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The Adversary’s Goals:
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Jamestown - named for King James of KING JAMES BIBLE fame - was the first permanent settlement of the Virginia Colony, founded in 1607. They also gave his name to the river in whose channle they sailed for some miles and settled.
The very first settlement, remembered as CROATIA, founded in 1587-89, disappeared mysteriously: perhaps disease, perhaps famine, perhaps massacre, perhaps some of all of the above, and perhaps - settlers simply intermingled and married with the natives to survive.
Jamestown, however, survived . . . and served as capital of Virginia until 1699, when the seat of government was moved to Williamsburg.
Virginia was named for the VIRGINS - VIRGIN MARY and VIRGIN QUEEN ELIZABETH - who claimed she was MARRIED TO CHRIST, and that her relationship to God was so all-consuming and so busy establishing Bible Christianity in the UK and to the new World . . .
. . . that there was neither time nor desire for a man in her long and grand reign as the most power woman in the world, and the Greatest Queen of England - ever!
Arrival and First Landing
The Virginia Company of London sent an expedition to establish a settlement in the Virginia Colony in December 1606. After an unusually lengthy trip sailing across the Atlantic Ocean from England, the three ships,
>> the Susan Constant (sometimes known as the Sarah Constant),
>> the Godspeed,
>> the Discovery (smallest of the three);
They reached the New World at the southern edge of the mouth of what is now known as the Chesapeake Bay.
The ships left Blackwall, now part of London, with 105 men and boys and 39 crew-members, by Captain Christopher Newport. This was 41-42 members larger than the Puritan-Pilgrims to come in 1620, Boston area.
The voyage was uncommonly long; one of the passengers was found dead in the Caribbean.
From April 6 to 10, 1607, the Godspeed, Susan Constant and the Discovery made four stops in the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico for provisions on their way to the New World.
After more than four months, the 104 men and boys, along with the crew-members, finally arrived at their chosen settlement spot in Virginia;
There were no women on the first ships.
Arriving at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay in late April, they named the Virginia capes after the sons of their king, the southern Cape Henry, for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the northern Cape Charles, for his younger brother, Charles, Duke of York.
On April 26, 1607, upon landing at Cape Henry, Chaplain Robert Hunt offered a prayer and they set up a cross near the site of the current Cape Henry Memorial.
A party of the men explored the area and had a minor conflict with some Virginia Indians.
Exploration, seeking a site
Map in Marker in Puerto Rico which traces the routes taken by the Godspeed, Susan Constant and the Discovery and which commemorates their stopping in Puerto Rico from April 5–10, 1607 on their way to Virginia.
Sealed Orders from the Virginia Company were opened which named Captain John Smith as a member of the governing Council.
Amazingly, John Smith had been arrested for mutiny on the voyage over by Christopher Newport, and was incarcerated aboard one of the ships.
He had been scheduled to be hanged upon arrival, but was later freed by Captain Newport after the opening of the orders.
The same orders also directed them to seek an inland site for their settlement, which would afford protection from enemy ships.
Therefore, the English Colonists re-boarded their three ships and proceeded into the Chesapeake Bay landing again at what is now called Old Point Comfort in the City of Hampton.
In the following days, the ships ventured inland upstream along the James River seeking a suitable location for their settlement as defined in their orders. The James River and the initial settlement they sought to establish, Jamestown (originally called "James His Towne") were named in honor of King James I, of Bible fame.
Arriving on May 14, 1607, the colonists chose Jamestown Island for their settlement largely because the Virginia Company advised them to select a location that could be easily defended from ocean-going navies of the other European states . . .
. . . that were also establishing New World colonies and were periodically at war with England, notably the Dutch Republic, France, and especially Spain.
The island fit the criteria, as it had excellent visibility up and down what is today called the James River, and it was far enough inland to minimize the potential of contact and conflict with enemy ships.
The water immediately adjacent to the land was deep enough to permit the colonists to anchor their ships yet have an easy and quick departure if necessary. An additional benefit of the site was that the land was not occupied by the Virginia Indians, most of whom in the area were affiliated with the Powhatan Confederacy.
The settlers came ashore, and quickly set about constructing their initial fort. Within a month, James Fort covered an acre on Jamestown Island, although it burned down the following year. The wooden palisaded walls formed a triangle around a storehouse, church, and a number of houses.
As the Jamestown settlers found a spot where they wished to build, some miles up the James River, they chose a knoll overlooking the Rive, presumably high enough to avoid flooding.
They cleared the trees from the ground and began the building of a village. The spot is more of an island than a peninsula, for the marshy isthmus that connects it with the mainland is often covered with water.
GOD HONORED, INVOKED!
Robert Hunt, the pastor of the colony - also called "Chaplain", preached a sermon and invoked the blessings of God upon their undertaking.
Then in the beautiful sunshine among the wonderful trees by the river, where the delicious perfume of flowers filled the air, the ground was cleared for the first Church-house in the New World.
North American Native Tribes were hostile for some time, and the settlement built a church that was surrounded by a real stockade.
The first church-house was very simple.
"When I first went to Virginia," says Captain Smith, "I well remember we did hang an awning (which was an old sail) to three or four trees to shadow us from the sun.
Our walls were rails of wood, our seats unhewed trees, till we cut planks;
Our pulpit a bar of wood nailed to two neighboring trees; in foul weather we shifted into an old, rotten tent, for we had few better. . . .
This was our church till we built a homely thing, like a barn, set upon crotchets, covered with rafts, sedge, and earth; so were also the walls."
Certainly, the Church-house at Jamestown was NOT like the Catholic Cathedrals of Europe - some that took hundreds of workers a full century to complete at enormous cost!
But the Church at Jamestown was built with blood, sweat and tears - and love for the Lord Jesus Christ! It wasn't grand, but it was the best they had . . . until they could do better!
And very importantly: They built the Church-house better than any of the houses for the officers or leaders of the people, or the "rich".
Captain Smith Continues:
"The best of our houses were of the like curiosity, but, for the most part, of far worse workmanship, that could neither well defend wind nor rain.
Yet we had daily common prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two sermons, and every three months communion till our minister died."
The new church, the homely thing like a barn - was burned while Captain Smith was a prisoner among the Indians - and when he was able to get away and return to Jamestown, he found the settlers building a house for the president of the council!
Soon after, Smith himself was installed in that office, and "his First-executive-Order" (so to speak) was that the "building of the palace to be stayed, as a thing needless," and the church to be rebuilt at once!
**NOW you have some clues as to WHY God blessed Jamestown in the NEW WORLD!
 First landing they placed a cross!
 Dedicated the settlement with a Bible Message and Preaching Meeting and prayer.
 Named their Town-Colony after Christian Monarchs;
 Built a Church-house FIRST!
 When burned down, they CEASED the build they were working on and RE-BUILT the Church-house
Commissioners under the new charter arrived at Jamestown in the spring of 1610.
Of the 490 persons left there by Smith the previous autumn, only sixty remained alive.
They had refused to follow the admonitions of Smith to provide food for the winter, but relied upon the neighboring Indians to supply them.
When Smith departed, the Indians showed hostility and withheld corn and game.
They matured a plan for the destruction of the settlers at Jamestown, when POCAHONTAS, like an angel of mercy, hastened to the settlement under cover of darkness, warned them of their danger, put them on their guard, and saved them.
Terrible had been the sufferings of the colonists through the winter.
More than 400 had perished by famine and sickness in the space of six months. It was long after referred to by the survivors as "the starving time."
The settlers were in the depths of despair when the commissioners arrived. Sir Thomas Gates, who was acting governor, saw no other way to save the lives of the starving men than to abandon the settlement, sail to Newfoundland, and distribute them among the fishermen there.
They were embarked in four pinnaces, but, at dawn, they met Lord Delaware, with ships, supplies, and emigrants, at the mouth of the river.
All turned back and, landed at deserted Jamestown, they stood in silent prayer and thanksgiving on the shore, and then followed Pastor-Chaplain Buckle (who had succeeded Mr. Hunt) to the church, where he preached a sermon in the evening twilight.
The congregation sang anthems of praise, and were listened to by crouching natives in the adjacent woods.
In that little chapel at Jamestown, Pocahontas was baptized and married a few years later.
The fire that consumed the first church also destroyed a large portion of the town and surrounding palisades.
There seems to have been another destructive fire there afterwards, for Smith, speaking of the arrival of Governor Argall, in 1617, says:
"In Jamestown he found but five or six houses, the church [burned] down, the palisades broken, the bridge [across the marsh] in pieces, the well of fresh water spoiled, and the storehouse used for a church."
FIRST AFRICAN AMERICANS:
In the same year Smith's Generall Historic recalls a statement by John Rolfe: "About the last of August came a Dutch man-of-war and sold us 20 Negars."
A more desirable company came in 1621 through the shipment by the company of "respectable young women for wives of those colonists who would pay the cost of transportation "-at first 120 lbs. of tobacco, afterwards 150 lbs.
In July, 1620, the colony was 4,000 strong and shipped to England 40,000 pounds of tobacco.
This was raised with the aid of many bound apprentices-boys and girls picked up in the streets of London and sent out-and of many "disorderly persons" sent by order of the King."
Captain Smith's Jamestown Map
Suddenly a great calamity overtook the colony.
The friendly Chief Powhatan died, and his successor, OPECHANCANOUGH, who had always been hostile, planned to massacre of the white people - all 4,000 of them!
The hostile Chief attacked with terrible force late in March, 1622, and eighty plantations were reduced to eight.
The remaining settlers at Jamestown escaped the calamity through the good wil of Chanco, a friendly Indian, who gave them timely warning of the plot, and they were prepared for defense.
Jamestown became a refuge from the storm for the western settlements.
Sickness and famine ensued, and the colony was greatly reduced in number, for many left through fear.
However, more and more settlers kept coming and soon recovered, and increased in strength.
NEW BRICK CHURCH! A new and substantial church was built, with a heavy brick tower, probably between 1620 and 1625.
During Bacon's Rebellion, in 1676, Jamestown was still "the only village in all Virginia" - was entered by that leader, after driving away the governor, and, in a council of war it was determined to burn the town, a rumor having reached Bacon that the royalist troops were coming upon him.
The torch was applied just at twilight, and the Virginia capital was laid in ashes.
Nothing remained the next morning but the brick tower of the church and some said a bit of a chimney here or there!
Explanation: island vs peninsulaJamestown is often referred to as an island. During periods of the past 400 years, it has been joined by a narrow land bridge (or "isthmus") to the mainland; at other times, the flow and fluctuations of the James River severed and recreated the connection, thus perhaps the confusion in definition.Although it is technically a peninsula when thus connected, functionally, in many ways, Jamestown throughout the past 400 years has been an island. Largely cut off from the mainland's typical game and wildlife by natural forces, the shallow harbor afforded the earliest settlers docking of their ships. This was its great attraction, one which came at the price of other far less favorable conditions.
Challenges of the locationIt soon became apparent why the Virginia Indians did not occupy the site, and the inhospitable conditions severely challenged the settlers. Jamestown Island is a swampy area, and furthermore, it was isolated from most potential hunting game such as deer and bears which like to forage over much larger areas. The settlers quickly hunted and killed off all the large and smaller game that was to be found on the tiny peninsula. The low, marshy area was infested with mosquitoes (which carried malaria killing over 135 settlers) and other airborne pests, and the brackish water of the tidal James River was not a good source of water. Many settlers died from drinking untreated water.The settlers who came over on the initial three ships were not well-equipped for the life they found in Jamestown. In addition to the "gentlemen", who were not accustomed to manual or skilled labor, they consisted mainly of English laborers. Many suffered from saltwater poisoning which led to infection, fevers and dysentery. As a result of these conditions, most of the early settlers died of disease and starvation.Despite the immediate area of Jamestown being uninhabited, the settlers were attacked less than a fortnight after their arrival on May 14, by Paspahegh Indians who succeeded in killing one of the settlers and wounding eleven more. By June 15, the settlers finished the initial triangle James Fort. A week later, Newport sailed back for London on the Susan Constant with a load of pyrite ("fools' gold") and other supposedly precious minerals, leaving the tiny Discovery behind for the use of the colonists. Newport returned twice from England with additional supplies in the following 18 months, leading what were termed the First and Second Supply missions.Original Council, notables of Jamestown in 1607King James I had outlined the members of the Council to govern the settlement in the sealed orders which left London with the colonists in 1606.Those named for the initial Council were: Bartholomew Gosnold, Captain of the Godspeed Christopher Newport, Captain of the Susan Constant, later of the Sea Venture George Kendall John Martin (later founder of Martin's Brandon Plantation) George Percy, later twice president of the council John Ratcliffe, Captain of the Discovery, second President of the Council John Smith, third President of the Council, and author of many books from the period. Edward Maria Wingfield, first President of the Council at JamestownThe Council received additional members from the First and Second Supply missions brought by Captain Newport. These were: Matthew Scrivener (First Supply) Peter Winne (Second Supply)Also notable among the first settlers was: Robert Hunt, chaplainChaplain Hunt gave the first prayer at Cape Henry on April 26, 1607, and held open-air services at Jamestown until shelter and a more appropriate church were built there.First and Second Supply missionsA week after the initial Fort at Jamestown was completed, Newport sailed back for London in June 1607 on the Susan Constant with a load of pyrite ("fools' gold") and other supposedly precious minerals, leaving behind 104 colonists, and the tiny Discovery for the use of the colonists.Newport returned twice from England with additional supplies in the following 18 months, leading what was termed the First and Second Supply missions.The "First Supply" arrived on January 2, 1608. Again, it contained insufficient provisions and more than 70 new colonists. Likewise, Newport's "Second Supply" brought about 70 more settlers, including some craftsmen and "Eight Dutchmen and Poles" hired in Royal Prussia, but added little to the welfare of the colony.Despite original intentions to grow food and trade with the Virginia Indians, the barely surviving colonists became dependent upon the supply missions.First women settlersOn October 1, 1608, a company of settlers arrived aboard the English Mary and Margaret with the Second Supply. The journey took roughly three months. Included in the Second Supply were Thomas Forrest, Esqand "Mistress Forrest and Anne Burras her maide." Mistress Forrest and Anne Burras were the first two women known to have come to the Jamestown Colony.Remains unearthed at Jamestown in 1997 may be those of Mistress Forrest."During in-situ removal of the burial JR102 in 1996, Jamestown Rediscovery archaeologists discovered the outline of a second grave. Just a few feet away, the second grave was oriented on a similar northeast to southwest angle, and was probably dug within a few years of JR102.' 'The burial, called JR156, was excavated in 1997. A number of small artifacts and flecks of brick and charcoal in the grave fill indicated that the grave was probably later than JR102, which had relatively "clean" fill. The very earliest features on a site like Jamestown generally contain the fewest artifacts, while features even a few years later can contain more evidence of the increased activities going on within the fort.Like JR102, JR156 was a coffin burial, although the coffin was quite different. The coffin in JR102 was six-sided and appeared to be flat-lidded, and it was evidenced only by soil stains and nails. In JR156, some coffin wood survived and the locations of the nails indicated a gabled lid. Although a coffin burial indicates that the individual may have had some status, gabled coffins were fairly common during the early 17th century. Analysis of the coffin wood revealed that it was built of yellow pine, a harder member of the pine family.Oddly, although the coffin wood was fairly well preserved, the skeletal remains were not. The bones that survived were in very deteriorated condition. Fortunately, the skull was slightly elevated and could be removed intact. The skeleton was carefully drawn and photographed in place, then removed, although many of the bones were fragmentary. The position of the body indicated that, in addition to the coffin, the body had been tightly wrapped in a shroud.Dr. Doug Owsley and Karin Bruwelheide of the Smithsonian Institute examined the skeleton in the field. Their preliminary conclusions were that JR156C was a caucasian woman, about 35 years old. She was very small, possibly only about 4'9" or so in height. She had only 5 teeth at the time of her death, the rest having been lost many years before. The cause of her death was not evident. Stable isotope analysis done on the bones indicated that she had a diet primarily of wheat, rather than corn. This usually indicates a recently landed European.Documents indicate that the first women at Jamestown were Mistress Forest and her maid Anne Burras, who landed with the Second Supply in 1608. Anne Burras is known to have married John Laydon, and both were listed in the 1625 muster. Mistress Forrest, probably the wife of gentleman Thomas Forrest, is not mentioned again in the historical record, and may have died soon after her arrival at Jamestown. Scholars speculate that JR156 could be the grave of Mistress Forrest.The JR156 skull was too fragile to do a make a mold for a "facial reconstruction" like the one made of JR102C. Instead, scientists made a replica of the skull using a CT scan to form a laser-cured, 3-dimensional resin model. From this model, sculptor Sharon Long created an image using the same methods she used for the facial reconstruction of JR102C. The resulting sculpture is one of only two likenesses of women from early Jamestown, the other being the engraved portrait of Pocahontas."On page 151 of the 1907 re-printing of The Travels of Captaine John Smith, the list of passengers on the second supply is provided. In the second column, under the first heading, the last name listed isThomas Forrest (spelled with two "r"s, unlike later Internet lists). The names are not in alphabetical order. At the bottom of the page, Smith writes "Mistresse Forrest, and Anne Burras her maide;"On the next page, Smith tells of a confrontation with Powhatan, noting that there was snow on the ground. Then at the end of the same paragraph, on his return from this confrontation, Smith writes: "About this time there was a marriage betwixt John Laydon and Anne Burras; which was the first marriage we had in Virginia.". This may give a clue as to when Mistresse Forrest died. It is unlikely that a living Mistresse Forrest would have permitted her maid to leave her service and marry, especially as one may reasonably presume that her passage was paid for by Thomas Forrest. However, as Owsley and Bruwelheide note above, Mistresse Forrest " ...had a diet primarily of wheat, rather than corn. This usually indicates a recently landed European.". If she died before the English wheat ran out, then it would be most likely that Thomas Forrest would have released her maid from service, and Anne would either have to return to England or marry. She chose marriage. From this and the forensic evidence of the Smithsonian, one may deduce that Mistress Forrest did not live long in the new colony of Jamestown and perhaps died before Captain Newport sailed for England in December 1608.Her husband, Thomas Forrest was listed as a shareholder in the Second Charter of Virginia, granted by James I to the London Company of Virginia on May 23, 1609. This was half a year after he was recorded as having sailed on the Second Supply as a gentleman colonist with his wife. The evidence above may be interpreted to suggest that Thomas soon became a widower. Thomas then seems to vanish from the annals of American colonial history until more than a decade later when he and his son Peter are recorded as being in Maryland, where the family became prosperous and well known in American history. The family is known to have thrived, and become prominent in the Maryland colony and then the new nation of the United States (The Statesman and Revolutionary War hero Uriah Forrest is a descendant of Peter, for example). There are many genealogies on the Internet connected to Peter Forrest, Thomas' son, that seek to claim "first family of Virginia" status through Mistress Forrest. Unfortunately, Captain John Smith's book and the Smithsonian evidence suggests this is a barren hope. The true first family of Virginia would be Anne Burras, Margaret Forrest's maid, who married fellow-colonist John Laydon, a carpenter. As Smith states, theirs was the first marriage recorded in English colonial America. According to the church records, Peter Forrest was born in Morborne, Huntingdonshire, England in 1601. His mother was Elizabeth Dancastle, born Sept 16. 1570. His father's second wife was Margaret Foxe whom he married on August 16, 1605 in St. Giles in the Fields, London, England. Foxe was born in 1576 in St. Giles, London, England, according to the church records. Peter Forrest married Elizabeth Ironmonger in England in 1623 and Elizabeth died in Charles County, Maryland in 1660. Peter died in Maryland in 1665. More search of the records is required to find when they migrated from England.This next record of Thomas is in May of the next year. 1609, when he shows up as a shareholder in the Second Charter of Virginia, granted by James I to the London Company of Virginia on May 23, 1609. It is possible that he remained in Jamestown and was named by his representatives in England. But the lack of any record of him in Virginia, including the absence of a claim by Forrest and his wife to 100 acres of land each, under the headright system instituted in 1619, suggests he was not there. It is much more likely that with his wife dead, winter coming, supplies thin, Jamestown being a rough place for a manor-born aristocrat, and his six or seven year old son from a previous marriage probably still in England, he may have returned on the same boat that he came to the colony. The final record for Thomas Forrest is his death certificate St. Mary's County, Maryland in 1661, believed to be the same Thomas as the husband of Mistress Forrest (Margaret Foxe).On page 190 of his book, Captain Smith writes "Here I cannot omit the courage of George Forrest, that had seaventeene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot through him, yet lived sixe or seaven dayes, as if he had small hurt, then for want of Chirurgery [Surgery] dyed.". Smith records that George Forrest, Gentleman came over on the third supply. It also would be interesting to know if George and Thomas Forrest were related.Sir Anthony Forrest of Morborne, Huntingdonshire, was also an investor in the Virginia Company. According to the church records in Morborne, Sir Anthony was Thomas' nephew. Sir Anthony was the first born son of Miles Forrest, the elder brother of Thomas Forrest, husband of Mistress Forrest. Sir Anthony was the first of the Forrests to be knighted (although he descended from Le Sire de Beville of Norman Conquest fame on his great-grandmother's side), but in 1620, Sir Anthony lost to his relation, Sir Robert Beville, the Forrest's Morborne manor (awarded to his great-grandfather "after the Dissolution, the manor of Morborne, with the house and grange of Ogerston in the same parish, lately the property of the Abbey of Crowland, was granted in 1540, with all appurtenances, to Miles Forrest, bailiff of the Abbot of Peterborough at Warmington in 1535. The first Miles Forrest married Sir Robert's ancestor, Catherine Beville).First Non-English settlersAlso included on the Second Supply were the first non-English settlers. The company recruited these as skilled craftsmen and industry specialists: soap-ash, glass, lumber milling (wainscot, clapboard, and ‘deal’ — planks, especially soft wood planks) and naval stores (pitch, turpentine, and tar). Among these additional settlers were eight "Dutch-men" (consisting of unnamed craftsmen and three who were probably the wood-mill-men — Adam, Franz and Samuel) "Dutch-men" (probably meaning German or German-speakers) and Polish craftsmen, who had been hired by the Virginia Company of London's leaders to help develop manufacture profitable export products. There has been debate about the nationality of the specific craftsmen, and both the Germans and Poles claim the glassmaker for one of their own, but the evidence is insufficient. Ethnicity is further complicated by the fact that the German minority in Royal Prussia lived under Polish control during this period.William Volday/Wilhelm Waldi, a Swiss German mineral prospector, was also among those who arrived in 1608. His mission was seeking a silver reservoir that was believed to be within the proximity of Jamestown. Some of the settlers were artisans who built a glass furnace which became the first factory in America. Additional craftsmen produced soap, pitch, and wood building supplies. Among all of these were the first made-in-America products to be exported to Europe. However, despite all these efforts, profits from exports were not sufficient to meet the expenses and expectations of the investors back in England, and no silver or gold had been discovered, as earlier hoped.Jamestown under John Smith's leadership
Engraving depicting Capt. John Smith.Main article: John Smith of JamestownVirginia Company of London's unrealistic expectationsThe investors of the Virginia Company of London expected to reap rewards from their speculative investments. With the Second Supply, they expressed their frustrations and made demands upon the leaders of Jamestown in written form. They specifically demanded that the colonists send commodities sufficient to pay the cost of the voyage, a lump of gold, assurance that they had found the South Sea, and one member of the lost Roanoke Colony.It fell to the third president of the Council to deliver a reply. By this time, Wingfield and Ratcliffe had been replaced by John Smith. Ever bold, Smith delivered what must have been a wake-up call to the investors in London. In what has been termed "Smith's Rude Answer", he composed a letter, writing (in part):"When you send again I entreat you rather send but thirty Carpenters, husbandmen, gardiners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons and diggers up of trees, roots, well provided; than a thousand of such awe have: for except wee be able both to lodge them and feed them, the most will consume with want of necessaries before they can be made good for anything."Smith did begin his letter with something of an apology, saying "I humbly intreat your Pardons if I offend you with my rude Answer...", although at the time, the word 'rude' was acknowledged to mean 'unfinished' or 'rural', in the same way modern English uses 'rustic'.There are strong indications that those in London comprehended and embraced Smith's message. Their Third Supply mission was by far the largest and best equipped. They even had a new purpose-built flagship constructed, the Sea Venture, placed in the most experienced of hands, Christopher Newport. With a fleet of no fewer than eight ships, the Third Supply, led by the Sea Venture, left Plymouth in June, 1609.On the subject of the Virginia Company, it is notable that, throughout its existence, Sir Edwin Sandys, was a leading force. He, of course, also hoped for profits, but also his goals included a permanent colony which would enlarge English territory, relieve the nation's overpopulation, and expand the market for English goods. He is closely identified with a faction of the company led by Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. Although profits proved elusive for their investors, the visions for the Colony of Sir Edwin Sandys and the Earl of Southampton were eventually accomplished.Smith's roleIn the months before becoming president of the colony for a year in September 1608, Captain John Smith did considerable exploration up the Chesapeake Bay and along the various rivers. He is credited by legend with naming Stingray Point (near present-day Deltaville in Middlesex County for an incident there).Smith was always seeking a supply of food for the colonists, and he successfully traded for food with the Nansemonds, who were located along the Nansemond River in the modern-day City of Suffolk, and several other groups. However, while leading one food-gathering expedition in December 1607 (before his term as colony president), this time up the Chickahominy River west of Jamestown, his men were set upon by Powhatan Indians. As his party was being slaughtered around him, Smith strapped his Indian guide in front of him as a shield and escaped with his life but was captured by Opechancanough, the Powhatan chief's half-brother. Smith gave him a compass which pleased the warrior and made him decide to let Smith live.Smith was taken before Wahunsunacock, who was commonly referred to as Chief Powhatan, at the Powhatan Confederacy's seat of government at Werowocomoco on the York River. However, 17 years later, in 1624, Smith first related that when the chief decided to execute him, this course of action was stopped by the pleas of Chief Powhatan's young daughter, Pocahontas, who was originally named Matoaka but whose nickname meant "Playful Mischief". Many historians today find this account dubious, especially as it was omitted in all his previous versions. Smith returned to Jamestown just in time for the First Supply, in January 1608.In September 1609, Smith was wounded in an accident. He was walking with his gun in the river, and the powder was in a pouch on his belt. His powder bag exploded. In October, he was sent back to England for medical treatment.While back in England, Smith wrote A True Relation and The Proceedings of the English Colony of Virginia about his experiences in Jamestown. These books, whose accuracy has been questioned by some historians due to some extent by Smith's boastful prose, were to generate public interest and new investment for the colony.Pocahontas
Depiction of Pocahontas in European garb.Main article: PocahontasAlthough the life of Chief Powhatan's young daughter, Pocahontas, would be largely tied to the English after legend credits her with saving John Smith's life after his capture by Opechancanough, her contacts with Smith himself were minimal. However, records indicate that she became something of an emissary to the colonists at Jamestown Island. During their first winter, following an almost complete destruction of their fort by a fire in January 1608, Pocahontas brought food and clothing to the colonists. She later negotiated with Smith for the release of Virginia Indians who had been captured by the colonists during a raid to gain English weaponry.During the next several years, the relationship between the Virginia Indians and the colonists became more strained, never more so than during the period of poor crops for both the natives and colonists which became known as the Starving Time in late 1609 and early 1610. Chief Powhatan relocated his principal capital from Werowocomoco, which was relatively close to Jamestown along the north shore of the York River, to a point more inland and secure along the upper reaches of the Chickahominy River.In April 1613, Pocahontas and her husband, Kocoum were residing at Passapatanzy, a village of the Patawomecks, a Powhatan Confederacy tribe which did some trading with Powhatans. They lived in present-day Stafford County on the Potomac River near Fredericksburg, about 65 miles (105 km) from Werowocomoco. She was kidnapped bySamuel Argall, and transported about 90 miles (140 km) south to the English settlement at Henricus on the James River. There, Pocahontas converted to Christianity and took the name "Rebecca" under the tutelage of Reverend Alexander Whitaker who had arrived in Jamestown in 1611. She married prominent planter John Rolfe, who had lost his first wife and child in the journey from England several years earlier, which served to greatly improve relations between the Virginia Indians and the colonists for several years. However, when she and John Rolfe took their young son Thomas Rolfe on a public relations trip to England to help raise more investment money for the Virginia Company, she became ill and died just as they were leaving to return to Virginia. Her interment was at St George's Church, Gravesend.The Starving TimeMain article: Starving Time (Jamestown)What became known as the "Starving Time" in the Virginia Colony occurred during the winter of 1609–10. Only 60 of 214 English colonists survived.The colonists, the first group of whom had originally arrived at Jamestown on May 14, 1607, had never planned to grow all of their own food. Instead, their plans also depended upon trade with the local Virginia Indians to supply them with enough food between the arrival of periodic supply ships from England, upon which they also relied.This period of extreme hardship for the colonists began in 1609 with a drought which caused their already limited farming activities to produce even fewer crops than usual. Then, there were problems with both of their other sources for food.An unexpected delay occurred during the Virginia Company of London's Third Supply mission from England due to a major hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. A large portion of the food and supplies had been aboard the new flagship of the Virginia Company, the Sea Venture which became shipwrecked at Bermuda and separated from the other ships, seven of which arrived at the colony with even more new colonists to feed, and few supplies, most of which had been aboard the larger flagship.The impending hardship was further compounded by the loss of their most skillful leader in dealing with the Powhatan Confederacy in trading for food: Captain John Smith. He became injured in August 1609 in a gunpowder accident, and was forced to return to England for medical attention in October 1609. After Smith left, Chief Powhatan severely curtailed trading with the colonists for food. Neither the missing Sea Venture nor any other supply ship arrived as winter set upon the inhabitants of the young colony in late 1609.When the survivors of the shipwreck of the Third Supply mission's flagship Sea Venture finally arrived at Jamestown the following May 23 in two makeshift ships they had constructed while stranded on Bermuda for nine months, they found fewer than 100 colonists still alive, many of whom were sick. Worse yet, the Bermuda survivors had brought few supplies and only a small amount of food with them, expecting to find a thriving colony at Jamestown.Thus, even with the arrival of the two small ships from Bermuda under Captain Christopher Newport, they were faced with abandoning Jamestown and returning to England. On June 7, 1610, both groups of survivors (from Jamestown and Bermuda) boarded ships, and they all set sail down the James River toward the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.Shortly after they had abandoned Jamestown, they came upon a fleet of three supply ships arriving from England, commanded by a new governor, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr. The two groups met on the James River on June 9, 1610 near Mulberry Island (adjacent to present-day Fort Eustis in Newport News).Third supplyWith the new supply mission, Governor West, known in modern times as "Lord Delaware", brought additional colonists, a doctor, food, and much-needed supplies. He also was of a strong determination that Jamestown and the colony were not to be abandoned. He turned the departing ships around and brought the entire group back to Jamestown. This was certainly not a popular decision at the time with at least some of the group, but Lord Delaware was to prove a new kind of leader for Virginia.Included in those returning to Jamestown was a colonist whose wife and child had died during the shipwreck of the Sea Venture and the time at Bermuda. A businessman, he had with him some seeds for a new strain of tobacco and also some untried marketing ideas. That colonist was John Rolfe. Despite his misfortune to that point, history records that he would change the future of the colony as much as Lord Delaware's timely arrival had.The Sea Venture
Sylvester Jordain's "A Discovery of the Barmudas".Main articles: Third Supply and Sea VentureThe Sea Venture was the new flagship of the Virginia Company. Leaving England in 1609, and leading this Third Supply to Jamestown as "Vice Admiral" and commanding the Sea Venture, Christopher Newport was in charge of a nine-vessel fleet. Aboard the flagship Sea Venture was the Admiral of the Company, Sir George Somers, Lieutenant-General SirThomas Gates, William Strachey and other notable personages in the early history of English colonization in North America.While at sea, the fleet encountered a strong storm , perhaps a hurricane, which lasted for three days. The Sea Venture and one other ship were separated from the seven other vessels of the fleet. The Sea Venture was deliberately driven onto the reefs of Bermuda to prevent her sinking. The 150 passengers and crew members were all landed safely but the ship was now permanently damaged.The Sea Venture's longboat was fitted with a mast and sent to find Virginia but it and its crew were never seen again. The remaining survivors spent nine months on Bermuda building two smaller ships, the Deliverance and Patience from Bermuda cedar and materials salvaged from the Sea Venture.Leaving two men at Bermuda to maintain England's claim to the archipelago, the remainder sailed to Jamestown, finally arriving on May 23, 1610. They found the Virginia Colony in ruins and practically abandoned. Of 500 settlers who had preceded them to Jamestown, they found fewer than 100 survivors, many of whom were sick or dying. It was decided to abandon the colony and on June 7, everyone was placed aboard the ships to return to England.Renewed interest, Lord De La Warr and more suppliesDuring the same period that the Sea Venture suffered its misfortune and its survivors were struggling in Bermuda to continue on to Virginia, back in England, the publication of Captain John Smith's books of his adventures in Virginia sparked a resurgence in interest in the colony. This helped lead to the dispatch in early 1610 of additional colonists, a doctor, supplies, and a new governor, Thomas West, Baron De La Warr.On June 9, 1610, Lord De La Warr and his party arrived on the James River shortly after the Deliverance and Patience had abandoned Jamestown. Intercepting them about 10 miles (16 km) downstream from Jamestown near Mulberry Island, the new governor forced the remaining 90 settlers to return, thwarting their plans to abandon the colony. Deliverance and Patience turned back, and all the settlers were landed again at Jamestown.Then, Sir George Somers returned to Bermuda with the Patience to obtain more food supplies, but he died on the island that summer. His nephew, Matthew Somers, Captain of the Patience, took the ship back toLyme Regis, England instead of Virginia (leaving a third man behind). The Third Charter of the Virginia Company was then extended far enough across the Atlantic to include Bermuda in 1612. (Although a separate company, the Somers Isles Company, would be spun-off to administer Bermuda from 1615, the first two successful English colonies would retain close ties for many more generations, as was demonstrated when Virginian general George Washington called upon the people of Bermuda for aid during the American War of Independence). In 1613, Sir Thomas Dale founded the settlement of Bermuda Hundred on the James River, which, a year later, became the first incorporated town in Virginia.Expansion beyond JamestownBy 1611, a majority of the colonists who had arrived at the Jamestown settlement had died and its economic value was negligible with no active exports to England and very little internal economic activity. Only financial incentives including a promise of more land to the west from King James I to investors financing the new colony kept the project afloat.TobaccoIn 1610, John Rolfe, whose wife and a child had died in Bermuda during passage to Virginia, was just one of the settlers who had arrived in Jamestown following the shipwreck of the Sea Venture. However, his major contribution is that he was the first man to successfully raise export tobacco in the Colony (although the colonists had begun to make glass artifacts to export immediately after their arrival). The native tobacco raised in Virginia prior to that time, Nicotiana rustica, was not to the liking of the Europeans but Rolfe had brought some seed for Nicotiana tabacum with him from Bermuda.Although most people "wouldn't touch" the crop, Rolfe was able to make his fortune farming it, successfully exporting beginning in 1612. Soon almost all other colonists followed suit, as windfall profits in tobacco briefly lent Jamestown something like a gold rush atmosphere. Among others, Rolfe quickly became both a wealthy and prominent man. He married the young Virginia Indian woman Pocahontas on April 24, 1614. They lived first across the river from Jamestown, and later at his Varina Farms plantation near Henricus. Their son, Thomas Rolfe, was born in 1615.Governor Dale, Dale's CodeIn 1611, the Virginia Company of London sent Sir Thomas Dale to act as deputy-governor or as high marshall for the Virginia Colony under the authority of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (Lord Delaware). He arrived at Jamestown on May 19 with three ships, additional men, cattle, and provisions. Finding the conditions unhealthy and greatly in need of improvement, he immediately called for a meeting of the Jamestown Council, and established crews to rebuild Jamestown.He served as Governor for 3 months in 1611, and again for a two year period between 1614 and 1616. It was during his administration that the first code of laws of Virginia, nominally in force from 1611 to 1619, was effectively tested. This code, entitled "Articles, Lawes, and Orders Divine, Politique, and Martiall" (popularly known as Dale's Code), was notable for its pitiless severity, and seems to have been prepared in large part by Dale himself.HenricusSeeking a better site than Jamestown with the thought of possibly relocating the capital, Thomas Dale sailed up the James River (also named after King James) to the area now known as Chesterfield County. He was apparently impressed with the possibilities of the general area where the Appomattox River joins the James River, until then occupied by the Appomattoc Indians, and there are published references to the name "New Bermudas" although it apparently was never formalized. (Far from the mainland of North America, the archipelago of Bermuda had been established as part of the Virginia Colony in 1612 following the shipwreck of the Sea Venture in 1609).A short distance further up the James, in 1611, he began the construction of a progressive development at Henricus on and about what was later known as Farrars Island. Henricus was envisioned as possible replacement capital for Jamestown, and was to have the first college in Virginia. (The ill-fated Henricus was destroyed during the Indian Massacre of 1622, during which a third of the colonists were killed). In addition to creating the new settlement at Henricus, Dale also established the port town of Bermuda Hundred and "Bermuda Cittie" (sic). He began the excavation work at Dutch Gap, using methods he had learned while serving in Holland.An investor relations trip to EnglandIn 1616, Governor Dale joined John Rolfe and Pocahontas and their young son Thomas as they left their Varina Farms plantation for a public relations mission to England, where Pocahontas was received and treated as a form of visiting royalty by Queen Anne. This stimulated more interest in investments in the Virginia Company, the desired effect. However, as the couple prepared to return to Virginia, Pocahontas died of an illness at Gravesend on March 17, 1617, where she was buried. John Rolfe returned to Virginia alone once again, leaving their son Thomas Rolfe, then a small child, in England to obtain an education.Once back in Virginia, Rolfe married Jane Pierce and continued to improve the quality of his tobacco with the result that by the time of his death in 1622, the Colony was thriving as a producer of tobacco.Orphaned by the age of 8, young Thomas later returned to Virginia, and settled across the James River not far from his parents' farm at Varina, where he married Jane Poythress and they had one daughter, Jane Rolfe, who was born in 1650. Many of the First Families of Virginia trace their lineage through Thomas Rolfe to both Pocahontas and John Rolfe, joining English and Virginia Indian heritage.The "Hundreds"
Bermuda Hundred and other early English settlements upriver of JamestownOnce tobacco had been established as an export cash crop, investors became more interested and groups of them united to create largely self-sufficient "hundreds." The term "hundred" is a traditional English name for an administrative division of a shire (or county) to define an area which would support one hundred heads of household. In the colonial era in Virginia, the "hundreds" were large developments of many acres, necessary to support land hungry tobacco crops. The "hundreds" were required to be at least several miles from any existing community. Soon, these patented tracts of land sprung up along the rivers. The investors sent shiploads of settlers and supplies to Virginia to establish the new developments. The administrative centers of Virginia's hundreds were essentially small towns or villages, and were often palisaded for defense.An example was Martin's Hundred, located downstream from Jamestown on the north bank of the James River. It was sponsored by the Martin's Hundred Society, a group of investors in London. It was settled in 1618, and Wolstenholme Towne was its administrative center, named for Sir John Wolstenholme, one of the investors. In 1976, the long-lost site of Wolstenholme Towne at Martin's Hundred was discovered on the grounds of Carter's Grove Plantation near the Grove Community in southeasternJames City County and has been the location of important archaeological work.Bermuda Hundred (now in Chesterfield County) and Flowerdew Hundred (now in Prince George County) are other names which have survived over centuries. Others included Berkeley Hundred, Bermuda Nether Hundred, Bermuda Upper Hundred, Digges Hundred, West Hundred and Shirley Hundred (and, in Bermuda, Harrington Hundreds).Including the creation of the "hundreds", the various incentives to investors in the Virginia Colony finally paid off by 1617. By this time, the colonists were exporting 50,000 pounds of tobacco to England a year and were beginning to generate enough profit to ensure the economic survival of the colony.Changing social and political order1619: First Africans
The Inside of the current Jamestown Church, upon the general site of the original and the location where the first law in America was madeMain article: First Africans in JamestownVirginia's population grew rapidly from 1618 until 1622, rising from a few hundred to nearly 1,400 people. Wheat was also grown in Virginia starting in 1618. The labor intensive tobacco plantations led to the importation of the colony's first black "indentured servants". In August 1619, 20 black men were purchased from a passing [Dutch] Privateer ship bound from Luanda, Angola, to Vera Cruz, Mexico. However, these may not have been the first; 32 Africans were noted five months earlier in a Virginia census of 1619.1619: First democratic assemblyMain article: House of BurgessesOn July 30, 1619, the House of Burgesses, the first legislature of elected representatives in America, met in the Jamestown Church. Their first law was to set a minimum price for the sale of tobacco and set forth plans for the creation of the first ironworks of the colony. This legislative group was the predecessor of the modern Virginia General Assembly.Originally, the colony's Polish craftsmen were barred from participating in the elections, but after the craftsmen refused to work, colonial leadership agreed to enfranchise them. This may be the first strike in recorded North American history.1620: More craftsmen from Germany and Italy arriveBy 1620, more German settlers from Hamburg, Germany, who were recruited by the Virginia Company set up and operated one of the first sawmills in the region. Among the Germans were several other skilled craftsmen carpenters, and pitch/tar/soap-ash makers, who produced some of the colony's first exports of these products. The Italians included a team of glass makers.1621: Arrival of marriageable womenDuring 1621 fifty-seven unmarried women sailed to Virginia under the auspices of the Virginia Company, who paid for their transport and provided them with a small bundle of clothing and other goods to take with them. A colonist who married one of the women would be responsible for repaying the Virginia Company for his wife's transport and provisions. The women traveled on three ships, The Marmaduke, The Warwick, and The Tyger.Many of the women were not "maids" but widows. Some others were children, for example Priscilla, the eight-year-old daughter of Joanne Palmer, who travelled with her mother and her new stepfather, Thomas Palmer, on the Tyger. Some were women who were traveling with family or relatives: Ursula Clawson, "kinswoman" of ancient planter Richard Pace, traveled with Pace and his wife on the Marmaduke. Ann Jackson also came on the Marmaduke, in the company of her brother John Jackson, both of them bound for Martin's Hundred. Ann Jackson was one of the women taken captive by the Powhatans during theIndian Massacre of 1622. She was not returned until 1630. The Council ordered that she should be sent back to England on the first available ship, perhaps because she was suffering from the consequences of her long captivity.Some of the women sent to Virginia did marry. But most disappeared from the records—perhaps killed in the massacre, perhaps dead from other causes, perhaps returned to England. In other words, they shared the fate of most of their fellow colonists.Virginia Indian relationsAs the English expanded out from Jamestown, encroachment of the new arrivals and their ever-growing numbers on what had been Indian lands resulted in conflicts with the Virginia Indians which became almost continuous for the next 37 years.Chief Wahunsunacock of the Powhatan Confederacy had been forced to move west from his original capital at Werowocomoco (only about 20 miles (32 km) from Jamestown) to Orapakes in 1609 for security reasons. However, Orapakes was just a temporary capital. It was in a swamp at the head of the Chickahominy River, near the modern-day interchange of Interstate 64 and Interstate 295. It was also too close to other hostile native groups, such as the Monacans. Sometime between 1611 and 1614, he moved the capital of the Confederacy again, this time further north. Ultimately, Wahunsonacock settled at the headwaters of the Pamunkey River, on the north bank at Matchut. When Wahunsonacock moved to Matchut, his younger brother Opechancanough lived across the Pamunkey River at Youghtanund.The relations with the Natives took a turn for the worse after the death of Pocahontas in England and the return of John Rolfe and other colonial leaders in May 1617. Disease, poor harvests and the growing demand for tobacco lands caused hostilities to escalate.After Wahunsunacock's death in 1618, his younger brother, Opitchapam, briefly became chief. However, he was soon succeeded by his own younger brother, Opechancanough. There is speculation, but no confirmation, that Opechancanough may be the same individual known as Don Luis, a supposed native-convert to Christianity who had been involved with the ill-fated Ajacán Mission briefly established by Spanish Jesuits in 1570. Whether or not there was a connection between the native-convert Don Luis and Opechancanough, there is no doubt that the new Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy was violently opposed to the European settlements. He had been long known as a fierce warrior, and most recently, had been a local weroance in the area now occupied by the Town of West Point, where the Pamunkey River joins the Mattaponi River to form the York River. Opechancanough was not interested in attempting peaceful coexistence with the English settlers. Instead, he was determined to eradicate the colonists from what he considered to be Indian lands.Indian Massacre of 1622Main article: Indian Massacre of 1622File:1622 massacre JamestownIndian massacre of 1622, depicted in a 1628 woodcut byMatthäus Merian out of Theodore de Bry's workshop.Chief Opechancanough organized and led a well-coordinated series of surprise attacks on multiple English settlements along both sides of a 50-mile (80 km) long stretch of the James River which took place early on the morning of March 22, 1622. This event came to be known as the Indian Massacre of 1622, and resulted in the deaths of 347 colonists (including men, women, and children) and the abduction of many others.The Massacre caught most of the Virginia Colony by surprise and virtually wiped out several entire communities, including Henricus and Wolstenholme Town at Martin's Hundred.However, Jamestown was spared from destruction due to a Virginia Indian boy named Chanco who, after learning of the planned attacks from his brother, gave warning to colonist Richard Pace with whom he lived. Pace, after securing himself and his neighbors on the south side of the James River, took a canoe across river to warn Jamestown which narrowly escaped destruction, although there was no time to warn the other settlements. Apparently, Opechancanough subsequently was unaware of Chanco's actions, as the young man continued to serve as his courier for some time after.The reaction to the Powhatan uprising was retaliation, and the English set to with a vengeance. A year later, Captain William Tucker and Dr. John Rolfes worked out a supposed-truce with the Powhatans and proposed a toast using liquor laced with poison. 200 Virginia Indians were killed by the poison and 50 more were slaughtered by the colonists. For over a decade, the English settlers killed Powhatan men and women, captured children and systematically razed villages, seizing or destroying crops.A letter by Richard Frethorne, written in 1623, reports, "we live in fear of the enemy every hour."PalisadeBy 1634, a palisade (stockade) was completed across the Virginia Peninsula, which was about 6 miles (9.7 km) wide at that point between Queen's Creek which fed into the York River and Archer's Hope Creek, (since renamed College Creek) which fed into the James River. The new palisade provided some security from attacks by the Virginia Indians for colonists farming and fishing lower on the Peninsula from that point.Anchored at its center by Middle Plantation on land patented by Dr. Potts, the palisade is partially described in the following extract from a letter written in 1634, from Jamestown, by Captain Thomas Yonge:"a strong palisade ... upon a straight between both rivers and ... a sufficient force of men to defence of the same, whereby all the lower part of Virginia have a range for their cattle, near forty miles in length and in most places twelve miles (19 km) broad. The pallisades is very near six miles (10 km) long, bounded in by two large Creeks. ... in this manner to take also in all the ground between those two Rivers, and so utterly excluded the Indians from thence; which work is conceived to be of extraordinary benefit to the country ..."1644: Second Indian MassacreOn April 18, 1644, Opechancanough again tried to force the colonists to abandon the region with another series of coordinated attacks, killing almost 500 colonists. However, this was a much less devastating portion of the growing population than had been the case in the 1622 attacks.Furthermore, the forces of Royal Governor of Virginia William Berkeley captured the old warrior in 1646, variously thought to be between 90 and 100 years old. In October, while a prisoner, Opechancanough was killed by a soldier (shot in the back) assigned to guard him.1646: Peace established with the NativesOpechancanough was succeeded as Weroance (Chief) by Nectowance and then by Totopotomoi and later by his daughter Cockacoeske.In 1646, the first treaties were signed between the Virginia Indians and the English. The treaties set up reservations, some of the oldest in America, for the surviving Powhatan. It also set up tribute payments for the Virginia Indians to be made yearly to the English.Only two tribes, the Pamunkey and the Mattaponi, still maintain the reservations from the 1646 treaty and still make yearly tribute payments as stipulated by the 1646 and 1677 treaties. The other reservations had been lost by the end of the 1800s, though one tribe still had families on theirs until the 1900s.Royal ColonySome historians have noted that, as the settlers of the Virginia Colony were allowed some representative government, and as they prospered, King James I was reluctant to lose either power or future financial potential. In any case, in 1624, the Virginia Company lost its charter and Virginia became a crown colony.In 1634, the English Crown created eight shires (i.e. counties) in the colony of Virginia which had a total population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants. James City Shire was established and included Jamestown. Around 1642-43, the name of the James City Shire was changed to James City County.By the 1650s, the nature of the relationship of indentured servants changed with the lawsuit over the status of John Casor, who, when declared a slave by the court, helped mark the beginning of slavery in Virginia.Governor Berkeley, Bacon's RebellionMain article: Bacon's RebellionSee also: English Revolution in the ColoniesIn the 1670s, the governor of Virginia was Sir William Berkeley, a scholar and playwright, serving his second term in that office. Berkeley, now in his seventies, had previously been governor in the 1640s and had experimented with new export crops at his Green Spring Plantation near Jamestown. In the mid 1670s, a young cousin through marriage, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., arrived in Virginia sent by his father in the hope that he would "mature" under the tutelage of the governor. Although lazy, Bacon was intelligent and Berkeley provided him with a land grant and a seat on the Virginia Colony council. However, the two became at odds over relationships with the Virginia Indians, which were most strained at the outer frontier points of the colony.In July 1675, Doeg Indians crossed from Maryland and raided the plantation of Thomas Mathews in the northern portion of the colony along what became the Potomac River, stealing some hogs in order to gain payment for several items Mathews had obtained from the tribe. Mathews pursued them and killed several Doegs, who retaliated by killing Mathews' son and two of his servants, including Robert Hen. A Virginian militia then went to Maryland and besieged the Susquehanaugs (a different tribe) in "retaliation" which led to even more large-scale Indian raids, and a protest from the governor of Maryland colony. Governor Berkeley tried to calm the situation but many of the colonists, particularly the frontiersmen, refused to listen to him and Bacon disregarded a direct order and captured some Appomattoc Indians, who were located many miles south of the site of the initial incident, and almost certainly not involved.Following the establishment of the Long Assembly in 1676, war was declared on "all hostile Indians" and trade with Indian tribes became regulated, often seen by the colonists to favor those friends of Berkeley. Bacon opposed Berkeley and led a group in opposition to the governor. Bacon and his troops set themselves up at Henrico until Berkeley arrived which sent Bacon and his men fleeing upon which Berkeley declared them in rebellion and offered a pardon to any who returned to Jamestown peaceably.Bacon led numerous raids on Indians friendly to the colonists in an attempt to bring down Berkeley. The governor offered him amnesty but the House of Burgesses refused; insisting that Bacon must acknowledge his mistakes. At about the same time, Bacon was actually elected to the House of Burgesses and attended the June 1676 assembly where he was captured, forced to apologize and was then pardoned by Berkeley.Bacon then demanded a military commission but Berkeley refused. Bacon and his supporters surrounded the statehouse and threatened to start shooting the Burgesses if Berkeley did not acknowledge Bacon as "General of all forces against the Indians". Berkeley eventually acceded, and then left Jamestown. He attempted a coup a month later but was unsuccessful. In September, however, Berkeley was successful and Bacon dug in for a siege which resulted in his burning Jamestown to the ground on September 19, 1676. Bacon died of the flux and lice on October 26, 1676 and his body is believed to have been burned.Berkeley returned, and hanged William Drummond and the other major leaders of the rebellion (23 in total) at Middle Plantation. With Jamestown unusable due to the burning by Bacon, the Governor convened a session of the General Assembly at his Green Spring Plantation in February, 1677, and another was later held at Middle Plantation. However, upon learning of his actions, King Charles II was reportedly displeased at the degree of retaliation and number of executions, and recalled Berkeley to England. He returned to London where he died in July 1677.The capital moves from Jamestown to high groundSee also: Middle PlantationOn October 20, 1698, the statehouse (capitol building) in Jamestown burned for the fourth time. Once again removing itself to a familiar alternate location, the legislature met at Middle Plantation, this time in the new College Building at the College of William and Mary, which had begun meeting there in temporary quarters in 1694.While meeting there, a group of five students from the College submitted a well-presented and logical proposal to the legislators outlining a plan and good reasons to move the capital permanently to Middle Plantation.Despite the periodic need to relocate the legislature from Jamestown due to contingencies such as fires, (usually to Middle Plantation), throughout the seventeenth century, Virginians had been reluctant to permanently move the capital from its "ancient and accustomed place." After all, Jamestown had always been Virginia's capital. It had a state house (except when it periodically burned) and a church, and it offered easy access to ships that came up the James River bringing goods from England and taking on tobacco bound for market. However, Jamestown's status had been in some decline. In 1662, Jamestown's status as mandatory port of entry for Virginia had been ended.The students argued that the change to the high ground at Middle Plantation would escape the dreaded malaria and mosquitoes that had always plagued the swampy, low-lying Jamestown site. The students pointed out that, while not located immediately upon a river, Middle Plantation offered nearby access to not one, but two rivers, via two deep water (6-7' depth) creeks, Queen's Creek leading to the York River, andCollege Creek (formerly known as Archer's Hope) which led to the James River. Other advocates of the move included the Reverend Dr. James Blair and the Governor, Sir Francis Nicholson.Several prominent individuals like John Page, Thomas Ludwell, Philip Ludwell, and Otho Thorpe had built fine brick homes and created a substantial town at Middle Plantation. And, there was of course, the new College of William and Mary with its fine new brick building.The proposal to move the capital of Virginia to higher ground (about 12 miles (20 km) away) at Middle Plantation was received favorably by the House of Burgesses. In 1699, the capital of the Virginia Colony was officially relocated there. Soon, the town was renamed Williamsburg, in honor of King William III. Thus, the first phase of Jamestown's history ended.References This article uses bare URLs for citations. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable. Several templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting. (Reflinks documentation) (May 2012)
1. ^ Lisa L. Weaver. "Learning Landscapes: Theoretical Issues and Design Considerations for the Development of Children’s Educational Landscapes" (PDF). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
2. ^ Kathleen M. Brown. "Women in Early Jamestown". Jamestown Interpretive Essays. Virtual Jamestown. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
3. ^ http://indians.vipnet.org/resources/writersGuide.pdf
4. ^ History of Jamestown
5. ^ "Original Settlers". Preservation Virginia. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
6. ^ a b "Virginia's History". Xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
7. ^ "First Supply". Preservation Virginia. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
8. ^ "Second Supply". Preservation Virginia. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
9. ^ Jamestown Rediscovery, Burial JR 156C http://www.preservationvirginia.org/finding/jr156c.html?process=0
10. ^ Second Charter of Virginia http://www.learner.org/workshops/primarysources/virginia/docs/svc.html.
11. ^ 'Parishes: Morborne', A History of the County of Huntingdon: Volume 3 (1936), pp. 188-190. URL:http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66175 Date accessed: 27 September 2011.
12. ^ "Jamestown Dutchmen". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
13. ^ "Precursor Light Industry in Support of the Jamestown Glass works". Retrieved 2007-03-03.
14. ^ "First Germans in the colonies". Retrieved 2006-10-10.
15. ^ The First Polish Settlers
16. ^ "Presentations and Activities - For Teachers (Library of Congress)". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
17. ^ Woodward, Hobson. A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare's The Tempest. Viking (2009).
18. ^ Because Jamestown was abandoned for two days in June 1610, while Fort Algernon, built in October 1609, was never abandoned, the modern city of Hampton, Virginia puts in a competing claim as "the oldest continuousEnglish-speaking settlement in North America". Rountree 1990 p.53, 54n.
19. ^ "Hundred" - dictionary.com
20. ^ Grizzard, Frank E. and Smith, Boyd D. (2007). Jamestown Colony: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 1-85109-637-X.
21. ^ "German sawmill in 1620". Retrieved 2006-10-10.
22. ^ "German and Polish craftsmen in Jamestown". Retrieved 2006-10-10.
23. ^ Fausz, J. Frederick, "Powhatan Uprising of 1622", American History Magazine, March 1998
24. ^ Ransome, David R., ed., The Ferrar Papers 1590-1790 http://www.microform.co.uk/guides/R97513.pdf
25. ^ Frethorne, Richard. Richard Frethorne to his father and mother, March 20, April 2 and 3, 1623 (Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library).
26. ^ Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, 2005
27. ^ We're Still Here: Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories by Sandra F. Waugaman and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D.
28. ^ Egloff, Keith and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1992.
29. ^ Jones, Jennifer (2009-11-05). "Middle Plantation". Research.history.org. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
Jocelyn R. Wingfield, Virginia's True Founder: Edward Maria Wingfield and His Times (Booksurge, 2007) ISBN 1-4196-6032-2
William M. Kelso, Jamestown, The Buried Truth (University of Virginia Press, 2006)
William M. Kelso, Jamestown Rediscovery II (APVA, 1996)
William M. Kelso, Nicholas M. Luccketti, Beverly A. Straube, Jamestown Rediscovery III (APVA, 1997)
William M. Kelso, Nicholas M. Luccketti, Beverly A. Straube, Jamestown Rediscovery IV (APVA, 1998)
William M. Kelso, Nicholas M. Luccketti, Beverly A. Straube, Jamestown Rediscovery V (APVA, 1999)
William Kelso, Beverly Straube, Jamestown Rediscovery VI (APVA, 2000)
David A. Price, Love and Hate in Jamestown (Alfred A. Knopf, 2003)
Ernie Gross, "The American Years" (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1999)
James Horn, A Land as God Made It (Perseus Books, 2005) ISBN 0-465-03094-7
Chesapeake, a novel (1978) by author James A. Michener
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jamestown, Virginia
Geographical coordinates: 37°12′33″N 76°46′39″W
History Channel Web Site
APVA web site for the Jamestown Rediscovery project
Where are We Digging Now?
America's 400th Anniversary
National Geographic Magazine Jamestown Interactive
Jamestown Settlement and Yorktown Victory Center
National Park Service: Jamestown National Historic Site
New Discoveries at Jamestown by John L. Cotter and J. Paul Hudson, (1957) at Project Gutenberg
First Landing State Park
State Tourism Website – Virginia is for Lovers
Jamestown Discovery Trail
Time Team Special: Jamestown – America's Birthplace
Jamestown Four-Hundred Years
The Poles in Jamestown
Following in Godspeeds Wake
NBC News Interview with Dr. William Kelso
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