CHRISTIPEDIA TOP

Web's Largest Site with "INERRANT BIBLE" Worldview!
GLOBE CROSS STANDING ON BIBLECHRISTIPEDIA™GLOBE CROSS STANDING ON BIBLE
An Online Christian Worldview Encyclopedia,
Where God's Word is "STILL...INERRANT!"
CHRISTIAN FLAGPRESENTING :CHRISTIAN FLAG
JESUS!
Home of CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
With "DOCTOR of DIVINITY" for Ministers!
FLAG -OPEN-BIBLE Is Your DOCTORATE from Cambridge? FLAG-OPEN-BIBLE
The GREATEST NAME in Education!
GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
THE HOME OF
CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVINGCHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIAS:CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING
AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN  AMERIPEDIA™   BIBLIPEDIA™   CHRISTIPEDIA™  AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
(Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives)
flag divider

ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL

flag divider

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANUSA 'FOUNDING PHOTOS'AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

flag divider
GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
 GOLD BAR
"WELCOME!"
Web’s Largest and Most
Comprehensive, "Bible-Christian" Website!
From an..."INERRANT - BIBLICAL"...Viewpoint!
With Over...900,000 Pages – (10-1-2012)
And More Than 9-Million Graphics,
And Over 10-Million Links,
Under Construction

Ministers-Best-Friend

Lookup a Word or Passage in the Bible



BibleGateway.com
ALWAYS Check The SCRIPTURE!

GOLD DIVIDER CROSS

















flag divider

ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS 'JESUS' PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL

flag divider

GOLD DIVIDER CROSS
DEAR FRIEND!
PLEASE SEE MASTER HOME PAGE
Before moving on with your studies: PLEASE?
WITH OVER 2,000 IMPORTANT BIBLE CHRISTIAN "GRAPHICS and "LINKS!"
MANY STUDY RESOURCES ALL ON ONE PAGE (you may need later!)
THANK YOU, GOD BLESS, PRAY for US, TELL OTHERS,
PLEASE COME BACK OFTEN!
GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
Fellow Christian for Christ!
    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!' BIBLE-CHRISTIAN! Preacher, Teacher, Pastor, Minister, Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, Singer-Musician, Children-Youth Worker, Political Activist:

    CHRIST IS THE ONLY HOPE FOR THE USA!

    This great Nation is doomed . . . UNLESS WE CHRISTIANS WILL BE that Mighty City Shining on the Hill! The powerful Salt that has regained Savor! (Matt 5:13-14)

    "EXCEPT God build the NATION; . . . they labor in vain to build it! Psalm 127:1

    We at Ministers-Best-Friend.com are retired Ministers, with no goal in life beyond helping all True Ministers of Jesus Christ, do the work of Ministry. God is blessing.

    Our TOP PRIORITY is helping start new Ministries. In 2011 we provided the paperwork for 778 new Churches, Ministries. . ."PER MONTH!"   ("FREE LEGAL PACKET" Church Organization Papers; CLICK HERE!)

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER

Fellow-Laborer's For Christ:
    Why did we name our website "Ministers-Best-Friend.com?"

    Because. . . that's what we strive to be . . . the Dedicated, Evangelistic, Bible Minister's absolute BEST MINISTRY FRIEND IN THE WORLD as follows:

    (A) By offering the very best in Christian Study Resources (See right margin menu);

    (B) From several Online Christian Encyclopedias for "Students-N-Scholars";

    (C) The New International Standard Series of Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Commentaries, Lexicons and much more:SEE EIGHT-VERSION SIDE-by-SIDE "DECATHALOGUE!"

    (D) The Cambridge Theological Seminary offers the Very Best Name in Ministry Credentials;

    (E) Serving 190+ nations: USA #1, China #2, Russia #3

[1] Full-&-Legal Ordination for all phases of Ministry:

    ** Preachers, Pastors and Evangelists;
    ** Soul Winners! - (they are Evangelists too!)
    ** Sunday School and Bible Study Teachers are "God-called Ministries too!"
    ** Christian School Teachers and Children's Workers!
    ** All Deacons and Elders NEED to be Ordained
    ** Singers, Musicians, Praise and worship Leaders;
    ** Nursery Workers, Jails-Nursing Home Ministries,
    ** Every person having a 'Call to Ministry' needs to be "Ordained to Ministry to reap the benefits thereof: Financially, Influence, Credentials, etc;

    Online "Free!" Ordination for Bible Believers Only

    For all Ordination needs, please see:
    Ministerial Ordination Process:

[2] Chaplain's Ordination, Full & Legal, Certified & Registered - can be "Board Certified" - Licensed & Ordained: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Ordination

[3] Chaplaincy Training, Certification with Endorsement for Employment: Jail, Hospital, Schools, Courts, Police-Fire Dept: Online "Free!" Chaplaincy Training: Multiple Certifications

[4] "Doctor of Divinity Title" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, School-Teachers; See: "Free!" Doctor of Divinity

[5] Two-Year, Four-Year, Master's Programs in "Biblical Studies" for Absolute Bible-Believing Preachers, Bible School-Teachers; Online "Free!" Biblical Degree Programs

[6] How to Start a New Church or Ministry, Tax-Exempt from the first day, even in your home . . . a Beautiful 33-Page Fill-in-The-Blank packet (With Charter). . .just for a Free-will love Offering; Start-A-Church-Legal Packet

[7] How to Start an Accredited Bible Institute in your Local Church as an affiliate of Cambridge Theological Seminary (With Charter) - just for a Free-will love Offering; Start a Bible Institute in Your Church

[8] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos - Christians Only - College Credit, starts 3rd-4th grade level; [IN PROCESS] Free English Lessons for Hispanic/Latinos

[9] Need a High School Diploma? Get a genuine Diploma, back-dated to 1977 if needed; Need a High School Diploma?

[10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

[11] Home Schooling - not FREE yet . . . but soon will be. . . for Bible Believers only; Home Schooling - not FREE yet

[12] Licensed Christian Counselors Program: Allows you to charge fees and gain income, for Bible Believers only, Basic Lessons; Free Licensed Christian Counselors

[13] Full-&-Legal Ordination as "Minister of Music" for all phases of Church Music program: Singers, Musicians, Sound=Technicians, Praise & Worship Leaders, Banners, etc. Online "Free!" Ordination for Ministers of Music

[14] Doctorate in Music helping magnify your music ministry, for Bible Believers only; Can you use a "Doctoral Degree" in Praise-&-Worship Music?

[15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic categories, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST. Why OPEN BIBLE? The goal is NOT to test your memory!!!

    The GOAL is to test your ability to understand the Word of God as you read it!

    All we ask is that you "sign that you did the work yourself." The Credential is Beautiful, and it makes you a "BOARD CERTIFIED FELLOW" of Cambridge Theological Seminary.

"Certified Scholar of the Bible" Program

flag divider

   CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING"WAS JESUS PATRIOTIC?"CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING

   AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIS 'PATRIOTISM' SINFUL?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

   ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAELWAS ESTHER PATRIOTIC?ISRAELI FLAG WAVING ISRAEL

flag dividerGOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER

 GOLD BAR
CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVINGCHRISTIPEDIACHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING

Online Christian Encyclopedia

Cambridge Theological Seminary

For “Students-N-Scholars”


GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: CURRENT CHATTER! NEWS!
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
(CLICK PICTURES)
MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO ann-romney-photo-1.jpg TIM-TEBOW-JOHN-3-16-PHOTO ORLY TAITZ.jpg WILLIAM OWENS GABBY GABRIELLE DOUGLAS GOLD MEDAL PHOTO JEREMY-LIN-PHOTO-with-BASKETBALLS
Mitt Romney, Paul Ryan, Ann Romney, Tebow! Orly Taitz, William Owens, Gabby! Jeremy Lin,

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: MISS AMERICAS' FOR CHRIST:
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
(CLICK PICTURES for STORIES)
GRETCHEN-CARLSON-MISS-AMERICA-1989-Crown ERIKA-HAROLD-MISS-AMERICA-2003-CROWN.jpg KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO CARESSA-CAMERON-MISS-AMERICA-2010.jpg TERESA-SCANLAN-MISS-AMERICA 2011 LAURA-KAEPPLER-PHOTO-WITH-CROWN
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICTURES)
BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO JERRY-FALWELL.jpg JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER ARLIN-HORTON-PHOTO PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg PAUL CHAPPELL-PHOTO.jpg
B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson, P. Chappell,

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICTURES)
T-D-JAKES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO CREFLO-DOLLAR-PHOTO KEN HUTCHERSON BALL CAP PORTRAIT FRED-PRICE-PHOTO.jpg CHARLES-BLAKE-PASTOR" KENNETH-ULMER-PHOTO-Good.png TONY-EVANS-PHOTO
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
MARCO-RUBIO-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg SUSAN-MARTINEZ-OFFICIAL-PHOTO. LUIS-PALAU-PHOTO GUILLERMO-MALDONADO-PHOTO.jpg KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO WILFREDO-De-JESUS PHOTO
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: SOME NEWS MAKERS
Republican Primary Candidates For President: 2012!
(CLICK PICTURES)
NEWT GINGRICH-OFFICIAL-PHOTO RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO HERMAN CAIN OFFICIAL PHOTO MICHELE BACHMANN Web Pic MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO RON PAUL OFFICIAL PHOTO
Newt Gingrich, Rick Santorum, Herman Cain, Michele Bachmann, Mitt Romney, Ron Paul

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICTURES)
GABRIEL-BRIGETTE." STAR PARKER AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO JUANITA-BYNUM-PHOTO harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO
G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts;

SKULL and BONESSodomy Shortens Male Lifespan Decades!SKULL and BONES

SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:
HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS

LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS

(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)

AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY

Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!

"DID YOU KNOW?
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
BRIEFS: SOME NEWS MAKERS!
These People Decide What's Happening!
(CLICK PICTURES)
FRANKLIN-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg" TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpg" CHARLES-PAYNE OFFICIAL-PHOTO HENRY LOUIS GATES JR OFFICIAL PHOTO CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO
Franklin Graham, Miss Home School, Charles Payne, H.L. Gates Jr., Carrie Prejean

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
NewtonStein:
 Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH

ATOM WHIRLINGSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGSCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpgSCIENCE-HAECKELS-DRAWINGATOM WHIRLING
"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!

Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)

GRAVITATIONSCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSSCIENCE-PERIODIC-TABLE SCIENCE-ATOM-ON-CROSSGRAVITATION

"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

SCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISHSCIENCE-DARWIN-JESUS-FISH

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
rotating starFLAG-OPEN-BIBLEUSA!FLAG-OPEN-BIBLErotating star
rotating starChristian Nationrotating star
Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
LINCOLN-SIGNATURE
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

flag divider

U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,

Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE

However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)

FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!

FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!

FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!

FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!

FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...

FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!

FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]

Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE

President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE

Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!

flag divider

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANTHE USA PHOTO GALLERYAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

flag divider

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN"WAS PAUL PATRIOTIC?"AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

flag divider

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANWAS JESUS PATRIOTIC??AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

flag divider

SKULL and BONES"WIKIPEDIA!"SKULL and BONES

The Greatest Encyclopedia, by Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!

"WIKIPEDIA (WICKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"

FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Worldly Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

Take a Moment and Check How OUTRAGEOUS!

WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANCAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGEAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
"CAMBRIDGE!"

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER

NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
2012: A year of amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANCAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGEAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
"CAMBRIDGE!"
  CAMBRIDGE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY!™
"World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!"

FREE Doctoral Degree for True Bible Preachers and Teachers!

Do you qualify for a Doctoral Degree in Sacred Music?

"CAMBRIDGE!"
STILL...The GREATEST Name in Education!
A CAMBRIDGE Degree...YOUR Name...YOUR Wall...
WHEN?
DIPLOMA FRAME & MEDALLION

CAP, DIPLOMA WITH BORDEROLD DIPLOMAMAROON DIPLOMA GOLD TASSEL

Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)
GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
What Is
The WORD of GOD?
CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN BIBLE HEADER CENTERCHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN
CHRISTIPEDIA™
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;

THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"

      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!)

      DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!

        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),

    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:

    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"

-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)

CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN BIBLE HEADER CENTERCHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER

Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
"God's Goals"

For This World! Right Now! Today!

(Christ taught us to Pray! Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2

Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

(All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

THE MOST IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" - EVER!

      The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR."   1 Pet 5:8

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

        QUESTION: Do you Believe the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world TO CONDEMN the world, but that THE WORLD though Him might BE SAVED! John 3:16 John 3:17

      SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be NOT ignorant of this ONE THING, ...The Lord is... NOT WILLING that ANYshould perish, but that ALL should come to REPENTANCE. 2 Pet 3:9

        QUESTION: Do you Believe Father God Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

      SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

      SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

      SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe
          God the Father,
            God the Son, and
              God the Spirit
                Win over Sin and Satan;

                  Please "CLICK" below!

    "I Believe GOD WINS the Battle for the World!"


    MULTI-COLOR THIN BAR DIVIDER
    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    MULTI-COLOR THIN BAR DIVIDER

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN"AMAZING ETERNAL LIFE FILES!"CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN

    MULTI-COLOR THIN BAR DIVIDER
    GOLD DIVIDER CROSS CENTER
    MULTI-COLOR THIN BAR DIVIDER

    AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN AMERICAN-FLAG-WHITE-BIBLE CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING
    The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares

    "These things have I WRITTEN unto you who BELIEVE,
    THAT YE MAY KNOW that ye have Eternal Life." 1 John 5:13

    So How Can We Know?

    Dearest Visitor!
    People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
    We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!

    "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
    THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVEETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13

    Let's Break it Down!
    "These things have I WRITTEN (Absolute, Unchanging!)
    Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
    THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
    That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
    Eternal Life!"(You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
    "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5

    YOU invite Christ in; HE GUARANTEES: "I WILL NEVER LEAVE'!" IT'S SETTLED!

    FACT!
    You know "IF" you believe that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
    For the sins of all humanity! (Including your own!);

    FACT!
    "IF" You BELIEVE You have ETERNAL LIFE NOW! For SURE! For EVER!

    PLEASE CLICK IF YOU BELIEVE WE CAN "KNOW"
    I DO BELIEVE!
    ETERNAL LIFE KNOWN FOR SURE IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13

    GOLD DIVIDER CROSS CENTER
    Do You Qualify for
    An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
    If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
    Probably!
    (Click for a Free Evaluation!)

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN RAPTURE READY BANNER PART-1RAPTURE READY BANNER RAPTURE READY BANNER PART-3 CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN

    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed to His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    And Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence with us and The Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIANRAPTURE READY BANNER PART-1RAPTURE READY BANNER RAPTURE READY BANNER PART-3 CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING CHRISTIAN


    AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANCAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGEAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN
    "CAMBRIDGE!"
    BIBLE MNEMONICS!
    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    No other spiritual exercise,
    pays greater spiritual dividends than MEMORIZING Scripture!
    (Dr. Charles "Chuck" Swindoll, Radio-TV-Preacher)

    "I am convinced,
    that one of the GREATEST things we can do is to memorize Scripture."
    (Dr. Billy Graham, "World's Greatest Evangelist")
    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    MEMORIZE THEME of EVERY CHAPTER IN NEW TESTAMENT!
    (With Little Rhymes, Limericks for EACH CHAPTER!)

    In just 30 days . . . YOU know know from MEMORY,
    What EVERY CHAPTER in the WHOLE NEW TESTAMENT is about!

    |Mat|Mar|Luk|Joh|Act|Rom|1-Co|2-Co|Gal|Eph|Php|Col|1-Th|2-Th|
    |1-Ti|2-Ti|Tit|Phm|Heb|Jam|1-Pe|2-Pe|1-Jo|2-Jo|3-Jo|Jud|Rev|

    AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANCAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGECAMBRIDGEAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN






      AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT
      flag divider

      To Use Page EFFICIENTLY;

    ** To SEARCH for any Word, Topic or Scripture ON THIS WEBSITE, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: 600,000 pages available 1-1-2012, from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

    ** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages), do as follows:

      [1] At TOP TOOLBAR on Monitor, "CLICK EDIT" then "FIND"

      [2] Type in SEARCH WORD, Phrase, Scripture, etc.,

      [3] Check "MATCH CASE" if needed and "PRESS ENTER"

      [4] Then Click "NEXT" or "PREVIOUS" to search as you desire!

      [5] Do "RIGHT CLICK" on mouse-controller, and "CLICK FIND" on non-FIREFOX Browsers;

    flag divider






    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    DEAR FRIEND!
    Please Visit Home Page
    Before Moving on with Your Studies!
    MINISTERS BEST FRIEND and CHRISTIPEDIA "HOME PAGE"
    PLEASE Allow Time...2,000 Graphics-Links!!!

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA™

    ;

    ;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    CHRISTIPEDIA™

      After European settlement, religious history began more than a century before the British colonies became the United States of America in 1776. Some of the original settlers were men and women of deep religious convictions. The religious intensity of the original settlers diminished to some extent over time but new waves of 18th-century immigrants brought their own religious fervor across the Atlantic. In addition, the nation's first major religious revival in the middle of the 18th century injected new vigor into American religion.

      Wave after wave of ethnic groups from Europe (as well as other parts of the globe) brought along their traditional churches—some, especially the English and theGerman Americans brought along multiple Protestant denominations, as well as Catholicism. Several colonies had an "established" church, which meant that local tax money went to the established denomination. In general, the colonial governments were little involved in religion, and many denominations and sects flourished. Freedom of religion became a basic American principle, and numerous new movements emerged, many of which became established denominations in their own right. The heavy influx of immigration in the 19th and 20th century reinvigorated religion; in many cases, the immigrants became much more religious than they had been in the old country in order to assert their new complex identity. As Europe secularized in the 20th century, the Americans largely resisted the trend, so that by the 21st century it had become perhaps the most religious of all major nations, with religiously based moral issues (such as abortion) occupying a major role in American politics.[citation needed]Contents

      [hide] • 1 North America as a religious refuge: 17th centuryo 1.1 Puritanso 1.2 Persecution in America 1.2.1 Founding of Rhode Islando 1.3 Jewish refuge in Americao 1.4 Quakerso 1.5 Pennsylvania Germanso 1.6 Roman Catholics in Marylando 1.7 Virginia and the Church of England• 2 Eighteenth centuryo 2.1 Deismo 2.2 Great Awakening: emergence of evangelicalismo 2.3 Evangelicals in the South 2.3.1 Baptists 2.3.2 Methodists 2.3.3 Masculinity and morality• 3 American Revolutiono 3.1 Church of England• 4 Great Awakeningso 4.1 Second Great Awakeningo 4.2 Third Great Awakening• 5 Emergence of African American churches• 6 Church of Christ, Scientist• 7 Restorationismo 7.1 Mormonismo 7.2 Jehovah's Witnesses• 8 Benevolent societies• 9 Roman Catholicism• 10 Eastern Orthodoxy• 11 Judaism• 12 Denominations and sects founded in the U.S.• 13 Church and state issueso 13.1 Establishment in colonial erao 13.2 Establishment Clause 13.2.1 Jefferson, Madison, and the "wall of separation" 13.2.2 Test actso 13.3 First Amendmento 13.4 Supreme Court since 1947• 14 See also• 15 Bibliographyo 15.1 Historiographyo 15.2 Before 1800o 15.3 1800-1900o 15.4 Since 1900o 15.5 Primary sources• 16 References• 17 Sources• 18 External links

      [edit]North America as a religious refuge: 17th centuryMany of the British North American colonies that eventually formed the United States of America were settled in the 17th century by men and women, who, in the face of European religious persecution, refused to compromise passionately held religious convictions and fled Europe.[2]The Middle Atlantic colonies of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, were conceived and established "as plantations of religion." Some settlers who arrived in these areas came for secular motives—"to catch fish" as one New Englander put it—but the great majority left Europe to worship in the way they believed to be correct. They supported the efforts of their leaders to create "a City upon a Hill" or a "holy experiment," whose success would prove that God's plan for churches could be successfully realized in the American wilderness. Even colonies like Virginia, which were planned as commercial ventures, were led by entrepreneurs who considered themselves "militant Protestants" and who worked diligently to promote the prosperity of the church.[edit]PuritansPuritans were English Protestants who wished to reform and purify the Church of England of what they considered to be unacceptable residues of Roman Catholicism. In the 1620s, leaders of the English state and church grew increasingly unsympathetic to Puritan demands. They insisted that the Puritans conform to religious practices that they abhorred, removing their ministers from office and threatening them with "extirpation from the earth" if they did not fall in line. Zealous Puritan laymen received savage punishments. For example, in 1630 a man was sentenced to life imprisonment, had his property confiscated, his nose slit, an ear cut off, and his forehead branded "S.S." (sower of sedition).Beginning in 1630, as many as 20,000 Puritans emigrated to America from England to gain the liberty to worship as they chose. Most settled in New England, but some went as far as the West Indies. Theologically, the Puritans were "non-separating Congregationalists." Unlike the Pilgrims, who came to Massachusetts in 1620, the Puritans believed that the Church of England was a true church, though in need of major reforms. Every New England Congregational church was considered an independent entity, beholden to no hierarchy. The membership was composed, at least initially, of men and women who had undergone a conversion experience and could prove it to other members. Puritan leaders hoped (futilely, as it turned out) that, once their experiment was successful, England would imitate it by instituting a church order modeled after the New England Way.[edit]Persecution in AmericaAlthough they were victims of religious persecution in Europe, the Puritans supported the Old World theory that sanctioned it: the need for uniformity of religion in the state.Once in control in New England, they sought to break "the very neck of Schism and vile opinions." The "business" of the first settlers, a Puritan minister recalled in 1681, "was not Toleration, but [they] were professed enemies of it." [3] Puritans expelled dissenters from their colonies, a fate that in 1636 befell Roger Williams and in 1638 Anne Hutchinson, America's first major female religious leader.Those who defied the Puritans by persistently returning to their jurisdictions risked capital punishment, a penalty imposed on the Boston martyrs, four Quakers, between 1659 and 1661. Reflecting on the 17th century's intolerance, Thomas Jefferson was unwilling to concede to Virginians any moral superiority to the Puritans. Beginning in 1659, Virginia enacted anti-Quaker laws, including the death penalty for refractory Quakers. Jefferson surmised that "if no capital execution took place here, as did in New England, it was not owing to the moderation of the church, or the spirit of the legislature."[4][edit]Founding of Rhode IslandExpelled from Massachusetts in the winter in 1636, former Puritan leader Roger Williams issued an impassioned plea for freedom of conscience. He wrote, "God requireth not an uniformity of Religion to be inacted and enforced in any civill state; which inforced uniformity (sooner or later) is the greatest occasion of civill Warre, ravishing of conscience, persecution of Christ Jesus in his servants, and of the hypocrisie and destruction of millions of souls."[5] Williams later founded Rhode Island on the principle of religious freedom. He welcomed people of religious belief, even some regarded as dangerously misguided, for nothing could change his view that "forced worship stinks in God's nostrils."[6][edit]Jewish refuge in AmericaMain article: History of the Jews in the United StatesA shipload of twenty-three Jewish refugees fleeing persecution in Dutch Brazil arrived in New Amsterdam (soon to become New York City) in 1654. By the next year, this small community had established religious services in the city. By 1658, Jews had arrived in Newport, Rhode Island, also seeking religious liberty. Small numbers of Jews continued to come to the British North American colonies, settling mainly in the seaport towns. By the late 18th century, Jewish settlers had established several thriving synagogues.[edit]QuakersThe Religious Society of Friends formed in England in 1652 around leader George Fox.Many scholars[who?] today consider Quakers as radical Puritans because the Quakers carried to extremes many Puritan convictions.[citation needed] They stretched the sober deportment of the Puritans into a glorification of "plainness." Theologically, they expanded the Puritan concept of a church of individuals regenerated by the Holy Spirit to the idea of the indwelling of the Spirit or the "Light of Christ" in every person.Such teaching struck many of the Quakers' contemporaries as dangerous heresy. Quakers were severely persecuted in England for daring to deviate so far from orthodox Christianity. By 1680, 10,000 Quakers had been imprisoned in England and 243 had died of torture and mistreatment in jail.This reign of terror impelled Friends to seek refuge in New Jersey in the 1670s, where they soon became well entrenched. In 1681, when Quaker leader William Penn parlayed a debt owed by Charles II to his father into a charter for the province of Pennsylvania, many more Quakers were prepared to grasp the opportunity to live in a land where they might worship freely. By 1685, as many as 8,000 Quakers had come to Pennsylvania from England, Wales, and Ireland.[citation needed] Although the Quakers may have resembled the Puritans in some religious beliefs and practices, they differed with them over the necessity of compelling religious uniformity in society.[edit]Pennsylvania GermansDuring the main years of German emigration to Pennsylvania in the mid-18th century, most of the emigrants were Lutherans, Reformed, or members of small sects—Mennonites, Dunkers[disambiguation needed],Schwenkfelders, Moravians, and some German Baptist groups. The great majority became farmers.[7]The colony was owned by William Penn, a leading Quaker, and his agents encouraged German emigration to Pennsylvania by circulating promotional literature touting the economic advantages of Pennsylvania as well as the religious liberty available there. The appearance in Pennsylvania of so many different religious groups made the province resemble "an asylum for banished sects."[edit]Roman Catholics in MarylandCatholics were harassed and persecuted in England throughout the 17th century. Driven by "the sacred duty of finding a refuge for his Roman Catholic brethren," George Calvert obtained a charter from Charles I in 1632 for the territory between Pennsylvania and Virginia.[8] This Maryland charter offered no guidelines on religion, although it was assumed that Catholics would not be molested in the new colony. His son Cecil Calvert, Baron Baltimore, was a Catholic who inherited the grant for Maryland from his father and was in charge 1630-45. In 1634, Lord Baltimore two ships, the Ark and the Dove, with the first 200 settlers to Maryland. They included two Catholic priests who had been forced to board surreptitiously to escape the reach of English anti-Catholic laws. Lord Baltimore assumed that religion was a private matter. He rejected the need for an established church, guaranteed liberty of conscience to all Christians, and embraced pluralism.[9]Catholic fortunes fluctuated in Maryland during the rest of the 17th century, as they became an increasingly smaller minority of the population. After the Glorious Revolution of 1689 in England, the Church of England was legally established in the colony and English penal laws, which deprived Catholics of the right to vote, hold office, or worship publicly, were enforced. Maryland's first state constitution in 1776 restored the freedom of religion.[10][edit]Virginia and the Church of EnglandMain articles: History of Virginia#Religion in early Virginia and Episcopal Diocese of Virginia#HistoryVirginia was the largest, most populous and most important colony. The Church of England was legally established; the bishop of London made it a favorite missionary target and sent in 22 clergyman by 1624. In practice, establishment meant that local taxes were funneled through the local parish to handle the needs of local government, such as roads and poor relief, in addition to the salary of the minister. There never was a bishop in colonial Virginia, and in practice the local vestry consisted of laymen who controlled the parish and handled local taxes, roads and poor relief.[11]

      The Bruton Parish Church in Williamsburg. Government and college officials in the capital at Williamsburg were required to attend services at this Anglican church.When the elected assembly, the House of Burgesses, was established in 1619, it enacted religious laws that made Virginia a bastion of Anglicanism. It passed a law in 1632 requiring that there be a "uniformitie throughout this colony both in substance and circumstance to the cannons and constitution of the Church of England."[12]The colonists were typically inattentive, disinterested, and bored during church services, according to the ministers, who complained that the people were sleeping, whispering, ogling the fashionably dressed women, walking about and coming and going, or at best looking out the windows or staring blankly into space.[13] The lack of towns means the church had to serve scattered settlements, while the acute shortage of trained ministers meant that piety was hard to practice outside the home. Some ministers solved their problems by encouraged parishioners to become devout at home, using the Book of Common Prayer for private prayer and devotion (rather than the Bible). This allowed devout Anglicans to lead an active and sincere religious life apart from the unsatisfactory formal church services. However the stress on private devotion weakened the need for a bishop or a large institutional church of the sort Blair wanted. The stress on personal piety opened the way for the First Great Awakening, which pulled people away from the established church.[14]Especially in the back country, most families had no religious affiliation whatsoever and their low moral standards were shocking to proper Englishmen[15] The Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and other evangelicals directly challenged these lax moral standards and refused to tolerate them in their ranks. The evangelicals identified as sinful the traditional standards of masculinity which revolved around gambling, drinking, and brawling, and arbitrary control over women, children, and slaves. The religious communities enforced new standards, creating a new male leadership role that followed Christian principles and became dominant in the 19th century.[16] Baptists, German Lutherans and Presbyterians, funded their own ministers, and favored disestablishment of the Anglican church. The dissenters grew much faster than the established church, making religious division a factor in Virginia politics into the Revolution. The Patriots, led by Thomas Jefferson, disestablished the Anglican Church in 1786.[17][edit]Eighteenth centuryAgainst a prevailing view that 18th century Americans had not perpetuated the first settlers' passionate commitment to their faith, scholars now identify a high level of religious energy in colonies after 1700. According to one expert, religion was in the "ascension rather than the declension"; another sees a "rising vitality in religious life" from 1700 onward; a third finds religion in many parts of the colonies in a state of "feverish growth."[18] Figures on church attendance and church formation support these opinions. Between 1700 and 1740, an estimated 75-80% of the population attended churches, which were being built at a headlong pace.[18]By 1780 the percentage of adult colonists who adhered to a church was between 10-30%, not counting slaves or Native Americans. North Carolina had the lowest percentage at about 4%, while New Hampshire and South Carolina were tied for the highest, at about 16%.[19]Church buildings in 18th-century America varied greatly, from the plain, modest buildings in newly settled rural areas to elegant edifices in the prosperous cities on the eastern seaboard. Churches reflected the customs and traditions as well as the wealth and social status of the denominations that built them. German churches contained features unknown in English ones.[edit]DeismDeism is a loosely used term that describes the views of certain English and continental thinkers. These views gained a small, unorganized but influential number of adherents in America in the late 18th century. Deism stressed morality and rejected the orthodox Christian view of the divinity of Christ, often viewing him as a sublime, but entirely human, teacher of morality.[18]Though their views were complex, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison were adherents, in some respects, of Unitarianism. Jefferson in particular was an adherent of "Deism and Unitarianism". Unlike Thomas Paine, this was not a radical, anti-Christian Deistism. Instead it was always respectful of Christianity, admired the ethics of Christ, believed religion could and should play a beneficial role in society, and was open to the possibility that there was a benevolent God involved in the affairs of men and nations.[20]Deism also influenced the development of Unitarianism in America. By 1800, all but one Congregationalist church in Boston had Unitarian preachers teaching the strict unity of God, the subordinate nature of Christ, and salvation by character. Harvard University, founded by Congregationalists, became a source of Unitarian training.[edit]Great Awakening: emergence of evangelicalismMain article: First Great AwakeningIn the American colonies the First Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants that swept the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. It resulted from powerful preaching that deeply affected listeners (already church members) with a deep sense of personal guilt and salvation by Christ. Pulling away from ritual and ceremony, the Great Awakening made religion intensely personal to the average person by creating a deep sense of spiritual guilt and redemption. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom sees it as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created Pietism in Germany, the Evangelical Revival and Methodism in England.[21] It brought Christianity to the slaves and was an apocalyptic event in New England that challenged established authority. It incited rancor and division between the old traditionalists who insisted on ritual and doctrine and the new revivalists.The new style of sermons and the way people practiced their faith breathed new life into religion in America. People became passionately and emotionally involved in their religion, rather than passively listening to intellectual discourse in a detached manner. Ministers who used this new style of preaching were generally called "new lights", while the preachers of old were called "old lights". People began to study the Bible at home, which effectively decentralized the means of informing the public on religious manners and was akin to the individualistic trends present in Europe during the Protestant Reformation.[22]The fundamental premise of evangelicalism is the conversion of individuals from a state of sin to a "new birth" through preaching of the Word. The First Great Awakening led to changes in American colonial society. In New England, the Great Awakening was influential among many Congregationalists. In the Middle and Southern colonies, especially in the "Backcountry" regions, the Awakening was influential amongPresbyterians. In the South Baptist and Methodist preachers converted both whites and enslaved blacks.[23]During the first decades of the 18th century, in the Connecticut River Valley, a series of local "awakenings" began in the Congregational church with ministers including Jonathan Edwards. The first new Congregational Church in the Massachusetts Colony during the great awakening period, was in 1731 at Uxbridge and called the Rev.Nathan Webb as its Pastor. By the 1730s, they had spread into what was interpreted as a general outpouring of the Spirit that bathed the American colonies, England, Wales, and Scotland.In mass open-air revivals powerful preachers like George Whitefield brought thousands of souls to the new birth. The Great Awakening, which had spent its force in New England by the mid-1740s, split the Congregational and Presbyterian churches into supporters—called "New Lights" and "New Side"—and opponents—the "Old Lights" and "Old Side." Many New England New Lights became Separate Baptists. Largely through the efforts of a charismatic preacher from New England named Shubal Stearns and paralleled by the New Side Presbyterians (who were eventually reunited on their own terms with the Old Side), they carried the Great Awakening into the southern colonies, igniting a series of the revivals that lasted well into the 19th century.[18]The supporters of the Awakening and its evangelical thrust—Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists—became the largest American Protestant denominations by the first decades of the 19th century. Opponents of the Awakening or those split by it—Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists—were left behind.Unlike the Second Great Awakening that began about 1800 and which reached out to the unchurched, the First Great Awakening focused on people who were already church members. It changed their rituals, their piety, and their self-awareness.[22][edit]Evangelicals in the SouthThe South had originally been settled and controlled by Anglicans, who dominated the ranks of rich planters but whose ritualistic high church established religion had little appeal to ordinary men and women, both white and black.[24][25][edit]BaptistsEnergized by numerous itinerant self-proclaimed missionaries, by the 1760s Baptists were drawing Southerners, especially poor white farmers, into a new, much more democratic religion. Slaves were welcome at the services and many became Baptists at this time. Baptist services were highly emotional; the only ritual was baptism, which was applied by immersion (not sprinkling like the Anglicans) only to adults. Opposed to the low moral standards prevalent in the colony, the Baptists strictly enforced their own high standards of personal morality, with special concern for sexual misconduct, heavy drinking, frivolous spending, missing services, cursing, and revelry. Church trials were held frequently and if members who did not submit to disciple were expelled.[26]Historians have debated the implications of the religious rivalries for the American Revolution. The Baptist farmers did introduce a new egalitarian ethic that largely displaced the semi-aristocratic ethic of the Anglican planters. However, both groups supported the Revolution. There was a sharp contrast between the austerity of the plain-living Baptists and the opulence of the Anglican planters, who controlled local government. Baptist church discipline, mistaken by the gentry for radicalism, served to ameliorate disorder. The struggle for religious toleration erupted and was played out during the American Revolution, as the Baptists worked to disestablish the Anglican church.[27]Baptists, German Lutherans and Presbyterians, funded their own ministers, and favored disestablishment of the Anglican church.[edit]MethodistsMethodist missionaries were also active in the late colonial period. From 1776 to 1815 Methodist Bishop Francis Asbury made 42 trips into the western parts to visit Methodist congregations. In the 1780s itinerant Methodist preachers carried copies of an anti-slavery petition in their saddlebags throughout the state, calling for an end to slavery. At the same time, counter-petitions were circulated. The petitions were presented to the Assembly; they were debated, but no legislative action was taken, and after 1800 there was less and less religious opposition to slavery.[28][edit]Masculinity and moralityEspecially in the Southern back country, most families had no religious affiliation whatsoever and their low moral standards were shocking to proper Englishmen[15] The Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and other evangelicals directly challenged these lax moral standards and refused to tolerate them in their ranks. The evangelicals identified as sinful the traditional standards of masculinity which revolved around gambling, drinking, and brawling, and arbitrary control over women, children, and slaves. The religious communities enforced new standards, creating a new male leadership role that followed Christian principles and became dominant in the 19th century.[16][edit]American RevolutionReligion played a major role in the American Revolution[citation needed] by offering a moral sanction for opposition to the British—an assurance to the average American that revolution was justified in the sight of God[citation needed]. As a recent scholar has observed, "by turning colonial resistance into a righteous cause, and by crying the message to all ranks in all parts of the colonies, ministers did the work of secular radicalism and did it better."[citation needed]Ministers served the American cause in many capacities during the Revolution: as military chaplains, as scribes for committees of correspondence, and as members of state legislatures, constitutional conventions and the Continental Congress. Some even took up arms, leading Continental Army troops in battle.The Revolution split some denominations, notably the Church of England, whose ministers were bound by oath to support the king, and the Quakers, who were traditionally pacifists. Religious practice suffered in certain places because of the absence of ministers and the destruction of churches, but in other areas, religion flourished.The Revolution strengthened millennialist strains in American theology. At the beginning of the war some ministers were persuaded that, with God's help, America might become "the principal Seat of the glorious Kingdom which Christ shall erect upon Earth in the latter Days." Victory over the British was taken as a sign of God's partiality for America and stimulated an outpouring of millennialist expectations—the conviction that Christ would rule on earth for 1,000 years. This attitude combined with a groundswell of secular optimism about the future of America helped to create the buoyant mood of the new nation that became so evident after Jefferson assumed the presidency in 1801.[edit]Church of EnglandMain article: Episcopal Church (United States)The American Revolution inflicted deeper wounds on the Church of England in America than on any other denomination because the English monarch was the head of the church. Church of England priests, at their ordination, swore allegiance to the British crown.The Book of Common Prayer offered prayers for the monarch, beseeching God "to be his defender and keeper, giving him victory over all his enemies," who in 1776 were American soldiers as well as friends and neighbors of American parishioners of the Church of England. Loyalty to the church and to its head could be construed as treason to the American cause.Patriotic American members of the Church of England, loathing to discard so fundamental a component of their faith as The Book of Common Prayer, revised it to conform to the political realities. After the Treaty of Paris (1783) documenting British recognition of American independence, the church split and the Anglican Communion created, allowing a separated Episcopal Church of the United States to replace, in the United States, and be in communion with the Church of England.[edit]Great AwakeningsMain article: RevivalismSee also: Revival meetingThe "great Awakenings" were large-scale revivals that came in spurts, and moved large numbers of people from unchurched to churched.[edit]Second Great AwakeningMain article: Second Great AwakeningSee also: Camp meetingIn 1800, major revivals began that spread across the nation: the decorous Second Great Awakening in New England and the exuberant Great Revival in Cane Ridge, Kentucky. The principal religious innovation produced by the Kentucky revivals was the camp meeting.The revivals at first were organized by Presbyterian ministers who modeled them after the extended outdoor "communion seasons," used by the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, which frequently produced emotional, demonstrative displays of religious conviction. In Kentucky, the pioneers loaded their families and provisions into their wagons and drove to the Presbyterian meetings, where they pitched tents and settled in for several days.When assembled in a field or at the edge of a forest for a prolonged religious meeting, the participants transformed the site into a camp meeting. The religious revivals that swept the Kentucky camp meetings were so intense and created such gusts of emotion that their original sponsors, the Presbyterians, as well the Baptists, soon repudiated them. The Methodists, however, adopted and eventually domesticated camp meetings and introduced them into the eastern United States, where for decades they were one of the evangelical signatures of the denomination.The Second Great Awakening (1800–1830s), unlike the first, focused on the unchurched and sought to instill in them a deep sense of personal salvation as experienced in revival meetings. The great revival quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on ministers known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert.The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. By 1860 evangelicalism emerged as a kind of national church or national religion and was the grand absorbing theme of American religious life. The greatest gains were made by the very well organized Methodists. Francis Asbury (1745–1816) led the American Methodist movement as one of the most prominent religious leaders of the young republic. Traveling throughout the eastern seaboard, Methodism grew quickly under Asbury's leadership into the nation's largest and most widespread denomination. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. It also sparked the beginnings of groups such as the Mormons, the Restoration Movement and the Holiness movement.[edit]Third Great AwakeningMain article: Third Great AwakeningThe Third Great Awakening was a period of religious activism in American history from the late 1850s to the 20th century. It affected pietistic Protestant denominations and had a strong sense of social activism. It gathered strength from the postmillennial theology that the Second Coming of Christ would come after mankind had reformed the entire earth. The Social Gospel Movement gained its force from the Awakening, as did the worldwide missionary movement. New groupings emerged, such as the Holiness movement and Nazarene movements, and Christian Science.[29]The Protestant mainline churches were growing rapidly in numbers, wealth and educational levels, throwing off their frontier beginnings and become centered in towns and cities. Intellectuals and writers such as Josiah Strong advocated a muscular Christianity with systematic outreach to the unchurched in America and around the globe. Others built colleges and universities to train the next generation. Each denomination supported active missionary societies, and made the role of missionary one of high prestige. The great majority of pietistic mainline Protestants (in the North) supported the Republican Party, and urged it to endorse prohibition and social reforms.[30][31] See Third Party SystemThe awakening in numerous cities in 1858 was interrupted by the American Civil War. In the South, on the other hand, the Civil War stimulated revivals and strengthened the Baptists, especially.[32] After the war,Dwight L. Moody made revivalism the centerpiece of his activities in Chicago by founding the Moody Bible Institute. The hymns of Ira Sankey were especially influential.[33]Across the nation drys crusaded in the name of religion for the prohibition of alcohol. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union mobilized Protestant women for social crusades against liquor, pornography and prostitution, and sparked the demand for woman suffrage.[34]The Gilded Age plutocracy came under harsh attack from the Social Gospel preachers and with reformers in the Progressive Era who became involved with issues of child labor, compulsory elementary education and the protection of women from exploitation in factories.All the major denominations sponsored growing missionary activities inside the United States and around the world.[35][36]Colleges associated with churches rapidly expanded in number, size and quality of curriculum. The promotion of "muscular Christianity" became popular among young men on campus and in urban YMCA's, as well as such denominational youth groups such as the Epworth League for Methodists and the Walther League for Lutherans.[37][edit]Emergence of African American churchesScholars disagree about the extent of the native African content of black Christianity as it emerged in 18th-century America, but there is no dispute that the Christianity of the black population was grounded in evangelicalism.The Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity." During these revivals Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks. However, many were disappointed at the treatment they received from their fellow believers and at the backsliding in the commitment to abolish slavery that many white Baptists and Methodists had advocated immediately after the American Revolution.When their discontent could not be contained, forceful black leaders followed what was becoming an American habit—they formed new denominations. In 1787, Richard Allen and his colleagues in Philadelphia broke away from the Methodist Church and in 1815 founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, which, along with independent black Baptist congregations, flourished as the century progressed. By 1846, the AME Church, which began with 8 clergy and 5 churches, had grown to 176 clergy, 296 churches, and 17,375 members.After the Civil War, Black Baptists desiring to practice Christianity away from racial discrimination, rapidly set up several separate state Baptist conventions. In 1866, black Baptists of the South and West combined to form the Consolidated American Baptist Convention. This Convention eventually collapsed but three national conventions formed in response. In 1895 the three conventions merged to create theNational Baptist Convention. It is now the largest African-American religious organization in the United States.[edit]Church of Christ, ScientistMain article: Church of Christ, ScientistThe Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879, in Boston by Mary Baker Eddy, the author of its central book, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which offers a unique interpretation of Christian faith.[38] Christian Science teaches that the reality of God denies the reality of sin, sickness, death and the material world. Accounts of miraculous healing are common within the church, and adherents often refuse traditional medical treatments. Legal troubles sometimes result when they forbid medical treatment of their children.[39]The Church is unique among American denominations in several ways. It is highly centralized, with all the local churches merely branches of the mother church in Boston. There are no ministers, but there are practitioners who are integral to the movement. The practitioners operate local businesses that help members heal their illnesses by the power of the mind. They depend for their clientele on the approval of the Church. Starting in the late 19th century the Church has rapidly lost membership, although it does not publish statistics. Its flagship newspaper Christian Science Monitor lost most of its subscribers and dropped its paper version to become an online source.[40][edit]RestorationismMain article: Restorationism (Christian primitivism)See also: Dispensationalism and Restoration MovementRestorationism refers to the belief that a purer form of Christianity should be restored using the early church as a model.[41]:635[42]:217 In many cases, restorationist groups believed that contemporary Christianity, in all its forms, had deviated from the true, original Christianity, which they then attempted to "Reconstruct", often using the Book of Acts as a "guidebook" of sorts. Restorationists do not usually describe themselves as "reforming" a Christian church continuously existing from the time of Jesus, but as restoring the Church that they believe was lost at some point. "Restorationism" is often used to describe the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement. The term "Restorationist" is also used to describe the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and the Jehovah's Witness Movement.[edit]MormonismMain article: History of the Latter Day Saint movementThe origins of another distinctive religious group, the Latter-day Saints (LDS)—also widely known as Mormons—arose in the early 19th century during the "Golden Day of Democratic Evangelicalism." FounderJoseph Smith, Jr., and many of his earliest followers came from an area of western New York called the burned-over district, because it had been "scorched" by so many revivals. Young Joseph Smith had a series of visions, revelations from God and visitations from angelic messengers, providing him with ongoing instruction in the execution of his role as a prophet and a restorationist. After publishing the Book of Mormon—which he claimed to have translated by divine power from a record of ancient American prophets recorded on golden plates — Smith organized "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" on April 6, 1830.Mormon theology was far out of the mainstream, and the Mormons were driven out of state after state; Smith was assassinated and Brigham Young led the people out of the U.S. into Utah — at the time virtually ungoverned. Rumors to the effect Mormons were practicing polygamy there were true; the U.S. government went to Utah, clashed with the Mormons, and sought to disenfranchise the Church for practicing polygamy. The Church pulled away from plural marriages between 1890 and 1907, was allowed to resume normal status, and Utah was granted statehood in 1896. Thanks to worldwide missionary work, the church now counts over 14 million members.[43][edit]Jehovah's WitnessesMain article: History of Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses comprise a fast-growing denomination that has kept itself separate from other Christian denominations. It began in 1872 with Charles Taze Russell, but experienced a major schism in 1917 as Joseph Franklin Rutherford began his presidency. Rutherford gave new direction to the movement and renamed the movement "Jehovah's witnesses" in 1931. The period from 1925 to 1933 saw many significant changes in doctrine. Attendance at their yearly Memorial dropped from a high of 90,434 in 1925 to 63,146 in 1935. Since 1950 growth has been very rapid.[44]During the World War II, Jehovah's Witnesses experienced mob attacks in America and were temporarily banned in Canada and Australia because of their opposition to the war effort. They won significant Supreme Court victories involving the rights of free speech and religion that have had a great impact on legal interpretation of these rights for others.[45] In 1943, the United States Supreme Court ruled in West Virginia State Board of Education vs. Barnette that school children of Jehovah's Witnesses could not be compelled to salute the flag.[edit]Benevolent societiesBenevolent societies were an extremely new and conspicuous feature of the American landscape during the first half of the 19th century. Originally devoted to the salvation of souls, they eventually focused on the eradication of every kind of social ill. Benevolent societies were the direct result of the extraordinary energies generated by the evangelical movement—specifically, by the "activism" resulting from conversion. "The evidence of God's grace," Presbyterian evangelist Charles Grandison Finney insisted, "was a person's benevolence toward others."[46]The evangelical establishment used this powerful network of voluntary, physcological,ecumenical benevolent societies to Christianize the nation. The earliest and most important of these organizations focused their efforts on the conversion of sinners to the new birth or to the creation of conditions (such as sobriety sought by temperance societies) in which conversions could occur. The six largest societies in 1826-27 were all directly concerned with conversion: the American Education Society, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the American Bible Society, the American Sunday School Union, theAmerican Tract Society, and the American Home Missionary Society.[edit]Roman CatholicismMain article: Roman Catholicism in the United States#HistoryCatholicism first came with the Spanish explorers. In the Thirteen colonies, Catholicism was introduced with the settling of Maryland in 1634; this colony offered a rare example of religious toleration in a fairly intolerant age. Maryland law remained a major center, as exemplified by the pre-eminence of the Archdiocese of Baltimore in Catholic circles. However, at the time of the American Revolution, Catholics formed less than 1% of the white population of the thirteen states.[47] Religiously, the Catholics were characterized by personalism, discipline, and a prayer life that was essentially personal, demanding only a small role for priests and none for bishops. Ritualism was important, and focused on daily prayers, Sunday Mass, and observance of two dozen holy days.[48]The main source of Roman Catholics in the United States was the huge numbers of European immigrants of the 19th and 20th centuries, especially from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Poland.. Recently, most Catholic immigrants come from Latin America, especially from Mexico.[49]The Irish came to dominate the Church, providing most of the bishops, college presidents and lay leaders. They strongly supported the "ultramontane" position favoring the authority of the pope.[50]In the latter half of the 19th century, the first attempt at standardizing discipline in the American Church occurred with the convocation of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore. These councils resulted in the Baltimore Catechism and the establishment of the Catholic University of America.[51]In the 1960s the Church went through dramatic changes, especially in the liturgy and the use of English (and Spanish) instead of Latin. The number of priests and nuns declined sharply as few entered and many left their vocations. Since 1990 scandals involving the coverup by bishops of priests who sexually abused young men has led to massive financial payments across the country—and indeed in Europe as well.[edit]Eastern OrthodoxyMain articles: History of the Eastern Orthodox Church in North America and Timeline of Eastern Orthodoxy in AmericaEastern Orthodoxy spread to the North American continent with the founding of Russian America, in what is today the State of Alaska. The spreading of the Orthodox faith went along with the Russian colonization of the Americas during the 18th and 19th centuries. From there, it spread to the continental United States with the influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe. This section requires expansion. (July 2012)

      [edit]JudaismMain article: History of Jews in the United StatesThe history of the Jews in the United States comprises a theological dimension, with a three-way division into Orthodox, Conservative and Reform. In social terms the Jewish ethnic community began with small groups of merchants in colonial ports such as New York City and Charleston. In the mid and late 19th century well-educated German Jews arrived and settled in towns cities across the United States, especially as dry goods merchants . From 1880 to 1924 large numbers of Yiddish-speaking Jews arrived from Eastern Europe, settling in New York City and other large cities. After 1926 numbers came as refugees from Europe; after 1980 many came from the Soviet Union, and there has been a flow from Israel. By the year 1900 the 1.5 million Jews residing in the United States were the third most of any nation, behind Russia and Austria-Hungary. The proportion of the population has been about 2 to 3% since 1900, but in the 21st century Jews were widely diffused in major metropolitan areas around New York or the Northeastern United States, and especially in South Florida and California.[52][53][edit]Denominations and sects founded in the U.S. Adventism - began as an inter-denominational movement. Its most vocal leader was William Miller, who in the 1830s in New York became convinced of an imminent Second Coming of Jesus. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) - founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in 1830 in upstate New York. Now headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah. Christian Science - founded by Mary Baker Eddy Churches of Christ/Disciples of Christ - a restoration movement with no governing body. The Restoration Movement solidified as a historical phenomenon in 1832 when restorationists from two major movements championed by Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell merged (referred to as the "Stone-Campbell Movement"). Episcopal Church - founded as an offshoot of the Church of England; now the United States branch of the Anglican Communion Jehovah's Witnesses - originated with the religious movement known as Bible Students, which was founded in Pennsylvania in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell. National Baptist Convention - the largest African American religious organization in the United States and the second largest Baptist denomination in the world. Pentecostalism - movement that emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit, finds its historic roots in the Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, California, from 1904 to 1906, sparked by Charles Parham Reconstructionist Judaism Scientology - founded by L. Ron Hubbard Southern Baptist Convention, the largest Baptist group in the world and the largest Protestant denomination in the United States. In 1995, it renounced its 1845 origins in the defense of slavery and racial superiority. Unitarian Universalism - a theologically liberal religious movement founded in 1961 from the union of the well established Unitarian and Universalist churches. United Church of Christ - descended from Congregationalist churches of New England; formed in 1957 as a united and uniting church from a union of the Congregational Christian Church and Evangelical and Reformed Church Cumberland Presbyterian Church - founded in 1810 in Dickson County, Tennessee by Samuel McAdow, Finis Ewing, and Samuel King.[edit]Church and state issuesMain articles: Establishment Clause of the First Amendment and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment[edit]Establishment in colonial eraEarly immigrants to the American colonies were motivated largely by the desire to worship freely in their own fashion, particularly after the English Civil War, but also religious wars and disputes in France and Germany.[54] They included a large number of nonconformists such as the Puritans and the Pilgrims, as well as Roman Catholics (in Baltimore). Despite a common background, the groups' views on broaderreligious toleration were mixed. While some notable examples such as Roger Williams of Rhode Island and William Penn ensured the protection of religious minorities within their colonies, others such as thePlymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony had established churches. The Dutch colony of the New Netherlands had also established the Dutch Reformed Church and outlawed all other worship, although enforcement by the Dutch West India Company in the last years of the colony was sparse. Part of the reason for establishment was financial: the established Church was responsible for poor relief, and dissenting churches would therefore have a significant advantage.There were also opponents to the support of any established church even at the state level. In 1773, Isaac Backus, a prominent Baptist minister in New England, observed that when "church and state are separate, the effects are happy, and they do not at all interfere with each other: but where they have been confounded together, no tongue nor pen can fully describe the mischiefs that have ensued." Thomas Jefferson's influential Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was enacted in 1786, five years before the Bill of Rights.Most Anglican ministers, and many Anglicans outside the South, were Loyalists. The Anglican church was disestablished but the denomination was reestablished in the decade after the war.[edit]Establishment ClauseThe Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution reads, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . . ." The phrase "separation of church and state," which does not appear in the Constitution itself, is generally traced to an 1802 letter by Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptists, where Jefferson spoke of the combined effect of the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. It has since been quoted in several opinions handed down by the United States Supreme Court.[55]Robert N. Bellah has argued in his writings that although the separation of church and state is grounded firmly in the constitution of the United States, this does not mean that there is no religious dimension in the political society of the United States. He used the term Civil Religion to describe the specific relation between politics and religion in the United States. His 1967 article analyzes the inaugural speech of John F. Kennedy: "Considering the separation of church and state, how is a president justified in using the word 'God' at all? The answer is that the separation of church and state has not denied the political realm a religious dimension."[56]This is not only the subject of a sociological discussion, but can also be an issue for atheists in America. There are allegations of discrimination against atheists in the United States.[edit]Jefferson, Madison, and the "wall of separation"The phrase a "hedge or wall of separation between the garden of the church and the wilderness of the world" was first used by Baptist theologian Roger Williams, the founder of the colony of Rhode Island.[57] It was later used by Thomas Jefferson as a commentary on the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government, in an 1802 letter.Jefferson's and James Madison's conceptions of separation have long been debated. Jefferson refused to issue Proclamations of Thanksgiving sent to him by Congress during his presidency, though he did issue a Thanksgiving and Prayer proclamation as Governor of Virginia and vetoed two bills on the grounds they violated the first amendment.After retiring from the presidency, Madison argued in his detached memoranda[58] for a stronger separation of church and state, opposing the very presidential issuing of religious proclamations he himself had done, and also opposing the appointment of chaplains to Congress.Jefferson's opponents said his position meant the rejection of Christianity, but this was a caricature. In setting up the University of Virginia, Jefferson encouraged all the separate sects to have preachers of their own, though there was a constitutional ban on the State supporting a Professorship of Divinity, arising from his own Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.[59][edit]Test actsMain article: No religious test clauseThe absence of an establishment of religion did not necessarily imply that all men were free to hold office. Most colonies had a Test Act, and several states retained them for a short time. This stood in contrast to the Federal Constitution, which explicitly prohibits the employment of any religious test for Federal office, and which through the Fourteenth Amendment later extended this prohibition to the States.Article Six of the United States Constitution provides that "no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States". Prior to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights, this was the only mention of religious freedom in the Constitution.[edit]First AmendmentThe first amendment to the US Constitution states "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof" The two parts, known as the "establishment clause" and the "free exercise clause" respectively, form the textual basis for the Supreme Court's interpretations of the "separation of church and state" doctrine.On August 15, 1789 Madison said, "he apprehended the meaning of the words to be, that Congress should not establish a religion, and enforce the legal observation of it by law, nor compel men to worship God in any manner contrary to their conscience....”[60]All states disestablished religion by 1833; Massachusetts was the last state. This ended the practice of allocating taxes to churches.[edit]Supreme Court since 1947The phrase "separation of church and state" became a definitive part of Establishment Clause jurisprudence in Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (1947), a case that dealt with a state law that allowed government funds for transportation to religious schools. While the ruling upheld the state law allowing taxpayer funding of transportation to religious schools as constitutional, Everson was also the first case to hold the Establishment Clause applicable to the state legislatures as well as Congress, based upon the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.[61]In 1962, the Supreme Court extended this analysis to the issue of prayer in public schools. In Engel v. Vitale 370 U.S. 421 (1962), the Court determined it unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools, even when it is non-denominational and students may excuse themselves from participation. As such, any teacher, faculty, or student can pray in school, in accordance with their own religion. However, they may not lead such prayers in class, or in other "official" school settings such as assemblies or programs.Currently, the Supreme Court applies a three-pronged test to determine whether legislation comports with the Establishment Clause, known as the "Lemon Test". First, the legislature must have adopted the law with a neutral or non-religious purpose. Second, the statute's principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion. Third, the statute must not result in an excessive entanglement of government with religion.[61][edit]See also First Great Awakening First Amendment to the United States Constitution Fundamentalist Christianity Religion in the United States Second Great Awakening Separation of church and state in the United States Third Great Awakening Historical religious demographics of the United States[edit]Bibliography Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People (1972) the standard history Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654-2000 (2006) excerpt and text search, standard scholarly history online edition Dolan, Jay P. In Search of an American Catholicism: A History of Religion and Culture in Tension (2003) Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists: Presenting Their History, Doctrine, Polity, Life, Leadership, Organization & Work Knoxville: Broadman Press, v 1–2 (1958), 1500 pp; 2 supplementary volumes 1958 and 1962; vol 5 = Index, 1984 Foster, Douglas Allen, and Anthony L. Dunnavant, eds. The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ(2004) Hein, David, and Gardiner H. Shattuck (2004, 2005). The Episcopalians. Westport, CT: Praeger; New York: Church Publishing. Hempton, David. Methodism: Empire of the Spirit, (2005) ISBN 0-300-10614-9, major new interpretive history. Hempton concludes that Methodism was an international missionary movement of great spiritual power and organizational capacity; it energized people of all conditions and backgrounds; it was fueled by preachers who made severe sacrifices to bring souls to Christ; it grew with unprecedented speed, especially in America; it then sailed too complacently into the 20th century. Hill, Samuel, et al. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South (2005), comprehensive coverage Hutchison William R. Errand to the World: American Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions. (1987). Keller, Rosemary Skinner, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, eds. Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (3 vol 2006) excerpt and text search Leonard, Bill J. Baptists in America. (2005), general survey and history by leading Southern Baptist Lippy, Charles H., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience (3 vol. 1988) McClymond, Michael, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Revivals in America. (2007. Vol. 1, A–Z: xxxii, 515 pp. Vol. 2, Primary Documents: xx, 663 pp. isbn 0-313-32828-5/set.) McLoughlin, William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607-1977 (1978). excerpt and text search Melton, J. Gordon, ed. Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions (2009) 1386pp Morris, Charles R. American Catholic: The Saints and Sinners Who Built America's Most Powerful Church (1998), a standard history Norwood, Stephen H., and Eunice G. Pollack, eds. Encyclopedia of American Jewish history (2 vol ABC-CLIO, 2007), 775pp; comprehensive coverage by experts; excerpt and text search vol 1 Queen, Edsward, ed. Encyclopedia of American Religious History (3rd ed. 3 vol 2009) Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism: A History (2004), standard scholarly history Schmidt, Jean Miller Grace Sufficient: A History of Women in American Methodism, 1760-1939, (1999)[edit]Historiography Frey, Sylvia R. "The Visible Church: Historiography of African American Religion since Raboteau," Slavery and Abolition, Jan 2008, Vol. 29 Issue 1, pp 83–110 Schultz, Kevin M., and Paul Harvey. "Everywhere and Nowhere: Recent Trends in American Religious History and Historiography," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, March 2010, Vol. 78 Issue 1, pp 129–162[edit]Before 1800 Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America (1988) online edition Bumsted, J. M. "What Must I Do to Be Saved?": The Great Awakening in Colonial America 1976 Butler, Jon. "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction." Journal of American History 69 (1982): 305-25. in JSTOR, influential article Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. (1990). excerpt and text search Gaustad, Edwin S. "The Theological Effects of the Great Awakening in New England," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 40, No. 4. (Mar., 1954), pp. 681–706. in JSTOR Goff, Philip. "Revivals and Revolution: Historiographic Turns since Alan Heimert's Religion and the American Mind." Church History 1998 67(4): 695-721. Issn: 0009-6407 Fulltext: in Jstor Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity (1989). excerpt and text search Heimert, Alan. Religion and the American Mind: From the Great Awakening to the Revolution (1966) online in ACL e-books Kidd, Thomas S. The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2007), 412pp exxcerpt and text search Lambert, Frank. Inventing the "Great Awakening." (1999), 308pp McLaughlin, William G. "Essay Review: the American Revolution as a Religious Revival: 'The Millennium in One Country.'" New England Quarterly 1967 40(1): 99-110. in JSTOR Sensbach, Jon F. "Religion and the Early South in an Age of Atlantic Empire," Journal of Southern History, Aug 2007, Vol. 73 Issue 3, pp 631–642,[edit]1800-1900 Abell, Aaron. The Urban Impact on American Protestantism, 1865-1900 (1943). Birdsall Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order", Church History 39 (1970): 345–364. in JSTOR Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974). Findlay, James F. Dwight L. Moody: American Evangelist, 1837-1899 (1969). Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks. Righteous Discontent: The Woman’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Harvard UP, 1993) Mathews, Donald. Religion in the Old South (1979) Miller, Randall M., Harry S. Stout, and Charles Reagan. Religion and the American Civil War (1998) excerpt and text search; complete edition online Shenk, Wilbert R., ed. North American Foreign Missions, 1810-1914: Theology, Theory, and Policy (2004) 349pp important essays by scholars excerpt and text search Sizer, Sandra. Gospel Hymns and Social Religion: The Rhetoric of Nineteenth-Century Revivalism. Temple University Press, 1978. Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, (1979) Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War, 1957 Wigger, John H.. and Nathan O. Hatch, eds. Methodism and the Shaping of American Culture (2001) excerpt and text search, essays by scholars[edit]Since 1900 Allitt, Patrick. Religion in America Since 1945: A History (2004), very good overview Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (1999), good coverage of Fundamentalism since 1930 Curtis, Susan. A Consuming Faith: The Social Gospel and Modern American Culture. (1991). Hein, David. Noble Powell and the Episcopal Establishment in the Twentieth Century. (2001, 2007.) Marty, Martin E. Modern American Religion, Vol. 1: The Irony of It All, 1893-1919 (1986); Modern American Religion. Vol. 2: The Noise of Conflict, 1919-1941 (1991); Modern American Religion, Volume 3: Under God, Indivisible, 1941-1960 (1999), standard scholarly history Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925 (1980). very important history online edition Meyer, Donald. The Protestant Search for Political Realism, 1919-1941, (1988) in ACLS e-books Richey, Russell E. et al. eds. United Methodism and American Culture. Vol. 1, Ecclesiology, Mission and Identity (1997); Vol. 2. The People(s) Called Methodist: Forms and Reforms of Their Life (1998); Vol. 3. Doctrines and Discipline (1999); Vol. 4, Questions for the Twenty-First Century Church. (1999), historical essays by scholars; focus on 20th century[edit]Primary sources Ellis, John Tracy, ed. Documents of American Catholic History (2nd ed. 1956). Heimert, Alan, and Perry Miller ed.; The Great Awakening: Documents Illustrating the Crisis and Its Consequences (1967) Richard J. Hooker, ed. The [South] Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution: The Journal and Other Writings of Charles Woodmason, Anglican Itinerant. 1953. ISBN 978-0-8078-4035-1 McClymond, Michael, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Revivals in America. (2007). Vol. 1, A–Z: xxxii, 515 pp. Vol. 2, Primary Documents: xx, 663 pp. isbn 0-313-32828-5/set.) McBeth, H. Leon, (ed.) A Sourcebook for Baptist Heritage (1990), primary sources for Baptist history. McLoughlin, William G. ed. The American Evangelicals, 1800-1900: An Anthology 1976. Richey, Russell E., Rowe, Kenneth E. and Schmidt, Jean Miller (eds.) The Methodist Experience in America: a sourcebook, (2000) ISBN 0-687-24673-3 – 756 p. of original documents Sweet, W. W., ed. Religion on the American Frontier. Vol. IV, 1783-1840: The Methodists, A Collection of Source Materials (1964) online review 800pp of documents


      References

      1. ^ Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today’s Questions. 2nd edition. University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. P. 145.

      2. ^ Patricia U. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America (1988)

      3. ^ Thomas Herbert Johnson. The Puritans: A Sourebook of Their Writings. p. 185.

      4. ^ Edwards, Linda (2001). A brief guide to beliefs: ideas, theologies, mysteries, and movements. p. 365. ISBN 0-664-22259-5.

      5. ^ Polin, Constance; Polin, Raymond (2006). Foundations of American political thought. Peter Lang. p. 60. ISBN 0-8204-7929-2.

      6. ^ Dierenfield, Bruce J. (2007). The battle over school prayer: how Engel vdjk. Vitale changed America. Landmark law cases & American society. University Press of Kansas. p. 5. ISBN 0-7006-1525-3.

      7. ^ Joseph E. Illick, Colonial Pennsylvania: A History (1976)

      8. ^ Charles McLean Andrews (1936). The colonial period of American history. Yale University Press. p. 279.

      9. ^ John D. Krugler, "The Calvert Vision: A New Model for Church-State Relations," Maryland Historical Magazine, (2004) 99#3 pp 268-285

      10. ^ Beatriz Betancourt Hardy, "Roman Catholics, Not Papists: Catholic Identity in Maryland, 1689-1776," Maryland Historical Magazine (1997) 92#2 pp 138-161

      11. ^ Edward L. Bond and Joan R. Gundersen, The Episcopal Church in Virginia, 1607-2007 (2007) ISBN 978-0-945015-28-4

      12. ^ Edward L. Bond (2000). Damned souls in a tobacco colony: religion in seventeenth-century Virginia. Mercer University Press. p. 130.ISBN 978-0-86554-708-7.

      13. ^ Jacob M. Blosser, "Irreverent Empire: Anglican Inattention in an Atlantic World," Church History, Sept 2008, Vol. 77 Issue 3, pp 596-628

      14. ^ Edward L. Bond, "Anglican theology and devotion in James Blair's Virginia, 1685-1743," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 1996, Vol. 104 Issue 3, pp 313-40

      15. ^ a b Charles Woodmason, The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution: The Journal and Other Writings of Charles Woodmason, Anglican Itinerant ed. by Richard J. Hooker (1969)

      16. ^ a b Janet Moore Lindman, "Acting the Manly Christian: White Evangelical Masculinity in Revolutionary Virginia," William & Mary Quarterly, April 2000, Vol. 57 Issue 2, pp 393-416

      17. ^ John A. Ragosta, "Fighting for Freedom: Virginia Dissenters' Struggle for Religious Liberty during the American Revolution," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, (2008) 116#3 pp 226-261

      18. ^ a b c d "II. Religion in Eighteenth-Century America". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress. 2001-08-24. Archived from the original on 2001-10-17. Retrieved 2011-10-04.

      19. ^ Carnes, Mark C.; John A. Garraty with Patrick Williams (1996). Mapping America's Past: A Historical Atlas. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 50.ISBN 0-8050-4927-4.

      20. ^ David L. Holmes, Religion of the Founding Fathers (2003); quote from p. 71

      21. ^ Sydney E. Armstrong, A Religious History of the American People. (1972) p. 263

      22. ^ a b Thomas S. Kidd, The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2007)

      23. ^ Thomas S. Kidd, The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2009)

      24. ^ Jewel L. Spangler, Virginians Reborn: Anglican Monopoly, Evangelical Dissent, and the Rise of the Baptists in the Late Eighteenth Century (University Press of Virginia, 2008), ch 1

      25. ^ Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (1998)

      26. ^ Spangler, Virginians Reborn: Anglican Monopoly, Evangelical Dissent, and the Rise of the Baptists in the Late Eighteenth Century(2008)

      27. ^ Rhys Isaac, "Evangelical Revolt: The Nature of the Baptists' Challenge to the Traditional Order in Virginia, 1765 To 1775," William and Mary Quarterly 1974 31(3): 345-368

      28. ^ Richard K. MacMaster, "Liberty or Property? The Methodist Petition for Emancipation in Virginia, 1785," Methodist History, Oct 1971, Vol. 10 Issue 1, pp 44-55

      29. ^ Robert William Fogel, The Fourth Great Awakening & the Future of Egalitarianism (2000)

      30. ^ Paul Kleppner, The Third Electoral System, 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (2009)

      31. ^ Jensen (171)

      32. ^ Randall M. Miller, et al, eds. Religion and the American Civil War(1998

      33. ^ James F. Findlay Dwight L. Moody: American Evangelist, 1837-1899(2007

      34. ^ Ruth Bordin, Women and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873-1900 (1981)

      35. ^ Paul A. Varg, "Motives in Protestant Missions, 1890-1917," Church History 1954 23(1): 68-82

      36. ^ Wilbert R. Shenk, , ed. North American Foreign Missions, 1810-1914: Theology, Theory, and Policy (2004)

      37. ^ David P. Setran, "Following the Broad-Shouldered Jesus: The College YMCA and the Culture of Muscular Christianity in American Campus Life, 1890-1914," American Educational History Journal 2005 32(1): 59-66,

      38. ^ Gillian Gill, Mary Baker Eddy (1998)

      39. ^ Stephen Gottschalk, The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life 1973)

      40. ^ Stephen Gottschalk, "Christian Science Polity in Crisis," The Christian Century Volume: 110. Issue: (March 3, 1993) pp 242+.

      41. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8, 854 pages, entry on Restoration, Historical Models of

      42. ^ Gerard Mannion and Lewis S. Mudge, The Routledge companion to the Christian church, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-37420-0, ISBN 978-0-415-37420-0, 684 pages

      43. ^ Richard Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, Mormon America (2nd ed. 2007)

      44. ^ Stark et al., "Why Jehovah’s Witnesses Grow So Rapidly: A Theoretical Application," ;; Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 12, # 2, 1997: 133–157

      45. ^ Patrick J. Flynn, "Writing Their Faith into the Law of the Land: Jehovah's Witnesses, the Supreme Court and the Battle for the Meaning of the Free Exercise Clause, 1939-1945," Texas Journal on Civil Liberties and Civil Rights, 2004

      46. ^ Dwight Burlingame, ed. Philanthropy in America: a comprehensive historical encyclopedia (2004)

      47. ^ In his report on the state of Catholicism, John Carroll in 1785 estimated the Catholic population in the 13 states was 25,000; the 1790 Census counted 4 million Americans. Edwin Scott Gaustad and Leigh Eric Schmidt. The religious history of America (2002) p. 100

      48. ^ Jay P. Dolan, The American Catholic Experience: A History from Colonial Times to the Present (1985) p 94

      49. ^ James Terence Fisher, Communion of Immigrants: A History of Catholics in America (2002)

      50. ^ James J. Hennesey, American Catholics: A History of the Roman Catholic Community in the United States (1983)

      51. ^ James M. O'Toole, et al. The Faithful: A History of Catholics in America (2009)

      52. ^ Hasia Diner, The Jews of the United States, 1654-2000 (2006)

      53. ^ Jonathan D. Sarna, American Judaism: A History (2004)

      54. ^ The Cousins' Wars, Kevin Phillips, 1999

      55. ^ Jefferson's Danbury letter has been cited favorably by the Supreme Court many times. In its 1879 Reynolds v. United States decision the high court said Jefferson's observations 'may be accepted almost as an authoritative declaration of the scope and effect of the [First] Amendment.' In the court's 1947 Everson v. Board of Education decision, Justice Hugo Black wrote, 'In the words of Thomas Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect a wall of separation between church and state.'

      56. ^ Bellah, Robert Neelly (Winter 1967). "Civil Religion in America".Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 96 (1): 1–21. Archived from the original on 2005-03-06. From the issue entitledReligion in America.

      57. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. pg. 24 ("Williams's metaphor was rediscovered by Isaac Backus, a New England Baptist of Jefferson's generation, who believed, like Williams, that an established church—which he considered to exist in the Massachusetts of his day—would never protect religious dissenters like himself and must be opposed in order to keep religion pure.")

      58. ^ James Madison's Detached Memoranda

      59. ^ Dumas Malone, Jefferson and his Times, 6, 393

      60. ^ The Founders' Constitution Volume 5, Amendment I (Religion), Document 53. The University of Chicago Press, retrieved 8/9/07.

      61. ^ a b Jonathan A. Wright, Separation of Church and State (2010)


      Sources


       Sydney Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, Yale University Press, 1972, ISBN 0-300-01762-6, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 0-300-10012-4

       Harold Bloom, The American Religion, Simon & Schuster, 1992, ISBN 0-671-86737-7


      External links


       U.S. Library of Congress religion exhibit






      Apostle Paul did NOT COPYRIGHT His Work!
      Neither does NewtonStein!

        >> MBF.com Text may be FREELY COPIED by ALL WHO BELIEVE IN JESUS AS THE CHRIST! (Under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, US and International LAW).

        >> Please give reference to our WEBSITE as source according to the GOLDEN RULE of JESUS!

        >> No Minister-Best-Friend.com TEXT may be used in ANY WAY FOR PROFIT! JESUS says "FREELY ye have received FREELY GIVE!"

        ** NOTE: Layout, photos, graphics, quotes, books, articles by OTHERS - all such is copyrighted to the owners: MBF.com TEXT IS FREE to Believers who will honor us as the source!

        ** Thank you and MAY GOD GREATLY BLESS YOUR MINISTRY!

      COPYRIGHT (c) 1977 Cambridge Theological Seminary
      COPYRIGHT (c) 1965 Cambridge Bible Institute
      COPYRIGHT (c) 1953 Cambridge World Evangelism
      COPYRIGHT (c) 1945 Cambridge Bible Church

      flag divider


      Could you please share your State of Salvation that we may better serve our readers?

      At this time, I do not believe Jesus is the Saviour!

      I do believe Jesus is the Saviour; I know I have Eternal Life!

      I do not believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' if one has Eternal Life;

      In 'VERY FEW MINUTES'...you can Know for Certain if you're saved for CERTAIN ...or not! 1 John 5:13

      I want to know with CERTAINLY what God's Word declares:

      flag divider

      A Second Most Important Question!

      Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child or a Friend HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" - Unearned and Undeserved? Romans 6:23

      If not, please read "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!"

      flag divider

      PLEASE, will you name "Ministers-Best-Friend.com" aloud . . .
      . . .in Prayer Daily, or as often as you think of us? PLEASE?

      flag divider

        DOCTRINAL DISCLAIMER:

        Ministers-Best-Friend.com is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers who serve the LORD JESUS. As such, we provide web-space to a number of Ministries, notably NewtonStein (a Creation-Science-Based Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA , ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, MEDIPEDIA, ETC., ALL BIBLE-BASED!

        Obviously, all phases of Christianity do not agree doctrinally or politically and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, fact, leader, nation or situation, hence there are well over 10,000 denominations extant.

          (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST GNAT STRAINING!!!)

        We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion be made known for various reasons – offered to you as wise people of God - Christian Patriots, whatever your nation - to discern for your own judgement and edification.

        Thus we trust, hope and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "His will (ONLY!) being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN"

        In the NAME of Jesus Christ Our Lord and Saviour:

        Be Blessed!

      GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER



      *COPYRIGHT NOTICE**

      In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any copyrighted work in the NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary is archived here under fair use without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in reviewing the included information for personal use, non-profit research, and educational purposes only.

      Ref. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml



      "Fair Use" Notice:

      Contributions from the best scholars in numerous fields are added to Ministers-Best-Friend.com website daily. Such research papers and articles:

        * May not represent the views of Cambridge Theological Seminary;

        * Have not been peer-reviewed by Cambridge Theological Seminary;

        * Being a global ministry of huge proportions - yet of mostly retired volunteers (locally) - it is not possible to "verify" every piece that is submitted to us.

        * There is not - and never has been - any money, checking or savings account, or any other such fund associated with Ministers-Best-Friend.com or Cambridge Theological Seminary.

        * The 1,000,000-plus page archive (1-1-2013) of Ministers-Best-Friend.com may or may not contain a tiny amount copyrighted news/political reporting material whose use may or may not have been authorized by the copyright owners;

        * To the best of our knowledge we believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the web constitutes a "fair use" of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law).

        * If readers wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond "fair use", you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

        * "Fair use" notwithstanding, we will immediately comply with any copyright owner who can show our use of such material is not in compliance with the fair Use law.

        Thank You for your part in the Global Ministry of Ministers-Best-Friend.com - as of 1-1-2013 - in nearly 200 nations, approaching 50,000 associated Bible Believing Ministers and over 30,000 Ministries.

        Editor: NewtonStein






    flag divider

    JCSM's Top 1000 Christian Sites - Free Traffic Sharing Service!The BaptistTop1000.com
    JCSM's Top 1000 Christian Sites - Free Traffic Sharing Service!The BaptistTop1000.com

    CAMBRIDGE DARK DARK BLUECAMBRIDGE LIGHT LIGHT BLUECAMBRIDGE WHITE WHITE WHITECAMBRIDGE LIGHT LIGHT BLUE CAMBRIDGE DARK DARK BLUE

    Welcome to the "Ministers-Best-Friend!" ..... home of Cambridge Theological Seminary ..... the "World's Largest Conservative Bible Seminary!" .....of "Bible Churches United for Christ! ..... in a season of GLOBAL increase ..... WE PROVIDED THE PAPERWORK TO START 778 NEW CHURCHES "PER MONTH" IN 2011 (World-Wide)..... averaging 421 a month in USA ..... 62 a month in CHINA ..... 46 & 32 respectively, in RUSSIA & INDIA ..... the "CAMBRIDGE CONFEDERATION now with 16,518 Ordained Ministers ..... 14,687 Local Churches ..... and 6,709,878 Members ..... 'ADDED' since AD-2,000, now in 192 "KNOWN NATIONS" (and Territories) ..... and 17 "UNKNOWN NATIONS" of Islamic origin ..... "WHY the increase in this time of Global Economic Depression?" ..... ONLY GOD KNOWS .... but we believe His Blessing is because ..... we are striving our best to BLESS HIS MINISTERS ..... His "Called-Servants" ..... in every way we can!

    DEAR FRIEND ..... PLEASE take a FEW SECONDS ..... NOTE our "15 PROGRAMS BELOW ..... in which we may be able to ENHANCE YOUR MINISTRY CREDENTIALS ..... you may DESIRE to use them later ..... THANK YOU ..... MAY GOD BLESS YOU .....PLEASE PRAY for US ..... PLEASE TELL OTHERS ..... PRAY-FOR-US ...... and COME BACK OFTEN!

    TOP-20
    SEARCHES:
    (Click PIX!)
    BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    Good?    Bad?
    MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO PAUL RYAN FLAG PHOTO
    Romney   Ryan!
    ANDREA-TANTAROS-OFFICIAL-PHOTO MARTHA MacCALLUM OFFICIAL PHOTO
    Andrea! Martha!
    harris-faulkner-2-pink.jpg PHOTO JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER
    Harris!  Hyles!
    KYLIE-BISUTTI-PHOTO-PORTRAIT JOSEPH-PRINCE-PHOTO-1
    Victoria Joseph
    Secret!  Prince!
    George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO Sarah-Palin-Book-Cover-America-By-Heart
    George  Sarah!
    Quotes!   Pres?
    RUSH LIMBAUGH Portrait RICK-WARREN-TIME-MAG-COVER.jpg
    Rush!   Rick!
    RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO AMILYA-ANTONETTI-PHOTO
    Rick S.   Amilia!
    KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO MICHELE-BACHMANN-BEST-off-to-side
    Kim G! Bachmann

    TOP-20
    DIVISIONS:
    APOSTASY?
    BIBLE STUDY
    CHURCH USA!
    PRO-GAY OK?
    ANTI-AGING

    AMERIPEDIA™
    BIBLIPEDIA™
    CHRISTIPEDIA™
    CATHOLIPEDIA™
    EKKLESIA!

    HISTIPEDIA™
    ISLAMIPEDIA™
    JUDAEOPEDIA™
    MEDIPEDIA™
    MUSICIPEDIA™

    POLITIPEDIA™
    PREACHERPEDIA™
    SCRIPTIPEDIA™
    RESOURCES
    DECATHALOGUE™

    GOTTA SEE THIS!
    NEWTONSTEIN™
    Bible Science


    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    FOUNDING
    "FATHERS!"
    (CLICK ICONS)
    George-Washington-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    G. Washington
    JOHN-ADAMS-WREATHED-PORTRAIT
    J. Adams
    THOMAS JEFFERSON WREATHED PORTRAIT
    T. Jefferson
    JAMES-MADISON-WREATHED-PHOTO
    J. Madison
    JAMES-MONROE-non-color-OVAL-PHOTO.gif
    J. Monroe

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    FOUNDING
    "FATHERS!"
    (CLICK ICONS)
    BEN-FRANKLIN-WREATHED-PHOTO
    B. Franklin
    ABRAHAM-LINCOLN-WREATHED PHOTO
    A. Lincoln
    ANDREW-JACKSON OFFICIAL PHOTO
    A. Jackson
     ALEXANDER-HAMILTON WREATHED PHOTO
    A. Hamilton
    SAMUEL-ADAMS OFFICIAL PHOTO
    S. Adams

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    FOUNDING
    "FATHERS!"
    (CLICK ICONS)
    PATRICK-HENRY-PHOTO-3.jpg
    P. Henry
    JOHN-JAY
    J. Jay
    JOHN-QUINCY-ADAMS-WREATHED-PHOTO
    J. Q. Adams

    BRIEFS:
    SOME
    IMPORTANT
    WEB-PAGES

    FREE PACKET!
    For BIBLE
    CHURCHES
    Legal Info:
    (CLICK HERE!)

    CHRISTIPEDIA
    Overtaking
    WIKIPEDIA!!!
    Want to Help?
    (CLICK HERE!)

    HISPANICS!!!
    God Is
    Giving USA
    To HISPANICS!
    (By 2040!)

    OUR GOAL!
    Supplant
    WIKIPEDIA!
    Want to Help?
    (CLICK HERE!)

    MINISTERS!
    A Cambridge
    "Doctorate!"
    (FREE! to
    Bible Believers)

    CHURCH IS
    Christ Chose,
    To Build An
    "Ekklesia"
    (Which is...)

    CHURCHES!
    Over 100
    Churches in
    The New Test.
    (Count Them!)

    CHURCH USA!
    What Is It?
    What Purpose?
    Scriptural!
    (Learn More!)

    CHURCH USA!

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    AMERICAN
    PRESIDENTS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    GEORGE WASHINGTON -PORTRAIT-IN-UNIFORM
    G. Washington
    JOHN ADAMS PORTRAIT
    J. Adams
     THOMAS-JEFFERSON-PORTRAIT-OVAL-in-SQUARE
    T. Jefferson
    JAMES-MADISON-WREATHED-PHOTO
    J. Madison
    JAMES MONROE OVAL in SQUARE PORTRAIT
    J. Monroe

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    AMERICAN
    PRESIDENTS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JOHN QUINCY ADAMS OVAL in SQUARE PORTRAIT
    J. Q. Adams
    ANDREW-JACKSON-OVAL-in-SQUARE-PORTRAIT
    A. Jackson
    LINCOLN-BEST-PRESIDENTIAL-PORTRAIT
    A. Lincoln
    JAMES-GARFIELD-OVAL-IN-SQUARE
    J. Garfield
    FDR-PORTRAIT-DARK
    F. Roosevelt

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    AMERICAN
    PRESIDENTS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    D-D-EISENHOWER-OVAL-IN-SQUARE
    D. Eisenhower
    JFK SIDE VIEW FOLDED HANDS
    J. Kennedy
    JIMMY CARTER PRESIDENTIAL PORTRAIT
    J. Carter
    RONALD-REAGAN-SQUARE-PORTRAIT
    R. Reagan
    BILL-CLINTON-PORTRAIT-Dark-Flag
    B. Clinton
    GEORGE-W-BUSH-PRESIDENTIAL-OFFICE-PORTRAIT
    G. W. Bush
    BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    B. Obama

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    CHRISTIAN
    MISSIONARIES
    (CLICK ICONS)
    VALENTINE-of-ROME
    Valentine!
    PATRICK-of-IRELAND
    Patrick!
    MARY-MAGDALENE-PICTURE-RED.jpg
    M. Magdalene
    Johnny-Appledseed-Hoeing-Apple-trees
    J. Appleseed!

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    Women Seeking
    US Presidency
    (CLICK ICONS)
    HILLARY-CLINTON-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg-Flag
    H. Clinton
    SARAH-PALIN Book-Cover America-By-Heart
    S. Palin
    MICHELE-BACHMANN-BEST-off-to-side
    M. Bachmann

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    CHRISTIAN
    MISSIONARIES
    (CLICK ICONS)
    BARNABAS-BURNED-at-CYPRUS-PAINTING
    Barnabas!
    Anna-Charboniere-Tortured-LARGE
    "Impaled!"
    JESUS-FACE-SHROULD-of-TURIN.jpg
    J.C. Shroud
    JESUS-OLDEST-PICTURE-PANTOKRATOR
    The Christ!

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    NEWT GINGRICH-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    N. Gingrich
    CALLISTA GINGRICH OFFICIAL PHOTO
    C. Gingrich
    MITT ROMNEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M. Romney
    ROBIN ROBERTS OFFICIAL PORTRAIT
    R. Roberts
    RON PAUL OFFICIAL PHOTO
    Ron Paul

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    ALLEN WEST MILITARY PHOTO
    A. West
    ANDREA-TANTAROS-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    A. Tantaros
     GLENN BECK Portrait
    G. Beck
    CONDOLEEZZA RICE OFFICIAL PHOTO
    C. Rice
    HENRY LOUIS GATES JR OFFICIAL PHOTO
    H. L. Gates

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    MEGYN KELLY OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M. Kelly
    SEAN HANNITY PORTRAIT
    S. Hannity
     S. E. CUPP OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    S. E. Cupp
    CHARLES-PAYNE OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    C. Payne
    NIKKI-HALEY-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    N. Haley

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    HERMAN CAIN OFFICIAL PHOTO
    H. Cain
    LAURA INGRAHAM OFFICIAL PHOTO
    L. Ingraham
    RICK-PERRY-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    R. Perry
     MARSHA BLACKBURN BEST PHOTO DARK
    M. Blackburn
    MICHAEL REAGAN-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    M. Reagan

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    KRISTI NOEM
    K. Noem
    BARACK-OBAMA-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    B. Obama
    MONICA CROWLEY OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M. Crowley
    MICHELLE MALKIN OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M. Malkin
    CARRIE-PREJEAN-PHOTO
    C. Prejean

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    PAULA-WHITE-PREACHER-PHOTO
    P. White
    JOEL-OSTEEN-PORTRAIT-PHOTO
    J. Osteen
    JUDY-JACOBS-PORTRAIT-PHOTO
    J. Jacobs
    T-D-JAKES-TIME-MAG-COVER
    T. D. Jakes
    ORLY TAITZ.jpg
    O. Taitz

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    WHITNEY-HOUSTON-STANDARD-PHOTO
    Saved?
    JOSEPH-PRINCE-BOOK-COVER
    J. Prince
    >JESSICA SIMPSON HAIR UP PHOTO
    J. Simpson
    JUAN-WILLIAMS-PHOTO
    J. Williams
    >DANA PERINO PHOTO
    D. Perino

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    MARTIN-LUTHER-KING-JR-Pointing-Portrait
    MLK King Jr.
    JFK SIDE VIEW FOLDED HANDS
    J. Kennedy
    D. Schlussel
    RONALD-REAGAN-BOOK-COVER-on-GOD
    R. Reagan
    Gabriel-Gifford-Congresswoman.jpg
    G. Gifford

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    Farrakhan
    L. Farrakhan
    OBAMA and JEREMIAH WRIGHT
    J. Wright
    ILLEANA-ROS-LEHTINEN-OFFICIal-PHOTO
    I. Lehtinen
    BILL AYERS
    Bill Ayers
    AINSLEY-EARHARDT-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    A. Earhardt

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    KING-JAMES-GAY-OLDER-PORTRAIT-2"
    King James-1
    SCIENCE-DARWIN-PORTRAIT.jpg"
    C. Darwin
    Anti-aging-most-Aged-face-scarf"
    C. Crier
    CRAIG-MITCHEL-PHOTO"
    C. Mitchell
    BILLY-GRAHAM-PHOTO.jpg"
    B. Graham

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    Anti-aging-most-Aged-face-scarf"
    R. Van Impe
    HERBERT-FITZPATRICK-PHOTO"
    Fitzpatrick
    JOHN-STOSSEL-PHOTO"
    J. Stossel
    FRACNESCA-BATTISTELLI-PHOTO
    Francesca
    MOTHER-TERESA-YOUNGER-PHOTO
    M. Teresa

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JEREMY-LIN-PHOTO-with-BASKETBALLS
    Linsanity!
    KATHY-IRELAND-PHOTO-DARKER-HAIR.jpg
    K. Ireland
    JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER
    J. Hyles
    TERESA-SCANLAN-MAG-COVER.jpgf"
    HomeSchooled!
    LAWRENCE-ODONNELL-PHOTO"
    L. O'Donnel

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    LINDA-TRIPP-PHOTO.jpg
    L. Tripp
    MICHAEL-STEELE-PHOTO
    M. Steele
    ELIZABETH-HASSLEBECK-PHOTO
    E. Hasslebeck
    MARTIN-BASHIR-PAKISTANI-PHOTO"
    M. Bashir
    NOELLE-NIKPOUR-PHOTO"
    N. Nikpour,

    BRIEFS:
    AMERICAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JESSE-PETERSON-PHOTO
    J. Peterson
    KIRSTEN-POWERS-PHOTO
    K. Powers
    J-D-HAYWORTH-PHOTO.jpg"
    J. Hayworth
    GABRIEL-BRIGETTE."
    G. Brigette
    CHRISTINE-ODONNELL-PHOTO.jpg"
    C. O'Donnel

    BRIEFS:
    EARLY
    CHURCH
    LEADERS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JESUS-FACE-SHROULD-of-TURIN.jpg
    JC Shroud
    JESUS-OLDEST-PICTURE-PANTOKRATOR
    The Christ!
    PETER-APOSTLE-PORTRAIT.jpg
    A. Peter
    APOSTLE-PAUL-MOSAIC.jpg
    A. Paul
    BARNABAS-PHOTO
    Barnabas
    EUSEBIUS
    Eusebius!

    BRIEFS:
    EARLY
    CHURCH
    LEADERS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    VENERABLE-BEDE-PHOTO
    Ven. Bede!
    HADES-How-Greeks-Pictured-Devil.jpg
    Hades!
    Anna-Charboniere-Tortured-LARGE
    "Impaled!"
    ATHANASIUS-of-ALEXANDRIA.jpg
    Athanasius
    STATUES-LIBERTY-of-CHRIST
    Christ?

    BRIEFS:
    EARLIEST
    REFORMATION
    LEADERS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    PETER-LOMBARD-PHOTO
    P. Lombard
    PETER-WALDO-PHOTO-WALDENSES PHOTO
    P. Waldo
    JOHN-BUNYAN-PHOTO
    J. Bunyan
    JOHN-OWEN-PHOTO
    J. Owens
    ALBERT-BARNES-PHOTO
    A. Barnes

    WILLIAM-BARCLAY-PHOTO
    Wm Barclay

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    THOMAS-AQUINAS-PHOTO
    T. Aquinas
    WILLIAM-of-OCKHAM-PHOTO
    W. Ockham
    JOHN-WYCLIFFE
    J. Wycliffe
    JOHN-HUSS-PHOTO
    J. Huss
    CHRISTOPHER-COLUMBUS-PHOTO
    C. Columbus

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    GIROLAMO-SAVONAROLA-PHOTO-BEARD.jpg
    Savanarola
    ERASMUS ERASMUS PHOTO
    D. Erasmus
    WILLIAM FAREL PHOTO
    Wm. Farel
    ANDREAS-KARLSTADT-PHOTO
    A Karlstadt
    MARTIN-LUTHER-PHOTO-No-HAT
    M. Luther
    THOMAS-MUNTER-PHOTO
    T. Muntzer

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    ZWINGLI ULRICH PHOTO
    H. Zwingli
    PHILLIP-MELANCTHON-PHOTO
    Melancthon
    WILLIAM-TYNDALE-PHOTO
    W. Tyndale
    MENNO-SIMONS-PHOTO
    M Simons
    JOHN-Calvin-PHOTO-2
    J. Calvin

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JOHN-KNOX-PHOTO-2
    J. Knox
    JOHN-FOXE-PHOTO.jpg
    J. Foxe
    THEODORE-BEZA-PHOTO.jpg
    T. Beza
    WILLIAM-SHAKESPEARE-PHOTO
    Shakespeare
    JACOBUS-ARMINIUS-PHOTO.jpg
    J Arminius

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    WILLIAM-BRADFORD-PHOTO
    W Bradford
    SQUANTO PILGRIMS
    "Squanto!"
    JOHN-HARVARD-PHOTO.jpg
    J Harvard
    GEORGE-FOX-PHOTO.jpg
    G. Fox
    WILLIAM-PENN-PHOTO-With-Hat
    Wm. Penn
    ALEXANDER-CRUDEN-PHOTO
    A. Cruden
    MATTHEW HENRY PHOTO
    M. Henry
    ISAAC NEWTONS PHOTO
    Sir Newton

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JOHN-WESLEY-PHOTO
    J. Wesley
    GEORGE-WHITEFIELD-PHOTO
    Whitefield
    ADAM CLARKE PORTRAIT
    A. Clarke
    DAVID-BRAINERD-PHOTO.jpg
    D. Brainerd
    JONATHAN-EDWARDS-PHOTO
    J. Edwards

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    GEORGE-WASHINGTON-full-height-PHOTO
    Washington
    ROBERT-ATIKEN-PREACHER-SON.jpg
    R. Aitken
    TIMOTHY-DWIGHT-PHOTO
    T. Dwight
    FRANCIS-ASBURY-PHOTO
    F. Asbury
    NOAH-WEBSTER-PHOTO.jpg
    N. Webster

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMERS
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JOSEPH-SMITH-PHOTO
    J. Smith
    BRIGHAM-YOUNG-PHOTO
    B. Young
    CHARLES-FINNEY-PHOTO.jpg
    C. Finney
    WILLIAM-MILLER-of-MILLERITES-PHOTO
    W. Miller
    BARTON-STONE-PHOTO
    B. Stone
    ALEXANDER-CAMPBELL-PHOTO.gif
    A. Campbell

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    REFORMATION
    (CLICK ICONS)
    JOHN-GILL-PHOTO
    J. Gill
    PETER-CARTRIGHT-PHOTO
    Cartwright
    Charles-Spurgeon-Portrait
    C Spurgeon
    JAMES-STRONG-PHOTO.jpg
    J. Strong
    ROBERT-YOUNG-BIBLE-SCHOLAR-PHOTO
    R. Young

    BRIEFS:
    NOTABLE
    MINISTERS
    TURN of 20th
    (CLICK ICONS)
    Dwight-Lyman-MOODY-PHOTO
    D.L. Moody
    WILLIAM-SMITH-DICTIONARY-FAME-PHOTO.jpg
    Wm. Smith
    R. A. TORREY PHOTO
    R A Torrey
    BILLY-SUNDAY-PHOTO.jpg
    B. Sunday
    HENRY-HAMPTON-HALLEY-PHOTO.jpg
    H.H. Halley
    BOB-JONES-SENIOR-PHOTO.jpg
    B. Jones
    LEE-ROBERSON-PHOTO
    L Roberson

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    ORAL-ROBERTS-PHOTO
    O. Roberts
    Dr-Billy-Graham
    B. Graham
    JACK-HYLES-PHOTO-OLDER
    J. Hyles
    JERRY-FALWELL.jpg
    J. Falwell
    PAT-ROBERTSON-PHOTO.jpg
    Robertson

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    RICK-SANTORUM-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    R Santorum
    KAREN-SANTORUM-PORTRAIT-PHOTO
    K Santorum
    ANGELA McGLOWAN OFFICIAL PHOTO
    A McGlowan
    MARTHA MacCALLUM OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M MacCallum
    HARRIS-FAULKNER-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    H. Faulkner

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    LAURO GARZA
    L. Garza
    MICHELE BACHMANN Web Pic
    Bachmann
    RUSH LIMBAUGH Portrait
    R Limbaugh
    STAR PARKER
    S. Parker
    BOBBY-JINDAL OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    B. Jindal

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    KIRSTEN-HAGLAND-OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    K Haglund
    CLARENCE THOMAS-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    C. Thomas
    AMY-HOLMES-OFFICIAL-PHOTO
    A. Holmes
    BILL O'REILLY Portrait
    B. O'Reilly
    TIM-SCOTT-OFFICIAL-PHOTO.jpg
    T. Scott

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    KRISTI WATTS OFFICIAL PHOTO
    K. Watts
    JIM DEMINT OFFICIAL PORTRAIT
    J. DeMint
    SARAH PALIN BOOK COVER
    S. Palin
    DONALD-TRUMP-SEATED OVAL OFFICE DESK
    D. Trump
    LILA ROSE LIVE ACTION OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    L. Rose

    BRIEFS:
    CHRISTIAN
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)
    DINESH D’SOUZA OFFICIAL PHOTO
    D. D'Souza

    TERESA SCANLAN OFFICIAL-PORTRAIT
    T. Scalan
    MIKE-HUCKABEE OFFICIAL PHOTO
    M Huckabee
    ANN COULTER OFFICIAL PHOTO
    A. Coulter
    KIMBERLY GUILFOYLE OFFICIAL PHOTO
    K Guilfoyle

    BRIEFS:
    News Makers
    (CLICK ICONS)