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PRESENTS:

John Adams:

Father of American Revolution!

John Adams, did more than any other to get the American Revolution to become a reality!






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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    * We recognize no sovereign but God, and no king but Jesus!

      [NOTE] “No king but King Jesus” was the major slogan of the Fifth Monarchists during the Interregnum in England, and though it was not the only slogan, it was used during the American Revolution by the true Believers.

    [SOURCE: John Adam's reply to British Major Pitcairn's demand to “Disperse, ye villains, lay down your arms in the name of George the Sovereign King of England.”]

    * Let them revere nothing but religion, morality and liberty. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (15 April 1776) [1]

    * The new Government has my best Wishes and most fervent Prayers, for its Success and Prosperity: but whether I shall have any thing more to do with it, besides praying for it, depends on the future suffrages of Freemen. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Thomas Jefferson (2 January 1789), The Papers of Thomas Jefferson


    * The second day of July, 1776 (later changed to the 4th), will be the most memorable epocha in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival.

    It ought to be commemorated as the Day of Deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward, forevermore. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776); because of the official adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence two days later, the fourth of July rather than the second, became known as the US Independence Day.

    * Thanks to God that he gave me stubbornness when I know I am right. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Edmund Jenings (1782), as quoted in John Adams (2008) by David McCullough, p. 272

    * A Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored. Liberty, once lost, is lost forever. [SOURCE: John Adams,Letter to Abigail Adams (17 July 1775)

    * I agree with you that in politics the middle way is none at all. [SOURCE: John Adams,Letter to Horatio Gates (23 March 1776)

    * Let them revere nothing but religion, morality and liberty. [SOURCE: [1] o Letter to Abigail Adams (28 April 1776)

    * Statesmen, my dear Sir, may plan and speculate for Liberty, but it is Religion and Morality alone, which can establish the Principles upon which Freedom can securely stand.

    [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Zabdiel Adams (21 June 1776)].

    * The only foundation of a free Constitution is pure Virtue, and if this cannot be inspired into our People in a greater Measure than they have it now, They may change their Rulers and the forms of Government, but they will not obtain a lasting Liberty. They will only exchange Tyrants and Tyrannies. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Zabdiel Adams (21 June 1776)].


    * We recognize no sovereign but God, and no king but Jesus!

      [NOTE] “No king but King Jesus” was the major slogan of the Fifth Monarchists during the Interregnum in England, and though it was not the only slogan, it was used during the American Revolution by the true Believers.

    [SOURCE: John Adam's reply to Major Pitcairn's demand to “Disperse, ye villains, lay down your arms in the name of George the Sovereign King of England.”]


    * I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States. Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of Ravishing Light and Glory. I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means. And that Posterity will triumph in that Days Transaction, even although We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776),


    * I am surprised at the suddenness as well as the greatness of this revolution...

    It is the will of Heaven that the two countries should be sundered forever. It may be the will of Heaven that America shall suffer calamities still more wasting, and distresses yet more dreadful. If this is to be the case it will have this good effect at least.

      It will inspire us with many virtues which we have not, and correct many errors, follies, and vices which threaten to disturb, dishonor, and destroy us.

      The furnace of affliction produces refinement in states as well as individuals. And the new Governments we are assuming in every part will require a purification from our vices, and an augmentation of our virtues, or they will be no blessings.

      ===The people will have unbounded power, and the people are extremely addicted to corruption and venality, as well as the great. But I must submit all my hopes and fears to "An Overruling Providence", in which, unfashionable as the faith may be, I firmly believe.

    [SOURCE: John Adams to Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776)].


    * The science of government it is my duty to study, more than all other sciences; the arts of legislation and administration and negotiation ought to take the place of, indeed exclude, in a manner, all other arts.

    I must study politics and war, that our sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. Our sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history and naval architecture, navigation, commerce and agriculture in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry and porcelain. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (12 May 1780)


    * All the perplexities, confusions, and distresses in America arise, not from defects in their constitution or confederation, not from a want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit, and circulation. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Thomas Jefferson (23 August 1787), The Works of John Adams].


    * I have thought proper to recommend, and I do hereby recommend accordingly, that Thursday, the 25th day of April next, be observed throughout the United States of America as a day of solemn humiliation, fasting, and prayer;. . .

    . . .that the citizens on that day abstain as far as may be from their secular occupations, devote the time to the sacred duties of religion in public and in private; . . .

    . . .that they call to mind our numerous offenses against the Most High God, confess them before Him with the sincerest penitence, implore His pardoning mercy,. . .

    ===. . .through the "Great Mediator and Redeemer", for our past transgressions, and that through the grace of His Holy Spirit we may be disposed and enabled to yield a more suitable obedience to His righteous requisitions in time to come; . . .

    . . .that He would interpose to arrest the progress of that impiety and licentiousness in principle and practice so offensive to Himself and so ruinous to mankind; . . .

    . . .that He would make us deeply sensible that "righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach' to any people;". . .

    . . . that He would turn us from our transgressions and turn His displeasure from us; that He would withhold us from unreasonable discontent, from disunion, faction, sedition, and insurrection; . . .

    . . .that He would preserve our country from the desolating sword; that He would save our cities and towns from a repetition of those awful pestilential visitations under which they have lately suffered so severely, and that the health of our inhabitants generally may be precious in His sight;. . .

    . . .that He would favor us with fruitful seasons and so bless the labors of the husbandman as that there may be food in abundance for man and beast; . . . .

    . . .that He would prosper our commerce, manufactures, and fisheries, and give success to the people in all their lawful industry and enterprise; . . .

    . . . that He would smile on our colleges, academies, schools, and seminaries of learning, and make them nurseries of sound science, morals, and religion; . . .

    . . .that He would bless all magistrates, from the highest to the lowest, give them the true spirit of their station, make them a terror to evil doers and a praise to them that do well;. . .

    . . .that He would preside over the councils of the nation at this critical period, enlighten them to a just discernment of the public interest, and save them from mistake, division, and discord; . . .

    . . .that He would make succeed our preparations for defense and bless our armaments by land and by sea; . . .

    . . .that He would put an end to the effusion of human blood and the accumulation of human misery among the contending nations of the earth by disposing them to justice, to equity, to benevolence, and to peace; . . .

    . . .and that he would extend the blessings of knowledge, of true liberty, and of pure and undefiled religion throughout the world. [SOURCE: Presidential proclamation of a national day of fasting and prayer (6 March 1789)].


    * There is nothing which I dread so much as a division of the republic into two great parties, each arranged under its leader, and concerting measures in opposition to each other. This, in my humble apprehension, is to be dreaded as the greatest political evil under our Constitution. [SOURCE: Letter to Jonathan Jackson (2 October 1789)].

    I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.

    * My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived; and as I can do neither good nor evil, I must be borne away by others and meet the common fate. [SOURCE: On the Vice-Presidency of the United States, in a letter to Abigail Adams (19 December 1793)].

    * I read my eyes out and can't read half enough. ... The more one reads the more one sees we have to read. [SOURCE:Letter to Abigail Adams (28 December 1794), Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society].

    * We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry, would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a religious and moral people. It is wholly inadequate for the government of any other. [SOURCE: Letter to the Officers of the First Brigade of the Third Division of the Militia of Massachusetts (11 October 1798)

    * I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.

      Franklin D. Roosevelt had this inscribed on the mantle-piece of the State Dining Room
    [SOURCE: On the White House, in a letter to Abigail Adams (2 November 1800)


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes


    On Liberty and Government

    A constitution founded on these principles introduces knowledge among the people, and inspires them with a conscious dignity becoming freemen; a general emulation takes place, which causes good humor, sociability, good manners, and good morals to be general.

    That elevation of sentiment inspired by such a government, makes the common people brave and enterprising. That ambition which is inspired by it makes them sober, industrious, and frugal.

    John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    As good government is an empire of laws, how shall your laws be made? In a large society, inhabiting an extensive country, it is impossible that the whole should assemble to make laws.

    The first necessary step, then, is to depute power from the many to a few of the most wise and good.

    John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    As long as Property exists, it will accumulate in Individuals and Families.

    As long as Marriage exists, Knowledge, Property and Influence will accumulate in Families.

    John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, July 16, 1814

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    But a Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored. Liberty, once lost, is lost forever.

    John Adams, letter to Abigail Adams, July 17, 1775

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    But what do we mean by the American Revolution?

      Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced.
        The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments, of their duties and obligations...
        This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution.

    John Adams, letter to H. Niles, February 13, 1818

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Children should be educated and instructed in the principles of freedom. John Adams, Defense of the Constitutions, 1787

    Founding Fathers Quotes



    Adams Explains Commonwealth:

    "No Taxes without Consent of those Taxed!"

    "Each individual of the society has a right to be protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, according to standing laws.

      He is obliged, consequently, to contribute his share to the expense of this protection; and to give his personal service, or an equivalent, when necessary.
        But no part of the property of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent,....

      In fine, the people of this commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those to which their constitutional representative body have given their consent.

    John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Every measure of prudence, therefore, ought to be assumed for the eventual total extirpation of slavery from the United States.... I have, throughout my whole life, held the practice of slavery in... abhorrence. John Adams, letter to Evans, June 8, 1819

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Facts are stubborn things! And whatever may be our wishes, our inclination, or the dictates of our passions, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence. John Adams, in Defense of the British Soldiers on trial for the Boston Massacre, December 4, 1770


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes;

    Fear is the foundation of most governments; but it is so sordid and brutal a passion, and renders men in whose breasts it predominates so stupid and miserable, that Americans will not be likely to approve of any political institution which is founded on it. John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Government is instituted for the common good; for the protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness of the people; and not for profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or class of men;

    therefore, the people alone have an incontestable, inalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government; and to reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness require it.

    John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    On George Washington's Death;
    His Example is now complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our history shall be read.

    John Adams, message to the U.S. Senate, December 19, 1799

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Human government is more or less perfect as it approaches nearer or diverges farther from the imitation of this perfect plan of divine and moral government. John Adams, draft of a Newspaper Communication, Circa August 1770

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    Human nature itself is evermore an advocate for liberty.

      There is also in human nature a resentment of injury, and indignation against wrong.

      [and] A love of truth and a veneration of virtue.

      These amiable passions, are the "latent spark"... If the people are capable of understanding, seeing and feeling the differences between true and false, right and wrong, virtue and vice, to what better principle can the friends of mankind apply than to the sense of this difference?

    John Adams, the Novanglus, 1775

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    I have accepted a seat in the [Massachusetts] House of Representatives, and thereby have consented to my own ruin, to your ruin, and the ruin of our children. I give you this warning, that you may prepare your mind for your fate. John Adams, to Abigail Adams, May 1770

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    I must study politics and war that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy.

    My sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history and naval architecture, navigation, commerce and agriculture, in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry, and porcelain. John Adams, letter to Abigail Adams, 1780

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    I Pray Heaven to Bestow The Best of Blessing on THIS HOUSE, and on ALL that shall hereafter Inhabit it. May none but Honest and Wise Men ever rule under This Roof! John Adams, letter to Abigail Adams, November 2, 1800


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    I think he [Jefferson] had one more vote than any other, and that placed him at the head of the committee.

    I had the next highest number, and that placed me second. The committee met, discussed the subject, [of the Declaration of Independence] and then appointed Mr. Jefferson and me to make the draught, I suppose because we were the two first on the list.

    The subcommittee met.

      Jefferson proposed John Adams to make the draught.

      Adams said: "I will not."

      Jefferson: "You should do it. "

      Adams: "Oh No!"

      Jefferson: "Why will you not? You ought to do it."

      Adams: "I will not. "

      Jefferson: "Why?"

      Adams: "Reasons enough."

      Jefferson: "What can be your reasons?"

      Adams: "Because you should do it!"

    John Adams, to Thomas Jefferson concerning the drafting of the Declaration, June 1775

    ***THEN after A bitter election and loss by Adams, he said:

      The Declaration of Independence I always considered as a Theatrical Show. Jefferson ran away with all the stage effect of that; i.e. all the Glory of it.

      [SOURCE: Letter to Benjamin Rush (21 June 1811); published in Old Family Letters: Copied from the Originals for Alexander Biddle (1892), p. 287; also quoted in TIME magazine (25 October 1943)].

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    If men through fear, fraud or mistake, should in terms renounce and give up any essential natural right, the eternal law of reason and the great end of society, would absolutely vacate such renunciation;

    [T]the right to freedom being the gift of God Almighty, it is not in the power of Man to alienate this gift, and voluntarily become a slave. John Adams, Rights of the Colonists, 1772

    Founding Fathers Quotes

    If there is a form of government, then, whose principle and foundation is virtue, will not every sober man acknowledge it better calculated to promote the general happiness than any other form? John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776


    General Thoughts

    * I had heard my father say that he never knew a piece of land run away or break. o Autobiography (1802-1807)

    * Our obligations to our country never cease but with our lives. o Letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush (18 April 1808)


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    * I will insist that the Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation.

    If I were an atheist, and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations.

    If I were an atheist of the other sect, who believe or pretend to believe that all is ordered by chance, I should believe that chance had ordered the Jews to preserve and propagate to all mankind the doctrine of a supreme, intelligent, wise, almighty sovereign of the universe -

    - which I believe to be the great essential principle of all morality, and consequently of all civilization. Letter to François Adriaan van der Kemp (16 February 1809)

    * When I went home to my family in May, 1770, from the town meeting in Boston, which was the first I had ever attended, [and where I had been chosen in my absence, without any solicitation]as one of their representatives], I said to my wife, "I have accepted a seat in the House of Representatives, and thereby have consented to my own ruin, to your ruin, and to the ruin of our children. I give you this warning, that you may prepare your mind for your fate."

    She burst into tears, but instantly cried out in a transport of magnanimity, "Well, I am willing in this cause to run all risks with you, and be ruined with you, if you are ruined." These were times, my friend, in Boston, which tried women's souls as well as men's. Letter to Benjamin Rush (12 April 1809)

    * The Declaration of Independence I always considered as a Theatrical Show. Jefferson ran away with all the stage effect of that; i.e. all the Glory of it. Letter to Benjamin Rush (21 June 1811); published in Old Family Letters: Copied from the Originals for Alexander Biddle (1892), p. 287; also quoted in TIME magazine (25 October 1943)

    GREAT QUOTE:

    * The general principles on which the [Founding] Fathers achieved independence, were ... the general principles of Christianity, in which all those sects were united, and the general principles of English and American liberty, in which all those young men united, and which had united all parties in America, in majorities sufficient to assert and maintain her independence.

    Now I will avow, that I then believed and now believe that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God; and that those principles of liberty are as unalterable as human nature and our terrestrial, mundane system. Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 28 June 1813. Often misquoted as "The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were the general principles of Christianity."


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    * While all other Sciences have advanced, that of Government is at a stand; little better understood; little better practiced now than three or four thousand years ago. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (9 July 1813)

    * You and I ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (13 July 1813)

    * Indeed, Mr. Jefferson, what could be invented to debase the ancient Christianism which Greeks, Romans, Hebrews and Christian factions, above all the Catholics, have not fraudulently imposed upon the public? Miracles after miracles have rolled down in torrents.

    Letter to Thomas Jefferson (3 December 1813), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 404.

    What do we mean by the Revolution? The war? That was no part of the revolution; it was only an effect and consequence of it. The revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 - 1775, in the course of fifteen years, before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington.

    * If the Christian religion, as I understand it, or as you understand it, should maintain its ground, as I believe it will, yet Platonic, Pythagoric, Hindoo, and cabalistic Christianity, [which is Catholic Christianity], and which has prevailed for 1,500 years, has received a mortal wound, of which the monster must finally die. Yet so strong is his constitution, that he may endure for centuries before he expires. John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson (July 16, 1814). From the Works of John Adams, Vol. X, p. 100.

    * As to the history of the revolution, my ideas may be peculiar, perhaps singular. What do we mean by the Revolution? The war? That was no part of the revolution; it was only an effect and consequence of it. The revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 - 1775, in the course of fifteen years, before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (24 August 1815), The Works of John Adams; he later expressed similar sentiments in a letter to Hezekiah Niles (13 February 1818)

    * We may appeal to every page of history we have hitherto turned over, for proofs irrefragable, that the people - when they have been unchecked - have been as unjust, tyrannical, brutal, barbarous and cruel as any king or senate possessed of uncontrollable power ...

    All projects of government, formed upon a supposition of continual vigilance, sagacity, and virtue, firmness of the people, when possessed of the exercise of supreme power, are cheats and delusions ...

    The fundamental article of my political creed is that despotism, or unlimited sovereignty, or absolute power, is the same in a majority of a popular assembly, an aristocratical council, an oligarchical junto, and a single emperor. Equally arbitrary, cruel, bloody, and in every respect diabolical. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (13 November 1815)

    * Power always sincerely, conscientiously, de très bon foi, believes itself right. Power always thinks it has a great soul and vast views, beyond the comprehension of the weak. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (2 February 1816)


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    I see in every Page, Something to recommend Christianity in its Purity and Something to discredit its Corruptions.

    * I almost shudder at the thought of alluding to the most fatal example of the abuses of grief which the history of mankind has preserved — the Cross. Consider what calamities that engine of grief has produced! With the rational respect that is due to it, knavish priests have added prostitutions of it, that fill or might fill the blackest and bloodiest pages of human history. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (3 September 1816), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 488.

    Great Bible Quote:

    * We have now, it Seems a National Bible Society, to propagate King James's Bible, through all Nations.
      Would it not be better to apply these pious Subscriptions, to purify Christendom from the Corruptions of Christianity; than to propagate those Corruptions in Europe Asia, Africa and America! ... Conclude not from all this, that I have renounced the Christian religion, or that I agree with Dupuis in all his Sentiments. Far from it. I see in every Page, Something to recommend Christianity in its Purity and Something to discredit its Corruptions. ...

      The Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount contain my Religion.

    Letter to Thomas Jefferson (4 November 1816) (Online image 1 - 2)

    The Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount contain my Religion. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (4 November 1816) (Online image 1 - 2)

    * Let the human mind loose. It must be loose. It will be loose. Superstition and dogmatism cannot confine it. Letter to his son, John Quincy Adams (13 November 1816)


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AMERIPEDIA™ - Father of American Revolution!

President John Adams: Some of His Very Greatest Quotes

    * Twenty times in the course of my late reading have I been on the point of breaking out, "This would be the best of all possible worlds, if there were no religion in it!!!" BUT in this exclamation I would have been as fanatical as Bryant or Cleverly. Without religion this world would be something not fit to be mentioned in polite company, I mean Hell.

    Original manuscript at The Library of Congress Letter to Thomas Jefferson (19 April 1817).

    The italicized section within this statement has often been quoted out of context! Earlier in the letter, John Adams explained "Lemuel Bryant was my Parish Priest; and Joseph Cleverly my Latin School Master. Lemuel was a jolly jocular and liberal schollar and Divine. Joseph a Schollar and a Gentleman; but a biggoted episcopalian... The Parson and the Pedagogue lived much together, but were eternally disputing about Government and Religion."

    No Freedom of Speech!

    * When people talk of the Freedom of Writing, Speaking, or thinking, I cannot choose but laugh. No such thing ever existed. No such thing now exists; but I hope it will exist. But it must be hundreds of years after you and I shall write and speak no more. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (15 July 1817)


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    Believes for Israel to become nation again

    * I really wish the Jews again in Judea, an independent nation, for, as I believe, the most enlightened men of it have participated in the amelioration of the philosophy of the age;

    once restored to an independent government, and no longer persecuted, they would soon wear away some of the asperities and peculiarities of their character, possibly in time become ... Christians,

    for your Jehovah is our Jehovah, and your God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is our God.

    Letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah (1819), as quoted in The Jews, Judea, and Christianity : A Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews (1849) by M. M. Noah, p. xi

    * Abuse of words has been the great instrument of sophistry and chicanery, of party, faction, and division of society. Letter to J.H. Tiffany (31 March 1819)

    Adams Describes God as Spirit!

    * When we say God is a spirit, we know what we mean, as well as we do when we say that the pyramids of Egypt are matter. Let us be content, therefore, to believe him to be a spirit, that is, an essence that we know nothing of, in which originally and necessarily reside all energy, all power, all capacity, all activity, all wisdom, all goodness.

    Letter to Thomas Jefferson (17 January 1820). Often misquoted as "God is an essence that we know nothing of" and attached to a part of his 22 January 1825 letter to Thomas Jefferson.

    * Can a free government possibly exist with the Roman Catholic religion? Letter to Thomas Jefferson (19 May 1821), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 573.

    * The Europeans are all deeply tainted with prejudices, both ecclesiastical and temporal, which they can never get rid of. They are all infected with episcopal and presbyterian creeds, and confessions of faith.

    They all believe that great Principle which has produced this boundless universe, Newton’s universe and Herschell’s universe, came down to this little ball, to be spit upon by Jews. And until this awful blasphemy is got rid of, there never will be any liberal science in the world. Letter to Thomas Jefferson (22 January 1825). The section in bold is often attached to fragments from an earlier letter from Adams to Jefferson (17 January 1820).


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    Christianity

    The substance and essence of Christianity, as I understand it, is eternal and unchangeable, and will bear examination forever, but it has been mixed with extraneous ingredients, which I think will not bear examination, and they ought to be separated.

    * We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects, and of the right of free inquiry and private judgment in all cases, and yet how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact!

    There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny or doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelations. In most countries of Europe it is punished by fire at the stake, or the rack, or the wheel. In England itself it is punished by boring through the tongue with a poker.

    In America it is not better; even in our own Massachusetts, which I believe, upon the whole, is as temperate and moderate in religious zeal as most of the States, a law was made in the latter end of the last century, repealing the cruel punishments of the former laws, but substituting fine and imprisonment upon all those blasphemers upon any book of the Old Testament or New.

    Now, what free inquiry, when a writer must surely encounter the risk of fine or imprisonment for adducing any argument for investigating into the divine authority of those books? Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis?

    But I cannot enlarge upon this subject, though I have it much at heart. I think such laws a great embarrassment, great obstructions to the improvement of the human mind. Books that cannot bear examination, certainly ought not to be established as divine inspiration by penal laws.

    It is true, few persons appear desirous to put such laws in execution, and it is also true that some few persons are hardy enough to venture to depart from them. But as long as they continue in force as laws, the human mind must make an awkward and clumsy progress in its investigations.

    I wish they were repealed. The substance and essence of Christianity, as I understand it, is eternal and unchangeable, and will bear examination forever, but it has been mixed with extraneous ingredients, which I think will not bear examination, and they ought to be separated.

    Letter to Thomas Jefferson (23 January 1825), published in Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 607.

    Old minds are like old horses; you must exercise them if you wish to keep them in working order. Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 607.

    * No man who ever held the office of president would congratulate a friend on obtaining it. He will make one man ungrateful, and a hundred men his enemies, for every office he can bestow. Letter to Josiah Quincy III (14 February 1825)

    * My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind.

    Reply to an invitation to 50th Independence Day celebrations from a committee of the citizens of Quincy, Massachusetts (7 June 1826); quoted in ["Eulogy, Pronounced at Bridgewater, Massachusetts" (1826-08-02) by John A. Shaw, in A Selection of Eulogies, Pronounced in the Several States, in Honor of Those Illustrious Patriots and Statesmen, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson (1826)

    * Thomas — Jefferson — still survives — Last words (4 July 1826) as quoted in The Oxford History of the American People (1965) by Samuel Eliot Morison, p. 420; this is often rendered as a full statement, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." Thomas Jefferson died a few hours earlier on the same day, the 50th anniversary of the congressional approval of The Declaration of Independence.

    * Old minds are like old horses; you must exercise them if you wish to keep them in working order. As quoted by Josiah Quincy III, in Looking Toward Sunset: From Sources Old and New, Original and Selected (1865) by Lydia Maria Francis Child, p. 431

    * Negro Slavery is an evil of Colossal magnitude and I am utterly averse to the admission of Slavery into the Missouri Territories. Letter to William Tudor, as quoted in Founding Brothers : The Revolutionary Generation (2000) by Joseph J. Ellis, p. 240


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    * A natural and almost unavoidable consequence of that foul contagion in the human character — Negro slavery. Stating his belief in the reports of James T. Callender that Thomas Jefferson was the father of the children of Sally Hemmings, as quoted in Scandalmonger‎ (2001) by William Safire, p. 431

    John Adams' Diaries

    Where do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days?

    * Major Greene this evening fell into some conversation with me about the Divinity and satisfaction of Jesus Christ. All the argument he advanced was, "that a mere creature or finite being could not make satisfaction to infinite justice for any crimes," and that "these things are very mysterious." Thus mystery is made a convenient cover for absurdity. o (13 February 1756)

    * Spent an hour in the beginning of the evening at Major Gardiner's, where it was thought that the design of Christianity was not to make men good riddle-solvers, or good mystery-mongers,

      but good men, good magistrates, and good subjects, good husbands and good wives, good parents and good children, good masters and good servants.

    The following questions may be answered some time or other, namely, — Where do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days? (18 February 1756)

    * No man is entirely free from weakness and imperfection in this life. Men of the most exalted genius and active minds are generally most perfect slaves to the love of fame. They sometimes descend to mean tricks and artifices in pursuit of honor or reputation as the miser descends to in pursuit of gold. (19 February 1756)

    * A pen is certainly an excellent instrument to fix a man's attention and to inflame his ambition. o (14 November 1760)


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    BOSTON TEA PARTY!
    * This is the most magnificent movement of all! There is a dignity, a majesty, a sublimity, in this last effort of the patriots that I greatly admire. The people should never rise without doing something to be remembered — something notable and striking.

    This destruction of the tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid and inflexible, and it must have so important consequences, and so lasting, that I can't but consider it as an epocha in history! On the Boston Tea Party (17 December 1773)

    * Virtue is not always amiable. [NOTE: and gregariousness is not always virtue!] (9 February 1779)

    * By my physical constitution I am but an ordinary man ... Yet some great events, some cutting expressions, some mean hypocracies, have at times thrown this assemblage of sloth, sleep, and littleness into rage like a lion. (26 April 1779)

    A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law (1765)

    Let every sluice of knowledge be opened and set a-flowing.

    A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law (1765)

    * Always consider the settlement of America with reverence and wonder, as the opening of a grand scene and design in providence, for the illumination of the ignorant and the emancipation of the slavish part of mankind all over the earth.

    * The poor people, it is true, have been much less successful than the great.

    They have seldom found either leisure or opportunity to form a union and exert their strength; ignorant as they were of arts and letters, they have seldom been able to frame and support a regular opposition.

    This, however, has been known by the great to be the temper of mankind; and they have accordingly labored, in all ages, to wrest from the populace, [as they are contemptuously called], the knowledge of their rights and wrongs, and the power to assert the former or redress the latter.


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    RIGHTS FROM GOD!
    I say RIGHTS, for such they have, undoubtedly, antecedent to all earthly government, — Rights, that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws — Rights, derived from the great Legislator of the universe.

    * Liberty must at all hazards be supported. We have a right to it, derived from our Maker. But if we had not, our fathers have earned and bought it for us, at the expense of their ease, their estates, their pleasure, and their blood.

    * Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right, from the frame of their nature, to knowledge, as their great Creator, who does nothing in vain, has given them understandings, and a desire to know;

    but besides this, they have a right, an indisputable, inalienable, indefeasible, divine right to that most dreaded and envied kind of knowledge, I mean, of the characters and conduct of their rulers.

    Rulers are no more than attorneys, agents, and trustees, of the people;

    [A]and if the cause, the interest, and trust, is insidiously betrayed, or wantonly trifled away, the people have a right to revoke the authority that they themselves have deputed, and to constitute other and better agents, attorneys and trustees.

    * The jaws of power are always open to devour, and her arm is always stretched out, if possible, to destroy the freedom of thinking, speaking, and writing.

    * Be not intimidated, therefore, by any terrors, from publishing with the utmost freedom, whatever can be warranted by the laws of your country; nor suffer yourselves to be wheedled out of your liberties by any pretenses of politeness, delicacy (dignity), or decency. These, as they are often used, are but three different names for hypocrisy, chicanery snobbery), and cowardice.

    * Let us tenderly and kindly cherish therefore, the means of knowledge. Let us dare to read, think, speak, and write.

    * Let every sluice of knowledge be opened and set a-flowing.



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    Novanglus essays (1774 - 1775)

    Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin, in 1754, to the Present Time. first published in the Boston Gazette

    * Nip the shoots of arbitrary power in the bud, is the only maxim which can ever preserve the liberties of any people. o No. 3

    * We are told:

      "It is a universal truth, that he that would excite a rebellion, is at heart as great a tyrant as ever wielded the iron rod of oppression."

    Be it so. We are not exciting a rebellion.

    REBELLION & LAW OF GOD!
    Opposition, nay, open, avowed resistance by arms, against usurpation and lawless violence, is not rebellion by the law of God or the land.

    Resistance to lawful authority makes rebellion. … Remember the frank Veteran acknowledges, that "the word rebel is a convertible term." o No. 5

    * A government of laws, and not of men. o No. 7; this was incorporated into the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780

    * Meta-physicians and politicians may dispute forever, but they will never find any other moral principle or foundation of rule or obedience, than the consent of governors and governed. o No. 7



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    Thoughts on Government (1776)

    Letter to George Wythe, April 1776

    The form of government which communicates ease, comfort, security, or, in one word, happiness, to the greatest number of persons, and in the greatest degree, is the best.

    * We ought to consider what is the end of government, before we determine which is the best form. Upon this point all speculative politicians will agree, that the happiness of society is the end of government, as all Divines and moral Philosophers will agree that the happiness of the individual is the end of man.

    From this principle it will follow, that the form of government which communicates ease, comfort, security, or, in one word, happiness, to the greatest number of persons, and in the greatest degree, is the best.

    * Fear is the foundation of most governments; but it is so sordid and brutal a passion, and renders men in whose breasts it predominates so stupid and miserable, that Americans will not be likely to approve of any political institution which is founded on it.

    * When annual elections end, there slavery begins.

    * Laws for the liberal education of youth, especially of the lower class of people, are so extremely wise and useful, that, to a humane and generous mind, no expense for this purpose would be thought extravagant.

    * The judicial power ought to be distinct from both the legislative and executive, and independent upon both, that so it may be a check upon both, as both should be checks upon that.



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    A Defence of the Constitutions of Government (1787)

    A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America (3 Volumes, 1787), republished in the 10 volume The Works of John Adams (1850 - 1856) edited Charles Francis Adams

    * The rich, the well-born, and the able, acquire an influence among the people that will soon be too much for simple honesty and plain sense, in a house of representatives. The most illustrious of them must, therefore, be separated from the mass, and placed by themselves in a senate; this is, to all honest and useful intents, an ostracism. o Vol. I, Preface, p. xi

    * Children should be educated and instructed in the principles of freedom. o Ch. 3 Marchamont Nedham: Errors of Government and Rules of Policy" Seventh Rule

    PROPERTY AS SACRED LAW OF GOD!

      * The moment the idea is admitted into society, that property is not as sacred as the law of God, and that there is not a force of law and public justice to protect it, anarchy and tyranny commence.

      If "Thou shall not covet," and "Thou shall not steal," are not commandments of Heaven, they must be made inviolable precepts in every society, before it can be civilized or made free.

    Ch. 1 Marchamont Nedham : The Right Constitution of a Commonwealth Examined

    Killing one tyrant only makes way for worse, unless the people have sense, spirit and honesty enough to establish and support a constitution guarded at all points against the tyranny of the one, the few, and the many.

    * The right of a nation to kill a tyrant, in cases of necessity, can no more be doubted, than to hang a robber, or kill a flea. But killing one tyrant only makes way for worse, unless the people have sense, spirit and honesty enough to establish and support a constitution guarded at all points against the tyranny of the one, the few, and the many.

    Let it be the study, therefore, of lawgivers and philosophers, to enlighten the people's understandings and improve their morals, by good and general education; to enable them to comprehend the scheme of government, and to know upon what points their liberties depend;

    to dissipate those vulgar prejudices and popular superstitions that oppose themselves to good government; and to teach them that obedience to the laws is as indispensable in them as in lords and kings. o Ch. 18

    * A single assembly will never be a steady guardian of the laws, if Machiavelli is right, when he says, "Men are never good but through necessity:" on the contrary, when good and evil are left to their choice, they will not fail to throw every thing into disorder and confusion.

    Hunger and poverty may make men industrious, but laws only can make them good; for, if men were so of themselves, there would be no occasion for laws; but, as the case is far otherwise, they are absolutely necessary. o Vol. I, letter XXVI Ch. 4 Opinions of Philosophers: Dr. Price

    * The proposition, that the people are the best keepers of their own liberties, is not true; they are the worst conceivable; they are no keepers at all; they can neither judge, act, think, or will, as a political body. o This is attributed to John Adams in The Life of Thomas Jefferson (1858) by Henry Stephens Randall, p. 587

    * There never was yet a people who must not have somebody or something to represent the dignity of the state, the majesty of the people, call it what you will — a doge, an avoyer, an archon, a president, a consul, a syndic; this becomes at once an object of ambition and dispute, and, in time, of division, faction, sedition, and rebellion. o Letter LV: Conclusion



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    Discourses on Davila (1790)

    Discourses on Davila: A Series of Papers on Political History first published in the Gazette of the United States (1790-1791) ; (Downloadable PDF of 1805 edition); republished with modernized spelling in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States vol. VI, (1851)

    The world grows more enlightened. Knowledge is more equally diffused.

    * A desire to be [noticed] observed, considered, esteemed, praised, beloved, and admired [and remembered!] by his fellows is one of the earliest, as well as the keenest dispositions discovered in the heart of man. o "Discourses on Davila: A Series of Papers on Political History," No. 4 Gazette of the United States (1790-1791)

    * The world grows more enlightened. Knowledge is more equally diffused. Newspapers, magazines, and circulating libraries have made mankind wiser. Titles and distinctions, ranks and orders, parade and ceremony, are all going out of fashion.

      NOTE: IF this be true, then the 20th & 21st centuries are those of GREAT DARKNESS!

    This is roundly and frequently asserted in the streets, and sometimes on theatres of higher rank. Some truth there is in it; and if the opportunity were temperately improved, to the reformation of abuses, the rectification of errors, and the dissipation of pernicious prejudices, a great advantage it might be. But, on the other hand, false inferences may be drawn from it, which may make mankind wish for the age of dragons, giants, and fairies. o No. 13

    * Are riches, honors, and beauty going out of fashion? Is not the rage for them, on the contrary, increased faster than improvement in knowledge? As long as either of these are in vogue, will there not be emulations and rivalries?

    Does not the increase of knowledge in any man increase his emulation; and the diffusion of knowledge among men multiply rivalries?

    Has the progress of science, arts, and letters yet discovered that there are no passions in human nature? no ambition, avarice, or desire of fame?

    Are these passions cooled, diminished, or extinguished?

    Is the rage for admiration less ardent in men or women?

    Have these propensities less a tendency to divisions, controversies, seditions, mutinies, and civil wars than formerly?

    On the contrary, the more knowledge is diffused, the more the passions are extended, and the more furious they grow. o No. 13


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    * Property must be secured, or liberty cannot exist.

    But if unlimited or unbalanced power of disposing property, be put into the hands of those who have no property, France will find, as we have found, the lamb committed to the custody of the wolf.

    In such a case, all the pathetic exhortations and addresses of the national assembly to the people, to respect property, will be regarded no more than the warbles of the songsters of the forest.

    WISDOM!The great art of law-giving consists in balancing the poor against the rich in the legislature, and in constituting the legislative a perfect balance against the executive power, at the same time that no individual or party can become its rival.

    The essence of a free government consists in an effectual control of rivalries. The executive and the legislative powers are natural rivals; and if each has not an effectual control over the other, the weaker will ever be the lamb in the paws of the wolf.

    The nation which will not adopt an equilibrium of power must adopt a despotism. There is no other alternative. Rivalries must be controlled, or they will throw all things into confusion; and there is nothing but despotism or a balance of power which can control them. o No. 13



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    Letters to John Taylor (1814)

    Letters to John Taylor was an unpublished and apparently unfinished reply to John Taylor's An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States, which attacked Adams' earlier publication, A Defence of the Constitutions of the United States. It took the form of a series of letters, the first dated 14 April 1814. It was published in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States vol. VI, (1851).

    Liberty, according to my metaphysics, is an intellectual quality, an attribute that belongs not to fate nor chance. Neither possesses it, neither is capable of it.

    * Liberty, according to my metaphysics, is an intellectual quality; an attribute that belongs not to fate nor chance. Neither possesses it, neither is capable of it. There is nothing moral or immoral in the idea of it. The definition of it is a self-determining power in an intellectual agent.

    It implies thought and choice and power; it can elect between objects, indifferent in point of morality, neither morally good nor morally evil. If the substance in which this quality, attribute, adjective, call it what you will, exists, has a moral sense, a conscience, a moral faculty;

    if it can distinguish between moral good and moral evil, and has power to choose the former and refuse the latter, it can, if it will, choose the evil and reject the good, as we see in experience it very often does. o I, p. 448.

    * I do not say that democracy has been more pernicious on the whole, and in the long run, than monarchy or aristocracy. Democracy has never been and never can be so durable as aristocracy or monarchy; but while it lasts, it is more bloody than either. o XVIII, p. 483. Usually misquoted as "Democracy…while it lasts is more bloody than either aristocracy or monarchy."

    * Remember, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide. It is in vain to say that democracy is less vain, less proud, less selfish, less ambitious, or less avaricious than aristocracy or monarchy.

    It is not true, in fact, and nowhere appears in history. Those passions are the same in all men, under all forms of simple government, and when unchecked, produce the same effects of fraud, violence, and cruelty. o XVIII, p. 484.


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    * The priesthood have, in all ancient nations, nearly monopolized learning. Read over again all the accounts we have of Hindoos, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Celts, Teutons, we shall find that priests had all the knowledge, and really governed mankind.

    Examine Mahometanism, trace Christianity from its first promulgation; knowledge has been almost exclusively confined to the clergy.

    And, even since the Reformation, when or where has existed a Protestant or dissenting sect who would tolerate a free inquiry?

    The blackest billingsgate, most ungentlemanly insolence, the most yahooish brutality is patiently endured, countenanced, propagated and applauded.

    But touch a solemn truth in collision with a dogma of a sect, though capable of the clearest proof, and you will soon find you have disturbed a nest, and the hornets will swarm about your legs and hands, and fly into your face and eyes. o XXXI, p. 517. Also quoted in The Political Writings of John Adams (2001) edited by George W. Carey, p. 440

    What do we mean by the American Revolution? (1818)

    Letter to Hezekiah Niles (13 February 1818); Adams had previously expressed similar assertions in a letter to Thomas Jefferson in 1815, quoted above.

    What do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments of their duties and obligations.

    * The American Revolution was not a common event. Its effects and consequences have already been awful over a great part of the globe. And when and where are they to cease? But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments of their duties and obligations. ...

    This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution.

    * By what means this great and important alteration in the religious, moral, political, and social character of the people of thirteen colonies, all distinct, unconnected, and independent of each other, was begun, pursued, and accomplished, it is surely interesting to humanity to investigate, and perpetuate to posterity.

    To this end, it is greatly to be desired, that young men of letters in all the States, especially in the thirteen original States, would undertake the laborious, but certainly interesting and amusing task, of searching and collecting all the records, pamphlets, newspapers, and even handbills, which in any way contributed to change the temper and views of the people, and compose them into an independent nation.

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    * The colonies had grown up under constitutions of government so different, there was so great a variety of religions, they were composed of so many different nations, their customs, manners, and habits had so little resemblance, and their intercourse had been so rare, and their knowledge of each other so imperfect, that to unite them in the same principles in theory and the same system of action, was certainly a very difficult enterprise.

    The complete accomplishment of it, in so short a time and by such simple means, was perhaps a singular example in the history of mankind. Thirteen clocks were made to strike together — a perfection of mechanism, which no artist had ever before effected.

    In this research, the gloriole of individual gentlemen, and of separate States, is of little consequence. The means and the measures are the proper objects of investigation. These may be of use to posterity, not only in this nation, but in South America and all other countries. They may teach mankind that revolutions are no trifles;

    that they ought never to be undertaken rashly; nor without deliberate consideration and sober reflection; nor without a solid, immutable, eternal foundation of justice and humanity; nor without a people possessed of intelligence, fortitude, and integrity sufficient to carry them with steadiness, patience, and perseverance, through all the vicissitudes of fortune, the fiery trials and melancholy disasters they may have to encounter.

    Metaphysicians and politicians may dispute forever, but they will never find any other moral principle or foundation of rule or obedience, than the consent of governors and governed.


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    John Adams "Mis-attributed quotes"

    Statements originally made by others, that have become wrongly attributed to John Adams

    If we do not lay out ourselves in the service of mankind whom should we serve?

    * If we do not lay out ourselves in the service of mankind whom should we serve? o Abigail Adams, his wife, in a letter to John Thaxter (1778-09-29)


    * There are obviously two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live. o James Truslow Adams; sometimes rendered: "There are two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live."

    * Think of your forefathers! Think of your posterity! o John Quincy Adams, his son, in a speech at Plymouth, Massachusetts (1802-12-22)

    * Genius is sorrow's child. o Adams used this statement in a letter to Benjamin Waterhouse, (21 May 1821), but he may have been quoting the poem "To Mr. Stuart, On his Portrait of Mrs. M" by Sarah Wentworth Apthorp Morton, first published in 1803:

    Genius is sorrow's child — to want allied — Consoled by glory, and sustained by pride.

    FALSE ATTRIBUTION!
    * As the government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion; as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen … it is declared … that no pretext arising from religious opinion shall ever product an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries. … The United States is not a Christian nation any more than it is a Jewish or a Mohammedan nation.

    o Article 11 of the Treaty of Tripoli (1797-01-04, which was carried unanimously by the U.S. Senate and signed into law by John Adams (the original language is by Joel Barlow, US Consul); This phrase has also sometimes been misattributed to George Washington, and has also been misquoted as "This nation of ours was not founded on Christian principles."

    * I have come to the conclusion that one useless man is called a disgrace; that two are called a law firm; and that three or more become a Congress!

    o Adams as portrayed in the musical 1776 (1969); this has sometimes been cited as an actual quote of Adams.

    Spurious quotations:

    Statements which evidence indicates are fabrications; in these cases they seem derived from some which are known to have been made by Adams, but have significant alterations and additions.

    * The "divinity" of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity. Nowhere in the Gospels do we find a precept for Creeds, Confessions, Oaths, Doctrines, and whole carloads of other foolish trumpery that we find in Christianity.

    o Attributed to Adams in Spirit (1988) by William Edelen, p. 4, this seems to paraphrase portions of two diary entries (more extensively quoted in the "Diaries" section above):

    Mystery is made a convenient cover for absurdity. (13 February 1756)

    Where do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days? (18 February 1756)

    * God is an essence we know nothing of. Until this awful blasphemy is gotten rid of there will never be any liberal science in the world.

    o Attributed to Adams in A Brief History of Disbelief BBC Four (2005) by Jonathan Miller, Online video. The two sentences are derived from two different letters to Thomas Jefferson, written five years apart, juxtaposed to give a misleading impression of Adams' meaning. The first comes from his letter of 17 January 1820, and the second from his letter of 22 January 1825.

    * The doctrine of the divinity of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity. o Attributed to Adams in Pathway to the Stars (2007) by Rev. Ernest A. Steadman, p. 66; this seems to be another paraphrase of the entry for 13 February 1756.

    Quotes about Adams

    He is so amiable that I pronounce you will love him, if ever you become acquainted with him.

    ~ Thomas Jefferson

    * He is vain, irritable, and a bad calculator of the force and probable effect of the motives which govern men. This is all the ill which can possibly be said of him.

    He is as disinterested (fair and just) as the Being who made him.

    He is profound in his views and accurate in his judgment, except where knowledge of the world is necessary to form a judgment.

    He is so amiable that I pronounce you will love him, if ever you become acquainted with him.

    He would be, as he was, a great man in Congress. o Thomas Jefferson in a letter to James Madison (30 January 1787)


    * The President's title, as proposed by the Senate, was the most superlatively ridiculous thing I ever heard of. It is a proof the more of the justice of the character given by Dr. Franklin of my friend. Always an honest man, often a great one, but sometimes absolutely mad. o Thomas Jefferson on the proposed presidential title of "His Highness the President of the United States and protector of their liberties" advocated by Vice-President Adams in the Senate; in a letter to James Madison (29 July 1789)


    * What for me makes people like Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt and John Adams and George Washington and Dwight Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan such extraordinary leaders is that they had integrity through and through.

    What they were on the inside and what they said on the outside was harmonious. There are a lot of people like that. I think that if people try to live a very different personal life not consistent with the role they've assumed as a governor or senator or president, we lose something as a nation. o Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, in the September 2005 The Atlantic article "The 'Holy Cow!' Candidate"


    * Let them revere nothing but religion, morality and liberty. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (15 April 1776) [1]

    * The new Government has my best Wishes and most fervent Prayers, for its Success and Prosperity: but whether I shall have any Thing more to do with it, besides praying for it, depends on the future suffrages of Freemen. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Thomas Jefferson (2 January 1789), The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

    * The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epocha in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forevermore.

    [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776); because of the official adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence two days later, the fourth of July rather than the second, became known as the US Independence Day.

    * Thanks to God that he gave me stubbornness when I know I am right. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Edmund Jenings (1782), as quoted in John Adams (2008) by David McCullough, p. 272

    * Tis impossible to judge with much Præcision of the true Motives and Qualities of human Actions, or of the Propriety of Rules contrived to govern them, without considering with like Attention, all the Passions, Appetites, Affections in Nature from which they flow. An intimate Knowledge therefore of the intellectual and moral World is the sole foundation on which a stable structure of Knowledge can be erected.

    [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Jonathan Sewall (October 1759)]

    * Tis impossible to avail our selves of the genuine Powers of Eloquence, without examining in their Elements and first Principles, the Force and Harmony of Numbers, as employed by the Poets and orators of ancient and modern times, and without considering the natural Powers of Imagination, and the Disposition of Mankind to Metaphor and figure, which will require the Knowledge of the true Principles of Grammar, and Rhetoric, and of the best classical Authors.

    Now to what higher object, to what greater Character, can any Mortal aspire, than to be possessed of all this Knowledge, well digested, and ready at Command, to assist the feeble and Friendless, to discountenance the haughty and lawless, to procure Redress of Wrongs, the Advancement of Right, to assert and maintain Liberty and Virtue, to discourage and abolish Tyranny and Vice? [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Jonathan Sewall (October 1759)

    * Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence. [SOURCE: John Adams, Argument in Defense of the British Soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trials (4 December 1770)

    You bid me burn your letters. But I must forget you first.

    * The law no passion can disturb. 'Tis void of desire and fear, lust and anger. 'Tis mens sine affectu, written reason, retaining some measure of the divine perfection. It does not enjoin that which pleases a weak, frail man, but, without any regard to persons, commands that which is good and punishes evil in all, whether rich or poor, high or low. 'Tis deaf, inexorable, inflexible. On the one hand it is inexorable to the cries and lamentations of the prisoners; on the other it is deaf, deaf as an adder, to the clamors of the populace. [SOURCE: John Adams, Argument in Defense of the British Soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trials (4 December 1770)

    * There is danger from all men. The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endanger the public liberty. [SOURCE: John Adams,Notes for an oration at Braintree (Spring 1772)

    * A Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored. Liberty, once lost, is lost forever. [SOURCE: John Adams,Letter to Abigail Adams (17 July 1775)

    * I agree with you that in politics the middle way is none at all. [SOURCE: John Adams,Letter to Horatio Gates (23 March 1776)

    * Let them revere nothing but religion, morality and liberty. [SOURCE: [1] o Letter to Abigail Adams (28 April 1776)

    * There is something very unnatural and odious in a government a thousand leagues off. A whole government of our own choice, managed by persons whom we love, revere, and can confide in, has charms in it for which men will fight. > [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (17 May 1776)

    *** * Statesmen, my dear Sir, may plan and speculate for Liberty, but it is Religion and Morality alone, which can establish the Principles upon which Freedom can securely stand.

    The only foundation of a free Constitution is pure Virtue, and if this cannot be inspired into our People in a greater Measure than they have it now, They may change their Rulers and the forms of Government, but they will not obtain a lasting Liberty. They will only exchange Tyrants and Tyrannies. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Zabdiel Adams (21 June 1776)

    * We recognize no sovereign but God, and no king but Jesus! [SOURCE: John Adam's reply to Major Pitcairn's demand to “Disperse, ye villains, lay down your arms in the name of George the Sovereign King of England.”]

    “No king but King Jesus” was the major slogan of the Fifth Monarchists during the Interregnum in England, and though it was not the only slogan, it was used during the American Revolution by the true Believers.

    I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States...Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory.

    * Yesterday the greatest question was decided which ever was debated in America; and a greater perhaps never was, nor will be, decided among men. A resolution was passed without one dissenting colony, "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States."

    [SOURCE: John Adams, On the decision to proclaim independence from British rule, which was made on 2 July 1776, in a letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776),

    * I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States. Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory. I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means. And that Posterity will triumph in that Days Transaction, even although We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not. [SOURCE: John Adams, Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776),

    * I am surprised at the suddenness as well as the greatness of this revolution...

    It is the will of Heaven that the two countries should be sundered forever. It may be the will of Heaven that America shall suffer calamities still more wasting, and distresses yet more dreadful. If this is to be the case it will have this good effect at least. It will inspire us with many virtues which we have not, and correct many errors, follies, and vices which threaten to disturb, dishonor, and destroy us.

    The furnace of affliction produces refinement in states as well as individuals. And the new Governments we are assuming in every part will require a purification from our vices, and an augmentation of our virtues, or they will be no blessings. The people will have unbounded power, and the people are extremely addicted to corruption and venality, as well as the great. But I must submit all my hopes and fears to an overruling Providence, in which, unfashionable as the faith may be, I firmly believe. o Letter to Abigail Adams (3 July 1776)

    * I long for rural and domestic scenes, for the warbling of Birds and the Prattle of my Children. Don't you think I am somewhat poetical this morning, for one of my Years, and considering the Gravity, and Insipidity of my Employment? — As much as I converse with Sages and Heroes, they have very little of my Love or Admiration. I should prefer the Delights of a Garden to the Dominion of a World. o Letter to Abigail Adams (16 March 1777)

    I must study politics and war, that our sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy.

    * The science of government it is my duty to study, more than all other sciences; the arts of legislation and administration and negotiation ought to take the place of, indeed exclude, in a manner, all other arts. I must study politics and war, that our sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. Our sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history and naval architecture, navigation, commerce and agriculture in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry and porcelain. o Letter to Abigail Adams (12 May 1780)

    * You will never be alone with a poet in your pocket. o Letter to John Quincy Adams (14 May 1781)

    * All the perplexities, confusions, and distresses in America arise, not from defects in their constitution or confederation, not from a want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit, and circulation. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (23 August 1787), The Works of John Adams

    * I have thought proper to recommend, and I do hereby recommend accordingly, that Thursday, the 25th day of April next, be observed throughout the United States of America as a day of solemn humiliation, fasting, and prayer; that the citizens on that day abstain as far as may be from their secular occupations, devote the time to the sacred duties of religion in public and in private; that they call to mind our numerous offenses against the Most High God, confess them before Him with the sincerest penitence, implore His pardoning mercy, through the Great Mediator and Redeemer, for our past transgressions, and that through the grace of His Holy Spirit we may be disposed and enabled to yield a more suitable obedience to His righteous requisitions in time to come; that He would interpose to arrest the progress of that impiety and licentiousness in principle and practice so offensive to Himself and so ruinous to mankind; that He would make us deeply sensible that "righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach' to any people;" that He would turn us from our transgressions and turn His displeasure from us; that He would withhold us from unreasonable discontent, from disunion, faction, sedition, and insurrection; that He would preserve our country from the desolating sword; that He would save our cities and towns from a repetition of those awful pestilential visitations under which they have lately suffered so severely, and that the health of our inhabitants generally may be precious in His sight; that He would favor us with fruitful seasons and so bless the labors of the husbandman as that there may be food in abundance for man and beast; that He would prosper our commerce, manufactures, and fisheries, and give success to the people in all their lawful industry and enterprise; that He would smile on our colleges, academies, schools, and seminaries of learning, and make them nurseries of sound science, morals, and religion; that He would bless all magistrates, from the highest to the lowest, give them the true spirit of their station, make them a terror to evil doers and a praise to them that do well; that He would preside over the councils of the nation at this critical period, enlighten them to a just discernment of the public interest, and save them from mistake, division, and discord; that He would make succeed our preparations for defense and bless our armaments by land and by sea; that He would put an end to the effusion of human blood and the accumulation of human misery among the contending nations of the earth by disposing them to justice, to equity, to benevolence, and to peace; and that he would extend the blessings of knowledge, of true liberty, and of pure and undefiled religion throughout the world. o Presidential proclamation of a national day of fasting and prayer (6 March 1789)

    * There is nothing which I dread so much as a division of the republic into two great parties, each arranged under its leader, and concerting measures in opposition to each other. This, in my humble apprehension, is to be dreaded as the greatest political evil under our Constitution. o Letter to Jonathan Jackson (2 October 1789)

    I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.

    * My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived; and as I can do neither good nor evil, I must be borne away by others and meet the common fate. o On the Vice-Presidency of the United States, in a letter to Abigail Adams (19 December 1793)

    * I read my eyes out and can't read half enough. ... The more one reads the more one sees we have to read. o Letter to Abigail Adams (28 December 1794), Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society

    * We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry, would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a religious and moral people. It is wholly inadequate for the government of any other. o Letter to the Officers of the First Brigade of the Third Division of the Militia of Massachusetts (11 October 1798)

    * I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof. o On the White House, in a letter to Abigail Adams (2 November 1800) o Franklin D. Roosevelt had this inscribed on the mantlepiece of the State Dining Room

    * I had heard my father say that he never knew a piece of land run away or break. o Autobiography (1802-1807)

    * Our obligations to our country never cease but with our lives. o Letter to Benjamin Rush (18 April 1808)

    The Declaration of Independence I always considered as a Theatrical Show. Jefferson ran away with all the stage effect of that; i.e. all the Glory of it.

    * I will insist that the Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation. If I were an atheist, and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations. If I were an atheist of the other sect, who believe or pretend to believe that all is ordered by chance, I should believe that chance had ordered the Jews to preserve and propagate to all mankind the doctrine of a supreme, intelligent, wise, almighty sovereign of the universe, which I believe to be the great essential principle of all morality, and consequently of all civilization. o Letter to François Adriaan van der Kemp (16 February 1809)

    * When I went home to my family in May, 1770, from the town meeting in Boston, which was the first I had ever attended, and where I had been chosen in my absence, without any solicitation, one of their representatives, I said to my wife, "I have accepted a seat in the House of Representatives, and thereby have consented to my own ruin, to your ruin, and to the ruin of our children. I give you this warning, that you may prepare your mind for your fate." She burst into tears, but instantly cried out in a transport of magnanimity, "Well, I am willing in this cause to run all risks with you, and be ruined with you, if you are ruined." These were times, my friend, in Boston, which tried women's souls as well as men's. o Letter to Benjamin Rush (12 April 1809)

    You and I ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other.

    * The Declaration of Independence I always considered as a Theatrical Show. Jefferson ran away with all the stage effect of that; i.e. all the Glory of it. o Letter to Benjamin Rush (21 June 1811); published in Old Family Letters: Copied from the Originals for Alexander Biddle (1892), p. 287; also quoted in TIME magazine (25 October 1943)

    * The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence, were ... the general principles of Christianity, in which all those sects were united, and the general principles of English and American liberty, in which all those young men united, and which had united all parties in America, in majorities sufficient to assert and maintain her independence. Now I will avow, that I then believed and now believe that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God; and that those principles of liberty are as unalterable as human nature and our terrestrial, mundane system. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 28 June 1813. Often misquoted as "The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were the general principles of Christianity."

    * While all other Sciences have advanced, that of Government is at a stand; little better understood; little better practiced now than three or four thousand years ago. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (9 July 1813)

    * You and I ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (13 July 1813)

    * Indeed, Mr. Jefferson, what could be invented to debase the ancient Christianism which Greeks, Romans, Hebrews and Christian factions, above all the Catholics, have not fraudulently imposed upon the public? Miracles after miracles have rolled down in torrents. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (3 December 1813), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 404.

    What do we mean by the Revolution? The war? That was no part of the revolution; it was only an effect and consequence of it. The revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 - 1775, in the course of fifteen years, before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington.

    * If the Christian religion, as I understand it, or as you understand it, should maintain its ground, as I believe it will, yet Platonic, Pythagoric, Hindoo, and cabalistic Christianity, which is Catholic Christianity, and which has prevailed for 1,500 years, has received a mortal wound, of which the monster must finally die. Yet so strong is his constitution, that he may endure for centuries before he expires. o John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson (July 16, 1814). From the Works of John Adams, Vol. X, p. 100.

    * As long as Property exists, it will accumulate in Individuals and Families. As long as Marriage exists, Knowledge, Property and Influence will accumulate in Families. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (16 July 1814)

    * As to the history of the revolution, my ideas may be peculiar, perhaps singular. What do we mean by the Revolution? The war? That was no part of the revolution; it was only an effect and consequence of it. The revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 - 1775, in the course of fifteen years, before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (24 August 1815), The Works of John Adams; he later expressed similar sentiments in a letter to Hezekiah Niles (13 February 1818)

    * We may appeal to every page of history we have hitherto turned over, for proofs irrefragable, that the people, when they have been unchecked, have been as unjust, tyrannical, brutal, barbarous and cruel as any king or senate possessed of uncontrollable power ... All projects of government, formed upon a supposition of continual vigilance, sagacity, and virtue, firmness of the people, when possessed of the exercise of supreme power, are cheats and delusions ... The fundamental article of my political creed is that despotism, or unlimited sovereignty, or absolute power, is the same in a majority of a popular assembly, an aristocratical council, an oligarchical junto, and a single emperor. Equally arbitrary, cruel, bloody, and in every respect diabolical. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (13 November 1815)

    * Power always sincerely, conscientiously, de très bon foi, believes itself right. Power always thinks it has a great soul and vast views, beyond the comprehension of the weak. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (2 February 1816)

    I see in every Page, Something to recommend Christianity in its Purity and Something to discredit its Corruptions.

    * I almost shudder at the thought of alluding to the most fatal example of the abuses of grief which the history of mankind has preserved — the Cross. Consider what calamities that engine of grief has produced! With the rational respect that is due to it, knavish priests have added prostitutions of it, that fill or might fill the blackest and bloodiest pages of human history. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (3 September 1816), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 488.

    Let the human mind loose. It must be loose. It will be loose. Superstition and dogmatism cannot confine it.

    * We have now, it Seems a National Bible Society, to propagate King James's Bible, through all Nations. Would it not be better to apply these pious Subscriptions, to purify Christendom from the Corruptions of Christianity; than to propagate those Corruptions in Europe Asia, Africa and America! ... Conclude not from all this, that I have renounced the Christian religion, or that I agree with Dupuis in all his Sentiments. Far from it. I see in every Page, Something to recommend Christianity in its Purity and Something to discredit its Corruptions. ... The Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount contain my Religion. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (4 November 1816) (Online image 1 - 2)

    * Let the human mind loose. It must be loose. It will be loose. Superstition and dogmatism cannot confine it. o Letter to his son, John Quincy Adams (13 November 1816)

    * Twenty times in the course of my late reading have I been on the point of breaking out, "This would be the best of all possible worlds, if there were no religion in it!!!" But in this exclamation I would have been as fanatical as Bryant or Cleverly. Without religion this world would be something not fit to be mentioned in polite company, I mean Hell. o Original manuscript at The Library of Congress Letter to Thomas Jefferson (19 April 1817). The italicized section within this statement has often been quoted out of context. Earlier in the letter Adams explained "Lemuel Bryant was my Parish Priest; and Joseph Cleverly my Latin School Master. Lemuel was a jolly jocular and liberal schollar and Divine. Joseph a Schollar and a Gentleman; but a biggoted episcopalian... The Parson and the Pedagogue lived much together, but were eternally disputing about Government and Religion."

    * When people talk of the Freedom of Writing, Speaking, or thinking, I cannot choose but laugh. No such thing ever existed. No such thing now exists; but I hope it will exist. But it must be hundreds of years after you and I shall write and speak no more. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (15 July 1817)

    * I really wish the Jews again in Judea, an independent nation, for, as I believe, the most enlightened men of it have participated in the amelioration of the philosophy of the age; once restored to an independent government, and no longer persecuted, they would soon wear away some of the asperities and peculiarities of their character, possibly in time become liberal Unitarian Christians, for your Jehovah is our Jehovah, and your God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is our God. o Letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah (1819), as quoted in The Jews, Judea, and Christianity : A Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews (1849) by M. M. Noah, p. xi

    * Abuse of words has been the great instrument of sophistry and chicanery, of party, faction, and division of society. o Letter to J.H. Tiffany (31 March 1819)

    * When we say God is a spirit, we know what we mean, as well as we do when we say that the pyramids of Egypt are matter. Let us be content, therefore, to believe him to be a spirit, that is, an essence that we know nothing of, in which originally and necessarily reside all energy, all power, all capacity, all activity, all wisdom, all goodness. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (17 January 1820). Often misquoted as "God is an essence that we know nothing of" and attached to a part of his 22 January 1825 letter to Thomas Jefferson.

    * Can a free government possibly exist with the Roman Catholic religion? o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (19 May 1821), published in Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 573.

    * The Europeans are all deeply tainted with prejudices, both ecclesiastical and temporal, which they can never get rid of. They are all infected with episcopal and presbyterian creeds, and confessions of faith. They all believe that great Principle which has produced this boundless universe, Newton’s universe and Herschell’s universe, came down to this little ball, to be spit upon by Jews. And until this awful blasphemy is got rid of, there never will be any liberal science in the world. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (22 January 1825). The section in bold is often attached to fragments from an earlier letter from Adams to Jefferson (17 January 1820).

    The substance and essence of Christianity, as I understand it, is eternal and unchangeable, and will bear examination forever, but it has been mixed with extraneous ingredients, which I think will not bear examination, and they ought to be separated.

    * We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects, and of the right of free inquiry and private judgment in all cases, and yet how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact! There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny or doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelations. In most countries of Europe it is punished by fire at the stake, or the rack, or the wheel. In England itself it is punished by boring through the tongue with a poker. In America it is not better; even in our own Massachusetts, which I believe, upon the whole, is as temperate and moderate in religious zeal as most of the States, a law was made in the latter end of the last century, repealing the cruel punishments of the former laws, but substituting fine and imprisonment upon all those blasphemers upon any book of the Old Testament or New. Now, what free inquiry, when a writer must surely encounter the risk of fine or imprisonment for adducing any argument for investigating into the divine authority of those books? Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis? But I cannot enlarge upon this subject, though I have it much at heart. I think such laws a great embarrassment, great obstructions to the improvement of the human mind. Books that cannot bear examination, certainly ought not to be established as divine inspiration by penal laws. It is true, few persons appear desirous to put such laws in execution, and it is also true that some few persons are hardy enough to venture to depart from them. But as long as they continue in force as laws, the human mind must make an awkward and clumsy progress in its investigations. I wish they were repealed. The substance and essence of Christianity, as I understand it, is eternal and unchangeable, and will bear examination forever, but it has been mixed with extraneous ingredients, which I think will not bear examination, and they ought to be separated. o Letter to Thomas Jefferson (23 January 1825),

    published in Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 607. * o Abigail and John Adams (UNC Press, 1988), p. 607.

    Old minds are like old horses; you must exercise them if you wish to keep them in working order.

    * No man who ever held the office of president would congratulate a friend on obtaining it. He will make one man ungrateful, and a hundred men his enemies, for every office he can bestow. o Letter to Josiah Quincy III (14 February 1825)

    * My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind. o Reply to an invitation to 50th Independence Day celebrations from a committee of the citizens of Quincy, Massachusetts (7 June 1826); quoted in ["Eulogy, Pronounced at Bridgewater, Massachusetts" (1826-08-02) by John A. Shaw, in A Selection of Eulogies, Pronounced in the Several States, in Honor of Those Illustrious Patriots and Statesmen, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson (1826)

    * Thomas — Jefferson — still surv — o Last words (4 July 1826) as quoted in The Oxford History of the American People (1965) by Samuel Eliot Morison, p. 420; this is often rendered as a full statement, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." Thomas Jefferson died a few hours earlier on the same day, the 50th anniversary of the congressional approval of The Declaration of Independence.

    * Old minds are like old horses; you must exercise them if you wish to keep them in working order. o As quoted by Josiah Quincy III, in Looking Toward Sunset : From Sources Old and New, Original and Selected (1865) by Lydia Maria Francis Child, p. 431

    * Negro Slavery is an evil of Colossal magnitude and I am utterly averse to the admission of Slavery into the Missouri Territories. o Letter to William Tudor, as quoted in Founding Brothers : The Revolutionary Generation (2000) by Joseph J. Ellis, p. 240

    * A natural and almost unavoidable consequence of that foul contagion in the human character — Negro slavery. o Stating his belief in the reports of James T. Callender that Thomas Jefferson was the father of the children of Sally Hemmings, as quoted in Scandalmonger‎ (2001) by William Safire, p. 431

    [edit] DiariesWhere do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days?

    * Major Greene this evening fell into some conversation with me about the Divinity and satisfaction of Jesus Christ. All the argument he advanced was, "that a mere creature or finite being could not make satisfaction to infinite justice for any crimes," and that "these things are very mysterious." Thus mystery is made a convenient cover for absurdity. o (13 February 1756)

    * Spent an hour in the beginning of the evening at Major Gardiner's, where it was thought that the design of Christianity was not to make men good riddle-solvers, or good mystery-mongers, but good men, good magistrates, and good subjects, good husbands and good wives, good parents and good children, good masters and good servants. The following questions may be answered some time or other, namely, — Where do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days? o (18 February 1756)

    * No man is entirely free from weakness and imperfection in this life. Men of the most exalted genius and active minds are generally most perfect slaves to the love of fame. They sometimes descend to as mean tricks and artifices in pursuit of honor or reputation as the miser descends to in pursuit of gold. o (19 February 1756)

    * A pen is certainly an excellent instrument to fix a man's attention and to inflame his ambition. o (14 November 1760)

    * This is the most magnificent movement of all! There is a dignity, a majesty, a sublimity, in this last effort of the patriots that I greatly admire. The people should never rise without doing something to be remembered — something notable and striking. This destruction of the tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid and inflexible, and it must have so important consequences, and so lasting, that I can't but consider it as an epocha in history! o On the Boston Tea Party (17 December 1773)

    * Virtue is not always amiable. o (9 February 1779)

    * By my physical constitution I am but an ordinary man ... Yet some great events, some cutting expressions, some mean hypocracies, have at times thrown this assemblage of sloth, sleep, and littleness into rage like a lion. o (26 April 1779)

    [edit] A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law (1765)Let every sluice of knowledge be opened and set a-flowing.

    A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law (1765)

    * appple appleÉ always consider the settlement of America with reverence and wonder, as the opening of a grand scene and design in providence, for the illumination of the ignorant and the emancipation of the slavish part of mankind all over the earth.

    * The poor people, it is true, have been much less successful than the great. They have seldom found either leisure or opportunity to form a union and exert their strength; ignorant as they were of arts and letters, they have seldom been able to frame and support a regular opposition. This, however, has been known by the great to be the temper of mankind; and they have accordingly labored, in all ages, to wrest from the populace, as they are contemptuously called, the knowledge of their rights and wrongs, and the power to assert the former or redress the latter. I say RIGHTS, for such they have, undoubtedly, antecedent to all earthly government, — Rights, that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws — Rights, derived from the great Legislator of the universe.

    * Liberty must at all hazards be supported. We have a right to it, derived from our Maker. But if we had not, our fathers have earned and bought it for us, at the expense of their ease, their estates, their pleasure, and their blood.

    * Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right, from the frame of their nature, to knowledge, as their great Creator, who does nothing in vain, has given them understandings, and a desire to know; but besides this, they have a right, an indisputable, unalienable, indefeasible, divine right to that most dreaded and envied kind of knowledge, I mean, of the characters and conduct of their rulers. Rulers are no more than attorneys, agents, and trustees, of the people; and if the cause, the interest, and trust, is insidiously betrayed, or wantonly trifled away, the people have a right to revoke the authority that they themselves have deputed, and to constitute other and better agents, attorneys and trustees.

    * The jaws of power are always open to devour, and her arm is always stretched out, if possible, to destroy the freedom of thinking, speaking, and writing.

    * Be not intimidated, therefore, by any terrors, from publishing with the utmost freedom, whatever can be warranted by the laws of your country; nor suffer yourselves to be wheedled out of your liberties by any pretenses of politeness, delicacy, or decency. These, as they are often used, are but three different names for hypocrisy, chicanery, and cowardice.

    * Let us tenderly and kindly cherish therefore, the means of knowledge. Let us dare to read, think, speak, and write.

    * Let every sluice of knowledge be opened and set a-flowing.

    [edit] Novanglus essays (1774 - 1775)

    Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin, in 1754, to the Present Time. first published in the Boston Gazette

    * Nip the shoots of arbitrary power in the bud, is the only maxim which can ever preserve the liberties of any people. o No. 3

    * We are told: "It is a universal truth, that he that would excite a rebellion, is at heart as great a tyrant as ever wielded the iron rod of oppression." Be it so. We are not exciting a rebellion. Opposition, nay, open, avowed resistance by arms, against usurpation and lawless violence, is not rebellion by the law of God or the land. Resistance to lawful authority makes rebellion. … Remember the frank Veteran acknowledges, that "the word rebel is a convertible term." o No. 5

    * A government of laws, and not of men. o No. 7; this was incorporated into the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780

    * Metaphysicians and politicians may dispute forever, but they will never find any other moral principle or foundation of rule or obedience, than the consent of governors and governed. o No. 7

    [edit] Thoughts on Government (1776)

    Letter to George Wythe, April 1776

    The form of government which communicates ease, comfort, security, or, in one word, happiness, to the greatest number of persons, and in the greatest degree, is the best.

    * We ought to consider what is the end of government, before we determine which is the best form. Upon this point all speculative politicians will agree, that the happiness of society is the end of government, as all Divines and moral Philosophers will agree that the happiness of the individual is the end of man. From this principle it will follow, that the form of government which communicates ease, comfort, security, or, in one word, happiness, to the greatest number of persons, and in the greatest degree, is the best.

    * Fear is the foundation of most governments; but it is so sordid and brutal a passion, and renders men in whose breasts it predominates so stupid and miserable, that Americans will not be likely to approve of any political institution which is founded on it.

    * When annual elections end, there slavery begins.

    * Laws for the liberal education of youth, especially of the lower class of people, are so extremely wise and useful, that, to a humane and generous mind, no expense for this purpose would be thought extravagant.

    * The judicial power ought to be distinct from both the legislative and executive, and independent upon both, that so it may be a check upon both, as both should be checks upon that.

    [edit] A Defence of the Constitutions of Government (1787)

    A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America (3 Volumes, 1787), republished in the 10 volume The Works of John Adams (1850 - 1856) edited Charles Francis Adams

    * The rich, the well-born, and the able, acquire an influence among the people that will soon be too much for simple honesty and plain sense, in a house of representatives. The most illustrious of them must, therefore, be separated from the mass, and placed by themselves in a senate; this is, to all honest and useful intents, an ostracism. o Vol. I, Preface, p. xi

    * Children should be educated and instructed in the principles of freedom. o Ch. 3 Marchamont Nedham : Errors of Government and Rules of Policy" Seventh Rule

    * The moment the idea is admitted into society, that property is not as sacred as the law of God, and that there is not a force of law and public justice to protect it, anarchy and tyranny commence. If "Thou shall not covet," and "Thou shall not steal," are not commandments of Heaven, they must be made inviolable precepts in every society, before it can be civilized or made free. o Ch. 1 Marchamont Nedham : The Right Constitution of a Commonwealth Examined

    Killing one tyrant only makes way for worse, unless the people have sense, spirit and honesty enough to establish and support a constitution guarded at all points against the tyranny of the one, the few, and the many.

    * The right of a nation to kill a tyrant, in cases of necessity, can no more be doubted, than to hang a robber, or kill a flea. But killing one tyrant only makes way for worse, unless the people have sense, spirit and honesty enough to establish and support a constitution guarded at all points against the tyranny of the one, the few, and the many. Let it be the study, therefore, of lawgivers and philosophers, to enlighten the people's understandings and improve their morals, by good and general education; to enable them to comprehend the scheme of government, and to know upon what points their liberties depend; to dissipate those vulgar prejudices and popular superstitions that oppose themselves to good government; and to teach them that obedience to the laws is as indispensable in them as in lords and kings. o Ch. 18

    * A single assembly will never be a steady guardian of the laws, if Machiavel is right, when he says, Men are never good but through necessity: on the contrary, when good and evil are left to their choice, they will not fail to throw every thing into disorder and confusion. Hunger and poverty may make men industrious, but laws only can make them good; for, if men were so of themselves, there would be no occasion for laws; but, as the case is far otherwise, they are absolutely necessary. o Vol. I, letter XXVI Ch. 4 Opinions of Philosophers : Dr. Price

    * The proposition, that the people are the best keepers of their own liberties, is not true; they are the worst conceivable; they are no keepers at all; they can neither judge, act, think, or will, as a political body. o This is attributed to Adams in The Life of Thomas Jefferson (1858) by Henry Stephens Randall, p. 587

    * There never was yet a people who must not have somebody or something to represent the dignity of the state, the majesty of the people, call it what you will — a doge, an avoyer, an archon, a president, a consul, a syndic; this becomes at once an object of ambition and dispute, and, in time, of division, faction, sedition, and rebellion. o Letter LV: Conclusion

    [edit] Discourses on Davila (1790)

    Discourses on Davila : A Series of Papers on Political History first published in the Gazette of the United States (1790-1791) ; (Downloadable PDF of 1805 edition); republished with modernized spelling in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States vol. VI, (1851)

    The world grows more enlightened. Knowledge is more equally diffused.

    * A desire to be observed, considered, esteemed, praised, beloved, and admired by his fellows is one of the earliest, as well as the keenest dispositions discovered in the heart of man. o "Discourses on Davila: A Series of Papers on Political History," No. 4 Gazette of the United States (1790-1791)

    * The world grows more enlightened. Knowledge is more equally diffused. Newspapers, magazines, and circulating libraries have made mankind wiser. Titles and distinctions, ranks and orders, parade and ceremony, are all going out of fashion. This is roundly and frequently asserted in the streets, and sometimes on theatres of higher rank. Some truth there is in it; and if the opportunity were temperately improved, to the reformation of abuses, the rectification of errors, and the dissipation of pernicious prejudices, a great advantage it might be. But, on the other hand, false inferences may be drawn from it, which may make mankind wish for the age of dragons, giants, and fairies. o No. 13

    * Are riches, honors, and beauty going out of fashion? Is not the rage for them, on the contrary, increased faster than improvement in knowledge? As long as either of these are in vogue, will there not be emulations and rivalries? Does not the increase of knowledge in any man increase his emulation; and the diffusion of knowledge among men multiply rivalries? Has the progress of science, arts, and letters yet discovered that there are no passions in human nature? no ambition, avarice, or desire of fame? Are these passions cooled, diminished, or extinguished? Is the rage for admiration less ardent in men or women? Have these propensities less a tendency to divisions, controversies, seditions, mutinies, and civil wars than formerly? On the contrary, the more knowledge is diffused, the more the passions are extended, and the more furious they grow. o No. 13

    * Property must be secured, or liberty cannot exist. But if unlimited or unbalanced power of disposing property, be put into the hands of those who have no property, France will find, as we have found, the lamb committed to the custody of the wolf. In such a case, all the pathetic exhortations and addresses of the national assembly to the people, to respect property, will be regarded no more than the warbles of the songsters of the forest. The great art of law-giving consists in balancing the poor against the rich in the legislature, and in constituting the legislative a perfect balance against the executive power, at the same time that no individual or party can become its rival. The essence of a free government consists in an effectual control of rivalries. The executive and the legislative powers are natural rivals; and if each has not an effectual control over the other, the weaker will ever be the lamb in the paws of the wolf. The nation which will not adopt an equilibrium of power must adopt a despotism. There is no other alternative. Rivalries must be controlled, or they will throw all things into confusion; and there is nothing but despotism or a balance of power which can control them. o No. 13

    [edit] Letters to John Taylor (1814)

    Letters to John Taylor was an unpublished and apparently unfinished reply to John Taylor's An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States, which attacked Adams' earlier publication, A Defence of the Constitutions of the United States. It took the form of a series of letters, the first dated 14 April 1814. It was published in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States vol. VI, (1851).

    Liberty, according to my metaphysics, is an intellectual quality, an attribute that belongs not to fate nor chance. Neither possesses it, neither is capable of it.

    * Liberty, according to my metaphysics, is an intellectual quality; an attribute that belongs not to fate nor chance. Neither possesses it, neither is capable of it. There is nothing moral or immoral in the idea of it. The definition of it is a self-determining power in an intellectual agent. It implies thought and choice and power; it can elect between objects, indifferent in point of morality, neither morally good nor morally evil. If the substance in which this quality, attribute, adjective, call it what you will, exists, has a moral sense, a conscience, a moral faculty; if it can distinguish between moral good and moral evil, and has power to choose the former and refuse the latter, it can, if it will, choose the evil and reject the good, as we see in experience it very often does. o I, p. 448.

    * I do not say that democracy has been more pernicious on the whole, and in the long run, than monarchy or aristocracy. Democracy has never been and never can be so durable as aristocracy or monarchy; but while it lasts, it is more bloody than either. o XVIII, p. 483. Usually misquoted as "Democracy…while it lasts is more bloody than either aristocracy or monarchy."

    * Remember, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide. It is in vain to say that democracy is less vain, less proud, less selfish, less ambitious, or less avaricious than aristocracy or monarchy. It is not true, in fact, and nowhere appears in history. Those passions are the same in all men, under all forms of simple government, and when unchecked, produce the same effects of fraud, violence, and cruelty. o XVIII, p. 484.

    * The priesthood have, in all ancient nations, nearly monopolized learning. Read over again all the accounts we have of Hindoos, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Celts, Teutons, we shall find that priests had all the knowledge, and really governed mankind. Examine Mahometanism, trace Christianity from its first promulgation; knowledge has been almost exclusively confined to the clergy. And, even since the Reformation, when or where has existed a Protestant or dissenting sect who would tolerate a free inquiry? The blackest billingsgate, most ungentlemanly insolence, the most yahooish brutality is patiently endured, countenanced, propagated and applauded. But touch a solemn truth in collision with a dogma of a sect, though capable of the clearest proof, and you will soon find you have disturbed a nest, and the hornets will swarm about your legs and hands, and fly into your face and eyes. o XXXI, p. 517. Also quoted in The Political Writings of John Adams (2001) edited by George W. Carey, p. 440

    What do we mean by the American Revolution? (1818)

    Letter to Hezekiah Niles (13 February 1818); Adams had previously expressed similar assertions in a letter to Thomas Jefferson in 1815, quoted above.

    What do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments of their duties and obligations.

    * The American Revolution was not a common event. Its effects and consequences have already been awful over a great part of the globe. And when and where are they to cease? But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments of their duties and obligations. ... This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution.

    * By what means this great and important alteration in the religious, moral, political, and social character of the people of thirteen colonies, all distinct, unconnected, and independent of each other, was begun, pursued, and accomplished, it is surely interesting to humanity to investigate, and perpetuate to posterity. To this end, it is greatly to be desired, that young men of letters in all the States, especially in the thirteen original States, would undertake the laborious, but certainly interesting and amusing task, of searching and collecting all the records, pamphlets, newspapers, and even handbills, which in any way contributed to change the temper and views of the people, and compose them into an independent nation.

    * The colonies had grown up under constitutions of government so different, there was so great a variety of religions, they were composed of so many different nations, their customs, manners, and habits had so little resemblance, and their intercourse had been so rare, and their knowledge of each other so imperfect, that to unite them in the same principles in theory and the same system of action, was certainly a very difficult enterprise. The complete accomplishment of it, in so short a time and by such simple means, was perhaps a singular example in the history of mankind. Thirteen clocks were made to strike together — a perfection of mechanism, which no artist had ever before effected.

    In this research, the gloriole of individual gentlemen, and of separate States, is of little consequence. The means and the measures are the proper objects of investigation. These may be of use to posterity, not only in this nation, but in South America and all other countries. They may teach mankind that revolutions are no trifles; that they ought never to be undertaken rashly; nor without deliberate consideration and sober reflection; nor without a solid, immutable, eternal foundation of justice and humanity; nor without a people possessed of intelligence, fortitude, and integrity sufficient to carry them with steadiness, patience, and perseverance, through all the vicissitudes of fortune, the fiery trials and melancholy disasters they may have to encounter.

    Metaphysicians and politicians may dispute forever, but they will never find any other moral principle or foundation of rule or obedience, than the consent of governors and governed.

    John Adams "Misattributed quotes"

    Statements originally made by others, that have become wrongly attributed to John Adams

    If we do not lay out ourselves in the service of mankind whom should we serve?

    * If we do not lay out ourselves in the service of mankind whom should we serve? o Abigail Adams, his wife, in a letter to John Thaxter (1778-09-29)

    * There are obviously two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live. o James Truslow Adams; sometimes rendered : "There are two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live."

    * Think of your forefathers! Think of your posterity! o John Quincy Adams, his son, in a speech at Plymouth, Massachusetts (1802-12-22)

    * Genius is sorrow's child. o Adams used this statement in a letter to Benjamin Waterhouse, (21 May 1821), but he may have been quoting the poem "To Mr. Stuart, On his Portrait of Mrs. M" by Sarah Wentworth Apthorp Morton, first published in 1803:

    Genius is sorrow's child — to want allied — Consoled by glory, and sustained by pride.

    * As the government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion; as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen … it is declared … that no pretext arising from religious opinion shall ever product an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries. … The United States is not a Christian nation any more than it is a Jewish or a Mohammedan nation.

    o Article 11 of the Treaty of Tripoli (1797-01-04, which was carried unanimously by the U.S. Senate and signed into law by John Adams (the original language is by Joel Barlow, US Consul); This phrase has also sometimes been misattributed to George Washington, and has also been misquoted as "This nation of ours was not founded on Christian principles."

    * I have come to the conclusion that one useless man is called a disgrace; that two are called a law firm; and that three or more become a Congress!

    o Adams as portrayed in the musical 1776 (1969); this has sometimes been cited as an actual quote of Adams.

    Spurious quotations:

    Statements which evidence indicates are fabrications; in these cases they seem derived from some which are known to have been made by Adams, but have significant alterations and additions.

    * The "divinity" of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity. Nowhere in the Gospels do we find a precept for Creeds, Confessions, Oaths, Doctrines, and whole carloads of other foolish trumpery that we find in Christianity.

    o Attributed to Adams in Spirit (1988) by William Edelen, p. 4, this seems to paraphrase portions of two diary entries (more extensively quoted in the "Diaries" section above):

    Mystery is made a convenient cover for absurdity. (13 February 1756)

    Where do we find a precept in the Gospel requiring Ecclesiastical Synods? Convocations? Councils? Decrees? Creeds? Confessions? Oaths? Subscriptions? and whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find religion incumbered with in these days? (18 February 1756)

    * God is an essence we know nothing of. Until this awful blasphemy is gotten rid of there will never be any liberal science in the world.

    o Attributed to Adams in A Brief History of Disbelief BBC Four (2005) by Jonathan Miller, Online video. The two sentences are derived from two different letters to Thomas Jefferson, written five years apart, juxtaposed to give a misleading impression of Adams' meaning. The first comes from his letter of 17 January 1820, and the second from his letter of 22 January 1825.

    * The doctrine of the divinity of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity. o Attributed to Adams in Pathway to the Stars (2007) by Rev. Ernest A. Steadman, p. 66; this seems to be another paraphrase of the entry for 13 February 1756.

    [edit] Quotes about AdamsHe is so amiable that I pronounce you will love him, if ever you become acquainted with him. ~ Thomas Jefferson

    * He is vain, irritable, and a bad calculator of the force and probable effect of the motives which govern men. This is all the ill which can possibly be said of him. He is as disinterested as the Being who made him. He is profound in his views and accurate in his judgment, except where knowledge of the world is necessary to form a judgment. He is so amiable that I pronounce you will love him, if ever you become acquainted with him. He would be, as he was, a great man in Congress. o Thomas Jefferson in a letter to James Madison (30 January 1787)

    * The President's title, as proposed by the Senate, was the most superlatively ridiculous thing I ever heard of. It is a proof the more of the justice of the character given by Dr. Franklin of my friend. Always an honest man, often a great one, but sometimes absolutely mad. o Thomas Jefferson on the proposed presidential title of "His Highness the President of the United States and protector of their liberties" advocated by Vice-President Adams in the Senate; in a letter to James Madison (29 July 1789)

    * What for me makes people like Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt and John Adams and George Washington and Dwight Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan such extraordinary leaders is that they had integrity through and through. What they were on the inside and what they said on the outside was harmonious. There are a lot of people like that. I think that if people try to live a very different personal life not consistent with the role they've assumed as a governor or senator or president, we lose something as a nation. o Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, in the September 2005 The Atlantic article "The 'Holy Cow!' Candidate"

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