obs. Bp. Wren.

    GONG, n. [SsiX. gang.] A privy or jakes. 06*. Chaucer.

    2. An instrument made of brass, of a circu- lar form, which the Asiatics strike with a wooden mallet. Todd.

    GONIOM'ETER, n. [Gr. yuna, angle, and ixitfov, measure.

    An instrument for measuring solid angles, or the inclination of planes. Cyc.

    GONIOMET'RICAL, a. Pertaining to a goniometer. Goniometrical lines are used for measuring the quantity of angles.


    GONORRHE'A, n. [Gr. yoro;, semen, and pfw, to flow.] A morbid discharge in ven- ereal complaints.

    GQOD, a. [Sax. god or good ; Goth, goda, gods,goth; G. gut; D. goed; Svv. and

    Dan. god; Gr. ayaSo;; Pers. i^.s.. In Russ. godnei, fit, suitable, seems to be the same word. The primary sense is strong, from extending, advancing, whence free, large, abundant, fit, and particularly, strong, firm, valid, [like valid, from vnko ; tvorth, virtue, from vireo ; Sax. duguih, vir- tue, from dugan, to be strong.] In the phrase, a good deal, we observe the sense of extending; in the phrases, a good title, a medicine good for a disease, we observe

    the sense of strong, efficacious. Ar. il.:^ to be liberal or copious, to overflow, to be good, to become better or more firm.

    See also \\\\\\\\ji,.:> to be useful, profitable or convenient. This word good has not the comparative and superlative degrees of comparison ; but instead of them, better and best, from another root, are used. Class Gd. No. 3. and 8.]

    1. Valid ; legally firm ; not weak or defec- tive ; having strength adequate to its sup- port ; asag-oorftitle ; a good deed; a good clai m.

    2. Valid ; sound ; not wefik, false or falla- cious ; as a good argument.

    3. Complete or sufiicienily perfect in its kind; having the physical qualities best adapted to its design and use ; opposed to bad, imperfect, corrupted, impaired. Wc say, good timber, good cloth, a good soil, a good color.

    And God saw every tliins that he had made, and behold, il was very good. Gen. i.


    . Having moral qualities best adapted to its design and use, or the qualities which God's law requires; virtuous; pious ligious ; apphed to persons, and opposed to bad, vitious, ivicked, evil.

    Yet peradventure for a. good man some would even dare to die. Rom. v.

    5. Conformable to the moral law ; v applied to actions.

    In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works. Tit. ii.

    6. Proper ; fit ; convenient ; seasonable ; well adapted to the end. It was a g-oorf time to commence operations. He arriv ed in good time.

    7. Convenient ; useful ; expedient ; condu- cive to happiness.

    It is not good that the man should be alone

    Gen. ii.

    Sound ; perfect ; uncorrupted ; undam- aged. This fruit will keep good the whole year.

    9. Suitable to the taste or to health ; whole some ; salubrious ; palatable ; not disa- greeable or noxious ; as fruit good to eat ; a tree good for food. Gen. il.

    10. Suited to produce a salutary effect ; adapted to abate or cure ; medicinal ; sal utary ; beneficial ; as, fresh vegetables an good for scorbutic diseases.

    U. Suited to strengthen or assist the health ful functions; as, a little wine is good for a weak stomach.

    12. Pleasant to the taste ; as a good apple,

    My son, eat thou honey, because it is good, and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste. Prov. xxiv.

    13. Full ; complete.

    The protestant subjects of the abbey make up a good third of its people. .Addison.

    14. Useful ; valuable ; having qualities or a tendency to produce a good effect.

    All quality, that is good for any thing, is ori- ginally founded on merit. Collier.

    15. Equal; adequate; competent. His se- curity is good for the amount of the debt ; applied to perso7is able to fulfill contracts.

    Antonio is a good man. Shall.

    IC. Favorable; convenient for any purpose ; a good stand for business ; a good sta- n for a camp.

    17. Convenient ; suitable ; safe ; as a good harbor for ships.

    18. Well qualified ; able ; skillful ; or per- forming duties with skill and fidelity ; as a good prince ; a good commander ; agood officer ; a good physician. ). Ready ; dextrous.

    Those are generally good at flattering who are good for nothing else. South.

    20. Kind ; benevolent ; aflectionate ; as a good father ; good will.

    21. Kind ; affectionate ; faithful ; as a good friend.

    22. Promotive of happiness ; pleasant ; agreeable ; cheering ; gratifying.

    Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren (o dwell together in unity. Ps, cxxxiii.

    23. Pleasant or prosperous; as, good mor- row. Sir ; good morning.

    24. Honorable ; fair ; unblemished ; unim- peached ; as a man of good fame or re- port.

    A good name is better than precious ointment Eecles. vii.

    25. Cheerful ; favorable to happiness. Be of good comfort.


    26. Great or considerable ; not small nor very great ; as a good while ago ; he is a good way off, or at a good distance ; he has a good deal of leisure ; I had a good share of the trouble. Here we see the primary sense of extending, advancing.

    27. Elegant ; polite ; as good breeding.

    28. Real ; serious ; not feigned. Love not in good earnest. Shak.

    29. Kind; favorable; benevolent; humane. The men were very good to us. 1 Sam. xxv.

    30. Benevolent ; merciful ; gracious. Truly God is good to Israel, even to such as

    are of a clean heart. Ps. Ixxiii.

    31. Seasonable ; commendable ; proper. Why tiouble ye the woman, for she hath

    Wiought a good work on me. Matt. xxvi.

    32. Pleasant ; cheerful ; festive. We come in a good day. 1 Sam. xxv.

    33. Companionable ; social ; merry. It is well known, that Sir Roger had been a

    good fellow in his youth. Jlrbuthnot.

    34. Brave ; in familiar language. You are a good fellow.

    35. In the phrases, the good man, applied to the master of the house, and g-oorf woman, applied to the mistress, good sometimes expresses a moderate degree of respect, and sometimes slight contempt. Among the first settlers of New England, it was used as a title instead of Mr. ; as Good- man Jones ; Goodman Wells.

    3C. The phrase g-oorf will is equivalent to be- nevolence ; but it signifies also an earnest desire, a hearty wish, entire willingness or fervent zeal ; as, we entered into the ser- vice with a good will; he laid on stripes with a good will.

    37. Comely ; handsome ; well formed ; as a good person or shape. I. Mild ; pleasant ; expressing benignity or other estimable quaUties ; as a good coun- tenance.

    39. Mild; calm; not irritable or fractious; as a good temper.

    40. Kind ; friendly ; humauc ; as a good heart or disposition.

    Good advice, wise and prudent counsel.

    Good heed, great care ; due caution.

    In good sooth, in good truth ; in reaUty. Obs.

    To make good, to perform ; to fulfill ; as, to make good one's word or promise ; that is, to make it entire or unbroken.

    2. To confirm or estabhsh ; to prove ; to ver- ify; as, to make good a charge or accusa- tion.

    To supply deficiency ; to make up a de- fect or loss. I will make good what is wanting.

    4. To indemnify; to give an equivalent for damages. If you suffer loss, I will make it good to you.

    5. To maintain ; to carry into eflfect ; as, to make good a retreat.

    To stand good, to be firm or valid. His word

    or promise stands good. To think good, to see good, is to be pleased or

    satisfied ; to think to be expedient.

    If ye think good, give me my price. Zech.

    xi. ^s good as, equally; no better than; the

    same as. We say, one is as good as dead.

    Heb. xi. As good as his tcord, equaling in fulfillment

    what was promised; performing to the



    GOOD, "• That which contributes to dimin- ish or remove pain, or to increase happi- ness or prosperity ; benefit ; advantage ; opposed to evil or misery. The medicine will do neither good nor harm. It does my heart good to see you so happy.

    There are many that say, who will show u: any good? Ps. iv.

    2. Welfare; prosperity; advancement of in terest or happiness. He labored for the good of the state.

    The good of the whole community can promoted only by advancing the good of each of the members composing it.

    Federalist, Jay

    3. Spiritual advantage or improvement ; as theg'oorf of souls.

    4. Earnest ; not jest.

    The good woman never died after this, till .she came to


    The phrase, for good and all, signifies, finally ; to close the whole business ; for the last time.

    5. Moral works ; actions which are just and in conformity to the moral law or divine

    Depart from evil, and do good. Ps. xxx

    6. Moral qualities ; virtue ; righteousness. I find no good in this man.

    7. The best fruits ; richness ; abundance.

    I will give you tlie good of the land. Gen

    GOOD, V. t. To manure. [ATot in use.]


    GOOD, adv. ^s good, as well ; with equal advantage. Had you not as good go with me ? In America we use goods, the Goth ic word. Had you not as goods go .'

    In replies, g'oorf signifies well ; right ; it i; satisfactory ; I am satisfied. I will be with you to morrow ; answer, good, very good. So we use ivell, from the root of L. valeo, to be strong.

    GOOD-BREE'DING, n. Polite manners, formed by a good education ; a polite ed-

    GOOD-BY. [See By.]

    G00D-eONDl"TIONED, a. Being in ti good state ; having good qualities or fa- vorable symptoms. Sharp,

    GOOD-FEL'LOW, n. A jolly companion, [Thisis hardly to be admitted as a compound word.]

    GOOD-FEL'LOW, v. t. To make a jolly companion ; to besot. [Little used.]

    GOOD-FELLOWSHIP, n. Merry societv.

    GOOD-FRI'DAY, n. A fast of the chri.stia"n church, in memory of our Savior's suffer- ings, kept in passion week.

    GOOD-HUMOR, n. A cheerful temper or state of mind.

    GOOD-HU'MORED, a. of a cheerful temper.

    GOOD-HU'MOREDLY, adv. With a cheer fid temper ; in a clieerfid way.

    GOOD-MAN'NERS, n. Propriety of belia vior ; politeness ; decorum.

    GOOD-NA'TURE, ji. Natural mildness and kindness of disposition.

    GOOD-NA'TURED, a. Naturally mild in temper ; not easily provoked.

    GOOD-NA'TUREDLY, adv. With mildness of temper.

    GOOD-NOW. An exclamation of wonder or surprise. Dnjden


    2. An exclamation of entreaty. {JVotused.]


    GOOD-SPEED, n. Good success; an old

    jorm of wishing success. [See Speed.] GOOD-WIFE, 71. The mistress of a family Burton GOOD-WILL, n. Benevolence. good-Woman, n. The mistress of a fam-




    goods. 06*. Chaucer

    GOOD'LINESS, n. [from goodly.] Beauty of (brm ; grace ; elegance.

    Her guodliiiess was full of harmony to \\\\\\\\at eyes. Sidney

    GOOD'LY, adv. Excellently. Spenser.

    GOOD'LY, a. Being of a handsome form beautiful ; graceful ; as a goodly person ; goodly raiment ; goodly houses. Shak.

    2. Pleasant ; agreeable ; desirable ; as good- ly tiays. Shak. .5. Bulky ; swelling ; affectedly tm-gid. Obs. Dry den. GOOD'LYHEAD, n. Goodness ; grace [A/'ot in use.] Speiiser. GOOD'MAN, n. A familiar appellation of civility ; sometimes used ironically. Witli you, goodinan boy, if you please.


    2. A rustic term of comphment; asoldg-oorf- man Uobson. Swift.

    3. A familiar appellation of a husband ; also, the master of a family. Prov. vii. INlatt. xxiv.

    GOOD'NESS, n. The state of being good ; the physical qualities which constitute value, excellence or perfection ;. as the goodness of timber ; the goodness of a soi

    2. The moral qualities which constitute christian excellence ; moral virtue ; reli- gion.

    The fruit of tlie Spirit is love, Joy, peace, long-suflering, gentleness, goodness, faith. Gal. v.

    3. Kindness ; benevolence ; benignity of heart ; but more generally, acts of kind ness ; charity ; humanity exercised, shall remember his goodness to me with gratitude.

    4. Kindness ; benevolence of nature ; mer- cy.

    The Lord God — abundant in goodness and truth. Ex. xxxiv.

    5. Kindness; favor shown ; acts of benevo- lence, compassion or mercy.

    Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which Jehovah had done to Israel. Ex. xviii. GOODS, JI. plu. Movables ; household fur- niture.

    2. Personal or movable estate ; as horses, cattle, utensils, &c.

    3. Wares; merchandize; commodities bought ami sold by merchants and traders.

    GOOD'SHIP, JI. Favor ; grace. [JVot in

    GOOD'Y, n. [Qu. goodwife.] A low term of civility ; as ;^-oorfi/ Dobson. Swift. Gay.

    GOOD'YSHIP, ;i. The state or quality of a goody. [Ludicrous.] Hudibras.

    GOOG'ING.S, ) j^ In seamen's language,

    GOOD'INGS, ^ ■ clamps of iron bolted on the stern-post of a shij), whereon to hang the rudder. Mar. Diet.

    GOOM, JI. [Sax. and Goth, guma, a man.] A man recently married, or who is at- tending his proposed spouse for the pur- pose of marriage ; used in composition.

    G O R

    as in bridegoom. It has been corrupted into groom.

    GOOSANDER, ji. A migratory fowl of the genus Mergus, the diver or plunger ; call- ed also merganser.

    GOOSE, n. goos. plu.^ec«e. [Sax. afos ; Sw. g&s ; Dan. gaas ; Arm. goas ; W. guiyz ;

    Russ. gus ; Ir. gedh or geadh ; Pers. • li'. The G. and D. is gans, but whether the same word or not, let the reader judge. The Ch. tiN or xtix, and the correspond- ing Arabic and Syriac words, may possi- bly be the same word, the Europeans pre- fixing g in the Celtic manner.]

    1. A well known aquatic fowl of the genus Anas; but the domestic goose lives chief- ly on land, and feeds on grass. The soft fethcrs are used for beds, and the quills for pens. The wild goose is migratory.

    2. A tailor's smoothing iron, so called from its handle which resembles the neck of a

    GOOSEBERRY, ji. goos'berry. (^n Ger. krduselbcere, from kraus, crisp ; D. kruis- bes, from kruis, a cross ; L. grossula ; W. grwys, from rhwys, luxuriant. The Eng- lish word is undoubtedly corrupted from crossberry, grossberry, or gorseberry ; a name taken from the roughness of the shrub. Sec Cross and Gross.]

    The fruit of a shrub, and the shrub itself, the Ribes grossularia. The shrub is armed with spines. Of the fruit there are seve- ral varieties.

    The .American gooseberry belongs to the genus Melastoma, and the H'est Indian gooseberry to the genus Cactus. Lee.

    GOOSECAP, n. goos'cap. A silly person.

    Beaum. Johnson.

    GOOSEFOOT, JI. goosfool. A jilant, the Chenopodium.

    GOOSEGR'ASS, n. goos'grass. A plant of the genus Galium. Also, the name of certain plants of the genera Potentilla and Asperugo.

    GOOSENECK, ii. goos'neck. In a ship, a piece of iron fixed on one end of the tiller, to which the laniard of the whip-stafi" or wheel-rope comes, for .steering the ship ; also, an iron hook on the inner end of a boom. Encyc. Mar. Did.

    GOOSEQUILL, n. goos'qdUl. The large fether or quill of a goose ; or a pen made with it.

    GOOSETONGIJE, «. goos'tung. A plant of the genus Achillea.

    GOOSEWING, JI. goos'uwg. In seamen's language, a sail set on a boom on the lee side of a ship ; also, the clues or lower corners of a ship's main-sail or fore-sail, when the middle part is furled.

    En eye. Mar. Did.

    GOP'PISH, a. Proud; pettish. [JVolin '"«•] Rail.

    GOR'-BELLIED, a. Big-bellied. Shak.

    GOR'-BELLY, ji. [In W. gor signifies swelled, extreme, over.] A prominent belly. [.Wt'ji J(5e.]

    GOR'-COCK, ji. The moor-cock, red- grouse, or red-game; a fowl of the gal- linaceous kind. Did. jVat. Hist.

    GOR'-CROW, J!. The carrion-crow.


    GORD, n. An instrument of gaming.

    G O II

    G O S

    G O S

    GORD'IAN, a. Intricate. {Ste the next ^vord.]

    Gordian knot, in antiquity, a knot in the lether or harness of Gordius, a king of Phrygia, so very intricate, that there was no finding where it began or ended. An oracle declared that lie who should untie this knot should be master of Asia. Alex ander, fearing that his inabihty to untif it should prove an ill augury, cut it asun der witli his sword. Hence, in modern language, a Gordian knot is an inextricable difficulty ; and to cut the Gordian knot, is to remove a difficulty by bold or unusual measures. Encyc. Lempriere.

    GORE, II. [Sax. gor, gore, mud ; W. gor,; Ir. cear, blood, and red ; Gr. ia;up ; from issu- ing-]

    1. Blood ; but generally, thick or clotted blood ; blood that after effiision becomes inspissated. Milton.

    2. Dirt; mud. [Unusual.] Bp. Fisher. GORE, n. [Scot, g-ore or gair; Ice. gdr ; D.


    1. A wedge-shaped or triangular piece of cloth sewed into a garment to widen it in any part. Chauce

    2. A slip or triangular piece of land. Cowel.

    3. In heraldry, an abatement denoting a cow- ard. It consists of two arch lines, meet ing in an acute angle in the middle of the fess point. Encyc.

    GORE, V. t. [W. g-uru, to thrust; Gipsey, goro, a dagger. See Heb. 1X3. Class Gr. No. 30. 35. 36. 53. 57. &c.]

    1. To stab ; to pierce ; to penetrate with a pointed instrument, as a spear. Dryden

    2. To pierce with the point of a horn.

    If an ox gore a man o

    GO'RED, pp. Stabbed ; pierced with

    pointed instrument. GORGE, n. gorj. [Fr. gorge ; It. gorga, go,

    gia; Sp. gorja, the throat, and gorga, a

    GOR'(iEOUSLY,arfj). With showy magnifi

    cence ; splendidly ; finely. The prince was

    gorgeously arrayed. GOR'fiEOtSNESS, n. Show of dress or

    ornament; splendor of raiment. GORG'ET, n. [Fr. gorgette, from gorge.] A

    piece of armor for defending the throat or

    neck ; a kind of breast-plate like a half- moon ; also, a small convex ornament

    worn by officers on the breast.

    Encyc. Todd.

    2. Formerly, a ruff worn by females.

    3. In surgery, gorget, or gorgeret, is a cutting instrument used in lithotomy ; also, a con cave or cannulated conductor, called i blunt gorget. Cyc. Encyc

    GORG WG, ppr. Swallowing ; eating greed

    ily ; glutting. -, /^, „ ,

    GORG'ON, n. [Gr.] A fabled monster of 2- <^od « word

    Gr. iiw/yiXion, L. evangelium, a good or joyful message.] The history of the birth, life, actions, death, resurrection, ascension and doctrines of Jesus Christ ; or a revelation of the grace of God to fallen man through a mediator, including the character, actions, and doc- trines of Christ, with the whole scheme of salvation, as revealed by Christ and bis apostles. This gospel is said to have been preached to Abraham, by the promise, "in thee shall all nations be blessed." Gal. iii. 8.

    It is called the gospel of God. Rom. i. I.

    It is called the gospel of Christ. Rom. i. 16.

    It is called the gospel of salvation. Eph.


    terrific aspect," the sight of which turned

    the beholder to stone. The poets repre

    sent the Gorgons as three sisters, Stheno,

    Euryale and Medusa ; but authors are not

    agreed in the description of them.

    3. Any thing very ugly or horrid. Milton.

    GORG'ON, a. Like a gorgon ; very ugly or

    terrific ; as a gorgon face. Dryden.

    GORGO'NEAN, ) Like a gorgon ; per-

    GORGO'NIAN, S "" taining to gorgons.

    Milton. Gorgonia nobilis, in natural history, red coral. Ure. GOR'-HEN,n. The female of the gor-cock. GO'RING,;?p)-. [fromg-oic] Stabbing; pier- cing. GO'RING, n. A pricking ; puncture.


    GOR'MAND, I [Fr. gourmand, fron

    GOR'MANDER, \\\\\\\\ "' W.gormcoi?, plenitude,

    exuberance ; gor, extreme ; gormoz, ex

    cess.] A greedy or ravenous eater ; <


    GOR'MANDIZE, v. i. To eat greedily ; to

    „-.„_,-, swallow voraciously. Shak

    whirlpool gorgear, to warble ; G^gttrgel^'. GOR'IMANDIZER, n. A greedy voracious heace gargle ; h. gtirges.] \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ eater. Cleaveland,

    - • ^- ^ ■' - - ■ GOR'MANDIZING, ppr. Eating greedily

    and voraciously. GORSE, > , ^^„ [Sax.gorst. Qu. coarse, GORSS, S ^ L- crassus, or G. krat-

    to scratch.] Furz, or whin, a thick prickly shrub, of the genus Ulex, bearing yellow flowers in winter. Johnson

    GO'RY, a. [from gore.] Covered with con- gealed or clotted blood ; as gory locks.


    canal of the o the stom-

    1. The throat ; the gullet ; th neck by which food passes ach.

    2. In architecture, the narrowest part of the Tuscan and Doric capitals, between the astragal, above the shaft of the column, and the annidets. Encyc.

    3. In fortification, the entrance of the plat- form of any work. Encyc.

    4. That which is gorged or swallowed, es- pecially by a hawk or other fowl. Shak.

    GORGE, V. t. gorj. To swallow ; especially, to swallow with greediness, or in large mouthfuls or quantities. Hence, 2. To glut ; to fill the throat or stomach ; to satiate.

    The giant, gorged with flesh— Addison. GORGE, V. i. To feed. Milton.

    GORti'ED, pp. Swallowed ; glutted. GORG'ED, a. Having a gorge or throat.


    2. In heraldry, bearing a crown or the like

    about the neck. Encyc.

    GOR'gEOUS, a. Showy; fine; splendid

    ghttering with gay colors.

    With gorgeous wings, the marks of sovereign

    sway. Dryd.

    A sofgcous robe. Luke xxiii.

    2. Bloody ; murderous. Shak

    GOSJIAWK, n. [Sax. goshafoc, goose- haWk.]

    A voracious fowl of the genus Faico, oi hawk kind, larger than tlie common buz- zard, but of a more slender shape. The general color of the plumage is a deep brown ; the breast and belly white.

    Did. ATat. Hist.

    GOS'LING, «. [Sax. gos, goose, and ling.] A young goose ; a goose not full grown.

    2. A catkin on nut trees and pines.

    Bailey. Johnson.

    GOS'PEL, n. [Sax. godspell ; gorf, good, and .ipell, history, relation, narration,

    irh is uttered, announced, 3ated ; answering to the


    3. Divinity ; theology. AElton.

    4. Any general doctrine. Burke. GOS'PEL, V. t. To in.struct in the gospel ;

    or to fill with sentiments of religion.


    GOSPEL-GOSSIP, n. One who is over- zealous in running about among his neigh- bors to lecture on rehgious subjects.


    GOS'PELIZE, V. t. To form according to the gospel. Milton.

    [2. To instruct in the gospel ; to evangelize ; as, to gospelize the savages. E. JVotl.

    GOS'PELIZED,;)?. Instructed in the cliris tian religion.

    GOS'PELIZING, ppr. Evangelizing; in structing in the christian religion. JE. Stiles

    GOSPELLER, n. An evangelist ; also, a follovverof Wicklifife, the first Englishman who attempted a reformation from popery. [JVot much used.] Roue.

    2. He who reads the gospel at the altar.

    GOSS, n. A kind of low furz or gorse.


    GOS'SAMER, 71. [L. gossipium, cotton.] /\\\\\\\\ fine filmy substance, like cobwebs, float- ing in the air, in calm clear weather, es- pecially in autumn. It is seen in stubble fields and on furz or low bushes, and is probably formed by a species of spider.

    Encyc .

    GOS'SAMERY, a. Like gossamer ; flimsy ; unsubstantial. Pursuits of lAteratun.

    GOS'SIP, n. [Sax. godsibb ; god and sih

    1. A sponsor; one who answers for a cliilil in baptism ; a godfather. Obs.

    Shak. Davir.'^.

    2. A tippling companion. .\\\\\\\\nd sometimes lurk I in a gossip's bowl.


    3. One who runs from house to house, tat- tling and telling news ; an idle tattler. [This is the sense in tvhich the word is now u.!ed.] Dryden.

    4. A friend or neighbor. Ohs.

    5. Mere tattle ; idle talk. GOS'SIP, V. i. To prate; to chat; to talk

    much. Shuk.

    2. To be a pot-companion. Shak.

    3. To run about and tattle ; to tell idle talis. !G0S'SIPING, p;)r. Prating; chatting; nm-

    -d, I ning from place to place and tattling. GOS'SIPING, li. A prating ; a rimning about to collect tales and tattle.

    G O U



    GOSSOON', n. [Fr. garcon, corrupted.] A boy ; a servant. [JVbt hi use.]

    GOS'TING, n. An herb. AinswoHh

    GOT, prel. of get. The old preterit gat, pro- nounced got, is nearly obsolete.

    GOT and GOTTEN, pp. otget.

    GOTH, n. One of an ancient and distin- guished tribe or nation, which inhabited Scandinavia, now Sweden and Norway whose language is now retained in those countries, and a large portion of it is found in English.

    2. One rude or uncivilized ; a barbarian.


    3. A rude ignorant person. Chesterfield. GO'THAMIST, n. A person deficient in

    wisdom, so called from Gotham in Not tinghamshire, noted for some pleasant blunders. Bp. Morton.

    GOTH'l€, a. Pertaining to the Goths ; as Gothic customs ; Gothic architecture ; Goth ic barbarity.

    2. Rude; ancient.

    3. Barbarous.

    GOTH'IC, n. The language of tlie Goths. GOTH'ICISM, n. Rudeness of manners barbarousness.

    2. A Gothic idiom.

    3. Conformity to the Gothic style of build- ing.

    GOTH'ICIZE, V. t. To make Gothic ; to bring back to barbarism. Strutt.

    GOUp, n. Woad. [JVot used.]

    GOUGE, n. gouj. [Fr. gouge; Arm. goiiich.] A round hollow chissel, used to cut holes, channels or grooves in wood or stone.


    GOUgE, i'. t. gouj. To scoop out with a gouge.

    2. To force out the eye of a person with the thumb or finger ; a barbarous practice.

    GOUL'AND, 71. A plant or flower.

    B. Jonson.

    Goulard's Extract, so called from the invent- or, a saturated solution of the subacetate of lead, used asa remedy for inflammation. Ure.

    GOURD, n. [Fr. coxirge ; D. kauwoerde. Qu. the root of gherkin^

    A plant and its fruit, of the genus Cucurbi- ta. There are several species, as the bot- tle-gourd, the shell-gourd or calabash, the waned gourd, &c. The shell is some- times used for a piggin or for a bottle.

    GOURDINESS, n. A swelling on a horse's leg after a journey. Far. Did.

    GOIIRDY, a. Swelled in the legs.

    GOURD-TREE, n. A tree, the Crescentia, found in the W. Indies. Fam. of Plants.

    GOURMAND. [See Gormand.]

    GOUT, n. [Fr. goutle, a drop, the gout ; the disease being considered as a defluxion ; It. gotta; Sp. gola; Ir. guta ; L. gultu.

    Qu. Pers. Ctyf hot, infirm in the feet.]

    1. The arthritis, a painful disease of the small joints, but sometimes afl'ecting the stomach. It is often periodical or inter- mitting- Coxe.

    2. A drop. [.Vo( xised.] Shak

    GOUT, n. goo. [Fr. from L. gustus, laste.] Taste; relish.

    GOUT'INESS, n. The state of being sub ject to the gout ; gouty affections.

    GOUT'SWELLED, a. Swelled with tUi gout.

    GOUT'WORT, n. A plant, the .Egopodi- um.

    GOUT'Y, a. Diseased with the gout, or subject to the gout ; as a gouty person ; a gouty joint ; a gouty constitution.

    2. Pertaining to the gout ; as gouty matter.


    Swelled ; boggy ; as gouty land. [7Vo< in

    tse.] Spenser.

    GOVERN, v.(. [Fr. gouverner; Sp. gober nar; It. governare ; L. guberno. The L. gu- berno seems to be a compound.] To direct and control, as the actions or conduct of men, either by established laws or by arbitrary will ; to regulate by author- ity ; to keep within the limits prescribed by law or sovereign will. Thus in free states, men are governed by the constitu- tion and laws ; in despotic states, men are governed by the edicts or commands of a monarch. Every man should govern well his own family.

    2. To regulate ; to influence; to direct. This is the chief point by which he is to govern all his counsels and actions.

    3. To control ; to restrain ; to keep in due subjection ; as, to govei-n the passions or temper.

    4. To direct ; to steer; to regulate the course or motion of a ship. The helm or the helmsman governs the ship.

    In grammar, to require to he in a particu- lar case ; as, a verb transitive governs a word in the accusative case ; or to require a particular case ; as, a verb g-oi'erns the ac- cusative case.

    GOVERN, v.i. authority; to administer the laws. The chief magis- trate should govern with impartiality.

    2. To maintain the superiority ; to have the control, Dryden

    GOVERNABLE, a. That may be govern erned, or subjected to authority ; control lable; manageable; obedient; submissive to law or rule. Locke.

    GOV'ERNANCE, n. Government ; exer- cise of authority ; direction ; control ; man- agement, either of a public officer, or of a private guardian or tutor.

    Maccabees. Sliak.

    GOVERNANT, n. [Fr. gouvernante.] A lady who has the care and management o( young females ; a governess. [The latter is more generally itsed.]

    GOVERNED, pp. Directed ; regidated by authority ; controlled ; managed ; influen- ced ; restrained.

    GOVERNESS, n. A female invested with authority to control and direct; a tutor ess ; an instructress ; a woman who has the care of instructing and directing young ladies.

    GOVERNING, ppr. Directing; control! ing ; regulating by laws or edicts ; mana

    3. Directing; controlling; as a governing

    motive. v

    GOVERNMENT, n. Direction : regula-

    tion. These precepts will serve for the

    government of our conduct.

    2. Control ; restraint. Men are apt to neg- lect the government of their temiwr and passions.

    3. The e.\\\\\\\\ercise of authority ; direction and restraint exercised over the actions of men in communities, societies or states ; the ad- ministration of public affairs, according to established constitution, laws and usages, or by arbitrary edicts. Prussia rose to importance under the govemine7it of Fred- erick II.

    4. The exercise of authority by a parent or householder. Children are often ruined by a neglect of government in parents.

    Let fatnWy government be like that of our

    heavenly Father, mild, gentle and aflcctionatc.


    5. The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of u body poli- tic are to regulate their social actions ; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and de- fined ; as a monarchial government, or u republican government.

    Thirteen governments thus founded on (lie natural authority of the people alone, the pretence of miracle or mystery, ar point gained in favor of the rights of m;

    gmg; influencing; restraining.

    !. o. Holding the superiority ; prevalent ;

    as a governing wind ; a governing party

    ill a slate. Federalist, Jay.

    tliout great

    G. An empire, kingdom or state; any terri- tory over which the right of sovereignty is extended.

    The right of governing or administering the laws. The king of England vested the government of Ireland in the lord lieutenant.

    The persons or council which administer the laws of a kingdom or state; executive power.

    Manageablencss ; compliance ; obsequi- ousness. Shak.

    10. Regularity of behavior. [Ab< in K.?e.] Shak.

    11. Management of the limbs or body. [J\\\\\\\\iot use.] Spenser.

    12. In grammar, the influence of a word in regard to construction, as when establish- ed usage requires that one word should cause another to be in a particular case or mode.

    GOVERNMENT'AL, a. Pertaining to gov- innent ; made by government.


    GOVERNOR, w. He that governs, rules or directs; one invested with supreme au- thority. The Creator is the rightful gov- ernor of all his creatures. One who is invested with supreme au- thority to administer or enforce the laws ; the supreme executive magistrate of a state, community, corporation or post. Thus, in America, each state has its gov- ernor; Canada has its governor.

    3. A tutor ; one who has the care of a young man ; one who instructs him and forms his manners.

    4. A pilot ; one who steers a ship. James iii

    G R A

    5. One possessing delegated authority. Jo- seph was governor over the land of Egypt. Obadiah was governor over Ahab's house. Damascus had a governor under Aretas the king.

    GOVERNORSHIP, n. The office of agov-

    GOVV'AN, n. A plant, a species of Bellis or daisy. Fam. of Plants.

    GOWK, );. [See Gawk.]

    GOWN, n. [W. gwn; Ir. gunna ; It. gonna. This is probably thexamaxr; of Hesychius, and the guanacum of Varro ; a garment somewhat like the sagum or sack, said to be of Persian origin, and among rude na- tions i)erhaps made of skins, [W. c^n- ysgin,] and afterwards of wool ; a kind of .shag or frieze. Ch. N3JU xnentioned Judges iv. 18. and 2 Kings viii. 15. See Varro de Ling. Lat. lib. 4. Bochart. Dc PhoEu. Col. lib. 1. Cap. 42. and Cluv. Ant. Germ. Lib. 1.]

    1. A woman's upper garment. Pope.

    2. A long loose upper garment or robe, worn by profe.ssional men, as divines, lawyers, students, &c., who are called men of the gown or gotvnmen. It is made of any kind of cloth worn over ordinary clothes, and hangs down to the ankles or nearly so.


    3. A long loose upper garment, worn in sickness, &c.

    4. The dress of peace, or the civil magistra- cy ; cedant arma toga:.

    He Mars deposed, and arms to gowns made yield. Bryden.

    GOWN'ED, a. Dressed in a gown.

    Dryden. GOWN'MAN, n. One whose professional habit is a gown.

    The gownman learn'd. Pvjie.

    2. One devoted to the arts of peace. Roice. GRAB, n. A vessel used on the Malabar coast, having two or three masts. Diet. GRAB, V. t. [Dan. greb, a grasp ; griber, to gripe ; Sw. grabba, to grasp ; gripa, to gripe ; W. grab, a duster.] To seize ; to gripe suddenly. [ Vulgar.'] GRAB'BLE, v. i. [dim. of grab ; D. grab- belen ; G. griibeln ; allied to grope, grovel, and giapple ; Arm. scraba; Kug. scrabble ; allied to rub, or L. rapio, or to both.]

    1. To grope ; to feel with the hands.


    2. To lie prostrate on the belly ; to sprawl.


    GRAB'BLING.^jipr. Groping ; feeling along; sprawling.

    GRACE, n. [Fr. grace ; It. grazia ; Sp. gra- cia ; Ir. grasa ; from the L. gratia, which is formed on the Celtic ; W. rhad, grace, a blessing, a gratuity. It coincides in ori- gin with Fr. gri, Eng. agree, congruous, and ready. The primary sense otgratus, is free, ready, quick, willing, prompt, from advancing. Class Rd. See Grade.]

    1. Favor; good will; kindness; disposition to oblige another ; as a grant made as an act of grace.

    Or each, or all, may win a lady's grace.


    2. Appropriately, the free unmerited love and favor of God, the spring and source of all the benefits men receive from him.

    And if by grace, then it is no more of works.

    G R A

    a Favorable influence of God; divine influ- ence or the influence of the spirit, in re- newing the heart and restraining from sin.

    My grace is sufficient for thee. 2 Cor. xii.

    4. The apphcation of Christ's righteousness to the sinner.

    Where sin abounded, ,grace did much more abound. Rom. v.

    5. A state of reconcihation to God. Rom. v. 2.

    G. Virtuous or religious affection or disposi- tion, as a liberal disposition, faith, meek- ness, humility, patience, &.c. proceeding from divine influence.

    7. Spiritual instruction, improvement and edification. Eph. iv. 29.

    8. Apostleship, or the qualifications of an apostle. Eph. iii. 8.

    9. Eternal life ; final salvation. 1 Pet. i. 13.

    10. Favor ; mercy ; pardon.

    Bow and sue for grace

    With suppliant knee. Milton.

    11. Favor conferred.

    I should therefore esteem it a great favor and grace. Prior.

    12. Privilege.

    To few great Jupiter imparts this grace.


    13. That in manner, deportment or lan- guage which renders it appropriate and agreeable ; suitableness ; elegance with appropriate dignity. We say, a speaker delivers his address with grace ; a man performs his part with grace.

    Grace was in all her steps. Milton.

    Her purple habit sits with such a grace On her smooth shoulders. Dryden.

    14. Natural or acquired excellence ; any en- dowment that recommends the possessor to others ; as the graces of wit and learn- ing. Hooker.

    15. Beauty; embellishment; in general, whatever adorns and recommends to fa- vor ; sometimes, a single beauty.

    I pass their form and every charming grace. Dryden.

    16. Beauty deified ; among pagans, a god- dess. The graces were three in number, Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne, the con- stant attendants of Venus. Lempriere.

    The loves delighted, and the graces played. Prior.

    17. Virtue physical; as the grace of plants. [JVot used.] Shak.

    18. The title of a duke or an archbishop, and formerly of the king of England, meaning your goodness or clemency. His Grace the Duke of York. Your Grace will please to accept my thanks.

    19. A short prayer before or after meat; a blessing asked, or thanks rendered.

    20. In music, graces signifies turns, trills and shakes introduced for embellishment.

    Day of grace, in theology, time of probation, when an offer is made to sinners.

    Days of grace, in commerce, the days imme- diately following the day when a bill or note becomes due, which days are allow- ed to the debtor or payor to make i)ay- ment in. In Great Britain and the United States the days of grace are three, but in other countries more ; the usages of mer- chants being different.

    GRACE, V. t. To adorn ; to decorate ; to embellish and dignify.

    G R A

    Great Jove and Phcebus graced his not.;,

    line. p„^,(

    And hail, ye fair, of every charm possess'iJ,

    Who grace tliis rising empire of the west.

    D. Humphrtif

    2. To dignify or raise by an act of favor ; u,


    He might at his pleasure grace or disgraci- whom he would in court. Knollts

    .3. To favor; to honor. Dryden.

    4. To supply with heavenly grace.

    Bp. Hall.

    GRA'CE€UP, n. The cup or health drank

    after grace. Prior.

    GRA'CED, ;;^. Adorned; embellished; ex

    alted ; dignified ; honored.

    2. a. Beautiful ; graceful. [J^ot in use.]


    3. Virtuous; regular; chaste. [JVot in u.-^i'.


    GRA'CEFUL, a. Beautiful with dignity ; elegant ; agreeable in appearance, wi'tli an expression of dignity or elevation of inind or manner ; used particularly of mo- tion, looks and speech ; as a. graceful walk a graceful deportment ; a graceful speakti : a graceful air.

    High o'er the rest in arms the graceful Tur- nus rode. Dryden.

    GRA'CEFULLY, adv. With a pleasing dig- nity ; elegantly ; with a natural ease and propriety ; as, to walk or speak grace/uHj/.

    GRA'CEFULNESS, n. Elegance of maii- ncr or deportment ; beauty with dignity in manner, motion or countenance. Grace- fulness consists in the natural ease and propriety of an action, accompanied with a countenance expressive of dignity or elevation of mind. Happy is the man who can add the gracefulness of ease to the dignity of merit.

    GRA'CELESS, a. Void of grace; corrupt; depraved ; unregenerate ; unsanctified.

    GRA'CELESSLY, adv. Without grace.

    GRA'CES, n. Good graces, favor; friend- ship.

    GRAC'ILE, a. [L. gracilis.] Slender. [JVot in use.]

    GRACIL'ITY, n. Slendemess. [JVot in use.]

    GRACIOUS, a. [Fr. gracieux; L. gratio- sus.]

    1. Favorable; kind ; friendly; as, the envoy met with a gracious reception.

    2. Favorable ; kind ; benevolent ; merciful ; disposed to forgive offenses and impart unmerited blessings.

    Thou art a God ready to pardon, graci&U!^ and merciful. Neh. ix.

    3. Favorable; expressing kindness and fa- vor.

    All bore him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded from his mouth. Luke iv.

    4. Proceeding from divine grace ; as a per- son in a gracious state.

    5. Acceptable ; favored. He made us gracious before the kings of

    ersia. [Little used.] I Esdras.

    6. Renewed or implanted by grace ; as gra- cious affections.

    7. Virtuous ; good. Shak.

    8. Excellent ; graceful ; becoming. Obs.

    Hooker. Camden. GRA'CIOUSLY, adv. Kindly ; favorably ; in a friendly manner ; with kind condes- ' cension.

    G R A

    His testimony he gracivusli/ confirmed.

    Dryden. 2. In a pleasing manner. GRA'CIOUSNESS, n. Kind condescension. Clarendon. 9. Possession of graces or good qualities.

    Bp. Barlow. •3. Pleasing manner. JoMison

    4. 3Iercifulness. Sandys

    GRACK'LE, n. [L. graculus, dim. of Goth. krage, a crow. See Crow. Varro's de- duction of this word from grex is an error.] A genus of birds, the Gracula, of which the

    crow-blackbird is a species. GRADA'TION, n. [L. gradatio ; Fr. gra- dation. See Grade.^

    1. A series of ascending steps or degrees, or a proceeding step by step ; hence, progress from one degree or state to another ; a regular advance from step to step. We observe a gi-adalion in tlie progress of so- ciety from a rude to civilized life. Men may arrive by several gradations to the most horrid impiety.

    2. A degree in any order or series ; we ob- serve a gradation in the scale of being, from brute to man, from man to angels.

    3. Order ; series ; regular process by degrees or steps ; as a gradation in argument or description.

    GRAD'ATORY, a. Proceeding step by step. Seward.

    GRAD'ATORY, n. Steps from the clois- ters into the church. Ainsworth.

    GRADE, n. [¥t. grade ; Sp. It. grado ; Port. grao ; from L. gradus, a step; gradior, to step, to go; G. grad ; D. graad ; Dan. and Sw. grad, a step or degree ; W. grdz, a step, degree, rank, from rhdz, a going for- ward or advance, Arm. radd. It may be from a common root with W. rhawd, way, course, rout ; rhodiaw, to walk about ; rhod, a. wlieel, L. rota. We observe by the Welsh that the first letter g- is a prefix, and the root of the word then tsRJ. We ob- serve further that the hathi gi-adior forms gressus, by a common change of <£ to s, or as it is in Welsh z [th]. Now if g- is a pre- fix, then gressus [ressus] coincides with the Sw. resa, Dan. rejser, G. reisen, D. reizen, to go, to travel, to journey ; D. reis, a journey or voyage. In Sw. and Dan. the verbs signify not only to travel, but to raise. Whether the latter word raise is of the same family, may be doubtful ; but the others appear to belong to one radix, co- inciding with the Syr. j j! radah, to go, to walk; Ch. mi to open,'expand, flow, in- struct ; Heb. to descend. A step then is a stretch, a reach of the foot. Class Rd. No. 1.2.26.]

    1. A degree or rank in order or dignity, civil, military or ecclesiastical.

    J. M. Mason. If'alsh. While questions, periods, and grades and privileges arc never once formally discussed.

    S. Miller.

    3. A Step or degree in any ascending series ; as crimes of every grade.

    When we come to examine tlie intermediate grades. S. S. Smith.

    GRA'DIENT, a. [L. gradicns, gradior.] Moving by steps ; walking ; as gradient automata. fVilkins.

    Vol. I.

    G R A

    GRADUAL, a. [Fr. gradud, from grade. ],GR\\\\\\\\VF., Proceeding by steps or degrees; advan- cing step by step ; passing from one stej to another ; regular and slow ; as a grad- ual increase of knowledge ; a gradual in- crease of light in the morning is favorable to the eyes.

    2. Proceeding by degrees in a descending line or progress ; as a gradual decline

    GRADUAL, n. An order of steps.


    2. A grail ; an ancient book of hynms and prayers. Todd.

    GRADUALLY, adv. By degrees ; step by step ; regularly ; slowly. At evening the light vanishes gradually.

    2. In degree. [JVot used.]

    Human reason doth not only graJually, but specifically differ from the fantastic reason of brutes. Greiv

    GRAD'UATE, v. t. [It. graduare ; Sp. grad- uar ; Fr. graduer ; from L. gradus, a do-

    To honor with a degree or diploma,

    in a college or university ; to confer a de

    gree on ; as, to graduate a master of arts

    Carew. fVotton.

    2. To mark with degrees, regular intervals, or divisions ; as, to graduate a thermome ter.

    3. To form shades or nice differences.

    4. To raise to a higher place in (he scale of [ metals. Boyle.

    5. To advance by degrees ; to improve,

    Dyers advance and graduate tlieir colors with salts. Brown

    6. To temper; to prepare.

    Diseases originating in the atmosphere act exclusively on bodies graduated to receive their impressions. Med. Repos.

    7. To mark degrees or differences of any kind ; as, to grwluate punishment.


    8. In chimistry, to bring fluids to a certain de- gree of consistency.

    GRAD'UATE, v. i. To receive a degree from a college or university.

    3. To pass by degrees ; to change gradually Sandstone which graduates into gneiss Carnehan sometimes graduates into quartz. Kxnvan

    GRAD'UATE, n. One who has received a degree in a college or university, or from some professional incorporated society.

    GRAD'UATED, pp. Honored with a de- gree or diploma from some learned society or college.

    2. Marked with degrees or regular inter- rals ; tempered.

    GRAD'UATESHIP, n. The state of a grad- uate. Milton.

    GRAD'UATING, ppr. Honoring with a de- gree ; marking with degrees.

    GRADUA'TIOl>f, n. Regular progression by succession of degrees.

    2. Improvement; exaltation of qualities Brotvn.

    3. The act of conferring or receiving aca- demical degrees.

    Charter of Dartmouth College.

    4. The act of marking with degrees.

    5. The process of bringing a liquid to a cer- tain consistence by evaporation. Parke.

    GRAD'UATOR, n. An instrument for divi- ding any line, right or curve, into equal parts. Joum. of Science.


    G R A

    [See Graie.] A ditch or moat. Clarendon.

    GRAFF, for graft. Obs.

    GR'AFT, 71. lFr.greffe;; It. graf- chur; D. griffel ; bom the root of grave, engrave, Gr. yfM^u, L. acribo, the sense of which is to srrape or to dig. In Scot, g-rai/ signifies to bury, to inter. The sense ol' graft is that which is inserted. See Grave.]

    A small shoot or cion of a tree, inserted in another tree as the stock which is to sup- port and nourish it. These unite and be- come one tree, but tlic graft determines the kind of fruit.

    GR^AFT, V. t. [Fr. greffer.] To insert a cion or shoot, or a small cutting of it, into an- other tree. Dryden.

    2. To propagate by insertion or inoculation. Dryden.

    3. To insert in a body to which it did not originally belong. Rom. xi. 17.

    4. To impregnate with a foreign branch. Shak.

    5. To join one thing to another so as to re- ceive support from it.

    And graji my love immortal on thy fame.


    GR'AFT, v. i. To practice the insertion of foreign cions on a stock.

    GRAFTED, pp. Inserted on a foreign stock.

    GRAFTER, ii. One who inserts cions on foreign stocks, or propagates fruit by in- grafting.

    GR'AFTING, ppr. Inserting cions on dif- ferent stocks.

    A'ote. The true original orthography of this word is graff; but graft has superseded the original word, as it has in the compound ingraft.

    GRAIL, n. [V..gradual(.] A book of offices in the Romish church. IVarton.

    GRAIL, n. [Fr. grele, hail.] Small parti- cles of any kind. Spenser.

    GRAIN, J!. [Fr. grain ; L. granum ; and It. grnno ; G. gran ; D. graan ; gran, corn ; W. graun, graen, gronyn, a httle pebble or gravel stone, Jr. grean. Arm. gruan, which seems to be the Eng. ground ; Russ. gran, grain, and a corner, a boundary. In Scot, grain is the branch of a tree, the stem or stalk of a plant, the branch of a river, the prong of a fork. In Sw. gryn is grain ; grann, fine ; gren, a branch ; ani\\\\\\\\ grhns, boundary. Dan. gran, a grain, a i>ine tree ; grand, a grain, an atom ; green, a branch, a sprig ; graitdse, a boundary ; G. gran, D. graan, grain ; G. grcinze, D. grens, a border.]

    1. Any small hard mass ; as a grain of sand or gravel. Hence,

    2. A single seed or hard seed of a plant, particularly of those kinds whose seeds are used for food of man or beast. This is usually inclosed in a proper shell or cov- ered with a husk, and contains the embryo ofa new plant. Hence,

    3. Grain, without a definitive, signifies corn in general, or the fruit of certain plants which constitutes the chief food of man and beast, as wheat, rye, barley, oats and maiz.

    4. A minute particle.

    5. A small weight, or the smallest weight ordinarily used, being the twentieth part


    G R A

    G R A

    G R A

    of the scruple in apothecaries' weight, and] the twenty fourth of a pennyweight troy.l

    6. A component part of stones and metals.

    7. The veins or fibers of wood or other! fibrous substance ; whence, cross-grained,\\\\\\\\ and against the grain. {

    8. The body or substance of wood as modi-i fied by the fibers.

    Hard box, and linden of a softer grain.


    9. The body or substance of a thing con- sidered with respect to the size, form or direction of the constituent particles ; as stones of a fine grain. ffoodivard.

    The tooth of a sea-horse, contains a curdled, grain. Bruwn:

    10. Any thing proverbially small ; a very! small particle or portion ; as a grain of wit or of common sense. j

    Neglect not to make use of any grain of grace. Hamnwnd.\\\\\\\\

    11. Dyed or stained substance.

    All in a robe of darkest gram. MiUon}

    12. The direction of the fibers of wood or other fibrous substance ; hence the phrase,! against the grain, applied to animals, that is, against their natural tempers. 1

    13. The heart or temper ; as brothers not' united in grain. Hayivard.\\\\\\\\

    14. The form of the surface of any thing' with respect to smoothness or roughness ; state of the grit of any body composed of grains; as sandstone of a fine g-rain. |

    l.'i. A tine, prong or spike. Ray.\\\\\\\\

    A p-ain of allowance, a small allowance or indulgence ; a small portion to be remit-; ted ; something above or below just; weight. If'atts]

    To di/e in grain, is to dye in the raw mate-, rial, as wool or silk before it is maniifac-| tured.

    GRAIN, V. i. To yield fruit. Obs. Goioer}

    GRAIN, or GRANE, for groan. [Xot in iise.]

    GRA'INED, a. Rough ; made less smooth.' Shak.\\\\\\\\

    2. Dyed in grain ; ingrained. Brown.

    GRA'INER, n. A lixivium obtained by infu- sing pigeon's dung in water ; used by tan- ners to give flexibility to skins. Ure.

    GRA'INING, n. Indentation. Leake.

    2. A fish of the dace kind. Diet. JVat. Hist.

    GRAINS, n. [in the plural.] The husks or remains of malt after brewing, or of any grain after distillation. i

    Grains of paradise, an Indian spice, the seeds' of a species of Aniomum. j

    GRA'INSTAFF, n. A quarter-staft'.

    GRA'IN Y, a. Full of grains or corn ; full of, kernels. Johnson.

    GRAITH, V. I. To prepare. [See GreUh and Ready.]

    GRAL'LIC, a. [L. grallw, stilts, crutches.]' Stilted; an epithet given to an order ol' fowls having long legs, naked above the! knees, which fit them for wading in water.i

    GRA3I, a. [Sax. gram ; Sw. id. angry ; Dan. gram, envious, grudging.] Angry. 06s. j

    GRAM, n. [Fr. gramme, from Gr. ypajujua,;

    whence ypa^fiapioi/, the twenty fourtli part:

    of an omice.] \\\\\\\\

    In the new system of French weights, the unity!

    of weights. It is the weight of a quantity,

    of distilled water equal to a cubic centime- ter, or 18 grains T^^sTr French, or du poids de marc, equal to 15.444 grains troy. Lunier.

    GRAMERCY, for Fr. grand-merci, is not in use. It formerly was used to express obligation. Spenser.

    GRAMIN'EAL, ? [L. gramineus, from

    GRAMIN'EOUS, <, "' gramen, grass.]

    Grassy ; like or pertaining to grass. Gra mineous jjlants are those which have sim pie leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx, termed glume, and a single seed. Thi description however includes several sort of corn, as well as grass. Milne.

    GRAMINIVOROUS, a. [L. gramen, grass, and voro, to eat.]

    Feeding or subsisting on grass. The ox and all the bovine genus of quadrupeds are graminivorous animals ; so also the horse or equine genus.

    GRAM'MAR, n. [Fr. grammaire ; L. gram- matica; Gr. ypa/ijuartxij, from ypofi^a, a letter, from ypocfu, to write. See Grave.]

    1. In practice, the art of speaking or writing a language with propriety or correctness, according to established usage.

    As a science, grammar treats of the nat- ural connection between ideas and words, and developes the principles which are common to all languages.

    2. A system of general principles and of par- ticular rules for speaking or writing a lan- guage ; or a digested compilation of cus- tomary forms of speech in a nation ; also, a book containing such principles and rules.

    3. Propriety of speech. To write grammar, we must write according to the practice of good writers and speakers.

    GRAM'MAR, r. i. To discourse according to the rules ofgranmiar. Obs.

    GRAM'MAR, a. Belonging to or contained in grammar; as a grammar rule.

    GRAMMAR-SCHOOL, n. A school in which the learned languages are taught. By learned languages, we usually mean the Latin and Greek ; but others may be included.

    GRAMMA'RIAN, n. One versed in gram- mar, or the construction of languages ; a philologist.

    2. One who teaches grammar.

    GRAMMATICAL, «. [Fr.] Belonging to granunar ; as a grammatical rule.

    2. According to the rules of grammar. We say, a sentence is not grammatical ; the construction is not grammatical.

    GRAMMATICALLY, adv. According to the principles and rules of grammar; as, to Write or speak grammatically.

    GRAMMAT'ICASTER, n. [L.] A low grammarian ; a pretender to a knowledge of grammar ; a pedant. . Petty.

    GRAMMAT'ICIZE, v.t. To render grani- inatical. Johnson.

    GRAM'MATIST, n. A pretender to a knowledge of grammar. H. Tooke.

    GRAM'MATITE, n. [See Tremolite.]

    GRAM'PLE, n. A crab-fish.

    GRAM'PUS, n. [grampoise ; Fr. grand- poisson, contracted. Spelman.]

    A fish of the cetaceous order, and genus Delphinus. This fish grows to the length of twenty five feet, and is remarkably thick

    in proportion to its length. The nose is flat and turns up at the end. It has 30 teeth in each jaw. The spoiit-hole is on the top of the neck. The color of the back is black ; the belly is of a snowy white- ness ; and on each shoulder is a large white spot. This fish is remarkably voracious. GRANADIL'LA, ji. [Sp.] A plant; the fruit of the Passifora quadrangulata.

    GRANADE, GRANADO. [See Grenadif' GRAN'ARY, n. [L. granarium, from gra-

    num, grain ; Fr. grenier.] A store house or repository of grain after it

    is thrashed ; a corn-house. GRAN'ATE, n. Usually written garnet,

    which see. GRAN'ATITE, n. [See Grenatite.] GRAND, a. [Fr. grand; Sp. and It. granrfe ; L.grandis; Norm, grant. Ifn is casual, this word coincides with great. But most probably it belongs to the Class Rn. The sense is to extend, to advance ; hence it signifies old, advanced in age, as well as great.]

    1. Great ; but mostly in a figurative sense : illustrious; high in power or dignity ; as a grand lord. Raleigh.

    2. Great ; splendid ; magnificent ; as a grand design ; a grand parade ; a grand view or prospect.

    •3. Great; principal; chief; as Satan our grand foe. MiUon.

    4. Noble ; sublime ; lofty ; conceived or ex- pressed with great dignity ; as a grand conception.

    In general, we apply the epithet grand to that which is great and elevated, or which elevates and expands our ideas. The ocean, the sky, a lofVy tower are grand objects. But to constitute a thing grand, it seems necessary that it'should be distinguished by some degree of beauty.

    Elem. of Criticism.

    5. Old; more advanced; as in grandfather, grandmother, that is, old-father; and to correspond with this relation, we use grandson, granddaughter, grandchild.

    GRAN'DAAf, ji. [grand and dame.] Grand- mother. shak.

    2. An old woman. Dniden.

    GRANDCHILD, n. A son's or daughter's child ; a child in the second degree of descent.

    GRANDDAUGHTER, n. Tlie daughter of a son or daughter.

    GRANDEE', n. [Si>. grande.] A nobleman; a man of elevated rank or station. In Spain, a nobleman of the first rank, who has the king's leave to be covered in his presence. Encyc.

    GRANDEE'SHIP, n. The rank or estate of a grandee. Su>inburne.

    GRAND'EUR, n. [Fr. from granrf.] In a general sense, greatness; that quahty or combination ofqnalities in an object, which elevates or expands the mind, and excites pleasurable emotions in him who views or contemplates it. Thus the extent and uni- formity of surface in the ocean constitute grandeur; as do the extent, the elevation, and the concave appearance or vault of the sky. So we speak of the grandeur of a large and well proportioned edifice, of an extensive range of lofty mountains, of a large cataract, of a pyramid, &c.

    G R A

    G R A

    G R A

    2. Splendor of appearance ; state; iiiagnifi cence ; as the grandeur of a court, of i procession, &.c.

    3. Elevation of thought, sentiment or ex pression. We speak of the grandeur of conceptions, and of style or diction.

    4. Elevation of mien or air and deportment. GRANDEV'ITY, n. Great age. [JVotused: GRANDE'VOUS, a. Of great age. [Mt


    GRANDFATHER, n. A father's or moth- er's father; the next degree ahove the father or mother in lineal ascent.

    GRANDIL'OQUENCE, n. Lofty speaking ; lofty expressions. More.

    GRANDIL'OQUOUS, a. [L. grandUoquus ; grandis and loijuor, to speak.] Speaking in a lofty style.

    GRAND'INOUS, a. [L. grando.] Consist- ing of hail. Did.

    GRAN D'lT Y,n. Greatness; magnificence. [JVot used.] Camden.

    GRANDJU'ROR, n. One of a grand jury. In Connecticut, a peace-officer.

    GRAND JU'RY,7i. [grand mA jury.] Ajury whose duty is to examine into the grounds of accusation against offenders, and if they see just cause, then to find bills of indict- ment against them to be presented to the court.

    GRAND'LY, adv. In a lofty manner ; splen- didly ; sublimely.

    GRAND'MOTIIER, n. The mother of one's father or mother.

    GRAND'NESS, n. Grandeur; greatness with beauty ; magnificence. Wollaston

    GRAND'SIRE, n. A grandfather.

    2. In poetry and rhetoric, any ancestor.

    Dryden. Pope.

    GRAND 'SON, n. The son of a son daughter.

    GRAN6E, Ji. grdnj. [Fr. grange, a barn ; grangier, a farmer ; Sp. grangear, to cul- tivate ; grangero, a farmer ; Ir. grainseach a grange ; Scot, grange, the biuldings be- longing to a corn farm, originally a place where the rents and tithes, paid in grain to religious houses, were deposited ; from granum, grain.]

    A farm, with the buildings, stables, &c

    Milton. Shak.

    GRAN'ILITE, n. [See Granit.] Indeter minate granit ; granit that contains more than three constituent parts. Kirwan.

    GRAN'IT, I [Fr. granit ; It. granito,

    GRAN'ITE, \\\\\\\\ "• grained.]

    In mineralogy, an aggregate stone or rock, composed of crystaline grains of quartz, i'cKlspar and mica, or at least of two of :hese minerals, united without a cement, r>r confusedly crystalized. The grains vary in size from that of a pin's head, to a riiass of two or three feet ; but usually the largest size is that of a nut. The color of irranit is greatly diversified by the differ- ■ at colors and proportions of the compo- ;.

    . i; A N'lTEL, n. [dim. of granit.] A binary 'j?;icgate of minerals; a granitic com- ; 'und containing two constituent parts, -^ quartz and feldspar, or quartz and shorl MI- liornblend. Kirwan.

    3 Lilian workmen give this name to a variety ■>!'gray granit consisting of small grains. Did. ATat. Hist.

    GRANIT'IC, a. Pertaining to granit ; like granit ; having the nature of granit ; ai granitic texture.

    2. Consisting of granit ; as granitic moun tains.

    Granitic aggregates, in mineralogy, granular compounds of two or more simple mine rals, in which only one of the essential in- gredients of granit is present ; as quartz and liornblend, feldspar and shorl, &c. Similar compounds occur, in which none of the ingredients of granit are present.


    GRAN'ITIN, ji. A granitic aggregate of three species of minerals, some of which differ from the species which compose granit ; as quartz, feldspar, and jade or •shorl. kirwan.

    GRANIV'OROUS, a. [L. granum, grain, and mro, to eat.]

    Eating grain ; feeding or subsisting on .seeds; as granivorous birds. Brown.

    Grannam, for grandam, a grandmoti {V'ulgar.] B. Jonson.

    GR'ANT, v. t. [Norm, granter, to grant, to promise, or agree. I have not found this word in any other language. Perhaps n is not radical, for in some ancient char- ters it is written grat. " Gratamus et con- cedimus." Spdman.]

    1. To admit as true what is not proved ; to allow ; to yield ; to concede. We take that for granted which is supposed to be true.

    Grant that the fates have firmed, by their decree — Dryden.l

    2. To give ; to bestow or confer on without compensation, particularly in answer to prayer or request.

    Tliou hastgranted me life and favor. Job x God granted him that which he requested, 1 Chron. iv.

    3. To transfer the title of a thing to another, for a good or valuable consideration ; t( convey by deed or writing. The legisla ture have granted all the new land.

    GR' ANT, n. The act of granting ; a bestow

    ing or conferring. '2. The thing granted or bestowed ; a gift

    a boon. 3. In law, a conveyance in writing, of suci I things as cannot pass or be transferred by i word only, as land, rents, reversions, tithes, : &c.

    A grant is an executed conlraet. Z. Swift [4. Concession ; admission of something as

    true. Dryden.

    5. The thing conveyed by deed or patent. GRANTABLE, a. That may be granted or

    conveyed. GRANTED, pp. Admitted as true ; conce

    ded ; yielded ; bestowed ; conveyed. GRANTEE', n. The person to whom a con

    veyance is made. GRANTING, p;)r. Admitting; conceding;

    bestowing ; conveying. GR>ANTOR, n. The person who grants

    one who conveys lands, rents, &c. GRAN'UL.^R, a. [from L. granum, grain.'

    1. Consisting of grains ; as a granular sub- stance.

    2. Resembling grains; as a stone of gra/iK-' lar a])pearance.

    GRAN'ULATE, v. I. [Fr. granuler, from L.


    To form into grains or small masses ; as. to granulate powder or sugar.

    2. To raise into small asperities : to make h on the surface. Ray.

    GRAN'l LATE,t'. i. To collect or be form- ed into grains ; as cane-juice granulates into sugar ; melted metals granute^e when poured into water.

    GRANULATED, pp. Formed into grains.

    2. a. Consisting ofgrains; resembling grains.

    GRAN 'ULATING, mpr. Forming into grains.

    GRANULATION, n. The act of forming into grains ; as the granulation of, powder and sugar. In chimistry, the granulation of metallic substances is j)erformed by pouring the melted substances slowly into water, which is, at the same time, agitated with a broom. Encyc.

    GRAN'ULE, n. [Sp. granillo, from L. gra- num.] A little grain ; a small particle.

    GRAN'ULOUS, o. Full of grains; abound- ing with granular substances.

    GRAPE, n. [This word is from the root of grab, gripe, and signifies primarily a clus- ter or hunch ; Fr. grappe de raisin, a bunch of grapes ; W. grah, a cluster, a grape ; grabin, a clasping ; It. grappa, a grappling ; grappo, a cluster, a bunch of grapes.]

    1. Properly, a cluster of the fruit of the vine ; but with us, a single beriy of the vine ; the fruit from which wine is "made by express- ion and fermentation. In the manege, grapes signifies mangy tu- mors on the legs of a horse.

    GRAPE-HYACINTH, n. A plant or flower, a species of Hyacinthus.

    GRA'PELESS, a. Wanting the strengtii and flavor of the grape. Jenyns.

    GRA'PESHOT, n. A cluster of small shot, confined in a canvas bag, forming a kind of cylinder, whose diameter is equal to that of the ball adapted to the cannon.


    GRA'PESTONE, n. The stone or seed of the grape.



    1. Pertaining to t eating.

    2. Well delineated. Bacon. Describing witli accuracy.

    GRAPHICALLY, adv. With good delinea- tion ; in a jiicturesque manner. Brown.

    GRAPH'ITE, »i. [Gr. ypaf^, to write.] Car- buret of iron, a substance used for pencils, and very improperly called black-lead.

    Did. .Yat. Hist. Cleaveland.

    GRAPH'OLITE, n. [supra.] A species of slate proper for writing on.

    GR.\\\\\\\\PHOM'ETER, n. [Gr. ypo^iu, to des- cribe, and fitTpop, measure.]

    A mathematical instrument, called also a semicircle, whose use is to observe any angle whose vertex is at the center of the instrument in any plane, and to find how many degrees it contains. Encyc.

    GRAPHOMET'RICAL, a. Pertaining to or ascertained by a graphometer.

    GRAPNEL, ) [Fr. grappin. See Grap-

    GRAP'LltiG,]"- ph.]

    1. A small anchor fitted with four or five

    [L. graphicus; Gr. ypo'jiixoj, from yi>afu,

    of writing or delin-

    G R A

    G R A

    G R A

    flukes or claws, used to hold boats or small

    vessels. 2. A gi-appling iron, used to seize and hold

    one sliip to another in engagements. This

    is called afire grapling. GRAP'PLE, V. t. [Goth, greipan, to giipe ;

    Ger. greifen ; Sw. grai '

    gn/pen; Dan. gnber ; ripa ; It. grappare ; W.

    peaw. See Grape and Gripe. I

    1. To seize ; to lay fast hold on, either with the hands or with hooks. We say, a man grapples his antagonist, or a ship grapples another ship.

    2. To fasten ; to fix, as the mind or heart. [jVot in vse.] Shak.

    GRAP'PLE, 11. 1. To seize ; to contend in close fight, as wrestlers.

    Millon. Addison.

    To grapple with, to contend with, to struggle with successfully. Shak.

    GRAP'PLE, »^ A seizing; close hug in con- test ; the wrestler's hold. Millon.

    2. Close fight. Shak.

    3. A hook or iron instrument by whicli one ship fastens on another. Dryden.

    GRAP'PLEMENT, n. A grappling ; close

    fight or embrace. GRA'PY, a. Like grapes ; full of chisteis of

    grapes. Addison.

    2. Made of grapes. Gay.

    GR^ASP, V. t. [It. graspare.] To seize and

    hold by clasping or embracing with the

    fingers or arms. We say, to grasp with

    the hand, or with the ai-ras. fj. To catch ; to seize ; to lay hold of; to take

    possession of. Kings often grasp more

    than they can hold. GR'ASP, V. i. To catch or seize ; to gripe.

    Dryden. 2. To struggle ; to strive. [Not in use.} .3. To encroach. Dryden.

    To grasp at, to catch at; to try to seize.

    Alexander grasped at universal empire. GR'ASP, n. The gripe or seizure of the

    hand. This seems to be its proper sense ;

    but it denotes also a seizure by embrace,

    or infolding in the arms. 2. Possession ; hold. .?. Reach of the arms; and figuratively, the

    ])ower of seizing. Bonaparte seemed to

    think he had tlie Russian empire within

    liis grasp. GR'ASPED, pp. Seized with the hands or

    arms ; embraced ; held ; possessed. GR'ASPER, n. One who grasps or seizes ;

    one who catches at ; one who holds. GR'ASPING, ppr. Seizing; embracing;

    catching ; holding. GR'ASS, n. [Sax. gras, gcers or grad;

    Goth, gras ; G. D. gras ; Sw. gras ; Dan.

    grtes. In G. rasen is turf, sod, and verra-

    sen, to overgrow with grass ; hence, g'niay

    be a prefix. Grass may be allied to Gr.

    1. In common usage, herbage ; the plants which constitute the food of cattle and other beasts.

    'i. In botany, a plant having simple leaves, a stem generally jointed and tubular, a husky calyx, called glume, and the seed single. Tliis definition includes wheat, rye. oats, barley, &c., and excludes clover and some other plants which are commoidy called by the name of grass. The grasses form a numerous family of plants. Encyc.

    Grass nf Parnassus, a plant, the Parnassia.

    GR'ASS, V. t. To cover with grass or with turf

    Gll'ASS, V. i. To breed grass ; to be covered with grass. Tusser.

    GRASSA'TION, n. [h. grassatio.] A wan- dering about. [Little used.]

    GRASS-GREEN, a. Green with grass.


    2. Dark green, like the color of grass.

    GR'ASS-GROWN, a. Overgrown with grass. Thomson.

    GRASSHOPPER, n. [grass and hop.] An animal that lives among grass, a species of Gryllus.

    GR'ASSINESS, n. [from grassy.] The state of abounding with grass ; a grassy state.

    GR>ASSLESS, o. Destitute of grass.

    GR'ASSPLOT, n. A plat or level spot cov- ered with grass.

    GRASSPOLY, n. A plant, a species of Lythrum or willow-wort.

    GR'ASSVETCH, n. A plant of the genus Lathyrus.

    GR'ASSWRACK, n. A plant, the Zostera.

    GR'ASSY, a. Covered with grass ; abound- ing with grass. Spenser.

    i. Resembling grass ; gi-een.

    GRATE, n. [It. grata, L. crates, a grate, a hurdle. Qu. its alliance to the verb, to grate.]

    i. A work or frame, composed of parallel or cross bars, with interstices ; a kind of lat- tice-work, such as is used in the windows of prisons and cloisters.

    2. An instrument or iiaine of iron bars for holding coals, used as fuel, in liouses, stores, shops, &c.

    GRATE, V. t. To furnish with grates; to make fast with cross bars.

    GRATE, i;. t. [Fr. gratler. It. graltare, to scratch ; Dan. grytter, to grate, to break ; Sp. gneta, a scratch, a crevice ; W. rhathu, to rub ofl", to strip, to clear ; rhathell, a rasp. See the Shemitic llj, DIP, mn and Tip. Class Rd. No. 38. 58. G2. 81. Ifg-isapre- fix, this word coincides with L. rado. See Cry.]

    1. To rub, as a body with a rough surface against another body ; to rub one thing against another, so as to produce a harsh sound ; as, to grate the teeth.

    2. To wear away in small particles, by rub- bing with any thing rough or indented ; as, to grate a nutmeg.

    3. To offend ; to fret ; to vex ; to irritate ; to mortify ; as, harsh words g-rafc the heart ; they are grating to the feelings ; harsh sounds grate the ear.

    4. To make a harsh sound, by rubbing or the friction of rough bodies. Millon.

    GRATE, V. i. To rub hard, so as to offend ; to offend by oppression or importunity. This grated harder upon the hearts of men. South.

    2. To make a Iiarsh sound by tlie friction of rough bodies. Hooker.

    GRATE, a. [L. gratus.] Agreeable. [jYot in use.]

    GRA'TED, pp. Rubbed harshly ; worn off by rubbing.

    2. Furnished with a grate ; as grated win- dows.

    GRA'TEFUL, a. [from L. gratis. See Grace. 1

    1. Having a due sense of benefits ; kindly disposed towards one from whom a favor has been received; wilhng to acknowl- edge and rejiay benefits; as a grateful heart.

    2. Agreeable; pleasing; acceptable; grati- fying ; as a grateful jiresent ; a grateful offering.

    3. Pleasing to the taste ; delicious ; affordihL' pleasure ; as food or drink grateful to the appetite.

    Now golden fruits on loaded branches shine.

    And grateful clusters swell with floods <,:

    wine. PojH

    GRA'TEFCJLLY, adv. With a due sense ..!- benefits or favors; in a manner that dis- poses to kindness, in return for favors. Tlie gift was gratefully received.

    2. In a ])leasingmanner. Study continuallv furnishes something new, which may striki the imagination gratefully.

    GRA'TEFULNESS, n. The quality of b. ing grateful ; gratitude.

    |2. The quality of being agreeable or pleas- ant to the mind or to the taste.

    IGRA'TER, n. [See Grate.] An instrument

    I or utensil with a rough indented surface,, for rubbing off small particles of a body j as a grower for nutmegs.

    GRATIFICA'TION, n. [L. gratifcatio, from gratifcor; gratus and facio, to make.]

    1. The act of pleasing, either the mind, the taste or the appetite. We speak of the gratification of the taste or the palate, of the appetites, of the senses, of the desires, of the mind, soul or heart.

    2. That which affords pleasure ; satisfaction ; delight. It is not easy to renounce grati- fications to whicli we are accustomed.

    3. Reward ; recompense. Morion. GRATIFIED, pp. Pleased; indulged ac- cording to desire.

    GRAT'IFIER, n. One who gratifies or

    pleases. GRAT'IFY, V. t. [L. gratificor; gratus^

    agreeable, ami facto, to make.]

    1. To please; to give pleasure to; to in- dulge ; as, to gratify the taste, the appe- tite, the senses, the desires, the mind, &c.

    2. To delight ; to please ; to humor ; to soothe ; to satisfy ; to indulge to satisfac- tion.

    For who would die to gratify a foe ?


    |3. To requite ; to recompense.

    jGRAT'IF^ING, ppr. Pleasing ; indulging

    1 to satisfaction.

    p. a. Giving pleasure ; affording satisfac-

    j tion.

    :GRA'TING, ppr. [See Grate.] Rubbing j

    j wearing off in particles.

    j2. a. Fretting; irritating; harsh ; as grating

    I sounds, or a grating reflection.

    GRA'TING, 1 ^ [See Grate.] A partition

    GRA'TINGS, ^ 'of bars; an open cover for the hatches of a ship, resembling lat- tice-work. Mar. Diet,

    GRA'TINGLY, adv. Harshly; offensively^ in a manner to irritate.

    GRA'TIS, adv. [L.] For nothing; freely; , without recompense ; as, to give a thing

    fratis ; to perform service gratis. AT'lTUDE, 71. [L. gratUudo, from gra- ins, pleasing. See Grace.] An emotion of the heart, excited by a favor or benefit received ; a sentiment of kind-

    G R A

    G R A

    G R A

    iiess or good will towards a benefactor ; thankfulness. Gratitude is an agreeable emotion, consisting in or accompanied with good will to a benefactor, and a dis position to make a suitable return of bene fits or services, or when no return can be made, with a desire to see the benefactor prosperous and happy. Gratitude is a vir- tue of the highest excellence, as it implies a feeling and generous heart, and a proper sense of duty.

    The love of God is tlie sublimest gratitude. Palerj. GRATU'ITOUS, a. [L. gratuitus, from gra- ins ; Fr. graiuil ; It. gratuito. See Grace.]

    1. Free; voluntary; not required by justice; granted without claim or merit.

    We mistake the gratuitous blessings of hea- ven for the fruits of our own industrj'.


    2. Asserted or taken without proof; as a gratuitous argument or afiirmation.

    GRATU'ITOUSLY, adv. Freely ; volunta- rily; without claim or merit; without an equivalent or compensation ; as labor or services gratuitously bestowed.

    2. Without proof; as a principle gratuitously assumed.

    GRATU'ITY, n. [Fr. gratuiti, from gratuit, from gratus.]

    1. A free gift ; a present ; a donation ; that which is given without a compensation or equivalent.

    8. Something given in return for a favor ; an acknowledgment.

    GRAT'ULATE, v. t. [L. gratulor, from gra- ins, pleasing, grateful ; Russ. with the pre- fix na, nagrada, recompense ; nagrajdayu, to gratify, to reward. Sec Grace.]

    1. To express joy or pleasure to a person, on account of his success, or the reception of some good ; to salute with declarations of joy; to congratulate. [The latter word is more generally iised.]

    To gratulate tlie gentle princes there.


    2. To wish or express joy to. Shak.

    3. To declare joy for ; to mention with joy.

    B. Jonson.

    GRAT'ULATED, pp. Addressed with ex- pressions of joy.

    GRAT'ULATING, ppr. Addressing with expressions of joy, on account of some good received.

    GRATULA'TION, «. [L. gralulalio.] An address or expression of joy to a person, on account of some good received by him; congratulation.

    I shall turn my wishes into gratulalions.


    GRAT'ULATORY, a. Expressing gratula- tioii; congratulatorv.

    GRAVE, a final syliable, is a grove. Sax. grwf; or it is an officer, Ger. graf.

    GRAVE, V. t. pret. graved ; pp. graven or graved. [Fr. graver ; Sp. grabar ; Sax. gra- fan; G.graben; D.graavcn ; T>an. graver ; Sw. grafva ; Arm. engraji, engravi ; Ir. grafadh, grafaim ; VV. criviatv, fi-om rhiv ; Gr. ypa^u, to write ; originally all writing ■was graving ; Eng. to scrape ; Ch. and Syr. a-o to plow. See Class Rb. No. 30.]

    1. To carve or cut letters or figures on stonel or other hard substance, with a chisel orj edged tool; to engrave. [The latter wordisi now more generally itsed.] j

    Ex. xxviii.

    2. To carve ; to form or .shape by cutting with a chisel ; as, to grave an image.

    Thou shall not make unto thee any graven image. Ex. xx.

    |3. To clean a ship's bottom by burning off fdth, grass or other foreign matter, and

    j paying it over with pitch.

    |4. To entomb. [Unusual.] Shak.

    GRAVE, V. i. To carve ; to write or delin- eate on hard substances ; to practice en- graving.

    GRAVE, n. [Sax. graf; G. grab ; D. Sw. graf; Dan. gruv; Russ. grob, a ditch, a trench, a grave ; V.. scrobs. Seethe Verb.]'

    1. The ditch, pit or excavated place in which' a dead human body is deposited ; a place! for the corpse of a human being ; a sepul- cher.

    2. A tomb.

    3. Any place where the dead are reposited ; a place of great slaughter or mortality. Flanflers was formerly the grave of Eng- lish armies. Russia proved to be the grave of the French army under Bona- parte. The tropical climates are the grave of American seamen and of British sol- diers.

    4. Graves, in the jilural, sediment of tallow melted. LVot m use or local.]

    GRA'VE-CLOTHES, n. The clothes or in >vhich the dead are interred.

    GRAVE-DIGGER, n. One whose occupa- tion is to dig graves.

    GRA'VE-MAKER, n. A grave-digger.


    GRA'VE-STONE, n. A stone laid over a grave, or erected near it, as a monument to preserve the memory of the dead.

    GRAVE, a. [Fr. Sp. It. grave; Arm.grevns ; from L. gravis, heavy, whence L. gravo, and aggravo, to aggravate. Hence grief,

    which see. Ar. >^j.^i karaba, to over- load, to press, to grieve. Class Rb. No. 30.] Properly, ijressing, heavy. Hence,

    In music, low j depressed ; solemn ; op- posed to sharp, acute, or high ; as a grave tone or sound. Sometimes gj-ave denotes slow.

    Solemn; sober; serious; 0])\\\\\\\\>0Bed to gay, light or jovial ; as a man of a grave de- portment ; a grave character. Youth on silent wings is flown ; Graver years come rolling on. Prior.

    3. Plain ; not gay ; not showy or tawdry ; a grave suit of clothes.

    4. Being of weight ; of a serious character; 1 grave writer.

    GRA'VBD, ;;/>. [Seethe Verb.] Carved; engraved ; cleaned, as a ship. I

    GRAVEL, n. [Fr. gravelle, gravier ; Arm. grcveU, or maen-gravell, [stone gravel:] Ger. grober sand, coarse sand ; D. graved. Probably from rubbing, grating. See Grave, the verb.] j

    Small stones or fragments of stone, or very small pebbles, larger than the parti- cles of sand, but often intermixed with them. I

    2. In medicine, small calculous concretions in the kidneys and bladder. Cyc.l

    [L. gravidus, from gravis.

    GRAV'EL, I', t. To cover with gravel ; as, to gravel a walk.

    2. To stick in the sand. Camden.

    3. To ])iizzle ; to stop ; to embarrass. Prior.

    4. To hurt the foot of a horse, by gravel lodged under the shoe.

    GRAVELED, pp. Covered with gravel; stopped ; embarrassed ; injured by gravel.

    GRA'VELESS, a. [from grave.] Without grave or tomb ; unburied. Shak.

    GR.\\\\\\\\VELLY, a. [from gravel.] Abounding with gravel ; consisting of gravel ; as a gravelhi soil or land.

    GRAVEL-WALK, n. A walk or alley cov- ered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom ; used in gardens and malls.

    GRA'XELY, adv. [from grave.] In a grave, solemn manner ; soberly ; seriously. The queen of learning gravely smiles.

    Swift. Without gaudiness or show; as, to be dressed gravely.

    GRA'VENESS, n. Seriousness; solemnity; sobriety of behavior ; gravity of manners or discourse. Denham.

    GRA'VER, n. [See Crave.] Ono who carves or engraves ; one whose profession is to cut letters or figures in stone, &c. ; a sculjnor.

    2. An engraving tool ; an instrument for graving on hard substances.

    GRAVID, heavy.]

    Pregnant ; being with child. Herbert.

    GRAV'IDATED, a. Made pregnant ; big. [JVot in use. ] Barrow.

    GRAVIDA'TION, n. Pregnancy. [Xot in use.] Pearson.

    GRAVID'ITY, n. Pregnancy. [jVotinuse.] Jirbuthnot.

    GRA'VING, ;?;)r. Engraving; carving; cut- ting figures on stone, cop])er or other hard suh.'itance.

    GR.4'VING, n. Carved work. 2 Cliron. ii.

    2. Impression. King Charles.

    GRAVITATE, v. i. [Sp. gravitar ; Fr. graviter; from L. gravilas, from gravis, heavy.]

    To tend to the center of a body, or the cen- tral point of attraction. Thus a body ele- vated above the earth tends to fall, that is, it gravitates towards the center of the earth ; and the planets are suppose

    GRAVITATING, ;);7r. Tending to the cen- ter of a binly or system of bodies.

    GRAVITATION, n. The act of tending to the center.

    2. The force by which bodies are pressed or drawn, or by which they tend towards the center of the earth or other center, or the effect of that force. Thus the falling of a body to the earth is ascribed to g-roi-itahon. Encyc.

    GRAVITY, n. [Fr. grainV^ ; Sp. gravidad'; L. gravitas, from gravis, heavy. See Grave.]

    1. Weight ; heaviness.

    2. In philosophy, that force by which bodies tend or are pressed or drawn towards the center of the earth, or towards some other center, or the effect of that force ; in which last sense gravity is synonymous with tceight. Encyc.

    G R A

    Gravity is the tendency of great bodies to a center, or the sum or results of all the attractions of all the molectiles composing a great body. Diet. JSTat. Hist

    The force of gravity in a body is in direc proportion to its quantity of matter.

    3. Specijic gravity, the weight belonging to an equal bulk of every difierent substance.] Thus the e.xact vveiglit of a cubic inch ofj gold, compared with that of a cubic inch of water or tin, is called its specijic gravity.] The specific gravity of bodies is usually] ascertained by weigliing them in distilledl water. Encyc.l

    4. Seriousness ; sobriety of manners ; solem nity of deportuient or character.

    Great Cato there, for gravity renowned.


    5. Weight; enormity; atrociousness; asthe] gravity of an injury. [JVot used.]

    Hooker. C). In music, lowness of sound. GRA'VY, n. The fat and other liquid mat- ter that drips from flesli in roasting, or when roasted or baked, or a mi.xture of that juice with flour. GRAY, a. [Sax. grig,gra:g; G. graii; D. graauw ; Dan. graae; Sw. gra ; It. grigio ; Ir. gre. This is probably Tpaixos, Gracus, Greek, Graii, the name given to the Greeks, on account of their fair complex- ion compared with the Asiatics and Afri- cans. [See Europe.]

    *opxvi 6' av Kijrw rpaiaj rixt xaVKiytaptjovs,

    Ex ytftrjjs rCO'Kiai. tai 8i; Tpaioj xa'Ktovat.i' —

    Hesiod. Theog. 370,

    " Keto bore to Phorcus the Graite with

    fair cheeks, white from their birth,

    hence they were called Graiie." The

    Greek word ypaia is rendered an old wo

    man, and in this passage of Hesiod, is sup

    posed to mean certain deities. The prob

    ability is, that it is applied to an old wo

    man, because she is gray. But the fable

    of Hesiod is easily explained by supposing

    the author to have had in his mind some

    imperfect account of the origin of the


    1. White, with a mi.\\\\\\\\ture of black.

    These gray and dun colors may be also pro- duced by mixing whites and blacks.


    2. White ; hoary ; as gray hair. We apply the word to hair that is partially or wholly white.

    3. Dark; of a mixed color; of the color ofl ashes ; as gray eyes ; the gray-eyed morn

    Gay. Shak.

    4. Old ; mature ; as gray experience.

    Ames. GRAY, n. A gray color. Parnel

    2. A badger. .flinsworth

    GRAY-BEARD, n. An old man. Shak GRAY-EYED, a. Having gray eyes. GRA'YFLY, n. The trumpet-ifly. Milton GRAY-HAIRED, a. Having gray hair. | GRA'Y-HEADED, a. Having a gray head

    or gray hair. GRA'YHOUND, n. [Sax. grighund.] A tall

    fleet dog, used in the chase. GRA'YISH, a. Somewhat gray ; gray in a

    moderate degree. GRA'YLING, n. A fish of the genus Salmo, called also umber, a voracious fish, about sixteen or eighteen inches in length, of a more elegant figure than the trout ; the]


    back and sides are of a silvery gray color. It is found in clear rapid streams in the north of Europe, and is excellent food.

    Diet. JVat. Hist.

    GRA'YNESS, n. The quality of being gray. Sherwood.

    GRAYWACKE, n. [G. grauwacke.] A rock somewhat remarkablein its structure and geological relations ; a kind of sandstone, composed of grains or fragments of differ- ent minerals, chiefly of quartz, feldspar, siliceous slate and argillite. These frag- ments are sometimes angular, and some- limes their edges and angles are rounded, thus forming nodules or globular masses. The size is very variable, passing from grains to nodules of a foot in diameter The several ingredients are united by an indurated argillaceous substance, or the interstices between the larger fragments are filled by the same materials which compose the larger parts of the rock, but in grains so comminuted as to resemble a homogeneous cement. The colors are some shade of gray or brown, ak bluish gray, reddish brown, &c. Cleaveland.

    GRAZE, v. t. [Sax. grasian ; G. grasen ; D.

    graazen ; from grass, or from the root of L. rado, rasi, or rodo, rosi, Sp. rozar. Port. rofar, to rub against, to graze. In Russ. grizu, or grezu, signifies to bite, to gnaw.]

    1. To rub or touch lightly in passing; to brush lightly the surface of a thing in pass- ing ; as, the bullet grazed the wall or the earth.

    3. To feed or supply cattle with grass ; to furnish pasture for ; as, the farmer grazes large herds of cattle.

    3. To feed on ; to 'eat from the ground, as growing herbage.

    The lambs with wolves shall graze the ver- dant mead. Pope

    4. To tend grazing cattle ; as, Jacob grazed Laban's sheep. Shak.

    GRAZE, V. i. To eat grass; to feed on growing herbage ; as, cattle graze on the meadows.

    To supply grass ; as, the ground will noti graze well. Bacon.l

    3. To move on devouring. Bacon.]

    GRA'ZED, pp. Touched lightly by a pass- ing body ; brushed.

    2. Fed by growing grass ; as, cattle are gra-\\\\\\\\ ed.

    3. Eaten, as growing herbage ; as, the fields were grazed.

    GRA'ZER, n. One that grazes or feeds on growing herbage. Philips.]

    GRA'ZIER, n.gra'zhiir. One who feeds cat- tle with grass, or supplies them with pas- ture. Bacon.

    GRA'ZING, ppr. Touching lightly, us a moving body.

    2. Feeding on growing herbage; asgrazi^ig cattle.

    3. a. Supplying pasture ; as a grazing farm. GREASE, ?i. [Fr. graisse ; It. grasso ; Sp.

    gra^a, grease ; Port, graxa, grease for wheels, and a distemper in a horse whei? his fat is melted by excessive action. Port Diet.] 1. Animal fat in a soft state ; oily or unctuous matter of any kind, as tallow, lard; but particularly the fatty matter of land ani- mals, as distinguislied from the oily mat- ter of marine animals.


    3. A sweUing and goui-diness of a horse :

    legs, occasioned by traveling or by stand

    ing long in a stable. Encyc. Johnson

    GREASE, V. t. greez. To smear, anoint oi

    daub with grease or fat. 2. To bribe ; to corrupt with presents. [jYul

    elegant.] Drydtn

    GRE'ASED, pp. Smeared with oily matter

    bribed. GRE'ASILY, adv. With grease or an aj)

    pearance of it ; grossly. GRE'ASINESS, n. The state of bein^

    greasy ; oiliness : unctuousness. Boylt. GRE'ASING, pjn-. Smearing with fat oi

    oily matter ; bribing. GRE'ASY, a. g-ree:'3/. Oily; fat; unctu


    2. Smeared or defiled with grease.

    3. Like grease or oil; smooth; as a fossii that has a greasy feel.

    Fat of body ; bulky. [Little iised.]


    5. Gross; indelicate ; indecent. Marstoi .

    GREAT, a. [Sax. great ; D. groot ; G. gros.: Norm, gres; It. grosso ; Sp. grueso ;Vo\\\\\\\\ grosso ; Fr. gros ; Arm.gro^z; and ]«-..!' ably L. crasstis. Great and gross are tin same word dialectically varied in orthog raphy. See Class Rd. No. 59. 22. 79.] Large in bulk or dimensions; a term of comparison, denoting more magnitude m extension than something else, or beyond what is usual ; as a great body ; a gnu' house ; a great farm.

    2. Being of extended length or breadth ; rf a great distance ; a great lake.

    3. Large in number ; as a great many : great multitude.

    4. Expressing a large, extensive or unusii.-r degree of any thing; as great fear ; great love ; great strength ; great wealth ; great power ; great influence ; great folly.

    5. Long continued ; as a great while.

    6. Important; weighty; as a great argii ment ; a great truth ; a greai event ; a thin:; of no g-reat consequence ; it is no grcir matter.

    Chief; principal ; as the great seal ot


    8. Chief; of vast power and excellence ;

    supreme ; illustrious ; as the great God :

    the great Creator.

    3. Vast ; extensive ; wonderful ; admirable.

    Great are thy works, Jehovah. Milton.

    10. Possessing large or strong jjowers of mind ; as a great genius.

    11. Having made extensive or unusual ac- quisitions of science or knowledge ; as a great philosopher or botanist ; a great scholar.

    12. Distinguished by rank, oflice or power; elevated ; eminent ; as a great lord ; the great men of the nation ; the great Mogul ; Alexander the great.

    13. Dignified in aspect, mien or manner. Amidst the crowd she walks serenely great.

    Dry den.

    14. Magnanimous ; generous ; of elevated sentiments ; high-minded. He has a great soul.

    15. Rich ; sumptuous ; magnificent. lie disdained not to appear at great tables. A great feast or entertainment.

    1(5. Vast; sublime; as a great conceptim

    or idea. 17. Dignified; noble.


    G R E

    G R E

    Nothing can be great which is not right.


    18. Swelling ; proud ; as, he was not dis- heartened by great looks.

    19. Chief; principal; much traveled; as a great road. The ocean is called the great highway of nations.

    20. Pregnant ; teeming ; as great with

    great matter to live in peace with meek people.

    22. Familiar ; intimate. [ Vulgar.]

    23. Distinguished by extraordinary events, or unusnal importance. Jiide G.

    24. Denoting a degree of consanguinity, in the ascending or descending line, as great grandfather, the father of a grandfather ; great great grandfather, the father of a great grandfather, and so on indefinitely ; and great grandson, great great grandson. &c.

    25. Superior ; preeminent ; as great cham- berlain ; great marshal.

    The sense of great is to be understood by the things it is intended to qualify. Great pain or wrath is violent pain or wrath ; great love is ardent love ; great peace is entire peace; a great name is extensive renown ; a great evil or sm, is a sin of deep malignity, &c.

    GREAT, n. The whole ; the gross ; the lump or mass ; as, a carpenter contracts to build a ship by the great.

    2. People of rank or distinction. Tlie poor envy the great, and the great despise the poor.

    GREAT-BELLIED, a. Pregnant; teeming. Shak.

    GREATEN, v. t. To enlarge. 04s.


    GREAT-HEARTED, a. High-spirited ; un- dejected. Clarendon.

    GREATLY, adv. In a great degree ; much. 1 will greatly multiply thy sorrow. Gen. iii.

    2. Nobly ; illustriously.

    By a high fate, thou greatly didst expire.

    Dry den.

    3. Magnanimously ; generously ; bravely. He greatly scorned to turn his back on his foe. He greatly spurned the offered boon.

    GREATNESS, n. Largeness of bulk, di- mensions, number or quantity ; as the g'reatoe** of a mountain, of an edifice, of a multitude, or of a sum of money. With reference to solid bodies, however, we more generally use bull;, size, extent or magnitude than greatness; as the bulk or\\\\\\\\ size of the body ; the extent of the ocean ; the magnitude of the sun or of the earth.!

    2. Large amount ; extent ; as the greatnessl' of a reward.

    3. High degree ; as the greatness of virtue or vice.

    4. High rank or place ; elevation ; dignity ; distinction ; eminence ; power ; command.

    Farewell, a long farewell to all my greatness. Shak.

    5. SweUing pride ; affected state.

    It is not of pride or greatness tliat he cometh not aboard your ships. £acon.

    6. Magnanimity; elevation of sentiment; nobleness; as greatness of mind.

    Virtue is the only solid basis of greatness.


    7. Strength or extent of intellectual facul- ties ; as the greatness of genius.

    i. Large extent or variety ; as the greatness of a man's acquisitions.

    9. Grandeur ; pomp ; magnificence.

    Greatness with Timon dwells in such a

    draught, As brings all Brobdignag before your thought. Pope.

    10. Force ; intensity ; as the greatness of sound, of passion,"heat, &c

    GREAVE, for grove and groove. [See Grove and Groove.] Speiuier.

    GREAVES, n. plu. greevz. [Port. Sp. greras. In Fr. greve is the calf of the leg.]

    Armor for the legs ; a sort of boots. 1 Sam. xvii.

    GREBE, n. A fowl of the genus Colymbus and order of ansers, of several species ; as the tippet-grebe, the horned grebe, the eared grebe or dob-chick. Encyc

    GRE'CIAN, a. Pertaining to Greece.

    GRE'CIAN, n. A native of Greece. Also^ a Jew who understood Greek. Acts vi.

    2. One well versed in the Greek language,

    GRE'CISM, n. [L. grcecismus.] An idiom of the Greek language. Addison.

    GRE'CIZE, i;. t. To render Grecian.

    2. To translate into Greek.

    GRE'CiZE, V. i. To speak the Greek Ian guage.

    GREE, n. [Fr. grL See Agree.] Good will. Obs. Spenser.

    2. Step ; rank ; degree. [Sec Degree.] Ohs. Spenser.

    GREE. D. I. To agree. Obs. [See Agree.]

    GREECE,?!. [W. grdz; L. gressus. It ought to be written grese, but it is entirely obsolete.] A flight of steps. Bacon.

    GREED, n. Greediness. Obs. Graham

    GREE'DILY, adv. [See Greedy.] With i keen ai)petite for food or drink ; vora- ciously ; ravenously ; as, to eat or swallow greedily.

    2. With ke Jude 11.

    GREE'DINESS, ?!. Keenness of appetite

    for food or drink; ravenousness ; voracity.

    Fox in stealth, wolf in greediness. Shak.

    2. Ardent desire.

    GREE'DY, a. [Sax. grcedig; D. greetig; Goth, gredags, from gredon, to hunger. It agrees in elements with L. gradior, and probably signifies reaching forward.]

    1. Having a keen appetite for food or drink ; 3'avenous; voracious; very hungry; fol lowed by of; as a lion that is greedy of his prey. Ps. xvii.

    2. Having a keen desire of any thing; eager to obtain ; as greedy of gain.

    GREEK, a. Pertaining to Greece. [See Gray.]

    GREEK, n. A native of Greece.

    2. The language of Greece.

    Greek-fire, a combustible composition, the constituents of which are suppo.sed to be asphalt, with niter and sulphur. Vre.'

    GREE'KISH, a. Peculiar to Greece.


    GREE'KLING, n. An inferior Greek wri-, r. B. Jonson.

    GREE'KROSE. n. The flower campion.

    GREEN, a. [Sax. grene ; G. gritn ; D. groen ; Dan. gron ; Sw. gron ; Heb. ]yn to grow, to flourish. Class Rn. No. 7.]

    1. Properly, growing, flourishing, as plants ; hence, of the color of herbage and plants!

    ardent desire ; eagerly.

    when growing, a color composed of blue and yellow rays, one of the original pris- matic colors; verdant.

    2. New ; fresh ; recent ; as a green wound.

    The greenest usurpation. Burke.

    3. Fresh ; flourishing ; undecayed ; as green old age.

    4. Containing its natural juices ; not dry ; not seasoned ; as green wood ; green tim- ber.

    5. Not roasted; half raw.

    We say the meat is green, when half roasted. Watts. [Rarely, if ever used in America.]

    6. Unripe ; immature ; not arrived to perfec- tion ; as green fruit. Hence,

    7. Imtiiature in age ; young ; as green in age or judgment.

    8. Pale ; sickly ; wan ; of a greenish pale color. Shak.

    GREEN, n. The color of growing plants ; a color composed of blue and yellow rays, which, mixed in different proportions, ex- hibit a variety of shades ; as apple green, meadow green, leek green, &c.

    2. A grassy plain or plat ; a piece of ground lovered with verdant herbage.

    O'er the smooth enameled green. Milton.

    3. Fresh leaves or branches of trees or other plants ; wreaths ; usually in the plural.

    The fragrant greens I seek, my brows


    Dry den. ' plants

    4. The leaves and steins of young plants used in cookery or dressed for food in the spring ; in the plural. JVew England.

    GREEN, V. t. To make green. This is used by Thomson and by Barlow, but is not an elegant word, nor indeed hardly legitimate, in the sense in which these writers use it. " Spring greens the year." " God greens the groves." The only le- gitimate sense of this verb, if used, would be, to dye green, or to change to a green color. A plant growing in a dark room is yellow ; let this plant be carried into the open air, and the rays of the sun will green it. This use would correspond with the use of whiten, blacken, redden.

    GREE'NBROOM, ) A plant of the ee-

    GREE'NWEED, I "• nus Genista.

    GREE'N€LOTH, n. A board or court of justice held in the counting house of the British king's household, composed of the lord steward and the ortieers under him. This court has the charge and cognizance of all matters of justice in the king's house- hold, with power to correct offenders and keep the peace of the verge, or jurisdiction of the court-royal, which extends every way two hundred yards from the gate of the palace. Johnson. Encyc.

    GREE'N-€ROP, n. A croj. of green veg- etables, such as artificial grasses, turneps, &c. Cxjc.

    GREE'N-EARTH, n. A species of earth or mineral, so called ; the mountain green of artists. Vre.

    GREE'N-EyED, a. Having green eyes ; as green-eyed jealousy. " " Shak.

    GREENFINCH, n". A bird of the genus Fringilla.

    GREE NFISH, n. A fish so called. Ains.

    GREENGAGE, n. A species of plum.

    GREE'N-GROCER, n. A retailer of greens.

    G R E


    G R I

    C'REENIIAIRED, a. Having green locks

    or hair. Mason.

    OREE'NIIOOD, n. A state of greenness.

    Chaucer GREE'MIORN, n. A raw youth. GREE'N-HOUSE, n. A house in which


    weather, and preserved green during the

    winter or cold weather. GREE'NISH, a. Somewhat green ; having

    a tinge of green ; ns a greenish yellow.

    JVeivton. GREE'NISHNESS, n. The quaUty ofbeing

    greenish. GREE'NLY, adv. AVith a green color;

    newly ; freshly ; iramaturely. GREE'NNESS, n. The quality of being

    green; viridity; as the greenness o{ grass

    or of a meadow.

    2. Immaturity ; unripeness ; in a literal or figurative sense ; as the greenness of fruit the greenness of youth.

    3. Freshness; vigor. South.

    4. Newness. GREE'N-SICKNESS, n. The chlorosis, a

    disease of maids, so called from the color

    it occasions in the face. GREE'N-STALL, n. A stall on which

    greens are exposed to sale. GREE'NSTOIVE, n. [so called from a

    tinge of green in the color.] A rock of the trap formation, consisting of

    bornblend and feldspar in the state of

    grains or small crystals. Ure.

    GREE'N-SWARD, n. Turf green with

    grass. GREEN-WEED, n. Dyer's weed. GREE'NWOQD, jt. Wood when green,

    GREENWOOD, o. Pertaining to a green- wood ; as a greenwood shade. Dryden.

    GREET, V. I. [Sax. gretan, grettan, to sa- lute, to exclaim, to cry out, to bid fare- well, to approach, to touch; Q. griisseii ; D. groelen, to greet ; Sax. grcedan, to cry ; Goth, gi-eitan, Sw. grata, Dan. grader, to weep ; It. gridare ; Sp. Port, gritar ; W. grydian, grydiaio, to shout, to scream or shriek, to wail, to make a vehement rough noise ; perhaps L. rudo, to bray, to roar. See Class Rd. No. 7. 19. 43. 70. 75.]

    1. To address with expressions of kind wish- es ; to salute in kindness and respect.

    My lord, the Mayor of London comes to greet you. Shak.

    2. To address at meeting ; to address in any manner. Shak.

    3. To congratulate.

    4. To pay conapliments at a distance ; to send kind wishes to. Col. iv. 2 Tim. iv.

    5. To meet and address with kindness ; or to express kind wishes accompanied with an embrace. 1 Tliess. v.

    6. To meet. Shak. GREET, V. i. To meet and salute.

    There greet in silence, as the dead are wont.

    And sleep in peace. Shak.'

    2. To weep ; written by Spenser gret7. Oh.s.l

    GREE'TED,pp. Addressed with kind wish-l

    es ; complimented. GREE'TER, n. One who greets. I

    GREE'TING, ppr. Addressing with kind wishes or expressions of joy ; compli- menting ; congratulating ; saliiting.

    IGREE'TING, n. Expression of kindness or joy ; salutation at meeting ; compliment addressed Ironi one absent.

    GREEZE, n. [L. gressus.] A step, or flight of steps. Obs. [See Greece.]

    GREF'FIER, n. [Fr. See Graft.] A re- gistrar, or recorder. Bp. Hall.

    GRE'GAL, a. [L. grer.] Pertaining to a flock. Diet.

    GREGA'RIAN, a. [See Gregarious.] Be- longing to the herd or common sort.


    GREGA'RIOUS, a. [L. gregarius, from grex, a herd.]

    Having the habit of assembUng or living in a flock or herd ; not habitually solitary or living alone. Cattle and sheep are grega- rious animals. Many species of birds are gregarious. Rapacious animals are gene- rally not gregarious.

    GREGARIOUSLY, adv. In a flock or herd ; in a company.

    GREGA'RIOUSNESS, n. The state or uahty of living in flocks or herds.

    GREGO'RIAN, a. Denoting what belongs to Gregory. The Gregorian calendar, is oiie which shows the new and full moon, with the time of Easter, and the movable feasts depending thereon, by means of| epacts. The Gregorian year, is the pres- ent year, as reformed by pope Gregory XIII, in 1582; consisting of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 47 seconds, with an ad- ditional day every fourth year. Encyc

    GREIT, V. i. [Goth, greitan.] To lament, Obs. Spenser.

    GREITH, V. t. [Sax. genedian, to prepare ; ge and hrccde, ready.] To make ready. Obs. Chaucer.

    GREITH, n. Goods ; furniture. Obs.


    GRE'MIAL, a. [L. gi-emiwm.] Belonging to the lap or boson). Diet.

    GRENA'DE, n. [Sp.granada, It. granata Fr. grenade, a pomegranate, or grained apple.]

    In the art of war, a hollow ball or shell ofl iron or other metal, about two inches and a half in diameter, to be filled with powder which is to be fired by means of a fusee, and thrown by hand among ene- mies. This, bursting into many pieces, does great injury, and is particularly use- ful in annoying an enemy in trenches and other lodgments. Encyc.

    GRENADIE'R, n. [from Fr. grenade, Sp. granada, a pomegranate tree ; so called, it; is said, from the cap worn, which resem-j bled the flowers of that tree ; or as others alledge, so called from carrying and throw-| ing hand grenades. The latter is the opin- ion of Lunier.]

    1. A foot soldier, wearing a high cap. Gren i adiers are usually tall, active soldiers, dis

    tinguished from others chiefly by their dress and arms ; a company of them is usually attached to each battalion.


    2. A fowl found in Angola, in Africa. GREN'ATITE, n. Staurotide or staurolite,

    a mineral of a dark reddish brown. It occurs imbedded in mica slate, and in talck, and is infusible by the blowpipe. It is called also prismatic garnet. Cyc.

    GREW, pret. of grow. GREY. [See Gray.] GREYHOUND, n. [Sax. grighund.] A

    tall fleet dog, kept for the chase. GRICE, n. A little pig. GRIDDLE, n. [W. greidell, from grediaw,

    to heat, singe, scorch.] A pan, broad and shallow, for baking cakes. GRIDE, v.t. [h. gridare; Sp. gritar ; Port.

    id. ; Fr. crier ; Eng. to cry ; Sax. grccdan ;

    Dan. grceder ; Sw. grata. See Greet.] To grate, or to cut with a grating sound ;

    to cut ; to penetrate or pierce harshly ; as

    the griding sword. Milton.

    That through his thigh the mortal steel did

    gride. Spenser.

    GRID'ELIN, n. [Fr. gris de tin, flax gray.]

    A color mixed of white and red, or a gray

    violet. Dryden.

    GRID' IRON, n. [Vf. grediaw, h: greadam,

    to heat, scorch, roast, and iron. See

    Griddle.] A grated utensil for broiling flesh and fish

    over coals. GRIEF, n. [D. grief, hurt; ¥r. grief, and

    greyer, to oppress ; Sp. agravio ; Norm.

    g'-i^f g>'ff greve ; L. gravis. See Graue and

    Aggravate. The sense is pressure or op-

    1. The pain of mind produced by loss, mis- fortune, injury or evils of any kind ; sor- row ; regret. We experience grief when we lose a friend, when we incur loss, when we consider ourselves injured, and by sympathy, we feel grief at the misfor- tunes of others.

    2. The pain of mind occasioned by our own misconduct ; sorrow or regret that we have done wrong ; pain accompanying repentance. We fee] grief when we have offended or injured a ftiend, and the con- sciousness of having offended the Supreme Being, fills the penitent heart with the most poignant grief.

    •3. Cause of sorrow: that which afilictg.

    Who were a grief of mind to Isaac and Re- bekah. Gen. xxvi.

    A foolish son is a grief to his father. Prov. xvii. GRIE'FFUL, a. Full of grief or sorrow.

    SackviUe. GRIE'FSHOT, a. Pierced with grief.

    Shak. GRIE'VABLE, a. Lamentable. Obs.


    GRIE'VANCE, n. [from grief] That which causes grief or imeasiness; that which burdens, oppresses or injures, im- plying a sense of wrong done, or a con- tinued injury, and therefore applied oidy to the effects of huma,n conduct; never to providential evils. The oppressed sub- ject has the right to petition for a redress of grievances. GRifiVE, V. t. [D. p-ieven ; Fr. grever, to op- press ; Sp. agraviar, agravar ; It. gravare ; L. gravo, from gravis. See Grave.] To give pain of mind to; to afflict; to wound the feelings. Nothing grieves a pa- rent like the conduct of a profligate child. 2. To afilict ; to inflict pain on.

    For he doth not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men. Lam. iii. .3. To make sorrowful ; to excite regret in. 4. To offend; to displease; to provoke.

    GciCTenot the holy Spirit of God. Eph. iv.

    G R I

    GRIEVE, V. i. To feel pain of mind or heart; to be in pain on account of an evil ; to sorrow ; to mourn. We grieve at the loss of friends or property. We grieve at the misfortunes of others. We grieve for our own misfortunes, follies and vices, as well as for those of our children. It is followed by at or for.

    GRIE'VED, pp. Pained; afflicted; suffer- ing sorrow.

    GRIE'VER, n. He or that which grieves.

    .GRIE'VING, ppr. Giving pain ; afflicting.

    2. Sorrowing ; exercised with grief; mourn- ing.

    ORIE'VINGLY, adv. In sorrow; sorrow- fully. Shak.

    GRIE'VOUS, a. [from grieve, or grief] Heavy ; oppressive ; burdensome ; as a grievous load of taxes.

    2. Afflictive ; painful ; hard to be borne.

    Correction is grievom to him that forsaketh the vpay. Prov. xv.

    3. Causing grief or sorrow.

    The thing was very grievotis in Abraham's sight, because of his son. Gen. xxi. -4. Distressing.

    The famine was very grievous in the land. Gen. xii.

    5. Great; atrocious.

    Because their sin is very grievous. Gen. xviii.

    6. Expressing great uneasiness ; as agriei'- ous complaint.

    7. Provoking ; offensive ; tending to irritate ; as grievous words. Prov. xv.

    8. Hurtful ; destructive ; causing mischief; as grievotis wolves. Acts xx.

    GRIE'VOUSLY, adv. With pain : painful- ly ; with great pain or distress ; as, to be grievously afflicted.

    2. With discontent, ill will or grief.


    3. Calamitously ; miserably ; greatly ; with great uneasiness, distress or grief.

    4. Atrociously ; as, to sin or offend grievous

    GRIE'VOUSNESS, n. Oppressiveness weiglit that gives pain or distress ; as tlie grievousness of a burden.

    2. Pain ; affliction ; calamity ; distress ; as the grievousness of sickness, war or fa mine.

    3. Greatness; enormity; atrociousness ; ai the grievousness of sin or offenses.

    •GRIF'FON, n. [Fr. griffon ; Sp. grifo ; It. griffo,griffone ; G.greif;I>an.grif; V.grif- fioen; L. gryps, gryphus ; Gr. ypv^; W. gruf, fierce, bold, a griffon.]

    In the natural history of the ancients, an imaginary animal said to be generated be tween the lion and eagle. It is represent ed with four legs, wings and a beak, the upper part resembling an eagle, and the lower part a lion. This animal was sup- posed to watch over mines of gold and bidden treasures, and was consecrated to the sun. The figure of the griffon is seen on ancient medals, and is still borne in coat-armor. It is also an ornament of Greek architecture. Encyt.

    GRIF'FON-LIKE, a. Resembling a grif- fon. GRIG, n. A small eel; the sand eel.

    '2. A merry creature. Sicifl.

    •3. Health. Obs.

    Vol. 1.

    G R I

    GRILL, f. t. [Fr. griller.] To broil. [Ao/ in use.]

    GRILL, a. Shaking with cold. OU.


    GRIL'LY, v. t. To harass. [JVot in use.]


    GRIM, a. [Sax. grim, fierce, rough, fero- cious; gram, raging, fury ; gremian, to pro- voke ; D. gram, angry ; grimmen, to growl ; grimmig, grim ; grommen, to grumble ; G. grimm, furious, grim ; gj^ivimen, to rage gram, grief, sorrow ; Dan. grim, stern grim, peevish ; gram, grudging, hating, peevish ; W. gremiaw, to gnash, to snarl, from rhem, whence rhemial, to mutter. Hence Fr. grimace. These words belong probably to the rootofL./r-cjno, which has a different prefix, Gr. 3pfM", "Eng grumble, rumble, Ir. grim, war. See Class Rm. No, 11. 13.]

    Fierce ; ferocious ; impressing terror ; frightful ; horrible ; as a grim look gnm face ; grim war. Milton. Addison.

    2. Ugly ; ill looking. Shak.

    3. Sour ; crabbed ; peevish ; surly. GRIM'-FACJ;D, a. Having a stern coun


    GRIM-GRINNING, a. Grinning with i fierce countenance. Shak.

    GRIM-VISAGED, a. Grim-faced.

    GRIMA'CE, n. [Fr. from grim, or its root

    ] Sp. grimazo.]

    |l. A distortion of the countenance, from

    j habit, affectation or insolence. Spectator.

    ,2. An air of affectation. Granville.'

    GRIMA'CED, a. Distorted ; having a crab- bed look.

    GRIMAL'KIN, n. [Qu. Fr.g-ris, gray, and malkhi.] The name of an old cat.


    GRIME, n. [Ice. grynuj, Sax. hrum, soot

    I Rabbinic 0113 soot. Class Rm. No. 21.]

    Foul matter ; dirt ; sullying blackness, deep ly insinuated. Shak. Woodward.

    GRIME, V. t. To sully or soil deeply ; tc dirt. Shak

    GRIM'LY, a. Having a hideous or^ stern look.

    GRIM'LY, adv. Fiercely ; ferociously : with a look of furv or ferocitj'. Jlddison

    2. Sourly ; sullenly. Shak

    GRIM'NESS, n. Fierceness of look; stern- ness ; crabbedness.

    GRI'MY, a. Full of grime; foul.

    GRIN, V. i. [Sax. grinnian ; G. greinen grinsen ; D. grynen, grinzen ; Sw. grina ; Dan. griner. In W. ysgyrnug is a grin or snarl, and ysgom, scorn.]

    1. To set the teeth together and open the lips, or to open the mouth and withdraw the lips from the teeth, so as to show them, as in laughter or scorn.

    Fools grin on fools. Young

    2. To fix the teeth, as in anguish. GRIN, n. The act of closing the teeth and

    showing them, or of withdrawing the hps and showing the teetl).

    Addison. Watts. GRIN, /!. A snare or trap. [Not in use.] GRIN, f. t. To express by grinning. He grinned horribly a ghastly smile.


    GRIND, V. t. pret. and pp. ground. [Sax.

    grindan. This word, if n is radical, may

    be allied to rend ; if not, it coincides with


    G R I

    grale. See Class Rn. No. 9, to make smooth, as mollis in L., allied to molo.']

    1. To break and reduce to fine particles or powder by friction ; to comminute by at- trition ; to triturate.

    Take the millstones and grind meal. Is. xlvii.

    We say, to grind meal, but this is nn ellipticafphrasc. The true phrase is, to grind corn to meal.

    2. To break and reduce to small pieces by the teeth. Dryden.

    3. To sharpen by rubbing or friction ; to wear off the substance of a metallic in- strument, and reduce it to a shariJ edge by the friction of a stone ; as, to grind an ax or sythe.

    4. To make smooth ; to pohsh by friction ; is, to gT!7irf glass. To rub one against another.

    Harsh sounds — and the grinding of one stone against another, make a shivering or horror in the body and set the teeth on edge. Bacon. C. To oppress by severe exactions ; to afflict cruelly ; to harass ; as, to grind the faces of the poor. Is. iii.

    7. To crush in pieces ; to ruin. Matt. xxi.

    8. To grate ; as grinding pains. Dryden. GRIND, V. i. To perform the operation of

    grinding ; to move a mill. Milton.

    2. To be moved or rubbed together, as in the operation of grinding; as the grinding jaws. Roiee.

    3. To be ground or pulverized by friction. Corn will not grind well before it is dry.

    4. To be polished and made smooth by fric- tion. Glass grinds smooth.

    5. To be sharpened by grinding. Steel grinds to a fine edge.

    GRINDER, n. One that grinds, or moves a mill.

    2. The instrument of grintyng. Philips.

    3. A tooth that grinds or chews food ; a double tooth; a jaw-tooth.

    4. The teeth in general. Dryden. GRINDING, ppr. Reducing to powder by

    friction ; triturating ; levigating ; chew-


    sharp ; makuig smooth or polish- ing by friction.

    GRIND'STONE, ji. A sandstone used for grinding or sharpening tools. Grindle- stone, used by old writers, is obsolete.

    GRIN'NER, n. [See Grin.] One that grins. Addison.

    GRINNING, ppr. Closing the teeth and showing them, as in laughter ; a showing of the teeth.

    GRIN'NINGLY, adv. With a grinning laugh.

    GUIP, ?i. The griffon. [JVotinuse.] Shak.

    GRIP, n. [Dan.greft; G. griff. See Gnpe.J A grasp ; a holding fast.

    GRIP, n. [D.groep; Sax. griep.] A small ditch or furrow. [,A'ot used in America.]

    GRIP, t'. t. To trench : to drain, [^rol used.]

    GRIPE, t'. t. [Sax. gripan ; Goth, greipan ; D. grypen; G. greifen; Sw. gripa; Dan. griber ; Fr. gripper ; Arm. scraba, scra- pein ; W. graft, a cluster, a grape ; grabin, a clasping ; grabiniaw, to grapple, to scramble. Qu. Sans, grepipan. These words may be allied in origin to L. rapio.]

    1. To seize ; to grasp ; to catch with the

    G R

    G R O

    G R O

    liaiirl, and to clasp closely with the fin- gers.

    2. To hold fast ; to hold with the fingers closely pressed.

    if. To seize and hold fast in the arms; tc embrace closely.

    4. To close the finger.s ; to clutch. Pope.

    5. To pinch ; to press ; to compress.

    6. To give pain to the bowels, as if by press- ure or contraction.

    7. To pinch ; to straiten ; to distress ; as griping poverty.

    GRIPE, V. i. To seize or catch by pinching; to get money by hard bargains or mean exactions ; as a griping raiser.

    2. To feel the colic. lAcke.

    3. To lie too close to the wind, as a sliip. GRIPE, n. Grasp; seizure; fast hold with

    the hand or paw, or with the arms.

    Shah. Drydcn.

    2. Squeeze ; pressure. Dn/de7i.

    3. Ojjpression ; cruel exactions. Shak.

    4. Affliction ; pinching distress ; as the gripe of poverty.

    5. In seamen's language, \\\\\\\\ the fore-foot or piece of timber which terminates the keel at the fore-end. Mar. Did.

    6. Gripes, in the plural, distress of the bow- els ; colic.

    7. Gripes, in seameii's language, an assem- blage of ropes, dead-eyes and hooks, fas- tened to ring-Iiohs in the deck to secure the boats. Mar. Diet.

    GRIPER, n. One who gripes ; an oppres- sor ; an extortioner. GRIPING, ppr. Grasping ; seizing ; hold- ing fast ; pinching ; oppressing ; distress- ing the bowels. GRIPIN'G, n. A pinching or grasp ; a dis- tressing pain of the bowels ; colic. 2. In seamen's language, the inclination of a shij) to run to the windward of her course. Mar. Diet. GRIPINGLV, «(/(■. Willi a pain in the ijow-

    els. <;RIP'PLE, a. [from gripe.] G greedy ; covetous ; unfeeling. Obs.


    2. Grasping fast ; tenacious. Obs. Ibid.

    GRIP'PLENESS, n. Covetousness. Obs.

    Bp. Hall.

    GRIS, n. [Fr. g-m, gray.] A kind of fur.

    Chaucer. GRISAMBER, used by Milton for amber]

    gris. Obs. GRISE, ?i. A step, or scale of steps. [L. gressus, Sw. resa. See Greece.] Obs. Shak.l 2. A swine. Obs.

    GRISETTE, 71. grisel'. [Fr.] A trades- man's wife or daughter. [jVot used.]

    Sterne.} GRIS'KIN, n. [See Grise.] The spine of a

    hog. [jVo« in use.] GRIS'LY, a. s as :. [Sax. grislic : G. grass, grdsslich and gratis ; W. ecrys, dire, shock- ing, that causes to start, from rhys, a rush- ing ; Sax. agrisan, to shudder.] Frightful ; horrible ; terrible ; as grisly locks ; a grisly countenance ; a grisly face a grisly specter ; a grisly bear.

    Shak. Milton. Dryden GRIS'ONS, n. Inhabitants of the eastern Swiss Alps.

    GRIST, n. [Sax. grist; Eth. rh48 cha-


    rate, to grind, coinciding with Heb. Ch. pn. Class Rd. No. 60. 58. &c.] Properly, that which is ground ; hence, corn ground ; but in common usage, it signifies corn for grinding, or that which is ground at one time ; as much grain as is carried to the mill at one time or the meal it produces.

    Get grist to the mill to have plenty in store.


    3. Supply ; provision. Swift.

    3. Profit ; gain : [as in Latin emolumentum, from molo, to grind ;] in the phrase, it brings grist to the mill.

    GRIS'TLE, n. gris'l. [Sax. grwHe ; perhaps the L. cartil, in carlilago ; cartil for cratil. Qu. Gr. xaprtpof, xportpo;, strong, or Ir. crislion, sinews.]

    A cartilage ; a smooth, solid, elastic sub- stance in animal bodies, chiefly in those parts where a small easy motion is requir- ed, as in the nose, ears, laryn.x, trachea and sternum. It covers the ends of all hones which are united by movable artic- ulations, qxdncy-

    GRIST'LY, a. Consisting of gristle ; like gristle ; cartilaginous ; as the gristly rays of fins connected by membranes. Ray.

    GRIST'MILL, ji. A mill for grinding grain.

    GRIT, n. [Sax. greot or gnjt, grytla ; G. gries, grit ; griitze, groats ; D. grut, grutte, and gruis ; Dan. grits orgrod; Sw.gnis; probably allied to grate ; Dan. grytter, to bruiso or grate ; W. grut, griid, the lattei- from r/tiirf, acast, or driving forward.]

    1. The coarse part of meal.

    \\\\\\\\i. Oats hulled, or coarsely ground ; written also grouts.

    •i. Sand or gravel ; rough hard particles.

    4. Sandstone ; stone composed of ))articles of sand agglutinated.

    GRITH, n. Agreement. [J\\\\\\\\l'ot in use.]


    GRIT'STONE, n. [See Grit.]

    GRIT'TINESS, n. The quality of contain- ing grit or consisting of grit, sand or small hard, rough particles of stone.

    GRIT'TY, a. Containing sand or grit ; con- sisting of grit ; full of hard jjarlicles ; sandy.

    GRIZ'ELIN. [See Gridelin.]

    GRIZ'ZLE, n. [Fr. Sp. Port, gris, gray.] Gray ; a gray color ; a mixture of white and black. Shak.

    GRIZZLED, a. Gray ; of a mixed color. Gen. xxxi.

    GRIZ'ZLY, a. Somewhat gray. Bacon.

    GROAN, V. i. [Sax. granian, grunan ; W. grwnan : L. grunnio ; Fr.gronder; Sp.

    gninir; It. grugnire ; Ar. ^^ Heb. Ch, pi to cry out, to groan ; L. rana, a frog. Class Rn. No. 4.]

    1. To breathe with a deep murmuring sound ; to utter a mournful voice, as in pain or sorrow.

    For we that are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burdened. 2 Cor. v.

    2. To sigh ; to be oppressed or afflicted ; or to complain of oppression. A nation groans under the weight of taxes.

    GROAN, n. A deep mournful sound, utter ed in pain, sorrow or anguish.

    low, rumbling sound; as the groans

    2. Ai

    of roaring wind


    GROANFLJL, a. Sad ; inducing groans.


    GROANING, ppr. Uttering a low mournful sound.

    GROANING, n. The act of groaning; lam- entation; complaint ; a deep sound utter- ed in pain or sorrow.

    2. In hunting, the cry or noise of the buck. Chamb.

    GROAT, n. grawl. [D. groot, G. grot, that is great, a great piece or coin ; so called because before this piece was coined by Edward III. the English had no silver coin larger than a penny.]

    1. An English money of account, equal to four pence.

    2. A proverbial name for a small sum. GROATS, n. [See Grit.] Oats that ha\\\\\\\\p

    the hulls taken oflf.

    GROATS-WORTH, n. The value of ,■, g'oat. Sherwood.

    GRO'CER, 71. [This is usually considered as formed from gross, but in other langua- ges, the corresj)onding word is from the name of plants, herbs or spices ; D.kniid- enier, from kruid, an herb, wort, spices ; G. wiirzkrcimer, a dealer in worts, herb.s or spices ; Sw. kryddkr&mare. The French, Spanish and Portuguese u.sf words formed from the name of spice, and the Italian is from the same word as drug. It would seem then that a grocer, whatever may be the origin of the name, was origi- nally a seller of spices and other vegeta- bles.]

    A trader who deals in tea, sugar, spices, coffee, liquors, fruits, &.c.

    GRO'CERY, n. A grocer's store.

    2. The commodities sold by grocers; usually in the plural.

    GROG, )i. A mixture of spirit and water not sweetened.

    GROG-BLOSSOM, n. A rum bud ; arcl- ness on the nose or face of men who drink ardent spirits to excess ; a deformity thai marks the beastly vice of intemperance.

    GROG'DRINKER, n. One addicted to drinking grog.

    GROG'GY, a. A groggy horse is one that hears wholly on his heels in trotting.


    2. In vulgar language, tipsy ; intoxicated.

    GROG'RAM, > [It. grossagrana, gross

    GROG'RAN, ^"- grain.] A kind of stuff made of silk and mohair.

    GROIN, n. [Ice. and Goth, grein. Chal- mers. But I do not find this in Lye.]

    1. The depressed jiart of the human body between the belly and the thigh.

    2. Among builders, the angular curve made by the intersection of two semi-cylinders or arches. Encyc.

    3. [Fr. groin ; Gr. pi..] The snout or nose of a swine. Chaucer.

    GROIN, i-.i". To groan. Obs. Chaucer. GROM'WELL, ) „ A plant of the genus GRO.M'IL, r Litho.spermum. The

    German gromwell is the Stellera.

    Fam. of Plants. GROM'ET, } „ [Arm. gromm, a curb, Fr. ■GROM'MET, \\\\\\\\ "-goiimcWc]

    G R O

    Among seamen, a ring formed of a strand of]

    rope laid in three times round ; used to

    fasten the upper edge of a sail to its stay,

    Mar. Diet

    GROOM, n. [Pers. L

    garma, a keep

    er of horses. Qu. Flemish or old D. grom, a boy.]

    1. A boy or young man ; a waiter ; a ser- vant.

    2. A man or boy who has the charge of horses ; one who takes care of horses or the stable.

    3. In England, an officer of the king's house- hold ; as the groom of the chamber ; groom of the stole or wardrobe.

    4. Groom for goom, in bridegroom, is a pal- pable mistake.

    GROOVE, n. groov. [Ice. groof; Sw. grop; but it is merely a variation of grave. See Grave and Grip.]

    1. A furrow, channel, or long hollow cut by a tool. Among joiners, a channel in the edge of a molding, style or rail.

    2. Among miners, a shall or pit sunk into the earth.

    GROOVE, V. t. [Sw. gropa.] To cut channel with an edged tool ; to furrow.

    GROOVER, n. A miner. [Local.]

    GROOVING, ppr. Cutting in channels.

    GROPE, V. i. [Sax. gropian, grapian ; C grabbeln, greifen ; D. grypen, grabbelen ; Dan. griber, to gripe, to grope ; Sw. grub- la, Dan. grubler, to search. The sense is to feel or to catch with the hand.]

    1. To feel along ; to search or attempt to find in the dark, or as a blind person, by feeling.

    We grope for the wall like the bliud. Is lis.

    The dying believer leaves the weeping cliil- dren of mortality to grope a little longer among the miseries and sensualities of a worldly life. Biickminsler 2. To seek blindly in intellectual darkness without a certain guide or means of knowledge. GROPE, V. t. To search by feeling in the dark. We groped our way at midnight, But Strephon, cautious, never meant The bottom of the pan to grope. Swi

    GRO'PER, n. One who gropes ; one who feels his way in the dark, or searches by feeling. GRO'PING, ppr. Feehng for something ir

    darkness ; searching by feeling. GROSS, a. [Fr. gros ; It. Port, grosso ; Sp, grueso, grosero; L. crassus; a dialecti- cal variation oi great.]

    1. Thick; bulky; particularly applied to imals ; fat ; corpulent ; as a gross mai gross body.

    2. Coarse ; rude ; rough ; not delicate ; as gross sculpture. Wotton.

    3. Coarse, in a figurative sense ; rough ; mean ; particularly, vulgar ; obscene ; in- delicate ; as gross language ; gross jests.

    4. Thick ; large ; opposed to fijie ; as wood or stone of a gross grain.

    5. Impure ; unrefined ; as gross sensuality

    6. Great ; palpable ; as a gross mistake ; gross injustice.

    7. Coarse ; large ; not delicate ; as gross

    features. 8. Thick ; dense ; not attenuated ; not refi

    G R O

    ned or pure ; as a gross medium of sight ; gross air ; gross elements. Bacon. Pope.

    9. Unseemly ; enormous ; shameful ; great as gross corruptions ; gross vices.

    10. Stupid ; dull. Tell her of tilings that no gross ear can hear.


    11. Whole; entire; as the gross sum, or gross amount, as opposed to a sum consist- ing of separate or specified parts.

    GROSS, n. The main body ; the chief part ; the bulk ; the mass ; as the gross of the people. [We now use bulk.] Addison.

    2. The number of twelve dozen ; twelve times twelve; as a gross of bottles. It never has the plural form. We say. Jive gross or ten gross.

    In the gross, in gross, in the bulk, or the whole undivided ; all parts taken together.

    By the gross, in a like sense.

    Gross iceight, is the weight of merchandize or goods, with the dust and dross, the bag, j cask, chest, &c., in which they are con- ' tained, for which an allowance is to be made of tare and tret. This being de ducted, the remainder or real weight i: denominated neat or 7tet weight. Gross] weight has lately been abolished in Con- necticut by statute. May, 1827.

    In English law, a villain in gross, was one who did not belong to the land, but imme- diately to the person of the lord, and was| transferrable by deed, like chattels, from one owner to another. Blackstone.]

    Mvou'son in gross, an advowson separated' from the property of a manor, and anne.\\\\\\\\- ed to the person of its owner.


    Common in gross, is common annexed to a man's person, and not appurtenant to 'and. Blackstone.

    GROSSBEAK, n. A fowl of the genus Loxia, of several species. The bill is con- vex above and very thick at the base, from which circumstance it takes its name.

    GROSS-HEADED, a. Having a thick skull ;l stupid. Milton.l

    GROSSLY, adv. In bulky or large parts ; coarsely. This matter is grossly pulveri- zed.

    2. Greatly ; palpably ; enormously ; as, this affair has been grossly misrepresented. . Greatly; shamefully; as grossly crimi- nal.

    Coarsely ; without refinement or delica- cy ; as language grossly vulgar.

    5. Without art or skill.

    CROSSNESS, n. Thickness; bulkiness . corpulence ; fatness ; applied to animal bodies.

    2. Thickness ; spissitude.; density ; as the grossness of vapors.

    3. Coarseness; rudeness; want of refine ment or delicacy ; vulgarity; as the grow »ies» of language ; the grossness of wit.

    Abhor the swinish grossness that delights t( wound the ear of delicacy. Dteight

    4. Greatness ; enormity ; as the grossness of

    G R O

    GROT, I „ [Fr. groltc ; It. groUa ; .<». GROTTO, I "• and Port, gruta ; G. and

    Dan. grotte ; D. grot ; Sax. gntt. Grotla is

    not used.]

    1. A large cave or den ; a subterraneous cavern, and jirimarily, a natural cave or rent in the earth, or such as is formed by a current of water, or an earthquake.

    Pope. Prior. Dryden.

    2. A cave for coolness and refreshment. GROTESQUE, ) „ [Fr. grotesque; Sp. GROTESK', \\\\\\\\ "■ Von. grutesco ; It.

    Wfrottesca; from gro»o.] ildly formed ; whimsical ; extravagant ; of irregular forms and proportions; ludi- crous ; antic ; resembling the figures found in the subterraneous apartments in the ancient ruins at Rome ; applied to pieces of sculpture and painting, and to natural scenery ; as grotesque painting ; grotesque design. Dryden.

    GROTESQUE, > Whimsical figures oi-

    GROTESK', ( "• scenery.

    GROTESQUELY, ) In a fantastical

    GROTESK'LY, P" manner.

    GROUND, n. [Sax. G. Dan. Sw. grund; D. grond; Russ. gnait. This word may be the Ir. grian, ground, bottom of a river or lake, from grean, W. graean, gravel. See Grain. It seems primarily to denote the gravelly bottom of a river or lake, or of the sea, which shows the appropriate sense of the verb to ground, as used by seamen.]

    I. The siu-face of land or upper part of the earth, without reference to the materials which compose it. We apply ground to soil, sand or gravel indifferently, but never apply it to the whole mass of the earth or globe, nor to any portion of it when remo- ved. We never say a shovel full or a load of ground. We say under ground, but not under earth ; and we speak of the globe as divided into land and water, not into ground and water. Yet ground, earth and land are often used synonymously. We say, the produce or fruits of the ground, of the earth, or of land. The water over- flows the lotv ground, or the low land.

    There was not a man to till the ground. Gen. ii. The ground shall give its increase. Zecli.

    GKOSS'ULAR, a. Pertaining to or resem- bling a gooseberry; as grossular garnet.

    GROSS'ULAR, n. A rare mineral of the garnet kind, so named from its green color, [supra.]

    The fire ran along on the ground. Ex. is. i2. Region; territory; as Egyptian g-rounrf; British ground ; heavenly ground.


    Land; estate; possession.

    Thy next design is on thy neighbor's grounds.


    The surface of the earth, or a floor or


    Dagon had fallen on his face to the ground. 1 Sam. v. 5. Foundation ; that which supports any thing. This argument stands on defensi- ble ground. Hence,

    Fundamental cause; primary reason or original principle. He stated"the grounds of his complaint.

    Making happiness the ground of his unhap- piness. Sidney.

    First principles ; as the grounds of religion. Milton. 8. In painting, the surface on which a figure or object is represented ; that surface or substance wliich retains the original color.

    G R O

    and to which the other colors are applied to make the representation ; as crimson ofi a white ground. Encyc.

    9. In manufactures, the principal color, to which others are considered as orna- mental. HaketviU.

    10. Grounds, plural, the bottom of liquors : dregs ; lees ; feces ; as coffee grounds ; the grounds of strong beer.

    11. The plain song ; the time on which des cants are raised.

    G R O

    12. In etching, a gummous composition spread over the surface of the metal to be etched, to prevent the nitric acid from eat- ing, e.\\\\\\\\cept where the ground is opened with the point of a needle. Encyc.

    13. Field or place of action. He fought with fury, and would not quit the ground.

    14. In music, the name given to a composi- tion in which the base, consisting of a few bars of independent notes, is continually repeated to a continually varying melody.


    1,5. The foil to set a thing off. (Ms. Slia'k.

    16. Formerly, the pit of a play house.

    B. Jonson.

    To gain ground, to advance ; to proceed fo ward in conflict ; as, an army in battle ^ni?is ground. Hence, to obtain an advantage to have some success; as, the armyg-ains ground on the enemy. Hence,

    2. To gain credit ; to prevail ; to become more general or extensive ; as, the opin ion gains ground.

    To lose ground, to retire ; to retreat ; to with draw from the position taken. Hence, to lose advantage. Hence,

    2. To lose credit ; to decline ; to become less in force or extent.

    To give ground, to recede ; to yield advan- tage.

    To get ground, and to gather ground, are sel- dom used.

    GROUND, V. t. To lay or set on the ground

    2. To found ; to fix or set, as on a foiinda tion, cause, reason or principle ; as argu meins grounded on reason ; faith grounded on scriptural evidence.

    3. To settle in first principles ; to fix firmly

    Being rooted and grounded in love. Eph. iii GROUND, V. i. To run aground ; to strike the bottom and remain fixed ; as, the ship grounded in two fathoms of water. GROUND, >re«. and pp. of grind. GROUND' AGE, n. A tax paid by a ship for standing in port. Blount.

    GROUND'-ANGLING, n. Fishing without a float, with a bullet placed a few inches from the hook. GROUND'-ASH, n. A sapling of ash ; a young shoot from the stump of an ash.

    Mortimer. GROUND'-BAIT, n. Bait for fish which sinks to the bottom of the water.

    Walton. GROUND -FLOOR, n. The first or lower floor of a house. But the English call the second floor from the ground tlie Jirst floor. GROUND'-IVY, n. A well known plant, the Glechoma hederacea ; called also ale- hoof sutd gill. GROUND'LESS, a. Wanting ground or foundation ; wanting cause or reason for support ; as groundless fear.

    2. Not authorized ; false ; as a groundless report or assertion.

    GROUND'LESSLY, a. Without reason or cause ; without authority for support.


    GROUND'LESSNESS, n. Want of just cause, reason or authority for support.


    GROUND'LING, n. A fish that keeps at the bottom of the water; hence, a low vulgar person. Shak.

    GROUND'LY, adv. Upon principles ; solid- ly. [A bad loord and not used.]


    GROUND'-NUT, n. A plant, the Arachis, a native* of South America.

    GROUND'-OAK, n. A sapling of oak.


    GROUND'-PINE, n. A plant, a species of Teucrium or germander; said to be so called from its resinous smell.

    Encyc. Hill.

    GROUND'-PLATE, n. In architecture, the! ground-plates are the outermost i>ieces of timber lying on or near the ground, fra- med into one another with mortises and tenons. H(

    GROUND'-PLOT, n. The ground on which a building is placed.

    2. The ichnography of a building.


    GROUND'-RENT, n. Rent paid for the privilege of building on another man' land. Johnson.

    GROUND-ROQM, n. A room on the ground ; a lower room. Tatle,

    GROUNDSEL, n. A plant of the genus Senecio, of several species.

    GROUND'SEL, ) [ground, and Sax

    GROUND'-SILL, (, "• .syll, basis, aUied probably to L. sella, that which is set. See Sill.]

    The timber of a building which lies next to the ground ; commonly called a sill.

    GROUND'-TACKLE, re. In ships, the ropes and furniture belonging to anchors.

    GROUNDWORK, n. The work which forms the foundation or support of any thing ; the basis ; the fundamentals.

    2. The ground ; that to which the rest are additional. Dryden

    3. First principle ; original reason. Dryden

    GROUP, } [It. gTo;»;)o, a knot, a bunch;

    GROOP, \\\\\\\\ "■ Fr. groupe ; Sp. gnipo. It is radically the same word as croup, cruppe rump ; W. grab, a cluster, a grape.]

    1. A cluster, crowd or throng; an assem-j blage, either of persons or things; a nuni-| her collected without any regular form orl arrangement ; as a group of men or of trees; a i^-oup of isles.

    2. In painting and sculpture, an assemblage! of two or more figures of men, beasts or' other things which have some relation to

    j each other.

    iGRoUP, ) , [Fr. grouper.] To form a GROOP, I "■ group ; to bring or place together in a cluster or knot ; to form an assemblage.

    The difficulty lies in drawing and disposing,

    or as the painters term if, in grouping such a

    multitude of different objects. Prior.

    GRoUP'ED, ) Formed or placed in a

    GROOP'ED, < PP- crowd.

    G R O

    GROUP'ING, \\\\\\\\ Bringing together in a

    GROOP'ING,^''^'^- cluster or assemblage.

    GRoUP'ING, n. The art of composing or

    combining the objects of a picture or piece

    ofsculpture. Cyc.

    I O J J

    GROUSE, n. grous. [Pers. (j„»j,-i goros, gros, a cock.]

    A heath-cock or cock of the wood, a fowl of the genus Tetrao. The name is given to several species, forming a particular di- vision of the genus ; such as the black game, the red game, the ptarmigan, the ruffed grouse, &c.

    GROUT, n. [Sax. grut. See Groat] Coarse meal ; pollard.

    2. A kind of wild apple. Johnson.

    3. A thin coarse mortar.

    4. That which purges off. JVarner. GROVE, 71. [Sax. grmf graf a grave, a

    cave, a grove ; Goth, groba ; from cutting an avenue, or from the resemblance of an avenue to a channel.]

    1. In gardening, a small wood or cluster of trees with a shaded avenue, or a wood impervious to the rays of the sun. A grove is either open or close ; open, when con- sisting of large trees whose branches shade' the ground below ; close, when consisting of trees and underwood, which defend the avenues from the rays of the sun and from violent winds. Encyc.

    2. A woodof smalle.xtent. In America, the word is applied to a wood of natural growth in the field, as well as to planted trees in a garden, but only to a wood of small extent and not to a forest.

    Something resembling a wood or trees in

    a wood.

    Tull groves of masts arose in beauteous pride. Trumbull. GROVEL, t'.i. grov'l. [Ice. gmva; Chau- cer, grog^, flat on the ground or face ; Scot, on groufe ; allied to grope, which see.]

    1. To creep on the earth, or with the face to- the ground ; to lie jirone, or move with the body prostrate on the earth ; to act in a prostrate posture.

    Gaze on and grovel on thy face. Shak.

    To creep and grovel on the ground.


    2. To be low or mean ; as groveling sense ; groveling thoughts. Dryden. Addison.

    GROV'ELER, n. One who grovels; an abject wretch.

    GROVELING, ppr. Creeping ; moving on the ground.

    2. a. Mean: without dignity or elevation.

    GRO'VY, a. Pertaining to a grove ; fre- quenting groves.

    GROW, V. i. pret. grew ; pp. groivn. [Sax. groivan ; D. groeyen ; Dan. groer ; Sw. gro ; a contracted wonl ; \\\\\\\\V. crotiau', crythu, to grow, to swell. This is proba- bly the same word as L. cresco, Russ. rastu,rostu, a dialectical variation ofcrodh or grodh. The French crotlre, and Eng. increase, retain the final consonant.] To enlarge in bulk or stature, by a natural, imperceptible addition of matter, through ducts and secreting organs, as animal and vegetable bodies ; to vegetate as plants, or to be augmented by natural process, as animals. Thus, a plant groivs from a seed to a shrub or tree, and a human being groios from a fetus to a man.

    G R O

    He caiueth the grass to grow for cattle, civ.

    2. To be produced by vegetation ; as, wheat grows in most parts of the world ; rice grows only in warm climates.

    3. To increase ; to be augmented ; to wax ;

    as, a body grows larger by inflation or dis tension ; intemperance is a growing evil.

    4. To advance ; to improve ; to make pro- gress ; as, to grow in grace, in knowledge, ill ])iety. The young man is growing in ri'putation.

    5. To advance ; to extend. His reputation ia growing.

    6. To come by degrees ; to become ; to reach any state ; as, he groios more skillful, or more prudent. Let not vice grow to a habit, or into a habit.

    7. To come forward ; to advance. \\\\\\\\J^ot much userf.]

    Winter began to grow fast on. Knolles

    8. To be changed from one state to another to become ; as, xogroiv pale ; to grow poor 111 grow rich.

    0. To jiroceed, as from a cause or reason. I. ax morals may grot* from errors in ojiiiiion.

    10. To accrue; to come

    Why should damage grow to tlie hurt of the kiiiKs. Ezra '

    1 1 . To swell ; to increase ; as, the wind gmo til :i tempest.

    Til iirow out of, to issue from ; as pi tlie soil, or as a branch from the main stem. These ward have groivti out of commercial considerations. federalist, Hamilton.

    To groio np, to arrive at manhood, or to ad- vance to full stature or maturity.

    To grow vp, } To close and adhere

    To grow together, I to become uniteil by ji;ro\\\\\\\\vth ; as flesh or the bark of a tree severed

    Croic, signifies properly to shoot out, to en- large ; but it is often used to denote a passing from one state to another, and tioin greater to less.

    Marriages groio less frequent. Paley.

    [To grow less, is an abuse of this word ; the phrase should be to become less.]

    GItOW, v.t. To produce; to raise; as, a farmer groies large quantities of wheat, [This is a modern abusive use of grow, but prevalent in Great Britain, and the British use begins to be imitated in America. Un- til within a few years, we never heard grow used as a transitive verb in New England, and the ear revolts at the prac- tice.]

    GROWER, n. One who grows ; that which

    G R U

    GROWN, /jp. of grow. Advanced; increas-, cd in growth.

    2. Having arrived at full size or stature ; as a grown woman. Locke.

    Grown over, covered by the growth of any thing; overgrown.

    GROWSE, B. i. [Sax. ag-ri«aii.] To shiver; to have chills. [Not used.] Ray.

    GROWTH, n. The gradual increase of ani- mal and vegetable bodies ; the process of springing from a germ, seed or root, and proceeding to full size, by the addition of matter, through ducts and secretory ves- sels. In /)ten<«, vegetation. We speak of slow growth and rapid growth ; of early growth ; late growth and lull growth.

    2. Product ; produce ; that whicli has grown ; as a fine growth of wood. Production ; any thing produced ; as a poem of English groioWt. Dryden.

    Increase in number, bulk or frequency. Johnso7i.

    5. Increase in extent or prevalence ; as the growth of trade ; the growth of vice.

    6. Advancement ; progress ; improvement as growth in grace or jiicty.

    GROWT'HEAD, ) [probablv gross o

    GROWT'NOL, S "■ great-hedd.] . A kind of fish. Ainsicorth.

    2. A lazy person ; a lubber. Ohs. Tusser.

    GRUB, V. i. [Goth, graban. Sec Grav The primary sense is probably to rub, to^ rake, scrape or scratch, as wild animals dig by scratching. Russ. grebu, to rake, to row ; greben, a comb ; grab, a grave ; ^•oblia, a ditch.] To dig ; to be occupied m digging.

    GRUB, V. I. To dig ; mostly followed by up. To grub up, is to dig up by the roots with an instrument ; to root out by digging, or throwing out the soil; as, tograi up trees,

    G R U


    2. In English use, one who raises or pro

    duces. GROWING, ppr. Increasing ; advancing in

    size or extent ; becoming ; accruing

    swelling ; thriving. GROWL, V. i. [Gr. ypvVKi;, a grunting

    Flemish grollen. Junius. D. krollen, t<

    caterwaul.] To murmur or snarl, as a dog; to utter ai

    angry, grumbling sound. Gay,

    GROWL, 11. t. To express by growling.

    Thomson GROWL, n. The murmur of a cross dog. GROWL'ER, n. A snarling cur ; a grum- bler. GROWL' ING, ppr. Grumbling ; snarhng,

    GRUB, n. [from the Verb.] A small worm ; particularly, a hexaped or six-footed worm, produced from the egg of the bce-l tie, which is transformed into a winged! insect.

    2. A short thick man ; a dwarf, in contempt.' Carew.l

    GRUB'BER, n. One who grubs up shrubs, &c.

    GRUB'BING-HOE, n. An instrument for digging up trees, shrubs, &c. by the roots : a mattoc ; called also a grub-ax. \\\\\\\\

    GRUB'BLE, V. i. [G. gritbeln. See Grovel^ and Grabble.]

    To feel in the dark ; to grovel. [Xot much itsed.] Dryden.

    GRUB'STREET, n. Originally, the name of a street near Moorfields, "in London,' much inhabited by meai) writers; hence applied to mean writings ; as a Grub- street poein. Johnson.

    GRUDGE, V. t. [W. grtvg, a broken rum- bling noise ; grwgag, a murmur, and, as e verb, to murmur ; gnagapu, to grumble from the root ofrhuxiaic, to grunt or grum- ble; rhwc, a grunt, what is rough ; L. ru- gio ; Sco^ gruch, to grudge, to repine ; Gr. ypvifio. We see the primary sense is to grumble, and this from the root of rotig-A.] To be discontented at another's enjoy-] ments or advantages; to envy one the possession or happiness which we desire for ourselves. 1

    Tis not in thee To grudge my pleasures, to cut off my train.

    Shak. I have often heard the presbyterians say, tbey did not grudge us our employmenti. Sunfi. It is followed by two objects, but prob- ably by ellipsis ; as, grudge us for grudge to us.

    2. To give or take unwillingly. Nor grudge my cold embraces in tlie grave.

    Ihyden. They have grudged those contributions, which have set our country at the head of all the governments of Europe. Addison.

    GRUI)t5E, K.J. To murmur; to repine; to complain ; as, to grudge or complain of in- justice. Hooker.

    3. To be unwilling or reluctant. Grudge not to serve your country.

    3. To be envious. Grudge not one against another. James v.

    4. To wish in secret. [.Yot tised nor proper.]

    5. To feel cotnpunction ; to grieve. J^ot in •use.]

    GRUDGE, n. Sullen malice or malevolence ; ill will ; secret enmity ; hatred ; as an old grudge. B. Jonsort.

    2. Unwillingness to benefit.

    3. Remorse of conscience. Obs. GRUDU'EONS, n. plu. Coarse meal. [JVo/

    in use.] Beaum.

    GRUD(i'ER, ji. One that grudges; a mur-

    inurer. GRUD(i'ING, pp. Envying ; being uneasy at another's possession of something which we have a desire to possess. GRUDG'ING, n. Uneasiness at the posses- sion of something by another. Reluctance ; also, a secret wish or desire. Dryden. He had a grudging still to be a knave. 04s. Dryden. A symptom of disease. [JVbt in use.]

    Jackson. GRUDti'INGLY, adv. Unwillingly; with or discontent ; as, to give ingly. GRU'EL, n. [Fr. gruau; W. grual.] A kind of light food made by boihng meal in wa- ter. It is usually made of the meal of oats or maiz.

    GRUFF, o. W.grof; G.grob; Dan. grov; "w. grof; W. griif, a grifibn, one fierce nd bold.] Of a rough or stern countenance ; sour; sur- ly ; severe ; rugged ; harsb. Addison. GRUFF'LY, adv. Roughly; sternly; rug- gedly ; harshly.

    —And gruffly looked the god. Dryden.

    GRUFF'NESS,' n. Roughness of counte- nance ; sternness. GRUM, a. [Dan. grum, cruel, fierce, peevish ; Sw. grym, id. ; Dan. gremmer, to mourn ; W. grtcm, growling, surly ; grymian, to grumble.]

    1. Morose; severe of countenance; sour; surly. Arbuthnot.

    2. Low ; deep in the throat ; guttural ; rum- bling ; as a grum voice.

    GRUJI'BLE, I', i. [D. grommelen, grommen ; Sax. gnimetan ; Dan. gremmer : Fr. grom- meler; W. grymiul, to grumble; Russ. grom, a loud noise, thunder ; grendyu, to to make a loud noise, to thunder ; Arm. grommellat ; It. cruim, thunder ; probably from the root of rumble ; Heb. Ch. Syr. pjn to roar, murmur, thunder ; Sax. reo-

    G U A

    G U A

    G U A

    Lilian, hremman, to scream. Class Rm. No. 11.13.]

    1. To murmur with discouteiit ; to utter a iow voice by way of complaint.

    L'Avare, not using half his store,

    Still grumbles that he has no more. Prior.

    2. To growl ; to snarl ; as a lion grumbling over his prey.

    3. To rumble ; to roar ; to make a harsh and heavy sound ; as grumbling thunder ; grumbling storm. [In this sense, rumble is generally used.]

    GRUiM'BLER, 71. One who grumbles or murmurs ; one who complains ; a discon- tented man. Uteift.

    GRUM'BLING, ppr. Murmming through discontent; rumbling; growhng.

    GRUM'BLING, n. A murmuring through discontent ; a rumbling.

    GRUM'BLINGLY, adv. With grumbling or complaint.

    GRUME, )i. [Fr. grumeau ; L. grujims ; It. and Sp. grumo.]

    A thicli viscid consistence of a fluid ; a clot, as of blood, &c.

    GRUM'LY, adv. Morosely; with a sullen countenance.

    GRU'MOUS, a. Thick; concreted ; clotted ; as grumous blood.

    GRU'MOUSNESS, n. A state of being clot- ted or concreted. IViseman

    GRUND'SEL, n. [See Groundsel.]


    GRUNT, v.i. [Dan. grynter ; G. grunzen Sax. grunan ; Fr. grogner ; Ann. grondal ., h. grunnio ; Sp. gnihir; It. grugnire. See

    Ileb. Ch. Sam. pi, Ar. • to cry out

    to murmur. Class Rn. No. 4.]

    To murmur like a hog ; to utter a short groan or a deep guttural sound. Swift. Shak

    GRUNT, n. A deep guttural sound, as of a hog. Dryden

    GRUNT'ER, ?!. One that grunts.

    2. A fish of the gurnard kind.

    Diet. jVat. Hist.

    GRUNT'ING, ppr. Uttering the murmuring or guttural sound of swine or other mals.

    GRUNT'ING, 71. The guttural sound of swine and other animals.

    GRUNT'LE, V. i. To grunt. [JVot much used.]

    GRUNT'LING, n. A yoimg hog.

    GRUTCH, for^rttrfg-e, is now vulgar, and not to be used.

    GRY, 71. [Gr. yfiv.] A measure containing one tenth of a line. Locke.

    2. Any tiling very small or of little value, [Mit much used.]

    GRYPH'ITE, 71. [h. gryphites ; Gr. rpvrtoj, hooked.]

    Crowstone, an oblong fossil shell, narrow at the head, and wider towards the extrenii ty, where it ends in a circular limb ; the head or beak is very hooked. Encyc.

    GUAIA€UM, 71. gua'cum. Lignum vita, or pock wood ; a tree produced in the warm climates of America. The wood is very hard, ponderous and resinous. The resin of this tree, or gum guaiacum, is of a green- ish cast, and much used in medicine as a stimulant. Encyc

    GUYANA, 71. A species of lizard, found in the warmer parts of America.

    GUANA€0, 71. The lama, or camel of

    South America, in a wild state. |


    GU'ANO, n. A substance found on many!

    isles in the Pacific, which are fiequentedi

    by fowls ; used as a manure. Ure.i

    GU' ARA, 71. A bird of Brazil, the Tantalus]

    ruber, about the size of a spoonbill. "VVhenl

    first hatched, it is black ; it aflerwardl

    changes to gray, and then to vivid red.

    Diet. JVat. Hist. I GUARANTEE', 71. A warrantor. [See!

    Guaranty, the noun.] GUAR'ANTIED, pp. garantied. Warrant- ed. [See the Verb.] GUAR'ANTOR, ?i. gar'antor. A warrantor;! one who engages to see that the stipula- tions of another are performed ; also, one who engages to securt; auotlier in any right or possession. GUAR'ANTY, v. t. gar'anty. [Fr. garantir ; It. guarentire ; Arm. goaranti ; \\\\\\\\V. g-imr- antu, from gwar, secure, smooth, or rather from gwara, to fend, to fence, the root of guard, that is, to drive oflT, to hold off', to stop ; D. waaren, to preserve, to indemni- fy ; Sax. werian, to defend ; Eng. to ivard ; allied to tvarren, &c. See JVarrant.] 1. To warrant ; to make sure ; to undertake or engage that another person shall per- form what he has stipulated ; to oblige one's self to see that another's engage-J ments are performed ; to secure the per-| formance of; as, to guaranty the execu-j tion of a treaty. Madison. Hamilton.\\\\\\\\

    To undertake to secure to another, at all events, as claims, rights or possessions.' Thus in the treaty of 1778, France guaran-\\\\\\\\ tied to the United States their liberty, sove-! reignty and independence, and their pos- sessions ; and the United States guarantied to France its possessions in America.

    The United States shall guaranty to every state in the Union a republican form of govern- ment. Const, of U. States. To indemnify; to save harmless.

    [Note. This verb, whether written guaranty or guarantee, forms an awkward participle of the present tense ; and we cannot relish either guarantying or guaranteeing. With the ac- cent on the first syllable, as now pronounced, it seems expedient to drop the y in the partici- ple, and write guarantitig.'] GUAR'ANTY, 71. gar'anty. [Fr. garaiit ; Sp. garantia ; Arm. goarand ; Ir. barranta ; W. gwarant.]

    1. An undertaking or engagement by a third person or party, that the stipulations of a treaty shall be observed by the contract- ing parties or by one of them ; an under- taking that the engagement or promise of] another shall be performed. We say, a c\\\\\\\\a.use of guaratity'm a treaty. Hamilton.

    2. One who binds himself to see the stipida- tions of another performed ; written al- so guarantee.

    GUARD, V. t. giird. [Fr. garder ; Sp. and Port, guardar ; It. guardare, to keep, pre- serve, defend ; also, to look, to behold ;| Basque, gordi ; W. gwara, to fend or guard, to fence, to play. The primary sense is to strike, strike back, repel, beat down, or to turn back or stop ; hence, to keep or defend, as by repelling assault or danger. The sense of seeing, looking, is secondary, from the sense of guarding, and

    we retain a similar application of the root of this word in beware; or it is from the sense of reaching, or casting the eye, or from turning the head. This is the English to ward. In W. gwar is secure, mild, placid, that is, set, fixed, held. It seems to be allied to G. wahr, true, L. ue- 7-iis ; wdhren, to keep, to last, to hold out ; beivahren, to keep or preserve ; bewdhren, to verify, to confirm ; D. xoaar, true ; waar- en, to keep, preserve, indemnify ; waaran- de, a warren, and guaranty ; icaarison, a garrison ; Dan. vaer, wary, vigilant, watching; Eng. ware, aivart; Dan. vaer- ger, to guard, defend, maintain; vare, a guard or watch, ivares, merchandize ; rarer, to keep, last, endure ; Sw. vara, to watch, and to be, to exist ; Dan. vwrer, to be ; Sax. warian, werian, to guard, to de- fend, to be tvary. The sense of existing implies extension or continuance. See Regard and Reward.]

    1. To secure against injury, loss or attack ; to protect ; to defend ; to keep in safety. We guard a city by walls and forts. A harbor is guarded by ships, booms or batteries. Innocence should be guard- ed by prudence and piety. Let observa- tion and experience guard us against temptations to vice.

    2. To secure against objections or the at- tacks of malevolence.

    Homer has guarded every circumstance with caution. Broome.

    3. To accotjipany and protect; to accompa- ny for protection ; as, to guard a general on a journey ; to guard the baggage of an army.

    4. To adorn with lists, laces or ornaments. Obs. Shak.

    5. To gird ; to fasten by binding.

    B. Jonson.

    GUARD, V. i. To watch by way of cau- tion or defense; to be cautious; to be in a state of defense or safety. Guard against mistakes, or against temptations.

    GUARD, 71. [Fr. garde; Sp. guarda; It. guardia ; Eng. ward.]

    1. Defense ; preservation or security against injury, loss or attack.

    2. That which secures against attack or in- jury ; that which defends. Modesty is the guard of innocence.

    3. A man or body of men occupied in pre- serving a person or place from attack or injury ; he or tliey whose business is to defend, or to prevent attack or surprise. Kings have their guards to secure their persons. .loseph was sold to Potiphar, a captain of Pharaoh's giiarrf.

    4. A state of caution or vigilance; or the act of observing what passes in order to pre- vent surprise or attack ; care ; attention ; watch ; heed. Be on your guard. Te- merity puts a man oft' his guard.

    5. That which secures against objections or censure ; caution of expression.

    They have expressed themselves with as few

    guards and restrictions as 1


    (j. Part of the hilt of a sword, which tects the hand.

    7. In/eyicing, a posture of defense.

    8. An ornamental lace, hem or border, Obs.

    Advanced guard, } in military affairs, a body Van guard, ^ of troops, either horse or

    G U A

    G U E


    foot, that march before an ariny or di vision, to prevent surprise, or give notice of danger.

    Rear guard, a body of troops that inarch in the rear of an army or division, for its pro- tection.

    Life guard, a body of select troops, whose duty is to defend the person of a prince or other officer.

    GUARD'-BOAT, n. A boat appointed to row the rounds among ships of war in a harbor, to observe tliat their officers keep a good look-out. Mar. Did.

    GUARD'-CHAMBER, >i. A guard-room 1 Kings xiv.

    GUARD'-ROOM, n. A room for the accom- modation of guards.

    GUARD'-SIIIP, n. A vessel of war ap- pointed to superintend the marine affairs in a liarbor or river, and to receive im- ))r('ssed seamen.

    GUARD' ABLE, a. That may be protected. Sir A. Williams.

    GUARD'AGE,n. Wardship. Ohs. Shak.

    GUARD'ANT, a. Acting as guardian. Obs.

    2. In heraldry, ha\\\\\\\\ing tlie face turned toward the spectator.

    (;i'ARD'ED,;)p. Defended; protected; ac- ( iinipanied by a guard ; provided willi means of defense.

    ->. u. Cniilious; circumspect. lie was guard- )(/ in liis expressions.

    If. Framed or uttered witli caution ; as, his oxiirfssions were guarded.

    r;rAIiI) i:i)LV, arfr. With circumspection.

    (il'.Mtl) I'.DNESS, n. Caution; circum-

    (.I'AUD KU, n. One that guards. (ilARD'FUL, a. Wary; cautions.

    1. A warden ; one who guards, preserves or .'ecures ; one to whom any thing is com- njittod for preservation from injury.

    2. In tan; one wlio is cliosen or appointed to take charge of the estate and education of ■an orphan who is a minor, or of any per- il n who is not of sufficient discretion to ilianage his own concerns. Tlie jierson committed to the care of a guardian is called his ward.

    Guardian of the spiritualities, the person to whom the spiritual jurisdiction of a dio- rf EC is entrusted, during the vacancy of tlie see.

    Gt'ARD'IAN,a. Protecting; performing the office of a protector; as aguardian angel; f^uardinn care.

    OrAJlD'IANESS, n. A female guardian. [.Vol in use] Beaum.

    GUARD'IANSHIP, n. The office of a guard- ian ; protection ; care ; watch.

    OUARD'ING, ppr. Defending ; protecting;

    siciM-ing ; attending for protection. if'ARD'LESS, a. Without a guard or de- fense, trailer.

    GUARD'SHIP, n. Care; protection. [Lit- tle used.] Sicift.

    GUA'RlSll, J). «. [Yi: guerir.] To heal. Ohs. Spenser.

    GU'AVA, n. An American tree, and its fruit, of the genus Psidiuni. It is of two spe cies, or rather varieties, the pyriferum or white guava, and pomiferum or red gua 1 va. The fruit or berry is large and oval shaped, hke a pomegranate, which it re

    sembles in its astringent quahly. The pulp is of an agreeable flavor, and of this fruit is made a delicious jelly. Encyc.

    GU'BERNATE, v. t. [L. gubemo.] To gov- ern. \\\\\\\\JVot used.]

    GUBERNA'TION, n. [L. guhemaiio. See Govern.]

    Government; rule; direction. [Little used.]' Watts.

    GU'BERN.\\\\\\\\TIVE, a. Governing.


    GUBERNATORIAL, a. [L. gubemalor.] Pertaining to government, or to a gov- ernor.

    GUD'GEON, n. gud'jin. [Vr. goujon.] A small fish of the genus Cyprinus, a fish easily caught, and hence,

    2. A person easily cheated or ensnared.


    3. A bait; allurement; something to be caught to a man's disadvantage. Shak.

    |4. An iron pin on which a wheel turns.

    Sea-gudgeon, the black goby or rock fish.

    IgUELF, } The Guelfs, so called from

    GUELPH, I ' ' the name of a family, com- posed a faction formerly in Italy, oppo- sed to the Gibelines. J. Adams.

    GUERDON, n. ger'don. [Fr. from the same root as reward. Norm, regarde.]

    \\\\\\\\ reward ; requital ; recompense ; in a good or bad sense. Obs. Spenser. Milton.

    GUER'DON, V. t. To reward. Ohs.

    B. Jonson.

    GUER'DONLESS, a. Unrecompeuscd. Obs. Chaucer.

    GUESS, V. I. ges. [D. gissen ; Sw. gissa ; Ir. geasam; Dan. gietter. It coincides with cast, like the L. conjicio ; for in Danish, gietter is to guess, and giet-huus is a casting- house or foundery, gyder, to pour out. Hence we see that this is the G. giessen, to pour, cast or found, Eng. to gush. In Russ. gadayu is to guess, and kidayu, to

    to divin

    or guess,

    Class Gs. No. 31. See also Class Gd, The sense is to cast, that is, to throw to- gether circumstances, or to cast forward in mind.]

    1. To conjecture; to form an opinion with- out certain principles or means of knowl- edge ; to judge at random, either of a present unknown fact, or of a future fact.

    First, if thou canst, tlie harder reason guess. Fopc.\\\\\\\\

    2. To judge or form an opinion from some reasons that render a thing probable, but fall short of sufficient evidence. From slight circumstances or occasional expres-l sions, we guess an author's meaning. |

    3. To hit upon by accident; Locke. GUESS, V. i. To conjecture ; to judge atl

    random. We do not know which road to'

    take, but we must guess at it. j

    GUESS, n. Conjecture ; judgment without

    any certain evidence or grounds. \\\\\\\\

    A poet must confess

    His aits like physic, but a happy guess. [


    GUESS'ED, pp. Conjectured ; divined. |

    GUESS'ER, n. One who guesses; a con-^

    jecturer ; one who judges or gives anj

    opinion without certain means of know-i

    ing. Pope.'

    GUESS'ING, ;)pr. Conjecturing; judging without certain evidence, or grounds of opinion.

    GUESS'INGLY, adv. By way of conject- Shak.

    GUEST, n. gest. [Sax. gest ; G. D. gast; Dan. giest; Sw. glist ; \\\' . gicest, agoing out, a mi7,an inn, ajodging ; also, to visit, to be a guest ; gtves, a going ; Russ. gost, a guest. This is the Latin visito, Eng. visit, with the Celtic prefix. See Oweii's Welsh Dictionary.]

    A stranger ; one who comes from a dis- tance, and takes lodgings at a place, either for a night or for a longer time.


    2. A visitor; a stranger or friend, entertain- ed in the house or at the table of another, whether by invitation or otherwise.

    The wedding was furnished widi guests. Matt. xxii.

    GUEST-CHAMBER, n. An apartment appropriated to the entertauiinent of guests. Mark xiv.

    GUEST'-RITE, n. Office due to a guest.


    GUEST-ROPE, I „ A rope to tow with,

    GUESS-ROPE, i "• or to make fast a boat. Mar. Diet.

    GUEST'WISE, adv. In the maimer of a

    GUGGLE. [See Gurgle.]

    GUHR, 71. A loose, earthy deposit from

    water, ibund in the cavities or clefts of

    rocks, mostly white, but sometimes red or

    yellow, from a mixture of clay or ocher.

    JVicholson. Cleaveland.

    GUIDABLE, a. That may be guided or governed by counsel. Sprat.

    GUIDAtiE, n. [See Guide.] The reward given to a guide for ser^'ices. [lAttle used.]

    GUIDANCE, >!. [See Guide.] The act of guiding; direction; government; a lead- ing. Submit to the guidance of age and wisdom.

    GUIDE, V. t. gide. [Fr. guider ; h. guidare ; Sp. guiar, to guide ; guia, a guide, and in seamen's language, a guy ; Port. id. Sec Class Gd. No. 17. 53.]

    1. To lead or direct in a way ; to conduct in a course or path ; as, to guide an ene- my or a traveler, who is not acquainted with the road or course.

    The meek will he guide iji judgment. P«.


    2. To direct ; to order.

    He will guide his affairs with discretion. Ps. cxii.

    3. To influence ; to give direction to. Men ai-e gjtided by their interest, or supposed interest.

    4. To instruct and direct. Let parents guide their children to virtue, dignity and happiness.

    5. To direct ; to irgulale and manage ; to superintend.

    I will that the younger women marry, bear children, and guide the house. 1 Tim. v. GUIDE, n. [Fr. guide ; It. guida ; Sp. gtda.]

    1. A person who leads or directs another in his way or course ; a conductor. The army followed the guide. The traveler may be deceived by his guide.

    2. One who directs another in his conduct or course of life.

    G U I


    Ps.l GUII/r, 'I. gilt. [Sax. gylt, a crime, and a debt, connected with gyldan, to pay ; or it is from the root of D. and G. schuld, Dan. skyld, a debt, fault, guilt. See Shall, Should. If the word is from gildaii, gyl- GUID^D, pp. Led; conducted; directed in | dan, to pay, it denotes a debt contracted the way; instructed and directed. i by an offense, a fine, and thence came

    GUIDELESS, a. Destitute of a guide ; p the present signification.] wanting a du-ector. lh-yden.\\\\\\\\i. Criminality; that state of a moral agent

    He will be our guide, even unto dealli.

    xlviii. , • , , I I

    3. A director ; a regulator ; that which leads

    or conducts. Experience is one of our!

    best guides.


    GUlDEPOST, 7!. A ]JOst at the forks of a

    road, for directing travelers the way. GUIDER, n. A guide ; one who guides or directs. South.

    GUIDING, ppr. Leading; conducting; di- recting ; supcriiitendiug. GUIDON, 71. [Fr.] The flag or standard of a troop of cavah-y ; or the standard-bearer. iMiiier. Encyc. GUILD, 71. gad. [Sax. geld, gield, gild or gyld ; D. gild ; G. ^Ide ; so called, it is said, fvom geldan, gildan, to Y>ay, because each member of the society was to pay something towards the charge and sup port of the company.] In England, a society, fraternity or cornpa ny, associated for some purpose, particu larly for carrying on commerce. The merchant-guilds of our ancestors, answer to our modern corporations. They were licensed by the king, and governed by laws and orders of their own. Hence the name Guild-hall, the great court of judi- cature in London. Cowel. Encyc GUILD'ABLE, a. Liable to a tax.

    Spehnaii GUILDER, 71. [See Gilder.] GUILE, 71. g-t7e. [Qu. Old French guille or gille. It may be the Celtic form of Eng, wile. See Ethiopic, Cast. col. 53.3.] Craft; cunning; artifice; duplicity; deceit usually in a bad sense.

    We may, with more successful hope, resolve To wage by force or ^uile eternal war.

    Milton. Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom guile. John i. GUILE, V. t. To disguise craftily. Obs. Spense GUILEFUL, a. Cunning ; crafty ; artful ; wily ; deceitful ; insidious ; as a guileful person.

    2. Treacherous ; deceitful. Sliak.

    3. Intended to deceive ; as guileful words. GUILEFULLY, adv. Artfully; insidiously

    treacherously. Milton.

    GUILEFyLNESS,7t. Deceit ; secret treach- ery. SheriDood. GUILELESS, a. Free from guile or de- ceit ; artless ; frank ; sincere ; honest. GUILELESSNESS, 7i. Simplicity; free- dom from guile. GUILER, 71. One who betrays into dan ger by insidious arts. [JVo< used.]

    Spenser GUIL'LEMOT, ii. [from the Welsh givil

    awg, whirling about.]

    A waterfowl of the genus Colymbus, and

    order of ansers. It is found in the north

    ern parts of Europe, Asia and America.

    GUIL'LOTIN, 71. [Fr. from the name of

    the inventor.] An engine or machine for beheading pre

    sons at a stroke. GUIL'LOTIN, I'. I. To behead with the]

    guillotin. GUILLS, 7!. A plnnt, the corn marigold

    which results from his actual commission of a Clime or offense, knowing it to be a crime, or violation of law. To constitute guilt there must be a moral agent enjoy ing freedom of will, and capable of distin guishing between right and wrong, and a wilful or intentional violation of known law, or rule of duty. The guih of a person exists, as soon as the crime is committed; but to evince it to others, il must be proved by confession, or convic- tion in due course of law. Guilt renders a person a debtor to the law, as it binds him to pay a penalty in money or suffer ing. Guilt therefore implies both crintii nality and liableness to punishment. Guilt may proceed either from a positive act or breach of law, or from voluntary neglect of known duty

    2. Criminality in a political or civil view ; exposure to forfeiture or other penalty

    A ship incurs guilt by the violation of a blockade. A'eiit.

    3. Crime ; offense. Shak. GUILT'ILY, adv. In a manner to incur

    guilt ; not innocently. Shak.

    GUILT'INESS, n. The state of being

    guilty; wickedness; criiViinality ; guilt.

    Sidney. GUILT'LESS, a. Free from guilt, crime or offense ; innocent.

    The Lord will not hold him guiltless, that ta- keth his name in vain. Ex. xx. 2. Not produced by the slaughter of animals. But from the mountain's grassy side A guiltless feast I bring. Goldsmith.

    GUILT'LESSLY, adv. Without guilt ; in- nocently. GUILT'LESSNESS, 71. Innocence ; free- dom from guilt or crime. Sidney. GUILT'-SICK, a. Diseased in consequence of guilt. Beaum. GUILT'Y, a. gilt'y. [Sax. gyltig.] Crimi nal ; having knowingly committed a crime or offense, or having violated a law by an overt act or by neglect, and by that act or neglect, being liable to punishment ; not innocent. It may be followed by of; as, to be guilty o/ theft or arson. Nor he, nor you, were guilty of the strife.


    2. Wicked ; corrujit ; sinfiil ; as a guilty world.

    3. Conscious. B. Jonson. In Scripture, to be guilty of death, is to have

    committed a crime which deserves death, JIatt. xxvi.

    To be guilty of the body and blood of Christ, is to be chargeable with the crime of cru- cifying Christ afresh, and offering indig nity to his person and righteousness, rep- resented by the symbols of tlie Lord's supper. 1 Cor. xi,

    GUIN'EA, 71. gin'ny. [from Guinea, in Af- rica, which abounds with gold.]

    iFormerly, a gold coin of Great Britain of

    G U L

    the value of twenty one shilhngs sterling, equal to 84.66§, American money.

    GUINEA-DROPPER, n. One who cheats by dropping guineas.

    GUIN'EA-HEN, n. The JVumidameleagris, a fowl of the gallinaceous order, a nati\\\\\\\\ i of Africa. It is larger than the commi domestic hen, and has a kind of color, fleshy horn on each side of the head. 1 - color is a dark gray, beautifully variega ted with small white spots. Ericyc.

    GUINEA-PEPPER, ti. A plant, the Cap- sicum. The pods of some species are used for pickles.

    GUIN'EA-PIG, n. In zoology, a quadruped of the genus Cavia or cavy, found in Bra- zil. It is about seven inches in length, and of a white color, variegated with spots oi' orange and black.

    GUIN'IAD, I „ [W. gwen, gxvyn, white. j

    GAVIN'IAD, \\\\\\\\ The whiting, a fish of the salmon or trout kind, found in many lakes in Europe and in Hudson's bay. It is gregarious, and may be taken in vast num- bers at a draught. Encyc. Pennanl.

    GUISE, 71. gize. [Fr. guise ; It. guisa, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\a} , manner ; Arm. guts, giz ; W. gwez, order, shape ; Sax. wise ; Eng. wise ; G. weisc ; D. guizen, to beguile.]

    1. External appearance; dress; garb. He- appeared in the g-uwe of a shepherd. The hypocrite wears the g-uisc of religion. That love which is without dissimulation.

    /. .M. Mason.

    2. Manner ; mien ; cast of behavior. By their guise

    Just men they seem. Milton.

    3. Custom; mode; practice. The swain replied, it never was our guise. To slight the poor, or aught humane despise.

    Pope. GUISER, 71. gi'zer. A person in disguise ; a mummer who goes about at christmas. £71^. GUIT'AR, 71. gil'ar. [Fr. guitare ; It. chi- tarra ; Sp. Port, guitarra ; L. cithara ; Gr. xiOopa.] A stringed instrument of music; in England and the United States, used chiefly by la- dies, but in Spain and Italy, much used by men. Encyc.

    GU'LA, I An ogee or wavy member in a GO'LA, S "' building ;the cymatium. GU'LAUND, n. An aquatic fowl of a size between a duck and a goose ; the breast and belly white ; tlic head mallard green. It inhabits Iceland. Pennant.

    GULCH, 71. [D. g-uHg-, greedy.] A glutton; swallowing or devouring. [JVot used.] GULCH, V. t. To swallow greedily. [.Yot

    used.] GULES, 71. [Fr. gueules, red.] In heraldry, a term denoting red, intended perhaps to represent courage, animation or hardi- hood. Encyc. GULF, 71. [Fr. golfe ; It. Sp. Port, golfo;

    Arm. golf ; T>.golf; Gr. xoxrto;.] 1. A recess in the ocean from the general line of the shore into the land, or a tract of water extending from the ocean or a sea into the land, between two points or promontories ; a large bay ; as the gulf of Mexico ; the gulf of Venice ; the guff of Finland. A gulf and a bay differ only in extent. We apply bay to a large or small


    recess of the sea, as tlic bay of Biscay, the bay of Fuudy ; but gulf is applied only to a large extent of water.

    2. An abyss ; a deep place in the earth ; as the^u//of Avenius. Spenser.

    3. A whirlpool ; an ahsorbinjj eddy.


    4. Any thing insatiable. Shnk. GULF-INDENT'ED, a. Indented witli

    gulfs or bays. J. Barlow.

    GULF'Y, a. Full of whirlpools or gulfs ;

    as a gtdfy sea. GULL, V. t. [D. kuUen ; Old Fr. guUler ;

    allied probably to cully.] To deceive ; to cheat ; to mislead by decep- tion ; to trick ; to defraud.

    The vulgar, gull'd into rebellion, anncd.

    Dry den.

    GULL, n. A cheating or cheat ; trick ; fraud.


    2. One easily cheated. Sliak.

    GULL, n. [W. guylan; Corn, gullan.] A

    marine fowl of the genus Larus, and order

    of anseis. There are several species.

    E7icyc. GULL'€ATCHER, n. A cheat; a man

    who cheats or entraps .silly people. Shak. GIILL'ED, pp. Cheated; deceived; de-

    fr.uiiled. GFLL'ER, n. A cheat; an impostor. GIJLL'ERY, n. Cheat. [JVot used.]

    Burton. (iUL'LET, n. [Fr. goulet, goulot, from L.

    gula ; Russ. chailo ; Sans, gola.] Tlie passage in the neck of an animal by

    which food and liquor are taken into the

    stomach ; the esophagus. '?.. A stream or lake. [.SToI used.] Heylin. (iUL'LIED, ;>;). Having a hollow worn by

    water. GULL'ISH, n. Foolish; stupid. [JVot in

    GULL'ISHNESS, n. Foolishness; stupidi- ty. [JVot in use.] tiUL'LY, n. A channel or hollow worn in

    the earth by a current of water.

    Mew England. Mitford. Hawkesworth. (iUL'LY, t'. (. To wear a hollow channel ir

    the earth. America

    tiTL'LY, V. i. To run with noise. [.Vol ii:

    use.] Gl'L'LYHOLE, n. An opening where gut

    tors empty their contents into the subter- raneous sewer. Johnson. t;l LOS'ITY, n. [L.gidosus, from gula, the

    gullet.] luecdiness; voracity; excessive appetite for

    lood. [Littlt used.] Brown

    (iULr, I'. <. [D. gulpen; Dan. gulper.] To

    .^wallow eagerly, or in large draughts.

    Gay Tu gulp up, to throw up from the throat or

    stomach ; to disgorge. GULP, n. A swallow, or as much as is swal

    lowed at once. :.'. .\\\\\\\\ disgorging. (JULPH. [See Gulf.] GUM, n. [Sax. goma. See the next word.^

    The hard fleshy substance of the jaws

    which invests the teeth.

    S]). goma ; It. gomma ; Fr. gomme ; Gr.

    xo^^i ; Russ. kamed. See Class Gm. No.

    V2. 29.] T'le mucilage of vegetables ; a concrete

    inice which exsudes through the bark

    Vol. I.


    trees, and thickens on the surface. It is soluble in water, to which it gives a vis- cous and adhesive quality. It is insoluble in alcohol, and coagulates in weak acids. When dry, it is transparent and brittle, not easily pulverized, and of an insipid or slightly saccharine taste. Gum differs from resin in several particulars, but cus- tom has inaccurately given the name of gum to several resins and gum-resins, as gmn-copal, gum-sandarach, gum-ammo- niac, and others. The true gums are gum- arabic, gum-senegal, gum-tragacanth, and the gums of the peach, plum and cherry trees, &c. JVicholson. Hooper.

    Gum-elastic, or Elastic-gum, [caoutchouc^ is a singular substance, obtained from a tree in America by incision. It is a white juice, which, when dry, becomes very tough and clastic, and is used for bottles, surgical instruments, &c. JS/icholson. Encyc.

    GUM, V. f. To smear with gum.

    2. To unite by a viscous substance.

    GUM-AR'AJ5I€, ra. A gum which flows from the acacia, in Arabia, Egypt, &.c.

    GUM'-BOIL, n. A boil on the gum.

    GUM'LA€, n. The produce of an insect which deposits its eggs on the branches of a tree called bihar, in Assam, a country bordering on Tibet, and elsewhere in Asia. [See Lac] JVicholson.

    GUM-RESIN, n. [Sec Resin.] A mixed juice of plants, consisting of resin and an extractive matter, which has been taken for a gummy substance. The gum-resins do not flow naturally from plants, but are mostly extracted by incision, in the fortn of white, yellow or red emulsive fluids, which dry and consolidate. The most iinportant species are olibanum, galbanum, scammony, gamboge, euphorbium, assa- fetida, aloes, myrrh, and gum-ammoniac. Fourcroy.

    Gum-resins are natural combinations of gmn and resin. fVebster's Manual.

    Gum-resins are composed of a gum or ex- tractive matter, and a body intermediate between oil and resin ; to which last they owe their pecuUar properties. Thomson.

    GUM-SEN'EGAL, Ji. A gum resembling gum-arabic, brought from the country of the river Senegal in Africa.

    GUM-TRAG'A€ANTH, n. The gum of a thorny shrub of that name, in Crete, Asia and Greece. Encyc.

    GUM'MINESS, n. The state or quality of being gummy ; viscousness.

    2. Accumulation of gum. Wiseman.

    GUMMOS'ITY, ji. The nature of gum

    gumminess ; a viscous or adhesive quality


    GUM'MOUS, a. Of the nature or quality of| gum ; viscous ; adhesive. Woodward.

    GUM'MY, a. Consistingof gum ; of the na- ture of gum ; viscous ; adhesive.


    2. Productive of gum. Milton

    3. Covered with gum or viscous matter.

    Dryden GUMP, 11. [Dan. and Sw. gump, the rump

    of a fowl.] A foolish person ; a dolt.

    [Vulgar.] GUMP^TION, n. [Snx.gymene, care ; gyman,

    to observe or be careful.] Care ; skill :

    understanding. [ Vulgar.]


    G U R

    GUN, n. [W. gwn ; Corn, g-im.] An instru- ment consisting of a barrel or tube of iron or other metal fixed in a stock, from which balls, shot or other deadly weap- ons are discharged by the explosion of gunpowder. The larger species of guns are called cannon ; and the smaller spe- cies are called muskets, carbines, fowling pieces, &c. But one species of fire-arms, the pistol, is never called a gun.

    GUN, V. i. To shoot. Obs.

    GUN-BARREL, n. The band or tube of a gun.

    GUN'BOAT, >i. A boat or small vessel fit- ted to cai rv a gim or two at the bow.

    Mar. Did.

    GUN'-GARRIAgE, n. A wheel carriage foi bearing and moving cannon.

    GUN'NEL. [See Guntvale.]

    GUN'NER, n. One skilled in the use of guns ; a caniionier ; an officer appointed to man- age artillery. The gunner of a ship of war has the charge of the ammunition and artillery, and his duty is to keep the latter in good order, and to teach the men the exercise of the guns. Mar. Diet.

    GUN'NERY, n. The act of charging, direct- ing and firing guns, as cannon, mortars and the like. Gunnery is founded on the science of projectiles.

    GUN'NING, n. The act of hunting or shoot- ing game with a gun.

    GUN'POWDER, ji. a composition of saU- peter, sulphur and charcoal, mixed and reduced to a fine powder, then granula- ted and dried. It is used in artillery, in shooting game, in blasting rocks, &c.

    GUN'ROOM, n. In ships, an apartment on the after end of the lower gun-deck, occupied by the gunner, or by the lieu- tenants as a mess-room. Mar. Diet.

    GUN'SHOT, n. The distance of the point- blank range of a cannon-shot.

    Mar. Did.

    GUN'SHOT, a. Made by the shot of a gun ; as a gunshot wound.

    GUN'SMITH, ?i. A maker of small arms ; one whose occupation is to make or re- pair small fire-arms.

    GUN'SMITHERY, n. The business of a gunsmith ; the art of making small fire- arms.

    GUN'STICK, n. A rammer, or ramrod ; a stick or rod to ram down the charge of a musket, &c.

    GUN'STOCK, n. The stock or wood in ich the barrel of a gun is fixed.

    GUN'STONE, n. A stone used for the shot of cannon. Before the invention of iron balls, stones were used for shot. Shak.

    GUN'TACKLE, n. The tackle used on board of ships to run the guns out of the ports, and to secure them at sea. The tackles are pulleys affixed to the sides of a gun-carriage. Mar. Did.

    GUNWALE, > ^ The upper edge of a ship's

    GUN'NEL, ^ 'side; the uppermost wale of a ship, or that piece of timber which reaches on either side from the quarter- deck to the fore-castle, being the upper- most bend which finishes the upper works of the hull. Mar. Did. Encyc.

    GURGE, ji. [L.gurges; It. gorgo.] A whirl- pool. [Liitle used.] Millon.

    GUROE, V. t. To swallow. [Mt in use.]

    G IT S

    GUR viilON', n. The coarser part of meal seDaii'.tecl Ironi the bran. [JVot used.] ' Holhushtd.

    GURGLE, v.i. [It.gorgogUareJromgorga, the throat, gurgo, a whirlpool, L. gurges. See Gm-gk, which seems to be of the same family, or the same word differently ap- plied.]

    To run as liquor with a purling noise ; to run or flow in a broken, irregular, noisy current, as water from a bottle, or a small stream on a stony bottom.

    Pure surgUnsr rills the lonely desert trace. * Voung.

    GURG'LING, ppr. Running or flowing with a purling sound. _ '

    GUR'HOFITE, n. A subvariety of magne sian carbonate of lime, found near Gurhof, in Lower Austria. It is snow white, and has a dull, slightly conchoidal, or even fracture. Ckavdand.

    GUR'NARD, n. [Ir. guimead ; W. pen-ger- nyti. Corn, pengarn, horn-head or iron-

    head-1 „ , m • 1

    A fish of several species, of the genus Trigla The head is loricated with rough hnes, oi bony plates, and there are seven rays n- the membranes of the gills.

    Encyc. Did. JVat. Hist.

    GUR'RAH, n. A kind of plain, coarse India muslin. „ . -^

    GUSH, V. i. [Ir. gaisim ; G. giessen ; or 1). gudsen or kissen. See Guess.)

    1. To issue vrith violence and rapidity, as i fluid ; to rush forth as a fluid from con finement; as, blood gushes from a vein it venesection.

    Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out. Ps. Ixxviii.

    2. To flow copiously. Tears gushed from her eyes. . .

    GUSH, V. t. To emit in copious effusion. The o-apin" wound gushed out a crimson flood. [Unuslal.f IXy^"'-

    GUSH, 11. A sudden and violent issue of a fluid from an inclosed place ; an emission of liquor in a large quantity and with force ; the fluid thus emitted. Harvey.

    GUSH'ING, ppr. Rushing forth with vio- lence, as a fluid ; flowing copiously ; as


    A choice of it may be made according to the gust and manner of the ancients. Dryden

    [Taste is now generally used.]

    GUST, V. t. To taste ; to have a relish [LiUle used.]

    GIJST, n. [Dan. gust ; Ir. gaoth, wind ; VV cwyth, a puff, a blast of wind ; allied per haps to gusft.] , . ,

    1. A sudden squall ; a violent blast of wind ; a sudden rushing or driving of the wind, of short duration. Dryden. Addison.

    3. A sudden, violent burst of passion.


    GUT'TER, II. i. To be hollowed or chan- neled. Jferf. Repos.

    2. To run or sweat as a candle. [Loco/!]

    GUT'TLE, V. t. To swallow. [Abf used.] VEstrange.

    GUT'TLE, V. i. To swallow greedily. [Kol used.]


    GUST'ABLE, a. That may be tasted ; tas- table. Harvey.

    2. Pleasant to the taste. [Littk used.]


    GUSTA'TION, n. The act of tasting. [Ul

    tk used.] Brown

    GUST'FUL, a. Tasteful; well-tasted; that

    relishes. „ ,. ,

    GUST'FULNESS, n. Relish ; pleasantness to the taste. Barrow.

    GUST'LESS, a. Tasteless. Brown

    GUST'O, n. [It. and Sp. See Gust.] Rel- ish ; that which excites pleasant sensa tions in the palate or tongue. Derham 2. Intellectual taste. [Liltkused.] Dryden. GUST'Y, a. Subject to sudden blasts of ind ; stormy ; tempestuous.

    Once upon a raw and gusty day, The troubled Tyber chafing with his shores


    [from L. guttula,

    tie drop.] In the form of a small drop, or of small drops.

    ILittk used.] Brown.

    GUT'TURAL, a. [Fr. gulturd, from L.

    guttur, the throat.] Pertaining to the throat ; formed in the

    throat ; as a guttural letter or sound ; a

    gushing waters. 2. "Emitting copiously ; as g-nsfaiig- ev'

    Pope. brack

    GUS'SET, n. [Fr.-gousset, a folr et, a s-ussei, as if from gousse, a cod, husk or shell. But in W. cwysed is a gore or gusset, from cwys, a furrow.] \\\\\\\\ small piece of cloth inserted in a garment, for the purpose of strengthening or en- larging some part. <;UST, n. [L. gustus, It. Sp. gusto, Fr gout, taste -, L. gusto, G. kosten, W. pvae- thu, to taste ; Gr. ysv", a contracted word, for it has ytixJis, taste; W. cwaeth, id.] I. Taste; tasting, or the sense of tasting More generally, the pleasure of tasting relish. 3^"""""

    •i. Sensual enjoyment.

    Where love is duty on the female side, On theirs, mere sensual gust, and sought with surly pride. Ihyden.

    3. Pleasure; amusement; gratification.

    4, Turn of fancy ; intellectual taste.


    GUT, n. [G.kultel; Ch. xSmpkutla.] The intestinal canal of an animal ; a jiipe or tube extending, with many circumvolu tions, from the pylorus to the vent. Tliis pipe is composed of three coats, and is at- tached to the body by a membrane call- ed the mesentery. This canal is of differ- ent sizes in difffjrent parts, and takes dif- ferent names. The thin and small parts are called the duodenum, the ilium, and the jejunum ; the large and thick parts are called the caecum, the colon, and the rectum. By this pipe, the undigested and unabsorbed parts of food are conveyed from the stomach and discharged. This word in the plural is applied to the whole mass formed by its natural convolutions in the abdomen.

    2. The stomach ; the receptacle of food I [Low.] Dryden

    3. Gluttony; love of gormandizing. [Low.] Hakewill.

    GUT, V. t. To take out the bowels ; to evis- cerate.

    2. To plunder of contents. Dryden.

    Guttaserena, in jncrficine, amaurosis; blind- ness occasioned by a diseased retina.

    GUT'TED, pp. Deprived of the bowels eviscerated; deprived of contents.

    GUT'TER, n. [Fr. gouttkre, from goutte, a drop ; Sp. Port, gota, a drop ; Sp. gofera, a g-uf(er ; from L. guHa, a drop. A gutter is a dropper, that which catches drops.]

    1. A channel for water ; a hollow piece of timber, or a pipe, for catching and con-l veying off the water which drops from the eaves of a building.

    2. A channel or passase for water ; a hol- low in the earth for conveying water ;i and, in popular usage, a channel worn in the earth by a current of water.

    GUT'TER, V. t. To cut or form into small hollows. Shak. Dryden.

    guttural voice.

    fUT'TURAL, n. A letter pronounced in the throat ; as the Gr. x- GUT'TURALLY, adv. lu a guttural man- ner ; in the throat. GUT'TURALNESS, n. The quality of be- ing guttural. GUT'TURINE, a. Pertaining to the throat. [JVot in use.] Ray-

    GUT'TY, a. [from L. gutta, a drop.] In heraldry, charged or sprinkled with drops. Encyc. GUT'WORT, n. A plant. GVt, n. gi. [Sp. Port, guia, from guiar, to

    guide. See Guide.] In mai-ine affairs, a rope used to keep a heavy body steady while hoisting or lowering ; also, a tackle to confine a boom forwards, when a vessel is going large, and to pre- vent the sail from gybing. Guy is also a large slack rope, extending from the head of the main-mast to that of the fore-mast, to sustain a tackle for loading or unload- ing. Mar. Did. GUZ'ZLE, V. i. [probably allied to Artn. gouzoucq, the throat. In Italian, gozzo is the crop of a bird.] To swallow liquor greedily ; to drink much ; to drink frequently. Well seasoned bowls the gossip's spirits raise. Who, while she guzzles, chats the Doctor's praise. Roscommmi. GUZ'ZLE, V. t. To swallow much or often ; to swallow with immoderate gust. — Still guzzling must of wine. Dryden. GUZ'ZLE, II. An insatiable thing or per- Marsion. GUZ'ZLER, 71. One wlio guzzles ; an im- moderate drinker. (iYBE, n. A sneer. [See Gihe.] (iYBE, V. t. In seamen's language, to shift a boom-sail from one side of a vessel to the other. Jl^"'"- Diet. (iY'BING, ppr. Shifting a boom-sail from

    one side of a vessel to the other. GYE, ti.<. To guide. Obs. Chaucer.

    GYMNA'SIUM, n. [Gr. yv/tvaaiov, from

    yvi-ivoi, naked.] In Greece, a place where athletic exercises were performed. Hence, a place of exer- cise ; a school. Ash. (iYMNAS'Tle, a. [L. gymnasticus ; Gr. yvfimsixoi, from yviira^u, to exercise, from yi',u>'os, naked ; the ancients being naked in their exercises.] Pertaining to athletic exercises of the body, intended for health, defense or diversion, as running, leaping, wrestling, throwing the discus, the javelin or the hoop, playing with balls, &c. The modern gymnastic


    exercises are intended chiefly for the pres- ervation and promotion of heaUh.

    6YMNAS'TIC, n. Athletic exercise.

    6YMNAS'TICALLY, adv. In a gymnastic manner ; athletically. Brotcn

    (SYMNAS'TIeS, n. The gymnastic art ; the art of performing athletic exercises.

    (iYM'Nie, a. [Gr-yv/Miixoi ; L.gymnicus.

    1. Pertaining to athletic exercises of the body.

    2. Performing athletic exercises. Milton. GYM'NIC, 71. Athletic exercise. Burton, (iYM'NOSOPHIST, n. [Gr. yt-^fo;, naked,

    and ao^i;r;i, a philosopher.]

    A philoso|)her of India, so called from his going with bare feet, or with little cloth ing. The Gyinnosophists in India lived ii the woods and on mountains, subsisting on wild productions of the earth. They nev er drank wine nor married. Some of them traveled about, and practiced physic. They believed the immortality and transmigra- tion of the souh They placed the chief happiness of man in a contempt of the goods of fortune, and of the pleasures of sense. Encyc.

    GYM'NOSOPHY, n. [supra.] The doc- trines of the Gymnosophists. Good.

    tiYM'NOSPERM, n. [Gr. yv.uvos, naked,

    H A B

    and ffrtfp/io, seed.] In botany, a plant that hears naked seeds.

    (iYMNOSPERM'OUS, a. [supra.] Having naked seeds, or seeds not inclosed in a cap- sule or other vessel.

    GYN, V. I. To begin. Obs.

    (iYNAN'DER, n. [Gr. yvvrj, a female, and owjjp, a male.]

    In botany, a plant whose stamens are insert- ed in the pistil.

    CiYNAN'DRIAN, a. Having stamens in- serted in the pistil.

    GYN'AR€HY, n. [Gr. yvrij, woman, and a^iX'T), rule.] Government by a female.


    (iYP'SEOUS, a. [See Gypsum.] Ofthe na- ture of gypsum ; partaking of the qualities of gypsum.

    GYP'SUM,n. [L. from Gr. yv+05 ; Ch. 0'£5U and 03J to overspread with plaster ; Ar. 5 o

    ^A«.x:=. gypsum.]

    Plaster stone ; sulphate of lime ; a mineral not unfrequenlly found in crystals, often in amorphous masses. There are several subspecies and varieties ; as the foliated, compact, earthy, granular, snowy and branchy. Cleaveland.

    H A B

    Gypsum is of great use in agriculture and the arts. As a manure, it is invaluable.

    OYplvi^' f «• [See G,>ey.]

    GY'RAL, a. [See Gyre.] Whirling ; moving

    in a circular form. (iYRA'TION, n. [L. gyratio. See Gyre.]

    A turning or whirling round ; a circular

    motion. JS/ewton.

    (iYRE, n. [L. gyrus ; Gr. yipoj. Class Gr.]

    A circular motion, or a circle described

    by a moving body; a turn.

    Quick and more quick he spins in giddy

    gyres. Dryden.

    (iY'RED, a. Falhng in rings. Shak.

    GYR'FAL€ON,n. [¥r. gerfaull. This is said

    to be in Latin hierofalco, from Gr. ttpoj,

    sacred, and falco, and so named from the

    veneration of the Egyptians for hawks.

    Cuvier.] A species of Falco, or hawk. gYR'OMANCY, n. [Gr. yvpof, a circuit, and

    fMvtna, divination.] A kind of divination performed by walking

    round in a circle or ring. Cyc.

    (iYVE, n. lyf.gevyn ; Ir. geibhcal, or geib-

    ion ; from holding or making fast. See

    Gavel.] Gyves are fetters or shackles for

    the legs.

    Gyves and the mill had tamed thee. Milton. GYVE, V. t. To fetter ; to shackle ; to

    chain. Shak.


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