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    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

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Letter "D" Below


    H, is the eighth letter of the English Al- phabet. It is properly the representative of the Chaldee, Syriac and Hebrew n, which is the eighth letter in those alji" bets. Its form is the same as the Greek H ete. It is not strictly a vowel, nor an articulation ; but the mark of a stronger breathing, than that which precedes the utterance of any other letter. It is pro- nounced with an expiration of breath, which, preceding a vowel, is perceptible by the ear at a considerable distance.! Thus, harm and arm, hear and ear, heatl and eat, are distinguished at almost anyi distance at which the voice can be heard.] H is a letter sui generis, but as useful in forming and distinguishing words as any other.

    In our mother tongue, the Anglo-Sax- on, and other Teutonic dialects, h some- times represents the L. c, and the Gr. x as in horn, L. cornu, Gr. ;cfpa{ ; hide, G, haut, Sw. hud, D. huid, Dan. hud, L. cm- til ; Sax. hlinian, L. clino, Gr. xY.wu, tc lean ; L. celo, to conceal, Sax. helan. G hehlen, Dan. heeler. In Latin, h sometimes represents the Greek x \\ as in halo, Gr. XiOMu ; hio, zao. In the modern European languages, it represents other guttural let- in English, h is sometimes mute, as in honor, honest ; also when united with g, as in right, fight, brought. In which, ivhat, irho, whom, and some other words in which

    it follows w, it is pronounced before it, hunch, hwat, &c. As a numeral in Latin, H denotes 200, and with a dash over it H 200,000.

    As an abbreviation in Latin, II stands for homo, hceres, hora, &c.

    HA, an exclamation, denoting surprise, joy or grief With the first or long sound oi a, it is used as a question, and is equiva- lent to " What do you say?" When re- peated, ha, ha, it is an expression of laugh- ter, or sometimes it is equivalent to "Well ! it is so."

    HAAK, ?i. A fish. AimwoHh.

    Habeas Corpus, [L. have the body.] A writ for delivering a person from false impris- onment, or for removing a person from one court to another, &c. Cowel.

    HAP.'ERDASHER, n. [perhaps from G. habe, D. have, goods, and G. tauschen, to barter, to truck. If not, I can give no ac- count of its origin.]

    A seller of small wares ; a word little used or not at all in the U. Slates.

    HAB'ERDASHERY, n. The goods and wares sold by a haberdasher.

    HAB'ERDINE, n. A dried salt cod.


    HAB'ERgEON, n. [Fr. haubergeon; Norm. hauberiom ; Arm. hobregon. It has been written also haberge, hauberk, &c. G. hals-, bcrge ; hals, the neck, and hergen, to save or defend.]

    A coat of mail or armor to defend the neck

    and breast. It was formed of little iron rings united, and descended from the neck to the middle of the bodj-.

    Encyc. Ex. xxviii. HAB'ILE, a. Fit ; proper. [JVol in use.]

    Spenser. HABIL'IMENT, n. [Fr. habillement, from habillcr, to clothe, from L. habeo, to have.] A garment ; clothing ; usually in the plural, habilitneyits, denoting garments, clothing or dress in general. HABIL'ITATE, v. t. [Fr. habiliter.] To qualify. [JVot used.] Bacon.

    HABILiTA'TION, n. Qualification, [mt use.] Bacon.

    HABILITY. [See Ability.] HAB'IT, n. [Fr. haUt ; Sp. haUto ; It.abito ; L. habitus, from habeo, to have, to hold. See Have.] \\. Garb ; dress ; clothes or garments in gen- eral. The scenes are old, the habits are the same, \\Ve wore last year. Dryden.

    There are among; the statues, several of Ve- nus, in different habits. Addison. a. A coat worn by ladies over other gar- ment.".

    3. State of any thing, implying some contin- uance or permanence ; temperament or particular state of a body, formed by na- tvne or induced by extraneous circum- stances ; as a costive or lax habit of body ; a sanguine habit.

    4. A disposition or condition ofthe raind or body acquired by custom or a frequent

    H A B

    H A C

    H A F

    repetition of the same act. Habit is that which is hehi or retained, the effect of cus- tom or frequent repetition. Hence we speak of good habits and bad habits. Fre- quent drinking of spirits leads to a. habit of intemperance. We should endeavor to

    correct evil habits by a change of practice. A great point in the education of children, is to prevent the formation of bad habits.

    Habit of plants, the general form or appeai-- ance, or the conformity of plants of the same kind in structure and growth.


    tIAB'IT, V. t. To dress ; to clothe ; to ar- ray. They habited themselves like rural deities.


    [lAB'IT, V. t. To dwell ; to inhabit. 66s. Chancer.

    HAB'ITABLE, a. [Fr. from L. habitabilis, from habito, to dwell.]

    That may be inhabited or dwelt in ; capable of sustaining human beings ; as the habit- able world. Some climates are scarcely habitable.

    HAB'ITABLENESS, n. Capacity of being inhabited. More. Say.

    IIAB'ITABLY, adv. In such a manner as to be habitable. Forsyth.

    HAB'ITANCE, n. Dwelling; abode; resi- dence. [JVot now used.] Spenser.

    IIAB'ITANCY, )(. Legal settlement or in- habitancy. [See Inhabitancy.] Belknap.

    HAB'ITANT, n. [Fr. from L. habitans.] An inhabitant ; a dweller ; a resident ; one who has a permanent abode in a place.

    Milton. Pope.

    IIAB'ITAT, n. Habitation. Fleming.

    HABITA'TION, n. [L. habitatio,fi-om habi- to, to dwell, from habeo, to hold, or as we say in English, to keep.]

    J. Act of inhabiting ; state of dwelling.


    9. Place of abode ; a settled dweUing ; a mansion ; a house or other place in which man or any animal dwells.

    The stars may be the habitations of numer- ous races of beings.

    The Lord blesseth the habitation of the just. Prov. iii.

    HAB'ITATOR, n. [L.] A dweller ; an in- habitant. [JVot used.] Brown.

    HAB'ITED, o. Clothed; dressed. He was habited like a shepherd.

    2. Accustomed. [JVot usual.]

    HABIT'UAL, a. [Fr. habituel, from habit.] Formed or acquired by habit, frequent use or custom.

    Art is properly an habitual knowledge of eer- taia rules and maxims. South.

    2. Customary ; according to habit ; as the habitual practice of sin ; the habitual exer- cise of holy affections.

    It is the distinguishing mark of habitual piety to be grateful for the most common blessings. Buckminster.

    3. Formed by repeated impressions; render- ed permanent by continued causes ; as an habitual color of the skin. S. S. Smith.

    IIABIT'UALLY, adv. By habit; customa- rily ; by frequent practice or use ; as ha- bitually profane ; habitually kind and be- nevolent.

    HABIT'UATE, v. t. [Fr. habituer, from habit.]

    1. To accustom ; to make familiar by fre- quent use or practice. Men may habituate

    themselves to the taste of oil or tobacco. They habituate themselves to vice. Let us habituate ourselves and our children to the exercise of charity.

    2. To settle as an inhabitant in a place.


    HABIT'UATE, a. Inveterate by custom.


    2. Formed by habit. Temple.

    HABIT'UATED, pp. Accustomed; made familiar by use.

    HABIT'UA'TING,pj3r. Accustoming; ma- king easy and familiar by practice.

    HAB'ITUDE, n. [Fr. from L. habitudo, from habitus.]

    1. Relation ; respect ; state with regard to something else. [Little used.]

    Hale. South.

    2. Frequent intercourse ; familiarity. [JVot usual.]

    To write well, one must have frequent hab- itudes with the best company. Dryden.

    3. Customary manner or mode of life; repe- tition of the same acts; as the habitudes of fowls or insects. Goldsmith.

    4. Custom ; habit. Dryden. Prior. HAB'NAB, adv. [hap ne hap, let it happen

    or not.] At random ; by chance ; without order or

    rule. Hudibras.

    HACK, v.t. [Sax. /wctff/i ; D.hakken; G.

    hackcn ; Dan. hakker; Sw. hacka ; Fr.

    hacher, from which we have hash and

    hatchet, and from the same root, hatchel ;

    Arm. haicha ; W. haciaw, to hack ; hag, a

    gash ; and haggle is of the same family, as

    are hew and hoe. Class Cg.]

    1. To cut irregularly and into small pieces ; to notch ; to mangle by repeated strokes of a cutting instrument.

    2. To speak with stops or catches ; to speak with hesitation. Shak.

    HACK, «. Anotcli; a cut. Shak.

    HACK, n. A horse kept for hire ; a horse much used in draught, or in hard service ; any thing exposed to hire, or used in com- mon, [from hackney.]

    2. A coacli or other carriage kept for hire, [from hackney.]

    3. Hesitating or faltering speech. More.

    4. A rack for feeding cattle. [Local.] HACK, a. Hired. Wakefield. HACK, V. i. To be exposed or offered to

    common use forhire; to turn prostitute.


    2. To make an effort to raise phlegm. [See Hawk.]

    HACK'ED,^/). Chopped; mangled.

    HACK'ING, ppr. Chopping into small pie- ces ; mangling; mauling.

    HACK'LE, V. t. [G. hecheln ; D. hekelen. This is a dialectical variation of hatchel, hetchel.]

    1. To comb flax or hemp ; to separate the coarse part of these substances from the fine, by drawing them through the teeth of a hatchel.

    2. To tear asunder. Burke. HACK'LE, n. A hatchel. The latter ivord

    is used in the U. States.

    2. Raw silk; any flimsy substance unspun.

    Johnson. Walton.

    3. A fly for angling, dressed with feathers or silk. Todd.

    HACK'LY, a. [from hack.] Rough ; bro- ken as if hacked.

    In mineralogy, having fine, short, and shaix* points on the surface ; as a hackly frac- ture. Cleaveland.

    HACK'MATACK, Ji. The popular name of the red larch, the Pinus microcarpa.

    HACK'NEY, n. [Fr. haqimiee, a faciag horse ; Sp. hacanea, a nag somewhat lar- ger than a pony ; haca, a pony ; Port. hacanea or acanea, a choice pad, or am- bling nag ; It. chinea.]

    1. A pad ; a nag ; a pony. Chaucer.

    2. A horse kept for hire; a horse much used.

    3. A coach or other carriage kept for hire, and often exposed in the streets of cities. The word is sometimes contracted to hack.

    4. Any thing much used or used in com- mon ; a hireling; a prostitute.

    HACK'NEY, a. Let out for hire ; devoted

    ! to common use ; as a AacAnei/-coach.

    |2. Prostitute ; vicious for hire.

    I Roscommon.

    i3. Much used ; common ; trite ; as a hack- ney author or remark.

    HACK'NEY, V. t. To use much ; to prac

    j tice in one thing ; to make trite.

    i2. To carry in a hackney-coach. Cowper.

    WACK'NEY-eoACH. [See Hackney.]

    HACKNEY-€OACHMAN, n. A man who drives a hackney-coach.

    HACK'NEYED,;);). Used much or in com- mon. ,

    2. Practiced ; accustomed.

    He is long hackneyed in the ways of men.


    HACK'NEYING, ;)pr. Using much; accus- toming.

    HACK'NEYMAN, n. A man who lets horses and carriages for hire. Barret.

    HACK'STER, n. A bully ; a rufiian or as- sassin. Obs. Bp. Hall

    HAC'QUETON, n. [Fr. hoqueton.] A stuffed jacket formerly worn under armor, some- times made of lether. [JVot used.]


    HAD, pret. and pp. of have ; contracted from Sax. hmfd, that is, haved ; as, I had ; I have had. In the phrase, " I had better go," it is supposed that had is used for ivoidd ; " I'd better go." The sense of the phrase is, " it would be better for me to go."

    HAD'DER, n. [G. heide.] Heath. ' [JVot in use. See Heath.]

    HAD'DOCK, n. [Ir. codog. The first sylla- ble seems to be cod or gadus, and the last, the termination, as in bullock.]

    A fish of the genus Gadus or cod, and order of Jugulars. It has a long body, the up- per part of a dusky brown color, and the belly of a silvery hue ; the lateral hne is black. This fish breeds in immense num- bers in the northern seas, and constitutes a considerable article of food. Encyc.

    HADE, n. Among miners, the steep descent of a shaft; also, the descent of a hill.


    In milling, the inchnation or deviation from the vertical of a mineral vein. Cyc.

    H'AFT, 71. [Sax. hcefi, a haft, and haijlan, to seize ; G. hejl ; D. hejl ; Dan. hefte ; from the root of have, or of L. capio, W. hafiaw, to snatch.]

    A handle ; that part of an instrument or ves- sel which is taken into the hand, and by whicli it is held and used. It is used


    chiefly for the part of a sword or dagger by which it is held ; the hilt.

    H AFT, V. I. To set in a haft ; to furnish with a handle.

    H'AFTER, n. [W. hajiaw, to catch.] A caviller ; a wrangler. [Mil in use.]


    HAG, n. [In Sax. hdgesse is a witch, fury, or goblin, answering to the Hecate of mythol- ogy. In W. hagyr, ugly, is from lutg, a gash, from the root othack. In Russ. ega is a foolish old woman, a sorceress. See Hagard.]

    1. An ugly old woman ; as an old hag of threescore. Dryden.

    9. A witch ; a sorceress ; an enchantress.

    3. A fury ; a she-monster. Crashaw.

    4. A cartilaginous fish, the Gastrobranchus, which enters other fishes and devours them. It is about five or six inches long, and resembles a small eel. It is allied to the lamprey. Cijc.

    5. Appearances of light and fire on horses manes or men's hair, were formerly called hags. Bh

    HAG, V. t. To harass ; to torment. Butler.

    2. To tire ; to weary with vexation. HAG'ARD, o. [G. hager, lean ; W. hag,

    gash ; hacciaw, to hack. See Hack.]

    1. Literally, having a ragged look, as if hack- ed or gashed. Hence, lean; meager; rough ; having eyes sunk in their orbits ; ugly.

    2. Wild ; fierce ; intractable ; as a hagard hawk.

    HAG'ARD, n. [See Hag. This and the other derivatives of Aag' ought to be written with a single g.]

    1. Any thing wild and intractable. Shak

    2. A species of hawk. Jf'alton

    3. A hag.

    HAG'ARDLY, adv. In a hagard or ugly manner; with deformity. Dryden.

    HAG'BORN, n. Born of a hag or witch.


    IIAG'GARD, n. [Sax. haga, a little field, and geard, a yard.] A stack-yard. Hotoell.

    HAG'GESS, n. [from hack.] A mess of meat, generally pork, chopped and inclo- sed in a membrane. Johnson.

    2. A sheep's head and pluck minced. Entick.

    HAG'GLE, V. t. [W. hag, a gash or cut. It is a diminutive from the root of hack.]

    To cut into small pieces ; to notch or cut in

    an unskillful manner; to make rough by

    cutting ; to mangle ; as, a boy haggles u

    stick of wood.

    Suffolk first died, and York all haggled o'er.

    Comes to hitii where in gore he lay insteep'd.


    HAG'GLE, V. i. To be difficult in bargain- ing; to hesitate and cavil. [See Higgle.]

    HAG'GLED, pp. Cut irregularly into notch- es ; made rough by cutting ; mangled.

    HAG'GLER, n. One who haggles.

    2. One who cavils, hesitates and makes dif- ficulty in bargaining.

    HAG'GLING, ppr. Hacking ; mangling ; caviling and hesitating in bargaining.

    HAGIOG'RAPHAL, n. Pertaining to ha giography, which see.

    HAGIOG'RAPHER, n. [See the next word.] A writer of holy or sacred books.

    HAGIOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. ayioj, holy, and ypo^ii;, a writing.]

    H A I

    Sacred writings. The Jews divide the books of the Scri[)tures into three parts; the Law, which is contained in the five first books of the Old Testament ; the Prophets, 01- Nevim ; and the Cetuvim, or writings, by way of eminence. The latter class is called by the Greeks Hagiographa, com- prehending the books of Psalms, Prov- erbs, Job, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Ruth, Esther, Chronicles, Canticles, Lamenta- tions, and Ecclesiastes.

    HAG'ISH, a. Of the nature of a hag ; de- formed ; ugly ; horrid. Shak.

    HAG'-RIDDEN, a. Afllicted with the night- mar. Cheyne.

    HAG'SIIIP, n. The state or title of a hag or witch. Middleton.

    HAGUEBUT. [See .Jrquebuse.]

    HAH, an exclamation expressing surprise or eftbrt.

    HAIL, n. [Sax. ha^gel or hagel ; G. D. Dan. and Sw. hagel ; so called from its rough, broken form, from the root of hack, haggle.]

    Masses ot ice or frozen vapor, falling from the clouds in showers or storms. These masses consist of little spherules united, but not all of the same consistence ; some being as hard and solid as perfect ice ; others soft, like frozen snow. Hailstones assume various figures ; some are round, others angular, others pyramidical, others flat, and sometimes they are stellated with six radii, like crystals of snow. Encyc.

    HAIL, V. i. To pour down masses of ice or frozen vapors.

    HAIL, V. t. To pour. Shak.

    HAIL, a. [Sax. hal, whole, sound; ha:l, Jiealth ; G. heil, D. Dan. heel, Sw. hel, Gr.

    Sound ; whole ; healthy ; not impaired by disease ; as a hail body ; hail corn. [In this sense, it is usually written hale.]

    HAIL, an exclamation, or rather a verb in the imperative mode, being the adjective hail, used as a verb. Hail, be well ; be in health ; health to you ; a term of salutation, ecpiivalent to L. salve, salvete.

    Hail, hail, brave friend. Shak.

    MAIL, n. A wish of health ; a salutation. This word is sometimes used as a noun ; as, the angel hail bestowed. Milton.

    HAIL, V. t. [from the same root as call, L. calo, Gr. xaxta. See Call and Heal.]

    To call ; to call to a person at a distance, to arrest his attention. It is properly used in any ease where the person accosted is dis- tant, hut is appropriately used by seamen. Hoa or hoi, the ship ahoay, is the usual manner of hailing ; to which the answer is holloa, or hollo. Then follow the usual questions, whence came ye .' where are you bound ? &c.

    HA'ILED, pp. Called to from a distance ; accosted.

    HA'ILING, ppr. Saluting ; calling to fr a distance.

    2. Pouring down hail.

    HA'ILSHOT, n. Small shot which scatter like hailstones. [jVot used.] Hayward.

    HA'ILSTONE, ti. A single mass of ice fall- ing from a cloud. Dryden.

    HA'ILY, a. Consisting of hail ; as haily showers. Pope.

    HA'INOUS, a. [Fr. haimux, from haine, ha- tred. Qu. Gr. oivo;.]

    II A I

    Properly, hateful ; odious. Hence, great, enormous, aggravated ; as a hainous sin or crime. MUford.

    IIA'INOUSLY, adv. Hatefully; abomina- blv : enormously.

    HA'INOUSNESS, n. Odiousness ; enormi- ty ; as the hainousness of theft or robbery, or of any crime.

    HAIR, n. [Sax. har; G. haar ; D. ^jV ; Sw. /iSr ; Dan. hoar.]

    1. A small filament issuing from the skin of an animal, and from a bulbous root. Each filament contains a tube or hollow with- in, occupied by a pulp or pith, which is intended for its nutrition, and extends only to that part which is in a state of growth.

    Cyc. When hair means a single filament, it has a plural, hairs.

    2. The collection or mass of filaments grow- ing from the skin of an animal, and form- ing an integument or covering ; as the hair of the head. Hair is the common cover- ing of many beasts. When the filaments are very fine and short, the collection of them iscalledyi(r. Wool, also, is a kind of hair. When hair signifies a collection of these animal filaments, it has no plural.

    3. Any thing very small or fine ; or a very small distance ; the breadth of a hair. He judges to a hair, that is, very exactly.


    4. A trifling value. It is not worth a hair.

    5. Course ; order ; grain ; the hair falling in certain direction, [JVof used.] You go against the hair of your profession.


    I). Long, straight and distinct filaments on the sin-face of plants ; a species of down or pubescence. Martyn.

    HA'IRBELL, n. A plant, a species of hya- cinth.

    HA'IR-BRAINED. [See Hare-brained.]

    HA'IR-BREADTH, n. [See Breadth.] The diameter or breadth of a hair ; a very small distance.

    — Seven hundred chosen men left-handed , every one could sling stones to a hair-breadth . Judges XX.

    It is used as an adjective ; as a hair- breadth escape. But in New England, it is generally ftatr'i breadth.

    HAIRCLOTH, n. Stuff" or cloth made of hair, or in part with hair. In military af- fairs, pieces of this cloth are used for cov- ering the powder in wagons, or on batte- ries, or for covering charged bombs, &c. Encm.

    HA'IRHUNG, a. Hanging by a hair.


    HA'IRLACE, n. A fillet for tying up the hair of the head. Swift.

    HA'IRLESS, o. Destitute of hair; bald; as hairless scalps. Shak.

    HAIRINESS, n. [from hairy.] The state

    of abounding or being covered with hair.


    HA'IRPIN, n. A pin used in dressing the hair.

    HA'IRPOWDER, n. A fine powder of flour for sprinkhng the hair of the head.

    HA'IR-S.fiLT, n. [haar-salz, Werner.] A mixture of the sulphates of magnesia and iron ; its taste resembles that of alum.




    IIA'IRWORM, n. A gcmis of vvorins (vermes,) caUed Gordius; a filiform ani- mal found in fresh water or in tlie earth. There are several species. Eiicyc.

    HAIRY, a. [from hair.] Overgrown with hair ; covered with hair ; abounding with hair.

    Esau, my brotlier, is a hairy man. Gen. xxvii .

    2. Consisting of hair ; as AmV^ honors.


    3. Resembling hair ; of the nature of hair. HAKE, n. A kind of fish, the Gadus merlu

    cius; called by some authors /uciui man'- nus. It was formerly salted and dried.


    HAK'OT, n. A fish. Ainsivorth

    HAL, in some names, signifies hall.

    HAL'BERD, n. [Fr. hallebarde ; G. helle- barde ; D. hellebaard ; It. alabarda oi labarda ; Sp. Port, alabarda ; Russ. berdish, a halberd or battle-ax, a pole-ax. The etymology is not settled. It seems an- ciently to have been a battle-ax fixed to a long pole, and in Gothic hilde is battle.]

    A military weapon, consisting of a pole or shaft of wood, with a head armed with a steel point, with a cross piece of steel, flat and pointed at both ends, or with a cutting edge at one end, and a bent point at the other. It is carried by sergeants of foot and dragoons. Encyc.

    HALBERDIER, n. One who is armed with a halberd. Bacon.

    HAL'CYON, n. hal'shon. [L. halcyon, Gr. oJ.xDu*, a king-fislier.]

    The name anciently given to the king-fisher, otherwise called alcedo; a bird that was said to lay her eggs in nests, on rocks near the sea, during tlie calm weather about the winter solstice. Hence,

    HAL'CYON, a. Calm; quiet; peaceful; undisturbed ; happy. Halcyon days were seven days before and as many after the winter solstice, when the weather wa.s calm. Hence by halcyon days are now understood days of peace and tranquility.

    HALCYO'NIAN, a. Halcyon ; calm.


    HALE, a. [Sax. hal, sound, whole. See Hail and Heal]

    Sound ; entire ; healthy ; robust ; not im- paired ; as a hale body.

    HALE, n. Welfare. [jVot in use.] Spenser.

    HALE, V. t. [Sw. hala ; Fr. haler.] To pull or draw with force ; to drag. This is now more generally written and pronounced haul, which see. It is always to be pro- nounced hard.

    H' ALF, n. h'af. plu. halves, pron. h^avz. [Sax. half or healf; Goth, halbs ; D.half; Sw. half; Dan. hah; G. halb.]

    One equal part of a thing which is divided into two parts, either in factor in contem- plation ; a moiety ; as half a pound ; half] a tract of hmd ; half an orange ; half the miseries or pleasures of life. It is applied to quantity, nuiuber, length, and every thing susceptible of division. In practice, 0/ is often or usually omitted after half. We say, half a. pound ; half a mil 7ta{/" the number.

    Half the misery oflife . Mddisc

    H'ALF, V. t. To divide into halves. [See Halre.]

    H'ALF, adv. In part, or in an equal part or degree.

    Half \\oth, and Aai/ consenting. Dryden.

    In composition, half denotes an equal part ; or indefinitely, a part, and hence, imperfect.

    H'ALFBLOOD, n. Relation between per- sons born of the same father or of the same mother, but not of both ; as a brother or sister of the half blood. The word is sometimes used as an adjective.

    HALF-BLOODED, a. Mean ; degenerate. [Little ttsed.] Shak.

    2. Proceeding from a male and female, each of full blood, but of different breeds; as a half-blooded sheep.

    IPALF-BRED, a. Mixed ; mongrel ; mean.

    H'ALF-€AP, n. A cap not wholly put on. Shak.

    H'ALF-DEAD, a. Almost dead; nearly exhausted.

    H^ALFEN, a. Wanting half its due quali- ties. [JVot used.] Spenser.

    H'ALFER, n. One that possesses half only.

    2. A male fallow deer gelded.

    irALF-FACED, a. Showing only part of the face. Shak.

    HALF-HATCHED, a. Imperfectly batch- ed ; as half-hatched eggs. Gay.

    HALF-HEARD, a. Imperfectly heard; not heard to the end.

    And leave half-heard the melancholy tale.


    H'ALF-LEARNED, a. Imperfectly learned. South.

    H>ALF-LOST, a. Nearly lost. Milton.

    HALF-MARK, ji. A coin ; a noble, or 6s. 8d. sterling.

    H'ALF-MOON, »i. The moon at the quar- ters, when half its disk appears illumina- ted.

    2. Any thing in the shape of a half-moon. In fortification, an outwork composed of| two faces, forming a salient angle, whose! gorge is in the form of a crescent or half- moon. Encyc.\\

    HALF-PART, n. An equal part. Shak)

    H ALF-PAY, n. Half the amount of wages' or salary ; as, an officer retires on half-pay. I

    H' ALF-PAY, a. Receiving or entitled toj half-pay ; as a ?ia//'-;>(iii/ officer.

    H'ALF-PENNY, n. ha'p'penny or ha'penny. 1

    A copper coin of the value of half apen-|

    ny ; also, the value of half a penny. It is;

    used in the plural. I

    He cheats (or half-pence . Dryden.\\

    [This coin is not current in America,

    HALF-SPHERE, n. Hemisphere.

    B. Jonson.

    HALF-STARVED, o. Almost starved.

    HALF-STRAINED, a. Half-bred ; imper- fect. Dryden.

    HALF-SWORD, n. Within half the length of a sword ; close fight. Shak.

    H^ALF-WAY, adv. In the middle ; at half the distance. Granville.

    HALF-WAY, a. Equally distant from the extremes; as a half-way house.

    H>ALF-WIT, n. A foolish person ; a dolt; a blockhead. Dryden.

    HALF-WITTED, a. Weak in intellect; silly; foolish. Swift.

    HAL'IBUT, n. A fish of the genus Pleuro- nectes, and order of Thoracics. This fish has a compressed body, one side resem- bling the back, the other the belly ; and both eyes on the same side of the head. It grows to a great size ; some to the weight of .300 or 400 pounds. It forms an article of food, and some parts of the body are fat, tender and delicious. This fish swims on its side, and hence the name of the genus. Encyc.

    HAL'IDOM, n. [Sax. haligdome; holy and

    dom.] Adjuration by what is holy. Obs.


    HALING. [See Hauling.]

    HALIT'UOUS, a. [L. halitus, breath.] Like brealli ; vaporous. Obs. Boyle.

    HALL, n. [Sax. heal; D. hal or zaal; G. saal ; Sw. and Dan. sal; Fr. salle ; It. and Sp. sala ; L. aida ; Gr. ovXij ; Sans, aala ; Copt, aidi ; Tujk. awli. Qu. Heb. 'jriN, a

    tent, Ar. ^£,\\ to marry, and to begin lioiisekeeping, or Heb. Ch. Syr. h3T\\, a palace. Qu. are these all of one family. See Salt.]

    1. In architecture, a large room at the en- trance of a house or palace. In the hou- ses of ministers of state, magistrates, &c. it is the place where they give audience and dispatch business. Encyc.

    2. An edifice in which courts of justice are held ; as Westminster Hall, which was originally a royal palace, the kings of England formerly holding their parlia- ments and courts of judicature in their own dwellings, as is still the practice in Spain. Encyc.

    3. A manor-house, in which courts were formerly held. Addison.

    H>ALF-PENNY, a. Of the price or value of :4. A college, or large edifice belonging to a half a penny ; as a half-penny loaf. Shak}\\ collegiate institution.

    H'ALF-PENNY-WORTH, n. The value 5- A room for a corporation or public as- of a half-penny. || sembly ; as a town-/inW ; Fanueil Hall in

    irALF-PIKE, n. A small i)ike carried by!| Boston, &c.

    officers. Tatler.'G- A collegiate body in the

    2. A small pike used in boarding ships. j Oxford and Cambridge.

    i,r ir>... ,T . T T r,T tt,t ■ .T [jjeb. D' ^hh>^ praise y


    Mar. Did H>ALF-PINT, JI. The half of a pint, or!|

    fourth of a quart. Pope.l

    H'ALF-READ, a. Superficially informed|

    by reading. Dryden.

    H>ALF-S€HOLAR, n. One imperfectly!

    learned. Halts..

    Half-seas over, a low expression denoting!

    half drunk. H>ALF-SIGHTED, a. Seeing imperfectly;:

    having weak discernment. Bacon.

    Prideav HALLELUIAH,

    lah or Jehovah, from 'i^T^, to jiraise, that is, to throw, or raise the voice, to utter a

    loud sound. Ar.



    ealla, to

    appear; to begin to shine, as the new moon; to exclaim ; to exult ; to sing; to rejoice; to praise or worship God. Gr. I'KAtv, a shout in battle. It coincides in elements with howl, L. idulo.]



    H A M

    Praise ye Jehovah ; give praise to God ; a word used in songs of praise, or a term of rejoicing in solemn ascriptions of thanks- giving to God. It is used as a noun, or as an exclamation.

    [This word is improperly written withj, in conformity with the German and other continental languages, in which J has the sound of?/. But to pronounce the word with the English sound of J destroys its beauty. The like mistake of the sound ot j in Jehovah, Jordan, Joseph, has perverted the true pronunciation, which was Yeho- vah, Yordan. Yoseph. This perversion must now be submitted to, but in Halleluiah it ought not to be tolerated.]

    HAL'LIARD, n. [from hale, haul] A rope

    or tackle for hoisting or lowering a sail.

    Mar. Did.

    HAL'LIER, n. A particular kind of net for

    . catching birds. Encyc.

    H^L'LOO, V. i. [This seems to belong to the family of call ; Fr. haler.]

    To cry out ; to exclaim with a loud voice ;

    to call to by name, or by the word halloo.

    Country folks hallooed and hooted after me.


    H.J.L'LOO, V. t. To encourage with shouts. Old Joliii hallooes his hounds again. Prior.

    2. To chase with shouts. Skak.

    3. To call or shout to. Shak. [This verb is regular, and pronounced with

    theaccent on the first syllable.]

    ■ ed as a

    to invite attention.

    HALLOO', an exclamation, used


    H^L'LOOING, ppr. Crying out ; as a noun, a loud outcry.

    HAL'LOW, V. I. [Sax. haligan or halgian, to consecrate, to sanctify, from halig or halg, holy, from hal, sound, safe, whole ; G. heiligen, from heilig, holy, heil, whole ; heilen, to heal ; D. heiligen, from heilig, holy, heil, safety, happiness; Dan. helli- ger, from heilig, holy ; heel, whole, entire ; Sw. helga, from helig, holy. See Holy. It coincides in origin with hold, and L. cal- ico, to be able.]

    1. To make holy ; to consecrate ; to set apart for holy or religious use. Ex. xxviii. xxix. 1 Kings viii.

    2. To devote to holy or religious exercises ; to treat as sacred.

    Hallow the sabbath day, to do no work there- in. Jer. xvii.

    .3. To reverence ; to honor as sacred.

    Hallowed be thy name. Lord's Prayer.

    HAL'LOWED, pp. Consecrated to a sacred use, or to religious exercises ; treated as sacred ; reverenced.

    HAL'LOWING, ppr. Setting apart for sa- cred purposes ; consecrating ; devoting to religious exercises ; reverencina.

    HAL'LOWMAS, n. [See Mass.] The feast of All Souls. Shak.

    HALLUCINA'TION, n. [L. hallucinatio, from hallucinor, to blunder.]

    1. Error ; blunder ; mistake. [Littie used.]


    2. In medicine, faidty sense [dysccslhesia,] or erroneous imagination. Hallucinations of the senses, arise from some defect in the organs of sense, or from some unusual circumstances attending the object, as when it is seen by moonlight ; and they are sometimes symptoms of general dis- ease, as in fevers. Maniacal hallucinations

    arise from some imaginary or mistaken idea. Similar hallucinations occur in rev- ery. Darwin. Parr.

    HALM, n. haum. [Sax. Aeofoi ; L. culmus.] Straw. [See Haum.]

    HA'LO, n. [Ar. jLi, haulon. The verb

    signifies to frighten, and to adorn with necklaces.]

    A circle appearing round the body of th( sun, moon or stars, called also Corona, or crown. Halos are sometimes white and sometimes colored. Sometimes one only appears, and sometimes several concentric circles appear at the same time. Encyc,

    IIALSE, n. [Sax. hals.] The neck or throat, Obs. Chaucer.

    HALSE, t>. i. hals. To embrace about the neck ; to adjure ; to greet. Obs.

    HAL'SENING, a. Sounding harshly in the throat or tongue. Obs. Carew.

    HALSER, 71. hawz'ei: [Sax. G. D. Dan.Sw. hats, the neck ; and Qu. Sax. seel, a rope or strap.]

    A large roj)e of a size between the cable and the tow-line. [See Hawser.]

    HALT, V. i. [Sax. healt, halt, lame ; healtian, to limp ; G. halt, a hold, stop, halt ; halt- en, to hold ; Sw. halt, halta ; Dan. halt, halter; from the root of hold.]

    1. To stop in walking; to hold. In miliiary affairs, the true sense is retained, to stoj in a march. The .army halted at noon.

    2. To limp ; that is, to stop with lameness

    3. To hesitate ;-to stand in doubt whether to proceed, or what to do.

    How long halt ye between two opinions ? 1 Kings xviii.

    4. To "fail; to falter; as m halting sonnc


    Halt, v. t. To stop ; to cause to cease r clung ; a militan/ term. The general halted his troops for refreshment. Washington.

    ILVLT, a. [Sax. AmW.] Lame ; that is, hold- ing or stopping in walking.

    Bring hither the poor, the maimed, the hall, and the blind. Luke xiv.

    Halt, ji. a stopping; a stop in marching. The troops made a halt at the bridge.

    2. The act of limping.

    HaLT'ER, n. One who halts or limps.

    HALT'ER, n. [G. halter, a holder. See Halt.]

    \\. A rope or strap and head-stall for leading or confining a horse.

    2. A rope for hanging malefactors.

    3. A strong cord or string. HaLT'ER, v. t. To put a halter on ; as to

    halter a horse. 2. To catch and hold, or to bind with a rope

    or cord. HaLT'ING, ppr. Stopping; limping. HALTINGLY, adv. With limping ; slowly. H^ALVE, v.^t. h'av. [from half.] To divid

    into two equal parts ; as, to halve ai

    apple. HALVED, a. In botany, hemispherical ;|

    covering one side ; placed on one side. H'ALVES, ?i. \\>\\u. of half. Two equal part;

    of a thing. To cry halves, is to claim ai

    equal share. To go halves, is to have ai

    equal share. HAM, Sax. ham, a house, is our modern

    word home, G. heim. It is used in hamlet.

    and in the names of places, as in Wall-ham,

    \\vood-house, xcalt, a wood, and_ ham, a

    house, [not Wal-tham, as it is ofii:n pronounced,] Bucking-ham, JVotling-ham, Wrent-ham, Dur-ham, &c.

    HAM, Ji. [Sax. ham.] The inner or hind part of the knee; the inner angle of the joint which unites the thigh and the leg of an animal. Hence,

    2. The thigh of a beast, particularly of a hog, whether salted and cured or not. But the word is more generally under- stood to mean the thigh of a hog salted and dried in smoke.

    HAMADRYAD, n. [Gr. ofia, together, and *pu«, a tree.] A wood nymph, feigned to live and die with the tree to which it was attached. Spectator.

    HAM'ATE, a. [L. hamalus.] Hooked; en- tangled. Berkley.

    HAM'ATED, a. [L. hamalus, from hama, a hook ; Celtic and Pers. cam, crooked.] Hooked or set with hooks. Swift.

    HAM'BLE, I', t. [Sax. hamelan.] To ham- string. [JVot used.]

    HAME, n. plu. hames. [G. kummet ; Russ. choniul, a collar ; but it seems to be the Scot, haims. In Sw. hhmma is to stop or restrain.]

    A kind of collar for a draught horse, consist- ing of two bending pieces of wood or bow.s, and these i)Iaced on curving pads or stuffed lether, made to conform to the shape of the neck.

    HAM'ITE, n. The fossil remains of a cur- ved shell. Ed. Encyc.

    HAMLET, n. [Sax. ham, a house ; Fr. ha- meau ; Arm. Iiamell or hamm. See Home.]

    A small village; a little cluster of houses in the country.

    This word seems originally to have sig- nified the seat of a freeholder, compre- hending the mansion house and adjacent buildings. It now denotes a small collec- tion of liouses in the country, in distinc- tion from a city, a large town or town- ship.

    The countrj' wasted and the hamlets burned. Dry den .

    HAM'LETED, a. Accustomed to a hamlet, or to a country life. Fellham.

    HAM'MER, n. [Sax. hamer ; D.hamer; G. Dan. hammer ; aw. hammare ; probably, the beater.]

    An instrument for driving nails, beating metals, end the like. It consists of an iron head, fixed crosswise to a handle. Ham- mers are of various sizes ; a large hammer used by smiths is called a sledge.

    HAM'MER, V. t. To beat with a hammer; as, to hamner iron or steel.

    2. To form or forge with a hammer; to shape by beating.

    3. To work in the mind ; to contrive by in- tellectual labor ; usually with out ; as, to hammer out a scheme.

    HAM'MER, V. i. To work ; to be busy ; (n labor in contrivance.

    2. To be working or in agitation.

    HAM'MERABLE, a. That may be shaped by a hammer. Shenvood.

    HAM'MER€LOTH, n. The cloth which covers a coach-box, so called from the old practice of carrying a hammer, nails, &c. in a little pocket hid by this cloth.

    HAMMERED, pp. Beaten with a bam

    H A i\\

    HAM'MERER, n. One who works with i hammer.

    IIAM'MERHARD, n. Iron or steel harden ed by liammering. Moxon.

    IIAM'MERING, ppr. Beating with a ham mer; working; contriving.

    HAM'MER-MAN, n. One who beats or works with a hammer.

    IIAM'MER-WORT, n. An herb. Todd.

    HAMMITE. [See Ammile.]

    HAM'MOe, n. [Sp. hamaca ; Port, maca.] A kind of hanging bed, suspended be- tween trees or posts, or by hooks. It consists of a piece of hempen cloth about six feet long and three feet wide, gather- ed at the ends and suspended by cords. It forms a bed, or a receptacle for a bed, on board of ships. Encyc. Mar. Did.

    HAM'OUS, [L. hamus, a hook ; Celtic, cam, crooked.]

    Hooked ; having tlie end hooked or curved a term of botany. Lee. Martyn

    HAM'PER, n. [contracted from hanaper, or from hand pannier.]

    1. A large basket for conveying things to market, &c.

    2. Fetters, or some instrument that shackles.

    W. Browne. [This signification and that of the verb fol- lowing indicate that this word is from hanaper, and that the latter is from the sense of interweaving twigs.] HAM'PER, V. t. [See the Noun.] To shack- le ; to entangle ; hence, to impede in mo- tion or progress, or to render progress dif- ficult.

    A lion hampered in a net. L' Estrange

    They hamper and entangle our souls, and

    hinder their llight upwards. Tillolson

    9. To ensnare ; to inveigle ; to catch with

    allurements. Shak.

    3. To tangle ; to render complicated.


    4. To perplex ; to embarrass.

    Hampered by the laws. Bittle

    HAM'PERED, pp. Shackled ; entangled ;j ensnared ; perplexed.

    HAM'PERING, ppr. Shackling; entan gling ; peri>lexing.

    HAM'STER, n. [G. hamster ; Rxxss. cho miak.-\\

    A species of rat, the Mus cricelus, or Ger man marmot. This rat is of the size of| the water rat, but is of a browner color, and its belly and legs of a dirty yellow. It is remarkable for two bags, like those of a baboon, ou each side of the jaw, un- der the skin, in which it conveys grain, peas and acorns to its winter residence. Encyc. Goldsmith.

    HAM'STRING, n. The tendons of the ham. Wiseman.

    HAM'STRING, i'. t. pret. and pp. /

    HAN, for have, in the plural. Spenser.

    HAN'APER, n. [Norm, hanap, a cup, a hamper ; Sax. hnap, G. napf, D. nap, Fr. hanap. Arm. hanaff. It. nappo, a bowl or cup. These seem to be all the sanje word, yet I see not how a cup and a bas- ket should have the same name, unless the vessel was originally made of bark, and so tight as to hold lifiuors.]


    The hanaper was used in early days by the kings of England, for holding and carry- ing with them their money, as they jour- neyed from place to place. It was a kind of basket, like the Jiscus, and hence came to be considered as the king's treasury. Hence, the clerk or warden of the hanaper, is an officer who receives the fees due to the king for seals of charters, patents, commissions, and writs. There is also an officer who is controller of the hanaper. This word therefore answered to the mod- ern exchequer. Spelman.

    HANCE, HAUNCE, for enhance. Obs. [See Enhance.]

    HAN'CES, n. pin. [L. a7isa.] In architec- ture, the ends of elliptical arches, which are the arches of smaller circles than the scheme or middle part of the arch.


    2. In a ship, falls of the fife-rails placed on balusters on the poop and quarter-deck down to the gangway. Harris.

    HAND, n. [Sax. hand, hand; G. and D. hand; Dan. haand ; Sw. hand. This word may be connected in origin with Sax. hentan, to follow, to take or seize, Gr. jjaKSaru, L. hendo, in prehendo ; but from its derivatives, handy, handsome, it would appear to proceed from a root sig- nifying to be strong, right, straight, which would give the sense of fitness and of] beauty. Chaucer has hende, hendy, civil, courteous]

    1. In man, the extremity of flie arm, consist- ing of the palm and fingers, connected with t)ie arm at the wrist ; the part with which we hold and use any instrument.

    2. In falconry, the foot of a hawk ; and in the manege, the fore-foot of a horse.

    3. A measure of four inches ; a palm ; ap- plied chiefly to horses ; as a horse 14 hands high.

    4. Side ; part ; right or left ; as on the one hand or the other. This is admitted on all hands, that is, on all sides, or by all parties.

    5. Act ; deed ; performance ; external ac- tion ; that is, the effect for the cause, the hand being the instrument of action.

    Tliou sawcst the contradiction tehveen my heart and hand. ^Mg Charles.

    6. Power of performance; skiU.

    A friend of mine has a very fine hand on the

    iolin. Addison.

    He had a mind to try his hand at a Spectator.


    7. Power of making or producing.

    An intelligent being coming out of the hands of infinite perfection. Cheyne.

    8. Manner of acting or performance ; as, he changed his hand. Dryden.

    9. Agency ; part in performing or execu- ting. Punish every man who had a hand in the mischief. We see the hand of God in this event.

    10. Conveyance ; agency in transmitting.

    11. Possession ; power. The estate is in the hands of tlie owner. The papers are in my hands.

    12. The cards held at a game ; hence, a game.

    13. That which performs the office of the hand or of a finger in pointing ; as the


    hand of a clock ; the hour hand, and the minute hand.

    14. A person ; an agent ; a man employed in agency or service. Tlie mason employs twenty hands.

    15. Form of writing ; style of penmanship ; as a good hand ; a bad hand; a fine hand.

    16. Agency ; service ; ministry. Ex. iv. Lev. viii.

    17. In Scripture, the hand of God, is his eter- nal purpose and executive power. Acts iv.

    18. The providential bounty of God. Ps. civ.

    19. The power of God exerted in judgments or mercies, in punishing or defending. Judges ii. Ps. xxxii.

    20. The spirit of God ; divine influence. 1 Kings xviii.

    21. The favor of God, or his support. Neh. ii. Luke i.

    .it hand, near ; either present and within reach, or not far distant. Your husband is at hand, I hear his tnimpet. Shak. 2. Near in time ; not distant.

    The day of Christ is at hand. 2 Thess. ii. By hand, with the hands, in distinction from the instrumentality of tools, engines or animals; as, to weed a garden by hand; to lift, draw or carry by hand. In hand, present payment ; in respect to the receiver.

    Receiving in hand one year's tribute.

    XhoUes 2. In a state of execution. I have a great

    work in hand. At my hand, at his hand, SfC, denote from the person or being.

    On hand, in present possession ; as, he has

    a sujiply of goods 07i hand. 2. Under one's care or management. Jupiter had a farm on his hands.

    L' Estrange Off hand, without delay, hesitation or diffi- culty ; immediately; dextrously; without previous preparation. Out of hand, ready payment ; with regard to the payer.

    Let not the wages of any man tarry witli thee ; but give it him out of hand. Tobit.

    To his hand, to my hand, &c., in readiness ; already prepared ; ready to be received. The work is made to his hands. Locke.

    Under his hand, under her hand, &c., with the proper writing or signature of the name. This deed is executed under the hand and seal of the owner. Hand over head, negligently ; rashly ; with- out seeing what one does. [Little used.] Bacon. Hand over hand, by passing the hands alter- nately one before or above another, as to cWmh hand overhand ; also, rapidly, as to come up with a chase hand over hand; used by seamen. Mar. Diet.

    Hand to hand, in close union ; close fight.

    Dryden. But from hand to hand is from one per- son to another. Hand in hand, in union ; conjointly ; unit- edly. ■ Suin.


    To join hand in hand, is to unite efforts andl

    act in concert. Hand in hand, fit ; pat ; suitable. Shak.

    Hand to mouth. To live from hand to mouth, is to obtain food and other necessaries, as want requires, without making previous l.rovision, or having an abundant previ- ous supply. To bear in hand, to keep in expectation ; to elude. [Mt used.] Shak.

    To hear a hand, to hasten ; a seaman's

    phrase. To he hand and glove, to be intimate and fa- miliar, as friends or associates. To set the hand to, to engage in ; to under- take.

    That the Lord thy God may bless thee, in all thou settest thine hand to. Deut. xxiii. To take in hand, to attempt ; to undertake, Luke i. Also, to seize and deal with. To have a hand in, to be concerned in ; tc have a (lart or concern in doing ; to have




    To put the last hand or finishing hand to, to complete; to perfect; to make the last roi rections, or give the final polish. To change hands, to change sides ; to shift.

    Butler. Hand, in the sense of rate, price, terms, con- ditions, as used by Bacon, Taylor, &c., is obsolete; as, "to buy at a dear hand ;" " accept the mystery, but at no hand wrest it by pride or ignorance." So in the sense of advantage, gain, superiority, as used by Hayward ; and in that of competition, content, as used by Shakspeare. To get hand, to gain influence, is obsolete. Jl heavy hand, severity or oppression. A light hand, gentleness ; moderation. A strict hand, severe discipline ; rigorous

    government. Hands off, a vulgar phrase for keep off, for- bear. To pour teater on the hands, in the phraseol- ogy of the Scriptures, is to serve or minis- ter to. 2 Kings iii. To wash the hands, to profess innocence

    Matt, xxvii. To kiss lite hand, imports adoration. Jol

    xxxi. To lean on the hand, imports familiarity.

    2 Kings V. To strike hands, to make a contract, or to be come surety for another's debt or good be havior. Prov. xvii. Putting the hand under the thigh, was an an

    cient ceremony used in swearing. To give the hand, is to make a covenant witl one, or to unite with him in design Kings X. The stretching out of the hand, denotes an ex- ertion of power. But, The stretching out of the hand to God, im- ports earnest prayer or solemn dedication of one's self to him. Ps. Ixviii. and cxliii. The lifting of the hand, was used in affirma- tion and swearing, and in prayer imported a solemn wishing of blessings from God. Gen. xiv. Lev. xix. To lift the hand against a superior, to rebel,

    2 Sam. XX. 'To put forth the hand against one, to kill him,

    1 Sam. xxiv. To pxd one's hand to a neighbor's goods, tc steal them. Ex. xxii.

    Vol. I.

    To lay hands on in anger, to assault or

    or to smite. Ex. xxiv. Is. xi. To lay the hand on the mouth, imports silence.

    Job xl. The laying on of hands, was also a ceremony used in consecrating one to office. Num. xxvii. 1 Tim. iv.

    It was also used in blessing persons, Mark x. Hiding the hand in the bosom, denotes idle- inactivity ; sluggishness. Prov. xix The clapping of hands, denotes joy and re- joicing. But in some instances, contempt or derision, or joy at the calamities of oti ers. Ps. xlvii. Ezek. xxv. A station at the right hand is iionorable, and denotes favor, approbation or honor. A station on the left hand is less honorable. Matt. XX. God's standing at the right hand of men, im ports his regard for them, and his readi ness to defend and assist them. Ps. xvi. Satan's standing at the right hand of men, im ports his readiness to accuse them, or to hinder or torment them. Zecli. iii Clean hands, denotes innocence and a blame- less and holy life. Ps. xxiv. A slack hand, denotes idleness; carelessness

    sloth. Prov. X. The right hand, denotes power ; strength

    Ex. XV. HAND, v. t. To give or transmit with the hand. Hand me a book.

    2. To lead, guide and lift with the hand ; to conduct. Locke.

    3. To manage; as, I hand my oar. Prior.

    4. To seize ; to lay hands on. [.Vo< used.] Shak

    5. In seamanship, to furl ; to wrap or roll a sail close to the yard, stay or mast, and fasten it with gaskets. Mar. Diet

    To luind down, to transmit in succession, as from father to son, or from predecessor to successor. Fables are handed down from age to age.

    HAND'BALL, n. An ancient game w ball. Brand.

    HAND'BARROW, n. A barrow or vehicle borne by the hands of men, and without a wheel. Mortimer.

    IIAND'BASKET, n. A small or portable basket. Mortimer.

    IIAND'BELL, n. A small bell rung by the hand ; a table bell. Bacon.

    HAND'BREADTII, n. A space equal to the breadth of the hand ; a palm. Ex. xxv.

    IIAND'€LOTH, n. A handkerchief.

    HAND'CUFF, n. [^ax.handcopse.-] A man- acle, consisting of iron rings for the wrists, and a connecting chain to confine the hands.

    HAND'CUFF, v. t. To manacle ; to confine the hands with handcufts.

    HAND'€R'AFT, n. Work performed by the hands ; usually written handicraft.

    HAND'ED, ;>;>. Given or transmitted by the hands; conducted; furled.

    HAND' ED, a. With hands joined.


    2. In composition, as right-handed, most dextrous or strong with the right hand ; having the right hand most able and

    HAND'ER, ?i. One who hands or mits ; a conveyer in succession.

    Left-handed, having the left hand most strong and convenient for principal use.



    HAND'F^AST, n. Hold ; custody ; power of confining or keeping. Ohs. Shak.

    HAND'FAST, a. Fast by contract; firm. Obs.

    HAND'F'AST, v. t. [Sax. handf(Bstan.] To pleilge ; to betroth ; to hind ; to join sol- emnly by the hand. Obs.

    B. Jonson. Sancrofl.

    HAND'F'ASTING, n. A kind of betrothing, ge contract. Obs.

    HAND'-FETTER, n. A fetter for the hand; a manacle. Sherwood.

    HAND'FUL, n. As much as the hand will grasp or contain. Addison.

    2. As much as the arms will embrace.

    3. A palm ; four inches. Obs. Bacon.

    4. A small quantity or number. A handful of men. Clarendon.

    5. As much as can be done ; full employ- ment. Raleigh.

    In America, the phrase is, he has his hands full. HAND'GALLOP, n. A slow and easy gal- lop, in which the hand presses the bridle to hinder increase of speed. Johnson.

    HAND'GLWSS, n. In gardening, a glass used for placing over, protecting and for- warding various plants, in winter. Cyc. UAND-GRENA'DE, n. A grenade to be

    thrown hv the hand. HAND'GUN, n. A gun to be used by the hand. Camden.

    HAND'ICR~AFT,n. [Sax. 7»an(/a-(r/J.] Man- ual occupation ; work performed by the hand. Addison.

    2. A man who obtains his living by manual labor ; one skilled in some mechanical art. Dryden. HANDICRAFTSMAN, n. A man skilled employed in manual occupation ; a lufacturer. Sicif).

    HAND'ILY, adv. [See Handy.] With dex- terity or skill ; dextrously ; adroitly. i. With ease or convenience. HAND'INESS, n. The ease of performance derived from practice ; dexterity- ; adroit- ness. Chesterfield. HAND'IWORK, n. [for hand-work.] Work of the hands; product of manual labor; manufacture. Hooker. 2. Work performed by power and wisdom.

    Ps. xix. HAND'KERCHIEF, n. [hand and kerchief. See Kerchief]

    1. A piece of cloth, usually silk or linen, car- ried about the person for the purpose of cleaning the face or hands, as occasion re- quires.

    2. A piece of cloth to he worn about the neck, and sometimes called a neckerchief.

    HAND'LANGUAgE, n. The art of convers- ing by the hands. [j\\"ot in use.] HAND'LE, v. t. [G. handeln, D. handelen, Sw. handla, Dan. handler, to treat, to trade, to negotiate. But in English it has not the latter signification. The word is formed from hand, as manage from L. manus.]

    To touch ; to feel with the hand ; to use or hold with the hand.

    The bodies we daily handle — hinder the ap- proach of the part of our hands that press them. ^ Locke.


    J'o luanage ; to use ; to wielil. That fellow handles a bow like a crow-keeper.

    Shak :>. To make familiar by frequent touching. The breeders in Flanders— Aa/Wie their colts six mouths every year. Temple.

    4. To treat ; to discourse on ; to discuss ; to use or manage in writing or speaking. Tlie autlior handled tlie subject with ad- dress. Tiie speaker handled the argu- ments to the best advantage.

    5. To use ; to deal with ; to practice.

    They that handle the law knew me not. Jim-, ii.

    G. To treat ; to use well or ill.

    How wert thou handled ? Shak.

    7. To manage ; to practice on ; to transact with.

    You shall see how I will handle her. Shak IIAND'LE, n. [Sa.x. Qu. L. ansa, Norm hanser.]

    1. That part of a vessel or instrument which is held in the hand when used, as the haft of a sword, the bail of a kettle, &c.

    2. That of which use is made ; the instru nient of effecting a purpose. South.

    HAND'LEAD, n. A lead for .sounding.

    HAND'LED, pp. Touched ; treated ; man- aged.

    HAND'LESS, a. Witliout a hand. Shak

    HAND'LING, ppr. Touching ; feeling treating ; nianasing.

    IIAND'M AID, " I A maid that waits at

    HAND'MAIDEN, I "• hand ; a female ser- vant or attendant. Scripture

    IIAND'MILL, n. A mill moved by the hand Dryden.

    HAND'SAILS, n. Sails managed by the hand. Temple.

    HAND'SAW, n. A saw to be used with the hand. Mortimer.

    HAND'SeREVV, n. An engine for raising heavy timbers or weights; a jack.

    HAND'SEL, n. [Dan. handsel : Sax.hand- sclen, from handsyllan, to deliver into the hand. See Sale and SelV

    1. The first act of using any thing ; the first sale. Elynt.

    2. An earnest ; money for the first sale [Lillh used] Hooker

    HAND'SEL, V. t. To use or do any thing the first time. Dryden.

    IIAND'SOME, a. [D. handzaam, soft, lim- ber, tractable : hand and zaain, together. Znam, or saam, we see in assemble. Tlie sense of docility is taken from hand, as in G. behandeln, D. behandelen, to handle, to manage. Tlie Dutch sense of soft, lim- ber, is probably from the sense of easily managed or handled.]

    1. Properly, dextrous ; ready ; convenient.

    For a thief it is so handsome, as it may seem it was tirst invented for him. Spenser

    This sense is either from the original meaning of hand, or from the use of the hand, or rather of the right hand. In thii sense the word is still used. We sa^' of a well fought combat and victory, it is a handsoine affair, an affair well performed, done with dexterity or skill. [See Han- dy-]

    2. Moderately beautiful, as the person or other thing ; well made ; having symme try of parts; well formed. It exjiresses less than beautiful or elegant ; as a hand- .sri«ic woman or man ; she has a handsome


    person or face. So we say, a handsome house ; a handsome type.

    3. Graceful in manner; marked with pro- priety and ease ; as a handsome address.

    4. Ample ; large ; as a handsome fortune.

    5. Neat; correct; moderately elegant; as a handsome style or composition.

    C. Liberal; generous; as a handsome pres-

    The applications of this word in popular Ian guage are various and somewhat indefi nite. In general, when applied to things it imports that the form is agreeable to the eye, or to just taste ; and when applied to manner, it conveys the idea of suitable- ness or propriety with grace.

    IIAND'SOME, as a verb, to render neat or beautiful, is not an authorized word.


    HANDSOMELY, adv. Dextrously; clev- erly ; with skill. Spenser. Gracefidly ; with propriety and ease.

    3. Neatly; with due symmetry or propor- tions ; as, a thing is handsomely made or finished.

    With a degree of beauty ; as a room handsomely furnished or ornamented.

    5. Amply ; generously ; liberally. She is handsomely endowed.

    HAND'SOMENESS, n. A moderate degree of beauty or elegance ; as the handsome- ness of the person or of an edifice.

    2. Grace ; gracefulness ; ease and propriety in manner.

    HAND'SPIKE, n. A wooden bar, used with the hand as a lever, for various purposes, as in raising weights, heaving about a windlass, &c.

    HAND'ST'AFF, n. A javelin; phuhand staves. Ezek. xxxix.

    HAND'VISE, n. A vise used by hand, or for small work. Moxon

    HAND' WEAPON, n. Any weapon to be ielded by the hand. Numb. xxxv.

    HAND'WRITING, n. The cast or form of) writing peculiar to each hand or person. Shak

    2. Any writing.

    HAND'Y, a. [D. handig, behendig ; Dan htendig ; from hand.] Performed by the hand. They came to handy blows. Obs.


    2. Dextrous; ready; adroit; skilled to use the hands with ease in performance; ap plied to persons. He is handy with the saw or the plane. Each is handy in his way


    3. Ingenious ; performing with skill and readiness.

    4. Ready to the hand ; near. My books are very handy.

    Convenient ; suited to the use of the hand.

    6. Near; that may be used without difficulty or going to a distance. We have a spring or pasture that is handy.

    HAND'YBLOW, n. A blow with the hand ; an act of hostility. Harmar.

    HAND'Y-D.\\NDY,n. A play in which chil- dren change hands and places. Shak.

    HAND'YGRIPE, n. Seizure by the hand. Hudibras

    HAND'YSTROKE, n. A blow inflicted by the hand. Beaum.


    HANG, V. t. pret. and pp. hanged or hu7tg [Sax. hangan ; Sw. hanga ; Dan. hcenger ; G. D. hangen ; W. hongian, to hang ; hong. a hanging or dangling ; hone, a shake, a wagging ; honcatv, to shake, wag, staggei-, to waver. The latter seems to be the pritnary sense.]

    1. To suspend; to fasten to some fixed ob- ject above, in such a manner as to swing or move ; as, to hang a thief. Pharaoh hanged the chief baker. Hence,

    2. To put to death by suspending by the neck.

    Many men would rebel, rather than be ruin- ed ; but they would rather not rebel than be hanged. Jimes.

    3. To place without any solid support or foundation.

    He hangeth the earth upon nothing. Job xxxvi.

    To fix in such a manner as to be mova- ble ; as, to hang a door or grate on hooks or by butts. 5. To cover or furnish by any thing sus- pended or fastened to "the walls; as, to liang an apartment with curtains or with pictures.

    Hung be the heavens with black — Shak.

    And hung thy holy roofs with savage spoils.


    To hang out, to suspend in open view ; to

    display ; to exhibit to notice ; as, to hang

    out false colors.

    2. To hang abroad ; to suspend in the open

    To hang over, to project or cause to project above.

    To hang down, to let fall below the proper situation ; to bend down ; to decline ; as, to hang down the head, and elliptically, to hang the head.

    To hang up, to suspend ; to place on some- thing fixed on high.

    2. To suspend ; to keep or suffer to remain undecided ; as, to hang up a question in debate.

    H.ANG, V. i. To be suspended ; to be sus- tained by something above, so as to swing or be movable below.

    2. To dangle ; to be loose and flowing be- low.

    3. To bend forward or downward ; to lean or incline. Addison.

    His neck obliquely o'er his shoulder hung. Pope.

    4. To float ; to play. And fall those sayings from that gentle

    tongue, Where civil speech and soft persuasion hung. Prior.

    5. To be supported by something raised above the groimd ; as a hanging garden on the top of a liouse. Mdison.

    0. To depend ; to rest on something for sup- port. This question hangs on a single j)oint.

    7. To rest on by embracing ; to cling to ; as, to hang on tlie neck of a person.

    Two infants hanging on her neck.


    8. To hover; to impend; with over. View the dangers that hang over the country.

    9. To be delayed ; to linger.

    A noble stroke he lifted high. Which hung not. Milton.

    10. To incline ; to have a steep declivity ; as I hanging groimds. Mortimer.

    II A N

    H A


    11. To be executed by the halter.

    Sir Balaam hangs. Pope.

    To hang fire, in the military art, is to be slow in communicating, as fire in the pan of £ gun to the charge. To hang on, to adhere to, often aa some- thing troublesome and unwelcome.

    A cheerful temper dissipates the apprehen- sions which Ann;? on the timorous. Addison.

    2. To adhere obstinately ; to be importu- nate.

    3. To rest ; to reside ; to continue.

    4. To be dependent on.

    How wretched Is that poor man that hangs on princes' fa- vors ! Shak.

    5. In seamen''s language, to hold fast without belaying ; to pull forcibly.

    To liang in doubt, to be in suspense, or in a state of uncertainty.

    Thy life shall hang in doubt before thee Deut. xxviii. To hang together, to be closely united ; to chng.

    In the common cause we are all of a piece ;

    we hang together. Dryden

    •I. To be just united, so as barely to hold to-

    iietlier. Shak.

    Til luingon or upon, to drag ; to be inconuno-

    iliinisly joined.

    J.ife hangs upon me and becomes a burden, Mdison 7 hang to, to adhere closely ; to cling. ilA.NG, n. A sharp declivity. ICoUoquial.] HANG'BY, n. A dependent, in contempt.

    Ray. IIWG'ED, pp. Suspended; put to deati)

    liy being suspended by the neck. IIA'\\(i'ER, n. That by which a thing is


    '-'. A ^hott broad sword, incurvated towards ilii' point. Smollett.


    Aubrey. HANGER-ON. n. One who besets anoth- er importunately in soliciting favors. '-'. A dependant ; one who eats and drinks without payment. Swljl.

    HWG'ING, ppr. Suspending to something

    Mhove. '■i. Being suspended ; dangling ; swinging. 3. (/. Foreboding death by the halter.

    ^^■|lat a hanging (:\\ce ! Dryden

    ■i. Requiring punishment by the halter

    IS a hanging matter. Johnson.

    IIAN'G'ING, n. Any kind of drapery hung

    or fastened to the walls of a room, by way

    of ornament.

    No purple hangings clothe the palace walls.


    2. Death by the halter ; as hard words or

    hnnging. Pope.

    ^. nis|)lay; exhibition. Mdison.

    liANG'ING-SLEEVES, n. Strips of the

    Slime stuff with the gown, hanging down

    tile back from the shoulders. Obs.

    Halifax. HANGTNG-SIDE, n. In mining, the over- hanging side of an inclined or hading vein. Cyc. HANG'MAN, n. One who hangs another ; a public executioner ; also, a term of re- proach. HANG'NEST, n. The name of certain species of birds, which build nests sus

    peiided from the branches of trees, sucl as the Baltimore oriole or red-bird ; also, the nest so suspended.

    HANK, n. [Dan. hank, a handle, a hook, a tack, a clasp ; Sw. hank, a band.]

    1. A skain of thread ; as much thread as tied together ; a tie.

    3. In ships, a wooden ring fixed to a stay, to confine the stay-sails ; used in the place of a grommet. Mar. Diet.

    A rope or withy for fastening a gate, [Local]

    HANK, V. t. To form into hanks.

    HANK'ER, V. i. [D. hunkeren. The cor- responding word in Danish is higer, and probably n is casual.]

    1. To long for with a keen appetite and un easiness ; in a literal sense ; as, to hanker for fruit, or after fruit.

    3. To have a vehement desire of something, accompanied with uneasiness ; as, to han- ker after the diversions of the town.

    Addison It is usually followed by after. It is a familiar, but not a low word.

    HANK'ERING,;)pr. Longing for with keen appetite or ardent desire.

    HANK'ERING, n. A keen appetite th causes uneasiness till it is gratified ; v hement desire to possess or enjoy.

    HANK'LE, V. f. [See Hank.] To twii [JVot in use.]

    HA'NT, a contraction of have not, or has not ; as, I hn'nt, he ha'nt, we ha'nt.

    Hanse Towns. Hanse signifies a society ; Goth, hunsa, a multitude. The Hanse towns in Germany were certain commer- cial cities which associated for the protec- tion of commerce as early as the twelfth century. To this confederacy acceded certain commercial cities in Holland, Eng- land, France, Spain and Italy, until they amounted to seventy two, and for centu- ries, this confederacy commanded the res- pect and defied the power of kings. This confederacy at present consists of the cities of Lubeck, Hamburg and Bremen.

    HANSEAT'IC, a. Pertaining to the Hanse towns, or to their confederacy.

    HAP, 71. [W. hap, or hab, luck, chance, for- tune, that is, that which falls, or a coming suddenly. This seems to be allied to Fr. happer, to snap or catch ; D. happen ; Norm, happer, to seize ; W. hafiaw, to snatch. In Sp. haber signifies to have, to happen or befall, to take. These verbs seem to unite in one radix, and all coin- cide with L. capio. The primary sense is to fall or to rush, hence, to rush on and seize.]

    That which comes suddenly or unexpect- edly ; chance ; fortune ; accident ; casual event. [See Chance and Casual.] WTiether art it was or heedless hap.

    Spenser. Curs'd be good haps, and curs'd be they that

    build Their hopes on haps. Sidney.

    Misfortune. [But this word is obsolete| or obsolescent, except in compounds and derivatives.]

    HAP, V. i. To happen ; to befall ; to come by chance. Obs. Spenser. Bacon.

    HAP-HAZ'ARD, n. [This is tautological. See Hazard.] Chance ; accident.

    \\\\ e take our principles at hup-hazard un trust. ^ Locke.

    HAPLESS, a. Luckless; unfortunate ; un- lucky ; unhappy ; as hapless youth ; liap- less maid. Dryden.

    HAP'LY, arfi). By chance; perhaps; it may be.

    3. By accident ; casually. Milton.

    HAP'PEN, V. i. hap'n. [\\V. hapiaw, lo hap- pen, to have luck. See Hap. Sw. hiipna, to be surprized or amazed.]

    1. To come by chance ; to come without one's previous expectation ; to fall out.

    There sliull no evil happen to the just. Prov.

    3. To come ; to befall.

    They talked together of all those things which had happened. Luke xxiv. 3. To light; to fall or come unexpectedly. I have hajtpened on some other accounts rela- ting to mortalities. Graunt. HAP'PILY, adv. [See Happy.] By good fortune ; fortunately ; luckily ; with suc- cess. Preferr'd by conquest, happily o'crthrown.


    2. In a happy state ; in a slate of felicity. He lived happily with his consort.

    3. With or dexterity ; gracefidly ; a manner to ensure success.

    Formed by thy converse, happily to steer From giave to gay, from lively to severe.


    4. By chance. [See Haply.]

    HAP'PINESS, n. [from happy.] The agree- able sensations which sjiring from the en- joyment of good ; that state of a being in which his desires are gratified, by the en- joyment of pleasure without pain ; felicity ; but happiness usually expresses less than

    felicity, and felicity less than bliss. Hap- piness is comparative. To a person dis- tressed with pain, relief from that pain aftbrds happiness ; in other cases we give the name happiness to positive pleasure or an excitement of agreeable sensations. Happiness therefore admits of indefinite degrees of increase in enjoyment, or grati- fication of desires. Perfect happiness, or pleasure unalloyed with pain, is not at- tainable in this life.

    2. Good luck ; good fortune. Johnson.

    3. Fortuitous elegance ; unstudied grace. For there's a happiness as wcU as care.

    HAP'PY, a. [from hap ; W. hapus, proper- ly lucky, fortunate, receiving good from something that falls or comes to one un- expectedly, or by an event that is not with- in control. See Hour.]

    1. Lucky ; fortunate ; successful.

    Chimists have been more happy in finding experiments, than the causes of them. Boyle. So we say, a happy thought ; a happy expedient.

    3. Being in the enjoyment of agreeable Ken- sations froiri the possession of good ; en- joying pleasure from the gratification of appetites ordesires. The pleasurable sen- sations derived from the gratification of sensual appetites render a person tempo- rarily happy ; but he only can be esteemed really and permanently happy, who enjoys peace of mind in the" favor of God. To

    H A R

    H A R

    H A R

    be in any degree happy, we must lie free from pain botli of body and of mind ; to be very happy, we must be in the enjoy- ment of lively sensations of pleasure, ei- tlier of body or mind.

    Happy am I, for the daughters will call me blessed. Gen. xxx.

    He found himself happiest, in communica- ting happiness to others. Wirt.

    3. Prosperous ; having secure possession of good.

    Happy is that people whose God is Jehovah. Ps. cxliv.

    4. That su()plies pleasure ; that furnishes enjoyment ; agreeable ; applied to things ; as a happy condition.

    5. Dextrous; ready; able.

    One gentleman is happy at a reply, another excels in a rejoinder. Sivift.

    6. Blessed ; enjoying the presence and fa- vor of God, in a future life.

    7. Harmonious ; living in concord ; enjoy- ing the pleasures of friendship ; as a happy family.

    8. Propitious ; favorable. Shak HARANGUE, n. harang'. har'ang. [Fr.

    harangue ; Sp. Port, arenga ; It. aringa ; Arm. harencg ; from the root of ring, to to sound. Sax. hringan.]

    1. A speech addressed to an assembly or an army ; a popular oration ; a public ad dress. This word seems to imply loud ness or declamation, and is therefore ap propriated generally to an address made to a popular assembly or to an army, and not to a sermon, or to an argument at the bar of a court, or to a speech in a deli rative council, unless in contempt.

    2. Declamation ; a noisy, pompous or irreg- ular address.

    HARANGUE, v. i. harang'. To make

    address or speech to a large assembly ;

    make a noisy speech. HARANGUE, v. t. harang'. To address by

    oration ; as, the general harangued the

    troops. HARANG'UER, n. harang'er. An orator

    one who addresses an assembly or army

    a noisy declairner. HARANG'UING, ppr. Declaiming ; ad

    dressing with noisy eloquence. HAR'ASS, V. t. [Fr. harasser. Qu. Ir


    1. To weary ; to fatigue to excess ; to tire with bodily labor ; as, to harass an army by a long march. Bacon.

    2. To weary with importunity, care, or per- plexity ; to tease ; to perplex.

    3. To waste or desolate. Ohs. Hammond.

    H.'\\R'ASS, n. Waste ; disturbance ; devas- tation. [Little used.] MiUon.

    HAR'ASSED, pp. Wearied ; tired ; teased,

    HAR' ASSER, n. One who harasses or teas- es ; a spoiler.

    HAR'ASSING, ppr. Tiring ; fatiguing ; teas- ing.

    H^ARBINgER, n. [See Harhor. Harbin- ger is properly a |)erson who goes to ])ro- vide harbor or lodgings for those that fol- low.]

    1. In England, an officer of the king's house- hold who rides a day's journey before the court when traveling, to provide lodgings and other accommodations. Encyc.

    2. A forerunner; a precursor; that which precedes and gives notice of the expected arrival of something else.

    H'ARBOR, n. [Ssix.\\ere-berga, the station of an army ; D. herberg, an inn ; Dan. Sw. G. herberge ; Fr. auberge ; Sp. Port, al- bergue ; It. albergo. The first syllable, in the Teutonic dialects, signifies an army, or a troop, a crowd ; the last syllable is berg, burg, a town, or castle, or from ber- gen, to save. But in the Celtic dialects, the first syllable, al, is probably diflerent from that of the other dialects.] A lodging ; a place of entertainment and rest.

    For harbor at a thousand doors they knocked. Dryden.

    2. A port or haven for ships ; a bay or inlet of the sea, in which ships can moor, and be sheltered from the fury of winds and a heavy sea ; any navigable water where ships can ride in safety.

    3. An asylum ; a shelter ; a place of safety from storms or danger.

    H'ARBOR, V. t. To shelter ; to secure ; secrete ; as, to harbor a thief. To entertain ; to permit to lodge, rest reside ; as, to harbor malice or revenge. Harbor not a thought of revenge.

    H' ARBOR, V. i. To lodge or abide for a time ; to receive entertainment.

    Tliis night let's harbor here in York. Shale. To take shelter.

    H'ARBORACiE, »!. Shelter; entertainment Vo< iised.] Shak.

    H'ARBORED, pp. Entertained ; sheltered.

    H^ARBORER, n. One who entertains or shelters another.

    H'ARBORING, ppr. Entertaining ; shel- tering.

    HARBORLESS, a. Without a harhor; des- titute of shelter or a lodging.

    HARBOR-MASTER, n. An officer who has charge of the mooring of ships, and executes the regulations respecting har- bors. JVew York.

    HAR'BOROUGH, n. A harbor or lodging. [JVot in ttse.]

    HAR'BOROUS, a. Hospitable. [Mt in use.]

    HARD, a. [Sax. heard; Goth, hardu; D. hard ; G. hart ; Dan. haard ; Sw. hard. The primary sense is, pressed.]

    1. Firm ; solid ; compact ; not easily penetra- ted, or separated into parts ; not yielding to pressure ; applied to material bodies, and opposed to soft ; as hard wood ; hard flesh ; a hard apple.

    2. Difficult ; not easy to the intellect.

    In which are some things hard to be under- stood. 2 Pet. iii.

    The hard causes they brought to Moses. Ex xviii.

    3. Difficult of accomplishment ; not easy to be done or executed. A hard task ; a dis- ease hard to cure.

    Is any thing too hard for the Lord ? Gen.

    7. Oppressive ; rigorous ; severe ; eruel ; aa hard bondage ; a hard master. Ex. i. Is. xiv.

    8. Unfeeling ; insensible ; not easily moved by pity ; not susceptible of liindness, mer- cy or other tender affections ; as a hard heart.

    Severe ; harsh ; rough ; abusive.

    Have you given him any hard words of late ? Shak.

    10. Unfavorable ; unkind ; implying blame of another; as ftarrf thoughts.

    11. Severe; rigorous; oppressive. The en- emy was compelled to submit to hard terms. So we say, a hard bargain ; hard conditions.

    12. Unreasonable; unjust. It is Aarrf to pun- ish a man for speculative opinions. It is a hard case.

    13. Severe ; pinching with cold ; rigorous ; tempestuous ; as a hard winter ; hard weather.

    14. Powerful ; forcible ; urging ; pressing close on.

    The stag was too hard for the horse.

    V Estrange

    The disputant was too hard for his antagonist.


    15. Austere ; rough ; acid ; sour ; as liquors. The cider is hard.

    16. Harsh ; stiff; forced ; constrained ; un- natural.

    Others — make the figures harder than the marble itself. JDryden.

    His diction is hard, his figures too bold.


    17. Not plentiful ; not prosperous ; pressing ; distressing ; as hard times, when markets are bad, and money of course scarce.

    18. Avaricious ; difficult in making bargains ; close. Matt. xxv.

    19. Rough ; of coarse features ; as a hard face or coimtenance.

    20. Austere ; severe ; rigorous.

    21. Rude; unpolished or unintelligible. A people of hard language. Ezek. iii.

    22. Coarse ; unpalatable or scanty ; as hard fare.

    ITARD, adv. Close ; near; as in the phrase, hard by. In this phrase, the word retains its original sense of pressed, or pressing. So in It. presso, Fr. prh, from L.pressus.

    2. With pressure ; with urgency ; hence, diligently ; laboriously ; earnestly ; vehe- mently ; importunately ; as, to work hard for a living.

    And pray'd so hard for mercy from the prince. Dryden.

    .3. With difficulty; as, the vehicle moves hard.

    4. Uneasily ; vexatiously. Sliak.

    4. Fullof difficulticsorobstacles; not easy to be traveled ; as a hard way. Milton.

    5. Painful ; difficult ; distressing.

    Rachel travailed, and she had hard labor. Gen. xxxv.

    j6. Laborious ; fatiguing ; attended with dif- ficulty or pain, or both; as hard work or

    I labor; hard duty; hard service.

    Closely ; so as to raise difficulties. The question is hard set. Brown.

    6. Fast ; nimbly ; rapidly ; vehemently ; as, to run hard, that is, with pressure or ur- gency.

    7. Violently ; with great force ; tempestu- ously ; as, the wind blows hard, or it blows hard.

    8. With violence ; with a copious descent of water ; as, it rains hard.

    0. With force ; as, to press hard.

    Hard-a-lee, in seamen's language, an order to put the helm close to the lee side of the ship, to tack or keep her head to the wind ; also, that situation of the helm.

    .Mar. Dkl.

    H A R

    H A R

    H A R

    Ilard-a-weather, an order to put the helm close to the weather or windward side the ship ; also, that position of the helm,

    Hard-a-port, an order to put the helm close to the larboard side of a

    Hard-a-starboard, an order to put the helm close to the starboard side of a ship.

    Mar. Diet

    HARD-BESETTING, a. Closely beset- ting or bes.-ij^'ing. Milton.

    H'ARDBOUND, a. Costive ; fast or tight as hardbound brains. Popt

    H'ARDEARNED, a. Earned with toil and difficulty. Burke.

    IFARDEN, V. t. kardn. To make hard more hard ; to make firm or compact ; to indurate ; as, to harden iron or steel ; to harden clay.

    2. To confirm in eft'rontery ; to make impu dent ; as, to harden the face.

    3. To make obstinate, unyielding or refrac tory ; as, to harden the neck. Jer. xix.

    4. To confirm in wickedness, opposition or enmity ; to make obdurate.

    Wliy then do ye harden your hearts, as Pha- raoh and the Egj'ptians hardened their hearts ■ 1 Sam. vi.

    So God is said to harden the heart, when he withdraws the influences of his spirit from men, and leaves them to pursue their own corrupt inclinations.

    5. To make insensible or unfeeling ; as, to harden one against impressions of pity or tenderness.

    G. To make firm ; to endure with constancy,

    I would harden myself in sorrow. Job vi. 7. To inure ; to render firm or less liable to

    injmy, by exposure or use ; as, to harden

    to a chmaie or to labor. H'ARDEN, V. i. h'ardn. To become hard or

    more hard ; to acquire solidity or more

    compactness. Mortar hardens by drying.

    2. To become unfeeling.

    3. To become inured.

    4. To indurate, as flesh. H'ARDENED, pp. Made hard, or more hard

    or compact ; made unfeeling ; made obsti- nate ; confirmed in error or vice.

    H'ARDENER, n. He or that which make; hard, or more firm and compact.

    irARDENING, ppr. Making hard or more compact; making obdurate or unfeeling; confirming ; becoming more hard.

    H^ARDENING, «. The giving a greater de- gree of hardness to bodies than they had before. Encyc.

    HARDFAVORED, a. Having coarse fea- tures ; harsh of countenance. Dnjden.

    HARDFA'VOREDNESS, n. Coarseness ofi features.

    H'ARDFEATURED, a. Having coarse features. Stnollett.

    H'ARDFISTED, a. Close fisted ; covetous. Hall.

    H'ARDFOUGHT, a. Vigorously contest- ed; as a hard-fonght battle.

    H'ARDGOTTEN, a. Obtained with difli- culty

    as a laborer. Shak.

    H'ARDHEAD, n. Clash or collision of heads in contest. Dryden.

    HARDHE ARTED, a. Ci-uel ; pitiless ; mer- ciless; unfeeling; inhuman; inexorable. Shak. Dnjden.

    HARDHE- ARTEDNESS, n. Want of feel- ing or tenderness; cruelty; inhumanity. South-

    H'ARDIHQOD, n. [See Hardy and Hood.] Boldness, united with firmness and con- stancy of mind ; dauntless bravery ; intre- pidity. Milton. It is the society of numbers which gives har- dihood (o iniquity. Buckminsler.

    Hardihead and hardiment, in the sense of hardihood, are obsolete.

    Spenser. Fairfax.

    H'ARDILY, adv. With great boldness; stoutly. Scott

    2. With hardship ; not tenderly. Goldsmith.

    H-ARDINESS, n. [Fr. hardicsse. See Hardy.]

    1. Boldness ; firm courage ; intrepidity ; stoutness ; bravery ; a))plied to the mind, it is synonymous with hardihood.

    2. Firmness of body derived from laborious exercises.

    3. Hardslup ; fatigue. Obs. Spenser.

    4. Excess of confidence ; assurance ; ef frontcry.

    HARD-LABORED, a. Wrought with se vere labor ; elaborate ; studied ; as a hard- labored poem. Sicijl. HARDLY, adv. [See Hard.] With diflicul- ty ; with great labor.

    Recovering hardly what lie lost before.


    2. Scarcely ; barely ; almost not.

    Hardly shall you find any one so bad, but he desires the credit of beirij thought good.


    3. Not quite or wholly. The object is so distant we can hardly see it. The veal is hardly done. Tlie writing is hardly com- pleted.

    4. Grudgingly, as an injury. STtak.

    5. Severely ; unfavorably ;" as, to think hardly of public measures.

    6. Rigorously ; oppressively. The prisoners were hardly used or treated.

    Addison. Swift.

    7. Unwelcomely ; harshly.

    Such information comes very hardly and harshly to a gro^vn man. Locke.

    8. Coarsely ; roughly ; not softly.

    Heaven was her canopy, bare earth her bed ; So hardly lodged. Dryden.

    HARD-MOUTHED, a. Not sensible to the bit ; not easily governed ; as a hard- mouthed horse. Dryden

    H>ARDNESS, n. [See Hard.] Firmness ; close union of the component parts ; corn pactness; solidity; the quality of bodies which resists impression ; opposed to soft ness and fluidity.

    3. Difficulty to be understood. Shak.

    3. Difficulty to be executed or accomplish- ed ; as the liardness of an enterprise.


    4. Scarcity ; penury ; difficulty of obtaining money ; as the hardness of the times.

    Swijl. Obduracy ; impenitence ; confirmed state of wickedness ; as hardness of heart.

    6. Coarseness of features ; harshness of look : as hardness of favor. Ray.^

    7. Severity of cold ; rigor ; as the hardness of winter.

    8. Cruelty of temper ; savageness ; harsh-


    Tlic blame May hang upon your hardness. Shak.

    9. Stiffiiess ; harshness ; roughness ; as the hardnesses of sculpture. Dryde n .

    10. Closeness ; niggardliness ; stinginess.


    1 1. Hardship ; severe labor, trials or suffer- ings.

    ^Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ. 2 Tim. ii.

    H-ARDNHmED,a. Having a Lard nib or point.

    H'ARDOCK, n. Probably honrdock, dock with whitish leaves. Shak.

    HARDS, n. The refuse or coarse part of flax ; tow.

    HARDSHIP, ji. Toil ; fatigue ; severe la- bor or want ; whatever oppresses the body.

    3. Injury; oppression; injustice. Swift.

    H'ARDVISAgED, a. Having coarse fea- tures; of a harsh countenance. Burke.

    HARDWARE, n. Wares made of iron or other metal, as pots, kettles, saws, knives, &c.

    HARDWAREMAN, n. A maker or seller of hardwares. Swift.

    HARDY, a. [Vr.hardi; ^orm. hardy ; \\rm. hardiz, hiirdih ; It. ardire, to dare, and bold- ness, assurance. The sense is shooting or advancing forward.]

    1. Bold ; brave ; stout ; daring ; resolute ; intrepid. Who is hardy enough to en- counter contempt ?

    2. Strong ; firm ; compact. An unwholesome blast may shake in pieces

    is hardy fabric. South.

    3. Confident ; full of assurance ; impudent ; stubborn to excess.

    4. Inured to fatigue ; rendered firm by ex- ercise, as a veteran soldier.

    HAR, HARE, HERE, in composition, sig- nify an army. Sax. here, G. heer, D. hetr. So Harold is a general of an army ; Her- xmn, a victorious army. So in Greek, Stratocles, from fparoj, and Polemarchus, from noXf^of.

    HARE, »i. [Sa.x. /tara; Dan. Sw. Aare.] A quadruped of the genus Lepus, with long ears, a short tail, sofl hair, and a divided upper lip. It is a timid animal, often hunt- ed for sport or for its flesh, which is excel- lent food. It moves by leaps, and is re- markable for its fecundity.

    2. A constellation. Creech.

    HARE, V. I. [Norm, harer, haricr, to stir up or provoke.]

    To fright, or to excite, tease and harass, or worry. [JVot used. See Harry.] Locke.

    HA'REBELL, n. A plant of the genus Hya- cinthus, with campaniform or bell-shaped flowers. Fani. of Plants.

    HAREBRAINED, a. [hare and train.] Wild; giddy; volatile; heedless.


    HA'REFOOT, n. A bird ; a plant.


    HA'REHE' ARTED, a. Timorous ; easily frightened. Ainsworth.

    HA REHOUND, n. A hound for hunting hares. Todd.

    HA'REHl'NTER, n. One who hunts or is u.scd to hunting bares. Pope.

    HA'REHUNTING, n. The hunting of hares. SomerviUe.

    HARELIP, )i. A divided upper lip, like that of a hare. Wiseman.

    n A R

    IfA'RELIl'PED, a. Having a liaielip. UA'REMINT, )i. A plant. Jiinsworth

    IIA'REPIPE, n. A snare for catching

    liares. Sial. James 1

    HA'RE'S-EAR, n. A plant of the genus

    Bupleurum. The Bastard Hare's Ec

    of the genus Phyllis. HARE'S-LETTUCE, n. A plant of the

    nus Sonchus. HA'REWORT, n. A plant.

    HAREM,)!. [Ar


    , harama, to proliib

    it, drive oft', or deny access.] A seraglio ; a place where Eastern prnices confine their women, who are prohibited from the society of others. HAREN'GIFORM, a. [See Herrinfr.] Sha ped like a herring. Did. J\'at. Hist.

    HAR'I€OT, n. [Fr. from Gr. apaxoj.] A kind of ragout of meat and roots.

    Chesteifidil. 2. In French, beans.

    HAR'IER, ) [from hare.] A dog for

    HARRIER, ^"' hunting hares; a kind of

    hound with an acute sense of smelling.

    Encyc IIARIOLA'TION, >i. [L. hariolatio.] Sooth

    saying. [Aot in use.] H'ARK, V. i. [contracted from hearken which see.] To listen ; to lend the ear.

    Shak. Hudibras. This word is rarely or never used, except in the imperative mode, hark, that is, listen, hear. HARL, I The skin of flax ; the filaments HERL, S "• of flax or hemp. 2. A filamentous substance. Mortimer.

    [In New England, I have heard this word

    pronounced herl.] H^ARLEQUIN, n. [Fr. harlequin, a buffoon ; It. arlecchino ; Sp. arlequin ; Arm. harliq- in, furluqin, a juggler. I know not the origin of this word. It has been suggest- ed that the last component part of the word is from the Gothic, Sw. leka, to play, and a story is told about a comedian who frequented the house of M. de Harley, but I place no reliance on these suggestions.] A buffoon, dressed in party-colored clothes, who plays tricks, like a merry-and divert the populace. This character was first introduced into Italian comedy, but is now a standing character in English pantomime entertainments. Encyc.

    IP ARLEQUIN, V. i. To play the droll ; to

    make sport by playing ludicrous tricks. IPARLOCK, n. A plant. Drayton.

    H^ARLOT, n. [W.fteHaiurf, a stripling; her- lodes, a hoiden ; a word composed of her, a. push, or challenge, and tlawd, a lad. This word was formerly applied to males] as well as females. I

    A stuidie harlot — that was her hostes man. | Chaucer, Tales} He was a gentil harlot and a kind. Ibm.

    The word originally signified a bold strip- ling, or a hoiden. But the W. llawd signifies not only a lad, that is, a shoot,: or growing youth, but as an adjective, ten-| ding forward, craving, lewd. See Leivd.] 1. A woman who prostitutes her body for hire ; a prostitute ; a common woman. Dryd,

    H A R

    2. In Scripture, one who forsakes the true God and worships idols. Is. i.

    3. A servant ; a rogue ; a cheat. Obs.

    Chaucer. Fox. IPARLOT, a. Wanton ; lewd ; low ; base. Shak. IPARLOT, r. i. To practice lewdness.

    Milton. IP.\\RLOTRY, n. The trade or practice of prostitution ; habitual or customary lewd- ness. Dryden. IPARM, n. [Sax. hearm or harm. In G. the

    word signifies grief, sorrow.] 3. Injury; hurt; damage; detriment, bo thyself no harm. Acts xvi. He shall make amends for the harm he hatl done in the holy thing. Lev. v. Moral wrong ; evil ; mischief; wicked-

    ness ; a popular sense of the word.

    IPARM, V. t. To hurt ; to injure ; to dam age ; to impair soundness of body, either animal or vegetable. IValler. Ray.

    HARMAT'TAN, n. A dry easterly wind in Africa, which destroys vegetation.


    UNARMED, pp. Injured; hurt; damaged

    H'ARMEL, n. The wild African rue.

    H^ARMFUL, a. Hurtful; injurious ; nox- ious ; detrimental ; mischievous.

    The earth brought forth fruit and food for man, without any mixture of harmful quality. Raleigh

    IPARMFULLY, adv. Hurtfully; injurious- ly ; with damage. Jlscham.

    IPARMFULNESS, n. Hurtfulness; nox- iousness.

    H'ARMING, p/)r. Hurting; injuring.

    H'ARMLESS, o. Not hurtful or injurious; innoxious. Ceremonies are harmless ir themselves. Hooker

    2. Unhurt; undamaged; uninjured; as, to give bond to save anotlier harmless.

    3. Innocent ; not guilty. Who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate

    from sinners. Heb. vir.

    IPARMLESSLY, adv. Innocently; without faidt or crime ; as, to pass the time harm- lessly in recreations. Without hurt or damage. Bullets fall harmlessly into wood or fathers Decnfi of Piety

    H^ARMLESSNESS, n. The quality of be- ing innoxious ; freedom from a tendency to injure. Innocence.

    HARMON'le, I [See Harmony.] Re

    HARMON'leAL, \\ "' lating to harmony or music ; as harmonical use. Bacon.

    2. Concordant ; musical ; consonant ; as harmonic sounds.

    Harmonic twang of leather, horn and brass.

    Pope. The basis of an harmonic system. Encyc. The harmonic elements are the three small- est concords. Edin. Encyc

    3. An epithet applied to the accessary sounds which accompany the predominant and apparently simple tone of any chord or string.

    Harmonical mean, in arithmetic and algebra, a term used to express certain relations of numbers and quantities, which are suppo- sed to bear an analogy to nmsical conso- nances.

    Harmonical proportion, in arithmetic and al gebra, is said to obtain between three quan tities, or four quantities, in certain cases.

    H A R

    Harmonical series, a series of many number- in continued harmonical proportion.


    HARMON'l€A, n. A collection of musical glasses of a particular form, so arranged as to produce exquisite music. Encyc.

    HARMON'ICS, n. Harmonious sounds; consonances.

    2. The doctrine or science of musical sounds. Smith.

    3. Derivative sounds, generated with pre- dominant sounds,-and produced by subor- dinate vibrations of a chord or string, when its whole length vibrates. These shorter vibrations produce more acute sounds, and are called acute harmonics.

    Grave harmonics are low sounds which accompany every perfect consonance of two sounds. Edin. Encyc.

    HARMO'NIOUS, a. Adapted to each other ; having the parts proportioned to each other ; symmetrical.

    God hath made the intellectual world harmo- nious and beautiful without us. Locke. Concordant; consonant; symphonious ; musical. Harmonious sounds are such as accord, and are agreeable to the ear. 3. Agreeing; living in peace and friendship ;

    as a harmonious family or society. HARMO'NIOUSLY.arft). With just adapta- tion and proportion of parts to each other. Distances, motions, and quantities of matter harmoniously adjusted in this great variety of our system. Bentley.

    2. With accordance of sounds ; musically ; concord.

    3. In agreement ; in peace and friendship. HARMO'NIOUSNESS, n. Proportion and

    adaptation of parts; musicalness.

    2. Agreement ; concord. H'ARMONIST, n. A musician; a compo- ser of music.

    3. One who luings together corresponding passages, to show their agreement.

    H'ARMONIZE, v. i. To be in concord; to igree in sounds.

    2. To agree ; to be in peace and friendship ; dividuals or families. '

    3. To agree in sense or purport ; as, the ar- uments harmonize; the facts stated by ifterent witnesses harmonize.

    HARMONIZE, V. t. To adjust in fit pro- portions ; to cause to agree.

    2. To make musical ; to combine according to the laws of counterpoint.

    HARMONIZED, pp. Made to be accord-

    H'ARMONIZER, n. One that brings to- gether or reconciles.

    2. In music, a practical harmonist.

    H>ARMONIZING, ppr. Causing to agree.

    HARMONOM'ETER, n. [Gr. ap^o^a and fiirpov.]

    An instrument or nionochord for measuring the harmonic relations of sounds.

    H'ARMONY, n. [L. harmo7iia ; Gr. ap/»ona, a setting together, a closure or seam, agree- ment, concert, from opu, to fit or adapt, to square; Sp.armonia; It. id.; Fr. har- monic. If the Greek apu is a contracted word, for xopu, which is probable, it may be the French carrer, equarrir.] 1. The just adaptation of parts to each other, in any S3'stem or composition of things, intended to form a connected whole ; as the harmony of the universe.

    H A R

    H A R

    H A R

    Equality and correspondence are the causes of harnuniy. Bacon.

    All discord, harmony not understood.

    Pope. "2. Just proportion of sound ; consonance musical concord ; the accordance of two or more intervals or sounds, or that union of different sounds which pleases the ear or a succession of such sounds, called chords.

    Ten thousand harps tliat tuned Angelic harmonies. Milton

    3. Concord ; agreement ; accordance in facts ; as the harmony of the gospels.

    4. Concord or agreement in views, senti ments or manners, interests, &c.; good correspondence ; peace and friendship. The citizens live in harmony.

    5. JVatural harmony, in music, consists of the harmonic triad or common chord. .Irtiji- eiat harmony, is a mixture of concords and discords. Figured harmony, is when one or more of the parts move, during the con tinuanceof a chord, through certain notes *vhich do not form any of the constituent parts of that chord. Busby.

    0. Perfect harmony implies the use of unteni pered concords only. Tempered harmony is when the notes are varied by tempera- ment. [See Temperament.] Encyc.

    H'ARMOST, n. [Gr. apuo;r;p, from apuoa'au, to regulate.]

    In ancient Greece, a Spartan governor, regu- lator or prefect. Mitford.

    H^ARMOTOME, n. [Gr. apftoj, a joint, and tt/xyu, to cut.]

    In mineralogy, cross-stone, or staurolite, call- ed also pyramidical zeolite. [See Cross- stone.]

    H' ARNESS, n. [W. harnaes, from ham, that is, closely fitted ; Fr. harnois ; hames ; It. amese ; Sp. arnes ; Port D. hamas; G. hamisch ; Sw. hamesk ; Dan. hamisk. Tlie primary sense is, to fit, prepare or put on ; and in different lan- guages, it signifies not only harness, but furniture and utensils.]

    1. Armor ; the whole accouterments or equipments of a knight or horseman ; ginally perhaps defensive armor, but in a more modern and enlarged sense, the fur- niture of a mihtary man, defensive or of- fensive, as a casque, cuirass, helmet, gir- dle, sword, buckler, &c.

    2. The furniture of a draught horse, whether for a wagon, coach, gig, chaise, &c.; call ed in some of the American states, tackle or tackling, with which, in its primary sense, it is synonymous. Dryden.

    I'l'ARNESS, v.t. "To dress in armor; to

    equip with armor for war, as a horseman,

    Harnessed in rugged steel. Rowe.

    2. To put on the furniture of a horse for draught.

    Harness the horses. Jer. xlvi.

    3. To defend ; to equip or furnish for de fense. 1 Mace. iv.

    H'.\\RNESSED, ;)p. Equipped with armor;

    furnished with the dress for draught ; de

    fended. H'ARNESSER, n. One who puts on the

    harness of a horse. Sherwood.

    H\\;VRNESSING, ppr. Putting on armor ot

    furniture for draught. H-ARP, )i. [S&x.hearpa; G . harfe ; D . harp ;

    Sw. harpa ; Dan. harpe ; Fr. harpc : It.

    •Sp. Port, arpa.]

    1. An instrument of music of the stringed kind, of a triangular figure, held upright and commonly touched with the fingers.

    Encyc. Johnson

    2. A constellation. Creech. H'ARP, V. i. To play on the liarp.

    I heard the voice of harpers, harping with their harps. Rev. xlv.

    2. To dwell on, in speaking or writing continue sounding.

    He seems Proud and disdainful, harping on what I am — Not what he knew I was. Shak.

    3. To touch as a |)assion ; to affect. Shak. HARPER, »i. A player on the harp. H"ARPING,ppr. Playing on a harp ; dwell- ing on contiimally.

    H'ARPING, n. A continual dwelling on. Making infinite merriment by harpings upon old themes. Irving.

    H'ARPING, n. plu. harpings. In ships, harp- ings are the fore-parts of the wales, which encompass the bow of the ship, and are fastened to the stem. Their use is to strengthen the ship, in the place where shej sustains the greatest shock in plunging into the sea. Encyc.

    Cat-harpings, are ropes which serve to brace in the shrouds of the lower masts, behind their respective yards. Mar. Diet.

    n>ARPING-IRON,n. A harpoon, which see. H^ARPIST, n. A har|)er. Broicn.

    HARPOON', n. [Fr. harpon ; S,). aipon; Port, arpam, arpeo ; It. nrpione ; G. har- pune ; D. harpoen ; from Fr. harper, to grap- ple ; Sp. arpar, to claw ; Gr. apwafu, from oprtau, to seize with the claws ; probably L. rapio, by transposition of letters. Class Rb.] A harping-iron ; a spear or javehn, used to strike whales for killing them. It consists of a long shank, with a broad flat triangu larhead, sharpened at both edges for pen etrating the whale with facility. It ii

    HARQUEBUSE. [See ^rquebuse.]

    HARRATEE'N, n. Akindof stuff or cloth. Shenstone.

    HARRIDAN, n. [Fr. haridelte, a jade, or worn-out horse. See JIare, the verb.] A decayed strumpet. Swijl.

    HAR'RIER, n. A hunting hound with a nice .sense of smelling.

    HARROW, n. [Sw. harf, Dan. harvc, a har- D. hark, G. harke, a rake, is nrob-

    generally thrown by hand,

    HARPOON', V. t. To strike, catch or kill with a harpoon.

    The beluga is usually caught in nets, but ii sometimes harpooned. Pennant

    HARPOON'ED, pp. Struck, caught or kill- ed with a harpoon.

    HARPOON'ER, n. One who uses a har- poon ; the man in a whale-boat who throws the harpoon.

    HARPOON'ING,p;)r. Striking with a har- poon.

    H>ARPSI€HORD, n. [harp and chord.] An instrument of music with strings of wire played by the fingers, by means of keys The striking of these keys moves certain! little jacks, which move a double row of| chords or strings, stretched over foui bridges on the table of the instrument.


    H'ARPY, n. [Fr. harpie ; It. S]). Port, arpia ;^ L. harpyia ; Gr. oprtvio, from the root aprto^u, to seize or claw.] In antiquity, the harpies were fabulous] winged monsters, having the face of woman and the body of a vultur, with theirl feet and fingers armed with sharp claws. They were three in number, Aello, Ocy- pete, and Celeno. They were sent by Juno to plunder the table of Phineus. Tliey are represented as rapacious and filthy animals. Lempnere.

    ably the same word, allied to Sw. li'drja, Dan. herger, Sax. hergian, to ravage or lay waste.] \\n instrument of agriculture, formed of pie- ces of timber sometimes crossing each other, and set with iron teeth. It is drawn over plowed land to level it and break the clods, and to cover seed when sown. HAR'ROW, t'. t. [Sw. harfva ; Dan. Iiarver.] To draw a harrow over, for the purpose of breaking clods and leveling the sur- face, or for covering seed sown ; as, to harrow land or groiuid. 2. To break or tear with a harrow.

    Will lie harrow the valleys after thee ? Job xxxi\\.

    To tear; to lacerate; to torment. I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul — Shak.

    To i)illage ; to strip; to lay waste by vio- lence. [.\'ot used.]

    To disturb ; to agitate. Ohs. Shak.

    HARROWED, pp. Broken or smoothed

    by a harrow. HAR'ROWER, ?!. One who harrows. 2. A hawk. HARROWING, ppr. Breaking or leveling

    ith a harrow. HAR'RY, v.t. [Sax. /leraian, to strip ; hyr- wian, to upbraid ; or V/. herwa, to rove for plunder, to scout ; her, a push.]

    1. To strip; to pillage. [See Harrow.] To harass; to agitate; to tease. Shak.

    HAR'RY, V. i. To make harassing incur- sions. Ohs. Beaum.

    IPARSH, a. [G. harsch ; Scot, harsk. In Dan. harsk, Sw. harsk, is rank, rancid.] Rough to the touch ; rugged ; grating ; as harsh sand ; harsh cloth ; opposed to smooth. Boyle.

    2. Sour; rough to the taste; as harsh fruit.

    3. Rough to the ear; grating; discordant; jarring ; as a harsh sound ; harsh notes ; a hai-sh voice. Dryden.

    4. Au.-itere; crabbed; morose; peevish. Civ- ilization softens the harsh temper or na- ture of man.

    a. Rough ; rude ; abusive ; as harsh words ;

    a harsh reflection. 6. Rigorous ; severe.

    Tliough harsh the precept, yet the preacher charm'd. Dryden.

    HARSHLY, adv. Roughly; in a harsh manner.

    Sourly ; austerely.

    Severely; morosely; crabbedly; as, to speak or answer harsldy.

    4. Roughly ; rudely ; with violence ; as, to treat a person harslJy. Addison.

    5. Roughly ; with a grating sound ; unpleas- antly.

    It would sound harshly in hei ears. Shak.

    H^ARSHNESS, n. Roughness to the touch ;

    sojflness and smoothness.

    Any rapacious or ravenous animal ; an| 2. Sourness ; austereness ; as the harshness extortioner ; a plunderer. il of fruit.

    H A R



    3. Roughness to the ear ; as the harshness of sound or of a voice, or of verse.

    'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense.

    The sound must seem an echo to the sense.


    4. Rougliness of temper ; moroseness ; crab- bedness; peevishness. Shak.

    T). Roughness in manner or words ; sever- ity ; as the harshness of reproof

    irARSLET, > [lee. hasla. Qu.] The

    HASLET, S heart, hver, Hghts, &c. of a hog.

    H'ART, n. [Sax. heart ; Dan. and Sw. hiort G. hirsch ; D. herf.]

    A stag or male deer, an animal of the cer vine genus.

    irARTBEEST, n. The quanga, or cervine antelope of Africa. Encyc.

    H-ARTROY'AL, n. A plant.

    H'ARTSHORN, n. The horn of the hart or male deer. The scrapings or raspings of this horn are medicinal, and used decoctions, ptisans, &c. Hartshorn jelly is nutritive and strengthening. Hartshorn calcined by a strong and long continued heat, is changed into a white earth, which is employed in medicine as an absorbent. The salt of hartshorn is a powerful sudo- rific, and hartshorn yields also a pungent volatile spirit. Encyc.

    The jelly of hartshorn is simply gelatine ; the earth remaining after calcination, is phosphate of lime ; the salt and spirit of hartshorn are muriate of ammonia, with a little animal oil. Parr.

    Hartshorn plantain, a species of Plantago.

    H'ARTSTONGUE, n. [See Tongue.] A plant, a species of Asplenium.

    H'ARTWORT, n. The name of certain plants of the genera, Seseli, Tordylium, and Bupleurum.

    HAR'USPICE, n. [L. haruspex, from specio, to view.]

    In Roman history, a person who pretended to foretell future events by inspecting the entrails of beasts sacrificed, or watching the circumstances attending their slaugh- ter, or their manner of burning and the a.scent of the smoke. Encyc. Mam.

    HAR'USPICY, n. Divination by the inspec- tion of victims.

    H'ARVEST, n. [Sax. hwrfest, harfest, har- vest, autumn ; G. herbst ; D. hcrfst. This word signifies autumn, and primarily had no reference to the collection of the fruits of the earth ; but in German, herbstzeit is harvest-time. It seems to be formed from the G. herbe, harsh, keen, tart, acerb, L. acerbus, and primarily it refers to the cold, chilly weather in autumn in the north oi Europe. This being the time when crops are collected in northern climates, the word came to signify harvest]

    1. The season of reaping and gathering in corn or other crops. It especially refers to the time of collecting corn or grain which is the chief food of men, as wheat and rye. In Egypt and Syria, the wheat harvest is in April and May ; in the south of Europe and of the United States, ii June ; in the Northern states of America in July ; and in the north of Europe, ir .\\ugust and September. In the United States, the harvest of maiz is mostly in October.

    2. The ripe corn or grain collected and se cured in barns or stacks. The harvest thi; year is abundant.

    3. The product of labor ; fruit or fruits.

    Let us the harvest of our labor cat.


    4. Fruit or fruits ; effects ; consequences He that sows iniquity will reap a harvest of woe.

    5. In Scripture, harvest signifies figuratively the proper season for business.

    He thatsleepethin harvest, is a son that caus- cth shame. Prov. s.

    Also, a people whose sins have ripened them for judgment. Joel iii. Also, the end of the world. Matt. xiii. Also, a seasonable time for instructing men in the gospel. Matt. ix.

    H^ARVEST, t>. t. To reap or gather ripe corn and other fruits for the use of man and beast.

    H'ARVESTED, pp. Reaped and collected, as ripe corn and fruits.

    IPARVESTER, n. A reaper ; a laborer in gathering grain.

    H'ARVEST-FLY, n. A large four-winged

    insect of the cicada kind, common in Italy.


    H'ARVEST-HOME, n. The time of har- vest. Dryden.

    3. The song sung by reapers at the feast made at the gathering of corn, or the feast itself. Dryden.

    3. The opportunity of gathering treasure.


    IPARVESTING, ppr. Reaping and collec- ting, as ripe corn and other fruits.

    H'AR VEST-LORD, n. The head-reaper at the harvest. Tusser.

    H'ARVEST-MAN, n. A laborer in harvest.

    H^ARVEST-QUEEN, n. An image repre- senting Ceres, formerly carried about on the last day of harvest.

    HASH, li t. [Fr. hacher ; Arm. haicha; Eng. to hack. See Hack.]

    To chop into small pieces ;■; to mince and mix ; as, to hash meat. Garth.

    HASM, n. Minced meal, or a dish of meat and vegetables chopped into small pieces and mixed.

    IIASK, n. A case made of rushes or flags. [J\'ot used.] Spenser.

    HAS'LET, n. [See Harslet.]

    H\\\\SP, n. [Sax. hceps ; G. haspe, a h'tnge ; Dan. hasp ; Sw. haspe. VVe probably have the word from the Danes.]

    1. A clasp that passes over a staple to be fastened by a padlock. Mortimer.

    2. A s|)indle to wind thread or silk on. [Local.]

    H'ASP, V. t. To shut or fasten with a hasp. Garth.

    HAS'SOC, n. [W. hesor. Qu. from hesg, sedge, rushes. It signifies in Scottish, a besom, any thing bushy, and a turf of peat moss used as a seat. The sense is there- fore the same as that of mat, a collection or mass.]

    A thick mat or bass on which persons kneel

    in church. Mdison.

    And knees and hassocs are well nigh divon-'d.


    HAST, the second person singular of have, I have, thou hast, contracted from havtst It is used only in the solemn style.

    HAS'TATE, > ['L.haslalus,frovi^ hasla, HAS'TATED, \\ «■ a snear.] In botany, spear-shaped ; resembling the head of a halberd ; triangular, hollowed at the base and on the sides, with the angles spread- ing ; as a hastate leaf Martyn. Lee HASTE, n. [G. Sw. Dan. hast; D. haast; Fr. hate, for haste; Arm. hast; from hur- rying, pressing, driving. See Heat.]

    1. Celerity of motion; speed; swiftness; dispatch ; expedition ; applied only to vol- untary beings, as men and other animals; never to other bodies. We never say, a ball flies with haste.

    The king's business required haste. I Sam. xxi.

    2. Sudden excitement of passion ; quick- j ness ; precipitance ; vehemence.

    I I said in ray haste, all men are hars. Ps

    [ cxvi.

    j3. The state of being urged or pressed by j business ; as, I am in great haste. iHASTE, I hast, hds7i. [G. hasten;

    HASTEN, ^ ^- '■ D. haasten ; Sw. hasta ;

    l>an. hastcr ; Fr. hater.] !To press ; to drive or urge forward ; to

    push on ; to precipitate ; to accelerate


    I would hasten my escape from the windy

    storm. Ps. Iv. [HASTE, ) ^^ ■ To move with celerity ; to Hasten, ^ ■ ■ be rapid in motion ; to be

    si)eedy or quick.

    They were troubled and hasted away. Ps.


    speed. HASTENER,

    forward. HASTING, I HASTENING, I ceeding rapidlj'.

    That state is hastening to ruin, in which no difference is made between good and bad men. Jintisthenes. Enfield HASTILY, adv [See HaMy.] In haste; Avith speed or quickness; speedily; nim- bly. Half clothed, half naked, hastily retire.

    Dryden. •2. Rashly; precipitately; without due re- flection.

    We hastily engaged in the war. Swift.

    3. Pa.ssionately ; under sudden excitement of passion.

    HASTINESS, n. Haste ; speed ; quickness or celerity in motion or action, as of ani- mals.

    2. Rashness ; heedless eagerness ; precipi- tation. Our hastiness to engage in the war cau.sed deep regret.

    3. Irritability ; susceptibility of anger, warmth or temper.

    HASTING-PEAR, n. An early pear, called also green chissel. Encyc.

    HASTINGS, n. [from hasty.] Peas that con)e early. MoHimer.

    HASTIVE, a. [Fr. hitif, from haste.] For- ward ; early ; as fruit. [JVbt much used.] Encyc. HASTY, a. Quick ; speedy ; opposed to slow. Be not hasty to go out of his sight. Eccles.

    Moved rapidly; accel- ''' crated ; urged with

    I. One that hastens or urges

    ' vnr ^''■^'"S forward ; ^^ ' pushing on ; pro-

    ^2. Eager ; precipitate ; I deliberate.

    opposed to



    H A U

    Seeat thou a man that is hasty in his words ! tliere is more hope of a fool than of him. Prov.

    3. Irritable ; easily excited to wrath ; pas- sionate.

    He that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly. Prov. xiv.

    4. Early ripe ; forward ; as hasty fruit. Is. xxviii.

    HASTYPUDDING, n. A pudding made of the meal of niaiz moistened with wat and boiled, or of milk and flour boiled.

    HAT, n. [Sax. hat ; G. hut ; D. hoed ; Dan. hat ; Sw. hatt ; W. hid or hct. The word signifies a cover, and in German, finger- hut is a thimble. The primary sense is probably to ward off, or defend.]

    1. A covering for the head ; a garment made of different materials, and worn by men or women for defending the head from rain or heat, or for ornament. Hats for men are usually made of fur or wool, and formed with a crown and brim. Hats for females are made of straw or grass braid and various other materials. Of these the ever varjing forms admit of nodes cription that can long be correct.

    2. The dignity of a cardinal. HAT'-BAND, n. A band round the crown

    of a hat.

    HAT'-BOX, ? A box for a hat. But a

    HAT'-CASE, < "• case for a lady's ha called a band-box.

    HA'TABLE, a. [from hate.] That may be hated ; odious. Sherwood.

    HATCH, V. t. [G. hecken, aushecktn, Dan. hekker, to hatch. This word seems to be connected with G. heck, Dan. hekke, Sw. h&ck, a hedge, Dan. hek, a fence of pales; and the hatches of a shiji are doubt- less of the same family. The sense prob- ably is, to thrust out, to drive off, whence in Sw. hhgii, a hedge, is also protection h&gna, to hedge, to guard. To hatch is to exclude.]

    1. To produce young from eggs by incuba- tion, or by artificial heat. In Egypt, chickens are hatched by artificial heat.

    The partridge sitteth on eggs and hatcheth them not. Jer. xvii.

    2. To contrive or {>lot ; to form by medita- tion, and bring into being ; to originate and produce in silence ; as, to hatch : chief; to hatch lieresy. Hooker.

    HATCH, V. t. [Ft. hacher, to hack.] To shade by hnes in drawing and engraving, Those hatching strokes of the pencil.

    Dry den.

    2. To steep. Ohs. Beaum.

    HATCH, I', i. To produce young ; to bring the young to maturity. Eggs will not hatch without a due degree and continu- ance of heat.

    HATCH, ?!. A brood ; as many chickens as are produced at once, or by one incuba- tion.

    2. The act of exclusion from the egg.

    3. Disclosure ; discovery. Shah. HATCH, or HATCHES, n. [Sax. haica ; D

    hek, a railing, gate, &c. See Hedge and Hatch, supra.]

    1. Projierly, the grate or frame of cross-bars laid over the opening in a ship'.s deck, now called hatch-bars. The lid or cover of a hatchway is also called hatches.

    2. The opening in a ship's deck, or the pas-

    Vol. I.

    sage from one deck to another, the name of the grate itself being used for the opening ; but this is more properly called the hatch- way. Mar. Diet.

    3. A half-door, or door with an opening over it. Qu. Johnson. Shak.

    4. Floodgates. Encyc. Ainsivorth

    5. In Cornwall, Eng. openings into mines or in search of them. Encyc.

    5. To be under the hatches, to be confined, or to be in distress, depression or slavery.


    HATCH'EL, n. [G. hechel,D. heket, Dan. hegle, Sw. hhckla, whence the common pronunciation in America, helchel. In Slav, hakel is a rake.]

    An instrument formed with long iron teeth set in a board, for cleaning flax or hemj) from the tow, hards or coarse part. The hatchcl is a large species of comb.

    HATCH'EL, V. t. To draw flax or hemp through the teeth of a hatchel, for sepa- rating the coarse part and broken pieces of the stalk from the fine fibrous parts.

    2. To tease or vex, by sarcasms or reproach- es ; a vulgar ttse of the word.

    HATCH ELED, pp. Cleansed by a hatch- el ; combed.

    HATCH'ELER, n. One who uses a hatchel.

    HATCH'ELING, ppr. Drawing through the teeth of a hatchel.



    HATCHET, n. [G. hache

    hache ; from hack, which see.] |

    A small ax with a short handle, to be usedj with one hand. |

    To lake up the hatchet, a phrase borrowedi from the natives of America, is to make' war. I

    To bun/ the hatchet, is to make peace.

    HATCH'ET-FACE, n. A prominent face,! like the edge of a hatchet. Dn/den.\\

    HATCH'ETINE, n. A substance of the] hardness of soft tallow, of a yellowish white or greenish yellow color, found in' South Wales. Cleaveland.

    HATCH'MENT, n. [corrupted from achiev-' ment.] j

    An armorial escutcheon on a herse at funer-' als, or in a church. Shak.''

    HATCH'WAY, n. In ships, a square or ob-! long opening in the deck, affording a pas- sage from one deck to another, or intoi the hold or lower apartments.

    Mar. Diet.'

    HATE, V. t. [Sax. hatian, to hate, and to' heat ; Goth, hatyan ; G. hassen ; D. haaten ; Sw. hata ; Dan. hader ; L. odi, for hodi.\\ In all the languages except the Saxon,' hate and heat are distinguished in orthog-' raphy; but the elements of the word are the same, and probablythey are radically one word denoting to stir, to irritate, to! rouse.]

    1. To dislike greatly ; to have a great aver- sion to. It expresses less than abhor, de-' test, and abominate, unless pronounced with a ]>eculiar empliasis. I

    How long will fools hate knowledge ? Prov. i.

    Blessed are ye when men shaU hate you.j Luke Ai. I

    The Roman tyrant was contented to be hatedl if he was but feared. Rambler.l

    2. In Scripture, it signifies to love less. If any man come to me, and ftaie not fatherj

    nd mother, &c. Luke xiv.


    He that spareth the rod, hateth his son. l'ro\\ xiii.

    HATE, n. Great dislike or aversion ; ha- tred. Dryden.

    HATED, pp. Greatly disliked.

    HA'TEFUL, a. Odious; exciting great dis- like, aversion or disgust. All sin is Itate- ful in the sight of God and of good men.

    2. That feels hatred ; malignant ; malevo- lent.

    And, worse than death, to view with hatiful

    eyes His rival's conquest. Dryden.

    HATEFULLY, adv. Odiously ; with great dislike.

    2. Malignantly ; maliciously. Ezek. xxiii.

    HA'TEFULNESS, «. Odiousness ; the quality of being hateful, or of exciting aversion or disgust.

    HATER, n. One that hates.

    An enemy to God, and a hater of all good. Brown.

    HA'TING, ppr. Disliking extremely ; en- tertaining a great aversion for.

    HA'TRED, n. Great dislike or aversion;- hate ; enmity. Hatred is an aversion to evil, and may spring from utter disappro- bation, as the hatred of vice or meanness ; or it may spring from offenses or injuries done by fellow men, or from envy or jealousy, in which case it is usually ac- companied with malevolence or malignity. Extreme hatred is abhorrence or detes- tation.

    HATTED, a. [from hat.] Covered with a hat ; wearing a hat.

    HAT'TER, V. t. To harass. Wot in use.] Dryden.

    HAT'TER, n. [from hal.] A maker of hats.

    HAT'TOCK,7!. [Erse, attach] A shock of corn. [J^otinuse.]

    HAUBERK, n. A coat of mail without sleeves. Obs. [See Habergeon.]

    HAUGHT, a. haut. [Qu. Fr. haut, or the root of tlie English high. If it is from the French haut, the orthography is cor- rupt, for haut is from the Latin altus, that is, haltus, changed to haut.]

    High ; elevated ; hence, proud ; insolent. Obs. Spenser. Shak.

    HAUGHTILY, adv. hau'tily. [See Haught and Haughty.]

    Proudly; arrogantly ; with contempt or dis- dain ; as, to speak or behave haughtily. Her heavenly form too haughtily she prized. Dryden.

    HAUGHTINESS, n. hau'tiyiess. The qual- ity of being haughty ; pride mingled with some degree of contempt for others ; arro- gance.

    I will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. Is. xiii.

    HAUGHTY, a. hau'ty. [from haugU, Fr. haut.]

    1. Proud and disdainful; having a high opinion of one's self, with some contempt for others ; lofty and arrogant ; supercili- ous.

    His wife was a woman of a haughty and im- perious nature. Clarendon.

    A haughty spirit goeth before a fall. Prov. x\\-i.

    2. Proceeding from excessive pride, or pride mingled With contempt ; manifesting pride and disdain : as a haughty air or walk.

    H A U

    H A V

    H A V

    3. Proud and imperious ; as a haughty na- tion.

    4. Lofty ; bold ; of high hazard ; as a haugh- ty enterprise. Obs. Spenser

    HAUL, v.t. [Fr. haler; Arm.hala; Sp. ha lar ; D. haaten. It is sometimes written hale, but haul is preferable, as au repre- sents the broad sound of a.]

    1. To pull or draw with force ; to drag ; as, to haul a heavy body along on the ground to haul a boat on shore. Haul is equiva lent to drag, and differs sometimes from pull and draw, in expressing more force and labor. It is much used by seamen ; as, to haul down the sails ; haul in the boom ; haul aft, &c.

    2. To drag ; to compel to go.

    Lest he haul thee to the judge. Luke xii.

    When applied to persons, haul implies com- pulsion or rudeness, or both.

    To haul the uiind, in seamanshij), is to turn the head of the ship nearer to the point from which the wind blows, by arranging the sails more obliquely, bracing the yards more forward, hauling the sheets more aft, &c. Mar. Did.

    HAUL, n. A pulling with force ; a violent pull. Thomson.

    2. A draft of a net ; as, to catch a hundred fish at a haul.

    HAUL'ED,pp. Pulled with force; dragged compelled to move.

    HAUL'ING, ppr. Drawing by force or vio- lence ; dragging.

    HAULM,? [Sax. fcea/m; G. D. Sw. Dan

    HAUM, \\ "• halm ; Fr. chaume ; L. cul- mus, the stalk of corn. Tlie sense is prob- ably that which is set, or a shoot. It seems to be the W. colov, a stem or stalk, whence columna, a column.]

    1. The stem or stalk of grain, of all kinds, or of pease, beans, hops, &c.

    2. Straw ; the dry stalks of corn, &c. in general.

    H^AUNCH, n. [Fr. hanche ; Arm. hoinch; Sp. It. Port, anca.]

    1. The hip; that part of the body of man and of quadrupeds, which lies between the last ribs and the thigh. Encyc.

    2. The rear ; the hind part. [JVot used.]

    H'AUNT, V. t. [Fr. hauler ; Arm. hantein or henti.]

    1. To frequent; to resort to much or often, or to be much about ; to visit customa- rily.

    Celestial Venus haunts Idalia's groves.


    2. To come to frequently ; to intrude on ; to trouble with frequent visits; to follow im- portunately.

    You wrong mc, Sir, thus still to haunt my

    house. Shak.

    Those cares that haunt the court and town.


    3. It is particularly applied to specters gr ap- paritions, which are represented by fear and creduhty as frequenting or inhabiting old, decayed and deserted houses.

    Foul spirits haunt my resting place.


    H'AUNT, V. i. To be much about ; to visit

    or be present often.

    I've char£;ed thee not to haunt about my door.


    H'AUNT, n. A place to which one frequent ly resorts. Taverns are often the haunts of tipplers. A den is the haunt of wild beasts.

    2. The habit or custom of resorting to a place. [JVot used.] Jlrhuthnol.

    3. Custom ; practice. Obs. Chaucer. H'AUNTED, pp. Frequently visited or re- sorted to, especially by apparitions.

    2. Troubled by frequent visits.

    HAUNTER, n. One who frequents a par- ticular place, or is often about it.

    H'AUNTING, ppr. Frequenting ; visiting often ; troubling with frequent visits.

    HAUST, n. [Sax. hwasta.] A dry cough Obs. Ray.

    HAUTBOY, n. ho'hoy. [Fr. haul, high, and bois, wood, or a shoot.]

    A wind instrument, somewhat resembhng flute, but widening towards the bottom, and sounded through a reed. The treble is two feet long. The tenor goes a fifth lower, when blown open. It has only eight holes ; but the base, which is five feet long, has eleven. Encyc

    HAUTEUR, n. [Fr.] Pride; haughtiness; insolent manner or spirit.

    HAUYNE, n. A mineral, called by HaOy lalialite, occurring in grains or small mass es, and also in groups of minute, shining crystals. Its color is blue, of var shades. It is found imbedded in volcanic rocks, basalt, clinkstone, &c.


    HAVE, V. t. hav. pret. and pp. had. Indie. Present, I have, thou hast, he has; we, ye, they, have. [Sax. habban ; Goth, haban ; G. haben ; D. hebben; Sw. hafva ; Dan. haver; l^.habeo; Sp. haber; Port, haver; It. avere ; Fr. avoir ; W. hajiaiv, to snatch, or seize hastily, and hapiaw, to happen The Spanish haber unites have with hap- pen ; haber, to have or possess, to take, to happen or befall. The primary sense then is to fall on, or to rush on and seize. See Happen. Class Gb. No. 74. 79.]

    I. To possess ; to hold in possession orpow

    How many loaves have ye ? Matt. xv.

    He that gathered much had nothing ovei Ex. xvi.

    I have no Levite to my priest. Judges 17.

    To have and to hold, terms in a deed of conveyance.

    2. To possess, as something that is connect- ed with, or belongs to one.

    Have ye a father? Have ye another brother .' Gen. xliii. and xliv.

    — Sheep that have no shepherd. 1 Kings xxii.

    3. To marry; to take for a wife or husband.

    In the resuiTection, whose wife shall she be f the seven > for they all Aarf her. Matt. xxii.

    4. To hold ; to regard. Thus, to hace in honor, is to hold in esteem ; to esteem ; to honor.

    To have in derision or contempt, to bold in derision or contempt ; to deride ; to des-

    5. To maintain ; to hold in opinion.

    Sometimes they will have them to be the natural heat ; sometimes they will have them to be the qualities of the tangible parts. Bacon.

    6. To be urged by necessity or obligation ; to be under necessity, or impelled by duty. I have to visit twenty patients every day. Wc have to strive against temptations.

    We have to encounter strong prejudices. The nation has to pay the interest of an immense debt.

    7. To seize and hold ; to catch. The hound has him. [TTie original, but now a vulgar use of the u}ord.]

    8. To contain. The work has many beau- ties and many faults.

    9. To gain ; to procure ; to receive ; to ob- tain ; to purchase. I had this cloth very cheap. He has a guinea a month. He has high wages for his services.

    Had rather, denotes wish or preference.

    I had rather be a door-keeper in the house of my God, than dwell in the tents of wickedness. Ps. I.xxxiv.

    Is not this phrase a corruption oi would rather ?

    To have after, to pursue. [JVot much used, nor elegant] Shak.

    To have away, to remove ; to take away.


    To have at, to encounter ; to assail ; as, to have at him ; to have at you. [Legitimate, but vulgar.]

    To enter into competition with ; to make trial with. Shak.

    Dryden uses in a like sense, have with you ; but these uses are inelegant.

    To have in, to contain.

    To have on, to wear ; to carry, as raiment or weapons.

    He saw a man who had not on a wedding- garment. Matt. .vxii.

    To have out, to cause to depart. 2 Sam. xiii.

    To have a care, to take care ; to be on tl.e guard, or to guard.

    To have pleasure, to enjoy.

    To have pain, to suffer.

    To have sorrow, to be grieved or afflicted. With would and should.

    He would have, he desires to have, or l.e re- quires.

    He should have, he ought to have.

    But the various uses of have in such phra- ses, and its uses as an auxiliary verb, are fully explained in grammars. As an auxiliary, it assists in forming the perfect tense, as I have formed, thou hast form- ed, hehxilh or has formed, we have formed, and the prior-past tense, as I had seen, thou hadst seen, he had seen.

    HAVELESS, a. hav'les. Having little or nothing. [JVot in use.] Gower.

    HA'VEN, n. ha'vn. [Sax. hafan ; D. haven ; Dan. havn ; Fr. hdvre ; Arm. haffn ; G. hofen ; from haber, a Gaidish word, signi- fying the mouth of a river, says Lunier. But in Welsh, hav is summer, and havyn is a flat, extended, still place, and a ha- ven.]

    A harbor; a port ; a bay, recess or inlet of the sea, or the mouth of a river which aflTords good anchorage and a safe station for ships ; any place in which ships can be sheltered by the land from the force of tempests and a violent sea. A shelter ; an asylum ; a place of safety. Shak.

    HA'VENER, 71. The overseer of a port ; a harbor-master. [JVot used.] Carew.

    HAV'ER, n. One who has or possesses ; a a holder. [Little used.]

    HAV'ER, n. [G. hafer ; B. haver ; perhaps L. avena.]


    Oats; a word of local use in the north of £ngland ; as haverbread, oaten bread.

    Johnson. HAVERSACK, n. [Fr. havrc-sac] A sol- dier's knapsack. HAVING, ppr. [from have.] Possessing; holding in power or possession ; contain- ing; gaining; receiving; taking. HAV'ING, n. Possession ; goods ; estate. [ATol in use.] Stuik.

    2. Tiie act or state of possessing. Sidney. HAV'OCK, n. [W. Aayog-, a spreading about, waste, devastation ; havogi, to commit waste, to devastate ; supposed to be from hav, a spreading. But qu. Ir. arvach, liav- ock.] Waste ; devastation ; wide and general de- struction.

    Ve gods ! what havock does ambition make

    Among your works. Addison.

    As for Saul, he made havock of the church.

    Acts viii.

    HAVOCK, V. t. To waste; todestroy; to

    lay waste.

    To waste and havock yonder world.

    Milton HAW, n. [Sax. hccg, hag, G. heck, D. haag, heg, Dan. hek, hekke, a hedge.]

    1. The berry and seed of the hawthorn, that is, hedge-thorn. Bacon

    2. [Sax. haga.] A small piece of ground ad joining a house ; a small field ; properly, an inclosed piece of land, from hedge, like garden, which also signifies an inclosure. [Dan. hauge, a garden.]

    3. In farriery, an excrescence resembling a gristle, growing under the nether eyelid and eye of a horse. Encyc.

    4. A dale. Obs. Chaucer. HAW, V. i. [corrupted from hawk, or hack.]

    To stop in speaking with a haw, or to speak with interruption and hesitation as, to hem and haw. VEstrange.

    HAWFINCH, n. A bird, a species of Loxia.

    HAW'HAW, n. [duplication of haw, hedge.]

    A fence or bank that interrupts an alley or walk, sunk between slopes and not per- ceived till approached. Todd.

    HAWING, ppr. Speaking with a haw, or with hesitation.

    HAWK, n. [Sax. hafoc ; D. hnvik ; G. ha- hicht ; Sw. hok ; Dan. hog, hiiog ; W.he bog, named from heb, utteVance.]

    A genus of fowls, the Falco, of many spe ries, having a crooked beak, furnished with a cere at the base, a cloven tongue, and the head thick set with fethers. Most of tlic species are rapacious, feeding or birds or other small animals. Hawk; were formerly trained for sport or catch ing small birds.

    HAWK, V. i. To catch or attempt to catch birds by means of hawks trained for the purpose, and let loose on the prey ; to practice falconry.

    He that hawks at larks and sparrows.

    Locke. A I'alc'ner Henry is, when Emma hawks.


    2. To fly at ; to attack on the wing ; with at. To hawk at flies. Dniden

    HAWK, t). i. [W. hoci ; Scot, hawgh. Qu. Chal. no, and keck and cough. See Class Gk. No. 5. 29. 3C.1

    n A Y

    To make an eflTort to force up phlegm with

    noise ; as, to hawk and spit.

    Shak. Harvey. To hawk up, transitively ; as, to haivk up

    phlegm. HAWK, n. An effort to force up phlegm

    from the throat, accompanied with noise. HAWK, V. t. [Qu. G. hocken, to take on the

    back ; hocken, to higgle ; hiicker, a huck- ster ; or the root of L. audio, auction, a

    sale by outcry. The root of the latter

    probably signified to cry out.] To cry; to offer for sale by outcry in the

    street, or to sell by outcry ; as, to hawk

    goods or pamphlets. HAVVK'ED,;)/). Offered for sale by outcry

    in the street.

    a. Crooked ; curving like a hawk's bill HAWK'ER, n. One who offers goods for

    sale by outcry in the street ; a pedlar.

    Swift. . A falconer. [Sax. ha/cere.] HAWK'EYED, (I. Having acute sight ; dis

    cerning. HAWK'ING, ppr. Catching wild birds by


    2. Making an effort to discharge phlegm.

    3. OflTering for sale in the street by outcry HAWK'ING, H. The exerciseof taking wild

    fowls by means of hawks.

    HAWK'NOSED, a. Having an aquiline nose. Farrand

    HAWK'WEED, Ji. The vulgar name ofsev- eral species of plants, of the genera, Hie- racium, Crepis, Hyoseris, and Andryala.

    HAWSE, n. hawz. [See Halscr.] The situa- tion of a ship moored with two anchors from the bows, one on the starboard, tin other on the larboard bow ; as, the ship has a clear /lait'OT, or a foul Aaicse. Afoul hawse is when the cables cross each othci or are twisted together. Mar. Diet

    HAWSE-HOLE, n. A cylindrical hole in the bow of a ship through which a cable

    HAWSE-PIECE, n. One of the foremost timbers of a ship.

    HAWS'ER, n. [See Halser.] A small cable or a large rope, in size between a cable and a tow-line. Mar. Diet. Encyc.

    HAWTHORN, n. [Sax. hwg-thorn, hedge- thorn ; Sw. hagtorn ; Dan. hagetom ; G. hagedorn ; D. haagedoorn.]

    A shrub or tree which bears the haw, of the genus Crata!gus; the white-thorn. The hawthorn is inuch used for hedges, and for standards in gardens. It grows natti- rally in all parts of Europe. Encyc.

    HAW'THORN-FL?, n.An insect so called. Walton.

    HAY, II. [Sax. Aeg, feig- ;• G. heu; D. hooi ; Dan. hoc ; Sw. ho.]

    Grass cut and dried for fodder ; grass pre- pared for preservation. Make hay while the sun shines.

    To dance the hay, to dance in a ring.


    HAY, V. t. [G. heuen.] To dry or cure grass for preservation.

    HAY, n. [Sax. hceg.] A hedge. Ohs.


    2. A net which incloses the haunt of an ani- mal. Harmer.

    HAY, V. t. To lay snares for rabbits.


    II A Z

    IIA'YBOTE, n. Hedge-bole. In English

    law, an allowance of wood to a tenant for

    repairipg liedges or fences.

    Blackslone. HA'YCOCK, JI. A conical pile or heap of

    hay, in the field. HA'YKNIFE, n. A shaq) instrument used

    in cutting hay out of a stack or mow. « HA'YLOFT, n. A loft or scaffold for hay,

    particularly in a barn. HAYMAKER, n. One who cuts and dries

    grass for fodder. HA'YMAIvING, ji. The business of cutting

    grass and curing it for fodder. HA'YMARKET, n. A place for the sale of

    hay. HA'YMOVV^, n. A mow or mass of hay laid

    up in a barn for preservation. HA'YRICK, n. A rick of hay; usually a

    long pile for preservation in the open air. HA'YSTACK, n. A stack or large conical

    pile of hay in the open air, laid up for

    preservation. HA'YWARD, n. [hay and ward, hedge- ward.] A person who keeps the common herd or

    cattle of a town, and guards hedges or

    fences. In New England, the hayward is

    a town officer whose duty is to impound

    cattle, and particularly swine which are

    found running at large in the highways,

    contrary to law. HA'YDENITE, n. A mineral discovered by

    Dr. Hayden, near Ualtiinore. It occurs

    in garnet colored crystals. HAZ'ARD, n. [Fr. fiasard; probably from

    the root of L. casus, a fall, and ard, tlie

    common termination.]

    1. Chance ; accident ; casualty ; a fortuitous event; that which falls or comes suddenly or unexpectedly, the cause of which is un- known, or whose operation is unforeseen or unexpected.

    I will stand the hazard of tlie die. Shak.

    2. Danger; peril; risk. He encountered the enemy at the hazard of his reputation and life.

    3. A game at dice.

    To run the hazard, to risk ;

    Swift. to take the

    chance ; to do or neglect to do something, when the consequences are not foreseen, and not within the powers of calculation.

    HAZ'ARD, V. t. [Fr. hasarder.] To expose to chance ; to put in danger of loss or in- jury ; to venture ; to risk ; as, to hazard life to save a friend ; to hazard an estate on the throw of a die ; to hazard salvation for temporal pleasure.

    Men hazard nothing by a course of evangel- ical obedience. /. Clarke.

    2. To venture to incur, or bring on : as, to hazard the loss of reputation.

    HAZ'ARD, V. i. To try the chance; to ad- venture ; to run the risk or danger. Pause a day or two, before you hazard —


    HAZ'ARDABLE, a. That is liable to haz- ard or chance. Brown.

    HAZ ARDED, pp. Put at risk or in dan- ger; ventured.

    H.AZ'ARDER, n. One who ventures or puts at stake.

    H E

    H E A

    H E A

    HAZ'ARDING,p;)r. Exposing to danger or peril ; venturing to bring on.

    HAZ'ARDOUS, a. Dangerous ; tliat expo ses to peril or danger of loss or evil ; as a hazardous attempt or experiment.

    IIAZ'ARDOUSLY, adv. With danger of loss or evil ; with pQril.

    HAZ'ARDRY, ?i. Rashness ; temerity. Obs, Spenser.

    2. Gaming in general. Obs. Chaucer.

    HAZE, 71. [The primary sense of this word is probably to mix, or to turn, stir and make thick.]

    Fog ; a watery vapor in the air, or a dry va- por like smoke, which renders the air thick.

    HAZE, V. i. To be foggy. [A local word.] Ray.

    HAZE, V. t. To frigliten. [JVot used.]


    HAZEL, n. ha'zl. [Sax. hcescl, a hat or cap ; hcesl, hazel; ha:sl-mUu, hazel-nut ; G.hasel; T). hazelaar ; Dan.hassel, hassel-nod ; Sw. hassel. By the Saxon it appears that the word signifies a cap, and the name of the nut, a cap-nut.]

    A shrub of the genus Corylus, hearing a nut containing a kernel of a mild farinaceous taste. Encyc.

    HAZEL, a. ha'zl. Pertaining to the hazel or like it ; of a light brown color, like the hazel-nut.

    HA'ZEL-EARTH, n. A kind of red loam. Encyc.

    HA'ZEL-NUT, n. The nut or fruit of the hazel.

    HA'ZELLY, a. Of the color of the hazel- nut ; of a light brown.

    Mortimer. Encyc.

    HA'ZY, a. [See Haze.] Foggy ; misty ; thick with vapor; as hazy weather; the hazy north. Thomson.

    HE, pronoun of the third person ; nom. he ; poss. his; obj. him. [Sax. mas. he; fern, heo ; neut. hit, now contracted to it, L. id, for hid. It seems to be a contracted word, for the L. is hie, and the Saxon accusative is sometimes hig. In English it has no plural, but it has in Saxon, hi, they.]

    1. A pronoun, a substitute for the third per- son, masculine gender, representing the man or male person named before.

    Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. Gen. iii.

    Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God; /ii'ni shall thou serve. Deut. x.

    2. It often has reference to a person that is named in the subsequent part of the sen- tence. He is the man.

    3. He is often used without reference to any particular person, and may be re- ferred to any person indefinitely that an- swers the description. It is then synony- mous with any man.

    He that walketh with wise men, shall be wise. Prov. xiii.

    4. He, when a substitute for ^nan in its gene- ral sense, expressing mankind, is of com- mon gender, representing, Uke its antece- dent, the whole human race.

    My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh. Gen. vi. ."). Man ; a male.

    I stand to answer thee, or any he the proud- est of thy sort. Shak. In this use of he, in the ludicrous style, the word has no variation of case. In the

    foregoing sentence, he is in the objective case, or position, and the word is to be considered as a noun.

    6. He is sometimes prefixed to the names of animals to designate the male kind, he-goat, a he-hear. In such cases, he i be considered as an adjective, or the two words as forming a compound.

    HEAD, n. hed. [Sax. heafod, hefed, hea/d; D. huofd ; Dan. hoved ; Sw. hufvud; G. haupt. This word is a j)articiple of the Sax, heajan, he/an, to heave, pret. hof, hove ; G. heben, hob, &c. Heafod, heaved, the ele- vated part, the top. Class Gb.]

    1. The uppermost part of the hutiian body, or the foremost part of the body of prone and creeping animals. This part of the hinnan body contains the organs of hear- ing, seeing, tasting and smelling ; it con- tains the brain, which is supposed tc be the seat of the intellectual powers, and of sensation. Hence the head is the chief or most important part, and is used for the whole person, in the plu'ase, let the evil fall on my head.

    2. An animal ; an individual ; as, the tax was raised by a certain rate per head. And we use the singular number to express many. The herd contains twenty head of oxen.

    Thiity thousand Aeorf of swine. Addison.

    3. A chief ; a principal person ; a leader ; a commander ; one who has the first rank or place, and to whom others are subor- dinate ; as the head of an army ; the head of a sect or party. Eph. v.

    4. The first place ; the place of honor, or of command. The lord mayor sat at the head of the table. The general marched at the head of his troops.

    5. Countenance ; presence ; in the phrases, to hide the head, to show the head.

    6. Understanding ; faculties of the mind ; sometimes in a ludicrous sense ; as, a man has a good head, or a strong head. These men laid their heads together to form the scheme. Never trouble your head about this affair. So we say, to beat the head ; to break the head; that is, to study hard, to exercise the understanding or mental faculties.

    7. Face ; front ; forepart.

    The ravishers turn head, the fight renews. [Unusual.'\\ JDryden.

    Resistance ; successful opposition ; in the phrase, to make head against, that is, to advance, or resist with success.

    9. Spontaneous will or resolution ; in the phrases, of his own head, on their men head. But of'\\s more usual than on.

    10. State of a deer's horns by which his age is known. The buck is called, the fifth year, a buck of the first head. Shak.

    11. The top of a thing, especially when lar- ger than the rest of the thing ; as the head of a spear ; the head of a cabbage ; the head of a nail ; the head of a mast.

    12. The forepart of a thing, as the head of a ship, which includes the bows on both sides ; also, the ornamental figure or im- age erected on or before the stem of a ship.


    1.3. The blade or cutting part of an ax, dis- tinct from the helve.

    14. That which rises on the top ; as the head or yeast of beer. Mortimer.

    15. The upper part of a bed, or bed-stead.

    16. The brain.

    They turn their heads to imitate the sun.


    17. The dress of the head ; as a laced head. [Unusual.] Swift.

    18. The principal source of a stream ; as the head of the Nile.

    19. Altitude of water in ponds, as applica- ble to the driving of mill-wheels. The mill has a good head of water.

    20. Topic of discourse; chief point or sub- ject ; a summary ; as the heads of a dis- course or treatise.

    21. Crisis; pitch; highth. The disease has grown to such a head as to threaten hfe.

    22. Influence ; force ; strength ; pitch. The sedition got to such a head as not to be easily quelled.

    23. Body; conflux. 06s. Shak. Spenser.

    24. Power ; armed force. My lord, my lord, the French have gathered

    head. Shak.

    25. Liberty ; freedom from restraint ; as, to give a horse the head. Hence,

    !. License; freedom from check, control or restraint. Children should not have their heads.

    He has too long given his unruly passions the

    head. South.

    27. The hair of the head ; as a head of hair.

    . The top of corn or other plant; the part

    on which the seed grows.

    29. The end, or the boards that form the end ; as the head of a cask.

    30. The iiart most remote from the mouth or opening into the sea; as the head of a bay, gulf or creek.

    . The maturated part of an ulcer or boil ; hence, to come to a head, is to suppurate.

    Head and ears, a phrase denoting the whole person, especially when referring to im- mersion. He plunged head and ears into the water. He was head aiid ears in debt, that is, completely overwhelmed.

    Head and shmdders, by force ; violently ; as, to drag one head and shoulders.

    Head or tail, or, head nor tail, uncertain ;

    not reducible to certainty. Burke.

    Head, as an adj. or in composition, chief;

    principal ; as a head workman.

    y the head, in seamen's language, denotes

    the state of a ship laden too deeply at the

    fore-end. HEAD, V. t. hed. To lead ; to direct ; to act

    as leader to ; as, to head an army ; to head

    an expedition ; to head a riot.

    2. To behead ; to decapitate. [Unusual.]


    3. To form a head to ; to fit or furnish with a head ; as, to head a nail.

    4. To lop ; as, to Aearf trees.

    5. To go in front of; to get into the front; as, to head a drove of cattle.

    6. To set on the head ; as, to head a cask.

    7. To o]i])ose ; to veer round and blow in opposition to the course of a ship ; as, the wind heads us.

    HEAD, i>. i. hed. To originate ; to spring;

    to have its source, as a river.

    A broad river that heads in the great Blue

    Ridge of mountains. ..idair.

    HEAD.\\€H, n. hed'ake. Pain in the head.

    H E A

    HEADBAND, »«. hed'band. A fillet; a band for the lieail ; also, the band at each end of a book. Is. iii.

    HEADBOROUGII, n. hed'hurro. In Eng- land, formerly, the chief of a frank-pledge, tithing or decennary, consisting of ten families; called in some counties, bors- holder, that is, borough's elder, and some- times tithing man. lilackstone.

    HEAD-DRESS, n. hed'dress. The dress of the head; the covering or ornaments of i woman's head. Pope. Addison

    2. The crest, or tuft of fethers on a fowl's head. Addison

    HEADED, pp. hed'ed. Led ; directed ; fur iiished with a head ; having a top. This is used in composition, as ckar-headtd, long-headed, thick-headed, &c. I HEADER, n. hed'er. One who heads nails or pins.

    2. One who leads a mob or party.

    3. The first brick in the angle of a wall. I Moxon I HEADFAST, n. hed'fast. A rope at the

    head of a ship to fasten it to a wharf or other fixed object. Mar. Diet.

    I HEADFIRST, adv. hedfurst. With the head foremost.

    HEADGARGLE, n. hed'gargle. A disease of cattle. Mortimer

    HEADGEAR, n. hed'gear. The dress of a woman's head. Burton.

    HEADINESS, n. hed'iness. [See Heady.] Rarshness ; precipitation ; a dispositi rush forward without due deliberation or prudence. Spenser.

    2. Stubbornness; obstinacy.

    HEADING, n. hed'ing. Timber for the heads of casks.

    HEADLAND, n. hed'land. A cape promontory ; a point of land projecting from the shore into the sea, or other ex- panse of water.

    2. A ridge or strip of unplowed land at the ends of furrows, or near a fence.

    HEADLESS, o. hed'less. Ha\\ing no head ; beheaded ; as a headless body, neck or car- case. Dryden. Spenser.

    2. Destitute of a chief or leader. jRaleigk

    3. Destitute of understanding or prudence ; rash; obstinate. Spenser.

    HEADLONG, adv. hed'long. With the head foremost ; as, to fall headlong.


    2. Rashly ; precipitately ; without delibera- tion.

    — He hurries headlong to his fate. Dryden

    3. Hastily ; without delay or respit. HEADLONG, a. hed'long. Steep; precipi- tous. Milton.

    2. Rash ; precipitate ; as headlong folly.

    HEADMAN, n. hed'man. A chief; a lead er.

    HEADMOLD-SHOT, n. A disease in chil dren, in which the sutures of the skull, us- ually the coronal, ride, that is, when their edges shoot over one another, and are close-locked as to compress the brain ; of- ten occasioning convulsions and death.


    HEAD'MONEY, ji. hed'munny. A capita- tion-tax. Milton.

    HEADMOST, a. hed'mosf. Most advanced; most forward ; first in a line or order of progression ; as the headmost ship tieet.

    H E A

    HEAD-PAN, n. hed'-pan. The brain-pan. UVot in use.]

    HEAD-PIECE, n. hed'-pece. Armor for the head ; a helmet ; a morion.

    Sidney. Dryden.

    2. Understanding; force of mind. [JVol com- mon.] Prideaux.

    HEADQU.\\RT'ERS, n. plu. The quarters or place of residence of the commander- in-chief of an army.

    2. The residence of any chief, or place from hich orders are issued.

    HEAD-ROPE, n. hed'-rope. That part of a bolt-rope which terminates any sail on the upper edge, and to which it is sewed.

    Mar. Did.

    HEAD-SAIL, n. hed'-sail. The head-sails of a ship are the sails which are extended on the fore-mast and bowsprit, as the fore- sail, foretop-sail, jib, &c. Mar. Diet.

    HEAD-SEA, n. hed'-sea. Waves that the head of a ship or roll against _her course. Mar.

    HE.-\\DSHAKE, n. hed'shake. A significant shake of the head.

    HEADSHIP, n. hed'ship. Authority ; chief place. Hales.

    HEADSMAN, n. hed'sman. One that cuts off heads; an executioner. [Unusual.]


    HEADSPRING, n. hed'spring. Fountain ; source ; origin.

    HEADSTALL, ji. hed'staU. That part of c bridle which encompasses the head.

    HEADSTONE, n. hcd'stone. The princi pal stone in a foundation ; the chief or corner stone. Psalms.

    2. The stone at the head of a grave.

    HEADSTRONG, a. hed'slrong. Violent obstinate ; ungovernable ; resolute to run his own way; bent on pursuing his own will ; not easily restrained.

    Now let tlie headstrong boy my will control Dryden

    2. Directed by ungovernable will or proceed- ing from obstinacy ; as a headstrong course Dryden.

    HEAD'STRONGNESS, n. Obstinacy. [JVot in rise.] Gayton.

    HEADTIRE, n. hed'tire. Dress or attire for the head. 1 E.sdras iii.

    HEADWAY, n. hed'way. Tlie motion of an advancing ship. A ship makes head- way, when she advances, as from a state of rest.

    HEAD-WIND, JI. hed'-wind. A wind that blows in a direction to the ship's] course.

    HEAD-WORK'MAN, n The chief work- man of a party ; a foreman in a manufac- tory. Swijl.

    HEADY, a. hedy. [See Head.] Rash ; has- ty ; precipitate ; violent ; disposed to rush forward in an enterjirise without thought or deliberation ; hurried on by will or pas- sion ; ungovernable.

    All the talent required, is to be heady, lo be violent on one side or the other. Temple.

    2. Apt to affect the head ; inflaming ; intox- icating ; strong ; as spirituous liquors. Champagne is a heady wine.

    3. Violent; impetuous; as a heady current. Wot usual.] Shak.

    HEAL, V. t. [Sax. ha:lan, helan, gehelan, to heal, and to cSnceal, L. celo ; Goth, hail- yan, to heal ; G. heilen ; D. heelen ; Sw.

    H E A

    hela ; Dan. heeler ; from hal, heil, hec!, hi, whole, sound, allied to hold and holy. Heb. hj,'^-)^, Ch. kSd, to he whole or entire, all. The primary sense of the root is to press, strain, extend ; hence, to hold, to shut, en- close, conceal, to embrace the whole. To heal is to make ivholc, hale, sound, and to conceal is to hold, or keep close.] 1. To cure of a djsease or wound and re- store to soundness, or to that state of body in which the natural functions are regu- larly performed ; as, to heal the sick.

    Speak, and my servant shall be healed. Matt.

    ) remove or subdue ; as, to heal > cicatrize ; as, to heal a sore to heal a

    vni. 2. To cure ; I

    a disease.

    ."3. To cause i

    or wound.

    To restore to soundness ; wounded limb.

    5. To restore purity to ; to remove feculence or foreign matter.

    Thus saith the Lord, I have healed tiiese waters. 2 Kings ii. . To remove, as differences or dissension ; to reconcile, as parties at variance ; as, to heal a breach or difference. . In Scripture, to forgive ; to cure moral dis- ease and restore soundness.

    I will heal their backsliding. Hos. xiv.

    !. To purify from corruptions, redress griev- ances and restore to prosperity. Jer. xiv.

    9. To cover, as a roof with tiles, slate, lead, &c. [Sax. helan.] Encyc.

    HEAL, II. t. To grow sound; to return to a sound state ; as, the limb heals, or the wound heals ; sometimes with up or orer ; it will heal up or over.

    HE'ALABLE, a. That may be healed.


    IIE'ALED, pp. Restored to a sound state.

    HE'ALER, n. He or that which cures, or restores to soundness.

    HE'ALING, ppr. Curing ; restoring to a sound state.

    2. a. Tending to cure ; mild ; mollifying.

    HE'ALING, n. The act of curing.

    2. The act of covering. 06*.

    HEALTH, n. helth. [from heal] That state of an animal or living body, in which the parts are sound, well organized and dis- ]iosed, and in which they all perform free- ly their natural functions. In this state the animal feels no pain. This word is applied also to plants.

    Though health may be enjoyed without grat- itude, it cannot be sported with without loss, or regained by courage. Buckmimter.

    2. Sound state of the mind ; natural vigor of faculties. Bacon.

    3. Sound state of the mind, io a moral sense ; purity ; goodness.

    There is no health in us. Common Prayer.

    4. Salvation or divine favor, or grace which cheers God's people. Ps. xhii.

    5. Wish of health and happiness ; used in drinking. Come, love and health to all ; an elliptical phrase, for, I wish health to you.

    HEALTHFUL, a. helth'/ul. Being in a sound state, as a living or organized be- ing ; having the parts or organs entire, and their functions in a free, active and undisturbed operation ; free from disease. We speak of a healthful body, ahealthfii! person, a healthful plant.

    H E A

    3. Serving to promote health ; wholesome ; salubrious ; as a healthful air or climate ; a healthful diet.

    3. Indicating health or soundness; as a healthful condition.

    4. Salutary ; promoting spiritual health.

    Common Prayer.

    5. Well disposed ; favorable.

    AAfa//A/»Zeartohear. lUimsual] Shak.

    HEALTH'FULLY, adv. In health ; whole- somely.

    HEALTH'FULNESS, n. A state of being well ; a state in which the parts of a liv- ing body are sound, and regularly perform their functions.

    2. Wholesomeness ; salubrity ; state or qual- ities that promote health ; as the heallh- f Illness of the air, or of climate, or of diet, or of exercises.

    IIRALTH'ILY, a. [See Health.'] Without disease.

    HEALTH'INESS, n. The state of health ; soundness ; freedom from disease ; as the healthiness of an animal or plant.

    HEALTH'LESS, a. Infirm ; sickly.

    2. Not conducive to health. [Little iised.] Taylor

    HEALTII'SOME, a. Wliolesome. [JVo used.] Shak

    HEALTH'Y, a. Being in a sound state ; en joying health ; hale ; sound ; as a healthy body or constitution.

    2. Conducive to health ; wholesome ; saki brious ; as a healthy exercise ; a healthy climate ; healthy recreations. Locke.

    IIEAM, n. In beasts, the same as after- birth in women. Johnson. Todd.

    REAP, n. [Sax. heap, heap; D. hoop; G haufc ; Sw. hop ; Dan. hob ; Russ. kupa . W. cub, a heap, what is put together, a bundle, a cube. See Class Gb. No. 1. 2. 3 4. 5.]

    1. A pile or mass; a collection of things laid in a body so as to form an elevation as a heap of earth or stones.

    H E A

    HE'APY, o. Lying in heaps ; as heapy rub- " sh. Gay.

    HEAR, V. t. pret. and ])p. heard, but more correctly heared. [Sax. heoran, hyran ; G. horen ; D. hooren ; Dan. horer ; Sw. hora. It seems to be from ear, L. auris, or from the saine root. So L. audio seems to be connected with Gr. ovj. The sense is probably to lend the ear, to turn or in cline the ear, and ear is probably a shoot or extremity.]

    1. To perceive by the ear; to feel an im pression of sound by the proper organs ; as, to hear sound ; to hear a voice ; to heai words.

    2. To give audience or allowance to speak

    He sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the I'aith in Christ. Acts xxiv.

    3. To attend ; to listen ; to obey.

    To-day, if ye will hear liis voice, harden not your heart. Ps. xcv. To attend favorably ; to regard.

    They think they shall be heard for theii much speaking. Matt. vi. To grant an answer to prayer.

    I love the Lord, because he hath heard my voice. Ps. cxvi.

    To attend to the facts, evidence, and guments in a cause between parties ; try in acourtof law or equity. The cause was heard and determined at the term ; or, it was heard at the last term, and will be determined at the next. So 2 Sam. XV.

    7. To acknowledge a title; a Latin phrase Hear'st thou submissive, but a lowly birth.


    8. To be a hearer of; to sit under the preach- ing of; as, what minister do you hear"} [A colloquial use of the rvord.]

    9. To learn.

    I speak to the world those things which 1 have heard of him. John viii.

    10. To approve and embrace.

    They speak of the world, and the world hear

    Huge heaps of slain around tlie body rise.


    2. A crowd ; a throng ; a cluster ; applied to living persons. [Inelegant and not in use.] Bacon. Dryden.

    3. A mass of ruins.

    Thou hast made of a city a heap. Is. xxv. HEAP, v.t. [Sax. heapian ; Sw. hopa; G. haufen ; D. hoopen.]

    1. To throw or lay in a heap; to pile; as to heap stones ; often with up : as, to heap up earth ; or with on ; as, to heap on wood or coal.

    2. To amass ; to accumulate ; to lay up collect in great quantity ; with up; as, to heap up treasures.

    Though the wicked heap vp silver as the dust — Job xxvii. I

    3. To add something else, in large quanti- ties. Shak.\\

    4. To pile ; tb add till the mass takes a roundish form, or till it rises above the measure ; as, to heap any thing in meas- uring.

    HE' APED, pp. Piled ; amassed ; accumu- lated.

    HE'APER, ji. One who heaps, piles or amasses.

    HE'APING, ppr. Piling ; collecting into a

    To hear a bird sing, to receive private com- munication. Shak

    HEAR, V. i. To enjoy the sense or faculty of perceiving sound. He is deaf, he can not hear.

    2. To listen ; to hearken ; to attend. Hi hears with solicitude.

    3. To be told ; to receive by report. I hear there are divisions among you, and I

    partly believe it. 1 Cor. xi. HEARD, ^ „„ Perceived by the ear. [/i



    pronunciation, this word

    should not be confounded urilh herd

    HE'ARER, n. One who hears ; one wh<

    attends to what is orally delivered by an

    other; an auditor; one of an audience.

    HE'ARING, ppr. Perceiving by the ear, a:


    2. Listening to ; attending to ; obeying ; ob serving what is commanded.

    3. Attending to witnesses or advocates in a judicial trial; trying.

    HE'ARING, JI. The faculty or sense by hich sound is perceived.

    2. Audience; attention to is delivered ; opportunity to be heard. I waited on the minister, but could not obtain a hearing.

    3. Judicial trial ; attention to the facts, testi- mony and arguments i'^a cause between parties, with a view to a just dec)

    H E A

    The act of perceiving sounds ; sensation

    or perception of sound.

    I have heard of thee by the hearing of the

    ear. Job xlii.

    And to the others he said in mv hearim.

    Ezek. ix. 5. Reach of the ear ; extent within which

    sound may be heard. He was not within

    hearing. HE'ARKEN, v. i. h'arken. [Sax. heorcnian,

    hyrcnian ; G. horchen.]

    1. To listen; to lend the ear; to attend to what is uttered, with eagerness or curi- osity.

    The furies hearken, and their snakes uncuri. Dryden.

    2. To attend ; to regard ; to give heed to what is uttered ; to observe or obey.

    Hearken, O Israel, to the statutes and the judgments which I teach you. Deut. Iv.

    3. To listen ; to attend ; to grant or comply with.

    Hearken thou to the supplication of thy ser- vant. 1 Kings viii.

    HE'ARKEN, v.t. hearken. To hear by hsten- ing. [Little used.]

    HE'ARKENER, n. h'arkener. A listener; one who hearkens.

    HE>ARKENING, p;)r. hearkening. Listen- ing; attending; observing.

    HEARS A L, for Rehearsal. [JVot in use.]


    HE'ARSAY, n. [hear and say.] Report; rumor; fame; common talk. He affirms without any authority except hearsay. The account we have depends on hearsay. It is sometimes used as an adjective ; as hear- say evidence.

    :HEARSE, 71. hers. [See Hersc] A tempo- rary monument set over a grave.

    I JVeever.

    2. The case or place in which a corpse is

    j deposited. Fairfax.

    ,3. A carriage for conveying the dead to the

    I grave. [See Herse.]

    A hind in the second year of her age.


    HEARSE, V. I. hers. To inclose in a hearse. Shak.

    HEARSECLOTH, n. hers'cloth. A pall ; a loth to cover a hearse. Sanderson.

    HEARSELIKE, a. hers'like. Suitable to a funeral.

    HEART, n. h'aii. [Sax. heart; G.hen; D. hart; Sw.hierta; Dan. hierte; Gr. xapSta ; Sans, hirda. I know not the primary sense, nor whether it is from the root of xfap, L. cor, cordis, and allied to Eng. core, or named from motion, pulsation.]

    1. A muscular viscus, which is the primary organ of the blood's motion in an animal body, situated in the thorax. From this organ all the arteries arise, and in it all tlie veins terminate. By its alternate dilata- tion and contraction, the blood is received from the veins, and returned through the arteries, by which means the circulation is carried on and life preserved.

    2. The inner part of any thing; the middle part or interior ; as the heart of a country, kingdom or empire ; the heart of a town ; the heart of a tree.

    •3. The chief part; tlie vital pai-t ; the vigor- ous orefficacious part. Bacon.

    H E A

    HE A

    H E A

    4. The seat of the affections and passions, as of love, joy, grief, enmity, courage, pleas-

    . ure, &,c.

    The heart is deceitful above all things. Every imagination of the thoughts of the heart is evil continually. We read of an honest and good heurt, and an evil heart of imbelief, a willing Aeart, a heavy heart, sor- row of heart, a hard heart, a proud heart, a pure heart. The heart faints in adversity, or under discouragement, that is, courage fails ; the heart is deceived, enlarged, re- proved, Hfted up, fixed, established, moved, &c. Scripture.

    5. By a metonymy, heart is used for an affection or passion, and particularly for love.

    The king's heart vpas towaids Absalom. 2 Sam. xiv. C. The seat of the understanding ; as an un- derstanding heart. VVe read of men wise in heart, and slow o( heart. Scripture.

    7. The seat of the will ; hence, secret pur- poses, intentions or designs. Tliere are many devices in a man's heart. The heart of kings is unsearchable. The Lord tries and searches the heart. David had it in his heart to build a house of rest ( the ark. Scriptu.

    Sometimes heart is used for the will, determined purpose.

    The heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil. Eccles. viii.

    8. Person ; character ; used with respect to courage or kindness.

    Cheerly, my hearts. Shak.

    9. Courage ; spirit ; as, to take heart ; to give heart ; to recover heart.

    Spenser. Temple. Milton.

    10. Secret thoughts; recessesof the mind.

    Michal saw king David leaping and daticing before the Lord, and she despised him in hei heart. 2 Sam. vi.

    11. Disposition of mind.

    He.had a heart to do well. Sidney.

    12. Secret meaning ; real intention.

    And then show you tlie heart of my message. Shak.

    13. Conscience, or sense of good or ill.

    Every man's heart and conscience — doth either like or disallow it. Hooker.

    14. Strength ; power of producing ; vigor ; fertility. Keep the land in heart.

    That the spent earth may gather heart again. Dry den.

    15. The utmost degree.

    This gay charm — hath beguiled me To the very heart of loss. Shak.

    To get or learn by heart, to commit to memo- ry ; to learn so perfectly as to be able to repeat without a copy. To take to heart, to be much affected ; also, to be zealous, ardent or solicitous about a thing; to have concern. To lay to heart, is used nearly in the sense of

    the foregoing.

    To set the heart on, to fix the desires on ;

    be very desirous of obtaining or keeping;

    to be very fond of.

    To set tlie heart at rest, to make one's self

    quiet ; to be tranquil or easy in mind. To find in the heart, to be willing or disposed. I find it in my heart to ask your pardon.

    Sidney. For my heart, for tenderness or affection. 1 could not for my heart refuse his request.

    Or, this phrase may signify, for my life ; if my life was at stake.

    To speak to ojie'a heart, in Scripture, to speak kindly to ; to comfort ; to encourage.

    To have in the heart, to purpose ; to have de- sign or intention.

    A hard heart, cruelty ; want of sensibility.

    HE'ART, ('. i. To encourage. [JVot much used.] Prideaux.

    HE>ART-ACH, n. Sorrow ; anguish of mind. Shak.

    HE'ART-ALLU'RING, a. Suited to allure the affections. Parnell.

    HEART-APPALL'ING, a. Dismaying the heart.

    HEART-BREAK, n. Overwhelming sor- row or grief. Shak.

    HE'ART-BREAKER, a. A lady's curl ; a love-lock.

    HEART-BREAKING, a. Breaking the

    heart ; overpowering with grief or sorrow.


    HEART-BREAKING, ji. Overpowering grief; dee]) aflliction. Hakeiinll.

    HEART-BRED, a. Bred in the heart.


    HE> ART-BROKEN, a. Deeply afflicted or grieved.

    HE>ART-BURIED, a. Deeply immersed.


    HE~ ART-BURN, n. Curdialgy ; a disease or affection of the stomach, attended with a sensation of heat and uneasiness, and occasioned by indigestion, surfeit or aciditv.

    HE> ART-BURN ED, a. Having the heart inflamed. Shak.

    HE ART-BURNING, a. Causing .liscon- tent. Middleton.

    HEART-BURNING, n. Heart-burn, which see.

    2. Discontent ; secret enmity. Sieijt

    HE ART-CHILLED, a. Having the heart chilled. Shenstone.

    HEART-CONSUMING, a. Destroying ])eace of mind.

    HEART-CORRODING, a. Preying on the heart.

    HE~ART-DEAR, a. Sincerely beloved.


    HE-ART-DEEP, a. Rooted in the heart.


    HE ART-DISCOUR'AgING, a. [See Cour- age.] Depressing the spirits. South.

    HEART-EASE, n. Quiet ; tranquillity of| mind. Shak

    HE'ART-EASING, a. Giving quiet to the mind. Milton.

    HEART-EATING, a. Preying on the heart. Burton.

    HE'ART-EXPAND'ING, ff. Enlarging the heart; opening the feelings. Thomson.

    HE> ART-FELT, a. Deeply felt; deeply af- fecting, either as joy or sorrow.

    HE' ART-GRIEF, n. Affliction of the heart. Milton.

    HEART-HARDENED, a. Obdurate ; im- penitent ; unfeeling. Harmer.

    HEART-HARDENING, a. Rendering cruel or obdurate. Shak.

    HEART-HEAVINESS, n. Depression of spirits. Shak.

    HEART-OFFENDING, a. Wounding the heart. Shak.

    HEART-PEA, n. A plant, the Cardiosjier-

    mum, witli black seeds, having the figure

    of a heart of a white color on each.

    Miller. HEART-QUELLING, a. Conquering the

    affection. Spenser.

    HEART-RENDING, a. Breaking the

    heart ; overpowering n ith anguish ; deep- ly afflictive. IValltr. HEART-ROBBING, a. Depriving of

    thought ; ecstatic. Spenser.

    [2. Stealing the heart ; winning. Ibm.

    HE ART'S-BLOOD, ) The blood of the HEART-BLOOD, ("-heart; life; es- Shak. HE'ART'S-EASE, 7i. A plant, a species of

    Viola. HEART-SEARCHING, a. Searching the

    secret thoughts and purposes. HE' ART-SICK, a. Sick at heart; pained

    in mind ; deeply afflicted or depressed. HE'ART-SORE, 7!. That which pains the

    heart. Spenser.

    HE' ART-SORE, a. Deeply wounded.

    Shak. HEART-SORROWING, a. Sorrowing

    deeply in heart. Shak.

    HEART-STRING, n. A nerve or tendon,

    supposed to brace and sustain the heart.

    STiak. Tai/lor. HEART-STRUCK, a. Driven to the heart ;

    infixed in the mind. 2. Shocked with fear; dismayed. Milton. HEART-SWELLING, a. Rankling in the

    heart. Spenser.

    HEART-WHOLE, a. [See mole.] Not

    affected with love ; not in love, or not

    deeply affected. 2. Having unbroken spirits, or good courage. HEART-WOUNDED, a. Wounded with

    love or grief; deeply affected with some

    passion. Pope.

    HEART-WOUNDING, a. Piercing with

    grief. Rotoe.

    HE'ARTED, a. Taken to heart. [JVot used.]


    2. Composed of hearts. [Not used.] Shak.

    3. Laid up in the heart. Shak. This word is chiefly used in composi- tion, as hard-hearted, faint-hearted, stout- hearted, &c.

    HE'ARTEN, v. t. h'aHn. To encourage ;

    to animate ; to incite orstimulate courage.


    2. To restore fertility or strength to ; as, to

    hearten land. [Little used.] May.

    HE'ARTENER, n. He or that which gives

    courage or animation. Brown.

    HE'ARTH, n. h^rth. [Sax.heorth; G.herd;

    D.haard; Sw. /iSrrf.J^ A pavement or floor of brick or stone in a

    chimney, on w hicli a fire is made to warm

    a room, and from which there is a passage

    for the smoke to ascend. HEARTH-MONEY, ? , A tax on hearths HEARTH-PENNY, ^ Blackstone.

    HE'ARTILY, adv. [from heaHy.] From the

    heart ; with all the heart ; with sincerity ;


    1 /iear

    2. With zeal ; actively ; vigorously. He heartily assisted the prince.

    3. Eagerly ; freely ; largely ; as, to eat heartily.

    HE'ARTINESS, n. Sincerity ; zeal ; ardor . earnestness.

    H E A

    '■>. Eagerness of appetite. JIE'ARTLESS, a. Without courage ; spirit- less ; faint-hearted.

    Heartless they fought, and quitted soon their

    ground. Dryden.

    IIE'ARTLESSLY, adv. Without courage

    or spirit ; faintly ; timidly ; feebly. HE^ARTLESSNESS, n. Want of courage or spirit; dejection of mind; feebleness. Bp. Hall. HE' ARTY, a. Having the heart engaged in any thing; sincere; warm; zealous; as, to be hearty in support of government.

    2. Proceeding from the heart; sincere; warm ; as a A eoj-ii/ welcome.

    3. Being full of health ; sound ; strong ; healthy ; as a hearty man.

    4. Strong; durable; as ftearty timber. [JVot used in America.''^ Wotton.

    5. Having a keen appetite ; eating much ; as a hearty eater.

    C. Strong ; nourishing ; as hearty food.

    HEARTY-HALE, a. Good for the heart, 06s. Spenser.

    HEAT, n. [Sax. heat, ha:t ; B.hitte; G hitze; Sw.hetta; D. hede ; L. csstos, for hwstus, or castus. See the Verb.]

    1. Heat, as a cause of sensation, that is, the matter of heat, is considered to be a subtil fluid, contained in a greater or less degree in all bodies. In modern chimistry, it is called caloric. It expands all bodies in dif- ferent proportions, and is the cause of flu- idity and evaporation. A certain degrf of it is also essential to animal and vegeti ble life. Heat is latent, when so combined ■with other matter as not to be perceptible It is sensible, when it is evolved and per- ceptible. Lavoisier. Encyc.

    2. Heat, as a sensation, is the effect produ- ced on the sentient organs of animals, by the passage of caloric, disengaged from surrounding bodies, to the organs. When we touch or approach a hot body, the ca- loric or heat passes from that body to our organs of feeling, and gives the sensation of heat. On the contrai-y, when we touch a cold body, the caloric passes from the hand to that body, and causes a sensation of cold. Lavoisier.

    JVote. This theory of heat seems not to be fully settled.

    3. Hot air : hot weather ; as the heat of the tropical climates.

    4. Any accumulation or concentration of the! matter of heat or caloric ; as the heat of| the body ; the heat of a furnace ; a red heat ; a white heat ; a welding heat.

    5. The state of being once heated or hot. Give the iron another heat.

    C. A violent action unintermitted ; a single effort.

    Many causes are required for refieshment be- tween the heats. Dryden

    7. A single effort in running ; a course at i race. Hector won at the first heat.

    8. Redness of the face ; flush. Addison

    9. Animal excitement ; violent action or agi tation of the system. The body is all in a heat.

    10. Utmost violence ; rage ; vehemence ; as the ?icat of battle.

    11. Violence; ardor; as the 7ica< of party. 19. Agitation of mind ; inflammation or ex

    citement ; exa.?peralion ; as tlie heat o passio)!.

    H E A

    13. Ardor ; fervency ; animation in thought discourse. AVith all the strength and heat of eloquence.


    14. Fermentation. HEAT, V. t. [Sax. hatan, to call, to order,

    command or promise ; gehatan, to call, to promise, to grow warm ; haetan, to heat, to command, to call ; gehatan, to promise ; h(Ese, order, command ; hehces, a vow ; bchatan, to vow ; onhwtan, to heat, to in- flame ; hatian, to heat, to be hot, to boil, to hate ; hat, heat, heat ; hat, hot ; hale, hatred, hate ; L. odi, osus, for hodi, hosus ; Goth, hatyan, to hate ; haitan, gahaitan, to call, to command, to vow or promise ; G. heiss, hot ; heissen, to call ; heitzen, to heat ; hitze, heat, ardor, vehemence ; geheiss. command ; verheissen, to promise ; hass. hate ; hassen, to hate ; D. heet, hot, eager hasty ; hiite, heat ; heeten, to heat, to name or call, to be called, to command ; haat, hate ; haaten, to hate ; verhitten, to inflam Sw. het, hot ; hetta, heat, passion ; hetta, to be hot, to glow ; heta, to be called or na med ; hat, hate, hatred ; hata, to hate Dan. heed, hot ; hede, heat, ardor ; heder, to heat, to be called or named ; had, hate ; hader, to hate. With these words coin cides the L. assfiis, for hastus, heat, tide, Gr. ai9w, to burn, and the English haste and hoist are probably of the same family. The primary and literal sense of all these words, is to stir, to rouse, to raise, to agi- tate, from the action of driving, urging, stimulating, whence Sw. hetsa, Dan. hed- ser, to excite, to .set on dogs. See Class Gd. No. 39, and others. It may be fur- ther added, that in W. cas is hatred, a castle, from tlie sense of separating ; casati, to hate ; and if this is of the same family it unites castle with the foregoing words. In these words we sec the sense of rcpul sion.]

    1. To make hot; to communicate heat to, or cause to be hot ; as, to heat an oven or a furnace ; to heat iron.

    2. To make feverish ; as, to heat the blood

    3. To warm with passion or desire ; to ex- cite; to rouse into action.

    A noble emulation heats your breast.

    Dryden. To agitate the blood and spirits with ac- tion ; to excite animal action. Dryden.

    HEAT, V. i. To grow warm or hot by fer- mentation, or extrication of latent heat. Green hay heats in a mow, and green corn ill a bin.

    2. To grow warm or hot. The iron or the water heats slowly.

    HEAT, for heated, is in popular use and pro- nounced het ; but it is not elegant.

    HE'ATED, pp. Made hot ; inflamed ; exas- perated.

    HE'ATER, n. He or that which heats.

    2. A triangular mass of iron, which is heated and put into a box-iron to heat it and keep it hot, for ironing or smoothing clothes. [This utensil is going into disuse!]

    HEATH, n. [Sax. heeth ; D. and G. heide ; Dan. hede; Sw. hed ; Scot, haddyr; W. eiziar, connected with eiziaw, to take to or

    H E A

    poor, and for heating ovens. Its leaves are small and continue green all the year. It is called also ling. Miller. Encyc.

    A place overgrown with heath. Temple.

    3. A place overgrown with shrubs of any kind. Bacon.

    HE'ATHeOCK, n. A large fowl which fre- quents heaths, a species of grouse.


    HE'ATHPEA, n. A species of bitter vetch, Orobus. Johnson.

    HE'ATHPOUT, n. A bird, the same as the lieath-cock. Ed. Encyr.

    HE'ATHROSE, n. A plant. Ainsioorth.

    HE'ATHEN, n. [Sax. hathen; G. heidf. heath, and a heathen or pagan ; D. heiden ; Dan. Sw. hedning ; Gr. iSvo; ; from heath. that is, one who lives in the country ov woods, as pagan from pagus, a village.]

    1. A pagan ; a Gentile ; one who worship.- idols, or is unacquainted with the true God. In the Scriptures, the word seems to comprehend all nations except the Jews or Israelites, as they were all stran- gers to the true religion, and all addictr d to idolatry. The word may now be ap- plied perhaps to all nations, except to Christians and Mohammedans.

    Heathen, without the plural termination, is used plurally'or collectively, for Gentiles or heathen nations.

    Ask of me, and I will give thee theheathenfo: thine inheritance. Ps. ii.

    Heathen, however, has a plural, expresi- ing two or more individuals.

    If men have reason to be heathens in Japan— Locke.

    possess ; the clinging plant.]

    ? Erii

    1. A plant of the genus Erica, of many cies. It is a shrub which is used in Greatj Britain for brooms, thatch, beds for the'

    2. A rude, illiterate, barbarous person. HE'ATHEN, a. Gentile ; pagan ; as a hea

    then author. Addison.

    IIE'ATHENISH, a. Belonging to Gentile=

    or pagans; as heathenish rites.

    2. Rude ; illiterate ; wild ; uncivilized.

    3. Barbarous ; savage ; cruel ; rapacious.


    HE'ATHENISHLY, adv. After the manner of heathens.

    HE'ATHENISM, n. Gentilism ; pagan- ism ; ignorance of the true God ; idolatry ; the rites or system of rehgion of a pagan nation. Hammond.

    2. Rudeness ; barbarism ; ignorance.

    HE'ATHEN iZE, v. I. To render heathen or heathenish. Finnin.

    HE'ATHER, n. Heath.

    HE'.\\THY, «. [from ftea^7,.] Full of heath; abounding with heath ; as heathy land.


    HE'ATING, ppr. Making warm or hot ; in- flaming ; rousing the passions ; exaspera- ting.

    2. a. Tending to impart heat to ; promoting warmth or heat ; exciting action ; stimu- lating ; as heating medicines or applica- tions.

    HEAT'LESS, a. Destitute of heat ; cold.


    HEAVE, J). <. Aeei'. pret.heaved,orhove ; pp. heaved, hove, formerly hoven. [Sax. heafan, hefan, heofan ; Goth, hajyan ; Sw. hhfva ; D. heffen ; G. heben ; Dan. hartr. to heave ; Gr. xo^fw, to breathe ; xortiu, id. Class Gb.]

    H E A

    H E A

    H E A

    ). To lift; to raise; to move upward.

    So stretch'd out huge in length the arch fiend


    Chain'd on the burning lake, nor ever hence Had ris'n, or heaved Ins head. Mill

    9. To cause to swell.

    The glittering finny swarms

    That heave our friths and crowd upon

    shores. Thoi7i!

    3. To raise or force from the breast ; as, to heave a sigli or groan, which is accompa nied with a swelling or e.xpansion of the thorax.

    4. To raise; to elevate ; with high.

    One heaved on high. Shale.

    5. To puff; to elate. Hayward.

    6. To ttirovv ; to cast ; to send ; as, to heave a stone. This is a common use of the word in popular language, and among sea men ; as, to heave the lead.

    7. To raise by turning a windlass ; with up as, to heave up the anchor. Hence,

    8. To turn a windlass or capstern with bars or levers. Hence the order, to heave away.

    To heave ahead, to draw a ship forwards. To heave astern, to cause to recede ; to draw

    back. To heave down, to throw or lay down on one

    side ; to careen. To heave out, to throw out. With seamen,

    to loose or unfurl a sail, particularly the

    stay-sails. To heave in stays, in tacking, to bring

    ship's head to the wind. To heave short, to draw so much of a cable

    into the ship, as that she is almost ]

    pendicularly above the anchor. To heave a strain, to work at the windlass

    with unusual exertion. To heave taught, to turn a capstern, &;c. till

    the rope becomes straight. [See Taught

    and Tight.] To heave to, to bring the ship's head to the

    wind, and stop her motion. To heave up, to relinquish ; [so to throw up ;]

    as, to heave up a design. [Vulgar.] HEAVE, t'. i. heev. To swell, distend or

    dilate ; as, a horse heaves in panting.


    2. To pant ; to breathe with labor or pain ; as, he heaves for breath. Dryde

    3. To keck ; to make an eftbrt to vomit.

    4. To rise in billows, as the sea; to swell.

    5. To rise ; to be lifted ; as, a ship heaves. G. To rise or swell, as the earth at the

    breaking up of frost.

    To heave in sight, to appear ; to make its first appearance ; as a ship at sea, or as a distant object approaching or being ap- proached.

    We observe that this verb has often the sense of raising or rising in an arch or circular form, as in throwing and in dis- tention, and from this sense is derived its application to the apparent arch over our heads, heaven.

    HEAVE, n. heev. A rising or swell ; an ex- ertion or effort upward.

    None could guess whether the next heave

    of the earthquake would settle or swallow them


    2. A rising swell, or distention, as of the breast.

    These profound heaves. &

    Vol. I.

    3. An effort to vomit.

    4. An effort to rise. Hudibras. HEAVEN, n. hev'n. [Sax. heafen, he/en, heo-

    fen, from heafan, to heave, and signifying elevated or arched.]

    1. The region or expanse which surrounds the earth, and which appears above and around us, like an immense arch or vault, in which are seen the sun, moon and stars.

    2. Among christians, the part of space in which the omnipresent Jehovah is sup- posed to aflbrd more sensible manifesta- tions of his glory. Hence this is called the habitation of God, and is represented as the residence of angels and blessed spirits. Deut. xxvi.

    The sanctified heart loves heaven for its puri- ty, and God for his goodness. Buckminster.

    3. Among pagans, the residence of the ce- lestial gods.

    4. The sky or air ; the region of the atmos- phere ; or an elevated pface ; in a ven/ in- definite sense. Thus we speak of a moun- tain reaching to heaven; the fowls of hea- ven ; the clouds of heaven ; hail or rain from heaven. Jer. ix. Job xxxv.

    Their cities are walled to heaven. Deut. i. The Hebrews acknowledged three heav- ens ; the air or aerial heavens ; the firma- ment in which the stars are supposed to be placed; and the heaven of heavens, or third heaven, the residence of Jehovah.


    6. Modern philosophers divide the expanse above and around the earth into two parts, the atmosphere or aerial heaven, and the etherial heaven beyond the re- gion of the air, in which there is supposed to be a thin, unresisting tnedium called ether. Encyc.

    7. The Sujirenie Power ; the Sovereign of heaven ; (iod ; as prophets sent by heaven.

    I have sinned against heaven. Luke xv. Shun the impious profaneness which scoffs at the institutions oC heaven. Dwight.

    8. The pagan deities ; celestials.

    And show the heavens more just. Shak.

    9. Elevation ; sublimity.

    ! for a muse of fire, that would ascend The brightest heaven of invention. Sliak.

    10. Supreme felicity ; great happiness. HEAVEN-ASPI'RING, a. Aspiring to

    heaven. Jikcnside.

    HEAVEN-BANISHED, a. Banished from heaven. Milton.

    HEAVEN-BEGOT', a. Begot by a celes- tial being. Dryden.

    HEAVEN-BORN, a. Born from heaven ; native of heaven, or of* the celestial re- gions ; as heaven-bom sisters. Pope.

    HEAVEN-BRED, a. Produced or cultiva- ted in heaven ; as heaven-bred poesy.


    HEAVEN-BUILT, a. Built by the agency

    or favor of the gods ; as a heaven-built wall.


    HEAVEN-DIRE€T'ED, a. Pointing to the sky ; as a heaven-directed spire. Pope.

    2. Taught or directed by the celestial pow- ers ; as heaven-directed hands. Pope.

    HEAVEN-FALLEN, a. Fallen from heav- en ; having revolted from God. Milton.


    HEAV EN-GIFTED, a. Bestowed by hcav- 1. MiUon.

    HEAVEN-INSPIRED, a. Inspired by

    heaven. Milton.

    HEAVEN-INSTRUeT'ED, a. Taught by

    heaven. Crashau:

    HEAVENIZE, ». <. hev'nize. To render like !aven. [Unauthorized.'] Bp. Hall.

    HEAVEN-KISSING, o. Touching as it

    were the sky. Shak.

    HEAVENLINESS, n. [from heavenly.]

    Supreme excellence. Davies.

    HEAVEN-LOVED, a. Beloved by heaven. MiUon. HEAVENLY, a. Pertaining to heaven :

    celestial ; as heavenly regions ; heavenly


    2. Resembling heaven ; supremely excellent ; as a heavenly lyre ; a heavenly temper.

    The love of heaven makes one heavenly.


    3. Inhabiting heaven ; as a heavenly race ; the heavenly throng.

    HEAV'ENLY, adv. In a manner resem- bling that of heaven. Where heavenly pensive contemplation dwells. Pope.

    2. By the influence or agency of heaven. Our heavenly guided soul shall climb.


    HEAVENLY-MINDED, a. Having the af- fections placed on heaven, and on spirit- ual things. Milner.

    HEAVENLY-MINDEDNESS, n. The state of having the affections placed on heavenly things and spiritual objects.


    HEAVEN-SALU'TING, a. Touching the sky. Crashau:

    HEAVENWARD, adv. Toward heaven.


    HEAVEN-WARRING, a. Warring against heaven. Milton.

    HE'AVE-0FFERING,7i. Among the Jews, an offering consisting of the tenth of the tithes which the Lcvites received, or of the first of the dough, &c. which was to be heaved or elevated. Num. xv. and xviii.

    HE'AVER, ji. One who heaves or lifts. .\\niong seamen, a staff for a lever.

    HEAVES, n. heevz. A disease of hotses, characterized by difficult and laborious respiration.

    HEAVILY, adv. hev'Uy. [from heavy.] With great weight ; as, to bear heavily on a thing ; to be heavily loaded.

    2. AVith great weight of grief; grievously; afHictively. When calamities fall heavily on the christian, he finds consolation iii Christ.

    3. Sorrowfully ; with grief. I came hither to transport the tidings. Which I have heavily borne. Shak.

    4. With an air of sorrow or dejection. Why looks your Grace so heavily to day .-


    5. With weight ; oppressively. Taxes some- times bear heavily on the people.

    G. Slowly and laboriously ; with difficulty ; as, to move heavily.

    So they drove them heavily. Ex. xiv.

    HEAVINESS, n. hev'iness. Weight ; pon- derousness ; gravity ; the quality of being heavy ; as the heaviness of a body.

    H E A

    H E B

    H E C

    2. Sadness ; sorrow ; dejection of mind ; depression of spirits.

    Heaviness in the heart of man inaketh it stoop. Prov. xii.

    Ye greatly rejoice, thougli now for a season ye are in heaviness, through manifold tempta- tions. 1 Pet. i.

    3. Sluggishness ; torpidness ; dullness of of spirit ; languidness ; languor ; h tude.

    What means this heaviness that hangs upon me ? Addison

    5. Weight ; burden ; oppression ; as, the heaviness of taxes.

    6. That which it requires great strength to move or overcome ; tliat which creates labor and difficulty ; as the heaviness of a draught.

    7. Thickness ; moistness ; deepness ; as the heaviness of ground or soil.

    8. Thickness ; moistness ; as of air. HE'AVING, ppr. Lifting ; swelling ; throw- ing ; panting ; making an effort to vomit

    HE'AVING, n. A rising or swell ; a pant- ing. Addison. Shak

    HEAVY, a. hev'y. [Sax. heajig, hefig, that is, lift-like, lifted with labor, from heafan, to heave.]

    1. Weighty ; ponderous ; having great] weight ; tending strongly to the center of attraction ; contrary to light ; applied to material bodies ; as a heavy stone ; a heavy load.

    2. Sad ; sorrowful ; dejected ; depressed in mind.

    A light wife makes a heavy husband. Shak So is he that singeth songs to a heavy heart Prov. XXV.

    3. Grievous ; afflictive ; depressing to the spirits ; as heavy news ; a heavy calamity

    4. Burdensome ; oppressive ; as heavy taxes

    Make tliy father's heavy yoke — lighter. ] Kings xii.

    5. Wanting life and animation ; dull.

    My heavy eyes you say confess

    A heart to love and grief inclined. Prior

    6. Drowsy ; dull.

    Their eyes were heavy. Matt. xxvi. Luke ix.

    7. Wanting spirit or animation ; destitute of life or rapidity of sentiment ; dull ; as heavy writer ; a heavy style

    8. Wanting activity or vivacity ; indolent,

    But of a heavy, dull, degenerate mind.

    Ihryden. 0. Slow ; sluggish. He walks with a heavy


    10. Burdensome; tedious; as heavy hours. Time lies heavy on him who has no em ployment. U. Loaded; encumbered; burdened.

    He found his men heavy, and laden with

    booty. Bacon

    19. Lying with weight on the stomach ; not

    easily digested ; as, oily food is heavy to the


    13. Moist; deep; soft; miry; as heavy land ; a heavy soil. We apply heavy to soft loamy or clayey land, which makes the draught of a plow or wagon difficult and laborious. So we say, a heavy road.

    14. Difficult ; laborious ; as a heavy rfrawg-W

    15. Weary; supported with pain or diffi culty.

    And the hands of Moses were heavy. Ex

    16. Inflicting severe evils, punishments judginents.

    The hand of the Lord was heavy on them of Ashdod. I Sam. v.

    17. Burdensome ; occasioning great care. This thing is too heavy for thee. Ex. xviii

    18. Dull ; not hearing ; inattentive.

    Neither his cars heavy, that he cannot hear Is. hx.

    19. Large, as billows ; swelling and rolling with great force ; as a heavy sea.

    JO. Large in amount ; as a heavy expense ; heavy debt.

    21. Thick; dense; black; as a heavy c]o\\i(l.

    22. Violent ; tempestuous ; as a heavy wind or gale.

    2.3. Large; abundant; as a heavy fall of snow or rain.

    24. Great; violent; forcible; as a /icm'i/fire of caimon or small arms.

    25. Not raised by leaven or fermentation ; not light; clammy ; as heavy bread. 1. Requiring much labor or much expense; as a heavy undertaking.

    27. Loud ; as heavy thunder.

    Heavy metal, in military affairs, signifies large guns, carrying balls of a large size, or it is applied to large balls themselves.

    HEAVY, adv. hev'y. With great weight; used in composition.

    HEAVY, V. t. hev'y. To make heavy. [JVot in use.] IVickliffe.

    HEAVY-HANDED, a. Clumsy ; not active or dextrous.

    HEAVY-LA'DEN, a. Laden with a heavy burden.

    HEAVY SPAR, Ji. [See Baryte.] A genus of minerals of four species, viz. rhomboi- dal, prismatic, di-prisraatic and axifrangi- ble. Jameson

    HEB'DOMAD, n. [Gr. fffVf, seven days, from iTCra, seven ; L. hebdomada.]

    A week ; a period of seven days. [JSTot used.] Brown.

    HEBDOM'ADAL, ? Weekly ; consist-

    HEBDOM'ADARY, P' ing of seven days, or occurring every seven days. Brow

    HEBDOM'ADARY, n. A member of chapter or convent, whose week it is to officiate in the choir, rehearse the an- thems and prayers, and perform other ser- vices, which on extraordinary occasions are performed by the superiors.

    HEBDOMAT'l€AL, a. Weekly.

    Bp. Morion

    HEB'EN, n. Ebony. Spenser

    HEB'ETATE, v. t. [L. hebeto, from hebes, dull, blunt, heavy.]

    To dull ; to blunt ; to stupefy ; as, to hebetate the intellectual faculties. Jlrbuthnot.

    HEB'ETATED, ppr. Made blunt, dull or stupid.

    HEB'ETATING, pp. Rendering blunt, dull or stupid.

    HEBETA'TION, n. The act of making blunt, dull or stupid.

    2. The state of being dulled.

    HEBE'TE, a. Dull ; stupid. Obs.

    IIEB' ETUDE, n. [L. hebetudo.] Dullness stui)idity. Harvey.

    HEBRA'i€, a. [from Hebrew.] Pertaining to the Hebrews ; designating the language of the Hebrews.

    HEBRA'I€ALLY, adv. After the

    of the Hebrew language ; from right to I left. Swift.

    HE'BRAISM, n. A Hebrew idiom ; a pecu liar expression or manner of speaking in the Hebrew language.

    HE'BRAIST, n. One versed in the Hebrew language.

    HEBRAIZE, II. t. To convert into the He- brew idiom ; to make Hebrew.

    J. P. Smith.

    HE'BRAIZE, V. i. To speak Hebrew, or to conform to tlie Hebrews.

    HE'BREW, n. [Heb. la;? Eber, either a proper name, or a name denoting pas- sage, pilgrimage, or coming from beyond the Euphrates.]

    One of the descendants of Eber, or Heber ; but particularly, a descendant of Jacob, who was a descendant of Eber ; an Israel- ite ; a Jew. The Hebrew language.

    HE'BREW, a. Pertaining to the Hebrews ; the Hebrew language or rites.

    HE'BREWESS, n. An Israelitish woman.

    HEBRI"CIAN, n. One skilled in the He- brew language.

    HEBRID'IAN, a. Pertaining to the isles ailed Hebrides, west of Scotland.


    HE€'ATdMB, n. [L. hecatombe ; Gr. ixa- ; fxa-roj-, a hundred, and Souj, an ox.]

    In antiquity, a sacrifice of a hundred oxen or beasts of the same kind, and it is said, at a hundred altars, and by a hundred priests. Enciir..

    HECK, n. [See Hatch.] An engine or in- strument for catching fish ; as a salmon heck. Chambers.

    2. A rack for holding fodder for cattle. [Local.] Ray.

    i. A bend in a stream. [G. ecke, a corner.]

    4. A hatch or latch of a door. [Local]


    HECK'LE, V. t. A different orthography of hackle, or hetchel.

    HECTARE, n. [Gr. «aro,, a hundred, and L. area.]

    A French measure containing a hundred ares, or ten thousand square meters.


    HE€TIC, I „ [Gr. fxrtxos, from f|is, ha-

    HEC'TICAL, ^"' bit of body, from t;Ku, to have.]

    Habitual ; denoting a slow, continual fever, marked by preternatural, though remit- ting heat, which precedes and accompa- nies the consumption or phthisis; as a hectic fever. Encyc.

    2. Affected with hectic fevers ; as a hectic patient.

    :}. Troubled with a morbid heat.

    No hectic student scares the genfle maid.


    HEC'TI€, «. A hectic, or habitual fever.


    HECTICALLY, adv. Constitutionally.

    Johnson, HECTOGRAM, n. [Gr. txatov, a hundred, and ypafLjia, a gram.]

    In the French system of weights and meas- ures, a weight containing a hundred grams ; equal to 3 ounces, 2 gros, and 12 grains, French. Lunier.

    HECTOLITER, n. [Gr. fxof w, a hundred,

    and Xirpa, a pound.] A French measure of capacity for liquids, containing a hundred liters ; equal to a

    I tenth of a cubic meter, or 107 Paris pints.

    H E D

    H E E

    H E E

    i As a dry measure, it is called a setier, and contains 10 decaliters or bushels [bois- seanx.] Lunier.

    HECTOM'ETER, n. [Gr. txarov, a hun- dred, and liirpm, measure.]

    A French measure equal to a hundred me- ters ; the meter being the unit of lineal measure. It is equivalent nearly to 308 French feet. Lunier.

    HE€'TOR, n. [from Hectar,the son of Pri- am, a brave Trojan warrior.]

    1. A bully ; a blustering, turbulent, noisy fellow.

    2. One who teases or vexes. HECTOR, V. t. To threaten ; to bully ; to

    treat with insolence. Dryden.

    2. To tease ; to vex ; to torment by words.

    HECTOR, V. i. To play the bully ; to blus- ter ; to be turbulent or insolent. Swift.

    HECTORED, pp. Bullied ; teased.

    HECTORING, ppr. Bullying; blustering: vexing.

    HECTORISM, n. The disposition or prac- tice of a hector ; a bullying.

    Ch. Relig. Jlppeal.

    HECTORLY, a. Blustering ; insolent.


    HEDENBERG'ITE, n. [from Hedenberg, who first analysed it.]

    A mineral, or ore of iron, in masses, compo- sed of shining plates, which break into rhombic fragments ; found at Tunaberg, in Sweden. Cleaveland.

    HEDERA'CEOUS, a. [L. hederaceus, from hedera, ivy ; W. eizaw, ivy, from holding, clinging; eiriaio, to possess. See Heath.]

    1. Pertaining to ivy.

    2. Producing ivy.

    HED'ERAL, a. Composed of ivy; belong- ing to ivy. Bailey.

    IIEDERIF'EROUS, a. [L. hedera, ivy, and fero, to bear.] Producing ivy.

    HEDGE, n. hej. [Sax. hege, heag, hceg, hegge ; G. heck ; D. heg, haag ; Dan. hekkt or hek ; Sw. hign, hedge, protection ; Fr, haie ; VV. cue. Hence Eng. haw, and

    Hague in Holland. Ar. _.|.~. a specie

    of thorny plant.] Properly, a thicket of thorn-bushes or other

    shrubs or small trees ; but appropriately

    such a thicket planted round a field to

    fence it, or in rows, to separate (he parts

    of a garden. \\ Hedge, prefixed to another word, or in com i position, denotes something mean, as a I fterfge-priest, a /lerfg-e-press, a /lerfg-e-vicar, I that is, born in or belonging to the hedges ' or woods, low, outlandish. [M)t used ii

    I America.]

    I HEDGE, V. t. hej. To inclose with a hedge ' to fence with a thicket of shrubs or small

    trees ; to separate by a hedge ; as, to hedge

    a field or garden.

    2. To obstruct with a hedge, or to obstruct in any manner.

    I will hedge up thy way with thorns. Hos. ii.

    3. To surround for defense ; to fortify.

    England hedged in with the main. Shak.

    4. To inclose for preventing escape.

    That is a law to hedge in the cuckow.


    Dryden, Swift and Shakspeare have written

    hedge for edge, to edge in, but improperly.

    HEDGE, V. i. hej. To hide, as in a hedge ; to hide ; to skulk. Shak.

    HEDgE-BILL, ) A cutting hook used

    HEDGING-BILL, < "• in dressing hedges.

    HED(5E-B0RN, a. Of low birth, as if born in the woods ; outlandish ; obscure.


    HEDgE-BOTE, It. Wood for repairing hedges. Blackslone.

    HEDgE-CREEPER, n. One who skulks under hedges for bad purposes.

    HED6E-FU'MIT0RY, n. A plant.


    HEDGEHOG, n. A quadruped, or genus of quadrupeds, the Erinaceus. The com mon hedgehog has round ears, and crest ed nostrils ; his body is about nine inches long, and the upper part is covered with prickles or spines, and the under part with hair. When attacked, this animal erects his prickles and rolls himself into a round form, which presents the points of the prickles on all sides to an assailant.


    2. A term of reproach. Shak.

    3. A plant of the genus Medieago, or snail- trefoil. The seeds are shaped like a snail, downy, and armed with a few short spines.


    4. The globe-fish, orbis echinatus.


    This fish belongs to the genus Diodon,

    It is covered with long spines, and has

    the power of inflating its body, whence

    the name globe-Jish [Fr. orbe.] Cuvier.

    The Sea-hedgehog, is the Echinus, a genus of Zoophytes, generally of a spheroidal or oval form, and covered with movable spines. Cuvier. Cyc.

    HEDGEHOG-THISTLE, n. A plant, the Cactus. Fam. of Plants.

    HEDGE-HYSSOP, n. A plant, the Grati- ola.

    HEDGE-MUSTARD, n. A plant, the Erys- imum.

    HEDGE-NETTLE, n. A plant, the Gal eopsis. The shrubby hedge-nettle is of the genus Prasium.

    HEDgE-NOTE, a. A term of contempt for low writing. Dryden.

    HEDGEPIG, n. A young hedgehog.


    HEDGEROW, n. A row or series of shrubs or trees planted for inclosure, or separa tion of fields. Milton.

    HED6E-SPARR0W, n. A bird of the ge nus Motacilla, frequenting hedges; distin- guished from the sparrow that builds ii: thatch. Encyc. Johnson

    HEDGE-WRITER, n. A Grub-street writer ■ low author. . Simfl

    HEDG'ER, n. One who makes hedges.

    HEDG'ING, ppr. Inclosing with a hedge ; obstructing ; confining.

    HEED, V. t. [Sax. hedan ; G. hiiten ; D. hoe- den ; Gr. jeij8fu ; Sp. and Port, cuidar.]

    To mind ; to regard with care ; to take no- tice of; to attend to ; to observe. With pleasure Argus tlie musician heeds.


    HEED, n. Care ; attention.

    With wanton heed and giddy cunning.


    2. Caution ; care ; watch for danger; notice circumspection ; usually preceded by take.

    Take heed of evil company. Take heed tu your ways.

    Amasa took no heed to the sword that wa.s in Joali's hand. 2 Sam. xx. 3. Notice ; observation ; regard ; attention ; often preceded by give.

    Tiie preacher gave good heed. Eccles. xii. Neither give heed to fables. 1 Tim. i. Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed. Heb. ii. . Seriousness ; a steady look. A heed Was in his countenance. [Unu.iual.] Sliak. HEE'DED, pp. Noticed ; observed ; re- garded. HEEDFUL, a. Attentive ; observing ; giv- ing heed; as ftcerf/Ui of advice. Pope. 2. Watchful ; cautious ; circumspect ; wary. IIEE'DFULLY, adv. Attentively ; carefully ; cautiously. Listen heedfully to good ad- vice. 2. Watchfully.

    HEE'DFULNESS, n. Attention ; caution ; vigilance ; circumspection ; care to guard against danger, or to perform duty. HEE'DLESS,a. Inattentive ; careless ; neg- ligent of the means of safety ; thoughtless ; regardless ; imobserving. We say, heed- less children ; heedless of danger or sur- prise.

    The heedless lover does not knovp, Whose eyes they are tliat wound him so.

    Waller. HEE'DLESSLY, adv. Carelessly; negh- gently; inattentively; without care or cir- cumspection. Brown. HEE'DLESSNESS, n. Inattention ; caie- lessness ; thoughtlessness ; negligence.

    Locke. HEEL, n. [Sax. hel, hela ; D. hiel; Sw. hM ; Dan. heel ; L. calx. Qii. its alliance to Gr. xijX);, a tumor.]

    1. The hind part of the foot, particularly of man ; but it is applied also to the corres- ponding part of the feet of quadrupeds.

    2. The whole foot.

    The stag recalls his strength, liis speed.

    His winged heels — Denham.

    3. The hind part of a shoe, either for man or beast.

    4. The part of a stocking intended for the heel.

    To be out at the heels, is to have on stock- ings that are worn out.

    5. Something shaped like the human heel ; a protuberance or knob. Mortimer.

    G. The latter part ; as, a bill was introduced into the legislature at the heel of the ses- sion.

    7. A spur.

    This horse understands the heel well.


    8. The after end of a ship's keel ; the lower end of the stern-post to which it is con- nected ; also, the lower end of a mast.

    To be at the heels, to pursue closely ; to fol- low hard ; also, to attend closely.

    Hungry want is at my heels. Otway.

    To show the heels, to flee ; to run from. To take to the heels, to flee ; to betake to

    flight. To lay by the heels, to fetter ; to shackle ; to I confine. Addison.

    \\To have the heels of, to outrun. Week and heels, the whole length of the body.

    H E I

    H E I

    H E L

    HEEL, V. i. To dance. Shak.

    HEEL, V. t. To arm a cock. Johnson.

    2. To add a beel to ; as, to heel a shoe.

    HEEL, V. i. [Sax. hyldan, to lean or incline D. hellen ; Dan. helder ; Sw. /i.&Ha, to tilt.

    To inrline ; to lean ; as a ship ; as, the shi]! heels a-port, or a-starboard. Encyc

    HEE'LER, 71. A cock that strikes well vvitli his heels.

    HEE'L- PIECE, n. Armor for the heels.


    2. A piece of lether on the heel of a shoe.

    HEFT, n. [Sax. hefe, from hefan, to heave, to lift.]

    L Heaving ; effort.

    He cracks his gorge, his sides,

    With violent Ae/?s. .[JVot used.] Shak.

    2. Weight ; ponderousness. [This use is common in popular language in America. And we sometimes hear it used as a verb, as, to heft, to lift for the purpose of feeling or judging of the weight.] a [D. hejl.] A handle ; a haft. [JVbf used.] Waller.

    HEFT'ED, a. Heaved; expressing agita- tion. Shak.

    HEOI'RA, ji. [Ar. from j.jsAi) hajara,to remove, to desert.]

    In chronology, an epoch among the Moham- medans, from winch they compute time. The event which gave rise to it was the flight of IMohammed from Mecca ; from which the magistrates, fearing his impos tures might raise a sedition, expelled him, July 10, A. D. 622, under the reign of the emperor Heraclius. Harris. Encyc.

    HEIF'ER, n. hefer. [Sax. heafre, heahfore, heafore. Qu. Heb. ms.]

    A young cow. Pope.

    HEIGH-HO. hi-ho. An exclamation ex- pressing some degree of languor or unea- siness. Dryden has used it for the voice of exultation.

    HEIGHT, ) [Sax. heahtho.

    HIGHTH, V n. hite, or hlth. heatho, hehthe,

    HIGIIT, ^ heolho, heihe,

    hihth, hyhthe, contracted or changed from heagthe, or higeih. or highthe ; G. hohe, ho- heit: D. hoogte; Sw. hoghet, hbgd; Dan. hojde, hojhed. This word is formed from heah, hoh, hog, now high, and as tlie or- thography is unsettled,"! should prefer to form it regularly from the present English word high, and write it highth, or hight. The common popular pronunciation highth, or hithe, is most regular, but in the plural hights is most easily pronounced.]

    1. Elevation above the ground ; any in- definite distance above the earth. The eagle flies at a great hight, or highth.

    2. The altitude of an object ; the distance which any thing rises above its foot, basis or foundation ; as the hight, or highth of a tower or steeple.

    3. Elevation of a star or other celestial lumi- nary above the horizon.

    4. Degree of latitude either north or south. In this application, the distance from the equator is considered as elevation. Lati- tudes are higher as they approach the pole- Johnson.

    Guinea lieth to the north sea, in the same height as Peru to the south. Mbot.

    0. Distance of one thing above another.

    6. An eminence ; a summit ; an elevated part of any thing.

    7. A hill or mountain ; any elevated ground as the hights of Dorchester.

    8. Elevation of rank ; station of dignity or office.

    By him that raised me to this careful height. Shak

    9. Elevation in excellence of any kind, as in power, learning, arts.

    10. Elevation in fame or reputation.

    11. Utmost degree in extent or violence; as the highth or hight of a fever, of passion of madness, of folly, of happiness, of good breeding. So we say, the hight of a tem pest.

    12. Utmost exertion. I shall now put you to the height of youi

    breeding. Shak

    |13. Advance ; degree ; progress towards

    perfection or elevation ; speaking compar- atively.

    Social duties are carried to a greater /lei^A*—

    by the principles of our religion. Addison.

    HEIGHTEN, v. t. hitn. To raise higher :

    but not often used in this literal sense. 2. To advance in progress towards a better

    state ; to improve ; to meliorate

    crease in excellence or good qualities; as,

    to highten virtue ; to highten the beauties

    of description, or of poetry. :3. To aggravate ; to advance towards a

    worse state ; to augment in violence. Foreio-n states have endeavored to highten

    our confusions. Jjddison.

    4. To increase ; as, to highten our relish for

    intellectual pleasure. HEIGHTENED, pp. Ulnd. Rai.sed higher ;

    elevated; exalted; advanced; improved

    aggravated ; increased. HEIGHTENING, ppr. hitning. Raising levating ; exalting ; improving ; increas ig ; aggravating. HEIGHTENING, n. hitning. The act of el

    evating; increase of excellence ; improve

    ment. Dryden.

    2. Aggravation ; augmentation. HEINOUS, a. an incorrect orthography,

    [See Hainous.] HEIR, n. (ire. [Norm, hier, here ; Arm. hear, p. heredero ; Port, herdeiro ; Fi

    during his life, as well as to the person who has actually come into possession. A man's children are his heirs. In most monarchies, the king's eldest son is heir to the throne ; and a nobleman's eldest son is heir to his title.

    Lo, one born in my house is my heir. Gen.

    haer; S

    hentier ; It. erede ; L. kceres, hceredis, from the verb, Eth. ®4rt, Heb. B'T, Ar. O ., warata, to become an heir, to

    herit. The primary sense is to seize, or rush on and take, or to expel and dispos- sess others, and take their property, ac- cording to the |)ractice of rude nations. We observe in the Hebrew and Ethiopic, the last consonant is a sibilant, as in the Latin nominative, but the oblique cases in the Latin correspond with the Arabic word whose final consonant is a dental. See Class Rd. No 51. 52. 08.] 1. The man who succeeds, or is to succeed another in the possession of lands, tene- ments and hereditaments, by descent ; the man on whom the law casts an estate of inheritance by the death of the ancestor or former possessor ; or the man in whom the title to an estate of inheritance is vest- ed by the operation of law, on the death of a former owner.

    We give the title to a person who is to inherit after the death of an ancestor, and

    i2. One who inherits, or takes from an ances- tor. The son is often heir to the disease, I or to the miseries of the father. i3. One who succeeds to the estate of a for- mer possessor. Jer. xlix. Mic. i. |4. One M\\o is entitled to possess. In Scrip- ture, saints are called heirs of the promise, heirs of righteousnes, heirs of salvation, &c., by virtue of the death of Christ, or of God's gracious ]n-oniises. Heir-presumptive, one who, if the ancestor should die immediately, would be heir, but whose right of inheritance may be de- feated by any contingency, as by the birth of a nearer relative. Encyc.

    HEIR, V. t. are. To inherit ; to take posses- sion of an estate of inheritance, after the death of the ancestor. Dryden

    HEIR-APPA'RENT, n. The man who, dunng the life of his ancestor, is entitled to succeed to his estate or crown. HEIRDOM, n. dredoni. Succession by in- heritance. Burke. HEIRESS, n. dress. A female heir ; a fe- male that inherits, or is entitled to inherit an estate ; an inheritrix. HEIRLESS, a. dreless. Destitute of an heir. HEIR- LOOM, n. dre-loom. [heir &iid Sax. loma, geloma, andloman, utensils, vessels.] Any furniture, movable, or personal chattel, which by law descends to the heir with the house or freehold; as tables, cup- boards, bedsteads, &c. Eng. Late HEIRSHIP, n. dreship. The state, charac- ter or privileges of an heir; right of inher- iting- Johnson. 2. Heirship movables, in Scotland, the best, of certain kinds of movables which the heir is entitled to take, besides the heritable es- tate. Encyc. HELD, prel. and pp. of hold. A court was held in Westminster hall. At a council held on the first of January. HELE, V. t. [L. celo.] To hide. Obs.

    Gower. HELI'A€AL, a. [L. heliacus ; Fr. heliaque ;

    from Gr. rjUoi, the sun, W. haul.] Emerging from the light of the sun^ or pass- ing into it. The heliacal rising of a star, is when, after being in conjunction with it and invisible, it emerges from the light so as to be visible in the morning before sun- rising. On the contrary, the heliacal set- ting of a star, is when the sun approaches so near as to render it invisible by its su- perior splendor. Encyc. HELI'ACALLY, adv. A star rises heliac- ally, when it emerges from tlie sun's light,

    so as to be visible. [See *'" ^"

    word.] HEL'ICAL, a. [Gr. rti?, a

    body.] Spiral ; winding ; moving ro HEL'ICITE, n. [See Helix.'

    of the helix, a shell. HE'LING, n. [from hele, obs. ; L. celo.] The covering of the roof of a building; written also hilling, [mt used in the U. States.]

    the preceding

    scroll, or spiral

    md. Wilkins. Fossil remains

    H E L

    H E L

    H E L

    111:LI0CENT'RI€, a. [Fr. heliocentrique Gi\\ >;\\io;, the sun, and xivtjim, center.]

    Tlie heliDctntric place of a planet, is the plad of tl;t; ecliptic in which ihe planet would appear to a spectator at the center of the sun.

    Tlit: hdiocentric latitude of a planet, is the iiiiiination of a line drawn between the (■(filter of the sun and the center of a plan- It to the plane of the ecliptic. Encyc.

    Hiliiild parabola, in mathematics, the parabo ill- spiral, a curve which arises from the -iipposition that the axis of the common \\|Hillonian parabola is bent round into 'Ire periphery of a circle, and is a line then IMssiiig through the extremities of the or

    Ill'.l.KJL'ATER, n. [Gr. ^Xioj, the sun, and ■/aT,)ivu>, to worship.]

    A u (irshiper of the sun. Drummond

    IIIII.IOL'ATRY, n. [Gr. jjXios, the sun, and >ur|ifia, service, worship.]

    TIk worship of the sun, a branch of Sabi

    lll.l.loSl'ETER, n. [Gr. ^7.105, the sun, and

    An instrument for measuring with exactness the diameter of the heavenly bodies. It i called also astrometer. Eticyi

    HE'LIOSCOPE, n. [Gr. ^f.ios, the sun, and axoTtiu, to view.]

    A sort of telescope fitted for viewing the sun without pain or injury to the eyes, as when made with colored glasses, or glass- es blackened with smoke. Encyc.

    HE'LIOSTATE, n. [Gr. fi^aos, the sun, and


    An instrument by which a sunbeam may be

    steadily directed to one spot.

    Edi7i. Encyc. Ure. HE'LIOTROPE, n. [Gr. r-T^w,, the sun, and

    ■r|)frtw, to turn.]

    1. Among the ancients,an instrument or ma- chine for showing when the sun arrived at the tropics and the equinoctial line.


    2. A genus of plants, the turnsole.

    3. A mineral, a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, of a deep green color, peculiarly pleasant to the eye. It is usually varie- gated with blood red or yellowish dots, and is more or less translucent. Before the blowpipe, it loses its color. It is gen- erally supposed to be chalcedony, colored by green earth or clilorite.

    Cleaveland. Ure.

    HELISPHER'le, }


    Spiral. The helisphencal line is the rhomb line in navigation, so called because on the globe it winds round the pole spirally, coming nearer and nearer to it, but never terminating in it. Harris.

    HE'LIX, n. [Gr. fXil, a winding.] A spiral line; a winding; or something that is spiral ; as a winding staircase in architec- ture, or a caulicule or little volute under the flowers of the Corinthian capital. In anatomy, the whole circuit or extent of the auricle, or external border of the ear.


    2. In zoology, the snail-shell.

    HELL, n. [Sax. hell, helle; G. hoik ; D. hel, helle ; Sw. helvete ; Dan. helvede. Qu. hole, a deep place, or from Sax. helan, to cover.]

    a. [helix and sphere.]

    1. The place or state of punishment for the wicked after death. Matt. x. Luke xii.

    Sin is hell begun, as religion is; heaven anti- cipated. J. Lalhrop

    2. The place of the dead, or of souls after death ; the lower regions, or the grave ; called in Hebrew, sheol, and by the Greeks. hades. Ps. xvi. Jon. ii.

    3. The pains of hell, temjioral death, or ago- nies that dying persons feel, or which bring to the brink of the grave. Ps. xviii.

    4. The gates of hell, the power and policy of Satan and his instruments. Matt, xv'

    5. The infernal powers.

    While Saul and hell cross'd his strong fate in vain. Cowley.

    t). The place at a running play to which •e carried those who are caught.


    7. A place into which a tailor throws his shreds. Hudibras.

    8. A dimgeon or prison. Obs. HELL BLACK, a. Black as hell. Shah. HELL'-BORN, a. Born in hell. IIELL'-BRED, a. Produced in hell.


    HELL'-BREWED, a. Prepared in hell.

    HELL'-BROTH, n. A composition for in- fernal purposes. Shalt.

    HELL'-€AT, n. A witch ; a hag.


    HELL-€ONFOUND'ING, a. Defeating the infernal powers. Beaum.

    HELL' -DOOMED, a. Doomed or consigned to hell. Milton

    IIELL'-GOVERNED, a. Directed by hell. Shak

    HELL'-HAG, n. A hag of hell.

    HELL'-HATED, a. Abhorred as hell.


    HELL-HAUNTED, a. Haunted by the fievil. Druden

    HELL'-IIOUND, n. A dog of hell ; an agent of hell. Dryden. Milton.

    HELL'-KITE, n. A kite of an infernal breed. Shak.

    HEL'LEBORE, n. [L. hclleborus ; Gr.M.i-


    The name of several plants of different gen- era, the most important of which are the black hellebore, Christmas rose, or Christ- mas flower, of the genus Helleborus, and the white hellebore, of the genus Vera- trum. Both are acrid and poisonous, and are used in medicine as evacuants and al-j teratives. Cyc

    HEL'LEBORISM, n. A medicinal j)repafa- tion of hellebore. Ferrand.

    HELLE'NIAN, I ,,. ,

    HELLEN'IC, \\ «• L^i-- "^^-J^'of, 'W^'!''"'?-]

    Pertaining to the Hellenes, or inhabitants of] Greece, so called from Hellas in Greece, or from Hellen.

    HEL'LENISM, n. [Gr. fW.ijfi(r,uo;.] A phrase in the idiom, genius or construction of the Greek language. Addison.

    HEL'LENIST,n. [Gr. fW^wf^j.] A Grecian Jew ; a Jew who used the Greek lan- guage. Campbell. Encyc.

    3. One skilled in the Greek language.

    HELLENIS'Tle, a. Pertaining to the Hel- lenists. The Hellenistic language was the Greek spoken or used by the Jews who lived in Egypt and other countries, where the Greek language prevailed. Campbell.

    HELLENIS'TICALLY, adv. Accordiiig to the Hellenistic dialect. Gregoni.

    HEL'LENIZE, v. i. To use the Greek lan- guage. Hammond.

    HEL LESPONT, n. A narrow strait be- tween Europe and Asia, now called the Dardanelles ; a part of the passage be- tween the Euxine and the Egean sea.

    HELLEtJPONT'INE, a. Pertaining to the Hellespont. Mitford.

    HEL'LIER, »i. A tiler or slater. [See Hele.] [.Vol in use.]

    HELLISH, a. Pertaining to hell. Sidney.

    2. Like hell in quahties ; infernal ; malig- nant ; wicked ; detestable. South.

    HELLISHLY, adv. Infernally; with ex- treme malignity ; wickedly ; detestably. Bp. Barlow.

    HELL'ISHNESS, n. The qualities of hell or of its inhabitants; extreme wickedness, malignity or impiety.

    HELL'WARD, adv. Towards hell. Pope.

    HELL'Y, a. ilaving the qualities of hell.


    HELM, a termination, denotes defense ; as in Sighelm, victorious defense. [See Hel- met.]

    HELM, n. [Sax. hehna ; G. helm, a helm, and a helve ; 1). Dan. helm ; Sw. hielm ; called in some dialects helm-stock, which must be the tiller only; probably from the root of hold.]

    1. The instrument by which a ship is steer- ed, consisting of a rudder, a tiller, and in large vessels, a wheel. [See Rudder.]

    Mar. Did.

    2. Station of government ; the place of di- rection or management ; as, to be at the helm in the administration.

    HELM, I', t. To steer ; to guide ; to direct.

    [Little used.] Shak.

    i. To cover with a helmet. Milton.

    HELM, ) [Sax. helm. See Helm.] De- HELM'ET, (, "■ tensive armor for the head ;

    u head-piece ; a morion. The helmet is

    worn by horsemen to defend the head

    against the broad sword.

    2. The part of a coat of arras that bears the crest. Johnson.

    3. The upper part of a retort. Boyle, i. In botany, the ujiper lip of a ringent co-

    rol. Martyn.

    HELM'ED, ? Furnished with a hel- HELMETED, ^"met. HELMINTHIC, a. [Gr. fX/tH-f, a worm.]

    Expelling worms. HELMIN'tllle, n. A medicine for expel- ling worms. Coie. HELMINTHOLOU'IC, > [See Hd- HELMINTHOLOG'ICAL, \\ "• minthology.]

    Pertaining to worms or vermes, or to their

    history. HELMINTHOL'OgIST, h. One who is

    versed in the natural history of vermes. HELMINTHOL'OGY, 71. [Gr. tj-^aj, a

    , and ■Koyoi, discourse.] The science or knowledge of vermes ; the

    description and natural history of vermes. Ed. Enajc. HELM'LESS, a. Destitute of a helmet.

    Barlow 2. Without a helm.

    HELMSMAN, n. The man at the helm. HELM'WIND, n. A wind in the mountain- parts of England, so called. Burn

    H E L

    HE'LUTISM, n. Slavery ; thet poe- try, verses sung or played on seven chords or different notes. In this sense the word was applied to the lyre, when it had but seven strings. One of the intervals is also called a heptachord, as containing the same number of degrees between the ex tremes. Encyc.

    HEPTAGON, n. [Gr. trtfa, seven, and ■yuvM, an angle.]

    Ifi geometry, a figure consisting of seven sides and as many angles.

    In fortificaiion, a place that has seven bas- tions for defense. Encyc.

    HEPTAG'ONAL, a. Having seven angles or sides. Heptagonal numbers, in arithme tic, a sort of polygonal numbers, wherein the difference of the terms of the corres- ])onding arithmetical progression is 5. One of the properties of these numbers is, that if they are multiplied by 40, and 9 is added to the product, the sum will be a square number. Encyc.

    HEP'TAGYN, n. [Gr. trtfa, seven, and yvpt], a female.] In botany, a plant that lias seven pistils.

    HEPTAtiYN'lAN, a. Having seven pistils.

    HEPTAHEXAHE'DRAL, a. [Gr. i,tra, seven, and hexahedral.]

    Presenting seven ranges of faces one above another, each range containing six faces.


    IIEPTAM'EREDE, n. [Gr. inra, seven, and fisptf, part.]

    That which divides into seven parts.

    .4. Smith.

    (lEPTAND'ER, n. [Gr. >nra, seven, and anyp, a male.] In botany, a plant having seven stamens.

    HEPTAN'DRIAN, a. Having seven sta-

    IlEPTANGULAR, n. [Gr. fnifa, seven, and ntisiilfir.] Having seven angles.

    HEPTAPH'YLLOIJS, a. [Gr. inra., seven, and fv'M.ov, a leaf.] Having seven leaves.

    HEPTAR'€HI€, a. Denoting a sevenfold government. tVarton.

    HEP'TAR€HIST, ji. A ruler of one divi- sion of a heptarchy. Warton.

    HEP'TARCHY, n. [Gr. irtra, seven, and a.fxn, rule.]

    A government by seven persons, or the coun- try governed by seven ])ersons. But tlie word is usually applied to England, when under the government of seven kings, or divided into seven kingdoms ; as the Sax- on heptarchy, which comprehended the whole of England, when subject to seven independent princes. These petty king- doms were those of Kent, the South Sax- ons [Sussex,] West Saxons, East Saxons [Essex,] the East Angles, Mercia, and Nortliimiberland. Hist, of England.

    HEP'TATEU€H, n. [Gr. ixra, seven, and rrvxo;, book.]

    The first seven books of ihe Old Testament [Little u.Kd.]

    HEP'-TREE, n. The wild dog-rose, a spe- cies of Rosa.

    HER, pronounced hur, an adjective, or pro- nominal adjective of the third person

    [Sax. Aire, sing, heoru, plu., the possessive case of he, heo ; but more properly an ad- jective, like the L. suus.]

    1. Belonging to a female ; as her face ; her head.

    2. It is used before neuter nouns in person fication.

    Wisdom's ways are ways of pleasantness, an all her paths are peace. Prov. iii. Her is also used as a pronoun or substitute for a female in the objective case, after a verb or preposition.

    Hers is primarily the objective or genitive case, denoting something that belongs a female. But it stands as a substitute the nominative or objective case.

    And what his fortune wanted, hers coi mend. Drydi

    Here hers stands for her fortune, but it must be considered as the nominative to could mend. I will take back my book and give you Jiers. Here hers is the object after give.

    HER'ALD, n. [Fr.heraut,fovherault ; Ar herald or harod ; Sp. heraldo ; Port, araulo ; It. araldo; G.herold; W. herodyr, emht sador and herald, from herawd, a defiance or challenge, heriaw, to brandish, to threat en, from her, a push, a motion of defiance, a challenge. The primary sense is to send, thrust, or drive.]

    1. An officer whose business was to de- nounce or proclaim war, to challenge to battle, to proclaim peace, and to hear messages from the commander of an my. Hence,

    3. A proclaimer ; a publisher ; as the herald of another's fame.

    3. A forerunner; a precuj-sor; a harbinger. It was the lark, the herald of the mom.


    4. An officer in Great Britain, whose busi- ness is to marshal, order and conduct royal cavalcades, ceremonies at corona- tions, royal marriages, installations, crea- tions of dukes and other nobles, embas- sies, funeral processions, declarations of war, proclamations of peace, &c.; also, to record and blazon the arms of the nobility and gentry, and to regulate abuses therein.


    5. Formerly ajjplied by the French to a minstrel.

    HER'ALD, V. I. To introduce, as by a herald. Shak.

    HER'ALDIe, a. Pertaining to heralds or heraldry ; as heraldic delineations.


    HER'ALDRY, n. The art or office of a her- ald. Heraldry is the art, practice or sci- ence of recording genealogies, and blazon- ing arms or ensigns armorial. It alsc teaches whatever relates to the marshal- ing of cavalcades, processions and other public ceremonies. Encijc.

    HER'ALDSHIP, n. The office of a herald. Selden.

    HERB, n. erb. [h.lierha; Fr. herhe ; It. erba ; Sp. yerba ; Port. erva. Q,». Ir.forba. glebe, that is, food, pasture, subsistence : Gr. $fp8u.]

    1. A plant or vegetable with a soft or succu- lent stalk or stem, which dies to the root every year, and is thus distinguished fro

    a tree and a shrub, which have ligneous or hard woody stems. Milne. Martyn.

    2. In the Ldnnean botany, that part of a ve- getable which springs from the root and is terminated by the fructification, inclu- ding the stem or stalk, the leaves, the ful- cra or props, and the hibernacle. Milne.

    The word herb comprehends all the

    es, and numerous plants used for culina-

    A plant, of the genus ivctaia.

    HERB-ROBERT, n. A plant, a species of Geranium.

    HERBA'CEOUS, a. [L. herbaceus.] Per- taining to herbs. Herbaceous plants are such as perish annually down to the root ; soft, succulent vegetables. So, a herba- ceous stem is one which is soft, not woody. Herbaceous, applied to animals by Derliam, is not authorized. [See Herbivorous.]

    HERB'AliE, n. [Fr. from herbe.] Herbs collectively ; grass ; pasture ; green food for beasts.

    The influence of true religion is mild, soft and noiseless, and constant, as the descent of the evening dew on the tender herbage.


    2. In laiv, the liberty or right of pasture in the forest or grounds of another man.


    HERB'AgED, ff. Covered with grass.


    HERB'AL, JI. A book that contains the najiics and descriptions of plants, or the classes, genera, .-pecies and qualities of vegetables. Bacon.

    2. A hortus siccus, or dry garden ; a collec- tion of specimens of plants, dried and pre- served. Encyc.

    HERB'AL, a. Pertaining to herbs.

    H ERB'ALIST, ?i. A person skdled in plants ; one who makes collections of plants.

    HERB'AR, n. An herb. Obs. Spenser.

    HERB'ARIST, n. A herbalist. [Little used.] Derham. Boyle.

    HERBA'RIUM, n. A collection of dried I'lants. Med. Repos.

    HERB'ARIZE. [See Herborize.]

    HERB'ARY, n. A garden of plants.


    HERB'ELET, n. A small herb. Shak.

    HERBES'CENT, a. [h. herbescens.] Grow- ing into herbs.

    HEilBlD, o. [h. herhidus.] Covered with herbs. [Little used.]

    HERBIV OROUS, a. [L. hcrha and voro, to eat.] .

    Eating herbs ; subsisting on herbaceous plants ; feeding on vegetables. The ox and the horse are herbivorous animals.

    HERB'LESS, a. Destitute of herbs.


    HERB'ORIST. [See Herbalist.] Ray.

    HERBORIZA'TION, n. [from herbmize.]

    1. The act of seeking plants in the field ; bo- tanical research.

    2. The figure of plants in mineral substan- ces. [See Arborization.] Diet. JVat. Hist.

    HERB'ORIZE, v. i. To search for plants, or to seek new species of plants, with a view to ascertain their characters and to class them.

    He herborized as he traveled, and enriched the Flora Suecica with new discoveries.





    HERB'ORIZE, i.. t. To figure ; to form the figures of plants in minerals. [See .Arbor- ize.] Fourcroy.

    HERB'ORIZED, pp. Figured ; containing

    the figure of a plant ; as a mineral body.

    Daubenton has shown that herborized stones

    contain very fine mosses. Fourcroy

    HERB'ORIZING.ppr. Searching forplants,

    '■I. Forming the figures of plants in minerals.

    IIERB'OUS, a. [L. hcrbosus.} Abounding with herbs.

    lIERB'WdJIAN, n. erb' woman. A woman that sells herbs.

    IIERB'Y, a. Having the nature of herbs. [Little used.] Bacon.

    IIER€U'LEAN, a. [from Hercules.] Very great, difficult or dangerous ; such as it would require the strength or courage of Hercules to encounter or accomplish ; Herculean labor or task.

    2. Having extraordinary strength and size ; as Herculean limbs.

    9. Of extraordinary strength, force or power

    HER'eULES, 71. A constellation, in the

    northern hemisphere, containing 113 stars.

    En eye.

    HERCYN'IAN, a. [from Hercynia; G.harz,

    Denoting an extensive forest in Germany, the remains of which are now in Swabia.

    HERD, ji. [Sas. herd, heard; G. herde ; Sw, and Dan. hiord ; Basque, ardi. Words of this kind have for their primary sense, col- lection, assemblage. So in Saxon, here is an army. It may be from driving, W

    1. A collection or assemblage; applied to beasts when feeding or driven together We say, a /ierrf of horses, oxen, cattle, cam els, elephants, bucks, harts, and in Scri}>- ture, a herd of swine. But we say, a_^ocA- of sheep, goats or birds. A number of cattle going to market is called a drove.

    2. A company of men or people, iti contempt or detestation ; a crowd ; a rabble ; as a vulgar herd.

    HRRD,n. [Sax.hyrd; G.hirt; Sw. herde; Dan. hyrde or hyre ; from the same root as the preceding, that is, the holder or keeper.]

    A keeper of cattle ; used by Spenser, and still used in Scotland, but in English now sel- dom or never used, except in composition, as a shepherd, a goatherd, a svdneherd.

    HERD, If. i. To unite or associate, as beasts; to feed or run in collections. Most kinds of beasts manifest a disposition to herd.

    3. To associate ; to unite in companies cus- tomarily.

    :j. ^To associate ; to become one of a number

    or party. Walsh.

    HERD, V. t. To form or put into a herd.

    B. Jonson. HERD'ESS, ;i. A shepherdess. Obs.

    Chaucer. HERD'GROOM, n. A keeper of a herd.

    Obs. Spenser.

    HURD'ING, ppr. Associating in companies. ItERD'MAN, ?, A keeper of herds; one HERDS-MAN, ^ "• employed in tending

    lierds of cattle. 9. Formerly, the owner of a herd. Sidney. HERE, adv. [Goth, and Sax. her; G. D,

    filer ; Sw. har ; Dan. her. It denotes this


    Vol. I.

    . In this place; in the place where the speaker is present ; opposed to /Aere. Be- hold, here am I. Lodge here this night. Build here seven altars. Scripture.

    2. In the present life or state.

    Thus shall you be happy here, and more liap- py hereafter. Bacon

    3. It is used in making an offer or attempt Then here's for earnest. Dryden

    4. In drinking health.

    Heie's to Ihec, Dick. Cowley.

    It is 7ieilher here nor there, it is neither in this ])lace nor in that ; neither in one place nor in another.

    Here and there, in one place and another; i a dispersed manner or condition ; thinly or irregularly.

    HE'REABOUT, ? , About this place.

    HE'REABOUTS, \\ "''''■ Addison.

    HERE^AFTER, adv. In time to come; ir me future time.

    2. In a future state.

    HEREAFTER, n. A future state.

    'Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter Jlddison

    HEREAT', adv. At this. He was offended hereat, that is, at this saying, this fact, &c.

    HEREBY', adv. By this.

    Hereby we became acquainted with the na- ture of things. Watts.

    HEREIN', adv. In this.

    Herein is uiy Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit. John xv.

    HEREIN'TO, arfi'. Into this. Hooker

    HEREOF', orfv. Of this; from this.

    Hereof comes it that prince Harry is valiant Skak

    HEREON', adv. On this. Brown.

    HEREOUT', adv. Out of this place.


    HERETOFORE, adv. In times before the present ; formerly. Sidney.

    HEREUNTO', arft^ To this. Hooker.

    HEREUPON', adv. On this.

    HEREWITH', adv. With this.

    Most of the compounds of here and a prep- osition, are obsolete or obsolescent, or at least are deemed inelegant. But here- after and heretofore are in elegant use. Herein and hereby are frequently used in the present version of the Scriptures, and ought not perhaps to be discarded. In- deed some of these words seem to be al- most indispensable in technical law lan- guage.

    HERED'ITABLE, a. [from the root of AciV ; L. heeredilas.]

    That may be inherited. [jYot much used. See Inheritable.] Locke.

    HERED'ITABLY, adv. By inheritance; by right of descent.

    Tlie one-house-owners belong hereditably to no private person. Tooke, Ritss. Encuc.

    HEREDITAMENT,?!. [L. ha:res, hmredium. See Heir.]

    Aijy species of property that may be itdier- ited ; lands, tenements, any thing corpo- real or incorporeal, real, personal or mi.\\- ed, that may descend to an heir.


    A corporeal hereditament is visible and tan- gible ; an incorporeal hereditament is an ideal right, existing in contemplation of law, issuing out of substantial corporeal property.

    HEREDITARILY, adv. By inheritance by descent from an ancestor. Pope


    HERED'ITARY, a. [Fr. hereditaire ; It. ereditario. Sec Heir.]

    1. That has descended from an ancestor. He is in possession of a large hereditary estate.

    2. That may descend from an ancestor to an heir ; descendible to an heir at law. The crown of Great Britain is hereditary. That is or may be transmitted from a par- ent to a child ; as hereditary \\mdc ; hered- itary bravery ; hereditary disease.

    HER'EMIT, 71. A hermit. Obs. Bp. Hall. HEREMIT'ICAL, a. [See Hermit. It should rather be written hermitical.] Soli- tary ; secluded from society. Pope. HER'ESIAR€H, n. s as z. [Gr. ouptjij,

    heresy, and apx"!, chief] A leader in heresy ; the chief of a sect of I heretics. Sti '

    HER'ESIAR€HY, .:. Chiefheresy HER'ESY, n. [Gr. aipemf, from ouptu, to take, to hold ; L. hceresis ; Fr. heresie.] ■ A fimdamenial error in religion, or an error of opinion respecting some funda- mental doctrine of religion. But in coun- tries where there is an established church, an opinion is deemed heresy, when it dif- fers from that of the church. The Scrip- tures being the standard of faith, any opin- ion that is repugnant to its doctrines, is heresy; but as men differ in the interpre- tation of Scripture, an opinion deemed heretical by one body of christians, may be deemed orthodox by another. In Scrip- ture and primitive usage, heresy meant merely sect, party, or the doctrines of a sect, as we now use denomination ov per- suasion, implying no reproach.

    2. Heresy, in law, is an offense against Chris- tianity, consisting in a denial of some of its essential doctrines, pubhcly avowed and obstinately maintained. Blackstone.

    3. An untenable or unsound opinion or doc- trine in politics. Swift.

    HER'ETIe, n. [Gr. oipfTcxoj; It. ere

    1. A person under any religion, but particu- larly the christian, who holds and teaches opinions repugnant to the established faith, or that which is made the standard of orthodoxy. In strictness, among chris- tians, a person who holds and avows re- ligious opinions contrary to the doctrines! of Scripture, the only rule of faith and practice.

    2. Any one who maintains erroneous opin- '0"s. Shak.

    HERET'ICAL, a. Containing heresy ; con- trary to the established faith, or to the true faith.

    HERET'I€ALLY, adv. In an heretical manner ; with heresy.

    HER'ETOG, > [Sax. heretoga ; here,

    HER'ETO€H, ^ ' an army, and teoche, a leader, from teogan, teon, to lead, L. duco, dux, Eng. to tug.]

    Among our Sa.xon ancestors, the leader or commander of an army, or the comman- der of the militia in a county or district. This officer was elected by the people in n.lkmote. ^

    HER lOT, 71. [SsiX. heregeat ; here, army, and geat, tribute, supply, from g-eofa7i, to flow, to render.]

    In English law, a tribute or fine payable to the lord of the fee on the decease of the




    owner, laiulljolder or vassal. Originally this tribute consisted of military furniture, or of horses and arms, as appears by the laws of Canute, C. 69. But as defined by modern writers, a heriot is a customary tribute of goods and chattels, payable to the lord of the fee on the decease of the owner of the land ; or a render of the best beast or other movables to the lord on the death of the tenant. Heriots were of two sorts ; heriot service, which was due by reservation in a grant or lease of lands ; and heriot custom, which depended solely on immemorial usage.

    fViLkins. Spelman. Blackstone.

    IIER'IOTABLE, a. Subject to the payment of a heriot. Bum.

    (IER;ISS0N, n. [Fr. a hedgehog, from hcrisser, to bristle, to stand out as hair.]

    in fortification, a beam or bar armed with iron spikes pointing outwards, and turn- ing on a pivot ; used to block up a pass- age. Encyc.

    HER'ITABLE, a. [from the root of heir, L. hares.]

    1. Capable of inheriting, or taking by de-

    By the canon law this son sh;i!l be lesjitimate and heritable. Hale.

    2. That may be inherited. [This is the true sense.]

    ;?. Annexed to estates of inheritance. In Scot's law, heritable rights are all rights that affect lands or other immovables.

    Enc>ic. Blackstone.

    HERITAGE, j(. [Fr. from the root of

    1. Inheritance; an estate that passes from an ancestor to an heir by descent or course of law; that which is inherited. In Scot's late, it sometimes signifies immovable estate, in distinction from movable.

    1. In Scripture, tlie saints or people of God are called his heritage, as being claimed by liiiti, and the objects of his special care. 1 Pet. v.

    HERMAPHRODE'ITy, n. llermaphro- dism. B. Jonson.

    HERMAPH'RODISM, n. [infra.] The union of the two se.\\es in the same indi- vidual. Did. JVat. Hist.

    HERMAPHRODITE, n. [Fr. from Gr. fpuo^po^iro; ; ip/tjjj, Mercury, and a^poSiTij, Venus.]

    1. A human being, having the parts of gen- eration both of male and female. The term is applied also to other animals char- acterized by a similar formation. Enci)c.

    2. In botany, a flower that contains both the anther and the stigma, or the supposed male and female organs of generation, within the same calyx or on the same re- ceptacle. Mcirtyn. Encyc.

    ■'!. A plant that has only hermajjlirodite

    fiowprs. Marti/n

    HERMAPII'RODITE, a. Designating boti

    sexes in the same animal, flower or plant HERMAPHRODITIC, a. Partaking of

    bcitli sexes. Brown

    llF.U-MM'llltoniT'leALLY, adv. After

    ihr inaiMiir of bermaphrodites. UI'.K.V.ENKU'Tle, ? [Gr. iffurivivtixo,, HERMENEUTICAL, S"'from ifirj^wi, ai

    interjtreter, from tp/«:;s, Meicury.] interpreting ; explaining; unfolding the sig'

    nificaiion ; as hermenevtic theology, the

    art of expounding the Scriptures.

    Bloomfield. Encyc HERMENEU'TICALLY, adv. According

    to the true art of interpreting words.

    M. Stuart HERMENEU'TICS, n. The art of finding

    the meaning of an author's words and

    phrases, and of explaining it to others. HERMET'I€, ? [Fr. hermeliqut ; Si: HERMET'IeAL, S /^ermd^co,• from Gt

    tffir^i. Mercury, the fabled inventor of


    1. Designating chimistry ; chimical ; as the hermetic art.

    2. Designating that si>ecies of philosophy which pretends to solve and explain all the phenomena of nature from the three chimical principles, salt, sulphur and nier. ciu-y; as the fter«if(ic philosophy.

    3. Designating the system which explain; the causes of diseases and the operations of medicine, on the principles of the her- metical philosophy, and particularly on the system of an alkali and acid ; as her- metical physic or medicine. Encyc.

    4. Perfectly close, so that no air, gas, or spirit can escape ; as a hermetic seal. The hermetic seal is formed by heating the neck of a vessel till it is soft, and then twisting it, till the apertin-e or passage is accurately closed. Encyc.

    Hermetic, books, books of the Egyptians which treat of astrology. Bryant.

    Books which treat of universal princi- ples, of the nature and orders of celestial beings, of medicine and other topic.*!.

    Enfeld. HERMET'ICALLY, adv. According to the lermetic art ; cliimically ; closely ; accu- ately ; as a vessel hermetically sealed or losed. HER'MIT, n. [Fr. hermile, ermite; Sp. ermitaho ; It. eremita; Gr. (^■/niiirii, from fpjj^oj, solitary, destitute. Perhaps from the Shemitic Din, to cut off from society, to expel, or to be separated. Class Rm. See Harem.]

    1. A person who retires from society and lives in soUtude ; a recluse ; an anchoret. The woid is usually applied to a person who lives in solitude, disengaged from the cares and interruptions of society, for the purpose of religious contemplation and devotion.

    2. A beadsman ; one bound to pray for an- other. Shak.

    HER'MITAGE, n. The habitation of a her- mit ; a house or hut with its appendages, in a solitary place, where a hermit dwells. Milton.

    2. A cell in a recluse place, but annexed to an abbey. Encyc.

    3. A kind of wine.

    HER'MITARY, n. A cell for the religion;

    annexed to some abbey. Howell.

    HER'MITESS, n. A female hermit.

    Drjimm,ond. HERMIT'I€AL, a. Pertaining to a hermit,

    or to retired life. 2. Suited to a hermit. Coventry,

    HERMODAC'TYL, n. [(?r. fp/«7«, Mercury,

    and ^axrti^os, a finger; Mercury's finger.] In the Materia Medica, a root brought from

    Tm-key. It is in the sliape of a heart flat-

    ted, of a white color, compact, but easy to be cut or pulverized, of a viscous sw eetish taste, with a slight degree of ac- rimony. Some suppose it to be the root of the Colchicum variegatum ; others, the root of the Iris tuberosa. It was anciently in great repute as a cathartic ; but that which is now furnished has little or no cathartic quality. Encyc.

    HERMOgE'NIANS, n. A sect of ancient heretics, so called from their leader Iler- mogenes, who lived near the close of the second century. He held matter to be the fountain of all evil, and that souls are formed of corrupt matter. Ena/c

    HERN, n. A heron, which see. '

    HERN'HILL, n. A plant.

    HERN'IA, n. [L.] In surgery, a rupture ; a descent of the intestines or omentum from their natural place; an unnatural protrusion of the intestines. Hernia is of various kinds. Quincy. Coxe.

    HERN'SHAW, n. A heron. Obs.

    or- r)/-\\ Spenser.

    HE'RO, n. [L. heros, Gr. j;puj, a demigod. It coincides in elements with Ir. earr, no- ble, grand, a chamjjion, and with the G. herr, D. heer, lord, master.]

    1. A man of distinguished valor, intrepidity or enterprise in danger; as a hero iu arms. Coidey.

    2. A great, illustrious or extraordinaiy per- son ; as a hero in learning. [Little used.]

    3. In a poem, or romance, the principal per- sonage, or the person who has the prin- ci[)al share in the transactions related ; as Achilles in the Iliad, Ulysses in the Odys- sey, and jEneas in the /Eneid.

    4. In pagan mythohgy, a hero was an illus- trious person, mortal indeed, but suppo- sed by the populace to partake of immor- tality, and after his death to be placed among the gods. Encyc.

    HERO'DIANS, n. A sect among the Jewsj which took this name from Herod; but authors are not agreed as to their pec;i-

    HERO'Ie, a. Pertaining to a hero or he- roes ; as heroic valor.

    2. Becoming a hero ; bold ; daring ; illustri- ous ; as heroic action ; heroic enterprises.

    3. Brave ; intrepid ; magnanimous ; enter- prising ; illustrious for valor ; as Hector, the heroic son of Priam; a heroic race.

    4. Productive of heroes ; as a heroic line in pedigree.

    5. Reciting the achievments of heroes; as a heroic poem.

    6. Used in heroic poetry or hexameter ; as heroic verse ; a heroic foot.

    Heroic age, the age when the heroes, or those called the children of the gods, are sup- ))osed to have lived.

    HERO'IeAL, a. The same as heroic. [lAt- tle used.]

    HERO'l€.\\LLY', adv. In the maimer of a hero ; with valor ; bravely ; courageously ; intrepidly. The wall was heroically de- fended.

    HEROI-COM'le, a. [See Hero and Comic] Consisting of the heroic and the ludicrous ,- denoting the high burlesque ; as a heroi- coinic poem.

    HER'OINE, n. hcr'oin. [Fr. heroine, from hero.]

    H E 11

    H E S

    II E T

    A female liero ; a woman of a brave spirit. [Heroess is not in use.] Dryden.

    IIKR'OISM, n. [Fr. heroismc] The finali- ties ofahero; bravery; courage; intre- pidity; particularly in war. Broome.

    IIKR'ON, n. [Fr.] A large fowl of the ge- nus Anlea, a great devourer of fish.

    IIKR'ONRY, I A place where herons

    HERONSIIAVV, ^ "'breed. Derham

    IIK'ROSIIII', n. The character of a hero. Cowper.

    IIRR'PES, n. [Gr. tprtr^;, from tprtw, creep.]

    Tetters ; an eruption on the skin ; erysif las ; ringworm, &c. This disease takes various names according to its form or tlic part affected. Coxe. Encyc.

    A term applied to several cutaneous eru tions, from their tendency to spread > creep from one part of the skin to another.


    An eruption of vesicles in small distinct clusters, accompanied with itching or tingling; including the shingles, ring- worm, &c. Good.

    JIERPET'IC, a. Pertaining to the herpes or cutaneous eruptions ; resembling the herpes, or partaking of its nature ; as her-

    petic eruptions.

    Darwin, Pertainim; herpetolog person versed ural history

    fjintroj, a rep


    in herpetology, or the nal reptiles.

    HERPETOL'OgY, n. [Gr. tile, and Xoyoj, discourse.]

    A description of reptiles ; the natural hi; tory of reptiles, including oviparous qua( rupeds, as the crocodile, frog and tortoisi and serpents. The history of the latter i called ophiology.

    IIER'RING, 71. [Sax. haiing ; Fr. hareng ; Arm. harincq ; G. hering ; D.haring; It, aringa ; Sp. arenque ; Port, id.]

    A fish of the genus Clupea. Herrings, when they migrate, move in vast shoals, and it is said that the name is formed from the Teutonic here, lieer, an army or multi- tude. They come from high norther.n lat- itudes in the spring, and visit tlie shores of Europe and America, where they are ta- ken and salted in great quantities.

    IIERRING-FISHERV, n. The fishing for herrings, which constitutes an important branch of business witli the English, Dutch and Americans.

    HERS, pron. hurz, pron.fem. possessive this house is hers, that is, this is the house uf lier. But perhaps it would be more correct to consider hers as a substitute for the noun and adjective, in the nominative case. Of the two houses, hers is the best, that is, her house is the best.

    HERSCHEL, n. her'shel. A planet discov- ered by Dr. Herschel, in 1781.

    HERSE, n. hers. [Fr. Jrerse, a harrow, a portcullis, probably from cross-work; rad- ically the s;inie word as harrow, which see.]

    I . In forliJicaUon, a lattice or portcullis in the form of a harrow, set with iron spikes. It is hung by a rope fastened to a mouli- net, and when a gate is broken, it is let down to obstruct the passage. It is called' also a sarrasin or cataract, and when it consists of straight stakes without cro.-is- pieces, it is called orgues.

    Herse is also a harrow, used for a die-; vaux de frise, and laid in the way or in breaches, witlt the points up, to obstruct or incommode the march of an enemy.


    2. A carriage for bearing corpses to the grave. It is a frame only, or a box, as in England, borne on wheels.

    3. A temporary monument set over a grave. [Unusual and not legitimate.] If'eever.

    4. A funeral eulogy. [jVot used.]

    tr. Browne. HERSE, I', t. hers. To put on or in a herse. Shak. Chapman.

    3. To carry to the grave.

    HERSELF', pron. [her and self.] This de notes a female, the subject of tliscourse before mentioned, and is either in the luiminative or objective case. In the nominative it usually follows she, and added for the sake of emphasis, ore phatical distinction ; as, she herself will bear the blame.

    The (iauglitcr of Pharaoh came ilown to herself. Kx. ii.

    "2. Having the command of herself; mistress of her rational powers, judgment or teni per. The woman was deranged, but she is now herself again. She has come to herself.

    .'?. In her true character ; as, the woman acts like herself.

    HERSELIKE, «, hcrs'like. Funereal ; suit- able to funerals. Bacon

    HERS'lLI.O.\\, 71. [from /icrse.] In/Ac miViVary art, a plank or beam, whose sides are se with spikes or nails, to incommode and retard the march of an enemy. Encyc.

    HER'Y, V. I. [Sax. herian.] To regard at holy. Obs. Spenser.

    HESITANCY, n. [See Hesitate.] A doubt- ing ; literally, a sto|)ping of the mind ; s pausing to consider ; dubiousness ; sus- pense. The reason of my hesitancy about tlie air is— Boyle

    HES'ITANT, a. Hesitating; pausing wanting volubility of speech.

    HES'IT/VTE, r. j'.'sasi. [L. hmsito ; Fr. hesiter ; from heesi, pret. of hang.]

    1. To stop or pause respecting'' decision or action ; to be doubtful as to fact, princi-i pie or determination ; to he in suspense uncertainty ; as, he hesitated whether accept the offer or not. We often hesitate\\ what judgment to form.

    It is never transitive, unless by poetic license.

    Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike. Pope.

    2. To stammer; to stop 'in speaking. HES'ITATING, ;);)r. Doubting; pau.sing ;


    HES'ITATINGLV, adv. With hesitation doubt.

    HESITA'TION, n. A pausing or delay in forming an opinion or commencing ac- tion ; doubt ; suspension of opinion or de- cision, from uncertainty what is proper to be decided. When evidence is deal', we may decide without hesitation. A stopt»ing in speech ; intermission be tween words; stammering. Swijl.

    HEST, n. [Sax. heese ; G. geheiss, a. com- mand ; heissen, to call, to bid ; D. hcete See Heat.]

    Command ; precept ; injunction ; order.

    [.\\ow obsolete, but it is retained in the

    lompoiiiHl, behest.] HESPE'RIA.\\, i. [L. hesperius, western,

    from hesperus, vesper, the evening star,

    Venus, Gr. tujtfpoj.] Western; situated

    at the west. HESPERIAN, n. An inhabitant of a west- I crn country. J. Barlow.

    HET'ERARCIIY, ti. [Gr. trifof, another,

    and afxr;, rule.] The government of an

    alien. Bp. Hall.

    HET'ERO€LITE, n. [Gr. inpoxXizov ; tr.--

    pof, another, or dillercnt, and xXiroj, from

    acXciu, to incline, to lean.]

    1. In grammar, a word which is irregular or anomalous either in declension or con- jugation, or which deviates from the or- dinary forms of inflection in words of .\\ like kind. It is particularly applied to nouns irregular in declension.

    2. .-Vny thing or person deviating from com- mon forms. Johnson.

    HET'EROel.ITE, ) Inegnlar ; a- HETEROCl.lT'IC, ^n.nomalous; de- HETEROCLIT'ICAL, ^ viating from or- dinary forms or rules. Brown, HETEROeUTOUS, a. Heierocliiic. [Xot

    HET'ERODOX, a. [Gr. irifoi, another, different, and So|a, opinion.]

    1. In theology, heretical; contrary to the faith and doctrines of the true church ; or more precisely, contrary to the real doc- trines of the Scriptures ; as a heterodox opinion ; opposed to orthodox.

    2. Repugnant to the doctrines or tenets of any established church.

    3. Holding opinions repugnant to the doc- trines of the Scriptures, as a heterodox divine; or holding opinions contrary to those of an established church.

    HETERODOXY, n. Heresy; an opinion

    or doctrine contrary to the doctrines of

    the Scriptures, or contrary to those of an

    established church.

    IIET'EROgENE, a. Obs. [See the nest


    L. hareo, tol'HETEROtiE'NEAL, ) fGr. fffpoj, oth-

    ' HETEROGENEOUS, $ "• er, and yno;,

    kind.] Of a different kind or nature ; unlike or dis- similar in kind ; opposed to homogeneous. The light whose rays are all alike refrangible, 1 call simple, homogeneal and similar ; and that whose rays are some more refrangible than others, I call compound, heterogeneal and dis- similar. jVeu-ton. Heterogeneous nouns, are such as are of dif- ferent genders in the singular and plural iiunibors ; as hie lociis, of the masculine gender in the singular, and hi loci and ha:c loca, both mascuhue and neuter in the l)liirnl. Hoc ccehtm, neuter in the singu- lar ; hi cmli, masculine in the plural. Heterogeneous quantities, are those which are of such different kind and considera- tion, that one of them, taken any number of times, never equals or exceeds tlie other. Heterogeneous surds, are such as have dif- ferent radical signs. Encyc. HETEROGENEITY, ti. Opposition of na- ture ; contrariety or dissimilitude ofquaj- itics. [informed.]


    i Dissimilar part ; something of a different kind. Boyle.

    HETEROUE'NEOUSNESS, n. Difference of nature and quality; dissimilitude or contrariety in kind, nature or qualities.

    HETEROPH'YLLOUS, a. [Gr. frtpo;, di- verse, and 4)v?.?.o>', leaf.]

    Producing a diversity of leaves; as a hetero- phyllous violet. Journ. of Science.

    llETEROF'TIeS, n. [See Optics.] False optics. Spectator.

    ilETEROS'CIAN, n. [Gr. ttipo^, other, and axia, shadow.]

    Those inhabitants of the earth are called Heteroscians, whose shadows fall one way only. Such are those who live between the tropics and the polar circles. The shadows of those who live north of the tropic of Cancer, fall northward; those of the inhabitants south of the tropic of Capricorn, fall southward; whereas the shadows of those who dwell between the tropics fall sometimes to the north sometimes to the south.

    IlETEROS'CIAN, a. Having the shadow- fall one way only. Gregory.

    IIEU'LANDITE, a. [from M. Heidanci] A mineral, occurring massive, frequently globular, or crystalized in the form of a right oblique-angled prism. It has been ranked among the zeolites, but is now considered as distinct. Phillips

    ilEW, V. t. pret. hewed; pp. hewed or hewn [Sax. heawian ; G. hauen ; D. homoen Sw. hugga ; Dan. hugger. In Sw. hugg is a cut, a slash ; Dan. hug, a beating, a striking ; so that the jiriinary sense is to strike, to drive with the hand. See Hoe.]

    1. To cut with an ax, or other hke instru- ment, for the purpose of making an even smfacc or side ; as, to heiv timber.

    2. To chop; to cut; to hack; as, to 7ie!0 in pieces.

    3. To cut with a chisel ; to make smooth ; as, to luiw stone.

    4. To form or shape with an edged instru- ment; with out ; as, to heiooul a sepulcher. Is. xxii.

    ,'). To form laboriously.

    I now pass my days, not studious nor idle. lather poiisliina; old works than hewing out new ones. {Unusual.1 Pope

    To hew down, to cut down ; to fell by cut- ting.

    To hew off, to cut off; to separate by a cut- ting instrument.

    HEW'ED, pp. Cut and made smooth or even; chopped; hacked; shaped by cut ting or by a chisel.

    HEW'ER, n. One who liews wood or

    stone. HEWING, ppr. Cutting and making

    smooth or even ; chopping ; hacking

    forming by the chisel. HEWN, pp. The same as hewed. HEX'ADE, n. [Gr. tl, six.] A series of si:

    numbers. Med. Repos

    HEX'A€HORD, n. [Gr. tl, six, and x°P«»7

    a chord.] [n ancient music, an imperfect chord called

    a sixth. Also, an instrument of six chords,

    or system of six sounds. Rousseau.

    HEX'AGON, n. [Gr. 4, six, and yuna,

    an angle.]

    11 E Y

    In geometry, a figure of six sides and six an- gles. If the sides and angles are equal, it is a regular hexagon. The cells of honey- comb are hexagons, and it is remarkable that bees instinctively form their cells of this figure which fills any given space without any interstice or loss of room.

    HEXAG'ONAL, o. Having six sides and six angles.

    HEXAG'ONY, for hexagon, is not used.

    HEX'AgYN, n. [Gr. tl, six, and ywi?. a fe- male.] In botany, a plant that has six pistils.

    HEXAGYN'IAN, a. Having six pistils.

    HEXAHE'DRAL, a. Of the figure of a hex- ahedron ; having six equal sides.

    HEXAHEDRON, n. [Gr. i%, six, and tSpo, ise or seat.] A regular solid body of sides ; a cube

    HEXAHEM'ERON, n. [Gr. fl, six, and i7;ufpo, day.] The term of six days.


    HEXAMETER, ?i. [Gr. f|, six, and /ttrpo, measure.]

    In ancient poetry, a verse of six feet, the fii-st four of which may be either dactyls or spon- dees, the fifth must regularly be a dactyl, and the sixth always a spondee. In this spe- cies of verse are composed the Iliad of| Homer and the yEneid of Virgil.

    Diva so\\lofx\\os ocu\\los a\\versa ten\\ebai


    HEXAM'ETER, a. Having six metrical feet.

    HEXAMET'RIC, } Consisting of six

    HEXAMET'RICAL, < "' metrical feet.


    HEXAN'DER, n. [Gr. f|, six, and av,,p male.] In botany, a plant having six sta

    HEXAN'DRIAN, a. Having six stamens. HEXAN'GULAR, a. [Gr. tS, six, and an

    gidar.] Having six angles or corners. HEX'APED, a. [Gr. f|, six, and sons, rtojoj

    L. pes, pedis, the foot.] Having six feet, HEX'APED, n. An animal having six fee

    [Ray, and Johnson after him write this

    herapod; but it is better to pursue uni

    formity, as in qiuidruped, centiped.]

    A fathom. [JVot in msc] HEXAPET'ALOUS, a. [Gr. 4, six, and

    ftitar.01; a leaf, a petal.] Having six pe

    tals or fiower-leaves. HEXAPH'YLLOUS, a. [Gr. j|, six, and

    ^v^Kov, a leaf.] Having six leaves. HEX'APLAR, a. [Gr. li, six, and artXow, to

    unfold.] Sextuple ; containing six columns ; from

    Hexapla, the work of Origen, or an edi-|

    tion of the Bible, containing the original,

    Hebrew, and several Greek versions. HEXAS'TICH, n. [Gr. eS, six, and ;ix°i, a

    verse.] A poem consisting of six verses.


    Johnson. Weever. t|, six, and jn^oj, a


    column.] A building with six columns in front.

    Encyc HEY. An exclamation of joy or mutual ex- hortation, the contrary to the L. hei.


    HEYDAY, exclam. [Qu. high-day.] An ex

    pression of frolick and exultation, and;

    sometimes of wonder. Shaki

    H I D

    HEYDAY, n. A frolick; wildness. Shaf.. HIA'TION, n. [L. hio, to gape.] The act ol

    gaping. [JVot iised.] HIA'TUS, n. [L. from hio, to open or gape,

    Gr. %tui,.]

    1. An opening ; an aperture ; a gap ; a chasm.

    2. The opening of the mouth in reading or speaking, when a word ends with a vow- el, and the following word begins with a vowel. Pope.

    3. A defect ; a chasm in a manuscript, where part is lost or effaced. Encyc.

    HI'BERNACLE, n. [L. WdernacaZa, winter- quarters.]

    1. In botany, the winter-quarters of a plant, that is, a bulb or a IxkI, in which tlie em- bryo of a future plant is inclosed by a sca- ly covering and protected from injuries during winter. Barton. Maiiyn.

    2. The winter-lodge of a wild animal. HIBERN'AL, a. [L. hibernus.] Belonging

    or relating to winter. Brown.

    HI'BERNATE, v. i. [L. Uberno ; It. ver- nare.]

    To winter ; to pass the season of winter in close quarters or in seclusion, as birds or beasts. Darwin.

    HIBERNA'TION, n. The passing of win- ter in a close lodge, as beasts and fowls that retire in cold weather. Darwin.

    HIBERNIAN, a. Pertaining to Hibernia, now Ireland.

    HIBER'NIAN, n. A native of Ireland.

    HIBERN'ICISM, n. An idiom or mode of speech peculiar to tlie Irish. Todd.

    HIBERNO-CELTI€, n. The native lan- guage of the Irish ; the Gaelic.

    Hiccius Doccius. [Qu. hie est doctus.] A cant word for a juggler. Hudibras,

    HI€'€0UGH, I [Dan. hik or hikken ; Sw.

    HICK'UP, I "• hicka ; D. hik, hikken ; Fr. hoquet ; W. ig, igian ; Arm. hicq. The English is a compound of hie and cough ^ and hie may be allied to hitch, to catch. The word is geneially pronounced hick- up.]

    A spasmodic affection of the stomach, eso- phagus, and muscles subservient to deglu- tition. Encyc. Parr~

    Convulsive catch of the respiratory mus- cles, with sonorous iusph-ation ; repeated at short intervals. Good.

    HI€'eOUGH, ? „ . To have a spasmodic

    HICK'UP, I ^- '• affection of the stom- ach frotn repletion or other cause.

    HICK'ORY, 11. A tree, a species of Juglans or walnut. Its nut is called hickory-nut.

    HICK'WALL, I [Qu. hitchxoall.] A small

    HICK'WAY, \\ "■ species of woodpecker.

    HID, } (.,., Concealed; placed!

    HID^DEN,!^'^""*'''- in secrecy. '

    2. a. Secret ; unseen.

    3. Mysterious. HI'DAGE, n. [fi-om /tiWe, a quantity of land.]

    An e.vtraordinary tax formerly paid to the

    kings of England for every hide of land. HIDAL'GO, j(. In Spain, a man of noble

    birth. HID'DENLY, adv. In a hidden or secret

    maimer. HIDE, V. t. pret. hid ; pp. hid, hidden. [Sax.

    hydan ; W. cuziaw ; Arm. cuza, or cuddyo.

    or kytho ; Corn, kitlia ; Russ. kutayu ; Gr.

    xivdu. In Sw. hydda, Dan. hytte, is a hut i

    and tlie Sw. hyda,/6rhyda, Dan. forhuer, to

    H I D

    II I E

    II I G

    slicathc a ship, seem to be the same word. Hood, as well as hut, may belong to thi root. See Class Gd. No. 26. 31. 43. 55.]

    1. To conceal; to withhold or withdraw from sight; to place in any state or posi tion in which the view is intercepted from the object. The intervention of the between the earth and the sun hides the latter from our sight. The people i Turkey hidt their grain in the earth. N human being can hide his crimes or hi neglect of duty from his Maker.

    2. To conceal from knowledge ; to keep se cret.

    Depart to the mountains ; hide yourselves there three days. Josh. ii.

    Tell me now what thou hast done — hide it not from me. Josh. vii.

    3. In Scripture, not to confess or disclose or to excuse and extenuate.

    I acknowledged my sin to thee, and my ini quity have I not hid. Ps. xxxii.

    4. To protect ; to keep in safety.

    In the time of trouble, he shall hide me in his pavilion. Ps. xxvii. To hide the face from, to overlook j to par don.

    Hide thy face from my sins. Ps. Ii. To hide the face, to withdraw spiritual pres- ence, support and consolation. Thou didst hide thy face, and I was troubled

    Ps. XXX.

    To hide one^s self, to put one's self in a con- dition to be safe ; to secure protection.

    The prudent man foreseeth the evil and Aid- eth himself. Prov. xxii.

    HIDE, V. i. To lie concealed ; to keep one's self out of view ; to be withdrawn from sight.

    Bred to disguise, in public 'lis you hide.


    Hide and seek, a play of boys, in which some

    hide themselves and another seeks them.


    HIDE, n. [According to Lye, Sax. Diet, un- der weal-stylling, this word signified origi- nally a station, covered place, or place of refuge for besiegers against the attacks of the besieged, (iu.]

    In the ancient laws of England, a certain portion of land, the quantity of which however is not well ascertained. Some authors consider it as the quantity that could be tilled with one plow ; others, as much as would maintain a family. Some suppose it to be 60, some 80, and others 100 acres. SiJdma7i. Encyc.

    HIDE, n. [Sax. hyd, hyde ; G. hnvt ; B.huid; Sw. and Dan. hud; L. cutis; Gr. xui, xc^Siov ; either a peel, from stripping, sep- arating, or a cover.]

    1. The skin of an animal, either raw or dressed ; more generally applied to the undressed skins of the larger domestic animals, as oxen, horses, &.c.

    2. Tlie human skin ; in contempt. Dryden. HI'DEBOUND, a. A horse is hidebound,

    when his skin sticks so closely to his ribs and back, as not to be easily loosened or raised. Far. Diet.

    Trees are said to be hidebound, when the bark is so close or firm that it impedes the growth. Bacon.

    2. Harsh; untractablc. [Nut used.]


    3. Niggardly ; penurious. [jYot used.]


    HID'EOUS, a. [Fr. hideux ; Norm. /ii

    1. Frightftil to the sight; dreadful; shocking! ive of facts or moral qualities. The Mes- to tlie eye ; applied to deformity; as a hid-j icans wrote history hieroglyphically.

    eous monster ; a Aideous spectacle ; Atrfeo!j*!ni'EllOGRAM, n. [Gr. ifpoj, sacred, and looks. Shak. Dryden.V. -/i a^fia, letter.] A species of sacred writ-

    2. Shocking to the ear; exciting terror; asl ing.

    a hideous noise. /roorfjoarrf. jlllEROGR AMM AT'I€, a. [Gr. »po;, sacred,

    3. Detestable. Spenser.n and yiian^ia, letter.]

    HID'EOUSLY, adv. In a manner to fright- iDenoting a kind of writing in sacred or sac- en ; dreadfully; shockinglv. Shak.\\\\ erdotal characters, used only by the priests

    HID'EOUSNESS, n. Frightfulness to thell in Egypt. fVarburlon.

    eye; dreadfulness; horribleness. HIEROGRAM'MATIST, n. A writer of

    HI'DER, n. [from hide.] One who hides or

    j conceals.

    [HI'DING, ppr. Concealing ; covering withdrawing from view; keeping close or

    I secret.

    'HI'DING, n. Concealment. Hab. ii

    2. Withdrawment ; a withholding ; as the

    [ hidings of God's face. Milncr.

    HIDING-PLACE, n. A place of conceal

    j mcnt.

    |HIE, V. i. [Sax. higan, higian, to hasten, to

    i urge forward, to press, to endeavor ; also, Megan and higgan, to be urgent, to strive.]

    |1. To hasten ; to move or run with haste; to

    go in haste ; o word chiefly used in poetry.

    The youth, returning to his mistress, hies.

    I Dryder.

    j2. With the reciprocal pronoun ; as, Wcthe

    [ home.

    llIlB', n. Haste ; diligence. Obs. Chaucer.

    IHI'ERARtH, n. [Gr. ctpoj, sacred, and ajijto;,

    j a rider or prince.]

    The chief of a sacred order; particularly, thi chief of an order of angels. Milton.

    HIERARCH'AL, a. Belonging to a liierarch. Milton

    HIERARCHICAL, a. Belonging to a sa cred order, or to ecclesiastical govern- ment.

    IU'ERARCHY, n. An order or rank of an- gels or celestial beings; or a subordina- tion of holy beings. Some of the Rabbins reckon four, and others ten hierarchies, orders of angels. Encyc.

    •2. Constitution and government of the chris- tian church, or ecclesiastical polity, com- prehending different orders of clergy ; as the hierarchy of England. Bacon.

    HIEROGLYPH. ) , [Gr. wpoj, sacred,

    HIEROGLYPHICS and yXt^w, to


    I. In antiquity, a sacred character; a mys- tical character or symbol, used in writings and inscriptions, particularly by the Egyp- tians, as signs of sacred, divine, or super- natural things. The hieroglyphics were


    HIEROGUAPH'IC, } Pertaining to

    HIEROGRAPlM€AL,S "" sacred writ- ing.

    HIEROG RAPIIY, n. [Gr. «poj, holy, and ypa^iu, to write.] Sacred writing. [Ldttle ^lseJ.]

    HIEROL'OtJY', n. [Gr. «po5 and ?.oyos.] A discourse on sacred things.

    HIEROM'ANCY, n. [Gr. «pos, sacred, and ixavttux, divination.]

    Divination by observing the various things offered in sacrifice. Encyc

    HIEROM'NEMON, n. [Gr. .tpoj, sacred, and jivijliuv, preserving memory.]

    In ancient Greece, a magistrate who presided

    over the sacred rites and solemnities, &c.


    UI'EROPHANT, n. [Gr. upo^arri;;; «pof, sacred, and 'f'Mvu, to show.]

    A priest ; one who teaches the mysteries and duties of religion. Hale.

    jHIG'GLE, V. i. [In Dan. hylcler signifies to flatter, fawn, disguise or play the hypo- crite ; Sw. hyckla, id. In Welsh, hiciaw is to snap, to catch suddenly, to trick, as if allied to hiieh. This word may be from the same root as L. cocio. See Huckster.]

    1. To carry provisions about and offer them for sale.

    2. To chaffer ; to be difficult in making a bargain.

    It argues an ignorant mind, where we have wronged, to higgle and dodge in the amends. Hale. HIGGLEDY-PIGGLEDY, adv. In confu-

    ; a loiv word. HIG'GLER, n. One who carries about pro- visions for sale.

    One who chaffers in bargaining. HIGH, a. hi. [Sax. AeaA, hig, heh or hih ; G. hoch ; D. hoog ; Sw. hog ; Dan. hoj. The W. uc, ucel, may be the same word, with the loss of the first letter.] 1. Extending a great distance above the sur- face of the earth : elevated ; lofty ; of great altitude ; as a high mountain ; a high

    figures of animals, parts of the human

    body, mechanical instruments, &c., which| 2. Rising, or having risen, or being far above

    contained a tneaning known only to kings,! the earth; elevated ; lofty ; as a high

    and priests. It is supposed they were used!; fli„i,t ; the clouds are high in the atraos-

    to vail morality, politics, &c., from vulgar;; phere.

    eves. -Encj/c! 3. Elevated above the horizon; as. how Ajg/c

    2. Pictures intended to express historical, is the sun? It is an hour AiV'- facts; supposed to be the primitive modei 4. Raised above any object, of writing. h High o'er their heails a muldering rock i*

    3. The art of writing in picture. Suri/Z.j placed. Dryden. HIEROGLY'PH'IC, ) Emblematic ;!!5. Exalted in nature or dignity. HIEROGLYPH'ICAL, S "' expressive of | The AigAest facultj- of the soul. £a.tter.

    some meaning by characters, pictures or figures ; as hieroglyphic writing ; a hiero- glyphic obelisk.

    6. Elevated in rank, condition or office. We speak of high and low ; of a high office : high rank ; high station ; a high court.

    H I G

    7. Possessing or governed by lionoralilej pride ; noble ; exalted ; magnanimous ; dignified ; as a man of a high mind.

    8. Exalted in excellence or extent.

    Solomon lived at ease, nor aimed beyond Higher design tliau to enjoy his state.

    Milton. 0. Difficult ; abstruse.

    Tliey meet to hear, and answer such high things. Shak.

    10. Boastful ; ostentatious.

    His forces, after all the high discourses,

    amounted really but to eighteen hundred foot.

    Clarendon .

    11. Arrogant; jiroud ; lofty; loud.

    The governor made himself merry with his high and threatening language. Clarendon V2. Loud ; boisterous ; threatening or an gi y. The parties had very high words.

    13. Violent ; severe ; oppressive.

    When there appeareth on cither side a high hand, violent persecution, &c. Bacon

    14. Public ; jrowerful ; triumphant ; glori- ous; or under divine protection.

    The children of Israel went out of Egypt with a high hand. Ex. siv.

    15. Noble ; illustrious ; honorable ; as a man oihigh birth.

    1(). Expressive of pride and haughtiness; as high looks. Is. x.

    17. Powerful ; mighty.

    Strong is thy hand, high is thy right liand Ps. Ixxxix.

    18. Possessed of supreme power, dominion or excellence.

    Thou, Lord, art high above all the earth. Ps

    19. Great ; important ; so] eration.

    For that sabba(h-day w

    emn ; held in ven

    >s a high day. Johi

    20. Violent ; rushing with velocity ; tempes- tuous ; as a high wind.

    21. Tumultuous.; turbulent; inflamed; vio- lent ; as Ugh passions.

    22. Full ; complete. It is high time to re- tire.

    It is high time to awake from sleep. Kom

    23. Raised ; accompanied by, or proceeding from great excitement of the feelings ; as high |)leasure of body or mind.

    24. Rich ; luxurious; well seasoned; ashigh fare ; high living ; high sauces.

    Milton. Bacon. 2.5. Strong; vivid ; deep ; as a high color.

    26. Dear ; of a great price, or greater price than usual ; as, to purchase at a high rate ; goods are high.

    27. Remote from the equator north or south as a high latitude.

    28. Remote in past time ; early in former time; as high antiquity.

    20. Extreme ; intQnse ; as a high heat.

    30. Loud ; as a high sound. But more gen erally,

    31. In music, acute ; sharp; as a high note; a high voice ; opposed to lotv or gi

    32. Much raised ; as high relief lievo.]

    33. Far advanced in art or science ; as high attaiiuiients.

    34. Great; capital; committed against the king, sovereign or state ; as high treason, distinguished from petty treason, which is committed against a master or other su- perior.

    as high relief [alto re-

    II I G

    35. Great; exalted; as a high opinion of s integrity.

    High church and loie church, in Great Britain, a distinction introduced after the revolu- tion. The high church were supposed to favor the papists, or at to support thei high claims to prerogative, which were maintained by the Stuarts. The low church entertained more moderate no- tions, manifested great enmity to popery,! and were inclined to circumscribe the royal prerogatives. This distinction isj now less marked, but not wholly oblitera-j ted.

    High day, high r.oon, the time when the sun is in the meridian.

    High Dutch, is the German language, as dis- tinguished fi-om Low Dutch or Belgic, or the cultivated German, as opposed to the vulgar dialect

    HIGH, adv. Aloft ; to a great altitude ; asj towering high.

    2. Eminently; greatly. Heaven and earth

    Shall high extol thy praises. Milton

    3. With deep thought ; profoundly. He reasoned high. Milton.\\

    4. Powerfully. Milton. HIGH, n. An elevated place ; superior re-l

    gion ; as on high ; from on high. |

    On hish, aloud. " Obs. Spenser.

    2. Aloft.-

    HIGH-AIMED, a. Having grand or lofty]

    tlesigns. Crashaw.\\

    HIGH- ARCHED, n. Having elevated arches.j


    HIGH-ASPI'RING, a. Having elevated

    views ; aiming at elevated objects.

    Bp. Hall. HIGH-BLEST, a. Supremely happy.

    Milton. HIGH-BLOWN, a. Swelled much with wind ; inflated, ag"with pride or conceit.

    Shak. HIGH-BORN, a. Being of noble birth or extraction. Rowe.

    HiGH-BUILT, a. Of lofty structure.

    Milton. 2. Covered with lofty buildings.

    The high-built elephant his castle rears.

    Creech. HIGH-€LIMBING, a. Climbing to a great


    2. Difficult to be ascended. Milton.

    HIGH-eoLORED,«. Having a strong, de

    or glaring color. Floyer

    2. Vivid ; strong or forcible in representa-

    high-colored description. HIGH-DAY, a. Fine ; befitting a holiday.

    Shak. HIGH-DESIGNING, a. Forming great schemes. Bruden.

    HiGH-EMBOWED, a. Having lofty arches. M!Uu„. HIGH-ENGENDERED, a. Engendered aloft, or in the air. Shak.

    HIGH-FED, a. Pampered ; fed luxurionslv. Milton. HIGH-FLAMING, a. Throwing flame to n great highth. Pope.

    HIGH-FLIER, n. One that carries his opin- ions to extravagance. Sicijl. HIGH-FLOWN, a. Elevated ; swelled ; proud ; as high-Jlown hopes. Denham 2. Turgid; swelled; extravagant ; as a /li^fe-j

    H I G

    HIGH-FLUSHED, a. Much elated.


    HIGH-FLYING, a. Extravagant in claims

    or opinions ; as high-flying, arbitrary kings.


    Highgate Resin. [See Fossil Copal.]

    HIGH-GAZING, a. Looking upwards.

    HIGH-GOING, a. Moving rapidly.

    Massenger. HIGH-GROWN, a. Having the crop consid-

    eiably gro

    2. Raised in high piles. Pope.

    HIGH-HEARTED, a. Full of courage.

    Beanm. HIGH-HEELED, a. Having high heel.-^.

    Swift. HIGH-HUNG, a. Hung aloft ; elevated.

    Dry den . HIGH-LIVED, a. Pertaining to high lite.

    Goldsviith. HIGH-METTLED, a. Having high spirit ; ardent ; full of fire ; as a high-mettled steed. HIGH-MINDED, a. Proud; arrogant. Be not higli-minded, but fear. Rom. xi. Having honorable pride ; magnanimaus ; opposed to mean. HIGH-OPERATION, n. In surgery, a meth- od of extracting the stone from the hu- man bladder, by cutting tlie upper part of it. Encyc.

    HIGH-PLACE, n. In Scripture, an emi- nence or mound on which sacrifices were offered. Before the temple was built in Jerusalem, sacrifices were offered to Jeho- vah by his worshipers, on high places ; but afterwards such mounds were devoted to idolatrous sacrifices. HIGH-PLACED, a. Elevated in situation or rank. Shak.

    HIGH-PRIEST, n. A chief priest.


    HIGH-PRINCIPLED, a. Extravagant in

    notions of politics. Swift.

    HIGH-RAISED, a. Elevated ; raised aloft.


    2. Raised with great expectations or coit- ceptions. Millmi.

    HIGH-REACHING, a. Reaching to a great highth.

    3. Reaching upwards. Vmbitious ; aspiring.

    HIGH-REARED, o. Raised high

    foicn hyperbole.



    of loflv


    HIGH-UEO, a. Having a strong red color;

    ply red. Boyle.

    HI(;H-REPEXT'ED, a. Deeply repented.

    un.] ' Shak.

    HIGH-RESOLVED, a. Very resolute.

    Tit. Andron.

    HIGH-ROOFED, a. Having a lofty or sharp Milton.

    HIGH-SEASONED, a. Enriched with spi- ces or other seasoning.

    HIGH-SEATED, a. Fixed on high; seated in an elevated place. Milton.

    HIGH-SIGHTED, a. Always looking up- ward. '^Shak.

    HIGH-SOUNDING, a. Pompous ; noisy ; ostentatious ; as high-sounding words or titles.

    HIGH-SPIRITED, a. Full of spirit or nat- ural fire ; easily irritated ; irascible.

    UEslrange.\\% Full of spirit ; bold; daring.

    H I G

    II I M

    H I N

    HIGH-STOMACHED, a. Having a lofty spirit ; proud ; obstinate. Shak.

    HIGH-SWELLING, a. Swelling greatly ; inflated ; boastful.

    HIGH-SWOLN, a. Greatly swelled. Shak.

    HIGH-TAPER, n. A plant of tlie genus Verbascum. Fam. of Plants.

    HIGH-TASTED, a. Having a strong relish ; piquant. Denhavi.

    HIGH-TOWERED, a. Having lofty tow- ers. Milton.

    HIGH-VICED, a. Enormously wicked.


    HIGH-WROUGHT, a. Wrought with ex- quisite art or skill ; accurately finished.


    2. Inflamed to a high degree ; as high-

    night passion iLAND, n.

    HIGHLAND, n. Elevated land ; a moun tainous region.

    Highlands of Scotland, mountainous regions inhabited by the descendants of the an- cient Celts, who retain thefr primitive lan- guage.

    Highlands on the Hudson, sixty miles from New York. These afford inost sublime and romantic scenery, and here is West Point, a fortified post during the revolu- tion, and now the scat of one of the best military schools of the ago.

    HIGHLANDER, n. An inhabitant of the mountains ; as the Highlanders of Scot- land.

    HIGHLANDISH, a. Denoting high or moHntainous land. Ununmond.

    HIGHLY, adv. hi'ly. With elevation in jjlace.

    2. In a great degree. We are highli/ favor- ed. Exercise is highly requisite to" health.

    3. Proudly ; arrogantly ; ambitiously.


    4. With elevation of mind or opinion ; with great estimation ; as, to think highly of one's |)erformances.

    HIGHMOST, a. Highest. [Xol used.]

    Shak. HIGHNESS, Ji. hi'ness. Elevation above

    the surface; loftiness; altitude; highth. 2. Dignity; elevation in rank, character oi

    power. .•3. Excellence ; value. Howell

    4. Violence ; as the highness of wind.

    5. Great amount ; as tlie highness of price.

    6. Acuteness; as the highness of a note oi voice.

    7. Intenseness, as of heat.

    8. A title of honor given to princes or other men of rank.

    HIGHTH, ) [See Height.] Elevation ; al-

    HIGHT, S "■ t't"de ; loftinesss. [It is very desirable that this noun should be regu- larly formed from the adjective.]

    Hight, to call, to proiriiso, to command, &c. is a false orthograjiliy, from Saxon, hulaii. It is obsolete. [See Heat]

    Chaucer. Spenser.

    HIGH WATER, n. The utmost flow or greatest elevation of the tide ; also, the time of such elevation

    HIGHWATER-MARK, n. The line made on the shore by the tide at its utmost highth. Mar. Diet

    HIGHWA'Y, 71. A public road; a way open to all passengers ; so called, either be- cause it is a great or public road, or be

    cause ilie earth was raised to Ibrm a dry palli. Highways open a communication from one city or town to another.

    ■2. Course; road; train of action. Child.

    HIGHWAYMAN, n. One who robs on the public road, or lurks in the highway for the purpose of robbing.

    HILARATE, is not in use. [See Exhila rate.]

    HILAR'ITY, »!. [L. hilaritas ; Gr. tT^ofos, joyful, merry. If r is radical, this cannot be from aouo, to be propitious.]

    Mirth; merriment; gayety. Hilarity diSera fvom joy ; the latter, excited by good news or jnosperity, is an affection of the mind; the former, by social pleasure, drinking &c. which rouse the animal s])irits.

    HIL'ARY-TERM, «. The term of courts, &c. wliich begins January 23. England.

    HILD, G. and D. held, Dan. heldl, a hero, is retained in names ; as Hildehert, a bright hero ; Mathild, Matilda, a heroic lady.

    HILD'ING, n. [Qu. Sax. %Wan, to decline, or hyldeleas, destitute of affection.]

    A mean, sorry, jmltry man or woman. Obs. Shak.

    HILL, n. [Sax. hiU or hyl ; L. collts ; per- haps Gr. x57?.j?. It cannot be the G. hiigel, D.heuvel, unless contracted.]

    1. A natural elevation of land, or a mass of earth rising above the common level of the surrounding land ; an eminence. A hill is less than a mountain, but of no defi- nite magnitude, and is sometimes apjdied to a mountain. Jerusalem is seated on two hills. Rome stood on seven hills.

    2. A cluster of plants, and the earth raised about them ; as a hill of maiz or potatoes

    U. Slates.

    HILL, V. t. To raise earth about plants ; to

    raise a little mass of earth. Farmers in

    New England hill their maiz in July,

    ffiMing- is generally the third hoeing.

    3. To cover. Obs. [Sax.helan; h.celo.] HILL'ED, pp. or a. Having hills. HILL'ING, n. A covering. 04s.

    2. The act of raising the earth around plants.

    HILL'OCK, n. A small hill.

    Milton. Dryden

    HILL'SIDE, n. The side or declivity of a hill. J. Barlow.

    HILL'Y, a. Abounding with hills ; as a hilly country.

    HILT, n. [Sax. hilt, the hold, from healdan, to hold.]

    Tlie handle of any thing ; but chiefly appli- ed to the handle of a sword.

    HILT'ED, a. Having a hilt.

    HI'LUM, n. [L.; W. hit, a particle, issue.] The eye of a bean or other seed ; the mark or scar of the umbilical chord, by which the seed adheres to the pericarp.


    HIM, pron. The objective case of At, L. eum, anciently em or im.

    Him tliat is weak in the faith receive. Rom. xiv.

    Him and his were formerly used for nouns of the neuter gender, but the prac- tice is obsolete.

    HIMSELF', ;)ron. In the nominative or ob- jective case, [him and self]

    1. He ; but himself is more emphatical, «r more expressive of distinct personality than he.

    W ilh siiiime rciiiem

    one Of the same licrd, /(

    ljer.s while hi,

    It exjiresses discrinimatioii ol person with particular emphasis.

    liut he him.iitf returned Iroiri the quarries. Judges iii.

    But 6'(«//uHis(7/'is Hitli us for our captain. 2 Chron. xiii.

    3. When used as the reciprocal pronoun, it is not usually em|)hatical.

    I David hid himself in the field. 1 Sam. xx.

    4. It was formerly used as a substitute for I neuter nouns ; as high as heaven himself. \\ [This use is now improper.]

    5. It is sometimes separated from h4 ; as, Ae could not go himself, for he himself could not go.

    6. Himself is used to express the proper j character, or natural temjier and disposi- I tion of a person, after or in opposition to

    wandering of mind, irregularity, or devi- ous conduct from derangement, passiou I or extraneous influence. We say, a man j has come to himself, after delirious or ex- travagant behavior. Let the man alone; t let him act himself.

    By himself, alone ; unaccompanied ; seques- ! tered. He sits or studies by himself. j Ahah went one way by himself, and Obadlah

    I went another way by himself. 1 Kings xviii. HIN, 71. [Heb. p.] A Hebrew measure of I capacity containing the sixth part of an 1 epiiah, or about five quarts English nieas- i nre. Encyr.

    HIND, n. [Sax. G. D. hinde ; Sw.Dan. hind; I allied perhaps to han, hen. See Hen.\\

    The female of the red deer or stag. HIND, n. [Sax. hine ; Scot, hyne.] A do- j mestic ; a servant. Obs. Shak.

    !-2. A peasant ; a rustic ; or a husbandman's I servant. [English.] Eneyc.

    HIND, n. [fiax.hyvdun,hindan; G. hintan ; ' D. hinder. Deriv. comp. hinder, super!.

    hindmost.] Backward ; pertaining to the part which j folloxys ; in opposition to the fore part; as the hind legs of a quadruped ; the hind I toes ; the hind ahocs of a horse ; the hind \\ part of an animal. HINDBERRY, ji. A species of Rubus. HINDER, a. comp. of hind. That is iu a po- [ sition contrary to that of the head or fore jiart ; designating the part whicli follow.s ; I as the hinder part of a wagon ; the hinder ' part of a ship, or the stern. Acts xxvii. IIIN'DER, V. t. [Sax. henan, hynan, hindrian ; G. hindern ; D. hinderen ; Sw. hindra ; Dan. hindrer ; from hind, hyn. The Sax- I on verbs heriati, hynan, signify to oppress, j as well as to hinder, and hean is low. hum- i ble, poor. Qu. L. cujictor, or Gr. oxitu, for

    oxfifu. See Class Gn. No. 4. 14. 41.] |1. To stoj); to interrupt ; to obstruct ; to im- ))ede or prevent from mo^ ing forward by any means. It is applicable to any sub- ject, physical, moral or intellectual.

    Them that were entering in, yc hindered. Luke xi. 2. To retard ; to clieck in progression or ! motion ; to obstruct for a time, or to ren- I der slow in motion. Cold weather AiW^rs 1 tlie growth of plants, or hinders them from

    II I p

    L-oiuing 10 maturity in due season. Let

    no obstacle hinder daily improvement. ■i. To prevent.

    What hinders younger brothers, being fathers

    of families, from haring the same right ?

    Locke. HINDER, V. i. To interpose obstacles or


    Tliis objection hinders not but lliat the hero- ic action of some commander — may be written. Dryden. IIIN'DERANCE, n. Tlie act of impeding

    or restraining motion. 2. Impediment; that which stops progi'es

    sion or advance ; obstruction.

    He must remove all these hinderanees out of

    the way. JItteibtin/.

    IIIN'DERED, pp. Stopped ; impeded; ob- structed ; retarded. HIN'DERER, «. One who stops or retards;

    that which liinders. IIIN'DERING, ppr. Stopping ; impeding ;

    obstructing ; retarding. HINDERMOST, a. That which is behind

    all others; the last. [But we now use

    hindmost.] HINDMOST, fl. The last ; that is in the

    rear of all others. He met thee in the way, and smote the hind

    most of thee. Deut. xxv. IIIN'DOO, n. An aboriginal of Hindoostan,

    or Hindostan. IIINGE, n. hinj. [This word appears to be

    connected with hang, and with angle, the

    verb ; G. angel, a liook or hinge ; D

    hengzel, a hinge, a handle.]

    1 . The hook or joint on which a door or gate turns.

    The ^ate self-opened wide On golden hinges turning. .Milton

    2. That on which any thing depends oi turns; a governing principle, rule or point This argument was the hinge on which the question turned.

    3. A cardinal point ; as east, west, north or south. [Little used.] Creech.

    To he off the hinges, is to be in a state of dis- order or irregularity. Tillotson. HINGE, V. t. to furnish with hinges. 2. To bend. [Tjittte used.] Shah HINgE, v. i. To stand, depend or turn, as on a hinge. The question hinges on this single point. HUn'G'ING, ppr. Depending; turning. HINT, V. t. [It. cenno, a nod, or hint ; ao

    nare, to nod, or beckon.] To bring to mind by a slight mention or mote allusion ; to allude to ; to suggest by a slight intimation. .Inst hint a fault, and hesitate dislike. Pope. HINT, V. i. To hint at, is to allude to ; to men- tion slightly. HINT, n. A distant allusion ; slight men- tion ; intimation ; insinuation ; a word or two intended to give notice, or remind one of something without a full declaration ( explanation. 2. Suggestion.

    HIP, n. [Sax. hipc, hype, hi/pp ; G. hiift D. heup'; Sw. htift ; Dan. hofle. It coi cides with heap, Sa.x. hype, and probably signifies a mass or lump.] The projecting part of an animal formed by the OS ilium or haunch bone ; the haunch. or the flesh that covers the bone and the adjacent parts ; the joint of the thigh.

    H I li

    The act or inactice of feeding on horses.

    Quart. Rei HIPPOPOT'AMY, } ^ [Gr. ^Ttrto;, a horse. HIPPOPOT'AMUS, I "and rtora/uoj, a ri\\

    er.] The river-horse, an animal that inhabits the Nile and other rivers in Africa. This an- imal resembles a hog rather than a liorse, and was named perhaps from his neigh- ing voice. He has been found of the length of 17 feet. He delights in the water, but feeds on herbage on land. Encyc.

    IIIP ROOF, n. [hip and roof.] A roof that HIP'HaLT, a. [hip auA halt.] Lame ; limp-ji has an angle.

    ing. Obs. Gouer. IHIP'SHOT, a. [hip and shot.] Having the

    HIPTOCAMP, n. [Gr. trtrtoraurfo,- ; '.-fn:o;,a:Lji^P„fl,'s'o^ted. ^ _ UEstrangc.

    liorse, and xourtTu, to bend.] A name

    H I P

    To have on the hip, to have the advantage] over one ; a low phrase borrowed proba-l bly from wrestlers. I

    Hip and thigh, complete overthrow or defeat.' Judges XV.

    HIP, V. t. To sprain or dislocate the hip.

    HIP, } The fruit of the dog-rose, or wild

    HOP, ^"' brier.

    HIP'PELAPH, n. An animal of the deer kind, in Norway, about the size of the elk,j and partaking of the nature of the liorse[ and the stag. Diet. JVat. Hist.'

    HIP, HIPPED, HIPPISH. [See Hyp.]

    ivon to the sea-horse. Brotvne.

    HiPPOCEN'TAUR, >i. [Gr. MTtox^vravpo; ; trfrto;, a horse, xivrtu, to spur, and ravpo;, a bull.]

    In ancient fable, a supposed monster, half man and half horse. The hippocentaur differed from the centaur in this, that the latter rode on an ox, and the former on a horse, as the name imports. Encyc.

    HIP'PO€RAS, n. [Fr. quasi, wine of Hip- pocrates.]

    A medicinal drink, composed of wine with an infusion of spices and other ingredients; used as a cordial. That directed bv thej

    HIP' WORT, n. A plant. HIRE, V. t. [Sax. hyran ; D. huwen ; Sw. hyra ; Van.hyrer; W.huriatv; Ch.Syr.

    .i,tohire. Class Gr.

    Sam. -UN, Ar. No. 10.]

    1. To procure from another person and fur temporary use, at a certain price, or for a stipulated or reasonable equivalent ; as, to hire a farm for a year ; to hire a horse fur a day ; to hire money at legal interest.

    2. To engage in service for a stipulated re- vvard ; to contract with for a compensa- tion ; as, to hire a servant for a year ; to

    , ^tVe laborers by the day or month.

    late London Dispensary, is to be made ofji3. To bribe; to engage in immoral or illegal

    cloves, ginger, cinnamon and nutmegs,y service for a reward.

    beat and infused in canary with sugar ; to.nTo hire out one's self, to let; to engage one's

    the infusion, milk, a lemon, and some slipsj of rosemary are to be added, and the whole strained through flannel. Encyc.

    Hippocrates^ sleeve, a kind of bag, made by uniting the opposite angles of a square piece of flannel, used for straining syrups and decoctions. Qjaincy.

    Hippocratic face, \\h. fades hippocratica,] pale, sunken, and contracted features, consider ed as a fatal symptom in diseases. Pair

    HIPPO€'RATl'SM, n. The ))hilosophy of Hippocrates, as it regards medicine.


    HIP'PODAME, n. A sea-horse. Spenser.

    HIP'PODROME, n. [Gr. inttoSpo/iOi ; trtrtos, a horse, and Spo^oj, a course, from Spt^u, to run.]

    Anciently, a circus, or place in which horse races and chariot races were performed, and horses exercised. Encyc.

    HIP'POGRIFF, n. [Fr. hippogriffe, from Gr. (rtrtoj, a horse, and ypi4, a griffon.]

    A fabulous animal or monster, half horse and half griffon ; a winged horse, imagi ned by Ariosto. Johnson. Milton.

    HIP'POLITH, n. [Gr. ijtrto;, a horse, and xieoj, a stone.]

    A stone found in the stomach or intestines of a horse. Quincy.

    HIP'POMANE, Ji. [Gr. iXTiot, a horse, and

    1 fiai'ia, madness.]

    1. A sort of poisonous substance, used an ciently as a philter or love-charm.


    2. In botany, the manchineel-tree, whicli abounds with a milky juice which acrid, caustic and poisonous. Encyc.

    HIPPOPH'AGOUS, a. Feeding on horses,

    as the Tartars. HIPPOPH'AgY, ?i. [Gr. ix,toj,ahorsc, and I cjiayu, to eat.]

    service to another for a reward.

    To hire, or to hire out, to let ; to lease ; to grant the temporary use of a thing for a compensation. He has hired out his house or his farm.

    HIRE, n. [Sax. hyre. Qu. can the Gr. xipSof be of this family?]

    1. The price, reward or compensation paid or contracted to be given for the temporary use of any thing.

    2. Wages ; the reward or recompense paid for personal service.

    The laborer i? worthy of his hire. Luke x.

    lll'RED, pp. Procured or taken for use, at a stipulated or reasonable price ; as a hired farm.

    2. Employed in service for a compensation ; as a hired man ; a hired servant.

    HI'RELING, n. One who is hired, or who serves for wages.

    2. A mercenary ; a prostitute. Pope.

    HI'RELING, a. Serving for wages ; venal ; mercenary ; employed for money or other compensation.

    A tedious crew OC hireling mourners. Dryden.

    HI'RER, n. One that hires ; one that pro- cures the use of any thing for a compen- sation ; one who enq)loys |)ersons for wa- ges, or contracts with persons for service.

    Hl'RlNG, ppr. Procuring the use of for a

    I compensation.

    HIRSU'TE, a. [L. hirsutus. Qu. hair.]

    1. Hairy; rough with hair; shaggy; set witli bristles.

    2. In botany, it is nearly synonymous with hispid, but it denotes having more hairs or bristles, and less stiff. Maiiyn.

    HIRSU'TENESS, n. Hairiness. Burton.

    H I S

    H I S

    H I T

    HISTO'RIAL, a. Historical. Obs. I


    , HISTO'RIAN, «. [Fr. historien ; L. histori-]

    dorstan." Some for fear of j c"« ; It- istorico. See History.]

    HIS, pron. possessive of he, and pronounced hiz. [Sax. gen. hys, and hyse, male- "

    1. Of him. Thus in Alfreds Orosius, "Sume for his ege

    him durst not ; literally, for his awe, for awe of him. Lib. 3. 8. In this instance. his does not express what belongs to the antecedent of his, [Philip,] but the fear which others entertained of him.

    % The present use of /lis is as a pronomina adjective, in any case indifferently, corres- ponding to the L. suus. Thus, tell John his papers are ready. I will deliver his

    . papers to his messenger. He may take his son's books. When the noun is onj' ted, his stands as its substitute, either the nominative or objective case. Tell John this book is his. He may take mine and I will take his.

    3. His was formerly used for its, but im properly, and the use has ceased.

    4. It was formerly used as the sign of the possessive. The man his ground, for the man's ground. This use has also ceased.

    5. His is still used as a substitute for a noun, preceded by q/"; as all ye saints of his ; ye ministers of his. Script;

    Hisself'is no longer used.

    HIS'INGERITE, n. A mineral found in the cavities of calcarious spar, in Suderman- land. PhiUins

    HIS'PlD,a. [h. hispidus.] Rough.

    2. In botany, having strong hairs or bristles ; beset with stiff bristles. Marlyn

    HISS, V. i. [Sax. hysian, hiscan, hisp'an hi/span.]

    1. To make a sound by driving the breath between the tongue and the upper teeth to give a strong aspiration, resembling the noise made by a serpent and some other animals, or that of water thrown on hot iron. Hissing is an expression of con tempt.

    The merchants among the people sliall his: at thee. Ezek. xxvii.

    3. To express contempt or disapprobation

    by hissing. 3. To '

    whiz, as an arrow or other thing in rapid flight. HISS, D. t. To condemn by hissing; to ex plode. The spectators hissed him off the stage. 2. To procure hisses or disgrace.

    — That of an hour's age doth hiss the speaker. Shak. HISS, n. The sound made by propelling the breath between the tongue and upper teeth ; the noise of a serpent, a goose, &,c He hiss for hiss returned. Milton

    2. An expression of contempt or disappro- bation, used in places of public exhibition HISS'ING, ppr. Making the noise of ser- pents?. HISS'ING, 71. A hissing sound ; an express- ion of scorn or conteinjit. 2. The occasion of contempt ; the object of scorn and derision.

    I vpill make this city desolate, and a hissing.

    Jer. xix.

    HISS'INGLY, adv. With a whistling sound.


    HIST, exclam. [Dan. hyst. In Welsh, huM

    is a low, buzzing sound.] A word commanding silence ; equivalent to hush, be silent.

    Vol. I.

    A writer or compiler of liistory ; one who collects and relates facts and events writing, particularly respecting nations. Hume is called an elegant historian. HISTOR'Ie, ) [h. historicus ; Fr. his-\\ 'HIST0R'I€AL, S torique.] Containing I history, or the relation of facts; as a his- torical poein ; the historic page ; I brass. Pope

    [2. Pertaining to history ; as historic care oi I fidelity. I

    j3. Contained in history; deduced from his-| I tory ; as historical evidence. i

    4. Representing history ; as a historical chart ; historical painting. '

    HISTOR'l€ALLY, adv. In the manner of history ; by way of narration. |

    The Gospels declare hiMorically sometliing which our Lord Jesus Christ did, spoke or sut-l fcrcd. Hooker}',

    HIS'TORIED, a. Recorded in history.;

    [JVot much in use.] HISTO'RIER, n. A historian. 06s HIS'TORIFY, V. t. To relate ; to record in history. [Mit used.] Sidneti}

    HISTORIOGRAPHER, n. [Gr.tyopia, bis

    tory, and ypafu, to write.] A historian ; a writer of history ; particular ly, a professed historian ; an officer em ployed to write the history of a prince or state; as the historiographer of his Britan- nic majesty. HISTORIOG'RAPHY, n. The art or em- ployment of a historian. HISTORIOL'OGY, n. A discourse on his- tory, or the knowledge of history. [Ao/

    HIS'TORY, n. [Gr. ifopia; L. Sp. Port. historia ; It. isforia ; Fr. histoire ; Ir. sdair, stair ; Sax. stair, ster, probably from the Latin ; W. ysdori, history, matter of rec- ord, what is of concern or in mind, frotn ysdater, an object of care or concern, from dnivr, to care, to he concerned, to regard. The Greek ifup signifies knowing, learned,! and ifopfu is rendered to inquire, to ex-i plorc, to learn by inspection or inquiry.! This would seetii to be connected with VV. ystyriatv, to consider, to regard or take no- tice. History and story are the same word differently written.]

    1. An account of facts, particularly of facts respecting nations or states ; a narration! of events in the order in which they hap-l pened, with their causes and effects. His-l tory differs from annals. Annals relate; simply the facts and events of each year,| in strict chronological order, without anyi observations of the annahst. History re-! gards less strictly the arrangement of events under each year, and admits the', observations of the writer. This distinc-| tion however is not always regarded with strictness. '

    History is of different kinds, or treats of different subjects ; as a history of govern-' ment, or political to/on/; history of the; christian church, or ecclesiastical history;' history of war and conquests, or military history; history of ]aw ; history of com- merce ; /i(s(on/ of the crusades, &c. In these and similar examples, history is wril-'\\


    ten narrative or relation. Wliat is the hix- tory of nations, but a narrative of the fol- lies, crimes and miseries of man ? 2. Narration ; verbal relation of facts or events; story. We listen with pleasure to the soldier or the seaman, giving a his- tor}i of his adventures.

    What histories of toil could I declare ?

    Pope. .3. Knowledgoof facts and events.

    History — is necessary to divines. Watts.

    4. Description ; an account of things that exist ; as natural history, which compre- hends a description of the works of na- ture, particularly of animals, plants and minerals ; a history of animals, or zoolog/ ; a history of plants.

    5. An account of the origin, life and actions of an individual person. We say, we have a concise history of the prisoner in the tes- timony offered to the court.

    A formal written account of an indi- vidual's life, is called hiographi/.

    HIS'TORY-PIECE, n. A representation of any remarkable event in painting, which exhibits the actors, their actions, and the attending events to the eye, by figures drawn to the life. Thi.s sj)ecies of paint- ing is called historical painting.

    HIS'TRION, n. A player. [Aof in use.]


    HISTRION'l€, } „ [L. histrixinicus,

    HISTRION'ICAL, I "" from histrio, a buffoon, an actor, or stage-player.]

    Pertaining to a buffoon or comedian, or to a pantomime, who represents events or characters by gestures and dancing ; be- longing to stage-playing ; befitting a thea- ter ; theatrical. Johnson. Enci/c.

    HISTRIONICALLY, adv. In the manner of a buffoon or pantomime; theatricallv.

    HIS'TRIONISM, n. The acts or practice of buffoons or pantomimes ; stage-playing. Southey.

    HIT, V. t. pret. and pp. hit. [Sw. hitta, Dan. hitter, to find, to meet, that is, to come to, to come or fall on. This word illustrates the signification offnd.]

    1. To strike or touch, either with or without force. We hit a thing with the finger, or with the head ; a cannon ball hits a mast, or a wall.

    2. To strike or touch a mark with any thing directed to that object ; not to miss.

    The archers hit him. 1 .Sam. xxxi.

    3. To reach ; to attain to. Birds learning tunes, and their enileavors to

    hit the notes right — Locke.

    To suit ; to be conformable. — Melancholy, Whose saintly visage is too bright To hit the sense of human sight. .Milton.

    To strike ; to touch properly ; to offer the right bait.

    There you hit him — that argument never fails with him. Dryden.

    To hit off, to strike out ; to determine luck- ily. Temple. 2. To represent or describe exactly. To hit out, to perform by good luck. [IJit- tle used.] Spenser. HIT, V. i. To strike ; to meet or come in contact; to clash; followed by ag-atnsi or on.

    If bodies be mere extension, how can they move and hit one against another. Locke.

    H I T

    Corpuscles meeting with or hitting on those bodies, become conjoined with them.

    H'oodward. 9. To meet or fall on by good luck : to suc- roed by accident ; not to miss. And oft it hits Where hope is coldest, and despair most fits. Shak. n. To strike or reach the intended point ; to succeed.

    And millions miss for one that hits. Swijl. To hit on or upon, to light on ; to come to or fall on by chance ; lo meet or find, as by accident.

    None of them hit upon the art. Addison. HIT, 71. A striking against ; the collision of one body against another ; the stroke or blow that touches any thing. So he the famed Cilieian fencer prais'd. And at each hit with wonder seems amaz'd.

    Dryden. S. A chance ; a casual event ; as a lucky hit.

    3. A hicky chance: a fortunate event.


    4. A term in back-gannnon. Three hits are equal to a gammon.

    HITCH, v.t. [Ar. ^L^. to hitch along ; W hecian, to halt, hop, or limp, or hidmv, to .snap, to catch suddenly. Both may be of one family.] 1. To move by jerks, or with stops ; as, m colloquial language, to hitch along. Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time Slides in a verse, or hitches in a rhyme. Pope

    1. To become entangled ; to be caught or hooked. South

    3. To hit the legs together in going, as horses. [JVot used in the U. States.]

    4. To hop ; to spring on one leg. [Local]


    5. To move or walk. Grose HITCH, V. t. To hook ; to catch by a hook

    as, to hitch a bridle. 9. To fasten by hitching; as, to hitch ahorse

    by a bridle, or to hitch him to a post

    JVeu) England. HITCH, n. A catch; any thing that holds,

    as a hook; an impediment.

    2. The act of catching, as on a hook, &c.

    3. In seamen''s language, a knot or noose in a rope for fastening it to a ring or other object ; as a clove hitch ; a timber hitch, &c. ^I

    4. A stop or sudden halt in walking or moving.

    HITCH'ED, pp. Caught ; hooked ; fast- ened.

    HITCH' EL, V. t. To hatchel. [JVot used. See Hatchet.]

    HITHE, n. [Sax. hyth.] A port or sinall haven ; as in Queenhithe, and Lamhhithe. now Lambeth. [English.]

    HITH'ER, arfi'. [Sax. hither or hider; Goth, hidre ; Dan. hid ; Sw. hit]

    1. To this place; used with verbs signifying motion ; as, to come hither ; to proceed hither ; to bring hither.

    2. Hither and thither, to this place and that.

    3. To this point ; to this argument or topic to this end. [Little used and not to be en- couraged.]

    Hither we refer whatever belongs to the high

    est perfection of man. Hooker.

    HITH'ER, a. Nearest ; towards the person

    speaking ; as on the hither side of a hill

    the hither end of the budding.

    H O A

    HITH'ERMOST, a. Nearest on this side.

    Hale. HITH'ERTO, adv. To this time ; yet.

    The Lord hath blessed me hitherto. Josh, xvii.

    In any time, or every time till now ; in time preceding the present.

    More ample spirit than hitherto was wont.

    Spenser. 3. To this place; to a prescribed limit.

    Hitherto shall thou come, but no further. Job xxxviii. HITH'ERWARD, }. This way; to- HITH'ERWARDS, S wards this place.

    A puissant and mighty power — Is marching hitherward in proud array.


    illVE, n. [Sax.hvfe; Eth. +

    1. A box, chest or kind of basket for the ception and habitation of a swarm of honey-bees. It is made of boards, straw or other materials.

    2. A swarm of bees ; or the bees inhabiting a hive. Shak

    3. A company or society together, or closely connected. [Unusual.] Surijl.

    HIVE, v./. To collect into a hive; to cause to enter a hive ; as, to hive bees.

    Dryden. Mortimer 2. To contain; to receive, as a habitation, or place of deposit.

    Where all delicious sweets are hived.

    Cleaveland. HIVE, V. i. To take shelter or lodgings to- gether ; to reside in a collective body.


    HIVED, p;>. Lodged in a hive or shelter.

    HI'VER, ji. One that collects bees into a

    hive. Mortimer.

    HIVES, n. [Scot. Q,u.heave.] A disease, the

    croup, or cynanche trachealis; rattles. HO, exclam. A word used by teamsters, to stop their teams. It has been nsed as noun, for stop, moderation, bounds. There is no ho with them.

    Dekker. Green. This word is pronounced also icho.

    . , [L. eho.] A call to excite exclam. y^gmiQi,^ q,. jq giyg notice

    HO, HO A,

    of a

    What noise there, ho 7 Shak

    Hoa, who's within ? Shak.

    HOAR, a. [Sax. har; Heb. Cli. Syr. Ar. Iin

    white.] L White; as Aoar frost ; Aoor cliffs.

    Thomson. 2. Gray ; white with age ; hoary ; as a mat- ron grave and hoar. Spenser. HOAR, n. Hoariness; antiquity. Burke. HOAR, V. i. To become moldy or musty,

    [Little used.] HOAR-FROST, n. The white panicles of

    ice formed by the congelation of dew or

    watery vapors. HOARD, n. [Sax. hord, from gathering,

    hiding, or depositing.] A store,"stock or large quantity of any thing

    accumulated or laid up ; a hidden stock ;

    a treasure ; as a hoard of provisions for

    winter ; a hoard of money. I Shak. Woodward.


    HOARD, V. t. To collect and lay up a largp quantity of any thing ; to amass and de- posit in secret ; to store secretly ; as, to hoard grain or provisions ; to hoard silver and gold. Dryden

    It is sometimes followed by up, bii* without use ; as, to hoard up provisions.

    HOARD, V. i. To collect and form a hoard , to lay up store.

    Nor cared to hoard for those whom he did breed. Spenser.

    HOARDED, pp. Collected and laid up in store.

    HOARDER, n. One who lays up in store ; one who accumulates and keeps in secret.

    HOARDING, ppr. Laying up in store.

    2. a. Instinctively collecting and laying up provisions for winter ; as, the squirrel is a hoarding animal.

    HOARED, o. Moldy; musty. [JVot in use.]

    HOARHOUND. [See Horehound.]

    HOARINESS, n. [from hoary.] The state of being white, whitish or gray ; as the hoariness o( the hair or head of old men.

    HOARSE, a. Ivors. [Syr. uB^*/ to be rough or hoarse.]

    1. Having a harsh, rough, grating voice, as when affected with a cold.

    2. Rough ; grating ; discordant ; as the voice, or as any soimd. We say, the hoarse ra- ven ; the hoarse resounding shore.


    HOARSELY, adv. With a rough, harsh,

    grating voice or sound. Dryden,

    HOARSENESS, n. Harshness or roughness

    of voice or sound ; preternatural asperity

    of voice. Arhulhnot.

    HOARY, n. [See Hoar.] White or whitish ;

    as the hoary willows. Addison.

    White or gray with age ; as hoary hairs ;

    a hoai-y head.

    Reverence the Aoar^ head. Duiight.

    Moldy ; mossy, or covered with a white pubescence. Botany.

    HOAX, n. [Sax. hucse, or hucx, contempt, irony, derision ; or W. hoced, cheat, deceit, juggle, trick.] Something done for deception or mockery ;

    a trick played off in sport. HOAX, V. t. To deceive ; to play a trick upon for sport, or without malice. [A col- loquial word, but not elegant.] HOB, I [Dan. hob, a heap ; or W. hoh, HUB, S "■ that which swells.] The nave of a wheel ; a solid piece of timber in which the spokes are inserted.

    Washington. HOB, n. A clown ; a fairy. HOB'BISM, n. The principles of the scep- tical Thomas Hobbes. Skelton. HOB'BIST, n. A follower of Hobbes. HOB'BLE, v.i. [W. hobelu, to hop, to hobble. See Hop.] To walk lamely, bearing chiefly on one

    L ^- ••■• ., „^

    leg ; to limp ; to walk with a hitch or hop, or with crutches.

    The friar was hobbling the same way too.


    2. To walk awkwardly, as when the feet are encumbered with a clog, or with fet- ters.

    3. To move roughly or irregularly, as verse.

    While you Pindaric truths rehearse, She hobbles in alternate verse. Prior.

    IhOB'BLE, V. t. To perplex. [jVot in use.]


    II O G

    H O I

    HOB'BLE, II. All unequal halting gait ; an

    encumbered awkward step.

    He has a hobble in his gait. Swij

    2. Difficulty ; perplexity. HOB'BLEDEHOy, n. A cant phrase for

    boy at the age of puberty. Swift.

    IIOB'BLER, n. One that hobbles. IIOB'BLER, rt. [from hobby.] One who by

    his tenure was to maintain a hobby for

    military service ; or one who served as a

    soldier on a hobby with light armor.

    Encyc. Davies. HOB'BLING, ppr. Walking with a halting

    or interrupted step. HOB'BLINGLY, adv. With a limping or

    interrupted step. HOB'BY, n. [W. hobel, what stops or starts

    suddenly ; Arm. hoberell ; Fr. hobereau.] A kind of hawk ; a hawk of the lure.

    Encyc. HOB'BY, n. [Norm. Fr. hobyn, and allied

    to the preceding.]

    1. A strong active horse, of a middle size, said to have been originally from Ireland ; a xiag ; a pacing horse ; a garran.

    Johnson. Encyc.

    2. A stick, or figure of a horse, on which boys ride.

    3. Any favorite object ; that which a person pursues with zeal or delight.

    4. A stupid fellow. HOB'BYHORSE, n. [tautolo^cal] A hob- by; a wooden horse on which boys ride.

    2. A character in the old May games.


    3. A stupid or foolish person. Shafc.

    4. The favorite object of pursuit. HOB'GOBLIN, n. [probably W. hob, hop,

    and goblin.] A fairy ; a frightful appari- tion.

    HO'BIT, n. [Sp. hobus ; G. haubitze.] A small mortar, or sliort gun for throwing bombs. [See Howitzer, the common or- thography.]

    HOB'LIKE, a. Clownish ; boorish.


    HOB'NAIL, n. [G. hufnagel, hoof-nail.] A nail with a thick strong head, for shoeing horses. Shalt.

    2. A clownish person ; in contempt. Milton.

    HOB'NAILED, a. get with hobnails; rough. Dryden.

    HOB'NOB, adv. [Qu. Sax. Imhhan, nccbban, have, not have.]

    Take, or not take ; a familiar invitation to reciprocal drinking. Shak

    Hobson's choice, a vulgar proverbial expres- sion, denoting without an alternative. It is said to have had its origin in the name ofapferson who let horses and coaches, and obliged every customer to take in his turn that horse which stood next the sta- ble door. Encyc.

    HOBOY. [See Hautboy.]

    HOCK, n. [Sax. hoh. See Hough.] The joint of an animal between the knee and the fetlock. Johnson.

    2. A part of the thigh.

    HOCK, I , To hamstring; to hougl

    HOCK'LE, j ^- '■ to disable by cutting the tendons of the ham.

    HOCK, n. [from Hochheim, in Germany.] A sort of Rhenish wine ; sometimes called hockamore. Mortimer

    HOCK'DAY, ( High day ; a day of feast-

    HO'KEUAY, ^"ing and mirth, formerly held in England the second Tuesday af- ter Easter, to commemorate the destruc- tion of the Danes in the time of Ethelred. E7icyc.

    IIOCK'EY, n. [G. hoch, Sax. hcah, high. Qu.] Harvest-home. [JVot usfrf.]

    HOCK'HERB, n. A plant, the mallows.


    HOCK'LE, V. t. To hamstring. Hanmer. To mow. Mason.

    HOCUS POeUS, a. [VV. hoced, a cheat or trick, and perhaps bivg or pwca, a hob- goblin.]

    A juggler ; a juggler's trick ; a cheat used by conjurers. Hudibras.

    HO€USPOeUS, V. t. To cheat.

    L' Estrange.

    HOD, n. [Fr. holle.] A kind of tray for car- rying mortar and brick, used in bricklay- ing. It is fitted with a handle and borne on the shoulder.

    HOD'DY-DODDY, n. An awkward or fool- .-ih person. Obs. B. Jonson.

    HODuE-PODLiE, I „ [Qr. Fr. hocher, to

    HOTCH-POTCH, S "• shake, or hachis, minced meal.]

    A mixed mass; a medley of ingredients. \\Vtdgar.] [See Hotchpot.]

    HODIERN'AL, a. [L. hodiernus,{vomhodie, hoc die, this day.] Of this day ; belonging' to the present day. j

    HOD'MAN, )i. A man who carries a hod ;' a mason's tender. I

    HOD'MANDOD, n. A shell-fisli, otherwise called dodman. Bacon.

    A shell-snail. j

    HOE, ji. ho. [G. haue ; Svv. hacka, and this' is the Dan. hakke, G. hacke, a mattock ;' Fr. houe. It seems this is from tlie root of hack and hew ; Sax. heawian ; D. houw- en ; G. hacken, Sw. hacka, Dan. hakker, to chop, to hack, to hew ; Fr. houer.]

    A farmer's instrument for cutting up weeds and loosening the earth in fields and gar- dens. It is in shape something like an adz, being a plate of iron, with an eye for a handle, which is set at an acute angle with the plate.

    HOE, V. I. To cut, dig, scrape or clean with a hoe ; as, to hoe the earth in a garden ; to hoe the beds.

    2. To clear from weeds ; as, to hoe maiz ; to hoe cabbages.

    HOE, V. i. To use a hoe. HO'ED, pp. Cleared from weeds, or loos- ened by the hoe.

    HOEING, ppr. Cutting, scraping or dig- ging with a hoe.

    2. Clearing of weeds with a hoe. HO'FUL, a. [Sax. hohfidl, hogfull; hoga,

    care,' and >«/.] Careful. Obs. HOG, n. [W. hu'C, a hog, a push or thrust ; Arm. houch ; probably so named from his snout, or from rooting ; Sp. hocico, the snout of a beast; hocicar, to root.]

    1. A swine; a general name of that species of animal.

    2. hi England, a. castrated sheep of a year old. .1sh.\\

    3. A bullock of a year old. -ish.]

    4. A brutal fellow; one who is mean and filthy.

    5. Among seamen, a. sort of scrubbing-broom

    for scraping a ship's bottom under water.

    Mar. Diet.

    HOG, V. t. To scrape a ship's bottom under water.

    2. [G. hocken.] To carry on the back. [Loral.] Grose.

    3. To cut the hair short, like the bristles of a ig. [Local.]

    HOG, r. i. To bend, so as to resemble in

    sonic degree a hog's back ; as, a ship

    hogs in lunching. HOG'COTE, n. [hog and cote.] A shed or

    house for swine ; a sty. Mortimer.

    HOGGED, pp. Scraped under water. 2. Curving ; having the ends lower than the

    middle. Eton.

    HOG'GEREL, ?i. A sheep of the second

    year. Jlsh.

    A two year old ewe. Ainsworth.

    HOG'GET, n. [Norm, hoget.] A sheep

    two years old. Skinner.

    2. A colt of a year old, called also hog-colt. [Local.] Grose.

    3. A young boar of the second year. Cyc. HOGGISH, a. Having the qualities of a

    hog; brutish; gluttonous; filthy; meanly selfish.

    HOG'GISHLY, adv. In a brutish, glutton- ous or filthv manner.

    HOG'GISHNESS, n. Brutishness; vora- cious greediness in eating ; beastly filthi- ness ; mean selfishness.

    HOGH, n. [See High.] A hill ; a cliff. Obs. Spenser.

    HOG'HERD, n. [hog and herd.] A keeper of swine. Browne.

    HOG'PEN, n. [hog and pen.] A hogsty.

    HOG'-PLUMBTREE, n. A tree of the ge- ts Spondias.

    HOG'-RINGER, n. One whose business is to put rings in the snouts of swine.

    HOG'S-BEANS, n. A plant. Ainsworth.

    HOG'S-FENNEL, n. A plant of the genus Peucedanum.

    HOG'S-MUSHROOMS, n. A plant.


    HOGS'HEAD, n. [D. oxhoofd ; G. oxhoft ; Dan. oxehoved ; Sw. oxhv/vud ; that is, ox- head. The English orthography is grossly corrupt.]

    1. A measure of capacity, containing 63 gal- lons.

    2. In America, this name is often given to a butt, a cask containing from 110 to 120 gallons ; as a hogshead of spirit or me- lasses.

    3. A large cask, of indefinite contents.


    HOG'STY, n. [hog and sty.] A pen or in- closure for hogs.

    HOG'WASH, ji. [hog and wash.] Swill; the refuse matters of a kitchen or brew- ery, or like matter for swine. Arbuthnot.

    HO'HLSPATH, n. The mineral otherwise called made, andchiastolite.

    HOI'DEN, n. [W. hoeden, a flirt, a wanton, a coquet.] A rude, bold girl ; a romp.

    2. A rude, bold man. [Not used in the Uni- ted States.] Milton.

    HOI'DEN, a. Rude ; bold ; inelegant ; rus- tic. Young.

    HOI'DEN, V. i. To romp rudely or inde- cently. Swift.

    11 O L

    H O L

    H O L

    HOIST, v.t. [originally ftoise ; but corrupt- ed, perhaps beyond remedy. G. hissen ; n.hysseii; Sw. hissa ; Dan. hisser ; Fr. isser ; Arm. igza; Sp. izar; Port. ipar. Tliis appears by the German to be radi- cally the same word as heat, which see.]

    1. To raise ; to lift.

    We'll quickly hoist duke Humphrey from his seat. Shak.

    In popular language, it is a word of gen- eral application. But the word has two appropriate uses, one by seamen, and the other by milkmaids, viz.

    2. To raise, to lift or bear upwards by means of tackle ; and to draw up or raise, as a sail along the masts or stays, or as a flag, though by a single block only. Hoist the main-sail. Hoist the flag. Mar. Diet.

    3. To lift and move the leg backwards ; a word of command used by milkmaids to cows, when they wish them to lift and set back the right leg.

    HOIST, n. In maiine language, the perpen- dicular highth of a flag or ensign, as op- posed to the fiy, or breadth from the staff to the outer edge. Eneyc.

    HOIST'ED, pp. Raised; lifted; drawn up.

    HOIST'ING, »;>/•. Raising; lifting.

    HOITY TOITY, an e.xclamation, denoting surprise or disapprobation, with some de- gree of contempt.

    Hoity toity, what have I to do with dreams ? Congreve. [Qu. Ice. hauta, to leap.]

    HOLC'AD, n. [Gr. o5ixa«i.or.] In ancient Greece, a large ship of burden. Milford.

    HOLD, V. t. pret. AeW ; pp. held. HoUlen obsolete inelegant writing. [Sax. /leaWa G.halten; D. houden, I suppressed; Sw. halla; Dan. holder; Gr. xu>.vu, to hold or restrain ; Heb. "jO, to hold or contain ; Ch. and Syr. to measure, that is, to limit ; sSa to confine, restrain, or shut up ; Ch Syr. id ; Ar. iV Sj to keep, guard or preserve ; Ch. '73N, to take, also to eat, to roar, to thunder. See CaW. The primary sense is, to press, to strain. Class Gl. No. 18. 32. 36. 40.]

    1. To stop ; to confine ; to restrain from es- cape ; to keep fast ; to retain. It rarely or never signifies the first act of seizing or falling on, but the act of retaining a thing when seized or confined. To grasp. is to seize, or to keep fast in the hand ; hold coincides with grasp in the latter sense, but not in the former. We hold a horse by means of a bridle. An anchor holds a sliip in her station.

    2. To embrace and confine, with bearing or lifting. We hold an orange in the hand, or a child in the arms.

    •3. To connect; to keep from separation.

    The loops held one curtain to another. Ex. xxxvi.

    4. To maintain, as an opinion. He holds the doctrine of justification by free grace.

    5. To consider ; to regard ; to think ; to judge, that is, to liave in the mind.

    I hold him but a fool. Shah

    The Lord will not hold him guiUless, that ta-

    keth his name in vain. Ex. xx.

    G. To contain, or to have capacity to receive

    and contain. Here is an empty basket

    tliat holds two bushels. This empty cask

    holds thirty gallons. The church holds two thousand people. . To retain within itself; to keep from run ning or flowing out. A vessel with holei in its bottom will not hold fluids.

    8. To defend ; to keep possession ; to main-

    With what arms We mean to hold what anciently we claim Of empire. Milton

    9. To have ; as, to hold a place, office oi title.

    10. To have or possess by title ; as, he held his lands of the king. The estate is held by copy of court-roll.

    IL To refrain ; to stop ; to restrain ; to with

    Hold your laughter. Hold your

    h«l( tongue. Death ! what do'st .' O, hold thy blow.


    12. To keep ; as, hold your peace.

    13. To fix ; to confine ; to compel to ob- serve or fulfill ; as, to hold one to his

    The Most H\\^h—held still the flood till they had passed. 2 Esdras.

    15. To confine ; to bind ; in a legal or mora! sense. He is held to perform his cov nants.

    16. To maintain ; to retain ; to continue.

    But still he held his purpose to depart.


    17. To keep in continuance or practice. And Night and Chaos, ancestors of nature, AoW Eternal anarchy. Milton.

    18. To continue ; to keep ; to prosecute or curry on.

    Seed-time and harvest, heat and hoary frost. Shall hold their course. Mdton.

    19. To have in session ; as, to hold a court ot parliament; to hold a council.

    20. To celebrate ; to solemnize ; us, to hold a feast.

    21. To maintain ; to sustain ; to have in use or exercise ; as, to hold an argument or debate.

    22. To sustain ; to support. Thy right hand shall hold me. Ps. cxxxix.

    23. To carry ; to wield.

    Thev all hold swords, being expert in wi Cant. iii.

    24. To maintain ; to observe in practice.

    Ye hold the traditions of men. Mark vii.

    25. To last; to endure. The provisions w' hold us, till we arrive in port. So we say, the provisions will last us ; but the phrase is elliptical for will hold or last for us, the verb being intransitive.

    To hold forth, to offer ; to exhibit ; to pro- pose.

    Observe the connection of ideas in the prop- ositions whieh books hold forth and pretend to teach. Locke.

    2. To reach forth ; to put forward to view. Cheyne.

    To hold in, to restrain ; to curb ; to govern by the bridle. Sieift.

    2. To restrain in general ; to check ; to re- press. Honker.

    To hold off, to keep at a distance. Pope.

    To hold on, to continue or proceed in ; as, to hold on a course.

    To hold out, to extend ; to stretch forth.

    2. To propose ; to offer. Fortune holds out these to you as rewards.

    B. Jonaon.

    3. To continue to do or suffer.

    He cannot long hold out these pangs. [JVot

    "se"*] Shak.

    To hold up, to raise ; as, hold up your head.

    2. To sustain ; to support. He AoWs himself «/) in virtue. Sidney.

    3. To retain ; to withhold.

    4. To offer ; to exhibit. He held up to view the prospect of gain.

    5. To sustain ; to keep from falling.

    To hold one''s own, to keep good one's pres- ent condition ; not to fall off, or to lose ground. In seamen's language, a ship holds her own, when she sails as fast as another ship, or keeps her course.

    To hold, is used by the Irish, for to lay, as a bet, to wager. I hold a crown, or a dol- lar ; but this is a vulgar use of the word.

    HOLD, V. i. To be true ; not to fail ; to stand, as a fact or truth. This is a sound argument in many cases, but does not hold in the case under consideration.

    The mle holds in lands as well as in other things. Locke.

    In this application, we often say, to hold true, to hold good. The argument holds good in both cases. This holds true in most cases.

    2. To continue unbroken or unsubdued.

    Our force by land halh nobly held. [Little ^ «»«<'•] Shak.

    3. To last ; to endure. Bacon.

    We now say, to hold out.

    4. To continue.

    While our obedience holds. Milton.

    5. To be fast ; to be firm ; not to give way, or part. The rope is strong ; I believe it will hold. The anchor holds well.

    6. To refrain.

    His dauntless heart would fain have held From weeping. Dryden.

    7. To stick or adhere. The plaster will not hold.

    To hold forth, to speak in public ; to har- angue ; to preach; to proclaim.

    V Estrange.

    To hold in, to restrain one's self He was tempted to laugh; he could hardly hold

    2. To continue in good luck. [Unusual.]

    Smfl. To hold off, to keep at a distance ; to avoid

    connection. To hold of, to be dependent on ; to derive title from.

    My crown is absolute and holds o/none.

    Dryden. To hold on, to continue ; not to bo interrupt-

    The trade held on many years. Swift.

    a. To keep fast hold ; to cling to.

    3. To proceed in a course. Job xvii.

    To hold out, to last ; to endure ; to continue.

    A consumptive constitution may hold out

    a few years. He will accomphsh the

    work, if his strength holds out. ■?. Not to yield ; not to surrender ; not to be

    subdued. The garrison still held out. To hold to, to cling or cleave to ; to adhere. Else he will hold to the one, and despise the

    other. Matt. vi.

    H O L

    To hold under, or from, to have title from ; as petty barons holding undtr the greater barons.

    To hold with, to adhere to ; to side with ; to stand up for. ]

    To hold plotv, to direct or steer a plow by the hands, in tillage.

    To hold together, to be joined ; not to sepa- rate ; to remain in union.



    To hold up, to support one's self; as, to hold up under misfortunes,

    2. To cea; weather ui) ; it will hold up.

    3. To CI

    rainmg ; to cease, used impersonally.

    continue the same speed ; move as fast.

    IS falling It holds

    But we now say, to keep up.

    liiyi wager.

    To hold a wager

    , to stake or to hazard


    Hold, used imperatively, signifies stop

    cease; forbear; be still. HOLD, n. A grasp with the hand ; an em brace with the arms ; any act or exertioi of the strength or limbs which keeps ; thing fast and prevents escape. Keej) vour hold ; never quit your hold.

    It is much used after the verbs to lake and to lay ; to take hold, or to lay hold, is to seize. It is used in a literal sense as to take hold with the hands, with the arms, or with the teeth ; or in a figurative sense.

    Sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants ol Palestina. Ex. xv.

    Take fast hold of instruction. Prov. iv. My soul took hold on thee. Mdilisoii

    % Something which may be seized for sup port ; that which supports.

    If a man be upon a liigh place, without a good hold, he is ready to fall. Bacon,

    3. Power of keeping.

    On your vigor now, My hold of this new kingdom all depends.


    4. Power of seizing.

    The law hath yet another hold on you.


    5. A prison ; a place of confinement.

    They laid hands on them, and put them in hold till the next day. Acts iv.

    6. Custody ; safe keeping.

    King 'Richard, he is in the mighty hold Of Bolingbroke. Shak

    7. Power or influence operating on the mind ; advantage that may be employed in directing or persuading another, or in governing his conduct.

    Fear — by which God and his laws take the surest liold of us. Tdlotson.

    Gives fortune no more hold of him than is

    necessary. Dryden.

    8. Lurking place ; a place of security ; as the hold of a wild beast.

    9. A fortified place; a fort ; a castle; oftei called a strong hold. Jer. li.

    10. The whole interior cavity of a ship, be tween the floor and the lower deck. In i vessel of one deck, the whole interior space from the keel or floor to the deck. That part of the hold which hes abaft the the main-mast is called the after-hold; that part immediately before the main- njast, the main-hold : that part about the fore-hatchway, ihc fore-hold. Mar. Diet.

    11. In mH.yic, a mark directing the performer to rest on the note over which it is placed. It is called also a pawe.

    H O L

    HOLDBACK, n. Hinderance ; restraint.


    HOLDER, n. One who holds or grasps in hand, or embraces with his arms.

    2. A tenant ; one who holds land under an- other. Carew.

    3. Sonjething by which a thing is held.

    4. One who owns or possesses; as a holder of stock, or shares in a joint concern,

    5. In ships, one who is employed in the hold.

    Mar. Did.

    HOLDEllFORTH, >i. A haranguer ; a preacher. Hudibras.

    HOLDFAST, n. A thing that takes hold ; a catch ; a hook. Ray.

    HOLDING, ppr. Stopping; confining; re- straining; keeping; retaining; adhering maintaining, &c.

    HOLDING, n. A tenure ; a farm held of a superior. Careio.

    The burden or chorus of a song. Shak

    3. Hold ; influence ; power over. Burke

    HOLE, n. [Sax. hoi ; G. hohle ; D. hoi ; Dan. hul,hule; Sw. hal; Basque, chiloa ; Gr.

    xoiXaj, xoaoj. Qu. Ileb. Sn or Ar. ^, Class Gl. No. 20. 23.]

    cavity in any solid

    1. A hollow place body, of any shape or dimensions, natura or artificial. It may difter from a rent or fissure in being wider. A cell ; a den cave or cavern in the earth ; an tion in a rock or tree; a pit, &c. Ezek. viii. Nah. ii. Matt. viii.

    2. A perforation ; an aperture ; an opening in or through a solid body, left in the work or made by an instrument.

    Jchoida took a chest, and bored a hole lid of it. 2 Kings xii.

    3. A mean habitation ; a narrow or dark lodging. Dryden

    4. An opening or means of escape ; a sub- terfuge ; in the vulgar phrase, he has a hole to creep out at

    Ann-hole, the arm-pit ; the cavity under the shoulder of a person. Bacon

    2. An opening in a garment for the arm.

    HOLE, V. i. To go into a hole.

    B. Jonson.

    HOLE, I', t. To cut, dig or make a hole or holes in ; as, to hole a post for the inser- tion of rails or bars.

    2. To drive into a bag, as in billiards.

    HOLIBUT. [See Halibut.]

    HO'LIDAM, n. [holy and dame.] Blessed la- dy ; an ancient oath. Hanmer

    HOLIDAY. [See Holydaij.]

    HO'LILY, adv. [i'vom holy.] Piously; with sanctity.

    2. Sacredly ; inviolably \\ without breach [Little used.] Shak. Sidney.

    HO'LINESS, n. [from holy.] The state oi being holy ; purity or integrity of moral character ; Ireedom from sin ; sanctity Applied to the Supreme Being, holiness de- notes perfect purity or integrity of moral character, one of his essential attributes. Who is like thee, glorious in holiness ? Ex.

    2. Applied to human beings, holiness is purity of heart or dispositions ; sanctified affec- tions ; piety ; moral goodness, but not perfect.

    We see piety and holiness ridiculed as mo- rose singularities. Sogers

    n o L

    3. Sacredness ; the state of any thing hal- lowed, or consecrated to God or to his worship ; applied to churches or temples.

    4. That which is separated to the service of God.

    Israel was holiness unto the Lord. Jer. ii.

    5. A title of the pope, and formerly of the Greek etnperors. Encyc.

    HO'LING-AX, n. A narrow ax for cutting

    holes in posts. HOL'LA. \\ ^_,,_„ A word used in calling. HOLLO' A, \\ "^"'""- Among seamen, it is the

    answer to one that hails, equivalent to, I

    hear, and am ready. HOLLA, \\ . [Sax. ahlowan.] To call out IHOL'LO, ^ ^- '• or exclaim. [See HaUoo.] IHOL'LAND, n. Fine linen manufactured in

    Holland. IHOL'LANDER, n. A native of Holland. iHOL'LEN, n. [See Holly.] HOL'LOW, a. [Sax. Ao/; G.hohl; D.hol;

    Sw. htUig ; Dan. huled ; Ann. goulh, or

    hoiUlu, emptied. Sec Hole.]

    1. Containing an empty space, natural or artificial, within a solid substance ; not solid ; as a hollow tree ; a hollow rock ; a hollow sphere.

    Hollow with boards shall thou make it. Ex. xxvii.

    2. Sunk deep in the orbit ; as a hollow eye. i3. Deep ; low ; resembling sound reverbe- I rated from a cavity, or designating such a I sound ; as a hollow roar. Dryden. 4. Not sincere or faithful ; false ; deceitful ;

    not sound ; as a hollow heart ; a hollow friend. Milton. Shak.

    Hollow spar, the mineral called also chias- tolite.

    HOL'LOW, n. A cavity, natural or artifi- cial; any depression of surface in a bod}' ; concavity; as the holloio of the hand.

    2. A place excavated ; as the hollow of a tree.

    3. X cave or cavern ; a den ; a hole ; a broad open space in any thing. Shak. Prior.

    4. A pit. Addison.

    5. Open space of any thing ; a groove ; a channel ; a canal. Addison.

    HOL'LOW, V. t. [Sax. holian.] To make liollow, as by digging, cutting, or engra-. ving ; to excavate.

    jtced did the waves sus- Dryden.

    HOL'LOW, V. i. To shout. [See HoUa and Hollo.] Dryden. Addison.

    HOLLOWED, pp. Made hollow ; excava- ted.

    HOL'LOW-EVED, a. Having sunken eyes.

    HOLLOW-HEARTED, a. Insincere ; de- ceitful ; not sound and true; of practice or sentiment different from profession.


    HOLLOWING, ppr. Making hoUow ; ex-

    I cavating.

    HOLLOWLY, adv. Insincerely ; deceit- fully. Shak.

    HOL'LOWNESS, n. The state of being hollow ; cavity ; depression of surface ;

    I excavation. Bacon.

    j2. Insincerity ; deceitfulness ; treachery.

    I South.

    HOL'LOW-RQQT, n. A plant, tuberous moschatel, or inglorious, constituting the genus Adoxa ; a low plant, whose leaves and flowers smell like musk ; hence it is

    I sometimes called musk-crowfoot. Encyc.

    n o L

    H O 31

    H O M

    nOL'LY, n. [Sax. holegn ; D. hulst ; per- Iiaps L. ilex, for hilex. la Welsli, the cor- responding word is celyn, from the root of celu, to conceal, L. celo. The i7ex- in Sw is called iron oak.] The holm tree, of the genus Ilex, of several species. The common holly grows from 20 to 30 feet high ; the stem by age be comes large, and is covered with a gray ish smooth bark, and set with branches which form a sort of cone. The leaves are oblong oval, of a lucid green on the upper surface, but j)ale on the under sur- face ; the edges are indented and waved,! with sharp thorns terminating each of tlie points. The flowers grow in clusters and are succeeded by roundish berries, which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas. This tree is a beautiful evergreen.


    Knee-Holly, a plant, the butcher's broom, of the genus Ruscus.

    Sea- Holly, a plant, of the genus Eryngium.

    HOL'LYHOCK, n. [Sax. holihoc] A plant of the genus Alcea, bearing flowers of va- rious colors. It is called also rose-malloio.

    HOL'LYROSE, n. A plant. Tate.

    HOLM, )i. The evergreen oak ; the ilex.

    2. An islet, or river isle.

    3. A low flat tract of rich land on the banks of a river. Cyc.j

    HOLM'ITE, n. A variety of carbonate of lime ; so called from Mr. Holme, who an- alyzed it. Cleaveland.

    IIOL'OCAUST, n. [Gr. oxoj. whole, and xottiyof, burnt, from xatw, to burn.]

    A burnt-sacrifice or offering, the whole of which was consumed by fire ; a species of sacrifice in use among the Jews and some pagan nations. Ray. Encyc.

    HOL'OGRAPH, n. [Gr. 0X05, whole, and ypafu, to write.]

    A deed or testament written wholly by the grantor's or testator's own hand. Encyc.

    HOLOGRAPH'IC, a. Written wholly by the grantor or testator himself

    HOLOM'ETER, n. [Gr. 0X05, all, and t^i- ■epcu, to measure.]

    An instrument for taking all kinds of meas- ures, both on the earth and in the heav- ens; a pantometer. Cyc.

    HOLP, HOLPEN, the antiquated pret. and pp. othelp.

    HOLSTER, n. [Sax. heolster, a hiding place or recess ; Port, coldre ; from holding, or concealing, L. celo. Sax. helan.]

    A lethern case for a pistol, carried by a horseman at the fore part of his saddle.

    BOLSTERED, a. Bearing holsters; as a holstered steed. Byron.

    HOLT, n. [Sax. holt, h: coillte, \\V. cettt, a wood, from the root of Sax. helan, L. celo, W. celu, to hide, to keep close ; a word re- tained in names.]

    A wood or woodland ; obsolete, except in poetry. Draytoyi. Browne.

    IIO'LY, a. [Sax. Wig-, • G. D. heilig; Sw. helig ; Uan. heilig ; from the root of heal, hold, whole, and all ; Sax. hal, G. heil, D. heel, Sw. hel, Dan. heel, whole. See Heal and Hold, and Class Gl. No. 31, 35. 42 The sense is whole, entire, complete, sound, unimpaired.] L Properly, whole, entire or perfect, in a moral sense. Hence, pure in heart, tem-

    per or dispositions ; free from sin and sin- ful affections. Applied to the Suprenif Being, holy signifies perfectly pure, im maculate and complete in moral charac- ter ; and man is more or less lioly, as his heart is more or less sanctified, or purified from e\\\\l dispositions. We call a man holy, when his heart is conformed in some degree to the image of God, and his life it regulated by the divine precepts. Hence holy is used as nearly synonymous witl good, pious, godly. Be ye holy ; for I am holy. 1 Pet. i.

    2. Hallowed ; consecrated or set apart to a sacred use, or to the service or worship of God ; a sense frequent in Scripture ; ai the holy sabbath ; holy oil ; holy vessels ; j holy nation ; the holy temple ; a holy priest hood.

    3. Proceeding from pious princii)les, or di- rected to pious purposes ; as holy zeal.

    4. Perfectly just and good; as the holy law of God.

    5. Sacred ; as a lioly witness. Shak. Holy of holies, in Scripture, the innerr

    apartment of the Jewish tabernacle or temple, where the ark was kept, and where no person entered, except the higli priest, once a year.

    Holy Ghost, or Holy Spirit, the Divine Spirit ; the third person in the Trinity ; the sanc- tifier of souls.

    Holy war, a war undertaken to rescue the holy land, the ancient Judea, from the in- fidels ; a crusade ; an expedition carried on by christians against the Saracens in the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth cen turies; a war carried on in a most tin holy manner.

    HOLY-CROSS day, n. The fourteenth of September.

    HOL'YDAY, n. A day set apart for com- memorating some important event in his- tory ; a festival intended to celebrate some event deemed auspicious to the welfare of a nation ; particularly an anniversary fest val, devoted to religious solemnities ; as Christmas holydays.

    2. A day of joy and gayety. Shak.

    3. A day of exemption from labor ; a day of amusement. Chesterfield.

    HOL'YDAY, a. Pertaining to a festival ; as

    holyday suit of clothes. HOLY-ONE, n. An appellation of the Su- preme Being, by way of emphasis.

    2. An appellation of Christ. Is. xhii.

    3. One separated to the service of God. Deut. xxxiii.

    HOLY-ROOD day, n. A festival observed by Roman Catholics in memory of the ex- altation of our Savior's cross. Encyc.

    HO'LY-THISTLE, Ji. A plant of the genus Cnicus.

    The blessed thistle, Centaurea henedicta.


    HOLY -THURSDAY, n. The day on which the ascension of our Savior is commemo- rated, ten days before Whitsuntide.


    HO'LY-WEEK, n. The week before Eas ter, in which the passion of our Savior is commemorated. Johnson

    HOM'A6E, n. [Fr. hommage ; Sp. home- nage ; It. omaggio ; from L. homo, man.]

    1. In feudal law, the submission, loyalty auci

    j service which a tenant promised to hi^ lord or superior, when first admitted to

    I the land which he held of him in fee ; or rather the act of the tenant in making this submission, on being invested with the fee. The ceremony of doing homage was thus performed. The tenant, being ungirt and uncovered, kneeled and held up both his hands between those of the lord, who sat before him, and there professed that " he did become his man, from that day forth,

    I of life and limb and earthly honor," and then received a kiss from his lord.

    i Blackstone.

    ,2. Obeisance; respect paid by external ac- tion. Go, go, with homage yon proud victors meet. Dryden.

    3. Reverence directed to the Supreme Be- ing ; reverential worship ; devout affec- tion.

    HOM'AgE, v. t. To pay respect to by ex- ternal action ; to give reverence to ; to profess fealty.

    HOM'AgEABLE, a. Subject to homage.


    HOM'AGER, n. One who does homage, or holds land of another by homage.


    Homherg^s Pyrophorus, ignited muriate of lime. Ure.

    HOME, n. [Sax. ham; G. D. heim; Sw. hem ; Dan. hiem ; Gr. xu/uij ; properly, a house, a close place, or place of rest. Hence hamlet, Fr. hameau. Arm. hamell. The primary sense is probably to inclose, to cover, or to make fast. Derivatives in G. D. Sw. and Dan. signify secret, close ; and we say, to bring /tome arguments, that is, press them close ; to drive home a nail, &c. If the radical sense is close, it may

    be from the same root

    Ar. cs.^r

    kamai, to cover. See Chimistry, and Class Gm. No. 7. 9. 20. 23.]

    1. A dwelling house ; the house or place in which one resides. He was not at home.

    Then the disciples went away again to their own home. John xx.

    Home is the sacred refuge of our life.


    2. One's own country. Let affairs at home be well managed by the administration.

    3. The place of constant residence ; the seat. Flandria, by plenty, made the home of war.


    4. The grave ; death ; or a future state. Man goeth to his long home. Eccles. sii.

    5. The present state of existence.

    Whilst we are at home in the body, we are

    absent from the Lord. 2 Cor. v. HOME, a. Close ; severe ; poignant ; as a

    home thrust. HOME, adv. [This is merely elliptical ; to

    being omitted.]

    1. To one's own habitation ; as in the phra- ses, go home, come home, bring home, carry home.

    2. To one's own country. Home is opposed to abroad, or in a foreign country. My brother will return home in the first ship from India.

    3. Close ; closely ; to the point ; as, this con- sideration comes home to our interest, that

    H O M

    is, it nearly affects it. Drive the nail home; that is, drive it close. To haul home the top-sail sheets, in seamen s language, is to draw the bottom of the top- sail close to the yard-arm by means of the

    An anchor is said to come home, when it loosens from the ground by the violence of the wind or cun-ent, &c.

    HO'MEBORN, o. Native ; natural.


    2. Domestic ; not foreign. Pope.

    IIO'MEBRED, a. Native; natural; ashome- bred lusts. Hammond.

    2. Domestic ; originating at home ; not for- eign ; as homebred evil. Spenser.

    3. Plain ; rude ; artless ; uncultivated ; not polished by travel.

    Only to me two homebred youths belong.


    HO'MEFELT, a. Felt in one's own breast

    inward ; private ; as homefeli joys or de

    Milton. Pope.

    HO'MELESS, a. Destitute of a home. HO'MELINESS, n. [from homely.'] Plain

    ness of features ; want of beauty. It ex

    presses less than ugliness.

    2. Rudeness ; coarseness ; as the homeliness of dress or of sentiments. Addison.

    HO'MELOT, n. An inclosure on or near

    which the mansion house stands. HO'MELY, a. [from home.] Of plain fea- tures ; not handsome ; as a homely face. It expresses less than ugly.

    Let time, which makes you homely, make you wise.

    3. Plain ; like that which is made for com mon domestic use ; rude ; coarse ; not fine or elegant ; as a homely garment ; a homely liouse ; homely fare.

    Now Sticphon daily entertains

    His Chloe in the homeliest strains. Pope.

    HO'MELY, arfi'. Plainly ; rudely; coarsely as homely dressed. [Ldttle used.]

    HO'MELYN, n. A fish.

    HO'MEMADE, a. Made at home ; being of] domestic manufacture ; made either private families, or in one's own country Locke.

    HO'MER, i A Hebrew measure con

    OMER, > n. taining the tenth part of

    CHOMER, ) an epha, or about si.v pints. Encyc.

    HOMER'le, a. Pertaining to Homer, the great poet of Greece, or to his poetry ; re- sembling Homer's verse.

    HO'MESPEAKING, n. Forcible and effi- cacious speaking. .Milton.

    HO'MESPUN, a. Spun or wrought at home ; of domestic manufacture. Swift.

    2. Not made in foreign countries.


    3. Plain ; coarse ; rude ; homely ; not ele- gant; as a homespun English proverb; a homespun author. Dryden. Addison.

    HO'MESPUN, n. A coarse, unpolished, rus- tic person. Shah.

    HO'MESTALL, ? The place of a maii-

    HO'MESTEAD, S "' sion house; the inclo- sure or ground immediately connected with the mansion. Dryden.

    2. Native seat ; original station or place of residence.

    HO M

    We can trace them back to a homestead on the rJTers Volga and Ural. Tooke.

    [In the U. States, homestead is the word used.] HOMEWARD, \\ . [Sax. ham and HO'MEVVARDS, S weard.]

    Toward home ; toward one's habitation, or toward one's native country.

    Sidney. Milton HOMEWARD-BOUND, a. Destined for liotno ; returning from a foreign country to the place where the owner resides the homeward-bound fleet. Wc spoke a brig homeward-bound. HOMICIDAL, «. [from homicide.] Pertain

    igto homicide; murderous; bloody. HOM'ICIDE, n. [Fr. from L. homicidium homo, man, and cwdo, to strike, to kill.] The killing of one man or human being by another. Homicide is of three kinds. justifiable, excusable, am\\ felonious ; justifi- able, when it proceeds from unavoidable necessity, without an intention to kill, and without negligence ; excusable, when it happens from misadventure, or in self-de fense ; felonious, when it proceeds from malice, or is done in the prosecution of some unlawful act, or in a sudden passion. Homicide committed with premeditated malice, is nuirder. Suicide also, or self- murder, is felonious homicide. Homicide compreliends murder and manslaughter. Blackslone. 2. A person who kills another ; a man.'ilayer. Dryden. HOMILET'IC, } [Or. o^a>;rixos, "from HOMILET'I€AL, J "• oftAiu, to converse in company.]

    1. Pertaining to familiar intercourse ; social ; conversable ; companionable. Atterbury.

    2. Homiletic theology, a branch of practical theology, which teaches the manner in which ministers of the gospel should adapt their discourses to the capacities of their hearers, and pursue the best methods of instructing them by their doctrines and examples. It is also called pastoral theol- ogy. Encyc.

    HOM'ILIST,n. One that preaches to a con- gregation. Beaum.

    IIOM'ILY,?i. [Fr.homelie; Sp.homilia; It. omelia ; Gr. ofiaia, from ouiXtw, to converse iq company, ofiAof, a company or


    A discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience ; or a plain, familiar dis course on some subject of religion, siicl as an instructor would deliver to his pu pils, or a father to his children. Encyc.

    HOM'MO€, n. [I suppose this to be an In- dian word.]

    A hillock or small eminence of a conical form, sometime'; covered with trees.

    Bartram. Encyc

    HOM'MONY, n. [Indian.] In .America, mais hulled and broken, but coarse, prepared for food by being mixed with water and boiled. Adai

    HOMOgE'NEAL, ) [Fr. homogetie ; Gr.

    HOMOgE'NEOUS, ^ "■ of,o^ivr,i ; 0^05, lik and yti'oj, kind.]

    Of the same kind or nature; consisting of similar parts, or of elements of the like ture. Thus we say, homogeneous particles, elements or principles ; homogeneous bod


    words be enc


    encouraged ; Sameness of



    equivalent to

    HOMOgE'NEOUSNESS, kind or nature.

    HOM'OciENY, n. Joint nature. Bacon.

    HOMOL'OGATE, v. t. [It. omologare ; Fr. homologucr ; Gr. o^o?.oy:uj ; o^oj, like, and ?.«yu, to speak.] To approve ; to allow.

    Wheaton's Rep. Vol. iv.

    HOMOL'OGOUS, a. [Gr. o/noj, similar, and Xoyos, proportion.]

    Proportional to each other ; a term in geom- etry, applied to the corresponding sides and angles of similar figures; as, homol- ogous angles. Encyc.

    HOMON'\'MOUS, a. [Gr. o/xut^^f; o/ior, like, and ow^a, name.]

    Equivocal ; ambiguous ; that has different significations, or may be applied to differ- ent things. ff'atts.

    HOMON'YMOUSLY, adv. In an equivocal manner. Harris.

    HOMON'YMY, n. [Gr. o^wrftia. See supra.] Ambiguity ; equivocation.


    HOMOPH'ONY, n. [Gr. o^oj, like, andt«.r, sound.]

    [Jkoness of s«und. Among the Greeks, a kind of music performed in unison, in op- position to antiphony.

    HOMOT'ONOUS, a. [Gr. ofioj, Uke, and roi'oj, tone.]

    Equable; of the same tenor; applied to dis- eases which have a uniform tenor of rise, state, or declension. Qimicy.

    HONE, n. [Sw. hen, a hone; Sax. hanan, to stone. The word is found in the Greek axoit; ; and in two dialects of the Burmaii empire, hin, heen, signifies a stone. Asiat. Researche.s, 5. 228. We find the word also in the Syriac ^xoi akana, a hone, coticula. Lapis Lydius. Cast. Hept. 213.]

    A stone of a fine grit, used for sharpening instruments that require a fine edge, and particularly for setting razors. [We never, I believe, call a hone, a uhet-stone. The latter is a stone of coarse grit. See the word.]

    HONE, V. t. To rub and sharpen on a hone ; as, to hone a razor.

    HONE, V. i. To pine ; to long. Ols. [Qu. W. hanit, eager.]

    HONE-WORT, n. A plant of the genus Sison.

    HON'EST, a. on'est. [Fr. honnite, for hon- este ; Sp. Port, hanesto ; It. onesto ; from L. ho7iestus, from honos, honor.]

    1. Upright ; just ; fair in deahng with oth- ers ; free from trickishness and fraud ; acting and having the disposition to act at alltimes according to justice or correct moral principles ; applied to persons.

    Au honest man's the noblest work of God.

    Pope. An honest physician leaves his patient, when he can contribute no farther to his health.


    2. Fair; just; equitable; free from fraud ; as an honest transaction ; an honest trans- fer of property.

    3. Frank ; sincere ; unreserved ; according to truth ; as an honest confession.

    4. Sincere ; proceeding from pure or just principles, or directed to a good object ; as

    H O N

    an honest inquiry after truth ; an IwnMt endeavor; honest views or motives. 5. Fair ; good ; uniinpeacbed.

    Seek seven men of honest report. Acts vi. C. Decent; honorable; or suitable.

    Provide tilings honest in the sight of all men. Rom. xii. 7. Chaste ; faithful.

    Wives may be merry, and yet honest too.


    HON'EST, I', t. on' est. To adorn ; to grace.

    [J\\rot used.] Sandys.

    HONESTA'TION. n. Adornment ; grace.

    [Not used.] Mmmtague.

    HON'ESTLY, adv. on'estly. Uprightly ;

    justly ; with integrity and fairness ; as a

    contract honestly made.

    2. With frank sincerity ; without fraud or disguise ; according to truth ; as, to con fess honestly one's real design.

    3. By upright means ; with upright conduct ; as, to live honestly.

    4. Chastely; with conjugal loyalty and fidel

    HO'N'ESTY, n. on'esty. [Fr. honmitte ; L. honestas.]

    1. In principle, an upright disposition ; moral rectitude of heart ; a disposition to coii- form to justice and correct moral princi- ples, in all social transactions. In fact upright conduct ; an actual confonnity to justice and moral rectitude.

    2. Fairness; candor; truth; as the honesty of a narrative. jrardlaiv

    3. Frank sincerity. Shak Honesty is chiefly applicable to social trans- actions, or mutual deaUngs in the ex- change of property.

    HON'EY, n. hun'y. [Sax. ftwnjg- ; G.homg D. honig, honing ; Sw. h&ning ; Dan. hon- ning.]

    1. A sweet vegetable juice, collected by bees from the flowers of plants, and deposited in cells of the comb in hives. Honey, wh pure, is of a moderate consistence, of a whitish color, tinged with yellow, sweet to the taste, of an agreeable smell, soluble in water, and becoming vinous by fermen tation. In medicine, it is useful as a de- tergent and aperient. It is supposed to consist of sugar, mucilage, and an acid.

    Encyc. Ure.

    2. Sweetness; lusciousness.

    The king hath found Matter against him, that forever mars The honey of his language. Shak.

    3. A word of tenderness ; sweetness ; sweet one. Dryden.

    HON'EY, v.t. To talk fondly. [Little used.[ Shak.

    2. To sweeten.

    HoN'EY-BAG, n. The stomach of a honey- bee. Grew.

    HON'EY -€C)MB, n. A substance of a firm, close te.xture, formed by bees into hexago- nal cells for repositories of honey, and for the eggs which produce their young.

    HONEY-eOMBED, a. Having little flaws or cells. Wiseman.

    HON'EY-DEW, n. A sweet saccharine sub- stance, found on the leaves of trees and other plants in small drops like dew. It said there are two species ; one secreted from the plants, and the other deposited by a small insect called the aphis,


    fretter. Bees and ants are said to be fond of honey-dew. Encyc.

    HON'EYED, a. Covered with honey.

    Milton. 2. Sweet ; as honeyed words.

    Milton. Shak. HON'EY-FLOWER, n. A plant of the ge- nus Melianthus. HON'EY-GNAT, n. An insect.

    Ainsworth. HONEY-GUIDE, ii. A species of Cuckoo, found in Africa, which will conduct per- sons to hives of wild honey. Encyc. HON'EY-H'ARVEST, n. Honey collected Dryden HON'EYLESS, a. Destitute of honey.

    Shak HON'EY-LOCUST, ji. A plant, the three- thorned Acacia, of the genus Gleditsia.

    Encyc. HON'EY-MOON, ( The first month af- HON'EY-MONTH, \\ "' ter marriage.

    Addison. HON'EY-MOUTHED, a. Soft or smooth in speech. Shak.

    HON'EY-STALK, n. Clover-flower.

    Mason. HON'EY-STONE, n. [Sec Mellite.-] HON'EY-SUCKLE, n. A genus of plants, the Louicera, of many species, one of] which is called woodbine. HON'EY'-SWEET, a. Sweet as honey.


    HON'EY-TONGUED, a. Using soft speech


    HON'EY-WORT, n. A plant of the genus

    Cerinthe. HON'IED, a. [HI. See Honeyed.] HON'OR, n. on'or. [L. honor, honos ; Fr, honneur ; Sp. honor ; Port, honra ; It onore; Arm. enor ; Ir. onoir.]

    1. The esteem due or paid to worth ; higl; estimation.

    A prophet is not vfithout honor, except in his own country. Matt. xiii.

    2. A testimony of esteetn ; any expression of respect or of high estimation by words or actions ; as the honors of war ; military honors ; funeral honors ; civil honors.

    3. Dignity ; exalted rank or place ; distinc tion.

    I have given thee riches and honor. 1 Kings iii.

    Thou art clothed with honor and majesty

    In doing id pleasur

    4. Reverence ; veneration ; or any act by which reverence and submission are ex- pressed, as worship paid to the Supreme Being.

    5. Reputation ; good name ; as, his honor is unsullied.

    6. True nobleness of mind ; magnanimity dignified respect for character, springing from probity, principle or moral rectitude ; a distinguishing trait in the character of good men.

    7. An assumed appearance of nobleness scorn of meanness, springing from the fear of reproach, without regard to principle as, shall I violate my trust? Forbid it, honor.

    : Any particular virtue much valued ; as bravery in men, and chastity in females. ' Shak


    9. Dignity of mien ; noble appearance. Godlike erect, with native honor clad.


    10. That which honors ; he or that which confers dignity ; as, the chancellor is an honor to his profession.

    11. Privileges of rank or birth; in the plu- ral.

    Restore me to my honors. Shak.

    12. Civilities paid. Then here a slave, or if you will, a lord. To do the honors, and to give the word.


    13. That which adorns ; ornament; decora- tion.

    The sire then shook the honors of his head. Dryden .

    14. A noble kind of seignory or lordship, held of the king in cap

    On or upon my honor, words accompanying a declaration which pledge one's honor or reputation for the truth of it. The mem- bers of the house of lords in Great Britain are not under oath, but give their opin- ons on their honor.

    Laws of honor, among persons of fashion, signify certain rules by which their so- cial intercourse is regulated, and which are founded on a regard to reputation. These laws require a punctilious attention to decorum in external deportment, but admit of the foulest violations of moral du- ty. Paley.

    Court of honor, a court of chivalry; a court of civil and criminal jurisdiction, having power to redress injuries of honor, and to hold pleas respecting matters of arms and deeds of war. Encyc.

    HON'OR, v.t. on'or. [h-honoro ; Fr.honor- er ; Sp. honrar ; It. onorare.]

    1. To revere ; to respect ; to treat with deference and submission, and perforin relative duties to.

    Honor thy father and thy mother. Ex. xx.

    2. To reverence ; to manifest the highest veneration for, in words and actions ; to entertain the most exalted thoughts of; to worship ; to adore.

    That all men should honor the Son, even as; they honor the Father. John v.

    3. To dignify ; to raise to distinction or no- tice ; to elevate in rank or station ; to ex- alt. 3Ien are sometimes honored with ti- tles and offices, which they do not merit.

    Thus shall it be done to (he man whom the king delightelh to honor. Esth. vi.

    4. To glorify ; to render illustrious. I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all

    his host. Ex. xiv.

    5. To treat with due civility and respect in the ordinary intercourse of life. The troops honored the governor with a salute.

    6. In commfrcf, to accept and pay when due ; as, to honor a bill of exchange.

    HONORABLE, a. [L. honorabilis; Fr. honorable.]

    1. Holding a distinguished rank in society ; illustrious or noble.

    Shechem was more honorable than all the house of his father. Gen. xxxiv.

    Many of them believed ; also of honorable women who were Greeks — not a few. Acts xvii.

    2. Possessing a high mind ; actuated by

    principles of honor, or a scrupulous regard to probity, rectitude or reputation. He is

    prob an honorable man

    H O O

    3. Conferring honor, or procured by noble deeds ; as honorable wounds. Dryden.

    4. Consistent with honor or reputation. It is not honorable to oppress the weak, or to insult the vanquished.

    5. Respected ; worthy of respect ; regarded with esteem.

    Marriage is honorable in all. Heb. xiii.

    6. Performed or accompanied with marks of honor, or with testimonies of esteem; as an honorable burial.

    7. Proceeding from an upright and laudable cause, or directed to a just and proper end ; not base ; not reproachful ; as an honora- ble motive. Notliing can be honorable which is immoral.

    8. Not to be disgraced.

    Let her descend ; my chambers are honorable Shak

    9. Honest; without hypocrisy or deceit; fair His intentions appear to be honorable.

    10. An epithet of respect or distinction ; as the honorable senate ; the honorable gentli roan.

    11. Becoming men of rankandcIiaracter,or suited to support men in a station of dig- nity ; as an honorable salary.

    Constitution of Massachusetts. HON'ORABLENESS, n. The state of be- ing honorable ; eminence ; distinction.

    2. Conformity to the pruiciples of honor, probity or moral rectitude ; fairness ; aji- plied to disposition or to conduct.

    HON'ORABLY, adv. With tokens of hon- or or respect. The man was honorably received at court.

    3. Magnanimously ; generously ; with a no- ble spirit or purpose. The prince honora- bly interposed to prevent a rupture be- tween the nations.

    8. Reputably ; without reproach.

    Why did I not more honorably starve ?

    Dryden HON'ORARY, a. Conferring honor, or in- tended merely to confer honor ; as an hon orary degree ; an honorary crown.

    9. Possessing a title or place without per forming services or receiving a reward ; as an honorary member of a society

    HON'ORARY, n. A lawyer's fee.

    2. The salary of a professor in any art or science. Encyc.

    HON'ORED, pp. Respected ; revered ; rev erenced ; elevated to rank or office ; dig nified ; e.talted ; glorified ; accepted and paid, as a bill of exchange.

    HON'ORER, n. One that honors ; one that reveres, reverences or regards with res pect.

    2. One who exalts, or who confers honors.

    HON'ORING, ppr. Respecting highly ; rev erencing ; exalting ; dignifying ; confer- ring marks of esteem ; accepting and pay- ing, as a bill.

    HON'ORLESS, a. Destitute of honor honored. If'arburton.

    HOPDj in composition. Sax. had, hade, G. heit, D. heid, Sw. het, Dan. bed, as in man- hood, childhood, denotes state or fixedness, hence quality or character, from some root signifying to set. Sax. hadian, to or- dain. It is equivalent to the termination ness in English, and tas in Latin ; bs good- ness, G. gutheit ; brotherhood, L. fratei-ni- tas.

    Vol. I.

    H O O

    HOOD, n. [Sax. hod; W. hod. Qu. from the root of hut or hide.]

    1. A covering for the head used by females, and deeper than a bonnet.

    2. A covering for the head and shoulders used by monks ; a cowl.

    3. A covering for a hawk's head or eyes ; used in falconry.

    4. Any thing to be drawn over the head to cover it.

    5. An ornamental fold that hangs down the back of a graduate to mark his degree.


    6. A low wooden porch over the ladder which leads to the steerage of a ship ; the upper part of a galley-chimney ; the cov- er of a pump. Mar. Diet.

    HOOD, V. t. To dress in a hood or cowl ; to put on a hood.

    The fiiar hooded, and the monarch crowned Pope

    2. To cover ; to blind. I'll Aoorf my eyes. Shak

    :i. To cover.

    And Aood the flames. Dryden

    HOOD'MAN blind, n. A play in which a person blinded is to catch another and tell his name ; blindman's buff. Shak,

    IIQQD'ED, pp. Covered with a hood ; blind- ed.

    HOOD'- WINK, V. t. [hood and ipiiik.] To blind by covering'the eyes.

    We will blind and hood-wink him. Shak.

    3. To cover ; to hide. For the prize I'll bring thee to,

    Shall hood-wink this mischance. Shak.

    3. To deceive by external appearances or dis- guise ; to impose on. Sidney. HOOD'-WINKED, pp. Blinded ; deceived, HOOD'-WINKING, ppr. Blinding the eyes:

    ing; hiding; deceiving. HOOF, n. [Sax. hof; G. huf; D. hocf; Dan. hov ; Sw. hof, a hoof, and a measure. Class Gb. No. 31.]

    1. The horny substance that covers or minates the feet of certain animals, as horses, oxen, sheep, goats, deer, &c.

    2. An animal ; a beast. He had not a single hoof of any kind to

    slaughter. Washingl(

    HOOF, V. i. To walk, as cattle. [Little used.] Scott.

    HOOF'-BOUND, a. A horse is said to be hoof-bound when he hasapain in the fore feet, occasioned by the dryness and con traction of the horn of the quarters, which straitens the quarters of the heels, and of- ten makes him lame. Far. Did

    HOOF'ED, a. Furnished with hoofs.

    Of all the hoofed quadrupeds, the horse is the most beautifid. . Grew

    HOOK) n. [Sax. hoc ; D. haak ; G. haken Sw. hake ; Dan. hage ; W. hivg ; Heb. run ; Ch. 'Dn. Class Cg. No. 22. 23. 24, ^

    1. A piece of iron or other metal bent into a curve for catching, holding and sustain ing any thing ; as a.hook for catching fish ; a tenter-hook ; a chinniey-hook ; a pot hook, &c.

    2. A snare ; a trap. Shak.

    3. [W. hoc, a sythe.] A curving instrument for cutting grass or grain ; a sickle instrument for cutting or lop])ing.

    Mortimer. Pope.

    4. That part of a hinge which is fixed or in- serted in a post. VVhence the phrase, to


    H O O

    be off the hooks, to be unhinged, to be dis- turbed or disordered. Swip.

    5. A forked timber in a ship, placed on the keel.

    C. A catch ; an advantage. [ Vidgar.]

    7. In husbandi-y, a field sown two years run- ning. [Local.] J)insv>orth.

    By hook and by crook, one way or other; by any means, direct or indirect. Dryden.

    HOOK, V. t. To catch with a hook; as, to hook a fish.

    2. To seize and draw, as with a hook. Shak.

    3. To fasten with a hook.

    4. To entrap ; to ensnare.

    5. To draw by force or artifice. JVorris. To hook on, to apply a hook.

    HOOK, V. i. To bend ; to be curving.

    HOOK'ED, a. Bent into the form of a hook ; curvated. The claws of a beast are hook- ed.

    2. Bent ; curvated ; aquihne ; as a hooked Brown.

    HOOK'ED, pp. Caught with a hook ; fas- tened with a hook.

    HOOK'EDNESS, n. A state of being bent like a hook.

    HOOK'ING, ppr. Catching with a hook ; fastening with a hook.

    HOOKNOSED, a. Having a curvated or quiline nose. Shak.

    HOOK'Y, o. Full of hooks; pertaining to iiooks.

    HOOP, "■ [D. hoep, hoepel.] A band of wood or metal used to confine the staves of casks, tubs, &c. or for other similar pur- poses. Wooden hoops are usually made by sphtting an oak or hickory sapling into two parts ; but sometimes they are made of thin splints and of other species of wood.

    2. A piece of whalebone in the form of a circle or ellipsis, used formerly by females to extend their petticoats ; a farthingale.


    3. Something resembling a hoop; a ring; any thing circular. Addison.

    HOOP, "■ '• To bind or fasten with hoops ; as, to hoop a barrel or puncheon.

    2. To clasp ; to encircle ; to surround.

    Shak. Grew.

    HOOP, I', i. [Sax. heafian, heofian, to howl, to lament, to weep ; also hiveopan, to whip, to weep, to howl, to whoop ; the latter is written also weopan, wepan, to iceep ; Goth. wopyan, to whoop. The Sax. heafian, seems to be connected with heave, and the sense is jirobahly to raise or throw the voice. Whether heofian and htceopan are radically the same word, is not certain ; most proba- bly they are, and ivhoop and loeep are evi- dently the same. Weeping, in rude ages, is by howling or loud outcries. See ffhoop, the same word differently written.]

    To shout ; to utter a loud cry, or a particular sound by way of call or pursuit.

    HOOP, V. t. To drive with a shout or out- Shak.



    . To call by a shout or hoop. HOOP, ji. A shout; also, a measure, equal

    to a peck. [Sw. hof.] 2. The hoopoe. HOOP'ER, n. One who hoops casks or tubs ;

    a cooper. HOOPING, ppr. Fastening with hoops. HOOPING, ppr. Crying out ; shouting.


    H O P

    H O R

    HOOPING-COUGH, n. A cough in wliicli

    the patient hoops or whoops, with a deej

    inspiration of breath. HOOP'OE, ) [Ft. huppe, the hoopoe, and HOOP'OO, I "• a tuft ; huppe, tulted ; or L

    upupa, epops ; Gr. trto^^.] A bird of the genus Upupa^ whose head is

    adorned with a beautiful crest, which it

    can erect or depress at pleasure. Encyc. HOOR>A, I ^ .„,„ rSw. hurra. The HOORAW, I «"«'«■ Welsh has cu

    play, sport; but the Swedish appears to

    be the English word.] A shout of joy or exultation. [This is th

    genuine English word, for ivhich we find ir

    books most absurdly written, huzza, a foreigi

    word never or rarely used.] HOOT, V. i. [W. hiod or hwt, a taking off,

    off, away ; hwtiaio, to take off, to pusl

    away, to hoot ; and itdaip, to howl or yell ;

    Fr. huer, a contracted word ; hence, hue,

    in hue and cry.]

    1. To cry out or shout in contempt.

    Matrons and girls shall hoot at thee no more Drydeti

    2. To cry, as an owl.

    The clamorous owl, that nightly hoots.


    HOOT, V. t. To drive with cries or shouts

    uttered in contempt.

    Partridge and his clan may hoot me for a cheat.


    HOOT, n. A cry orsliout in contempt.

    Gtanville. HOOT'ING, ?i. A shouting; clamor. HOP, V. i. [Sa.x. hoppan ; G. hiipfen ; D. huppelen; Sw.hoppa; Dan. hopper ; W. hobelu, to hop, to hobble. It has the ele- ments of cajoer.]

    1. To lea[), or spring on one leg; applied to persons.

    2. To leap ; to spring forward by leaps ; to skip, as birds.

    Hopping from spray to spray. Dryden.

    3. To walk lame ; to limp ; to halt. [We generally use hobble.']

    4. To move by leaps or starts, as the blood in the veins. [JVo< used.] Spenser.

    5. To spring ; to leap ; to frisk ahout.

    6. To dance. Chaucer. HOP, n. A leap on one leg ; a leaj) ; a jump;

    a spring.

    2. A dance. [Colloquial.]

    HOP, )i. [D.hop; G.hopfen; prohah]y hoop, from winding.]

    .\\ plant constituting the genus Huraulus. The stalk or vine, which grows to a great length, is weak and requires to be support- ed. In growing, it chnibs or winds round a pole or other support. This plant is of great importance in brewing, as it tends to preserve malt liquors, and renders them more aperient, diuretic and salubrious.


    HOP, II. t. To impregnate with hops.


    HOP' BIND, n. The stalk or vine on which hops grow. Blackstone.

    HOP'OAST, n. In Kent, a kiln for drying hoiis.

    HOP'POLE, n. A pole used to support hojis. Tusser.

    HOP'-PICKER, n. One that picks hops.

    nOPVINE, n. The stalk of hops.

    HOP-YARD, > A field or inclosure HOP -GARDEN, S "• where hops are


    HOPE, n. [Sax. hopa ; D. hoop ; Sw. hopp ; Dan. haab ; G. hoffnung. Qu. L. cupio. Class Gb. The primary sense is to ex- tend, to reach forward.]

    1. A desire of some good, accompanied witl at least a slight expectation of obtaining it, or a belief that it is obtainable. Hope dif- fers from wish and desire in this, that it implies some expectation of obtaining the good desired, or the possibility of possess- ing it. Hope therefore always gives pleas lire or joy; whereas tmA and rfesiVe may produce or be accompanied with pain and anxiety.

    The hypocrite's hope shall perish. Job viii. He wish'd, but not with hope— Milton. Sweet hope .' kind cheat ! Crashaw.

    He that lives upon hope, will die fasting.


    2. Confidence m a future event ; the highest degree of v^ll founded expectation of good ; as a hope fotmded on God's gra- cious promises ; a scriptural sense.

    A well founded scriptural hope, is, in our reli- gion, the source of ineffable happiness.

    3. That which gives hope ; he or that which furnishes ground of expectation, or prom ises desired good. The hope of Israel ii the Messiah.

    The Lord will be the hope of his people Joel iii.

    4. An opinion or belief not amounting 'to certainty, but grounded on substantial evi- dence. The christian indulges a Aqpe, that his sins are pardoned.

    HOPE, V. i. [Sax. hopian ; G. hoffen ; D, hoopen, to hope, and to heap ; Dan. haaber , Sw. hoppas.]

    1. To cherish a desire of good, with some expectation of obtaining it, or a belief thai it is obtainable.

    Hope for good success. Taylor.

    Be sober and hope to the end. 1 Pet. i. Hope humbly Uien, with trembling pinions soar. Pope.

    2. To place confidence in ; to trust in with confident expectation of good.

    Wiy art thou cast down, ray soul, and why art thou disquieted within me ? Hope thou in God. Ps. xlii. HOPE, V. t. To desire with expectation of good, or a belief that it may be obtained. But as a transitive verb, it is seldom used, and the phrases in which it is so used are elliptical, /or being understood. So stands the Thracian herdsman with his

    spear, Full in the gap, and hopes the hunted bear.

    Dryden. HOPE, fl. A sloping plain between ridges of mountains. [JVol in use.] Jlinsworth HO'PED, /)/>. Desired with expectation. HO'PEFUL, a. Having qualities which ex- cite hope ; promising or giving ground tc expect good or success; as a. hopeful yonlh; a hopefid prospect. 2. Full of hope or desire, with expectation. I was hopeful the success of your first at- tempts would encourage you to the trial of more nice and difficult experiments. Boyle.

    HO'PEFULLY, adv. In a manner to raise hope ; in a way promising good. He prosecutes his scheme hopefully.

    2. In a manner to produce a favorable opin- ion respecting some good at the present time. The young man is hopefully pious.

    3. With hope ; with ground to expect. HO'PEFULNESS, n. Promise of good ;

    ground to expect what is desirable.

    n'otton. HO'PELESS, a. Destitute of hope ; having

    no expectation of that which is desirable ;


    I am a woman, friendless, hopeless. Shak. 2. Giving no ground of hope or expectation

    of good ; promising nothing desirable ;

    desperate ; as a hopeless condition. HO'PELESSLY, adv. Without hope.

    HO'PELESSNESS, n. A state of being desperate, or affording no hope.

    HO'PER, n. One that hopes. Shak.

    HO'PING, ppr. Having hope ; indulging desire of good with the expectation of ob- taining it, or a behef that it is obtainable.

    2. Confiding in.

    HO'PINGLY, adv. With hope or desire of good, and expectation of obtaining it.


    HOP'LITE, n. [Gr. orOxtTis, from ortXw, a weapon.]

    In ancient Greece, a heavy-armed soldier. Mitford.

    HOPPER, n. [See Hop.] One who hops, or leaps on one leg.

    2. Properly, a wooden trough through which grain passes into a tnill ; so named from its moving or shaking. But we give the name to a box or frame of boards, which receives the grain before it passes into the trough, and also to a similar box which receives apples for conducting them into a mill.

    A vessel in which seed-corn is carried for sowing. Encyc.

    KOP'PERS, 71. A play in which persons hop or leap on one leg. Johnson.

    HOP'PING, ppr. Leaping ou one leg; dancing.

    HOP'PING, n. A dancing ; a meeting for dancing.

    HOP'PLE, V. t. To tie the feet near together to prevent leaping ; as, to hopple an unruly horse.

    HO'RAL, a. [L. hora, an hour. See Hour.] Relating to an hour, or to hours. Prior.

    HO'RALLY, adv. Hourly. [JVot in use.]

    HORARY, a. [L. horarius; Fr. Ivoraire; from L. hora, hour.]

    1. Pertaining to an hour; noting the hours; as the horary circle. Encyc.

    2. Continuing an hour. Brown. HORD, { [D. horde, a clan, and a hur-

    , S "■ die ; G

    horde, a clan, and a pen s to he the Sax. heard.


    or fold. ' Tin a herd.]

    A company of wandering people dwelling in tents or wagons, and migrating from |)lace to place to procure pasturage for their cattle. Such are some tribes of the Tartars in the north of Asia. A hord usu- ally consists of fifty or sixty tents.

    Encyc. Mtford.

    HORE, n. [Sa.Ti. hure, or hor-cwen; G.hure; D. hoer ; Dan. hore : S w. hora, and hork&na ; W. Aitre?!, from huriaw, to hire. The com- mon orthography whore is corrupt.]

    A woman, married or single, who indulges unlawful sexual intercourse ; also, a pros-

    H O R

    H O R

    H O R

    titute ; a common woman ; a harlot ; a woman of ill fame. [This word compre- hends adultress and farnicatrix, and all lewd women whether paid for prostitution or not.]

    HORE, V. i. To indulge unlawful sexual commerce, as a male or female ; to be habitually lewd.

    HO'REDOM, n. The practice of unlawful sexual commerce ; habitual or customary lewdness of males or females.

    2. In Scripture, idolatry.

    HO'REMASTER, ) A man who is ad-

    HO'REMONGER, S d'cted to lewdness, or frequently indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse.

    HO'RESON, n. [feore and son.] A bastard; the son of a hore ; a term of reproach or contempt, sometimes used in a ludicrous sense expressing dislike.

    IIO'RISH, a. Lewd ; unchaste ; loose ; given to unlawful sexual intercourse ; applied to females only.

    HO'RISHLY, adv. Lewdly ; unchastely.

    HO'REHOUND, n. [Sax. hara-hune, white- hune.]

    The name of several plants of different genera. The common horehound is the Marrubium vulgare. It has a bitter taste, and is used as an attenuant. Encyc.

    nOR'IZON, 71. [Gr. opiiTw, from optfu, to bound, opo5, a limit ; Fr. horizon ; Sp. hori- zonte ; It. orizzonte. This word, like con- test, aspect, and others in Milton, must be read in poetry with the accent on the sec- ond syllable; a harsh, unnatural pronun- ciation, in direct opposition to the regular analogy of English words. With tl cent on the first syllable, as in usage, it is an elegant word.]

    The line that terminates the view, when ex- tended on the surface of the earth ; or a great circle of the sphere, dividing the world into two parts or hemispheres; the upper hemisphere which is visible, and the lower which is hid. The horizon is sensi- hh, and rational or real. The sensible, ap- |)arent, or visible horizon, is a lesser circle of the sphere, which divides the visible part of the sphere from the invisible. It is eastern or western ; the eastern is that wherein the sun and stars rise ; the west- ern, that wherein they set. The rational, true, or astronomical ho3-izon, is a great circle whose plane passes through the center of the earth, and whose poles are the zenith and nadir. This horizon would bound the sight, if the eye could take in the whole hemisphere. Encyc.

    HORIZON'TAL, a. Pertaining to the hori- zon, or relating to it.

    9. Parallel to the horizon ; on a level; as a honzontal line or surface.

    .1. Near the horizon ; as horizontal misty air. Milton.

    HORIZON'TALLY, adv. In a direction parallel to the horizon ; on a level ; as a ball carried horizontally.

    HORIZONTAL'ITY, n. The state of being horizontal. Kinoan.

    HORN, Ji. [Sax. G. Sw. Dan. horn ; Goth. ha%irn; J), hoom ; Sw. /(om, a corner ; W. com, a horn, cornel, a corner ; L. cornu ; Sp. cuerno ; It. Port, coryio ; Fr. come ; Ileb. Ch. Syr. Eth. Ar. pp. The sense is a shoot, a projection. Class Rn. No. 15.]

    1. A hard substance growing on the heads of certain animals, and particularly on clo- ven-footed quadrupeds ; usually project- ing to some length and terminating in a point. Horns are generally bent or cur- ving, and those of some animals are spiral. They serve for weapons of offense and de- fense. The substance of horns is gelatin- ous, and in Papin'a digester it may be con- verted into jelly. Encyc.

    Horn is an animal substance, chietly membranous, consisting of coagulated al- biunen, with a little gelatin and phosphate of lime. Ure.

    The horns of deer possess exactly the properties of bone, and are composed of the same constituents, only the proportion of cartilage is greater. Thomson.

    2. A wind instrument of music, made of horn ; a trumpet. Such were used by tlie Israelites.

    •3. In modern times, a wind instrument made of metal.

    4. An extremity of the moon, when it is wax- ing or waning, and forming a crescent.


    5. The feeler or antenna of an insect.

    6. The feeler of a snail, which may be with- drawn ; hence, to pull or draw in the horns, is to repress one's ardor, or to restrain pride. Johnson.

    7. A drinking cup ; horns being used an- ciently for cups.

    8. A winding stream. Dryd':n.

    9. Horns, in the plural, is used to character- ize a cuckold. He wears the hoi-ns.

    10. In Scripture, horn is a symbol of strength or power.

    The horn of Moab is cut ofl". Jer. xlviii. Horn is also an emblem of glory, honor, dignity.

    My horn is exalted in the Lord. 1 Sam. ii. In Daniel, hoiTi represents a kingdom or state.

    HORN'BEAK, n. A fish. [See Honifish.]

    HORN'BEAM, n. [Sec Beam.] A genus of trees, the Carpinus, so named from the hardness of the wood.

    HORN'BILL, n. A fowl of the genus Buce- ros, which has a flat bony forehead with two horns ; a native of the E. Indies.

    HORN'BLEND, ji. [G. horn and blende.] A mineral of several varieties, called by Hatty amphibole. It is sometimes in regu- lar distinct crystals ; more generally the result of confused crystalization, appear- ing in masses, composed of lamins, acicu- lar crystals or fibers, variously aggrega- ted. Its prevaihng colors are black and green. Cleaveland.

    HORNBLOWER, n. One that blows a horn.

    HORN'BOQK, n. The first book of children, or that in which they learn their letters and rudiments ; so called from its cover of horn. [M>w little used.] Locke.

    HORN-DISTEMPER, n. A disease of cat- tle, affecting the internal substance of the horn. Encyc.

    IIORN'ED, a. Furnished with horns ; as horned cattle.

    2. Shaped like a crescent, or the new moon. .MUton.

    HORN'EDNESS, ?i. The appearance of horns.

    HORN'ER, n. One who works or deals in horns. Grew.

    2. One who Windsor blows the horn.


    HORN'ET, n. [Sax. hymet, hymde; G. horniss ; 1). horzcl.]

    An insect of the genus Vespa or wasp, the I'espa crabro. It is much larger and strong- er than the wasp, and its sting gives se- vere pain. This insect constructs a nest of leaves or other substance which resem- bles brown paper of a light color. This is attached to the branches of trees, and often of the size of a half-peck measure.

    HORN'FISH, ji. The garfish or sea-needle, of the genus Esox. Encyc.

    HORN'FOPT, a. Having a hoof; hoofed. Hakewill.

    HORN'IFY, V. I. To bestow horns upon. [JVot used or vulgar.] Beaum.

    HORN'ING, n. Appearance of the moon when increasing, or in the form of a cres- cent. Gregory.

    HORN'ISH, a. Somewhat hkehorn: hard. Sandys.

    HORN'LESS, a. Having no horns.

    Journ. of Science.

    HORN'MERCURY, n. Muriate of mercury.

    HORN'OWL, 71. A species of owl, so called from two tufts of fethers on its head like horns. ^'linsworth.

    HORN'PIPE, n. An instrument of music in VVale.s, consisting of a wooden pipe with horns at the ends; one to collect the wind blown from the mouth; the other to carry ofl" the sounds as modulated by the per- former. [W. pib-corn.] Encyc.

    2. An air or tune of triple time, with six crotchets in a bar ; four to the descending beat, and two to the ascending. Encyc.

    HORN'SHAVINGS, n. Scrapings or rasp- ings of the horns of deer. B. Jonson.

    HORN'SILVER, n. Muriate of silver, or chlorid of silver.

    HORN'SPOON, n. A spoon made of horn.

    HORN'SLATE, ji. A gray siliceous stone. Kirwan.

    HORN'STONE, ji. A siliceous stone, a subspecies of quartz. It is divided by Jameson into splintery, conchoidal, and wood-stone. [See Chert]

    HORN'WORK, n. In fortification, an out- work composed of two demi-bastionsjoin- ed by a curtain. Encyc.

    HORN'Y, a. Consisting of horn or horns. Milton.

    2. Resembling horn.

    3. Hard ; callous. Dryden. HOROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. ^pa, hour, and

    ypa^u, to write.]

    1. An account of hours.

    2. The art of constructing dials. Cyc. HOROLOGE, n. [Fr. Iwrloge ; L. horolo-

    gium ; Gr. upo>.oyM)v ; upo, hour, and ^tyu,

    to tell.] An instrument that indicates the hour of the

    day. But chronometer is now generally

    used. HOROLOli ICAL, a. Pertaining to the ho- rologe, or to horology. HOROLOlilOGRAPli'IC, a. Pertaining to

    the art of dialling. Chambers.

    HOROLOgIOG'RAPHY, ji. [Gr. upo, hour

    xoyof, discourse, and ypai|i«, to describe.]

    H O R

    H O R

    H O R

    An account of instruments that show the hour of the day ; also, of the art of con- structing dials. Diet.

    HOROL'GgY, n. [Gr. upoXoyfu ; apa, hour, and >jyio, to indicate. See Horologe.]

    The art of constructing machines for meas- uring and indicating portions of time, as clocks, watches, &c. Edin. Encyc.

    HOROMET'Rl€AL, a. [from horometry.] Belonging to horometry, or to the meas- urement of time by hours and subordinate divisions. Asial. jRes.

    HOROMETRY, n. [Gr. upa, hour, and iUfrpo)', measure.]

    The art or practice of measuring time by hours and subordinate divisions.

    HOR'OSeOPE, n. [Fr. from Gr. upocrxortoj; upa, hour, and sxortiu, to view or consider.]

    1. In astrology, a scheme or figure of the twelve houses, or twelve signs of the zodiac, in which is marked the disposition of the heavens at a given time, and by which as- trologers formerly told the fortunes of per- sons, according to the position of the stars at the time of their birth. Encyc.

    1. The degree or point of the heavens ari- sing above the eastern point of the hori- zon at any given time when a prediction is to be made of a future event. Encyc.

    HOROS'COPY, n. Tlie art or practice of predicting future events by the disposition of the stars and planets.

    HOR'RENT, a. [L. horrens. See Horror.] Bristled ; standing erect as bristles ; point- ing outward.

    Witli bright emblazoni-y and horrent arms. Milton.

    HOR'RIBLE, a. [L. horiibilis. See Horror.] Exciting or tending to excite horror ; dreadful ; terrible ; shocking ; hideous ; as a horrible figure or sight; a horrible story.

    A dungeon horrible on all sides round.


    HOR'RIBLENESS, n. The state or quali- ties that may excite horror ; dreadfulness ; lerribleness ; hideousness.

    HOR'RIBLY, adv. In a manner to excite horror ; dreadfidly ; terribly ; as horribly loud ; horribly afraid.

    HOR'RID, a. [L. horridm. See Horror.]

    1. That

    2. Rough ; rugged. This is the literal and primary sense.

    Horrid with fern, and intricate nidi lliom.


    3. Shocking ; very offensive ; a colloquud sense. Pope.

    HOR'RIDLY, adv. In a manner to e.xcite horror ; dreadfully ; shockingly.

    HOR'RIDNESS, n. The qualities that do or may excite horror ; hideousness ; enor- mity. Hammond.

    HORRIF'IC, a. [L. hon-ijicus.] Causing liorroi-. Thomson.

    IIORRIS'ONOUS, a. [L. horrisonus; hoireo, to shake, and sonus, sound.] Soundin, dreadfully ; uttering a terrible sound.

    IIOR'ROR, ?i. [L. from horreo, to shake or shiver, or to set up the bristles, to be rough.]

    1. A shaking, shivering or shuddering, as in the cold fit which precedes a fever. This ague is usually accompanied with a con

    traction of the skin into small wrinkles, giving it a kind of roughness.

    2. An excessive degree of fear, or a painful emotion which makes a person tremble ; terror ; a shuddering with fear ; but ap- propriately, terror or a sensation approach- ing it, accompanied with hatred or detes- tation. Horror is often a passion com- pounded of fear and hatred or disgust. The recital of a bloody deed fills us with horror.

    A horror of great darkness fell on Abrara. Gen. XV.

    Horror hath taken hold on me, because of the wicked tliat forsake thy law. Ps. cxix.

    3. That which may excite horror or dread ; gloom ; dreariness.

    And breathes a browner horror on the woods. Pope.

    4. Dreadful thoughts.

    5. Distressing scenes ; as the horrors of war or famine.

    HORSE, 71. hors. [Sax. hors ; G. ross ; D.


    A sjiecies of quadrupeds of the genus Equus, having six erect and parallel fore- teeth in the upper jaw, and six somewliat prominent in the under jaw ; the dog teeth are solitary, and the feet consist of an undivided hoof. The horse is a beautiful animal, and of great use for draught or conveyance on his back. Horse, in English, is of common gender, and may comj)re- hend the male and female.

    A constellation. Creech.

    3. Cavalry ; a body of troops serving on horseback. In this sense, it has no plu- ral termination. We say, a thousand horse; a regiment of horse.

    A machine by which something is sup- ported ; usually a wooden frame with legs. Various machines used in the arts are thus called. Encyc.

    A wooden machine on which soldiers ride by way of punishment ; sometimes called a timber-mare. Johnson.

    6. In sea7nen''s language, a rope extending from the middle of a yard to its extremity, to support the sailors while they loose, reef or furl the sails; also, a thick rope extended near the mast for hoisting a yard or extending a sail on it. Mar. Diet.

    To talte horse, to set out to ride on horse- back. Addison. To be covered, as a mare.

    HORSE, V. t. To mount on a horse. . To carry on the back.

    The keeper, horsing a deer. Butler.

    . To ride astride ; as ridges horsed. Shak.

    4. To cover a mare, as the male. MoHimer. HORSEBACK, n. hors'back. The state of

    being on a horse ; the posture of riding on a horse.

    I saw them salute on horseback. Shak

    HORSEBEAN, n. A small bean usually given to horses. Mortimer.

    HORSEBLOCK, n. A block or stage that assists persons in mounting and dismount- ing from a horse.

    HORSEBOAT, n. A boat used in convey- ing horses over a river or other water.

    2. A boat moved by horses ; a new species of ferry-boat.

    HORSEBOY, n. A boy employed in dress- ing and tending horses ; a stable boy.


    HORSEBREAKER, n. One whose em- ployment is to break horses, or to teach them to draw or carry. Creech

    HORSE-CHESTNUT, n. A large nut, the fruit of a species of ^sculus ; or tiie tree that produces it. The tree is much culti- vated for shade.

    HORSECLOTH, n. A cloth to cover a horse.

    HORSEeOURSER, n. One that runs hor- ses, or keeps horses for the race.


    2. A dealer in horses. Wiseman.

    HORSE€RAB, n. A crustaceous fish.


    HORSE-€U'€UMBER, n. A large green cucumber. Mortimer.

    HORSEDEALER, n. One who buys and

    HORSEDRENCH, ji. A dose of physic for a horse. Shak.

    HORSEDUNG, n. The dung of horses.

    HORSE-EMMET, n. A species of large ant.

    HORSEFACED, a. Having a long coarse face ; ugly.

    HORSEFLESH, n. The flesh of a horse. Bacon.

    HORSEFLY, n. A large fly that stings horses.

    HORSEFQOT, n. A plant, called also colts- foot. Ainsworth.

    HORSEGUARDS, n. A body of cavalry for guards.

    HORSEHAIR, n. The hair of horses.

    HORSEHOE, V. t. To lioe or clean a field by means of horses.

    HORSEKNAVE, n. A groom. Ohs.


    HORSE-KEEPER, n. One who keeps or takes care of horses.

    HORSELAUGH, «. A loud, boisterous laugh. Pope.

    HORSELEECH, n. A large leech. [See Leech.]

    2. A farrier. Ainsworth.

    HORSELITTER, n. A carriage hung on poles which are borne by and between two horses. Milton.

    HORSELOAD, n. A load for a horse.

    HORSEMAN, n. A rider on horseback.


    2. A man skilled in riding. Dryden.

    3. A soldier who serves on horseback.


    HORSEMANSHIP, n. The act of doing, and of training and managing horses.


    HORSEMARTEN, n. A kind of large bee. Ainsworth.

    HORSEMATCH, n. A bird. Ainsworth.

    HORSEMEAT, n. Food for horses ; prov- ender. Bacon.

    HORSE-MILL, a. A mill turned by a horse.

    HORSE-MINT, n. A species of large mint.

    HORSE-MUSCLE, n. A large muscle or shell-fish. Bacon.

    HORSEPATH, n. A path for horses, as by canals.

    HORSEPLAY, n. Rough, rugged play.


    HORSEPOND, n. A pond for watering horses.

    HORSEPURSLANE, n. A plant of the ge- nus Trianlhema.

    H O S

    H O S

    11 O S

    HORSERACE, n. A race by horses match ofliorsos in running.

    HORSERACING, u. The practice or act of running horses.

    HORSERADISH, n. A plant of the genus Cochlearia, a species of scurvy grass, ha ving a root of a pungent taste.

    HORSESHOE, n. A shoe for horses, con sisting of a plate of iron of a circular form.

    HORSESHOE-HEAD, n. A disease of in fants, in which the sutures of the skull are too open ; opposed to headmold-shol.

    HORSESTEALER, ) . , ^f horses

    HORSETHIEF, \\ "• '^ ^^^^^" "* ''°'^^''

    HORSETAIL, n. A plant of the genus] Equisetum. The shrubby horsetail is of the genus Ephedra. Fam. of Plants.

    HORSETONGUE, n. A plant of the genus Ruscus.

    HORSE VETCH, ) A plant of the

    HORSESHOE- VETCH, S genus Hippo crcpis.

    HORSEVVAV, I A way or road in which

    HORSEROAD, I "'horses may travel.

    HORSEWHIP, n. A whip for driving or striking horses.

    HORSEWHIP, V. t. To lash; to strike with a horsewhip.

    IIOUSEWORM, n. A worm that infests lioises ; a hott.

    HORTA'TION, ji. [L. horlatio, from hoHor, to e.vhort.]

    The act of exhorting, or giving advice ; ex- hortation ; advice intended to encourage. [But exhortation is generally used.'\\

    HOR'TATIVE, o. Giving exhortation ; ad- visory.

    HOR'TATIVE, n. Exhortation ; a precept given to incite or encourage. Bacon.

    HOR'TATORY, a. Encouraging; inciting giving advice ; as a hortatory speech.

    HORTEN'SIAL, a. [L. horUnsis.] Fit for a garden. [N'ot used.] Evelyn

    HOR'TleULTOR, ». [L. hortus, a garden, and cultor, a tiller.] One who cultivates a garden.

    HORTIeUL'TURAL, n. Pertaining to the culture of gardens.

    HOR'TI€ULTURE, n. [L. horlus, a garden, and cultura, culture, from colo, to till.]

    The cultivation of a garden ; or the art of cultivating gardens.

    HORTleUL'TURIST, n. One who is skil- led in the art of cultivating gardens.

    HOR'TULAN, a. [L. hortulamis.] Belong- ing to a garden ; as a hortulan calendar. Evelyn.

    HORTUS SICCUS, n. [L.] Literally, a dry garden ; an appellation given to a collec- tion of specimens of plants, carefully dried and preserved. Encyc.

    IIORT'YARD, n. An orchard, which see.

    HOSAN'NA, n. s as z. [Heb. save, I be- seech you.]

    An exclamation of praise to God, or an in- vocation of blessings. In the Hebrew ceremonies, it was a prayer rehearsed on the several days of the feast of taber- nacles, in which this word was often re- peated. Encyc.

    HOSE, n. plu. hosen or hose; pron. hoze, ho'zn. [Sax. hos, a heel, a thorn or twig, and hose ; G. hose ; D. kotts ; W. hos, hosan, from hws, a covering, a housing ; Fr. chausae ; Ir. asaii. The Welsh unites this word with house. The hose or hosan was

    a garment covering the legs and thighs, hke the modern long trowsers. Hence in G. hosen-gurt, a hose-girt, is a waist- band ; and hosen-trciger, hose-supporter, or shoulder-strap, indicates that the hose was sustained, as breeches and pantaloons now are, by suspenders or braces.] . Breeches or trowsers. Shak.

    2. Stockings ; coverings for the legs. This word, in mercantile use, is synonymous with stockings, though originally a very different garment.

    3. A leathern pipe, used with fire-engines, for conveying water to extinguish fires.

    IIO'SIER, n. iM'zhur. One who deals in stockings and socks, &c.

    IIO'SIERY, 71. ho'zhury. Stockings in gen- eral ; .socks.

    HOS'PITABLE, a. [L. hospitalis, from hospes, a guest ; It. ospitalo and ospitabile, Hospes, is from the Celtic ; W. osb, a stranger or wanderer, a guest ; Arm. osb. asp, hospyd. See Host.]

    1. Receiving and entertaining strangers witli kindness and without reward ; kind to strangers and guests; disposed to treat guests with generous kindness; as a. hos pitable man.

    2. Proceeding from or indicating kindness to guests ; manifesting generosity ; as a hospitable table ; hospitable rites. Dryden.

    3. Inviting to strangers ; offering kind re- ception ; indicating hospitalitj'.

    To where yon taper cheers tlie vale,

    AVith hospitable raj'. Goldsmith.

    HOS'PITABLY, adv. With kindness to

    strangers or guests ; with generous and

    liberal entertainment. Prior. Swift.

    HOS'PITAgE, n. Hospitality. Obs.

    Spenser. HOS'PITAL, ji. [Fr. hdpital, for hospital ; L. hospitalis, supra.]

    1. A building appropriated for the reception of sick, infirm and helpless paupers, who are supported and nursed by charity ; also, a house for the reception of insane persons, whether ))aupers or not, or for seamen, soldiers, foundlings, &.c. who arc supported by the public, or by private charity, or for infected persons, &c.

    2. A place for shelter or entertainment. Obs. Spenser.

    HOS'PITAL, a. Hospitable. [JVbl in use.} Howell.

    HOSPITAL'ITY, v. [Fr. hospitalite; L. hospitalitas ; W. ysbyd. See Hospitable.]

    The act or practice of receiving and enter- taining strangers or guests without re- ward, or with kind and generous liber- ality.

    A bishop — must be given to hospiialily. 1,

    Tim. iii. I

    Hospitality I have fouod as univei-sal as the

    face of man. Ledyard.l

    HOS'PITALLER, n. [from hospital.] Prop- erly, one residing in a hospital for the purpose of receiving the poor and stran-! gers. The hospitallers were an order ol'' knights who built a hospital at Jerusalem for pilgrims. They were called knights of St. John, and are the same as the knights of Malta. Encyc.

    HOS'PITATE, v. i. [L. hospitor.] To re- side or lodge under the roof of another. [JVot used.] Grew.

    HOS'PITATE, V. i. To lodge a person. {.Yot used.]

    HOST, n. [Fr. hole, for hoste ; It. oale ; Sp. huesped; Port, hospede ; and L. hostis, a. stranger, an enemy, probably of the same family. See Hospitable. The sense is a stranger or foreigner, that is, a wanderer or traveler, from some root signifying to wander, to go or pass, or to visit. See Class Gs. No. 5. 14. IC]

    1. One who entertains another at his own house, without reward.

    Homer never entertained guests or hosts with long speeches. .Sidney.

    2. One who entertains another at his house for reward ; an innkeeper ; a landlord.

    •3. A guest ; one who is entertained at tlic house of another. The innkeeper says of the traveler, he has a good host, and the traveler says of his landlord, he has u kind host. [See Guest.] Encyc.

    HOST, n. [L. hostis, a stranger, an enemy. The sense is probably transferred from a single foe to an army of foes.]

    1. An army ; a number of men cmborfied for war.

    2. Any great number or multitude. HOST, n. [L. hoslia, a victim or sacrifice,

    from hostis, an enemy ; Fr. hostie ; applied to the Savior who was offered for the sins of men.]

    In the Romish church, the sacrifice of the mass, or the consecrated wafer, represent- ing the body of Christ, or as the Catholics alledgc, transubstantiated into his own l)ody. Ena/c.

    HOST, V. i. To lodge at an inn ; to take up entertainment. [Little used.] Shak.

    HOST, V. t. To give entertainment to. [JVol used.] Speyiser.

    HOS'TAgE, n. [Fr.otage, for ostage ; It. ostaggio ; Arm. ostaich ; G. gtissel ; W. gwystyt, a |)ledge, pawn, surety, hostage.]

    A person delivered to an enemy or hostile power, as a pledge to secure the perform- ance of the conditions of a treaty or stip- ulations of any kind, and on the per- formance of which the person is to be released. Bacon. .Itterbury.

    HOSTEL, HOSTELLER. [See Hotel.]

    HOSTESS, n. A female host ; a woman who entertains guests at her house.


    2. A woman who keeps an inn. Temple.

    HOSTESS-SHIP, n. The character or bu- siness of a hostess. Shak.

    HOSTILE, a. [L. hostilis, from hostis, an enemy, that is, a foreigner.]

    1. Belonging to a public enemy ; designa- ting enmity, particularly public enmity, or a state of war ; inimical ; as a hostile band or army ; a hostile force ; hostile intentions.

    2. Possessed by a public enemy ; as a hos- tile country. Kent.

    3. Adverse; opposite ; unfriendly. [But the word is not properly applied to private en- mity, or mere unfriendliness.]

    HOS'TILELY, adv. In a hostile manner. HOSTILITY, n. [Fr. hostiliti ; h. Iioslili-

    tas, from Iwslis, an enemy.]

    1. The state of war between nations or

    states ; the actions of an open enemy ;

    aggression ; attacks of an enemy. These

    secret enmities broke out in hostilities.

    Hostility being thus suspended with France.



    Wc have carried on even our hostilities with

    humanity. Atterbury.

    2. Private enmity ; a sense less proper. HOS'TILIZE, V. t. To make au enemy.

    [LilUe used.] HOSTING, n. [from host, an army.] An

    encounter ; a battle. [Little used.] Milton. 2. A muster or review. Obs. Spenser.

    HOS'TLER, n. hos'ler. [from Fr. hotelier,

    an innkeeper. See Hotel] The person who has the care of horses at

    an inn. HOSTLESS, a. Inhospitable. [jYot in use.] HOSTRY, n. A stable for horses. Dryden. 2. A lodgins; house. Howell.

    HOT, a. [Sax. hat ; G. heiss ; D. heet ; Sw.

    het ; Dan. heed. See Heat.]

    1. Having sensible heat; opposed to cold; as a hot stove or fire ; a hot cloth ; hot liquors. Hot expresses more than ivarm.

    2. Ardent in temper; easily excited or exas- perated ; vehement.

    Achilles is impatient, hot and revengeful.


    3. Violent ; furious ; as a hot engafrenient or assault. Dn/di

    4. Eager ; animated ; brisk ; keen ; as a hot pursuit, or a person hot in a pursuit.

    5. Lustful ; lewd. Shak.

    6. Acrid; biting; stimulating; pungent; as hot as mustard or pepper.

    HOT, HOTE, HOTEN, pp. Called; na- med. Obs. Gower.

    HOT'BED, n. In gardening, abed of ea.rlh and horsedung or tanner's bark, covered with glass to defend it from the coid air, intended for raising early plants, or for nourishing exotic plants of warm chmates, which will not thrive in cool or temperate air. Encyc.

    HOT'BRAINED, a. Ardent in temper ; vi- olent ; rash ; precipitate ; as hotbrained youtli. Drydi

    HOTCH'POT, re. [Fr. hochcpot, from hocher. to shake, and probably pot, a pot or dish.]

    1. Properly, a mingled mass ; a mixture of ingredients. Bacon. Camden.

    2. In law, a mixing of lands. Tiius lands given in frank-marriage to one daughter, shall, after the death of the ancestor, be blended with the lands descending to her and to her sisters from the same ances- tor, and then be divided in equal portions to all the daughters. Blackstone.

    HOT'COCKLES, n. phi. [Qu. Fr. hautes coquilles, high shells.]

    A play in which one covers Iiis eyes, and guesses who strikes liim, or his hand pla- ced behind him. Gay.

    HOTEL', n. [Fr. hotel, for hostel, a palace or dwelling house of a prince or lord.]

    1. A palace.

    2. An inn ; a house for entertaining stran- gers or travelers. It was formerly a house for genteel strangers or lodger,^ but the name is now given to any inn.

    HOT'HEADED, a. Of ardent passions vehement ; violent ; rash. Arhuthnot

    HOT'lIOUSE, n. A house kept warm to slielter tender plants and shrubs from the cold air ; a place in which the plants of warmer climates may be reared, and fruits ripened.

    2. A bagnio, or place to sweat and cup

    H O U

    HOT'LY, adv. [from hot.] With heat.

    2. Ardently; vehemently; violently; as a stag hotly pursued.

    3. Lustfully. Dryden HOT' MOUTHED, a. Headstrong; ungov- ernable.

    H O U

    3. A brothel

    That hotmouthed beast that bears against

    the curb. Dryden.'

    HOT'NESS, n. Sensible heat beyond a

    moderate degree or warmth. 2. Violence ; vehemence ; fury. HOT'SPUR, n. [hot and spur.] A man vio- lent, passionate, heady, rash or precipi- tate. Shak. 2. A kind of pea of early growth. HOT'SPUR, a. Violent; impetuous.

    Spenser. HOT'SPURRED, a. Vehement; rash; heady ; headstrong. Pencham.

    HOT'TENTOT, n. A native of the south- extremity of Africa. 2. A savage brutal man. HOTTENTOT-CHERRY, n. A plant. [See Cherry.] Chambers.

    HOUGH, n. hok. [Sax. hoh, the heel, or the hough ; G. haeke, D. hak, a heel, a hoe.] The lower part of the thigh ; the ham ; the joint of the hind leg of a beast that connects the thigh with the leg. Encyc 2. An adz ; a hoe. [.Voi in use.]

    Sillingfleet HOUGH, V. t. hok. To hamstring ; to disa- ble by cutting the sinews of the ham. 2. To cut with a hoe. Obs. HOUL'ET, n. An owl. [See Hoiolet.] HOULT, n. [See Holt.] HOUND, n. [Sax. G. Sw. Dan. Scot, hund D. hand; L. cajiis ; Gr. xvuv, xvroi- ; Fr chien; It. cane.] A generic name of the dog ; but in English it is confined to a particidar breed or va- riety, used in the chase. It has long, smooth, pendulous ears. HOUND, V. t. To set on the chase.


    2. To hunt ; to chase. VEslrange.

    HOUND'FiSH, n. A fish, called also Gal-

    eus Ifevis, with a long round body, and

    ash-colored sides and liack.

    Diet. ATat. Hist. A species of shark, the Squalus mustelus Crabbe. Cyc. HOUNDS, n. Inseame?i'stong-uage, the pro- jecting parts of the head of a mast.

    Mar. Diet HOUND'S TONGUE, n. A plant of thege

    Cynoglossum. HOUND'TREE, n. A kind of tree.

    Airtsworth. HOUP. [See Hoopoo.]

    HOUR, n. our. [L. Sp. hora ; Gr. upa ; It ord ; Fr. heure ; Arm. heitr ; W. awr ; Ir. uair ; G. uhr ; D. uur. The primary is time or season, occasion, from a which signifies to come, to happen, to fall, to rush or drive. Hence the Fr. heur sig- nifies luck, good fortune, and heureur, lucky, fortunate, happy, that is, seasona- ble. So in L. tempestivus, from tempus. See Time. But hour, hora, afterward came to signify a certain portion or division of the day. This has been difierent in dif- ferent nations.]

    A space of time equal to one twenty B. Jonson. fourth part of the natural day, or duration

    of the diurnal revolution of the earth. An hour answers to fifteen degrees of the erjuator. It consists of CO minutes, each minute of 60 seconds, &c. 2. Time ; a particular time ; as the hour of death.

    Jesus saith, woman, my hour is not yet come. John ii.

    The time marked or indicated by a chro- nometer, clock or watch ; the particular time of the day. What is the hour? At what hour shall we meet ? 1 will be with you at an early liour.

    Good hour, signifies early or seasonably. You have arrived at a good hour.

    To keep good hours, to be at home in good season ; not to be abroad late, or at the usual hours of retiring to rest.

    Hours, in the plural, certain prayers in the Romish church, to be repeated at stated times of the day, as matins and vespers.


    HOUR'GLASS, re. our'glass. A chrono'm- eter that measures the flux of time by the running of sand from one glass vessel to another, through a small aperture. In-

    stead of sand, dry egg shells pulverized

    are sometimes used. The quantity of sand

    may be so proportioned as to measure an

    hour, a half hour, or a quarter.

    2. Space of time. Bacon.

    HOUR'HAND, n. The hand or pointed pin

    which shows the hour on a chronometer.

    HOU'RI, re. Among Mohammedans, a

    nymph of paradise. Johnson.

    HOUR'LY, a. our'ly. Happening or done

    every hour ; occurring hour by hour ; fre-

    querit ; often repeated.

    Observe the waning moon with hourly view.


    2. Continual.

    We must live in hourly expectation of having the troops recalled. Swiji.

    HOUR'LY, adv. our'ly. Every hour; fre- quently ; continually.

    Great was their strife which hourly was re- newed. Dryden. HOUR'PLATE, n. our'plate. The plate of a clock or other time-piece on which the hours are marked ; the dial. Locke. HOUS'AgE, n. [from house.] A fee for keeping goods in a house. [JVbt in use.]

    Chambers. HOUSE, re. hous. [Sax. Goth. Sw. Scot. hus ; G. htius ; D. huis ; Dan. huus ; L. casa ; It. Sp. and Port, casa ; W. hws, a covering or housing. If the primary sense is a covering, this word may be referred

    to Hcb. Ch. Syr. riDD, Ar. l^^,, to put

    on, to cover. Class Gs. No. 57. It cor- responds to co<, in a different dialect.]

    1. In a general sense, a building or shed in- tended or used as a habitation or shelter for animals of any kind ; but appropri- ately, a building or edifice for the habita- tion of man; ad welling place, mansion or abode for any of the human species. It may be of any size and composed of any materials whatever, wood, stone, brick, &c.

    2. An edifice or building appropriated to the worship of God ; a temi)Ie ; a church; ;is the house of God.

    H O U

    H O U

    H O V

    3. A monastery ; a college ; as a religious house.

    4. Tlie manner of living ; the table. He keeps a goixl house, or a miserable house.

    5. In astrology, the station of a planet in the heavens, or the twelfth part of the heavens.

    Johnson. Encyc.

    6. A family of ancestors ; descendants and kindred ; a race of persons from the same stock ; a tribe. It particularly denotes a noble family or an illustrious race ; as the house of Austria ; the house of Hanover. So in Scripture, the house of Israel, or of Judah.

    Two of a house few ages can afford.


    7. One of the estates of a kingdom assem- bled in parliament or legislature ; a body of men united in their legislative capacity, and holding their place by right or by election. Thus we say, the house of lords or peers of Great Britain ; the house of commons ; the house of representatives In most of the United States, the legisla- tures consist of two houses, the senate and the house of representatives or del- egates.

    8. The quorum of a legislative body ; the number of representatives assembled who are constitutionally empowered to enact laws. Hence we say, there is a sufficient number of representatives present to form a house.

    9. In Scripture, those who dwell in a house and compose a family ; a household.

    Cornelius was a devout man, and feared God with all his house. Acts x.

    10. Wealth; estate.

    Yc devour widows' hotises. Matt, xxiii

    11. The grave ; as the house appointed for all living. Job xxx.

    12. Household aftairs ; domestic concerns.

    Set thy house in order. 2 Kings xx.

    13. The body ; the residence of the soul this world ; as our earthly house. 2 Cor.

    14. The church among the Jews.

    Moses was faithful in all his house. Heb. i

    15. A place of residence. Egypt is called the ftouie of bondage. Ex. xiii.

    16. A square, or divisiou on a chess board.

    Encyc HOUSE, V. t. houz. [Sw. hysa.] To cover from the inclemencies of the weather shelter ; to protect by covering ; as, to house wood ; to house farming utensils ; to house cattle.

    2. To admit to residence ; to harbor.

    Palladius wished hiiu to house all the Helot Sidney.

    3. To deposit and cover, as in the grave


    4. To drive to a shelter. Shak HOUSE, f. t. houz. To take shelter or lodg- ings; to keep abode; to reside.

    To house with darkness and with death.

    Milton 2. To have an astrological station in the heavens.

    Where Saturn houses. Brydi

    HOUSEBOAT, n. hous'boat. A covered

    boat. HOUSEBOTE, n. hous'bote. [house and

    S;i\\. bot, supply.] In law, a sufficient allowance of wood to pair the house and supply fuel.

    HOUSE-BREAK'ER, n. hous' -breaker. One who breaks, opens and enters a house by day with a felonious intent, or one who breaks or opens a house, and steals there- from, by daylight. Blackstone.

    HOUSE-BRE.\\KING, n. hous' -breaking. The breaking, or opening and entering of a house by daylight, with t" commit a felony, or to steal or rob. The same crime committed at night isburglary. Blackstone.

    HOUSEDOG, n. hotts'dog. A dog kept guard the house. Addison.

    HOUSEHOLD, n. hous'hold. Those who dwell under the same roof and compose a family ; those who belong to a family.

    I baptized also the household of Stephanas. 1 Cor. i.

    2. Family life ; domestic management.


    HOUSEHOLD, a. hous'hold. Belonging to the house and family ; domestic; as house- hold furniture ; household affairs.

    HOUSEHOLDER, n. hous'holder. The mas- ter or chief of a family; one who keeps house with his family. Matt. xiii.

    HOUSEHOLD-STUFF, n. hous' hold-stuff. The furniture of a house ; the vessels, utensils and goods of a family. Bacon.

    HOUSEKEEPER, n. hous'keeper. One who occupies a house with his family ; a man or woman who maintains a family state in a house ; a householder ; the master or mistress of a family. Locke

    2. A female servant who has the chief care of the family and superintends the other servants. Sivifl.

    3. One who lives in plenty. [JVot in use.] Wotton

    4. One who keeps much at home. [jVb< used.] Shak

    5. A housedog. [J\\l'ot itsed.] Shak HOUSEKEEPING, a. hous'keeping. Do- mestic ; used in a family ; as housekeeping comniodit' '" ' ' " " - - .


    house. HOUSESNAIL, n


    . One who erects a


    A particular kind of


    HOUSEVVARMING, n. hous'warming. ,\\ feast or meri^ making at llie time a fami- ly enters a new house. Johnson.

    HOUSEWIFE, n. hous'u-ije. [house and tvife ; contracted \\i\\to huswife, hussy.] The mistress of a family. Pope.

    2. A female economist ; a good manager.

    Dri/den. Mdison.

    3. One skilled in female business. Addison.

    4. A little case or bag for articles of female work. Shelton.

    HOUSEWIFELY, a. hous'wifely. Pertain- ing to the mistress of a family.

    2. Taken from housewifery, or domestic af- fairs ; as a houseu-ifely metaphor.


    HOUSEWIFERY, n. hmis'wifery. The bus- iness of the mistress of a family ; female business in the economy of a family ; fe- male management of domestic concerns. Temple. Taylor.

    HOUSE-WRIGHT, ji. hous'-wright. An architect who builds houses. Folherby.

    HOUSED, pp. s as z. Put under cover; sheltered.

    HOUS'ING, ppr. sasz. Covering; shelter- ing.

    2. Warped ; crooked, as a brick.

    [HOUSING, Ji. Houses in general.

    2. [Fr. housse ; W. hivs, a covering.] A cloth laid over a saddle. Encyc.

    3. A piece of cloth fastened to the hinder part of a saddle, and covering the horse's croup; called also boot-housing.

    4. [See Houseli7ie.]

    HOUS'LING, a. [See Housel] Sacrament- al; ashousling fire, used in the sacrament of marriage. Obs. Spettser.

    HOUSS, a covering. [See Housing.]

    Dryden. HOVE, pre*, of heave.

    [Sax. hof, hofe, a house.

    [Link used.] Carcii'.|!HOV'EL,

    HOUSEKEEPING, »!. [As above.] The|| cave.] A shed; a cottage; a mean house.

    family state in a dwelling. HOVEL, v. t. To put in a hovel ; to shel-

    2. Hospitality ; a plentiful and hos|)itable ter.

    table, [^tot used in U. Stales.] yHOVEN, ;)p. of Afnw.

    HOUS'EL, n. houz'l. [Sax. husel. Lye sup-j HOVER, v. i. [W. horww, to hang over, to

    poses this to be from Goth, hunsa, a vie- fluctuate, to hover.]

    tim.] The eucharist ; the sacred bread. - ~ -

    HOUS'EL, r. t. [Sax. huslian.] To give or receive the eucharist. Obs. Chaucer.

    HOUSELAMB, n. hous'lamb. A lamb kept; in a house for falling. ',

    HOUSELEEK, n. hous'leek. [See Leek.] A plant of the geuusSempervivum, which is found on the tops of houses. The lesser houseleek is of the genus Seduin.

    HOUSELESS, n. hous'less^ Destitute of a house or habitation ; as the houseless child of want. Goldsinith.

    2. Destitute of shelter.

    HOUSELINE, I Among seamen, a small

    HOUS'ING, S line formed of three strands, smaller than rope-yarn, used for seizings, &c. Mar. Did

    HOUSEMAID, n. hous'maid. A female ser- v.Tiit employed to keep a house clean, &c

    HOUSEPKiEON, n. A tame pigeon.

    HOUSEROOM, n I place in a house.


    To flap the wings, as a fowl ; to hang over or about, fluttering or flapping the wings, with short irregular flights.

    Great flights of birds are hoveiing about tlie

    bridge, and settling on it. Mdison.

    2. To hang over or around, vvilh irregular motions.

    A hovering mist came swimming o'er his sight. Dryden.

    3. To stand in suspense or expectation. Spenser.

    4. To wander about from place to place in the neighborhood ; to move back and forth ; as an army hovering on our bor- ders ; a ship hovering on our coast.

    CrancVs Rep. HOV'ER, n. A protection or shelter by

    hanging over. Obs. HOVER-GROUND, n. Light ground.

    Greg-ory. JHOV'ERING, ppr. Flapping the wingj'; Room or, hanging over or around ; moving with Dryden.] short irregular flights.


    now, adv. [Sax. ^iit; D. hoe.] In what manner. I know not how to answer.

    ffow can a man be born when he is old How can these things be ? John iii.

    2. To what degree or extent. How lon;^ shall we snfler these indiguities .' How much better is wisdom than gold !

    O how love I thy law '. How sweet are thy words to my taste ! Fs. cxix.

    3. For what reason ; from what cause.

    How now, my love, why is your cheek s( pale ? Shttk

    4. By what means. How can this effect be produced ?

    5. In what state.

    How, and with what reproach shall I return'! Dryden.

    6. It is used in a sense marking proportion ; as how much less ; horv much more.

    Behold, he putteth no trust in his servants — how much less in them that dwell in houses ol clay — Job iv.

    By how much they would diminish the pres- ent extent of tlie sea, so much they would im- pair the fertility and fountains and rivers of the earth. Bentley.

    7. It is much used in exclamation.

    How are the mighty fallen ! 2 Sam. i.

    8. In some popular phrases, how is super- fluous or inelegant.

    Thick clouds put us in some hope of land

    knovring hoio that part of the South Sea was

    utterly unknown. Bacon

    HOWBE'lT, adv. [hoiv, he, and U.] Be it as

    it may; nevertheless; notwithstanding;

    yet ; but ; however. Obs.

    HOWDY, n. A midwife. [Local] Grose.

    HOW D'YE, how do you ? how is your

    health ? HOWEVER, orfv. [how and ever.] In what ever manner or degree ; as, however good or bad the style may be.

    2. At all events ; at least.

    Our chief end is to be freed from all, if it may be, however from the greatest evils. Tillotson

    3. Nevertheless ; notwithstanding ; yet. I shall not oppose your design ; I cannot however approve of it.

    You might howe'er have took a fairer way. Dryden


    HOWL, I', i. To utter or speak with outcry. Go — howl it out in desarts. Philips

    HOWL, n. The cry of a dog or wolf, oi other like sound.

    2. The cry of a human being in horror oi anguish.

    HOWL'ET, Ji. [Fr. hulotte; froraotc?.] A fowl of the owl kind, which utters a mournful cry. It is as large as a pullet. Diet. Mit. Hist.

    HOWL'ING, ppr. Uttering the cry of a dog or wolf; uttering a loud cry of distress.

    HOWL'ING, a. Filled with howls, or howl- ing beasts ; dreary.

    Inniunerable artifices and stratagems are act- ed in the howling wilderness and in the great

    deep, that can never c

    our knowledg

    HOW'ITZ, } [Sp. hobus ; G.}iauhitze.]

    HOWITZER, <, "a kind of mortar or short gun, mounted on a field carriage, and used for throwing shells. The difference be tween a mortar and a howitz is that the trunnions of a mortar are at the end, but those of a howitz are at the middle.


    HOW'KER, n. A Dutch vessel with two masts, a main and a mizen-mast ; ah fishing boat with one mast, used on the coast of Ireland. Mar. Diet.

    HOWL, v.i. [D. hiilen; G. heulen ; Sw. yla ; Dan. hyler ; Sp. aullar ; L. uhdo ; Gr. v'Kaa ; Corn, hoalea. Qu. W. ivylaiv ; Arm. giiela or iala ; Ir. guilim ; It. guai- olare. The latter coincide with watt and yell.]

    1. To cry as a dog or wolf; to utter a par- ticular kind of loud, protracted and mourn- fiil sound. We say, the dog howls ; the v/oKhoivls. Hence,

    2. To utter a loud, mournful sound, express- ive of distress ; to wail.

    Hotol ye, for the day of the Lord is at hand. Is. xiii.

    Ye rich men, weep and howl. James v.

    3. To roar ; as a tempest.

    HOWL'ING, n. The act of howling ; a loud outcry or mournful sound.

    HOWSOEV'ER, adv. [hojv, so, and ever.] In what manner soever. Raleigh

    2. Although. Shak.

    [For this word, however is generally used.]

    HOX, V. t. To hough ; to hamstring. [JVc used. See Hough.] Shak.

    HOY, n. A small vessel, usually rigged as a sloop, and employed in conveying pas- sengers and goods from jdace to place on the sea coast, or in transporting goods to and from a ship in a road or bay

    Ejicyc. Mar. Diet

    HOY, an exclamation, of no definite mean

    HU HUB

    fused voices; a tumult; uproar; riot

    Spenser. Clarendon. HUCK, V. i. To haggle in trading. [JVot in

    H U F

    HUD'DLE, V. t. To put on in haste and disorder ; as, she huddled on her clothes

    2. To cover in haste or carelessly.

    „ _, n . Edwards.

    S. lo perform m haste and disorder.

    ^ T. 1 , Dryden.

    4. 1 o throw together in confusion ; to crowd together without regard to order ; as, to huddh propositions together. Locke.

    HUD'DLE, n. A crowd ; a number of per- ns or things crowded together without der or regularity ; tunndt ; confusion.

    Glanvitle. Locke.

    HUDDLED, pp. Crowded together with- out order.

    HUD'DLING, ppr. Crowding or throwing together in disorder ; putting on careless'-

    . [See Hob.]

    'BUB, n. A great noise of many con

    HUCK, n. The name of a German river- trout. Diet

    HUCK' ABACK, n. A kind of linen with ised figures on it.

    HUCK'LE, 71. [infra.] The hip, that bunch.

    HUCK'LEBACKED, a. [G. Aocicr, a bunch, nd back.] Having round shoulders.

    HUCK'LEBONE, n. [G. hocker, a bunch.] The hip bone.

    HUCK'STER, n. [G. hocke, hocker; Dan. hokker. It seems to be from hocken, to take on the back, and to signify primarily a pedlar, one that carries goods on his back.]

    1. A retailer of small articles, of provisions, nuts, &c.

    2. A mean trickish fellow. Hib. Tale. HUCK'STER, V. i. To deal in small arti- cles, or in petty bargains. Swift.

    HUCK'STERESS, «. A female pedlar. HUD, n. TheshellorhuUofanut. [Local.] Grose. HUD'DLE, V. i. [In Ger. hudeln signifies

    to bungle. It msiy be allied to hut, hide, or


    1. To crowd ; to press together promiscu- ously, without order or regularity. We say of a throng of people, they huddle to- gether.

    2. To move in a promiscuous throng with- out order ; to press or hurry in disorder. The people huddle along, or huddle into the house.


    HUE, n. [Sax. hiewe, hiw, color, form, im- age, beauty ,• hiwian, to form, to feign, to simulate. This may be contracted, for in Sw. hyckla, Dan. hykler, is to play the hyp- ocrite. Perhaps how is of this family.]

    Color ; dye.

    u.rrf' """''^ °^ ''" ''"^- Milton.

    HUE, in the phrase 7iiie and cry, signifies a shouting or vociferation. In law, a hue and cry is the pursuit of a felon or offend- er, with loud outcries or clamor to give an alarm. Hue is a contracted word, Norm. hue, Fr. huer or hucher, Dan. hui, or more propably it is from the same root as hoot.

    HU'ER, 71. One whose business is to cry out or give an alarm. [JVot in use.]

    HUFF, 71. [Sp. chufa, an empty boast ; chu- far, to hector, to bully ; Sw. yfvas, 7jfva sig. This word coincides in elements with heave, hove, Dan. hovner, to swell ; but it may be a different word. See Class' Gb. No. 4. 31.]

    1. A swell of sutiden anger or arrogance.

    A Spaniard was wonderfully upon the htiff about his extraction. L' Estrange.

    A boaster ; one swelled with a false opin- ion of his own value or importance.

    Lewd shallow-brained hrtffs make atheism and contempt of religion the badge of wit.


    HUFF, v. t. To swell ; to enlarge ; to puff

    "P- GreiD.

    2. To hector ; to bully ; to treat with inso- lence and arrogance ; to chide or rebuke with insolence.

    HUFF, v. i. To swell ; to dilate or enlarge ;

    as, the bread huffs. 2. To bluster; to swell with anger, pride or

    arrogance ; to storm.

    This arrogant conceit made them hvffM the

    doctrine of repentance. South.

    A huffing, shining, flattering, cringing cow-


    HUFF'ED, pp. Swelled ; puffed up. HUFF'ER, 71. A bully; a swaggerer; a

    blusterer. HUFF'INESS, 71. Petulance; the state of

    being puffed up. Hudibras.

    HUFF'ING, ppr. Swelling ; puffing up ;

    blustering. HUFF'ISH, a. Arrogant; insolent; bee-.

    toring. HUFF'ISHLY, adv. With arrogance or

    blustering. HUFF'ISHNESS, n. Arrogance ; petu- lance ; noisy bluster.

    H U L

    HUFF'Y, a. Swelled or swelling; petulant. HUG, V. t. [Dan. htger, to hng, to cherish,

    Sw. hugna ; Dan. huger, to sit squat on

    the tail. The latter seems to be the G.

    hocken, to sit squat, to keep close, D.

    h^tkken. The sense is to press, and this

    word may be allied to hedge.]

    1. To press close in an embrace.

    — And hugged me in his arms. Shak

    2. To embrace closely ; to hold fast ; to treat with fondness.

    We hug deformities, if they bear our names. Glanville.

    3. To gripe in wrestling or scnfiling.

    To hug the land, in sailing, to sail as near the land as possible.

    To hug the wind, to keep the ship close-haul ed. Mar. Diet.

    HUG, n. A close embrace. Gay.

    2. A particular gripe in wresthng or scuf- fling.

    HU(5E, a. [This word seems to belong to


    the family oihigh, D. lioog, G. hoch.

    the j)rimary sense is to swell or rise. If

    not, I know not its origin.]

    1. Very large or great ; enormous ; applied to bulk or size ; as a Aiig-e mountain ; a. huge ox.

    2. It is improperly applied to space and dis- tance, in the sense of groat, vast, im- mense ; as a huge space ; a huge difter- ence. This is inelegant, or rather vulgar

    3. In colloquial language, very great ; enor- mous ; as a huge feeder. Shak.

    HU'GELY, adv. Very greatly ; enormously immensely.

    Doth it not flow as hugely as the sea ?


    HU'6ENESS, n. Enormous bulk or large- ness ; as the hugeness of a mountain or of an elephant,

    HUG'GER-3IUGGER, n. [Hugger contains the elements of hug and hedge, and mugger^ those of smoke, W. niiog, and of smuggle.'

    In hugger-mugger, denotes in privacy or secrecy, and the word adverbially used, d notes secretly. [It is a Imo cant word.] \\

    IIU'GUENOT, n. [The origin of this word is uncertain. It is conjectured to be a cor- ruption of G. eidgenossen, confederates ; eid, oath, and genoss, consort.]

    A name formerly given to a protestant in France.

    HU'GUENOTISM, n. The religion of the Huguenots in France. Stierwood.

    HU'GY, a. [from huge.] Vast in size. IJVbt used.] Carew.

    IIUISU'ER, n. [Fr. huissier.] An usher. Obs. [See Usher.] B. Jonson.

    HUKE, n. [W. hug.] A cloke ; a hyke.


    HULCH, II. A bunch. [JVot used.]

    HULCH'IS, a. Swelling; gibbous. [.Vo( used.]

    HULK, 71. [D. hidk; Sax. hide, a cottage or lodge, a vessel ; Dau. hoik, a hoy ; Sw. hMk. Qu. Gr. o7.xai.]

    1. The body of a ship, or decked vessel of any kind ; but the word is applied only to the body of an old ship or vessel which is laid by as unfit for service. A sheer-hulk is an old ship fitted with an apparatus to fix or lake out the masts of a ship.

    Encyc. Mar. Diet.

    2. Any thing bulky or unwieldy. [JYot used.]


    Vol. I.

    HULK, V. t. To take out the entrails ; as, to

    hulk a hare. [Little used.] Mnsworlh.

    HULK'Y, a. Bulky ; unwieldy. {Mt used.]

    HULL, n. [Sax. hul, the cover oi a nut; G.

    hulse ; D. hulse ; W. hid, a cover ; huliaw,

    to cover, to deck, G. hidlen. See Hulk.]

    1. The outer covering of aiiy thing, particu- larly of a nut or of grain. Johnson says, the AuH of a nut covers the shell.

    2. The frame or body of a ship, exclusive of her masts, yards and rigging.

    Mar. Diet.

    To lie a hull, in seamen's language, is to lie as a ship without any sail upon her, and her helm lashed a-lee. Encyc

    To strike a hull, in a storm, is to take in the sails, and lash the helm on the lee-side of a ship. Encyc.

    HULL, V. t. To strip off or separate the hull or hulls ; as, to hull grain.

    3. To pierce the hull of a ship with a can- -ball.

    HULL, V. i. To flout or drive on the water

    without sails. Milton.

    HULL'Y, a. Having husks or pods; sili-

    nuoiis. HU'LOTHEISM, n. [Gr. «*)?, matter, and

    0fO5, God.] 'he doctrine or belief that matter is God, or

    that there is no God, except matter and the

    universe. HUL'VER, H. Holly, a tree. [D. hulst.]

    Tusser. HUM, i\\ i. [G. hummen ; D. hommelen.] To

    utter the sound of bees ; to buzz.

    2. To make an inarticulate buzzing sound. The cloudy messenger turns me his back. And hums — Shak

    3. To pause in speaking, and make an audi- ble noise like the humming of bees.

    He hummed and hawed. Hudibras

    4. To make a dhll, heavy noise like a drone, Still humming, on their drowsy course they

    took. Pope.

    5. To applaud. Obs. HUM, V. t. To sing in a low voice ; us, to

    hum a tune.

    2. To cause to hum; to impose on. [Vid- gar.]

    HUM, n. The noise of bees or insects.

    3. A low confused noise, as of crowds ; as the busy hum of men. Milton.

    3. Any low dull noise. Pope.

    4. A low inarticulate sound, uttered by a speaker in a pause ; as hums and haws.

    Shak. Dnjden.

    5. An expression of applause. Spectator. HUM, exclam. A sound with a pause, imply- ing doubt and deliberation. Pope.

    HU'MAN, a. [L. humanus ; Fr. humnin ; Sp. humano ; It. umano. I am not certain which are the radical letters of this word, but am inclined to believe them to be Mn ; that the first syllable is a prefix ; that homo in Latin is contracted, the n being dropped in the nominative and restored in the ob- lique cases; hence homo, and the Gothic and Sax. guma, a man, may be the same word, but this is doubtful. If Mn are the elements, this word is from the root of man, or rather is formed on the Teutonic word. Heb. |'a form, species. The cor- responding word in G. is menschlich [man- like,] D. menschelyk. See Man.]

    1. Belonging to man or mankind ; pertain- ing or relating to the race of man ; as a



    human voice ; human shape ; human na- ture; Auman knowledge ; Anman life. Having the quahties of a man. Swi/I.

    3. Profane; not sacred or divine; as a hu- man author. [JVot in use.] Brown.

    HU'MANATE, a. Endued with humanity. Obs. Cranmer.

    HUMA'NE, a. [supra.] Having the feelings and dispositions |)ropcr to man ; having tenderness, compassion, and a disposition to treat others with kindness; particularly in relieving them when in distress, or in captivity, when they arc helpless or de- fenseless ; kind ; benevolent.

    3. Inclined to treat the lower orders of ani- mals with tenderness.

    HUMA'NELY, adv. With kindness, tender- ness or compassion ; as, the prisoners were treated humanely.

    2. In a humane manner ; with kind fccl-

    Tenderness. Scott. HU'MANIST, ?i. A professor of granmiar

    and rhetoric ; a philologist ; a term used in

    the universities of Scotland. 2. One versed in the knowledge of human

    nature. Shaftesbury.

    HUMAN'ITY, n. [L. humanitas ; Fr. human-


    1. The peculiar nature of man, by which he is distinguished from other beings. Thus Christ, by his incarnation, was invested with humanity.

    2. Mankind collectively ; the human race.

    If he is able to untie those knots, he is able to teach all humanity. [Unusual]

    Glanville. It is a debt we owe to humanity.

    S. S. Smith.

    3. The kind feelings, dispositions and sj-m- pathies of man, by which he is distinguish- ed from the lower orders of animals ; kind- ness ; benevolence ; especially, a disposi- tion to relieve persons in distress, and to treat with tenderness these who are help- less and defenseless ; ojjposed to cruelly.

    4. A disposition to treat the lower orders of animals with tenderness, or at least to give them no imnecessary pain.

    5. The exercise of kindness; acts of tender- ness.

    6. Philology ; grammatical studies.


    Humanities, in the plural, signifies grammar, rhetoric and poetry ; for teaching which there are professors in the universities of Scotland. Encyc.

    HU.MANIZA'TION, n. The act of human- izing.

    HUMANIZE, V. t. To soften ; to render hu- mane ; to subdue dispositions to cruelty, and render susceptible of kind feelings.

    Was it the business of magic to humanize our natures ? ..Addison, littherspoon.

    HU'MANIZED, pp. Softened; rendered hu-

    HU'MANIZING, ppr. Softening; subduing cruel dispositions.

    HU MANKIND, n. The race of man; man- kind ; the human species. Pope.

    HU'MANLY, adv. After the manner of men ; according to the opinions or knowledge of men. The present prospects, humanly speaking, promise a ha[)py issue.

    Obs. Pope.

    3. Kindly ; humanely.


    HUMA'TION, n. Interment. [JVot used.] HUM'BIRD, } „ A very small bird

    HUM'MING-BIRD, S of the genus Tro- chilus ; so called from the sound of its wings in flight. The rostrum is subulate, filiform, and longer than the head ; the tongue is filiform and tubulous. It never lights to take food, but feeds while on the wing. HUM'BLE, a. [Fr. humble ; L. humilis ; sup posed to be from humus, the earth, or its root.]

    1. Low ; opposed to high or lofty.

    Thy humble nest built on the ground.


    2. Low ; opposed to lofty or great ; mean ; not magnificent ; as a humble cottage.

    A humble roof, and an obscure retreat.

    Anon. fi. Lowly ; modest ; meek ; submissive ; op- posed to proud, haughty, arrogant or as- suming. In an evangelical se7ise, having a low opinion of one's self, and a deep sense of unworthiness in the sight of God.

    God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble. James iv.

    Without a humble imitation of the divine au- thor of our blessed religion, we can never hope to be a happy nation. Washington.

    miM'BLE, V. f. To abase ; to reduce to a low state. This victory humbled the pride of Rome. The power of Rome was hum- bled, but not subdued.

    2. To crusli ; to break ; to .subdue. The bat- tle of Waterloo humbled the power of Buonaparte.

    3. To mortify.

    4. To make "humble or lowly in mind; to abase the pride of; to reduce arrogance and self-dependence ; to give a low opin- ion of one's moral worth ; to make mcel and submissive to the divine will ; theevan gelical sense.

    Humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you. 1 Pel. v.

    Hezekiah humbled himself for the prid hisheait. 2 Chron. xxxii.

    5. To make to condescend. He humbles himself to speak to them.

    C. To bring down; to lower ; to reduce.

    The highest mountains may be humbled into valleys. HatcewiU

    7. To deprive of chastity. Deut. xxi, To humble one's self, to repent; to afflict one's

    self for sin ; to make contrite. nUM'BLEBEE, n. [G. hummel ; D.hommel Dan. hummel ; Sw. humla ; from hum. It is often called bumblebee, L. bombus. buzzing.] A bee of a large species, that draws its food

    chiefly from clover flowers. IIUM'BLED, pp. Made low ; abased ; ren- dered meek and submissive ; penitent. HUM'BLEMOUTHED, a. Mild; meek; modest. Shak.

    HUM'BLENESS, n. The state of being humble or low ; humility ; meekness.

    Bacon. Sidney.

    HUM'BLEPLANT, n. A species of sensitive

    plant. Mortimer.

    HUM'BLER, n. He or that which humbles;

    he that reduces pride or mortifies. HUM'BLES, ? Entrails of a deer. UM'BLKS, ("• Joh

    HUM'BLY, adv. In a humble manner ; with modest submissiveness ; with humility.


    Hope humbly then, with trembling pinions

    soar, AVait the great teacher, death, and God adore. Pope. 2. In a low state or condition : without ele- vation. HUM'BOLDITE, n. [from Humbold.l A rare mineral recently described, occurring in small crystals, nearly colorless and trans- parent, or of a yellowish tinge and trans- lucent ; rarely separate, but usually aggre- gated ; their primary form, an oblique rhombic prism. Phillips.

    HUM'BUG, n. An imposition. [A loiv word.] HUM'DRUM, a. [Qu. hum, and drone, or W. from, heavy.] Dull ; stupid.

    Addison. Hudibras. HUM'DRUM, n. A stupid fellow ; a drone. HUME€T', I , [L. humecto, from

    HUME€'TATE, I ^' '' /Himeo, to be moist;

    Fr. humecter.]

    To moisten; to wet; to water. [Little used.]

    Broicn . Hoimll.

    HUMECTA'TION, n. The act of moisten-

    g, wetting or watering. [Little used.]


    HUME€'TIVE, a. Having the pov

    HU'MERAL, a. [Fr. from L. humerus, the

    shoulder.] Belonging to the shoulder ; as the humeral

    artery. HUM'HUM, n. A kind of plain, coarse India

    cloth, made of cotton. nUMICUBA'TION, n. [L. humus, the j ground, and cubo, to lie.] A lying on the ground. [Little used.

    Bramhall. HU'MID, a. [L. humidus, from humeo, t<

    be moist ; Fr. humide.]

    1. Moist; damp; containing sensible moist nre ; as a humid air or atmosphere.

    2. Somewhat wet or watery ; as humid earth.

    HUMID'ITY, n. Moisture ; dampness ; moderate degree of wetness which ispe ceptible to the eye or touch, occasioned by tlie absorption of a fluid, or its adh ence to the surface of a body. When a cloth has imbibed any fluid to such a degree that it can be felt, we call it humid; but when no humidity is perceptible, we say it is dry. Quicksilver communicates no humidity to our hands or clothes, for it does not adhere to them ; but it will ad here to gold, tin and lead, and render them humid and soft to the touch.

    2. Moisture in the form of visible vapor, or perceptible in the air.

    HU'MIDNESS, n. Humidity.

    HUMIL'IATE, V. t. [L. humilio ; Fr. hu- mitier.]

    To humble : to lower in condition ; to de- press ; as humiliated slaves. Eaton

    HUMIL'IATED, pp. Humbled; depressed degraded.

    HUMIL'I.\\TING, ppr. Humbling ; depress ing.

    j2. ft. Abating pride ; reducing self-confi dence ; monifving. Boswelt.

    HUMILIA'TION, n. The act of humbhng the state of being humbled.

    2. Descent from an ele\\ated state or rank to one that is low or humble.

    The former was a humiliation of deity ; the

    I latter, a /iwmiKafion of manhood. Hooltei

    H U M

    3. The act of abasing pride ; or the state of being reduced to lowliness of mind, meek- ness, penitence and submission.

    The doctrine he preached was humiliation and repentance. Swift.

    4. Abasement of pride; mortification. HUMIL'ITY, n. [L. humilitas ; Fr. humUiti.

    See Humble.]

    1. In ethics, freedom from pride and arro- gance; humbleness ofmind; a modest es- timate of one's own worth. In theology, humility consists in lowliness of mind ; a deep sense of one's own unworthiness in the sight of God, self-abasement, peni- tence for sin, and submission to the divine will. -

    Before honor is humility. Prov. xv. .Serving the Lord with all humility ofmind. Acts XX.

    2. Act of submission.

    With tliese humilities they satisfied the young king. Davies.

    IIU'MITE, n. A mineral of a reddish brovm color, and a shining luster; crystalized in octahedrons, much modified by truncation and hevelment. It is named from Sir Abni. Hume. Cleaveland.

    HUM'MER, n. [(tomhum.] One that hums; an applauder. Ainsworth.

    HUM'MING, ppr. Making a low buzzing or

    murmuring sound. HUM'MING, n. The sound of bees ; a low

    murmuring sound. HU'MOR, n. [L. from A umeo, to be moist ; Sans, ama, moist. The pronunciation, yumor, is odiously vulgar.] 1. Moisture ; but the word is chiefly used to express the moisture or fluids of animal bodies, as the humors of the eye. But more generally the word is used to ex- press a fluid in its morbid or vitiated state. Hence, in popular speech, we often hear it said, the blood is full of humors. But the e.Kpression is not technical nor correct.

    Aqueous humor of the eye, a transparent fluid, occupying the space between the crystaline lens and the cornea, both before and behind the pupil.

    Crystaline humor or lens, a small trans- parent solid body, of a softish consistence, occupying a middle position in the eye, be- tween the aqueous and vitreous humors, and directly behind the pupil. It is of a lenticular form, or with double convex surfaces, and is the principal instrument in refracting the rays of light, so as to form an image on the retina.

    Vitreous humor of the e?/e, a fluid contained in the minute cells of a transparent mem- brane, occupying the greater part of the cavity of the eye, and all the space be- tween the crystaline and the retina.

    IFistar. 3. A disease of the skin ; cutaneous erup- tions. Fielding. 3. Turn of mind; temper; disposition, or rather a peculiarity of disposition often temporary ; so called because the temper of mind has been supposed to depend on the fluids of the body. Hence we say, good humor ; melancholy humor ; peevish humor. Such humors, when temporary, we call freaks, whims, caprice. Thus a person characterized by good nature may have a fit of ill humor ; and an ill natured person may have a fit of good humor. So

    H U M



    we say, it was tlie /lumorof the man at the time ; it was the humor of the multitude.

    4. That quahty of tlie imagination which gives to ideas a wild or fantastic turn, and tends to excite laughter or mirth by ludi crous images or representations. Humo, is less poignant and brilliant than vyil lience it is always agreeable. Wit, direct ed against folly, often offends by its se verity ; humor makes a man ashamed o his follies, without exciting his resentment Humor may be employed solely to raise mirth and render conversation pleasant or it may contain a delicate kind of satire

    5. Petulance; peevishness; better expressed by ill humor.

    Is my friend all perfection ? has he not mors to be endured .' South

    6. A trick ; a practice or habit.

    I like not tlie humor of lying.

    HU'MOR, V. I. To gratify by yielding to par- ticular inclination, humor, wish or de ' to indulge by compliance. We sometimes humor children to their injury or ruin. The sick, the infirm, and the aged often re quire to be humored.

    2. To suit ; to indulge ; to favor by imposing no restraint, and rather contributing promote by occasional aids. We say, an actor humors his pan, or the piece.

    It is my part to invent, and that of the cians to humor that invention. Dryden

    HU'MORAL, a. Pertaining to or proceedin, from the humors ; as a humoral fever.


    Humoral pathology, that pathology, or doc- trine of the nature of diseases, which at- tributes all morbid phenomena to the dis- ordered condition of the fluids or humors Cue.

    HU'MORED, pp. Indulged ; favored.

    HU'MORING, ppr. Indulging a particular wish or propensity ; favoring ; contribut- ing to aid by falling into a design or course.

    HU'MORIST, n. One who conducts him self by his own inclination, or bent of mind ; one who gratifies his own humor.

    The humorist is one that is greatly pleased or greatly displeased with little things ; his actions seldom directed by tlie reason and nature of things. Watts.

    2. One that indulges humor in speaking or writing ; one who has a playful fancy or genius. [See Humor, No. 4.]

    3. One who has odd conceits ; also, a wag a droll. Hall. Bodlei,

    HU'MOROUS, o. Containing humor; full of wild or fanciful images; adapted to excite laughter ; jocular ; as a humorous essay a humorous story.

    2. Having the power to speak or write in the style of humor ; fanciful; playfu' citing laughter ; as a humorous man or au- thor.

    3. Subject to be governed by humor or ca price ; irregular ; capricious ; whimsical.

    I am known to be a humorous patrician.


    Rough as a storm, and humorous as th(

    wind. Dryden

    4. Moist ; himiid. [JVol in use.] Drayton.

    HU'MOROUSLY, adv. With a wild or gro- tesque combination of ideas ; in a manner to excite laughter or inii'tb ; pleasantly ;

    jocosely. Addison describes humorously the n^anual exercise of ladies' fans.

    2. Capriciously ; whimsically ; in conformity with one's humor.

    We resolve by halves, rashly and humor- ously. Calamy.

    HU'MOROUSNESS, ji. The state or qual- ity of being humorous; odduess of con- ceit ; jocularity.

    2. Fickleness ; capriciousness.

    3. Peevishness ; petulance. Goodman. HU'MORSOMR, a. Peevish; petulant; in- fluenced by the humor of the moment.

    The commons do not abet humorsome, fac- tious arms. Burke.

    2. 0

    3. Oddly ; humorously.

    HUMP, n. [L. umbo.] The protuberance formed by a crooked back ; as a camel

    1 with one hump, or two humps.

    jHUMP'BACK, 71. A crooked back; high shoulders. Taller

    HUMPBACKED, a. Having a crooked

    I hack.

    jHUNCH, n. [See the Verb.] A hump

    I protuberance; as the Aunc/i of a camel,

    2. A lump; a thick piece; as a hunch of bread ; a word in common vulgar use JVeiu England.

    3. A push or jerk with the fist or elbow. HUNCH, t'. t. To push with the elbow ;

    push or thrust with a sudden jerk.

    2. To push out in a protuberance ; to crook the back. Dn/den

    HUNCHBACKED, a. Having a crooked back. L'Estrangc. Dryden

    HUNDRED, a. [Sax. hund or hundred Goth, hund; D.hoiiderd; G. hundert ; Sw. hundra ; Dan. hundre, hundred ; L. centum ; W. cant, a circle, the hoop of a wheel, the rim of any thing, a complete circle or ries, a hundred ; Corn, canz ; Arm. cant ; Ir. ceantr. Lye, in his Saxon and Gothic Dictionary, suggests that this word hund is a mere termination of the Gothic word for ten ; taihun-taihund, ten times ten. But this cannot be true, for the word is found in the Celtic as well as Gothic dialects,

    and in the Arabic j^i^, Class Gn. No.

    63 ; at least this is probably the same word. The Welsh language exhibits the true sense of the word, which is a circle, a complete series. Hence, W. cantrev, a di- vision of a county, or circuit, a canton, a hundred. See Canton. The word sig- nifies a circuit, and the -sense of hundred is secondary. The centuria of the Ro-;i s, and the hundred, a division of a

    riors, or a hundred manors. [But as the word denotes primarily a circuit or divis- ion, it is not certain that Alfred's divisions had any reference to that number.]

    HUNDRED-COURT, n. In England, a court held for all the inhabitants of a hundred. lilackslone.

    HUND'RKDER, n. In England, a man who may he of a jury in any controversy res- pecting land within the hundred to which he belongs.

    2. One having the jurisdiction of a hundred.

    HUNDREDTH, a. The ordinal of a hund- red.

    HUNG, pret. and pp. of hang.

    HUNGARY-WATER, n. A distilled water prepared from the tops of flowers of rose- mary ; so called from a queen of Hungary, for whose use it was first made. Enci/c.

    HUNGER, n. [Sax. G. Dan. Sw. hun- ger, D. honger, Goth, huhrus, hunger ; Sax. hungrian, hingrian, Goth, huggryan, to hunger. It appears from the Gothic that n is not radical ; the root then is Hg.'\\

    1. An uneasy sensation occasioned by the want of food ; a craving of food by the stomach ; craving ap|)etite. Hunger is not merely toant of food, for persons when sick, may abstain long from eating without hun- ger, or an appetite for food. Hunger therefore is the pain or uneasiness of the stomach of a healthy person, when too long destitute of food.

    2. Any strong or eager desire. For hunger of my gold I die. Drydtit.

    HUN'GER, V. i. To feel the pain or uneasi- ness which is occasioned by long absti- nence from food ; to crave food.

    2. To desire with great eagerness ; to long for.

    coimty in England, might have been'! ~. .. ' merely a division, and not an exact hund-|l fueling pan ..•'.,' ii fr.«,i Eat

    they that hunger and thirst after

    righteousness. Matt. v. HUN'GER, f. *. To famish. [ATot in use.] HUNGER-BIT, ) Pained, pinched

    HUN GKR-BITTEN, ^ "' or weakened by

    hunger. Milton.

    HUN GERING, ppr. Feeling the uneasiness

    of want of food; desiring eagerly ; longing

    for ; craving. HUN'GERLY, a. Hungry; wanting food

    or nourishment. Shak.

    HUN'GERLY, adv. W^ith keen appetite.

    ILiltle used.] Shak.

    HUN'GER-ST'ARVED, a. Starved with

    hunger ; pinched by want of food.

    Shak. Dryden. HUN'GRED, a. Hungry ; pinched by want

    of food. 06*. Baron.

    HUNGRILY, adv. [from hungry.] With

    keen appetite ; voraciously.

    When on harsh acoms hungrily they fed.


    Having a keen appetite ; or uneasiness from want of red in number.] ■ ! „ 'i','"^'. Eat only when you are Au?!g-ry.

    Denoting the product of ten multiplied bv'!*- Havmg an eagerdesirc. ten, or the number of ten times ten; as "a 3- Lean; emaciated, as it reduced by hun- hundred men. I S^""-

    HUND'RED, n. A collection, body or sum, I Cassius has a lean and hungry look. Shak. consisting of ten times ten individuals or ,4- Not rich or fertile; poor; barren;

    units ; the number 100. 2. A division or part of a county in Eng- land, supposed to have originally contain- ed a hundred families, or a hundred war-

    quiring substances to enrich itself; as a hungry so\\\\; a. hungry gray e\\. Mortimer. HUNKS, n. A covetous sordid man ; a mi- ser ; a niggard. Dryden.


    HUNS, n. [L. Hunni.] The Scytliians who] conquered Pannonia, and gave it its pres- ent name, Hungary.

    HUNT, V. t. [Sax. huntian. This word does not appear in the cognate languages. See! Class Gn. No. 67.] I

    1. To chase wild animals, particularly quad- rupeds, for the purpose of catching them, for food, or for the diversion of sportsmen ; to pursue with hounds for taking, as game ; as, to hunt a stag or a hare. I

    2. To go in search of, for the purpose of shooting ; as, to hunt wolves, bears, squir- rels or partridges. This is the common use of the word in America. It includes fowling by shooting.

    .3. To pursue; to follow closely.

    Evil shall hunt tlie violent man to overthrow him. Ps. cxl. 4. To use, direct or manage hounds iu tlie chase.

    He hunts a pack of dogs. Jlddison.

    To hunt out or after, to seek ; to search for.


    To hunt from, to pursue and drive out or

    away. To hunt down, to depress ; to hear down by

    persecution or violence. HUNT, V. i. To follow the chase. Gen, xxvii.

    2. To seek wild animals for game, or for killing them by shooting when noxious with/oc; as, to hunt for bears or wolves to hunt for quails, or for ducks.

    3. To seek by close pursuit; to search ; with

    The adulteress will Mint for the precious life. Prov. vi. HUNT, n. A chase of wild animals for catch- ing them.

    2. A huntsman. [jVot in use.] Chaucer.

    3. A pack of hounds. Dn/den.

    4. Pursuit ; chase. Shak.

    5. A seeking of wild animals of any kind for game ; as a hunt for squirrels.

    HUNT'ED, pp. Chased; pursued; sought.

    HUNT'ER, n. One who pursues wild ani- mals with a view to take them, either for sport or for food.

    2. A dog that scents game, or is employedl in the chase.

    3. A horse used in the chase. HUNT'ING,;);>r. Chasing for seizure ; pur- suing; seeking; searching.

    HUNT'ING, n. The act or practice of pur suing wild animals, for catching or killing them. Hunting was originally practiced by men for the purpose of procuring food, as it still is by uncivilized nations. But among civilized men, it is practiced mostly for exercise or diversion, or for the des-l traction of noxious animals, as in America 2. A pursuit ; a seeking. HUNTING-HORN, n. A bugle; a horn used to cheer the hounds in pursuit of game. HUNT'ING-HORSE, } , A horse used in HUNT'ING-NAG, ^ hunting.

    Butler. HUNT'ING-SEAT, n. A temporary resi- dence for the purpose of hunting. Gray. HUNT'RESS, n. A female that hunts, or follows the chase. Diana is called the huntress. HUNTS'MAN, n. One who hunts, or who practices hunting. IVutter

    H U R

    3. The servant whose office it is to manage the chase. L'Estrange.

    HUNTS'MANSHIP, n. The art or practice of hunting, or the qualifications of a hunter. Donne.

    HUR'DEN, n. [made of hurds, hards, or coarse flax.] A coarse kind of linen. [Local or obs.] Shenstone.

    HUR'DLE, )!. [Sax.hyrdel; G. feiirrfe, a hur- dle, a fold or pen ; D. horde, a hurdle, a horde. The elements of this word are the same as of the L. crates, Hrd, Crd. It coin- cides also with herd, denoting closeness, pressure, holding.]

    1. A texture of twigs, osiers or sticks ; a crate of various forms, according to its destina- tion. The English give this name to a sled or crate on which criminals are drawn to the place of execution. In this sense, it is not used in America.

    2. In fortification, a collection of twigs or sticks interwoven closely and sustained by long stakes. It is made in the figure of a long square, five or six feet by three and a half. Hurdles serve to render works firm, or to cover traverses and lodgments for the defense of workmen against fire-works or stones. Encyc.

    3. In husbandry, a frame of split timber or sticks wattled together, serving for gates, inclosures, &-c. Encyc.

    IhURDS, n. The coarse part of flax or hemp.

    j [See Hards.]



    An instrument of| th(

    eets of Todd. This may be a

    music, said to be used London. HURL, V. t. [Arm. harlua. different spelling of whirl. To throw with violence ; to drive with great force ; as, to hurl a stone

    And hurl them headlong to iheir fleet and main. Pope.

    2. To utter with vehemence ; as, to hurl oi vows. [JVot in use.] Spense.

    •3. To play at a kind of game. Carexv.

    HURL, n. The act of throwing with vio- lence. 9. Tumult; riot; commotion. Knolles.

    HURL' BAT, «. A whirl-bat; an old kind ol weapon. Ainsworth.

    HURL'BONE, n. In a horse, a bone

    the middle of the buttock. Encyc.

    nVRh'El>, pp. Thrown with violence. HURL'ER, n. One who hurls, or who plays]

    at hurling. C<

    HURL'ING, ppr. Throwing with force;

    playing at hurling.

    HURL'WIND, n. A whirlwind, which see,


    HURL'Y, ? „ [Dan. hurl om burl,\\

    HURLY-BURLY, S topsy turvy ; Fr.l

    hurlu-burlu, inconsiderately.] Tumult ;

    bustle ; confusion. Shak.\\

    HURRA W,> , Hoora; huzza. [See

    HURRAH, \\ '^^'"'"- Hoora.]

    HUR'RI€ANE, n. [8p. huracan, for fura-

    cnn, from the L.furio,furo, to rage; Port.

    furagam ; It. oragano ; Fr. ouragan ; D.

    orkaan; G. Dan. Sw. orca?!. 1 know not

    the origin, nor the signification of the last


    . A most violent storm of wind, occurring often in the West Indies, and sometimes in higher northern latitudes, and on the coast of the United States, as far north as New England. A hurricane is distinguish-

    H U R

    ed from eveiy other kind of tempest by the extreme violence of the wind, and by its sudden changes ; the wind often veering suddenly several points, sometimes a quar- ter of the circle and even more.

    2. Any violent tempest. Dryden. HUR'RIED, pp. [from hurry.] Hastened ;

    urged or impelled to rapid motion or vig- orous action.

    KUR'RIER, n. One who hurries, urges or impels.

    HUR'RY, V. t. [This word is evidently from the root ofL. curro ; Fr.courir; Sw.kbra; W. gyru, to drive, impel, thrust, run, ride,

    press forward. See Ar. iSj.s^ jarai, and

    \\^ kaura, to go round, to hasten. Class Gr. No. 7. 32. 36.] L To hasten ; to impel to greater speed ; to drive or press forward witli more rapidity ; to urge to act or proceed with more ce- lerity ; as, to hurry the workmen or the work. Our business hurries us. The weather is hot and the load heavy ; we cannot safely hurry the horses.

    3. To drive or impel with violence.

    Impetuous lust hurries him on to satisfy the cravings of it. South.

    3. To urge or drive with precipitation and confusion ; for confusion is often caused by hurry. And wild amazement hurries up and down The little number of your doubtful friends.

    Shak. To hurry away, to drive or carry away in

    haste. HUR'RY, V. i. To move or act with haste ; to proceed with celerity or precipitation. The business is urgent ; let us hurry. HUR'RY, n. A driving or pressing forward in motion or business.

    2. Pressure ; urgency to haste. We cannot long ; we are in a hurnj.

    3. Precipitation that occasions disorder or confusion.

    It is necessary sometimes to be in haste, but never in a hurry. Anon.

    4. Tumult ; hustle ; commotion. Ambition raises a tumult in the soul, and puts

    it into a violent hurry of thought. Addison. HUR'RYING, ppr. Driving or urging to

    greater speed ; precipitating. HUR'RY-SKURRY, «rfi>. Confusedly; in a

    bustle. [J\\tol in use.] Gray.

    HURST, n. [Sax. hurst or hyrst.] A wood

    or grove ; a word found in many names,

    as in Hazlehurst. HURT, I), t. pret. and i)p. hurt. [Sax. hyrt,

    wounded ; It. urtare, Fr. heurler, to strike

    or dash against ; W. hyrziaw, to push,

    thrust or drive, to assault, to butt ; Arm.


    1. To bruise ; to give pain by a contusion, pressure, or any violence to the body. We hurt the body by a severe blow, or by tight clothes, and the feet by fetters. Ps. cv.

    2. To wound ; to injure or impair the sound state of the body, as by incision or frac- ture.

    3. To harm ; to damage ; to injure by occa- sioning loss. We hurt a man by destroy- ing his property.

    4. To injure by diminution ; to impair. A man hurts his estate by extravagance.

    H U S

    .1. To injuro by reducing in quality; to im- pair the strength, purity or beauty of. Hurl not the wiiie and the oil— Rev. vi.

    C. To barm ; to injure ; to damage, ir general.

    7. To wound ; to injure ; to give pain to as, to hurt the feelings.

    TIITRT, n. A wound; a bruise ; any thiag that gives pain to the body.

    The pains of sickness and hurts. Locke.

    2. Harm ; mischief; injury.

    I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. Gen. iv.

    3. Injury ; loss.

    \\Vhy should damage grow to the hurt of the kings ? Ezra '

    nURT'ER, n. One who hurts or does harm.

    nURT'ERS, n. Pieces of wood at the lower end of a platform, to prevent the wheels of gun-carriages from injuring the parapet

    HURT'EUL, a. Injurious; mischievous occasioning loss or destruction ; tending to impair or destroy. Negligence is hurt fid to property ; intemperance is hurtful to health.

    HURT'FITLLY, adv. Injuriously; mischiev ously.

    HURT'FULNESS, n. Injuriousness; tend

    eiicy to occasion loss or destruction ; mis chievousness.

    IIURT'LE, V. i. [from MiH.] To clash or run against ; to jostle ; to skirmish ; to meet in shock and encounter ; to wheel suddenly. [JS/ot now used.]

    Spenser. Slui}c

    HURTLE, V. t. To move with violence or impetuosity. 06s. Spenser.

    2. To push forcibly ; to whirl.

    IIURT'LEBERRY, n. A whortleberry which see.

    HURT'LESS, a. Harmless; innocent; doing

    no injury ; innoxious; as /lurftes blows.


    2. Receiving no injury.

    HURT'LESSLY, adv. Without harm. [Lit- tle used.] Sidney.

    IIURT'LESSNESS, n. Freedom from any harmful quality. [Ldttle ti^ed.] Johnson

    IIUS'BAND, n. s as ;. [Sax. husbonda ; hus bouse, and bitend, a farmer or cultivator, or an inhabitant, from hyan, to inhabit or till, contracted from bugian ; Dan. huus- honde ; Sw. husbonde ; Sw. bj/ggia, Dan hygger, to build ; D. bouiDen, G. hauen, to bnild, to till, to plow or cultivate ; G. bauer, a builder, a countryman, a clown, a rustic, a 6oor; D. buur, the last component part of neighbor. Band, bond, in this word, is the participle ofbuan, byan, that is, buend, occupying, tilling, and husband is the far mer or inhabitant of the house, in Scottish, a farmer ; thence the sense of husbandry It had no relation primarily to marriage but among the connnon people, a woman calls her consort, my man, and the man calls his wife, my woman, as in Hebrew, and in this instance, the farmer or occu pier of the house, or the builder, was call ed my farmer ; or by some other means, hi^band came to denote the consort of the female head of the family.] 1. A man contracted or joined to a woman by- marriage. A man to whom a woman is betrothed, as well as one actually unitei by- marriage, is called a husband. Lev xjx. Deut. xxii.


    2. In seamen''s language, the owner of a ship who manages its concerns in person.

    Mar. Did.

    3. The male of animals of a lower order. Dnjden.

    4. An economist ; a good manager ; a man ■who knows and |)ractices the methods of frugality and profit. In this sense, the word is modified by an epithet; as a good husband ; a bad husband. [But in Amer- ica, this application of the word is little or not at all used.] Davies. Collier.

    5. A farmer; a cultivator; a tiller of the ground. [In this sense, it is not used in America. We always use husbandman.]

    Bacon. Dryden. HUS'BAND, V. t. To direct and manage with frugality in expending any thing ; to use or employ in the manner best suited to produce the greatest effect ; to use witli economy. We say, a man husbands his estate, his means or his time.

    He is conscious how ill he has husbandfjl the great deposit of his Creator. Rambler.

    2. To till ; to cultivate with good manage- ment. Bacon.

    3. To su])i)Iy with a husband. [Little used.] Shak

    HUS'BANDABLE, a. Manageable with economy, [/tf.] Shenvood.

    HUS'RANDED, pp. Used or managed with economy ; well managed.

    HUS'BANDING, ppr. Using or managing with frugality.

    HUS'BANDLESS, a. Destitute of a bus band. Shak

    HUS'BANDLY, a. Frugal ; thrifty. [LiUle Mscrf.] Tusser.

    HUS'BANDMAN, n. A farmer ; a cultiva tor or tiller of the ground; one who labors in tillage. In America, where men gei rally own the land on which they labor, the proprietor of a farm is also a laborer or husbandman ; but the word includes the lessee and the owner.

    2. The master of a family. [Xol in use in America.] Chaucer.

    HUS'BANDRY, n. The business of a far- mer, comprehending agriculture or tillage of the ground, the raising, managing and fattening of cattle and other domestic ani- mals, the management of the dairy and whatever the land produces.

    " Frugality ; domestic economy ; good man-


    agement ; thrift. But in this sense we generally prefix good ; as good husbandry. Swifl.

    3. Care of domestic affairs. Shak.

    HUSH, a. [G. husch ; Dan. hys, hyst. In W. hez is peace ; hezu, to make peace ; cws is rest, steep ; and h'usf is a low, buz- zing sound ; Heb. DBTI to be silent. Class Gs. No. 46.]

    Silent ; still ; quiet ; as, they are hush as death. This adjective never precedes the noun which it qualities, except in the com- pound, hushmoney.

    HUSH, V. t. To still ; to silence ; to calm ; to make quiet ; to repress noise ; as, to hush the noisy crowd; the winds were hushed.

    My tongue shall hush again this storm of war. Shak.

    2. To appease ; to allay ; to calm, as commo- lion or agitation.

    Wilt thoii then Hush my caics .- Otwaij

    HUSH, V. i. To be still ; to be silent.


    HUSH, imperative of the verb, used as an exclamation, be still ; be silent or quiet ; make no noise.

    To hush up, to suppress ; to keep concealed. This matter is hushed up. Pope.

    HUSH'MONEY, n. A bribe to secure si- lence ; money paid to hinder information, or disclosureof facts. Sivifl.

    HUSK, n. [Qu. W. gwisg. Corn, quesk, a cover; or It. guscio, bark or shell; Sp. Port, career, husks of grapes, bark. It signifies probably a cover or a peel.]

    The external covering of certain fruits or seeds of plants. It is the calyx of the flower or glume of corn and grasses, form- ed of valves embracing the seed. The husks of the small grains, when separated, are called chaff"; but in America we apply the word chiefly to the covering of the ears or seeds of maiz, which is never denomi- nated chaff". It is sometimes used in Eng- land for the rind, skin or hull of seeds.

    HUSK, It. t. To strip oft" the external in- tegument or covering of the fruits or seeds of plants: as, to husk nin\\z..

    IWUK'F.D, pp. Stripped of its husks.

    2. a. Covered with a husk.

    HUSK'INESS, 71. The state of being dry lU^h, like a husk.

    HUSK'ING, ppr. Stripping off" husks.

    HUSK'ING, n. The act of stripping off" husks. In New England, the practice of farmers is to invite their neighbors to as- sist them in stripping their maiz, in autum- nal evenings, and this is called a huski7ig. HUSK^Y, a. Abounding with husks; con- sisting of husks. Dryden.

    2. Resembling husks; dry; rough.

    3. Rough, as sound ; harsh ; whizzing. HUSO, n. A fish of the genus Accipenser,

    whose mouth is in the under part of the head ; the body is naked, or without prick- les or protuberances. It grows to the length of twenty four feet, and its skin is so tough that it is used for ropes in draw- ing wheel-carriages. It inhabits the Dan- ube and the rivers of Russia, and of its sounds is made isinglass. Encyc.

    HUS'SAR, n. s as :. [Tartar, uswar, caval- ry ; Sans, uswu, a horse. Thomson.]

    A mounted soldier or horseman, in German cavalry. The hussars are the national cavalry of Hungarj' and Croatia. Their regimentals are a fur cap adorned with a fetlier, a doublet, a pair of breeches to which the stockings are fastened, and a pair of red or yellow boots. Their anns are a saber, a carbine and "pistols. Hus- sars now form a part of the French and English cavalry. Enct/c.

    HUSS'ITE, n. A followerof John Huss, the Bohemian reformer.

    HUSS' Y, n. [contracted from husicife, house- wife.]

    1. A bad or worthless woman. It is used also ludicrously in sUght disapprobation or contempt. Go, hussy, go.

    2. An economist ; a thrifty woman. Tusser.

    HUS'TINGS, n. [Sax. hustinge ; supposed to be composed of hus, house, and thing, cause, suit ; the house of trials.]

    H Y A

    H Y D

    H Y D

    1. A court held in Guildhall, in London, be- fore the lord mayor and aldermen of the city ; the supreme court or council of the city. In this court are elected the alder- men and the four members of parliament.

    2. Tlie place where an election of a member of parliament is held. Burke.

    HUS'TLE, D.i. hus'l. [D. Auise/eji, to shake ; Sw. hutla, to shuffle.]

    To shake together in confusion ; to push or crowd.

    HUS'WIFE, «. A worthless woman ; a bad manager. [See Hussy.] Shak.

    9. A female economist ; a thrifty woman.


    HUS'WIFE, V. t. To manage with economy and frugality. Dryden.

    HUS'WIFERY, 71. The business of mana- ging the concerns of a family by a female ; female management, good or bad.


    HUT, n. [G. huite ; D. hut ; Dan. hytte ; Fr. hitte ; perhaps a dialectical orthography of Sax. hus, house, and cot ; W. cwt.]

    A small house, hovel or cabin ; a mean lodge or dwelling ; a cottage. It is particularly a|)plied to log-houses erected for troopS) in winter. |

    HUT, V. t. To place in huts, as troops en- camped in winter quarters.

    Marshall. Smollett.

    HUT, V. i. To take lodgings in huts. The troops hutted for the winter.

    T. Picttering.

    HUT'TED, pp. Lodged in huts. Mitford.

    BVTTING, ppr. Placing in huts; taking lodgings in huts.

    HUTCH, n. [Fr. huche; Sp. hucha; Sax. hxvcecca.]

    1. A chest or box ; a corn chest or bin ; a case for rabbits. Mortimer.

    2. A rat trap.

    HUX, V. t. To fish for pike with hooks and lines fastened to floating bladders.


    HUZZ, V. i. To buzz. [JVot in tise.] Barret.

    HUZZ*A, n. A shout of joy ; a foreign ivord used in writing only, and most preposterous- ly, as it is never used in practice. The word used is our native ivord hoora, or hooraw. [See Hoora.]

    IIUZZ'A, V. i. To utter a loud shout of joy, or an acclamation in joy or praise.

    HUZZ'A, V. t. To receive or attend with shouts of joy. Addison.

    HY'ACINTH, n. [U hyacinthus ; Gy.vo.xiv-


    1. In botany, a genus of plants, of several species, and a great number of varieties. The oriental hyacinth has a large, pur- plish, bulbous root, from which spring sev- eral narrow erect leaves ; the flower stalk is upright and succulent, and adorned with many bell-shaped flowers, united in a large pyramidical spike, of different col- ors in the varieties. Encyc. 9. In mineralogy, a mineral, a variety of zir- con, whose crystals, when distinct, have H\\e form of a four-sided prism, termina- ted by four rhombic planes, which stand on tlie lateral edges. Its structure is foil ated ; its luster, strong ; its fracture, con choidal. Its prevailing color is a hyacinth red, in which the red is more or less tin- ged with yellow or brown. It is some-

    times transparent, and sometimes only

    translucent. Cleaveland.

    Hyacinth is a subspecies of pyramidical

    zircon. lire.

    HYACINTH'INE, a. Made of hyacinth ; consisting of hyacinth ; resembling hya- cinth. Milton

    HY'ADS, n. [Gr. vaSts, from vu, to rain; To{, rain.]

    In astronomy, a cluster of seven stars in the Bull's head, supposed by the ancients to bring rain. Encyc.

    HY'ALINE, a. [Gr. va%noi, from va%os. glass.]

    Glassy ; resembhng glass ; consisting of "ass. Milton

    HY'ALITE, 71. [Gr. va.xos.] Muller's glass. It consists chiefly of silex, and is white, sometimes with a shade of yellow, blue or green. Cleaveland.

    HYBERNA€LE, ) C Hibemacle,

    HYBERNATE, f See \\ Hibernate,

    HYBERNATION. ) ( Hibernation.

    HYB'RID, n. [Gr. vSjits, injury, force, rape ; L. hybrida.]

    mongrel or mule ; an animal or plant.

    produced from the mixture of two species.

    Lee. Martyn.

    HY'BRID, I Mongrel ; produced

    HYB'RIDOUS, \\ "■ from the mixture of two species.

    HY'DAgE, 71. In lan>, a tax on lands, at a certain rate by the hyde. Blackstone.

    HY'DATID, \\ [Gr. vha-m, from vSup, wa-

    HY'DATIS, S tcr.] A little transparent vesicle or bladder filled with water, or any part of the body, as in dropsy.

    Qxii7icy Danvin

    Hydatids are certain spherical bodies, found occasionally in man, as well as in other animals, lodged in or adhering to the dif- ferent viscera. Some of them, at least, are considered as possessing an indepen dent vitality, and as constituting a distinct animal, allied to the Icenia or tape-worm. They consist of a head, neck, and vesicu- lar body filled with a transparent fluid. Cyc. Parr.

    IIY'DRA, n. [h.hydra;Gv.vifa,fmmvhuf,

    1. A water serpent. In fabulous history, a serpent or monster in the lake or marsh of Lerna, in Peloponnesus, represented having many heads, one of which, being cutoff, was immediately succeeded by an- other, unless the wound was cauterized Hercules killed this monster by applying firebrands to the wounds, as he cut off the heads. Hence we give the name to i multitude of evils, or to a cause of multi farious evils.

    3. A technical name of a genus of Zoo phytes, called polypus, or polypuses.

    .3. A southern constellation, containing 60 stars. Cyc

    HYDRAC'ID, a. [Gr. vSuf, water, and acid.] An acid formed by the union of hydrogen with a substance without oxygen.


    HY'DRAGOGUE, n. hy'dragog. [Gr. ..«h» yijyos ; vSwp, water, and oyuyi;, a leading or drawing, from oyu, to lead or drive ]

    A medicine that occasions a discharge of watery humors ; a name that implies supposition that every purgative has the

    quality of evacuating a particular humor. But in general, the stronger cathartics are hydragogues. Qutnci/. Encyc.

    HYDRAN'GEA, n. [Gr. uSup, water, and ayyiiov, a vessel.]

    A plant which grows in the water, and bears a beautiful flower. Its capsule has been compared to a cup.

    De Theis, Gloss. Botan.

    HY'DRANT, n. [Gr. vSpau^u, to irrigate, from vSup, water.]

    A pipe or machine with suitable valves and a spout, by which water is raised and dis- charged from the main conduit of an aqueduct.

    HYDR'ARGILLITE, n. [Gr. v6«p, water, and apya?.os, clay.] A mineral, called also Wavellite.

    HY'pilATE, n. [Gr. vSop, water.] In chimistry, a compound, in definite propor- tions, of a metallic oxyd with water.


    A hydrate is a substance which has formed so intimate a union with water as to sohd- ify it, and render it a component part. Slaked lime is a hydrate of lime. Parke.

    HYDRAUL'le, > [Fr. hydraulique ; L.

    HYDRAUL'I€AL, ^ "• hydraulicus ; Gr. nSpauTiis, an instrument of music played by water ; v8up, water, and ouXof, a pipe.]

    1. Relating to the conveyance of water through pipes.

    3. Transmitting water through pipes ; as a hydraulic engine.

    Hydraulic lime, a species of lime that hard- ens in water; used for cementing under water. Jour7i. of Science.

    HYDRAUL'leS, n. The science of the mo- tion and force of fluids, and of the con- struction of all kinds of instruments and machines by which the force of fluids is applied to practical purposes; a branch of hydrostatics.

    Hydraulics is that branch of the science of hydrodynamics which treats of fluids considerecl as in motion. Ed. Encyc.

    HYDREN'TEROCELE, n. [Gr. vJup, wa- ter, ivitpov, intestine, and, a tumor.]

    A dropsy of the scrotum with rupture.


    nYDR10D'I€, a. [hydrogen and iodic] Denoting a peculiar acid or gaseous sub- stance, produced by the combination of hvdrogen and iodine.

    HYD'RIODATE, n. A salt formed by the hydriodic acid, with a base. De Claubry.

    HVDROC-ARBONATE, n. [Gr. i-Swp, wa- ter, or rather hydrogen, and L. carbo, a

    Carbureted hydrogen gas, or heavy inflam- mable air. Aikin.

    IIYDROCARBURET, n. Carbureted hy- drogen. Henry.

    HY'DROCELE, n. [Gr. nJpoxij^; i.6up, water, and xrfKri, a tumor.]

    Any hernia proceeding from water ; a wa- tery tumor, particularly one in the scro- tum. Encyc.

    A dropsy of the scrotum. Coxe. Parr.

    IIYDROCEPH'ALUS, n. [Gr. vS^f, water, and xffcO/)), the head.]

    Dropsy of the head ; a preternatural disten- sion of the head by a stagnation and ex- travasation of the lymph, either within or wuhout the cranium. Coxe. Encyc.

    H Y D

    HvDROellLO'RATE, n. A compoiin

    Jovrn. of Science.

    HiDRO€HLO'RI€, a. [hydrogen and chloric]

    Hydrochloric acid is muriatic acid gas, a eompouud of clilorin and hydrogen gas. Webster's Manual.

    IIYDROCY'ANATE, n. Prussiate ; cya- nnret.

    IlvDROCYAN'Ie, a. [Gr. vSup, water, or rather hydrogen, and xvavoi, blue.]

    The hydrocyanic acid is the same as the I)russic acid.

    HYDRODYNAM'IC, a. [Gr. v8up, water, and 5wo/ii;, power, force.] Pertaining to the force or pressure of water.

    HYDRODYNAM'leS, n. That branch of natural philosophy which treats of the phenomena of water and other fluids, whether in motion or at rest ; of their equi- librium, motion, cohesion, pressure, re- sistance, &c. It comprehends both hy- drostatics and hydraulics. Ed. Encyc.

    IIYDROFLU'ATE, n. A compound of hy- drofluoric acid and a base.

    HYDROFLUOR'I€, a. [Gr. vS^p, water, and ^uor.]

    Consisting of fluorin and hydrogen. The hydrofluoric acid is obtained by distilling a mixture of one part of the purest fluor spar in fine powder, with two of sulphuric acid. fVebster^s Manual.

    IIY'DROgEN, n. [Gr. vSap, water, and y.-wau, to generate ; so called as being considered the generator of water.]

    In chimislry, a gas which constitutes one of the elements of water, of which it is said by Lavoisier to form fifteen parts in a hundred ; but according to Berzelius and JJulong, hydrogen gas is 11. 1 parts in a hundred, and oxygen 88. 9. Hydrogen gas is an aeriform fluid, the lightest body known, and though extremely inflamma- ble itself, it extinguishes burning bodies, and is fatal to animal life. Its specific gravity is 0.0C94, that of air being 1.00. In consequence of its extreme lightness, it is employed for filling air balloons.

    Lavoisier. fVehster's Manual.

    1IY'DR06ENATE, v. t. To combine hy- drogen with anv thing.

    HY'DROgENATED, pp. In combination with livdrogen.

    IIY'DROgENIZE, I'. /. To combine with

    hydrogen. lY'DROGE

    HY'DROgENIZED, pp. Combined witli hydrogen. 1 HY'DR6gENIZING, ppr. Combining witl' 1 hydrogen.

    I Hi DROG'RAPHER, n. [See Hydrography:

    One who draws maps of the sea, lakes oi

    other waters, with the adjacent shores ;

    one who describes the sea or other waters.


    i: HYDROGRAPH'IC, ? Relating to or

    t HyDROGRAPH'KAL, S "• containing a

    description of the sea, sea coast, isles,

    shoals, depth of water, &c. or of a lake

    HYDROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. v&up, water,

    and ypacfiu), to describe.] The art of measuring and describing the sea, lakes, rivers and other waters ; or ihe art of forming charts, exhibiting a ri presentation of the sea coast, gulfs, bays.

    H Y D

    isles, promontories, channels, soundings, &c.

    H\\>DR0G'URET, n. A compound of by drogeri with a base.

    Hydroguret is now scarcely used, except to give the derivative hydrogureled.


    HyDROG'URETED, a. Denoting a com- pound of hydrogen with a base.

    HYDROLITE, n. [Gr. vS«p, water, and uOof, a stone.]

    A mineral whose crystals are described as six sided prisms, terminated by low si- sided pyramids, with truncated summits, Cleaveland.

    IlYDROLOci'ICAL, a. Pertaining to hy- drology.

    HYDROI/OgY, ji. [Gr. v«up, water, and Xoyos, discourse.]

    The science of water, its properties and ])hononiena.

    IIY'DROMANCY, n. [Gr. ««up, water, and fiantiia, divination.]

    A method of divination or prediction of events by water; invented, according to Varro, by the Persians, and practice

    HYDROMAN'TIC, a. Pertaining to divina-

    HY'DROMEL, n. [Fr. from Gr. v5«p, wa- ter, and fitU, honey.]

    A liquor consisting of honey diluted in wa ter. Before fermentation, it is called sim pie hydromel ; after fermentation, it is call ed vinous hydromel or mead.

    HYDROM'ETER, n. [See Hydrometry.] An instrument to measure the gravity, density, velocity, force, &c. of water and other fluids, and the strength of .spirituous liquors. Encyc.

    HYDROMET'RIC, ) Pertaining to a

    HYDROMKT'Rl€AL, ^ "' hydrometer, ox to the measurement of the gravity, &c. of fluids.

    2. Made by a hydrometer.

    HYDROM'ETRY, n. [Gr. v«up, water, fiirfiov, measure.]

    The art of measuring, or the mensm-ation ofj the gravity, density, velocity, force, &c.j of fluids, and the strength of rectified spirits. Encyc.

    HYDRO-OXYD, n. [Gr. v8up, water, and oxyd.]

    A metallic oxyd combined with water; a metallic hydrate. Parke. Core.

    HY'DROPIfANE, n. [Gr. t.6up, water, and $oH'u, to show.]

    In mineralogy, a variety of opal made trans- parent by immersion in water. Kinoan.

    HYDROPH'ANOUS, a. Made transparent by immersion in water. Kirwan.

    HYDROPHOBIA, ) „ [Gr. vSup, water, and

    HY'DROPHOBY, S ^o(Siofim,to fear.^

    A preternatural dread of water; a symptom of canine madness, or the disease itself,: which is thus denominated. This dread of water sometimes takes place in violent inflammations of the stomach, and in hys- teric fits. Encyc.

    HyDROPHO'BI€, a. Pertaining to a dread of water, or canine madness-

    Med. Repos-l

    HY-DROP'I€, \\ [L.hydrops;Gr.vSix^,

    HYDROP'leAL, i "• dropsy; v8

    H Y E

    1. Dropsical ; diseased with cxtravasated

    2. Containing water ; caused by extravasa- ted water ; as a hydropic swelling.

    3. Resembling dropsy.

    Everj- lust is a kind of hydropic distemper,

    and the more we drink tlic more we shall thirst.


    HYDROPNEUMAT'IC, a. [Gr. t«up, wa- ter, and rti'iviiatixoi, inflated, from ttnv/ta, breath, spirit.]

    An epithet given to a vessel of water, with

    other apparatus for chimical experiments.

    Med. Repos.

    HYDROPSY. [See Dropsy.]

    HY'DROSCOPE, n. [Gr. vJup, water, and dxortiu, to view.]

    A kind of water clock, or instrument used anciently for measuring time, consisting of a cylindrical tube, conical at the bottom, perforated at the vertex, and the whole tube graduated. Encyc.

    HYDROSTATIC, } [Gr. v««p, water,

    HYDROSTAT'IeAL, I "' and ranxos, static, standing or settling.]

    Relating to the science of weighing fluids, or hydrostatics.

    IlYDROSTAT'ICALLY,' adv. According to hydrostatics, or to hydrostatic princi- ples. Bentley.

    HvDROSTAT'ICS, n. The science which treats of the weight, motion, and equilib- riums of fluids, or of the specific gravity and other properties of fluids, particularly of water.

    Hydrogtatics is that branch of the science of hydrodynamics which treats of the properties of fluids at rest. Ed. Encyc.

    HYDROSULPH'ATE, n. The same a.^

    hijdrosulpliuret. [YDROSUI

    HYDROSULPH'URET, n. [hydrogen and sidphuret.]

    A combination of .sulphureted hydrogen ith an earth, alkali or metallic oxyd.

    HYDROSULPH'URETED, a. Combined with sulphureted hydrogen.

    Hydrosulphuric acid, is called also liydrothi- onic acid, or sulphureted hydrogen.

    HYDROTHO'RAX, n. [Gr. i«up, water, and 9Mpa|.] Dropsy in the chest. Coie.

    HYDROT'le, a. [Gr. v&up, water.] Causing a discharge of water.

    HYDROT'le, n. A medicine that purges off water or phlegm. Arbulhnot.

    HYDROXAN'THATE, n. [Gr. v««p, water, and |a>9oj, yellow.]

    In chimislry, a compound of hydroxanthic acid with a base.

    H'fDROXAN'THle, a. A term used to de- note a new acid, formed by the action of alkalies on the bisulphuret of carbon. It is called also carbo-sulphuric acid.


    HY'DRURET, n. A combination of hydro- gen with sulphur, or of sulphur and sul- phureted hydrogen. Ure.

    HY'DRUS, Ji. [Gr. niup, water.] A water snake ; also, a constellation of the south- ern hemisphere.

    HYE'MAL, a. [L. hiems, winter; Sans. ma, cold ; Slav, zima.] Belonging to inter ; done in winter.

    HY'EMATE, v. i. To winter at a place. JVot in vse.]

    H Y M



    HYEMA'TION, n. [L. Memo, to winter.] The passing or spending of a winter in a particular place.

    HYE'NA, n. [L. hyiBna ; Gr. vtuva.] A quadruped of the genus Canis, having small naked ears, four toes on each foot, a straight jointed tail, and erect hair on the neck ; an inhabitant of Asiatic Tur- key, Syria, Persia and Barbary. It is a solitary animal, and feeds on flesh ; it preys on flocks and herds, and will open graves to obtain food. It is a fierce, cruel and untamable animal, and is sometimes called the tiger-wolf.

    HYGROMETER, n. [Gr. typos, moist, and ftffpov, measure.]

    An instrument for measuring tlie degree of moisture of the atmosphere. Encyc.

    HYGROMET'RI€AL, a. Pertaining tc hygrometry ; made by or according to the hygrometer.

    HYGROM'ETRY, n. The act or art offHYP measuring the moisture of the air.

    HY'GR0S€0PE, n. [Gr. uypoj, moist, and Bxortsu, to view.]

    The same as hygrometer. The latter is now chiefly used.

    HYGROS€OP'l€, a. Pertaining to the hy-

    groscoiie ; capalile of imbibing moisture.


    IIYGROSTAT'ICS, n. [Gr. uypos, moist and forixij.]

    The science of comparing degrees of mois- ture. Evelyn

    HYKE, n. [Ar.] A blanket or loose gar- ment. Parkhurst.

    HYLAR'CHICAL, a. [Gr. vx^, matter, and ofXit rule-] Presiding over matter.


    HYLOZO'le, n. [Gr. vT-rj, matter, and ?. Ufe.]

    One who holds matter to be animated.


    HYM, n. A species of dog. Qu. Shak

    HY'MEN, n. [L. from Gr. u/tjjv, membrana, pellicula, hymen.]

    1. In ancient mythology, a fabulous deity, the son of Bacchus and Venus, supposed to preside over marriages.

    2. In anatomy, the virginal membrane.

    3. In botany, the fine pellicle which inclo scs a flower in the bud.

    HYMENE'AL, ( Pertaining to marriage, Pope

    A marriage

    JiKlton. [Gr. vftrjr, a mem- brane, and rtripoi',





    HYMENOP'TERA, a wing.]

    In entomology, the hymenopters

    der of insects, having four membranous wings, and the tail of the female mostly armed with a sting.

    HYMENOP'TERAL, a. Having four mem- branous wings.

    HYMN, n. hym. [L. hymnus ; Gr. vf^m; Eng. htim.]

    A song or ode in honor of God, and amon pagans, in honor of some deity. A hymn among christians is a short poem, compo- sed for religious service, or a song of joy and praise to God. The word primarily expresses the tune, but it is used for the ode or poem.

    And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the mount of Olives. Matt. xxvi.

    AdinonishiDg one another in psalms and hyrnns. Col. iii.

    HYMN, v.t. hym. To praise in son"; to worship by singing hynms. Milton.

    J2. To sing ; to celebrate in song. They hymn their maker's praise.

    HYMN, V. i. hym. To sing in praise or ado- ration. Milton.

    HYM'NED,;)p. Sung; praised; celebrated in song.

    HYM'NING, 7);)r. Praising in song ; sing- ing.

    HYM'NI€, a. Relating to hymns. Donne.

    IIYMNOL'OGIST, n. A composer of hymns. Busby.

    HYMNOL'OgY, n. [Gr. vfivo; and >^os.]

    { A collection of hymns. Mede.

    HYOSCIA'MA, n. A new vegetable alkal

    ted from the Hyoscyamiis nigra, or

    henbane. lire.

    [a contraction of hypochondria.]

    A disease ; depression of spirits.

    HYP, V. t. To make melancholy ; to depress the spirits. Spectator.

    HYPAL'LAGE, »i. hypal'lagy. [Gr. vrtaXJ-oyij, change, from vrtaM,aaau ; ti^o and aXKaaau, to change.]

    In grammar, a figure consisting of a mutual change of cases. Thus in Virgil, dare classibus austros, for dare classes austris. Hypallage is a species of hyperbaton

    HYPAS'PIST, n. [Gr. v7

    A soldier in the armies of Greece, armed in a particular manner. Mitford.

    HYPER, Gr. v,tif, Eng. over, is used in composition'to denote excess, or something over or beyond.

    2. »!. A hypercritic. {J^ot used.] Prior.

    HYPERAS'PIST, n. [Gr. vrii(>a.M^;r,r, vTtep and a'jrtts, a shield.] A defender.

    Chillingioorth. Milner

    HYPERBATON, ? , [Gr. vrtEpSato,,, from

    HY'PERBATE, ^"- vrtspSttwu, to trans 1, or go beyond.]

    In grammar, a figurative construction, invert iug the natural and proper order of words and sentences. The species are the anas- trophe, the hysteron proteron, the hypal- lage, the synchysis, the tmesis, the paren- thesis, and the proper hyperbaton, which last is a long retention of the verb which completes the sentence. Encyc.

    HyPER'BOLA, n. [Gr. vrtfp, over, beyond, and (3aW.u, to throw.]

    |Iii conic sections and geometry, a curve for-

    1 med by cutting a cone in a direction par-

    i allel to its axis. Encyc.

    ■A section of a cone, when the cutting plane makes a greater angle with the base than the side of the cone makes. Webber.

    JThe latter definition is the most correct.

    JHYPER'BOLE, n. hyper'bok. [Fr. hyper- bole ; Gr. vTitfiSoTii], excess, from urtepSoWiu, to throw beyond, to exceed.]

    In rhetoric, a figure of speech which expres- ses much more or less than the truth, or which represents things much greater or less, better or worse than they really are. An object uncommon in size, either great or small, strikes us with surprise, and this emotion produces a momentary conviction that the object is greater or less than it|

    is in reality. The same eflfect attends figurative grandeur or littleness; and hence the use of the hyperbole, which expresses this momentary conviction. The following are instances of the use of this figure.

    He was owner of a piece of ground not lar- ger than a Lacedemonian letter. Longinus. If a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. Gen. xiii.

    Ipse arduus, alta que pulsat

    Sidera. Virgil.

    He was so gaunt, the case of a flageUet was a

    mansion for liini, Shak.

    HYPERBOLIC, I Belonging to the

    HYPERBOL'lCAL, { "• hyperbola; having

    the nature of the hyperbola.

    2. Relating to or containing hyperbole ; ex- aggerating or diminishing beyond the fact ; exceeding the truth ; as a hyperbol- ical expression.

    Hyperbolic space, in geometry, the space or

    content comprehended between the curve

    of a hyperbole and the whole ordinate.


    HYPERBOL'ICALLY, adv. In the form of

    a hyperbola.

    VVitii exaggeration ; in a manner to ex- press more or less than the truth.

    Scylla— is hyperbalically described by Ho- mer as inaccessible. Broome. HYPERBOL'IFORM, a. [hyperbola and

    Having the form, or nearly the form of a hyperbola. Johnson.

    HYPER'BOLIST, n. One who uses hyper- boles.

    HYPERBOLIZE, v. i. To speak or write with exaggeration. Mountagu.

    HYPER'BOLIZE, v. t. To exaggerate or extenuate. Fotherby.

    HYPER'BOLOID, ji. [hyperbola, and Gr. fi6o5, form.]

    A hyperbolic conoid ; a solid formed by the revolution of a hyperbola about its axis. Ed. Encyc.

    HYPERBO'REAN, a. [L. hyperboreus ; Gr. vTtijiSofiio;; urtcp, beyond, and liopeai, the north.]

    1. Northern ; belonging to or inhabiting a region very far north ; most northern.

    3. Very cold ; frigid. HYPERBO'REAN, n. An inhabitant of the

    most northern region of the earth. The ancients gave this denomination to the people and places to the northward of the Scythians, people and regions of which they had little or no knowledge. The Hyperboreans then are the Laplanders, the Samoiedes, and the Russians near the White Sea.

    HYPERCARBURETED, a. Supercarbu- reted ; having the largest proportion of carbon. Sitliman.

    HYPER€ATALEe'Tl€, a. [Gr. vnipxaaa- ^rjxttxos ; DTtfp and xataT^^t.^, termination.]

    A hypercatalectic verse, in Greek and Latin

    poetry, is a verse which has a syllable or

    two beyond the regular and just measure.

    Bailey. Encyc.

    HYPER€RIT'Ie, n. [Fr. hypercritique ; Gr. I'rtfp, beyond, and xpirtxof, critical. See Critic]


    II Y P


    One who is critical beyond measure or rea- son; an over rigid critic; a captious cen- sor. Dryden

    HYPERCRIT'Ie, I „ Over critical;

    JI*PER€RIT'l€AL, S critical beyond use or reason ; animadverting on faults with unjust severity ; as a hypercritical reader. Swift

    2. Excessively nice or exact ; as a hype.rcrit- ical punctilio. Evdyn

    HV^PERCRIT'ICISM, n. Excessive rigor of criticism. Med. Repos. Bailey.

    HYPERDU'LIA, n. [Gr. urtsp, beyond, and imXtia, service.]

    Super-service in the Romish church, i)er- formed to the virgin Mary. Usher.

    HYPER' I CON, 71. John's wort. Stukcly.

    HY'PER'METER, n. [Gr. vrtcp, beyond, and fiEfpoi', measure.]

    Any thing greater than the ordinary stand- ard of measure. Addison. A verse is called a hypermeter, when it contains a syllable more than the ordinary measure. When this is the case, the fol- lowing line begins with a vowel, and the redundant syllable of the former line blends with the first of the following, am' they ate read as one syllable.

    HVPERMETRICAL, a. Exceeding tlie common measure; having a redundani syllable. Ramhler.

    HYPEROX'YD, a. [Gr. vrtfp and oKyd.] Acute to excess, as a crystal.


    HYPEROX'YGENATED, > „ [Gr. vntp.

    HYPEROX'Y6ENIZED, ] "• beyond, and oxygenated, or ojqigenixed.l

    Super-saturated with oxygen.

    Darwin. Med. Repos.

    H'f PEROXYMU'RIATE, n. The same as chlorate.

    HYPEROXYMURIAT'I€, a. The hyperoxy muriatic acid is the chloric acid.

    HYPERPHYS'ICAL, a. Supernatural.

    HY'PERSTENE, ) A mineral, Labra-

    HY'PERSTHENE, S dor hornblend, or schillerspar. Its color is between grayish and greenish black, but nearly copper-red on the cleavage. So named from its diffi cult frangibility. [Gr. vnip and aOivo;.]

    Jameson. Kirwan. Phillips.

    HVPHEN, n. [Gr. v^si>, under one, or one.]

    A mark or short line made between two words to show that they form a compound word, or are to be connected ; as in pre occupied ; five-leafed ; ink-stand. In writ ing and printing, the hyphen is used to connect the syllables of a divided word, and is placed after the syllable that closes a line, denoting the connection of that syl lable or part of a word with the first syl lable of the next line.

    HYPNOTle, a. [Gr. vrfro;. sleep.] Having the quality of producing sleep ; tending to produce sleep ; narcotic ; soporific.


    HYPNOT'IC, n. A medicine that produces, or tends to produce sleep; an opiate; a narcotic ; a soporific.

    ilYPO, a Greek preposition, vtto, under, be- neath ; used in composition. Thus, hypo- sulphuric acid is an acid containing less oxvgen than sulphuric acid. Hf POB'OLE, n. hypob'oly. [Gr. vho, under, and 8a»u, to cast.]

    Vol. I.

    In rhetoric, a figure in which several things

    are mentioned that seem to make against

    the argument or in favor of the opposite

    side, and each of them is refuted in order.


    HYP'OCAUST, n. [Gr. vrtoxcwyov ; v)to and xaia, to burn.]

    1. Among the Greeks and Romans, a subter- raneous place where was a furnace to heat baths.

    3. Among the moderns, the place where a fire is kept to warm a stove or a hot-house.


    IIYPOCHON'DRES, > [See Hypochon-<

    HYPOCHON'DRY, S dna.] I

    HYPOCIION'DRIA, n. plu. [Gr.fromvJ and ;toiS(jo5, a cartilage.] ;

    1. In anatomy, the sides of the belly undcri the cartilages of the spurious ribs ; the spaces on each side of the epigastric re-] gion. Coxe. Encyc.'

    llypochondriac complaints. Taller.

    HVPO€HON'DRlA€, a. Pertaining to thej hypochondria, or the parts of tlie body so called ; as the hypochondriac region.

    2. Affected by a disease, attended with debil- ,, ili|iirssi(in of spirits or melancholy. iiMliiciiii; riiilancholy, or low spirits. 1

    1IY1'(»(I1().\\ l»RIAC,n. A person affected iili ililiiliiN, lowness of spirits or melan- holv. i

    lIYPOeIIONDRI'A€AL, a. The same as hi/pochondriac. \\

    HVPOGHONDRIACISM, n. A disease of men, characterized by languor or debility,' depression of spirits or melancholy, with' dyspepsy. Darwin.l

    HYPOCHONDRIASIS, n. Hypochondri-

    HYP'OCIST, n. [Gr. urtoxifij, sub cisto, un-j der the cistus.] I

    An inspissated juice obtained from the sessile asarum [Cytinus hypocistis,] resembling the true Egyptian afacia. The juice is expressed from the unripe fruit and evap- orated to the consistence of an extract, formed into cakes and dried in the sun. It is an astringent, useful in diarrheas and hemorrhages. Encyc^

    HYPOCRATER'IFORM, a. [Gr. vno, un- der, xpafijp, acup, and/u?-Hi.]

    Salver-shaped ; tubular, but suddenly ex- panding into a flat border at top; applied to a monopetalous corol. Bigelow.i

    HYPOCRISY, n. [F^. hypocrisie ; L. hypo-\\ crisis ; Gr. urtoxpisi;, simulation ; vrtoxftvo- nai, to feign ; vno and xpiiu, to separate, discern or judge.]

    1. Simulation ; a feigning to be what one isj not; or dissimulation, a concealment otj one's real character or motives. More generally, hypocrisy is simulation, or the' assuming of a false appearance of virtue] or religion ; a deceitful show of a good; cliaracter, in morals or religion ; a coun- terfeiting of religion.

    Beware ye of the leaven of tlie Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Luke xii. i

    2. Simulation; deceitful appearance; false pretence.

    Hypocrisy is tlic necessary burden of vil- lainy. ' Rambler. HYPOCRITE, n. [Fr. hypocrite; Gr. irto-j

    xpiTi;?.] 1. One who feigns to be what he is not; one who has the form of godliness without the


    power, or who a.ssumes an appearance of piety and virtue, when he is destitute of true religion.

    And the hypocrite's hope shall perish. Job

    2. A dissembler ; one who assumes a false appearance.

    Fair hypocrite, you seek to cheat in vain.


    HYPOCRIT'IC, > Simulating ; coun-

    HYPOCRIT'ICAL, ^ "• terfciting a religious

    character ; assuming a false and deceitful

    appearance ; appliedto persons.

    2. Uissembhng; concealing one's real char- or motives.

    3. Proceeding from hypocrisy, or marking hypocrisy ; as a hypocritical face or look.

    HYPOCRITICALLY, adv. With simula- tion ; Willi a false appearance of what is good ; falsely ; without sincerity.

    HYPOGAS'TRle, a. [Gr. v«o, under, and yafjjp, tlie belly.]

    1. Relating to the hypogastrium, or middle part of the lower region of the belly.

    2. An appellation given to the internal branch of the iliac artery. Encyc.

    HyPOGAS'TROCELE, n. [Gr. frtoyofp™ , and xijJ.);, a tumor.]

    A hernia or rupture of the lower belly.


    IlYPO(5E'UM, n. [Gr. i.«o, under, and yowi or yrj, the eartli.]

    A name given by ancient architects to all tlie parts of a building which were under ground, as the cellar, &,c. Encyc.

    HYPO(i'YNOLIS, 71. [Gr. vno, under, and yuvri, a female.]

    A term applied to plants that have theu- en- rols and stamens inserted under the pistil. Lunier.

    HYPOPHOS'PHOROUS, n. [Gr. vho and j}hosphorus.\\

    The hypophosphorous acid contains less ox- ygen than the pho.sphorous, and is obtain- ed from the phosphuret of baryte. It is a liquid which may be concentrated by evaporation, till it becomes viscid. It has a very sour taste, reddens vegetable blues, and does not crystalize. Ure.

    HYPOPHOS'PHITE, 71. A compound of hypophosphorous acid and a salifiable base. Ure.

    HYPOSTASIS,? , [L. hypostasis ; Fr.hy-

    HYPOS'TASY, S postase ; Gr. vito^aan, from vrto and ifij/uc, to stand.]

    Properly, subsistence or substance. Hence it is used to denote distinct substance, or subsistence of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in the Godhead, called by the Greek christians, three hypostases. The Latins more generally used persona to ex- press the sense of hypostasis, an4 this is the modern practice. We say, the God- head consists of three persons.

    HYPOSTATIC, > Relating to hypos-

    HYPOSTAT'ICAL, J "' tasis ; constitutive.

    Let our Caraeades warn men not to subscribe

    to the grand doctrine of the chinusts, touching

    their three hypostatical principles, till they have

    a little examined it. Boyle.

    2. Personal, or distinctly personal ; or stituting a distinct substaiice.

    HYPOSUL'PHATE, n. A compound of hy- posulphuric acid and a base.

    HYPOSULPHITE, n. A compund of hy posiilphurous acid and a salifiable base.

    HYPOSUL'PHURle.a. Ilyposulpburicacid, is an acid combination of sulphur aud ox ygen, intermediate between sulphurous and sulphuEJc acid. lire.

    HVFOSITL'PHUROUS, a. Hyposulphurous

    acid is an acid containing less oxygen

    than sulphurous acid. This acid is known

    only in combination with salifiable bases,

    Ure. Henry.

    HYPOT'ENUSE,n. [GT.v7i<,tnvovau,,\\mn.o( iTtoTfuu, to subtend.]

    \\n geometry, the subtense or longest side of a right-angled triangle, or the line that sub- tends the right angle. Encyc.

    HYPOTH'ECATE, v. I. [L. hypolheca, a pledge; Gr. vHodnixij, from vnori.9rini., to put under, to suppose.]

    1. To pledge, and properly to pledge tlie keel of a ship, that is, the ship itself, as security for the repayment of money bor- rowed to carry on a voyage. In this case the lender hazards the loss of his money by the loss of the ship; but if the ship returns .safe, he receives his principal, with the premium or interest agreed on, though it may e.\\ceed the legal rate of interest.

    Blackstoite. Park

    2. To pledge, as goods. Park. HYPOTH'ECATED, pp. Pledged, as seen

    rity for money borrowed. IIYPOTH'ECATING, ppr. Pledging as se

    HYPOTHE€A'TION, n. The act of pledg- ing, as a ship or goods, for the repayment of money borrowed to carry on a voyage ; otherwise called bottomry.

    HYPOTHEC ATOR, n. One who pledges a ship or other property, as security for the repayment of money borrowed.

    Judge Johnson.

    HYPOTH'ESIS, n. [L. from Gr. urtofltsis, a supposition ; vrtoTiOrifn, to suppose ; vno and ri6r;iii.]

    1. A supposition ; a proposition or principle which is supposed or taken for granted, in order to draw a conclusion or inference for proof of the point in question ; some- thing not proved, but assumed for the pur- pose of argument. Encyc

    2. A system or tlieory imagined or assumed to account for what is not understood.

    Encyc HtPOTHET'Ie, ) Including a suppo- HYPOTHET'ICAL, ^ sition ; conditional

    assumed without proof for the purpose of

    reasoning and deducing proof. fyatis.

    HYPOTHET'I€ALLY, adv. By way of

    supposition ; conditionally. HYRSE,n. Hm. [G. hirse.] Millet. HYRST, 71. A wood. [See Hurst.] HY'SON, n. A species of green tea from

    China. HY'SOP, I , [L.hyssopus; G..

    HYSSOP, I "-I'ysop. ^,5„„^„j It would

    be well to write this word hysop.]

    A plant, or genus of plants, one species of which is cultivated for use. The leaves have an aromatic smell, and a warm pun- gent taste. Hyssop was much used by tlie Jews in purifications. Encyc.

    HYSTER'le, } [Fr. hysterique ; Gr.

    HYSTER'I€AL, ^ vrfpixoj, from i-ftpa, the womb.]

    Disordered in the region of the womb ; troubled with fits or nervous affections.

    nYSTER'leS,n. A disease of women, pro- ceeding from the womb, and character- ized by fits or spasmodic affections of the nervous system. Encyc.

    A spasmodic disease of the prima via, attended with the sensation of a ball roll- ing about the abdomen, stomach and throat. Coxe.

    HYS'TEROCELE, n. [Gr. v;sfa, the womb, and xfj'kt], a tumor.]

    A species of hernia, caused by a displace- ment of the womb. Lunier.

    A rupture containing the uterus. Coxe.

    HYS'TERON PROT'ERON, n. [Gr. vs^fov, last, and npoTtpw, first.]

    A rhetorical figure, when that is said last which was done first.

    HYSTEROTOMY, n. [Gr. v^fa, the ute- rus, and rofir;, a cutting.]

    In surgery, the Cesarean section ; the opera- tion of cutting out a fetus, which cannot be excluded by-

    cutting into the uterus for taking

    the usual means. HYTHE, n. A port. [See Hithe-l


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