General George Washington:
"American Apostle" of Radical Christianity!
George Washington was the "MOST RADICAL" Christian;
Since Roman Emperor "Constantine the Great!"
Only slightly less than Apostle Paul!


Young George Washington:
Confessing His 'Cherry Tree Sins!'

This event Testified to by Family and Pastor;
There is not the Slightest evidence to the Contrary!
Offering $10,000 for such EVIDENCE to be presented!
Young George Washington's CHERRY TREE Story!


General George Washington:
Apostle of Christian Righteousness!'

He Commanded the his soldiers attend Sunday Meetings;
His Required a 'Time of Prayer' twice a day for Troops;
Commanded his Soldiers - including Officers - NOT TO SIN, and to have a Commitment to Christianity!
He forbad profane speech, cursing, blasphemy, petty gaming/gambling, drunkenness, adultery, etc;
He had "sinners" literally whipped with a good numbers of lashes for such sins!
George Washington: 25-Lashes for Blaspheming God's Name!
George Washington: Strongly AGAINST DRINKING ALCOHOL
George Washington: Methods of Discipline Adult Sins
George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY;


General George Washington:

Apostle of Consistent Fervent Prayer'

His Valley Forge Prayer testified to by Army Officers,
Foot-Soldiers, Neighbors, Personal Aides, Strangers, Family Members;
George Washington Praying at Valley Forge: EXTENSIVE Evidence
Valley Forge Officers Find Washington Praying in Barn!
Isabella Potts-James Testifies Washington Prayed, Valley Forge;
Nathaniel R. Snowden: Recorded Washington's Valley Forge Prayer
Officer Muhlenberg Witnessed Washington Praying at Valley Forge;
George Washington's DIVINE BENEDICTION: His Truest Prayer!


General George Washington:
Apostle of Sovereignty and Providence;

That He wrote on the Theology of GOD'S SOVEREIGNTY;
More than any Theologian of the Reformation;
More than the Catholic Church writersin 2,000 years;
More than all who wrote Holy Scripture - COMBINED!
Washington literally declared in writing for the whole world to know, that he would have "plenty of time to become a Preacher of Divine Providence after the War!"
George Washington Planned to be PREACHER after the WAR!
George Washington's Basic Beliefs in PROVIDENCE: BRIEF;
George Washington: Teaches on Providence of Death
George Washington Attributes MONMOUTH VICTORY to PROVIDENCE;
George Washington: Some Letters on PROVIDENCE;


General George Washington:
Baptized During The Revolutionary War;

By His Army Chaplain, Baptist Preacher John Gano,
George Washington's Baptism According to "Time Magazine" 1932;
George Washington's Baptism: 'Three Eyewitness do AFFIDAVITS: An Act of Congress, 7-16-1894, Accepts the Evidence


General George Washington:
Apostle of Biblical and Literary Genius!

He created a Religious Literary work comparative to Shakespeare:
He devised over 700 Scriptural Names/Titles for God,
Exceeding all Divine Titles EVER Created (Including Bible!)
And including all Theologians of Antiquity and the Current Age!
Since Washington did this over his lifetime, he had to have kept track of hundreds of titles previously created, in this monumental literary work!
George Washington Uses Over 700 NAMES-TITLES of DEITY;


General George Washington:
Apostle of Spiritual Warfare, Prayer Warrior!

George Washington prayed consistently, constantly: from pre-teens, through teens; from Early French & Indian War days through the Revolutionary War; from the US Constitutional Convention through his Presidency.
At every season of life, and every situation,
Washington prayed, and urged others to pray!
George Washington: Adult Nephew Witnesses Kneeling Daily Prayer;
What George Washington Actually Prayed for: His Own Words!
George Washington Prays for Food for Army: Fish Clog River Soon After!
George Washington Prays: Supernatural Fog Allows Escape!
George Washington: Kneeling while most others stood;


General George Washington:
Apostle of Christian Doctrine & Theology;

FACT: This multitude of Names/Titles created contain many Complex Character traits of God, making Washington a GREAT THEOLOGIAN!

FACT: Washington's Letters to Family and Friends who lost spouses and children to tragic circumstances present an amazingly grasp of theology that puts Washington ON PAR with Calvin, Wesley and Spurgeon!

George Washington: 30-Ways to DEAL with DEATH of Loved Ones;
George Washington THEOLOGIAN: Teaches on Providence of Death!

FACT: If you or any Bible college Professor out there think 700-plus 'Theologically Correct' Names/Titles for God is a simple task: TRY IT!

FACT: No other writer, whether Jewish Scholar, Biblical Author, Reformation or modern Scholar, has even devised ONE-TENTH as many ORIGINAL Names/Titles!



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Key Statement - Thesis

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Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
(Click for a Free Evaluation)

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George Washington

Those Who Supplied His Army;

Military Contractors of the American War 1776-1783

This is an ongoing research project, estimated to be two-thirds complete;

We urge you to look for three factors:

    >> [1] The many Politicians and Military Leaders who supplied goods to American Army:

      ** No doubt much was done honestly;

      ** No doubt there was "price-gouging" and profiteering;

    >> [2] See that some American businessmen supplied British forces!

    >> [3] See how so MANY of the RICH and POWERFUL married their children to RICH and POWERFUL . . . planned-rich-breeding-the-rich-to-produce-more-rich . . . then as now, the WEALTHY ELITE are supremely disgusting!

    George Washington's Military Contractors are here given in roughly the chronological order of their services being recruited by their government.


    (Baker p. 29), Anthony Bacon took a new contract to supply troops in West Indies. In 1770, Anthony Bacon (who had a cousin Anthony Richardson) gave up a West Indies contract and was replaced by John Durand, who had returned from India in the 1760s and was an EICo ship's husband, also did timber importing. A few of Durand's ships were co-owned by other contractors such as William James and Arnold Nesbitt.

    (Baker, pp. 175ff) On specie contractors for military, Harley and Drummond who got 10,000 pounds for this per year between 1770-1783.


    No information compiled here


    No information compiled here



    Contractor Kender Mason (had a son Henry a partner with Henry Blundell). Kender Mason died in 1792, had been provisioning troops in East Florida since 1764.


    1774: (Baker, p. 3) Anthony Merry (difficult to trace) merchant of London, shipped cattle to America date not given. (Oddly, there is an Anthony Merry later a British deputy-secretary for War who seems to have no link to the earlier Anthony.)

    (Baker, p. 184), Mr George Garnier gets a patent (contract) as Apothecary General to military to supply medicine, later conducted by his son George Charles Garnier who used sub-agents John Truesdale (Apothecary in Ordinary to the King) and Joseph Partridge.

    (Baker, p. 170), From 1767, John Biggin (untraced so far) had a contract to supply rum to Jamaica.


    1775: (Baker, p. 201) In 1775, Thomas Pownall has contract for supply of Indian goods, that is, goods for trade with Indians in America, this business by 1777 was in the hands of William Knox (who got some supplies from Israel Mauduit), sending them to Sir John Johnstone in America.

    (Baker, pp. 33-34), mid-to-late 1775, aspiring contractor William James (an EICo director) contractor was writing to politician Charles Jenkinson and in early 1776 James was supplying Canada.

    Robert Jones (difficult to trace) was a contractor for Nova Scotia to about 1775, and used the Cork merchant house of Cornefords and an agent at Nova Scotia, Butler.(Baker, p. 27), By early 1775, contractors were Arnold Nesbitt, Adam Drummond and Moses Franks for various garrisons of mainland colonies.

    (Moses Franks had brothers Aaron and Napthali, all noted in Anglo-American Jewish family history ranged around New York, Philadelphia and London.) John Stephenson (difficult to trace) and John Blackburn (difficult to trace which individual is this person) for West Florida, Witter Cuming (died 1775, difficult to trace) and Kender Mason had East Florida contracts.

    And John Stephenson and Richard Vernon Sadleir (brewer and banker at Southampton) for troops in Nova Scotia. Edward Coddrington (sic) and Robert Jones had West Florida and Nova Scotia.

    (Baker, p. 79), August 1775, Charles Jenkinson is approached by Cork firm of Carleton and Cossart about supply contracts but they were unsuccessful.


    1776: (Baker, p. 222), in 1776, only two Scotsmen had military contracts.(Baker, p. 26), Since 1766, [Arnold] Nesbitt (difficult to trace), [Adam] Drummond and [] Moses] Franks (which firm banked with Thomas Coutts and Co., Adam Drummond being a partner of Coutts) had had the contract for the mainland colonies and Quebec. Arnold Nesbitt had an uncle Albert (difficult to trace) in business in London.

    By early 1776, (Baker, p. 28), Nesbitt, Drummond and Franks contracted to supply 12,000 troops of mainland colonies, via Cork. More contracts in early 1776 were made with the partnership of John Henniker, William Devaynes, Edward Wheler (had a relation, William Mills), and George Wombwell (with chiefly EICo connections, Wombwell was brother-in-law to Sir Walter Rawlinson) for 12,000 troops;

    and with Anthony Bacon, John Amyand (died 1780 aged 29 and Amyand had a brother named due to a name change, as Sir George Cornewall, Robert Mayne (had a brother Lord Newhaven) and John Durand (difficult to trace) (who dealt with Cork merchants Bensons (not yet traced) at Cork and also Michael Coppinger (not yet traced) at Cork and also Norman & Long (not yet traced) would each supply 3000 men.

    Plus, for Quebec/Canada, a contract was made with William James (ex- EICo ship's captain during Seven Years War), Abel Smith (of bankers Smith Payne Smith), William Baynes (to be replaced in 1779 by John Roberts).

    Note that Baynes and John Roberts (difficult to trace) were brothers-in-law who had traded to Portugal) and Richard Atkinson (they worked 1776-1779) to supply 12,000 troops in Canada. Atkinson had a brother Matthew who was a receiver of land tax.

    (Baker, p. 33), the Treasury clerk chiefly responsible for handling contracts and answering to politician/Treasury Secretary John Robinson was James Royer, though for timeframes unspecified.

    (Baker, p. 223), Neither Atkinson by September 1775 nor his partners had any experience with military contracts, but they were approached by John Robinson and by September 1776 they were employed by Treasury; Atkinson had married into the Robinson family.

    (Baker, p. 91), 1776, Treasury got freight/transport from Mure, Son and Atkinson with ships supervised by Robert Gordon (died 1784) who was appointed Commissary at Cork in February 1776,

    (Robert Gordon, who may not have been entirely honest) was married to a sister of General Cunninghame). Gordon was succeeded in that role by John Marsh earlier a consul-general at Malaga.

    (Baker, p. 96), in 1776, the Commissary at New York is Daniel Chamier (who was possibly married to Achsah Ridgely who was probably an American).

    (Baker, p. 162), About March 1776 Treasury decided to issue Jamaica rum to troops, the contract went to Richard "Rum" Atkinson, including some for Canada. (Baker, p. 173), Treasury later found out Atkinson was using produce from his own plantations for rum, and was shipping rum to America in vessels owned by he or his partners (Mure, his partner had a son on Jamaica).

    Other rum contracts went to Sir James Cockburn, James Bogle French, John Blackburn, Thomas Burfoot (difficult to trace). Cockburn had married a daughter of London merchant Henry Douglas (difficult to trace).

    (Baker, p. 102), September 1776, Commissary-General in Canada is Nathaniel Day (difficult to trace).

    1776: Mariner Captain John Green (1736-1796), in 1781 at the time in Mill Prison in England with Morris trying to have him freed, later the captain of the first US ship to China, Empress of China. Born in England or Ireland. Regarded in the family as John Green Snr. Married Alice Kollock of Delaware, daughter of Jacob Kollock a shipping merchant of Delaware.

    Green had sailed before the Revolution for Willing and Morris, and then been Captain in the Continental Navy. Later, Empress of China's two supercargoes, Samuel Shaw and Thomas Randall were former officers in US Continental Army.

    Green wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 20 November 1781, at the time imprisoned in Mill Prison in England. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1776: Brigadier John Glover (1732-1797) of Marblehead. Son of a house carpenter, became a fisherman, became a cordwainer and rum trader, then ship owner and merchant. Of Continental Army, latterly had a role guarding Hudson River against the British, failed to get a job in Federal Government, so served in local offices.

    ***Had perhaps the first privateer used in the American Revolution, schooner Hannah, which was authorized by Washington, and Washington esteemed Glover's services,Hannah perhaps became the first vessel of the US navy!

    He had letter from RM at Office of Finance of 22 October 1781. See p. 101 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Glover's own wikipedia page.


    1777: (Baker, p. 164), By 1 April 1777 Joseph Loring of New York had contracted to supply 350,000 gallons of rum but he was merely an agent of Richard Atkinson and/or Thomas Burfoot.(Baker, p. 165), to the end of the war, rum contracts were taken by Gregory and Turnbull (some information available) and also Grove and Hood (who are untraced so far).

    Circa 1777: President of Congress John Hanson (1721-1783). Somewhat under-appreciated. A Maryland merchant. Sheriff of Charles County Maryland, then a delegate to Continental Congress. First of the Congress' presidents, so is he then to be seen as the first President of USA?

    (Which dubiously-identified role as "first president" is also given on one US website to Declaration Signer Samuel Huntington.) His own wikipedia page. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him as President of Congress on 9 November 1781, see p. 169 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    Hanson helped establish US' first postal service, first consular postings, chartering of a national bank, progress to first census, uniform system of coinage.

    Signed a treaty with Holland re US debts to Holland. Died a year after retiring as Congress president. Hanson was son of farmer-planter Samuel Hanson and Elizabeth Story, parents also of Lt-Colonel of the Revolution, Samuel Hanson. John Hanson married Jane Contee.

    1777: John Holker Junior (1745-1822). Contractor, naval. By 1777, he and his father were involved with helping American commissioners in Paris to find supplies. He came to America with the first French Minister to US, Conrad Alexander Gearaud. Then became agent of the French navy in American ports and French consul at Philadelphia.

    Supplied arms and provisions to French fleet. By 1780 he was consul-general for Pennsylvania, Delawere, New Jersey and New York and became involved with Morris, Turnbull and Peter Marmie, which broke a French rule against officials engaging in private trade, so he resigned in 1781 and continued to supply Continental troops. He speculated in western lands, paper money, ironworks in Pittsburgh, distilleries, saw mills, salt works (all as a website relates). Was tangled with Robert Morris by late 1783.

    Holker had an associate John Barclay during 1807-1816. See as a Google Books Result, from New York Before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture, by John Kuo Wei Tehen. There formed the "American-India Company" (a privately-owned version of European East-Indies companies), where John Ledyard's visions inspired Robert Morris, Daniel Parker, John Holker, William Duer and others to trade in the East.

    Morris failed to include Ledyard in actual activities for the China trade. Ledyard (quite unwisely) later decided to walk across Russia across Siberia, to find a quick route to China. Holker two years before had tried to talk Morris into an "America-India" type company, Morris by 1783 was being criticised re his private dealings, so he moved on the Empress of China scheme in great secrecy.

    The America-India company planned for six ships, two for Europe, two for China, one for n/w America and the last for French Polynesia. Only two ships eventuated, Empress of China and Emporer of China. Morris put his last profits from war efforts into Empress of China. Duer was going to be supercargo but withdrew (possibly distrusting Daniel Parker).

    Parker's claimed Boston associates did not appear, Holker's French merchant banker connections became wary, Morris possibly used US government funds in his hands, put into his private account, to cover his part of the Empress voyages. Parker hired Samuel Shaw without consulting anyone else, Shaw being secretary of the Society of Cincinati, and then Shaw brought in fellow Society member Thomas Randall as second supercargo.

    Empress's ships surgeon was another Society member, Dr. Robert Johnston of Philadelphia, who knew a deal about ginseng handling. Parker ordered a great amount of ginseng from Turnbull, Marmie and Co. of Philadelphia. At one point, by 1780, Deane was working on mast supplies, major partners being John Holker and Jonathan Williams (nephew of Benjamin Franklin).

    Jonathan Williams (nephew of Benjamin Franklin) was blamed for money-losing. In 1778, one Jean-Daniel Schweighauser took over as chief American commercial agent for Atlantic ports. Handling prize ships. Chaumont had earlier done some such work. See France and America in the Revolutionary Era: The Life of Jacques-Donatien Leray de Chaumont, by Thomas J. Schaeper.

    Holker reported to Chaumont, who owned or operated 17 ships during the Revolution. Chaumont got his money from Grand, the French financier, up to 1.65 million livres and supplied saltpetre, arms, clothing, various other materials.


    1778: (Baker, p. 30), in 1778, the British troops under General William Howe were supplied by partnership of Benjamin Smith (brother-in-law of John Robinson), William Fitzhugh and Simon Halliday (to be replaced by Jemes Powis who was replaced by Richard Peacock who is difficult to trace). (Simon Halliday had a father-in-law, William Bythesea who is not easy to trace.) Smith, Fitzhugh and Halliday used a sub-agent, Mr Grant.

    Fitzhugh had spent 10 years or more at Aleppo for the Levant Co.(Baker, p. 88), dry goods provisioner Thomas Farrer (died 1788) (who had an agent at Cowes named James Mackenzie) is dealing with Smith Fitzhugh and Halliday and with Robert Mayne and James Powis.

    Lt-Colonel Ephraim Blaine (1741-1804). In 19 February 1778 he was appointed commissary-general of purchases, an office he held for three years. He had an estate, Middlesex. The Blaines were Scots-Irish Americans.

    He and first wife Rebecca Galbraith had eight children. He had a letter from Robert Morris of 4 October 1781 in p. 17 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See his own wikipedia page.


    1779: (Baker, p. 16), some matters for contractors are modified by Sir Philip Jennings Clerke's Contractor's Bill of 12 February 1779. (Some information arises on Clerke).

    (Baker, p. 35), Arnold Nesbitt died in 1779 and his nephew John Nesbitt took his place as a contractor.

    (Baker, p. 125), suppliers Bensons at Cork are reported to have failed in 1779.


    1780: (Baker, p. 30), in 1780 appeared two new contractor names, Thomas French (small-timer), and James Bogle French (small-timer, earlier had only a rum contract, had some "substantial American interests") James' Bogle French's original name seems to have been James Bogle, who changed his surname to French after marrying Elizabeth French from Barbados, daughter probably of Nathaniel French but it is uncertain.

    (Baker, p. 50), Christopher Potter (an MP by 1781, and his offers were highly competitive commercially, but is not easy to trace). Potter had an associate, Aaron Moody of Southampton. Potter by April 1780 becomes a new contractor name, applied unsuccessfully for army contracts but was given naval contracts by April 1780. Aaron Moody is difficult to trace.

    (Baker, p. 45), a new contractor name appearing by end of 1780 is Lawrence/Laurence Cox (difficult to trace) who was connected with Smith, Fitzhugh and Peacock (Peacock an insurance broker and shipping agent had a brother Marmaduke, both difficult to trace).

    (Baker, p. 50), appears a new contractor name John Whitelock in late 1780.


    1781: (Baker, p. 53), new names appearing as British contractors are Messrs [John] Dearman, [Andrew] Jourdaine and [Richard Shaw] by 1781. Andrew Jourdaine is difficult to trace. Richard Shaw is difficult to trace.

    Dearman often imported provisions from Ireland, and supplied the Africa Co. Dearman (who was from an extensive lineage available on the Internet) possibly sub-contracted with military contracts to Gibraltar with or for contractors Fonnereau and Burrell.

    (Baker, p. 24), Daniel Wier (difficult to trace although mentioned in army records), by 4 September 1781 is British Commissary-General at New York

    Meanwhile, on the American side ... names of interest who sent letters to or received letters from Robert Morris at his Office of Finance in 1781 included: Samuel Bean. Little-known. He was a pre-war correspondent of Willing and Morris at Jamaica.

    By March 1782 he described himself as deputy auditor and muster master of the [US] southern army. He wrote to RM at Office of Finance by 19 November 1781, just back from England, see p. 205 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Joseph Borden Jnr (1719-1791). Of Bordertown, a wealthy man who became a Revolutionary Patriot. He had two sons and four drs. Bordern was son of Joseph Senior (1687-1765) and Susannah Grover and was married to Mary or Elizabeth Rogers. His daughter Ann married Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791), Judge and a Signer of the American Declaration of Independence.

    Ann's sister Mary married Thomas McKean (1734-1817) who is noted below. Borden was Continental loan officer of New Jersey and had a letter of 6 October 1781 from RM. See p. 27 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Loyalist then Patriot, Tench Coxe (1755-1824). An ex-Loyalist merchant of Philadelphia, future political economist and nationalist, and apparently a man with wide interests. See his own wikipedia page. By age 21 he was a partner of merchants Coxe and Furman.

    "9-11" 1789

    Early was a loyalist in the British army of General Howe.

    Was later arrested, paroled, became Patriot.

    By 11 September 1789 was assistant secretary of American Treasury. Became a Federalist then a Democrat-Republican, later regarded as a Tory rat and a turncoat but was rewarded by President Jefferson.

    He championed use of tariffs to protect US Manufactures. Can perhaps be credited as father of the US cotton industry and was first to import an Arkwright machine. With Alexander Hamilton was an early promoter of industrialization, and with Hamilton co-wrote a 1791 Report on Manufactures.

    Tench was son of William Coxe and Mary Francis (1729-1800) daughter of lawyer Francis Tench Snr. (1705-1758) and Elizabeth Turbutt. Mary's brother Francis Tench Jnr. (1731-1821) married Anne McCall Willing, (1733-1781), daughter of merchant Charles Willing (1710-1790), and Anne Shippen, and Ane McCall's brother Thomas Willing (1731-1821) was the merchant-partner of Robert Morris. Francis Jnr's son Thomas William Francis (1767-1815) married a daughter of this Thomas Willing, Dorothy (1772-1842).

    William Coxe's daughter and sister of Tench Coxe, Sarah, married Pennsylvania Attorney-General and Loyalist, Andrew Allen (1740-1825) See Tench Coxe married Catherine McCall, daughter of Philadelphia merchant-industrialist Samuel MCall (1721-1762) and his first wife, Anne Searle (d.1757). Catherine's sister Anne married Thomas Willing, the partner of Robert Morris.

    Coxe seems to be the same man writing about an offer re Indiana Company's lands to RM at Office of Finance before 13 November 1781, when RM replied, (an offer RM did not take up) see p. 177 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Major-General Nathanael Greene (1742-1786). Nathanael was son of Quaker merchant of Rhode Island Nathaniel Greene (1707-1768) of Rhode Island and his second wife Mary Mott, and married Catherine Littlefield daughter of a member of Rhode Island Legislature, John Littlefield and Phoebe Ray.

    The Ray's were "a political family". Phoebe Ray's sister Anna married Colonial Governor of Rhode Island Samuel Ward and Ann'a sister Catharine married Rhode Island Governor William Green (1731-1809) on whom see below. Nathanael by 3 October 1781 had letter from Robert Morris re money for Greene's army and mentioning money from France which has just arrived via Colonel John Laurens, a matter in which la Luzerne was implicated.

    See p. 13 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Cf, the Papers of General Nathanael Greene, from University of North Carolina Press. He to the end of the war helped to pacify South Carolina.

    1781: An official at Boston for naval/marine affairs was John Brown, nil information.

    1781: Stephen Ceronio at Jamaica, little information, he was an agent to assist with organizing American privateers to harrass the British. Was connected with Bernard Lavaud who had a similar role and Ceronio was let down by Lavaud.

    Pennsylvania lawyer, born in Northern Ireland, Stephen Chambers (1750-1789). Freemason from his days in Ireland. Arrived in Pennsylvania about 1775. Attorney in Sunbury, Northumberland County. He is Irish-born lawyer, later of Lancaster County Pennsylvania and a Freemason there. Some military experience. Owned several farms, had an interst in an ironworks.

    Voted to ratify the Constitution.

    An original member of Pennsylvania branch of Society of Cincinnati. Died in May 1789 after a pistol duel. Left a widow and several children notnamed. Had a letter from Robert Morris of 3 October 1781. See p. 12 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Philadelphia merchant/financier, Tench Francis Jnr (1731-1821). He was married to Anne McCall Willing (1733-1781) a product of the lineages of McCall and Thomas Willing the partner of Robert Morris. Tench's son Thomas Willing Francis married Dorothy Willing, daughter of the said Thomas Willing. RM at Office of Finance has a contract with Tench Friancis Jnr, see RM on this on 28 December 1781,

    re contract with Tench Francis and Matthias Slough to supply army posts, a contract which was unsatisfactorily performed, RM had complaints about it in January and February 1782. See pp. 454ff of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    General Horatio Gates (1728-1806).

    He wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 15 Sept 1781 and was replied to in November 1781, see p. 306 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    Colonel Matthias Slough (1732-1812) was son of innkeeper Jacob Slough and lived mostly in Lancaster County. Matthias married Mary Gibson, daughter of George Gibson (1708-1761)

    an innkeeper and Martha his wife of Lancaster County, who were also parents of General John Gibson of the American Revolution, brother of Colonel George Gibson of the Revolution. Matthias was colonel of a battallion. Matthias was partner in 1781 with Tench Francis Jnr with contracts to supply army posts, contracts complained of as unsatisfactory.

    Item at, text of Letters of Col. Matthias Slough to Robert Morris. Papers read before Lancaster County Bisirical, Friday 5 March 1920, Vol. XXIV, No. 3, by Hon. Chas. I. Landis. Slough in 1778 had written up to ten letters to Robert Morris, not so much business letters as reports of doings of personal favours. One letter was regarding hemp and indigo.

    1781: William Greene (1731-1809) as second governor of Rhode Island. See his own wikipedia page. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 3 November 1781. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Major-General William Heath (1737-1814). Member Society of Cincinnati. He was in command of Continental Army in lower Hudson River region and had letter from Robert Morris of 4 October 1781. See p. 21 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See Heath's own wikipedia page. Heath was son of Samuel Heath and Elizabeth Payson and married Sarah Lockwood.

    Cf., online, William Heath, Memoirs of Major-General William Heath, by Himself, edited by William Abbatt, To which is added, The Accounts of The Battle of Bunker Hill, by Generals Dearborn, Lee and Wilkinson. New York, 1901.

    Major-General Alexander McDougall (1732-1786). His family moved to America New York in 1738. Later a commander at West Point, and had letter from RM at Office of Finance 25 October 1781. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Thomas McKean (1734-1817). An early president of the USA;

    Of Delaware. He was related to wife of Declaration Signer Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791) as follows. McKean married wife-1 Mary Borden whose sister Ann married Hopkinson. Mary Borden's son Joseph Borden McKean (1764-1826) was attorney-general of Pennsylvania who married Hannah Miles daughter of Brig-General Samuel Miles and Catharine Wistar.

    Joseph Borden McKean's sister Ann became the second wife of Andrew Buchanan (1766-1811) whose second wife was Caroline Virginia Marylanda Johnson a daughter of the early US Consul to Britain, the well-known Joshua Johnson (1742-1802) and his wife a Londoner Catherine Nuth.

    McKean married wife-2 Sarah Armitage.

    McKean was member of Society of the Cincinnati.

    Lawyer and politician, had studied under a lawyer cousin, David Finney, in Delaware. Presbyterian in religion.

    Signer of American Declaration of Independence.

    He had a daughter Letitia who married Buchanan. Went into business young and opened branches in Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Became President of Congress and by 1 October 1781 is dated letter to him as such from Robert Morris in Finance. See p. 5 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See his own wikipedia page.

    1781: James Milligan. (Little information so far.)

    1781: Clothier-General of the Continental Army John Moylan (1745-1799). He had four sons, none of whom later settled in America. Lived mostly in Cork Ireland after the Revolution. Shipping merchant to Cadiz before 1781. John was brother of Patriot Colonel Stephen Moylan (1737-1811).

    John wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 15 October 1781 and RM replied on 2 November 1781, to him as clothier-general of the Continental Army. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    THE BIBLE MAN1781: Governor Virginia Thomas Nelson Jnr (1738-1789) a Signer of the American Declaration.

    Thomas Jnr was grandson of Tom "Scotch" Nelson and a first son of William Nelson (1711-1772) of Yorktown and Elizabeth Burwell, and this William's children married to the Virginian planter eliteas did the broader Nelson family in general.

    Thomas Jnr is seen as "General" in an item on USA/Virginia http by John Marshall at and in series, for Carter. Stella Hardy genealogy, p. 113. for Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal.

    Planter soldier and statesman from Yorktown Virginia. The son Thomas (born 1764) of Thomas Jnr married Frances Burwell Page daughter of Revolutioanry Patriot and governor of Virginia John Page (1743-1808). See his own wikipedia page.

    He is Governor of Virginia (succeeding Thomas Jefferson as such) and as such has letter from RM at Office of Finance of 16 October 1781. See p. 68 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Government offical Joseph Pennell. (Little information so far.)

    1781: army Quartermaster-General Charles Pettit (1736-1806). Iron merchant. See his own wikipedia page. Lawyer-merchant from New Jersey and Philadelphia. Former assistant quartermaster-general, was once apartner with Nathaniel Green and others in an iron works which supplied shell and shot to army, became interested in Bank of North America.

    RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 12 December 1781. See p. 380 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Timothy Pickering (Jnr.) (1745-1829). Son of Timothy Pickering Snr and Mary Wingate, also parents of Lucy Pickering who married distiller and foreign merchant using shipping, Captain Israel Dodge. Timothy Jnr married Rebecca White, daughter of Benjamin White and Elizabeth Miller.

    Timothy's family had been five generations in New England.

    Lawyer, patriot, soldier, pamphleteer. In 1783 was one of several planners for a north-west territory which would exclude slavery. He once presented ideas for what became West Point military academy. Friend/partner in 1783 of Samuel Hodgdon, a Philadelphia merchant.

    A noted Francophobe.

    Massachusetts Senator.

    Harvard "Essex Junto".

    Once had large land speculations re Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. Linda Minor says he is member of Harvard "Essex Junto". Cf, Google Books Result, Junius P. Rodriquez, The Louisiana Purchase.

    Some regard him later as one of The Essex Junto composed of a Massachusetts associaiton of High Federalists uninterested in what Jeffersonsians did.

    They supported Alexander Hamitlon in 1798 re his nomination as a senior major-general,

    and worked against Adams' re-election in 1800,

    challenged Jefferson's embargo of 1807-1809 and

    in 1803 and 1814 advocated New England's secession.

    Similar Federalist groups were Charleston's Mutton Chop Club and New York's Friendly Club and Sub-Rosa Society.

    The acknowledged Essex Junto men were Timothy Pickering, Fisher Ames, George Cabot, Francis Dana, Nathan Dane, Benjamin Goodhue, Stephen Higginson, Jonathan Jackson,John Lowell, Theophilus Parsons, Israel Thorndike, Nathan Tracy.

    All were born 1745-1758 from prosperous NE families. The Essex Junto men wished to see a less individualistic, more organic social form, and a more deferential society with groups to defer to.

    Some of them feared a Republican-Jeffersonian conspiracy to install Jefferson as president for life.

    Believed the Louisiana Purchase was a step to add another slave state to the Union.

    Pickering preferred secession to a Jeffersonian ascendancy and had a vision of a new Federalist confederacy sponsored by Great Britain and composed of New England, New York, New Jersey and Canada.

    In 1804 then, Pickering and CT's Roger Griswold supported Aaron Burr for governor of New York.

    Hamilton disdained ideas of secession however and so supported Burr's rival, Morgan Lewis.

    In 1814 arose more suspicion of the Essex Junto involvement in secession re the Hartford Convention, so they were excoriated again just as many of them were retiring - and as the phrase entered the American political lexicon.

    Pickering was a Revolutionary Quartermaster-General. Re letter from RM of 16 October 1781. See p. 67 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Army Paymaster-General John Pierce (died 1788). He was from Connecticut. Revolutionary Paymaster-General of army. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 21 December 1781. See p. 420 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3 .

    The partner of Matthew Ridley for flour purcahses for army Mark Pringle (died 1826) of Baltimore. (Surprisingly little-known.)

    1781: President of Pennsylvania Joseph Reed (1741-1785). See his own wikipedia page. Philadelphia merchant, lawyer and patriot. He is once President of Pennsylvania and as such has letter from RM of 10 October 1781.

    See p. 42 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Reed was married to Esther de Berdt, daughter of the colonial agent for Massachusetts, Dennis De Berdt of London (1693-1770) and Martha Symons.

    1781: New York merchant Comfort Sands (1747-1834) and his brothers Joshua and Richardson re the contract they had taken to supply the West Point military establishment. Comfort was son of John Sands and Elizabeth Cornell and married Sarah Dodge and their daughter Cornelia married New York financier Nathaniel Prime (1768-1840).

    Comfort Sands was a large shipowner. (Cf, writings by Walter Barrett Clerk on Merchants of Old New York.) RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 6 December 1781, re a contract for the supply of West Point. See p. 342 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Joshua Sands, Merchant, Collector of Port of New York.

    His own wikipedia page.Richardson Sands (1754-1783) was married to Lucretia Ledyard, daughter of the Mayor of Hartford CT, John Ledyard and Mary Austin. This Lucretia Ledyard also married merchant and major-general Ebenezer Stevens (1751-1823).

    Joshua Sands (1772-1825), one-time Collector of Port of New York, married Ann Ascough, daughter of British army surgeon Richard Ascough. Joshua's children married well into the post-revolutionary eastern establishment.

    1781: New York delegate to Continental Congress Melancthon Smith (1744-1798). His first wife Sarah died in 1770. Merchant-lawyer, adviser to George Clinton. Was rather savage on New York Loyalists. Anti-slavery. He later broke anti-Federalist ranks. New York delegate to Continental Congress. His own wikipedia page.

    He was associated with Andrew Craigie and William Duer. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him at New York re a contract (Smith plus Jonathan Lawrence) re army and supply of posts at Poughkeepsie and also supply of prisoners that Smith has taken with Joanthan Lawrence on 21 December 1781 (a contract later held by William Duer).

    See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. After the Revolution Smith returned to merchant life, bought Tory lands. Speculated in govt securities and bonds. See Jonathan Lawrence. Probably the one who died 1816? Difficult to trace.

    1781: Governor of Connecticut Jonathan Trumbull Snr (1710-1785). He was married to Faith Robinson, daughter of a clergyman and had daughters Faith who married General Jedediah Huntington (1743-1818)

    and Mary who married Declaration Signer William Williams (1731-1811) plus son Jonathan Trumbull Jnr (1740-1809) who became second Speaker of US House of Reps and a governor of Connecticut. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 7 November 1781. See p. 161 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: General Anthony Wayne (1745-1796). Had early training as a surveyor and surveyed coast of Nova Scotia. Was at Valley Forge battle.

    Delegate to a state convention ratifying the US Constitution. In 1781 he suffered a mutiny re pay and conditions, perhaps the worst of the American Revolution and he had to dismiss half his men. His own wikipedia page. General "Mad Anthony" Wayne.

    Online item, Colonial Families [often Quakers]) of Philadelphia at Is noted in 10,000 Famous Freemasons, said to be a Mason but no proof for this. He wrote to RM at Office of Finance about 26 October 1781 re surrender of Lord Cornwallis. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    1781: Bernard Lavaud on Jamaica (see Stephen Ceronio below). 1781 letter from RM.

    1781: Continental loan officer at New York Abraham Yates Jnr (1724-1796). He has nephew Robert Yates and grandsons Chancellor John Lansing Jnr and Abraham G. Lansing. His own wikipedia page. Patriot leader. He was Continental loan officer at New York, and had letter from RM at Office of Finance on 30 November 1781.

    See p. 304 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Cf., Stefan Bielinski, Abraham Yates Jnr, and the New Political Order in Revolutionary New York. Albany, New York State American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 1975.

    1781: New York merchant Richard Yates (no dates yet). Confusingly, one needs to ask, is he a patriot or Loyalist? Perhaps was the son of Joseph Yates and Maria Dunbar?

    Did he import from Europe and East Indies? Was he of firm Yates and Pollock, that is with George Pollock (1762-1820) of Philadelphia related to Patriot Oliver Pollock?

    George Pollock married Yates' daughter Catherine, daughter of of "the formidable" Catherine Brass, re Mrs Yates' portrait by Gilbert Stuart c.1793/1794.

    Richard Yates was one of the list of RM's pre-war correspondents for New York, a Loyalist but did some services for RM re prisoners, see p. 13 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

    October 1781: (See pp. 97-98 of E. James Ferguson and John Catanzariti, The Papers of Robert Morris 1781-184. Vol. 3, 1 October 1781-10 January 1782. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.)

    Here, just before Matthew Ridley escorted Morris' two sons to France for their education, Morris wrote for Ridley a list of the pre-war correspondents of Willing, Morris and Co. It should be noted that before 1776, Matthew Ridley had been the Baltimore agent for the London-based convict contractors, John Stewart (died 1772) and Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), the Campbell who became the overseer of the Thames River prison hulks. The Willing and Morris pre-war-time correspondents were:

    London, John Motteux and Co.,

    Messrs David Strachan and Co.,

    Messrs Gregory and Turnbull "who could point to others", (these must have been partners of London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803) before he joined them!),

    Bristol is Richard Champion Esqr, Only the correspondence of RM with Richard Champion survives in archives. See G. H. Guttridge (Ed.), The American Correspondence of a Bristol Merchant, 1766-1776, Letters of Richard Champion. Berkeley, California, 1934.

    Liverpool is Thomas Tarleton and also John Dobson (difficult to trace),Falmouth is George Croker Fox and Sons,

    New York is Andrew Elliot (1728-1797) and also Richard Yates. Elliot was a Loyalist, later an acting-governor of New York. Early he was a Scots emigrant-trader, with an advance of 700 pounds to Philadelphia, became receiver-general of New York. Returned to Scotland.

    He was an uncle of Gilbert Elliot a close associate of Bute (the advisor of George III) and a trusted servant of George III, and became collector of the port of New York in Namier, England in the Age of the American Revolution, p. 266. See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Southesk, 1938 edn. pp. See his own wikipedia page.

    On Barbados is Charles Willing,

    At Antigua is Messrs Willock and Moorson,

    At Jamaica is Messrs Cuthberts,

    At St Kitts is Ulysses Lynch (sometimes mentioned on websites but too briefly),

    At Madeira is Scott, Pringle, Cheap and Co.,

    At Lisbon is Messrs Robert Paisley and Co (hard to trade),

    Paulo Jorge and Messrs Edward Burn and Sons (somewhat traceable). This pre-war list is discussed in detail elsewhere in this Timelines series - Ed


    1782: (Baker, p. 25), George Cherry is Naval agent (difficult to trace) for dry provisions at Cowes by March 1782.

    (Baker, p. 25), by March 1782 the British Commissary in Canada is Nathaniel Day, a personal friend with General John Burgoyne (Day is difficult to trace though mentioned in military records).(Baker, p. 35), in 1782, contracts of John Hennicker and Kender Mason (son Henry) were passed to their sons.

    Circa 1782: (Baker, p. 224), MP Christopher Potter had held navy contracts for biscuits and bread, and with Aaron Moody owned a steam-mill/bakehouse complex at Southampton.

    (Baker, p. 212), in 1782, banker Thomas Harley is chief Treasury agent for supply of clothing and blankets to military, and was replaced as such by Thomas Burfoot of Barge Yard Bucklersbury. William Worsfold of Mark Lane London also supplied some military clothing/bedding.

    (Baker, p. 204), from August 1782 the British Commissary-General in New York was Brook Watson (later a London alderman) of Watson and Rashleigh.

    1782: (Baker, p. 71), London banker Francis Baring takes over some supply of provisions on a commission basis by about October 1782 and Baring liked arrangements that could be made at Waterford and Limerick, when at the time for cattle, Cork was "the slaughter house of Ireland".

    Baring (Baker, p. 142) used about 22 merchants, 13 in Ireland and 9 in England, mostly from East Anglia and s/e England. Baring (Baker, p. 142),

    by November 1782 had contracted to victual 70,000 British troops using English and Irish merchants. Baring (Baker, p. 78) and with Thomas Farrer (difficult to trace) a London cornfactor and contractor a specialist in dry provisions)

    in 1783 under auspices of Shelburne Ministry undertook supply of all British troops abroad with a view to using his preferred agents at Cork, though he generally used the contractors and agents earlier used by the North administration.

    (Baker, p. 143), Baring used in Ireland, the firms Piercy and Waggets, Ferguson and Collon, Hugh Jameson and Church and Crawford. all of Cork. Also P. and J. Roche of Limerick and John Allan of Waterford.1783

    1783: (Baker, p. 188), John Trotter of Frith Street, Soho, was a supplier of bedding for hospitals during the American war. (John Trotter is difficult to trace.)

    (Baker, p. 34), William Fitzhugh was brother-in-law of John Purling MP and Simon Halliday has brother John Halliday MP

    (Baker, p. 35), William Baynes (difficult to trace) has brother-in-law John Roberts

    (Baker, p. 55), the names arise, and so far, George Browne (difficult to find the correct individual with such a common name) and Edward Lewis (died about 1791, a son of Percival Lewis, both difficult to trace) appear in tandem.

    (Baker, p. 57), Contractor names appearing are Henry Mason and Henry Blundell (not yet traced), their estates were not finalized till 1809.

    (Baker, p. 66), Commissary-General at Cork is Robert Gordon (difficult to trace, probably from Scottish highlands, he married a daughter of General Cunninghame).

    (Baker, p. 70), at end of Jan 1782, the navy board agent for transports at Cork was Lt. Harris (not yet traced).Baker, pp. 80-81, names a few sub-contractors in England used by the top-line contractors eg, Palgraves and Henry Gooch & Cotton of Bungay in Suffolk.

    On the naval aspects of the American War for the British side, see David Syrett, Shipping and the American War. London, 1970. (In July 1776 the Navy Board had 416 transports of 128,427 tons, most of it chartered).

    David Syrett, ‘Methodology of British amphibious operations during the Seven Years War and the American War’, Mariner’s Mirror, February 1978, Vol. 64., pp. 269-280.

    David Syrett, The Royal Navy in American Waters, 1775-1783. Gower Publishing Co., Brookfield, Vermont, USA, Scolar Press, 1989. pp. 26ff, citing Orlando W. Stephenson, ‘The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776’, American Historical Review, January 1925, Vol. 30., pp. 271-281. and p. 41,

    in the first five months of 1776, British government, making strenuous efforts to find ships for government service, many tenders were advertised, delays set in, also re severe winter of 1775-1776, fitting of ships at Deptford was slowed, transports could not be armed due to regulations banning shipment of munitions by sea.

    Citing see also, A. T. Mahan, The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence. New York, 1969, reprint.


    Some American Businessmen:

    SOURCES: E. James Ferguson and John Catanzariti, "The Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3, 1 October 1781-10 January 1782. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977].

    (NOTE - These Robert Morris Papers are posted on the Internet in full, in four volumes of The Papers of Robert Morris.)

    Some British who supplied American troops

    [SOURCE: Norman Baker, Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and War Supplies, 1775-1783. University of London and The Athlone Press, 1971].



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