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    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

      DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT" -

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!


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Letter "I" Below


    Letter “I” is the ninth letter, and the third vowel of the English Alphabet. We receive it through the Latin and Greek from the Shemitic jod, je, or ye, in Greek ιωτα, whence our English word jot. This vowel in French and in most European languages, has the long fine sound which we express by e in me, or ee in seen, meek. This sound we retain in some foreign words which are naturalized in our language, as in machine, intrigue.

    But in most English words this long sound is shortened, as in holiness, pity, gift; in which words the sound of i coincides with that of y in hypocrite, and at the end of words, in unaccented syllables, as in holy, glory. It is this short sound of the French and Italian i, which we hear in the pronunciation of been, which we pronounce bin. After l, this letter has sometimes the liquid sound of y, as in million, pronounced milyon.

    This sound corresponds with that of the Hebrews, as in Joseph, which in Syria is pronounced Yoseph, and with the sound of the German j, as in ja, jahr, that is, ya, yahr. The sound of i long, as in fine, kind, arise, is diphthongal; it begins with a sound approaching than of broad a, but it is not exactly the same, as the organs are not opened to the same extent, and therefore the sound begins a little above that of aw.

    The sound, if continued, closes with one than nearly approaches to that of e long. This sound can be learned only by the ear. This letter enters into several digraphs, as in fail, field seize, feign, vain, friend; and with o in oil, join, coin, it helps to form a proper diphthong. No English word ends with i, but when the sound of the letter occurs at the end of a word, it is expressed by y; alkali is an exception.

    As a numeral I signifies one, and stands for as many units as it is repeated in times, as II, two, III, three, &c. When it stands before V or X, it subtracts itself, and the numerals denote one less than the V or the X.

    Thus IV expresses four, one less than V, five; IX stands for nine, one less than X, ten.

    But when it is placed after V or X, it denotes the addition of an unit, or as many units as the letter is repeated in times. Thus VI is five and one, or six, and XI is ten and one, or eleven; VIII stands for five and three, or eight, &c.

    Among the ancient Romans, IƆ stood for 500; CIƆ, for 1000; IƆƆ, for 5000; CCIƆƆ, for 10,000; IƆƆƆ, for 50,000; and; CCCIƆƆƆ for 100,000.


    formerly prefixed to some English words, as in ibuilt, is a contraction of the Saxon prefix ge ; and more generally this was written y.]

    I, pron. [Sax. ic; Goth. D. ik ; G. ich; Sw.jag; Dau.jeg; Gr.iyu; L. ego; Port, eti ; Sp. yo ; It. to;; Sans, agam. In Armoric me is the nominative ; so W. mi, Fr, moi, Hindoo, me. Either ego is contracted from mego, or / and vie are from different roots. It is certain that m* is contracted from meg or mig. See Me.]

    The pronoun of the first person ; the word which expresses one's self, or that by which a speaker or writer denotes him- self. It is only the nominative case of the pronouu ; iu the other cases we use me. I am attached to study ; study dehghts »ne.

    We often hear iu popular language the phrase it is vie, which is now considered to be ungrammatieal, for it is I. But the phrase may have come down to us from the use of the Welsh mi, or from the French use of the phrase, c^est moi.

    In the plural, we use tee, and us, which appear to be words radijcally distinct from /.

    Johnson observes that Sbakspeare uses / for ay or yes. In this he is not followed, and the use is incorrect-.


    71. [Fr. iambique ; L. iamhicus; Gfr. MfiSixoi.]

    Pertaining to the iambus, a poetic foot con- sisting of two syllables, a sliort oue fol- lowed by a long one.

    / [L. iambus ; Gt. M/teoj.] In

    I "■poetiy, a foot consisting of two syllables, the first sliort and the last long, as in delight. The following line consists wholly of iambic feet.

    He seornalthe forceithat dareslhi^ fulry slay.

    lAM'BleS, n.plu. Verses composed of short and long syllables alternately. Anciently, certain songs or satires, supposed to have

    given birth to ancient comedy. BEX, n. [L.] The wild goa ' Capra, which is said to be t

    of the genus the stock of the tame goat. It has large knotty horns reclining on its back, is of a yellowish color and its beard is black. It inhabits the Alps. Encyc

    The JEgagrus, or wild goat of the moun- tains of Persia, appears to be the stock of the tame goat. The Ibex is a distinct spo cies. Cuvier.

IBIS, n.
    [Gr. andl,.] A fowl of the genu: Tantalus, and grallic order, a native of Egypt. The bill is long, subulated, am' somewhat crooked ; the face naked, and the feet have four toes palmated at the base. This fowl was much valued by the Egyptians for destroying serpents. It is aaid by Bruce not now to inhabit Egypt, but to be found in Abyssinia. Encyc

    The ibis of the Egyptians is a species of the ■ genus Scolnpax." It was anciently vene- rated cither because it devoured serpents, or because the marking of its plumage scmbled one of the phases of the moon, or because it appeared in Egypt with the ris- ing of the Nile. Cuvier.

    The ibis tis common in Egypt durinj the overflowing of the Nile. Ed. Encyc.

    [from Icaru. the son of Dcedalus, who fled on wings to escape the resentment of Minos, but his flight being too high was fatal to him, as the sun melted the wax that cemented his wings.]

    Adventurous in flightj soaring too high for safety, like Icarus.

ICE. n.
    [Sax. is, mo; G. eis ; J), ys ; Dan. lis ; Sw. Ice. is ; Ir. cuise. The true orthography would be ise. The primary sense is doubtless to set, to fix, to congeal or harden. It may be allied to the Geisen, iron ; perhaps also to L. os, a bone.]

    1. Water or other fluid congealed, or in a solid state ; a solid, transparent, brittle substance, formed by the congelation of fluid, by means of the abstraction of the heat necessary to preserve its fluidity, or to use common language, congealed by cold.

    2. Concreted sugar.

    To break the ice, is to make the first opening

    to any attempt ; to remove the first obstructions or difficulties; to open the way.


ICE, i>. t.
    To cover with ice ; to convert into

    ■ ice. Fletcher.

    2. To cover with concreted sugar ; to frost.


    3. To chill ; to freeze. ICEBERG, n. [ice and G. berg, a hill.] A hill

    or mountain of ice, or a vast body of

    accumulated in valleys in high northern; latitudes. J

    This term is applied to such elevated mass-, es as exist in the valleys of the frigid zones ; to those which are found on the surface of fixed ice ; and to ice of great thickness and hightli in a floating state. These lofty floating masses are sometimes detached from the icebergs on shore, and sometimes formed at a distance from any land. They are found in both the frigid zones, and are sometimes carried towards the equator as low as 40°. Ed. Encyc.

    A name given by seamen to a bright appearance near the horizon, occasioned by the ice, and observed before the ice itself is seen. Encyc.

    A boat constructed for moving on ice.

    In seaman's language, to- tally surrounded with ice, so as to be incapable of advancing. Mar. Diet.

    Composed of ice. 9. Loaded with ice. Gray

    [ice and house.] A reposi- tory for the preservation of ice during warm weather ; a pit with a drain for con veying off"tiie water of the ice when dis solved, and usually covered with a roof.

    iceile. [ice and isle.] A vast body of floating ice, such as is often seen in the Atlantic, off the banks of New foundland. J- Barlow.

    When flat and extending beyond the reach of sight, it is called field ice ; when smaller, but of very large dimensions, it is- called a floe ; when lofty, an iceberg There are numerous other terms for the difierent appearances of floating i<

    Ed. Encyc.

    A native of Iceland.

ICELAND'le, a.
    Pertaining to Iceland and as a noun, the language of the Ice- landers. Iceland spar, calcarious spar, in laminated masses, easily divisible into rhombs, per fectly situilar to the primitive rhomb.

    Cleaveland. ICEPLANT, n. A plant of the genus Me- sembryanthemum, sprinkled with pellu- cid, glittering, icy pimples. Encyc, ICESPAR, Ji. A variety of feldspar, the ystals of which resemble ice. Jaineson. ICHNEUMON, n. [L. from the Gr. ix<' ^i.«',from ijt"'*") to follow the steps, ijrioj, a footstep ; a follower of the crocodile.] An animal of the genus Viverra, or weasel kind. It has a tail tapering to a point, and its toes are distant from each other. It in- habits Egypt, Barbary and India. It de- stroys the most venomous serpents, and seeks the eggs of the crocodile, digging them out of the sand, eating them and de- stroying the young. In India and Egy^)t, this animal is domesticated and kept for destroying rats and mice. Encyc. Ichneumon-fly, a genus of flies, of the order of hymenopters, containing several hun- dredspecies. These animals have jaws, but no tongue ; the antennse have "more than thirty joints, and are kept in contin- ual motion. The abdomen is generally petiolated, or joined to the body by a ped- icle. These animals are great destroyers of caterpillars, plant-lice and other insects.

    I c o

    youn;: Zncyc

    as the ichneumon is of the eggs and yoi of the crocodile. -En

    lellNOGRAPH'IC, ? [See Ichnog'ra- ICHNOGRAPH'ICAL, \\\\ "' phy.] Pertain ing to ichnography ; describing a ground- plot. lellNOG'RAPHY, «. [Gr. ix""!, a foot- step, and ypcKfu, to describe.] In perspective, the view of any thing cut oft by a plane ))arallel to the horizon, just at the base of it ; a ground-plot. Encyc.

    I'CllOR, n. [Gr. i;tup.] A thin watery hu- mor, like serum or whey. 2. Sanious tnatter flowing from an ulcer.

    Enajc. rcHOROUS, a. Like ichor; thin ; watery ;

    serous. 2. Sanious.

    (CH'THYOeOL, I , [Gr. txOv,, a,

    leHTHYOCOL'LA, ^ a>itl »<»->», gh'e.)

    Fish-glue ; isinglass ; a glue prepared

    from the sounds of fish. Tooke.

    leH'THYOLITE, n. [Gr. .^^vj, a fish, and

    uSof, a stone.] Fossil fish ; or the figure or impression of a fish in rock. Hitchcock.

    I€HTHYOLO(i'ICAL, a. Pertaining to

    ichthvology. ICIITI'IYOL'OUIST, ti. [See Ichthyology.]

    One versed in ichthyology. ICHTHYOLOGY, n. [Gr. i;k9i'5, a fish, and

    xoyof, discourse.] The .science of fishes, or that part of zoology which treats of fishes, their structure, form and classification, their habits, uses, &c. Encyc. Ed. Encyc.

    leHTHYOPH'AGOUS, a. [Gr. tz9v{, fish, and (pa/yu, to eat.] Eating or subsisting on fish. D'AnvUle.

    ICHTHYOPH'AgY, n. [supra.] The prac- tice of eating fish. ICHTHYOPHTHAL'MITE, n. [Gr. »z9v5, a fish, and o9a>.uo5, an eye.] Fish-eye- stone. [See Apophyllile.] I'CICLE, 71. [Sax. ises-gecel, D. yskegel, icB-

    cone. Kegel is a cone or nine pin. J A pendent conical mass of ice, formed by the freezing of water or other fluid as it flows down an inclined plane, or collects in drops and is suspended. In the north of England, it is called ickle. I'CINESS, 71. The state of being icy, or of

    being very cold. 2. The state of generating ice. I'CING, ppr. Covering with concreted su- gar. ^ I'CON, n. ['Gr. tixun, an image, from iixu,

    to resemble.] An image or representation. [JVot in use.]

    Brown. Hakemll. ICON'OCLAST, n. [Fr. iconoclaste ; Gr. iixui', an image, and x%a;r,s, a breaker, from x\\\\au, to break.] .\\\\ breaker or destroyer of images ; a name which Catholics give to those who reject the use of images in religious worship.

    Encyc. ICONOCLAS'TIC, a. Breaking images. ICONOGRAPHY, ti. [Gr. ttxuv, an image,

    and 7P<»4i", to describe.] The description of images or ancient statues, busts, semi-busts, paintings in fi-esco, mo- saic works, and ancient pieces of minia- ture. ICONOL'ATER, ti. [Gr. axuv, an image, and xarpivt, a servant.]

    I D E


    I D I

    One that worships images; a name given to the Romanists.

    I€0N0L'06Y, n. [Gr. iixav, an image, and Myoi, a discourse.]

    The doctrine of images or representations. Johnson.

    !€OSAHE'DRAL, a. [Gr. tixoot, twenty, and fSpa, seat, basis.] Having twenty equal sides.

    ieOSAHE'DRON, n. [supra.] A solid of twenty etjual sides.

    In geometry, a regular solid, consisting of twenty triangular pyramids, whose ver- tices meet in the center of a sphere sup- posed to circumscribe it, and therefore have their highths and bases equal.

    Ell eye. Enfield.

    ICOSAN'DER, n. [Gr. uxooi, twenty, and avrjp, a male.]

    In botany, a plant having twenty or more stamens inserted in the calyx. Linne.

    Note. A writer on botany has suggested that as the proper character of plants of tliis class is the insertion of the stamens in the ca- lyx, it might be expedient to denominate the class, Calycandria. Journ. of Science.

    ICOSAN'DRIAN, n. Pertaining to the class of plants, Icosandria, having twenty or more stamens inserted in the calyx.

    ICTERIC, \\\\ [h. ictericus, from icterus,

    1€TER'I€AL, ^ "•jaundice.] Affected with the jaundice.

    9. Good in the cure of the jaundice.

    ICTERIC, n. A remedy for the jaundice. Swift.

    leTERI"TIOUS, a. [L. icterus, jaundice.] Yellow ; having the color of the skin when it is affected by the jaundice.

    I'CY, a. [from ice.] Abounding with ice ; as the icy regions of the north.

    2. Cold ; frosty ; as icy chains. Sliak.

    3. Made of ice.

    4. Resembling ice ; chilling.

    Religion lays not an icy hand on the true joys of life. Buckminster.

    .'). Cold; frigid; destituteof affection or pas- sion. Shak. (3. Indifferent ; unaffected ; backward.


    ICY-PEARLED, a. Studded with spangles

    of ice. Milton.

    Vd, contracted from I would, or I had.

    IDE' A, n. [h.idea; Fr.idee; Gr. iSfct, from

    uSu, to see, L. video.] 1. Literally, that which is seen ; hence, form, image, model of any thing in the mind ; that which is held or comprehended by the understanding or intellectual facul- ties.

    I have used the word idea, to express what- ever is meant by phantasm, notion, species, oi whatever it is which the mind can be employ- ed about in thinking. Locke Whatever the mind perceives in itself, or i; the immediate object of perception, thought or understanding, that I call an idea. Locke. The attention of the understanding to the objects acting on it, by which it becomes sen- sible of the impressions they make, is called by logicians, perception; and the notices them- selves as they exist in the mind, as the materi- als of thinking and knowledge, are distinguish- ed by the name of ideas. Encyc. art. Logic. An idea is the reflex perception of objects, after the original perception or impression has been felt by the mind. Encyc In popular language, idea signifies the same ihing as conception, apprcheosion, notion. To

    have an idea of any thing is to conceive it. InJ philosophical use, it does not signify that act oil the mind which we call thought or conception, but some object of thought. Reid.

    According to modem writers on mental philosophy, an idea is the object of thought, or the notice which the mind takes of its

    nal things which our organs bring us ac- quainted with originally, and he defines it, a contraction, motion or configuration of the fibers which constitute the immediate organ of sense ; synonymous with which he sometimes uses sensual motion, in con- tradistinction to mitscular motion. Zoon.

    2. In popular use, idea signifies notion, con- ception, thought, opinion, and even pur- pose or intention.

    3. Image in the mind. Her sweet idea wandered through his

    thoughts. Fairfax.

    [jj bad use of the word.]

    4. An opinion ; a proposition. These deci- sions are incompatible with the idea, that the principles are derived from the civil law.

    IDE'AL, a. Existing in idea; intellectual; mental ; as ideal knowledge.

    There will always be a wide interval between practical and ideal excellence. Rambler.

    2. Visionary ; existing in fancy or imagina- tion only ; as ideal good.

    3. That considers ideas as images, phan tasms, or forms in the mind ; as the ideal theory or philosophy.

    IDE'ALISIVI, n. The system or theory that

    makes every thing to consist in ideas, and

    denies the existence of material bodies.

    Walsh. IDE'ALIZE, V. i. To form ideas. IDE'ALLY, adv. Intellectually ; mentally ;

    in idea. Brown

    IDE'ATE, V. t. To form in idea ; to fancy

    [J^Tol in i«se.] Donne.

    IDEN'TIC, , ? „ [Fr. identique ; Sp. idcn IDENTICAL, s"'fico; from L. idem, the

    same.] The same ; not different ; as the identical

    person ; the identical proposition. We

    found on the thief the identical goods that

    were lost. IDENTIFICATION, n. The act of ma

    king or proving to be the same. IDEN'TIFIED,pp. Ascertained or made to

    be the same. IDEN'TIFY, V. t. [L. idem, the same, and

    facio, to make.]

    1. To ascertain or prove to be the same The owner of the goods found them in the possession of the thief, and identified them.

    2. To make to be the same ; to unite or com bine in such a manner as to make one in terest, purpose or intention ; to treat a; having the same use ; to consider as the same in effect.

    Paul has identified the two ordinances, cir- cumcision and baptism, and thus, by demon- strating that they have one and the same use and meaning, he has exhibited to our view the very same seal of God's covenant. JJif. Alason.

    That treaty in fact identified Spain with the

    republican government of France, by a virtual

    acknowledgment of unqualified vassalage, and

    by specific stipulations of unconditional defense

    British Declaration, Jan. 1805

    Every precaution is taken to identify the in- terests of the people, and of the rulers. Ramsay.

    IDEN'TIFY, v.i. To become the same ; to coalesce in interest, purpose, use, effect, &;c.

    — An enlightened self-interest, which, when well understood, they tell us will identify with an interest more enlarged and public. Brerke.

    IDEN'TIFtlNG, ppr. Ascertaining ocprov- ing to be the same.

    2. Making the same in interest, purpose, use, efficacy, &c.

    roEN'TITY, n. [Fr. identity Sameness, as distinguished from similitude and diver- sity. We speak of the identity of goods found, the identity of person,?, or of per- sonal identity. Locke. South.

    IDES, n. plu. [lu idus. Q,u. the Hetrurian iduo, to divide, the root otwide, divide, in- dividual. The etymology is not ascer- tained.]

    In the ancient Roman calendar, eight days in each month ; the first day of which fell on the 13th of January, February, April, June, August, September, November and December, and on the 15tli of March, May, July and October. The ides came between the calends and the nones, and were reckoned backwards. This method of reckoning is still retained in the chan- cery of Rome, and in the calendar of the breviary. Encyc.

    IDIOC'RASY, n. [Gr. i«io;, proper, pecul- iar to one's self, and xpam;, mixture, tem- perament, from xjptuo, xepat'iiifu, to mix.]

    Peculiarity of constitution ; that tempera- ment, or state of constitution, which is peculiar to n person. .

    IDIOCRAT'IC, } Peculiar in consti-

    IDIOCRAT'ICAL, ^ "• tution.

    ID'IOCY, n. [Gr. vb^ttw.. Bee Idiot.] A defect of understanding ; properly, a natu- ral defect.

    Idiocy and lunacy excuse from the guilt of crime. Encyc.

    IDIOELEC'TRIC, a. [Gr. iStoj, separate from others, peculiar to one's self, and electric.]

    Electric perse, or containing electricity in its natural state. Gregory.

    ID'IOM, n. [Fr. idiome ; L. idioma, from Gr. t64wuo,from tStof, proper, or peculiar to one's self The root of i,Sm{ is that of di- vide, Hetrurian iduo, Eng. widow, wide, Ar.

    jvj badda, to separate. Class. Bd. No.

    !•]■ . A mode of expression peculiar to a lan- guage ; peculiarity of expression or phra- seology. Ill this sense, it is used in the plural to denote forms of speech or phra- seology, peculiar to a nation or lan- guage.

    And to just idioms fix our doubtful speech.

    Prior. 2. The genius or peculiar cast of a lan- guage.

    He followed the Latin language, but did not comply with the idiom of ours. Dryden.

    .3. Dialect.

    IDIOMAT'IC, \\\\ Peculiar to a lan- IDIOMAT'ICAL, i guage ; pertaining to the particular genius or modes of expres- sion which belong to a language ; as an. idiomatic phrase.

    I D L

    IDIOMAT'ICALLY, adv. According to the

    idiom of a liiiigtiage. IDIOPATH'I€, a. [See Uiopathy.-] Per taining to idiopathy ; indicating a disease peculiar to a particular part ol'tlio body and not arising Ironi any preceding dis- ease ; as idiopathic head-ach. The epile|)sy is idiopathic, when it proceeds from some fault m the brain ; but sympathetic, when it is tlie consequence of some other disor- der. Darwin. Encyc. The term idiopathic is also applied to general as well as local diseases, as idio- pathic fever. It then signifies, not sym- pathetic or symptomatic, not arising from any previous disease. Good. IDIOPATH'I€ALLY, adv. By means of its own disease or affections ; not sympa- thetically. IDIOPATHY, 11. [Gr. tStoj, proper, pecul iar, and rtaSoj, suffering, disease, from jtaa- xu, to suffer.] 1. An original disease in a particular part of the body ; a disease peculiar to some part of the body and not proceeding from an- other disease. Coxe. Encyc. I 2. Peculiar affection. More. \\\\ IDIO-REPUL'SIVE, a. Repulsive by it- self ; as the idio-repulsive power of heat. I IDIOSYN'CRASY, n. [Gr. ciio;, proper,

    aw, with, and xpan;, temperament.] I A peculiar temperament or organization of a body, by which it is rendered more lia- ble to certain disorders than bodies differ- ently constituted. Coxe. Encyc. i ID'IOT, n. [L. idiota; Gr. t64«f.j5. private, vulgar, unskilled, from iJioj, peculiar, that is, separate, simple ; Sp. It. idiota ; Fr. idiot. See Idiom.] I: 1. A natural fool, or fool from his birth ; a human being in form, but destitute of rea son, or the ordinary intellectual powers of]

    person who has understanding enough to

    ore a yard of cloth, number twenty co

    rectly, tell the days of t}ie week, &c. is not a

    idiot in the eye of tlie law. Encyi

    i 2. A foolish person ; one unwise.

    } IDIOT'IC, a. Like au idiot: foolish; so

    tisi). i ID'IOTISH, a. Like an idiot ; pai-taking of idiocy ; foolish. Paley.

    '^ ID'IOtiSM, n. [Fr. idiotisme ; It. Sp. idio- lismo ; Gr. iSiuTta/to;, a form of speech ta- ken from the vulgar, from tSioj.] .t 1. An idiom ; a peculiarity of expression; a mode of expression peculiar to a lan- guage ; a peculiarity in the structure of ; words and phrases.

    Scholars sometimes give terminations and

    idioiistns suitable to their native language, to

    words newly invented. Hale.

    I 2. Idiocy. Beddoes, Hygeia.

    But it would be well to restrain this

    ; word to its projjer signification, and keep

    idiocij and idiotism distinct. 1 ID'IOTIZE, V. i. To become stupid.

    Pers. Letters. I'DLE, a. [Sax. idel ydel, vain, empty ; G. fi(f/, mere, pure, idle, frivolous; D. ydel, vain, empty, idle ; Dan. Sw. idel, mere, pure, unmixed. Class Dl. No. 6. IC. 25. 20.] 1. Not employed ; unoccupied with busi- ness ; inactive ; doing nothing.

    I D O

    A mineral, the vesuvian of AVenier, some- times massive, and very often in shining prismatic crystals. Its primitive form is a four-sided prism with square bases. It is found near Vesuvius, in unaltered rocks ejected by the volcano ; also in primitive rocks, in various other localities.

    Cleareland. I'DOL, n. [Fr. idote ; It. Sj). trfo/o ; L. ido- lum ; Gr. tiSu^of, from uSos, form, or iiiu, to see.]

    An image, form or representation, usual- ly of a man or other animal, consecrated as an object of worship ; a pagan deity. Idols are usually statues or images, carved out of wood or stone, or formed of metale, particularly silver or gold.

    The gods of the nations are idols. Ps. xcvi. An image. Nor ever idol seemed so much alive.

    Dry den.

    3. A person loved and honored to adora- tion. The prince was the idol of the peo- ple.

    4. Any thing on which we set our affections; that to which we indulge an excessive and sinful attachment.

    Little children, keep yourselves from idoh. 1 John V.

    An idol is any thing which usurps the place of God in the hearts of his rational creatures.

    S. Milkr.

    5. A representation. [.Vo/ in itse.] Spenser. IDOL'ATER, tj. [Fr. tdolalre ; L. idololatra ;

    Gr. fiiu/Xoxarpij?. See Idolatry.]

    1. A worshiper of idols ; one who pays di- vine honors to images, statues, or repre- sentations of any thing made by hands ; one who worships as a deity that which is not God ; a pagan.

    2. An adorer ; a great admirer. Hurd. IDOL'ATRESS, n. A female worshiper of

    11 idols.

    jjiDOLATRlZE, v.i. To worship idols. .: IDOL'ATRIZE, v.t. To adore ; to worshjp. ployed, or to e.-vertion either of body ori ^ „„^,,-. „ . . 'ItnsworOi. mind; laziness; sloth ; sluggishness. This iDOL'ATROUs, a. Pertaining to idolatry ; is properly laziness ; but idleness is often partaking ol the nature of idolatry, or of the effect of laziness, and sometimes this ihe worship of false gods ; consisting in word may be used for it. «''? worship of idols ; as idolatrous wor-

    3. Unimportance; trivialuess. IL ^h^P-

    Apes of idleness.

    I D O

    Why stend ye here all the day idle ? Matt.l s. ■

    To be idle, is to be vicious. Rambler]

    |2. Slothful; given to rest and case ; averse to labor or employment; lazy ; as an idle m'.iii ; an idle fellow. 3. Affording leisure ; vacant; not occupied; as idle time ; idle hours. . Remaining unused ; unemployed ; applied to things ; as, my sword or spear is idle.

    5. Useless ; vain ; ineffectual ; as idle rage. Down their idle weapons dropped. MilUm.

    6. Unfruitful ; barren ; not productive of good.

    Of antres vast and idle desarts. Shak.

    Idle weeds. Obs. Shak.

    7. Trifling; vain; of no importance; as an idle story ; an idle reason ; idle arguments.

    Hooker. Dryden. Swijl.

    8. Unprofitable ; not tending to edification. Every idle word that men shall speak, they

    shall give an account thereof in the day of judg- ment. Matt. xii.

    Idle differs fiom lazy; the latter implying constitutional or habitual aversion or in- disposition to labor or action, sluggish- ness ; whereas idle, in its proper sense, de- notes merely unemployed. An industri- ous inan may be idle, but he cannot be lazy.

    I'DLE, V. i. To lose or .spend time in inac- tion, or without being employed in busi ness.

    To idle aioay, in a transitive sense, to spend in idleness ; as, to idle away time.

    I'DLEUEADED, a. [idle and head.] Fool- ish ; unreasonable. Carew.

    2. Delirious ; infatuated. [Little used.]


    I'DLENESS, n. Abstinence from labor or employment ; the state of a person who is unemployed in labor, or unoccupied in business ; the state of doing nothing. Idle- ness is the parent of vice.

    Through the idleness of the hands the house dioppeth through. Ecclcs. x.

    2. Aversion to labor ; reluctance to be

    4. Inefficacy ; uselessness. [Little used.]

    5. Barrenness ; worthlessness. [Litlle used.]

    6. Emptiness; foolishness; infatuation; as idleness oChraw. [Litlle used .] Bacon.

    I'DLEPATED, a. Idleheaded ; stupid.


    I'DLER, Jt. One who does notliing; one who spends his time in inaction, or with- out being engaged in business.

    2. A lazy i)erson ; a sluggard. Raleigh.

    I'DLESBY, n. An idle or lazy person. [JVot used.] JfTiitlock.

    I'DLY, adv. In an idle manner; without employment.

    2. Lazily ; sluggishly. j

    3. Foolishly ; uselessly ; in a trifling way. 1

    A shilling spent idly by a fool, may be saved

    by a wiser person. Franklin:

    Carelessly ; without attention. Prior.'^

    5. Vainly ; ineffectually ; as, to reason idly

    against truth. |

    SAafc.li2. Consisting in or partaking of an exces-

    sive attachment or reverence ; as an idol-

    atrotis veneration for antiquity. IDOL'ATROUSLY, adv. In an idolatrous

    manner; with excessive reverence.

    Hooker. IDOL'ATRY, n. [Fr. idolatrie ; L. idolola-

    iria ; Gr. ftfiwXoXarptca ; niuyjov, idol, and

    >xirpewo, to worship or serve.]

    1. The worship of idols, images, or any thing made by hands, or which is not God.

    Idolatry is of two kinds ; the worship of images, statues, pictures, &c. made by hands ; and the worship of the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon and stars, or of de- mons, angels, men aud animals. Encyc.

    2. Excessive attachment or veneration for any thing, or that which borders on ado- ration.

    I'DOLISH, a. Idolatrous. MUton.

    I'DOLISM, n. The worship of idols. [Lit- tle used.] Milton.

    ID bcRASE, n. [Gr. tiia, form, and xpasts, I'DOLIST, n. .\\\\ worshiper of images ; a I mixture ; a mixed figure.] » poetical word. Milton.

    I G N

    I'DOLiZE, V. t. To love to excess ; to loyej or reverence to adoration ; as, to idolize^ gold or wealth ; to idolize children ; toi idolize a virtuous magistrate or a hero.

    I'DOLIZED, pp. Loved or reverenced to adoration. I

    I'DOLIZER, n. One who idolizes, or lovcs^ to reverence. !

    I'DOLiZING, ppr. Loving or revering to: an excess bordering on adoration. i

    IDO'NEOUS, a. [L. idoneus ; probably! from tlieroot of Gr. Snio/tai, to be strong, able or sufficient.]

    Fit ; suitable ; proper ; convenient ; adequate, {Ullh W5cd.] Boyle:^

    IDYL, n. [L. idyllium; Gr.tiivM.un; sup-: posed to be from f 1S05, form.] !

    A short poem ; properly, a short pastoral poem ; as the id^ls of Theocritus.

    ]. e. stands for L. id est, that is.

    I'ELAND, n. i'land. [G. and D. eiland; Sax. ealond, iegland ; composed of £e, ea, water, Fr. eau, contracted from L. aqua, and land. This is the genuine English' word, always used in discourse, but forj which is used island, an absurd compoundj of Fr. isle and land, which signifies land in water-land, or rather ieland-land.] j

    1. A portion of land surrounded by water; as Bermuda, Barbadoes, Cuba, Great Brit- ain, Borneo.

    2. A large mass of floating ice. IF, V. t. imperative, contracted from Sax.

    f^if, from gifan, Goth, giban, to give. It is used as the sign of a condition, or it in- troduces a conditional sentence. It is verb, without a specified nominative. In like manner we use grant, admit, suppose. Regularly, ij should be follo\\\\ved, as it was| formerly, by the substitute or pronouni that, referring to the succeeding sentence' or proposition. If that John shall arrive in season, I will send him with a message. But that is now omitted, and the subse- quent sentence, proposition or affirmation may be considered as the object of the verb. Give John shall arrive ; grant, sup- pose, admit that he shall arrive,! will send him with a message. The sense of if, or give, in this use, is grant, admit, cause to be, let tlie fact be, let the thing take place. If then is equivalent to grant, allow, ad- mit. " If thou wilt, thou canst make me whole," that is, thou canst make me whole, give the fact, that thou wilt.

    J/" thou art the son of God, command that these stones be made bread. Matt. xiv. ^. Whether or not.

    Uncertain if by augury or chance. Dryden So in French, soil que, let it be that. IG'NEOUS, a. [L. igneus, from ignis, fire Sans, aghni, Bengal, aag, ogin, Slav, ogn.]

    1. Consisting of fire; as igneous particles emitted from burning wood.

    2. Containing fire ; having the nature of fire,

    3. Resembling fire ; as an igneous appear- ance.

    IGNES'CENT, a. [L. ignescens, ignesco

    from ignis, fire.] Emitting sparks of fire when struck with

    steel; scintillating; as igntscent slants. Fourcroy IGNES'CENT, n. A stone oi- mineral that

    gives out sparks when struck with steel or

    I G N

    Many other stones, besides tliis class of ignes- cents, produce a real scintillation when struck against steel. Fourcroy.

    IG'NIFy, V. t. [L. ignis and/ocio.] To form nto fire. Stukely.

    IGNIF'LUOUS, a. [h. ignifl.uus.'] Flowing with fire. Cockeran

    IGNIP'OTENT, a. [L. ignis, fire, and ;)o tens, powerful.]

    Presiding over fire. Vulcan is called the power ignipotent. Pope.

    IGNIS FATUUS,n. [L.] A meteoror light that appears in the night, over marshy grounds, supposed to be occasioned by phosphoric matter extricated from putre- fying animal or vegetable substances, or by some inflammable gas; vulgarly called JVitl with the ivisp, and Jack with a lantern. Ed. Encyc.

    IGNI'TE, V. t. {L. ignis, fire.] To kindle, or set on fire.

    3. More generally, to communicate fire to, or to render luminous or red by heat ; as, to ignite charcoal or iron. Anthracite is ignited with more difficulty than bitumin ous coal.

    IGNI'TE, V. i. To take fire ; to become red with heat.

    IGNI'TED, j>p. Set pn fire.

    2. Rendered red or luminous by heat or fire

    IGNI'TING, ;);or. Setting on fire; becoming red with heat.

    9. Communicating fire to ; heating to red ness.

    IGNI"TION, 71- The act of kindling, or set ting on fire.

    2. The act or operation of commimicating fire or heat, till the substance becomes red or luminous.

    3. The state of being kindled; more gene

    or lummousness. 4. Calcination.

    IGNI'TIBLE, a. Capable of being ignited IGNIV'OMOUS, a. [L. ignivomus ; ignis,

    fire, and vomo, to vomit.] Vomiting fire ; as an ignivomous mountain

    a volcano. Derham

    IGNO'BLE, a. [Fr. from L. ignobilis ; in

    and nohilis. See JVo6ie.]

    1. Of low birtli or family ; not noble ; nol illustrious.

    2. Mean ; worthless ; as an ignoble plant.

    3. Base ; not honorable ; as an ignoble motive. IGNOBIL'ITY, n. Ignobleness. [.\\\'ot in

    use. Ball

    IGNO'BLENESS, n. Want of dignity;

    anness. Ainsworth.

    IGNOBLY, orfr. Of low family or birth ; as

    gnobly born. 2. Meanly ; dishonorably ; reproachfully ; dis- gracefully ; basely. The troops ignobly fly. ""' — TIN'IOUS, a. [L. ignominiosus. See



    Incurring disgrace; cowardly; of mean character.

    Then with pale fear surprised, Fled ignominious. MUlon

    3. Very shameful ; reproachful ; dishonora- ble ; infamous. To be hanged for acrinu is ignominious. Whipping, cropping and branding are ignominious punishments.

    3. Despicable ; worthy of contempt ; as an ignominious projector. Swift

    IGNOMIN'IOUSLY, adv. Meanly; dis gracefully; shamefully.

    I L E

    IG'NOMINY, n. [L. ignominia ; in and nomen, against name or reputation ; Fr. ignominie.]

    Public disgrace ; shame ; reproach ; dishon- or ; infamy.

    Their generals have been received with hon- or after their defeat ; yours with ignominy after conquest. Addison.

    Vice begins in mistake, and ends in igno- miny. Rambler.

    IGNORA'MUS, n. [L. we are ignorant; from ignoro.]

    1. The indorsement which a grand jury make on a bill presented to them for in- quiry, when there is not evidence to sup- port the charges, on which all proceedings are stopped, and the accused person is dis- charged.

    2. An ignorant person ; a vain pretender to knowledge. South.

    IG'NORANCE, n. [Fr. from L. ignorantia ; ignoro, not to know ; ignarus, ignorant ; in and gnarus, knowing.]

    1. Want, absence or destitution of knowl- edge ; the negative state of the mind which has not been instructed in arts, literature or science, or has not been informed of facts. Ignorance may be general, or it may be limited to particular subjects. Ig- norance of the law does not excuse a man for violating it. Ignorance of facts is often venial.

    Ignorance is preferable to error. Jefferson.

    2. Ignorances, in the plural, is used some- times for omissions or mistakes ; but the use is uncommon and not to be encoura- ged.

    IG'NORANT, a. [L, ignorans.] Deistitute of knowledge; uninstructed or luiinform- ed ; untaught ; unenlightened. A man may be ignorant of the law, or of any art or .science. He may be ignorant of his own rights, or of the rights of others.

    2. Unknown; undi^:cnvered ; a poetical use ; as ignorant concealment. Shak.

    3. Unacquainted with. Ignorant o{ s,\\\\x\\\\\\\\i, I fear not shame.


    4. Unskilfully made or done. [JSTot I'egiti- 7p.] Poor ignorant baxibles. Shak

    IG'NORANT, n. A person untaught or un- formed ; one unlettered or unskilled. Did I for this take pains to teach Our zealous i^norants to preach .' Denkam.

    IG'NORANTLY, adv. Without knowledge, instruction or information.

    Whom therefore yc ignoranily worship, him declare I unto you. Acts xvii.

    2. Unskilfully ; inexpertly. A man may mis- take blunders for beauties and ignoranily admire them.

    IGNO'RE, V. t. To be ignorant, [^rot in use.] Boyle.

    IGNOS'CIBLE, a. [I..ignoscibilis.] Par- donable. [JVbt used.]

    IGNO'TE, a. [L. ignptus.] Unknov/n. [J\\\'ot ■used.]

    IGU*.\\\\NA, n. A species of hzard, of the ge- mis Lacerta.

    ILE, so written by Pope for aile, a walk or alley in a church or pubhc building. [JVot

    2. An ear of corn. [J^ot itsed.] Ainsworth. I'LEX, n. [L.] In botany, the generic name

    of the Holly-tree. Also, the Q((crci(» ilrr,

    or ureat scarlet o,ik.


    1 L L

    L L

    1L'IA€, a. [L. iliacu3, from ilia, the flank or small intestines; Gr. mVu, to wind.]

    Pertaining to the lower bowels, or to the ileum. The iliac passion, is a violent and dangerous kind of colic, with an inversion of the peristaltic motion of the bowels.

    DncQc. Parr.

    IL'IAD, n. [ftom Ilium, Jlion, Troy.] An epic poem, composed by Homer, in twenty four books. The subject of this poem is the wrath of Achilles ; in describing whicli the poet exhibits the miserable effects of disunion and public dissensions. Hence the phrase, llias malorum, an Hiad of woes or calamities, a world of disasters.


    ILK, a. The same ; each. This is retained in Scottish, from the Saxon elc, each,

    ILL, n. [supposed to be contracted from evU, Sax. i/fel; but this is doubtful. It ' in Swedish, ilia, and I>an.i7rfe.]

    1. Bad or evil, in a general sense; contrary to good, physical or moral ; applied to things ; evil ; wicked ; wrong ; iniquitous ; as, his ways are ill; he sets an ill ample.

    2. Producing evil or misfortune ; as an ill star or planet.

    3. Bad ; evil ; unfortunate ; as an HI end an ill fate.

    4. Unhealthy ; insalubrious ; as an iU air or climate.

    5. Ci-oss ; crabbed : surly ; peevish ; as ill nature ; ill temper.

    G. Diseased ; disordered ; sick or indisposed , applied to persons ; as, the man is ill : he has been ill a long time ; he is ill of fever.

    7. Diseased ; impaired ; as an ill state of|j health.

    8. Discordant; harsli ; disagreeable; as an ill sound.

    9. Homely ; ugly ; as ill looks, or an ill coun- tenance.

    10. Unfavorable; suspicious; as vilien we say, this affair bears an ill look or aspect.

    11. Rude; unpolished; as iH breeding ; ill manners.

    12. Not proper ; not regular or legitimate ; as an ill expression in grammar.

    ILL, n. Wickedness; depravity; evil.

    Strong virtue, like strong nature, struggles

    sliU, Exerts itself V"l then tliro ws off the ill.

    iDryden. 2. Misfortune ; calamity ; evil ; disease ; pain ; whatever annoys or impairs hap|)iness, or ])revents success. Who can all sense of otliei's ills escape, i| Is but a brute at best in human shape. Thtc.

    ILL, urfy. Not well; not rightly or perfectly. ;! He is ill at ease.

    I 2. Not easily ; with pain or difficulty. He \\\\, is ill able to sustain the burden, f III bears the sex the youthful lovers' fate,

    I When just approaching to the nuptial state.

    ; Dryden.

    I' ILL, prefixed to participles of the present tense, and denoting evil or wrong,' may be considered as a noun governed by the par- ticiple, or as making apart of a compound word ; as an ill meanivg man, an ill de- signing man, an ill boding hour ; that is, a man meaning ill, an hour boding ill. It is more consonant, however, to the genius of our language, to treat these and similaf

    word.s as compounds. In some cases, as before the participles of intransitive verbs. ill must be con.sidered as a part of the com- pound, as in ill-looking. When used be- fore the perfect participle, ill is to be con- sidered as an adverb, or modifying word, or tobe treated as a part of the compound ; as in ill-bred, ill-governed, Hl-fated, ill-fi vored, ill-formed, iU-mmded. In these and all similar connections, it might be well to unite the two words in a compound by hyphen. As ill may be prefixed to almost any participle, it is needless to attempt to collect a list of such words for insertion.

    11, prefixed to words beginning with 2, standi for in, as used in the Latin language, and usually denotes a negation of the sense the simple word, as illegal, not legal ; or it denotes to or on, an

    ILLAB'ILE, a. [See LabUe.] Not liable to fall or err ; infallible. [JVot used.]


    ILLABIL'ITY, n. The quality of not being

    liable to err, fall or apostatize. [Afot used7\\\\


    ILLAC'ERABLE, a. [See Lacerate.] Thai cannot be torn or rent.

    ILLAPSE, n. maps'. [Sec Lapse.] A sh- ding in; an inimission or entrance of one thing into another. JVorris.

    |2. A falling on; a sudden attack. Thomson.

    IILLAQ'UEATE, v. t. [L. illaquco ; in ami

    I laqneo, to ensnare ; laqueus, a snare.]

    To ensnare; to entrap; to entangle; to catch. [Little used.] More.

    ILLAQ'UEATED./jp. Ensnared.

    ILLAQUEA'TION, n. The act of ensnar- ing ; a catching or entrapping. [Little used.] Brown.

    2. A snare.

    ILLA'TION, n. [h.illnlio; in and lalio, a bearing ; latus, from fero.]

    An inference from ; a conclusion ; deduction. [Little used.] Locke.

    IL'LATIVE, o. [See /H«/ion.] Relatin^ illation ; that may be inferred ; as an illa- tive consequence.

    2. That denotes an inference; as an illative word or particle, as then and therejore.


    IL'LATIVE, n. That which denotes illation or inference. Bp. Hall.l

    ILLAUD'ABLE, a. [See Laudable.] Not laudable ; not worthy of approbation or commendation ; as an illaudable motive or

    ILLE'GALLY, adv. In a manner contrary to law ; unlawfully ; as a man illegally imprisoned. BlackMone.

    ILLEtilBIL'ITY, n. The quahty of being illegible.

    ILLE(i'lBLE, a. [^ee Legible.] That can- not be read ; obscure or defaced so that the words cannot be known. It is a dis- grace to a gentleman to write an illegible hand. The manuscripts found in the ruins of Herculaneum are mostly illegible.

    ILLEti'IBLY, adv. In a n)anner not to be read ; as a letter written illegibly.

    ILLEOIT'IMACY, n. [See Legitimate.]

    I. The state of being born out of wedlock ; the Slate of bastardy.

    2. Worthy of censure or dispraise.

    ILLAUD'ABLY, adv. In a maimer unwor- thy of praise ; without deserving praise. Broome.

    ILL-BRED, a. Not well bred; unpolite.

    ILL-BREE'DING, n. Want of good breed- ing ; unpoliteness.

    ILL-CONDI'TIONED, a. [See Condition.] Being in bad order or state.

    ILLE'CEBROUS, a. [L. illecebrosus.] Al- luring; full of allurement. Elyot.

    ILLE'GAL, a. [See Legal.] Not legal ; un- lawful ; contrary to law ; illicit ; as an ille- gal act ; illegal trade.

    ILLEGALITY, 71. Contrariety to law; un- lawfulness ; as the t'Heg'oW^ of trespass, or of false imprisonment.

    ILLE'GALIZE, r. t. To render unlawful.

    Blackstone. 2. The state of being not genuine, or of le- gitimate origin. ILLEGIT'IMATE, a. [See Legitimate.] Unlawfully begotten ; born out of wed- lock ; spurious ; as an illegitimate son or daughter.

    2. Unlawful ; contrary to law.

    3. Not genuine ; not of genuine origin ; as Ulegitimaie inference.

    4. Not authorized by good usage ; as an ille- gitimate word.

    ILLEGITIMATE, v. t. To render illegiti- mate ; to prove to be born out of wedlock ; to biistardize. ff'otton.

    ILLEtilT'I.MATELY, adv. Not in wedlock ; witiiout aiithoritv.

    ILLEtilTLMA TIO.\\\\, n. The state of one

    I nut born in wedlock. Bacon.

    2. Want of genuineness. Martin.

    ILLEV'I ABLE, a. [in, not, and Fr. lever, to raise or levy.] That cannot be levied or collected. Hale.

    ILL'-FACED, a. Having an ugly face.


    ILL-FA' VORED, (I. [iU and/avored.] Ugly : ill-looking; wanting beauty ; deformed." Ill-favtncd and lean fleshed. Gen. xli.

    ILL-FA'VOREDLY, adv. With deformit^'.

    2. Roughly ; rudely. Howell.

    ILL-FA'VOREDNESS, n. Ugliness; de- forinitv.

    ILLIB'ERAL, a. [See Liberal.] Not lib- eral ; not free or generous.

    2. Not noble ; not ingenuous ; not catholic; of a contracted mind. Coltl in charity ; in religion, illiberal. K. Charles.

    ,i. Not candid ; uncharitable in judging. Not generous; not munificent ; sparingof gifts. Woodivard.

    Not becoming a well bred man. Harrin.

    C. Not pure ; not well authorized or elegant ; illiberal words in Latin. [Unusual.]


    ILLIBERAL'ITY, n. Narrowness of mind; contraciedness; meanness; want of cath- olic opinions.

    2. Parsimony ; want of munificence.


    ILLIB'ERALLY, odi». Ungenerously; un- candidly ; uncharitably ; disingenuously.

    2. Parsimoniously.

    ILLICIT, a. [L. {Ilicitus; in and lirilu.'<, from liceo, to permit.]

    Not permitted or allowed ; prohibited ; un- lawful ; as an illicit trade ; illicit intei'>- course or connection.

    ILLICITLY, adv. Unlawfully.

    ILLIC'ITNESS, «. Unlawfujacas.

    ILLICITOUS, a. Unlawful.


    ILLI'GHTEN, v. t. [See Light, LighUn.] To enlighten. [jVot in use.] Raleigh.

    ILLIMITABLE, a. {in, not, and limit, or L. limes.']

    That cannot be limited or bounded ; as the illimitable void. Thomson.

    ILLIM'ITABLY, adv. Without possibility of being bounded.

    2. Without limits.

    ILLIM'ITED, a. [Fr. illimiti ; in and L. limes, a limit.]

    Unbounded : not limited ; interminable.

    Bp. Hall.

    ILLIM^ITEDNESS, n. Boundlessness ; the

    state of being without limits or restriction.

    The absoluteness and illimitedness of his

    commission was much spoken of. Clarendon

    ILLINP'TION, n. [L. illinitus, illinio, to anoint ; in and lino, to besmear.]

    A thin crust of some extraneous substance formed on minerals.

    It is sometimes disguised by a thin crust or illinition of black manganese. Kirwan.

    ILLIT'ERACV, n. [from illiterate.] The state of being untaught or unlearned ; want of a knowledge of letters; ignorance.


    ILLIT'ERATE, a. [L. iUiteratus ; in and literatus ; from litera, a letter.]

    Unlettered ; ignorant of letters or books ; un- taught ; unlearned ; uiiinstructed in sci- ence ; as an illiterate man, nation or tribe Jfotlon

    ILLIT'ERATENESS, n. Want of learning ignorance of letters, books or science. ° Boyle

    ILLIT'ERATURE, n. Want of learning [Little used.] -fiylW^

    ILL-LI' VED, a. Leading a wicked hfe. [Lit- tle used.] Dp. Hall.

    ILL-NA'TURE, n. [ill and nature.] C ness; crabbedness; habitual bad temper, or want of kindness; fractiousness.


    ILL-NA'TURED, a. Cross ; crabbed ; surly intractable ; of habitual bad temper ; pee- vish ; fractious. An ill-natured person may disturb the harmony of a whole parish.

    2. That indicates ill-nature.

    The ill-natured task refuse. Jiddison.

    3. Intractable; not yielding to cidture; as ill-natured land. [jXot legitimate.] _

    Philips. ILL-NATUREDLY, adv. In a peevish or

    froward maimer ; crossly ; unkindly. ILL-NA'TUREDNESS, n. Crossness ; want

    of a kind disposition. ILL'NESS, n. [from iH.] Badness; unfa-

    vorableness ; as the illness of the weather.

    [JVot used.] Locke.

    2. Disease; indisposition; malady; disor- der of health ; sickness. He has recover- ed from liis illness.

    3. Wickedness ; iniquity ; wrong moral con- duct. Shuk.

    ILLOG'ICAL, a. [See Logical] Ignorant or negligent of the rules of logic or correct reasoning ; as an illogical disputant.

    2. Contrary to the rules of logic or sound reasoning ; as an illogical inference.

    ILL0G'I€ALLY, adv. In a manner contra ry to the rules of correct reasoning.

    ILLOti'leALNESS, n. Contrariety to sound reasoning. Hammond.

    ILL'STARRED, a. [ill and star.] Fated to bu uiilViitunaie. Beddoes.


    ILL'-TRAINED, o. Not well trained or dis- ciplined. Milford.

    ILLU'DE, V. t. [L. illudo ; in and ludo, to play. See Imdicrous.]

    To play upon by artifice ; to deceive ; mock ; to e.xcite hope and disappoint it

    ILLU'DED, pp. Deceived ; mocked.

    ILLU'DING, ppr. Playing on by artifice; deceiving.

    ILLU'ME, ). , [Fr. illuminer; h.iUu-

    ILLU'MINE, S niino; in and lumino,

    to enlighten, from lumen, light. See Lumi- nous.]

    1. To illuminate ; to enlighten ; to throw or spread light on ; to make light or bright.

    Milton. [These words are used chieAy in poetiy.]

    2. To enlighten, as the mind ; to cause to understand.

    3. To brighten ; to adorn. The mountain's brow,

    niuni'd with fluid gold— Thomson.

    ILLU'MINANT, n. Tliat which illuminates

    affords light. Boyle.

    ILLU'MINA'f E, V. t. [See lUume.] To en

    lighten ; to throw light on ; to supply with

    light. [ This word is used in poetry or prose

    2. To adorn with festal lamps or bonfires.

    3. To enlighten intellectually with know edge or grace. Heb. x.

    4. To adorn with pictures, portraits and other paintings ; as, to illuminate m scripts or books, according to ancient practice. Encyc.

    5. To illu.strate ; to throw light on, as on obscure subjects. Watts

    ILLU'MINATE, a. Enlightened.

    Bp. Hall ILLU'MINATE, n. One of a sect of here

    tics pretending to possess extraordinary

    light and knowledge. ILLU'MINATED, pp. Enlightened;

    dered light or luminous ; illustrated ;

    adorned with pictures, as books. ILLU'MINATING, ;);»»•. Enlightening; ren

    dering luminous or bright; illustrating

    adorning with pictures. ILLU'MINATING, n. The act, practice or

    art of adorning manuscripts and books by

    The act of illumina- ting or rendering luminous; the act of sup- plying with light.

    The act of rendering a house or a town light, by placing lights at the windows, or iu elevated situations, as a manifestation of joy ; or the state of being thus rendered light.

    3. That which gives hght. - gun — is an illumination created.


    4. Brightness; splendor.

    5. Infusion of intellectual light; an enlight- ening of the understanding by knowledge, or the mind by spiritual light.

    6. The act, art or practice of adorning manu- scripts and books with pictures. Encyc.

    7. Inspiration; the special communication of knowledge to the mind by the Supreme Being.

    Hymns and psalms— are liamed by medita

    tion beforehand, or by prophetical illumination

    are inspired. Hooker.

    ILLU'MINATIVE, a. [Pr. illuminalif.]

    Having the power of giving light.



    ILLU'MINATOR, n. He or that which il- luminates or gives light.

    2. One wiiose occupation is to decorate manuscripts and books with pictures, por- traits and drawings of any kind. This practice began among the Romans, and was continued during the middle ages. The manuscripts containing portraits, pic-

    , tures and emblematic figures, form a. val- uable part of the riches preserved in the principal libraries in Europe. Encyc.

    From this word, by contraction, is formed limner.

    ILLUMINEE', I A church term ancient-

    ILLUMIN A'TI, S "■ ly applied to persons who had received baptism ; in which cer- emony they received a lighted taper, as a symbol of the faith and grace they had received by that sacrament. Encyc.

    2. The name ofa sect of heretics, who sprung up in Spain about the year 1575, and who afterward appeared in France. Their principal doctrine was, that by means of a sublime manner of prayer, they had at- tained to so perfect a state as to have no need of ordinances, sacraments and good works. Encyc.

    3. The name given to certain associations of men in modern Europe, who combined to overthrow the existing religious in- stitutions, and substitute reason, by which they expected to raise men and society to perfection. Robisonj

    ILLU'MINISM, n. The principles of the Illuminati.

    ILLU'MINIZE, V. t. To initiate into the doctrines or principles of the Illuminati.

    Jim. Review.

    ILLU'SION, «. s as z. [Fr. illusion ; L. illusio, from illudo, to illude.]

    Dece|)live appearance ; false show, by which a person is or may be deceived, or his ex- pectations disappointed ; mockery. Ye soft illusions, dear deceits, arise ! Pope.

    ILLU'SIVE, a. Deceiving by false show; deceitful ; false.

    WTiile the fond soul. Wrapt in gay visions of unreal bliss, Still paints th' illusive form. Thomson.

    ILLUSIVELY, adv. By means of a false show.

    ILLU'SIVENESS, n. Deception; false show. ^sh.

    ILLU'SORY, a. [Fr. illusoire, from L. illu- sus, illudo.]

    Deceiving or tending to deceive by false appearances; fallacious. His offers were illusory.

    ILLUS'TRATE, v. t. [Fr. illustrer ; L. illus- tro ; in and lustro, to illuminate. See Lus- ter.]

    1. To make clear, bright or luminous.

    2. To brighten with honor ; to make distin-

    guished. Matter to me of glory Illustrates —

    3. To brighten ; to make glorious, or to dis- play the glory of; as, to illustrate the per- fections of God.

    4. To explain or elucidate ; to make clear, intelligible or obvious, what is dark or obscure ; as, to illustrate a passage of Scripture by comments, or of a profane author by a gloss.


    I M A

    r M B

    ILLUS'TRATED, pp. Made bright or glo rious.

    2. Explainer] ; elucidated ; made clear to the understanding.

    ILLUS'TRATING, ppr. Making bright or glorious ; rendering distinguished ; eluci- dating.

    ILLUSTRATION, n. The act of render ing bright or glorious.

    2. Explanation ; elucidation ; a rendering clear what i.s obscure or abstruse. Locke.

    ILLUS'TRATIVE, a. Having the quality of elucidating and making clear what is obscure ; as an argument or simile illus- trative of the subject. Broum.

    9. Having the quality of rendering glorious,

    or of displaying glory. ILLUS'TRATIVEL"

    iLY, adv. By way of illus tratiou or elucidation. Brown

    ILLUS'TRATOR, n. One who illustrates or makes clear.

    ILLUS'TRIOUS, a. [Fr. iUustre; L.iUus tiis.]

    1. Conspicuous ; distinguished by the repu tation of greatness ; renowned; eminent as an illustrious general or magistrate ; an illustrious prince.

    2. Conspicuous ; renowned ; conferring hon or ; as illustrious actions.

    3. Glorious ; as an illustrious display of the divine perfections.

    4. A title of honor. ILLUS'TRIOUrSLY, adv. Conspicuously

    nobly ; eminently ; with dignity or dis- tinction.

    2. Gloriously ; in a way to manifest glory The redemption of man displays iilustri misly the justice as well as the benevo- lence of God.

    ILLUS'TRTOUSNESS, n. Eminence of] character ; greatness ; grandeur ; glory

    ILLUXU'RIOUS, a. Not luxurious?


    ILL-WILL', n. Enmity ; malevolence.

    ILL-WILL'ER, n. One who wishes ill to another.

    I'M, contracted from I a?n.

    IM, in composition, is usually the represent- ■itive of the Latin in ; ?i "being changed til m, for the sake of easy utterance, before a labial, as in imbibe, immense, impartial.' We use the same prefix in compounds not] of Latin origin, as in imbody, imbitter. Fori im, the French write em, which we also use in words borrowed from their lan- guage.

    IM AuE, n. [Fr. image ; 1j. imago; Sp. rm- figen ; It. image, immagine ; Ir. iomaigh.]

    i. A representation or similitude of any per- son or thing, formed of a material sub- stance ; as an image wrought out of stone, wood or wax.

    Whose is this image and superscription .' Matt. xxii.

    2. A statue.

    3. An idol ; the representation of any person or thing, that is an object of worship. The second commandment forbids the wor- ship of images.

    •1. The likeness of any thing on canvas; a

    picture; a resemblance painted. ."i. Any copy, representation or likeness.

    Tlio child is the image of its mother. »;. j!cniblance ; show ; appearance.

    The fiice of things a frightful image bears.


    Vol. I.

    7. An idea ; a representation of any thing to the mind ; a conception ; a picture drawn by fancy.

    Can we conceive Image of aught delightful, soft or great .'


    8. In rhetoric, a lively description of any thing in discourse, which presents a kind of picture to the mind. Encyc.

    9. In optics, the figure of any object, made by rays of light proceeding from the eral points of it. Thus a mirror reflects the jHiag-e of a person standing before it as does water in a vessel or stream, when undisturbed.

    IM'AtiE, I', t. To imagine; to copy by the imagination ; to form a likeness iii the mind by the fancy or recollection. And image charms he must behold no more. Pope. IM'AtiERY. n. im'ajry. Sensible represent- ations, i)ictures, statues. Rich carvings, portraitures and imagery.

    Drydcn. 9. Show; appearance.

    What can thy imagery aud sorrow mean ?


    3. Forms of the fancy ; false ideas; imagin- ary phantasms.

    The imagery of a melancholic fancy —


    4. Representations in writing or speaking ; lively descriptions which impress the im- ages of things on the mind ; figures in dis- co m-se.

    1 wish there may be in this poem any in stance of good imagery. Dryden

    5. Form ; make. IM'AfiE-WORSHIP, n. The worship of|

    images ; idolatry. IMAG'INABLE, a. [Fr. See Iviagine.]

    That may be imagined or conceived.

    This point is proved with all imaginable

    clearness. IMAG'INANT, a. Imagining ; conceiving

    [Ao* used.] Bacon

    IMAG'INARY, a. Existing only in imagin- ation or fancy ; visionary ; fancied ; nol


    Imaginary ills and fancied tortures.

    IMAGINATION, n. [L. imaginalio ; Fr.

    imagination.] The powerorfaculty of the mind by which it conceives and forms ideas of things com- municated to it by the organs of sense.

    Encyc. Imagination I understand to be the represent- ation of an individual thought. Bacon. Our simple apprehension of corporeal objects, if present, is sense ; if absent, is imagination [conception] • Glanville. Imagination, in its proper sense, signifies a lively conception of objects of sight, ft is dis- tinguished from conception, as a part from a whole. Reid. The business of conception is to present us with an exact transcript of what we have felt| or perceived. But we have also a power of modifying our conceptions, by combining the parts of different ones so as to form new wholes of our o«-n creation. I shall employ the word imagination to express this power. I appre- hend this to be the proper sense of the word, if imagination be the power which gives birth to the productions of the poet and the painter. Stewart. We would define imagination to be the will workin? on the materials of memory ; not satis-


    lied with following the order prescribed by na- ture, or suggested by accident, it selects the parts of different conceptions, or objects of memory, to form a whole more pleasing, more terrible, or more awful, tlian has ever been presented in tlie ordinary course of nature.

    Ed. Encye.

    The two latter definitions give the true

    sense of the word, as now understood.

    9. Conception ; image in the mind ; idea.

    .Sometimes despair darkens all her imagina-

    turns. Sidney.

    His imaginations were often as just as Ihey

    I were bold and strong. Dennis.

    3. Contrivance ; scheme formed in the mind ; device.

    Thou hast seen all their vengeance, and all their itnagiyialions against me. I^am. iii.

    4. Conceit ; an unsolid or fanciful opinion. We arc apt to think that space, in itself, is

    actually boundless ; to which imagination, the idea of space of itself leads us. Locke.

    5. First motion or purpose of the mind. Gen. vi.

    IMAO'INATIVE, a. [Fr. imaginaiif.]Thti\\\\.

    forms imaginations. Taylor.

    2. Full of imaginations ; fantastic. Bacon- IMA(J!'INE, V. t. [Fr. imaginer ; Sp. imagin-

    ar ; L. imaginor, from imago, image.]

    1. To form a notion or idea in the mind ; to fancy. We can imagine the figure of a horse's head united to a human body.

    In this sense, fancy is the more proper word.

    2. To form ideas or representations in the mind, by modifying and combining our conceptions. Stewart.

    3. To contrive in purpose ; to scheme ; to devise.

    How long will ye imagine mischief against a man ? Ps. Ixii.

    IMAti'INE, V. i. To conceive ; to have a notion or idea. I cannot imagine how this should have happened.

    IMAti'INED, pp. Formed in the mind ; fan- cied ; conti-ived.

    IMAG'INER, n. One who forms ideas ; one who contrives. Bacon.

    IMA(5'INING, ppr. Forming ideas in the mind : devising.

    IM'AM, ? ji A minister or priest among the

    IM'.AN, ^ ■ 3Iohammedans.

    Imbalm, Imbargo. Imbark, Imbase. See Em- balm. Embargo, Embark, Embase.

    FMBAN", r. t. [in and ban.] To excommu- nicate, inacivil sense; to cut off from the rights of man, or exclude from the com- mon privileges of humanity. [.Vol tcell authorized.] ' J. Barlotc.

    IMBAND', V. t. [in and band.] To form into a band or bands. Beneath full sails imbanded nations rise.

    J. Barlow.

    IMB.AND'ED, /);). Formed into a band or bands.

    I.'MBANK', r. /. [in and ban!;.] To inclose with a bank ; to defend by banks, mounds or dikes.

    IMBANK'ED, pp. Inclosed or defended with a bank.

    IMBANK'ING, ppr. Inclosing or surround- ing with a bank.

    IMBANK'MENT, n. The act of surround- ing or defending with a bank. 9. Inclosure by a bank; the banks or iiiounds of earth that are raised to de- tend a place, especially against floods.


    IMB'ARN, V. i. To deposit in a barn. [JsTot

    used.] Herbert.

    IMB>ASTARDIZE, v. t. To bastardize,

    which see. Milton.

    IMBE'AD, V. t. [in and bead.] To fasten with a bead.

    IMBE'ADED, pp. Fastened with a bead.

    IM'BECILE, o. im'becil. [L. imbecillis ; F imbecile. This seems to be a compound word, of which the primitive bee, is not now to be found or recognized.]

    Weak; feeble; destitute of strength, either of body or of mind ; impotent. Barr

    IMBECiL'ITY, n. [h. imbecillitas ; Fr. becillit^

    1. Want of strength ; weakness ; feebleness of body or of mind. We speak of the im becility of the body or of tlie intellect when either does not possess the usual strength and vigor that belongs to men, and which is necessary to a due perform- ance of its functions. This may be natu- ral, or induced by violence or disease.

    2. Impotence of males; inability to procre- ate children.

    IMBED', V. t. [in and bed.] To sink or lay in a bed ; to place in a mass of earth, sand or other substance, so as to be partly in- closed.

    IMBED'DED, pp. Laid or inclosed, as in a bed or mass of surrounding matter.

    IMBED'DING, ppr. Laying, as in a bed.

    IMBEL'LI€, a. [L. in and bellicus.] Not warlike or martial. [Little used.]


    I3IBENCH'ING, n. [in and bench.] A raised work like a liench. Parkkurst.

    IMBI'BE, V. t. [L. imbibo ; in and bibo, to drink ; Fr. imbiber.]

    1. To drink in ; to absorb ; as, a dry or po- rous body imbibes a fluid ; a spunge im- bibes moisture.

    2. To receive or admit into the mind and retain ; as, to imbibe principles ; to imbibe errors. Imbibing in the mind always im- plies retention, at least for a time.

    t3. To imbue, as used by Newton ; but he has not been followed.

    IMBI'BED, pp. Drank in, as a fluid ; ab- sorbed ; received into the mind and re- tained.

    IMBI'BER, n. He or that which imbibes.

    IMBI'BING, ppr. Drinking in; absorbing; receiving and retaining.

    IMBIBI"TlON, n. The act of imbibing.


    IMBIT'TER, I', t. [in and bilier.] To make bitter.

    2. To make unhappy or grievous ; to ren- der distressing. The sins of youth often imbiUer old age. Grief imbitters our en- joyments.

    :i. To exasperate ; to make more severe, poignant or painful. The sorrows of true penitence are imbittered by a sense of our ingratitude to our Almighty Benefactor.

    4. To exasperate ; to render more violent or malignant ; as, to imbitler enmity, anger, rage, passion, &c. IMBIT'TERED, pp. Made unhappy or

    painful ; exasperated. lMBITTERING,p;)r. Rendering unhappy or distressing ; exasperating.


    IMBOD'IED, pp. [See Imbody.] Formed

    into a body. IMBOD'Y, V. I. [in and body.] To form into a body ; to invest with matter; to make corporeal ; as, to imbody the soul or spirit. An opening cloud reveals A heavenly form, imbodied and array'd With robes of light. Dryden.

    2. To form into a body, collection or sys- tem ; as, to imbody the laws of a state in a code.

    3. To bring into a band, company, regi- ment, brigade, army, or other regular as- semblage ; to collect ; as, to embody the forces of a nation.

    I M B

    Of troops imbodied. Dryden

    IMBOD'Y, V. i. To unite in a body, mass oi

    collection ; to coalesce. Milton. Locke IMBOD'YING, ppr. Forming into a body ;

    investing with a corporeal body. 2. Collecting and uniting in a body.

    IMBOIL', V. i. To effervesce.


    IMBOLDEN, V. t. imboldn. [in and bold ; It.

    imbaldanxire.] To encourage; to give confidence to.

    Nothing imboldens sin so much as mercy.

    Shah IMBOLDEN, pp. Encouraged ; having re- ceived confidence. IMBOLDENING, ppr. Encouraging; giv- ing confidence. IMBORD'ER, V. t. [in and border.] To furnish or inclose with a border ; to adorn with a border. 3. To terminate ; to bound. Milton.

    IMBORD'ERED, pp. Furnished, inclosed

    or adorned with a bolder; bounded. IMBORD'ERING, ppr. Furnishing, inclo- ' ig or adorning with a border; bound- g. IMBOSK', V. t. [It. imboscare. See Bush.] To conceal, as in bushes ; to hide.

    Milton. IMBO'SOM, V. t. s as z. [in and bosom.] To hold in the bosom ; to cover fondly with the folds of one's garment.

    2. To hold in nearness or intimacy. —The Fathei- infinite.

    By whom in bliss imbosomcd sat the .Son.


    3. To admit to the heart or affection ; to caress.

    But glad desire, his late imbosom'd guest — Sidney.

    4. To inclose in the midst ; to surround. Villages imbosomcd soft in trees-— Thomson.

    5. To inclose in the midst ; to cover ; as pearls imbosomcd in the deep.

    IMBO'SOMED, pp. Held in the bosom or to the breast ; caressed ; surrounded in the midst ; inclosed ; covered.

    IMBO'SOMING, ppr. Holding in the bo- som; caressing; holding to the breast; inclosing or covering in the midst.

    IMBOUND', V. t. [in and bound.] To in- close in limits ; to shut in. [Little used.]


    IMBOW, V. t. [in and bow.] To arch ; to vault ; as an imbowed roof Milton

    2. To make of a circular form ; as imbowed windows. Bacon

    IMBOWED, pp. Arched ; vaulted ; made of a circular form.

    IMBOW'ER, V. t. [in and bower.] To cover with a bower ; to shelter with trees.


    IMBOW'ERED, pp. Covered with a bow- er ; sheltered with trees.

    IMBOW'ERING, ppr. Covering with a bower or with trees.

    IMBOWING, ppr. Arching; vaulting; ma- king of a circular form.

    IMBOWMENT, n. An arch ; a vault.

    ' Bacon.

    IMBOX', V. t. To inclose in a box,

    IMBRAN'GLE, v. t. To entangle.


    IMBREE'D, V. t. To generate within.

    IM'BRI€ATE, } ^ [L. imbricatus, imbrico,

    IMBRICATED, <, "' from imbrex, a tile.]

    1. Bent and hollowed like a ro^of or gutter tile. Johnson.

    2. In botany, lying over each other, like tiles on a roof; parallel, with a strait surface, and lying one over the other; as leaves in the bud. Lee. Martyn.

    IMBRl€A'TION, n. A concave indenture, like that of tiles; tiling. Derham.

    IMBROWN', V. t. [in and brown.] To make brown ; to darken ; to obscure.

    The unpierc'd shade Imbroivn'd the noon-tide bowers. Milton. 2. To darken the color of; to make dirty. The foot grows black that was with dirt im- brown'd. Gay.

    •3. To tan ; to darken the complexion. IMBROWN'ED, pp. Made brown ; darken- ed ; tanned. IMBROWN'ING, ppr. Rendering brown ;

    darkening ; tanning. IBIBRUE, V. t. imbru'. [Gr. ff»«pf;tu, to moisten; tv and/3p(;i;u. Hence it is allied to embrocate, and Sp. embriagar, to intoxi- cate. See Ebriety, Brook and Rain.] To wet or moisten ; to soak ; to drench in a fluid, chiefly in blood. Whose arrows in my blood their wings im- brue. Sandys. Lucius pities the offenders. That would imbrue their hands in Cato's blood. Addison. 2. To pour out liquor. Obs. Spenser. IMBRU'ED, pp. Wet; moistened; drench- ed. IMBRU'ING, ;);)r. Wetting; moistening;

    drenching. IMBRU'TE, I), t. [in and brute.] To de- grade to the state of a brute ; to reduce to brutality.

    — And mix with bestial slime This essence to incarnate and imbrute.


    IMBRU'TE, V. i. To sink to the state of a

    brute. Milton.

    IMBRU'TED,pp. Degraded to brutism.

    IMBRU'TING, ppr. Reducing to brutish-

    ness. IMBUE, V. t. imbu'. [L. imbuo ; in and the root of Eng. buck, to buck cloth, that is, to dip, drench or steep in water.] \\\\. To tinge deeply ; to dye ; as, to imbue cloth. Boylt.

    2. To tincture deejily ; to cause to imbibe ; as, to imbue the minds of youth with good principles. IMBU'ED, ;>;». Tinged; dyed; tinctured. IMBU'ING, ppr. Tinging ; dyeing ; tinctur- I ing deeply.

    I M I

    IMITABIL'ITY, n. [See Imitahk, Lnilalt.} The quality of being imitable. J^/'orris.

    IM'ITABLE, a. [Fr. from L. imitabilis. See ImUaU.\\\\

    1. That may be imitated or copied. Let us follow our Savior in all his imitable con duct and traits of character. There are some works of the ancients that are hardly imitable. The dignified style of Johnson is scarcely imitable.

    2. Worthy of imitation. IMI'TATE, V. t. [Fr. imiter ; Sp. Port.

    imilar ; It. imilare ; L. imitor ; allied per haps to Gr. ojuoj, similar, equal.]

    1. To follow in manners: to copy in form, color or quality. We imitate another in dross or manners ; we imitate a statae, a painting, a sound, an action, when we make or do that which resembles it. We should seek the best models to imitate, and in morals and piety, it is our duty to imitate the example of our Savior. But as we cannot always make an exact similitude of the original, hence,

    2. To attempt or endeavor to copy or resem- ble i as, to imitate the colors of the rain- bow, or any of the beauties of nature. Cicero appears to have imitated the Greek orators.

    3. To counterfeit.

    This hand appear'd a shining sword to wield, And that sustain'd an imitated shield.


    4. To pursue the course of a composition, so as to use like images and examples.

    Johnson. Gay. IM'ITATED, pp. Followed ; copied. IM'ITATING, ppr. Following in manner;

    copying. IMITA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. imilatio ;

    imitor, to imitate.]

    1. The act of following in manner, or of|i copying in form ;, the act of making tl similitude of any thing, or of attempting a resemblance. By the imitation of bad or of evil examples, we are apt to contract vicious habits. In the imitation of natural forms and colors, we are often unsuccess ful. Imitation in music, says Rousseau, is a reiteration of the same air, or of one which is similar, in several parts where it is repeated by one after the other, either in unison, or at the distance of a fourth, a fifth, a third, or any interval whatever. Imitation in oratory, is an endeavor to re- semble a speaker or writer in the qualities which we propose to ourselves as patterns.


    2. That which is made or produced as copy ; likeness ; resemblance. >Ve say, thing is a true imitation of nature.

    3. A method of translating, in which model examples and illustrations are used for ancient, or domestic for foreign, or in which the translator not only varies the words and sense, but forsakes them as he sees occasion. Johnson. Dryden.

    IM'ITATIVE, a. Inclined to foljow in man- ner; as, man is an imitative being.

    2. Aiming at resemblance ; that is used in the business of forming resemblances, Painting is an imitative art.

    3. Formed after a model, pattern or original.

    This temple, less in form, with equal grace, Was imitative of the first in Thrace.


    I M M

    IMMATERIALLY, adv. lu a manner not

    depending on matter. 2. In a manner unimportant. IMMATE'RIAL.'VESS, n. The state of

    being immaterial ; immateriality. IMMATE'RIATE, o. Not consisting of

    matter; incorporeal; immaterial. [Little

    [L. immalurus ; in and

    I M M

    Imitative music, is that which is intended to

    resemble some natural operation, the pas

    sions, and the like. Busby.

    IMITATOR, n. One that follows in

    ners or deportment. 2. One that copies, or attempts to make the

    resemblance of any thing. IMITA'TORSHIP, n. Tlie office or state of

    an imitator. Marston.

    IMMAG'ULATE, n. [L. immacuUUvs ; in

    and macula, a spot.] 1. Spotless ; pure ; unstained ; undefiled ;

    without blemish ; as immoicidate reputa- tion ; immaculate thoughts. Our Savior

    has set us an example of an immaculate life

    and conversation. i2. Pure; limpid; not tinged with impure

    matter ; as an immaculate fountain.

    Shak. Immaculate conception, the conception of our

    Savior by the virgin Mary. IMMACULATELY, adv. With spotless

    purity. IMMAe'ULATENESS, n. Spotless purity. IMMA'ILED, a. Wearing mail or armor.

    Broume. IMMAL'LEABLE, a. [in and mMleable.]

    Not malleable ; that cannot be extended by

    hanmiering. Med. Repos.

    IMMAN'ACLE, v. t. [in and manacle.] To

    put manacles on ; to fetter or confine ; to

    restrain from free action. Milton.

    IMMAN'A€LED, pp. Fettered ; confined. IMMAN'ACLING, ppr. Fettering ; con- fining. IMMA'NE, a. [L. immanis.] Vast ; huge ;

    very great. [lAttlc used.] IMMA'NELY, adv. Monstrously ; cruellv. MUlo7i. IM'MANENCY, n. Internal dwelling.

    Pearson. IM'MANENT, a. [ an<]manens, maneo,

    to abide.] Inherent; intrinsic; internal. South. IMMAN'ITY, n. [L. immanitas.] Barbari- ty ; savageness. Shak. IMMARCES'SIBLE, a. [ and marcesco, I to fade.] Unfading. Diet. 'IMM>ARTIAL, a. [in and m,aHial.] Not

    martial ; not warlike. Chapman.

    IMM'ASK, V. t. [in and mask.] To cover, I as with a mask ; to disguise. Shak.

    'IMM" ASKED, pp. Covered; masked. IMM'ASKING, ppr. Covering; disguising. IMMATCH'ABLE, a. That cannot be

    matched ; peerless. IMMATERIAL, a. [Vr.immaleriel; in and


    1. Incorporeal; not material; not consist- ing of matter; as immaterial s^mxa. The

    I mind or soul is immaterial.

    2. Unimportant ; without weight ; not ma- terial; of no essential consequence. T»i-..T^ . i.-.

    Melmoth. Aikin. Hayley. fiupearf.jIMME t)I.\\\\TEL"i , arfr. W ithout the mier IMMATE'RIALISM, n. The doctrine of I vention of any other cause or event ; op the existence or state of immaterial su:

    used.] IMMATURE, maturvs.]

    1. Not mature or ripe ; unripe ; that has not arrived to a perfect state ; applied to fruit.

    2. Not perfect ; not brought to a complete state ; as immature plans or counsels.

    .3. Hasty ; too early ; that comes before the natural time. Taylor.

    [In this sense, premature is generally used.]

    IMMATU'RELY, adv. Too soon ; before ripeness or completion ; before the natural time.

    IMMATU'RENESS, ) Unripeness; in-

    IMMATU'RITY, I "' completeness ;

    the state of a thing which has not arrived to perfection.

    IMMEABIL'ITY, n. [L. in and meo, to

    pass.] Want of power to pass. Arbuthnot.

    The proper sense is, the quality of not

    being permeable, or not affording a passage

    through the pores. [Little used.]

    IMMEASURABLE, a. immtzh'urable. [in and measure.]

    That cannot be measured ; immense ; in- definitely extensive; as an tmmea«uroW« distance or space ; an immeasurable abys-. Milton. Addison.

    IMMEAS'URABLY, adv. To an extent not to be measured ; immensely ; beyond all measure. Milton.

    IMMEAS'URED, a. Exceeding common measure.

    IMMECIIAN'ICAL, a. [in and mechanical.]

    Not consonant to the laws of mechanics.


    IMME'DIACY, n. [from itnmediate.] Power of acting without dependence. Shak.

    LMME'DIATE, a. [Fr.immediat ; h.imme- diato ; L. in and medium, middle.]

    1. Proximate; acting without a medium, or without the intervention of another cause or means ; producing its effect by its own direct agency. An immediate cause is that which is exerted directly in producing its effect, in opposition to a mediate cause, or one more remote.

    2. Not acting by second causes ; as the im- mediate will o"f God. Abbot.

    3. Instant; present; without the interven- tion of tiine. We must have an immediate supply of bread.

    Immediate are my needs — Shak.

    Death — inflicted — by an immediate stroke.


    stances or spiritual beings.

    IMMATE'RIALIST, n. One who professes

    I immateriality. Sun/11.

    IMMATERIALITY, n. The quality of be- ing immaterial, or not consisting of mat- ter ; destitution of inatter ; as the immaie- riality of the soul.

    IMMATE'RIALIZED, a. Rendered or made immaterial. Glanvilh.

    posed to mediately.

    The transfer, whether accepted immediately by himself, or mediately by his agent, vests in him the property. ^non.

    2. Instantly; at the present time ; without delay, or the intervention of time.

    And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will, be thou clean. And imme- diately his leprosy was cleansed. Matt. vUl.

    IMME'DIATENESS, n. Presence with re- gard to time.

    1 M M

    1 M M

    I M M

    2. Exemption from second or intervening causes.

    IMMED'leABLE, a. [L. imtnedicaUlis ; in and mcdicabilis, from medico, to Ileal.] Not to be liealed ; incurable. Milton.

    IMMELO'DIOUS, a. Not melodious.


    IMMEM'ORABLE, a. [U immtmorahilis , in and memorabilia. See Memoi-y.]

    Not to be remembered ; not worth remem- bering. Johnson.

    IMMEMO'RIAL, a. [Fr. from L. in and

    Beyond memory ; an epithet given to time or duration, &c., whose beginning is not remembered, or cannot be traced and as- certained ; as when it is said a man has possessed an estate in fee from time imme- morial, or time out of mind. Such pos- session constitutes prescription, or prescrip- tive right. So we speak of immemorial use, custom or practice. In England, a thing is said to be immemorial, wlien it connnenced before the reign of Edward II.

    IMMEMO'RIALLY, ado. Beyond memory. BenUey.

    IMMENSE; a. immens'. [Fr. from L. im- mensus ; in and meiisus, metior, to meas- ure.]

    1. Unlimited; unbounded; infinite.

    O goodness infinite ! goodness immense .'

    very great ; as an

    as tlie immense 'ly. Infinitely

    2. Vast in extent mense distance.

    3. Huge in bulk ; very large body of Jupiter.

    IMMENSELY, adv. hmnen without limits or measure,

    2. Vastly ; very greatly.

    IMMENS'ITY, n. Unlimited extension ; an extent not to be measured ; infinity.

    By the power wc find in ourselves of repeat- ing, as often as we will, any idea of space, we get the idea o{ immensity. Loclie

    2. Vastness in extent or bulk; greatness.

    IMMENSURABIL'ITY, n. [from rahle.^

    The quality of not being capable of impossibility to be measured.

    IMMEN'SURABLE, a. [L. in and mensu rahilis, from mcnsura, measure ; mensus melior.] Not to be measured ; imineas urable.

    The law of nature — a term of immensurable extent. Ward.

    IMMEN'SURATE, a. Uiuneasured

    W. Mountagu.

    IMMERgE, V. <. immerj'. [h. immergo i^ in and mergo, to plunge.]

    1. To plunge into or under a fluid. [See Im- merse, which is generally used.]

    2. V. i. To enter the light of the sun, as a star, or the shadow of the earth, as the moon.

    IMMER'IT, n. Want of worth. [J^olused. IMMER'ITED, a. Unmerited. [JVoJ used IMMER'ITOUS, a. Undeserving. [J^ot

    used.'] IMMERSE, V. t. immers'. [L. immersvks, from

    immergo ; in and mergo, to plunge.]

    1. To put under water or other fluid; to plunge ; to dip.

    2. To sink or cover deep ; to cover wholly ; as, to be immersed in a wood. Dryden

    3. To plunge ; to overwhelm ; to involve

    to engage deeply ; as, to immerse in busi- ness or cares.

    It is impossible for a man to have a lively hope in another life, and yet be deeply immers- ed in the enjoyment of this. Atterbury.

    IMMERS'ED, pp. Put into a fluid ; plun- ged ; deeply engaged ; enveloped in the hght of the sun, as a star, or in the shadow of the earth, as the moon.

    IMMERS'ING, ppr. Plunging into a fluid ; dipping ; overwhelming ; deeply enga- ging.

    IMMER'SION, B.The act of putting into a fluid below the surface ; the act of plung- ing into a fluid till covered.

    3. The state of sinking into a fluid.

    3. The state of being overwhelmed or deep- ly engaged ; as an immersion in the afiairs of life. Atterbury.

    4. In astronomy, the act of entering into the light of the sun, as a star, so as to be en veloped and invisible to the eye ; or the state of being so enveloped. Also, the trance of the moon into the shadow of the earth, at the commencement of an eclipse ; or the state of being enveloped in tl shadow. It is opposed to emersion.

    The time when a star or planet is so near the sun as to be invisible ; also, the moment when the moon begins to be dark- ened, and to enter the shadow of the earth Encyc IMMESH', V. t. [in and mesh.] To entangk in the meshes of a net, or in a web. Ob- serve whether the fly is completely im- meshed. The spider used his efforts to immesh the scorpion. Goldsmith.

    IMMESU'F^D, pp. Entangled in meshes or

    webs. IMMESH'ING,j};>?-. Entangling in meshes

    or webs. IMMETHOD'leAL, a. [in and methodical.

    See Method.] Having no method ; without systematic ar- rangement ; without order or regularity : confused. Addison.

    IMMETHOD'I€ALLY, adv. Without or- der or regularity ; irregularly. IMMETHOD'l€ALNESS, n. Want of

    method ; confusion. IM'MIGRANT, n. A person that

    into a cotmtry for the purpose of perma nent residence. IM'MIGRATE, v. i. [L. immigro ; in and

    migro, to migrate.] To remove into a country for the purpose of permanent residence. [See Emigrate.]

    Belknap. IMMIGRA'TION, n. The passing or remo- ving into a country for the purpose of per- manent residence. IM'MINENCE, n. [L. imminentia, imminto

    hang over.] Properly, a hanging over, but used by Shak- speare for impending evil or danger. [Lit- tle used.] IM'MINENT, a. [L. imminens, from immi neo, to hang over ; in and minor, to threat- en. See Menace.] Literally, shooting over ; hence, hanging over ; impending ; threatening ; near ; ap- pearing as if about to fall on ; used of evils ; as imminent danger ; imminent judgments, evils or dearth. Hooker. Milton


    IMMIN'GLE, V. t. [in and iningle.] To

    mingle ; to mix ; to imite with numbers.


    IMMIN'GLED,jt);?. Mixed; mingled.

    IMMIN'GLING, ppr. Mixing ; mingling.

    IMMINU'TION, n. [L. imminutio, imminuo ; in and minuo, to lessen.] A lessening; diminution; decrease. Ray.

    IMMISCIBIL'ITY, n. [L. immisceo; in and misceo, to mix.] Incapacity of being mixed.

    IMMIS'CIBLE, a. [in and misdble.] Not capable of being mixed. Med. Repos.

    IMMIS'SION, n. [L. immissio, immitlo; in and mitto, to send.]

    The act of sending or thrusting in ; tion ; contrary to emission.

    IMMIT', V. t. [L. immitto ; in and mitto, to ] To send in ; to inject. Greenhill.

    IMMIT'IGABLE, a. [in and mitigate.] That cannot be mitigated or appeased.


    IMMIX', v.t. [in and mix.] To mix; to mingle.

    IMMIX' ABLE, a. Not capable of being mixed. Wilkins.

    IMMIX'ED, ? ,T - ,

    IMMIXT' \\\\ "' '^"niixed. Herbert.

    IMMOBILITY, n. [Fr. immobilite ; L. im- mobililas, from immobilis ; in and mobilis, from moveo, to move.]

    Unmovableness ; fixedness in place or state; resistance to motion. Arbuthnot.

    IMMOD'ERACY, n. Excess. Brown.

    IMMOD'ERATE, a. [L. immoderatus ; in and moderutus. See Moderate.]

    Exceeding just or usual bounds ; not con- fined to suitable limits ; excessive ; ex- travagant; unreasonable; as immoderate demands; immoderate passions, cares or grief.

    IMMOD'ERATELY, adv. Excessively; to an undue degree ; unreasonably ; as, to weep immoderately.

    IMMOD'ERATENESS, n. Excess; ex- travagance. Shelford.

    IMMOD'ERATION, n. Excess; want of moderation. Hammond.

    IMMOD'EST, a. [Fr. immodeste ; L. immo- destus ; in and modestus, modest. See the latter.]

    1. Literally, not limited to due bounds. Hence, in a general sense, immoderate ; exorbitant, unreasonable; arrogant.

    2. Appropriately, wanting in the reserve or restraint which decency requires ; want- ing in decency and delicacy. It is im- modest to treat superiors with the famil- iarity that is customary among equals.

    5. Wanting in chastity ; unchaste; lewd; as I an immodest female.

    4. Iin|iure; indelicate; as an immodest tlinugiit. Dryden.

    5. Obscene : as an immodest word. IMMOD'ESTLY, adv. Without due re- serve ; indecently; nnchastely ; obscenely.

    IMMOD'ESTY, n. [L. immodestia.] Want of modesty; indecency; unchastity.

    2. Want of delicacy or decent reserve.

    IM'MOLATE, V. <. [Fr.immoler; L.immolo, to sacrifice ; in and mola, meal sprinkled with salt, which was thrown on the head of the victim.]

    1. To sacrifice ; to kill, as a victim offered in sacrifice. Boyle.

    2i To offer in sacrifice.

    I M M

    " • Now immolate the tongues and mix the wine. Pofe.

    IM'MOLATED, pp. Sacrificed; offered in sacrifice.

    From the same altar on which the small states shall be immolated, will rise the smoke of sacri liced liberty, and despotism must be the drcid- ful successor. U- Tracy.

    IM'MOLATING.fipr. Sacrificing; offering, QH a victim.

    IMMOLATION, n. The act of sacrificing. ISroum.

    2. A sacrifice offered.

    IM'MOL.\\\\TOR, )(. One who offers iu sacri- fice.

    IMMO'MENT, a. Trifiing. [JVot Ejigtish.] Shak.

    IMMOMENT'OUS, a. Unimportant.


    IMMOR'AL, a. [in and moral.] Inconsist- ent with moral rectitude ; contrary to the moral or divine law ; wicked ; unjust dishonest; vicious. Every action is im moral wliich contravenes any divine pre cept, or which is contrary to the duties which men owe to each other.

    2. Wicked or unjust in practice; vicious dishonest; as an immoral man. Every man who violates a divine law or a social duty, is immoral, but we particularly apply the term to a person who habitually vio lates the laws.

    IMMORALITY, «. Any act or practice which contravenes the divine commands or the social duties. Injustice, dishonest fraud, slander, profaneness, gaming, i temperance, lewdness, are immoralities. All crimes are immoralities ; but ertme ex presses more than immorality.

    IMMOR'ALLY, adv. Wickedly; viciously in violation of law or duty.

    IMMORKi'EROUS, a. [Low L. i»morig-er.] Rude ; uncivil. Stackhouse

    IMMORIG'EROUSNESS, n. Rudeness disobedience. Bp. Taylor.

    IMMOR'TAL, o. [h. immortalis. See Mor- tal.]

    1. Having no principle of alteration or cor- ruption; exempt from death; having life or being thai shall never end ; as an m- motial soul.

    To the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the- only wise God, be honor and glory forever. 1 Tim. i.

    2. Never ending ; everlasting ; continual.

    I have Immortal longings in me. Shak.

    3. Peri)etual; having unlimited existence. A corporation is called an immortal being.

    4. Destined to live in all the ages of this world; imperishable; as tnwnortai fame So Homer is called the immortal bard.

    IMMORTAL'ITY, n. The quality of nevei ceasing to live or exist ; exemption from death and annihilation; life destined to endure without end ; as the immortality o the human soul.

    — Jesus Christ, who liatli abolished death, am hath brought life and immortality to Ugh through the go.spel. 2 Tim. i 2. Exemption from oblivion. 'd. Perpetuity ; existence not limited ; as the] ivimorlalitt/ of a corporation. J. Marshall IMMORTA'LIZA'TION, n. The act of mortalizing.


    Sp. immorlalizar.]

    V. t.

    I M M

    1. To render immortal; to make perpetual;! to cause to live or exist while the world shall endure. The Iliad has immortalized the name of Homer.

    Alexander had no Homer to immortalize Ids guilty name. T. Dawes.

    2. To exempt from oblivion ; to make per- petual.

    IMMOR'TALIZE, v. i. To become immor- tal. [JVot in use.) Popt. MMOR'TA LI/ED, pp. Rendered inunor- tal or prrpclual.

    IMMOK'T \\\\l,iZl\\\\(i,/)/)r. Making immor-

    IMxAlOl-.TALLV, adv. With endless exist- ence ; with exemption from death.

    IMMORTIFIeA'TION, n. [in and mortiji- cation.] Want of subjection of the pas- sions. Bp. Taylor.

    IMMoVABIL'ITY, n. Sledfastness that cannot be moved or shaken.

    IMMOVABLE, a. [in and movahle.] That cannot be moved from its place; as ar immovable foundation.

    2. Not to be moved from a purpose ; sted fast; fixed; that caimot be induced t< change or aher ; as a man who remain! immovable.

    'i. That cannot be altered or shaken ; imal terable ; imchangeable ; as an immovable purpose or resolution. That cannot be affected or moved ; no impressible ; not susceptible of compassion or tender feelings: unfeeling. Drydcn.

    5. Fixed ; not liable to be removed ; perma- nent in place ; as immovable estate.

    Blackstone. Ayliffe.

    0. Not to be shaken or agitated. IMMoV'ABLENESS, n. The quality of]

    being innnoviible. IMMO V'ABLY, adv. In a manner not to be

    moved from its place or purpose;

    manner not to be shaken ; unalterably ;

    unchangeably. Immovably firm to their

    dittv; immovably fixed or established. IJhMUND', n. [L. immnndus.] Unclean. IMMUNDIC ITY, «. Uncleanuess.

    Mojintagic IMMU'NITY, n. [Fr. immunite ; L. immu-

    nitas, from immunis, free, exempt ; in and

    munus, charge, office, duty.]

    1. Freedom or exemption from obligation, To be e.xenipted from observing the rites or duties of the church, is an immunity.

    i. Excini)tion from any charge, duty, office tax or imposition ; a particular privilege as the iinmunitks of the free cities of Ger- many ; the immunities of the clergy.

    3. Freedom; as an mHiwniYw from error.


    IMMURE, r. t. [Norm. CHmnmer, to wall in ; S\\\\v. inmura ; L. in and 7nurus, a wall.]

    1. To inclose within walls ; to shut up confine ; as, to imtnure nuns in cloisters. The student immures himself voluntarily

    2. To wall ; to surround with walls. Lysimachus immured it with a wall. [JVot

    usual.] Sandys.

    ,'?. To imprison. Denham.

    IMMU'RE, n. A wall. [Mitused.] Shak. IMMVRED, pp. Confined within walls. I IMMU'SI€AL, a. [in and musical.] Not [Fr. immortaliser ;\\\\\\\\ musical ; inharmonious ; not accordant ; I harsh. Bacon. Brou-n.

    I M P

    IMMi:TABIL'ITY,n. [Fr.immHtabiliU ; 1.. immutabilitas ; in anti mutabilis, mutable, from muto, to change.] Unchangeableness ; the quality that renders change or alteration impossible ; invaria- bleness. Immutability is an attribute of God. IMMUTABLE, a. [L. immulahUis ; in and

    mutubitis.] Unchangeable ; invariable ; unalterable : not capable or susceptible of change.

    That by two immutable things, in which il was impossible for God to lie, we might have slrong cou^(.lalion. Heb. vi. IMML'TABLENESS, n. Unchangeable- ness; imniiitability. IMMU'TABLY, adv. Unchangeably; unal- terably ; invariably ; in a manner that ad- mits of no change. Boyle. IMMU'TATE, a. [L.immutatus.] Unchang- ed. Lte. IMMUTA'TION, n. [L.immutatio.] Change ; alteration. More. IMP, 71. [W. imp, ashootorcion ; Sw.i/mp,

    Dan. ympc, id.] I. A son; ofl'spring; progeny.

    The lender imp was weaned. Fairfnr.

    A lad of life, an imp of fame. Shak

    3. A subaltern or puny devil.

    Hooker. Millon. IMP, V. I. [W. impiau; G. impfen, Sw. ympa, Dan. ymper, to engraft ; D. tnt, a graft ; enten, to engraft.] 1. To graft. Chaucer.

    'i. To kngtlien ; to extend or enlarge by something inserted or added ; a term originally used by falconers, who repair a hawk's wing by adding fethers. Imp out our drooping country's broken wings. ShaU. — The false north displays Her broken league to imp her serpent wings. mton This verb is, I believe, used only in poefrv 1MPA'C.\\\\BLE, a. [L. in &nA paco, to ap- pease.] Not to be appeased or quieted. Spenser.

    IMPACT', I', t. [L. impactus, from impingo :

    in and pango, to drive.] To drive close ; to press or drive firmly to- gether. Woodward. IM'PAeT, n. Touch ; impression.


    IMPACT'ED,/);). Driven hard ; made close

    by driving. Woodward.

    IMPA'INT, v. t. To paint; to adorn with

    colors. Shak.

    IMPA'IR, V. t. [Fr. empirer; Sp. empeorar ;

    Port, empeiorar, from peior, worse, Sp.

    pcor, Fr. pire, from L. pejor.]

    1. To make worse; to diminish in t^uantitr. value or excellence. An estate is tmpair'ed by extravagance or neglect. The profli- gate impairs his estate and his reputation, fmprudence impairs a man's usefulness.

    2. To weaken; to enfeeble. The constitu- tion is impaired by intemperance, by in- firmity and by age. The force of evidence may be impaired by the suspicion of inter- est in the witness.

    IMPA'IR, V. 1. To be lessened or worn out [Little used.] Spenser.

    IM'PAIR, a. [L. impar, unequal] In crystal- ography, when a different number of faces is presented by the prism, and by each summit ; but the three numbers follow no law of progression. Cleavelar^d.

    I M P

    I M P

    I M P

    IMPAIR, (


    Diminution ; decrease ; 'injury. [Mtt tised.]

    Broicn. Diminished ; injured ;

    IMPAIRED, pp


    IMPA'IRER, n. He or that whicli impairs. Warburlon.

    IMPA'IRING, ppr. Making worse ; lessen- ing; injuring; enfeebling.

    IMPAL'ATABLE, a. Unpalatable. [Uitk

    used.} L'LI

    t. [L. in and palus, a pole



    1 . To fix on a stake ; to put to death by fix- ing on an upright sharp stake. [See Em- pale.]

    3. To inclose with stakes, posts or palisades.

    3. In heraldry, to join two coats of arms pale-wise. Eiicyc.

    LMPAL'LID, V. t. To make ])allid or pale. [A'ot ill use.] Feltham.

    IMP'ALM, V. t. imp^am. [L. in and palma, the hand.]

    To grasp ; to take in the hand. J. Barlow.

    IMPALPABILITY, »i. The quality of not being palpable, or perceptible by the touch. Jorlin.

    IMPAL'PABLE, a. [Fr. from L. in and palpo, to feel. [See Palpable.]

    Not to be felt ; that cannot be perceived by the touch ; as an impalpable powder, whose parts are so minute that they can- not be distinguished by the senses, partic- larly by feeling. Encyc.

    2. Not coarse or gross. Warton. IMPAL'SY, v. t. s as i. [in and palsy.] To

    strike with palsy ; to paralize ; to deaden.

    IM'PANATE, a. [L. in and panis, bread.] Embodied in bread. Cratimtr.

    IM'PANATE, V. t. To embody with bread. fVaterland.

    IMPANA'TION, n. The supposed substan- tial presence of the body and blood of Christ, with the substance of the bread and wine, after consecration, in the eucha- rist ; a tenet of the Lutheran church ; oth- erwise called consubstantiation. Encyc.

    IMPAN'NEL, V. I. [inaxiApannel.] To write or enter the names of a jury in a list or on a piece of parchment, called a pannel; to form, complete or enroll a list of jurors in a court of justice.

    IMPAN'NELED, pp. Having the names entered in a pannel ; formed, as a jury

    IMPAN'NELING, ppr. Writing the names on a pannel ; forming, as a jury.

    IMPAR'ADISE, v.t. [\\\\x.imparadisare; ir. and paradise.]

    To put in a place of felicity ; to inake happy

    IMPAR'ADISED, pp. Placed in a condi tion resembling that of paradise ; made

    IMPAR'ALLELED, a. Unparalleled. [Ao( tised.] Burnet

    IMPARASYLLAB'IC, a. [L. in, par, and syllaba.]

    Not consisting of an equal number of sylla

    bles. An imparasyllabic noun is one which

    has not the same number of syllables in all

    the cases ; as lapis, lapidis ; viens, menlis.


    IMPARDONABLE, a. Unpardonable"


    IMPAR'ITY, n. [in and parity ; L


    1. Inequality ; disproportion. Bacon.

    2. Oddness ; indivisibility into equal parts. Brown.

    3. Difference of degree, rank or e.xcellence Sancroft.

    IMP'ARK, V. t. [in &nd park.] To inclose for a park ; to make a park by inclosure ; to sever from a common. Johnson.

    IMP'ARL, V. i. [Norm, emperler ; in and Fr. parler, to speak.]

    To hold mutual discourse ; appropriately, in law, to have hceuce to settle a lawsuit amicably ; to have delay for mutual ad- justment. Blackstone.

    IMP'ARLANCE, n. Properly, leave for mu- tual discourse ; appropriately, in law, the licence or privilege of a defendant, graiited on motion, to have delay of trial, to see if he can settle the matter amica- bly by talking with the plaintiff, and thus to determine what answer he shall make to the plaintiff's action. Hence,

    2. The continuance of a cause till another day, or from day to day. Blackstone.

    IMPARSONEE', a. A parson imparsonee, is a |)arson presented, instituted and induct- ed into a rectory, and in full possession.


    IMP' ART, V. t. [L. impertior ; in and partio, to divide ; from pars, a part.]

    1. To give, grant or communicate ; to be- stow on another a share or portion of something ; as, to impart a portion of pro visions to the poor.

    2. To grant ; to give ; to confer ; as, to im part honor or favor.

    i. To communicate the knowledge of some

    thing ; to make known ; to show by words

    or tokens.

    Gentle lady,

    When first I did impart my love to you —

    Shale. Milton. IMPORTANCE, n. Communication of a

    share ; grant. IMPARTA'TION, n. The act of imparting

    or conferring. [JVot much used.]

    Chauncey. IMP'ARTED, j);j. Communicated ; granted ;

    conferred. IMP^ARTIAL, a. [in and partial, from paH,

    L. pars.]

    1. Not (tartial ; not biased in favor of one party more than another; indifferent; un prejudiced ; disinterested ; as an impartial judge or arbitrator.

    2. Not favoring one party more than other; equitable; just; as an impartial judgment or decision ; an impartial opin- ion.

    IMP-ARTIALIST, n. One who is impar- tial. [Little used.] Boyle.

    IMPARTIALITY, n. imparshality. Indif- ference of opinion or judgment ; freedom from bias in favor of one side or party more than another ; disinterestedness. Impartiality is indispensable to an upright judge.

    2. Equitableness ; justice ; as the impartial ity of a decision.

    IMP>ARTIALLY, adv. Without bias of judgment; without prejudice; without in clination to favor one party or side more than another ; equitably ; justly.

    IMPARTIBIL'ITY, n. the quality of not being subject to partition.

    2. The quality of being capable of being communicated.

    IMPARTIBLE, a. [Sp. impariible ; in and partible.]

    Not partible or subject to partition ; as an impartible estate. Blackstone.

    2. [from impart.] That may be imparted, conferred, bestowed or communicated.


    IMP'ARTING,;)pr. Communicating; grant- ing; bestowing.

    IMPARTMENt, n. The act of imparting ; the communication of knowledge; disclo- sure. Shak.

    IMP'ASSABLE, a. [in and passable. See Pass.]

    That cannot be passed ; not admitting a pas- sage ; as an impassable road, mountain or gulf Milton. Temple.

    IMP'ASSABLENESS, n. The state of be- ing impassable.

    IMP'ASSABLY, adv. In a manner or de- gree that prevents passing, or the power of passing.

    IMPASSIBILITY, ) „ [from impaasi-

    IMPAS'SIBLENESS, $ "• ble.]

    Exemption from pain or suffering ; insus- ceptibility of injury from external things. Dryden.

    IMPAS'SIBLE, a. [Fr. impassible ; Sp. m- pasible; L. impassibitis, from passus, palior, to suffer.]

    Incapable of pain, passion or suffering; that cannot be affected with pain or uneasi- ness. Whatever is destitute of sensation is impassible.

    Though naked and impassible, depart.


    IMPAS'SION, V. t. [in and passion.] To move or affect strongly with passion.

    IMPAS'SIONATE, v. 't. To affect power- fully. More.

    IMPAS'SIONATE, a. Strongly affected.

    2. Without passion or feeling. Burton.

    IMPAS'SIONED, a. Actuated or agitated by passion.

    i. Animated ; excited ;

    varmed ; as an


    ling the feelings ned oiator.

    3. Animated ; expressive of passion or ar- dor ; as an impassioned discourse.

    IMPAS'SIVE, a. [L. in &nd passus, patior. suffer.]

    Not susceptible of pain or suffering ; as the impassive air ; impassive ice.

    Dryden. Pope.

    IMPAS'SIVELY, adv. Without sensibility to pain or suffering.

    IMPAS'SIVENESS, n. The state of being insusceptible of pain. Mountagu.

    IMPASSIVITY, n. The quality of being

    insusceptible of feeling, pain or suffering.

    Pausanias, Trans

    IMPASTA'TION, n. [in and paste.] The mixtion of various materials of different colors and consistences, baked or united by a cement, and hardened by the air or by fire. Chambers.

    IMPA'STE, v.t. [Fr.empater; inaiiApdte, ])aste.]

    1. To knead ; to make into paste.

    2. In painting, to lay on colors thick and bold.

    IMPA'STED, a. Concreted, as into pa*te. Shak.

    r M p

    % Pasted over ; covered with paste, or with thick paint.

    IMPAT'IBLE, a. [L. {mpatibilis.] Intolera- ble ; that cannot be borne.

    IMPATIENCE, n. [Fr. ; L. impalitntia, from impaliens; in auA palior, to sufler.]

    Uneasiness under pain or suffering ; the not enduring pain with composure ; restless- ness occasioned by suffering positive evil, or tlie absence of expected good. Impa- tience is noirage, nor absolute inability to bear pain ; but it implies want of fortitude, or of its exercise. It usually springs from irritability of temper.

    IMPA'TIENT, a. [L. impaliens.'] Uneasy or fretful under suffering ; not bearing pain with composure ; not enduring evil with- out fretfulness, uneasiness, and a desire or effort to get rid of the evil. Young men are impatient of restraint. We are all apt to be impatient under wrongs ; but it is a christian duty not to be impatient in sick- ness, or under any afflictive dispensation of Providence.

    2. Not suffering quietly ; not enduring.

    Fame, impatient of extremes, decays Not more by envy than excess of praise.


    3. Hasty ; eager ; not enduring delay. Tlie impatient man will not wait for informa- tion ; he often acts with precipitance. Be not impatient for the return of spring.

    4. Not to be borne ; as impatient smart.


    This word is followed by of, at, for, or under. We are impatient of restraint, or q/" wrongs; impatient at the delay of ex- pected good ; impatient for the return of a friend, or for the arrival of the mail ; im- patient under evils of any kind. The proper use of these particles can be learnt only by practice or observation.

    IMPA'TIENT, n. One who is restless un- der suffering. [Unusual.]

    IMPA'TIENTLY, adv. With uneasiness or restlessness ; as, to bear disappointment

    I M P

    impatiently. 3. Wit

    lith eager desire causing uneasiness

    as, to wait impatiently for the arrival of

    one's friend. 3. Passionately; ardently. Clarendon.

    IMPATRONIZA'TION, n. Absolute seign-

    ory or possession. Cotgrave.

    IMPAT'RONIZE, i-. t. [Fr. impalroniser.]

    To gain to one's self the power of any



    IMPAWN', I', i. [in miiX paum.] To pawn ; to jdedge ; to deposit as security. Shak.

    IMPE'ACH, v.t. [Fr. emplchtr; Arm. «m- peich, ampechein ; Port. Sp. empachar ; It. impacdare ; to hinder, to stop. It signifies also in Portuguese, to surfeit, to overload, to glut. It belongs to the family of pack;

    L. pango, pactus ; Ar. tjCj bakka, to press or compress. Class Eg. No. 18. 20. 61. The literal of impeach is to thrust or send against ; hence, to hinder, to stop.] 1. To hinder ; to impede. This sense is found in our early writers.

    These ungracious praclices of his sons did impeach his journey to th» Holy Land.


    A defluxlon on njy tliroal impeached my !rancc. fluu-ell.

    [This appliculion of the word is obsolete.]

    2. To ac(•u^e : to charge with a crime or misdemeanor ; but appropriately, to exhibit charges of maladministration against t public ofiiter before a competent tribunal that is, to send or put on, to load. The word is now restricted to accusations made by authority ; as, to impeach a judge. [See Impeachment.]

    3. To accuse ; to censure ; to call in ques- tion ; as, to impeach one's motives or con- duct.

    4. To call to account ; to charge as answer- able.

    IMPE'ACH, n. Hinderancc. Obs.

    IMPE'ACIIABLE, a. Liable to accusation chargeable with a crime ; accusablc ; cen- surable.

    2. Liable to be called in question ; account- able.

    Owners of lands in fee simple are not im- peachable for waste. Z. Swijl.

    IMPE'ACHED, pp. Hindered. Obs.

    2. Accused ; charged with a crime, misde- meanor or wrong; censured.

    The first donee in tail may commit waste, without being impeached. Z. SwiJl.

    IMPE'ACHER, ?i. An accuser by authority ; one who calls in question.

    IMPEACHING, ppr. Hindering. Obs.

    2. Accusing by authority ; calling in (|ues- tion the purity or rectitude of conduct or motives.

    IMPEACHMENT, n. Hinderance; impedi- ment ; stop ; obstruction. Obs.

    Spenser. Shak.

    2. An accusation or charge brought against a public officer for maladministration ii his office. In Great Britain, it is the priv ilege or right of the house of connnons to impeach, and the right of the house of lords to. try and determine impeachments, In the U. States, it is the right of the house of representatives to impeach, and of the senate to try and determine impeach- ments. In Great Britain, the house of; peers, and in the U. States, the senate of the United States, and the senates in the several states, are the high courts of im- peachment.

    3. The act of impeaching.

    4. Censure ; accusation ; a calling in ques- tion the purity of motives or the rectitude of conduct, &c. Tliis declaration is no impeachment of his motives or of his judg- ment.

    5. The act of calling to account, as for aste.

    6. The state of being liabje to account, as for waste.

    IMPEARL, v.t. imperV. [in anA pearl] To form in the resemblance of pearls. — Dew-drops which the sun Impearls on every leaf, and every flower.

    Milton 2. To decorate with pearls, or with things resembling pearls.

    'I'he dews of the morning impearl every

    thorn. Digby.

    IMPECCABIL'ITY, ? [See Impeccable.]

    IMPE€'€ANCY, J "• The quality of not

    being hable to sin ; e.xemplion from sin,

    error or offense. Pope.

    I M P

    IMPE€'€.\\\\BL£, a. [Sp. imKcoWe ; Fr. i,/i-

    peccable; in and Sp. pecable, Fr. peccabU,

    from L. pecco, to err, to sin.] Not liable to sin ; not subject to sin ; exempt

    from the possibility of sinuing. No mere

    man is impeccable. IMPEDE, I', t. [Sp. impedir ; It. impedire ;

    L. impedio; su|iposed to be compounded

    of in and pedes, feet, to catch or entangle

    the feet.] To hinder; to stop in progress; to obstruct ;

    as, to impede the progress of troops. IMPE'UEI), pp. Hindered; stopped; ob-

    IM PEDIMENT, n. [L. impidimentum.) That wliicli hinders progress or motion ; hinderance ; obstruction ; obstacle ; appli- cable to every subject, physical or moral. Bad roads are impediments in marching and travelling. Idleness and dissipation are impediments to impro>ement. The cares of life ate impediments to the prog- ress of vital religion.

    3. That which prevents distinct articulation ; as an impediment in speech.

    IMPED'BIENT, V. t. To impede. [.Yot m use.] Bp. Reynolds.

    IMPEDIMENT'AL, a. Hindering; ob- slructiuff. Mounlagu.

    IMPE'DING, ppr. Hindering ; stopping ; obstructing.

    IIM'PEDITE, V. t. To impede. [jYol in use.]

    IMPED ITIVE, o. Causing hinderance.

    Sanderson. MPEL',r. «. [Sp. i-m;>*r; It. impeUere ; L. impello ; in and pello, to drive.]

    To drive or urge forward ; to press on ; to excite to action or to move forward, by the application of physical force, or moral suasion or necessity. A ball is impelled by the force of powder ; a ship is impelled by wind; a man may be itnpelled by hun- ger or a regard to his safety ; motives of policy or of safety impel nations to con- federate.

    The surge impelled me on a craggy coast.

    Pope. .4nd several men impel to sevctal ends.


    IMPEL'LED, pp. Driven forward ; urged on ; moved by any force or power, phys- ical or moral.

    IMPEL LENT, n. A power or force that drives forward ; impulsive power.


    IMPEL'LER, n. He or that which impels.

    IMPEL'LING, ppr. Driving forward; urg- ing ; pressing.

    IMPEN', I'./, [in and pen.] To i>en ; to shut or inclose in a narrow place. Fellham.

    IMPEND', I', t. [L.impendeo; in and pendeo, to hang.]

    L To hang over ; to be suspended above ; to threaten. A dark cloud impends over the land.

    Destruction sure o'er all your heads impends. Pope.

    2. To be near ; to be approaching and ready to fall on.

    It expresses our deep sense of God's impend- ing wrath. Smalridge. Nor bear advices of impending foes. Pope

    IMPEND'ENCE, } The state of hanging

    IMPEND'ENCY, ^ over ; near approach ; a menacing attitude. Hammond


    I M P

    1 M P

    IMPEND'ENT, a. Hanging over; iiijiiii- iient ; threatening ; pressing closely ; as an impendent evil. Hale.

    IMPEND'ING, ppr. Hanging over ; ap- proaching near ; threatening.

    IMPENETRABILITY, n. [from impene- trable.]

    1. The quality of being impenetrable.

    2. In philosophy, that quality of matter which prevents two bodies from occupying the same space at the same time. Good.

    .3. Insusceptibility of intellectual impression, Johnso7i.

    IMPEN'ETRABLE, a. [h. impenetrahilis . in and penetrabilis, from penetro, to pen- etrate.]

    1, That cannot be penetrated or pierced not admihing the passage of other bodies ; as an impenetrahle shield.

    3. Not to be aft'ected or moved ; not admit- ting impressions on the mind. The hard- ened sinner remains impenetrable to the admonitions of the gospel.

    3. Not to be entered by the sight ; as impen etrable darkness. Hence,

    4. Not to be entered and viewed by the eye of the intellect ; as impenetrable obscurity



    bility, which see.

    IMPEN'ETRABLY,arfi>. With solidity admits not of being penetrated.

    2. With hardness that admits not of impr ion ; as impenetrably dull. Pope.

    I3IPEN'1TENCE, ) Fr. impenitence ; Sp,

    IMPEN'ITENCY, ^ "' impenitencia ; It. im penitcnza ; L. in and panitens, from pieni teo, to repent, pcena, pain.]

    Want of penitence or repentance ; abseno of contrition or sorrow for sin ; obduracy ; hardness of heart. Final impenitence dooms the sinner to inevitable punish- ment.

    He will advance from one degree of impeni. fence to another. Rogers

    IMPEN'ITENT, a. [Fr. ; in and penitent, supra.]

    Not penitent ; not repenting of sin ; not con- trite; obdurate; of a hard heart. They died Impenitent. .Milton.

    IMPEN'ITENT, n. One who does not re- ]ient; a hardened sinner.

    IJIPEN'ITENTLY, adv. Without repent- ance or contrition for sin ; obdurately.

    IMPEN'NOUS, a. [in and pennous.] Want- ing wings.

    IMPE'OPLE, V. t. To form into a commu- nity. [See People.] Beaum.

    IM'PERATE, a. [L. imperatus, impero, to command.]

    Done by impulse or direction of the mind [JVot med.] South. Hale.

    IMPER'ATIVE, a. [Fr. imperatif; L. perativv.i, from impero, to comtnand. See Empire.]

    1. Comm.inding; exjnessive of command containing positive command, as distin guished from advisoiy, or discretionary. The orders are imperative.

    2. In grammar, the imperative mode of a verb is that which expresses command entreaty, advice or exhortation ; as, go. write, attend.

    IMPER'ATIVELY, adv. With command authoritatively.

    IMPERATO'RIAL, a. Commanding. [JVot in use.] JVoiris.

    IMPERCEP'TIBLE, a. [Fr. ; in and per- ■eptible.]

    1. Not to be perceived ; not to be known or discovered by the senses. We say a thing is imperceptible to the touch, to the eye or sight, to the ear, to the taste or smell. Hence,

    2. Very small; fine; minute in dimensions; or very slow in motion or progress ; as, the growth of a plant or animal is imper- ceptible ; it is too slow to be perceived by the eye.

    IMPERCEP'TIBLE, n. That which can- not be perceived by the senses on account ofitssmallness. [Little used.] Taller.

    IMPERCEP'TIBLENESS, n. The quality of being imperceptible. Hale.

    IMPERCEPTIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be perceived. Addison.

    IMPERCIP'IENT, a. Not perceiving or having power to perceive. Baxter

    IMPER'DIBLE, a. Not destructible. [Abi a legitimate imrd.]

    IMPER'FE€T, a. [L. impcrfectus ; in anA pcrfectus, finished, perfect ; perjicio, to per- fect ; /lerand/acio, to make.]

    \\\\. Not finished ; not complete. The viovX' or design is imperfect.

    2. Defective ; not entire, sound or whole wanting a part ; impaired. The writings of Livy are imperfect.

    3. Not perfect in intellect; liable to err; as men are imperfect ; our minds and under standings are imperfect.

    4. Not perfect in a moral view ; not accord , ing to the laws of God, or the rules ofi right. Our services and obedience are imperfect.

    In grammar, the imperfect tense denotes an action in time past, then present, but not finished.

    6. In music, incomplete ; not having all the

    accessary sounds ; as an imperfect chord.

    An imperfect interval is one which does not

    contain its complement of simple sounds.


    IMPERFECTION, n. [Fr. from L. impe'r- fectio, supra.]

    Defect ; fault ; the want of a part or of some-] thing necessary to complete a thing;] equally applicable to physical or 7norali subjects. When fruit fails to come to ma- turity, and after it begins to decay, we de-| nominate the defect, an imperfection. Laws sometimes fail of the intended effect, ei- ther from their imperfection, or from the imperfection of the administration. Men are all chargeable with imperfections, both in character and in conduct.

    IMPER'FE€TLY, adv. In an imperfect manneror degree ; not fully; not entirely; not completely ; not in the best manner;! not without fault or failure.

    IMPER'FE€TNESS, n. The state of be ing imperfect.

    IMPER'FORABLE, a. [infra.] That can not be perforated or bored through.

    IMPER'FORATE, a. [L. in and perforatus, perforo.]

    Not perforated or pierced ; having no open- ing. Shnrpe.

    IMPERFORATED, a. Not perforated.


    2. Having i


    .S'(V J. Ba7iks

    IMPERFORA'TION, n. The stnte of .h.

    mg not perforated, or without any apt >

    ture. IMPE'RIAL, a. [Fr. froffl L. imperial,

    from impero, to command. See Emperor.

    1. Pertaining to an empire, or to an empe- ror ; as an imperial government ; an impe- rial diadem ; imperial authority or edict ; imperial power or sway.

    2. Royal ; belonging to a monarch ; as an imperial palace ; imperial arts. Dryden.

    3. Pertaining to royalty ; denoting sove-


    4. Commanding ; maintaining supremacy ; as the imperial democracy of Athens.


    Imperial chamber, the sovereign court of the German empire. Encyc.

    Imperial city, a city in Germany which has no head but the emperor.

    Imperial diet, an assembly of all the states of the German empire. Encyc.

    IMPERIALIST, n. One who belongs to an emperor ; a subject or soldier of an em- peror. The denomination, imperialist.?, is often given to the troops or armies of the emperor of Austria.

    IMPERIAL'ITY, n. Imperial power.

    2. The right of an emperor to a share of the produce of mines, &c.

    The late empress having by ukases of grace, relinquished her imperidlities on the private mines, viz. the tenths of the copper, iron, sil- ver and gold — Tooke.

    IMPE'RIALLY, adv. In a royal manner.

    IMPER'IL, V. t. [in and peril.] To bring danger. Spenser.

    IMPE'RIOUS, a. [L. imperiosus ; It. Sp. imperioso ;Fr. imperieux. See Imperial.]

    1. Commanding ; dictatorial ; haughty ; ar- rogant ; overbearing ; domineering ; as an imperious tyrant ; an imperious dicta- tor ; an imperious man ; an imperious tem- per. More. Shah.

    2. Commanding ; indicating an imperious temper ; authoritative ; as imperious words.


    3. Powerful ; overbearing ; not to be oppo- sed by obstacles ; as a man of a vast and imperious mind. Tillotson.

    4. Commanding; urgent; pressing; as im- perious love ; imperious circumstances ; im- perious appetite. Dryden. S. S. Smith.

    5. Authoritative ; commanding with right- ful authority.

    The commandment high and imperious in its claims. D. A. Clark.

    IMPE'RIOUSLY, adv. With arrogance of command ; with a haughty air of author- ity ; in a domineering manner. South.

    2. With urgency or force not to he opposed.

    IMPE'RIO'USNESS, n. Authority ; air of command. South.

    2. Arrogance of command ; haughtiness.

    Tmperiousness ami severity is an ill way of treating men who have reason to guide them. Locke.

    IMPER'ISHABLE, o. [Fi: imperissable ; in and peiish.]

    Not subject to decay ; not liable to perish : indestructible ; enduring permanently ; as an imperishable monument ; imperishable renown.

    Elegant discourses on virtue — will not sup- ply the consolations ol imperishable hope.


    I M P


    IJIPER'ISHABLENESS, n. The quality of being iniperislmble.

    IMPER'MANENCE, n. Want of perma- nence or continued duration.

    tV. Mountague.

    IMPEll'MANENT, a. [in and permanent.] Not permanent ; not enduring. Gregory.

    IMPERMEABIL'ITY, n. The quality of being impermeable by a fluid.

    Cavallo. Jlsiat. Res.

    IMPER'MEABLE, a. [L. in and permeo; per and meo, to pass.]

    Not to be passed through the pores by a fluid; as iw»)f rHieai/e lether.

    IMPER'SONAL, a. [Fr. impersonnel; L. impersonalis ; in and personalis, from per- sona. See Person.]

    In grammar, an impersonal verb is one which is not employed with the .first and second persons, / and thou or you, we and ye, for nominatives, and which has no variation of ending to express them, but is used only with the termination of the third person shigular, with it for a nominative in Eng- lish, and without a nominative in Latin ; as, it rains ; it becomes us to be modest ; L. tcedet ; libet ; pugnatur.

    IMPERSONALITY, n. Indistinction of] personality. Draper

    IMPER'SONALLY, adv. In the manner of an impersonal verb.

    IMPERSONATE, v. t. To personify.


    IMPERSONATED, a. Made persons of. [See Personated.] Warton.

    IMPERSPIeU'ITY, n. Want of perspicui- ty, or clearness to the mind.

    IMPERSPl€'UOUS, a. {in a.nA perspicuous.] Not perspicuous ; not clear ; obscure.


    IMPERSUA'SIBLE, a. [L. in and persua- sibilis. See Persuade.]

    Not to be moved by persuasion ; not yield- ing to arguments. Decay of Piety.

    IMPER'TINENCE, ? , [Fr. impeHinencc,

    IMPER'TINENCY, 5 "• from L. impeH' nens; in and pertxnens, pertineo, to pei tain ; per and teneo, to hold.]

    1. That which is not pertinent; that which does not belong to the subject in hand that which is of no weight. Bacon.

    2. The state of not being pertinent.

    3. Folly ; rambling thought. [Little used.]


    4. Rudeness ; improper intrusion ; interfer- ence by word or conduct which is not con- sistent" with the age or station of the per- son. [This is the most usual sense.]

    We should avoid the vexation and imperti- nence of pedants. Swijl

    5. A trifle ; a thing of little or no value.

    There are many subtile impertinencies leamt in schools — TVatts.

    IMFER'TINENT, a. [L. impeHinens, su- pra.]

    I. Not pertaining to the matter in band ; of no weight ; having no bearing on the sub

    ' ject ; as an impertinent remark.

    Hooker. Tillotson.

    .2. Rude ; intrusive ; meddling with that which does not belong to the person ; as an impertinent coxcomb.

    3. Trifling ; foolish ; negligent of the pres- ent purpose. Pope.

    Vol. I.

    IMPERTINENT, n. An intruder ; a med- dler ; one who interferes in what does not belong to him. L'Estrange.

    IMPERTINENTLY, adv. Without rela- tion to the matter in hand.

    2. Officiously; intrusively; rudely.

    IMPERTRANSIBIL'ITY, n. The quality of not being capable of being passed through. Hale.

    IMPERTRAN'SIBLE, a. [L. in and per- Iranseo ; per and transeo, to pass over or through ; trans and eo, to go.] Not to be passed through. [Little used.]

    IMPERTURBABLE, a. [L. in aud;)ert«r- bo, to disturb ; per and turbo.]

    That cannot be disturbed or agitated ; per- manently quiet. Encyc.

    IMPERTURBA'TION, n. Freedom fr. agitation of mind ; calmness.

    W. Mountague.

    IMPERTURB'ED, a. Undisturbed. [.Yot in use.] Bailey.

    IPER'VIOUS, a. [L. imptrvius; in and pervius, passable ; per and via, way.]

    L Not to be penetrated or passed through ; impenetrable ; as an impervious gulf; an impe7-vious forest.

    2. Not penetrable ; not to be pierced by a pointed instrument ; as an imperviou shield.

    3. Not penetrable by light ; not permeabli to tluids. Glass is pervious to light, but imperviotis to water. Paper is impemous to light. In the latter sense only, imper- vious is synonymous with impermeable.

    IMPERVIOUSLY, adv. In a manner tc prevent passage or penetration.

    IMPER'VIOUSNESS, n. The state of not idmitting a passage.

    IMPETIG'INOUS, a. [L. impetigo, a ring worm.]

    Resembling the ring-worm or tetters ; cov ered with scales or scabs ; scurfy.

    IM'PETRABLE, a. [Sec Impetrate.] That may be obtained by petition.

    IMPETRATE, v. t. [L. impetro.] To ob tain bv request or entreaty. Usher.

    IMPETRA'TION, 71. The act of obtaining by prayer or petition. Herbert.

    2. In law, the preobtaining of benefices fron the church of Rome, which belonged to the disposal of the king and other lay pat- rons of the realm. Encyc.

    IM'PETRATIVE, a. Obtaining ; tending to obtain by entreaty. Bp. Hall.

    IM'PETRATORY, a. Beseeching; con- taining entreaty. Taylor.

    IMPETUOS'ITY, n. [See Impetnotts.] A rushing with violence and great force ; fury: violence.

    2. Vehemence; furiousness of temper.

    IMPETUOUS, a. [Fr. impetueux ; L. impetuostis, from impetus, impeto ; in and peto, to urge, to rush. See Bid.]

    1. Rushing with great force and violence ; moving rapidly ; furious; forcible; fierce; raging ; as an impetuous wind ; an impetu- ous torrent.

    2. Vehement of mind ; fierce ; hasty ; pas

    IMPET'UOUSNESS, n. A driving or rush- ing with haste and violence ; furiousness ; fury ; violence.

    2. Vehemence of temper ; violence.

    IM'PETUS, n. [L. supra.] Force of mo. tion ; the force with which any body is driven or impelled.

    2. The force with which one body in motion strikes another.

    IMPIC'TURED, a. Painted; impressed.


    IMPIER. [See Umpire.]

    IMPIERCEABLE, a. impers'able. [in and

    pierce.] Not to be pierced or penetrated.


    IMPIETY, ji. [Fr. impiete ; L. impietas; in and pietas, pius.]

    ]l. Ungodliness ; irreverence towards the Supreme Being ; contempt of the divine character and authority ; neglect of the divine precepts. These constitute diflfer- ent degrees of impiety.

    2. Any act of wickedness, as blasphemy and scoffing at the Supreme Being, or at his authority ; profaneness. Any express- ion of contempt for God or his laws, con- stitutes an impiety of the highest degree of criminality. Disobedience to the diviue commands or neglect of duty implies con- tempt for his authority, and is therefore impiety. Impiety, when it expresses tho temper or disposition, has no plural ; but it is otherwise when it expresses an act of wickedness, for all such acts are impieties.

    IMPIG'NORATE, v. t. To pledge or pawn. [JVot in use.]

    IMPIGNORA'TION, n. The act of pawn- ing. [JVot in use.]

    IMPIN6E, V. i. impinj'. [L. impingo ; in and pango, to strike. ' See PackT]

    To fall against ; to strike ; to dash against ; to clash upon.

    The cause of reflection is not the impinging of light on tlie solid or impervious parts of bod- ies. J\\\\~ewton.

    |IMPIN6'ING, ppr. Striking against.

    IMPIN'GUATii, V. t. [L. in and pinguis, fat.] To fatten ; to make fat. [JVb

    sionatL> : temper.

    liolent ; as a man of impetu

    IMPETUOUSLY, adv. Violently ; fierce ly ; forcibly ; with haste and force.



    IM'PIOUS, a. [L. impim; in and pius, pious.]

    1. Irreverent towards the Supreme Being; wanting in veneration for God and his authority; irreligious ; profane. Thescof-

    I fer at God and bis authority is impious. The profane swearer is impious.

    When vice prevails and itnpious men bear

    sway. The post of honor is a private station.


    2. Irreverent towards God ; proceeding from or manifesting a contempt for the Supreme Being ; tending to dishonor God or his laws, and bring them into contempt; as an impious deed ; impious language ; im- pious writings.

    IM' PIOUSLY, adv. With irreverence for God, or contempt for his authority ; pro- fanely ; wickedly.

    I.AIl'lnUSNESS, n. Impiety; contempt of (■'

    LMl'LAfABIL'ITY, ?. [from implaca-

    IMPLA CABLENESS, S We.] Thequal- ity of not being appeasable ; inexorablc- ness ; irreconcilable enmity or anger.

    I M P

    I M P

    I M P

    IMPLA'€ABLE, a. [Fr. from I., implacab- ilis ; in and placabilis, from ptaco, to ap- pease.]

    1. Not to be appeased ; that can not be pa- cified and rendered peaceable ; inexora- ble ; stubborn or constant in enmity ; as an implacable jirince.

    2. Not to he appeased or subdued ; as impla- cable anger ; implacable enmity, malice or revenge.

    IMPLACABLY, adv. With enmity not to be pacified or subdued ; inexorably ; as, to hate a person implacably.

    IMPLANT', V. t. [in and plant, L. planto.] To set, plant or infix for the purpose of growth ; as, to implant the seeds of virtue, or the principles of knowledge in the minds of youth ; to implant grace in the heart. [It is now seldom or never used in its literal sense for setting plants or seeds in the earth.]

    IMPLANTATION, n. The act of setting or infixing in the mind or heart, as princi- ples or first rudiments. Broum.

    IMPLANT'ED, pp. Set ; infixed in the mind, as principles oi- rudiments.

    IMPLANT'ING, ppr. Setting or infixing in the mind, as principles.

    IMPLAUSIBIL'ITY, n. [from implausible.] The quality of not being plausible or spe- cious.

    IMPLAUS'IBLE, a. s as i. [in and plausible.]

    Not specious ; not wearing the appearance

    of truth or credibility, and not likely to

    be believed : as an implausible harangue.


    IMPLAUSIBLY, adv. Without an appear- ance of probability.

    IMPLE'ACH, V. t. [in and pleach.] To in- terweave. [JVot in rise.] Shak.

    IMPLE'AD, J', t. [in and plead.] To insti- tute and prosecute a suit against one in court; to sue at law. The corporation shall have power to plead and be impleaded. Let them hnplead one another. Acts six.

    IMPLE'ADED, pp. Prosecuted ; sued ; subject to answer to a suit in court.

    IMPLE'ADER, n. One who prosecutes an- other.

    IMPLE'ADINO, ppr. Prosecuting a suit.

    IMPLE'ASING, a. Unpleasing. [jXot in use.]

    IMPLEDgE, v. t. To pawn. [jVo< used.]

    IM'PLEMENT, n. [Low L. implementum, from impleo, to fill ; in and pleo.]

    Whatever may supply wants ; ]iarticularly, as now used, tools, utensils, vessels, instru- ments ; the tools or instruments of labor ; the vessels used in a kitchen, &c. ; as the implements of trade or of husbandry. [It is a word of very extensive signification.]

    IMPLE'TION, n. [L. impleo,lo fill ; in and pleo.] The act of filling; the state of be- ing full.

    Theimpletlon is cither in simple or compoitnd flowers. The nnpleiiun of simple flowers, i; by the increase either of the petals, or of the nectary. Lee

    IM'PLEX, a. [L. implexus. See Implicate.' Infolded ; intricate ; entangled ; compli- cated.

    Every poem is simple or implex ; it is calleil

    simple, when there is no change of fortune in it ;

    implex, when the fortune of the chief actor

    changes from bad to good, or from good to bad


    IMPLEX'ION, n. [See Implicate.] The act of infolding or involving; the state of be- ing involved ; involution. [Little used.]


    IM'PLI€ATE, V. t. [Fr. impliquer ; It. im- plicare ; L. implico, implicatns ; in and plica, to fold, Gr. TfKixu, W. plygu.]

    1. To infold; to involve; to entangle. [Sel- dom used in its literal sense.] Boyle.

    2. To involve ; to bring into coimection with ; also, to show or prove to be con- nected or concerned ; as, the evidence does not implicate the accused person in this conspiracy.

    IMPLICATED, /(p. Infolded; involved.

    2. Involved ; connected ; concerned ; pro- ved to be concerned or to have had a part. Twenty persons are implicated in the plo

    IMPLICATING, ppr. Involving ; proving

    to be concerned. IMPLICA'TION, n. [L. implicatio, supra.] I The act of infolding or involving.

    3. Involution ; entanglement.

    Three principal causes of firmness are, the grossncss, the quiet contact, and the implication of the component parts. Boyle.

    3. An implying, or that which is implied, but not expressed ; a tacit inference, or some- thing fairly to be understood, though not expressed in words.

    The doctors arc, by implication, of a differ- ent opinion. Jlyhffe. IMPLICATIVE, a. Having implication. IM'PLICATIVELY, adv. By implication.


    IMPLICIT, a. [L. implicitns, from implico, supra.]

    Infolded ; entangled ; complicated. In his woolly fleece I cling implicit. [^Little itsed.'\\\\ Pope.

    2. Implied ; tacitly comprised ; fairly to be understood, though not expressed in words ; as an implicit contract or agree- ment.

    3. Resting on another ; trusting to the word or authority of another, without doubting or reserve, or without e.xamining into the truth of the thing itself Thus we give implicit credit or confidence to the decla- rations of a person of known veracity. We receive with implicit faith whatever God has clearly revealed.

    IMPLIC'ITLY, adv. By inference deduci- ble, but not expressed in words: virtual- ly ; in reality, but not in name.

    He that denies the providence of God, impli- citly denies his existence. Bentley.

    2. By connection with something else ; dependently ; with unreserved confi- dence ; without doubting, or without ex- amining evidence. We are disposed to believe implicitly what a man of veracity testifies.

    Learn not to dispute the methods of his prov- idence, but humbly and implicitly to acquiesce in and adore them. Mtcrbury.

    IMPLICITNESS, n. The state of being implicit ; the state of trusting without re- serve.

    IMPLI'ED, pp. [See Imply.] Involved ; contained virtually, though not express- ed ; as an implied promise.

    IMPLI'EDLY, adv. By implication.

    IMPLORA'TION, n. Earnest supplication. Bp. Hall.

    IMPLO'RE, V. t. [Fr. implorer ; Sp. implo- rar ; It. implorare ; L. imploro ; in and ploro, to cry out.]

    1. To call upon or for, in supplication ; to beseech ; to pray earnestly ; to petition with urgency ; to entreat ; as, to implore the forgiveness of sins ; to impiore mercy.

    Imploring all the gods that reign above.


    2. To ask earnestly ; to beg. IMPLO'RE, v.i. To entreat; to beg. IMPLO'RE, n. Earnest supplication. [JVot

    used.] Spenser.

    IMPLORED, pp. Earnestly supplicated; be.

    IMPLORER, n. One who prays earnestly.

    IMPLO'RING, ppr. Beseeching; entreat- ing ; praying earnestly.

    IMPLU'MED, I „ Having no plumes or

    IMPLU'MOUS, ^ "• fethers. Johtison.

    IMPLUNgE, I', t. implunj'. To plunge ; to inunerse. Fuller.

    IMPLY', V. I. [Fr. impliquer; Sp.implicar; It. implicare ; L. implico ; in aud plico, to fold. See Implicate.]

    1. Literally, to infold or involve ; to wrap up. Obs. Spenser.

    2. To involve or contain in substance or es- sence, or by fair inference, or by construc- tion of law, when not expressed in words.

    WTicre a malicious act is proved, a malicious intention is implied. Sherlock.

    When a man employs a laborer to work for him, or an agent to transact business for him, the act of hiring implies an obligation, and a promise that he shall pay him a reasonable re- ward for his services. Contracts arc express or implied ; express contracts are those in which an agreement or promise is expressed by words or in writing; implied contracts are such as arise from the presumption of law, or the jus- tice and reason of the transaction.


    I3IPLY'ING, ppr. Involving ; containing

    in substance, or by fair inference, or by

    construction of law.

    IMPOCK'ET, V. t. To pocket. [ATot used.]

    IMPOIS'ON, V. t. s as :. [Fr. empoisonner.

    See Poison.]

    1. To poison ; to impregnate with poison ; to corrupt with poison.

    2. To embitter; to impair; as, grief impoi- sons the pleasures of life.

    3. To kill with poison. [Rare.] Shak. IMPOIS'ONED, pp. Poisoned ; corrupted;


    IMPOIS'ONING, ppr. Poisoning ; corrupt- ing ; embittering.

    IMPOIS'ONMENT, n. The act of poison- ■ g. Pope.

    IM'POLARLY, adv. Not according to the direction of the poles. [Mot tised.]


    IMPOL'ICY, n. [in and policy.] luexpedi- ence ; unsuitableness to the end proposed; bad policy ; defect of wisdom ; a word ap- plied to private as well as public affairs.


    IMPOLI'TE, a. [in anA polite.] Not of pol- ished manners ; unpolite ; uncivil ; rude in manners.

    IMPOLITELY, adv. Uncivilly.

    IMPOLI'TENESS, n. InciviUty ; want ol good manners. Chesterfield.

    IMPOLITIC, a. Not wise; devising and pursuing measures adapted to injure the

    I M P

    I M P


    public interest ; as an impolitic prince or minister.

    2. Unwise ; adapted to injure the public in terest ; as an impolitic law, measure or scheme.

    3. Not wise in private concerns ; pursuing measures ill suited to promote i)rivate welfare ; not prutlent.

    4. Not suited to promote private interest. IMPOLIT'leAL, for impolitic, is obsolete. IMPOL'ITICLY, adv. Not wisely; no

    with due forecast and prudence ; in i manner to injure public or private inter est.

    IMPONDERABILITY, n. Absolute levity destitution of sensible weight.

    IMPON'DERABLE, > [in and ponderable

    IMPON'DEROUS, I "• ponderous.] Noi having sensible weight. Brown

    IMPOOR', v.t. [m and ;;oor.] To impover- ish. [JVot in use.] Browne.

    IMPOROS'ITY, n. [in and porosity.] Wani of porosity ; closeness of texture ; com- pactness that excludes pores. Bacon

    IMPO'ROUS, a. Destitute of pores ; very close or compact in texture : solid.

    Brown. Ray.

    IMPO'RT, v.<. [Fr. importer; L. impoHo;ii and porto, to bear, teee Bear.]

    1. To bring from a foreign country or juris diction, or from another state, into one's own country, juri.sdiction or state ; oppo sed to export. We import teas and silks from China, wines from Spain and Fran and dry goods from Great Britain. Great Britain imports cotton from America and India. We may say also that Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maine import flour from the middle states.

    2. To bear or convey, as signification or meaning; to mean; to signify; to imply. We are to understand by a term, what it clearly imports.

    3. To be of weight to ; to be of moment or consequence to ; to bear on the interest of, or to have a bearing on.

    Her length of sickness, with what else mo«

    serious Importeth thee to know, this bears. Shak If I endure it, what imports it you ?

    Dryden IM'PORT, n. That which is borne or con- veyed in words ; meaning ; signification the sense which words are intended to convey to the understanding, or which they bear in sound interpretation. Import differs from implication in this, that the meaning of a term or number of words in connection is less obscurely expressed Import depends less on inference or de- duction than implication, and is also ap plied more frequently to a single word In all philosophical discussions, it is use- ful to ascertain the import of the terms employed. In the construction of laws and treaties, we are to examine carefully the import of words and phrases. 2. That which is imported or brought into a country from another country or state ; generally in the plural. Our imports ex- ceed our exports ; the balance must be paid in specie ; hence the scarcity of c<5in 5. Importance ; weight ; consequence. [For- merly accented on the second suitable.]

    Shak. Dryden

    IMPO'RTABLE, a. That may be imported

    2. Insupportable ; not to be endured. Obs.


    IMPORT' ANCE, n. [Fr.; Sp.importar, '

    It. importanza ; from import.]

    1. Weight ; consequence ; a bearing on some interest ; that quality of any thing by which it may affect a measure, interest or result. The education of youth is of great importance to a free government. A religious education is of infinite import- ance to every human being.

    2. Weight or consequence in the scale of being.

    Thy own importance know, Nor bound thy narrow views to thinga below Pope

    3. Weight or consequence in self-estimation. lie believes himself a man of importance.

    4. Thing implied; matter; subject; impor- tunity. [In these senses, obsolete.] Shak.

    IMPORTANT, a. [Fr.] Literally, bearing on or to. Hence, weighty ; momentous ; of great consequence; having a bearing on some interest, measure or result 1 which good or ill may be produce Truth is important to hapjiiness as well as to knowledge, but none so important as religious truth. The commerce of Gr Britain is important to her navy, and her navy is important to her independence. Men often forget the important end for which they were created.

    2. Bearing on ; forcible ; driving.

    He fiercely at him flen-, And with important outrage him assailed. Spenser.

    •3. Importunate. [JVot used.] Shak.

    IMPORT' ANTLY, adv. Weightily ; forci- bly- Hammond.

    IMPORTA'TION, n. [Fr. ; from import.]

    1. The act or practice of im|)orting, or of bringing from another country or state ; 0|)posed to exportation. Nations forbid the importation of commodities which are pro- duced or manufactured in sufficient abun- dance at home.

    2. The wares or commodities imported, The importations, this season, exceed those of the last.

    3. Conveyance. IMPO'RTED, pp. Brought from another

    country or state. IMPORTER, n. He that imports; the mer

    chant who, by himself or his agent, brings

    goods from another country or state. [MPO'RTING, ppr. Bringing into one's

    own country or state from a foreign or

    distant state.

    2. Bearing, as a signification ; meaning.

    3. Having weight or consequence. IMPORTLESS, a. Of no weight or conse- quence, [j^tot used.] Shak.

    IMPORT'UNACY, n. The act of importu- ning ; importunateness.

    IMPORT'UNATE, a. [L. importunus. See Importune.] . Bearing on ; pressing or urging in re- quest or demand ; urgent and pertina- cious in solicitation ; as an importunate suitor or petitioner.

    9. Pressing ; urgent ; as an importunate de- mand.

    3. Inciting urgently for gratification ; as im- portunate passions and appetites.

    IMPORT'UNATELY, adv. With urgent request ; with pressing aohcitation.

    IMPORT UNATENESS, n. Urgent and pressing solicitation, Digby.

    IMPORT'UNATOR, n. One that impor- tunes, y^ot in use.] Sandys.

    IMPORTU'NE, v.t. [Fr. importuner ; Sp. importunar; It., importunare ; from L. im- portunus ; in and porto, to bear on.]

    To request with urgency ; to press with so- licitation ; to urge with frequent or un- ceasing application.

    Their miiiistcrs and residents here have per. peluully iiitjiurtuned the court with unreasona< bic demands. Swift.

    IMPORTUNE, a. [L. importunus. Form- erly accented on the second syllable.]

    1. Pressing in request; urgent; trouble- some by frequent demands ; vexatious ; unreasonable. Spenser. Bacon.

    2. Unseasonable. Milton. [This word is obsolete ; being superseded

    by importunate, unless perhaps in poetry.]

    IMPORTU'NELY, adv. With urgent soli- citation ; incessantly ; continually ; troub- lesomcly. Obs. Spenser.

    2. Unseasonably ; improijcrly. Obs.


    IMPORTU'NITY, n. [Fr. importuniU ; L. importnnitas.]

    Pressing solicitation ; urgent request ; ap- plication for a claim or favor, which is ur- ged with troublesome frequency or perti- nacity. Men are sometimes overcome by the importunitij of their wives or children.

    IMPO'RTUOUS, a. [L. imporluosus ; in and partus.] Without a jrort, haven or harbor.

    IMPO'SABLE, a. That may be imposed or laid on. Hammond.

    IMPO'SE, v.t. sasz. [Fr. imposer; L. im- positum, from impono ; in and pono, to put. Pono, as written, belongs to Class Bn ; and posui, positum, to Class Bs. or Bd. The latter coincide with Eng. put.] . To lay on ; to set on ; to lay on, as a bur- den, tax, toll, duty or penalty. The legis- lature imposes taxes for the support of government ; toll is imposed on passen- gers to maintain roads, and penalties are imposed on those who violate the laws. God imposes no burdens on men which they are unable to bear.

    On impious realms and barb'rous kings im- pose Thy plagues — Pope.

    2. To place over by authority or by force. The Romans often imposed rapacious gov- ernors on their colonies and conquered countries.

    3. To lay on, as a command ; to enjoin, as a duty.

    Thou on the deep imposest nobler laws.

    Waller. Impose but your comminds — Dryden.

    4. To fix on ; to impute. [Little used.] Broton.

    5. To lay on, as hands in the ceremony of ordination, or of confirmation.

    6. To obtrude fallaciously.

    Our poet thinks not fit T' impose upon you what he writes for wit. Dryden.

    7. Among printers, to put the pages on the stone and fit on the chase, and thus pre- pare the form for the press.

    To impose on, to deceive ; to mislead by a trick or false pretense ; vulgarly, to 'put


    ■Kpon. We are liable to be imposed on by others, and sometimes we impose on our- selves.

    fMPO'SE, n. s as z. Command ; injunction. [JVot used.] Shak.

    IMPO'SED, pp. Laid on, as a tax, burden, duty or penalty ; enjoined.

    Imposed on, deceived.

    IMPO'SER, n. One who lays on ; one who enjoins.

    — The imposers of these oaths might repent. Walton

    IMPO'SING, ppr. Laying on ; enjoining deceiving.

    9. a. Commanding ; adapted to impress for cibly ; as an imposing air or manner.

    — Large and itiiposing edifices, embosomed in the groves of some rich valley.

    Bishop Hobart

    IMPO'SING-STONE, n. Among printers, the stone on which tlie pages or columns of types are imposed or made into forms,

    IMPOSI'TION, n. s as z. [Fr. from L. im- positio. See Impose.]

    1. In a general sense, the act of laying on

    2. The act of laying on hands in the cere- mony of ordination, when the bishop ir the episcopal church, and the ministers in congregational churclies, place their hands on tlie liead of the person whom they are ordaining, while one prays for a blessing on his labors. The same ceremo- ny is used in other cases.

    2. The act of setting on or afBsing to ; as the imposition of names. Boyle.

    3. That which is imposed ; a tax, toll, duty or excise laid by authority. Tyrants op- press their subjects with grievous imposi- tions.

    4. Injunction, as of a law or duty. Milton.

    5. Constraint ; oppression ; burden.

    Let it not be made, contrary to its own nature, the occasion of strife, a narrow spirit, and unrea- sonable impositions on the mind and practice. Watts.

    0. Deception ; imposture.

    Being acquainted with his hand, I had nc reason to suspect an imposition. Smollet.

    7. A supernumerary exercise enjoined on students as a punishment. IVarton

    IMPOSSIBIL'ITY, n. [from impossible.^

    \\\\. That which cannot be; the state of being not possible to exist. That a thing should be and not be at the same time, is an im- possibility.

    2. Impracticability ; the state or quality of being not feasible or possible to be done. That a man by his own strength should lift a ship of the line, is to him an impossi bility, as the means are inadequate to the end. [See Impossible.]

    IMPOSS'IBLE, a. [Fr. froml..impossibilis; in and possibilis, from possmn, to be able.]

    1. That cannot be. It is impossible that two and two should make five, or that a circle and a square should be the same tiling, or that a thing should be, and not be at the same time.

    2. Impracticable ; not feasible ; that cannot be done.

    With men this is impossible ; but with God all things are possible. Matt. xix.

    Without faith it is impossible to please God,

    Heb. xi.

    There are two kinds of impossibilities ;p%i

    ical and moral. That is a physical impos


    sibilily, whicli is contrary to the law of na- ture. A thing is said to be morally impos- sible, when in itself it is possible, but at- tended with difficulties or circumstances which give it the appearance of being im- ])Ossible. [See Possible, Practicable and ImpraeHcable.'] Encyc.

    IM'POST, ?i. [Sp. It. imposla; Fr. imput, for impost ; L. impositum, impono.]

    1. Any tax or tribute imposed by authority ; particularly, a duty or tax laid by govern- ment on goods imported, and paid or se cured by the importer at the time of im- portation. Imposts are also called cus- toms.

    2. In architecture, that part of a pillar ir vaults and arches, on which the weight of the building rests; or the capital of a pillar, or cornice which crowns the pier and supports the first stone or part of an arch. Ainsworlh. .ish.

    IMPOS'THUMATE, v. i. impos'tumate. [See Imposthume.]

    To form an abscess ; to gather ; to collect pus or purulent matter in any part of an animal body. Arbuthnot

    IMPOS'THUMATE, v. t. To affect with an imposthume or abscess.

    IMPOS'THUMATED, }jp. Affected will: an imposthume.

    IMPOSTHUMA'TION, n. Tlie act of form ing an abscess; also, an abscess; an im posthunie. Core. Bacon.

    IMPOS'THUME, n. impos'lume. [This word is a corruption of apostem, L. apostema, Gr. a7io;r;fia, from a^i;f;fu, to separate, to with draw, or to stand off; arto and istiiii; to stand.]

    An abscess; a collection of pus or purulent matter in any part of an animal body.


    [This word and its derivatives, being mere corruptions, might well be suffered to pass into oblivion.]

    IMPOS'THUME, V. i. The same as impos- thumate.

    IMPOS'TOR, n. [Fr. imposteur ; Sp. Port. impostor ; It. impostore ; from Low L. im- postor, from impono. See Impose.]

    One who imposes on others ; a person who assumes a character for the purpose of de caption ; a deceiver under a false charac ter. It seems to be yet unsettled, whether Perkin Warbeck was an impostor. A re ligious imjjostor may be one who assumes the character of a preacher, without au thority ; or one who falsely pretends to an extraordinary commission from heaven, and terrifies people with denunciations oi judgments. Encyc.

    IMPOS'TURAGE, n. Imposition. [JVot in use.] Bp. Taylor

    IMPOS'TURE, n. [Fr. from L. impostura See Impose.]

    Deception practised under a false or assu ined character ; fraud or imposition prac ticed by a false pretender.

    — Form new legends, And fill the world with follies and impostitres Irene.

    IMPOS'TURED, a. Having the nature of imposture. Beaum.

    IMPOS'TUROUS, a. Deceitful. [Not used.] Beaum.


    IM'POTENCE,^ [L. impotentia ; in ami

    IM'POTENCY, ^ "• potens, from possmn, therootoflt.poterf,8p.poder. See Potver.]

    L Want of strength or power, animal or in- tellectual ; weakness; feebleness; inabil- ity ; imbecility ; defect of power, natural or adventitious, to perform any thing.

    Some were poor by the impotency of nature : as young fatherless children, old decrepit per- sons, idiots, and cripples. Hayward. The impotence of exercising animal inotioQ attends fevers. Arbuthnot. Moral inability ; tlie want of power or inclination to resist or overcome habits and natural propensities.

    ?. Inability to beget.

    4. Ungovernable passion ; a LcUin significa- tion. [Little used.] Milton.

    IM'POTENT, a. [Fr. from L. impotens.]

    1. Weak ; feeble ; wanting strength or pow- er ; unable by nature, or disabled by dis- ease or accident to perform any act.

    I know thou wast not slow to hear,

    Nor impotent to save. .iddison.

    2. Wanting the power of propagation, as males.

    3. Wanting the power of restraint ; not hav- ving the command over ; as impotent of tongue. Dryden.

    IM'POTENT, n. One who is feeble, infirm, or languishing under disease. Shak.

    IM'POTENTLY, adv. Weakly; without power over the passions.

    IMPOUND', V. t. [in and pound. See Pound.]

    1. To put, shut or confine in a pound or close pen ; as, to impound unruly or stray horses, cattle, &c.

    2. To confine ; to restrain within limits. Bacon.

    IMPOUND'ED, pp. Confined in a pound. IMPOUNDER, )!. One who impounds the

    beasts of anotlier. IMPOUND'ING, ppr. Confining in a pound ;

    restraining. IMPOVERISH, v.t. [Fr. appauviir, ap-

    pauvrissant, from pauvre, poor; It. im-

    poverire. See Poor.]

    1. To make poor ; to reduce to poverty or indigence. Idleness and vice are sure to impoverish individuals and families.

    2. To exhaust strength, richness or fertility ; as, to itnpoveiish land by frequent crop- ping.

    IMPOVERISHED, pp. Reduced to pover- ty ; exhausted.

    IMPOVERISHER, n. One who makes others poor.

    2. That which impairs fertility.

    IMPOVERISHING, ppr. Making poor; exhausting.

    IMPOVERISHMENT, n. Depauperation; a reducing to indigence ; exhaustion ; drain of wealth, richness or fertility.

    tMPOWER. [See Empower.]

    lMPRA€TleABIL'ITY, ) [See Im-

    IMPRA€'TICABLENESS, $ "■ practicaUe.]

    1. The state or quality of being beyond hu- man power, or the means proposed ; in- feasibility.

    2. Untractableness ; stubbornness. Burnet. IMPRA€'TI€ABLE, a. [in and practicable ;

    Fr. impraticabk. See Practice] 1. That cannot be done or performed ; in- foasible ; not to bo effected by human meajis, or by the means proposed. It is

    I M P

    impracticable for a man to lift a tun by his unassisted strength ; but not impracticable for a man aided by a mechanical power.

    2. Untractable ; unmanageable ; stubborn ; as a fierce, impracticable nature. Rowe.

    3. That cannot be passed or traveled ; as an ivipraclicable road ; a colloquial sense.

    IMPRAe'TIeABLY, adv. In a manner or degree that hinders practice. — Morality not impracticably rigid. Johnson.

    IMPRECATE, v.t. [h. imprecor ; in and precor, to pray. See Pray.]

    To invoke, as an evil on any one : to pray that a curse or calamity may fall on one's self or on another person.

    IMPRECATED, pp. Invoked on one, as some evil.

    IM'PRECATING, ppr. Calling for evil on one's self or another.

    IMPRECA'TION, n. [L. imprecatio.] The act of imprecating, or invoking evil on any one ; a prayer that a curse or calamity may fall on any one.

    IMPRECATORY, a. Containing a prayer for evil to befall a person.

    IMPRECIS'ION, n. sasz. [in and precis- ion.] Want of precision or exactness ; de- fect of accuracy. Taylor.

    IMPRE'GN, tJ. /. impre'ne. [It. impregnare ; Fr. impregner ; h.itiandpragnans. See PregnatU.]

    To impregnate ; to infuse the seed of young, or other prolific principle. [Used in po- etry. See Impregnat'!.]

    Milton. Thomson.

    IxMPREG'NABLE, a. [Fr. imprenable.]

    1. Not to be stormed, or taken by assault ; that cannot be reduced by force ; able to resist attack ; as an impregnable fortress.

    •2. Not to be moved, impressed or shaken : invincible.

    The man's afTcclion remains wholly uncon- cerned and impregnable. South.

    IMPREG'NABLY, adv. In a manner to re- sist penetration or assault ; in a manner to defy force ; as a place impregnably forti- fied. Sandys.

    IMPREG'NATE, v.t. [U. impregnare ; Fr, impregner ; Sp. impregnar. See Preg- nant.]

    1. To infuse the principle of conception; to make pregnant, as a female animal.

    2. To deposit the fecundating dust of a flow- er on the pistils of a plant ; to render i)ro lific.

    3. To infuse particles of one thing into another ; to communicate the virtues oi one thing to another, as in pliarniacy, by mi.\\\\turp, digestion, &c.

    IMPREG'NATE,./. Impregnated; render

    ed prolific or fruitful. IMPREG'NATED, a. Mu.lo [jrcgnaut oi

    prolific; fecundated ; filled with something

    by mixture, &c. IMPREG'NATING, ppr. Infusing seed

    pollen ; rendering pregnant ; fructifying ;

    fecundating ; filling by infusion or mixture. IMPREGNA'TION, n. [Fr.] The act of

    fecundating and rendering fruitful ; appli- ed to animals or plants.

    2. The comiTiunieation of the particles or virtues of one thing to another.

    3. That with which any thing is impregna- ted. Derham.

    4. Saturation. Ainsworth.


    IMPREJU'DICATE, a. [L. tre, prm, and jvdico.]

    Not prejudged ; unprejudiced ; not prepos- sessed ; impartial. [JVot xised.] Brown.

    IMPREPARA'TION, n. [in and prepara- tion.]

    Want of preparation ; unpreparedness; un- readiness. [Little used.] Hooker.

    IMPRESCRIPTIBILITY, n. [Fr. tm/nc- scriptibilile, from imprescnptible.]

    The state of being independent of prescrij)- tion ; the state which renders a thing not liable to be lost or imiiaired by the pre- scription of another, or by one's own non- user. Vatlel, Trans.

    IMPRESCRIPTIBLE, a. [Fr. from pre- scriptible, from L. prcescribo ; prm and scriho, to write.]

    That cannot bo lost or impaired by non- user, or by the claims of another founded on prescription.

    Rights of mere ability which a man may use or not at pleasure, without any person's having a right to prescribe to me on that subject, arc imprescriptible. Vatlel, Trans.

    The rights of navigation, fishing, aud others that may be exercised on the sea, belonging to the right of mere ability, arc imprescriptible. Vattel.

    IMPRESS', V. t. [L. impressum, from impri- mo; in and premo, to press.]

    1. To imprint; to stamp; to make a mark or figure on any tiling by pressure; a impress coin with the figure of a man's head, or with that of an ox or sheep ; to impress a figure on wax or clay.

    2. To print, as books.

    3. To mark : to indent.

    4. To fix deep ; as, to impress truth on the mind, or facts on the memory. Hence, to convict of sin.

    To compel to enter into public sei seamen ; to seize and take into service by compulsion, as nurses in sickness. In this sense, we use press or impress indifferently.

    G. To seize ; to take for public service ; as, to impress provisions. Marshall.

    IM'PRESS, n. A mark or indentation, made by pressure.

    2. The figure or image of any thing made by pressure ; stamp ; likeness.

    3. Mark of distinction ; stamp ; character.

    God leaves us this general impress or charac- ter on the works of creation, that they were very good. South.

    4. Device ; motto.

    To describe emblazoned sliiclds, Impresses quaint — .Milton

    5. The act of compelling to enter into public service. [See Press.] Shak

    IMPRESS'ED, pp. Imprinted; stamped marked by pressure; compelled to enter public serv ice ; seized for pubhc use ; fixed in the mind; made sensible ; convinced.

    IMPRESSIBIL'ITY, n. The quality of be ing impressible.

    IMPRESS'IBLE, n. That may be impress ed ; that yields to pressure ; that may re ceive impressions. Solid bodies are not easily impressible.

    2. That may be impressed ; that may have its figure stamped on another body.

    IMPRESS'ING, pjrr. Imprinting; stamp ing; fixing in the mind ; compelling inn service.

    I M P

    IMPRES'SION, n. [Fr.; L.impressio.) The act of impressing, as one liody on another : as a figure made by impression.

    2. Mark ; indentation ; stamp made by press- ure: as, a seal makes an impression on wax.

    3. The effect which objects produce on the mind. Thus we say, the truths of the gos- pel make an impression on the mind ; they make no impression, or a deep and lasting impression. The heart is impressed with love or gratitude. We lie open to the im- pressions of flattery.

    4. Image in the mind ; idea.

    5. Sensible effect. The artillery made no impression on the fort. The attack made no impression on the enemy.

    fi. A single edition of a book ; the books printed at once ; as a copy of the im- pression. The whole impression of the work was sold in a month.

    7. Slight, indistinct remembrance. I liave an impression that the fact was stated to me, but I cannot clearly recollect it.

    IMPRESS'IVE, a. Making or tending to make an impression ; having the power of affecting, or of exciting attention and feel- ing; adapted to touch sensibility or the conscience ; as an impressive discourse ; an impressive scene.

    2. Capable of being inijjrcssed ; susceptible.

    IMPRESSIVELY, adv. In touch sensibility, or to awaken conscience ; in a manner to produce a jiowerful effect on the mind.

    IMPRESS'IVENESS, n. The quality of being impressive.

    IMPRESS'MENT, n. The act of impress- ing men into public service ; as the im- pressment of seamen.

    2. The act of compelling into any service ; as the impressment of nurses to attend the sick.

    3. The act of seizing for public use ; as the impressment of provisions for the army.


    IMPRESS'URE, n. The mark made by

    pressure; indentation; dent; impression.


    IM'PREST, n. [It. imprestare.] A kind of earnest-money ; loan ; money advanced.


    IMPREST', V. t. To advance on loan.

    IMPREV'ALENCE, n. Incapability of pre- vailing. HaU.

    IMPRIMATUR, .1. [L. let it be printed.] A license to print a book, &c.

    IMPRlM'ERY.n. [Fr. impritnerie.] A print; impression ; a[)riuting-housc ; art of print- ins. [.Vo/in use.]

    IM'PRIMIS, adv. [L. imprimis, for in pri- mis.] In the first place ; first in order.

    IMPRINT', v.t. [It. itnprimere ; S\\\\>.impri- mir ; Fr. imprimcr ; L. imprimo ; in and premo, to press. See Print.]

    1. To impress; to mark by pressure; as a character or device imprinted on wax or cloth.

    2. To stamp letters and words on paper by means of typ*s; to print.

    3. To fix on the mind or memory ; to im- press. Let your father's admonitions and instructions be imprinted oa your mind.

    IMPRINT'ED, pp. Maiked by pressure; printed ; fixed in the mind or memorv.

    I M P

    IMPRlNT'ING.ppr. Blaikiiig by pressure;

    printing ; fixing on the mind or memory. IMPRIS'ON, V. t. impriz'n. [Fr. emprison-

    ner ; in and prison.]

    1. Tu put into a prison ; to confine in a pris- on or jail, or to arrest and detain in custody in any place.

    2. To confine ; to shut up; to restrain from escape; to deprive of the liberty to move from place to place ; as, to be imprisoned in a cell.

    He imprisoned was in chains remediless.

    Spenser. Trv to imprison the resistless winds.

    •' Dryden.

    IMPRIS'ONED, pp. Confined in a prison or jail; restrained from escape or from going at large.

    IMPRIS'ONING,;)pr. Shutting up in pris- on ; confining in a place.

    IMPRIS'ONMENT, n. The act of putting and confining in prison ; the act of arrest- ing and detaining in custody.

    9. Confinement in a place ; restraint of lib- erty to go from place to place at pleasure. Appropriately, the confinement of a crimi- nal or debtor within the walls of a prison, or in the custody of a sheriff", &c.

    False imprisonment is any confinement of the person, or restraint of liberty, without legal or sufficient authority. The arrest or de- tention of the person by an officer with- out warrant, or by an illegal warrant, or by a legal warrant executed at an unlaw- ful time, \\\\s false imprisonment.


    IMPROBABILITY, n. [See Improbable.] The quality of being improbable, or not likely to be true ; unlikelihood.

    IMPROBABLE, a. [Sp. Fr. from L. im- pi-obabilis ; in and probabilis, from probo, to prove.]

    Not likely to be true ; not to be expected un- der the circumstances of the case. It is always improbable that men will knowingly oppose their own interest; yet the fact is


    IMPROP'ER, a. [L. impropnus ; tn and proprius, proper.]

    1. Not proper ; not suitable ; not adapted to its end; unfit; as an improper medicine for a particular disease ; an improper regula- tion.

    Not becoming; not decent; not suited to the character, time or place ; as improper conduct in church; improper behavior be- fore superiors ; an improper speech.

    3. Not according to the settled usages or principles of a language ; as an improper word or phrase.

    4. Not suited to a particular place or ofiice ; unqualified ; as, he is an improper man for tlio ofiice.

    IMPROP'ERLY, adv. Not fitly; in a man- ner not suited to the end ; in a manner not suited to the company, time, place and circumstances; unsuitably ; incongru- ously.

    2. In a manner not according with estab- lished usages ; inaccurately ; ungrammat- ically ; as, to speak or write improperly.

    IMPROPl"TIOUS, o. Not propitious; un- propitious. H'ollon.

    [The latter is the word in use.]

    IMPROPO'RTIONABLE, a. Not propor- tionable. [Little used.] B. Jonsun.

    IMPROPO'RTIONATE, a. Not propor- tionate ; not adjusted. [Little used.]


    IMPRO'PRIATE, V. t. [L. in and proprius, proper.]

    1. To appropriate to private use ; to take to one's self; as, to impropriate thanks to one's self. [.Vot used.] Baco

    |2. To annex the possessions of the church or a benefice to a layman. Speh

    IMPRO'PRIATE, o. Devolved into the hands of a layman,

    IMPROPRIATED, pp. Appropriated to one's self. [See Appropriated.]

    2. Put in possessionof a layman. IMPROPRIATING, ppr. Appropriating to


    possible. It is improbable that snow will .3, Annexing to a lay proprietor.

    fall in Julv, but not incredible. IMPROB'ABLY, adv. In a manner not like- ly to be true.

    04s. Boyle. IM'PROBATE, V. I. [L. improho.] To dis- allow ; not to approve. [JVot used.]

    Ainsworlh. IMPROBA'TION, n. The act of disappro- ving. [Not in use.] Ainsworth. IMPROB'ITY, n. [L. improbitas ; in and

    probitas, from probo, to approve.] That which is disapproved or disallowed want of integrity or rectitude of principle dishonesty. A man of known improbity ii always suspected, and usually despised. IMPRODU'CED, a. Not produced. [jVoI in use.] Rai

    IMPROFI'CIENCY, n. Want of profi ciency. Bacon

    IMPROF'ITABLE, a. Unprofitable, [^rot in use.] Elyot.

    IMPROMP'TU, adv. [L. in promptu, in readiness, from promptus, ready, quick.] Oflf hand ; without previous study ; as a

    ver«e uttered or written impromptu. IMPROMP'TU, n. A piece made off" hand, at the moment, or without previous study ; on extemporaneous composition.

    IMPROPRIATION, n. The act of putting an ecclesiastical benefice into the hands of a layman. Aytiffe.

    2. The benefice impropriated.

    IMPROPRIATOR, n. A layman who has possession of the lands of the church o an ecclesiastical living. Ayliffe.

    IMPROPRI'ETY, n. [Fr. impropriety, from L. improprius. See Improper.]

    1. Unfitness; unsuitableness to character, time, place or circumstances; as impro- priety of behavior or manners. Levity of conduct is an impropriety in a religious as- sembly and at a funeral. Rudeness or for wardness in young persons before their superiors, is impropriety. Indecency and indecorum are improprieties.

    2. Inaccuracy in language ; a word or phrase not according with the established usages or principles of speaking or writing.

    Many gross improprieties, however authori- zed by practice, ought to be discarded. Swift

    IMPROSPER'ITY, n. Unprosperity ; want of success. M'aunton

    IMPROS'PEROUS, a. [in aaA prosperous.] Not prosperous ; not successful ; unfortu- nate ; not yielding profit ; not advancing interest ; as an improspcrous undertaking or voyage. Drydi

    I M P

    [ Vnprosperous is the word most genet'' ally used in this sense.] IMPkOS'PEROUSLY, adv. Unsuccessful- ly ; unprosperously ; unfortunately.

    Boyle. IMPROS'PEROUSNESS, n. Ill success; of prosperity. Hammond.

    IMPROVABIL'ITY, n. [See Improvable.] Tlie state or quality of being capable of improvement ; susceptibility of being made better. IMPROVABLE, a. [See Improve.] Sus- ceptible of improvement ; capable of growing or being made better ; that may be advanced in good qualities.

    We have stock enough, and that too of an improvable nature, that is capable of infinite ad- vancement. Decay of Piety. Man is accommodated with moral piinciples, improvable by the exercise of liis faculties.

    Hale. I have a fine spread o( improvable lands.

    .Addison . That may be used to advantage, or for the increase of any thing valuable.

    The essays of weaker heads afford improuaWe hints to better. Brown.

    3. Capable of tillage or cultivation.

    A scarcity of improvable lands began to be felt in these colonies.

    Ramsay, Hist. Carolina. B. Trumbull. IMPROV'ABLENESS, n. Susceptibility of improvement ; capableness of being made better, or of being used to advantage. IMPROVE, V. t. improov'. [Norm, provcr, to improve ; improwment, improving. The French and Italians use the same com- pound in a different sense. It is from the Latin in and probo, to prove, or the adjec- tive ^rotui.]

    1. To make better ; to advance in value or good qualities. We amend a bad, but im- prove a good thing. Johnson.

    A good education impro»e« the mind and the manners. A judicious rotation of crops tends to improve land.

    2. To use or employ to good purpose; to make productive ; to turn to profitable ac- count ; to use for advantage ; to employ for advancing interest, reputation or hap-

    Many opportunities occur of improving mon- ey, which, if a man misses, he may not after- wards recover. Rambler. Melissus was a man of parts, capable of en- joying and improving life. Ibm. True policy as well as good fiiith, in my opin- ion, binds us to itnprove\\\\he occasion.

    Washington. This success was not improved. Marshall. Those who enjoy the advantage of better in- struction, should improve their privileges.

    Milner. They were aware of the advantages of their position, and improted them with equal skill and diligence.

    Walsh, Rev. nf Hamilton's Worlts. Those moments were diligently improved.

    Gibbon. Tlie candidate improved his advantage

    A hint that I do not r opened and improved.

    Whatever interest w£ grace, should be improv



    I M P

    I M

    I M P

    My lords, no time should be lost, wliicli may

    {iroiiiise to improve this disposition in America.

    Lord Chatham,

    If we neglect to improve our knowledge to the iiids for which it '

    It is the fault

    of persons not improving th S. Clarh


    Tlie shorter the time — the more eager were they to improve it. Lardner.

    A young minister wishing to improve the oc- casion — C. Simeon.

    3. To apply to practical purposes ; as, to im- prove !i discourse, or the doctrines stated and proved in a sermon. Owen.

    4. To advance or increase by use ; in a bad sense.

    I fear we have not a little improved the wretch- ed inheritance of our ancestors. \\\\_ni.]


    5. To use ; to employ ; as, to improve a wit- ness or a deposition.

    Let even the coach, the inns, or the ships be improved as openings for useful instruction.

    T. Scott. G. To use ; to occupy ; to cultivate. The house or the farm is now improved by an industrious tenant.

    This application is perhaps peculiar to some parts of the U. States. It however deviates little from that in some of the fore- going definitions. IMrUciVE, r. i. improov'. To grow better or wifipr ; to advance in goodness, knowl- edge, wisdom or other excellence. We are pleased to see our children improve in knowledge and virtue. A farm improves under judicious management. The arti- san improves by experience. It is tlie duty, as it is the desire of a good man, to im- prove ill grace and piety.

    We take care to improve in our frugality and diligence. Atterbtiry.

    2. To advance in bad qualities ; to grow worse.

    Domitian improved in cruelty toward the end

    of his reign. Milner.

    [/ regret to see this tvord thus used, or

    rather perverted.]

    8. To increase ; to be enhanced ; to rise.

    The i)rice of cotton improves, or is improv- ed. [A mercantile and modem tise of the word.]

    To improve on, to make useful additions or amendments to ; to bring nearer to per- fection ; as, to iviprovc on the mode of til- lage upnally practiced.

    IMPIloV'ED, pp. Made better, wiser or more excellent ; advanced in moral worth, knowledge or manners.

    2. Made better ; advanced in fertility or oth- er good qualities.

    3. Used to ])rofit or good purpose ; as oppor- tunities of learning improved.

    4. Used ; occupied ; as improved land.

    IMPR-6VEMENT, )i. improov'ment. Ad- vancement in moral worth, learning, vvis- (lom, skill or other excellence ; as the im- provement of the mind or of the heart by riiltivation ; improvement in classical learn- ing, science or mechanical skill ; improve- ment in music ; improvement in holiness.

    2. Melioration ; a making or growing better, or more valuable ; as the improvement of barren or exhausted land; the improve- ment of the roads; the improvement of the breed of horses or cattle.

    3. A valuable addition ; excellence added, or a change for the better; sometimes with


    The parts of Sinon, Camilla, and some few others, are imjtrovements on the Greek poet. Addison.

    4. Advance or progress from any state to a better.

    There is a design of publishing the history of architecture, with its several improvements and decays. Addison

    5. Instruction ; growth in knowledge or re finement ; edification.

    I look upon your city as the best place of im- provement. South

    6. Use or employment to beneficial purposes a turning to good account; as the mfiroi'e- ment of natural advantages or spiritual jirivileges.

    A good improvement of his reason.

    S. Clarke.

    7. Practical application ; as the improvement of the doctrines and principles of a ser- mon.

    1 .-ihall make some improvement of Ibis doc trine. Tillolson


    8. The part of a iliscourse intended to en- force and apiily the doctrines, is called the improvement,

    9. Use ; occupancy

    10. Improvements, phi., valuable additions or melioration, as buildings, clearings, drains, fences, &c., on a farm. Kent.

    IMPROVER, 51. One who improves; one who makes himself or any thing else bet- ter ; as an improver of horses or cattle.

    2. That which improves, enriches or melio- rates; as, chalk is an improver of lands.


    IMPROVI'DED, a, [L. improvisus ; in and provideo, to foresee or provide.]

    Unforeseen ; unexpected ; not provided against. 04*. Spenser,

    IMPROVIDENCE, n. [L in and proyidens, providentia, from pro, before, anil video, to see.]

    Want of providence or forecast ; neglect of foresight, or of the measures which fore sight might dictate for safety or advan- tage. Half the inconveniences and losses which men suffer are the eflecls of im- providence.

    IMPROVIDENT, a. [h. in txnd providens ; pro and tWfo, supra.]

    Wanting forecast ; not foreseeing what will be necessary or convenient, or neglertini; the measures which foresight wmilil

    by of; as improvident of harm. IMPROVIDENTLY, adv. Without fore

    sight or forecast ; without care to i)rovidt

    against fiiture wants. IMPROVING, ppr. Making better; grow

    ing better ; using to advantage. IMPROVIS'ION, n. s as :. [in and provis-

    Want of forecast; improvidence. [lAtlle used.] Broi

    IMPRUDENCE, n. [^Fr. from L. imprueli tia ; in and prudentia, prudence.]

    Want of prudence; indiscretion; want of caution, circumspection, or a due regart" to the consequences of words to be utter cd or actions lo be performed, or their

    probable ellects on the interest, safely, reputation or happiness of one's self or otliers ; heedlessness ; inconsideraleness ; rashness. Let a man of sixty attempt to t'liiimerate the evils which his imprudenre has brought on himself, his family, or his neighbors.

    BIPRU'DENT, a. [Fr. from L. imprudcns; in and prudens, prudent.]

    Wanting prudence or discretion ; indiscrete; injudicious ; not attentive to the conse- quences of words or actions; rash; heed- less. The imprudent man often laments his mistakes, and then repeats them.

    IMPRU'DENTLY, adv. Without the exer- cise of prudence ; indiscretelv.

    IM'PCDENCE, n, [Fr. from L. im;)urfen« : in and pudens, from pudeo, to be asham- ed.]

    Shamele.ssness ; want of modesty ; effront- ery ; assurance accompanied with a dis- regard of the opinions of others.

    Those clear truths, that either their own evi- dence forces us lo admit, or common experi- ence makes it impudence to den\\\\-. Jjjcke.

    IM'PUDENT, «. [Fr. from L. impudens,] t^hnmeless ; wanting modesty ; hold with contempt of others ; saucy.

    \\\\V hen we behold an angel, not to fear

    Is to be impudent. Dryden.

    IM PUDENTLY, adv. Shamelessly; with indecent assurance. At once assail With open mouths, and impudently rail.


    IMPUDIC'ITY, n. [L. impudicUia.] Immod- esty. Sheldon.

    IMPU'GN, V. t. impu'ne. [Fr. impugner ; Sp. impugnar ; h.impugno; in and^ug'iio, to fight or resist.]

    To oppose ; to attack by words or argu- ments ; to contradict. The lawfulness of lots is impugned by some, and defended by others.

    The truth hereof I will not rashly impugn, or over-boldly affirm. Peaeham,

    IMPUGNA'TION, »i. Opposition. [Little used.] Bp, Hall,

    IMPUGNED, pp. Opposed; contradicted; disputed.

    nn'L'GNER, 71. One who opposes or con- tradicts.

    IMPU'GNING, ppr. Opposing; attacking; contradicting.

    IMPUIS SANCE, n. [Fr. ; in and puwnnce.] Impotence; weakness. Obs. Bacon.

    IMPULSE, 71. im'puls. [I., impulsus, frovn. imptllo. See Impel,]

    1. I'dico communicated; the effect of one IkjcI) acting on another. Impulse is the efiect of motion, and is in proportion to the quantity of matter and velocity of the impelling body.

    2. Influence acting on the mind ; motive.

    Tliese were my natural impulses for the un- dertaking. Dryden.

    3. Impression ; supposed supernatural influ- ence on the mind.

    Meantime, by Jove's impidse, Mczentius

    armed. Succeeded Turnus — Dryden.

    IMPULSION, 71. [Fr. from L. impulsio.

    See Impel,] \\\\, The act of driving against or impelling ; the agency of a body in motion on another body. Bacon.


    I N

    I N A

    2. Influence on the mind ; impulse.

    Milton fMPULS'IVE, a. [Fr. impulsif. See Impel] Having the power of driving or impelling; moving; impellent.

    Poor men ! poor papers ! We and they Do some impulsive force obey. Prior.

    IMPULS'IVELY, adv. With force; by im- pulse. IMPU'NITV, n. [Fr. impuniU ; L. impuni- tas ; in and pumo, to punish.]

    1. Exemption from punishment or penalty. No person should be permitted to violate the laws with impunity. Impunity encour- ages men in crimes.

    2. Freedom or exemption from injury. Some ferocious animals are not to be en- countered with impunity.

    IMPU'RE, a. [Fr. impur ; L. impurus ; in and purus, pure.]

    1. Not pure ; foul ; feculent ; tinctured ; mixed or impregnated with extraneous substance ; as impure water or air ; im- pure salt or magnesia.

    2. Obscene ; as impure language or ideas.

    3. Unchaste; lewd; unclean; as impure ac- tions.

    4. Defiled by sin or guilt; unholy; as per- sons.

    5. Unhallowed ; unholy ; as things.

    6. Unclean ; in a legal sense ; not purifi- ed according to the ceremonial law of Moses.

    IMPU'RE, V. t. To render foul: to defile.

    [Mt used.] Bp. Hall.

    IMPU'RELY, adv. In an unpure manner ;

    with impuritv. IMPU'RENESS, I [Fr. impurete ; L. m- IMPU'RITY, 5 "-puritas, supra.]

    1. Want of purity ; foulness; feculence ; the admixture of a foreign substance in any thing; as the impurity of water, of air, of spirits, or of any species of earth or metal.

    2. Any foul matter.

    3. Unchastity; lewdness.

    The foul impurities that reigned among the monkish clergy. Atterbury.

    4. Want of sanctity or holiness ; defilement by guilt.

    5. Want of ceremonial purity ; legal pollu- tion or uncleauness. By the Mosaic law, a person contracted impurity by touching a dead body or a leper.

    6. Foul language ; obscenity.

    Profaneuess, impurity, or scandal, is not wit.


    IMPUR'PLE, v.t. [in SlwA purple ;¥t.em-

    pourprer.] To color or tinge with purple ; to make red or reddish ; as a field impurpled with blood.

    The bright Pavement, that like a sea of jasper shone, Impurpled with celestial roses, smil'd.


    IMPUR'PLING, ppr. Tinging or coloring

    with purple. IMPU;TABLE, a. [See Impute.] That may

    be imputed or charged to a person ;

    chargeable. Thus we say, crimes, sins,

    errors, trespasses are imputable to those

    who commit them. 2. That may be ascribed to ; in a good sense.

    This favor is imputable to your goodness,

    or to a good motive.

    3. Accusable; chargeable with a fault. [.Wot proper.] '^yliffe

    4. That may be set to the account of anoth er. It has been a question much agitated, whether Adam's sin is imputable to his posterity.

    IMPU'TABLENESS, n. The quality of be- ing imputable. JVbrris

    IMPUTA'TION.ra. [Fr. from imputer.] The act of imputing or charging ; attribution generally in an ill sense; as the imputation of crimes or faults to the true authors of| them. We are Uable to the imputation oi numerous sins and errors ; to the imputa- tion of pride, vanity and self-confidence ; to the imputation of weakness and irreso lution, or of rashness.

    3. Sometimes in a good sense.

    If I had a suit to Master Shallow, I would humor his men with the imputation of being near their master. Shak.

    3. Charge or attribution of evil ; censure : reproach.

    Let us be careful to guard ourselves against these groundless imputations of our enemies, and to rise above them. Addison

    Hint ; slight notice. Qu. intimation.


    IMPUTATIVE, a. That may be imputed

    IMPU'TATIVELY, adv. By imputation.


    IMPU'TE, v. t. [Fr. imputer ; It. imputarc ; Sp. imputur ; L. impute ; in and pjito. think, to reckon ; properly, to set, to put, to throw to or on.]

    To charge ; to attribute ; to set to the ac- count of; generally ill, sometimes good. We impute crimes, sins, trespasses, faults, blame, &c., to the guilty persons. We impute wrong actions to bad motives, or to ignorance, or to folly and rashness. We impute misfortunes and miscarriages to imprudence.

    And therefore it was imputed to him for righteousness. Rom. iv.

    9. To attribute ; to ascribe.

    I have read a book imputed to lord Bathurst. Swift.

    3. To reckon to one what does not belong to him.

    It has been held that Adam's sin is imputed

    to all his posterity. Encyc

    Thy merit

    Imputed shall absolve them who renounce

    Their own both righteous and unrighteous

    deeds. Milton

    IMPU'TED, pp. Charged to the account of; attributed ; ascribed.

    IMPU'TER, n. One that imputes or attrib- utes.

    IMPU'TING, ppr. Charging to the account of; attributing; ascribing.

    IMPUTRES'CIBLE, o. [in and L. putresco, to putrefy.]

    Not subject to putrefaction or corruption.

    IN, a prefix, L. in, is used in composition as a particle of negation, like the English un, of which it seems to be a dialectical or- thography ; or it denotes within, into, or among, as in inhred, incase ; or it serves oidy to augment or render emphatical the sense of the word to which it is prefixed, as in inclose, increase.

    In, before /, is changed into il, as in illusion: and before r, into ir, as in irregular; and

    into im, before a labial, as in imbitter, im- material, impatient.

    IN, prep. [L. in ; Gr. iv ; Goth, and Sax. in ; Fr. en ; Sp. en ; It. in ; G. in or ein ; D in; Dan. ind ; Sw. in; W. yn ; Sans. antu.]

    In denotes present or inclosed, surrounded by limits ; as in a house ; in a fort ; in a city. It denotes a state of being mixed, as sugar in tea ; or combined, as carbonic acid in coal, or latent heat in air. It de- notes present in any state ; as in sickness or health. It denotes present in time ; as in that hour or day. The uses of in, how- ever, cannot, in all cases, be defined by ecpiivalent words, except by explaining the phrase in which it is used ; as in deed ; in fact ; in essence ; in quality ; in reason ; in courage ; in spirits. Sec. A man in spirits or good courage, denotes one who possesses at the time spirits or courage ; in reason is equivalent to ivith reason ; one in ten denotes one of that number, and we say also one often, and one out often.

    In the name, is used in phrases of invok- ing, swearing, declaring, praying, &c. In prayer, it denotes by virtue of, or for the sake of /»i the name of the people, de- notes on their behalf or part ; in their stead, or for their sake.

    In, in many cases, is equivalent to on. This use of the word is frequent in the Scrip- tures ; as, let fowls multiply in the earth. This use is more frequent in England than in America. We generally use on, in all similar phrases.

    In signifies by or through. In thee shall all nations be blessed. I am glorified in them.

    In that, is sometimes equivalent to because. Some things they do in that they are men ; some things in that they are men misled and blinded with error. Hooker.

    In these and similar phrases, that is an an- tecedent, substitute, or pronoun relating to the subsequent part of the sentence, or the subsequent clause. God commendeth his love towards us, »'« that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. That is, in the fact stated in the latter clause, for which that is the substitute. Rom. v.

    In as much, seeing; seeing that; this being 'he fact. I will ride for health, inasmuch IS I am infirm.

    In is often used without the noun to which it properly belongs. I care not who is in, or who is out, that is, in office, or out of of- fice. Come in, that is, into the house or other place. Who has or will come in, that is, into oflice. A vessel has come in, that is, into port, or has arrived.

    To be or keep in unth, to be close or neai-. Keep the ship in uiith the land.

    INABILITY, n. [Fr. inhabiliU ; L. inhabi- lis ; in and habibs, Norm, hable, able.] . Want of sufficient physical power or strength ; as the inability of a man to raise an arm or a leg.

    3. Want of adequate means ; as an inability

    to purchase a farm, or to fit out a ship. I. Want of moral power. Moral inability is considered to be want of inclination, dis- position or will, or a deep-rooted aversion to act, and therefore impro])erly so called. Moral inability aggravates out guilt. Scott.

    I N A

    I N A

    I N A

    4. Want of intellectual strength or force ; as an inability to comprclieud a matlieiiiatic al demonstration.

    5. Want of knowledge or skill ; as an ina bility to read or write.

    INA'BLEMENT, n. [See Enable.] Ability.

    [JVot in use.] Bacon.

    INAH'STINENCE, n. {in and abstinence.]

    A not abstaining ; a partaking ; indul-

    fence of appetite ; as the inabstinence of :ve. Milton

    INABU'SIVELY, adv. Without abuse.

    L. JVorth INA€CESSIBIL'ITY, > [from inac- INACCESS'IBLENESS, \\\\ "• cessible.] The quality or state of being inaccessible, oi

    not to he rearhcd. INACCESS'IBLE, a. [in and accessible]

    1. Not to be readied ; as an inaccasible liighth or rock. The depths of the sea are inaccessible.

    % Not to be obtained. The necessary vouchers are inaccessible.

    3. Not to be approached ; forbidding ac cess ; as an inaccessible prince.

    INA€CESS'IBLY, arff . So as not to be ap preached. Waiion.

    INAe'CURACY.n. [from inaccurate.] Want of accuracy or exactness ; mistake ; fault ; defect ; error ; as an inaccuracy in writ- ing, in a transcript, or in a calculation.

    INACCURATE, a. [in and accurate.] Not accurate ; not exact or correct ; not ac cording to truth ; erroneous ; as an inac- curate man ; he is inaccurate in narration the transcript or copy is inaccurate ; the instrument is inaccurate.

    INACCURATELY, adv. Not according to truth ; incorrectly ; erroneously. The counts are inaccurately stated.

    INACTION, n. [Fr. ; in and action.] Want of action; forbearance of labor; idleness; rest. Pope.

    INACTIVE, o. [in and active.] Not active; inert ; having no power to move. Matter is, per se, inactive.

    2. Not active; not diligent or industrious; not busy ; idle. Also, habitually idle ; in- dolent ; sluggish ; as an inactive officer.

    INACTIVELY, adv. Idly; sluggishly without motion, labor or employment.

    INACTIVITY, n. [in and activity.] Inert- ness ; as the inactivity of matter.

    2. Idleness, or habitual idleness; want of action or exertion ; sluggishness. Su'ijl.

    INACTUATE, v. t. To put in action. [JVot used.] Glanvilte.

    INACTUA'TION, n. Operation. [Xot used.] Glanvilte.

    INAD'EQUACY, n. [from inadequate.] The quality of being unequal or insufficient for a purpose.

    The inadequacy and consequent inefficacy of the alledged causes — Durighi.

    2. Inequality.

    Dr. Price considers this inadequacy of repre- sentation as our fundamental grievance.


    3. Incompleteness ; defectiveness ; as the inadequaci/ of ideas.

    INAD'EQUATE, a. [in and adequate, L.

    ada:quattis, from adacquo, to equal.] 1. Not equal to the purpose ; insufficient to

    effect the object ; unequal ; as inadequate

    power, strength, resources.

    Vol. I.

    2. Not equal to the real stale or condition of a thing; not just or in due proj)ortion partial ; incomplete ; as iiuxdequate ideas of God, of his perfections, or moral gov- erninent; &n incuiequate compensation for services.

    3. Incomplete ; defective ; not just ; as inad- equate representation or description.

    INADEQUATELY, adv. Not fully or suffi- ciently ; not completely.

    INAD'EQUATENESS, n. The quality of being inadequate ; inadequacy ; inequaU- ty ; incompleteness.

    INADEUUA'TION, n. Want of exact cor- res])ondence. Puller.

    INADHE'SION, n. s as z. [in and adhe- sion.] Want of adhesion ; a not adhering. Porcelain clay is distinguished from colorific earths by inadhcsion to the fingers. Kirwan

    INADMISSIBIL'ITY, n. [from inadmissi- ble.] The quality of being inadmissible, or not proper to be received ; as the in- admissibility of an argument, or of evi- dence in court, or of a proposal in a ne- gotiation.

    INADMISSIBLE, a. [Fr. ; in and admissi ble, from admitto, to admit.]

    Not admissible ; not proper to be admitted, allowed or received ; as inadmissible tei timony ; an inadmissible proi>osition.

    INADVERTENCE,? [Fr. inadvertance,

    INADVERTENCY, S"" from L. in and advertens, adverto. See Mvert.]

    1. A not turning the mind to ; inattention ; negligence ; heedlessness. Many mis- takes and some misfortunes proceed from inadvertence.

    2. The effect of inattention; any oversight, mistake or fault which proceeds from negligence of thought.

    The productions of a great genius, with ma- ny lapses and inadverteticieK, are infinitely pre- ferable to works of an inferior kind of author. Mdiaon.

    INADVERTENT, a. [L. in and advertetis.] Not turning the mind to ; heedless; care- less ; negligent.

    INADVERTENTLY, adv. Heedlessly ; carelessly ; from want of .ittention ; in- considerately.

    INAFFABIL'ITY, n. Reservedness in con- versation. I

    INAF'FABLE, a. Not affable ; reserved. I

    INAFFECTA'TION, n. Destitution of af-i fected manner.

    INAFFECT'ED, a. Unaffected. [JVot used.]]

    INA'IDABLE, a. That cannot be assisted. Shak.\\\\

    INALIENABLE, a. [Fr. ; in and aliena-\\\\

    I We, from L. alieno, alienus.]

    Unalienable ; that cannot be legally or justly; alienated or transferred to another. Thej dominions of a king are inaiienable. AH men have certain natural rights which arc inalienable. The estate of a minor is| inalienable, without a reservation of the! richt of redemption, or the authority ofi the leeislature. I

    INA'LIENABLENESS, n. The state of being inalienable. Scott.\\\\

    INALIENABLY, adv. In a manner thatl forbids alienation ; as rights inalienably, vested. ' |

    INALIMENT'AL, a. [in and aliment.] Af-I fording no nonrishinent. Bacon I


    ir, love.] Marston. Empty ; n, to ex- Lockt.

    INaLTERABIL'ITY, n. [from inaltcrahle.i

    The quality of not being alterable or

    changeable. Fourcroy.

    IN^L'TERABLE, a. [in and aUerabU.]

    That cannot or may not be altered or

    changed ; unalterable. HakeiciU.

    INA'MLABLE, a. Unamiable. [.Vo( in use.] INA'MIABLENESS, n. Unamiabknegg.

    [JVot in use.] INAMIS'SIBLE, a. [L. in and amitto, to

    lose.] Not to be lost. [Little used.]

    Hammond. INAMIS'SIBLENESS, n. The state of not

    being liable to be lost. INAMORATO, n. [L. in and

    A lover. INA'NE, a. [L. tnanu, empty

    void ; sometimes used as a

    press a void space. INANGULAR, a. Not angular. [Little

    used.] Brown.

    INANIMATE, v. t. [infra.] To animate.

    [Little used.] INAN'I.MATE, a. [L. inanimatus ; in and

    animo, animalus.]

    1. Destitute of animal life. Plants, stones and earth are inajiimale substances ; a corpse is an inanimate body.

    2. Destitute of animation or life. INAN'IMATED, a. Destitute of animal life.


    2. Not animated ; not sprightly. [See Vn- animated.]

    INANI'TION, ... [Fr. from L. inania, empty.]

    Emptiness ; want of fullness ; as inanition of body or of the vessels. Burton.

    IN.4N'ITY, n. [L. inanitas, from inanis, void.] Emptiness; void space ; vacuity. Digbu.

    INAP'PETENCE, ) [in and appetence, L

    INAP'PETENCY, ^ "■ appelentfa.] Want of appetence, or of a disposition to seek, select or imbibe nutriment. [See Appe- tence.]

    2. Want of desire or inclination. Cheyne.

    INAPPLICABILITY, n. [from inapplica- ble.] The quaUty of not being applicable ; unfitness.

    INAPPLICABLE, a. [in and applicable.] Not applicable ; that cannot be applied; not suited or suitable to the purpose. The argument or the testimony is inapplicable to the case.

    INAPPLICA TION, n. [Fr. ; in and appli- cation.]

    Want of application ; want of attention or assiduity ; neghgence ; indolence ; neg- lect of study or industry.

    INAPPOSITE, a. s as z. [in and apposite.] Not apposite ; not fit or suitable ; not per- tinent ; as an iiuipposite argument.

    INAPPRE'CIABLE, a. [in and appreciable, from appreciate.]

    1. Not to be appreciated ; that cannot bo duly valued.

    2. That cannot be estimated. Ure. INAPPREHENS IBLE. a. Xot intelligible.

    .Vilton. INAPPREIIENS'IVE, a. Not apprehens- egardless. Taylor.

    INAPPROACHABLE, a. [in and approach- able.] Not to be approached ; inaccessible. INAPPROPRIATE, a. [in and appropri- ate.] Not appropriate : unsuited ; not prop- er. J. P. Smith.

    I N A


    I N C

    2. Not appropriate; not belonging to.

    Med. Repos.

    INAPT'ITUDE, n. [in and aptitude.] Want of aptitude; unfitness; unsuitableness.


    INA'QUATE, a. [L. in and aqualus.] Em- bodied in water. Cranmer.

    INAaUA'TION, n. The state of being ina- quate. Gardner.

    INAR'ABLE, a. [in and arable.] Not ara- ble ; not capable of being plowed or tilled. Diet.

    IN ARCH, V. t. [in and arch.] To graft by approach ; to graft by uniting a cion to a stock without separating it from its parent tree. Miller. Encyc.

    IN>ARCHED, pp. Grafted by approach.

    IN'ARCHING, ppr. Grafting by approach.

    IN'ARCHING, n. A method of ingrafting, by which a cion, without being separated from its parent tree, is joined to a stock standing near. Encyc.

    INARTICULATE, a. [in and aHiculale.] Not uttered with articulation or junction of the organs of speech ; not articulate ; not distinct, or with distinction of sylla- bles. The sounds of brutes and fowls are, for the most part, inarticulate.

    INARTI€'ULATELY, adv. Not with dis- tinct syllables ; indistinetlv.

    INARTICULATENESS, n. Indistinctness of utterance by animal voices; want of distinct articulation.

    INARTleULA'TION, n. Indistinctness of sounds in speaking.

    INARTIFI"CIAL, a. [in and artificial.]

    1. Not done by art ; not made or pertbrmed by the rules of art ; formed without art ; as an inartificial style of composition.

    2. Simple ; artless. INARTIFI"CIALLY, adv. Without art;

    in an artless manner ; contrary to the rules of art. Collier.

    INATTEN'TION, n. [in and attention.] The want of attention, or of fixing the mind steadily on an object; heedlessness; neglect.

    Novel lays attract our ravisheJ ears, But old, the mind with inaitention hears.


    INATTENTIVE, o. [in and attentive.] Not fixing the mind on an object ; heedless; careless ; negligent ; regardless ; as an inattentive spectator or hearer; an inatten- tive habit. Watis.

    INATTENT'IVELY, adv. Without atten- tion ; carelessly ; heedlessly. Johnson.

    INAUD'IBLE, a. [in and audible.] That cannot be heard; as an inaudible voice or sound.

    9. Making no sound ; as the inaudible foot of time. Shnk.

    INAUU'IBLY, adv. In a manner not to be

    heard. Colebrooke.

    INAUG'URAL, a. [h.inauguro; in and au-

    the college of augurs. Kings and empe- rors are inaugurated by coronation ; a prelate, by consecration ; and the presi- dent of a college by such ceremonies and forms as give weight and authority to the transaction.

    2. To begin with good omens. [JVbt used.] fVotton.

    INAUG'URATE, a. Invested with office.


    INAUG'URATED, pp. Inducted into office with appropriate ceremonies.

    INAUGURATING, ppr. Inducting into office with solemnities.

    INAUGURA'TION, n. The act of induct- ing into office with solemnity ; investi- ture with office by appropriate ceremo- nies.

    INAUG'URATORY, a. Suited to induction into office ; pertaining to inauguration : as inauguratoi-y gratnlations.

    Johnson's Lives of the Poets.

    INAURA'TION, n. [L. inauro, inauratus ; in and aurum, gold.]

    The act or process of gilding, or covering with gold. Arbuthnot.

    INAUS'PI€ATE. a. Ill omened. Buck.

    IMAUSPU'CIOUS, a. [in and auspicious.] Ill omened ; unfortunate; unlucky; evil; imfavorable. The war commenced at an inauspicious time, and its issue was inaus- picious. The counsels of a bad man have an inauspicious influence on society.

    INAUSPI"0IOUSLY, adv. With ill omens ; unfortunately ; unfavorably.

    INAUSPP'CIOUSNESS, n. Unluckiness; unfavorableness.

    IN'BEING, n. [in and being.] Inherence ; inherent existence ; inseparableness.


    IN'BORN, a. [in and born.] Innate; im- planted by nature ; as inborn passions ; inborn worth. Dryden. Addison.

    IN'BREATIIED, a. [in and breathe.] Infu- sed by inspiration. Milton.

    IN'BRED, a. [in and bred, breed.] Bred within; innate; natural; as in6re(/ worth ; inbred affection. Diyden.

    INBREE'D, V. t. To produce or generate within. Bp. Reynolds.

    IN'€A, n. The name or title given by the natives of Peru to their kings and to the princes of the blood, before the conquest of that country by the Spaniards.

    IN€A'GE, v.t. [in and cag-c] To confine in a cage; to coop up ; to confine to any narrow limits. Shak.

    1N€A'GED, pp. Cooped up ; confined to a cage or to narrow limits.

    INCA'GING, ppr. Confining to a cage or to narrow limits.

    IN€A'GEMENT, n. Confinement in a


    mg to niaugur

    ; as inaugural

    2. Made or pronounced at an inauguration as an inaugural a

    INAUG'URATE, v. t. [supra.] To intro- duce or induct into an office with solem nity or suitable ceremonies; to invest with an office in a formal manner ; a word bor- rowed from the ceremonies used by the Romans when they were received into



    IN€AL'€ULABLE, a. That cannot be cal culated ; beyond calculation.

    INCALCULABLY, adv. In a degree be youd calculation.

    INCALES'CENCE, ? . [L. incakscens, in

    INCALES'CENCY, S calesco ; in and ca lesco, caleo, to be hot.]

    A growing warm.; incipient or increasing heat. Ray

    INCALES'CENT, a. Growing warm ; in- creasing in heat.

    INCAMERA'TION, n. [in and chamber, or arched roof.]

    The act or process of uniting lands, revenup? or other rights to the pope's domain.


    INCANDES'CENCE, n. [L. incandescens, incandesco ; in and candesco ; candeo, can- eo, to be white, to shine ; canus, white.]

    A white heat; or the glowing whiteness of a borly caused by intense heat. We say, a metal is heated to incandescence.

    INCANDES'CENT, a. White or glowing with heat.

    INCANTA'TION, n. [L. incantatio, incan- to ; in and canto, to sing.]

    |The act of enchanting; enchantment; the act of using certain ibrmulas of words and ceremonies, for the purpose of raising spirits. Encyc. Bacon.

    INCANT'ATORY, a. Dealing by enchant- ment ; magical. Brown.

    INCANT'ING, a. Enchanting. [JVot used.]

    INCAN'TON, V. t. [in and canton.] To

    unite to a canton or separate community.


    INCAPABIL'ITY, ? [from incapable.]

    INCA'PABLENESS, ^ "' The quality of being incapable ; natural incapacity or want of power ; as the incapableness of a child to comprehend logical syllogisms.

    2. Want of legal qualifications or of legal power ; as the incapability of holding an office.

    INCA'PABLE, a. [Fr.; in and capable.]

    1. Wanting capacity sufficient ; not having room sufficient to contain or hold ; fol- lowed by of. We say, a vessel is incapable o/'containing or holding a certain quan- tity of liquor; but I believe we rarely or never say, a vessel is incapable of that quantity.

    2. Wanting natural power or capacity to learn, know, understand or comprehend. Man is incapable of comprehending the essence of the Divine Being. An idiot is incapable of learning to read.

    3. Not admitting ; not in a state to receive; not susceptible of; as, a bridge is incapa- ble of reparation.

    4. Wanting power equal to any purpose.

    Is not year father grown incapable Of reasonable affairs? Shak. [See No. 2.] . AVanting moral power or disposition. He is incapable of a dishonorable act.

    G. Unqualified or disqualified, in a legal ■sense ; not having the legal or constitu- tional qualifications. A man not thirty years of age is unqualified, and therefore incapable of holding the office of ])resident of the United States ; a man convicted on impeachment is disqualified, and there- fore incapable of holding any office ot* honor or i)rofit under the government.

    Incapable properly denotes a want of passive power, the power of receiving, and is ap- plicable particularly to the mind; unable denotes the want of active power or pow- er of performing, and is applicable to the body or the mind. [See Incapacity.]

    INCAPA'CIOUS, a. [in and capacious.] Not capacious ; not large or spacious ; narrow; of small content; as an incapa- cious soul. Burnet.

    INCAPA'CIOUSNESS, n. Narrowness ; want of containing space.

    INCAPACITATE, v. t. [in and capacitate.]

    I. To deprive of capacity or natural power

    I N C

    of learning, knowing, understanding or (ierfoi ining. Old age and infirmity often incapacitate men to exercise the otfice of

    I N C

    3. In surgery, the process of heahng wounds Encyc.

    a judge.

    Q. To render or make incapable ; as, infan cy incapacitates a child for learning alge bra.

    3. To disable ; to weaken ; to deprive of competent power or ability. This is an improper use of the word. The loss of an arm disables a soldier, but does not ' capacitate him.

    4. To render unfit ; as, infancy incapacitates one for marriage.

    5. To disqualify ; to deprive of legal or con- stitutional requisites; as, conviction of a crime incapacitates one to be a witness.

    INCAPACITA'TION, n. Want of capacity; disqualification. Burke.

    INCAPACITY, n. [in and capacity.] Want of capacity, intellectual power, or the power of receiving, containing or under- standing; applied to the mind, and it may be natural or casual. There is a natural incapacity in children to comprehend dif- ficult propositions in logic or metaphysics, and a natural incapacity in men to com- prehend the nature of spiritual beings. The defect of understanding proceeding from intoxication, or from an injury done to tlie brain, is a casual incapacity.

    2. Want of qualification or legal requisites; inability ; as the incapacity of minors to make binding contracts.

    3. Disqualification ; disability by deprivation of power; as the incapacity of a convict to give testimony in a court of law.

    INe^ARCERATE, y. t. [L incarccro ; in and career, a prison, Sp. carcel, Sax. carcmrn, Goth, karkara, G. U. kerker, W. carcar. Career seems to be allied to W. care, Eng. cark, care ; showing that the prima- ry sense is to press or strain.]

    1. To imprison ; to confine in a jail.

    2. To confine; to shut up or inclose.

    Harrct). INCARCERATE, a. lini.risoned ; confi- ned. More. INCARCERA'TION, n. The act of impris- oning or confining ; imprisonment. IN€"ARN, V. t. [L. incarno ; in and caro,

    carnis, flesh.] To cover with flesh ; to invest with flesh.

    tViseman INC>ARN, 1'. i. To breed flesh. fTisetnan INC^ARNADINE, a. [Fr. incamadin ; It

    incarnatino ; L. in and caro, flesh.] Flesh-colored ; of a carnation color ; pal<

    red. Shak

    INCARNADINE, v. t. To dye red or

    flesh-color. [Little used.] IN€'ARNATE, v. t. [Fr. incarner ; Sp.

    carnar ; It. incarnare ; L. incarno ; in and

    caro, flesh.] To clothe vvitli flesh ; to embody in flesh.

    Milton. Asiat. Res. INC^ARNATE, a. Invested with flesh ; em

    bodied in flesh ; as the incarnate Son

    of God. 2. In Scotland, of a red color; flesh-colored IN€ARNA'TION, n. The act of clothing

    with flesh. 2. The act of assuming flesh, or of takin;

    human body and the nature of man;

    the incarnation of the Son of God.

    surgi fillit

    and filling the part with new flesh.

    INC'ARNATIVE, a. [Fr. incamatif.] Cans

    ing new flesh to grow ; healing. Encyc.

    INC'ARNATIVE, n. A medicine that tends

    to promote the growth of new flesh, and

    assist nature in tlie healing of wounds.


    INCA'SE, V. I. [in and case.] To inclose in


    2. To inclose ; to cover or surround with something solid.

    Rich plates of gold Uic folding doors incase. Poite.

    IN€A'SED, pp. Inclosed as in a case, sheath or box.

    iN€A'SING, ppr. Inclosing as in a case.

    INC ASK, V. t. To put into a cask.


    INCASTELLATED, a. Confined or inclo- sed in a castle.

    INCATENA'TION, n. [L. catena, a chain.] The act of linking together. Goldsmith.

    IN€AU'TIOUS, a. [in and cautious.] Not cautious ; unwary ; not circumspect ; heedless ; not attending to the circumstan- ces on which safety and interest depend ; as incautious youth.

    INCAUTIOUSLY, adv. Unwarily ; heed- ly ; without due circumspection.

    INCAU'TIOUSNESS, n. Want of caution ; un wariness; want of forosight.

    IN'CAVATED, a. [L. in and cai'o, to make hollow.] Made hollow; bent round or in.

    INCAVA'TION, n. The act of making hol- low.

    3. A hollow made.

    INCEND', D. <. [L.incendo.] To inflame;

    to excite. [Little used.] Marston.

    INCEND'IARY, n. [L. incendiarius, from

    incendo, to burn ; in and candeo, to shine,

    or be on fire.]

    1. A person wlio maliciously sets fire to another man's dwelling house, or to any outhouse, being parcel of the same, as a barn or stable ; one who is guilty of arson.

    2. Any per.son who sets fire to a building.

    3. A person who excites or inflames fac tions, and promotes quarrels.

    Several cities of Greece drove them out as in- cendiaries. Bentley.

    Incendiaries of figure and distinction, who are the inventors and publishers of gross false- hoods, cannot be regarded but with the utmost detestation. Addison

    4. He or that which excites. INCEND'IARY, a. Pertaining to the ma

    licious burning of a dwelling ; as an incen

    diary purpose. 2. Tending to excite or inflame factions, se

    dition or quarrels. IN'CENSE, 7!. in'cens. [L.inccHSum, burnt,'

    from incendo, to biu-n ; It. incejiso ; Fr.


    1. Perfume exhaled by fire ; the odors of spices and gums, burnt in religious rites, or as an offering to some deity.

    A thick cloud" of incense went up. Ezek

    2. The materials burnt for making perfumes The incense used in the Jewish offerings was a mixture of sweet spices, stacte, ony- cha, gnlbanum, and the gum of the frank- incense tree.


    Nadab and Abiliu, tlie sons of Aaron, took ei- ther of them his censer, and put fire therein and put incense tliereon. Lev. x.

    3. Acceptable prayers and praises. Mai. i.

    4. In the Materia Medico, a di-y resinous sub- stance known by the name of thus and olibanum. Encye.

    I.N'CENSE, I', t. in'cens. To perfume with incense. In the Romish church, it is the deacon's office to ijtcense the officiating priest or prelate, and the choir. Encyc. INCENSE, V. t. incens.' To enkindle or in- flame to violent anger; to excite angry ])assions ; to provoke ; to irritate ; to ex- asperate ; to heat ; to fire. It expresses less than enrage. How could my pious son thy power incense ? Dryden. INCENS'ED, pp. Inflamed to violent an- ger ; exasperated. INCENSEMENT, n. incens' ment. Violent irritation of the pa.ssions ; heat; exaspe- ration. It expresses less than rag'c and furxj. Sliak.

    INCE.\\\\S'ING, ppr. Inflaming to anger ; ir- ritating ; exasperating. INCEX'SION, 71. [L. incensio, frortl tncen-

    do, to burn.]

    The act of kindling ; the state of being on

    firo. Bacon.

    INCENS'IVE, a. Tending to excite orpro-

    oke. Barrow.

    INCENS'OR, 71. [L.] A kindler of anger ;

    inflamer of the angry passions. INCENSORY, II. The vessel in which in- cense is burnt and oflTered. [We general- ly use censer.] Ainsworth. INCEN'TIVE, a. [Low L. incentivus, from incendo, to burn.] Inciting ; encouraging or moving.

    Competency is the most incentive toindiislr>-. Decay of Piety . INCEN'TIVE, n. [Low L. incentivum.] . That which kindles or inflames; used now in a figurative sense only. 3. That which moves the mind or operates on the passions; that which incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action ; that which prompts to good or ill ; motive ; spur. The love of money, and the desire of promotion, are two most ))owprful incentives to action. INCEPTION, 11. [L. inceplio, from incipio, :o begin ; in and capio, to take.] Begin- ning. Bacon. I hope this society will not be marked with vivacity of inception, apathy of progress, and |)rcnialurcness of decay. Rawle. INCEPTIVE, a. [L. inceptivus, from inci- pio, to begin.] Beginning; noting beginning; as an incep- tive proposition ; an inceptive verb, which expresses the beginning of action.

    A point is inceptive of a line, and a hne is m-

    crptiec of a surface.

    INCEP'TOR, n. A beginner; one in the

    rudiments. HaJton.

    IXCERA'TION, ti. [L. incero, from cera.]

    The act of covering with wax. INCER'TAIN, a. [in and certain.] Uncer- tain ; (loulilliil ; iinsteadv. Fairfax. I.N( F.RTAINLY, adv. Doubtfully. INCEP. TAINTY, n. Uncertaintv; doubt. Davies. INCERTITUDE, n. [L. incertUudo, from incerlus ; in and certus, cenain.] Uncer- taintv ; doubtfulness; doubt.


    INCES'SABLE, a. Unceasing ; continual, [Little used.] SIMon

    INCES'SANCY, n. [from incessant.] Unm- termitted continuance ; unceasingness.


    INCESSANT, a. [L. in and cessans, fVon: cesso, to cease.]

    Unceasing; unintermitted ; uninterrupted continual; as incessant rains; incessant clamors. Mlton. Pope.

    INCES'SANTLY, adv. Without ceasnig; continually. Spenser.

    IN'CEST, n. [Fr. inceste ; L. tncestum ; m and castus, chaste.]

    The crime of cohabitation or sexual com- merce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by the law of a country.

    Spiritual incest, is a like crime committed between persons who have a spiritual alli- ance by means of baptism or confirma- tion. It is also understood of a vicar oi other beneficiary, who holds two benefices, the one depending on the collation of the other. Encyc.

    INCEST'UOUS, a. Guilty of incest ; as an incestuous person.

    2. Involving the crime of incest ; as an in cestuous connection.

    INCEST'UOUSLY, adv. In an incestuous manner; in a manner to involve the crime of incest.

    INCEST'UOUSNESS, n. The state or qual- ity of being incestuous. Bp. Hall

    INCH, n. [Sax. ince ; L. uncia, the twelfth part ; Gr. my/ia, but said to be from the Latin.]

    1. A lineal measure in Great Britam and the United States, being the twelfth part of a foot, and equal to the length of three bar- ley corns.

    2. Proverbially, a small quantity or degree ; as, to die by inches ; to gain ground by in- ches.

    a A precise point of time.

    Beldame, I think, we watch'd you at an inch. [ Unusual.] ^'"''^■

    INCH, V. t. To drive by inches or small de- grees. [Little used.] Dnjden.

    3. To deal out by inches ; to give sparingly. [LUtle used.] Ainsworlh.

    INCH, V. i. To advance or retire by small degrees. [Little used.] Johnson.

    Inched, is added to words of number ; as four-inched. Shak.

    ' But in America the. common practice is to add only inch ; as a seven-inch cable. INCHAR'lf ABLE, a. Uncharitable. [The

    latter is the word ttserf.] INCHAS'TITY, n. [in &nA chastity.] Lewd ness ; impurity ; unchastity.

    J. Edwards. INCHEST', 1'. t. To put into a chest.


    INCH'-MEAL, n. [inch and meal.] A piece

    an int-li long. Shak

    IN'CHOATE, V. t. [L. inchoo.] To begin

    [Utile used.] More.

    IN'CHOATE, a. Begun; commenced.

    It is neither a substance perfect, nor a sub- stance inchoate. Raleigh IN'CHOATELY, adv. In an incipient de- gree. JNCHOA'TION, n. The act of beginning commencement: inception.


    The setting on foot some of those arts in those parts, would be looked on as the first in- ch'ialion of them. [iJHk used.] Hale.

    INCHO'ATIVE, a. Noting beginning; in- ceptive ; as an inchoative verb, otherwise called inceptive.

    INCI'DE, v.t [L. incirfo; in and ca:do, to strike.]

    To cut ; to separate ; as medicines. Ohs.

    (^incij. Arbuthnol.

    IN'CIDENCE, n. [h. incidens; incido,X<. fall on ; in and cado, to fall.]

    \\\\. Literally, a falling on ; whence, an acci dent or casualty. Shak.

    i. The manner of falling on, or the direction in which one body falls on or strikes an- other. The angle which the line of fall- ing, or the direction of a moving body striking another, makes with the plane struck, is called the angle of incidence. When rays of light striking a body are re- flected, the angle of incidence and the an- gle of reflection are equal.

    In equal incidences there is a considerable in- equality of refiaclions. Mewton.

    IN'CIDENT, a. Falling ; casual ; fortui- tous ; coming or happening occasionally, or not in the usual course of things, or not according to expectation or in connection with the main design.

    As the ordinary course of common aflaii disposed of by general laws, so man's rarer cident necessities and utilities should be with special equity considered. Hooker.

    A proposition introduced by who, ivhich, whose, whom, &c. is called an incident pro- position ; as, Julius, whose surname was Cesar, overcame Pompey. Jfatts.

    3. Happening ; apt to happen ; as intempe

    rate passions

    incident to human nature

    I N C

    INCINERATION, n. The act of reducing to ashes by combustion. Boyle. Encyc.

    INCIP'IENCY, n. Beginning ; commence- ment.

    INCIP'lENT, a. [L. incipiens, incipio ; in and capio, to take.]

    Beginning ; commencing ; as the incipient tage of a fever ; incipient light or day.

    INCIR'€LET, n. A small circle. Sidney.

    INCIRCUMS€RIP'T1BLE, a. That can- not be circumscribed or limited.


    INCIR€UMSPEe'TION, n. fire and cir- cumspection.] Want of circumspection ; heedlessness. Brown.

    INCI'SE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. inciter.] To cut to carve. Carew.

    INCrSED, a. [L, indma, from incido, to cut.]

    Cut ; made by cutting ; as an incised wound ; incised lips. Wiseman.

    INCrSELY, adv. In the manner of inci- sions or notches. Eaton.

    INCIS'ION, n. s as z. [Fr. ; L. incisio, from incido, to cut.]

    \\\\. A cutting;, the act of catting into a sub- stance.

    3. A cut; a gash ; the separation of the sur- face of any substance made by a sharp in- strument. The surgeon with his knife makes an incision in the flesh, and the gardener, in a tree ; but we do not say, an incision is made with a plow or a spade ; at least such phraseology is unu- sual.

    3. Separation of viscid matter by medicines. Obs. Bacon.

    INCI'SIVE, a. [Fr. i7icisif.] Having the

    diseases incident to a climate ; misfortunes

    incident to the poor. 3. Appertaining to or following the chief or

    principal. A court baron is incident to a

    manor. Encyc.

    IN'CIDENT, n. That which falls out ; an

    event ; casualty. 3. That which happens aside of the main

    design ; an episode or subordinate action. No person, no incident in a play but must

    be of use to carry on the main design .

    Dryden INCIDENT' AL, a. Happening ; coining

    without design ; casual ; accidental ; at

    an incidental conversation ; an incidental

    occurrence. 3. Not necessary to the chief purpose ; oc


    By some persons, religious duties appear to be regarded as an incidental business.

    INCIDENTAL, n. An incident. [Little sed.] Pope

    INCIDENTALLY, adv. Casually ; without intention ; accidentally. I was incidental- ly present when the conversation tooli place. 3. Beside the main design ; occasionally.

    I treat either purposely or incidentally of

    colors. £oyle.

    IN'CIDENTLY, adv. Occasionally; by

    the way. [jVo' used.] Bacon.

    INCIN'E'RATE, v.t. [L. in and ct/iis, cineris,

    ashes.] To burn to ashes. Bacon.

    INCINERATED, pp. Burnt to ashes.

    INCIN'ERATING, ppr. Reducing to ashes

    by combustion.

    quality of cutting or separating the super- ficial part of any thing.

    Incisive teeth, in animals, are the fore teeth, the cutters.'

    INCI'SOR, n. [L.] A cutter; a fore tooth, which cuts, bites or separates.

    INCI'SORY, a. Having the quality of cut-

    INCIS'URE, n. [L. incisura.] A cut; a place opened by cutting ; an incision.


    INCI'TANT, n. [from incite.] That which excites action in an animal body.

    Darwin. INCITA'TION, n. [L. incitatio. See In- cite.]

    1. The act of inciting or moving to action; incitement. Brown.

    2. Incitement ; incentive ; motive ; that which excites to action ; that which rous- es or prompts. Government of the Tongue.

    INCI'TE, V. t. [L. incito; in and cito, to call,

    to stir up.] I. To move the mind to action by persua- sion or motives presented ; to stir up ; to rouse ; to spur on.

    Antiochus, when he incited Prusias to join ill war, set before him the greatness of the Ro- mans. Bacon.

    3. To move to action by impulse or influ- ence.

    No blown ambition does our arms incite.

    Shak. 3. To animate ; to encourage. INCITED, pp. Moved to action; stirred up ; spurred on.

    I N C

    I N C

    I N C

    INCI'TEMENT, n. That which incites the miml or moves to action ; motive ; incen- tive ; iuii)ulse.

    from Lhe long records of a distant age, Derive incUements to renew thy rage.

    Pope. INCI'TER, 71. He or that which incites or

    moves to action. INCI'TING, j)pr. E.\\\\citing to action; stir-

    In general, incite denotes to operate on the mind or will ; excite has the same sense but it extends also to the passions and tc material substances ; as, to excite action ii the heart and arteries.

    INCIV'lL, a. \\\\in and civil.] Uncivil ; rude unpolite. [But uncioii is generally used.]

    INCIVIL'ITY, n. [Fr. incivilM.] Want of courtesy ; rudeness of manners towards others; impoliteness. TUlotson.

    2. Any act of rudeness or ill breeding ; urUk a plural. Loud laughter and uncomely jests in respectable company, are incivili- ties and indecencies.

    INCIV'ILLY, adv. Uncivilly ; rudely,

    INCIV'ISM, n. [in and civism.] Want of civism; want oV love to one's country or of patriotism ; unfriendliness to the state or government of which one is a citizen.


    INCL'ASP, V. t. To clasp ; to hold fast.


    IN'€LAVATED, a. Set ; fast fixed. Diet.

    IN'€LE, n. A kind of tape made of linen yarn. Encyc.

    IN€LEM'ENCY, n. [Fr. inciemence; L inclementia. See Clemency.]

    1. Want of clemency ; want of mildness of temper ; unmercifulness ; harshness ; se- verity ; applied to persons.

    2. Roughness ; boisterousness ; storminess or simply raininess ; severe cold, &c.; ap- plied to the weather. We were detained by the inclemency of the weather.

    INeLEM'ENT, o. Destitute of a mild and kind temper ; void of tenderness ; unmer- ciful ; severe ; harsh.

    2. Rough ; stormy ; boisterous ; rainy ; rig- orously cold, &c. ; as inclement weather ; inclement sky. Pope

    IN€LI'NABLE, a. [L. inclinabilis. Set Incline.] .

    1. Leaning; tending; as a tower inclinable to fall. Bentley.

    2. Having a propensiou of will ; leaning in disposition; somewhat disposed; as a mind inclinable to truth. Milton.

    IN€LINA'T10N, re. [Fr. from L. inclinatio. See Incline.]

    1. A leaning ; any deviation of a body or lint from an upright position, or from a paral lei line, towards another body ; as the in clination of the head in bowing.

    9^ In geometry, the angle made by two lines or planes that meet; as, the inclinalion of axis of the earth to the plane of the eclip

    4. Love ; affection ; regard ; desire ; with for. Some men have an inclination for

    music, otliersySr painting.

    5. Disposition of mind. Shak.

    6. The dip of the magnetic needle, or its tendency to incline towards the earth ; also, the angle made by the needle with the horizon. Enfield.

    7. The act of decanting liquors by stooping or inclining the vessel. Quincy.

    INCLI'NATORILY, adv. Obliquely ; with inclination. Broivn.

    INCLI'NATORY, a. Having the quality of raning or inclining. Brown.

    INCLI'NK, V. i. [L. inclino ; in and clino, Gr. xXiru, Sax. hlinian, hleonian, hlynian, Eng. to lean, G. lehnen, D. leunen, Russ. klonyu and nakloniayu, Ir. cleonaim ; Fr. inclhier ; Port. Sp. inclinar ; It. inclinare, inchinare, chinare. Class Ln.]

    1. To lean; to deviate from an erect or par allel line toward any object ; to tend Converging lines incline toward each oth

    3. A leaning of the mind or will ; propen- sion or propensity ; a disposition more fa- vorable to one thing than to another. The prince has no inclination to peace. The bachelor has manifested no inclination toj marry. Men have a natural inclination to'^ pleasure. |

    A mere inclination to a thing is not properly a willing of that thing. South.

    A road inclines to the north or soutl Connecticut river runs south, inclining in some part of its course to the west, ant below Middletown, it inclines to the east.

    2. To lean ; in a moral sense ; to have a pro- pension ; to be dispo.-ied : to have some wish or desire.

    Tlieir hearts inclined to follow Abimelech Judges ix.

    3. To have an appetite ; to be disposed ; as to be inclined to eat.

    INCLI'NE, V. t. To cause to deviate from an erect, perpendicular or parallel line ; to give a leaning to ; as, incline the column or post to the east ; incline your head to the right.

    2. To give a tendency or propension to the will or affections ; to turn ; to dispose.

    Incline our hearts to keep this Uw.

    Common Prayer. Incline my heart to thy testimonies. Ps. cxix.

    3. To bend ; to cause to stoop or bow ; as, to incline the head or the body in acts of reverence or civihty.

    INCLINED, pp. Having a leaning or ten

    dency ; disposed. Inclined plane, in mechanics, is a plane that

    makes an oblique angle with the plane of

    the horizon ; a sloping plane. IN€LI'NEK, 71. An inclined dial. INCLINING, ppr. Leaning ; causing tc

    lean. IN€LI NING, a. Leaning. INCLIl", V. I. [in and clip.] To grasp ; tc

    inclose ; to surround. Slia}(

    IN€LOIS'TER, v. t. [in and cloister.] To

    shut up or confine in a cloister. [But

    cloister is generally used.] INCLO'SE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. enclos ; Sp. It-

    incluso ; L. inclusus, indudo ; in and clan- do, or cludo.]

    1. To surround ; to shut in ; to confine or all sides ; as, to inclose a field with a fence ; to inclose a fort or an army with troops ; to inclose a town with walls.

    2. To separate from common grounds by a fence ; as, to inclose lands.

    3. To include ; to shut or confine ; as, to inclose trinkets in a box.

    4. To environ ; to encompass.

    5. To cover with a wrapper or envelop ; to \\\\ cover under seal ; as, to inclose a letter or I a bank note.

    INCLO'SED, pp. Surroimded ; encompass- ed ; confined on all sides ; covered and ! sealed ; fenced.

    ,IN€LO'SER, n. He or that which incloses : ne who separates land from common rounds by a fence. INCLO'SIN'G, ppr. Surrounding ; encom- passing ; shutting in; covering and con- fining. IN€LO'SURE, n. The act of inclosing.

    2. The separation of land from common ground into distinct possessions by a fence.

    3. The appropriation of things common. Taylor.

    4. State of being inclosed, shut up or eu- conipassed. Rai/.

    5. A space inclosed or fenced ; a space com- prehended within certain limits.

    6. Ground inclosed or separated from com- mon land.

    7. That which is inclosed or contained in an envelop, as a paper. fVashington.

    IN€LOUD', V. t. [in and cloud.] To darken ; to obscure. Shak.

    INCLOUD'ED, pp. Involved in obscurity. llNeLOUD'ING, ppr. Darkening ; obscur- I ing.

    INCLU'DE, i: t. [L. inclujo ; in and dudo, to shut up ; Fr. £;ic/orre.]

    1. To confine within; to hold ; to contain; as, the shell of a nut includes the kernel; a pearl is included in a shell. [But in these senses we more commonly use i7t- close.]

    i. To comprise ; to comprehend ; to contain. The history of England necessarily tu- cludes a portion of that of France. The word duty, includes what we owe to God, to our fellow men, and to ourselves ; it in- cludes also a tax payable to the govern- ment.

    INCLU'DED, pp. Contained ; comprehend- ed.

    INCLUDING, ppr. Containing ; compris- ing.

    LNCLU'SION, 71. s as z. [L. inclusio.] The act of including.

    INCLU'SIVE, a. [Fr. inclusif] Inclosing ; encircling. Shak.

    |2. Comprehended in the number or sum ; as from Monday to Saturday i/iclusive, that is, taking in both Monday and Satur-

    I day.

    INCLU'SIVELY, adv. Comprehending the

    j thing mentioned ; as from Monday to Saturdav inclusively.

    INCOAGULABLE, a. [in and coagulable.]

    I That cannot be coagulated or concreted.

    [INCOER'CIBLE, a. [in and coercible, from

    1 coerce.]

    Not to be coerced or compelled ; that can-

    1 not be forced. Black.

    JINCOEXIST'ENCE, n. [in and coexist-

    1 ence.] A not existing together. [M>f common.] Locke.

    INCOG', adv. [contracted from incognito.] In concealment ; in disguise ; in a manner not to be known. INCOG'ITANCY, 71. [L. incogUantia ; in

    and eogito, to think.] Want of thought, or want of the power of thinking. Decay of Piety.


    IN€0(i'ITANT, a. Not thinking; tliouglit-l less. MitlonJ

    lN€0{i'ITANTLY, adv. Without consid- eration. BoyleJ

    IN€OG'ITATIVE, a. [in and cogitative.y Not thinking ; wanting the power ofl thought ; as, a vegetable is an incogilative. being. Locke.

    INCOG'NITO, adv. [L. incognitus ; in and cognitus, known.] In concealment; in a disguise of the real person.

    INCOGN'IZABLE, a. incon'izabk. [in and cognizable.]

    That cannot be recognized, known or dis- tinguished.

    The Lettish race, not a primitive stock of the Shivi, but a distinct branch, now become incog- nizable— Tooke.


    1. Want of coherence; want of cohesion or adherence ; looseness or unconnected state of jiarts, as of a powder. Boyle.]

    2. Wantof connection; incongruity; incon- sistency ; want of agreement, or tlepcnd- ence of one part on another; as the inco- herence of arguments, facts or principles.

    3. Inconsistency ; that which does not agree with other parts of the same thing.

    INCOHE'RENT, a. [in and coherent.]'.

    1. Wanting cohesion ; loose ; unconnected ;i not fixed to each other ; applied to mate-\\\\ rial substances. H'oodivard.l

    2. Wanting coherence or agreement ; incon-j gruous; inconsistent; having no depend- ence of one part on another ; as, the thoughts of a dreaming man, and the lan- guage of a madman, are incoherent.

    IN€OHE'RENTLY, adv. Inconsistently; without coherence of parts; as, to talk! incoherenllu. INCOIN'CIDENCE, n. [in and coincidence.]

    Want of coincidence or agreement. INCOIN'CIDENT, a. [in and coincident.] Not coincident ; not agreeing in time, place or principle. INCOLU'MITY, Ji. [L.incohtmitas.] Safe- ty; securitv. Howell. IN€OMBl'NE, V. i. To differ, [informed.] Milton. INCOMBUSTIBIL'ITV, n. [from incom- bustible.] The quality of being incapable of being burnt or consumed. Ray. INeOMBUST'IBLE, a. [in and combustible.] Not to be burnt, decomposed or consumed by fire. Amianth is an incombustible sub stance. INeOMBUST'IBLENESS, n. Incombust

    ibility. IN'€OME, n. in'cum. [in and co7ne.] That gain which proceeds from labor, business or property of any kind ; the produce of a farm; the rent of houses; the proceeds of professional business; the profits of com merce or of occupation ; the interest of money or stock in funds. Income is often used synonymously with revenue, but come is more generally applied to the gain of private persons, and revenue to that of| a sovereign or of a state. We speak of the annual income of a gentleman, and the annual rtveiiue of the state. 2. A coming in; admission; introduction.'

    [JVbf in use.] IN'eOMING, a. Coming in. Burke.^


    [in and come.] Income ;



    Many incomings are subject to great fluctua- tions. Tooke

    INCOMMENSURABIL'ITY, n. [from in- commensurable.]

    The quality or state of a thing, when it has no common measure with another thing, or when the same thing will not exactly measure both.

    INCOMMEN'SURABLE, a. [in and coni- mensurable.]

    Having no common measure. Two lines are incommensurable, when, compared to each other, they have no common meas- ure, that is, no measure that will exactly measure both. Quantities are incommen- surable, when no third quantity can be found that is an aliquot part of both.


    INeOMMEN'SURATE, a. [in anA commen- surate.]

    1. Not admitting of a common measure. More.

    2. Not of equal measure or extent ; not ade- quate. Our means are incommensurate to our wants

    INCOMMEN'SURATELY, adv. Not in equal or due measure or proportion


    IN€OMMlS'CIBLE, a. [in and ' '

    That cannot be commixed or nuitually mixed.

    INCOMMIX'TURE, n. A state of being unmixed. Bi

    INeOMMO'DE, II. t. [L. incommodo and commodo, con and modus.]

    To give inconvenience to ; to give trouble to ; to disturb or molest in the quiet enjoy ment of something, or in the facility of ac quisition. It denotes less than annoy, vex or harass. We are incommoded by of room to sit at ease. Visits of strangers at unseasonable hours, incommode a fam Often we are incommoded by a fashionable dress.

    meOMMO'DED, pp. Put to inconveni- ence ; molested.

    IN€OMMO'DING,p;>r. Subjecting to troub- le or inconvenience.

    IXeOMMO'DIOUS, a. [L. incommodus.] Inconvenient; not affording ease or ad vantage; unsuitable; giving trouble, with out much injury. A seat in church, or the site of a house may be incommodious.

    INCOMMODIOUSLY, adv. In a manner to create inconvenience; inconveniently unsuitably.

    IN€0Mm6 DIOUSNESS, n. Inconveni- ence ; unsuitiibleness

    IN€OMMOD'ITY, n. [Ft. incommodite ; L. incommodilas.] Inconvenience; trouble. [jVbw lillle tised.] Bacon.


    INCOMMU'NICABLENESS, ^ incommunicahle.] The quality of not be ing communicable, or capable of beingl imparted to another.

    INeOMMU'NIGABLE, a. [in and

    nicable.] I

    1. That cannot be connniuiicatcd or impart- ed to others.

    2. That cannot or may not be communica- ted, told or revealed to others. Soulh.\\\\


    I N C

    IN€OMMU'Nl€ABLY, adv. In a manner not to be imparted or comnnmicated.


    IN€OMMU'Nl€ATED, a. Not imparted.

    IN€OMMU'NICATlNG, a. Having no com- munion or intercourse with each other ; as an administration in incommunicating liands. Hale.

    INCOMMUNICATIVE, a. Not communi- cative ; not free or apt to impart to oth- ers in conversation.

    2. Not disposed to hold communion, fellow- ship or intercourse with.

    The Chinese — an incommunicative nation. Buchanan.

    INCOMMUTABIL'ITY, > The quahty

    INCOMMU'TABLENESS, \\\\ "of being in- commutable.

    INCOMMUTABLE, a. [in and commuta- bte.]

    Not to be exchanged or commuted with another.

    INCOMMU'TABLY, adv. Without recipro- cal change. Ch. Relig. Appeal.

    INCOMPACT', > [in and compact]

    INCOMPACT'ED, \\\\ "• Not compact ; not

    having the parts firmly united ; not solid.


    INCOMPARABLE, a. [in anA comparable.] TJiat admits of no comparison with oth- ers ; usually in a good sense, but it may be properly used in a bad sense. When we say," an incomparable man, we mean a man of good qualities, or of some excellence that raises him above comparison or equal- ity with others. So we say, incomparable excellence, virtue, wit, &c. But incom- parable baseness or malignity may be used vvitli propriety.

    INCOM'PARABLENESS, n. Excellence beyond comparison.

    INCOM'PARABLY, adv. Beyond compari- son ; without competition. Newton was incomparably the greatest philosopher the English nation had produced.

    INCOMPA'RED, a. Not matched ; peer- less. Spenser.

    INCOMPAS'SIONATE, a. [in and com- passionate.]

    Void of compassion or pity ; destitute of ten- derness. Johnson.

    INCOMPAS'SIONATELY, adv. Without pity or tenderness.

    INCOMPAS'SIONATENESS, n. Want of pitv. Granger.

    INCOMPATIBILITY, n. [from incompati- ble.]

    1. Inconsistency ; that quality or state of a thing wliich renders it impossible that it should subsist or be consistent with some- thing else. There is a permanent incom- patibility between truth ami lalseljood.

    2. Irreconcilable disagreement. Dining the revolution in France, inrniiipalUnlili/ ot' temper was deemed a suliii iint cause for divorcing man and wife.

    INCOMPATIBLE, a. [Fr. fiom the L. in and competo, to suit, to be j)roper or con- venient ; con and pcto, to press toward, to seek, or press on. It was formerly incom- petible.]

    1. Inconsistent ; that cannot subsist with something else. Thus, truth and false- hood are essentially incompatible, as are virtue and vice. A degree of cold that congeals water is incompatible with vcge-

    I N C

    I N C

    N C

    tation. Dissipation is incompatible with licaltli, reputation and virtue.

    2. Irreconcilably diflerent or disagreeing; incongruous ; as incompatible tempers.

    3. Legally or constitutionally inconsistent : that cannot be united in the same person, without violating the law or constitution. By our constitution, the offices of a legis- lator and of a judge are incompatible, as they cannot be held at the same time by the same person.

    INeOMPAT'IBLY, adv. Inconsistently;

    incongruously. INCOM'PETENCE, ) „ [Fr. incompeU

    , S iroin: )i sufticien

    INeOM'PETENCV, < fromincompetent

    1. Inability ; want of sufficient intellectual powers or talents ; as the incompetency of infants or idiots.

    2. Want of natural adequate strength of body or of suitable faculties ; as the incom- petency of the eyes to discern the motions of the heavenly bodies.

    .3. Want of legal or constitutional qualifica- tions ; as the incompetency of a

    4. Want of adequate means.

    5. Insufficiency ; inadequacy ; as the petency of testimony.

    INeOlVf PETENT, a. [Fr. from L. iji and competens, compete. See Fncompatiblc,"

    1. Wanting adequate powers of mind or suitable faculties ; as an incompetent judiic. Infancy, derangement, want of learning or dotage" may render a person incompetent to fill an office or to transact business.

    2. Wanting due strength or suitable facul- ties ; unable.

    3. Wanting the legal or constitutional quali- fications. A person convicted of a crime is an incompetent witness in a court of law or equity.

    4. Destitute of means; unable.

    5. Inadequate ; insufficient ; as incompetent testimony.

    6. Unfit ; improper ; legally unavailable.

    It is incompetent for the del'en(l;\\\\nt to m.iUe

    this defense. .1/ass. Hep.

    INCOMPETENTLY, adv. Insufliciently :

    inadequately ; not suitahl)

    INCOMPLE'TE, a. [in and complete.] Not

    kliiig is ' 2. Imperfect ; defective,

    finished. The building is incomplete.

    INCOMPLE'TELY, adv. Impeifectly. INCOMPLE'TENESS, n. An unfinished

    state ; imperfcctness ; defectiveness. INeOMPLEX', a. [in and complex.] No

    complex ; uncompounded ; simple. INCOMPLI'ANCE, n. [in and compliance.

    1. Defect of compliance; refusal to comply with solicitations.

    2. Untractableness ; unyielding temper or constitution.

    Self-conceit produces peevishness and incotn- phance of humor in things lawful and indilfer- ent. Tillotson

    INeOMPLl'ANT, a. [in and compliant] Unyielding to request or solicitation ; not disposed to comply.

    IN€OMPO'SED, «. [in and conipoicrf.] Dis ordered ; disturbed. [But this word is little used. Instead of it we use discomposed.]

    INeOM'POSITE, a. incom'pozit. [in and composite.] Uncompounded ; simple.

    IN€OMPOSSIBIL'ITY, n. [in and compos sible.]

    The quality of not being jiossible but by the

    iiegalion or destruction of something ; in-|

    consistency with something. [lyittle used.]

    More. Hak.\\\\

    INeOMPOS'SIBLE, a. [in, con, and possiA ble.]

    Not possible to be or subsist with something' else. [This and the preceding word are lit-\\\\ tie used, iind can hardly be considered as le- gilimatt Erifcliih icords.] !

    INCOMPRl HENSIBIL'ITY, n. [See the| next word.]

    The quality of being incomprehensible, or beyond tlie reach of human intellect; in-j conceivableness. Campbell.,

    INCOMPREHENSIBLE, a. [Fr. Sec Comprehend.] i

    1. That cannot be comprehended or under-j stood ; that is beyond the reach of human intellect; inconceivable. The nature oti s[iiritual being is incomprehensible to us, orj by us. I

    2. Not to be contained. [Little used.]


    INCOMPREIIENS'IBLENESS, n. Incom-j prehensibility, which see. i

    INCOMPKEIIENS'IBLY, adv. In a man-[ ner which the human mind cannot com- prehend or understand; inconceivably. ( Locke.

    INCOMPREHENSION, n. Want of com- prehension or understanding. Bacon.

    INCOMPREHENS'IVE, a. Not compre- hensive ; not extensive. Warton.

    INCOMPRESSIBIL'ITY, n. [See Incom-, pressible.] \\\\

    The quality of resisting compression, or of being incapable of reduction by force into' a smaller compass. I

    INCOMPRESSIBLE, a. [in and compress- ible.] •

    Not to be compressed; not capable of being reduced by force into u smaller compass : resisting comiiression. Water is not wholly incompressible.

    INCONCE'ALABLE, a. [in and conceal- ablc.]

    Not concealable; not to he hid or kept se- cret. Brown.

    INCONCEIVABLE, a. [in and conceiva- ble ; Fr. inconcevable.] I

    1. That cannot be conceived by the mind ;' incomprehensible. It is inconceivable to| us, how the will acts in producing nmscu- lar motion.

    2. That cannot be understood. INCONCE'IVABLENESS,

    of being inconceivable ; i bilitv.


    ycmil coiii|iielic^iision,or beyond the rea. Ii ot'hiiiiKiP iiilellect. South.

    ilNCONCEP TIBLE, a. Inconceivable. [Lit- tle used.] Hale.

    INCONCIN'NITY, n. [L. inconcinnilas.]

    I Uiisnitahleiiess; wantofjiroportioTi. More.

    INCONCLU'DENT, a. [L. in and conclu-^

    I dens, concludo, to conclude.]

    Not inferring a conclusion or consequence. [Little used.] Jlyliffe:

    INCONCLU'DING, a. Inferring no conse-; qiieiice. Pearson.

    INCONCLUSIVE, a. [in and conchisive.]] Not producing a conclusion ; not closing,j concluding or selthng a point in debate or

    The quali ■omprehcii

    manner hi

    a doubtful question. An argument or cvi- ilence is inconclusive, when it does not ex- hibit the truth of a disputed case in such a manner as to satisfy the mind, and put an end to dehntc or doubt.

    INCOM I.I >l\\\\ II.V, arfr. Without such eviili 1. r :,^ I I. inline the understand- ing III i< I.'. in I In iiiiili or falsehood.

    INCONCl.l SIVLNESS, n. Want of such evidence as to satisfy the mind of truth or falfehood, and put an end to debate.

    INCONCOCT', a. Inconrocled.

    INCONCOCT'ED, a. [t;i and concoc*.] Not fully dijjcsted ; not niuturcd; unripened.


    INCONCOC'TION, 11. [in and coiicoctton.] The state of being indigested ; unripeness; immaturitv. Bacon.

    INCONCllR'RING, a. [in and concurring, from concur.] Not concurring ; not agree- ing. Brown.

    INCONCUS'SIBLE, a. That cannot be shaken. Reynolds.

    INCONDENSABIL'ITY, v. [See Incon- densable.] The quality of being not con- densable.

    INCONDENSABLE, a. [in and condensa- ble.]

    1. Not capable of condensation ; that can- not be made more dense or compact.


    3. Not to he converted from a slate of vapor to a fluid.

    INCONDITE, a. [L. inconditus ; m and condo, to build.]

    Rude ; unpolished ; irregular. [Little used.] Philips.

    INCONDI'TION AL, a. [in and conditional.] Without any condition, exception or lim- itation ; absolute. [A'ot now used. See Unconditional.] Brown.

    INCONDI"TION.\\\\TE, a. [in and condi- tion.]

    Not limited or restrained by conditions; ab- solute. [A'ot now used.] Boyle.

    INCONFIKMED, for unconfirmed, is not in use.

    INCONFORM ITY, n. [in and conformity.] Want of conformity ; incompliance with the practice of others, or with the requisi- tions of law, rule or custom ; non-con- formity. (^The latter word is more com- monly used, especially to express dissent in religion.]

    INCONFU SED, a. s as :. Not confused; (lijitiiict. Bacon.

    IN( O.M'I .

    I\\\\( ( iNi.r MAL, a. [in and congenial.] N.I i.iiiiil; not of a like nature ; un-


    I \\\\< ( i\\\\i.l ;M \\\\1 I'l'^', 11. Unlikenessof na-

    |\\\\<(i\\\\ (;l;l l.\\\\( i;. h. [ih and cojigruf nc«.] Wiiiii Ml. .iii;:i II. 11,0. adaptation or agree- ni«-iii ; nii-iMi^ilili-iM'ss. [Little used. Wc now ii~. ;,ir.,„L'-nn't:i.] Boyle.

    INCON Clil I:NT, a. Unsuitable; incon- sistent. El^ot-

    INCONORU'ITY, n. [in and congnnty.]

    J. Want of congruity ; impropriety; incon- sistency ; absurdity; unsuitablenessof one thing to another. The levity of youth in a grave divine, is deemed an incofigruily between manners and profession.

    2. Disagreement of parts; want ofsymme- (Py_ Donne.

    I N C

    INeON'GRUOUS, a. [L. incongruus.] Not congruous ; unsuitable ; not filtnig ; mcon-j sistent ; improper. The dress of a sea- man on a judge, would be deemed incon- oruous with his character and station.

    IjfcON'GRUOUSLY, adv. Unsuitably ; un- fitly; improperly. _

    INCONNE€'TION, n. [in and conntdion.] Want of connection ; loose, disjointed state. Bp. HaU.

    INCON'SCIONABLE, o. Having no sense ofgood and evil. Spenser.

    INeON'SEUUENCE, n. [L. inconsequen- tia.] Want of just inference; inconclu- siveness. StillingJIeet.

    INCON'SEQUENT, a. Not following from

    the premises ; without regular inference ;

    as an inconsequent deduction or argument.


    I N C

    INeONSEQUEN'TIAL, o. Not regularly following from the premises.

    2. Not of consequence ; not of importance ; of little moment. Chesterpld.

    INeONSID'ERABLE, a. [in and considera- ble.]

    Not worthy of consideration or notice ; un-^^ important ; small ; trivial. VVe speak of an inconsiderable distance; an iiiconsidera- ble quantity or amount ; inconsiderable value. No sin is inconsiderable in the sight of a holy God.

    IN€ONSID'ERABLENESS, n. Small im portance. Tillotson

    INCONSIDERABLY, adv. In a f^t.iall d gree ; to a sniall amount ; very little.

    INeONSID'ERACY, n. Thoughtlessness: want of consideration. [Unusual.]


    INeONSID'ERATE, a. [L. inconsideratus. See Consider.]

    1. Not considerate ; not attending to the cir- cumstances which regard safety or pro- priety ; hasty ; rash ; imprudent ; careless thoughtless; heedless; inattentive. The young are generally inconsiderate.

    2. Proceeding from heedlessness ; rash inconsiderate conduct.

    3. Not duly regarding; with o/, before the subject ; as inconsiderate of consequences.

    INeONSID'ERATELY, adv. Without due consideration or regard to consequences ; heedlessly ; carelessly ; rashly ; impru- dently. Addison.

    INeONSID'ERATENESS, n. Want of due regard to consequences ; carelesi thoughtlessness ; inadvertence ; in tion ; imprudence. Tillotson.

    INCONSIDERA'TION, n. [Fr. ; in and consideration.]

    Want of due consideration ; want of thought inattention to consequences. Taylor.

    INCONSIST'ENCE, > [in and consist-

    INeONSIST'ENCY, (, "' ence.]

    1. Such opposition or disagreement as thai one proposition infers the negation of the other; such contrariety between things that both cannot subsist together,

    There is a perfect inconsistency between thai

    which is of debt and that which is of free gift.


    2. Absurdity in argument or narration ; ar- gument or narrative where one part de- stroys the other; self-contradiction.


    3. Incongruity ; want of agreement or uni-

    formity; as the inconsistency of a man with himself.

    4. Unsteadiness; chaiJgeableness.

    IN€ONSIST'ENT, a. Incompatible; in- congruous ; not suitable. Loud laughter in grave company is inconsistent witli good breeding. Habitual gloom is inconsistent with health and happiness.

    2. Not consistent; contrary, so that one in- fers the negation or destruction of the other ; or so that the truth of one proves the other to be false. Two covenants, one that a man shall have an estate in fee, and the other that he shall hold it for years are incoiisistent.

    3. Not uniform ; being contrary at different times. Men are sometimes inconsistent with themselves.

    IN€ONSIST'ENTLY, adv. With absurdi- ty ; incongruously ; with self-contradic- tion ; without steadiness or uniformity.

    IN€ONSIST'ENTNESS, n. Inconsistency. [JVo< in use.] Mure.

    IN€ONSlST'lNG, a. Inconsistent. [JVot used.] Dryden.

    INCONSO'LABLE, a. [in and consolable.] Not to be consoled ; grieved beyond sus- ceptibility of comfort. Addison.

    INeONSO'LABLY, adv. In a manner or degree that does not admit of consolation.

    INCON'SONANCE, Ji. Disagreement of sounds ; discordance. Busby.

    IN€ON'SONANCY,n. [ire and consonancy.] Disagreement; inconsistency. In music, disagreement of sounds; discordance.

    INCON'SONANT, o. Not agreeing ; incon- sistent; discordant.

    INCONSPICUOUS, a. [in and conspicu- ous.]

    1. Not discernible; not to be perceived by the siglit. Boyi

    2. Not conspicuous. INeON'STANCY, n. [L. inconstantia. See


    1. Mutability or instability of temper or af- fection ; unsteadiness ; fickleness.


    2. Want of uniformity ; dissiniilhude. If'oodward.

    INCON'STANT, a. [L. inconstans ; Fr. in- co7islant.]

    1. Mutable ; subject to change of opinion, inclination or purpose ; not firm in reso- lution ; unsteady; fickle; used of persons , as inconstant in love or friendship.

    2. Mutable; changeable; variable; used of things.

    INCONSTANTLY, adv. In an inconstant

    not steadily. INCONSU'MABLE, a. [in and consuma- ble.] Not to be consumed ; that cannot be wasted. Brown. INCONSUM'MATE, a. [in and consum- mate.] Not consummate ; not finished ; not com- )lete.


    ting debate ; too clear to be controverted ;

    incontrovertible; as incontestable evidence,

    truth or facts. INCONTEST'ABLY, adv. In a manner to

    preclude debate ; indisputably ; incontro-

    vertibly ; indubitably. Reid.

    INCONTIG'UOUS, a. [in and contiguous.]

    Not contiguous ; not adjoining ; not

    touching; separate. Boyle.

    INCON'TINENCE, \\\\ [L. incontinentia ; INCON'TINENCY, S Fr. incontinence.

    See Continence.]

    1. Want of restraint of the passions or appe- tites ; free or uncontrolled indulgence of the passions or appetites, as of anger.

    Gillies'' Aristotle.

    2. Want of restraint of the sexual appetite ; free or illegal indulgence of lust ; lewd- ness; used of either sex, but appropriately of the male sex. Incontinence in men is the same as unchastity in women.

    3. Among physicians, the inability of any of the animal organs to restrain discharges of their contents, so that the discharges are involuntary ; also, the involuntary dis- charge itself; as an incontinence of urine in diabetes.

    INCON'TINENT, a. [L. incotitinens.] Not restraining the passions or appetites, par- ticularly the sexual appetite ; indulging lust without restraint or in violation of law ; unchaste ; lewd.

    2. Unable to restrain discharges.

    In the sense of immediate or immediately.


    INCONSUM'MATENESS, n. State of be- ing incomplete.

    INCONSUMP'TIBLE, a. [L. in and con- sximptus.]

    1. Not to be spent, wasted or destroyed by fire. [M)t used.] Dig^y-

    2. Not to be destroyed. [JSTot used.] INCONTEST'ABLE, a. [Fr.] Not con- testable ; not to be disputed ; not admit-

    INCON'TINENT, n. One who is unchaste. B. Jonson.

    INCON'TINENTLY, adv. Without due restraint of the passions or appetites ; un- chastely.

    2. Immediately. 05s. Pope.

    INCONTRACT'ED, a. Not contracted ; not shortened. Blackivall.

    INCONTROLLABLE, o. [in a.i\\\\A controlla- ble.]

    Not to be controlled ; that cannot be re- strained or governed ; uncontrollable.


    IN'CONTROLLABLY, adv. In a manner that admits of no control.

    INCONTROVERTIBLE, a. [in and con- trovertible.]

    Indisputable ; too clear or certain to admit of dispute.

    INCONTROVERT'IBLY, adv. In a man- ner or to a degree that precludes debate or controversy. INCONVE'NIENCE, > „ [L. inconveniens :

    INCONVE'NIENCY, S m and convenio, conveniens.]

    1. Unfitness; unsuitableness ; iucxpedience. They plead against the inconvenience, not e unlawfulness of popish apparel. Hooker.

    2. That which gives trouble or uneasiness; disadvantage ; any thing that disturbs qui- et, impedes prosperity, or increases the difficulty of action or success. Rain and bad roads are inconveniences to the trav- eler; want of utensils is a great inconven- ience to a family ; but the great inconven- ience of human life is the want of tnoney and the means of obtaining it.

    INCONVENIENT, a. [Fr. from the L. supra.]

    1. Incommodious; unsuitable; disadvanta- geous ; giving trouble or uneasiness ; in-

    1 N C

    1 N C

    I N C

    creasing the difficulty of progress or suc- cess ; as an inconvenient dress or gar- ment ; an iiiconvenient house ; inconvenient customs ; an inconvenient arrangement of

    2. Unfit ; unsuitable. Hooker.

    lN€ONVE'NIENTLY, cuh. Unsuitably; incommodiously ; in a manner to giv( trouble ; unseasonably.

    JN€ONVERS'ABLE, o. [in and conversa able.\\\\

    Not inclined to free conversation ; incominu nicative ; unsocial ; reserved. More.

    .TN€ON'VERSANT, a. Not conversant ; not faniihar; not versed. Shaw's Zool

    INCONVEIITIBILITY, n. [fiom incon vertiile.]

    The quality of not being changeable or con vertible into something else ; as the in converlibiliiy of bank notes or other cur rency into gold or silver. Walsh

    IN€ONVERT'IBLE, a. [in and conveHi hie.]

    Not convertible ; that cannot be transmuted or changed into something else. One metal is inconvertible into another. Bank notes are sometimes inconvertible into spe- cie. M^alsh.

    INeONVIN'ClBLE, a. [in and convincible. Not convincible ; that cannot be convinc ed ; not capable of conviction.

    INeONVIN'CIBLY, adv. In a manner not admitting of conviction.

    IN€0'N Y, a. or n. [Qu. in and con, to know.] Unlearned ; artless ; an accomplished per son, in contempt. [III.] Shale.

    INCOR'PORAL, a. [in and corporal.] Not consisting of matter or body ; immaterial [Incorporeal is generally used.] Raleigh

    INeORPORAL'lTY, »i. The quality of no consisting of matter; immateriality.

    INCOR'PORALLY, adv. Without matter or a body ; immaterially.

    IN€OR'PORATE, a. [in and corporate.]

    1. Not consisting of matter; not having i material body. [Liltle used.]

    2. Mi.xed ; united in one body ; associated

    Bacon. Shak. IN€OR'PORATE, v. t. [Fr. incorporer; Sp. incorporar ; It. incorporare ; L. incoiporo in and corpus, a body.]

    1. In pharmacy, to mix different ingredients in one mass or body ; to reduce dry sub- stances to the consistence of paste by the admixture of a fluid, as in making pills, &c. Encyc.

    2. To mix and embody one substance in an- other ; as, to incorporate copper with sil-

    3. To unite ; to blend ; to work into another mass or body ; as, to incorporate plagia risms into one's own composition.

    4. To unite ; to as.sociate in another govern ment or empire. The Romans incorporated conquered countries into their govern- ment. Mdison.

    5. To embody ; to give a material form to.

    The idolaters, who worshiped their images as gods, supposed some spirit to be incorporated therein. Stillingfleel.

    6. To form into a legal body, or body pol- itic ; to constitute a body, composed of one or more individuals, with the quality of perpetual existence or succession, unless limited by the act of incorporation ; as, to incorporate the inlmbitants of a city, town

    Vol. I.

    or parish ; to incorporate the proprietors of! a bridge, the stockholders of a bank insurance company, &c. New Haven was 7»icorpora

    INeOR'PORATE, v. i. To unite so as to make a part of another body ; to be mixed or blended ; to grow into, &.c. ; usually followed by with.

    Painters' colors and ashes do better incorpo- rate ii'ith oil. Bacon.

    INCOR'PORATED,p». Mixed or united in one body ; associated in the same political body ; united in a legal body.

    IN€OR'PORATING, ppr. Mixing or unit ing in one body or mass ; associating in the same political body ; forming a legal body

    INCORPORA'TION, n. The act of incor- porating.

    2. Union of different ingredients in ont

    3. Association in the same political body ; as the incorporation of conquered countries into the Roman republic.

    4. Formation of a legal or political body by the union of individuals, constituting an artificial person. Blackstone.

    INeORP9'REAL, o. [Fr. incorpord; corporalis, incorporeus.]

    Not consisting of matter ; not having a ma- terial body ; inmiaterial. Spirits are deemed incorporeal substances.

    IN€ORPO'REALLY, adv. Without body immaterially. Bacon

    IN€ORPORE'ITY, n. Thequality of being not material ; immateriality.

    IN€ORPSE, V. t. incorps'. To incorporate [Barbarous.] Shak

    INeORRECT', a. [in and correct.] Not cor- rect ; not exact ; not according to a copy or model, or to established rules ; inaccu- rate ; faulty.

    The piece, you think, is incorrect. Pope.

    2. Not according to truth; inaccurate ; as an incorrect statement, narration or calcula- tion.

    3. Not according to law or morality. INCORRE€'TiON, n. Want of correction.


    INCORRECTLY, adv. Not in accordance with truth or other standard ; inaccurate ly ; not exactly ; as a writing incorrectly copied ; testimony incorrectly stated.

    INeOr{RECT'NESS, n. Want of conform ity to truth or to a standard ; inaccuracy. Incorrectness may consist in defect or in redundance.

    INCORRKJIBLE, a. [Fr. ; in and corrigi- ble ; L. corrigo : con and rego.]

    1. That cannot be corrected or amended; bad beyond correction ; as incorrigible er-

    2. Too depraved to be corrected or reform- ed ; as an incorrigible sinner ; an incor- rigible drunkard.

    IN€OR'RI(iIBLENESS, ) The qualityof lN€ORRI(ilBIL'ITY, S being bad, er- roneous or depraved beyond correction ; hopeless depravity in persons and error in things. Locke.

    INCOR'RIGIBLY, adv. To a degree of de- pravity beyond all means of amendment. [ Rosrommon.i INCORRUPT', ? [h. incorruplus ; in\\\\ INCORRUPT'ED, ^ and comtmpo, cor-'. ruptus ; con and rumpo, to break.]


    Not corrupt ; not marred, impaired or spoil- ed ; not defiled or depraved ; pure ; sound : untainted ; applicable to persons, principles or sub.itances. .Milton.

    INCORRUPTIBIL'ITY, n. [from incorr^ip- tible.]

    The quality of being incapable of decay or corruption.

    INCORRUPTIBLE, a. [Fr. ; in and cor- ruptible.]

    1. That cannot corrupt or decay ; not admit- ting of corruption. Thusgold, glass, mer- cury, &c., are incorruptible. Spirits are supposed to be incorruptible.

    Our bodies shall be changed into incorrupti- ble and immortal substances. Wake.

    2. That cannot be bribed ; inflexibly just and upright.

    INCORRUPT IBLENESS, n. The quality of being incorruptible, or not liable to de- cay. Boyle.

    INCORRUP'TION, n. [in and corruption.] Incapacity of being corrupted.

    It is son n in corruption ; it is raised in in- corruption. 1 Cor. xv.

    INCORRUPT'IVE, a. Not liable to corrup- tion or decay. Jlkenside.

    INCORRUPT'NESS, n. Exemption from decay or corrujition.

    2. Purity of mind or manners ; probity ; in- tegrity ; honesty. Woodward.

    INCRAS'SATE, v. t. [L. incrasso, incrassa- tus ; in and crassus, thick.]

    1. To make thick or thicker ; to thicken ; the contrary to attenuate.

    2. In pharmacy, to make fluids thicker by the mixture of other substances less fluid, or by evaporating the thinner parts.

    Acids dissolve or attenuate ; alkalies precipi- tate or incrassale. JVewton.

    INCRAS'SATE, v. i. To become thick or thicker.

    INCRAS'SATE, ? In Man)/, thickened

    INCRAS'SATED, J "• or becoming thicker towards the flower, as a peduncle.

    Marty n.

    2. Fattened.

    INCRAS'SATED, ;;/;. .Made thick or thick- er.

    INCRAS'SATING, ppr. Rendering thick or thicker; growing thicker.

    INCRASSA'TION, n. The act of thicken- ing, or state of becoming thick or thicker. Brown.

    IN€RAS'S.\\\\TIVE, a. Having the quahty of thickening.

    INCRAS'SATIVE, n. That which has the power to thicken. Harvey.

    INCRE'ASABLE, a. That may be increased. Sherwood.

    INCRE'ASE, V. I. [L. incresco; in and cres- co, to grow, Fr. eroitre, Sp. crecer. It. crM- cere. Arm. cresqi. As the Latin pret. is crevi, this word and the Eng. groip, are probably of the same familv. Class Rd. No. 59. 75.]

    1. To become greater in bulk or quantity; to grow ; to augment ; as plants. Hence, to become more in number; to advance in value, or in any quality good or bad. An- imal and vegetable bodies increase by natural growth ; wealth increases by in- dustry ; heat increases, as the sun advances towards the meridian ; a multitude increas- es by accession of numbers ; knowledge increases with age and study ; passion and


    piimity increase by irritation, and misery increases with vice.

    The Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another. 1 The93. iii.

    2. To become more violent ; as, the fever in- creases ; the pain increases ; cold, wind or a storm increases.

    3. To become inore bright or vivid ; as, the light increases.

    4. To swell ; to rise.

    The waters increased and bore up the ark.

    Gen. vii. .5. To swell; to become louder, as sound. C. To become of more esteem and authority. He must increase, but I must decrease.

    John iii. 7. To enlarge, as the enlightened part of the

    moon's disk. IN€RE'ASE, V. t. To augment or make

    greater in bulk, quantity or amount ; as,

    to increase wealth or treasure ; to increase

    a sum or value. 9. To advance in quality ; to add to any

    quality or afl'ection ; as, to increase the

    strength of moral habits ; to increase love,

    zeal or passion, n. To extend; to lengthen; a?, to increase


    4. To extend ; to spread ; as, to increase fame or renown.

    5. To aggravate ; as, to increase guilt or trespass.

    INCRE'ASE, ?!. Augmentation; a growing larger ; extension.

    Of the increase of his government and peace, there sliall be no end. Is. ix. 0. Increment; profit; interest; that which is added to the original stock.

    Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God. Lev. xxv.

    3. Produce, as of land.

    Then shall the earth yield her increase. Ps. Ixvii.

    4. Progeny ; issue ; offspring.

    All the increase of thy house shall die in the

    (lower of their age. 1 Sam. ii.

    .">. Generation. Shak.

    li. The waxing of the moon; the atigmenta-

    tion of the luminous part of the moon,

    presented to the inhabitants of the earth.

    Seeds, hair, nails, hedges and herbs will

    grow soonest, if set or cut in tlie increase of the

    inoon. Bacon.

    7. Augmentation of strength or violence ; as increase of heat, love or other passion ; in- crease of force.

    8. Augmentation of degree ; ai; increase of happiness or mi.sery.

    IN€RE'ASED, /»;). "Augmented ; made or

    grown larger. INCRE'ASEFUL, n. Abundant of produce. Shak. INCRE'ASER, n. He or that which in- creases. IN€RE'ASING, ppr. Growing ; becoming

    larger ; advancing in any quality, good or

    bad. INeUEA'TE, ) Uncreated, which see, INCREA'TEI), S"' [The latter is the word

    mostly used.] INCREDIBILITY, n. [Fr. incredibilite. See

    Incredible.] The quality of surpassing belief, or of being

    too extraordinary to admit of belief.

    Dnjden. INeRED'IBLE, a. [L. incredibilis ; i?i and

    credibilis, credible."!

    I N C

    That cannot be believed ; not to be credited ; too extraordinary and improbable to ad- mit of belief.

    Wiy should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ? Acts xxvi. IN€RED'IBLENESS, n. Incredibility,

    which see. INCRED'IBLY, adv. In a manner to pre- clude belief INCREDU'LITY, n. [Fr. incredulili^.] The <|uality of not believing; indisposition to believe ; a withholding or refusal of belief Raleigh. Of every species of incredulity, religious un-

    belief i

    I and

    INCREDULOUS, a. [L. incredulns credulus ; credo, to believe.]

    Not believing ; indisposed to admit the truth of what is related ; refusing or withhold- ing belief. Bacon.

    INCRED'ULOUSNESS, n. Incredulity, which see.

    INCREM'ABLE, a. [L. in and crcmo.] That cannot be burnt. [jVot used.] liroum.

    IN'CREMENT, n. [L. increnientum, from incresco. See Increase.]

    1. Increase ; a growing in bulk, quantity, number, value or amount ; augmentation.

    2. Produce; production.

    3. Matter added ; increase.

    4. In mathematics, the quantity by which a variable quantity increases; a differential quantity.

    IN'CREPATE, V. «. [Uincrepo.] To chide; to rebuke. [JVot in use.]

    INCREPA'TION, ji. [It. increpaziont.] A chiding or rebuking ; rebuke ; reprehen- sion. Hammond.

    INCRES'CENT, a. [L. incrcscens. See In- crease.]

    Increasing; growing; augmenting ; svvell-

    INCRIM'INATE, v. t. [L. in and criminor, to accuse. See Crime.]

    To accuse ; to charge with a crime or fault.

    INCRUENT'AL, a. [L. incruentus.] Un- bloody ; not attended with tdood. [JVot in use.]

    INCRUST', V. t. [L. incrusto ; in and crusto, to crust.]

    To cover with a crust or with a hard coat ; to form a crust on the surface of any sub- stance ; as iron incrusted with oxyd or rust ; a vessel incrusted with salt.

    INCRUST'ATE, v. t. To incrust. [Less frequenth) iised.]

    INCRUSTA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. incrus- tatio.]

    1. A crust or rough coat of any thing on the surface of a body.

    2. A covering or hning of marble or other stone. Jlddison.

    INCRYS'TALIZABLE, a. [in and crystal

    izabte.] That will not crystalize; that cannot be

    formed into crystals. IN'CUBATE, V. i. [L. incubo ; in and cubo,

    to lie down.] To sit, as on eggs for

    hatching. INCUBA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. incubatio.]

    The act of sitting on eggs for the purpose

    of hatching young. Ray.

    INeU'BATURE, n. Incubation. [JVot used.]


    IN'CUBUS, n. [L. from incubo, to lie on. J

    1. The nightmar; an oppression of tin breast in sleep, or sense of weight, with an almost total loss of the power of mov ing the body, while the imagination i.'^ frightened or astonished.

    '2. A demon ; an imaginary being or fairy. Bp. Hall.

    INCULCATE, V. t. [L. inculco, to drive or force on ; in and calco, to tread, calx, the heel.]

    To impress by frequent admonitions; to teach and enforce by frequent repetitions ; to urge on the miud. Our Savior incul- cates on his followers humility and for- giveness of injuries.

    INCULCATED, pp. Impressed or enfoi ced by frequent admonitions.

    INCULCATING, ppr. Impressing or e-, forcing by repeated instruction.

    INCULCA'TION, n. The action of impress- 's by repeated admonitions.

    INCULP'ABLE, a. [L. in and culpabili.% from culpa, a fault.]

    Without fault ; unblamable ; that cannot Ix: accused. South

    INCULP'ABLENESS, n. Unblamablenes.- JHountasrn.

    INCULP'ABLY, o. Unblamably; without blame. South

    INCULT', a. [L. incultus ; in atii cultus. from colo.]

    Unfilled; uncultivated. Thomsor.

    INCUL'TIVATED, a. Not cultivated ; un- cultivated.

    INCULTIVA'TION, n. Neglect or want of cultivation. Berington.

    INCUL'TURE, n. Want or neglect of cul- ' /ation. Feltham.

    INCUM'BENCY, n. [from incumbent.] A lying or resting on something.

    2. The state of holding or being in posses- sion of a benefice, or of an office.

    These fines are to be paid to the bishop, only during liis incumbennj. Surifi.

    There is no test of the tenure, but incumben- cy on the part of the king. E. Everett. INCUJI'BENT, a. [L. incumbena, incumho ; in and cumbo, to lie down ; Sp. incumbir.]

    1. Lying or resting on.

    And when to move th' incumbent load they try. Mdison.

    2. Supported ; buoyed up. And fly incitmbent on the dusky air.

    Dry den.

    3. Leaning on, or resting against ; as incum- bent stamens or anthers, in botany.


    4. Lying on, as duty or obligation ; imposed and emphatically urging or pressing to performance ; indispensable.

    INCUM'BENT, «. The person who is in present possession of a benefice, or of any office. [It is applied to civil officers as well as to ecclesiastical.]

    INCVM'BEK, v.t. [Ft. encombrer ; It. in- gombrare.]

    To burden with a load ; to embarrass. [See Encumber, and its derivatives.]

    INCUM'BRANCE, n. A burdensome and troublesome load ; any thing that impedes motion or action, or renders it difficult or


    I N D

    I N D

    laborious ; clog ; impediineiu ; embarrass- meut.

    2. A legal claim on the estate of anotiier.

    INeUM'BRANCER, ?i. One who has an incumbrance, or some legal claim on an estate. Kent]

    INeUM'BROUS, a. Cumbersome ; trouble- some. Obs. Chaucer.]

    IN€UR', V. t. [L. incurro, to run against i» and curro, to run ; It. incorrere ; Sp. incwrir.'\\\\

    1. Literally, to run against ; hence, to be come liable to ; to become subject to.J Thus, a thief incurs the punishment of the law by the act of stealing, before he is convicted, and we have all incurred the penalties of God's law.

    2. To bring on ; as, to incur a debt ; to in- cur guilt ; to incur the displeasure of God to incur blame or censure.

    3. To occur ; to meet ; to press on. Obs.


    IN€URABIL'ITY, n. [rt.incurabHilL] The

    state of being incurable ; impossibility of

    cure; insusceptibility of cure or remedy.


    INeU'RABLE, a. [Fr. ; in and curaUe.-

    1. That cannot be cured ; not admitting of cure ; beyond the power of skill or medi- cine ; as an incurable disease.

    2. Not admitting remedy or con-ection ; irre- mediable ; remediless ; as incurahle evils,

    INCU'RABLE, n. A person diseased be- yond the reach of cure.

    INeU'RABLENESS, n. The state of not admitting cure or remedy.

    INeU'RABLY, adv. In a manner or degree that renders cure impracticable.

    IN€UR10S'ITY, n. Want of curiosity ; in attentiveness ; indifference. Wotlon

    IN€U'RIOUS, a. [in and cunous.] Desti tute of curiosity ; not curious or inr^uisi- tive ; inattentive. Swijl.

    INeU'RIOUSNESS, n. Want of curiosity or inquisitiveness. Chesterfield.

    IN€UR'RED, pp. Brought on.

    INeUR'RING, ppr. Becoming subject or liable to ; bringing on.

    INeUR'SION, n. [Fr. incursion ; L. incur sio, from incurro. See Incur.]

    1. Literally, a running into ; hence, an enter ing into a territory with hostile intention an inroad ; applied to the e.xpeditions of small parties or detachments of an ene- my's army, entering a territory for at- tack, plunder or destruction of a post or magazine. Hence it differs from invasion, which is the hostile entrance of an army for conquest. During the revolution, the British troops made an incursion to Dan- bury, and destroyed the magazines. In pposing this incursion, Gen. AVooster was :illed

    kill 2. Attack; occurrence; as sins of daily tn-

    cursion. [Unusual.] South.

    INCURV'ATE, V. t. [L. incurvo ; in and

    curvus, bent.] To bend ; to crook ; to turn from a right line

    or straight course. IN€URV'ATE, a. Curved inwards or up-

    INeURV'ATED, pp. Bent ; turned from a

    rectilinear direction. IN€URV'ATING, ppr. Bending ; turning

    from a right line.

    INCURVA'TION, n. The act of bending.]

    2. The state of being bent, or turned from a rectilinear course ; curvity ; crookedness.

    3. The act of bowing, or bending the body in respect or reverence. Stillingjleet.

    INCURVE, V. t. incurv'. To bend ; to make crooked.

    INeURV'lTY, n. [from L. incurvus.] A state of being bent or crooked ; crooked ness ; a bending inward. Brown

    IN'DAGATE, v. t. [L. indago.] To seek or search out. [JVot used.]

    INDAGA'TION, n. The act of searching ; search ; inquiry ; cxatnination. [LitUe used.] Boyle. Broicn

    IN'DAGATOR, n. A searcher ; one who seeks or inquires with diligence. [Little used.] Boyle.

    IND-ART, V. t. [in and dart.] To dart "in ; to thrust or strike in. Shak.

    Indebitatus assumpsit. [See Assumpsit.]

    INDEBT, a verb, is never used.

    INDEBT'ED, a. indet'ted. [It. iiidebitato.]

    1. Being in debt; having incurred a debt ; held or obliged to pay. A is indebted to B ; he is indebted in a large sum, or to a large amount.

    2. Obliged by something received, for which restitution or gratitude is due. We are indebted to our parents /or their care of us in infancy and youth. We are indebted to God for life. We are indebted to the christian religion for many of the advan- tages, (jiidmuch of the refinement of mod- ern times.

    INDEBT'EDNESS, n. indtl'tedness. The state of being indebted

    INDEBT'MENT, n.indet'ment. The state nfl being indebted. [Little used.] Hall.

    INDE'CENCY, n. \\\\Fr. indccence ; It. iiide- centa ; L. indecens, indeceo ; in and deceo, to become.^

    That which is unbecoming in language or| manners; any action or behavior which is deemed a violation of modesty, or an offense to delicacy, as rude or wanton actions, obscene language, and whatever! tends to excite a blush in a spectator.; Extreme assurance or impudence may also be deemed indecency of behavior to-j wards superiors. [See Indecorum.] I

    INDE'CENT, a. [Fr. from L. indecens.] Unbecoming; unfit to be seen or heard ;

    INDECI'SIVELY, adv. Without decision.

    INDECI'SIVENESS, n. The state of being undecided ; unsettled stale ; state of not being brouglit to a final issue.

    INDEeLI'NABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inde- clinabilis ; in and declino.]

    Not declinable ; not varied by terminations; as, pondo, in Latin, is an indeclinable noun.

    INDECLI NABLY, adv. Without variation. Mountagu.

    INDECOMPOSABLE, a. s as z. [in and decomposable, decompose.]

    Not capable of decomposition, or of being resolved into the primary constituent ele- ments. Enajc.

    INDECOMPO'SABLENESS, n. Inca|)a- bleness of decomposition.

    INDECOROUS, a. [L. itidecorus; in and decor, dccu^, deceo, to become.]

    Unbecoming; violating good manners ; con- trary to the established rules of good breeding, or to the forms of respect which age and station require. It is indecorous in a young person to take the highest place in compajiy, when his superiors are present. Indecorous is sometimes equiva- lent to indecent ; but it is less frequently ajjplied to actions which offend modesty and chastitv.

    INDECOROUSLY, adv. In an unbecom- ing manner.

    INDEeOROUSNESS, n. Violation of good manners in words or behavior.

    INDECO'RUM, n. [L. in and decorum.] Impropriety of behavior ; that in behavior or manners which violates the established rules of civility, or the duties of respect which age or station requires ; an unbe- coming action. It is sometimes synony- mous with indecency; but indecency, more frequently than indecorum, is applied to ■words or actions which refer to what na- ture and propriety require to be concealed or suppressed.

    INDEE'D, adv. [in and deed.] In reality; in truth ; in fact.

    The camal mind Is enmity ajspiinst God ; for it is not siibject to the law of God, neither in- deed can be. Rom. viii.

    Indeed is usually emphatical, but in some cases more so than in others; as, this is true ; it is indeed.

    offensive to modesty and delicacy ; as tn-l I were a beast indeed to do you wrong.

    decent language ; indecent manners ; an, Ihyden.

    indecent posture or gesture. Dryden.' Some sons indeed, some very few we see,

    INDE'CENTLY, arfc. In a manner to of- AVho keep tliemselves from this infection free.

    fend modesty or delicacy. Dryden.

    INDECID'UOUS, a. [iii and deciduous.] There is iiuleed no CTeater pleasure

    Not falling, as the leaves of trees in au-i ing these magazines of war— .Addison.

    tunm ; lasting ; evergreen. jilt is used to note concession or admission ;

    INDEC'IIVI.^BLE, a. N6t liable to the pay-' as, ships not so large indeed, but better

    inent of tithes. Cowel. manned.

    INDECIS'ION, n. s as :. [in and decision.]] Indeed is used as an expression of surprise,

    Want of decision; want of settled pur- or for the purpose of obtaining confirma-

    pose of of firnmess in the determinations tion of a fact stated. Indeed!

    of the will ; a wavering of mind ; irresoln- ble ? is it so in fact J

    tion. BurAe. INDEFATIGABLE, a. [h. indefaligabilis ;

    INDECrSIV^E, a. [in and decisive.] Not | in and defatigo, fatigo, to fatigue.]

    decisive ; not bringing to a final close or lUnwearied; not tired ; not e.\\\\hausted by la- Itimate issue ; as an indecisive battle or bor ; not yielding to fatigue; as indefatiga-


    engagement ; an argument indecisive of the question. {

    2. Unsettled ; wavering ; vacillating ; hesi-j tatin^ ; as an indecisive _state of mind ; an indectsive character. " I

    ble exertions ; indefatigable attendance or perseverance.

    Upborne vrUhJnd^aligable wings. Mlton.




    ness; persistency

    I N D

    I N D

    I N D

    INDEFAT'IGABLY, adv. Without weari- ness; without yielding to fatigue.


    INDEFATIGA'TION, n. Unweariedness. LYot used.]

    INnEFEASIBIL'ITY, n. [ftom indefeasi- ble.]

    Tlio quahty or state of being not subject to be made void; as tlie indefeasibility of a title.

    INDEFE'ASIBLE, o. s as z. [in and defea- sible ; Fr. defaire, defait, to undo, to de- feat ; de aud/aiVe, to make, L.facio.]

    Not to be defeated ; tliat cannot be made void ; as an indefeasible estate or title.

    INDEFE'ASIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be defeated or made void.

    INDEFE€TIBIL'ITY, n. [from indefecti- ble.]

    The quality of being subject to no defect or decay. Ch. Observer.

    INDEFECT'IBLE, a. [in and defect.] Un- failing ; not liable to defect, failure or de- cay.

    INDEFECT'IVE, a. Not defective; per- fect ; complete. South.

    INDEFE'ISIBLE, a. Indefeasible. [JVot used.]

    INDEFENSIBILITY, n. [from indefensi- ble.]

    The (piality or state of not being capable of defense or vindication. Walsh.

    INDEFENS'IBLE, c. [in and defensible, from defend.]

    I. That cannot be defended or maintained. A military post may be indefensible. A bad cause is indefensible.

    "3. Not to be vindicated or justified. An improper action or indecent expression is indefensible.

    INDEFENS'IVE, a. Having no defense.


    INDEFI"CIENCY, n. The quality of not beins; deficient, or of suffering no delay.

    1NDEF1"CIENT, a. Not deficient; not failing ; perfect.

    INDEFI'NABLE, a. That cannot be de- fined. Reynolds.

    INDEFINITE, a. [L. indefnilus ; in and definitus, definio, to define ; de and finio, to end, finis, end.]

    1. Not limited or defined ; not determinate ; not precise or certain ; as an indefinit time. An indefinite proposition, term or phrase, is one which has not a precise meaning or limited signification.

    2. That has no certain limits, or to which the human mind can aftix none ; as indef- inite space. A space may be indefinite, though not infinite.

    INDEF'INITELY, adv. Without any set- tled limitation ; as space indefinitely ex- tended.

    % Not precisely ; not with certainty or pre- cision ; as, to use a word indefinitely.

    INDEF'INITENESS, n. The quality of being undefined, unlimited, or not pre- cise and certain.

    INDEFIN'ITUDE, n. Quantity not limited by our understanding, though yet fii rjVo< used.] Hale.

    INDELIB'ERATE, a. [in and deliberate Fr. indeliberL]

    Done or i)erformed without deliberation o consideration ; sudden ; unpremeditated ; as the indeliberate commission of sin.

    INDELIB'ERATELY, adv. Without delib- eration or premeditation.

    INDELIBIL'ITY, n. The quality of being indelible. Horsley.

    INDEL'IBLE, a. [Fr. indelebile ; L. indele- bilis ; in and delebilis, from deleo, to blot

    1. Not to be blotted out ; that cannot be ef- faced or canceled ; as indelible letters or characters. Indelible ink is such as can- not be taken out of paper or cloth, or not by ordinary means.

    2. Not to be annulled.

    They are endued with indelible power from above, to feed and govern this household. [Unusual] Sprat.

    3. That cannot be effaced or lost ; as, im- jjressions on the mind may be indelible ; reproach or stain on reputation may be in- delible.

    INDEL'IBLY, adv. In a manner not to be blotted out or effaced ; too deeply imprint- ed to be effaced, or to vanish.

    INDEL'I€ACY, n. [in and delicacy.] Want of delicacy ; want of decency in language or behavior, regarding what nature and manners require to be concealed.


    2. Want of a nice sense of propriety, or nice regard to refinement in manners or in the treatment of others; rudeness; coarseness of manners or language ; that which is offensive to refined taste or pu- rity of mind.

    INDEL'I€ATE, a. Wanting delicacy ; in- decent ; but it expresses less than inde- cent ; as an indelicate word or expression ; indelicate behavior ; indelicate customs.

    2. Offensive to good manners, or to purity of mind.

    INDEL'ICATELY, adv. Indecently ; in a manner to offend against good manners or purity of mind.

    INDEMNIFICA'TION, n. [from indem- nify.]

    1. The act of indemnifying, saving harm- less, or securing against loss, damage or jjenalty.

    2. Security against loss.

    3. Reimbursement of loss, damage or pen- alty.

    INDEM'NIFIED, pp. Saved harmless ; se- cured against damage.

    INDEM'NIFY, v. t. [in and damnify; L. damnificus ; damnum, loss.")

    1. To save harmless; to secure against loss, damage or penalty.

    2. To make good ; to reimburse to one what he has lost. We indemnify a man, by giv ing sufficient security to make good a fu tm-e loss, or by actual reimbursement of loss, after it has occurred.

    INDEM'NIFYING, ppr. Saving harmless; securing against loss ; reimbursing loss.

    INDEM'NITY, n. [Fr. indemnity ; Sp. in- demnidad ; It. indennita ; L. in and dam- num, loss.]

    1. Security given to save harmless ; a wri- ting or pledge by which a person is secur- ed against future loss.

    2. Security against punishment. INDEMON'STRABLE, a. [in and demon- strable.] That cannot he demonstrated.

    INDENIZA'TION, n. The act of natural- izing, or the patent by which a person is made free.

    IN'DENIZE, i;. t. To endenize, which see. INDEN'IZEN, V. t. To invest with the

    privileges of a free citizen. Overbury.

    INDENT', V. t. [in and Fr. dent, L. dens, a

    tooth ; Fr. denteler ; Arm. danla.]

    1. To notch ; to jag ; to cut any margin into points or inequalities, like a row of teeth ; as, to indent the edge of paper.

    The margins — are indented. Woodward.

    2. To bind out by indentures or contract ; as, to indent a young man to a shoemaker ; to indent a servant.

    INDENT', V. i. To contract ; to bargain or covenant. [From the practice of using indented writings or counterparts.]


    INDENT', n. Incisure ; a cut or notch in the margin of any thing, or a recess like a notch. Shak.

    2. A stamp.

    IN'DENT, n. A certificate or indented cer- tificate issued by the government of the United States at the close of the revolu- tion, for the principal or interest of the public debt. Ramsay. Hamilton.

    INDENTATION, > „ A notch ; a cut in

    INDENT'MENT, ^ "• the margin of paper or other things. Woodward.

    2. A recess or depression in any border.

    INDENT' ED, pp. Cut in the edge into points, like teeth.

    2. Bound out by indented writings; as an indented apprentice or servant.

    :3. Bound out by writings, or covenants in writing. [The pi'actice of indenting wri- tings is in some places discontinued, but the term remains in use.]

    INDENT'ING, ppr. Cutting into notches.

    2. Binding out by covenants in writing.

    INDENT'MENT, n. Indenture.

    INDENTURE, n. A writing containing a contract. Indentures are generally du- plicates, laid together and indented, so that the two papers or parchments cor- respond to each other. But indenting is often neglected, while the writings or counterparts retain the name of indent- ures.

    INDENT'URE, «. t. To indent; to bind by indentures; as, lo indenture an apprentice.

    INDEPEND'ENCE, n. [in and dependence.]

    1. A state of being not dependent ; com- plete exemption from control, or the pow- er of others ; as the independence of the Supreme Being.

    2. A state in which a person does not rely on others for subsistence ; ability to sup- port one's self.

    3. A state of mind in which a person acts without bias or influence from others ; exemption from undue influence; self-di- rection. Independence of mind is an im- portant qualification in a judge.

    Declaration of Independence, the solemn dec- laration of the Congress of the United States of America, on the 4th of July 1776, by which they formally renounced their subjection to the government of Great Britain. INDEPEND'ENT, a. [in and dependent.] 1. Not dependent ; not subject to the con- trol of others; not subordinate. _ God is the only being who is perfectly independ-


    2. Not holding or enjoying possessions the will of another; not relying on others


    I N D

    I N D

    I N D

    )iot dependent. We all wish to be inde- pendent in property ; yet few men wholly independent, even in property, and none independent for the supply of their wants.

    3. Affording the means of independence ; as an independent estate.

    4. Not subject to bias or influence ; not ob- sequious ; self-directing ; as a man of an independent mind.

    5. Not connected with. It is believed the soul may exist independent of matter.

    6. Free ; easy ; self-commanding ; bold ; un- constrained ; as an independent air or manner.

    7. Separate from ; exclusive.

    I mean the account of thai obligation in gen- eral, under which we conceive ourselves bound to obey a law, independent of those resources which the law provides for its own enforce- ment. IVard.

    8. Pertaining to an independent or congre- gational church. It is followed by ofur on, both of which are well authorized. On is most confornmble to analogy, for it always follows depend, but of is most

    INDEPEND'ENT, n. One who, in religious affairs, maintains that every congregation of christians is a complete church, subject to no superior authority, and competent to perform every act of government in eccle- siastical affairs.

    INDEPEND'ENTLY, adv. Without de- pending or relying on others; without control.

    2. Without undue bias or influence: not obsequiously.

    .3. Without connection with other things.

    INDEP'RE€ABLE, a. That cannot be


    INDEPREIIENS'IBLE, a. That cannot be found out. Bp. Morton.

    INDEPRI'VABLE, a. That cannot be de- prived.

    INDESCRI'BABLE, a. That cannot be described.

    INDESCRIP'TIVE, a. Not descriptive or containing just description.

    JNDESERT', n. s as z. [in and desert Want of merit or worth. Addison.

    INDES'INENT, a. [L. in and desino, to cease ; de and sino.] Not ceasing ; per- petual.

    INDES'INENTLY, adv. Without cessation. Ray.

    INDESTRU€TIBIL'ITY, n. [from indes- tructible.]

    The quality of resisting decomposition, or of being incapable of destruction.

    INDESTRUCTIBLE, a. [in and destructi- ble.]

    That cannot be destroyed ; incapable of decomposition ; as a material substance.


    INDETERMINABLE, a. [in and determ- inable.]

    1. That cannnot be determined, ascertained or fixed. Brown.

    2. Not to be determined or ended. INDETERM'INATE, o. [in and determin- ate.]

    1. Not determinate ; not settled or fixed ; not definite ; uncertain ; as an indeterm- inate number of years.

    2. Not certain ; not precise.

    INDETERM'INATELY, adv. Not in , settled manner ; indefinitely ; not with precise limits ; as a space indeterminately large.

    2. Nut with certainty or precision of signifi- cation ; as an idea indeterminately ex- pressed.

    INDETERM'INATENESS, n. Indefinite- ness; want of certain limits; want of pre- cision. Paley

    INDETERMINA'TION, n. [in and determ- ination.]

    1. Want of determination ; an unsettled or wavering state, as of the mind.

    2. Want of fixed or stated direction.


    INDETERM'INED, a. [in and determined.] Uudelermined ; unsettled ; unfixed.

    INDEVO'TR, a. Not devoted. Bentley

    INDEVO'TED, a. Not devoted.


    INDEVO'TION, n. [Fr.; in and devotion.] Want of devotion ; absence of devout af- fections. Decay ofPietii.

    INDEVOUT', (T. [Ft. indevot.] Not devout; not having devout affenlions. /4m.

    INDEVOUT'LY, adv. Without devotion

    INDEX, 71. plu. indexes, sometimes indices. [L. connected with indico, to show ; in and dico, Gr. Snxnu.]

    1. That which points out ; that which shows or manifests.

    Tastes arc the indexes of the different quali- ties of plants. ..Srbullinot .

    2. The hand that points to any thing, as the hour of ihe day, the road to a place, &c.


    3. A table of the contents of a book.

    JVatts. A table of references in an alphabetical order.

    4. In anatomy, the fore finger, or pointing finger.

    .5. In arithmetic and algebra, that which shows to whatpowerany quantity is invol- ved ; the exponent. Encyc.

    G. The index of a globe, or the gnomon, is a little style fitted on the north pole, which by turning with the ^lobe, serves to point to certain divisions of the liour circle.


    7. In mnsic, a direct, which see.

    Index expurgatory, in catholic countries, a catalogue of prohibited books.

    INDEX'leAL, a. Having the form of an in- dex; pertaining to an index.

    INDEX'I€ALLY, adv. In the manner of an index. Swift.

    INDEXTER'ITY, n. [in and dexterity.]

    1. Want of dexterity or readiness in the use of the hands; clumsiness; awkwardness.

    2. Want of skill or readiness in any art or occupation. Harvey.

    IN'DIA, n. A country in Asia, so named from the river Indus.

    IN'DI.\\\\N, a. [from India, and this from Indus, the name of a river in AsiaJ

    Pertaining to either of the Indies, East or West.

    IN'DI.'VN, n. A general name of any native of tlie Indies; as an East Jndiati, or West Indian. It is particularly applied to any native of the American continent.

    INDIAN Arrow Root, n. A plant of the ge-

    I nus Marauta.

    INDIAN Bern/, n. A plant of the genus

    iMenispernuun. INDIAN Bread, n. A plant of the genus

    Jatropha. INDIA.N Corn, n. A plant, tlie maiz, of the

    genus Zea ; a native of America. INDIAN Cress, n. A plant of the genus

    Tropffiohnn. IINDIAN Fig, 71. A plant of the genus ! Cactus.

    ilNDIAN IiJc, 71. A substance brought from j China, used for water colors. It is in rolls j or in square ^cakes, and is said to consist I of lampblack and animal glue. Encyc.

    jIN'DlANITE, 71. [from India.] A minerol I occurring in masses having a foliated ! structure and shining luster. Its color is

    white or gray. Cleaveland.

    INDIAN Reed, n. A plant of the genus

    Canna. INDIAN Red, n. A species of ocher, a very ' fine purple earth, of a firm, compact tex- I ture and great weight. Hill.

    INDIA Rubber, n. The caoutchouc, a sub- ' stance of extraordinary elasticity, called { also eta.Hic ^tm or resin. It is produced

    by incision from the syringe tree of Cay-

    IN'DICANT, a. [L. indicans ; in and dico, i to show.]

    ;Shovving ; jiointing out what is to be done j for the cure of disease. Coxe.

    IN'DICATE, r. t. [L. indico ; in and dico, ; to show, Gr. Suxn^n.]

    1. To show; to point out; to discover; to direct the mind to a knowledge of some- thing not seen, or something that will in-ohably occur in future. Thus, fermenta- tion indicates a certain degree of heat in a liquor. A heavy swell of the sea in calm weather oflen indicates a storm at a dis- tance. A particular kind of cloud in the west at evening, indicates the approach of

    2. To tell; to disclose.

    ,3. In ynedicine, to show or manifest by symp- toms ; to point to as the proper remedies ; as, great prostration of strength indicates the use of stimulants.

    INDICATED, pp. Shown ; pointed out ; directed.

    IN'DICATING, ppr. Showing; pointing out ; directing.

    INDICATION, 7j. The act of pointing out.

    2. Mark; token; sign ; symptom ; whatever serves to discover what is not before known, or otherwise obvious.

    The frequent stops they make in the most convenient places, are plain indications of their weariness. .iddison.

    3. In medicine, any symptom or occurrence in a disease, which serves to direct to suitable remedies.

    !4. Discovery made ; intelligence given.

    I Bentley.

    jO. Explanation ; display. [Little used.]

    I Bacon.

    INDICATIVE, a. [L. indicativus.] Show- ing ; giving intimation or knowledge of something not visible or obvious. Reserve is not always i7idica(tfe of modesty ; it may be indicative of prudence.

    2. In grammar, the indicative mode is tlio form of the verb that indicates, that is, which affirms or denies ; as, he writes, he

    I N D

    is writing ; they run ; we misimprove ad van-l

    tages. It also asks questions ; as, has the

    mail arrived ? INDIC'ATIVELY, adv. lu a manner to

    show or signify. Gretv.i

    INDICATOR, Ji. He or that which shows

    or points out. Smith.'^

    IN'DICATORY, a. Showing; serving to

    show or make known. INDICE. [See Index.] IN'DICOLITE, n. [indigo, or indico, and

    ?.i9os, a stone.] In mineralogy, a variety of shorl or tourma-

    hn, of an indigo blue color, sometimes with

    a tinge of azure or green. Cleaveland.

    INDICT, V. t. indi'te. [L. indidus, from

    indico ; in and dico, to speak.] In laiv, to accuse or charge with a crime or

    misdemeanor, in writing, by a grand jury under oath. It is the peculiar province of a grand jury to indict, as it is of a house of representatives to impeach. It is fol- lowed by of; as indicted of treason or arson. INDICTABLE, a. indi'table. That may be

    indicted; as an indictable offender. 2. Subject to be presented by a grand jury; subject to indictment ; as an indictable offense. INDICTED, pp. indi'led. Accused by a

    grand jury. INDICTER, n. indi'ler. One who indicts. INDICTING, ppr. indi'ting. Accusing, oi making a formal or written charge of a crime by a grand jury. INDI€'TION, n. [Fr.from Low L. indiclio

    indico.] 1. Declaration ; proclamation. Bacon.

    a. In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years, in stituted by Constantine the Great ; origin ally, a period of taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Ro- mans were obliged to serve in the array to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of that term, to pay the troops discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this perioil. But, as it is said, in honor of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sep. 24, A.D. 312, by which Christianity was effectually established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years shovdd no longer be kept by Olympiads, but that the indiction should be used as the point from which to reckon and date years. Th' was begun Jan. 1, A. D. 313.

    Johnson. Encyc. INDIC'TIVE, a. Proclaimed ; declared.


    INDICTMENT, ji. indi'lement. A written

    accusation or formal charge of a crime

    misdemeanor, preferred by a grand jury

    under oath to a court. Blackstoni

    2. The paper or parchment containing the

    accusation of a grand jury. WmF.B, n. plu. of India. INDIFFERENCE, n. [Fr. from L. indif ferentia ; in and differo, to differ. Indiffer ency is little used.] 1. Equipoise or neutrahty of mind between different persons or things ; a state in which the mind is not inclined to one side more than the other ; as when we see contest of parties with indifference.

    I N D

    2. Impartiality; freedom from prejudice, prepossession or bias; as when we read a book on controverted points with indiffer- ence. [ This is a different application of the first defi7iition.]

    3. Unconcernedness ; a state of the mind when it feels no anxiety or interest in what is presented to it. No person of humani- ty can behold the wretchedness of the poor with indifference.

    State in which there is no difference, or in which no moral or physical reason pre- ponderates; as when we speak of the in- difference of things in themselves.

    Hooker. INDIFFERENT, a. [Fr. from L. indiffer- ens.]

    Neutral; not inclined to one side, party or thing more than to another.

    Cato knows neither of thera. Indifferent in his choice to sleep or die.

    ^ Addison.

    2. Unconcerned ; feehng no interest, anxiety or care respecting any thing. It seems to be impossible that a rational being should be indifferent to the means of obtaining endless happiness.

    It was a remarkable law of Solon, that any person who, in the commotions of the repub lie, remained neuter, or an indifferent spectato of the contending parties, should be condemned to perpetual banishment. Mdison

    Having no influence or preponderating

    weight ; Having no difference that gives preference. It is indifferent which road we take.

    4. Neutral, as to good or evil. Things in themselves indifferent, may he rendered evil by the prohibition of law.

    5. Impartial ; disinterested ; as an indifferent judge, juror or arbitrator.

    6. Passable; of a middling state or quality neither good, nor the worst ; as indifferent writing or paper.

    Indifferent, used adverbially, as indifferent honest, is ungrammatical and vulgar.

    INDIF'FERENTLY, adv. Without distinc- tion or preference ; as, to offer pardon in- differently to all. Mdison.

    2. Equally ; impaitially ; without favor, pre- judice or bias.

    — Tliey may tndy and indifferently minister justice. Com. Prayer.

    3. In a neutral state; without concern; without wish or aversion.

    Set honor in one eye and death i' th' other. And 1 will look on death indifferently.


    4. Not well ; tolerably ; passably ; as indif- ferently well ; to be indifferently enter- tained.

    IN'DIUENCE, ? [Fr. indigence, from L.

    IN'DIgENCY, I '" indigenlia, from indig- or ink, aud fg-fo, to want, to lack.]

    Want of estate, or means of comfortable sub- sistence ; penury ; poverty. A large por- tion of the hinuan race live in indigence while others possess more than they can enjoy.

    IN'DIgENE, n. [L. indigena; in or ind, and geno, gigno, to beget, or to be born.

    One born in a country ; a native animal or plant. Evelyn. Vattel.

    INDIG'ENOUS, a. [L. indigena, supra.]

    1. Native; born in a country; applied to persons.


    2. Native ; produced naturally in a country or climate ; not exotic ; applied to vegeta- bles.

    IN'DIgENT, a. [L.indigens; Fr. indigent.] Destitute of property or means of com- fortable subsistence ; needy; poor. Charity consists in relieving the indigent.


    INDIgEST', n. A crude mass. [ATot used.] Shak.

    INDItiEST'ED, a. [in and digested; L. indigestus.]

    1. Not digested ; not concocted in the stom- ach ; not changed or prepared for nourish- ing the body ; undigested ; crude. Not separated into distinct classes or or- ders, or into proper form ; not regularly disposed and arranged. Chaos is repre- sented as a rude or indigested mass.

    3. Not methodized ; not reduced to due form ; crude ; as an indigested scheme.

    4. Not prepared by heat.

    5. Not brought to suppuration, as the con- tents of an abscess or boil ; as anindigested wound. H'iseman.

    INDIGESTIBLE, a. [in and digestible.]

    1. Not digestible ; not easily converted into chyme, or prepared in the stomach for nourishing the body. Arbuthnot.

    2. Not to be received or patiently endured. INDIGES'TION, n. [in and digestion.]

    Want of due coction in the stomach ; a failure of that change in food which pre- pares it for nutrinjent ; crudity. Encye.

    As a disease, dyspepsy ; that state of the stomach, in which it is incapable of per- forming its natural healthy functions.

    INDIG'ITATE, V. t. To point out with the r. Brown.

    INDIGITA'TION, n. The act of pointing out with the finger. More.

    INDItiN, a. indi'ne. [L. indignus.] Unwor- thy; disgraceful. Obs. Chaucer.

    INDIG'NANCE, n. Indignation. [jVot in use.] Spenser.

    INDIG'NANT, a. [L. indignans, from in- dignor, to disdain ; in and dignor, dignus.]

    Affected at once with anger and disdain : feeling the mingled emotions of wrath and scorn or contempt, as when a person is exasperated at one despised, or by a mean action, or by the charge of a dishonorable act. Goliath was indignant at the chal- lenge of David.

    He strides indignant, and with haughty cries To single fight the fairy prince defies.


    INDIGNA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. indigna- tio.]

    Anger or extreme angei-, mingled with contempt, disgust or abhorrence.

    When Haman saw Mordecai in the king's gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai. Esth. V.

    2. The anger of a superior ; extreme anger ; particularly, the wrath of God against sin- ful men for their ingratitude and rebellion. 2. Kings iii.

    3. The effects of anger ; the dreadful effects of God's wrath; terrible judgments. Is.

    4. Holy displeasure at one's self for sin. 2 Cor. vii.

    INDIG'NIFY, r. t. To treat disdainfidly.

    [J^Totused.] Spen.'^':

    I N D

    INDIGNITY, n. [L. indignitas.] Unmer- ited, contemptuous conduct towards ano- ther; any action towards another which manifests contempt for him ; contumely; incivility or injury, accompanied with in- sult. Contemptuous words respecting one, or foul language in the presence of persons of character and delicacy, and indecent be- havior, are indignities. Christ on the cross was treated with the foidest indig- nity.

    INDIciNLY, adv. indi'ndy. Unworthily. Obs. Hall.

    INDIGO, n. [L. indicum, from India; Fr. It. Sp. indigo.]

    A substance or dye, prepared from the leaves and stalks of the indigo-plant, which are steeped in water till the pulp is extracted, when the tincture is drawn off and churn- ed or agitated, till the dye begins to granu- late. The flakes are then left to settle the liquor is drawn off, and the indigo is drained in bags and dried in boxes. It is used for dyeing blue. Edwards, fV. Ind.

    INDIGOM'ETER, re. An instrument for as- certaining the strength of indigo. Ure.

    IN'DIGO-l'LANT, re. A plant of the genus Indigofera, from which is prepared indigo. It is a native of Asia, Africa and America, and called by the native Americans, anil. The calyx is patent ; the carina of the co- rol is furnished witli a subulate, patulous spur on each side ; the legume or pod is linear. Several species are cultivated for making indigo, of which the most impor- tant are the tinctoria, or common indigo- plant, the anil, a larger species, and the disperma, which furnishes the Guatimalu indigo. Encyc. Miller. Edin. Ena/c.

    INDIL'ATORY, n. [in and dUatory.] N^ol dilatory or slow. Comwallis.

    INDIL'ItiENCE, n. [in and diligence.] Want of diligence; slothfulness.

    B. Jonson.

    INDIL'IuENT, a. Not diligent ; idle ; sloth- ful. Felthum

    INDIL'IGENTLY, adv. Without diligence Up. Hall

    INDIiMIN'ISHABLE, a. That cannot bo diminished. Milton

    INDIRECT', a. [L. iiidirectus ; in and di rectus, from dirigo.]

    1. Not straight or rectilinear ; deviating from a direct line or course ; circuitous. F New York to England by Bordeaux, i indirect course.

    2. Not direct, in a moral sense ; not tending to a purpose by the shortest or plainest course, or by the obvious, orilinary means, but obliquely or consequentially; by re- mote means ; as an indirect accusation ; an indirect attack on reputation ; an indirect answer or proposal. Hence,

    3. Wrong ; improper. Shal-.

    4. Not fair; not honest ; tending to mislead or deceive.

    Indirect dealing will be discovered one time or other. Tillotson.

    5. Indirect tax, is a tax or duty on articles of consumption, as an excise, customs, &c.

    INDIRECTION, re. [in ai\\\\d direction.] Ob- lique course or means. Shak.

    2. Dishonest practice. Obs. Shak.

    INDIRECT'LY, adv. Not in a straight line or course ; obliquely.

    2. Not by direct means.

    1 N D

    3. Not in express terms. He tn(/iVfc% men- tioned the subject.

    4. Unfairly.

    INDIRECT'NESS, n. Obliquity; devious course.

    Si. Unfairness ; dishonesty. Mountagu.

    INniSrF.RN'IHI.E, -/. [in and discernible.] Thrit i-.-iiiiioi lir ili~c(-nicd ; not visible or p(-rc-i-|iiihl<- -. iinr (liM-iiM>rable. Denham.

    INDISC i;U,\\\\ II?1,1;M:s.-!, «. incapability of being

    INDISCERN'IBLY, adv. In a manner not to be seen or perceived.

    INDISCERI'IBLE, a. Indisccrptible. Obs. More.

    INDISCERPTIBII, lTY,n. The quality of being iivcapable of dissolution, or separa- tion of parts.

    INDISCERP'TI BLE, n. [in and (/tsceiy

    INDIS'CIPLINABLE, a. [in and discipli- nable.]

    iiat cannot be disciplined or subjected to discijjline; not capable of being improved by discipline. Hale.

    INDISeOV'ERABLE, a. [in and discoverti- ble.] That cannot be discovered ; undis coverable.

    INDISeOV'ERY, n. [in and discovery.' Want of discovery. [Unusual.] Brmmi

    INDlSeREE'T, a. [in and discreet.] No discreet ; wanting m discretion ; impru- dent; inconsiderate ; injudicious ; as per- sons.

    2. Not according to discretion or sound judg ment ; as indiscreet behavior.

    INDISCREE'TLY, adv. Not discreetly; thout prudence ; inconsiderately ; with t judgment.

    INDISCRE'TE, a. Not discrete or separa ted. Pownal.

    INDISCRE"TION, n. [in and discretion. Want of discretion ; imprudence. TIk grossest vices pass under the fashionable name, indiscretions.

    INDISCRIM'INATE, a. [L. indiscrimina- tits. See Discriminate.]

    1. Undistinguishing; not making any dis- tinction ; as the indiscriminate voracious- ness of a glutton. Chesterjield.

    % Not having discrimination; confused.

    3. Undistinguished or undistinguishable. INDISCRIMINATELY, adv. Without dis- tinction ; in confusion.

    INDISCRIMIN'ATING, ppr. or a. Not ma- king any distinction ; as the victims of an indiscriminaling spirit of rapine.


    INDISCRIMINATION, n. Want of dis- crimination or distinction. Jefferson.

    INDISCUS'SED, a. Not discussed.


    INDISPENSABIL'ITY, a. Indispensable- ness. [Little used.] Skelton.

    INDISPENSABLE, a. [Fr.; in and dis ptnsabte.]

    Not to be dispensed with ; that cannot be omitted, remitted or spared ; absolutely necessary or requisite. Air and w are indispensable to the life of man. Our duties to God and to our fellow men are of indispensable obligation.

    I N D

    INDISPENS'ABLENESS, n. The state or

    I quality of being absolutely necessary.

    INDISPENSABLY, adv. Necessarily ; in u manner or degree that forbids dispensa- tion, omission or want.

    INDISPERS'ED, a. Not dispersed. More.

    INDISPOSE, V. t. s as :. [Fr. indispo- ser ; in and disposer, to dispose or fit. See Dispose. ]

    1. To disincline ; to alienate the mind and render it averse or unfavorable to any thing. A love of pleasure indisposes the mind to severe study and steady attention to business. The pride and selfishness of men indispose them to religious duties.

    2. To render unfit ; to dis(iuulify for its pro- i per functions; to disorder; as the distem-

    perature of itidisposed organs. Glanville.

    3. To disorder slightly, as the healthy fgnc- tions of the body.

    It made him rather indisposed than sick.


    4. To make unfavorable or disinclined ; with towards.

    The king was sufficiently indisposed towards the persons, or the principles of Calvin's disci- ples. Clarendon. INDISPOSED, pp. or a. Disinclined; averse ; unwilling ; unfavorable.

    2. Disordered ; disqualified for its functions ; unfit.

    3. Slightly disordered ; not in i)erfect health. INDISPO'SEDNESS, n. Disinclination ;

    slight aversion ; unwillingness ; unfavor- nhTcness.

    2. Unfitness; disordered state. lNDlSPO'SING,;)pr. Disinchning; render- ing somewhat averse, uuwiUing or unfa-

    j vorable.

    !2. Disordering ; rendering unfit.

    INDISPOSI'TION, re. [Fr. ; in and dispo- silimi.]

    I. Disinclination ; aversion; unwillingness; dislike ; as the indisposition of men to sub- mit to severe discipline ; an indisposition to abandon vicious practices.

    A general indisposition towards believing.


    i3. Slight disorder of the healthy functions of the boily ; tendem-y to disease. Indispo- sition is a slight defect of healthy action in bodily functions, rather than settled or marked disease.

    3. Want of tendency or natural appetency or affinity ; as the indisposition of two sid)- stances to combine.

    and dispu-

    INDIS'PUTABLE, a. [Fr. table.]

    Not to be disputed ; incontrovertible ; incon- testable ; too evident to adniit of dispute. -iddison.

    INDIS'PUTABLENESS, n. The state or ([uality of being indisputable, or too clear to iidniit of controversy.

    INDIS PUTABLY, adv. Without dispute; in a manner or degree not admitting of controversy ; unquestionably; without op- position.

    INDISPU'TED, a. Not disputed or contro- verted ; undisputed. Encyc.

    INDISSOLUBILITY, re. [Fr. indissolubi- lity. See Indissoluble.]

    1. The quality of being indissoluble, or not capable of being dissolved, melted or li- quefied. Locke.

    I N D

    I N D

    I N D

    2. The quality of being incapable of a )>reach ; perpetuity of union, obligation or binding force. }farhuHon.

    INDISSOLUBLE, a. [Fr. from L. indis- soluhilis ; in and dissolubilis, from dis- solvo ; dis and solvo, to loosen.]

    I. Not capable of being dissolved, melted or liquefied, as by heat or water. Few sub- stances are absolutely indissoluble by beat ; many are indissoluUe in water.

    9. That cannot be broken or rightfully vio- lated ; perpetually binding or obligatory ; as an indissoluble league or covenant. The marriage covenant is indissoluble, ex- cept in certain specified cases.

    3. Not to be broken ; firm; stable; asindis- solable fiiendsliip ; indissoluble bands of love.

    INDIS'SOLUBLENESS, n. The quality of being incapable of dissolution, separation or breach ; indissolubility. Hale.

    INDIS'SOLUBLY, adv. In a maimer re- sisting separation ; firmly united beyond the power of separation ; in a manner not to be dissolved or broken. On they move IndissoluUy (iim. Milton.

    INDISSOLV'ABLE, a. {in and dissolvable.]

    1. That cannot be dissolved ; not capable of being melted or liquefied.

    2. Indissoluble ; that cannot be broken ; per- petually firm and binding ; as an indis- solvnble bond of union.

    3. Not capable of separation into parts by natural process.

    INDIS'TANCY, n. Want of distance or separation. [A bad ivord and not used.]


    . [Fr. ; li. indistindus ; See Distinct]


    and distindus.

    1. Not distinct or distinguishable ; not sep- arate ill such a manner as to be percepti- ble by itself. The parts of a substance are indistind, when they are so blended that the eye cannot separate them, or per- ceive them as separate. Sounds are in- distind, when the ear cannot separate them. Hence,

    2. Obscure ; not clear ; confused ; as indis- iind ideas or notions.

    3. Imperfect; faint; not presenting clear and well defined images ; as indistind vision ; an indistind view.

    4. Not exactly discerning. [Unusual.]


    INDISTINCT'IBLE, a. Undistinguishable,

    [Littkused.] ffaiion

    INDISTIN€'TION, n. Want of distinction;

    confusion ; uncertainty.

    The indistinction of many of the same name- hath made some doubt. Brown,

    2. Indiscrimination; want of distinction.


    3. Equality of condition or rank.

    Coxe, Switz. INDISTINCT'LY, adv. Without distinc tion or separation ; as when parts of a thing are indistindly seen.

    2. Confusedly ; not clearly ; obscurely ; as when ideas are indistindhj comprehend- ed.

    3. Not definitely ; not with precise limits as when the border of a thing is indistind /i/ marked.

    INDISTINCT'NESS, n. Want of distinc- tion or discrimination ; confusion ; uncer- tainty.

    2. Obscurity ; faintness ; as the indistind- »ies« of vision.

    INDISTIN'GUISHABLE, a. [in and dis- tinguishable.]

    That cannot be distinguished or separated ; undistinguishable. Tytler.

    INDISTIN'GUISHING, a. Making no dif- ference ; as indistinguishing liberalities.


    IN DISTURB' ANCE, n. [in and disturb- ance.]

    Freedom from disturbance ; calmness ; re- pose ; tranquillity. Temple.

    INDITCH', V. t. To bury in a ditch. [Lit- tle used.] Bp. Hall.

    INDI'TE, V. t. [L. indico, indicium ; in and dico, to speak.]

    1. To compose ; to write ; to commit to words in writing.

    Hear how learn'd Greece her useful rules indites. Pope.

    2. To direct or dictate what is to be uttered or written. The late President Dwight indited his sermons.

    My heart is inditing a good matter. Ps. xi INDI'TE, V. i. To compose an account of Waller. [Tliis is from the same original as indict. The different applications of the word have induced authors to express each in a dif- ferent orthography, but without good rea-

    INDI'TED, /)/?. Composed; written ; dic- tated.

    INDI'TEMENT, n. The act of inditing.

    INDI'TING, ppr. Committing to words in writing ; dictating what shall be written.

    INDIVI'DABLE, a. Not capable of divi- sion. Shnk.

    INDIVI'DED, a. Undivided. Patrick.

    INDIVID'UAL, a. [Fr. individud ; L. indi- viduiis ; in and dividuus, from divido, to divide.]

    1. Not divided, or not to be divided ; single ; one ; as an individual man or city.

    — Under his great vicegerent reign abide United, as one individual soul. Milton

    2. Pertaining to one only ; as individual la bor or exertions.

    INDIVID'UAL, n. A single person or hu man being. This is the common applica tion of the word ; as, there was not an in- dividual present.

    2. A single animal or thing of any kind But this word, as a noun, is rarely appli ed except to human beings.

    INDIVIDUAL'ITY, n. Separate or distinct existence; a state of oneness. Arbuthnot

    INDIVID'UALIZE, v. t. To distinguish ; to select or mark as an individual, or to distinguish the peculiar properties of s person from others. Drake

    INDIVID'UALIZED, pp. Distinguished as a particular person or thing. Drake

    INDIVID'UALIZING, ppr. Distinguishing as an individual.

    INDIVIDUALLY, adv. Separately ; by it self; to the exclusion of others. Thirty men will unitedly accomplish what each of them individually cannot perform.

    2. With separate or distinct existence.

    How should that subsist solitarily by itseli'- which hath no substance, but individually tin- very same whereby others subsist with it'?


    3. Inseparably ; incommunicably.

    Omniscience — an attribute individually prop- er to the Godhead. Hakewilt.

    INDIVID'UATE, a. Undivided.

    INDiyiD'UATE, 1'. t. To make single ; to distinguish from others of the species.

    Life is individuated into infinite numbers, that have their distinct sense and pleasure.


    INDIVIDUA'TION, a. The act of making single or the same, to the exclusion of oth- ers. If'atts.

    2. The act of separating into individuals by analysis. Etymol. Vocabulary.^

    INDIVIDU'ITY, n. Separate existence. [M)t used.]

    INDIVIN'ITY, n. Want of divine power. Brown .

    INDIVISIBILITY, n. [See Indivisible.]

    The state or property of being indivisible.


    INDIVIS'IBLE, a. s as z. [in and divisible. !ee Divide.]

    That cannot be divided, separated or bro- ken ; not separable into parts. Perhaps the particles of matter, however small, cannot be considered as indivisible. The mind or soul must be indivisible. A math- ematical point is indivisible.

    INDIVIS'IBLE, 71. In g'ewietn/, indivisibles are the elements or principles into which a body or figure may be resolved ; elements infinitely small. Ennjc.

    INDIVIS'IBLENESS, n. Indivisibility, which see.

    INDIVIS'IBLY, adv. So as not to be capa- ble of division.

    INDO'CIBLE, a. [in and docible ; L. doceo, to teach.]

    Unteachable ; notcapable of being taught,

    or not easily instructed ; dull in intellect.

    Bp. Hall.

    2. Intractable, as a beast.

    INDO'CILE, a. [Fr. ; L. indocilis ; in and docilis ; doceo, \\\\.o teacli.]

    1. Not teachable ; not easily instructed ; dull. Bentlcy.

    2. Intractable, as a beast. INDOCIL'ITY, w. [Fr.indocilitl] Unteach-

    ableness ; dullness of intellect. Bp. Hall.

    2. Intractableness, as of a beast.

    INDOCTRINATE, v. t. [Fr. endodriner : L. in and dodrina, learning.]

    To teach ; to instruct in rudiments or prin- ciples.

    He took much delight in indoctrinating his voung unexperienced favorite. Clarendon.

    INDOe'TRINATED,;?/). Taught; instruct- ed in the principles of any science.

    INDOe'TRINATING, ppr. Teaching; in- structing in principles or rudiments.

    INDO€TRINA'TION, n. Instruction in the rudiments and principles of any science ; information. Brown.

    IN'DOLENCE, n. [Fr. from L. indolentia ; in and doho, to be pained.]

    1. Literally, freedom from pain. Burnet.

    2. idleness; indisposition to labor; laziness ; inaction or want of exertion of body or mind, proceeding from love of ease or aversion to toil. Indolence, like laziness, implies a constitutional or habit- ual love of ease ; idleness does not.

    I N D

    IN'DOLENT, a. [Fr.] Habitually idle or indisposed to labor ; lazy ; listless ; slug- gish; indulging in ease ; applied to persons.

    2. Inactive ; idle ; as an indolent life.

    .'{. Free iiom pain ; as an indolent tumor.

    tN'DOLENTLY, adv. In habitual idleness and ease ; without action, activity or ex- ertion ; lazily.

    Calm and serene you indolently sit.


    INDOM'ITABLE, a. Untamable. [Kot xised.] Herbert.

    INDOMPT'ABLE, a. [Fr. ; in and dompter, L. domo, to tame.] Not to be subdued. [Unusual.] Tooke.

    IlNlDORS'ABLE, a. That may be indorsed, assigned and made payable to order.

    INDORSE, V. t. indors'. [L. in and dorsum, the back.]

    1. To write on ihe back of a paper or writ- ten instrument; as, to indorse a note oi bill of exchange ; to indorse a receipt or assignment on a bill or note. Hence,

    ■J. To assign by writing an order on the back of a note or bill ; to assign or trans for by indorsement. The bill was indors cd to the bank.

    To indorse in blank, to write a name only oi a note or bill, leaving a blank to be fdled liy the indorsee.

    INDORSEE', n. The person to whom note or bill is indorsed, or assigned by in- dorsement.

    INDORSEMENT, n. indors'ment. The act of writing on the back of a note, bill, or other written instrument.

    2. That which is written on the back of a note, bill, or other paper, as a name, an order for payment, the return of an officer, or the verdict of a grand jury.

    INDORS'ER, n. The person who indorses, or writes his name on the back of a note Or bill of exchange, and who, by this act, as the case may be, makes himself liable to pay the note or bill.

    IN'DRAUGHT, n. in'drhft. [in and draught. An opening from the sea into the land ; an inlet. Obs. Raleigh

    INDRENCH', V. t. [in and drench.] To overwhelm with water ; to drown ; to drt^nch. Shak

    INDU'BIOUS, a. [L. indubius ; in and du- bius, doubtful.]

    1. Not dubious or doubtful ; certain.

    2. Not doubting ; unsuspecting ; as indubi- ous confidence. Harvey.

    INDU'BITABLE, a. [Fr. from L. indubi

    tabilis ; in and dubitabilis, from dubito, to

    doubt.] Not to be doubted ; unquestionable ;

    dent ; apparently certain ; too plair

    admit of doubt. Halts.

    INDIJ'BITABLENESS, n. State of being

    indubitable. ^s*

    INDUBITABLY, adv. Undoubtedly;

    questionably ; in a manner to remove all

    doubt. Sprat.

    INDU'BITATE, a. [L. indubitatus.] Not

    questioned ; evident ; certain. [M)t used.]


    INDU'CE, V. t. [L. induco ; in and duco, to

    lead ; Fr. ivdmre ; It. indurre.] 1. To lead, as by persuasion or argument ;

    to prevail on ; to incite ; to influence by

    Vol. I.

    I N D

    motives. The emperor could not be in- duced to take part in the contest.

    2. To produce by influence. As this belief is absolutely necessary for all

    mankind, the evidence for inducing it must be of that nature as to accommodate itself to all species of men. Forbes.

    3. To produce ; to bring on ; to cause ; as a i'cver induced by extreme fatigue. The revolution in France has induced a change of opinions and of property.

    4. To introduce ; to bring into view. The poet may be seen inducing his persona- ges in the first Iliad. Pope.

    5. To offer by way of induction or inference. [JVot used.] Broum

    INDU'CED, pp. Persuaded by motives; in fluenced ; produced ; caused.

    INDU'CEMENT, n. Motive ; any thing that leads the mind to will or to act ; any ar- gument, reason or fact that tends to per- suade or influence the mind. The love of ease is an inducement to idleness. The love of money is an inducement to indus- try in good men, and to the perpetration of crimes in the bad.

    INDU'CER, Ji. He or that which induces, persuades or influences.

    INDU'CIBLE, a. That may be induced; that may be offered by induction.


    2. That may be caused. Barrow.

    INDU'CING, ppr. Leading or moving by reason or arguments ; persuading ; pro- ducing ; causing.

    INDUCT', V. t. [L. inductus, from induco in and duco, to" lead.] LAlerally, to bring in or introduce. Hence, appropriateh

    2. To introduce, as to a benefice or office ; to put in actual possession of an ecclesia tical living or of any other office, with the customary forms and ceremonies. Clerks or parsons are inducted by a mandate from the bishop to the arehdeacon, who usually issues a precept to other clergymen to per form the duty. In the United States, cer tain civil officers and presidents of colle ges, are inducted into office with appropri ate ceremonies.

    INDUCT'ED, pp. Introduced into office ith the usual formalities.

    INDU€T'ILE, a. [in and ductile.] Not ca pable of being drawn into threads, as i metal. [See Ductile.]

    INDUCTIL'ITY, n. The quality of being inductile.

    INDU€T'1NG, ppr. Introducing into of- fice with the usual formalities.

    INDUCTION, n. [Fr. from L. inductio See Jndtict.]

    Literally, a bringing in ; introduction ; en- trance. Kence,

    2. In logic and rhetoric, the act of drawing a consequence from two or more proposi- tions, which are called premises. Halts.

    3. The method of reasoning from particulars to generals, or the inferring of one gene ral proposition from several particular ones.

    The conclusion or inference drawn from premises or from propositions which are admitted to be true, either in fact, or for the sake of argument. Encyc.

    5. The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or giving possession of an eccle siastical living ; or tlie introduction of J


    I N D

    person into an office by the usual forms and ceremonies. Induction is applied to the introduction of officers, only when certain oaths are to be administered or other formalities are to be ob.served, which are intended to confer authority or give dignity to the transaction. In Great Bri- tain, induction is used for giving posses- sion of ecclesiastical offices. In the Uni- ted States, it is applied to the formal in- troduction of civil officers, and the higher officers of colleges. INDU€T'IVE,a. Leading or drawing ; with

    A brutish vice, Inductive mainly to tfje .sin of Eve. Milton. 2. Tending to induce or cause.

    They may be inductive of credibility. [ Un- usual.\\\\ Hale.

    Leading to inferences ; proceeding by in- duction ; employed in drawing conclu- sions from premises ; as inductive reoson-

    INIUJCT'IVELY, adv. By induction or in- ference.

    INDL'CT'OR, n. The person who inducts another into an office or benefice.

    INDUE, v.t. indu'. [L. induo ; Gr. tvSvu; Fr. enduire. This word coincides nearly in signification with endow, that is, to put on, to furnish. Duo is evidently a con- tracted word.]

    To put on something ; to invest ; to clothe ; as, to indue matter with forms, or man with intelligence.

    2. To furnish ; to supply with ; to endow.

    INDUED, pp. Clothed ; invested.

    INDUEMENT, n. indu'ment. A putting on ; endowment. Mountagu.

    INDU'ING, ppr. Investing; putting on.

    INDULGE, V. t. indulf. [L. indulgeo. This word is compound, hut the primitive sim- ple verb is not known, nor the radical sense. If allied to G. and D. dulden, to bear, to tolerate, it is from the root of L. tolero.]

    To permit to be or to continue ; to suffer ; not to restrain or o]>pose ; as, to indulge sloth ; to indulge the passions ; to indulge pride, selfishness or inclinations.

    2. To gratify, negatively; not to check or restrain the will, appetite or desire ; as, to indulge children in amusements.

    2. To gratify, positively ; to grant some- thing not of right, but as a favor ; to grant in comphance with wishes or desire. Yet, yet a moment, one dim ray of light Indulge, dread Chaos and eternal Night !


    4. In general, to gratify ; to favor ; to hu- mor ; to yield to the wishes of; to with- hold restraint from.

    It is remarked by Johnson, that if the matter of indulgence is a single thing, it has tfith before it ; if it is a habit, it has in. He indulged himself mifc a glass of wine ; he indulges himself in sloth or intemper- ance.

    INDULGE, v. i. indulj'. To permit to enjoy or practice ; or to yield to the enjoyment or practice of, without restraint or con- trol : as, to indulge in sin, or in sensual pleasure. This form of expression is el- liptical, a pronoun being omitted ; as, to indulge myself or himsdf.

    I N D

    Most men are more willing to indulge in easy vices, than to practice laborious virtues.

    Johnson. 2. To yield ; to comply ; to be favorable.

    [Little used.] INDUL'GED, pp. Permitted to be and to operate without check or control ; as love of pleasure indulged to excess.

    2. Gratified ; yielded to ; humored in wishes or desires ; as a child indulged by his pa- rents.

    3. Granted.

    INDULGENCE, > Free permission U INDUL'GENCY, \\\\ "• the appetites, hu

    mor, desires, passions or will to act or op erate; forbearance of restraint or control How many children are ruined by indul

    fence ! Indulgence is not kindness or ten erness, but it may be the effect of one or the other, or of negligence.

    2. Gratification ; as the indulgence of lust or of appetite.

    3. Favor granted ; liberality ; gratificat

    If all these gracious itldulgencies are without effect on us, we must perish in our folly.


    4. In the Romish church, remission of the punishment due to sins, granted by the pope or church, and supposed to save the sinner from purgatory ; absolution from the censures of the church and from all transgressions. Encyc

    INDUL'6ENT, a. Yielding to the wishes desires, humor or appetites of those un- der one's care ; compliant ; not opposing or restraining ; as an indulgent parent.

    2. Mild ; favorable ; not severe ; as the in- dulgent censure of posterity. trailer.

    3. Gratifying ; favoring ; with of.

    The feeble old, indulgent (/their case.


    INDULGEN'TIAL, a. Relating to the in

    dulgencies of the Romish church. [M)t

    well authorized.] Brevint

    TNDUL'gENTLY, adv. With unrestrained

    enjoyment. Hammond.

    2. Mildly, favorably; not severely.

    INDUL'gER, n. One who indulges.

    Mountagu. INDUL'GING, ppr. Permitting to enjoy or

    to jiractice ; gratifying. INDULT', I [It. indxdto, a pardon ; L. INDULT'O, \\\\ "■ indultus, indulged.] !. In the church of Rome, the power of pre- senting to benefices, granted to certain persons, as to kings and cardinals.


    9. In Spain, a duty, tax or custom, paid to

    the king for all goods imported from the

    . West Indies in the galleons. Encyc

    IN'DURATE, v. i. [L. induro ; in and duro,

    to harden.] To grow hard ; to harden or become hard Clay indurates by drying, and by extreme heat.

    IN'DURATE, V. t. To make hard. Extreme heat indurates clay. Some fossils are in durated by exposure to the air. 2. To make unfeeling; to deprive of sens! bility ; to render obdurate ; as, to indurate the heart. Goldsmith

    IN'DURATE D, pp. Hardened ; made obdu

    rate. IN'DURATING, pfr. Hardening; render ing insensible.

    I N E

    INDURA'TION, n. The act of hardening, or process of growing hard. Bacon.

    2. Hardness of heart ; obduracy.

    Decay of Piety.

    INDUS'TRIOUS, a. [L. industrius, from in- du stria.]

    1. Diligent in business or study ; constantly, regularly or habitually occupied in busi- ness ; assiduous ; opposed to slothful and idle.

    Frugal and industrious men are commonly friendly to the established government.


    2. Diligent in a particular pursuit, or to a particular end ; opposed to remiss or slack ; as industrious to accomplish a journey, or to reconcile contending parties.

    3. Given to industry ; characterized by dili- gence ; as an industrious life.

    4. Careful ; assiduous ; as the industrious ap- plication of knowing men. IValts.

    INDUS'TRIOUSLY, adv. With habitual diligence ; with steady application of the powers of body or of mind.

    2. Diligently ; assiduously ; with care ; ap- plied to a particular purpose. He attempt- ed industriously to make peace. He in- dustriously concealed his name.

    IN'DUSTRY, n. [L. industria ; Fr. indus- irie. This is a compound word, and the root probably ofthe Class Ds.]

    Habitual diligence in any employment, ei ther bodily or mental ; steady attention to business ; assiduity ; opposed to sloth and idleness. We are directed to take les of industry from the bee. Industry pays debts, while idleness or despair will in- crease them.

    INDWELL'ER, n. An inhabitant.


    INDWELL'ING, a. [in and dwelling.]

    Dwelling within ; remauiing in the heart,

    even after it is renewed ; as indioelling sin,

    Panoplist. Macknight. Milner.

    INDWELL'ING, n. Residence within, or in the heart or soul.

    INE'BRIANT, a. [See Inebriate.] Intoxicat-

    INE'BRIANT, n. Any thing that intoxi cate.s, as opium. Encyc.

    INE'BRIATE, v.t. [L. inehi-io, inebriatus, in and ebrio, to intoxicate ; ebrius, soaked drenched, drunken. The Latin ebrius is contracted from ebrigus or ebregus, as ap pears from the Spanish cmbriagar, to in- toxicate ; embriago, inebriated ; It. briaco drunk ; imbriacare, imbriacarsi. The s is to wash or drench, and it is evidently from the common root ofthe Gr. lipix^> to water or irrigate. See Rain.]

    1. To make drunk; to intoxicate. Sandys.

    2. To disorder the senses ; to stupefy, or to make furious or frantic ; to produce ef- fects hke those of liquor, which are vari- ous in different constitutions.

    INE'BRIATE, v. i. To be or become intox- icated. Bacon.

    INE'BRIATE, n. A habitual drunkard.

    Some inebriates have their paroxysms of ine- biiety terminated by much pale urine, profuse sweats, &c. Darwin

    INEBRIATED, ;;p. Intoxicated.

    INE'BRIATING, ppr. Making drunk ; in toxicaling.

    INEBRIATION, n. Drunkenness; intoxi cation. Brown


    INEBRIETY, n. Drunkenness ; intoxica- tion. Darwin. INED'ITED, a. [in and edited.] Unpublish- ed. Warton. INEF'FABLE, a. [Fr. from L. ineffaWis ;

    and effabilis, from effor, to speak.] Unspeakable ; unutterable ; that cannot be expressed in words; usually in a good sense ; as the ineffable joys of heaven ; the ineffable glories ofthe Deity. INEF'FABLENESS, n. Unspeakableness ; quality of being unutterable. Scott.

    INEFFABLY, adv. Unspeakably : in a man- r not to be expressed in words.


    INEFFE€T'IVE, a. [in and effective.] Not eflective ; not producing any effect, or the eiTect intended ; inefficient ; useless.

    The word of God, without the spirit, is a dead and ineffective letter. Taylor.

    2. Not able ; not competent to the service in- tended ; as ineffective troops ; ineffective force. .3. Producing no effect. INEFFECT'UAL, a. [in and effectual] Not producing its proper effect, or not able to ])roduce its effect ; inefficient ; weak ; as an ineffectual remedy ; the Spaniards made an ineffectual attempt to reduce Gibraltar. [See Inefficacious.-] INEFFECTUALLY, adv. Without effect;

    in vain. INEFFE€T'UALNESS, n. Want of effect, or of power to produce it ; inefficacy.

    James speaks of the ineffectualness of some

    men's devotion. Wake.

    INEFFERVES'CENCE, n. [in and effer-

    vescence.] Want of effervescence ; a state of not effer- escing. Kirwan.

    INEFFERVES'CENT, a. Not effervescing,

    not susceptible of effervescence. INEFFERVESCIBIL'ITY, n. The quality of not effervescing, or not being suscepti- ble of cflervescence. Kinvan. INEFFERVES'CIBLE, a. Not capable of

    effervescence. INEFFICA'CIOUS, a. [It. and Fr. iiuffi-

    cace ; L. inefficax ; in and efficax, efficio, to effect ; ex and facio, to make.]

    Not efficacious ; not having power to pro- duce the effect desired, or the proper ef- fect; of inadequate power or force.

    Ineffectual, says Johnson, rather denotes an actual failure, and inefficacious, an ha- bitual impotence to any effect. But the distinction is not always observed, nor can it be ; for we cannot always know wheth- er means are inefficacious, till experiment has proved them ineffectual; nor even then, for we cannot be certain that the failure of means to produce an effect is to be attributed to habitual want of power, or to accidental and temporary causes. Inefficacious is therefore sometimes synon- ymous with ineffectual.

    INEFFICA'CIOUSLY, adv. Without effi- cacy or effect.

    INEFFICA'CIOUSNESS,n. Want of pow- er to produce the effect, or want of effect.

    INEF'FI€ACY, n. [in and effiA:acy, L. effi- cacia.]

    1. Want of power to produce the desired or proper effect ; inefficiency ; as the ineffi- cacy of med'ic'mes or of means.

    12. Ineffectualness; failure of effect.

    I N E

    I N E

    I N E

    INEFFI"C1ENCY, n. [in and efficiency.] Want of power or exertion of power to produce the effect ; inefficacy.

    INEFFI"CIEN'r, a. [in and efficient] Not efficient ; not producing the effect ; ineffi- cacious.

    2. Not active ; effecting nothing ; as an inef- ficient force. Chesterfield.

    INEFFI"CIENTLY, adv. Inefiectuully ; without eflect.

    INELAB'ORATE, a. Not elaborate; not wrought with care. Cockeram.

    INELAS'TIC, a. [in and elastic] Not elas- tic; wanting elasticity ; uuelastic.

    INELASTICITY, n. The absence of elas- ticity ; the want of elastic power.

    INEL'EGANCE, ? [See Inelegant.] Want

    INEL'EGANCY, \\\\ "' of elegance ; want of beauty or polish in language, composition or manners ; want of symmetry or orna- ment in building; want of dehcacy in col- oring, &c.

    INEL'EGANT, a. [L. inele^ans ; in and el- egans, from the root ofeltgo, to cli

    Not elegant; wanting beauty or polish, as language, or refinement, as manners ; want ing symmetry or ornament, as an edifice ; in short, wanting in any thing which cor rect taste requires.

    INEL'EGANTLY, adv. In an inelegant or

    unbecoming manner ; coarsely ; roughly.


    INELIOIBIL'ITY, n. [from ineligible.] In- capacity of being elected to an office.

    2. State or quality of not being worthy of choice.

    INELIGIBLE, a. [in and eligible.] Not ca- pable of being elected to an office.

    2. Not worthy to be chosen or preferred ; not expedient.

    INEL'OUUENT, a. [in and eloquent.] Not eloquent ; not speaking with fluency, pro- priety, grace and pathos ; not persuasive used of persons.

    2. Not fluent, graceful or pathetic; not persuasive ; as language or composition. Milton.

    INEL'OQUENTLY, adv. Without elo- quence.

    INELUCT'ABLE, a. [L. ijieluctabUis.] Not to be resisted by struggling ; not to be overcome. [M>t used.) Pearson.

    INELU'DIBLE, a. [in and ehidible.] Thai cannot be eluded or defeated.

    Glanville INENAR'RABLE, a. [L. inenarrabUis.]

    That cannot be narrated or told. INEPT', a. [L. ineptus; in and aptus, fit, apt.]

    1. Not apt or fit ; unfit ; unsuitable.


    2. Improper ; unbecoming ; foolish. More. INEPT'ITUDE, n. Unfitness; inaptitude

    unsuitableness ; as an ineptitude to motion.


    INEPT'LY, arfy. Unfitly; unsuitably; fool

    ishly. Glanville.

    INEPT'NESS, n. Unfitness. More.

    INE'CiUAL.rt. [in and equal.] Unequal ; un

    even ; various. Shenstone

    INEQUALITY, n. [L. inmciualitas ; in and

    wqualis, equal ; Fr. inegahti.] 1. Difference or want of equality in degree,

    quantity, length, or quality of any kind

    the state of not having equal measure, de-

    gree, dimensions or amount; as an >..>,-( qualiti/ in size or stature ; an inequality of numbers or of power; inequality o{ dis- tances or of motions.

    2. Unevenness; want of levelness ; the al- ternate rising and falling of a surface ; as the inequalities of the surface of the earth, or of a marble slab.

    Disproportion to any office or purpose ; inadequacy ; incompetency ; as the ine- quality of terrestrial things to the wants of a rational soul.

    4. Diversity ; want of uniformity in different times or places ; as the inequality of air or temperature.

    Diflercnce of rank, station or condition ; as the inequalities of men in society ;

    qualities of rank or property. NEQUIDIS'TANT,

    . Not being equally listant. Say.

    INEUUILAT'ERAL, a. Having unequal sides. Say.

    INl'^Q'UITABLE, a. [in and equitable.] Not equitable ; not just.

    INE'QUIVALVE, ) Having unequal

    INECiUIVAL'VULAR, S "" valves.

    INERM', I [L. inermis ; in ani\\\\ a.

    INERM'OUS, \\\\ "• arms.]

    Unarmed ; destitute of prickles or thorns, as a leaf; a botanical word. Martyn

    INERRABILiTY, 71. [from I'nerra We. ] Ex emption from error or from the possibility of erring; infallibility. King Charles.

    INER'RABLE, a. [in and err.] That can- not err ; exempt from error or mistake ; infallible. Hammond

    INER'RABLENESS, n. Exemption from error ; inerrability. Hammond.

    INER'RABLY, adv. With security from er- ror; infallibly.

    INERRAT'Ie, a. [in and enatic] Not er- ratic or wandering ; fixed.

    Paus. Trans.

    INER'RINGLY, adv. Without error, mis- take or deviation. Glanville

    INERT', a. [Uiners; in and ara, an. The English sense is drawn not from art, but from the primary sense, strength or vigor ous action.]

    1. Destitute of the power of moving itself, or of active resistance to motion impress- ed ; as, matter is inert. Dull ; sluggish ; indisposed to move or act. Thomson.

    INER'TION, 71. Want of activity; want of action or exertion.

    These vicissitudes of exertion and inerlion of the arterial system, constitute the paroxysms of remittent fever. Dartinn

    INERT'ITUDE, n. The state of being in ert, or a tendency to remain quiescent till impelled by external force to move.


    INERT'LY, adv. Without activity ; slug- gishly. Dunciad.

    INERT'NESS, n. The state or quality of being inert, or destitute of the power to move per se ; that quality of passiveness by which bodies persist in a state of rest or of motion given to them by external force. In the language of philosophy, this quality is called vis inertia, or inertia.


    a. Want of activity or exertion ; habitual in- disposition to action or motion ; sluggish- ness.

    ^11 esse, [L.] in being ; actually existing ; distinguished from tn posse, or in potentia, which denote that a thing is not, but may

    INES'CATE, v.t. ['L.inesco.] To bait ; to lay a bait for.

    INESeA'TION, n. The act of baiting.


    INESTIMABLE, a. [L. inmslimahUis. See Estimate.]

    That cannot be estimated or computed ; as an inestimable sum of money.

    2. Too valuable or excellent to be rated ; be- ing above all price ; as inestimable rights. The privileges of American citizens, civil and religious, are inestimable.

    L\\\\KS 'I'lMABLY, adv. In a manner not to liriiatcd or rated.

    INEV'IDENCE, n. Want of evidence ; ob- scurity. Harrow.

    IN EVIDENT, a. [in and evident.] Not evi- dent; not clear or obvious; obscure.


    INEVITABIL'ITY, n. [from inevitable.] Impossibility to be avoided; certainty to happen. Dramhall.

    INEVITABLE, a. [Fr. from L. ineinlabi- lis; in and evitabilis, from evito, to shim.]

    Not to be avoided ; that cannot be shunned ; unavoidable ; that admits of no escape or evasion. To die is the inevitable lot of man ; we are all subjected to many inevit- able calamities.

    INEV'ITABLENESS, n. The atate of be- ing unavoidable.

    INEV'ITABLY, adv. Without possibility of escape or evasion ; unavoidably ; certain- ly-

    How inevitably docs immoderate laughter end in a sigh ! South.

    INEXACT', a. [in and eiact.] Not exact ; not precisely correct or true.

    INEXACT'NESS, ji. Incorrectness ; want of precision.

    INEXCI'TABLE, a. [in and excitable.) Not susceptible of excitement; dull; lifeless; torpifi.

    INEXCU'SABLE, a. s as z. [L. inexcusabi- lis ; in and excusabilis, eicuso. See Ex- cuse.]

    Not to be excused or justified ; as inexcusa- ble folly.

    INEXCU'SABLENESS, Jt. The quality of not admitting of excuse or justification ; enormity beyond forgiveness or paUia- tion.

    This inexcusableness is stated on the suppo- sition that they knew God, but did not glorify him. South.

    INEXCUSABLY, adv. With a degree of guilt or folly beyond excuse or justifica- tion.

    INEXECU'TION, n. Neglect of execution; non-performance ; as the ineiecution of a treatv.

    INEXER'TION, n. [in and exertion.] Want of exertion; want of effort ; defect of ac- tion. Darwin.

    INEXHA'LABLE, a. [in &nd exhaiable, L. exhalo.]

    Not to be exhaled or evaporated ; not evap- orable. Broun.

    IN EXHAUST' ED, a. [in and exhausted.] 1. Not exhausted ; not emptied; unexhaust- ed.

    I NE

    2. Not spent ; not having lost all strength or| resources ; unexhausted. |

    INEXHAUST'IBLE, a. [in and exhausti- ble.]

    1. That cannot be exliausted or emptied; uufailiug ; as an inexhaustible quantity or supply of water.

    2. That cannot be wasted or spent ; as v, haustibk stores of provisions.

    INEXHAUST'IBLENESS, n. The state of

    being inexhaustible. INEXHAUST'IVE, a. Not to be exhausted

    or spent. INEXIST'ENCE, n. [in and existence.]

    1. Want of being or existence. Broome.

    2. Inherence.

    INEXIST'ENT, a. [in and existent.] Not having being ; not existing.

    South. Brown.

    2. Existing in something else. Boyle.

    INEXORABILITY, n. The quality of be- ing inexorable or unyielding to entreaty. Paley.

    INEX'ORABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inexorabi- lis ; 171 and exorabilis, from exoro, to en- treat ; ex and oro, to pray.]

    1. Not to be persuaded or moved by en- treaty or prayer ; too firm and determined in purpose to yield to supplication ; as inexorable prince or tyrant ; an inexorable judge.

    2. Unyielding ; that cannot be made to bend,

    Inexorable equality of laws. Gibbon

    INEX'ORABLY, adv. So as to be immov- able by intreaty. INEXPE€TA'TION, n. State of having no Felthatn. Not expected. [JSTot

    [in and expedience "• Want of fitness; bleness to the pur ice of a measure is to


    impropriety ;

    pose. The inexpedi

    be determined by the prospect of its ad

    vancing the purpose intended or not.

    INEXPE'DIENT, a. [in and expedient.] Not expedient ; not tending to promote e purpose ; not tending to a good end ; un- fit ; improper ; unsuitable to time and place. Whatever tends to retard or de- feat success in a good cause is inexpedient. What is expedient at one time, may be in- expedient at another.

    INEXPE'RIENCE, n. [in and experience.] Want of experience or experimental knowledge ; as the inexperience of youth, or their inexperience of the world.

    INEXPE'RIENCED, a. Not having expe rience ; unskillled.

    INEXPERT', a. [in and expeH.] Not ex

    pert ; not skilled ; destitute of knowledge

    or dexterity derived from practice,

    In letters and in laws

    Not inexpert. Prior.

    INEX'PIABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inexpiabi- lis. See Expiate.]

    1. That admits of no atonement or satisfac- tion ; as an inexpiable crime or offense.

    2. That cannot be mollified or appeased by atonement ; as inexpiable hate. Milton.

    INEX'PIABLY, adv. To a degree that ad mils of no atonement. Roscommon

    JNEXPLA'INABLE. a. That cannot be explained ; inexplicable. [The latter word is generally used.'


    INEXPLE'ABLY, adv. Insatiably. [Mt iis'il.] Sandys.

    INIXPLI CABLE, a. [Fr. from L.inexpli- cabilis; in and explico, to unfold.]

    That cannot be explained or interpreted ; not capable of being rendered plain and intelligible ; as an inexplicable mystery.

    INEX'PLI€ABLY, adv. In a manner not to be explained.

    INEXPLO'RABLE, a. [in and explorable, from explore.]

    That cannot be explored, searched or dis- covered. Tooke.

    INEXPRESS'IBLE, a. [in and expressible, from express.]

    Not to be expressed in words ; not to be ut- tered ; unspeakable ; unutterable ; as in- expressible grief, joy or pleasure.

    INEXPRESS'IBLY, odi>. In a manner or degree not to be told or expressed in words ; unspeakably ; uimtterably.


    INEXPRESS'IVE, a. Not tending to ex- press ; not expressing ; inexpressible.

    INEXPO'SURE, n. [in and exposure.] A state of not being exposed. Med. Repos.

    INEXPUGNABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inex- pugnabilis ; in and expttgno ; ex and pug no, to fight.]

    Not to be subdued by force ; not to be taken by assault ; impregnable. Ray.

    INEXSU'PERABLE, a. [L. inexsuperabi- lis.] Not to be passed over or surmount- ed.

    INEXTEND'ED, a. Having no extension. Good

    INEXTEN'SION, n. [in and extension.] Want of extension ; unextended state.


    INEXTERM'INABLE, a. [in and extermi- nable.] That cannot be exterminated.


    INEXTINCT', o. Not quenched ; not ex- tinct.

    INEXTIN'GUISHABLE, a. [in and extin- •.shable.]

    That cannot be extinguished ; unquencha ble ; as inextinguishable flame, thirst or desire.

    INEXTIR'PABLE, a. Th; * cannot be tirpated.

    INEXTRICABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inextri- cabilis. See Extricate.]

    1. Not to be disentangled ; not to be freed from intricacy or perplexity ; as an luer- tricabte maze or difficulty. Sherlock

    2. Not to be untied ; as an inextricable knot. INEX'TRICABLENESS, n. The state of

    being inextricable. Donne.

    INEX'TRICABLY, adv. To a degree of

    perplexity not to be disentangled. Pope. INEYE, v. t. To inoculate, as a tree or a

    bud. Philips.

    INFAB'RI€ATED, a. Unfabricated ; un-

    wrouglit. [JVot used.] INFALLIBILITY, ) [from infallible. INFAL'LIBLENESS, S"' The quahty of

    being incapable of error or mistake ; en

    tire exemption from liability to error ; in

    errability. No human being can justly

    lay claim to infallibility. This is an attri

    bute of God only. INFAL'LIBLE, a. [F. infaUlible; in and

    faiUir, L. /aKo.] 1. Not fallible; not capable of erring


    tirely exempt from liability to mistake j applied to persons. No man is infallible ; to be infallible is the prerogative of God only.

    2. Not liable to fail, or to deceive confi- dence; certain; as infallible evidence; infallible success.

    To whom he showed himself alive after his passion, by many infallible proofs — Acts i.

    INFAL'LIBLY, adv. Without a possibility of erring or mistaking. Smalndge.

    2. Certainly ; without apossibihty of failure. Our Savior has directed us to conduct that will infallibly render us happy.

    INFA'ME, V. t. To defame. [ATot used.]


    IN'FAMOUS, a. [Fr. infame ; L.infamia; infamo, to defame ; in and fama, fame.]

    1. Of ill report, emphatically ; having a rep- utation of the worst kind ; publicly brand-

    ■ ed with odium for vice or guilt ; base ; scandalous ; notoriously vile ; used of per- sons ; as an infamous liar ; an infamous rake or gambler.

    2. Odious ; detestable ; held in abhorrence ; that renders a person infamous; as an in- famous vice.

    3. Branded with infamy by conviction of a crime. An infamous person cannot be a witness.

    INFAMOUSLY, adv. In a manner or de- gree to render infamous ; scandalously ; disgracefully ; shamefully.

    2. With open reproach. IN'FAMOUSNESS, > [Fr. infamie ; L. IN'FAMY, i"' infamia; in and

    fama, report.] 1. Total loss of reputation ; public disgrace. Avoid the crimes and vices which expose men to infamy.

    3. Qualities which are detested and despis- ed ; qualities notoriously bad and scan- dalous ; as the infamy of an action.

    3. In law, that loss of character or public disgrace wliich a convict incurs, and by which a person is rendered incapable of being a witness or juror. Encyc.

    IN'FANCY, n. [L. infantia. See Infant]

    1. The first part of life, beginning at the birth. In common usage, tn/anci/ extends not beyond the first year or two of life, but there is not a defined limit where in- fancy ends, and childhood begins.

    2. In laio, infancy extends to the age of twenty one years.

    3. The first age of any tlfmg ; the begin- ning or early period of existence ; as the infancy of the Roman republic ; the in- fancy of a college or of a charitable soci- ety ; the infancy of agriculture, of manu- factures, or of commerce.

    INFAND'OUS, a. [L. infandus.] Too odi- ous to be expressed. LVot in use.]


    INFANG'THEF, Ji. [Sax. in, fangan, to take, and theof thief]

    In English law, the privilege granted to lords to judge thieves taken on their manors, or within their franchises.


    IN' F ANT, n. [Fr. enfant ; L. infans ; in and fans, speaking, fari, to speak.]

    1. A child in the first period of life, begin- ning at his birth ; a young babe. In com- mon usage, a child ceases to be called an

    I N F

    I N F

    I N F

    infant within the first or second year, but at n

    2. In law, a person under the age of twenty one years, who is incapable of making valid contracts.

    IN'FANT, a. Pertaining to infancy or the first period of life.

    2. Young; tender; not mature; as infant strength.

    INFANT' A, n. In Spain and Portugal, any princess of the royal blood, except the eldest daughter when heires.i apparent.

    INFANT' E, n. In Spain anil Portugal, any son of the king, except the eldest or heir apparent.

    INFANT'ICIDE, n. [Low L. infanticidi- um ; infans, an infant, and cado, to kill.]

    1. The intentional killing of an infant.

    2. The slaughter of infants by Herod. Matt.

    3. A slayer of infants. IN'FANTILE, o. [h. infanlUis.] Pertaining

    to infancy, or to an infant; pertaining to the first period of life.

    IN'FANTINE, a. Pertaining to infams or to young children.

    IN'FANTLIKE, a. Like an infant. Shak.

    IN'FANTLY, a. Like a child's. Beaum.

    IN'FANTRY, n. [Fr. infanterie ; Sp. in- fanleria ; It.Jhnteria. See Infant.]

    In military affairs, the soldiers or troops that serve on toot, as distinguished from cavat ry ; as a company, regiment or brigade ol infantry. In some armies, there have been heavy-armed infantry, and tight-armed or light infantry, accordmg to their man- ner of arming and equipping.

    INF'ARCE, V. t. infars. To stuff. [JVoi in use.]

    INFAR€'TION, n. [L. infarcio, infercio, to stuff; in and ^arcio.]

    The act of stuffing or filling; constipation. Harvey.

    INFASH'IONABLE, a. Unfashionable rJVb< used.] Beaum

    INFAT'IGABLE, a. Indefatigable. 06s.

    INFATUATE, v.i. [L. infatuo; i« and fatuus, foolish.]

    1. To make foolish ; to affect with folly ; to weaken the intellectual powers, or to deprive of sound judgment. In general, this word does not signify to deprive ab- solutely of rational powers and reduce to idiocy, but to deprive of sound judgment, so that a person infatuated acts in certain cases as a fool, or without common dis- cretion and prudence. Whom God in- tends to destroy, he first infatuates.

    The judgment of Gcd will be very visible in infatuating a people, ripe and prepared for des- truction. Clarendon

    ■?. To prepossess or incline to a person oi thing in a' manner not justified by pru- dence or reason ; to inspire with an ex- travagant or foolish passion, too obstinate to be controlled by reason. Men are often infatuated with a love of gaming, or of sensual pleasure.

    INFAT'UATED, pp. Affected with folly.

    INFAT'UATING, ppr. Affecting with folly.

    INFATUA'TION, n. The act of affecting with folly.

    3. A state of mind in which the intellectual powers are weakened, either generally. or in regard to particular objects, so that the person affected acts without his usual judgment, and contrary to the dictates of reason. All men who waste their sub- stance in gaming, infctnporance or any other vice, are chargeable with in/atua- tion.

    INFAUST'ING, n. [L. infaustus.] The art of making unlucky. Obs. Bacon.

    INFEASiBIL'lTY, } , [from i;i

    INFE'ASIBLENESS, \\\\ "• ' "^ '" feasible.] Impracticability; the quality of not being capable of being done or j)erforined.

    INFE'ASIBLE, a. s as r. [in and feasibU, Fr. Jaisable, from faire, to make or do, L facio.]

    Not to be done ; that cannot be accomplish- ed i impracticable. Glanville

    INFECT', V. /. [Ft. infeeter ; Sp. infectar ; It. infetiare; L. infcio, infeclus ; in and facio. In this application of inficio, as in iuficior, to deny, we fintl the radical sense oi facio, to make, which is to thrust, to drive. To infect is to thrust in ; to deny is to thrust against, that is, to thrust away to repel. And here we observe the dif- ferent effects of the prefix in, upon the verb.]

    1. To taint with disease; to infuse into a healthy body the virus, miasma, or mor- bid matter of a diseased body, or any pes- tilential or noxious air or substance by which a disease is produced. Persons ' health are infected by the contagion of the plague, of syphilis, of small pox, of me: sles, of malignant fevers. In some cases, persons can be infected only by contact, as in syphilis; in most cases, they may be infected without contact with the diseased body.

    2. To taint or affect with morbid or noxious matter; as, Xo infect a lancet; to infect clothing ; to infect an apartment.

    3. To communicate bad qualities to ; to cor rupt; to taint by the communication of any thing noxious or pernicious. It is melancholy to see the young infected corrupted by vicious examples, or the

    minds of our citizens infected with errors. Ilegal INFECT', a. Infected. [Xot ilsed

    4. To contaminate with illegality.

    INFECTED, pp. Tainted witi:

    matter ; corrupted by poisonous exiiala tions ; corrupted by bad qualities cummu nicated.

    INFECT'ER, 11. lie or that which infects.

    INFECT'ING, ppr. Tainting ; corrupting.

    INFECTION, n. [Fr. from L. iificio.] The act of infecting, or the act by which poi sonous matter, morbid miasmata or ex- halations produce disease in a healthy body. The words contagion and infection are frequently confounded. The properdis- tinetion between them is this. Contagion is the virus or effluvium generated in a dis eased body, and capable of producing the specific disease in a healthy body by con tact or otherwise. Marsh miasm is not properly contagion. Infection is any thing that taints or corrupts; hence it includes contagion, and any other morbid, noxious matter which may excite disease in a healthy body. Hence,

    2. The morbid cause which excites disease in a healthy or uninfected body. This cause may be contagion fi-om a diseased body, or other poisonous or noxious mat- ter received into the body or under the skin. The infection of the plague and of yellow fever, is said to be imiiorted in ships and conveyed in clothing ; persons are .said to take the in/eritoit-from a dis- eased person, or from the air of apart- ments where the sick are confined. The infection spreads m a city, or it is free from infection. Pestilential exhalatiotis are called infections.

    Tooke, Russ. Encyc. art. Plague. Kush. Infection is used in two acceptations ; first, as denoting the effluvium or infec- tious matter exlialed from the person of one diseased, in which sense it is synony- mous with contagion; and secondly, as signifying the act of communication of such morbid eflluvium, by which disease is transferred. Cyc.

    3. That which taints, poisons or corrupts by communication from one to another ; as the infection of error or of evil exam- ple.

    4. Contamination by illegality, as in cascr. of contraband goods.

    5. Communication of like quahties.

    Mankind are gay or serious by infection.

    INFECTIOUS, a. Having qualities that may taint, or communicate disease to ; as an infectious fever ; infectious clothing ; infectious air; infectious miasma.

    2. Corrupting; tending to taint by commu- nication ; as infectious vices or manners.

    3. Contaminating with illegality ; exposing to seizure and forfeiture.

    Contraband articles are said to be of an itifec- tious nature. ICenl.

    4. Capable of being communicated by near approach.

    Grief IS well as joy is infectious. Kamei

    INFECTIOUSLY, adv. By infection.

    INFECTIOUSNESS, n. The quahty of being infectiou.s, or capable of conimuni- catiug disease or taint from one to an- other.

    INFECT'IVE, a. Having the quality of communicating disease or taint from" one to another. Sidney.

    INFE'CUND, a. [L. in/iicundus ; in and fcecundus, prolific] Lnfruitful; not pro- ducing voung ; barren.

    INFEcUND'ITY, 71. [L. infoicundilas.] Unfruitfulness; barrenness. Med. Repos.

    INFELICITY, 71. [Ft. infelicity ; h. infeli- citas. See Felicity.] Unhappiness ; mis- ery; misfortune.

    2. Unfortunate state ; tmfavorableness ; as the infelicity of the times, or of the occa- sion.

    INFER', V. I. [Fr. inferer ; L. infero ; in and/ero, to bear or produce.]

    1. Literally, to bring on ; to induce. \\\\LiUle used.] Harvey.

    2. To deduce : to draw or derive, as a fact or consequence. From the character of God, as creator and governor of the world, we infer the indispensable obligation of all his creatures to obey his commands. We

    H i7i/cr one proposition or truth from anoth- er, when we perceive that if one is true, I! the( ■

    the other must be true also.


    I N F

    I N F

    3. To ofler; to produce. [M'ot used.]


    INFER'ABLE, a. That may be inferred or deduced from premises. Burke.

    IN'FERENCE, n. [Fr. from inferer.] A truth or propositiou drawn from another wliich is admitted or supposed to be true ; a conclusion. Inferences result from rea- soning, ap when the mind perceives such a connection between ideas, as that, if certain propositions called premises are true, the conclusions or propositions dedu- ced from tliem must also be true.

    INFEOFF. [See Enfeoff.]

    INFERIOR, a. [L. comp. from inferus, low ; Sp. id ; Fr. inferieur.]

    1. Lower in place.

    2. Lower in station, age, or rank in life Pay due respect to those who are superior in station, and due civility to those who are inferior.

    3. Lower in excellence or value ; as a poem oi inferior merit; cloth of inferior quality or price.

    4. Subordinate ; of less importance. Attend to health and safety ; ease and conveni- ence are inferior considerations.

    INFE'RIOR, n. A person who is younger, or of a lower station or rank in society.

    A person gets more by obliging his inferior, than by disdaining him. South.

    INFERIORITY, n. [Fr. inferiorUL] A lower state of dignity, age, vaUie or qual- ity. We speak of the inferiority of rank, of oflSce, of talents, of age, of worth.

    INFERN'AL, a. [Fr. from L. infernus.

    1. Properly, pertaining to the lower regions, or regions of the dead, the Tartarus of the ancients. Hence.

    2. Pertaining to hell ; inhabiting hell ; as in- fernal spirits.

    3. Hellish ; resembling the temper of infer nal spirits ; malicious : diabolical ; very wicked and detestable.

    INFERN'AL, n. An inhabitant of hell, or of

    the lower regions. Infernal stone [lapis infernalis,] a name fo merly given to lunar caustic, a substance prepared from an evaporated solution of silver, or from crystals of silver. Hill.

    Lunar caustic is nitrate of silver fused and cast in small cyhnders.

    Wehsler''s Manual. INFER'TILE, a. [Fr. from L. infertilis; in

    anA ferlilis.] Not fertile ; not fruitful or productive ; bar- ren ; as an infertile soil. INFERTILITY, n. Unfruitfulness; un- productiveness; barrenness; as the in- fertility of land. Hale

    INFEST', v.t. [VT.infester:,\\\\..infesto.] To trouble greatly ; to disturb ; to annoy ; to harass. In warm weather, men are fested with musketoes and gnats ; flies infest horses and cattle. The sea is often infested with pirates. Small parties of the enemy infest the coast.

    These, said the genius, are envy, avarice perstition, love, with the like cares and pas- sions thai infest human life. Addison. INFESTA'TION, n. The act of infesting molestation. Bacon INFEST'ED, pp. Troubled ; annoyed harassed ; plagued.

    INFES'TERED, a. [in a.nA fester.] Rank- ling ; inveterate.

    INFEST'ING, ;)pr. Annoying; harassing; disturbing.

    INFEST'IVE, a. [in and festive.] Having no mirth.

    INFESTiyiTY, n. [in and festivity.] Want of festivity, or of cheerfulness and mirth at entertainments.

    INFEST'UOUS, a. [h. infestus.] Mischiev- ous. [JVot tised.] Bacon.

    INFEUDA'TION, n. [in and feudum, feud.]

    1. The act of putting one in possession of an estate in fee. Hale.

    2. The granting of tithes to laymen. Blackstone.

    IN'FIDEL, a. [Fr. inf dele ; L.infidelis; in and fdelis, faithful.]

    Unbelieving ; disbelieving the inspiration of

    the Scriptures, or the divine institution of


    The infidel writer is a great enemy to society.


    IN'FIDEL, n. One who disbelieves the in- spiration of the Scriptures, and the divine origin of Christianity.

    INFIDEL'ITY, n. [Vr.infideliti- ; h.infdel- itas.]

    1. In general, want of faith or belief; a with- holding of credit.

    2. Disbelief of the inspiration of the Scrip- tures, or the divine original of Christian- ity ; unbelief

    There is no doubt that vanity is one princi- pal cause of in/ideHfy. Knox.

    3. Unfaithfulness, particularly in married persons ; a violation of the marriage cove- nant by adultery or lewdness.

    4. Breach of trust; treachery; deceit; as the infidelity of a friend or a servant. In this sense, unfaithfulness is most used.

    INFIL'TRATE, v. i. [Fr. fdirer, to filter.] To enter by penetrating the pores or inter- stices of a substance.

    INFIL'TRATING, ;);;)•. Penetrating by the pores or interstices.

    INFILTRA'TION, n. The act or process of entering the pores or cavities of a body

    2. The substance which has entered the pores or cavities of a body.

    Calcarious infiltrations, filling the cavities ol other stones. Kirwan

    IN'FINITE, a. [L. infinitus ; in and finitus. terminated ; Fr. infini ; Sp. infinito.]

    1. AVithout limits; unbounded; boundless not circumscribed ; applied to time, spaci and qualities. God is infinite in duration, having neither beginning nor end of ex- istence. He is also infinite in presence, oi omnipresent, and his perfections are infi- nite. We also speak of infinite space.

    2. That will have no end. Thus angels and men, though they have had a beginning, will exist in infinite duration.

    3. That has a beginning in space, but is in- finitely extended ; as, a line beginning at a point, but extended indefinitely, i finite line.

    4. Infinite is used loosely and hyperbolically for indefinitely large, immense, of great size or extent.

    Infinite canon, in inusic, a perpetual fugue. IN'FINITELY, adv. Without bounds or limits.

    2. Immensely ; greatly ; to a great extent or

    degree ; as, I am infinitely obliged by your

    condescension. IN'FINITENESS, n. Boundless extent of

    time, space or qualities ; infinity.


    2. Immensity; greatness.

    INFINITESIMAL, a. Indefinitely small.

    Johnson. Encyc.

    INFINITES'IMAL, n. An indefinitely

    small quantity. Encyc.

    INFIN'ITIVE, a. [L. infinitivus ; Fr. infin-

    In grammar, the infinitive mode expresses the action of the verb, without limitation of person or nuinber ; as, to love.

    INFIN'ITUDE, n. Infinity; infiniteness; the quality or state of being without limits ; infinite extent ; as the infinitude of space, of time, or of perfections.

    2. Immensity ; greatness.

    3. Boundless number. Addison. INFIN'ITY, n. [Fr. infiniU ; L. infinitas.]

    1. Unlimited extent of time, space or quan- tity ; boundlessness. We apply infinity to God and his perfections; we speak of the infinity of his existence, his knowledge, his power, his goodness and holiness.

    2. Immensity ; indefinite extent.

    3. Endless or indefinite number; a hyper- bolical use of the word : as an infinity of beauties.

    INFIRM, a. inferm'. [Fr. infirme; h. in-

    firmus ; in and firmus.) I. Not firm or sound ; weak ; feeble ; as an

    infinn body ; an infirm constitution. 3. Weak of mind ; irresolute ; as infii

    of Shak.

    He who fixes on false principles, treads on

    infirm ground. South.

    INFIRM, V. t. inferm'. To weaken. [JVb«

    used.] Raleigh.

    INFIRMARY, n. inferm'ary. A hospital or

    place where the sick are lodged and

    nursed. INFIRMITY, n. inferm'Uy. [Ft. infirmUi ;

    L. infirmitas.]

    1. An unsound or unhealthy state of the body ; weakness ; feebleness. Old age is subject to infirmities.

    2. Weakness of mind ; failing; fault ; foible. A friend should bear a friend's infirmities.


    3. Weakness of resolution.

    4. Any particular disease ; malady ; applied rather to chronic, than to violent diseases.


    5. Defect ; imperfection ; weakness ; as the infirmities of a constitution of government.

    Hamilton. INFIRMNESS, n. inferm'ness. Weakness;

    feebleness ; unsoundness. Boyle.

    INFIX', V. t. [L. infixus, infigo ; in andfigo,

    to fix.]

    1. To fix by piercing or thrustiog in ; as, to irifix a sting, spear or dart.

    2. To set in ; to fasten in something.

    3. To iitiplant or fix, as principles, thoughts, instructions; as, to infix good principles in the mind, or ideas in the memory.

    INFIX'ED, pp. Thrust in ; set in ; inserted ;

    deeply implanted. |INFIX'ING,;)pr. Thrusting in ; setting in ; II implanting.

    I N F

    I N F

    I N F

    INFLA'ME,ti. «. [h. injlammo ; inand/am- ma, flame.]

    1. To set on fire ; to kindle ; to cause to burn ; in a literal sense. But more gen- erally,

    2. To excite or increase, as passion or appe- tite ; to enkindle into violent action ; as, to inflame love, lust or tiiirbt ; to injlamt desire or anger.

    3. To exaggerate ; to aggravate in descrip- tion.

    A friend exaggerates a man^s virtues, an ene- my injlatnes his crimes. [ Unusual.]


    4. To heat; to excite excessive action in the blood ; as, to inflame the blood or body to inflame with wine.

    5. To provoke ; to irritate ; to anger.

    6. To increase; to exasperate ; as,toinfla7ne the enmity of parties, or the spirit of sedi tion.

    7. To increase; to augment; as, tofii^nmea presumption. Kent.

    INFLA'ME, v.i: To grovi^ hot, angry and painful. ffisei

    INFLA'MED, pp. Set on fire; enkindled; heated; provoked; exasperated.

    INFLA'MER, n. The person or thing that inflames. Addison.

    INFLA'MING, ppr. Kindling; heating; provoking ; exasperating.

    INFLAMMABILITY, n. Susceptibility of taking fire.

    I INFLAMMABLE, a. That may be set on fire ; easily enkindled ; susceptible of c bustion ; as inflaynmabk oils or spirits.

    INFLAM'MABLENESS, n. The quality of being susceptible of flame, or capable of taking fire ; inflammabiUly. Boyle

    INKLAMMA'TION, n. [L. inflammalio.

    1. The act of setting on fire or inflaming.

    2. The state of being in flame.

    Temple. Wilkins 1 3. In medicine and surgery, a. redness and I swelling of any part uf an animal body,

    I attended with heat, pain and febrile symp-

    i toms. Encyc

    I 4. Violent excitement ; heat ; animosity I turbulence ; as an inflammation of the body

    ; politic, or of parties.

    ; INFLAM'MATORY, a. Inflaming; tend ing to excite heat or inflammation ; as medicines of an inflammatory nature.

    2. Accompanied with preternatural heat and excitement of arterial action ; as an inflam- matory fever or disease.

    3. Tending to excite anger, animosity, mult or sedition ; as inflammatory libels,

    ' writings, speeches or publications.

    INFLA'TE, V. t. [L. inflatus, from inflo ; ir amlflo, to blow.]

    1. To swell or distend by injecting air; as to inflate a bladder; to inflate the lungs.

    2. To fill with the breath ; to blow in.


    3. To swell; to puff up; to elate ; as, to t»i flate one with pride or vanity.

    INFLA'TE, I In botany, pufled ; hoi INFLA'TED, y'' low and distended; a:

    a perianth, corol, nectary, or pericarp.

    Martyn INFLA'TED, pp. Swelled or distended witi

    air ; puffed up. INFLA'TING, ppr. Distending with air

    pufling up.

    INFLATION, n. [L. inflatio.] The act o) flating.

    2. The state of being distended with air iii' jecled or inhaled.

    3. The state of being pufled up, as with vanity.

    4. Conceit. B. Jonson. INFLECT', v.i. [L.inflecto; inmiiiflecto,

    to bend.]

    1. To bend; to turn from a direct line or course.

    Are not the rays of the sun reflected, refrac- ted and inflected by one and the same princi- ple ; J\\\'ewton.

    2. In grammar, to vary a noun or a verb in its terminations ; to decline, as a noun or adjective, or to conjugate, as a verb.

    3. To modulate, as the voice. INFLECT' ED, pp. Bent or turned from i

    direct line or course ; as an inflected ray ol

    light; varied in lerminatioti. 1NFLE€T'1NG, ppr. Bending or turning

    from its course ; varying in termination ;

    modulating, as the voice. INFLECTION, n. [L. infleclio.] The act

    of bending or turning from a direct line or


    2. In optics, a property of light by which it rays, when they approach a body, are ben towards it or from it. Encyc. Cyt

    3. In grammar, the variation of nouns, &c. by declension, and verbs by conjugation.


    4. Modulation of the voice in speaking. Hooker.

    More commonly inflection gives signiticance tones. E. Porte

    Point of inflection, in geometry, the point where a curve begins to bend the contrary way. Encyc.

    INFLECT'IVE, a. Having the power of bending ; as the inflective quality of the air. Derham.

    INFLEX'ED, a. [L. inflems.] Turned; bent. Fettham

    INFLEXIBIL'ITY, ? , [Fr. infleribUlte,

    INFLE.X'IBLENESS, ^ "• from inflexible; L. in nud flexibilis, frvw flecto, to bend.]

    1. The ()uality of being inflexible, or not < pable of being bent ; unyielding stiffness.

    2. Obstinacy of will or temper ; firmness of purjiose that will not yield to importunity or persuasion ; unbending pertinacity.

    INFLEX'IBLE, a. [Ft.; L. infleribUis.

    1. That cannot be bent ; as an inflexible ouk

    2. That will not yield to prayers or argu- ments; firm in purpose; not to be pre vailed on ; that caimot be turned ; as a man of upright and inflexible temper.


    3. Not to be changed or altered.

    The nature of things is inflexible. Watts. INFLEXIBLY, adv. With a firmness that

    resists all importunity or persuasion; with

    unyielding pertinaciousness ; inexorable.

    A judge should be inflexibly just and im

    partial. INFLEXION. [See Inflection.] INFLICT', !•. t. [L. infliclus, infligo; in and

    fligo, to strike, Eng. lo flog.] To lay on ; to throw or send on ; to apply

    a.«, to inflict pain or disgrace ; to irflict

    punishment on an offender. To inflict an oflice, condition, knowledge,

    tenderness, &c. on one, as used by Ches-

    terfield, is not an authorized use of the

    INFLI€T'ED,p;>. Laid on; applied ; as pun- ishment ur judgments. INFLICT'ER, »i. He who lays on or ap-

    INFLICT'LNG, npr. Laying on ; applying.

    INFLIC TIO.N, n. [L. inflictio.] The act of laying on or applying; as the in^idion of torment or of punishment.

    2. The punishment applied.

    His severest inflictions are in themselves acts of justice and righteousness. Rogers.

    INFLICTIVE, a. Tending or able to in- flict.

    INFLORE.S CENCE, n. [L. inflorescens, ivfloresco, infloreo ; in and floreo, to blos-

    . In botany, a mode of flowering, or the manner in which flowers are supported on their foot-stalks or peduncles.

    Inflorescence affords an excellent character- istic mark in disli^uisliing the species of plants. Milne. 2. A flowering ; the unfolding of blossoms.

    Journ. of Science. INFLUENCE, n. {Fr. from L. influens, in- fluo, to flow in ; m and/uo, to flow ; Sp. influencia ; It. influenza.] Literally, a flow- ing in, into oroii, and referring to substan- ces spiritual or too subtil to be visible, like inspiration. Hence the word was former- ly followed by into.

    God hath his influence into the very essence of all tilings. Hooker.

    It is now followed by on or uith.

    2. In a general sense, influence denotes pow- er whose operation is invisible and known only by its effects, or a power whose cause and operation are unseen.

    3. The power which celestial bodies are sup- posed to exert on terrestrial ; as the influ- ence of the planets on the birth and Ibr- tunes of men ; an exploded doctrine of as- trology.

    4. Moral power ; power of truth operating on the mind, rational faculties or will, in persuading or dissuading, as the in^uence of motives, of arguments, or of prayer. We say, arguments had no influence on the jury. The magistrate is not popular ; he has no iy^uence icith the (Jeople ; or he baa great influence tpiih the prince.

    5. Physical power ; power tliat affects natu- ral bodies by unseen operation ; as, the rays of the sun have an influence in whi- tening cloth, and in giving a green color to vegetables.

    C>. Power acting on sensibility ; as the influ- ence of love or pity in sympathy.

    7. Spiritual powcf, or the immediate power of God on the mind ; as divine in/7«e7tce; the i7ifliiences of the Holy Spirit.

    IN'FLUENCE, v. t. To move by physical power operating by unseen laws or force ; to affect.

    Tliese experiments succeed after the same manner in vacuo, as in the open air, and there- fore arc not influenced by the weight or press- ure of die atmosphere. JVewton.

    2. To move by moral power ; to act on and affect, as the mind or will, in persuading or dissuading ; to induce. Men are influ- enced by motives of interest or pleasure. An orator may influence the people to take arms, or to abandon an enterprise.

    1 N F

    3. To move, as the passions ; as, to influ- ence one by pity. , . • r

    4. To lead or direct. This revelation is sut- ficient to injluence our faitii and practice.

    IN'FLUENCED, pp. Moved; excited; af- fected ; persuaded ; induced.

    IN'FLUENCING, ;);)r. Moving; affecting; inducing. .

    IN'FLUENT, a. Flowing in. [Little used.\\\\ Arbuthnot.

    INFLUENTIAL, a. Exerting influence or power by invisible operation, as physical causes on bodies, or as moral causes on the mind. It is particularly used to ex- press the operation of moral causes.


    Influential characters, persons who possess the power of inclining or controlling the minds of others. Hamilton

    INFLUEN'TIALLY, adv. By means of in- fluence, so as to incline, move or direct.

    INFLUEN'ZA, n. [It. in/«e?i2a, influence. An epidemic catarrh. The influenza o( October and November, 1789, and that of April and May, 1790, were very general or universal in the United States, and sually severe. A like influenza prevailed in the winters of 1835 and 1826.

    IN'FLUX, n. [L. influjcus, influo ; in and fluo, to flow.]

    1. The act of flowing in ; as an influx of light or other fluid.

    2. Infusion ; intromission.

    The influx of the knowle^e of God, in rela- tion to everlasting life, is inhnitely of moment Hale

    3. Influence ; power. [JVo< used.] Hale

    4. A coining in; introduction; importation in abundance ; as a great influx of goods into a country, or an influx of gold and silver.

    INFLUXTON, Ji. Infusion ; intromission

    Bacon. INFLUX'IOUS, a. Influential. [JVotused.] INFLUX'IVE, a. Having influence, or hav- ing a tendency to flow in. Halesworth. INFOLD, V. i. [in aadfold.] To involve to wrap up or enwrap ; to inclose.

    Infold his limbs in bands. Blackmore.

    2. To clasp with tiie arms ; to embrace. Noble Banco, let me infold thee, And hold thee to my heart. Shak

    INFOLDED, pp. Involved; enwrapped

    inclosed; embraced. INFOLDING, ppr. Involving; wrapping

    up ; clasping. INFO'LIATE, V. t. (L. in and folium,

    To cover or overspread with leaves. [JVo(

    much used.] Howell.

    INFORM', v.t. \\\\Fv. informer; Sp.informar

    '. ; h.infoimOytoshap'

    It. informare ; L. informo, to shape ; in and

    formo, forma, form.] Properly, to give

    form or shape to, but in this sense not


    1. To animate ; to give life to ; to actuate by

    vital powers.

    Let others better mold the running mass

    Of metals, and infcrrm the breathing brass

    Dry den

    Breath informs this fleeting frame. Prior

    — Breathes in our soul, informs our vital part


    [This use is chiefly or wholly poetical.]

    2. To instruct ; to tell to ; to acquaint ; tt

    communicate knowledge to; to make


    known to by word or writing ; usually fol- lowed by of. Before we judge, we should be well informed of the facts relating to the case. A messenger arrived and informed the commander of the state of the troops. Letters from Europe inform us of the com- mencement of hostiUties between the Per- sians and Turks.

    To communicate a knowledge of facts to one by way of accusation.

    Tcrtullus informed the governor against Paul Acts xxiv.

    In this application the verb is usually intransitive; as, A iji/brmcrf against B.

    INFORM', V. i. To give intelUgence.

    Shak He might either teach in the same manner or inform how he had been taught —

    Monthly Rev

    To inform against, to communicate facts byl way of accusation ; to give intelligence of a breach of law. Two persons came to the magistrate, and informed against A.

    INFORM', a. [h. informis.] Without regu 'arform; shapeless; ugly.

    INFORM' AL, a. [in and formal.] Not ii the regular or usual form ; as an informal writing ; informal proceedings.

    2. Not in the usual manner ; not according to custom ; as an informal visit.

    3. Not with the oflicial forms ; as, the secre tary made to the envoy an informal com munication.

    INFORMAL'ITY, n. [from informal.] Want of regular or customary form. The informality of legal proceedings may ren der them void.

    INFORM'ALLY, adv. In an irregular oi informal manner; without the usual forms.

    INFORM'ANT, n. One who informs, or gives intelligence.

    2. One who offers an accusation. [See In former, which is generally used.]

    INFORMA'TION,>i. [Fr. from L. informa- tio.]

    i. Intelligence; notice, news or advice com municated by word or writing. We re ceived information of the capture of the ship by an arrival at Boston. The inf motion by the messenger is confirmed by letters.

    2. Knowledge derived from reading or in- struction.

    He should get some information in the sub- ject he intends to handle. Surift.

    3. Knowledge derived from the senses oi from the operation of the intellectual fac- ulties.

    The active informations of the intellect — South

    4. Communication of facts for the jiurpose of accusation; a charge or accusation ex- hibited to a magistrate or court. An in fomiation is the accusation of a common

    informer or of a private person ; the ac- cusation of a grand juiy is called an in- dictment or a presentment. Blackstone.

    INFORM' ATIVE, a. Having power to ani- mate. More.

    INFORM'ED, pp. Told ; instructed ; made acquainted.

    INFORMER, n. One who animates, in forms or gives intelligence.

    2. One who communicates, or whose duty it is to communicate to a magistrate

    1 N F

    knowledge of the violations of law, and bring the offenders to trial. INFORM'IDABLE, a. [in and formidable.] Not formidable; not to be feared or dreaded. Foe not informidable. Milton.

    INFORM'ING, ppr. Giving notice or intel- ligence ; telhng. 2. Communicating facts by way of accusa- tion. Informing oflicer, is an officer whose duty it is to inform against persons for breaches of law, as an attorney-general, a sherifl^ constable, or grand juror. A common informer, is any person who in- forms against another. INFORM'ITY, n. [L. informis.] Want of regular form ; shapelessness. Brown.

    INFORM'OUS, a. [Fr. informe ; L. in- formis.] Of no regular form or figure ; shapeless. Brown. Wilford.

    INFOR'TUNATE, a. [L. infoHunatus.] Unlucky ; unfortunate. [The latter is com- monly used.] INFOR'TUNATELY, adv. Unfortunately.

    [Not used.] INFOR'TUNE, n. Jlisfortune. [J^otused.] Elyot. INFRACT', V. t. [L. infractus, from infrin-

    go ; in and frango, to break.] To break ; to violate. [This is synonymous with infringe ; it is an unnecessary word and little used.] INFRACTION, n. [Fr. from L. infradio.

    See Infract.] The act of breaking ; breach ; violation ; non- observance ; as an infraction of a treaty, compact, agreement or law. IVatts.

    INFRACT'OR, n. One that violates an

    igreement, &c. INFRAMUND'ANE, a. [L. infra, below, and m-undanus, mundus, the world.] Ly- ing or being beneath the world. INFRAN'GIBLE, a. [in and frangible.] Not to be broken or separated into parts ; as i)ifrangible atoms. Cheyne.

    2. Not to be violated.

    INFRE'QUENCE, ? [L. infrequentia.]

    INFRE'QUENCY, (, "* Uncommonness ;

    rareness ; the state of rarely occurring.

    Broome. INFRE'QUENT, a. [L. infrequens; in and

    frequens, frequent.] Rare; uncommon; seldom happening or oc- curring to notice ; unfrequent. INFRIG'IDATE, v.t. [L. in and frigidus, cold.] To chill ; to make cold. [Little used.] Boyle.

    INFRieiDA'TION, n. The act of making cold. Taller.

    INFRINGE, V. t. itifnnj'. [L. infringo ; in and frango, to break. See Break.]

    1. To break, as contracts; to violate, either positively by contravention, or negatively by non-fulfillment or neglect of perform- ance. A prince or a private person in- fringes an agreement or covenant by neg- lecting to perform its conditions, as well as by doing what is stipulated not to be done.

    2. To break ; to violate ; to transgress ; to neglect to fulfill or obey ; as, to infringe a. law.

    (. To destroy or hinder; as, to infringe effi- cacy. [Little used.] Hooker.


    INFRINg'ED, pp. Broken ; violated ; trans irressed.

    1NVRIN6EMENT, n. infrinj'ment. Act of violating ; breach ; violation ; non-fulfill- iiiont ; as the infringement of a treaty, compact or other agreement ; the infringe- iiient of a law or constitution.

    jiNFKING'ER, n. One who violates; a vio- lator.

    INFRING'ING, ppr. Breaking ; violating ; transgressing ; failing to observe or fulfill

    IN'FUCATE, V. t. [L.infuco; in and fuco to paint.] To stain ; to paint ; to daub.

    INFU'MED, a. [L. infamalus.] Dried in smoke.

    INFUNDIB'ULIFORM, a. [L. infundibu- lum, a funnel, and form.]

    In botany, having the shape of a funnel, as the corol of a flower ; nionopetalous, hav- ing a conical border rising from a tube.


    INFU'RIATE, a. [L. in and furiatus, from furia, fury.] Enraged ; mad ; raging.

    Milton. Thomson.

    INFU'RIATE, V. t. To render furious, oi mad ; to enrage. Decay of Piety,

    INFUS'€ATE, v. t. [L. infuscatius, infusco, to make black ; in andfuscOyfuscus, dark.] To darken ; to make black.

    INFUSCA'TION, n. The act of darkening or blackening.

    INFU'SE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. infwer, from L infusus, infundo, to pour in ; in and fundo, to pour.]

    1. To pour in, as a liquid.

    That strong Circean liquor cease t' infuse. Denham

    2. To instill, as principles or qnalities.

    Why should he desire to have qualities in- fused into his son, which himself never pos- sessed ? Su-ifi

    3. To pour in or instill, as into the mind Infuse into young minds a noble ardor.

    4. To introduce ; as, to infuse Gallicisms into a composition.

    5. To inspire with ; as, to !»/itse the breast with magnanimity. [Xol used.] S"

    n. To steep in liquor without boiling, for the

    purpose of extracting medicinal qualities One scruple of dried leaves is infused in ten

    ounces of warm water.

    7. To make an infusion with an ingredient

    Wot used.] Bacon.

    INFU'SE, n. Infusion. Obs. Spenser.

    INFU'SED,pp. Poured in ; instilled ; steeped. INFU'SER, «. One who infuses. INFUSIBIL'ITY, n. [from infusible.] The

    capacity of being infused or poured in. 2. The incapacity of being fused or dissolv- ed. IXFU'SIBLE, o. [from the verb.] That may

    lie infused. Good principles are infusible

    into the minds of youth. INFU'SIBLE, a. [in, not, and fusible, from

    fuse.] Not fusible ; incapable of fusion ; that can

    not be dissolved or melted.

    The best cnicibles are made of Limoges

    earth, which seems absolutely infusible.

    Latwisier. INFU'SING, ppr. Pouring in ; instilling ;

    steeping. INFU'SION, n. « as z. The act of pouring

    ill or instilling ; instillation ; as the infv

    .•lion of good principles into the mind ; the

    infusion of ardor or zeal.

    Vol. I.

    I N G

    2. Suggestion ; whisper.

    His lolly and his wisdom are of his own growth, not the echo or infusion of other men Swift In pharmacy, the process of steeping in liquor, an operation by which the medici- nal qualities of plants may be extracted by a liquor without boiling. Encyc.

    4. The liquor in which plants are steeped and which is impregnated with their vir- tues or qualities. Coxe.

    INFU'SIVE, a. Having the power of infu sion. Thomson.

    JNFU'SORY, a. The infusoi^ order of worms [vermes] comprehends those mi- nute and simple animalcules which are seldom capable of being traced except by the microscope. Good.

    Ing, in Saxon, signifies a pasture or meadow Goth, idnga. [See English.]

    INGANNA'TION, n. [It. ingannare, tc cheat.] Cheat ; fraud. [JVot used.]

    IN'GATE, n. [in and gate.] Entrance ; pas- sage in. Obs. Spenser.

    INGATH'ERING, n. [in and gathering.' The act or business of collecting and se curing the fruits of the earth ; harvest ; ai the feast of ingathering. Ex. xxiii.

    lN(iEL'ABLE, a. [in and gelable.] That cannot be congealed.

    IN(iEM'INATE, a. [L. ingemiriatus.] Re doubled. Taylor

    INGEMTNATE, v. t. [L. ingemino : in and gemino.] To double or rejjeat. Sandys.

    INgEMINA'TION, n. Rei)etilion ; redu- plication, if'alsall.

    INtiENDER. [See Engender.]

    INGENERABIL'ITY, n. [infra.] Incapa- city of being engendered.

    INgEN'ERABLE, a. [in and generate.]

    That cannot be engendered or jiroduced


    INgEN'ERATE, v.t. [h.ingenero; in and genero, to generate.] To generate or pro- duce within. FelloifS

    INgEN'ERATE, a. Generated within ; in- born; innate; inbred; as ing-enera

    INGEN'ERATED, pp. Produced within. Noble habits ingeneratcd in the soul. Hale.

    INgEN'ERATING, ppr. Generating or producing within.

    INgE'NIOUS, a. [L. ingeniosus, from in genium ; in and genius, geno, gigno, to be get, Gr. ytivoiioi.]

    1. Possessed of genius, or the faculty of in vention ; hence, skillful or prompt to in vent; having an aptitude to contrive, or to form new combinations of ideas ; as an ingenious author ; an ingenious mechanic.

    The more ingenious men arc, the more apt are they to trouble themselves. Templi

    2. Proceeding from genius or ingenuity ; of curious design, structure or mechanism as an ingenious performance of any kind ; an ingenious scheme or plan; an ingen- ious model or machine ; ingenious fabric ; ingenious contrivance.

    3. Witty ; well formed ; well adapted ; as an ingenious reply.

    4. Mental ; intellectual. [.\\\'ot used.] Sfiak. INOE'NIOUSLY, adv. With ingenuity ;

    with readiness in contrivance ; with skill INtiE'NIOUSNESS, n. The quality of be- ing ingenious or prompt in invention; in- genuity ; used of persons.



    2. Curiousness of design or mechanism ; and gen-

    used of things.

    INgEN^ITE, a. [L. ingenilus i itus, horn.]

    Innate ; inborn ; inbred ; native ; ingene- rate. South.

    INGENUITY, n. [Fr. ingenuite.] The qual- ity or power of ready invention ; quickness or acuteness in combining ideas, or in forming new combinations ; ingenious- iiess ; skill ; used of persons. How many machines for saving labor has the ingenu- ity of men devised and constructed.

    2. Curiousness in design, the eflect of inge- nuity ; as the ingenuity of a plan or of mechanism.

    3. Oj)enness of heart ; fairness ; candor.

    [This sense of the word was formerly common, and is found in good authors down to the age of Locke, and even later ; but it is now wholly obsolete. In lieu of it, ingenuousness is used.] INgEN'UOUS, a. [L. in^cnuu*.] Open; frank ; fair ; candid ; free from reserve, disguise, equivocation or dissimulation ; used of persons or things. We speak of au ingenuous mind ; an iiigenuous man ; an ingenuous declaration or confession.

    2. Noble ; generous ; as an ingenuous ardor or zeal ; ingenuous detestation of false- hood. Locke.

    3. Of honorable extraction ; freeborn ; as ingenuous blood or birth.

    INGENUOUSLY, adv. Openly ; fairly ; candidly ; without reserve or dissimula- tion. Dryden.

    INGEN'UOUSNESS, n. Openness of heart; frankness ; fairness ; freedom from re- serve or dissimulation ; as, to confess our faults with ingenuousness.

    2. Fairness ; candidness ; as the ingenuous- ness of a confession.

    IN'gENY, n. Wit; ingenuity. Obs.


    INGEST', V. t. [L. ingeslus, from ingero ; in and gero, to bear.] To throw into the stomach. [Little used.] Brown.

    INGESTION, n. The act of throwing into the stomach ; as the ingestion of milk or other food. Harvey.

    IN'GLE, n. [Qu. L. igniculus, ignis.] Flame ; blaze. [Xot in use.] Ray.

    2. In Scottish, a fire, or fireplace. Bums.

    INGLO'RIOUS, a. [L. inglorius ; in and gloria.]

    1. Not glorious ; not bringing honor or glo- ry ; not accompanied with fame or celeb- rity ; as an inglorious life of ease.

    2. Shameful ; disgraceful. He charged his troops with inglorious flight.

    INGLO'RIOUSLY, adv. With want of glo- rv ; dishonorably ; with shame.

    IN'GOT, 71. [Fr.'lingot. Qu. L. lingua.] A mass or wedge of gold or silver cast in a mold ; a mass of un wrought metal.


    INGR-AFT, V. t. [in and graff. The origi- nal word is ingraff or graff, but it is cor- rupted beyond recovery.]

    1. To insert a cion of one tree or plant into another for propagation ; as, to ingraft the cion of an apple-tree on a pear-tree, as its stock ; to ingraft a peach on a plum.

    2. To [jropagate by insition. May. ~ To plant or introduce something foreign

    I N G

    into that which is native, for the purpose of propagation.

    This fellow would ingraft a foieigii name Upon our stock. Dryden.

    4. To set or fix deep and firm.

    Ingrafted love he bears to Cesar. Shah.

    INGR'AFTED, pp. Inserted into a stock for growth and propagation ; intioduced into a native stock ; set or fixed deep.

    INGR'AFTING, ppr. Inserting, as cions in stocks; introducing and inserting on a na- tive stock what is foreign ; fixing deep.

    INGR*AFTMENT, n. The act of ingraft- ing.

    2. The thing ingrafted,

    IN'GRAIN, V. t. [in and groin.] To dye in the grain, or before manufacture.

    IN'GRAINED, pp. Dyed in the grain or in the raw material ; as ingrained carpets.

    IN'GRAINING, ppr. Dyeing in the raw ma- terial.

    INGRAP'PLED, a. Grappled ; seized on ; entwined. Drayton.

    IN'GRATE, ? [L. ingratus; in and

    INGRA'TEFUL, S grnius ; Fr. ingrat.]

    1. Ungrateful; unthankful ; not having feel- ings of kindness for a favor received.

    Milton. Pope.

    2. Unpleasing to the sense.

    He gives no in grateful food. Jirilton.

    IN'GRATE, n. [Fr. i7igrat.] An ungrateful

    person. INGRA'TEFULLY, adv. Ungratefully. INGRA'TEFULNESS, n. Ungratefulness. INGRA'TIATE, v. t. ingra'shale. [It. in-

    grazianarsi ; L. in and gratia, favor.]

    1. To comtnend one's self to another's good will, confidence or kindness. It is always used as a reciprocal verb, and followed by idth, before the person whose favor is sought. Ministers and courtiers ingratiate themselves with their sovereign. Dema- gogues ingratiate themselves itu'Wt the pop- ulace.

    2. To recommend ; to render easy ; used of things. Hammond.

    INGRA'TIATING, ppr. Commending one'i self to the favor of another.

    INGRA'TIATING, n. The act of com mending one's self to another's favor.

    INGRAT' ITUDE, n. [Fr.; in am\\\\ gratitude.

    I. Want of gratitude or sentiments of kind ness for favors received ; insensibility to favors, and want of a disposition to repay them ; unthankfulness.

    Ingratitude is abhorred by God and man.

    L'Eslrange. No man will own himself guilty of ingrati- tude.

    0. Retribution of evil for good.

    Nor was it with ingratitude returned.


    INGRA'VE, V. t. To bury. [JVot used.]

    INGRAV'IDATE, v. t. [L. gravidus.] To impregnate. Fuller.

    INGRE'aT, t>. t. To make great. [jXot in use.] Fotherhy.

    INGRE'DIENT, n. [Fr. from L. ingredi- ens, entering into ; ingredior ; in and gra- dior. See Grade.]

    That which enters into a compound, or is a component part of any compound or mix- ture. It is particularly applied to the .simples in medicinal compositions, but ad mils of a very general application. We

    I N H

    say, an ointment or a decoction is com- ]josed of certain ingredients ; and Addison wondered that learning was not thought a pro()er ingredient in the education of a woman of quality or fortune. IN'GRESS, n. [L. ingressus, ingredior. supra.]

    the ingress of air into the lungs. It is particularly applied to the entrance of the moon into the shadow of the earth in eclipses, the sun's entrance in- to a sign, &c.

    a. Power of entrance ; means of entering All ingress was prohibited.

    INGRES'SION, n. [Fr. from L. ingressio,

    ingredior.] The act of entering ; entrance.


    IN'GUINAL, a. [from L. ing-ucn, the groin.] Pertaining to the groin ; as' an inguinal tumor.

    INGULF', V. t. [in and gulf.] To swallow up in a vast deep, gulf or whirlpool.


    2. To cast into a gulf. Hayward.

    INGULF'ED, pp. Swallowed up in a gulf or vast deep ; cast into a gulf

    INGULF'ING, ppr. Swallowing up in a gulf, whirlpool or vast deep.

    INGUR'GlTATE, v. t. [L. ingurgito; in and gurges, a gulf] To swallow greedily or in great quantity. Diet.

    INGUR'GlTATE, v.i. To drink largely ; to swill.

    INGURGITA'TION, n. The act of swal- lowing greedily, or in great quantity.


    INGUST'ABLE, a. [L. in and gusto, to taste.] That cannot be tasted. [Littk used.] Brown.

    INHAB'ILE, a. [Fr. from L. inhabilis ; in and habiiis, apt, fit.]

    1. Not apt or fit; unfit; not convenient; as inhabile matter. Encyc.

    2. Unskilled ; unready ; unqualified ; used of persons. [Little used. See Unable.]

    INHABIL'ITY, n. [from inhabile.] Unapt ness ; unfitness ; want of skill. [Little used. See Inability.]

    INHAB'IT, V. t. [L. inhabito ; in and habito, to dwell.]

    To live or dwell in ; to occupy as a place of settled residence. Wild beasts inhabit the forest ; fishes inhabit the ocean, lakes and rivers ; men inhabit cities and houses. Thus saiththe high and lofty One, that inhab- iteth eternity — Is. Ivii.

    INHAB'IT, V. i. To dwell; to five; to abide.

    They say wild beasts inhabit here. Waller.

    INHAB'ITABLE, a. [from inhabit.] Habit- able; that may be inhabited; capable of affording habitation to animals. The stars may be inhabitable worlds. Some regions of the earth are not inhabitable by reason of cold or sterility. A building may be too old and decayed to be inhabitable.

    2. Not habitable. [Fr. inhabitable ; I,, inha- bitabilis.] [JVot in use.] Shak

    INHAB'ITANCE, n. Residence of dwell ers. [Little tised.] Carew.

    INHAB'ITANCY, n. Residence ; habitan cy ; permanent or legal residence in i town, city or parish ; or the domiciliation which the law requires to entitle a pauper

    I N H

    to demand support from the town, city or parish in which he lives, otherwise called a legal settlement, which subjects a town to support a person, if a pauper.

    Laws of Mass. Blachstone.

    INHAB'ITANT, n. A dweller; one who dwells or resides permanently in a place, or who has a fixed residence, as distin- guished from an occasional lodger or vis- itor ; as the inhabitant of a house or cot- tage ; the inhabitants of a town, city, county or state. So brute animals are in- habitants of the regions to which their na- tures are adapted ; and we speak of spirit- ual beings, as inhabitants of heaven.

    ^. One who has a legal settlement in a town, city or parish. The conditions or qualifi- cations which constitute a person an in- habitant of a town or parish, so as to sub- ject the town or parish to support him, if

    ing, or state of being inhabited. Raleigh.

    2. Abode; place of dwelling. Milton.

    3. Population; whole mass of inhabitants. Brozvn.

    [This tvord is little used.]

    INHABITED, pp. Occupied by inhabit- ants, human or irrational.

    INHAB ITER, n. One who inhabits ; a dweller; an inhabitant. Derkam.

    INHABITING, ppr. Dwelling in; occupy- ing as a settled or permanent inhabitant ; residing in.

    INHAB' ITRESS, n. A female inhabitant. Bp. Richardson.

    INHA'LE, V. t. [L.inhalo; in and hcdo, to

    ! breathe.]

    To draw into the lungs ; to inspire ; as, to inhale air ; opposed to exhale and expire.

    Martin was walking forth to inhale the fresh breeze of the evening. Arbuthnot and Pope.

    INHA'LED, pp. Drawn into the lungs.

    INHA'LER, n. One who inhales.

    2. In medicine, a machine for breathing or drawing warm steam into the lungs, as a remedy for coughs and catarrhal com- plaints. Encyc.

    INHA'LING, ppr. Drawing into the lungs ; breathing.

    INHARMON'le, I Unharmonious ;

    INHARMON'IGAL, ^ "' discordant.

    INHARMO'NIOUS, a. [in and harmonious.] Not harmonious ; unmusical ; discordant.

    INHARMO'NIOUSLY, adv. Without har- mony ; discordantly.

    INHE'RE, v.i. [h.inhwreo; in and hcereo, to hang.]

    To exist or be fixed in something else ; as, colors inhere in cloth ; a dart inheres in the flesh.

    INHE'RENCE, n. Existence in something; a fixed state of being in another body or substance.

    INHE'RENT, a. Existing in something else, so as to be inseparable from it.

    Inherent baseness. Shak.

    2. Innate ; naturally pertaining to ; as the jn/iece7i< qualities of the magnet ; the in- herent right of men to life, liberty and pro- tection.

    INHERENTLY, adv. By inherence.


    I N H

    I N H

    I N I

    INHE'RINGjjopr. Existing or fixed in some- thing else.

    INHER'IT, t>. t. [Sp. heredar; Port, herdar ; It. eredare; Fr. heriler; from L. hares, an heir. See Heir.]

    1. To take by descent from an ancestor ; to take by succession, as the representative of the former possessor; to receive, as a right or title descendible by law from an ancestor at his decease. Tlie heir inher- its the lands or real estate of his father ; . the eldest son of the nobleman inherits his father's title, and the eldest son of a king inherits the crown,

    3. To receive by nature from a progenitor. The son inherits the virtues of iiis father ; the daughter inherits the temper of her motlier, and children often inherit the constitutional infirmities of their parents.

    3. To possess ; to enjoy ; to take as a posses

    n, by gift or divine appropriation ; as inherit everlasting life ; to inherit th jtromises.

    — That thou mayest live, and inhei-it the land wliich Jehovah thy God giveth thee. Deut xvi.

    The meek shall inherit the earth. Matt. v. INHER'IT, V. i. To take or have posses sion or property.

    — Thou shall not inherit In our father's house Judges xl. INHER'ITABLE, a. That may be inherit- ed ; transmissible or descendible from the ancestor to the heir by course of law ; a; an inheritable estate or title.

    2. That may be transmitted from the parent to the child ; as inheritable qualities or in firmities.

    3. Capable of taking by inheritance, or of receiving by descent.

    By attainder — the blood of the person at- tainted is so corrupted as to be rendered nc longer inheritable. Btackstone.

    INHER'ITABLY, adv. By inheritance.

    Sherwood. INIIER'ITANCE, n. An estate derived from an ancestor to an heir by succession or in course of law ; or an estate which the law casts on a child or other person as the representative of the deceased an restor.

    2. The reception of an estate by hereditary right, or the descent by which an estate O] title is cast on the heir ; as, the heir receiv ed the estate by inheritance.

    3. The estate or possession which may des cend to an heir, though it has not des cended.

    And Rachel and Leah answered and said, ii there yet any portion or inheritance for us in ou father's house .' Gen. xxxi.

    4. An estate given or possessed by donation or divine appropriation. Num. xxvi.

    5. Tliat which is possessed or enjoyed.

    Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen

    lor thine inheritance. Ps. INHER'ITED, pp. Received by descent

    from an ancestor ; possessed. INHERITING, ppr. Taking by

    or right of representation ; receiving from

    ancestors ; possessing. INHERITOR, n. An heir ; one who inher

    its or may inherit. INHERITRESS, ) An heiress ; a femah INHERITRIX, S wlio '"herits or is en

    titled to inherit, after the death of her an


    INHERSE, V. t. inkers', [in and herse.] Toj inclose in a funeral monument. Shak.l

    INHE'SION, n. sas z. [L. inhcesio, inhitreo.\\\\ Inherence ; the state of existing or beingi tixed ill something.

    INHIA'TION, n. [h. inhintio.] A gaping af- ter; eager desire. [JsTol used.]

    INHIB'IT, D. <. [Fr.inhiher; L. inhibeo ; in and habeo, to hold, properly to rush or drive.]

    1. To restrain ; to hiniler ; to check or re- press.

    Their motions also are excited or inhibited — by the objects without them. Bentley.

    2. To forbid ; to prohibit ; to interdict.

    All men were inhibited by proclamation at tlie dissolution so much as to mention a par liament. Clarendon

    INHIB'ITED, pp. Restrained ; forbid.

    INHIBITING, ppr. Restraining; repress

    I ing ; prohibiting.

    INHIBI "TION, 71. [Fr. from L. inhihUio.]

    1. Prohibition; restraint; embargo.

    2. In law, a writ to forbid or inhibit a judge from farther proceedings in a cause de- pending before him ; commonly, a writ is- suing from a higher ecclesiastical court to an inferior one, on appeal. Cowel.

    INHOLD, V. t. pret. and pp. inheld. [in and hold.]

    To have inherent ; to contain in itself [Lit- tle used.] Raleigh.

    INHOLDER, n. An inhabitant. Obs.


    INHOOP', V. t. [in and hoop.] To confine or inclose in any place. Shak

    INHOS'PITABLE, a. [in and hospitable.]

    1. Not hospitable ; not disposed to entertain strangers gratuitously; declining to enter- tain guests, or entertaining them with re- luctance ; as an inhospitable person or peo- ple.

    2. Affording no conveniences, sub.sistence or shelter to strangers; as inhospitable des- erts or rocks. Milton. Dryden

    INHOSPITABLY, adv. Unkindly to stran



    stances by burying the vessel containing

    them ill warm earth, or a like substance.


    \\\\m\\\\h'y\\\\VM,pp. Buried; interred.

    INHU'MING, ppr. Burying; interring.

    INIM.\\\\ti INABLE, a. Unimaginable ; in- conceivable. Pearson.

    INIMICAL, a. [L. inimicus; in and amicus, a friend.]

    1. Unfriendly ; having the disposition or tem- per of an enemy ; applied to private enmi- ty, as hostile is to public.

    2. Adverse ; hurtful ; repugnant. — Savage violences inimical to commerce.


    INIMITABIL'ITY, n. [from inimitable.] The quality of being incapable of imita- tion. .Vorm.

    INIM'ITABLE,(T. [Fr. from L. iniinitabilis ; in and imitabilis, from imiior, to imitate.]

    That cannot be imitated or coj/ied ; surpass- ing imitation ; as inimitable beauty or ex- cellence ; an inimitable description ; tnim- itable eloquence.

    INIMITABLY, adv. In a manner not to be

    imitated ; to a degree beyond imitation.

    Charms such as thine, inimitably great.

    INHOS'PITABLENESS, } „ Want of hos INHOSPITAL'ITY, S pitality o:

    kindness to strangers ; refusal or unwil lingness to entertain guests or strangers without reward. Chesterfield.

    INHU'MAN, a. [Fr. inhumain ; L. inhuma- nus ; in an

    1. Destitute of the kindness and tenderness that belong to a human being ; cruel ; bar- savage ; unfeeling ; as an inhu-

    person or people.

    2. Marked with cruelty ; as an inhuman act INHUMAN'ITY, n. [Fr. inhumanite.] Cru- elty in disposition ; savageness of heart ; ■used of persons.

    2. Cruelty in act; barbarity; used of actions. INHU'MANLY, adv. With cruelty ; barba- rously. Swift. INHU'MATE, I , [Fr. inhumer ; L. inhu- INHU'ME, S "'"' ''""">> to Ijnry.]

    1. To bury ; to inter; to deposit in the earth, as a dead body.

    2. To digest in a vessel surrounded with warm earth. Enci/c.

    INHUMA'TION, Ji. The act of burying ; in- terment. 2. In chimistry, a method of digesting sub-

    INIQ'UITOUS, a. [Hee Iniquity.] Unjust; wicked; as an fni^iuYoiw bargain; an in- iquilous proceeding. [It is applied to things rather than to persons, but maybe applied to persons.]

    INIQUITY, n. [Vr.iniquit6; L.inujuttas; in and aquitas, equity.]

    1. Injustice ; unrighteousness ; a deviation from rectitude ; as the iniquity of war ; the iniquity of the slave trade.

    2. Want of rectitude in principle ; as a mali- cious prosecution originating in the ini- quity of the author.

    3. A particular deviation from rectitude ; a sin or crime ; wickedness ; any act of in- justice.

    Your iniquities have separated between you and your God. Is. lix.

    4. Original want of holiness or depravity.

    I was shapcn in iniquity. Ps. li.

    INIQ'UOUS, a. Unjust. [.Vol used.]

    INIRRITABIL'ITY, >i. [in and irritabUily.] The quality of being inirritable, or not sus- ceptible of contraction by excitement.


    INIR'RITABLE, a. [in and irritable.] Not irritable; not susceptible of irritation, or contraction by excitement. Darwin.

    INIR'RIT.\\\\TIVE,a. Not accompanied with excitement ; as an inirrilaiive fever.


    INISLE, V. t. ini'te. [in and isle.] To sur- round ; to encircle. [JVo< in use.]


    INI TIAL, a. [Fr. from L. initialis, ini- tium, beginning.]

    1. Beginning ; placed at the beginning ; as the initial letters of a name.

    3. Beginning; incipient ; as the iniYioi symp- toms of a disease.

    INI'TIAL, n. The first letter of a name.

    INI TIALLY, adv. In an incipient degree. Barrow.

    INI'TIATE, V. t. [Low L. initio, to enter or begin, from inttuin, ineo, to enter ; tu and eo, to go.]

    1. To instruct in rudiments or principles; or to introduce into any society or sect by in-

    I N J

    structing the candidate in its principles or ceremonies ; as, to iniliale a person into the mysteries of Ceres.

    2. To introduce into a new state or society ; as, to initiate one into a club. Addison.

    3. To instruct ; to acquaint with ; as, to ini- tiate one in the higher branches of math- ematics.

    4. To begin upon. Clarendon. IN1"TIATE, v.i. To do the first act; to

    perform the first rite. Pope.

    IN1"TIATE, a. Unpracticed. Shak.

    2. Begun; commenced. A tenant by the curtesy initiate, becomes so by the birth of a child, but his estate is not consummate till the death of the wife. Blackstone.

    1NI"TIATE, n. One who is initiated.

    X Barlow.

    INI"TIATED, pp. Instructed in the first principles ; entered.

    INI"TIAT1NG, ppr. Introducing by in- struction, or by appropriate cerem nies. J. M. Mason.

    INITIA'TION, n. [L. initiatio.} The act or process of introducing one into a new so- ciety, by instructing him in its principles rules or ceremonies ; as, to initiate a per- son into a christian community.

    2. The act or process of making^one ac- quainted with principles before unknown.

    3. Admission by application of ceremonies or use of symbols ; as, to initiate one into the visible church by baptism.

    Hammond INI"TIATORY, a. Initiating or serving to initiate ; introducing by instruction, or by the use and application of symbols or cer- emonies.

    Two initiatory rites of the same general im

    port cannot exist together. J. M. Mason

    INI"TIATORY, 11. [supra.] Introductory

    rite. L- Addison.

    INJECT', V. t. [L. injectus, injicio ; in and

    jacio, to throw.]

    1. To throw in ; to dart in ; as, to inject any thing into the mouth or stomach.

    2. To cast or throw on.

    — And mound inject on mound. Pope.

    INJE€T'ED, pp. Thrown in or on.

    INJECT'ING, ppr. Throwing in or on.

    INJECT'ION, n. [Fr. from h.injedio.] The act of throwing in, particularly that of throwing a liquid medicine into the body

    I N J

    INJUDl"CIOUSLY, adv. Without judg-i

    ment; unwisely. |

    lNJlIDI"CIOUSNESS, n. The quality of

    being injudicious or unwise. Whitlock.

    INJUN€'TION, n. [L. in/undio, from trijUJi-

    go, to enjoin ; in and jitng-o, to join.] 1. A command; order: precept; the direc- tion of a superior vested with authority. For 8till they knew, and ought t' have sliU

    remembered The high injunction, not to taste that fruit.

    by a syrmge or pqie.

    2. A liquid medicine thrown into the body by a syringe or pipe ; a clyster.

    3. In anatomy, the act of filling the vessels of| an animal body with some colored sub stance, in order to render visible their fig- ures and ramifications. Encyc.

    INJOIN. [See Enjoin.]

    INJUeUND'ITY, n. [L. injucundilas.] Un- pleasantness ; disagreeableness. [Little used.]

    INJU'DI€ABLE, a. Not cognizable by judge. [Little used.]

    INJUDI"CIAL, a. Not according to the forms of law. Did

    INJUDI"CI0US, a. [m and Judicious.] Not judicious; void of judgment ; acting with- out judgment; unwise; as an injudicioui person.

    .'}. Not according to sound judgment or dis cretion ; unwise ; as an irijudicious meas we.


    2. Urgent advice or exhortation of persons not vested with absolute authority to com mand.

    3. In law, a writ or order of the court of chancery, directed to an inferior court, to parties and their counsel, directing them to stay proceedings, or to do some act, as to put the plaintiff in possession for want of the defendant's appearance, to stay waste or other injury, &c. Wlien the reason for granting an injunction ceases, the injunction is dissolved. Blackstone.

    IN'JURE, t). <. [Fr. injure, injurier; L. inju- ria, injury; Sp. injuriar ; It. ingiuriare See Injury.]

    1. To hurt or wound, as the person; to im- pair soundness, as of health.

    2. To damage or lessen the value of, as goods or estate.

    3. To slander, tarnish or impair, as reputa- tion or character.

    4. To impair or diminish ; to annoy ; as hap piness.

    5. To give pain to ; to grieve ; as sensibility or feelings.

    6. To impair, as the intellect or mind.

    7. To hurt or weaken ; as, to injure a good cause.

    8. To impair ; to violate ; as, to injure rights. ~ To make worse ; as, great rains injure

    the roads. 10. In general, to wrong the person, to dam- age the property, or to lessen the happi- ness of ourselves or others. A man in- jures his person by wounds, his estate by negligence or extravagance, and his hap- piness by vices. He injures his neighbor by violence to his person, by fraud, by cal umny, and by non-fulfillment of his con tracts. IN'JURED,/);?. Hurt; wounded; damaged;

    impaired ; weakened ; made worse. IN'JURER, n. One who injures or wrongs IN'JURING, /ipr. Hurting; damaging; im- pairing ; weakening ; rendering worse. INJU'RIOUS, a. [L. injurius; Fr. inju

    rievx.] 1. Wrongful ; unjust ; hurtful to the rights of another. That which impairs rights oi prevents the enjoyment of them, is injuri ous.

    Hurtful to the person or health. Vio lence is injurious to the person, as intem perance is to the health.

    3. Affecting with damage or loss. Indolence is injurious to property.

    4. Mischievous ; hurtful ; as the injurious consequences of sin or folly.

    5. Lessening or tarnishing reputation. The very suspicion of cowardice is injuiious to a soldier's character.

    6. Detractory ; contumelious ; hurting rep- utation ; as, obscure hints as well as open


    7. In general, whatever gives pain to the body or mind, whatever impairs or de- stroys property or rights, whatever tar- nishes reputation, whatever disturbs hap- piness, whatever retards prosperity or defeats the success of a good cause, is deemed injurious.

    INJU'RIOUSLY, adv. Wrongfully; hurt- fully : with injustice ; mischievously.

    INJU'RIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being injuiious or hurtful; injury.

    IN'JURY, n. [L. injuria; in and jus, juris, right ; Fr. injure ; It. ingiuria ; Sp. inju-

    1. In general, any wrong or damage done to a man's person, rights, reputation or goods. That which impairs the sound- ness of the body or health, or gives pain, is an injury. That which impairs the mental faculties, is an injury. These in- juries may be received by a i'all or by oth- er violence. Trespass, fraud, and non- fulfillment of covenants and contracts are injuries to rights. Slander is an injury to reputation, and so is cowardice and vice. Whatever impairs the quality or dimin- ishes the value of goods or [jroperty, is an injury. We may receive injury by mis- fortune as well as by injustice. , Mischief; detriment.

    Many times we do injury to a cause by dwelling on trifling arguments. Watts.

    .3. Any diminution of that which is good, valuable or advantageous.

    INJUS'TICE, n. [Fr. from L. injustitia ; in and justitia, justice.]

    1. Iniquity ; wrong ; any violation of anoth- er's rights, as fraud in contracts, or the withholding of what is due. It has a par- ticular reference to an unequal distribution of rights, property or privileges among jiersons who have erjual claims.

    ig from another merited

    2. The withholdii

    ibing to him unmerited

    praise, blame.

    INK, n. [D. inkt; Fr. encre.] A black hquor or substance used for writing, generally made of an infusion of galls, copperas and gum-arabic.

    2. Any liquor used for writing or forming letters, as red ink, &c.

    3. A pigment.

    Printing ink is made by boiling lintseed oil, and burning it about a minute, and mix- ing it with lampblack, with an addition of soap and rosin.

    Ink for the rolling press, is made with lintseed oil burnt as above, and mixed with Frank- fort black.

    Indian ink, from China, is composed of lampblack, and size or animal glue.


    .Sympathetic ink, a liquor used in writing, ' which exhibits no color or appearance till some other means are used, such as holding it to the fire, or rubbing some- thing over it. Encyc.

    INK, V. t. To black or daub with ink.

    INK'HORN, n. [ink and horn ; horns being formerly used for holding ink.]

    1. A small vessel used to hold ink on a writ- ing table or desk, or for carrying it about the person. Inkhorns are made of horn, glass or stone.

    I N L


    I N N

    9. A portable case for the instruments of writing. Johnson.

    INK'INESS, n. [from t'n*^.] The state or quality of being inky.

    INK'LE, n. A kind of narrow fillet ; tape Shak.

    INK'LING, n. A hint or whisper ; an inti- mation. [Liltle ttsed.] Bacon.

    INK'MAKER, n. One whose occupation is to make ink.

    INKNOT, V. t. innol'. [in and knot.] To bind as with a knot.

    INK'STAND, n. A vessel for holding ink and other writing utensils.

    INK'-STONE, n. A kind of small round stone of a white, red, gray, yellow or black color, containing a quantity of native vit- riol or sulphate of iron ; used in making ink. Encyc.

    INK'Y, a. Consisting of ink ; resembling ink ; black.

    2. Tarnished or blackened with ink.

    INLA'CE, V. t. [in and lace.] To embellish with variegations. Fletcher.

    INLA'ID, p;j. orinlay, which see.

    IN'LAND, a. [in and land.] Interior ; re- mote from the sea. Worcester in Massa- chusetts, and Lancaster in Peimsylvania, are large inland towns.

    2. Within land; remote from the ocean ; as an inland lake or sea. Spenser.

    3. Carried on within a country ; domestic, not foreign ; as inland trade or transporta- tion ; inland navigation.

    4. Confined to a country ; drawn and paya- ble in the same country ; as an inland bill of exchange, distinguished from a foreign bill, which is drawn in one country on a person living in another.

    IN LAND, n. The interior part of a coun- try. Shak. Milton.

    INLANDER, n. One who lives in the in- terior of a country, or at a distance from the sea. Brown

    INLAND'ISH, a, Denoting something in land ; native.

    INLAP'IDATE, v. t. [in and lapido, lapis, a stone.]

    To convert into a stony substance ; to pet- rify. [Little ttsed.] Bacon.

    INLA'Y, V. t. pret. and pp. inlaid, [in and lay.] To veneer ; to diversify cabinet or other work by laying in and fastening with glue, thin slices or leaves of fine wood, on a ground of common wood. This is used in making compartments. Encyc.

    IN'L.\\\\y, n. Matter or pieces of wood inlaid, or prepared for inlaying. Milton.

    INLA'YER, n. The person who inlays or Avhose occupation it is to inlay.

    ISLX'YING, ppr. The operation ofdi sifying or ornamenting work with thin pieces of wood, set in a ground of other wood.

    INLAW', V. t. To clear of outlawry or at- tainder. Bacon.

    IN'LET, n. [in and let.] A passage or open- ing by which an inclosed place may be entered ; place of ingress ; entrance. Thus, a window is an inlet for light into a house the senses are the inlets of ideas or per- ceptions into the mind.

    2. A bay or recess in the shore of the sec or of a lake or large river, or between isles.

    In limine, [L.] at the threshold ; at the be- ginning or outset. NLIST', V. i. [in and list.] To enter into military service by signing articles and re- ceiving a sum of money. [See List.] NLIST', V. t. To engage or procure to en- ter into military service. [See Enlist, a common spelling, but inlist is preferable.] INLIST'ED, pp. Engaged in military ser- vice, as a soldier. INLIST'ING, ppr. Entering or engaging in

    lilitary service. INLIST'MENT, n. The act of inlisting. These inlistments were for one year only. Marshall.

    2. The writing containing the terms of mil- itary service, and a list of names of those who enter into the service. INLOCK', V. t. To lock or inclose one thing

    tthin another. IN'LY, a. [ire and like.] Internal; interior; secret. Shak.

    IN'LY, adv. Internally ; within ; in the heart ; secretly ; as, to be inly pleased or grieved. Milton. Spenser.

    N'MATE, n. [in or inn, and mate.] A per- son who lodges or dwells in the same house with another, occupying difFereni rooms, but using the same door for passing in and out of the house. Cornel.

    2. A lodger ; one who lives with a family, but is not otherwise connected with it than as a lodger. IN'MATE, a. Admitted as a dweller. Milton. IN'MOST, a. [in and most.] Deepest with- in ; remotest from the surface or external part.

    The silent, slow, consuming fires

    Which on my inmost vitals prey. Addison.

    I got into the inmost court. Gulliver.

    INN, n. [Sa.x. inn, probably from the Heb.

    and Ch. njn to dwell or to pitch a tent,

    whence Ch. nufl an inn. Class Go. No.


    1. A house for the lodging and entertain- ment of travelers. In America, it is often a tavern, where liquors are furnished for travelers and others.

    There was no room for them in Luke ii.

    2. In England, a college of municipal or common law professors and students formerly, the town-house of a nobleman bishop or other distinguished personage, in which he resided when he attended the court.

    Inns of court, colleges in which students of law reside and are instructed. The prin- cipal are the Iimer Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn.

    Inns of chancery, colleges in which young students formerly began their law studies. These are now occupied chiefly by attor- neys, solicitors, &c. Encyc.

    INN'llOLDER, »i. [inn a.nd hold.] A per- son who keeps an inn or house for the entertainment of travelers; also, a tav-

    2. An inhabitant. Ohs. Spenser

    INN'KEEPER. n. [inn and keep.] An inn- holder. In America, the innkeeper is often a tavern keeper or taverner, as well as an innkeeper, the inn for furnishing lodging: and provisions being usually united withi the tavern for the sale of liquors. INN, V. i. To take up lodging; to lodge.

    Donne. I

    INN, V. t. To house ; to put under cover.


    INNATE, a. [L. innatus, from innaacor ; in and nascor, to be born.]

    Inborn; native; natural. Innate ideas are such as are supposed to be stamped on the mind, at the moment when existence begins. Mr. Locke has taken great pains to prove that no such ideas exist.


    INNATED, for innate, is not used.

    INNATELY, adv. Naturally.

    IN'NATENESS, n. The quality of being innate.

    INNAVIGABLE, a. [L. innavigaUlis ; in and navigabilis. See JVavigate.]

    That cannot be navigated; impassable by ships or vessels. Dn/den.

    INNER, a. [from in.] Interior ; farther in- ward than something else ; as an inner chamber ; the inner court of a temple or palace.

    3. Interior ; internal ; not outward ; as the inner man. Eph. iii.

    IN'NERLY. adv. More within. Barret.

    INNERMOST, a. Farthest inward; most remote fi-om the outward part. Prov. xviii.

    INNERVE, I', t. innerv'. [in and ntrve.] To give nerve to ; to invigorate ; to strength- en. Dunghi.

    INNING, n. The ingathering of grain.

    2. A term in cricket, a turn for using the bat.

    INN'INGS, n. Lands recovered from the sea. Ainsworth.

    IN'NOCENCE, { „ [Fr. from L. innocentia;

    IN'NOCENCY, ^ "• in and noceo, to hurt.]

    1. Properly, freedom from any quality that can injure ; innoxiousness ; harmlessness ; as the innocence of a medicine which can do no harm. In this sense, the noun is not obsolete, though less used than the adjective.

    2. In a moral sense, freedom from crime, sin or guilt ; untainted |)urity of heart and life ; unimpaired integrity.

    Enjoyment left notliing to ask — innocence left nothing to fear. Johnson.

    3. Freedom from guilt or evil intentions ; simplicity of heart; as the innocence of a child.

    4. Freedom from the guilt of a particular sin or crime. This is the sense in which the word is most generally used, for per- fect innocence cannot be predicated of man. A man charged with theft or mur- der may prove his innocence.

    5. The state of being lawfully conveyed toa belligerent, or of not being contraband ; as the innocence of a cargo, or of any mer- chandize. Kent.

    IN'NOCENT, a. [Fr. from L. innocens.]

    1. Properly, not noxious ; not producing in- jury ; free from qualities that can injure ; harmless ; innoxious ; as an innoce;i( medicine or remedy.

    2. Free from guilt ; not having done wrong or violated any law ; not tainted with sin ; pure ; upright. In this general sense, no human being that is a moral agent, can be innocent. It is followed by of.

    3. Free from the guilt of a particular crime or evil action ; as, a man is innocent of the crime charged in the indictment.

    4. Lawful ; permitted ; as an innocent trade.

    I N N

    5. Not contraband ; not subject to forfeit- ure ; as innocent goods carried to a bellig- erent nation. Kent.

    INNOCENT, n. One free from guilt barm. Shak.

    2. A natural; an idiot. [Unusual.] Hooker.

    IN'NOCENTLY, adv. Without harm ; with- out incurring guilt.

    2. With simplicity ; without evil design.

    3. Without incurring a forfeiture or penal- ty ; as goods innocently imported.

    INNOCUOUS, a. [L. innocuus; in and

    noceo, to hurt.] Harmless ; safe ; producing no dl effect ; ir

    nocent. Certain poisons used as med

    cines in small quantities, prove not only

    innocuous, but beneficial. It applied only

    to things ; not to persons. INNO€'UOUSLY, adv. Without harm

    without injurious effects. INNOC'UOUSNESS, n. Harmlessness ; the

    quality of being destitute of mischievous

    qualities or effects. Digly.

    INNOM'INABLE, a. Not to be named.

    Chaucer. INNOM'INATE, a. Having no name

    anonymous. Ray.

    IN'NOVATE, V. t. [Fr. innover; L. innovo

    in and novo, to make new, novus, new.]

    1. To change or alter by introducing some thing new.

    From his attempts upon the civil power, h( proceeds to innovate God's worship. South

    2. To bring in something new. Bacon IN'NOVATE, II. i. To introduce novelties ;

    to make changes in any thing established; with on. It is often dangerous to inno vale on the customs of a nation.

    IN'NOVATED, pp. Changed by the iiitro duction of something new.

    IN'NOVATING, ppr. Introducing novel ties.

    INNOVA'TION, n. [from innovate.] Change made by the introduction of something new ; change in established laws, customs rites or practices. Innovation is expedient when it remedies an evil, and safe, when men are prepared to receive it. Innova lion is often used in an ill sense, for ; change that disturbs settled opinions and practices without an equivalent advan- tage.

    IN'NOVATOR, n. An introducer of chan- ges.

    Time is the greatest innovator. Bacon.

    2. One who introduces novelties, or who makes changes by introducing something new. South

    INNOX'IOUS, a. [L. innoxius; in and noiius, noceo, to hurt.]

    1. Free from mischievous qualities; inno- cent ; harmless ; as an innoxious drug.

    2. Not producing evil ; harmless in effects.

    Innoxious flames are often seen on the haii of men's heads, and on horses' manes. Oigby

    3. Free from crime ; pure ; innocent.

    Pope INNOX'IOUSLY, adv. Harmlessly; with- out mischief. 2. Without harm suffered. Brown.

    INNOX'IOUSNESS, n. Harmlessness.

    The innoxiousness of the small po\\\\. Tooht INNUEND'O, n. [L. from innuo, to nod in and nuo.]

    I N O

    An oblique hint ; a remote intimation or

    reference to a person or thing not named.

    Mercury — owns it a marriage by innuendo.


    2. In law, a word used to point out the pre-

    person. IN'NUENT, a. [L. innuens.] Significant.


    INNUMERABIL'ITY, ? Stateofbeine

    INNU'MERABLENESS, S ininnnerable.

    Fotherby. Sherwood.

    INNU'MERABLE, a. [L. innumerabilis.

    See J^umber.]

    1. Not to be counted ; that cannot be enu- merated or numbered for multitude.

    2. In a loose sense, very numerous. INNU'MERABLY, adv. Without number. INNU'MEROUS, a. [L. innumerus ; in and

    numerus, number.]

    Too many to be counted or numbered ; in- numerable. Milton. Pope.

    INNUTRI"TION, n. [in and nutrition.]

    Want of nutrition ; failure of nourishment


    INNUTRF'TIOUS, a. [in and nutritious.' Not nutritious ; not supplying nourish- ment ; not nourishing. Darwin

    INOBEDIENCE, n. Disobedience; neg lect of obedience. Bp. Bedell.

    INOBE'DIENT, a. Not yielding obedience neglecting to obey.

    INOBSERV'ABLE, a. [in and observable.' That cannot be seen, perceived or observ ed.

    INOBSERVANCE, n. Want of observ ance ; neglect of observing ; disobedience

    INOBSERVANT, a. [in and observant Not taking notice. Beddoes.

    INOBSERVA'TION, Ji. Neglect or want ofobservation. Shuckford.

    INOCULATE, V. t. [L. inoculo ; in and oc- ulus, the eye.]

    1. To bud ; to insert the bud of a tree or plant in another tree or plant, for the pur- pose of growth on the new stock. All sorts of stone fruit, apples, pears, &c. may be inoculated. We inoculate the stock with a foreign bud.

    2. To communicate a disease to a person by inserting infectious matter in his skin or flesh ; as, to inoculate a person with the matter of small pox or cow pox. When the latter disease is comraunicated, it is called vaccination.

    INOCULATE, V. i. To propagate by bud- ding ; to practice inoculation. The time to inoculate is when the buds are formed at the extremities of the same year's shoot, indicating that the spring growth for that season is complete.

    INOCULATED, pp. Budded ; as an inoc- ulated stock.

    2. Inserted in another stock, as a bud.

    3. Infected by inoculation with a particular disease.

    INOCULATING, ppr. Budding ; propaga ting by inserting a bud on another stock.

    2. Infecting by inoculation.

    INOCULA'TION, n. [L. inoculatio.] Tli act or practice of inserting buds of one plant under the bark of another for prop- agation.

    2. The act or practice of communicating a disease to a person in health, by inserting

    I N O

    contagious matter in his skin or flesh. This practice is limited chiefly to the com- munication of the small pox, and of the cow pox, which is intended as a substitute for it. [See Vaccination.]

    INO€'ULATOR, ji. A person who inocu- lates ; one who propagates plants or dis- eases bv inoculation.

    INO'DIATE, V. t. [L. in and odium.] To make hateful. [M)t in use.] South.

    INO'DORATE, a. [L. in and odoralus.] Having no scent or odor. Bacon.

    INO'DOROUS, a. [L. inodorus; in and odor.] Wanting scent ; having no smell. The wliite of au egg is an inodorous liquor. Arbuthnot.

    INOFFENS'IVE, a. [in and offensive.]

    1. Giving no offense or provocation ; as an inoffensive man ; an inoffensive answer.

    2. Giving no uneasiness or disturbance ; as inoffensive appearance or sight.

    3. Harmless; doing no injury or mischief. Thy inoffensive satires never bite. Dryden.

    4. Not obstructing ; presenting no hinder- ance.

    —From hence a passage broad. Smooth, easy, inoffensive, down to hell. [ Unusual] Milton.

    INOFFENS'IVELY, adv. Without giving offense ; without harm ; in a manner not to offend. INOFFENS'IVENESS, n. Harmlessness; the quality of being not offensive either to the senses or to the mind. INOFFI"CIAL, a. [in and official.] Not official ; not proceeding from the proper oflScer; not clothed with the usual forms of authority, or not done in an ofiicial character ; as an inofficial communication ; inofficial intelligence.

    Pinckney and Marshall would not make in- official visits to discuss official business.

    Pickering. INOFFI"CIALLY, adv. Without the usual

    forms, or not in the official character. INOFFI"CIOUS, a. [in and officious.]

    1. Unkind; regardless of natural obligation ; contrary to natural duty.

    — Suggesting that the parent had lost the use of his reason, when he made the inofficious tes- tament. Blackstone.

    Let not a fatlier hope to excuse an inofficimis disposition of his fortune, by alledging that ev- ery man may do what he will with his own.


    2. Unfit for an office. Thou drown'st thyself in inofficious sleep.

    B. Jonson.

    •3. Not civil or attentive. B. Jonson.

    INOPERA'TION, n. Agency ; influence ; production of effects. [Not used.]

    Bp. HaU.

    INOP'ERATIVE, a. [in and operative.] Not operative ; not active ; having no op- eration ; producing no effect; as laws rendered inoperative by neglect ; inopera- tive remedies.

    INOPPORTU'NE, a. [L. inopporlunus. See Opportune.]

    Not opportune ; inconvenient ; unseasonable in time.

    INOPPORTU'NELY, adv. Unseasonably ; at an inconvenient time.

    INOPPRESS'IVE, a. [in and oppressive.] Not oppressive ; not burdensome.

    O. ITokolt.

    I N Q

    I N a


    INOP'ULENT, a. [rn and opulent.] Not opulent; not wealthy; not aftiuent or rich.

    INOR'DINACY, n. [from inordinate.] De- viation from order or rule prescribed ; ir- regularity ; disoriler; excess, or want of moderation ; as the inordinacy of desire or other passion. Bp. Taylor.

    INOR'DINATE, a. [h. inordinatua ; m and ordo, order.]

    Irregular ; disorderly ; excessive ; imraoder' ate ; not limited to rules prescribed, or to usual bounds ; as an inordinate love of the world ; inordinate desire of fame.

    INOR'DINATELY, adv. Irregularly : ex cessively ; immoderately. Skelton.

    INOR'DINATENESS, n. Deviation from order; excess; want of moderation; ordinacy ; intemperance in desire or other passion. Bp. Hall.

    INORDINA'TION, n. Irregularity ; devia tion from rule or right. South.

    INORGANIC, } [in and org-anic] De-

    INORGAN'IeAL, ^ void of organs; not formed with the organs or instruments of life ; as the inorganic matter that forms the earth's surface. Kirwan.

    Inorganic bodies, are such as have no organs, as minerals.

    INORGAN'I€ALLY, adv. Without organs.

    INOR'GANIZED, a. Not having organic structure ; void of organs; as earths, met als and other minerals.

    INOS'eULATE, V. i. [L in and osculatus, from oscular, to kiss.]

    In anatomy, to unite by apposition or con tact; to unite, as two vessels at their ex

    an artcrv.

    INOSCULATE, V. t. To unite, as two ves- sels in an animal body.

    INOS'CULATING, ppr. Uniting, as the ex- tremities of two vessels.

    INOSCULA'TION, )i. The union of two vessels of an animal body at their ex tremities, by means of which a communi cation is maintained, and the circulation of fluids is carried on ; Ray.

    IN'QUEST, n. [Fr. enquete ; L. inquisitio, inquiro ; in and quitro, to seek.]

    1. Inquisition ; judicial inquiry ; official ex amination. An iiijufji of office, is an in quiry made by the king's officer, his sher iff, coroner, or escheator, concerning any matter that entitles the king to the pos session of lands or tenements, goods or chattels. It is made by a jury of no de- determinate number. Blackslonc.

    In the United Staies, a similar inquiry, made by the proper officer, under the au- thority of a state.

    2. A jury.

    .3. Inquii-y ; search. South.

    INQUI'ET, v.t. To disturb; to trouble. [J\\\\/'ot used.]

    INQUIETA'TION, n. Disturbance. [JVot\\\\ used.]

    INQUIETUDE, n. [Fr. from L. inquieiu- do ; in and quies, rest.]

    Disturbed state ; want of quiet ; restlessness ; uneasiness, either of body or mind ; disqui- etude. Pope.

    IN'QUINATE, t!. «. [h.inquino, to defile; in and Gr. xoirou, from xoicoj, common.]

    To defile ; to pollute ; to contaminate. [Lit- tle used.] Brown

    INQUINA'TION, n. The act of defiling, or state of being ttefiled ; pollution; corrup lion. [Little used.] Bacon.

    INQUI'RABLE, a. [from inquire.] That may be inquired into ; subject to inquisi- tion or inquest. Bacon

    INQUIRE, v.i. [Fr. enquerir ; Sp. inqui- rir ; L. inquiro ; in and quctro, to seek ; Malayan, charee, to seek. See Acquire.]

    1. To ask a question; to seek for truth oi infornjation by asking questions.

    We will call the damsel and inquire at he mouth. Gen. xxiv.

    It has o/" before the person asked. En- quire of \\\\hew, or o/him. It has of, con ctrning, or after, before the subject of in- quiry.

    He sent Hatloram, his son, to king David to inquire o/his wellaie. 1 Chron. xviii.

    For thou dost not inquire wiseW concerning this, Eccl. vii.

    When search is to be made for partic ular knowledge or information, it is fol lowed by into. The coroner by jury in quires into the cause of a sudden death. When a place or person is sought, or something hid or miasing,ybr is common- ly used. Inquire fur one Saul of Tarsus. He was inquiring for the Ijouse to which he was directed. Inquire for the cloke that is lost. Inquire for the right road. Sometimes it is followed by after. In- quire after the right way.

    When some general information is sought, this verb is followed by about; sometimes by concerning. His friends iyi- quired about him ; they inquired concern- ing his welfare.

    , To seek for truth by argument or the dis- cussion of questions, or by investigation.

    To inquire into, to make examination ; to seek for particular information. Inquire into the time, manner and place. Inquire into all the circumstances of the case.

    INQUI'RE, I'. (. To ask about; to seek by asking ; as, he itiquired the way ; but the phrase is elliptical, for inquire for the way.

    INQUI'RENT, a. Making inquiry.

    INQUI'RER, n. One who asks a question ; one who interrogates ; one who searches or examines ; one who seeks for knowl- edge or information.

    INQUI'RING, ppr. Seeking for information by asking questions ; asking ; questioning : interrogating ; examining.

    INQUl'RY, n. [Norm, enquerre, fromquerer, to inquire.]

    1. The act of inquiring; a seeking for in- formation by asking questions; interroga-

    Tlie men who were sent from Cornelius, h.-id made inquiry for Simon's house, and stood be- fore the gate. Acts x.

    2. Search for truth, information or knowl- edge ; research ; examination into facts or principles by proposing and discussing questions, by solving problems, by experi- ments or other modes ; as physical irujui- 7-ies ; inquiries about philosophical knowl- edge. Locke.

    The first inquiry of a rational being should be, who made mc ? the second, why was I made ? who is my Creator, and what is his wiU ?

    INQUISI"TION, n. s as r. [Fr. from I.. inquisiiio, inquiro. See Inquire.]

    1. Inquiry ; examination ; a searching or search. Ps. ix.

    2. Judicial inquiry ; official examination ; in- quest.

    The justices in eyre had it formerly in charge to make inquisition concerning them by a jury of the county. Blackstone.

    3. Examination ; discussion. Bacort.

    4. In some catholic couutries, a court or tri- bunal established for the examination and punishment of heretics. This court was established in the twelfth century by father Dominic, who was charged by pope Inno- cent III. with orders to excite catholic jirinccs and people to extirpate heretics.


    INQUISI'TIONAL, a. Making inquiry; busy in inquiry. Sterne.

    INQUISITIVE, a. s as r. Apt to ask ques- tions; addicted to inquiry; inclined to seek information by questions ; followed bj' about or after. He was very inquisi- tive about or after news. Children are usually inquisitive.

    2. Inclined to seek knowledge by discussion, investigation or observation; given to re- search. He possesses an inquisitive mind or disposition. We live in an inquisitive age.

    INQUIS'ITIVE, n. A person who is inquisi- tive ; one curious in research. Temple.

    INQUISITIVELY, adv. With curiosity to obtain information ; with scrutiny.

    INQUIS'lTIVENESS, n. The disposition to obtain information by questioning oth- ers, or by researches into facts, causes or principles ; curiosity to learn what is not known. The worksof nature furnish am- ple matter for the inquisitiveness of the human mind.

    INQUISITOR, n. [L. See Inquire.] One wlio inquires ; particularly, one whose offi- cial duty it is to inquire and examine.

    Dry den.

    2. A member of the court of inquisition in Catholic countries. Encyc.

    INQUISITORIAL, a. Pertaining to inqui- sition ; as inquisitorial power.

    2. Pertaining to the catholic court of inqui- sition ; as inquisitorial tragedy. Encyc. Inquisitorial robes. Buchanan.

    INQUISITO'RIOUS, a. Making strict in- quiry. Milton.

    INRA'IL, V. t. [in and rail.] To rail in ; to lose with rails. Hooker. Gay.

    INRA'ILED, pp. Inclosed with rails.

    INRA'ILING,p;jr. Inclosing with rails.

    INREti'ISTER, V. t. [Fr. tnregistrer. See Registtr.]

    To register ; to record ; to enter in a register. JValsh.

    IN'ROAD, n. [in and road.] The entrance of an enemy into a country with purposes of hostility ; a sudden or desultory incur- sion or invasion. The confines of Eng- land and Scotland were formerly harassed with frequent inroads. The English made inroads into Scotland, and the Scots into England, and the country was sometimes desolated.

    2. Attack ; encroachment.

    INSA'FETY, 71. Want of safety. [III.]


    I N S

    INSALll'BRIOUS, a. [in and salubrious.' Not salubrious ; not healthful ; uufavora ble to health ; unwholesome ; as an insa- lubrious air «r climate.

    INSALU'BRITY, n. [in and salubrity. Want of salubrity ; unhealthfulness ; un wholesomeness; as the insalubrity of air, water or climate.

    INSAL'UTARY, o. [in and salutary.] No salutary ; not favorable to health or sound ness.

    2. Not tending to safety; productive of evil

    INSAN'ABLE, a. [L. insanabilis ; in and sano, to heal.] Incurable ; that cannot be healed. Johnson

    INSA'NE, a. [L. insanus ; in and sarins sound.]

    1. Unsound in mind or intellect ; mad ; de- ranced in mind ; delirious ; distracted.

    Shak. [In the sense of making mad, it is Uttle used.]

    2. Used by or appropriated to insane per- S071S ; as an insane hospital.

    INSA'NE, n. An insane person ; as a hos- pital for the insane.

    INSA'NELY, adj). Madly; foolishly; with- out reason. Montgomery.

    INSA'NENESS, ) The state of being un-

    INSAN'ITY, ^"- sound in mind; de- rangement of intellect ; madness. Insan- ity is chiefly used, and the word is applica- ble to any degree of mental derangement, from slight dehrium or wandering, to dis- traction. It is however rarely used to ex- press slight, temporary delirium, occasion- ed by fever or accident.

    INSAP'ORY, a. [L. in and sapor, taste.] Tasteless; wanting flavor. [Not used.] Herbert

    INSA'TIABLE, o. insa'shable. [Fr. fiomL insaliabilis ; in and satio, to satisfy.]

    Incapable of being satisfied or appeased very greedy ; as an insatiable appetite or desire ; insatiable thirst.

    INSA'TIABLENESS, n. insa'shableness. Greediness of appetite that cannot be sat- isfied or appeased. King Charles

    INSA'TIABLY, adv. insa'shably. With greediness not to be satisfied. South.

    INSA'TIATE, a. insa'shate. [L. insatiatus.] Not to be satisfied ; insatiable ; as insatiate tliirst. Philips.

    INSA'TIATELY, adv. So greedily as not to be satisfied.

    INSATI'ETY, n. Insatiableness.


    INSATISFAC'TION, n. Want of satisfac- tion. Bacon

    INSAT'URABLE, a. [L. insaturabilis ; ir, and salur, full.]

    Not to be saturated, filled or glutted.


    INSCI'ENCE, n. [in and science.] Igno- rance; want of knowledge.

    Ch. Relig. Appeal.

    INS€RI'BE, V. t. [L. inscriho ; in and scribo, to write, Eng. to scrape. See Scribe.]

    1. To write on ; to engrave on for per])etu ty or duration ; as, to inscribe a line c verse on a monument, on a column or pillar.

    2. To imprint on ; as, to inscribe any thing on the mind or memoi-y.

    3. To assign or address to ; to commend to


    by a short address, less formal than a dedication ; as, to inscribe an ode or a book to a prince.

    4. To mark with letters, characters or words ; as, to inscribe a stone with a name.

    5. To draw a figure within another, so that all the angles of the figure inscribed touch the angles, sides or planes of the other figure. Johnson. Encyc.

    INSCRI'BED, pp. Written on ; engraved ; marked; addressed.

    INSeRI'BER, n. One who inscribes.


    INS€RI'BING, ppr. Writing on; engra- ving ; marking ; addressing.

    INS€RIP'TION, 71. [Fr. from L. inscriptio. See Inscribe.]

    1. Something written or engraved to com- municate knowledge to after ages; any character, word, line or sentence written or engraved on a solid substance for du- ration ; as inscriptions on monuments, called epitaphs, on pillars, &c. We do not call by this name, writings on paper or parchment.

    2. A title.

    3. An address or consignment of a book to a person, as a mark of respect, or an inv' tation of patronage. It is less formal than a dedication.

    INS€RIP'TIVE, a. Bearing inscription INS€ROLL, V. t. To write on a scroll.

    INS€RUTABIL'ITY, ) The quality of INS€RU'TABLENESS, S being inscru

    table. INS€RU'TABLE, a. [Fr. from L. inscruta

    bilis ; in and scrutor, to search.]

    1. Unsearchable; that cannot be searched into and understood by inquiry or study The designs of the emperor appear to be inscrutable.

    2. That cannot be penetrated, discovered or understood by human reason. The ways of Providence are often inscrutable. Mys- teries are inscrutable.

    INS€RU'TABLY, adv. In a manner or de- gree not to be found out or understood The moral government of an infinite being must often be inscrutably dark and myste rious.

    INS€ULP', V. t. [L. insculpo ; in and sculpo, to engrave.] To engrave ; to carve. [Lnt- tie used.] Shak.

    lNS€ULP'TION, J!. Inscription. [lAttlt used.] Tourneur.

    INSeULP'TURE, ?i. An engraving; sculp- ture. [See Sculpture, which is generally used.] Shak.

    INSE'AM, V. t. [in and seam.] To impress or mark with a seam or cicatrix. [Poet- ical.] Pope

    INSEARCH, I', t. inserch'. To make search, [Not used.] Elyot

    INSE€'ABLE, a. [L. insecabilis ; in and seco, to cut.]

    That cannot be divided by a cutting instru- ment ; indivisible. Encyc

    IN'SE€T, n. [L. insccta, plu., from inseco to cut in ; in and seco, to cut. This name seems to have been originally given to cer- tain small animals whose bodies appear cut in, or almost divided. So in Greek ft'ro/ta.]

    I N S

    1. In zoology, a small invertebral animal, breathing by lateral spiracles, and fur- nished with articulated extremities and movable antennse. Most insects pass through three states or metamorphoses, the larva, the chrysalis, and the perfect insect. The class of insects, in the Lin- nean system, is divided into seven orders, the last of which (Aptera) includes the Crustacea, which breathe by gills, and the Arachnides, which have no antennae, now forming two distinct classes.

    Linne. Cuvier. The term insect has been applied, but improperly, to other small invertebral ani- mals of the Linnean class Vermes.


    2. Any thing small or contemptible.


    IN'SECT, a. Small; mean; contemptible.

    INSE€TA'TOR, n. [L.] A persecutor. [l/ittle used.]

    INSE€T'ED, a. Having the nature of an insect. Howell.

    INSE€T'ILE, a. Having the nature of in- sects. Bacon.

    INSE€T'ILE, n. An insect. [Not used.]


    INSEC'TION, n. A cutting in ; incisure ; incision.

    INSECTIVOROUS, a. [insect and L. voro., to eat.]

    Feeding or subsisting on insects. Many winged animals are insectivorous.

    Diet. Nat. Hist.

    INSE€TOL'OGER,n. [insect and Gr. 7.0705.] One who studies insects. [Not in use. See Entomologist.]

    INSECU'RE, a. [in and secure.] Not se- cure ; not safe ; not confident of safety : used of persons. No man can be quiet, when he feels insecure.

    3. Not safe ; not effectually guarded or pro- tected; unsafe; exposed to danger or loss. Goods on the ocean are insecure. Hay and grain unhoused are insecure. Debts are often insecure.

    INSEeU'RELY, adv. Without security 01

    safety ; without certainty. Chesterfield. INSEeU'RITY, n. [in and security.] Want

    of safety, or want of confidence in safety.

    Seamen in a tempest must be conscious of

    their insecurity.

    2. Uncertainty. With what insecurity of truth we ascribe effects to unseen causes.

    3. Want of safety ; danger ; hazard ; expo- sure to destruction or loss ; applied to things ; as the insecurity of a building ex- posed to fire ; the insecurity of a debt.

    INSECU'TION, n. [L. insecutio.] Pursuit. Chapman.

    INSEM'INATE, v. t. [L. insemino.] To sow. [Utile used.]

    INSEMINA'TION, n. The act of sowing. [Little used.]

    INSENSATE, a. [Fr. insense; L. m and senstis, sense.]

    Destitute of sense; stupid; foolish ; wanting sensibility. Milton. Hammond.

    INSENSIBIL'ITY, n. [from insensible.]

    1. Want of sensibility, or the power of feel- ing or perceiving. A frozen limb is in a state of imsensibilily, as is an animal body after death.


    3. Want of the power to be moved or affect ed; wantof tenderness or susceptibility of emotion and passion. Not to be moved at the distresses of others denotes an insensi-

    , bility extremely unnatural.

    3. Dullness; stupidity ; torpor.

    INSENS'IBLE, a. [Fr. Sp. from L. in and aensus, sense, sentio, to feel.]

    1. Imperceptible ; that cannot be felt or per- ceived. The motion of the earth is insens- ible to the eye. A plant grows, and the body decays by insensible degrees. The humors of the body are evacuated by in sensible perspiration.

    The dense and bright light of the circle will obscure the rare and weak light of these dark colors round about it, and reader them almost insensible. jVewton

    3. Destitute of the power of feeUng or per- ceiving ; wanting corporeal sensibility, An injury to the spine often renders the inferior parts of the body insensible.

    3. Not susceptible of emotion or passion void of feeling ; wanting tenderness. To be insensible to the sufferings of our fellow men is inhuman. To be insensible of dan- ger is not always evidence of courage.

    4. Dull ; stupid ; torpid.

    5. Void of sense or meaning ; as insensible words. Hale. Du Ponceau

    INSENS'IBLENESS, n. Inability to per- ceive ; want of sensibility. [See Insensi bility, which is generally used.]

    INSENS'IBLY, adv. Imperceptibly ; in f manner not to be felt or perceived by the

    The hills rise inseiisibly. 2. By slow degrees

    Mdi Men often slide insensibly into vicious habits.

    INSENT'IENT, a. [in and sentient.] Not having perception or the power of percep- tion. Retd.

    INSRP' ARABLE, a. [Fr. from L. insepara bilis ; in and scparabilis, separo, to sepa rate.]

    That cannot be separated or disjoined ; no to be parted. There is an inseparable con nection between vice and suffering or pun ishment.

    INSEP'ARABLENESS, > , Tins quality

    JNSEPARABIL'ITY, <, "• of being in separable, or incapable of disjunctior [The latter word is rarely used.] Loch

    INSEP'ARABLY, adv. In a manner that prevents separation ; with indissoluble union. Bacon. Temple

    INSEP'ARATE, a. Not separate. [.Vol used.]

    INSEP'ARATELY, adv. So as not to be separated. [JVot used.] Cranmer

    INSERT', I'. /. [Vr. inserer ; h.insero,inser- turn ; in and sero, to thrust.]

    Literally, to thrust in ; hence, to set in oi among ; as, to insert a cion in a stock ; to insert a letter, word or passage in a com- position ; to insert an advertisement or other writing in a paper.

    INSERT'ED, pp. Set in or among.

    INSERT'ING, p;)r. Setting in or among.

    INSER'TION, n. [Fr. from L. insertio.]

    1. The act of setting or placing in or among other things ; as the insertion of cions in stocks ; the insertion of words or passages in writings ; the insertion of notices or es- says in a public paper ; the insertion of ves-l

    Vol. I.

    I N S

    sels, tendons, &c. in other parts of the

    body. 2. The thing inserted. Broome.

    INSERV'IENT, a. Conducive. INSET', V. t. To infix or implant.

    Chaucer. INSIIA'DED, a. Marked with different

    shades. Browne.

    INSHELL', V. t. To hide in a shell. Shak. INSIIKL'TER, v.i. To shelter. Shak.

    L\\\\SHIP', II. t. To ship; to embark. Shak. INSIIRINE. [See Enshrine.] IN'SIDE, n. [in and side.] The interior

    jiart of a thing; internal part ; opposed to

    outside; as the insirfe of a church ; the iii-

    side of a letter. INSiniATE, II. t. [L. insidior.] To lie in

    ambush for. INSID'IATOR, n. One who lies in ambush. [ Barrow.

    llNSID'IOUS, a. [L:insidiosus, from insideo, j to lie in wait ; in and sedeo, to sit.]

    1. Properly, lying in wait ; hence, watching an opportunity to insnare or entrap ; de- ceitful ; sly ; treacherous ; used of persons.

    2. Intended to entrap ; as insidious arts. INSII) lOrSLY, adv. With intention to in

    siinrc; chceiifuUy ; treacherously; with

    I njaliriiiMs ;ntifice or stratagem. Bacon

    INSID'IOl'SNESS, n. A watching for an

    ! opportunity to insnare ; deceitfulness

    I treachery. Barrow.

    'IN'SIGHT, n. in'sitc. [in and sight.] Sight

    or view of the interior of any thing ; deep

    inspection or view ; introspection ; thor

    oiigh knowledge or skill.

    A garden gives us a great insight into the contrivance and wisdom of Providence.

    Spectator. INSIG'NIA, n. [L. plu.] Badges or distin- guishing marks of oftice or honor.

    Burke 2. Marks, signs or visible impressions, by which any thing is known or distin- guished. Beattie INSIGNIF'I€ANCE, ) , [in and signlji- INSIGNIF'I€ANCY, S cance.]

    1. Want of significance or meaning ; as the insipiificance of words or phrases.

    2. Unimportance; want offeree or effect; as the insignificance of human art or of ceremonies. Addison

    .3. Want of weisrht ; meanness. INSIGNIF'I€ANT, a. [in and significant.]

    1. Void of signification; destitute of mean- ing ; as insignificant words.

    2. Unimportant ; answering no purpose insignifi-


    having no weight or effect; cant rites

    .3. Without weight of character; mean ; con- temptible ; as an imignificant being oi fellow.

    INSIGNIFICANT, n. An insignificant, tri fling or worthless thing. Taller

    INSIGNIFICANTLY, adv. Without mean- ing, as words.

    2. Without importance or effect; to no pur

    Not expressing bv external signs, INSINCE'RE, a. [L. insincerus ; in and

    sincenis, sincere.] I. Not sincere ; not being in truth what one appears to be ; dissembling ; hypocritical ; false ; used of persons ; as an heart.


    I N S

    2. Deceitful ; hypocritical ; false ; used of things ; as insincere declarations or pro- fessions.

    3. Not sound.

    INSINCERELY, adv. Without sincerity : hvpocritically.

    INSINCER'ITY, n. Dissimulation; want of sincerity or of being in reality what one appears to be ; hypocrisy ; used of persons. Deceitfulness ; hollow ness ; used of things ; as the insincerity of |irofessions.

    INSIN'EW, V. t. [in and sinew.] To strengthen ; to give vigor to. Shak.

    INSIN'UANT, a. [Fr. from L. jnst'niinns.] Insinuating ; having the power to gain fa- vor. [Little used.] fVotton.

    INSIN'UATE, v.t. [Fr.tJin.iucr; h. in- sinuo ; in and sinus, the bosom, a bay, inlet or recess.]

    1. To introduce gently, or into a narrow pas- sage ; to wind in. Water insinuates itsell" into the crevices of rocks.

    2. To push or work one's self into favor ; to introduce by slow, gentle or artful means.

    He insinuated himself into the very good grace of the duke of Buckingham. Clarendon.

    3. To hint; to suggest by remote allusion.

    And all the fictions bards pursue.

    Do but insimiate what's true. Swift.

    4. To instill ; to infuse gently ; to introduce artfully.

    AU the art of rhetoric, besides order and clear- ness, are for nothing else but to insinuate wrong ideas, move the passions and thereby mislead the judgment. Locke.

    INSIN'UATE, V. i. To creep in ; to wind in ; to flow in ; to enter gently, slowly or imperceptibly, as into crevices.

    2. To gain on the affections liy gentle or art- ful means, or by imperceptible degrees; as insinuating flattery.

    .3. To wind along. Millon.

    INSIN'UATED, pp. Introduced or convey- ed gently, imperceptibly or by winding into crevices ; hinted.

    INSIN'UATING, ppr. Creeping or winding in; flowing in; gaining on gently ; hint- ing.

    2. a. Tending to enter gently; insensibly winning favor and confidence.

    INSINUATION, Ji. [Fr. from L. insinua- tio.]

    1. The act of insinuating ; a creeping or winding in ; a flowing into crevices.

    2. The act of gaining on favor or affections, by gentle or artful means.

    3. The art or power of pleasing and stealing on the affections.

    He had a natural insinuatioti and address, wliich made him acceptable in the best com- pany. Clarendon.

    4. A hint ; a suggestion or intimation by dis- tant allusion. Slander may be conveyed by insinuations.

    INSIN'UATIVE, a. Stealing on the affec- tions. Bacon.

    INSINUATOR, n. One who insinuates; one that hints.

    INSIPID, a. [Fr. insipide ; L. insipidus ;

    I in and sapidus, sapio, to taste.]

    |1. Tasteless; destitute of taste; wanting the

    I qualities which affect the organs of taste ;

    i vapid ; as insipid liquor.

    [2. Wanting spirit, life or animation ; want- ing pathos, or the power of exciting emo-

    I tions ; flat ; dull ; heavy ; as an insipid address ; an insipid composition.



    I N S

    3. Wanting power to gratify desire ; as in- sipul pleasures.

    1. Want of taste, or the power of exciting sensation in the tongue.

    2. AVant of life or spirit.

    Dryden's lines shine strongly through the in- sipidity of Tate's. Pope.

    INSIP'IDLY, adv. Witliout taste ; without spirit or life ; without enjoyment. Locke.

    INSIP'lENCE, n. [L. iiisipientia ; in and sapio, to be wise.]

    Want of wisdom ; folly ; foolishness ; want of understanding.

    INSIST', v.i. [Fr. insister ; L.insisio; in and nsto, to stand.]

    1. Literally, to stand or rest on. [Rarely jtsed.] Ray.

    2. In geometry, an angle is said to insist upon the arc of the circle intercepted between the two lines which contain the angle.

    3. To dwell on in discourse ; as, to insist on a particular topic.

    To insist on, to press or urge for any

    thing with immovable firmness ; to per-

    sistin demands ; as, to insist on oppressive

    terms in a treaty ; to insist on immediate

    payment of a debt. (NSIST'ENT, a. Standing or resting on ;

    as an insistent h all. [Little vsed.]

    Wotton. INSIST'URE, n. A dwelling or standing

    on ; fixedness. Ohs. Shak.

    INSIT'IENCY, n. [L. in and sih'o, to thirst.]

    Freedom from thirst. Grew.

    INSI"TION, n. [h. insitio, {rom insitus, in-

    sero, to plant.] The insertion of a cion in a stock ; ingraft-

    ment. Ray.

    INSNA'RE, V. t. [in and snare.] To catcli

    in a snare ; to entrap ; to take by artificial


    2. To inveigle ; to seduce by artifice ; to take by wiles, stratagem or deceit. The flattering tongue is apt to insnare the art- less youth.

    3. To entangle ; to involve in difliculties oi perplexities.

    [This word is often written ensnare, but in- snare is the trueorthograpliy.]

    INSNA'RED, pp. Caught in a snare ; en- trapped; inveigled ; involved in perplex- ities.

    INSNA'RER, n. One that insnares.

    INSNA'RING, ppr. Catching in a snare entrapping ; seducing ; involving in difli- culties.

    INSOBRI'ETY, n. [in ami sobriety.] Warn

    of sobriety ; intemperance ; drunkenness

    Decay of Piety.

    INSO'CIABLE, a. [Fr.fromh. insociabili's ; in and sociabUis, socio, to unite.]

    1. Not inclined to unite in social converse not given to conversation ; unsociable taciturn.

    3. That cannot be joined or connected.

    Lime and wood are insocidble. [JVot in use.'] Wotton.

    IN'SOLATE, v.t. [h.insolo; in and «o/, the sun]

    To dry in the sun's rays; to expose to the heat of the sun ; to ripen or prepare by exposure to the sun.

    IN'SOLATED, pp. Exposed to the sun dried or matured in the sun's rays.

    IN'SOLATING, ppr. Exposing to the ac- tion of sun-beams.

    INSOLA'TION, n. The act of exposing to the rays of the sun for drying or matur- ing, as fruits, drugs, &c. or for rendering acid, as vinegar, or for promoting some chimical action of one substance on an- other.

    2. A stroke of the sun ; the action of ex- treme heat on the brain. Battie.

    IN'SOLENCE, n. [Fr. from L. insolentia ; and soleo, to be accustomed.]

    Pride or haughtiness manifested in con- temptuous and overbearing treatment of others ; petulant contempt ; impudence. Johnson. Blown with insolence and wine. Milton.

    IN'SOLENCE, V. t. To treat with haughty conteinpt. [JVot used.] K. Charles.

    IN'SOLENT, a. Proud and haughty, with contempt of others ; overbearing ; domi- neering in power ; as an insolent master. Atterbury.

    2. Proceeding from insolence ; haughty and contemptuous; as insolent words or be- havior.

    •3. Unaccustomed; the primary sense. [J^ot used.]

    IN'SOLENTLY, adv. With contemptuous pride ; haughtily ; rudely ; saucily.


    INSOLID'ITY, «. [in and solidity.] VV of solidity ; weakness. More.

    INSOLUBILITY, n. [from insoluble.] The quality of not being soluble or dissolvable, particularlv in a fluid.

    INSOL'UBLE, a. [Fr. from L. insolubilis ; in and solvo, to dissolve.]

    1. That cannot be dissolved, particularly by a liquid. We say a substance is insoluble in water, when its parts will not separate and mix with that fluid.

    2. Not to be solved or explained ; not to be resolved ; as a doubt or difliculty. [JM'ot much used.]

    INSOLV'ABLE, a. [Fr. from L. in and solvo, to loosen or dissolve.]

    L Not to be cleared of difliculty or uncer- tainty ; not to be solved or explained ; not admitting solution or explication ; as an insolvable problem or difliculty.


    2. That cannot be paid or discharged.


    INSOLVENCY, n. [infra.] Inability of a person to pay all his debts ; or the state of wanting property sufficient for such pay- ment ; as a merchant's insolvency.

    2. Insufliciency to discharge all debts of the owner ; as the insolvency of an estate.

    Act of insolvency. [See infra. Insolvent law.]

    INSOLVENT, a. [L. in and solvens, solvo. to solve, to free, to pay.]

    1. Not having money, goods or estate suffi- cient to pay all debts ; as an insolvent debtor.

    2. Not sufficient to pay all the debts of the owner ; as an insolvent estate.

    3. Respecting insolvent debtors ; relieving an insolvent debtor from imprisonment for debt, or from liability to arrest and im- prisonment for debts previously contract- ed ; as an insolvent law.

    Daggett. Sergea7it

    Insolvent law, or act of insolvency, a law

    which liberates a debtor from imprison-

    ment, or exempts him from liability to ar- rest and imprisonment on account of any debt previously contracted. These terms- may be considered as generic, comprehend- ing also bankrupt laws, which protect a man's future acquisitions from his credit- ors. But in a hmited sense, as the words are now generally used, an insolvent law- extends only to protect the person of the debtor from imprisonment on account of debts previously contracted.

    Stat, of Conti. fVheaton's Rep.

    INSOLVENT, n. A debtor unable to pay his debts. Sergeant.

    INSOM'NIOUS, a. [L. insomniosus ; or in and sommis, sleep.] Troubled with dreams ; restless in sleep.

    INSOMUCH', adv. [in, so, and much.] So that ; to that degree.

    Simonides was an excellent poet, insomuch that he made his fortune by it. L'Estrange.

    [This word or combination of words is not deemed elegant, and is obsolescent, at least in classical composition.]

    INSPECT', V. t. [L. inspicio, inspectum ; in and specio, to view.]

    1. To look on ; to view or oversee for the purpose of examination. It is the duty of parents to inspect the conduct or maimers of their children.

    2. To look into ; to view and examine, for the purpose of ascertaining the quality or condition of a thing ; as, to inspect pot- ash ; to inspect flour ; to inspect arms.

    3. To view and examine for the purj)ose of discovering and correcting errors ; as, to inspect the press, or the proof-^sheets of a book.

    4. To superintend.

    INSPECT', n. Close examination. [JVot used.] Thomson.

    INSPECT'ED, pp. Viewed with care ; ex- amined bv the eye or oflicially.

    INSPECT'lNG, ;)jBr. Looking on or into; viewing with care ; examining for ascer- taining tlie quality or condition.

    INSPECTION, n. [Fr. from L. inspectio.] A looking on or into ; prying examina- tion ; close or careful survey ; as the (l\\\\- \\\\\\\\ne inspection into the affairs of the world. Bentle^j. Watch ; guardianship ; as a youth placed at school under the inspection of a friend.

    3. Superintendence ; oversight. The forti- fications are to be executed under the in- spection of an oflicerof the army.

    4. Official view ; a careful viewing and ex- amining of commodities or manufactures, to ascertain their quaUty ; as the inspec- tion of flour.

    5. Ofiicial examination, as of arms, to see that thev are in good order for service.

    INSPECT'OR, 71. One who inspects, views or oversees ; as an inspector of morals ; an inspector of the press.

    2. A superintendent ; one to whose care the execution of any work is committed, for the purpose of seeing it faithfully perform- ed.

    3. An officer whose duty is to examine the quality of goods or commodities offered for sale.

    4. An officer of the customs.

    5. A military officer whose duty is to inspect the troops and examine their arms.


    INSPECTORATE, ^ The office of an

    INSPECTORSHIP, \\\\ "' inspector.


    INSPERS'ED, a. Sprinkled on. [Mt used.]

    INSPER'SION, n. [L. inspersio, inspergo; in and spargo, to scatter.] The act of sprinkUng on. Mnsworth.

    INSPEX'IMUS, n. [we have inspected ; the first word of ancient charters, Ifc] An ex- emplification.

    INSPHE'RE, V. t. [in and sphere.] To place in an orb or sphere. Milton.

    INSPI'RABLE, o. [from inspire] That may be inspired.

    % That may be drawn into tlie lungs ; in halable ; as air or vapors.

    INSPIRA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inspiro.

    1. The act of drawing air into the lungs; the inhaling of air ; a branch of respira lion, and opposed to expiration.

    ',}. The act of breathing into any thing;.

    ."!. The infusion of ideas into the mind by the Holy Spirit ; the conveying into the minds of men, ideas, notices or monitions by extraordinary or supernatural influence; or the communication of the divine will to the understaiiding by suggestions or impressions on the mind, which leave no room to doubt the reality of their super- natural origin.

    All Scripture is given by inspiration of God. 2 Tim. lU.

    4. The infusion of ideas or directions by the supposed deities of pagans.

    5. The infusion or communication of ideas or poetic spirit, by a superior being or sup posed presiding power ; as the inspiration of Homer or other poet.

    IN'SPIRATORY, a. Pertaining to inspira tion, or inhaling air into the lungs.

    Med. Repos INSPI'RE, V. i. [L. inspiro; in and spiro

    to breathe; Fr. inspirer.] To draw in breath ; to inhale air into tlic

    lungs ; opposed to expire. INSPI'RE, V. t. To breathe into. Ye nine, descend and sing, The breathing instruments inspire. Pope. 8. To infuse by breathing.

    He knew not his Maker, and him that ill spired into him an active soul. Wisdom

    3. To infuse into the mind; as, to inspire with new life.

    4. To infuse or suggest ideas or monitions supernaturally ; to communicate divin stnictions to the mind. In this maimer, we suppose the prophets to have been in spired, and the Scrijrtures to have been composed under divine influence or di rection.

    5. To infuse ideas or poetic spirit.

    6. To draw into the lungs ; as, to inspire and expire the air with difficulty. Harvey.

    INSPI'RED, pp. Breathed in ; inhaled ; in- fused.

    2. Informed or directed by the Holy Spirit. INSPI'RER, n. He that inspires. INSPI'RING, ppr. Breathing in ; inhaling

    into the lungs; infusing into the mind su- pernaturally. 2. a. Infusing spirit or courage ; animating. INSPIR'IT, V. t. \\\\in and spirit.] To infuse • or excite spirit in ; to enliven ; to animate ; to give new life to; to encourage ; to in- vigorate.

    I N S

    The courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by the love of empire and ambition. Pope.

    INSPIR'ITED, pp. Enhvened ; animated ; invigorated.

    INSPIRITING, ppr. Infusing spirit ; giv- ing new life to.

    INSPIS'SATE, V. I. [L. in and spissus, thick.] To thicken, as fluids ; to bring to greater consistence by evaporating the thinner parts, &c.

    INSPIS'SATED, pp. Thickened, as a li- quor.

    INSPIS'SATING, ppr. Thickening, as a li- quor.

    INSPISSA'TION, n. The act or oi)eration of rendering a fluid substance thicker by evaporation, &c.

    INSTABILITY, n. [Fr. instability; stabilitas, instabilis ; in and stabilis, from sto, to stand.]

    1. Want of stability ; want of firmness in pmpose ; inconstancy ; fickleness ; inula bility of opinion or conduct. Instability is the characteristic of weak minds.

    2. Changeableness ; mutability ; as the in stability of laws, plans or measures.

    INSTA'BLE, a. [L. instabilis.] Inconstant ; prone to change or recede from a purpose; mutable ; of persons.

    2. Not steady or fixed ; changeable ; oj things.

    [Instable and unstable are synonymous, and the latter is more commonly used.]

    INSTA'BLENESS, n. Unstableness ; mu tability ; instability.

    INSTALL', D. «. [Fr. installer; S\\\\i. instalar It. installare ; from G. stall, from stellen D. stellen, to set, Gr. ;irh.j, to send.]

    To set, place or instate, in an oflice, rank oi order; to invest with any charge, office or rank, with the customary ceremonies. To i/istall a clergyman or minister of the gos- pel, is to place one who has been previ ously ordained, over a particular church and congregation, or to invest an ordain- ed minister with a particular pastoral charge ; in England, to induct a dean, prebendary or other ecclesiastical ilignita- ry into possession of the church to whicli he belongs.

    INSTALLA'TION, n. The act of givin« possession of an office, rank or order, with the customary ceremonies.

    On the election, the bishop gives a mandate for his installation. .'lyliffe.

    INSTALL'ED, pp. Placed in a seat, office or order.

    INSTALL'ING, ppr. Placing in a seat, of- fice or order.

    INSTALLMENT, n. The act of installing, or giving possession of an office with the usual ceremonies or solemnities. IShak.

    2. The seat in which one is placed. [Un- usual.] Shak

    3. Ill commerce, a part of a large sum of money paid or to be paid at a particular period. In constituting a capital stock by subscriptions of individuals, it is custoraa ry to afford facilities to subscribers by di viding the sum subscribed into installments, or portions payable at distinct periods. In large contracts also, it is not unusual to agree that the money shall be paid by in stattments.


    IN'STANCE, n. [Fr. from L. inslo, to press ; in and sto, to stand.] Literally, a stand- ing on. Hence,

    1. Urgency ; a pressing ; solicitation ; im- portunity ; application. The request was granted at the instance of the defendant's advocate.

    2. Example; a case occurring ; a case offer- ed. Howard fiirnislied a remarkable in- stance of disinterested benevolence. The world may never witness a second in- stance of the success of daring enterprise and usurpation, equal to that of Buona- parte.

    Suppose the earth should bo removed nearer to tlie sun, and revolve, for instance, in the or- bit of Mercuiy, the whole ocean would boil with heat. Benttey.

    The use of instances, is to illustrate and ex- plain a difficulty. Baker.

    3. Time ; occasion ; occurrence.

    These seem as if, in the lime of Edward I, they were drami up into the form of a law, in the first ijtstance. Hale.

    4. Motive ; influence. Obs. Shak.

    5. Process of a suit. 06s. .tyliffe. Instance-court, a branch of the court of

    admiralty, in England, distinct from the ])rize-court.

    IN'STANCE, V. i. To give or ofitr an ex- ample or case.

    As to false citations — I shall instance in two or three. Tillotson.

    L\\\'STANCE, V. t. To mention as an exam- ple or case. He instanced the event of Cesar's death.

    IN'STANCED, pp. or a. Given in proof or as an example. Bp. Hall.

    IN'STANT, a. [Fr. from L. instans, insto.]

    1. Pressing; urgent; importunate; earnest.

    Rejoicing in hope ; patient in tribulation ; continuing instant in prayer. Rom. xii.

    2. Immediate ; without intervening time ; present.

    Impending death is thine and instant doom. Prior.

    3. Quick ; making no delay.

    Iitstant he flew nith hospitable haste.


    4. Present ; current. On the tenth of Jidy instant.

    IN'STANT, n. A point in duration ; a mo- ment ; a part of duration in which we per- ceive no succession, or a part that occu- pies the time of a single thought.

    2. A particular time. Shak.

    INSTANTANE'ITY, n. Unpremeditated production. Shenstone.

    INSTANTANEOUS, a. [Fr. inslantani ; Sp. It. instantaneo.]

    Done in an instant ; occurring or acting with- out any perceptible succession ; very speedily. The passage of electricity through any given space appears to be instantaneous.

    INSTAN'TA'NEOUSLY, adv. In an in- stant ; in a moment ; in an indivisible point of duration. The operations of the human mind are wonderful ; our thoughts fly from world to world instantaneously. In the western parts of the Atlantic states of America, showers of rain sometimes beeiii insta7itaneously.

    INSTANTANEOUSNESS, n. The quaU- tv of being done in an instant.

    INSTANT' ER, adv. [L.] In law, immedi- ately ; at the present lime ; withoiit delay.

    I N S

    I N

    I N S

    The party was compelled to plead instan- ter. IN'STANTLY, adv. Immediately ; without .my intervening time; at the moment. Lightning often kills instantly.

    2. With urgent importunity.

    And when they came to Jesus, they besought him instantly, saying, that he was worthy lor whom he should do this. Luke vii.

    3. With diligence and earnestness. Acts xxvi.

    INST^AR, V. /. [in and star.] To adorn with stars, or with brilliants. A golden throne Instarr'd with gems. /• Sari

    INSTA'TE, V. t. Jin and state.] To set or place ; to establish, as in a rank or con- dition ; as, to instate a person in greatness or in favor. South. Atlerhury.

    2. To invest. Ohs. Shak.

    INSTA'TED, pp. Set or placed. INSTA'TING, ppr. Setting or placing. INSTAURA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. mslau-

    ratio, instauro, to renew.] Renewal ; repair ; re-establishment ; the res- toration of a thing to its former state, af- ter decay, lapse or dilapidation. INSTAURA'TOR, n. One who renews or restores to a former condition. More.

    INSTEAD, insted'. [a compound of in and stead, place ; but stead retains its character of a noun, and is followed by of; instead of, in the same manner as in the stead of] In the place or room of.

    Let thistles grow instead of wheat. Job xxxi.

    Absalom made Amasa captain of the host in- stead of Joab. 2 Sam. xvii. This consideration is instead of a thou- sand arguments. In this use, instead may be equivalent to equal to. When instead is used without of follow- ing, there is an ellipsis, or some words are understood. INSTEE'P, V. t. [in and sleep.] To steep or soak ; to drench ; to macerate in moisture. Shak. 2. To keep under or in water. INSTEE'PED, ppr. Steeped ; soaked ;

    drenched ; lying under water. INSTEE'PING, ppr. Steeping; soaking. IN'STEP, n. [in and step.] The instep of the human foot, is the fore part of the up- per side of the foot, near its junction with the leg. Q. The instep of a horse, is that part of the hind leg, which reaches from the ham to the pastern-joint. Encyc.

    IN'STIGATE, V. t. [L. instigo ; in and sti-

    go, inusit., Gr. r'f"j to prick.] To incite ; to set on ; to provoke ; to urge : used chiefy or wholly in an ill sense ; as, tc instigate one to evil ; to instigate to a crime. IN'STIGATED, pp. Incited or persuaded

    as to evil. IN'STIGATING, ppr. Inciting ; tempting

    to evil. INSTIGA'TION, n. Incitement, as to evil or wickedness; the act of encouraging tc commit a crime or some evil act. 9. Temptation ; impulse to evil ; as the hi

    sligalion of the devil. IN'STIGATOR, n. One who incites anoth

    er to an evil act ; a tempter. 9. That which incites ; that which moves persons to commit wickedness.

    INSTILL', t'. t. [L. instillo; in and stillo, to drop.] To infuse by drops. Milton.

    2. To infuse slowly, or by small quantities ; , to instill good principles into the mind.

    INSTILLA'TION, n. [L. instillatio.] The act of infusing by drops or by small quan- tities.

    2. The act of infusing slowly into the mind.

    3. That which is instilled or infused. INSTILL'ED, pp. Infused by drops or by

    slow degrees.

    INSTILL'ER, n. He that instills.

    INSTILL' ING, ppr. Infusing by drops or by slow degrees. Shale.

    INSTILL'MENT, n. Any thing instilled. Shak

    INSTIM'ULATE, v. t. To stimulate; to ex- cite. [JVot used.]

    INSTIM'ULATING, jsijor. Not stimulating; not exciting vital powers. Chei/ne.

    INSTIMULA'TION, n. [in and s«mute Hon.]

    The act of stimidating, inciting or urging forward.

    INSTINCT', a. [L. iiistinctus. See the Noun.]

    Moved; animated; e.xcited ; aa instinct with

    spirit. Obs. Milton

    Betulia— i»is(inf< with life. Faber

    IN'STIN€T, Ji. [Fr. ; It. instinto,istinto; Sp. I'on.instinto ; from L. imtinclus, inwardly moved ; in and stinguo, Gr. f iju, yiyu. See Distinguish, Extinguish. Tlie sense of the root is to thrust ; hence the com- pound, i»!siijir

    A certain power or disposition of mind by which, independent of all instruction or experience, without deliberation and with- out having any end in view, animals are unerringly directed to do spontaneously whatever is necessary for the preserva tion of the individual, or the continuation of the kind. Such, in the human species, is the instinct of sucking exerted immedi ately after birth, and that of insects in de positing their eggs in situations most fa vorable for hatching. Encyc.

    Instinct may be defined, the operation of th principle of organized life by the exercise of certain natural powers directed to the present or future good of the individual. //!5

    And reason raise o'er instinct as you can. In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis man.


    INSTINeT'ED, a. Impressed ; as an ani- mating power. [Little used.] Bentley.

    INSTIN€'TION, n. Instinct. [jVoJ in use.] Elyot.

    INSTIN€T'IVE, a. Prompted by instinct ; spontaneous ; acting without reasoning, deliberation, instruction or experience ; determined by natural impulse or propen- sity. The propensity of bees to form hex- agonal cells for holding their honey and their young, must be instinctive.

    INSTINCT'IVELY, adv. By force of stinct; without reasoning, instruction or experience ; by natural impulse.

    IN'STITUTE, 'v. t. [L. institito ; in and staluo, to set.]

    1. To establish ; to appoint ; to enact ; tu form and prescribe ; as, to institute laws ; to institute rules and regulations.

    2. To found ; to originate and establish ; as, to insliiute a new order of nobility ; to in- stitute a court.

    3. To ground or establish in principles ; to educate ; to instruct ; as, to institute chil- dren in the principles of a science.

    4. To begin ; to commence ; to set in opera- tion ; as, to institute an inquiry ; to insti- tute a suit.

    To invest with the spiritual part of a ben- efice or the care of souls. Blackstone. IN'STITUTE, n. [L. institutum ; Fr. insti- tut.]

    1. Established law ; settled order.

    2. Precept ; maxim ; principle.

    To make the Stoic institutes thy own.

    Dryden A book of elements or principles ; partic- ularly, a work containing the principless of the Roman law. Encyc.

    In Scots law, when a number of persons in succession hold an estate in tail, the first is called the institute, the others substitutes. Encyc.

    IN'STITUTED, pp. Established ; appoint- ed ; founded ; enacted ; invested with the care of souls.

    IN'STITUTING,p;)r. Establishing; found- ing ; enactiiig ; investing with the care of souls.

    INSTITU'TION, n. [Fr. from L. institutio.]

    L The act of establishing.

    2. Establishment ; that which is appointed, prescribed or founded by authority, and intended to be permanent. Thus we speak of the institutions of Moses or Ly- curgus. We apply the word institution to laws, rites, and ceremonies, which are en- joined by authority as permanent rules of conduct or of government.

    3. A system, plan or society established, ei- ther by law or by the authority of individ- uals for promoting any object, public or social. We call a college or an academy, a literary institution ; a bible society, a be- nevolent or charitable institution ; a bank- ing company and an insurance company are commercial institutions.

    A system of the elements or rules of any art or science. Encyc.

    5. Education ; instruction.

    His learning was not the effect of precept or institution. Bentley.

    6. The act or ceremony of investing a clerk with the spiritual part of a benefice, by which the care of souls is committed to his charge. Blackstone.

    INSTITU'TIONAL, a. Enjoined ; institut- ed by authority. Etym. Vocabulary.

    INSTITUTIONARY, a. Elemental ; con- taining the first principles or doctrines.


    IN'STITUTIST,»t. A writer of institutes or elementary rules and instructions.


    IN'STITUTIVE, a. That estabhshes ; hav- ing power to establish. Barrow.

    2. Established ; depending on institution.


    IN'STITUTOR, n. [L.] The person who establishes ; one who enacts laws, rites and ceremonies, and enjoins the observ- ance of them.


    N S


    2, The person who founds amortlei, sect, so- ciety or scheme for the promotion of a public or social object.

    3. An instructor ; one who educates ; as an institutor of youth. tVaUcer.

    INSTOP', V. t. [in and stop.] To stop ; to close ; to make fast. [LitUe used.]


    INSTRA'TIFiED, a. Stratified within Bomething else. Journ. of Science.

    INSTRUCT', v.t. [L. instruo, instructum ; in and struo, to set or to put on, to furnish ; Fr. It. iiislruire ; Sp. iiistndr. The L. struo is contracted from slruco or strugo. See Destroy.]

    1. To teach; to inform the mind; to edu- cate; to impart knowledge to one who was destitute of it. The first duty of pa- rents is to instruct their children in the principles of religion and morahty.

    8. To direct; to enjoin; to persuade or ad- monish.

    She being before instructed by her mother, said, give me here tlie head of John the Bap- tist in a charger. Matt. xiv.

    3. To direct or coniinand ; to funiisli with orders. The president instructed his en- voy to insist on the restitution of the property.

    4. To inform ; to advise or give notice to. On this question the court is not instruct-

    5. To model; to form; to prepare. [Mot

    used.] Aytiffe.

    INSTKUCT'ED, pp. Taught; informed;

    trained up: educated. lNSTKUeT''lBLE,a. Able to instruct. [III. Bacon INSTRUCT'ING, ppr. Teaching ; inform

    ing the mind ; directing. INSTRUe'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inslruc


    1. The act of teaching or informing the un- derstanding in that of which it was before ignorant ; information.

    2. Precepts conveying knowledge.

    Receive my instruction and not silver. Prov viii.

    3. Direction ; order ; command ; mandate The minister received instructions from his sovereign to demand a categorical an- swer.

    INSTRUCT'IVE, a. [Sp. instructivo ; It. in-

    sirultivo ; Fr. instructif.] Conveying knowledge ; serving to instructor

    inform. Affliction furnishes very instruct

    ive lessons. INSTRUCT' IVELY, adv. So as to afford

    instruction. Pope.

    INSTRUeT'OR, n. A teacher ; a person

    ■who imparts knowledge to another by

    precept or information. 1 Cor. iv. 2. The preceptor of a school or seminary of

    learning; any president, professor or tu

    tor, whose business is to teach languages

    literature or the sciences ; any profession

    al man who teaches the principles of his

    profession. INSTRUCT'RESS, 71. A female who in

    structs ; a preceptress ; a tutoress. IN'STRUMENT, n. [Tr. from L. instru

    mentum, from instruo, to prepare ; tha

    which is prepared.] 1. A tool ; that by which work is performed

    or any thing is effected ; as a knife, a bam

    mer, a saw, a plow, &c. Swords, mus-

    kets and cannon are instruments ot' de- struction. A telescope is an astronomical instrument.

    2. That which is subservient to the execu- tion of a plan or purpose, or to the pro- duction of any effect ; means used or con- tributing to an effect ; applicable to persons or things. Bad men are often instrutnents of ruin to others. The distribution of the Scriptures may be the instrument of a vast- ly extensive reformation in morals and re- ligion.

    3. An artificial machine or body constructed for yielding harmonious sounds ; as an or- gan, a harpsichord, a violin, or flute, &c., which are called musical instruments, or instruments of music.

    4. In law, a writing containing the terms of a contract, as a deed of conveyance, grant, a patent, an indenture, &c. ; in ger oral, a writing by which some fact is re- corded for evidence, or some right con- veyed.

    5. A person who acts for another, or is em- ployed by another for a special purpose, and if the purpose is dishonorable, the term implies degradation or meanness.

    INSTRUMENT'AL.a. Conducive as an in- strument or means to some end ; contrib- uting aid ; serving to promote or effect an object ; helpful. The press has been in- strumental in enlarging the bounds of knowledge. Pertaining to instruments ; made by in

    striunents ; as instrumental music, distin- guished from vocal music, which is made by the human voice.

    INSTRUMENTALITY, n. Subordinate or auxiliary agency ; agency of any thing as means to an end; as the instrumentality o( second causes.

    INSTRUMENT' ALLY, adv. By way of an instrument ; in the nature of an instru ment ; as means to an end. Soutk.'

    3. With instruments of music. 1

    INSTRUMENT' ALNESS, n. Usefulness,' of means to an end ; instrimientality.


    INSTVLE, V. t. [in and style.] To call ; to denominate. [N'ot used.] Crashaw.\\\\

    INSUAV'ITY, »i. [L. insuavitas.] Unpleas-] antness. Burton.i

    INSUBJEC'TION, n. State of disobedience^

    A multitude of scribblers who daily pester Ihe world with their insufferable stuff—

    Drydcn. INSUF'FERABLY, adv. To a degree be- yond endurance ; as a blaze insufferably bright; a person insufferably proud. INSUFFP'CIENCY, n. [in and sufficiency.]

    1. Inadcquateness ; want of sufficiency ; de- ficiency ; as an insufficiency of provisions to supply the garrison.

    2. Inadequacy of power or skill ; inability ; iiicapacity; incompetency; as the insuffi- ciency of a man for an office.

    3. Want of the requisite strength, value or force ; defect.

    Tlie insufficiency of the light of nature is supplied by the lit;ht of Scripture. Hooker.

    INSUFFI"CIENT, a. [in and sufficient.] 1. Not sufficient; inadequate to any need, use or purpose. The provisions are in- sufficient in quantity and defective in qual-

    disobedience. I

    INSUBORD'INATE, a. Not submitting to: authority.

    INSUBORDINA'TION, n. Want of sub-! ordination ; disorder ; disobedience to law-i ful authoritv. Marshall. J. M. Mason.'

    INSUBSTAN'TIAL, a. Unsubstantial; not; real. Shak.'

    INSUeCA'TION, n. [L. iiuucco, to moisten ;. in and siiccus, juice.]

    The act of soaking or moistening ; macera-j tion ; solution in the juice of herbs.


    INSUF'FERABLE, a. [in and sufferable.]\\\\

    1. Intolerable; that cannot be borne or en- dured ; as insiifferabk heat, cold or pain.

    3. That cannot be permitted or tolerated. Our wrongs are insufferable.

    3. Detestable ; contemptible ; disgusting be- yond endurance.

    2. Wanting in strength, power, ability, or skill ; incapable ; unfit ; as a person insuf- ficient to discharge the duties of an office.

    INSUFFI"C[ENTLY, adv. With want of sufficiency ; with want of proper ability or skill ; inadequately.

    INSUFFLA'TION, n. [L. in and sufflo, to blow.]

    1. Tlie act of breathing on.

    13. The act of blowing a substance into a cav-

    I ity of the body. Coze.

    INSU'ITABLE,a. Unsuitable. [UtUe used.] Burnet.

    IN'SULAR, a. [L. insularis, from insula, an isle.]

    Belonging to an isle ; surrounded by water ; as an insular situation.

    IN'SULAR, n. One who dwells in an isle. Berkeley.

    IN'SULATE, t'. t. [L. insula, an isle.] To place in a detached situation, or in a state to have no communication with surround- ing objects.

    3. In architecture, to set a column alone or not contiguous to a wall.

    .3. In electrical experiments, to place on anon- conducting substance, or in a situation to prevent communication with the earth.

    4. To make an isle. [Little used.] INSULATED, pp. or a. Standing by itself;

    not being contiguous to other bodies ; as an insulated house or column. Defect of submission ;' 2. In electrical experimeitis, placed on an elec- tric or non-conducting substance ; not communicating with the earth.

    IN'SULATING, lypr. Setting in a detached

    position. In electrical experinients, pre- venting coinniunication by the intei-posi- tion of an electric body. INSULA'TION, 71. The act of insulating; the state of being detached from other ob-

    2. In electrical experiments, that state in which the communication of electrical fluid is prevented by the interposition of an elec- tric body.

    IN'SULATOR, n. In electrical experiments, the substance or body that insulates, or in- terrupts the communication of electricity to surrounding objects ; a non-conductor or electric. , Ed. Encyc

    INSULSE,a. insuls'. [L. insulsus.] Dull; in- sipid. [JVot used.] .Milton.

    I N S

    IN'SULT, ?i. [Fr.insulte; h. insultus, from insilio, to leap on ; in and salio, to leap.]

    1. The act of leaping on. [Little used.]


    'i. Any gross abuse offered to another, either hy words or actions ; act or speech of in- solence or contempt.

    The ruthless sneer that insult adds to grief.


    INSULT', V. t. [Fr. insuller ; It. insuHare ; Sp. insullar ; L. insulto. See the Noun.'

    To treat with gross abuse, insolence or con tempt, by words or actions ; as, to call s man a coward or a liar, or to sneer at him, is to insult him.

    To insult over, to triumph over with inso- lence and contempt.

    INSULT', D. i. To behave with insolent tri- umph. jB. Jonson.

    INSULTA'TION, n. The act of insulting abusive treatment. Feltham.

    INSULT'ED, pp. Abused or treated with insolence and contempt.

    INSULT'ER, n. One who insults. Rowe.

    INSULT'ING, ppr. Treating with insolence or contempt.

    INSULT'INGLY, adv. With insolent con- tempt ; with contemptuous triumph.


    INSU'ME, i>. (. [L. insumo.] To take in, [J\\\\rot used.] Evelyn.

    INSUPERABIL'ITY, n. [from insuperaUe.] The quality of being insuperable. {Little used.]

    INSU'PERABLE, a. [L. insuperabilis and superahilis, from supero, to overcome or surpass.]

    1. That cannot be overcome or surmounted insurmoimtable ; as insuperable difficul- ties, objections or obstacles.

    2. That cannot be [lassed over.

    And middle natures, how they long to join. Yet never pass th' insuperable line. Pope

    The latter application is unusual. This word is rarely or never used in reference to an enemy, in the sense of invincible oi unconquerable. We do not say that troops or enemies are insu^erntie ; but the word is applied chiefly to difliculties, objections, obstacles or impediments.

    INSU'PERABLENESS, n. The quality of being insuperable or insurmountable.

    INSU'PERABLY, adv. In a manner or de

    grec not to be overcome ; insurmountably


    INSUPPORTABLE, a. [Fr. in and sxipporl- able]

    1. That cannot be supported or borne ; as the weight or burden is insupportable.

    2. That cannot be borne or endured ; insuf- ferable ; intolerable. We say of heat or cold, insult, indignity or disgrace, it ' supportnhle.

    INSUPPORTABLENESS, n. The quality of being insupportable ; insufferabteness ; the state of being beyond endurance.


    INSUPPORTABLY, adv. In a manner or degree that cannot be supported or en- dured. Dn/den.

    INSUPPRESS'IBLE, a. Not to be sup- pressed or concealed. Young.

    INSUPPRESS'IVE, a. Not to be suppress- ed. Shak.


    INSURABLE, a. [from imure.] That may| be insured against loss or damage ; proper! to be insured.

    The French law annuls the latter policies so, far as they exceed the insurable interest which remained in the insured at the time of the sub-' scription thereof. Walsh.^

    INSU'RANCE, n. [from insure.] The act of insuring or assuring against loss or dam-| age ; or a contract by which one engages' for a stipulated consideration or premium] per cent, to make up a loss which another may sustain. Insurance is usually made on goods or property exposed to uncom- mon hazard, or on lives.

    •J. The premium paid for insuring property or life.

    Insurance company, a company or corpo- ration whose business is to insure against loss or damage.

    INSU'RANCER, n. An underwriter. [JSTot

    RE, V. t.

    INSU'RE, V. t. inshu're. [in and sure. The French use assurer ; we use indifferently assure or insure.]

    To make sure or secure ; to contract or cov- enant for a consideration to secure a per- son against loss; or to engage to indem- nify another for the loss of any specified ])roperty, at a certain stipulated rate per cent., called a premium. The property usually insurerf is such as is expose/ extraordinary hazard. Thus the merchant insures his ship or its cargo, or both, against the dangers of the sea; houses are insured against fire ; sometimes haz- ardous debts are insured, and soinetiujes

    INSU'RE, V. {. To underwrite ; to practice making insurance. This company insures at 3 per cent., or at a low premium. INSU'REU, pp. Made sure; assured; se- cured against loss. INSU'RER, n. One who insures ; the per- son who contracts to pay the losses of an- other for a premium; an underwriter. INSURti'ENT, o. [L. insurgens ; in and

    surgo, to rise.] Rising in opposition to lawful civil or polit- ical authority ; as insurgent chiefs.

    Stephens. INSURG'ENT, n. A person who rises in opposition to civil or political authority ; one who openly and actively resists the execution of laws. [See Insurrection.] An insurgent differs from a rebel. The in- surgent opposes the execution of a par- ticular law or laws ; the rebel attempts to overthrow or change the government, oi he revolts and attempts to place his coun- try under another jurisdiction. All rebels are insurgents, but all insurgents are not rebels.

    INSU'RING, ppr. Making secure ; assuring against loss ; engaging to indemnify for losses. INSURMOUNT'ABLE, a. [Fr. insurmonla- ble. See Surmount.]

    Insuperable ; that cannot be surmounted or overcome; as an insurmountable difti culty, obstacle or impediment. 2. Not to be surmounted ; not to be passei by ascending; as an insurmountable wall or rampart. INSURMOUNT'ABLY, adv. In a manner or degree not to be overcome.


    INSURRECTION, n. [L. insurgo ; in and surgo, to rise.]

    1. A rising against civil or political author- ity ; the open and active opposition of a number of persons to the execution of law in a city or slate. It is equivalent to sedi- tion, e.xcept that sedition expresses a less extensive rising of citizens. It differs from rebellion, for the latter expresses a revolt, or an attempt to overthrow the gov- ernment, to establish a different one or to place the country under another jurisdic- tion. It differs from mutiny, as it respects the civil or political government ; whereas a mutiny is an open opposition to law in the army or navy. Insurrection is howev- er used with such latitude as to compre- hend either sedition or rebellion.

    It is found that this city of old time hath made insurrection against kings, and that re- bellion and sedition have been made therein. Ezra iv.

    2. A rising in mass to oppose an enemy. [Utile used.]

    INSURRECTIONAL, a. Pertaining to in- surrection ; consisting in insurrection.

    Amer. Review.

    INSURRECTIONARY, a. Pertaining or suitable to insurrectiou. Burke.

    INSUSCEPTIBIL'ITY, n. [from insuscep- tible.]

    Want of susceptibility, or capacity to feel or perceive. Med. Repos.

    INSUSCEPT'IBLE, a. [in and susceptible.]

    1. Not susceptible ; not capable of being mo- ved, affected or impressed ; as a limb in- susceptible of pain ; a heart insusceptible of pity.

    2. Not capable of receiving or admitting. INSUSURRA'TION, n. [L. insusurro.] The

    act of whispering into something.

    INTACT'ABLE, a. [L. iiitactum; in and factum, tango, to touch.] Not perceptible to the touch. Did.

    INTAGLIATED, a. intal'yated. [See In- tagtio.] Engraved or stamped on.


    INTAGLIO, n. intal'yo. [It. from intagli- are, to carve ; in and tagliare, to cut, Fr. tailler.]

    Literally, a ciuting or engraving ; hence,

    INTANG'IBLE, a. [in and tangible.] That cannot or may not be touched. Wilkins.

    2. Not perceptible to the touch.

    A corporation is an artificial, invisible, intan- gible being. MarshalL

    INTAN'GlBLENESS, ? The quality of

    INTANGIBIL'ITY, ^ "• being intangi- ble.

    INTASTABLE, a. [in and tastable, taste.] That cannot be tasted ; that cannot affect the organs of taste. Grew.

    IN'TEgER, n. [L. See Entire.] The whole of anything; particularly, in arithmetic, a whole number, in contradistinction to a fraction. Thus in the ninnber 54. 7, in decimal arithmetic, 54 is an integer, and 7 a fraction, or seven tenths of a unit.

    IN'TEGRAL,a. [Fr. from integer.] Whole; entire. Bacon.

    I N T

    2. Making part of a whole, or necessary to inake a whole.

    3. Not fractional.

    4. Uniuiured ; complete ; not defective.

    ■" Holder.

    IN'TEGRAL, n. A whole; an entire thing.

    INTEGRAL'ITY, n. Entireness. [J^ot used.] WUlaker.

    IN'TEGRALLY, adv. Wholly ; completely. mtitaker.

    IN'TEGRANT, a. Making part of a whole ; necessary to constitute an entire thing. Burke.

    Integrant particles of bodies, are those into which bodies are reduced by solution or mechanical division, as distinct from ele- mentary particles.

    IN'TEGRATE, v. t. [L. integro.] To re- new ; to restore ; to |)erfect ; to make a thing entire. South.

    IN'TEGRATED, pp. Made entire.

    INTEGRA'TION, n. The act of making entire.

    INTEG'RITY, n. [Ft. integrite ; L. in<<:g-- ritas, from integer.]

    1. Wholeness; entireness; unbroken state. The constitution of the U. States guaran- ties to each state the integrity of its terri- tories. The contracting parties guaran- tied the integrity of the empire.

    2. The entire, unimpaired state of anything, particularly of the mind ; moral sound- ness or purity; incorruptness; upright- ness; honesty. Integrity comprehends the whole moral character, but has a spe- cial reference to uprightness in mutual dealings, transfers of property, and agen cies for others.

    The moral grandeur of independent integrity is tlie siiblimest thing in nature, before whicli tlie pomp of eastern magnificence and the splen- dor of conquest are odious as well as perishable. Stickminster. unadulterated, unim-

    I N T

    3. Purity ; genuine,

    paired state ; as the integrity oflanguagt

    INTEGUMA'TION, n. [L. intego, t cover.]

    That part of physiology, which treats of the integuments of animals and plants.


    INTEG'UMENT, n. [L. integumentum, tn- tego, to cover; in and tego. See Deck.]

    That which naturally invests or covers an- other thing; but appropriately and chiefly in anatomy, a covering which invests the body, as the .skin, or a membrane that invests a particular part. The skin of seeds and the shells of crustaceous animal; are denominated integuments. Encyc.

    1N'TELLE€T, n. [Fr. from L. intellectus from intelligo, to understand. See Intel- ligence.]

    That faculty of tlie human ?oul or mind, which receives or comprehends the ideas communicated to it by the senses or by perception, or by other means ; the fac- ulty of thinking; otlierwise called the un- derstanding. A clear intellect receives and entertains the same ideas which another communicates with perspicuity.

    INTELLE€'TION, n. [Fr. from L. iriieHec- tio, from intelligo.]

    The act of understanding; simple apprehen- sion of ideas. Bentley.

    INTELLECT'lVE, a. [Fr. intellectif.] Ha- ving power to understand. Glantille.

    2. Produced by the un

    3. To be perceived by tlie understanding, not by the senses. Milton.

    INTELLECT'UAL, a. [Fr. intellectuel.]

    1. Relating to the intellect or understanding; belonging to the mind ; performed by the understanding ; mental ; as intellectual powers or operations.

    2. Ideal; perceived by the intellect; exist- ing in the understanding ; as an intellect- vat scene. Pope.

    3. Having the power of understanding; as ui intellectual being.

    4. Relating to the understanding ; treating of the mind ; as intellectual philosophy, now sometimes called mental philosophy.

    INTELLECTUAL, n. The intellect or un- derstanding. [Little itsed.] Milton.

    INTELLECT'UALIST, n. One who over- rates the understanding. Bacon.

    INTELLEeTUAL'ITY, n. The state of intellectual power. [Xot used.]


    INTELLECTUALLY, adv. By means of the understanding.

    INTEL'LIGENCE, n. [Fr. from L. inlelli- gentia, from intelligo, to imderstand. This verb is probably composed of in, inter, or intus, within, and lego, to collect. The primary sense of understand is generally to take or hold, us wo say, to take one's ideas or meaning.] Understanding ; skill. Spenser.

    2. Notice ; information communicated ; an account of things distant or before un- known. Intelligence may be transmitted by messengers, by letters, by signals or h) telegraphs.

    3. Connnercc of acquaintance ; terms of intercour.'.e. Good intelligence between men is harmony. So we say, there is u good understanding between persons, when they have the same views, or art free from discord.

    4. A spiritual being; as a created intelli- gence. It is believed that the universe is peopled with innumerable superior intelli- gences.

    INTEL'LIGENCE, v. t. To inform ; to in- struct. [Little xised.]

    INTEL'LIuENCED, pp. Informed; in- structed. [Little used.] Bacon

    INTELLIGENCE-OFFICE, n. An office or place where information may be ob- tained, particularly respecting servants u be hired.

    INTEL'LIgENCER, n. One who sends oi conveys intelligence ; one who gives no- tice of private or distant transactions; s messenger. Bacon. Addison

    2. A public paper ; a newspaper.

    INTEL'LIgENCING, ppr. or a. Giving or eying notice to from a distance.

    INTEL'LIgENT, a. [Fr. from L. intetli gens.]

    I. Endowed with the faculty of understand ing or reason. Man is an intelligent be

    !. 'jfili

    2. Knowing ; understanding ; well inform- ed ; skilled ; as an intelligent officer ; an intelligent young man ; an intelligent arrh- itect; sometimes followed by o/"; as inielli gent of seasons. Milton

    2. Giving information. [.Yot used mr prop- rr.l Shck

    I N T

    NTELLIgEN'TIAL, a. Consisting of un- bodied mind.

    Food alike those pure JnleUigetitial substances require. Milton.

    2. Intellectual ; exercising understanding. Milton.

    INTELLI6IBIL'ITY, ? „ [from intelti-

    INTEL'LKilBLENESS, l"' gilde.] The quality or state of being intelligible ; the l)fissil)ility of being understood.

    Locke. Tooke.

    INTEL'LlGlBLE, a. [Fr. from L. intelligi- bilis.]

    That may be understood or comprehended ; as an intelligible account. The rules of human duty arc intelligible to minds of the smallest capacity.

    INTEL'LICilBLY, ndv. In a manner to bo understood ; clearly ; plaiidy ; as, to write or speak intelligibly.

    INTEM'ERATE, a. [L. intemtratus.] Pure ; undefilcd. [.Vot in use.]

    INTEM'EKATENESS, n. State of being unpolluted. [Aof used.] Donne.

    INTEM'PERAMENT, )i. [in am\\\\ tempera- ment.]

    A bad state or constitution ; as the intem- perament of an ulcerated part. Harvey.

    INTEM'PERANCE, n. [Fr. from L. in-

    I temperantia.]

    1. h\\\\ a general sense, wantof moderation or due restraint ; excess in any kind of ac- tion or indulgence ; any exertion of body or mind, or any indulgence of appetites or passions which is injurious to the person or contrary to morality ; as intemperance in study or in labor, in eating or drinking, or in any other gratification. Hence, ap- propriately and emphatically,

    2. Habitual indulgence in drinking spirituous liquors, with or without intoxication.

    Should a foreign army land on our shores, to levy such a tax upon us as intemperance lev- ies — no mortal power could resist the swelling tide of indignation tliat woiJd oveiwhclm it.

    L. Beecher. INTEM'PERATE, a. [L. intemperatus ; in and temperatus, from tempero, to moderate or restrain.]

    1. Not moderate or restrained within due limits; indulging to excess any appetite or passion, either hahitually or in a partic- ular instance ; immoderate in enjoyment or exertion. A man may be intemperate in i)assioii, intemperate in labor, intemper- ate in study or zeal. Hence by customary application, intemperate denotes indulging to excess in the use of food or drink, but particularly in the use of spirituous liquors. Hence,

    2. Addicted to an excessive or habitual use of spirituous liquors.

    3. Passionate ; ungoveniable. Shak.

    4. Excessive ; exceeding the convenient mean or degree ; as an intemperate cli- mate. The weather may be rendered in- temperate by violent winds, rain or snow, or by excessive cold or heat.

    INTEM'PERATE, r. (. To disorder. [Mt ill use.] ftTiitaker.

    INTEM'PERATELY, adr. With excessive iiululgence of appetite or passion ; with undue exertion; immoderately; exces- sively.

    I N T

    I JV T


    INTEAIPERATENESS, «. Wantofmod- eiation ; excessive degree of indulgence ; as the intemperateness of appetite or pas-

    2. Immoderate degree of any quality in the

    weather, as in cold, heat or storms. INTEM'PERATURE, n. Excess of some

    quality. INTEMPEST'IVE, a. [L. iiitempestivus.]

    Untimelv. [JVot used.] Burton.

    INTEMPEST'lVELY, adv. Unseasonably.

    [jVot used.] INTEMPESTIV'ITY, n. Untimeliness.

    LYot used.] INTEN'ABLE, a. [in and tenable.] That

    cannot be held or maintained ; that is not

    defensible ; as an intenabk opinion ; an

    intenable fortress. fVarbuiton.

    [Untenable, though not more proper, is more

    generally used.] INTEND', V. t. [L. intendo ; in and tendo,

    to stretch or strain, from teneo, Gr. tsivu,

    to stretch.] ]. To stretch ; to strain ; to extend ; to di


    [This literal sense is now uncommon.]

    2. To mean ; to design ; to purpose, that is, to stretch or set forward in mind. [This is now the usual sense.]

    For they intended evil against thee. Ps

    3. To regard ; to fix the mind on ; to at- tend ; to take care of.

    Having no children, she did with singula! care and tenderness intend the education «f Philip. Bacon.

    [This use of the word is now obsolete, We now use tend and superintend or re- gard. ]

    4. To enforce; to make intense. Brown. INTEND'ANT, n. [Fr. from L. intendo.]

    1. One who has the charge, oversight, di rection or management of some public bu siness ; as an intendant of marine ; an in tendant of finance: a word much used in France, and sometimes in England and America, but we generally use lieu of it supeiintendent.

    2. In Charleston, S. Carolina, the mayor or chief municipal officer of the city.

    INTEND'ED, pp. Designed ; purposed ; as, the insult was intended.

    2. Stretched; made intense. [Little used.]

    INTEND'ER, pp. One who intends.

    INTEND'IMENT, n. Attention; under standing; consideration. Obs.

    INTEND'ING, ppr. Meaning; designing purposing.

    2. Stretching ; distending. [Little used.]

    INTEND'MENT, n. [Fr. entendement, with a sense somewhat different.]

    Intention ; design ; in law, the true mean ing of a person or of a law, or of any le gal instrument. In the construction of statutes or of contracts, the intendment of the same is, if possible, to be ascertained, that is, the true meaning or intention of the legislator or contracting party,

    INTEN'ERATE, v. t. [L. in and tener, tender.] To make tender ; to soften. Autumn vigor gives, Equal, inlc»i«ra(mg, milky grain. Philips INTEN'ERATED, pp. Made tender or soft.

    INTEN ERATING, ppr. Making tender.

    INTENERA'TION, n. The act of making soft or tender. Bacon.

    [Intenerate and its derivatives are little used.]

    INTENSE, a. intens'. [L. inteiisus, from intendo, to stretch.]

    . Literally, strained, stretched ; hence, very close, strict, as when the mind is fix- ed or bent on a particular subject ; as, intense study or application ; intense thought.

    2. Raised to a high degree ; violent ; vehe ment ; as iiitense heat.

    3. Very severe or keen ; as intense cold.

    4. Vehement ; ardent ; as intense phrases in language.

    5. Extreme in degree.

    The doctrine of the atonement supposes thi the sias of men were so laid on Christ, that his suffeiings were inconceivably intense and over- whelming. S. E. Bwighf

    6. Kept on the stretcli ; anxiously attentive ; opposed to remiss. Milto

    INTENSELY, adv. intens'ly. To an e treme degree ; vehemently ; as a furnace intensely heated ; weather intensely cold.

    2. Attentively ; earnestly. Spenser. INTENSENESS, n. intens'ness. The state

    of being strained or stretched ; intensity ; as the intenseness of a cord.

    3. Tlie state of being raised or concentrated to a great degree ; extreme violence ; as the intenseness of heat or cold.

    3. Extreme closeness ; as the intenseness of]

    study or thought. INTEN'SION, n. [L. intensio.] A straining,

    stretching or bending ; the state of being

    strained ; as the intension of a musical

    string, a. Increase of power or energy of any qual-

    ipposed to remission. INTENSITY, n. [Fr. intensity.] The state

    of being strained or stretched ; intense

    ness, as of a musical chord.

    2. The state of being raised to a great de gree ; extreme violence ; as the intensity of heat.

    3. Extreme closeness; as in/cnsiYi/ of appli cation.

    4. Excess ; extreme degree ; as the intensity of guilt. Bicrke

    INTENS'IVE, a. Stretched, or admitting of extension.

    2. Intent ; unremitted ; assiduous ; as intens- rcumspectiou. Wotton

    3. Serving to give force or emphasis ; as at intensive particle or preposition.

    INTENSIVELY, adv. By increase of de- gree ; in a manner to give force.


    INTENT', a. [L. intentus, from intendo. See Intend.]

    Literally, having the mind strained or bent on an object ; hence, fixed closely ; sed ulously applied ; eager in pursuit of an object ; anxiously diligent ; formerly with to, but now with on ; as intent on busi- ness or pleasure ; intent on the acquisition of science.

    Be intent and solicitous to take up the mean- ing of the speaker — Watts.

    INTENT', n. Literally, the stretching of the mind towards an object ; hence, a de sign ; a purpose ; intention ; meaning ; drift ; aim ; applied to persons or things.

    The principal intent of Scripture is to delivr,

    the laws of duties supernatural. Hooke,

    I ask therefore, for what intent ye have seni

    for me .' Acts x.

    To all intents, in all senses ; whatever may

    be designed.

    He was miserable to all intents and purposes. VEstranee. INTEN'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inUntio. See Intend.]

    1. Primarily, a stretching or bending of the mind towards an object ; hence, uncom- mon exertion of the intellectual faculties ; closeness of application ; fixedness of at- tention ; earnestness.

    Intention is when the mind, with great ear- nestness and of choice, fixes its view on any idea, considers it on every side, and will not be called ofl' by the ordinary solicitation of other ideas. Locke.

    2. Design ; purpose ; the fixed direction of the mind to a particular object, or a de- termination to act in a particular manner.

    my intention to proceed to Paris.

    the object to be acconi-

    It i

    . End or ami : plished.

    In chronical distempers, the principal m

    Arbuthnot. . The state of being strained. [See Inten- sion.]

    INTEN'TIONAL, a. Intended ; designed.'; done with design or purpose. The act was intentional, not accidental.

    INTEN'TIONALLY, adv. By design ; of purpose ; not casually.

    INTEN'TIONED, in composition ; as well- intentioned, having good designs, honest in pur])ose ; ill-intentioned, having ill de- signs. Milner. Ch. Obs.

    INTENT'IVE, a. Attentive; having the mind closely applied. Bacon.

    [This word is nearly superseded by atten- tive.]

    INTENT'IVELY, adv. Closely ; with close application. Bp. Hall.

    INTENT'IVENESS, n. Closeness of atten- tion or application of mind.

    fV. Mountague.

    INTENT'LY, adv. With close attention or application ; with eagerness or earnest- ness; as the mind intently directed to an object ; the eyes intently fi.xed ; the man is intently employed in the study of geol-

    INTENT'NESS, n. The state of being in- tent; close application; constant employ- ment of the mind. Swift.

    IN'TER, a Latin preposition, signifying among or between ; used as a prefix.

    INTER', V. t. [Fr. enterrer ; en and terre, L. terra, the earth ; Sp. enterrar ; It. inter-

    ]. To bury; to deposit and cover in the earth ; as, to inter a dead animal body.

    3. To cover with earth.

    But it is used almost exclusively to de- note the depositing and covering of dead animal bodies.

    IN'TERA€T, n. [i)!(er and act.] Interme- diate employment or time ; a short piece between others. Chesterfield.

    INTERAM'NIAN, a. [L. inter and amnis, river.] Situated between rivers. Bryant.

    INTERAN'IMATE, v. t. To animate mu- tually. [Little used.] Donne.

    I N T

    1 N T

    1 N T

    rNTERBASTA'TION, n. [Sp. bastear, baste.] Patch-work. [JVot in use.]

    ^ Smith.

    INTER'€ALAR, } „ [Fr. inlercalairc ; L.

    INTER'€ALARY, I "' mtercalarius ; inter wid cnlo, to call or proclaim.]

    Inserted ; an epithet given to the odd day inserted in leap year. The twenty ninth of February in leap year is called the iercalary day. We read in Livy of an tercalary month.

    IN'TER€ALATE, v. t. [L. intercalo; inter and calo, to call.]

    To insert an extraordinary day or other por- tion of time.

    1N'TER€ALATED, pp. Inserted.

    IN'TER€ALATINO, ppr. Inserting.

    INTER€ALA'TION, n. [L. inlercalalio.] The insertion of an odd or extraordinary day in the calendar, as the 29th of Febru- ary in leap year.

    INTERCE'DE, v. i. [L. intercede ; inter and cedo ; literally, to move or pass befween "

    1. To pass between.

    He supposes that a vast period interceded between that origination and the age in which he lived. Hale.

    2. To mediate ; to interpose ; to make in- tercession ; to act between parties with a view to reconcile those who differ or con tend ; usually followed by with. Calamy.

    3. To plead in favor of one. INTERCE'DENT, a. Passing between;

    mediating ; pleading for. INTERCE'DER, n. One who intercedes

    or interposes between parties, to effect a

    reconciliation ; a mediator ; an interces

    sor. INTERCE'DING, ppr. Mediating ; plead

    ing. INTERCEPT', V. t. [Fr. intercepter ; L. in

    Urceptus, inlercipio, to stop ; inter and ca

    pio, to take.]

    1. To take or seize on by the way ; to stof on its passage ; as, to intercept a letter The prince was intercepted at Rome. The convoy was intercepted by a detaciiment of the enemy.

    2. To obstruct; to stop in progress; as, to intercept rays of light ; to intercept the cur- rent of a river, or a course of proceedings.

    3. To stop, as a course or passing ; as, to| intercept a course. Dryden.'

    4. To interrupt communication with, or pro-| gress towards.

    While storms vindictive intercept the shore. Pope.

    5. To take, include or comprehend between.

    Right ascension is an arch of the equator, reckoning towaids the east, intercepted between the beginning of Aries, and the point of the equator which rises at the same time with the sun or star in a right sphere. Bailey.

    INTERCEPTED, pp. Taken on the way ; seized in progress ; stopped.

    INTERCEPTER, n. One who intercepts.

    INTERCEPT'ING,p;jr. Seizing on its pass- age ; hindering from proceeding ; compre- hending between.

    INTERCEP'TION, n. The act of seizing something on its passage ; a stopping ; obstruction of a course or proceeding ; binderance. Woiton.

    INTERCES'STON, n. [Fr. from L. inter- cession from intercede. See Intercede.]

    Vol. I.

    The act of interceding; mediation ; interpo-j sition between parties at variance, with a] view to reconciliation ; prayer or solicita- tion to one party in favor of another, sometimes against another. Your intercession now is needless grown ; Retire and let me speak with her alone.

    Drydt He bore the sin of many, and made interces- sion for the transgressors. Is. liii. INTERCES'SOR, n. [L. See Intercede.]

    1. A mediator; one who interposes between parties at variance, with a view to re< cile them; one who pleads in behalf of another. Milton.

    2. A bishop who, during a vacancy of the see, administers the bishopric till a suc- cessor is elected. Encyc.

    INTERCES'SORY, a. Containing inter- cession : interceding.

    INTERGHA'IN, !-. t. [inter and chain.] To chain ; to link together. Shak.

    INTERCHA'INED, pp. Chained together.

    INTERCHAINING, ppr. Chaining or fast- ening together.

    INTERCHANGE, v. t. [inter and change.]

    1. To put each in the place of the other; to give and take mutually ; to e.xchangi to reciprocate ; as, to interchange places ; to interchange cares or duties.

    I shall interchange My waned state for Henry's regal crown.


    2. To succeed alternately. Sidnei/. IN'TERCHANGE, n. Mutual change, each

    giving and receiving; exchange; permu- tation of commodities; barter; as the in- terchange of commodities between New York and Liverpool.

    2. Alternate succession ; as the interchange of light and darkness.

    Sweet interchange Of hill and valley, rivers, woods and plair


    3. A mutual giving and receiving ; recipro- cation ; as an interchange of civilities or kind offices.

    INTERCHANGEABLE, a. That may be interchanged ; that may be given and ta- ken mutually. Bacon.

    2. Following each other in alternate suc- cession ; as the four interchangeable sea- Holder.

    INTERCHANgEABLENESS, )i. The state of being interchangeable.

    INTERCHANGEABLY, adv. Alternately by reciprocation ; in a manner by wliicl each irives and receives. Hooker.

    INTERCHANGED, pp. Mutually exchan iie<\\\\ : reciprocated.

    IN'fr.KCllANGEMENT, n. Exchange; iiiiiiiial transfer. [Little used.] Shak.

    LNTEKCIIANGING, ppr. Mutually giving and receiving; taking each other's place successively ; reciprocating.

    INTERCI'DENT, a. [L. intereido.] Falling or coming between. Boyle.

    INTERCIP'IENT, a. [h.intercipiens. See Intercept.] Intercepting ; seizing by thei way ; stopping.

    INTERCIP'IENT, n. He or that which in- tercepts or stops on the passage. I /f'iscma?!.

    INTERCIS'ION, n. s as :. [L. intereido ;! jn(f#- and cffirfo, to cut.] Interruption. [Lit-\\\\ tie used.] Broicn.\\\\


    INTERCLfDE, r. t. [L. intercludo ; inter and ciudo, to shut.]

    1. To shut from a place or course by some- thing intervening ; to intercept. Holder.

    2. To cut off; to interrupt. Mitford. INTERCLl DED, pp. Intercepted ; inter- rupted.

    INTERCLU'DING, ppr. Interrupting.

    INTERCLU'SION, Ji. sas:. Interception; a stopping.

    INTER€OLUMNIA'TION, n. [L. inter and columna, a column.]

    In architecture, tlie space between two col- umns. By the rules of the art, thissliould be in proportion to the iiighth and bulk of the colunms. Encyc.

    INTERCOM'MON, v. i. [inter and common.]

    1. To feed at the same table. Bacon.

    2. To graze cattle in a common pasture ; to use a common with others, or to possess or enjoy the right of feeding in common.

    Common because of vicinage, is where the iu- habilants of two townships contiguous to each other, have usually intercommoned with one another. Blackstone.

    INTEReOM'MONING, ppr. Feeding at the same table, or using a common pas- ture ; enjoying a common field with otli- ers.

    INTER€OAL\\\\IU'NIeATE, v. i. [inter and communicate.]

    To communicate mutually; to hold mutual

    INTERCOMMUNICATION, n. Recipro- cal communication. INTERCOMMU'NION, n. [inter and corn-

    Mutual communion ; as an intercommunion of deities. Faber.

    INTERCOMMU'NITY, n. [inter and com- munity.]

    A mutual communication or community ; mutual freedom or exercise of religion ; as the intercommunity of pagan theology.

    I Paley.

    (intercostal, a. [Fr. from L. inter,

    i between, and casta, a rib.]

    [Placed or lying between the ribs ; as an in- tercostal muscle, artery or vein. Encyc.

    INTERCOST'AL, n. A part lying between the ribs. Derham.

    intercourse, n. [L. intercursus, inter- curro ; inter and curro, to run.] Literally, a running or passhig between. Hence,

    II. Communication; commerce; connection by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, either in common affairs and ci- vilities, in trade, or con-espondence by let- ters. We have an intercourse with neigh- bors and friends in mutual visits and in social concerns ; nations and individuals have intercourse with foreign nations or in-

    i dividuals by an interchange of commodi- ties, by purchase and sale, by treaties, contracts, &c.

    2. Silent communication or exchange. This sweet intercourse Of looks and smiles. Milton.

    INTERCUR', V. i. [L. intercurro.] To in- tervene ; to come in the mean time.


    INTERCUR'RENCE, n. [L. intercurrens, intercurro.] A passing or running be- tween. Boyle.

    INTERCUR'RENT, a. [L. intercurrens.]

    1. Running between or among. Boyle.

    I N T

    3. Occurring ; iiiterveuing. Barrow.

    INTER€UTA'NEOUS, a. [L. inter and cutis, the skin.] Being witliin or under the skin.

    IN'TERDEAL, n. [infer and deai.] Mutual deahng; traffick. Spenser.

    INTERDICT', II. (. [L. inlerdico, interdic- tutn; inter and dico, to speak.]

    I. To forbid; to prohibit. An act of con- gress interdicted the sailing of vessels from our ports. Our intercourse with foreign nations was interdicted.

    'i. To forbid communion ; tocut off from the

    enjoyment of communion with a church.

    An archbishop may not only excommunicate

    and interdict his suffragans, but his vicar-general

    may do the same. Ayliffe.

    IN'TERDleT, n. [L. interdictum.] Prohi- bition ; a prohibiting order or decree.

    9. A papal prohibition by which the clergy are restrained from performing divine ser- vice ; a species of ecclesiastical censure. The pope has sometimes laid a whole kingdom under an interdict.

    .'!. A papal prohibition by which persons are restrained from attending divine service, or prevented from enjoying some priv lege.

    INTERDICT'ED, /)j9. Forbid; prohibited

    INTERDICT' ING, »pr. Forbidding; pro hibiting ; cutting off f

    of some privilege. INTERDICTION, n. [Fr.

    the enjoyment

    L. inter' dictio.]

    The act of interdicting ; prohibition ; pro- hibiting decree ; curse. Milton. Shak. INTERDICT'IVE, a. Having power to

    prohibit. INTERDICT'ORY, «. Serving to prohibit. (NTEREQUINOC'TIAL, a. [inter and


    Coming between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

    Spring and autumn I have denominated eq noctial periods. Summer and winter I have called interequinoctial intervals.

    Balfour. Asiat. Res INTERESS, for interest, is obsolete. IN'TEREST, v.t. [Fr. interesser ; It. inter- essare ; Sp. interesar ; L. inter and esse.]

    1. To concern ; to affect ; to excite emotion or passion, usually in favor, but sometimes against a person or thing. A narration of suffering interests us in iavor of the suffer- er. We are interested in the story or ii; ihe fate of the sufferer. We are interested to know the result, issue or event of an enterprise. It is followed by in or for. We are interested in the narration, but fo) the sufferer.

    2. To give a share in. Christ, by his atone- ment, has interested believers in the bless- ings of the covenant of grace.

    3. To have a share.

    We are not all interested in the public funds, but we are all interested in the happiness of a free

    4. To engage ; as, to interest one in our favor.

    To interest one's self, is to take a share or

    concern in. IN'TEREST, n. Concern ; advantage :

    good ; as private interest ; public interest. Divisions hinder the common interest and

    public good. Temple.

    2. Influence over others. They had now

    lost their interest at court.

    1 N T

    3. Share; portion; part; participation in value. He has parted with his interest in the stocks. He has an interest in a manu- factory of cotton goods. Regard to private profit. 'Tis interest calls off all her sneaking train.


    5. Premium paid for the use of money ; the profit per cent, derived from money lent, or property used by another person, or from debts remaining unpaid. Commer- cial states have a legal rate of interest. Debts on book bear an interest after the expiration of the credit. Courts allow in- terest in many cases where it is not stipu- lated. A higher rate of interest than that which the law allows, is called usury.

    Simple interest is that which arises from the principal sum only.

    Compound interest is that which arises from the principal with the interest added ; interest on interest.

    6. Any surplus advantage. With all speed,

    You shall have your desires with interest.


    IN'TERESTED, pp. Made a sharer; as one interested in the funds.

    3. Affected; moved; having the passions excited ; as one interested by a story.

    3. a. Having an interest; concerned in a cause or in consequences ; liable to be af- fected ; as an interested witness.

    IN'TERESTING, ^pr. Giving a share or concern ; as by interesting one in a voy age, or in a banking company.

    ■2. Engaging the affections; -as by interesting a person in one's favor.

    3. a. Engaging the attention or curiosity

    exciting emotions or passions; as an irt-

    teresting story


    INTERFE'RE, v. i. [L. inter aud fen bear, or ferio, to strike.]

    1. To interpose ; to intermeddle ; to enter into or take a part in the concerns of oth ers. It is prudence not to interfere in par ty disputes, but from necessity.

    2. To clash ; to come in collision ; to be it opposition. . The claims of two nations may interfere.

    3. A horse is said to interfere, when one hoof or shoe strikes against the fetlock of thi oiiposite leg, and breaks the skin or injures the flesh. Far. Did

    INTERFE'RENCE, n. Interposition; an intermeddling; mediation. Burke.

    2. A clashing or collision.

    3. A striking of one foot against the other. INTERFE'RING, ;;;))•. Interposing; med


    2. Clashing ; coming in collision.

    3. Striking one foot against the fetlock of the opposite lee

    INTERFE'RING, n. Interference.

    Bp. Butler. INTER'FLUENT, > [L.interfuo; inter INTER'FLUOUS,

    Flowing between. Boyle.

    INTERFOLIA'CEOUS, a. [L. inter and

    folium, a leaf.] Being between opposite leaves, but placed

    alternately with them ; as irderfoliaceovs I flowers or peduncle?. Martijn

    I N T

    INTERFULG'ENT, a. [L. inter and fulgens,

    shining.] Shining between. Johnson.

    INTERFU'SED, a. s as z. [L. interfusus ;

    inter and fundo, to pour.] Poured or

    spread between.

    The ambient air, wide interfused.

    Embracing round this florid earth. Miltvn.

    INTERIM,?!. [L.] The mean time ; time

    intervening. Tatler.

    INTE'RIOR, a. [L. comp. formed from

    inter or intra, in or within.]

    1. Internal ; being within any limits, inclo- sure or substance ; inner ; opposed to ex- terior or superficial ; as the interior apart- ments of a house ; the interior ornaments ; the interior surface of a hollow ball ; the interior parts of the earth.

    2. Inland ; remote from the limits, frontier or shore ; as the iniemr parts of a country, state or kingdom.

    INTE'RIOR, n. The internal part of a

    thing ; the inside. 2. The inland part of a country, state or

    kingdom. INTERJA'CENCY, n. [h.interjacens ; inter

    and jacens, lying.]

    1. A lying between ; a being between ; in- tervention ; as the interjacency of the Tweed between England and Scotland.


    2. That which lies between. [Little used.] Brown.

    INTERJA'CENT, a. [L. interjacens, supra.] Lying or being between ; intervening ; as intcijacent isles. Raleigh.

    INTERJECT', V. t. [L. inteijicio; inter and jacio, to throw.]

    To throw between ; to throw in between other things: to insert.

    A circumstance — may be interjected even be- tween a relative word and that to which it re- lates. Encyc.

    INTERJECTED, pp. Throwninor insert- ed between.

    INTERJECT'ING, ppr. Throwing or in- serting between.

    INTERJECTION, n. The act of throwing between.

    2. A word in speaking or writing, thrown in between words connected in construction, to express some emotion or passion. " These were delightful days, but, alas, they are no more." [See Exclamation.]

    INTERJECT'lONAL, a. Thrown in be- tween other words or phrases ; as an inter- jectional remark. Observer.

    INTERJOIN', t).<. [inter and join.] To join mutually ; to intermarry. [Little used.]


    INTERKNOWL'EDgE, n. [inter and knowledge.] Mutual knowledge. [Little used.] Bacon.

    INTERLA'CE, I', t. [Fr. entrelaeer ; It. in- tralciare ; Sp. entrelazar. See Lace.]

    To intermix; to put or insert one thing with another.

    They interlaced some errors. Hayward.

    The epic way is every where interlaced with

    dialogue. Dryden.

    INTERLA'CED, pp. Intermixed ; inserted between other things.

    INTERLA'CING, ppr. Intermixing; in- serting between.

    INTERLAPSE, 71. interlaps'. [inter and lapse.]


    I N T

    The lapse or flow of time between two events. Harvey.

    INTERL^ARD, v.t. [Yr. enlrelarde.r; entre, ntnong, and larder, to lard.]

    1. Primarily, to mix fat with lean ; hence, to interpose ; to insert between. Carew.

    2. To mix ; to diversify by mixture. Hale. INTERLARDED, pp. Interposed ; insert- ed between ; mixed.

    INTERL>ARDING,ip;)r. Inserting between; intermixing.

    IN'TERLEAF, n. [See Leaf.] A leaf in- serted between other leaves ; a blank leaf inserted. Chesterfield.

    INTERLE'AVE, v. t. [inter and leaf.] To insert a leaf; to insert a blank leaf or blank leaves in a book, between other leaves.

    JNTERLE'AVED, pp. Inserted between leaves, or liaving blank leaves inserted tween other leaves.

    INTERLE'AVING, ppr. Inserting blank leaves between other leaves.

    INTERLI'NE, v. t. [inter and line.] To write in alternate lines; as, to interline Latin and English. Locke.

    2. To write between lines already written or printed, for the purpose of adding to or correcting what is written. Sidft.

    INTERLIN'EAR, ) [inter and linear.]

    INTERLIN'EARY, ^ "■ Written between lines before written or printed.

    INTERLIN'EARY, n. A book having in- sertions between the leaves.

    INTERLINEA'TION, n. [inter and linea- tion.]

    1. The act of inserting words or lines be tween lines before written or printed.

    2. The words, passage or line inserted be tween linos before written or printed.

    INTERLI'NED, pp. Written between lines ;

    as an interlined word. 2. Containing a lino or lines written between

    lines ; as an interlined manuscript. INTERLI'NING, ppr. Writing between

    lines already written or printed. INTERLI'NING, n. Correction or altera- 1

    tion by writing between the lines.

    Burnet. INTERLINK', v. t. [inter and link.] To

    connect by uniting links ; to join one chain

    to another. Dryden.

    INTERLINK'ED, pp. Connected by union

    of links ; joined. INTERLINK'ING, ppr. Connecting by uni- ting links; joining. INTfiRLOCA'TION,?!. A placing between;

    interposition. INTERLOCU'TION, n. [L. interloculio ;

    inter and locutio, loquor, to speak.]

    1. Dialogue ; conference ; interchange of speech. Hooker.

    2. In laiD, an intermediate act or decree be-| fore final decision. Jlyliffe.

    INTERLOCUTOR, n. [L. interloquor, supra.]

    1. One who speaks in dialogue ; a dialogist.


    2. In Scots law,an interlocutory judgment or sentence. Ennjc.

    INTERLOCUTORY, a. [Fr. interloctttoire,

    supra.] 1. Consisting of dialogue.

    There are several interlocutory discourses in

    the holy Scriptures. Fiddes.

    2. In law, intermediate ; not final or defini-j tive. An order, sentence, decree or judg-j ment, given in an intermediate stage of a cause, or on some intermediate question before the final decision, is called in/eWoc-' utory ; as a decree in chancery referring a question of fact to a court of law, or a judg-, ment on default in a court of law. j


    INTERLO'PE, V. i. [inter and D. loopen,* G. /«n/en, torun,Eng. to/ea;). See Leap.],

    To run between parties and intercept the advantage that one should gain from the other; to traffick without a liroper li- cense ; to forestall ; to prevent right.


    INTERLOPER, n. One who runs into


    INTERMEA'TION, n. [L. inter and nieo, to flow.] A flowing between. [jVot in use.]

    INTERMED'DLE, v. i. [inter and meddle.] To meddle in the affairs of others, in which one has no concern ; to meddle officious- ly ; to interpose or interfere imiiroperly.

    The practice of Spain has been, by war and by conditions of treaty, to intermeddle wilh foreign states. Bacon.

    INTERMED'DLER, n. One that interpo- .ses officiously ; one who meddles, or in- trudes into business to which he has no right. Sipifl.

    INTERMED'DLING, ppr. Interposing of- ficiously ; intruding.

    INTERMED'DLING, n. Officious intei-po-

    i sition. Hamilton.

    business to which he has no right; one, j]yjYg|ji^j£,£,(,YL_ <,_ [\\\\,. inter and mcrfi'io-. who interferes wrongfully ; one who en-,j ,„i,|jie.]

    ters a country or place to trade without'^ yj^^ between ; intervening ; intervenienr.

    license. " Evelyn.

    INTERLO'PING, ppr. Interfering wrong-! jj^j-ppj^jyig/pj^i^y, n. [from intermediate.]

    fiillv hnci/r.', I.. ;.: ;...„_.,„„.:„„ r A>'„i ™,.^i.


    INTERLU'CATE, v. t. To let in light by cutting away branches of trees.

    INTERLUeA'TION, n. The act of tliin-^ ninsa wood to let in light. Evelyn.

    INTERLU'CENT, a. [L. inlerlucens ; inter and luceo, to shine.] Shining between,


    IN'TERLUDE, ji. [L. inter and ludus, play.]

    An entertainment exhibited on the stage be- tween the acts of a play, or between the play and the afterpiece, to amuse the spec tators, while the actors take breath and shift their dress, or the scenes and decorati( are changed. In ancient tra^cdy,thc c rus sung the interludes. In modern tin interludes consist of songs, feats of act ty, dances, concerts of music, &c.


    an intcrliiile. I.NTl'.RLr'F.NXY, n. |:L. interluois, inter-,

    liw. tci How between.] 1

    Vrtowins between ; water interposed. [Lil-i

    He u.ud.] Halei

    INTERLU'NAR, ) „ [L. inter and luna, INTERLU'NARY, I "" the moon.] Belong-,

    ing to the time when the moon, at or near'

    its conjunction with the sun, is invisible, i

    Brown. Milton:

    INTERMAR'RIAgE, n. [inter and mar-

    rias:e.] Marriage between two families, where each

    takes one and gives another.

    Johnson. Addison. INTERMARRIED,;?^. Mutually connect

    ed by marriage. INTEilMAR'RY, v. I [inter and marry: \\\\. To marry one and give another in mar

    riage, as two families. 3. To marry some of each order, family

    tribe or nation with the other.

    Interposition ; intervention. [.Vo/ muck vaed.] Derham.

    i. ."^iimctliiiig interposed.

    INTERME DIATE, a. [Fr. intermediat ; L. inter and medius, middle.]

    Lying or being in the middle place or degree between two extremes ; intervening ; in- terposed ; as an intermediate space be- tween hills or rivers ; intermediate colors. Man has an intermediate nature and rank between angels and brutes.

    INTERMEDIATE, »i. In chimistry, a sub- stance which is the intermedium or means of chimical affinity, as an alkali, which rcnilors oil combinable with water.

    INTI'ltMI. DIATELY, ado. By way ofiu-

    l.\\\\li;i!.\\\\li;i)IA'TION, n. Intervention; roniinon means. Cheyne.

    Intermediate space. Ash.

    2. An intervening agent. Coivper.

    INTERMELL', v.t. or i. [Fr. entremeler.]

    To intermix or intermeddle. [.Yot in use.]

    Marston. Fisher.

    INTER'MENT, n. [from inter.] The act of depositing a dead body in the earth ; bu- rial ; sepulture.

    INTERMEN'TION, v. t. To mention among other tbinffs ; to include. [.Wot U3ed.]

    INTERMI€^A'TION, n. [L. intermico; in- ter and mico, to shine.] A shining between or among.

    INTERMIGRA'TION, n. [L. inter and migro, to migrate.]

    Recii)rocal migration ; removal from one country to another by men or tribes which take tlie place each of the other. Hale.

    INTERiAl INABLE, a. [L. in and terminus, end;

    Boundless; endless; admitting no limit; as interminable space or duration ; intermina- ble sufferings. Milton uses this word as an appellation of the Godhead.


    that performs ii: B. Jonson

    About the middle of the fourth century from|lNTERM'INATE, o. [L. interminatus, in-

    the building of Rome, it was declared lawful for | (erniino.]

    nobles and plebeians to infermarrv. Suri/J. llnbounded ; unlimited; endless ; as tnier- INTERM.\\\\R'RYING, ppr. 3Iutually giv- i minaff sleep. Chapman.

    ing and receiving in marriage; mutually INTER.M IN.\\\\TE, v.t. [L. interminor.] To

    connecting by marriage. ;: menace. [.No/ used.] Bp. Halt.

    IN'TERMEAN, n. [infer and mean.] Inter-^INTERMINA TION, n. [L. interminor, to

    act ; something done in the mean time.ij menace or forbid.] A menace or threat.

    [J^ot used.] Todd.] [.Yot used.] Hall.

    N T


    I N T

    [NTEIIMIN'GLE, v. t. [inter and mingle.] To mingle or mix together; to put some things with others. Hooker.

    INTERMINGLE, v. i. To be mixed or in- corporated.

    INTERMINGLED, pp. Intermixed.

    There trees and intermingled temples rise.


    INTERMIN'GLING, ppr. Mingling or mix- ing together.

    INTERMIS'SION, n. [Fr. from L. inler- missio. See hitermit.]

    1. Cessation for a time ; pause ; intermedi- ate stop ; as, to labor without intermission ; service or business will begin after an in- termission of one hour.

    2. Intervenient time. Skak.

    3. The temporary cessation or subsidence of a fever ; the space of time between the paroxysms of a disease. Intermission is an entire cessation, as distinguished from remission or abatement of fever.

    4. The state of being neglected ; disuse ; as of words. [Little used.] B. Jonson.

    INTERMIS'SIVE, a. Coming by fits or af- ter temporary cessations ; not continual. Hoiocll. INTERMIT', V. t. [L. intermiUo ; inter and

    mitto, to send.] To cause to cease for a time ; to interrupt ; to suspend.

    Pray to the gods, to intermit the plague That needs must light on this ingratitude.

    Shall. INTERMIT', V. i. To cease for a time ; to

    to off at intervals; as a fever. A tertian ;ver intermits every other day. The pulse sometimes intermits for a second of time. INTERMITTED, pp. Caused to cease for

    a time ; suspended. INTERMITTENT, a. Ceasing at inter- vals ; as an intermittent fever. INTERMIT'TENT, n. A fever which en- tirely subsides or ceases at certain inter- vals. Tlie ague and fever is called an in- termittent. INTERMIT'TING, ppr. Ceasing for a

    time ; pausing. 2. Causing to cease.

    INTERMIT'TINGLY, adv. With inter- missions ; at intervals. INTERMIX', D. /. [inter and mix.] To mix together ; to put some things with others ; to intermingle.

    In yonder spring of roses, intermixed With myrtle, find what to redress 'till noon. Jifiltmi. INTERMIX', V. i. To be mixed together;

    to be intermingled. INTERMIX'ED, pp. Mingled together INTERMIX'ING, ppr. Intermingling. INTERMIX'TURE, n. A mass formed by

    mixture; a mass of ingredients mixed 2. Admixture ; something additional mingled in a mass.

    In this height of impiety there wanted not

    an intermixture of levity and folly. Bacon

    INTERMONT'ANE, a. [L. inter and mon-

    tonus, mons, a mountain.] Between mountains ; as intermontane soil. Mease INTERMUND'ANE, a. [L. infer and mtm-

    danus, mundus, the world.] Being between worlds or between orb and orb ; as intermundane spaces. Locke.

    INTERMU'RAL, a. [L. inter and muralis, murus, a wall.] Lying between walls.


    INTERMUS€'ULAR, a. [inter and muscle.] Between the mu.scles. Beverly.

    INTERMUTA'TION, n. [inter and muta- tion.]

    Interchange ; mutual or reciprocal change. Thomson.

    INTERMU'TUAL, for mutual, is an illegiti- mate word.

    INTERN', a. Internal. IMot much used. ^ Howell.

    INTERN'AL, a. [L. intemus.] Inward ; in- terior; being within any limit or surface; not external. We speak of the internal parts of a body, of a bone, of the earth, &c. Internal excellence is opposed to ex- ternal. The internal peace of man, is peace of mind or conscience. The internal evi- dence of the divine origin of the Scrip- tures, is the evidence which arises from the excellence of its precepts and their adaptation to the condition of man, or from other peculiarities.

    2. Pertaining to the heart.

    With our Savior, internal purity is every thing. Paleif.

    •3. Intrinsic ; real ; as the internal rectitude of actions.

    4. Confined to a country; domestic; not foreign ; as the internal trade of a state kingdom; internal troubles or dissensioi internal war. Internal taxes are taxes on the lands and other property within < state or kingdom ; opposed to external tax es. Hamilton.

    INTERN'ALLY, adv. Inwardly; within the body ; beneath the surface.

    2. Mentally ; intellectually.

    3. Spiritually.

    INTERNA'TIONAL, a. [inter and nation- al.] Existing and regulating the mutual intercourse between different nations; as international law. /. Q. Mams. Baring.

    INTERNE'CINE, a. [L. internecinus, in- terneco, to kill ; inter and neco.] Deadly destructive. [Little iised.] Hudibras.

    INTERNE'CION, n. [h. intemecio.] Mu- tual slaughterer destruction. [Littleused.] Hah.

    INTERNE€'TION, n. Connection. [Use- less.] fV. Mountague

    IN'TERNODE, n. [L. internodium ; inter and nodus, knot.]

    In botany, the space between two joints of a plant. Martyn.

    INTERNUN'CIO, n. [L. internundus ; in- ter and nuncins, a messenger.] A mes- senger between two parties. Johnson

    INTEROS'SEAL, ) „ [L. inter and os, a

    INTEROS'SEOUS, ^ "' bone.] Situated be- tween bones ; as an interosseous ligament

    INTER PE'AL, v. t. [L. inteipello.] To in tei-rupt. [JVot xised.] More

    INTERPEL', V. t. To set forth. [JVot used.] B. Jonson. Mason.

    INTER PELL A'TION, n. [L. interpellatio, interpello ; inter and pello, to drive or thrust.] A summons ; a citation.


    2. Interruption. More.

    3. An earnest address ; intercession.

    Bp. Taylor.

    INTERPLE'AD, v. i. [inter and plead.] Ii

    law, to discuss a point incidentally hap

    pening, before the principal cause can be tried. Jameson,

    INTERPLEADER, n. A biW o{ interplead- er, in chancery, is where a person owes a debt or rent to one of the parties in suit, but, till the determination of it, he knows not to which, and hedesires that they may interplead or settle their claims between themselves, that he may be safe in the payment. Blackstone.

    INTERPLEDgE, v. t. interptej'. To give and take as a mutual pledge. Davenant.

    INTERPOINT', V. t. To point ; to distin- guish by stops or marks.

    INTERPOLATE, v. t. [Fr. interpoler; L. interpolo ; inter and polio, to polish.]

    1. To renew ; to begin again ; to carry on with intermission ; as a succession of in- terpolated motions. Obs. Hale.

    2. To foist in ; to insert, as a spurious word or passage in a manuscript or book ; to add a spurious word or passage to the original.

    The Athenians were put in possession of Sa- lamis by another law which was cited by So- lon, or as some think, interpolated by him for that purpose. Pope.

    IN'TERPOLATED, pp. Inserted or added to the original.

    INTERPOLATING, ppr. Foisting in a spurious word or passage.

    INTERPOLATION, n. The act of foist- ing a word or passage into a manuscript or book.

    2. A spurious word or passage inserted in the genuine writings of an author.

    I have changed the situation of some of the Latin verses, and made some interpolations.

    Cromwell to Pope.

    3. In mathematics, that branch of analysis, which treats of the methods by which, when a series of quantities succeeding each other, and formed all according to some determinate law, are given, others subject to the same law may be interposed between tliem. Ed. Encyc.

    IN'TERPOLATOR, n. [L.] One who foists into a book or manuscript, spurious words or passages ; one who adds something to genuine writings. Smft,

    INTERPOL'ISH, v. t. To polish between.

    INTERPO'NE, v.t. [h. inter and pono.] To set or insert between. [jVot in use.]

    I Ch. Relig. Appeal.

    INTERPO'SAL, n. s as z. [from interpose.]

    1. The act of interposing ; interposition; in- I terference ; agency between two persons. j South. j2. Intervention ; a coming or being between. I Glanville. jINTERPO'SE, v.t. sasz. [Fr. interposer;

    L. interpono, interpositwn ; inter and po- t no, to place.] [1. To place between ; as, to interpose a body

    between the sun and the earth.

    2. To place between or among ; to thrust in ; to intrude, as an obstruction, inter- ruption or inconvenience.

    What watchful cares do interpose themselves

    Betwixt your eyes and night. Shale.

    Human frailty will too often interpose itself

    among persons of the holiest function. Swift.

    3. To offer, as aid or services, for relief or the adjustment of differences. The em- peror interposed his aid or services to re- concile the contending parties.

    1 N T

    I N r


    Tlic common Father of mankind seasonably interposed his hand and rescued miserable man — Woodward.

    INTERI'O'SE, V. i. To step in between par- ties at variance ; to mediate. The prince interposed and made peace.

    2. To put in by way of interruption.

    But, interposes Eleuthcrius, this objection may be made against almost any hypothesis. Soylt

    INTERPO'SE, n. Interposal. [JSTot used. Spenser.

    INTERPOSED, pp. Placed between among ; thrust in.

    INTERPO'SER, n. One that interposes comes between others ; a mediator or agent between parties.

    INTERPO'SING, ppr. Placing between; coming between ; offering aid or services.

    INTERPOS'IT, n. A place of deposit be- tween one comnierciul city or country and another. Mitford.

    INTERPOSP'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inttr- positio.]

    1. A being, placing or coming between ; in- tervention ; as the interpotition of the Baltic sea between Germany and Sweden. The interposition of the moon between the earth and the sun occasions a solar eclipse.

    3. Intervenient agency ; as the interposition of the magistrate in quieting sedition. How many evidences have we of divine iTderposition'm favor of good men !

    3. Mediation ; agency between parties. By the interposition of a common friend, the parties have been reconciled.

    4. Any thing interposed. Milton. INTERPO'SURE, n. Interposal. [M>t in

    use.] GlanviUe.

    INTER'PRET, v. t. [Fr. interpreter ; L. in- terpretor, from interpres. The word is compounded of inter and pr'es, pretis ; but the latter is not found in its simple form, and its origin is uncertain. It coincides in elements with Ti3 or BHi) to part, to spread.]

    1. To explain the meaning of words to a person who does not understand them ; to expound ; to translate imintelligible words into intelligible ones ; as, to interpret the Hebrew language to an Englishman.

    — Immanuel, which being interpreted, sig- nifies, God with us. Matt. i.

    2. To explain orynfold the meaning of pre- dictions, visions, dreams or enigmas; to expound and lay o])en what is concealed from the understanding ; as, Joseph inter- preted the dream of Pharaoh.

    3. To decipher.

    4. To explain something not understood ; as, to interpret looks or signs.

    5. To define ; to exphiin words by other words in the same language.

    INTER'PRETABLE, a. Tliat may be in- terpreted or explained. Collier.

    INTERPRETA'TION, n. [Fr. teipretatio.]

    1. The act of interpreting ; explanation of unintelligible words in language that is intelligible. Interpretation is the design of translation.

    2. The act of expounding or unfolding what is not understood or not obvious ; as the interpretation of dreams and prophecy.

    Look how we can, or sad or merrily. Interpretation will misquote our look".

    3. The sense given by an interpreter ; ex- position. We sometimes find various in- terpretations of the same passage of Scrip- ture and other ancient writings.

    4. Tiie power of explaining. Bacon. INTERPRETATIVE, a. Collected or

    known by interpretation. An interpretative siding with heretics.


    2. Containing explanation. Barrow.

    INTER'PRETATIVELY, adv. As may be collected by interpretation. Ray.

    INTERPRETED, pp. Explained; ex- pounded.

    INTERPRETER, n. One that explains or expounds; an expositor ; as an interpreter of the Scriptures.

    2. A tratislator ; one who renders the words of one language in words of correspond- ing' >ii;Niricatioii in another.

    IN'I'l'.i; ri{i;riN'G. ppr. Explaining; ex- liiiiiniliii^' : iraiislatitig.

    INTIOIU'I AC TION, n. [L. interpunctio, interpungo ; inter and pungo, to jioint.J

    The making of points between sentences or parts of a sentence. But punctuation is generally used.

    INTERREG'NUM, n. [L. inter and reg- num, rule or reign.]

    The time in which a throne is vacant, be- tween the death or abdication of a king and the accession of his successor. Arj iuterrcgnum, in strictness, can happen on- ly in governments where the king is elec ive ; for in hereditary kingdoms, the reign of the successor commences at the mo- ment of his predecessor's death or demise, The word however is used with more lat- itude.

    INTERREIGN, n. interra'ne. [A transla- tion ot interregnum,¥T. interregne.] An in- terregnum, or vacancy of the throne, [su- pra.] Bacon.

    INTER'RER, n. [from inter.] One that in- ters or buries.

    IN'TERREX, n. [L. inter and rex, king.] A regent ; a magistrate that governs du- ring an interregnum.

    INTER'ROGATE, v. t. [Fr. interroger ; L. interrogo ; inter and rogo, to ask.]

    To question ; to examine by asking ques- tions ; as, to interrogate a witness.

    INTER'ROGATE, v. i. To ask questions, Bacon.

    INTER'ROGATED.jjp. Examined by ques tions.

    INTER'ROGATING, ppr. Asking ques- tions of one; examining by questions.

    INTERROGA TION, n. The act of ques- tioning ; examination by questions.

    2. A question put ; inquiry. Pope.

    3. A note that marks a question ; as, does Job serve God for naught?

    INTERROG'ATIVE, a. [Fr. interrogatif.] Denoting a question ; expressed in the foim of a question ; as an interrogative phrase or sentence.

    INTERROG'ATIVE, n. A word used i asking questions; asmAo? what^ which? lohyf

    INTERROG'ATIVELY, adv. In the form of a question.

    INTERROGATOR, n. One who asks

    A question or inquiry. In law, a particular i question to a witness, who is to answer it 1 under the solemnities of an oath. This ! may be in open court or before commis- sioners. jlNTERROG'ATORY, a. Containing a question ; expressing a question ; as an I interrogatory sentence. Johnson.

    INTERRUPT', V. t. [L. inlemimpo, inter- i riiptus ; inter and rumpo, to break.] 1. To stop or hinder by breaking in ujmn the course or progress of any thing; to break the current or motion of; as, a fall of rain interrupted oin- journey. There was not a tree nor a bush to interrupt the charge of j the enemy. The speaker was interrupted I by shouts of acclamation. We apply the ! word both to the agent and to his pro- I gress. We say, an alarm interrupted the ! speaker, or his argument or discourse. [2. To divide ; to separate ; to break contin- I uity or a continued series. The road was I on a plain, not interrupted by a single hill, I or interrupted here and tliere by a hill. INTERRUPT', a. Broketi ; containing a I chasm. Milton.

    IINTERRUPT'ED, pp. Stopped ; hindered

    from proceeding. INTERiUJPT'EDLY, adv. With breaks or iNlfnupiiuii-^, Boyle.

    INTLIMII 1"!' r.R, 71. One that interrupts.

    ;i!i;i i''i


    lin-akiiii;- iij upon.



    ppr. Hindering by n. [Fr. from L. inler-

    INTERROG'ATORY, n. [Fr. i7Uerroga- toire.]

    1. The act of interrupting, or breaking in up- on progression.

    2. Breach of any thing extended ; interposi- tion ; as an isle separated from the conti- nent by the interruption of the sea.


    3. Intervention ; interposition.

    Lest the interruption of time cause you to lose the idea of one part. Dryden.

    4. Stop ; hinderance ; ob<;truction caused by breaking in upon any course, current, pro- gress or motion. An interruption may be temporarj- or durable. The work of the Erie canal has suffered few interruptions from storms and floods. The lava met with DO interruption till it descended to the foot of the niountain. The author has met with many interruptions in the execution of his work. The si)eaker or the argu- ment proceeds without interruption.

    5. Stop ; cessation ; intermission. Locke.

    INTERSCAPULAR, a. [L. inter and sca- pula, the shoulder-blade.] Situated be- tween the shoulders.

    INTERSCIND', v. t. [L. inter amXscindo.] To cut off. J)icl

    IXTERSCRI'BE, v. t. [L. inter aud scribo.] 1 To write between. Diet.

    IINTERSE'CANT, a. [L. interseca,u, inier- I seco ; inter and seco, to cut.] Dividing in- 1 to parts ; crossing. Diet.

    INTERSECT', v. t. [L. interseco; inter, be- tween, and seco, to cut.] To cut or cross mutually ; to divide into parts. Thus two hnes or two i)lanes may ijitersect each other. The ecliptic intersects the equator. INTERSECT', v.i. To meet and cross each other ; as. the point where two lines inter- sect. [This is elliptical.]

    N T



    INTERSE€T'ED, pp. Cut or divided into parts ; crossed.

    INTERSE€T'ING,;)/>r. Cutting; crossing; as lines.

    INTERSE€'TION, n. [L. intersecao.] The act or state of intersecting.

    2. Tlie point or line in which two lines or two planes cut each other.

    INTERSEM'INATE, v. f. [L. intersemina- tus ; inter, between, and semino, to sow.]

    To sow between or among. [Little used.]

    INTERSERT', v. I. [L. intcrsero : inter, be- tween, and sero, to throw.]

    To set or jiut in between other things.


    INTERSER'TION, n. An insertion, or thing inserted between other things.


    IN'TERSPACE, ti. [inter and space.] A space between other things.

    INTERSPERSE, v. t. interspers'. [L. inler- spersus ; inter, between, and spargo, to scatter.]

    To scatter or set here and there atnong oth- er things ; as an able argument inter- spersed with flowers of rlictoric. Inter- sperse shrubs among trees.

    INTERSPERS'ED, pp. Scattered or situ- ated here and there among other things.

    INTERSPERS'ING, ppr. Scattering here and there among other things.

    INTERSPER'SION, n. The act of scatter ing or setting here and there among other tilings.

    INTERSTEL'LAR, a. [L. inter and stilla, a star.]

    Situated beyond the solar system. Bacon

    IN'TERSTICE, ?i. [Fr. from L. interstitium , inter and sto, to stand.]

    1. A space between things ; but cliiefly, a nar- row or small space between things closely set, or the parts which compose a body. We speak of the interstices between the teeth, or between the parts of wood or stone.

    2. Time between one act and another; in- terval. ^!)liffe.

    INTERSTINCT'IVE, a. Distinguishing.

    [Mt tiscd.] Mallis.

    INTERSTI"TIAL, a. Pertaining to or con- taining interstices. Encyc. INTERSTRA'TIFiED, a. Stratified among

    or between other bodies. Encyc.

    INTERTALK, v.t. intertauk'. To exchange

    conversation. [JVot used.] Carew.

    INTERTAN'GLE, i>. t. To intertwist ; to

    entangle. Beaiim

    INTERTEX'TURE, n. [h.interlexlus ; inter

    and, to weave.] The act of interweaving, or the state of

    things interwoven. More.

    IN'TERTIE, > In carpentry, a small tim IN'TERDUCE, S ber between summers. INTERTROP'l€AL, a. [inter and tropical.]

    Situateil between the tropics. /. Morse INTERTWI'NE, i». t. [inter and twine.] To

    unite by twining or twisting one with an

    other. Milton

    INTERTVVI'NED, pp. Twined or twisted

    one with another. INTERTWI'NING, ppr. Twining one with

    another. INTERTWIST', v. t. [inter and tmst.] To

    twist one with another.]

    INTERTWIST'ED, pp. Twisted one with

    another. INTERTWISTING, ppr. Twisting one

    with another. IN'TERVAL, n. [Fr. intervalle; L. interval-

    lum ; inter and vallum, a wall, or vallus, a


    1. A space between things ; a void space in- tervening between any two objects; as an interval between two columns, between two pickets or palisades, between two houses or walls, or between two moun- tains or hills.

    2. Space of time between any two points or events ; as the interval between the death of Charles I. of England and the acces- sion of Charles II. ; the interval between two wars. Hence we say, an interval of peace.

    .3. The space of time between two parox- ysms of disease, pain or delirium ; remis- sion ; as an interval of ease, of peace, of reason.

    4. The distance between two given sound in music, or the difference in point of gravity or acuteness. Encyc.

    5. A tract of low or plain ground between hills, or along the banks of rivers, usually alluvial land enriched by the overflowing of rivers, or by fertilizing"deposits of earth from the adjacent hills. Hutchinson

    [Dr. Belknap writes this intervale; 1 think improperly.] INTERVEINED, a. [inter and vein.] In tersected as with veins.

    Fair champaiga with less livers interveinecl.

    INTERVE'NE, v. i. [L. intervenio ; inter and venio, to come.]

    1. To come or be between persons or things ; to be situated between. Thus the Atlantic intervenes between Europe and America; the Mediterranean i)i

    2. To come between points of time or events ; as the period that intervened between the treaty of Ryswick and the treaty of Utrecht.

    3. To happen in a way to disturb, cross or interrupt. Events may intervene to frus trate our purposes or wishes.

    To interpose or undertake voluntarily for another. A third party may intervene and accept a bill of exchange for another

    INTERVE'NE, n. A coming between. [ATot sed.] Wotto

    INTERVE'NIENT, a. Coming or being between ; intercedent ; interposed. [Lit tie used.] Bacon

    INTERVE'NING, ppr. or a. Coming or be ing between persons or things, or between points of time ; as intervening space or time ; intervening events or misfortunes ; intervening peace.

    INTERVEN'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inter- ventio.]

    1. A state of coming or being between ; in terposition. Light is not interrupted by the intervention of a transparent body.

    2. Agency of persons between persons; in terposition ; mediation ; any interference that may affect the interests of others,

    Let us decide our quarrels at home withoiit' the intervention of a foreign power. Templt

    .3. Agency of means or instruments; as, ef fects are produced by the intervention of natural causes.

    4. Interposition in favor of another ; a vol- untary undertaking of one party for an- other. A bill of exchange may be ac- cepted by the intervention of a third per- son in behalf of the drawer or of one of the indorsers.

    French Commercial Code. Walsh.

    INTERVEN'UE, n. [Fr. intervenu.] Inter- position. [jVotused.] Blount.

    INTERVERT', i'.<. [L. interverto ; inieranA verto, to turn.]

    To turn to another course or to another use. [Little ttsed.] ' imton.

    IN'TERVIEW, n. [inter and view ; Fr. en- trevue.]

    A mutual sight or view ; a meeting; usually a formal meeting for some conference on an important subject ; hence the word im- plies a conference or mutual communica- tion of thoughts. The envoy had an in- terview with the king or with the secretary of foreign affairs. The parties had an iii- tervierv and adjusted their differences.

    INTERVOLVE, v. t. intervolv'. [L. inter- volvo ; inter and volvo, to roll.]

    To involve one within another. Milton.

    INTERVOLV'ED, pp. Involved one within another ; wrapped together.

    INTERVOLV'ING, ppr. Involving one within another.

    INTERWE'AVE, D. /. pret. interwove; pp. intenvoven. [inter and weave.]

    1. To weave together ; to intermix or unite in texture or construction ; as threads of silk and cotton interwoven.

    2. To intermix; to set among or together; as a covert of interwoven trees.

    I. To intermingle; to insert together; as,

    to interweave truth with falsehood. INTERWE'AVING, ppr. Weaving togeth-

    INTERWE'AVING, n. Intertexture.


    INTERWISH', V. t. [inter and tvish.] To

    wish mutually to each other. [Little used.]


    INTERW6RK'ING, n. The act of working together.

    INTERWRE'ATIIED, <{. Woven into a wreath.

    INTEST'ABLE, a. [L. intestaUlis ; in and testabilis ; testis, a witness ; testor, to tes- tify.]

    Not capable of making a will ; legally nn- quahfied or disqualified to make a testa- ment ; as, a person unquaHlied for want of discretion, or disqualified by loss of rea- son, is intestable. Ayliff'e.

    INTEST'ACY, n. [from intestate.] The state of dying without making a will or disposing of one's effects. Blackstone.

    INTEST'ATE, a. [Fr. inteslat ; L. intesta- tus ; in and testaiiis, testor, to make a will.]

    1. Dying without having made a will. When a man dies intestate, his estate is commit- ted for settlement to administrators.

    2. Not devised ; not disposed of by will ; as an intestate estate.

    Laws of Mass. and Conn. INTEST'ATE, n. A person who dies with- out making a will. Blackstone.

    I N T

    1 N T

    I N T

    INTEST'INAL, a. [fioni intestine.] I taining to the intestines of an animal body ; as the intestinal tube or canal.


    INTEST'INE, a. [Fr. intestin; L.inlesti- nus, from intus, within.]

    1. Internal ; inward ; opposed to external ; applied to the human or other uninial body ; as an intestine disease.

    2. Internal with regard to a state or coun- try ; domestic, not foreign ; as intestine feuds ; intestine war ; intestine enemies. It is to be remarked that this word is usu- ally or always applied to evils. We nev say, intestine happiness or prosperity ; t testine trade, manufactures or bills; but intestine broils, trouble, disorders, calam ties, war, &c. We say, internal peace, welfare, prosperity, or internal broils, war trade, &c. This restricted useof in

    INTEST'INE, «. usually in the plural, in- testines. The bowels ; the canal or tube that extends, with convolutions, from the right orifice of the stomach to the a

    INTIilRST, V. t. inthursV. [in and thirst.] To make thirsty. LVo* used.] Bp. Hall.

    INTHRALL', v. t. [in and thrall ; Sax. threat, a servant; Ir. traill.]

    To enslave ; to reduce to bondage or serv tude ; to shackle. The Greeks have been inthralled by the Turks.

    She soothes, but never can inthrall my mind Prior

    INTHRALL'ED,;)/). Enslaved; reduced to servitude.

    INTHRALL'L\\\\G,n/)»-. Enslaving.

    INTHRALL'MENT, n. Servitude; slavery ; bondage. Milton

    INTHRO'NE, I', t. [in and throne.] To seat on a throne; to raise to royalty or su- preme dominion. [See Enthrone, which is the more conunon orthography.]

    INTIIRONIZA'TION, n. The act of throning. [jVo< in use.]

    INTHRO'NIZE, v. t. To enthrone. [JVot in use.]

    IN'TIMACV, 91. [from intimate.] Close fa- miliarity or fellowship ; nearness in friend- shi]). Rogers.

    IN'TiaiATE, a. [h. intimiis, super), oi' intus, or interus, within.]

    1. Inmost; inward; internal; as intimatt impulse. Milton.

    2. Near; close.

    He was honored with an intimate and imme- diate admission. South.

    3. Close in friendsliip or acquaintance ; fa- miliar ; as an intimate friend ; intimate ac- quaintance.

    IN'TIMATE, n. A familiar friend or asso- ciate ; one to whom the thoughts of an- other are entrusted w^ithout reserve.

    IN'TIMATE, i: i. To share together. [M>t in use.] Spenser.

    IN'TIMATE, f. t. [Fr. ijitimer ; Sp. inti- mar ; It. intimare ; Low L. intimo, to inti- mate, to register, to love entirely, to njake one intimate, to enter, from intimus.]

    To hint ; to suggest obscurely, indirectly or

    not very plainly ; to give slight notice of

    He intimated his intention of "resigning his


    'Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter,

    And intimates eternity to man. Addison.


    tioned or signified. IN'TIMATELY, flrfu. Closely; with dose

    intermixture and union of parts ; as tw

    fluids intimately mixed. 2. Closely; with nearness of friendship or

    nlliance ; as two friends intimately united

    two families intimately connected. 1. Familiarly ; particularly ; as, to he inti



    I'TIMATING, ppr. Hinting ; suggesting. INTIMA'TION, Ji. [Fr. from intimate. Hint ; an obscure or indirect suggestioi or notice ; a declaration or remark com- municating imperfect information. Our friend left us without giving any previous intimation of his design. IN'TIME, a. [L. intimus.] Inward; inter- nal. [Xot used.] Digby INTl.M IDATK, I.. /. [Yr.intimider; in and

    L. tiniidu.H, t'tarful ; timeo, to fear.] To make fearful; to inspire with fear; tc dishearten ; to abash.

    Now gviilt once harbor'd In the consciou!

    breast. Intimidates the brave, degrades the great.

    Irene. INTIM'IDATED,p;). Made fearful; abash

    ed. INTIM IDATING, ppr.


    31aking fearfu

    \\\\ TION, JI. The act of making fcart'ul ; tijc state of being abashed.

    INTINCTIV'ITY, n. [L. in and linctus, dip- ped, stained.]

    The want of the quality of coloring or ting- ing other bodies. Fuller's earth is distin- guished from colorific earths by its inline- tivity. ' Kirwan

    INTIRE, INTIRELY. [See Entire and its derivatives.]

    INTITLE. [See Entitle.]

    IN'TO, prip. [in and to.] Noting entrance or a passing from the outside of a thing to its interior parts. It follows verbs expr ing motion. Come into the house ; go into the church ; one stream falls or runs into another. Water enters inio the fine vessels of plants.

    2. Noting penetration beyond the outside o surface, or access to it. Look irilo a Icttc or book ; look into an apartment.

    3. Noting insertion. Infuse more spirit or animation into the composition.

    4. Noting mixture. Put other ingredients inio the compound.

    5. Noting inclusion. Put these ideas into other words.

    G. Noting the passing of a thing from one form or state to another. Compound sub stances may be resolved into otliers whici are more simple ; ice is convertible into water, and water into vajior. Men are more easily drawn than forced into com- phance. We reduce many distinct sub- stances into one mass. We arc led by ev- idence into belief of truth. Men are often enticed into the commission of crimes. Children are sometimes frightened into fits, and we are all liable to be seduced in- to error and folly.

    INTOL'ERABLE, a. [Fr. from L. intolera- hilis ; in and tolerabilis, tolero, to bear.]

    1. Not to be borne ; that caiuiot be endured ;

    as intolerable pain ; intolerable heat or cold j an intolerable burden.

    2. Insiiflerable; as iH/o/eraWe laziness.

    INTOL'ERABLENESS, n. The quality of being not tolerable or sufferuble.

    INTOLERABLY, adv. To a degree beyond endurance ; as intolerably cold ; intolerably abusive.

    INTOL'ERANCE, n. [from intolerant.] Want of toleration ; the not enduring at all or not suflering to exist without perse- cution ; as the intolerance of a prince or a church towards a religious sect. Burke.

    INTOL'ERANT.a. [Fr. from and tol- ero, to endure.]

    1. Not enduring ; not able to endure. The powers of the human body being limited

    and intolerant of excesses. Arbuthnot.

    2. Not enduring difference of opinion or worship ; refusing to tolerate others in the enjoyment of their ojiinions, rights and worship.

    INTOLERANT, JI. One who does not fa- vor toleration. Lowth.

    INTOL'ERATED,a. Not endured ; not tol- erated. Chesterfield.

    INTOLERA'TIOX, n. Intolerance ; rclusal to tolerate others in their opinions or wor- ship. Chesterfeld.

    INToMB, t'. t. iutoom'. [in and tomb.] To de- posit in a tomb; to bury. Dryden.

    INT6MHEI), pp. intoom'ed. Deposited in a tomb; buried.

    INToMBING, ppr. intoom'ing. Depositing in a tomb ; interring.

    INTONATE, V. i. [L. intono, intonatus ; in and tono, to sound or thunder.] . To sound ; to sound the notes of the nni- sical scale.

    2. To thunder.

    INTONA'TION, n. In music, the action of sounding the notes of the .scale with the voice, or any other given order of musical tones. ^ £iift/c.

    2. The manner of soimding or tuning t"lie notes of a musicahscale.

    3. In speaking, the modulation of the voice in expression.

    INTO'NE, V. i. [L. intono, supra.] To utter a sound, or a deep protracted sound. Ass intones to ass. Pope.

    INTOR'SION, n. [L. intorqueo, intorsum, to twist.]

    A winding, bending or twisting. In botany, the bending or twining of any part of a plant towards one side or the other, or in any direction from the vertical. Martim.

    INTORT', V. t. [L. inlortus, from intorqueo, twist.]

    To twist ; to wreath ; to wind ; to wring.


    INTORT'ED, pp. Twisted ; made winding. Jirbuthnot. Pope.

    INTORT'ING, p/)r. Winding; twisting.

    INTOXICATE, V. t. [in and L. toxicum, which, Pliny informs us, is from taxa, a s|)eciesoftree, in Greek, uuiXol. Lib. xvi. 10.]

    1. To inebriate ; to make drunk ; as with spirituous liquor.

    As with new wine intoxicated both.

    They swim in mirth— Milton.

    2. To excite the spirits to a kind of delirium ; to elate to enthusiasm, frenzy or madness. Success may sometimes intoxicate a man


    I N T


    ofsobriety. An enthusiast may be intoxi- cuteJ with zeal.

    INTOX'ICATE, a. Inebriated. More.

    *INTOX'I€ATED, pp. Inebriated; made drunk ; excited to frenzy.

    INTOX'ICATING, ppr. "inebriating ; elat- ing to excess or frenzy.

    2. a. Having qualities that produce inebria- tion ; as intoxicating liquors.

    INTOXICA'TION, n. Inebriation ; ebriety ; drunkenness ; the act of making drunk. South.

    INTRACT'ABLE, a. [L. inlractabilis ; in and tradabilis, tracto, to handle, manage, govern ; Fr. intruitabte ; It. intrattabile.]

    1. >fot to be governed or managed ; violent; stubborn; obstinate; refractory ; as an in- tradable temper.

    2. Not to be taught ; indocile. INTRACT'ABLENESS, ? The quality of INTRACTABILITY, S"l*eing ungov- ernable ; obstinacy ; perverseness.


    2. Indocility.

    INTRA€T'ABLY, adv. In a perverse, stub- born manner.

    INTRAFOLIA'CEOUS, a. [L. intra and folium, a leaf.]

    In botany, growing on the inside of a leaf: as intra/oliaceous stipules. Lee. Martyn.

    INTRANCE. [See Entrance.]

    INTRANQUIL'LITY, n. [in slwA tranquil- lity.]

    Unquietness; inquietude; want of rest.


    INTRAN'SIENT, a. Not transient; not passing suddenly away. Killingbeck

    INTRANS'ITIVE, a. [L. intransitivus ; ir. and iranseo, to pass over.]

    In grammar, an intransitive verb is one which expresses an action or state that is limited to the agent, or in other words, an action that does not pass over to, or operate upon an object ; as, I walk ; I run ; I sleep.

    lNTRANS'ITIVELY,arfv. Without an ob- ject following ; in the manner of an in- transitive verb. Lowtli

    INTRANSMIS'SIBLE, o. That cannot be transmitted. J. P. Smith.

    INTRANSMUTABIL'ITY, n. The quality of not being transmutable. Ray.

    INTRANSMU'TABLE, a. [in and transmu- table.]

    That cannot be transmuted or changed into

    another substance.


    IN'TRANT, u. [L. intrans.] Entering ; jjcn

    etrating. INTREASURE, v. t. intrezh'ur. [in and

    treasure.] To lay up as in a treasury. [Ldttle used.]

    Shak. INTRE'ATFUL, a. Full of entreaty. INTRENCH', V. t. [in and Fr. trancher, to

    cut. See Th-ench.]

    1. To dig or cut a trench around a place, as in fortification ; to fortify with a ditch and parapet. The army intrenched their camp, or they were intrenched.

    2. To furrow ; to make hollows in.

    His face Deep scars of thunder had intrenched.


    To intrench on, literally, to cut into ; hence,

    to invade ; to encroach ; to enter on and

    take possession of that which belongs

    another. In the contest for power, the

    king was charged with intrenching on the rights of the nobles, and the nobles were accused of intrenching on the preroga- tives of the crown. INTRENCH'ANT, a. Not to be divided or wounded ; indivisible. [JVot used.]

    Shak. INTRENCH'ED.pp. Fortified with a ditch

    and parajjet. INTRENCH'ING, ppr. Fortifying with a

    trench and parapet. INTRENCH'MENT, n. Properly, a trench or ditch only ; but as the earth thrown out of a trench forms a part, and often the most necessary and useful part of a forti- fication, hence intrenchment is generally understood to signify a ditch and parapet, and sometimes it signifies fascines cover ed with earth, gabions, bags filled with earth, or other materials collected to cover men from an enemy's fire.

    On our side vpe have thrown up intrench- ments on Winter and Prospect hills.

    Washington. INTREP'ID, a. [L. intrepidus ; in and tre-

    pidus, trepido, to tremble.] Literally, not trembling or shaking with fear hence, fearless ; bold ; brave ; undaunted ; as an intrepid soldier. INTREPID'ITY, n. [Fr. inlrepidite.] Fear- lessness ; fearless bravery in danger ; un- daunted courage or boldness. The troops engaged with intrepidity. INTREP'IDLY, adv. Without trembling or shrinking from danger ; fearlessly ; dar- ingly ; resolutely. Pope. IN'TRICABLE, a. Entanghng. [JVot in use.] Shelton. IN'TRIeACY, n. [from intricate.] The state of being entangled ; perplexity ; in volution ; complication ; as the intricacy of a knot, and figuratively, the intricacy of accounts, the intricacy of a cause in controversy, the intricacy of a plot.

    Addison IN'TRI€ATE, a. [L. intricatus, from iiitrico to fold ; in and tricor ; It. intrecciare. See Trick.] Entangled ; involved ; perplexed ; complica- ted ; obscure. We passed through intri- cate windings. We found the accouuti intricate. The case on trial is intricate The plot of a tragedy may be too intricate to ])lease. IN'TRIC-ATE, V. t. To perplex ; to make obscure. [Little used.] Camden

    IN'TRIeATELY, adv. With involution oi infoldings ; with perplexity or intricacy. JVotton IN'TRICATENESS, ?i. The state of beint involved ; involution ; complication ; per plexity. Sidney.

    INTRl€A'TION, n. Entangleitient. [.Vo/

    used.] INTRIGUE, n. intree'g. [Fr. id.; It. intrigo verbs, Fr. intriguer, to perplex, enibroil intrigue ; It. intricare, intrigare, to per plex, to make intricate ; Low L. intrico, intricor, to enwrap; tricor, to trifle, to show tricks ; allied to Gr. Spil, -fpt^tos, hair or a lock of hair, as we should say, a plexus. In D. bedriegen, G. betriegen, signify to cheat ; D. driegen, to tack, to baste ; G. triegen, to deceive ; trvg, de ceit, fraud. The primary sense seems t( be to fold, lay over, or to draw together.]

    1. A plot or scheme of a complicated na- ture, intended to effect soine purpose by secret artifices. An intrigue may be form- ed and prosecuted by an individual, and we often hear of the intrigues of a minis- ter or a courtier, but often several pro- jectors are concerned in an intrigue. The word is usually applied to affairs of love or of government.

    2. The plot of a play or romance; a com- plicated scheme of designs, actions and events, intended to awaken interest in an audience or reader, and make them wait with eager curiosity for the solution or development.

    3. Intricacy ; complication. [JVot in use.] Hale.

    INTRIGUE, V. i. intree'g. To form a plot or scheme, usually complicated, and intend- ed to effect some purpose by secret artifi- ces. The courtier intrigues with the min- ister, and the lover with his mistress.

    INTRIGUE, V. t. intree'g. To perjilex or render intricate. [Not used.] L. Addison.

    INTRIGUER, n. intree'ger. One who in- ues ; one who forms plots, or pursues object by secret artifices.

    INTRIGUING, ppr. inlree'ging. Forming secret plots or schemes. a. Addicted to intrigue ; given to secret machinations.

    INTRlGUINGLY, a. inlree'gingly. With intrigue ; with artifice or secret machina- tions.

    INTRIN'SECATE, a. Entangled ; perplex- ed. [JVot in use.]

    INTRIN'SIe, I [Fr. intrinseque ; Sp.

    INTRIN'SI€AL, S intrinseco ; it.iutrin- sico ; L. intrinsecus ; intra and secus. It was formerly written intrinsecal.]

    1. Inward; internal; hence, true ; genuine; real ; essential ; inherent ; not apparent or accidental ; as the intrinsic value of gold or silver ; the intrinsic merit of an action ; the intrinsic worth or goodness of a person. Prior.

    2. Intimate ; closely familiar. 06s. fFotton.

    INTRIN'SICALLY, adv. Internally; in its

    nature ; really ; truly.

    A lie is a thing absolutely and intrinsically

    e\\\\A\\\\. South.

    INTRODU'CE, v.t. [L. introduco; intra,

    within, and duco, to lead ; Fr. introduire ;

    It. introdurre.]

    1. To lead or bring in ; to conduct or usher into a place ; as, to introduce a person into a drawing room.

    2. To conduct and make known ; to bring to be acquainted ; as, to introduce a stran- ger to a person ; to introduce a foreign minister to a prince.

    .3. To bring something new into notice or practice ; as, to introduce a new fashion, or a new remedy for a disease ; to intro- duce an improved mode of tillage.

    4. To bring in; to import; as, to introduce foreign goods.

    5. To produce ; to cause to exist ; as, to in- troduce habits into children. Locke.

    6. To begin ; to open to notice. He introdu- ced the subject with a long preface.

    7. To bring before the i)uhlic by writing or 1 discourse ; as, to introduce one's self to

    notice or to the public.

    N T


    I N U

    INTRODU'CED, pp. Led or conducted in ; brought iu ; made acquainted ; imported.!

    INTRODUCER, n. One who introduces ;| one who conducts another to a place or person ; one who makes strangers known to each other ; one wiio brings any thing into notice or practice.

    lNTRODU;CING, ppr. Conducting or bringing in ; making known, as one stran- ger to another ; bringing any tiling into notice or practice.

    INTRODUCTION, n. [Fr. from L. iniro- duclio.]

    1. The action of conducting or ushering in- to a place ; used of persons. We speak of xUe introduction of one stranger to anoth- er ; the introduclion of a foreign minister to a prince or court, and the introduction of company to a levee.

    3. The act of bringing into a country ; as the introduction of gold or bullion, or of merchandise.

    3. The act of bringing something into no lice, practice or use ; as the introduction of new modes of dress or of tillage.

    4. The part of a book which precedes the mahi work ; a preface or preliminary dis- course.

    5. The first part of an oration or discourse, in which the speaker gives some general account of his design and subject, and pre- pares the minds of his audience for a fa- vorable reception of bis remarks or argu- ments.

    lNTRODU€'TIVE, a. Serving to intro- duce ; serving as the means to bring for- ward something. Loivth.

    lNTRODU€'TOR, n. An introducer. [JVot laed.]

    INTRODU€'TORY, a. Serving to intro- duce something else ; previous ; i)refato ry ; preliminary ; as introductory remarks an introductory discourse.

    INTROGRES'SION, n. [L. introgressio.] Entrance. [JVot used.]

    INTROMIS'SION, n. [h.intromissus,inlr tnitto ; intro and milto, to send.]

    1. The action of sending in. Peachai

    2. In Scot's law, an intermeddling with the eflects of another. Johnson

    INTROMIT', V. t. [L. intromitto, supra.] To

    send in ; to let in ; to admit. Greenhilt. 2. To allow to enter ; to be the medium bj

    which a thing enters. Glass in the win

    dow intromits light without cold into a

    room. INTROMIT', V. i. To intermeddle with the

    effects of another. Stitart

    INTRORECEP'TION, n. The act of ad

    mitting into or within. Hammond.

    INTROSPECT', V. t. [L. introspicio : inlro

    and specio, to look.] To look into or within ; to view the inside INTROSPECTION, n. A view of the in

    side or interior.

    I was forced to make an introspeelk

    I into my

    Dry den.

    The falling of

    one part of

    the passing of


    intestine into another,

    one part within anothei', causing a dupli-

    cature of the intestine. Coxe. Hooper. INTROVE'NIENT, a. [L. iniro and veni-

    ens, venio, to come.] Coming in or between ; entering. [Little

    used.] Broum.

    Vol. I.

    INTROVER'SION, n. The act of turning inwards. Berkeley.

    INTROVERT', v. t. [L. intro and veHo.] To turn inwards. Cowper.

    INTRU'DE, V. i. [L. intrude ; in and trudo, to thrust. See Thrust.]

    1. To thrust one's self in ; to come or go in without invitation or welcome ; to enter, as into company, against the will of the company or the host ; as, to intrude on families at unseasonable hours. Never intrude where your company is not de sired.

    2. To encroach ; to enter or force one's self in without permission ; as, to intrude on the lands of another.

    3. To enter uncalled or uninvited, or with- out just right. Col. ii.

    INTRUDE, v.t. To thrust one's self in, or to enter into some place without right or welcome. 2. To force or cast in. Greenhill.

    INTRUDED, pp. Thrust in. INTRUDER, «. One who intrudes ; one who thrusts himself in, or enters where he has no right or is not welcome.

    They were but intruders on the possession, during the minority of the heir. Davits.

    They were all strangers and intruders.

    Locke. INTRU'DING, ppr. Entering without invi- tation, right or welcome. INTRUSION, n. s as z. [Fr. from L. in-

    trusio, from intrudo.] I. The action of thrusting in, or of entering into a place or state without right or welcome. The company may be disturbed by the intrusion of an unwel- come guest.

    — Many e-xcellent strains which have been jost- led off by the intrusions of poetical fictions.

    Brmrn Why this intrusion ? Were not my orders that I should be private : Mdison Encroachment ; entrance witiiout right on the property or possessions of another Voluntary entrance on an undertaking un- suitable for the person. Wotton INTRU'SIVE, a. Thrusting in or entering without right or welcome ; apt to intrude. Thomson. INTRUST', V. t. [in and trust.] To deliver in trust ; to confide to the care of; to com- mit to another with confidence in hii fidelity ; as, to intrust a servant with one's money or goods, or to intrust money or goods" to a servant. We intrust an agent or factor with commercial business, or we intrust commercial concerns to an agent, We intrust our friends with secrets, or in- tntst secrets to them. INTRUST' ED, pv. Delivered in tnist : committed to the hands or care of another, in confidence that he will be faithful in discharging his duty. INTRUST'ING, /);>r. Delivering intrust:

    confiding to the care of. INTUI'TifON, n. [Sp. intuicion ; L. intui-

    ttis, intueor ; in and tueor.] A looking on ; a sight or view ; but restrict- ed to mental view or perception. Particu- larly and appropriately, the act by which mind perceives the agreement or dis-

    ore presented, without the intervention of other ideas, or without reasoning and deduction.

    We linow by intuition, tliat a part is less than the whole. Eneyc.

    INTU'ITIVE, a. [Sp. and It. intuitivo ; Fr. intuUi/.]

    1. Perceived by the mind immediately, with- out the intervention of argument or testi- mony; exhibiting truth to the mind on bare inspection ; as intuitive evidence.

    2. Received or obtained by intuition or sim- ple inspection ; as intuttive judgment or knowledge.

    3. Seeing clearly ; as an tji/ui7iie view ; iji- tuitive vision. Hooker.

    4. Having the power of discovering truth without reasoning ; as the intuitive powers of celestial beings.

    INTU ITIVELY, adv. By immediate per- ception ; without reasoning; as, to perceive trutli intuitively.

    INTUMESCE, V. i. inlumes'. [L. intumesco ; in and tumeo, to swell.]

    To swell ; to enlarge or expand with heat.

    In a higher heat it intumesces and melts into

    a yellowish blacl^ mass. Kirwan.

    INTUMES'CENCE, n. [supra.] The ac- tion of swelling.

    2. A swell ; a swelling with bubbles ; a rising and enlarging; a tumid state. Woodward.

    INTUR(5ES'CENCE, n. [L. i.-i and turgesco, to swell.]

    A swelling ; the action of swelling or state of being swelled. Brown.

    INTU'SE, n. [L. inlusus.] A bruise. [JVb< in use.] Spenser.

    INTWI'NE, V. t. [in and tidne.] To twine or twist together ; to wreath ; as a wreath of flowers intwined.

    INTWI'NED, pp. Twiste

    INTWI'NING, ppr. Wreathing together.

    INTWIST', V. t. [in and twist.] To twist te- ther ; to interweave. Parkhursl.

    INTWIST' ED, pp. Twisted togetlier.

    INTWIST'ING, ppr. Twisting together.

    IN'ULIN, 71. A peculiar vegetable principle extracted from the Inula helenium, or ele- campane. Ure.

    INUM'BRATE, v. t. [L. inumbro.] To shade.

    INUN€'TION, n. [L. inunctus, inungo ; in and ungo, to anoint.]

    The action of anointing ; unction. Rau.

    INUNCTUOS'ITY, n. [L in and unclus, or Eng. unctuous.]

    The want of unctuosity ; destitution of greasiness or oiliness which is perceptible to the touch ; as the inunctuosity of porce- lain clay. Kirwan.

    INUN'DANT, a. [h.inund^ns, infra.] Over- flowing. Shenstone.

    INUNDATE,!)./. [L. inundo, inundates ; in and undo, a wave, or its root.]

    1. To overflow ; to deluge ; to spread over with a fluid. The low lands along the Mississippi are inundated almost every spring.

    2. To fill with an overflowing abundance or superfluity ; as, the country was once tn- wnrfa/erf with bills of credit. The presses inundate the countiT with papers.

    INUNDATED, pp. ' Overflow ed ; spread with a fluiti ; copiously supplied.

    agreement of two ideas, or the truth ofiilNUN'DATING, ppr. Overflowing; delu- things, immediately, or the moment they J! sing; spreading over.


    I N V

    I N V

    I N V

    INUNDA'TION, n. [h. inundatio.] An overflow of water or other fluid ; a flood ; .1 rising and spreading of water over low grounds. Holland has frequently suffered immensely by inundations of the sea. The Delta in Egypt is annually enriched by the inundation of the Nile.

    2. An overspreading of any kind ; an over- flowing or superfluous abundance.

    INUNDERSTAND'ING, a. Void of imder- standing. [A bad word and not used.]


    INURBAN'ITY, n. [in and tirbanity.] In- civility ; rude, unpolished manners or de- portment ; want of courteousness.

    Bp. Hall.

    INU'RE, I., t. [in and ure. Ure signifies use, practice, in old English, and in Nor- man French. In Chaucer, it seems to bear rather the signification of luck or fortune. In Scottish, it is used in both senses. See Ure]

    1. To habituate; to accustom; to apply or expose in use or practice till use gives little or no pain or inconvenience, or makes little impression. Thus a nian in- ures his body to labor and toil, till he sus- tains that which would destroy a body unaccustomed to it. So we inure our- selves to cold or heat. Warriors are in- ured to blood, and seamen are inured to liardships and ileprivatioiis.

    INU'RE, v.i. To pass in use ; to take have effect ; to be applied ; to serve to the use or benefit of; as, a gift of lands in- ures to the heirs of the grantee, or it in- ures to their benefit.

    INU'RED, pp. Accustomed; hardened by use.

    INU'REMENT, n. Use; practice; habit; custom ; frequency. Johnson. Wotton.

    INV'RISG, ppr. Habituating; accustoming.

    'i. Passing in use to the benefit of.

    INURN', V. t. [in and urn.] To bury ; to in- ter; to intomb.

    — The sepiilcher Wherein we saw thcc quietly inurned.


    9. To put in an urn.

    INURN'ED, pp. Deposited in a tomb.

    INURN'ING, ppr. Interring; burying.

    INUSITA'TION, n. Want of use ; disuse, [Little used.] Paley.

    INUS'TION, n. [L. inustio, inuro ; in and uro, to burn.] The action of burning.

    2. A branding ; the action of marking by burning.

    INU'TILE, a. [Fr. from L. inutilis.] Unprof- itable; useless. [JVotinuse.] Bacon.

    INUTIL'ITY, n. [Fr. inutilUi ; L. inutilitas ; in and utilitas. See Utility.]

    Uselessness; the quality of being unprofita ble ; unprofitableness ; as the inutilitij of vain speculations and visionary projects.

    INUT'TERABLE, a. That cannot be utter- ed. Milton

    INVA'DE, II. t. [L. invado ; in and vado, tc go.]

    1. To enter a country, as an army with hos- tile intentions ; to enter as an enemy, with a view to conquest or plunder ; to attack The French armies invaded Holland ir 1795. They invaded Russia and perished

    2. To attack ; to assail ; to assault.

    There shall be seditions among men and in rading one another. 2 Esdras.

    .3. To attack ; to infringe ; to encroach on ;! to violate. The king tntiarfcrf the rights and[ privileges of the people, and the people invaded the prerogatives of the king.

    4. To go into ; a Latinisni. [JVot used.]


    5. To fall on ; to attack ; to seize ; as a dis- ease.

    INVA'DED, pp. Entered by an army with a hostile design ; attacked ; assaulted ; in- fringed ; violated.

    INVA'DER, n. One who enters the territo- ry of another with a view to war, con- quest or plunder. Bacon. Sudft.

    '2. An assailant.

    3. An encroacher ; an intruder ; one who infringes the rights of another.


    INVA'DING, ppr. Entering on the posses- sions of another with a view to war, con- quest or plunder ; assaulting ; infringing ; attacking.

    INVALES'CENCE, n. [L. invalesco.] Strength ; health. Diet.

    INVALETU'DINARY, a. Wanting health.

    INVAL'ID, a. [L. invalidus ; in and vali- dus, strong, from valeo, to be strong, to avail.]

    1. Weak; of no force, weight or cogency.


    2. In laiv, having no force, eflect or effi- cacy ; void ; null ; as an invalid contract or agreement.

    IN' VALID, ?!. [Fr. invalide; L. invalidus, supra.]

    1. A person who is weak and infirm ; a per- son sickly or indisposed.

    2. A person who is infirm, wounded, maim- ed, or otherwise disabled for active ser- vice ; a soldier or seaman worn out in service. Tlie hospitals for iyivalids at Chelsea and Greenwich, in England, are institutions honorable to the English na- tion.

    INVAL'ID ATE, v. t. [from invalid; Fr. invalider.]

    1. To weaken or lessen the force of; more generally, to destroy the strength or valid- ity of; to render of no force or effect; as, to invalidate an agreement or a contiact.

    2. To overthrow ; to prove to be of no force ; as, to invalidate an argument.

    INVAL'IDATED, pp. ^Rendered invalid or of no force.

    INVALIDATING, ppr. Destroying the force and effect of.

    INVALID'ITY, n. [Fr. invalidity.] Weak- ness ; want of cogency ; want of legal force or efficacy ; as the invalidity of an agreement or of a will.

    INVAL'IDNESS, n. Invalidity ; as the in- imlidness of reasoning.

    INVAL'UABLE, a. [in and valuable.] Pre- cious above estimation ; so valuable that its worth cannot be estimated ; inestima- ble. The privileges of christians are in- valuable.

    INVAL'UABLY, adv. Inestimably.

    'Bp. HaU.

    INVA'RIABLE, a. [Fr.; in and vaHable, froin vary.]

    Constant in the same state; immutable; alterable; unchangeable; that does vary ; always uniform. The character and the laws of the Supreme Being must necessarily be invariable.


    INVA'RIABLENESS, n. Constancy of state, condition or quality ; immutability ; unchangeableness.

    INVA'RIABLY, adv. Constantly ; uniform- ly ; without alteration or change. We are bound to pursue invariably the path of duty.

    INVA'RIED, a. Unvaried ; not changing or altering. Blackwall.

    IN VA'SION, n. s as z. [L. invasio, from invado. See Invade.] A hostile entrance into the possessions of another; particularly, the entrance of a hostile army into a country for the pur- pose of conquest or plunder, or the attack of a military force. The north of England and south of Scotland were for centuries subject to invasion, each from the other. The invasion of England by William the Norman, was in 1066.

    2. An attack on the rights of another; in- fringement or violation.

    3. Attack of a disease ; as the invasion of the plague, in Egypt. Arbuthnot.

    INVA'SIVE, a. [from invade.] Entering on another's possessions with hostile de- signs; aggressive.

    2. Infringing another's rights.

    INVE€'TION, n. Invective, which see. vection is little used.]

    1NVE€'TIVE, n. [Fr. invective ; Sp. invec- tiva ; It. invetiiva ; from L. inveho. See Inveigh.]

    A railing speech or expression ; something uttered or written, intended to cast oppro- brium, censure or reproach on another; a harsh or reproachful accusation. It dif- fers from reproof, as the latter may come from a friend and be intended for the good of the person reproved ; hm invective proceeds from an enemy, and is intended to give pain or to injure. Eneyc.

    It is followed by against. He uttered severe invectives against the unfortunate general.

    INVE€'TIVE, a. Satirical; abusive; rail- ing- Dryden.

    INVEC'TIVELY, adv. Satirically ; abu- sively. Shak.

    INVEIGH, V. i. inva'y. [L. inveho, to bear, throw or bring on or against ; in and veho, to carry.]

    To exclaim or rail against; to utter censo- rious and bitter language against any one ; to reproach ; with against. The author inveighed sharply against the vices of the clergy in his age. Men inveigh against the follies of fashion.

    INVEIGHER, n. inva'yer. One who rails ; a railer.

    INVEIGHING, ppr. inva'ying. Exclaiming against ; railing at ; uttering bitter words.

    INVE'IGLE, V. t. [Norm, enveogler, to in- veigle, to blind ; Fr. aveugler. The affin- ities of this word are obscure.]

    To entice ; to seduce ; to wheedle ; to per- suade to something evil by deceptive arts or flattery. Yet have they many baits and guileful spells To inveigle and invite th' unwaiy sense —


    INVE'IGLED, pp. Enticed; wheedled; seduced from duty.

    INVE'IGLEMENt, n. Seduction to evil; enticement. South.

    INVE'IGLER, n. One who entices or draws into any design by arts and flattery.

    I N V

    ■lNVE'IGLING,;);)r. Enticing; wheedling;

    persuading to any thing bad. INVeILED, a. Covered as with a veil.

    Browne. INVENT', V. t. [Fr. inventer ; Sp. inventar ;

    It. inventan ; L. invenio, i7iv€nlum ; in and

    venio, to come ; literally, to come to, to fall

    on, to meet, Eng. tofind.]

    1. To find out something new ; to devise ■ something not-before known; to contrive

    and produce something that did not before exist; as, to invent a new instrument of music ; to invent a machine for spinning to invent gunpowder. [See Inveiition.]

    2. To forge ; to fabricate ; to contrive false ly ; as, to invent falsehoods.

    3. To feign ; to frame by the imagination as, to invent tlie machinery of a poem.

    4. To light on ; to meet witli. [This is the literal sense, but not now used.] Spensei

    INVENT'ED, pp. Found out; devised;

    contrived ; forged ; fabricated. INVENT'ER, n. [See Inventor.] IJfVENT'ING, ppr. Finding out what was

    before unknown ; devising or contriving

    something new ; fabricating. INVEN'TION, n. [Fr. from L. inventio.]

    1. The action or operation of finding out something new ; the contrivance of that which did not before exist ; as the itiven Hon of logarithms; the invention of the art of printing; x\\\\ie invention of the orrery. Invention differs from discovery. Invention is applied to the contrivance and produc tion of something that did not before ex ist. Discovery brings to liglit that wliich existed before, but which was not known We are indebted to invention for the ther- mometer and barometer. Wearo indebt- ed to discovery for the knowledge of the isles in the Pacific ocean, and for the knowledge of galvanism, and many spe- cies of earth not formerly known. Tliis distinction is important, though not ways observed.

    2. That which is invented. The cotton gin is the inventio7i of Whitney ; the steam boat is the invention of Fulton. The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian ord said to be inventions of the Greeks ; the Tuscan and Composite are inventions of| the Latins.

    3. Forgery ; fiction. Fables are the tions of ingenious men.

    4. In painting, the finding or choice of the objects which are to enter into the compo- sition of the piece. Encyc.

    5. In poetry, it is applied to whatever the poet adds to the history of the subject.

    6. In rhetonc, the finding and selecting of arguments to prove and illustrate the point in view.

    7. The power of inventing; that skill or in- genuity which is or may be employed in contriving any thing new. Thus we say, a man of invention. Encyc.

    8. Discovery ; the finding of things hidden or before unknown. [Less proper.]


    INVENT'IVE, a. [Fr. inventif.] Able to

    invent; quick at contrivance; ready at

    expedients ; as an inventive head or genius.


    INVENT'OR, n. One who finds out some

    thing new ; one who contrives and produ

    I N V

    ces any thing not before existing ; a con- triver. The inventors of many of the most useful arts are not known.

    INVENTO'RIALLY, adv. In the manner of an inventory. Shak.

    IN'VENTORIED,pp. Inserted or register- ed in an inventory.

    IN'VENTORY, n. [Sp. It. inventario ; Fr. inventaire ; from invent.]

    1. An account, catalogue or schedule of all the goods and chattels of a decea.scd per- son. In some of the United States, the inventory must include an account of the real as well as the personal estate of the deceased.

    2. A catalogue of movables.

    3. A catalogue or account of particular] things. [Jin indefinite use of the word.]

    IN'VENTORY, v. f. [Fr. inventorier.] To make an inventory of ; to make a list, cata- logue or schedule of; as, to inventory the goods and estate of the deceased


    2. To insert or register in an account of goods.

    INVENT'RESS, n. [from invent] A fe

    male that invents. Dryde

    INVERSE, a. invers'. [L. inversus. See hivert.]

    Inverted ; reciprocal. Inverse proportion or ratio, is when the effect or result of any operation is less in proportion as is greater, or is greater'm proportion as the cause is less. Thus the time in which quantity of work may be performed, will be tess'in proportion as the number of workmen \\\\s greater, and greater in proper tion as the number of workmen is less. If] ten men can perform a certain quantity of work in six days, then twenty men will per form the same work in three days. Inverse proportion is opposed to direct.

    INVERSELY, adv. invers'ly. In an inverted order or manner ; when more produces less, and less produces more ; or when thing is greater or less, in proportion as another is less or greater,

    INVERSION, n. [Fr. from L. inuewo. See Invert.]

    1. Change of order, so that the last becomes first and the first last ; a turning or change of the natural order of things.

    It is just the inversion of an act of parii ment ; your Lordship first signed it, and then it was passed among the lords and commons


    2. Change of places, so that each takes the place of the othew

    .3. A turning backwards; a contrary rule of operation. Problems in geometry and arithmetic are often proved by inversioii, as division by multiphcation, and multipli- cation by division.

    In grammar, a change of the natural order of words ; as, " of all vices, impurity is one of the most detestable," instead of " im- purity is one of the most detestable of all vices."

    5. In muMc, the change of position either of a subject or of a chord. Busby.

    INVERT', v. t. [L. inverto ; in and verto, to turn.]

    1. To turn into a contrary direction ; to turn upside dowii ; as, to invert a cone ; to in- vert a hollow vessel.

    I N V

    2. To place in a contrary order or method ; as, to invert the rules of justice ; to invert

    I the order of words.

    And winter storms invert the year. I Dryden.

    3. In music, to change the order of the notes I which form a chord, or the parts which i comj)ose harmony. Encyc.

    4. To divert ; to turn into another channel ; I to embezzle. [Ab< in use.] KnoUes. INVERT' EBRAL, a. Destitute of a verte- bral column, as animals. Ed. Encyc.

    INVERT EBRATED, a. Destitute of a back bone or vertebral chain. [See Fer- tehrated.] Good.

    INVEKT'ED, pp. Turned to a contrary di- rection ; turned upside down ; changed in order.

    INVERT'EDLY, adv. In a contrary or re- versed order. Derham.

    INVERT'ENT, n. A medicine intended to invert the natural order of the successive irritative motions in the system. Danein.

    INVERT'ING, ppr. Turning in a contrary direction ; changing the order.

    INVEST',!'./. [Fr.investir; h. investio ; and vestio, to clothe. Sec Vest.]

    1. To clothe; to dress; to put garments on ; to array ; usually and most correctly fol- lowed by tcith, before the thing put on ; as, to invest one tvith a mantle or robe. lu this sense, it is used chiefly in poetry and elevated prose, not in colloquial discourse.

    2. To clothe with oflice or authority ; to place in possession of an office, rank or dignity ; as, to invest a person with a civil office, or with an ecclesiastical dignity.

    3. To adorn ; to grace ; as, to invest with honor. Shak.

    4. To clothe ; to surround ; as, to be invested with light, splendor or glory.

    5. To confer ; to give. [Lillle used.] Bacon.

    6. To inclose ; to surround ; to block up, so as to intercept succors of men and provis- ions and prevent escape ; to lay siege to ; as, to invest a town.

    7. To clothe money in something permanent or less fleeting ; as, to invest money tn funded or bank stock ; to invest it in lands or goods. In this application, it is always followed by in.

    INVEST' ED, pp. Clothed ; dressed ; adorn- ed ; inclosed. INVEST'IENT, a. Covermg ; clothing. I Woodward.

    INVEST' IGABLE, a. [from investigate.] That may be investigated or searched out ; discoverable by rational search or disqui- sition. The causes or reasons of things are sometimes investigable. INVESTIGATE, r. t. [L. invesligo ; in and I vestigo, to follow a track, to search ; ves- tigium, a track or footstep.] To search into; to inquire and examine into I with care and accuracy ; to find out by I carefld disquisition ; as, to investigate the I powers and forces of nature ; to investi- \\\\ gate the causes of natural phenomena ; to investigate the principles of moral duty ; I to investigate the conduct of an agent or [ the motives of a prince. INVESTIGATED, jj;>. Searched into ; ex- amined with care. INVESTIGATING, ppr. Searching into ; inquiring into with care.

    I N V

    I N V

    I N V

    INVESTIGA'TION, Ji. [Fr. from L. investi- i;afio.]

    TJie action or process of searching minutely for truth, facts or principles ; a careful in- <|uiry to find out what is unknown, either in the physical or moral world, and either by observation and experiment, or by ar- gument and discussion. Thus we speak of the investigations of the philosopher and the mathematician ; the investigations of the judge, the moralist and the divine

    INVEST'IGATIVE, a. Curious and delib- erate in researches. Pegge-

    INVEST'IGATOR, n. One who searches diligently into a subject.

    INVEST'ITURE, n. [Fr. See Invest.] The action of giving possession, or livery of seizin.

    The giant of land or a feud was perfected by the ceremony of corporal investiture, or open delivery of possession. Blackstone.

    It was customary for princes to make investi- ture of ecclesiastical benefices. Encyc.

    % The right of giving possession of any man- or, office or benefice.

    He had refused to yield to the pope the in- vestiture of bishops. Raleigh

    INVEST'IVE, a. Clothing; encircling.

    INVEST'MENT, n. The action of invest- ing.

    3. Clothes; dress; garment; habit. Shak. [We now use vestment.']

    3. The act of surrounding, blocking up or besieging by an armed force.

    The capitulation was signed by the command er of the fort, within six days after its invest ment. Marshall.

    4. The laying out of money in the purch: of some species of property ; literally, the clothing of money with something.

    Before the investment could be made, i

    change of the market might render it ineligible


    INVET'ERACY, n. [L. inveteratio. See Inveterate.]

    Long continuance, or the firmness or deep rooted obstinacy of any quality or state acquired by time ; as the inveteracy of cus- tom and habit : usually or always applied in a bad sense ; as the inveteracy of preju dice, of error, or of any evil habit.

    IN VET'ERATE, a. [L. inveteratus, invefero in and vetero, from vetus, old.]

    1. Old; long established.

    It is an inveterate and received opinion- Obs. Bacon

    'i. Deep rooted ; firmly established by long continuance; obstinate; used of evils; as an inveterate disease ; an inveterate abuse an inveterate course of sin.

    3. Having fixed habits by long continuance used of persons ; as an inveterate sinner.

    4. Violent ; deep rooted ; obstinate ; as in- veterate pnmity or malice.

    INVET'ERATE, v. t. [L. invetero, to grow old.]

    To fix and settle by long continuance. [Ob- solete or little used.] Bacon.

    mVET'ERATELY, adv. With obstinacy ; violently.

    INVET'ERATENESS, n. Obstinacy con- firmed by time ; inveteracy ; as the invet- erateness of a mischief. Locke

    INVETERA'TION, n. The act of harden- ing or confirming by long continuance.

    INVIDIOUS, a. [L. invidiosus, from invi- deo, to envy ; in andinrfeo, to see. Invideo signifies properly, to look against.]

    1. Envious; malignant. Evelyn.

    2. Likely to incur ill will or hatred, or to provoke envy ; hateful. [This is the usual sense.]

    Agamemnon found it an invidious give the preference to any one of the Grecian heroes. Broome.

    INVID'IOUSLY, adv. Enviously; malig- nantly.

    2. In a manner likely to provoke hatred.

    INVID'IOUSNESS, n. The quality of pro voking envy or hatred.

    INVIG'ILANCE, n. Want of vigilance; neglect of watching.

    INVIG'ORATE,r. <. [It. invigorire ; in and vigor.]

    To give vigor to ; to strengthen ; to animate ; to give life and energy to. Exercise in- vigorates the body ; cheerfulness invigo- rates the mind.

    Christian graces and virtues they cannot be, unless fed, invigorated and animated by univer- sal charity. Atlerbury

    INVIG'ORATED, pp. Strengthened; ani- mated.

    INVIG'ORATING,;);)^. Giving fresh vigor to ; strengthening.

    INVIGORA'TION, n. The action of invig- orating, or state of being invigorated.

    INVIL'LAGED, a. Turned into a village.


    INVIN'CIBLE, a. [Fr. invincible ; L. in and vinco, to conquer.]

    Not to he conquered or subdued ; that can not be overcome ; uuconquerable ; as ai invincible army.

    2. Not to be overcome ; insuperable ; as, ai invincible obstacle, error, habit or objec tion.

    INVIN'CIBLENESS, > The quality of

    INVINCIBIL'ITY, ^ "• being uncon querahle ; insuperableness.

    INVIN'CIBLY, adv. Unconquerably; in

    INVI'OLATED, a. Unprofaned ; unbroken ; unviolated. Drayton.

    IN'VIOUS, a. [L. invius ; in and via, way.] Impassable; untrodden. Hudibras.

    IN'VIOUSNESS, n. State of being impassa- hle. Ward.

    INVIS€'ATE, V. i. [L. in and viscus, glue, hirdhme.] To lime ; to daub with glue.

    2. To catch with glue or birdlime ; to entan- gle with glutinous matter. [Little used]

    Broion. To breed ;

    INVI'OLABLE, a. [Fr. from h. inviolabilis ; and violabilis, violo, to violate.]

    1. Not to be profaned ; that ought not to he injured, polluted or treated with irrever- ence ; as, a sacred place and sacred things should be considered inviolable. Milti

    2. Not to be broken ; as an inviolable league, covenant, agreement, contract, vow or promise.

    . Not to be injured or tarnished ; as invio- lable chastity or honor. . Not susceptible of hurt or wound; as in- violable saints. Milton. INVI'OLABLENESS, ) [frominviolable.] INVIOLABILITY, ^""The quality or state of being inviolable ; as the inviolabil- ity of crowned heads. ff^ard. 2. The quality of not being subject to be

    broken. INVI'OLABLY, adv. Without profanation without breach or failure ; as a sanctuary inviolably sacred ; to keep a promise invio- lably. INVI'OLATE, a. [L. inviolatus.] Unhurt ; uninjured ; unprofaned ; unpolluted ; im- broken. But let inviolate truth be always dear To thee. Denham.


    Mountague. [Fr. invisibiliU, from invisible.]

    INVIS'CERATE, v. t.

    h. [.4 bad word.]



    The state of being invisible; imperceptible- to the sight. Ray.

    INVIS'IBLE, o. s as z. [Fr. from L. invisi- bilis ; in and visibilis, visa, to see.]

    That cannot be seen ; imperceptible by the

    sight. Millions of stars, invisible to the

    naked eye, may be seen by the telescope.

    He endured, as seeing him who is invisible.

    Heb. xi.

    INVIS'IBLY, adv. In a manner to escape the sight ; imperceptibly to the eye.


    INVIS'ION. n. s as :. [in and vidon.] Want of vision, or the power of seeing. [Little used.] Brown.

    INVITA'TION, ti. [Fr. from h. invitatio. . See Invite.]

    The act of inviting; solicitation; the calling or requesting of a person's company to visit, to dine, or to accompany hi.ii to any place.

    INVI'TATORY, a. Using or containing in- vitations. ' JVheailey.

    INVI'TATORY, n. A part of the service in the catholic church ; a psalm or anthem sung in the morning.

    — Antiphonary, a service-book, which con- tained all the invitatories, responsories and col- lects. Encyc.

    INVI'TE, v.t. [h. invito; It.invitare; Fr. iyiviter. This word is formed by in and the Teutonic bid, or its root ; inbid. See Bid.]

    1. To ask to do some act or to go to some place ; to request the company of a per- son ; as, to invite one to dine or sup ; to invite friends to a wedding ; to invite com- pany to an entertainment ; to invite one to an excursion into the country.

    2. To allure ; to draw to ; to tempt to come ; induce by pleasure or hope. — Shady groves, that easy sleep invite.

    Dry den.

    3. To present temptations or allurements to.'

    The people should be in a situation not to in- vile hostilities. Federalist, Jay.

    INVI'TED, pp. Solicited; requested to come or go in person ; allured.

    INVI'TER, n. One who invites. Pope.

    INVI'TING, ppr. Soliciting the company of; asking to attend.

    2. ft. Alluring ; tempting ; drawing to ; as an inviting amusement or prospect.

    Nothing is so easy and inviting as the retort of abuse and sarcasm. Irving.

    INVI'TING, n. Invitation. Shak.

    INVI'TINGLY, adv. In such a manner as to invite or allure.

    INVI'TINGNESS, n. The quality of being inviting. Taylor.

    I N V

    I N V

    I N W

    INVIT'RIFiABLE, a. {in and vitrifiabk,

    from vitrify.] That cannot be vitrified or converted into

    glass. Kirwan.

    IN'VOeATE, V. t. [L. invoco ; in and voco,

    to call.] To invoke ; to call on in supplication ; to

    implore ; to address in prayer.

    If Dagou be thy god, Go to his temple, invocate his aid — Milton. [Instead of this word, invoke is generally

    used.] lN'VO€ATED, pp. Invoked; called on in

    prayer. I]Nf'VOCATING,;);>r. Invoking. INV0€A'T10N, n. [Fr. from L. invocatio.]

    1. The act of addressing in prayer.


    2. The form or act of calling for the assist- ance or presence of any being, particularly of some divinity ; as the invocation of the muses.

    The whole poem is a prayer to Fortune, and the itivocation is divided between the two (lei- ties. Addison.

    3. A judicial call, demand or order ; as the invocation of papers or evidence into a court. fVheaton's Rep.

    IN'VOICE, n. [Fr. envoi, a sending or thing sent, from envoyer, to send. It. inviare ; envois, plu. things sent.]

    1. In commerce, a written account of the par ticulars of merchandise, shipped or sent to a purchaser, consignee, factor, &c. with the value or prices and charges annexed

    2. A written account of ratable estate.

    Laws ofJVew Hampshire IN'VOICE, v. t. To make a written account of goods or property with their prices.

    Goods, wares and merchandise imported from Norway, and invoiced in tlie current dollar of Norway — Madison's Proclamation.

    It is usual to invoice goods in the currency ( the country in which the seller resides. JN'VOICED, pp. Inserted in a list with th price or value aiuiexed.

    Robinson, Adm. Report

    IN'VOICING, ppr. Making an account i

    writing of goods, with their prices c

    values annexed ; inserting in an invoice.

    INVO'KE, v.t. [V.. invoco ; in and roco, to

    call ; vox, a word.]

    1. To address in prayer ; to call on for as sistance and protection ; as, to invoke the Supreme Being. Poets invoke the for assistance.

    2. To order ; to call judicially ; as, to invoke depositions or evidence into a court.

    ff'irt INVO'KED, pp. Addressed in prayer for

    aid ; called. INVO'KING, ppr. Addressing in prayer for

    aid ; calling. INVOL'UCEL. n. [dim. of involucre.]

    partial involucre ; an involucret. Eaton lNVOLU'CELLATE,a. [supra.] Surround

    ed with involiicels. Barton

    INVOLU'€RUM, ^ [L.ftom involvo.] In INVOLU'CRE, S botany, a calyx

    mote ti-oin the flower, particularly in the

    umbel, but applie4 also to the whorl and

    other kinds of inflorescence. Marlyn.

    INVOLU'€RED, a. Having an involucre

    as mnbels, whorls, &c. Martyn

    INVOLU'CRET, n. A small or partial in

    volucrum. Martyn

    INVOL'UNTARILY, adv. [from involun- tary.]

    1. Not by choice ; not spontaneously ; against one's will. Baxter.

    2. In a manner independent of the will. INVOL'UNTARINESS, n. Wantof choice

    or will. Bp. Hall.

    2. Independence on the will. INVOL'UNTARY, a. [Fr. invotontaire ; L.

    in and voluntarius. See Voluntary.]

    1. Not having will or choice ; unwilling.

    2. Independent of will or choice. Tlie mo- tion of the heart and arteries is involunta- ry, but not against the will.

    3. Not proceeding from choice ; not done willingly; opposed to the will. A slave and a conquered nation yield an involun- tari) submission to a master.

    IN'VOMJTE, n. [L. involutus.] A curve traced by the end of a siring folded upon a figure, or unwound from it.

    IN'VOLUTE, I [L. involutus, involvo.

    IN' VO LUTED, S "■ See Involve.] In botany, rolled spirally inwards. Involuted folia- tion or vernation, is when the leaves with- in the bud have their edges rolled spirally inwards on both sides towards the upper surface. Mart,

    INVOLU'TION, n. [Fr.; h. involutio. ^ Involve.] The action of involving or infolding.

    2. The state of being entangled or involved ; complication.

    All things are mixed and causes blc mutual involittions. G

    3. In grammar, the insertion of one or more clauses or members of a .sentence between the agent or subject and the verb ; a third intervening member within a second, &c ; as, habitual falsehood, if we may judge

    from experience, infers absolute depravity.

    4. In algebra, the raising of a quantity from its root to any power assigned. Tli 2X2X2=8. Here 8, the third power of| 2, is found by involution, or multiplying the number into itself, and the product by the same number.

    INVOLVE, v.t. involv'. [L. ini'o/uo ; in and Volvo, to roll, Eng. to tvallow.]

    1. To envelop; to cover with surrounding tnatter; as, to involve one in smoke or dust.

    2. To envelop in any thing which exists or all sides ; as, to involve in darkness or ob- scurity.

    3. To imply ; to comprise. To be and not to bo at the same time, involves a contra diction.

    4. To entvvist ; to join ; to connect. He knows his end with mine involved.


    5. To take in ; to catch ; to conjoin. The gathering number, as it moves along. Involves a vast involuntai-y throng. Pope

    C. To entangle. Let not our enemy involve the nation in war, nor our imprudence in- volve us in difficulty.

    7. To plunge ; to overwhelm. Extrava- gance often involves men in debt and dis- tress.

    6. To inwrap ; to infold ; to complicate or make intricate.

    Some involved their snaky folds. Milton Florid, witty, involved discourses. Locke 9. To bletid ; to mingle confusedly.


    10. In algebra, to raise a quantity from llic root to any assigned power ; as a quanti- ty involved to the tliird or fourth power.

    INVOLVED, pp. Enveloped ; imphed ; in- wrapped ; entangled.

    INVOLVING, ppr. Enveloping; implying; comprising ; entangling ; complicating.

    INVULNERABILITY, ? [frominvul-

    IIVVUL'NERABLENESS, I "; nerabte.]

    The quality or state of being invulnerable, or secure from wounds or injury. Wcdsh.

    INVUL'NERABLE, a. Wr. from L. invul- nerabilis. Sec Vulnerable.]

    That cannot be wounded ; incapable of re- ceiving injury.

    Nor vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms.


    INVVALL', v. t. [in and wail.] To inclose or fortify with a wall. Spenser.

    IN' WARD, a. [Sax. inweard ; G. einwdrts ; in and ward. See IVard.] . Internal ; interior ; placed or being with- in ; as the imvard structure of the body.

    2. Intimate ; domestic ; familiar. Spenser.

    3. Seated in the mind or soul. Shak. IN'VVARD, I ,„ Toward the inside. Turn IN'WARDS, I "" the attention inward.

    2. Toward the center or interior ; as, to bend thing inward.

    3. Into the mmd or thoughts. Celestial light shine inward. Mdton.

    IN'WARDLY, adv. In the inner parts ; in- ternally.

    Let fipnedict, like covered fire. Consume away in sighs, waste inwardly.

    2. In the heart ; privately ; secretly. He inwardly repines. It is not easy to treat with respect a person whom we imoardly despise.

    3. Towards the center. IN'WARDNESS, n. Intimacy; familiarity.

    [J^ut used.] Shak.

    2. Internal state. [Unusual.] IN'WARDS, n. plu. The inner parts of an

    animal ; the bowels ; the viscera.

    Milton. Ex. xxix. INWE'AVE, v.t. pret. inwove; pp. imim-

    X.] I'o weave intertwine by

    ven, inwove, [in and mei together; to intermix oi weaving.

    Down they cast Their crowns itiwove with s


    INWHEE'L, V. t. [in and wheel.] To eticir- cle. Deaum.

    IN' WIT, n. [in and u-it.] Mind; under- standing. Obs.

    INWOOD', V. t. To hide in woods.


    INWORK'ING, ppr. or a. [in and work.] Working or operating within.

    INWORK'ING, 71. Internal operation ; en- ergy within. Macknighf.

    INWOVE, } „„ „f ,■„„„„„, Woven in ;

    INWO'VEN.^P^- °^ "'">"""■ iiitcrtwincd by weaving.

    INWRAP, V. t. inrap'. [in and wrap.] To involve ; to infold ; to cover by wrapping ; as, to be inwrapped in smoke or in a cloud ; to inwrap in a cloke.

    2. To involve in difliculty or perplexity ; to perplex. Bacon.

    3. To ravish or transport. [III. See Rap.] INWREATHE, v. t. inre'the. [in and


    I P E

    To surround or encompass as with a wreath, or with something in the form of a wreath. Resplendent locks inwreathed with beams. Milton.

    INWROUGHT, pp. or a. inrmW. [in and wrought, from work.]

    Wrought or worked in or among other things ; adorned with figures. Milton.

    rODATE, n. [See Iodine.] A compound consisting of oxygen, iodin and a base.

    Gay Lussac. Henry.

    I'ODIC, a. Iodic acid is a compound of io din and oxygen.

    I'ODIDE, n. A compound of iodin with a metal or other substance.

    I'ODIN, \\\\ [Gr. iw«)jj, resembhng ;

    IODINE, \\\\ "■ let.] In chimistry, a peculiar substance recently discovered by Courtois, a manufacturer of salt-peter in Paris. It is obtained from certain sea-weeds or ma- rine plants. At the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere it is a solid, apparently a simple substance, at least hitherto unde composed. It is incombustible, but ii combining with several bodies, it exhibits the phenomena of combustion ; hence it has been considered a supporter of com- bustion. Like chlorin, it destroys vegeta ble colors, but with less energy. Its color is bluish black or grayish black, of a me tallic luster. It is often in scales, resem bling those of micaceous iron ore ; some times in brilliant rhomboidal plates, or ir elongated octahedrons. Its taste is acrid and it is somewhat poisonous. It is fusi ble at 225=" of Fahrenheit. The color of its vapor is a beautiful violet, whence its name. Henry. Ure.

    I'ODOUS, a. lodous acid is a compound of iodin and oxygen, containing less of th. latter than iodic acid.

    lOD'URET, n. A compound of iodin and a metallic or other base.

    rOLITE, 71. [Gr. lov, a violet, and >.i9o5, stone.]

    A mineral of a violet blue color, with a shade of purple or black, called also dichroit and cordierite. It occurs in regular six-sidec' prisms. Its varieties are peliom and stein heilite. Cleaveland.

    [Note. By tlie regular principles of pronouncing the Greek iota and the Shemitic^'od, this word ought to be pronounced yolite.]

    ION'I€, a. [from Ionia.] Tlie Ionic order, in architecture, is that species of column na- med from Ionia, in Greece. It is more slender than the Doric and Tuscan, but less slender and less ornamented than the Corintliian and Composite. It is simple, but majestic ; its liighth is 18 modules, and that of the entablature four and a half. Encyc.

    2. The Ionic dialed of the Greek language, is the dialect used in [onia.

    3. The Ionic sect of philosophers, was that founded by Thales of Miletus, in Ionia. Their distinguishing tenet was, that water is the principle of all natural things.


    4. Denoting an airy kind of music. The Ionic or Ionian mode was, reckoning from grave to acute, the second of the five middle modes. Busby.

    1PE€A€UAN'HA, ?i. A root produced in South America. Four sorts are mention-

    I R I

    ed, gray, brown, white, and yellow. The gray, or genuine kind, is referred by Mutis to the Psychotria emetica, but more recent- ly by Brotero to the Callicocca Ipecacuan- ha, a plant growing in Brazil. These plants have been considered by some as the same, or as species of tlie same geiuis. This root is used as an emetic. Parr.

    Ipecacuanha is a little wrinkled root about the thickness of a moderate quill, much used as an emetic, and against di- arrheas and dysenteries. Cyc.

    IRASCIBIL'ITY, ) [from irascible.]

    IRAS'CIBLENESS, 5 "' The quality of being irascible, or easily inflamed by an- ger; irritability of temper.

    IRAS'CIBLE, a. [Fr. from L. irascor, from ira. See Ire.]

    Very susceptible of anger ; easily provoked or inflamed with resentment ; irritable ; as an irascible man ; an irascible temper.

    IRE, n. [Fr. from L. ira, wrath ; W irad, pungency, passion, rage. See Eng Wrath.]

    Anger ; wrath ; keen resentment ; a word chiejly used in poetry.

    Thus will persist, relentless in liis iVe.


    I'REFUL, a. [ire and full.] Angry ; wroth ; furious with anger.

    The ireful bastard Orleans. Shak.

    I'REFULLY, adv. In an angry manner.

    I'RENAR€II, n. [Gr. ftpijrap;^?,?.] An offi- cer formerly employed in the Greek em- pire, to preserve the ))nblic tranquillity.

    IRIDES'CENCE, n. Exhibition of colors like those of the rainbow.

    IRIDES'CENT, a. [from iris.] Having col- ors like the rainbow. Fourcroy. Barrow.

    IRID'lUM, n. [from iris.] A metal of a whitish color, not malleable, found in the ore of platinum, and in a native alloy with osmium. Its specific gravity is above 18. It takes its name from the va- riety of colors which it exhibits while dis- solving in muriatic acid. The native alloy with osmiu m, or native iridium, is of a stee" gray color and shining metallic luster. It usually occurs in small irregular flat grains, in alluvial soil, in S. America.

    Cleaveland. Webster's Manual

    irRIS, n. plu. irises. [L. iris, iridis, the raiu-

    I bow, Gr. iprs.]

    1. The rainbow. Brown

    2. An appearance resembling the rainbow. I J^eivton.

    The colored circle which surrounds the

    pupil of the eye, by means of which that

    opening is enlarged and diminished. 4. The changeable colors which sometimes I appear in the glasses of telescopes, micro

    scopes, &c. I5. A colored spectrum Which a triangulai

    glass prism casts on a wall, when placed

    at a due angle in the sun-beams. ,C. The flower-de-lis, or flag-flower.

    lus of many species. I'RISATED, a. Exhibiting the prismatic

    colors ; resembling the rainbow.

    PhUlips. PRISED, a. Containing colors like those of

    the rainbow. Chaptal.

    I'RISH, a. Pertaining to Ireland. I'RISH, n. A native of Ireland. 2. The language of the Irish ; the Hiberno-


    I R O

    I'RISHISM, n. A mode of speaking pecul to the Irish.

    IRK, V. t. urk. [Scot, irk, to weary ; irk, in- dolent. Lye suggests that this may be from Sax. iveorce, work, which signifies also pain, or anxiety ; but it seems more probably to be connected with Sax. earg', slothful, lazy, Gr. apyoj.]

    To weary ; to give pain to ; used only im- personally ; as, it irketh me, it gives me un- easiness. It is nearly obsolete. Shak.

    IRK'SOME, a. Wearisome ; tedious ; tire- some ; giving uneasiness ; used of some- thing troublesome by long continuance or repetition ; as irksome hours ; irksome toil or task. Addison. Milton.

    IRK'SOMELY, adv. In a wearisome or te- dious manner.

    IRK'SOMENESS, n. Tediousness; weari- someness.

    IRON, n. i'urn, or i'rn. [Sax. iren ; Scot. irne, yrn, or aim ; Isl. larn ; Sw. jam or iam ; Dan. iem ; W. haiarn ; Ir. iarann ; Arm. hoarn. Qu. L. ferrum, for herrum. The radical elements of this word are not easily ascertained.]

    1. A metal, the hardest, most common and most useful of all the metals ; of a livid whitish color inclined to gray, internally composed, to appearance, of small facets, and susceptible of a fine polish. It is so hard and elastic as to be capable of de- stroying the aggregation of any other me- tal. Next to tin, it is the lightest of all metallic substances, and next to gold, the most tenacious. It may be hammered in- to plates, but not into leaves. Its ductility is more considerable. It has the proper- ty of magnetism ; it is attracted by the lodestone, and will acquire its properties. It is found rarely in native masses; but in ores, mineralized by different substances, it abounds in every part of the earth. Its medicinal qualities are valuable.

    Fourcroy. Encyc.

    2. An instrument or utensil made of iron ; as a flat-iron, a smoothing-tVon.

    Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons 7 Job xli.

    3. Figuratively, strength : power ; as a rod of iro?i. Dan. ii.

    . Irons, plu., fetters ; chaiVjs ; manacles : handcuffs. Ps. cv. 'RON, a. Made of iron ; consisting of iron ;

    as an iron gate ; an iron bar ; iron dust. 2. Resembling iron in color ; as an iron gray color.

    Harsh ; rude ; severe ; miserable ; as the iron age of the world.

    Iron years of wars and dangers. Rowe.

    Jove crush'd the nations with an iron rod.


    4. Binding fast; not to be broken; as the iron sleep of death. Philips. Hard of understanding ; dull ; as an iroji. witted fool. Shak.

    6. Firm ; robust ; as an iron constitution. I'RON, V. t. To smooth with an instrument of iron.

    2. To shackle with irons ; to fetter or hand- cuff.

    3. To furnish or arm with iron. I'RON-€LAY, n. A substance intermediate

    between basalt and wacky, of a reddish brown color, and occurring massive or vesicular. Cyc.

    I R R

    I'RONED, pp. Smoothed with an iron ;

    sh;u kled ; armed with iron. l'R(JMFLINT, n. Ferruginous quartz ; a subspecies of quartz, opake or tianslucent at the edges, with a fracture more or less conchoidal, shining and nearly vitreous. It is sometimes in very minute and perfect six-sided prisms, terminated at both ex- tremities by six-sided pyramids. It occurs also in masses, and in small grains. Its varieties are red, yellow, and greenish. I CUaveland.] I'RONHEARTED, a. Hardhearted ; un- feeling ; cruel. I'RONMOLD, n. A spot on cloth made by applying rusty iron to the cloth when wet. I'RONMONGER, n. A dealer in iron wares or hardware. j

    I'RONSICK, a. In seamen's language, a^ ship is said to be ironsick, when her bolts' and nails are so much corroded or eaten with rust that she has become leaky.

    Encyc. I'RONSTONE, n. An ore of iron. I'RONWQPD, n. The popular name of a genus of trees called Sidero.\\\\yloii,of seve-I era] species ; so called from their hard-: ness. I'RONWORK, n. A general name of the parts or pieces of a building which con-, sist of iron ; any thing made of iron. j

    I'RONWORKS, n. plu. The works or es-' tablishment where pig-iron is wrought in- to bars, &c. ! I'RONWORT, n. A genus of plants called

    Sideritis, of several species. IRON'leAL, a. [Fr. ironique. See Irony.] Expressing one thing and meaning an-j other. An ironical expression is often ac-' companied with a manner of utterance^ which indicates that the speaker intends to' be understood in a sense directly contrary to that which the words convey. IRON'l€ALLY, adv. By way of irony ; by the use of irony. A commendation may be ironically severe. I'RONIST, n. One wlio deals in irony.

    Pope. I'RONY, a. [from iron.] Made or consist- ing of iron ; partaking of iron ; as irony chains ; irony particles. Hammond.

    2. Resembling iron ; hard. I'RONY, n. [Fr. ironie ; L. ironia; Gr. upuvM, from fipur, a ilissembler in speech.] A mode of speech expressing a sense con- trary to that which the speaker intends to convey ; as, Nero was a very virtuous prince ; Pope Hildebrand was remarkable for his meekness and humility. When irony is uttered, the dissimulation is gen erally apparent from the manner of speak ing, as by a smile or an arch look, or per haps by an affected gravity of counte nance. Irony in writing may also be detected by the manner of expression. I'ROUS, a. [from ire.] Apt to be angry. 06s. Chaucer.

    ' IRRA'DIANCE, ? [L. irradians, from i>- IRRA'DIANCY, S "' radio. See Irradiate.]

    1. Emission of rays of light on an object.

    2. Beams of light emitted ; luster ; splendor.

    Milton. IRRA'DIATE, v. t. [L. irradio ; in and ra- dio, to shine. See Ray.]

    I R R

    1. To illuminate ; to brighten ; to make splen- did ; to adorn witli luster. South.

    a. To enlighten intellectually ; to illuminate ; as, to irradiate the mind. Milton.

    3. To animate by heat or light. Ilale.

    4. To decorate with shining ornaments. Pope.

    IRRA'DIATE, v. i. To emit rays; to shine.

    IRRA'DIATE, a. Adorned with shining or- iiaimiils. Mason.

    IRRADIATED, pp. Illuminated; enlight- ened ; made luminous or bright ; decorat- ed with rays of light or with something

    shining. IIRA'DIATING,

    IRRADIATING, p/)r. Illuminating; deco

    r^ilii.f; «]lli brams of light. ,

    IKIiADI A 'I'lON, n. The act of emitting!

    Iii'nih>.,lli^ht. I. Illiiniiniilidij ; briglitness.

    3. Intellectual light. Hale.

    4. Tlie act of emitting minute particles or effluvia from some substance. Encyc.

    IRRA'TIONAL, a. [L. irrationalis ; in and raiionalis, from ratio.]

    1. Not rational; void of reason or under standing. Brutes are irrational animals.

    2. Not according to the dictates of reason contrary to reason; absurd. To pursue a course of life which destroys happiness, is irrational.

    IRRATIONAL ITY, n. Want of reason oi

    the powers of understanding. IRRATIONALLY, adv. Without reason;

    in a manner contrary to reason ; absurdly IRRECLAIMABLE, a. [in and reclaima


    1. Not to be reclaimed; that cannot be re- called from error or vice ; that cannot be brought to reform. Addison

    2. That cannot be tamed. IRRECLA'IMABLY, adv. So as not to ad

    mit of reformation. IRRECONCI'LABLE, a. [in and reconcila- ble.]

    1. Not to be recalled to amity, or a state of friendship and kindness; retaining enmity that cannot be appeased or subdued ; as an irreconcilable enemy or faction.

    2. That cannot be appeased or subdued ; as rreconcilable enmity or hatred.

    3. That cannot be made to agree or be ( sistent ; incongruous ; incompatible irreconcilable absurdities. It is followed by toith or to. A man's conduct may be irreconcilable to or ivilh his avowed princi- ples.

    IRRE€ONCI'LABLENESS, n. The qual ity of being irreconcilable ; incongruity incompatibility.

    IRRECONCILABLY, adv. In a manner that precludes reconciliation. Men may be irnconcilably opposed to each other.

    IRREC'ONCILE, v. t. To prevent from be- ing reconciled. [lU.] Bp. Taylor.^

    IRRECONCI'LED, a. [in and reconciled.]

    1. Not reconciled.

    2. Not atoned for. Shak. IRRECONCrLEMENT,»i. Want of recon- ciliation ; disagreement.

    IRRECONCILIA'TION, n. Want of recon- ciliation. Prideaux. IRRECOVERABLE, «. [in and recoverable.]

    1. Not to be recovered or repaired ; as an irrecoverable loss.

    2. That cannot be regained. Time past is irrecoverable. Rogers.

    I R R

    3. That cannot be obtained by demand oi suit ; as a debt. Franklin.

    4. Not be remedied ; as irrecoverable misery. TUlotson.

    IRRECOV'ERABLENESS, n. The state of being irrecoverable. Donne.

    IRRECOVERABLY, adv. Beyond recov- ei7 ; beyond the possibility of being re- gained, repaired or remedied. Ilap|iiness may be irrecoverably lost.

    2. Beyond the possibility of being rccla-imed. A profligate may be irrecoverably abandon- ed to vice.

    IRRE€L'I'ERABLE,a. [L.tnand recupero, to recover.] Irrecoverable. [JVo/ used.]

    IRRECII'PERABLY, adv. Irrecoverably. [.Vol used.]

    IRREDEEMABLE, a. [in and redeemable.]

    1. That cannot be retleemcd.

    2. Not subject to be paid at the pleasure of goverinnent ; as irredeemable debts ; irre- deemable certificates or stock.

    Hamilton. Smollett.

    IRREDEE'MABLENESS, ) „ The quality

    IRREDEEMABIL'ITY, S ""of being not redeemable.

    IRREDU'CIBLE, a. [in and reducible.] Not to be reduced ; that cannot be brought back to a former state.

    a. That cannot be reduced or changed to a different state; as corpuscles of air irre- ducible iino water. Boyle.

    IRREDU'CIBLENESS, n. The quality of being irreducible.

    IRREFRA'GABLE, a. [in and refragaUe, L. refragor; re and th« root of frango, to break.]

    That cannot be refuted or overthrown ; in- contestable; undeniable; as an irrefraga- ble argument ; irrefragable reason or evi- dence. Alterbury. Swijl.

    IRREFRA'GABLENESS, ? , The quality

    IRUEFRAGABIL'ITY, { "of being ir- refragable or incapable of refutation.

    IRREFRA'GABLY, adv. With force or strength that cannot be overthrown ; with certainty beyond refutation. We say, the point in debate was irrefragably proved.

    IRREFU'TABLE, a. [Low L. irrefutahUts. See Refute.]

    That cannot be refuted or disproved.

    Bp. Hall.

    IRREFUTABLY, adv. Beyond the possi- bility of refutation. Romeyn.

    IRREuEN'ERACY, ?:. I'nregeneracv.

    J. M. Mason.

    IRREG'ULAR, a. [Fr. irreguiier ; L. irreg- ularis ; in and regularis, regula. See Reg- ular.]

    1. Not regular; not according to common form or rules ; as an irregular building or fortification.

    2. Not according to established principles or customs; deviating from usage; as the tVrcg-u/ar proceedings of a legislative body.

    3. Not conformable to nature or the usual operation of natural laws ; as an irregular action of the heart and arteries.

    4. Not according to the rules of art ; imme- thodical ; as irrfg^/ar verse ; an irregular discourse.

    ,5. Not in conformity to laws, human or di- vine ; deviating from the rules of moral

    rectitude ; vicious ; or propensities.

    irregular conduct

    I R R

    I R R

    I R R

    b. Not straight; as an vregular line or course.

    7. Not uniform ; as irregular motion.

    8. In grammar, an irregular noun or verb is one which deviates from the common rules in its inflections.

    IRREGULAR, n. A soldier not in regular

    service. Kent.

    IRREGULARITY, n. [Fr. irregularis.]

    1. Deviation from a straight line or from any common or establislied rule ; deviation from method or order ; as the irregularily of proceedings.

    2. Deviation from \\\\avf, human or divine, or from moral rectitude ; inordinate practice ; vice. It is a favorable symptom when a profligate man becomes ashamed of his irregularities.

    IRREGULARLY, adv. Without rule, meth- od or order.

    IRREG'ULATE, v. t. To make irregular ; to disorder. [Mot in use.] Broivn.

    IRREL'ATIVE, a. [in and relative.] Not relative ; unconnected.

    Irrelative chords, in music, liave no common sound.

    IRREL'ATIVELY, adv. Unconnectedly.


    IRREL'EVANCY, n. [from irrelevant.] "in- applicability ; the quality of not being ap- plicable, or of not serving to aid and sup- port ; as the irrelevancy of an argument or of testimony to a case in question.

    IRREL'EVANT, a. [in and Fr. relever, to raise, from elever, lever, L. elevo, levo, to raise.]

    Not relevant ; not applicable or pertinent ; not serving to support. We call evidence, testimony and arguments irrelevant to a cause, when they are inapphcable to it, or do not serve to support it.

    IRREL'EVANTLY, adv. Without being to the purpose.

    IRRELIE'VABLE, o. Not admitting relief. Hargrave.

    IRRELIG'ION, n. [Fr. ; m and religion.] Want of religion, or contempt of it; impi- ety. Dryden.

    IRR'ELIG'IONIST, n. One who is destitute of religious principles; a despiser of relig- ion. Nott.

    IRRELIG'IOUS, a. [Fr. irrdigieux.] Desti- tute of religious principles ; contemning religion ; impious ; ungodly.

    Shame and reproach are generally tlie por- tion of tlie impious and irreligious. South.

    2. Contrary to religion ; profane ; impious ; wicked ; as an irreligious speech ; irrelig- ious conduct.

    IRRELIG'IOUSLY, adv. With impiety; wickedly.

    IRRELIG'IOUSNESS, n. Want of religious principles or practices ; ungodhness.

    IRRE'MEABLE,a. [h.vremeabilis ; in and remeo, to return ; re and vieo, to pass.]

    Admitting no return ; as an iiremeable way. Dryden IRREME'DIABLE, a. [Fr.; in and remedi- able, from remedy.]

    1. Not to be remedied; that cannot be cur ed ; as an irremediable disease or evil.

    2. Not to be corrected or redressed ; as ir remediable error or mischief.

    IRREME'DIABLENESS, n. State of being irremediable.

    IRREME'DIABLY, adv. In a manner oj degree that precludes remedy, cure or cor rection. Bp. Taylor

    IRREMIS'SIBLE, a. [Fr. ; in andremissible ; L. remitto. See Remit.]

    Not to be pardoned ; that cannot be forgiven or remitted. IVhiston.

    IRREMIS'SIBLENESS, n. The quality of being unpardonable. Hammond.

    IRREMIS'SIBLY, adv. So as not to be par- doned. Sherwood.

    IRREMOVABIL'ITY, n. [See Irremovable.] The quality or state of being irrremova- ble. or not removable from office.

    IRREMOVABLE, a. [in and removable.]

    1. That cannot be moved or changed.


    2. That cannot be legally or constitutionally removed from office.

    IRREMU'NERABLE, o. [in and ;

    ble.] That cannot be rewarded. IRRENOWN'ED, a. Not renowned; not

    celebrated. Spensei

    IRREPARABIL'ITY, n. [See Irreparable.

    Tlie quality or state of being irreparable,

    or beyond repair or recovery. Sterne

    IRREPARABLE, a. [Fr. from L. irrepa-

    rabilis. See Repair.]

    1. That cannot be repaired or mended ; as an irreparable breach.

    2. That cannot be recovered or regained ; as an irreparable loss. Milton. Addison.

    IRREPARABLY, adv. In a manner or de- gree that precludes recovery or repair.

    IRREPEALABIL'ITY, n. [from irrepeala- ble.] The quahty of being irrepealable.

    IRREPE'ALABLE, a. [hi and repealaUe.] See Repeal]

    That cannot be legally repealed or annulled. Sullivan.


    IRREPE'ALABLY, adv. Beyond the power of repeal.

    IRREPENT'ANCE, n. Want of repent- ance ; impenitence. Mountagu.

    IRREPLEV'IABLE, a. [in and repleviable.] That cannot be replevied.

    IRREPLEVISABLE, a. [in and replevisa- ble.] That cannot be replevied.

    IRREPREHENS'IBLE, a. [in and repre- hensible.]

    Not reprehensible ; not to be blamed or cen- sured ; free from fault. Vattet, Trans.

    IRREPREHENS'IBLENESS, n. The qual- ity of being irreprehensible.

    IRREPREHENS'IBLY, adv. In a not to incur blame; without blame


    IRREPRESENT'ABLE, a. [in and repre- sent.]

    Not to be represented ; that cannot be figur- ed or represented by any image.


    IRREPRESS'IBLE, a. [in and repressible.] That cannot be repressed.

    IRREPROACHABLE, a. [in and reproach able.]

    That cannot be justly reproached ; free from blame ; upright ; innocent. An irreproach- able life is the highest honor of a rational being.

    IRREPROACHABLENESS, n. The quaU ty or state of being not reproachable.

    IRREPROACHABLY, adv. In a not to deserve reproach ; blamelessly deportment irreproachably upright.

    IRREPRdV'ABLE, a. [in and reprovable.] That cannot be justly reproved ; blame- less ; upright.

    IRREPRoV'ABLY, adv. So as not to be li- able to reproof or blame. fFeever

    IRRESIST'ANCE, n. s as z. [in and re- sistance.]

    Forbearance to resist ; non-resistance ; pas- sive submission. Paley

    IRRESISTIBIL'ITY, > [fromirresisU-

    IRRESIST'IBLENESS, { "-ble.]

    The quality of being irresistible ; power or force beyond resistance or opposition.


    IRRESIST'IBLE, a. [Fr.; in and resistible. See Resist.]

    That cannot be successfully resisted or op- posed ; superior to opposition.

    An irresistible law of our nature impels us to seek happiness. J. M. Mason.

    IRRESIST'IBLY, adv. With a power that

    cannot be successfully resisted or opposed.


    IRRES'OLUBLE, a. s as z. [L. in and re- solvo.]

    Not to be dissolved ; incapable of dissolution. Boyle.

    IRRES'OLUBLENESS, n. The quality of being indissoluble ; resistance to separa- tion of parts by heat. Boyk.

    IRRES'OLUTE, a. s as z. [in and resolute.] Not firm or constant in purpose ; not de- cided ; not determined ; wavering ; given to doubt. Irresolute men either resolve not at all, or resolve and re-resolve.

    IRRES'OLUTELY, adv. Without firmness of mind ; without decision.

    IRRES'OLUTENESS, n. Want of firm de- termination or purpose ; vacillation of mind.

    IRRESOLUTION, n. [Fr. ; in and resolv- tion.]

    Want of resolution ; want of decision in pur- pose ; a iJuctuation of mind, as in doubt, or between hope and fear. Addison.

    IRRESOLV'EDLY, adv. s as z. [in and re- solved.]

    Without settled determination. [lAttle used.] Boyle.

    IRRESPEeT'IVE, a. [in and respective.] Not regarding circumstances.

    According to this doctrine, it must be resolv- ed wholly into the absolute, irrespective will of God. Rogers.

    IRRESPECTIVELY, adv. Without regard to circumstances, or not taking them into consideration. Hammond.

    IRRES'PIRABLE, a. [in and respirable.] Unfit for respiration ; not having the qual- ities which support animal life ; as irres- pirable air.

    IRRESPONSIBILITY, n. Want of res- ponsibility.

    IRRESPONS'IBLE, a. [in and responsible.] Not responsible ; not liable or able to an- swer for consequences ; not answerable.

    IRRETENTIVE, a. Not retentive or apt to retain. Skelton. ■

    IRRETRIEVABLE, a. [in and retrievable, from retrieve.]

    Not to be recovered or repaired ; irrecov- erable ; irreparable : as an irretrievable

    IRRETRIEVABLENESS, n. The state of I being irretrievable.

    I li R

    IRRETRIEVABLY, adv. Irreparably; ir- recoverably ; in a manner not to be re- gained. yVoodimrd.

    IRRETURN'ABLE, a. Not to be returned.

    IRREV'ERENCE, n. [L. irreverentia ; in and reverentia. See Reverence.]

    1. Want of reverence, or want of venera- tion ; want of a due regard to the authori- ty and character of the Supreme Being Irreverence toward God is analagous tc disrespect toward man.

    2. The state of being disregarded ; applied to men. But this word is appropriately applicable to the Supreme Being and to bis laws and institutions.

    IRREVERENT, a. [Fr. ; in and reverent.]

    1. Wanting in reverence and veneration; not entertaining or manifesting due re- gard to the Supreme Being.

    2. Proceeding from irreverence ; expressive of a want of veneration ; as an irreverent thought, word or phrase.

    3. Wanting in respect to superiors.

    IRREVERENTLY, adv. Without due re- gard to the authority and character of the Supreme Being ; in an irreverent manner.

    2. Without due respect to superiors.

    IRREVERS'IBLE, a. [in and reversible.] That cannot be reversed ; that cannot be recalled, repealed or annulled ; as an irre- versible decree or sentence.

    IRREVERS'IBLENESS, n. State of being irreversible.

    IRREVERS'IBLY.orfi). In a manner which precludes a reversal or repeal.

    IRREVOCABILITY, ) State of being

    IRREV'OCABLENESS, \\\\ "irrevocable.

    IRREV'OeABLE, a. (Fr. from L. irrevoca- bilis ; in and revocalnlis, revoco ; re and voco, to call.]

    Not to be recalled or revoked ; that cannot be reversed, repealed or annulled ; as an irrevocable decree, sentence, edict or doom ; irrevocable fate ; an irrevocable promise.

    Milton. Dniden.

    IRREVOCABLY, adv. Beyond recall ; in a manner precluding repeal.

    IRREVO'KABLE, a. [in and revokable.] Not to be recalled ; irrevocable.

    Jlsial. Res.

    IRREVOLUBLE, a. That has no revolu- tion. [jYot used.] Milton.

    IR'RIGATE, V. t. [L. irrigo ; in and rigo, to vvater.]

    1. To water ; to wet ; to moisten ; to bedew


    2. To water, as land, by cau.siiig a stream flow upon it and spread over it.

    IR'RIGATED, ;!p. Watered; moistened. IR'RIGATING, ppr. Watering ; wetting ;

    moistening. IRRIGA'TION, n. The act of watering

    moistening. 2. In agriculture, the operation of causing

    water to flow over lands for nourishing

    plants. IRRIG'UOUS, a. [L. irriguus. See L

    R R


    1. Watered; watery; moist.

    The flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spreads her store. Milton.

    2. Dewv ; moist. Philips.

    Vol. I.

    IRRISTON, )!. s as z. [L. inisio, irrideo ; and rideo, to laugh.] The act of laugh- ...g at another. ff'oodward.

    IRRITABIL'ITY, Ji. [rrom irritable.] Stis- ceptibility of excitetnent ; the quality of being easily irritated or exasperated irritability of temper. In physiology, one of the four faculties of the sensorium, by which fibrous contrac- tions are caused in consequence of the irritations excited by external bodies.


    Irritability differs from sensibility ; the

    most irritable parts of the body not being at

    all sensible, and vice versa. The heart is

    endued with the greatest irritability.

    Haller. Encyc. IR'RITABLE, a. [from irritate.] Suscep- tible of excitement, or of heat and action as animal bodies. a. Very susceptible of anger or passion easily inflamed or exasperated ; as an irri table temper. 3.' In physiology, susceptible of contraction, in consequence of the appulse of an ex ternal body.

    In general, there is nothhig irritable in the animal body, but the muscular fibers.

    Haller. Encyc

    IR'RITANT, a. Irritating.

    IR'RITANT, n. That which excites or irri- tates. Rush

    IR'RITATE, V. I. [L. irrito : in and ira, wrath ; W. irad, pungency, passion, rage or perhaps more properly Irom Sw. reta to provoke ; G. reitzen, to tickle, vellicate irritate.]

    1. To excite heat and redness in the skin or flesh of living animal bodies, as by friction ; to inflame ; to fret ; as, to irritate a wound- ed part by a coarse bandage.

    2. To excite anger ; to provoke ; to tease to exasperate. Never irritate a child for trifling faults. The insolence of a tyrant irritates his subjects.

    3. To increase action or violence ; to highten excitement in.

    Air, if very cold, irritateth the flame.


    4. To cause fibrous contractions in an ex- treme part of the sensorium, as by the ap- pulse of an external body. Danrin

    IRRITATED, pp. Excited; provoked

    caused to contract. IRRITATING, ppr. Exciting; angering;

    provoking ; causing to contract. IRRITATION, JI. The operation of exci

    ting heat, action and redness in the skin

    or flesh of living ahimals, by friction

    other means.

    2. The excitement of action in the animal system by the application of food, medi cines and the like.

    3. Excitement of anger or passion ; provo cation ; exasperation ; anger.

    4. In physiology, an exertion or change of some extreme part of the sensorium resi- ding in the muscles or organs of sense, in consequence of the appulses of external bodies. Dartvin.

    Irritation is the eflect of a stimulus applied to an irritable part. Coxe.^

    IR'RITATIVE, a. Serving to excite or irri-i tate.


    I S E

    2. Accompanied with or produced by in- rcased action or irritation ; as an irrita- 've fever. Danrin.

    IR'RITATORY, a. Exciting ; stimulating. Hales.

    IRRORA'TION, n. [L. irroratio ; in and

    ros.] |The act of bedewing; the state of being moistened with dew.

    Spallanzani, Trans.

    IRRUP'TION, n. [Fr. from L. irruplio ; in and rumpo, to break or burst.] A bur.stnig in; a breaking or sudden, vio- lent rushing into a place. Holland has been often inundated by irn/;?/t07i» of the sea.

    2. A sudden invasion or incursion ; a sud- den, violent inroad, or entrance of inva- ders into a place or country ; as the irrup- tion of the northern nations into France and Italv.

    IRRLP'TIVE, a. Rushing in or upon.

    IS, v.i. iz. [Sax. is; U.isl; \\\\>.is: L.est; Gr. tyi ; Sans, asti ; Pers. est or hist.]

    The third person singular of the substantive verb, which is composed of three or four distinct roots, which appear in the words am, be, are, and is. Is and was coincide with tiie Latin esse, and Goth, wesan. In the indicative, present tense, it is thus va- ried ; I am, thou art, he, she, or it, is ; we, ye or you, they, are. In writing and speaking, the vowel is often dropped; as, he's gone ; there's none left.

    IS'ABEL, n. [Fr. isabelle.] Isabel yellow is a brownish yellow, with a shade of brownish red. Kincan.

    ISAGO(i'l€, I [Gr. doayuyixos.] In-

    ISAGO(5'ICAL, S "• troductory. Gregory.

    IS' AGON, II. [Gr. 1305, equal, and yut^ui, an angle.] A figure whose angles are equal.

    IS'ATIS, n. In zoology, the arctic fox or Ciinis lagopus. Encyc.

    ISCHIADIC, a. [L. ischiadicus, from ischias, the sciatica, from ischium, the hip; Gr. lOX^ov, toz"^^xos.]

    Pertaining to the hip. The ischiadic passion or disease is ranked by Cullen with rheu- matism. It is a rheumatic affection of the hip joint. It is called also iaah'ca. It is sometimes seated in the tendinous expan- sion which covers the muscles of the thigh, but its most common seat is in the muscles, or in the capsular ligament, and it is then either rheumatic or gouty.

    Parr. Johnson.

    ISCHURET'IC, a. [See Ischury.] Having the quality of relieving ischury.

    ISellURET'IC, n. A medicine adapted to relieve ischury. Coxe.

    IS'CHURY, n. [Gr. t«;i;ovpto, from tuju, to stop, and oipov, urine.]

    A stoppage or suppression of urine.

    Coxe. Encyc.

    IS'ERIN, ? [G. men, iron.] A mineral

    IS'ERINE, S "■ of an iron black color, and of a splendent metallic luster, occurring in small obtuse angular grains. It is harder than feldspar, and consists of the oxydsof iron and titanium, with a small portion of uranium. Ure.

    Ish, a termination of English words, is, in Sax. isc, Dan. isk, G. isch ; and not im- probably, it is the termination esque, in French, as in grotesque, It. esco, in gro- tesco, and the Latin termination of the in-


    oeptive verb, as in fervesco. Annexed to English adjectives, ish denotes diminu- tion, or a small degree of the quality ; as whitish, from white ; yellowish, from yellow.

    Ish annexed to names forms a possessive ad- jective ; as in Swedish, Danish, English.

    Ish annexed to common nouns forms an ad- jective denoting a participation of the qualities expressed by the noun ; as fool- ish, from fool; roguish, from rogue ; bru- tish, from brute. This is the more com- mon use of this termination.

    I'SIeLE, a pendant shoot of ice. is more generally written icicle. [See Ice and Icicle.]

    I'SINGLASS, n. i'zinglass. [that is, ise or ice glass.]

    A substance consisting chiefly of gelatin, of a firm texture and whitish color, prepared from the sounds or air-bladders of certain fresh water fishes, particularly of the huso, a fish of the sturgeon kind, found in the rivers of Russia. It is used as an aggluti- nant, and in fining wines. Encyc.

    ISINGLASS-STONE. [See Mica.]

    IS'LAMISM, n. [from the Ar. ^X^

    salama, to be free, safe or devoted to God.] The true fiiith, according to the Mohamme- dans ; Mohammedanism. Encyc, ISLAND, n. i'land. [This is an absurd com- pound of i'le and land, that is, land-in-wa- ter land, or ieland-land. There is no such legitimate word in English, audit is found only in books. The genuine word alway used in discourse is our native word. Sax. ealond, D. G. eiland.]

    1. A tract of land surrounded by water.

    2. A large mass of floating ice, is called an island of ice.

    rSLANDER, n. i'lander. An inhabitant of|

    an ieland. ISLE, ? ., [Fr. isle or He, from It. isola, ILE, S "■ L. insula.]

    1. A tract of land surrounded by water, or a detached portion of land embosomed in the ocean, in a lake or river.

    The isles shall wait forhis law. Is. xlii.

    2. A passage in a church. [See Msle.] ISLET, n. i'let. A little ieland. ISOCH'RONAL, \\\\ [Gr. laof, equal, and ISOell'RONOUS, \\\\ "■ xfooos, time.] Uniform iu time ; of equal time ; performed

    ill equal times. An isochronal line, is that in which a heavy body is supposed to descend without ac- celeration. Bailey. Isochronal vibrations of a pendulum are such as are performed in the same space of time. Encyc IS'OLATE, V. I. [It. isola, an isle or ieland.] To place in a detached situation ; to pi; by itself; to insulate. Med. Repos. IS'OLATED, pp. or a. [Fr.isoU ; It. isolalo,

    frimi isola, an isle.] Standing detached from others of a like

    kind ; placed by itself or alone. IS'OLATING, pfr. Placing by itself or de

    inched like an isle. ISOMORPH'ISM, n. [Gr. taoj, like, and

    fiop^jj, form.] The quality of a substance by which it is capable of replacing another in a com- pound, without an alteration of its primi- tive form.

    I s s

    ISOMORPH'OUS, o. Capable of retaining its primitive form in a compound.

    Ed. Rev.

    IS'ONOMY, n. [Gr. 1005, equal, and xofioj, law.]

    Equal law ; equal distribution of rights and ])rivileges. Mitford.

    ISOPERIMET'RI€AL, a. [See Isoperime-

    Having equal boundaries ; as isoperimetrical figures or bodies.

    ISOPERIM'ETRY, n. [Gr. tffoj, equal, xifi,, around, and jutfiov, measure.]

    In geometry, the science of figures having equal perimeters or boundaries.

    ISOS'CELES, a. [Gr. tijosxfTu/s ; i^oi, equal, and

    Having two legs only that are equal ; as an isosceles triangle.

    IS'RAELITE, n. A descendant of Israel or ' Jacob ; a Jew.

    ISRAELIT'IC, } ,, Pertaining to Israel.

    ISRAELI'TISH, \\\\ "' J. P. Smith.

    ISOTHERM'AL, a. [Gr. too;, equal, proper and difitu., heat.] Warmed by its own heat. Ure.

    ISOTON'I€, a. [Gr. 1505, equal, and roi-oj, tone.]

    Having equal tones. The isotonic system in music, consists of intervals, in which each concord is alike tempered, and which there are twelve equal semitones.

    IS'SUABLE, a. [from issue.] That may be issued. In laiv, an isstiablc term, is one in which issues are made up. Blackslone.

    ISSUE, n. ish'u. [Fr. issue; It u. door, and uscire, to go out. It may cide in origin with Heb. Cli. XX', Eth. (DBA watsa.]

    L The act of passing or flowing out ; a mo- ving out of any inclosed place; e applied to water or other fluid, to smoke, to a body of men, &c. We say, an issue of water from a pipe, from a spring, or from a river ; an issue of blood from a wound, of air from a bellows; an issue of people from a door or house.

    2. A sending out ; as the issue of an order from a commanding oiRcer or from a court; the issue of money from a treasury.

    .3. Event ; consequence ; end or ultimate re- sult. Our present condition will be best for us in the issue. Passage out ; outlet.

    To God the Lord belong the issues from death. Ps. Lxviii.

    5. Progeny ; a child or children ; offspring as, he had issue, a son ; and we speak of issue of the whole blood or half blood. A man dies without issue.

    6. Produce of the earth, or profits of land,| tenements or other property. A convey ed to B all his right to a term for years,] with all the issues, rents and profit

    In surgery, a fontanel ; a little ulcer made in some part of an animal body, to pro- mote discharges. Encyc Evacuation ; discharge ; a flux or run- ning. Lev. xii. Matt. ix. In law, the close or result of pleadings ;! the point of matter depending in suit, on which the parties join, and put the case to trial by a j ury. Cotcel.


    10. A giving out from a repository ; delive- ry ; as an issue of rations or provisions from a store, or of powder from a maga-

    IS'SUE, V. i. [It. uscire. See the Noun.]

    1. To pass or flow out ; to run out of any inclosed i)lace ; to proceed, as from a source ; as, water issues from springs ; blood issues from wounds; sap or gum issues from trees; light issues from the sun.

    2. To go out ; to rush out. Troops issued from the town and attacked the besiegers.

    3. To proceed, as progeny ; to spring. Of thy sons that shall issue from thee — 2

    Kings XX.

    4. To proceed ; to be produced ; to arise ; to grow or accrue ; as rents and profits issuing from laud, tenements, or a capital stock.

    5. In legal pleadings, to come to a point in fact or law, on which the parties join and rest the decision of the cause. Our law- yers say, a cause issues to the court or to the jury ; it issues in demurrer.

    6. To close ; to end. We know not how the cause will issue.

    IS'SUE, V. t. To send out; to put into cir- culation ; as, to issue money from a treas- ury, or notes from a bank.

    2. To send out; to deliver from authority; as, to issue an order from the department of war ; to issue a writ or precept.

    3. To deliver for use ; as, to issue provisions from a store.

    IS'SUEO, pp. Descended ; sent out. Shak.

    IS'SUELESS, a. Having no issue or proge- ny ; wanting children. Shak.

    IS'SUING, ppr. Flowing or passing out ; proceeding from : sending' out.

    IS'SUING, n. A flowing or passing out. . Emission ; a sending out, as of bills or notes.

    ISTHMUS, n. ist'mus. [L. from Gr. wS/toj.] A neck or narrow slip of land by which two continents are connected, or by which a peninsula is united to the main land. Such is the Neck, so called, which connects Boston with the main land at Roxbury. But the word is applied to laud of consid- erable extent, between seas; as the isth- mus of Darien, which connects North and South America, and the isthmus between the Euxine and Caspian seas.

    IT, pron. [Sax. hit ; D. hef ; G. es ; L. id.]

    1. A substitute orpronoun of the neuter gen- der, sometimes called demonstrative, and standing for any thing except males and females. " Keep thy heart with all dili- gence, for out of it are the issues of life." Prov. iv. Here it is the substitute for heart.

    2. It is much used as the nominative case or word to verbs called impersonal ; as it rains ; it snows. In this case, there is no determinate thing to which it can be re- ferred.

    In other cases, it may be referred to matter, affair, or some other word. Is it come to this ?

    Very often, it is used to introduce a sen- tence, preceding a verb as a nominative, but referring to a clause or distinct mem- ber of the sentence. " It is well ascertain- ed, that the figure of the earth is an oblate spheroid." What is well ascertained?

    I T C

    I T E

    I V Y

    The answer will show : the figure of the earth is an oblate spheroid ; it [that] is well ascertained. Hero it represents the clause of the sentence, " the figure of the earth," &c. If the order of the sentence is inverted, the use of it is superseded. The figure of the earth is an oblate sphe- roid ; that is well ascertained.

    It, hke that, is often a substitute for s sentence or clause of a sentence.

    4. /( often begins a sentence, when a per- sonal pronoun, or the name of a person, or a masculine noun follows. It ia I : be not afraid. It was Judas who betrayed Christ. When a question is asked, it fol- lows the verb ; as, who was it that betray- ed Christ.'

    5. It is used also for the state of a person or affair.

    How is it with our general ? Shale.

    G. It is used after intransitive verbs very in- definitely and sometimes ludicrously, but rarely in an elevated style.

    If Abraham brought all with him, it is not probable he meant to walk it back for his pleas- ure. Raleigh. The Lacedemonians, at the straits of Ther- mopylae, when their anns failed them, fought j7 out with nails and teeth. Dryden. Whetlier the charmer sinner it, or saint it.


    ITAL'IAN, a. Pertaining to Italy.

    ITAL'IAN, n. A native of Italy.

    2. The language used in Italy, or by the Ital- ians.

    ITAL'IANATE, v. t. To render Itahan, or conformable to Italian customs.

    ITAL'IANIZE, V. i. To play the Italian ; to speak Italian. Colgrave.

    ITAL'le, a. Relating to Italy or its charac- ters.

    ITAL'ICIZE, v.t. To write or print in Ital- ic characters.

    ITALICS, n. phi. Italic letters or charac- ters ; characters first used in Italy, andl which stand inclining ; tlie letters in which this clause is printed. They are used to distinguish words for emphasis, import- ance, antithesis, &c.

    ITCH, n. [Sax.gictha; D. jeuUe ; Ch. ■\\\\:yr\\\\ ;

    Ar. ASC=.;Eth. rhTl^ hakke. Seethe Verb.]

    1. A cutaneous disease of the human race appearing in small watery pustules on the skin, accompanied with an micasiness or irritation that inclines the patient to use friction. This disease is sujiposed by some authors to be occasioned by a small insect, a species of Acarus, as the micro- scope detects these insects in the vesicles. Others suppose the ])ustules only form a nidus for the insects. This disease is ta- ken only by contact or contagion.

    2. The sensation in the skin occasioned by the disease.

    3. A constant teasing desire ; as an itch fori praise ; an itch for scribbling. Dryden

    ITCH, V. i. [G. jucken, D. jeuken, to itch ;

    Ch. pn; Ar. ^=.; Eth. rhTltl hakak,

    to scratch. Hence Ar. to be affected with the itch. Class Cg. No. 22.]

    1. To feel a particular imeasiness in the skin, which inclines the person to scratch the part.

    2. To have a constant desire or teasing in- clination ; as itching ears. 2 Tim. iv.

    ITCH'ING, ppr. Having a sensation that calls for scratching.

    2. Having a constant desire.

    ITCH'Y, a. Infected with the itch.

    I'TEM, adv. [L. item, also.] Also ; a word used when something is to be added.

    I'TEM, n. An article ; a separate particu- lar in an account. The account consists of many items.

    2. A liint ; an innuendo.

    I'TEM, V. t. To make a note or memoran- dum of. Addison

    IT'ERABLE, a. That may be repeated [JVot used.] Brown

    IT'ERANT, a. [See Iterate.] Repeating; as an iterant echo. Bacon.

    IT'ERATE, V. t. [L. Hero, to repeat, from' iter, a going.]

    To repeat ; to utter or do a second time ; as, to iterate advice or admonition ; to iterate.^ a trespass.

    ITERATED, pp. Repeated.

    IT' ERATING, ;>;»•. Repeating; uttering or doing over again.

    ITERA'TION, n. [L. ileratio.] Repetition recital or performance a second time.


    ITERATIVE, a. Repeating.

    ITlN'ERANT.a. [L.ifer, a way or journey.]

    Passing or traveling about a country ; wan- dering; not settled; as an itinerant preacher.

    ITINERANT, n. One who travels from place to place, particularly a preacher ; one who is unsettled.

    ITINERARY, n. [Fr. itineraire ; Low L. itinerarium, from iter, a going.]

    An account of travels or of the distances of places; as the jYincraTT/ of Antoninus.

    ITIN'ERARV, a. TraveUng ; passing from place to place, or done on a journey.


    ITIN'ERATE, v. i. [L. Her, a going ; Low L. itijiero.]

    To travel from place to place, particularly for the pur|)ose of preacliing; to wander without a settled habitation.

    ITSELF', pron. [it and self.] The neutral reciprocal pronoun, or substitute applied to things. The thing is good in itself; it stands by itself.

    Borrowing of foreigneis, in itself, makes not the kingdom rich or poor. Locke.

    IT'TRIUM, Ji. The undecomposablc base of yttria ; but better written yttrium, unless ytlria should be written ittna.

    I'VORY, n. [Vr.ivoire; It. avorio; h.ebur.] The tusk of an elephant, a hard, solid sub- stance, of a fine white color. This tooth is sometimes si.v or seven feet in length, hol- low from the base to a certain liighth,and filled with a compact medullary substance, seeming to contain a great number of glands. The ivory of Ceylon and Achem does not become yellow in wearing, and hence is preferred to that of Guinea.


    I'VORY, a. Consisting of ivory ; as an i»or^ comb.

    I'VORY-BLACK, n. A fine kind of soft blacking.

    rVY, n. [Sax. ifig ; G. epheu.] A parasit- ic plant of the genus Hedera, which creeps along the ground, or if it finds support, rises on trees or buildings, cHmbing to a great highth.

    Direct tlie claspint; ivy where to climb.


    I'VYED, a. Overgrown with ivy.


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    * The 160,000-plus page archive (1-1-2011) of may or may not contain a tiny amount copyrighted news/political reporting material whose use may or may not have been authorized by the copyright owners;

    * To the best of our knowledge we believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the web constitutes a "fair use" of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law).

    * If readers wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond "fair use", you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

    * "Fair use" notwithstanding, we will immediately comply with any copyright owner who can show our use of such material is not in compliance with the fair Use law.

    Thank You for your part in the Global Ministry of - as of 1-1-2011 - in nearly 200 nations, approaching 40,000 associated Bible Believing Ministers and over 30,000 Ministries.

    Editor: NewtonStein


* Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . . we in the USA are carrying on their "Christian Values of Hundreds of Years" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way and contrary to every Scripture.

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