SEPTUAGINT
The Bible Jesus Used

Bible of the New Testament
(Almost from the 4th Century BC,
to the 6th century AD)

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Septuagint: Jewish Translation of Bible into Greek Language

This was the Bible of Jesus, Apostles and New Testament;

An African Translation, almost in the 4th Century BC;

With Several Additional Books;
Providing History "Between the Testaments"

By Cambridge Theological Seminary

Where EVERYTHING is from the INSPIRED-INERRANT Understanding of God's Word!
|Gen|Exo|Lev|Num|Deut|Jos|Jug|Rut|1 Sam|2 Sam|1 Kin|2 Kin|
|1 Chr|2 Chr|Ezr|Neh|Est|Job|Psa|Pro|Ecc|S o S|Isa|Jer|Lam|
|Eze|Dan|Hos|Joe|Amo|Obe|Jon|Mic|Nah|Hab|Zep|Hag|Zec|Mal|
|Tobit|Judith|Esdras|1 Macc|2 Macc|3 Macc|4 Macc|
|P of M|Wisdom|Sirach|Baruch

INTRO: SEPTUAGINT, WHY IT MATTERS GREATLY;

The Bible Jesus used!

What could be more important to modern Christians than that?

Apparently EVERYTHING!

Sadly, most modern Christians are more concerned about the Bible their favorite TV Preacher uses, . . . or the Bible Protestants started using 400 years ago, . . . or the most modern Bible that is most "INCLUSIVE" - with all religions being equal, "Pro-Gay" - etc.

Sadly, many modern Christians who have been "in Church" 50-75 years have no idea what Bible Jesus used, . . . or when it STOPPED being used  . . . much less WHY. . .

 . . . and furthermore, no idea why the New Testament - when it quotes the Old Testament - the QUOTES ARE NOT THE SAME!

WHY do modern Christians NOT care about these matters?

Most Christians do realize, however, when they read a New Testament name of an Old Testament figure, IT'S NOT THE SAME!

For example:

  • Joshua becomes Jesus - [NOTE ASIDE: "JESUS" - in the New Testament is not always JESUS the CHRIST! Sometimes  it's JESUS (Joshua) who marched around the Walls of Jericho! See Hebrews 4:8].
  • Isaiah becomes Esaias,
  • Jacob becomes James,
  • Judah becomes Judas or Jude,
  • Jonah becomes Jonas or John,
  • Eleazar becomes Lazarus,
  • Jeremiah becomes Jeremy, or Jeremias,
  • Zechariah becomes Zacharias,
  • Noah becomes Noe,
  • Hosea becomes Osee,
  • And many more!
  • Thankfully, Araham, Moses and David remain the same, but most Hebrew names change;

WHY?

WHY do OLD TESTAMENT and NEW TESTAMENT versions of THE SAME SCRIPTURES NOT MATCH???

Many will quickly respond defensingly and ask:

  • What could it possibly matter?
  • The answer is - "GREATLY!"

The reason they differ is simple, but important:

  1. Old Testament names and Scriptures are from the Original Jewish-Hebrew Bible, no longer in existence . . . [though many archeologists are CONVINCED copies remain under the old TEMPLE MOUNT - not allowed to excavate today as it is OWNED BY THE MUSLIMS - and they have build a gold-domed mose over it!!!
  2. New Testament names and Scriptures are from the first Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into the Greek language.
  3. This translation is called the Septuagint - today - (symbolized by LXX),  though it was NOT named that until after it had been in use for 700+ years!
  4. Thus JOSHUA is the English rendering of the Hebrew name, for which the Greek equivlilent is Jesus (his Mother and family never called him JESUS as English didn't even exist!!), and JESUS is the English rendering of the GREEK version of the Hebrew name of JOSHUA, who marched around Jericho!
  5. FACT: Joshua who marched around Jericho and Jesus who went to Calvaryhad THE VERY SAME NAME, both meaning DELIVERER, CONQUEROR!
  6. FACT: Joshua of Jericho was a TYPE, a SHADOW of the New Testament Saviour: JESUS!
  7. FACT: It is extremely important that Father God named His Son the CHRIST, Joshua-Jesus - whose Ministry Christ post-resurrection Ministry mimics - and Father God did NOT name Christ after Enoch, Noah, Job, Moses, Abraham, Aaron, Samuel, or any of the great heroes of Israel
  8. FACT: What JOSHUA did in the TAKING THE LAND FROM THE PAGANS  and establishing the GOVERNMENT of GOD . . . foreshadows the Ministry of Christ THROUGH THE CHURCH - IN TAKING THE WORLD FROM THE DEVIL and establishing the KINGDOM OF CHRIST!
  9.  . . . but that's another study!
  10. Like the names, when the New Testament re-quotes the Law, Psalms and Prophets, these are the HEBREW VERSION . . . and the New Testament is the GREEK VERSION (which Jesus and Apostles used), from the Septuagint . . . thus, just like the names, they are DIFFERENT!
  11. Comparatively, John in English, is Sean in French, is Ivan in Russian, isYohan in Spanish!

FACT: The above is not so important, but you need to know how to answer your Children WHY New Testament and Old Testament Scriptures and names DO NOT MATCH!

HOWEVER . . . the next section of the BIBLE JESUS USED may be as important as any singular neglected truth in the AD 2,000 era!

A MOST IMPORTANT TRUTH!

Perhaps most importantly, the BIBLE JESUS USED has an extra 1500 years in it's chronology, . . .  from the time of Adam to Noah to Abraham to Moses with the Temple and King David.

The reason this matters EXTREMELY is as follows:

When your children go to college, regardless the major, in their freshman classes and all through the college years, they are going to be "BRAINWASHED" by their HIGHLY educated, HIGHLY authoritative, HIGHLY persuasive, and HIGHLY respected COLLEGE PROFESSORS . . .

 . . . whom many young and easily-influenced college students look to as THE SMARTEST PEOPLE IN THE WORLD . . . (replacing Mom, Dad, Grandparents and Local Preacher!) . . . which College Professors will continually declare and affirm the following:

  1. The Bible may be a complete myth, as from the earliest pages, the stories it affirms are found HUNDREDS OF YEARS EARLIER in secular History from many cultures!
  2. Noah and the flood, they say, was COPIED from the Epic of Gilgamesh, about 800 years BEFORE Noah! . . . flooding the whole earth as punishment by God for violence, building the ark, saving 8 people, etc., . . . still available in history today FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE how the BIBLE simply "COPIED" from others! (See example at bottom of this list);
  3. God's Great Principles of Truth and Justice as given to Noah through Abraham, they say,  . . . were given to Hammurabi 50-100 years BEFORE Abraham, and were known to the world as Hammurabi's Code, still available in history today FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE how the BIBLE simply "COPIED" from others!
  4. Almost all that is said of Jesus (of whom many college professors - especially Jewish and atheists - are now declaring a myth as well!) . . . the Virgin Birth, God fathering a child with a human girl, dying for the people, etc., . . . all was copied from the Egyptian story and God Isa (Isa is the Arabic name ofr Jesus),  . . . whom they declare the Jews got this idea from the Egyptians when serving there as slaves . . . still available in history today FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE how the BIBLE simply "COPIED" from others!
  5. The Creation Story complete with the Garden of Eden, a man and woman, naked, and a serpent, and the woman sinning, being driven from the Garden, all copied from numerous cultures
    . . . still available in history today FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE how the BIBLE simply "COPIED" from others!
  6. Even the False Idol Baal in the Bible they say was copied from the Greek Myth Hercules . . . . still available in history today FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE how the BIBLE simply "COPIED" from others!
  7. There are numerous other Bible Stories said to be copied from others . . . such as Hell and Heaven and much copied from Mitharism, a Persian religion said to have been learned by the Jews when they were in Persian Captivity after the Babylonian Captivity;

One excerpt from Epic of Gilgamesh, whom ALL MODERN COLLEGE PROFESSORS say the Bible Copied:

Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet Eleven:

Gilgamesh observes that Utnapishtim seems no different from himself, and asks him how he obtained his immortality.

  1. Utnapishtim explains that the gods decided to send a great flood.
  2. To save Utnapishtim the god Ea told him to build a boat.
  3. He gave him precise dimensions,
  4. and it was sealed with pitch and bitumen.
  5. His entire family went aboard, together with his craftsmen
  6. and "all the animals of the field".
  7. A violent storm then arose which caused the terrified gods to retreat to the heavens.
  8. Ishtar (god) lamented the wholesale destruction of humanity, (repented that he had made humanity) and the other gods wept beside her. The storm lasted six days and nights, after which "all the human beings turned to clay". Utnapishtim weeps when he sees the destruction.
  9. His boat lodges on a mountain,
  10. and he releases a dove, a swallow,
  11. and a raven.
  12. When the raven fails to return,
  13. he opens the ark,
  14. and frees its inhabitants.
  15. Utnapishtim offers a sacrifice to the gods . . .
  16. IS THIS NOT SHOCKING???

FACT! This is CARVED IN CLAY TABLETS!

FACT! Dating back THOUSANDS OF YEARS!

FACT! Found in MANY CULTURES,

FACT! And handed down for OVER 2000 YEARS!

QUESTION: Since almost ALL CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIANS and BIBLE SCHOLARS from the top seminaries of the whole world ADMIT and AGREE . . . that this story from the Epic of Gilgamesh IS OLDER THAN the Modern Biblical Story of Noah and the Flood . . .

 . . . can you see, why so many College Professors DO NOT BELIEVE THE BIBLE?

 . . . and since Christian Theologians HAVE NO ANSWER and ADMIT THE BIBLE STORY FOLLOWS Epic of Gilgamesh . . .

. . . can you see, why 18 year old Christian college students get their faith shaken???

So . . . when they come home for Thanksgiving and Christmas break, their parents HAVE NEVER HEARD OF THIS . . . so the children attribute their Parent's faith to BLIND IGNORANCE, . . .

 . . . and when they ask their local pastor, most of them are IGNORANT AS WELL . . . or have to answer . . . Contrary to God's command in 2 Peter to "BE ALWAYS READY TO GIVE AN ANSWER THE REASON OF YOUR FAITH...!!!"

 . . . so the children attribute their Pastor's faith to BLIND IGNORANCE, . . .

 . . . and hen the Christian Theologians and Leaders from Billy Graham to Joel Osteen to Joyce Meyer to Ken Copeland to TD Jakes to John Ankerberg - and 10,000 others - HAVE NO ANSWERS . . .

 . . . can you see why the young college student has their FAITH IN GOD'S WORD SHAKEN???


SECULAR COLLEGE PROFESSORS:

Thus their goal is to INFORM the "ignorant Christian kids with the ignorant parents and pastors" . . . blindly going through life believing SUPERSTITION and FABLES . . .

 . . . thus they ASSUME the rest of the Bible is untrustworthy as well, so they seek to  PROVE the Bible and all that it teaches - is FALSE - including the following: 

  • AGE of the Earth,
  • CREATION by God,
  • EDEN with Adam and Eve,
  • SATAN as the serpent and the first sin,
  • NOAH and FLOOD,
  • MOSES - GOD and 10 Commandments,
  • Prophesies of CHRIST,
  • CHRIST,
  • CROSS and RESURRECTION,
  • CHRIST'S ASCENSION,
  • NEW BIRTH,
  • HOLY SPIRIT,
  • PRAYER THAT IS ANSWERED,
  • HELL,
  • HEAVEN,
  • ETERNAL LIFE,
  • THE RESURRECTION,
  • CHRIST COMING AGAIN,
  • FINAL JUDGMENT BEFORE GOD,
  • ALL OF THIS IS FRAUD!!! . . . most modern college professors declare strongly!

IS THIS THE SADDEST TRUTH OF IT ALL?

Perhaps as sad as it can be, this Researcher has had COLLEGE PROFESSORS - look me in the eye and with TEARS  . . . and say how much they WISH . . . THEY REALLY WISH . . . the Bible WERE TRUE . . . just like their parents and grandparents believed;

  • (their poor parents, NOT knowing the Bible copied many things from previous cultures and religions!
  • Believed myths their whole life and died in vain with false hope!).

HOWEVER, for these College Professors whose whole life and identity is wrapped in the quest for knowledge rather than myth and superstition . . .

 . . . and the TRUTH TO THEM IS INDISPUTABLE and the HISTORICAL FACTS without question.

They know the truth . . . and for College Professors . . . TRUTH is as follows:

  • TRUTH! Earth is ROUND and NOT FLAT!
  • TRUTH! Earth orbits SUN, NOT Sun the Earth!
  • TRUTH! Invisible GERMS cause disease, NOT witchcraft spells!
  • TRUTH! Magnetism is caused by invisible ATOMIC STRUCTURE, NOT MAGIC!
  • TRUTH! Major stories and concepts in the Bible were copied very extensively from previous cultures . . .
  • TRUTH! . . . as there are ancient clay and stone tablets today in museums - hundreds of years older than the Bible - WITH THE SAME STORIES!
  • CONCLUSION: The BIBLE is full of MYTHS! CASE CLOSED!

What is SO SAD, is that Modern Bibles are based on the CORRUPT JEWISH MASORETIC TEXT  . . . (by the SAME JEWS who REJECTED JESUS!!! - which shows how "WISE" they are??? . . . and we modern Christians use THEIR BIBLE . . . rather than the BIBLE JESUS USED???) . . .

  . . . which Masoretic only dates back to the 10th century - upon which almost all modern Bibles are based (Protestant, Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, etc.,)  . . .

 . . . which has a very different chronology, one that is 1500 years shorter than the BIBLE JESUS USED!

SADLY, BELIEVING BIBLE SCHOLARS DEFER TO ATHEIST, CHRIST-REJECTING JEWS: WHY???

Sadly, almost EVERY THEOLOGIAN of every denomination of Christianity AGREES to the following:

  1. Adam and Eve, about 4000 years before Jesus (modern Jews say 3760 BC),
  2. Noah's Flood, about 2343 years before Jesus (modern Jews say 2103 BC);
  3. Abraham, about 2009 years before Jesus (modern Jews say 1813 BC);
  4. Law of Moses and Exodus about 1393 years before Jesus (modern Jews say 1313 BC);

Since this chronology is one of the FEW THINGS about which ALL OF MODERN CHRISTENDOM AGREES, . . .

 . . . College Professors all over the world have no reason to DOUBT THAT THIS IS WHAT THE BIBLE REALLY SAYS . . . SINCE ALL CHRISTIANS SAY SO!

EVEN WORSE!!!

The MOST scientifc branch of Modern Christians - Ken Ham,  Kent Hovind, Carl Baugh,  and the Creation Science Museum group, has even shortened the timeline EVEN MORE (about 100 years). . . making the whole matter EVEN WORSE!!!

[SOURCE: Ken Ham, Creation Science Museum, "Answers In Genesis" - http://www.answersingenesis.org/assets/pdf/2005/TimelineOfTheBible.pdf  ].

So, with all the Christian  Leaders - Theologians, Historians, Archeologists and Creation Scientists - TELLING THEM the BIBLE CAME AFTER the worldly myths . . .

 . . . College Professors are convinced that the BIBLE COPIED from previous cultures and religions!


IS THIS NOT A GREAT TRUTH - REDISCOVERED?

HOWEVER . . . when we consider the extra 1500 years in the Septuagint, that was:

  • ALWAYS in ancient Hebrew-Jewish Chronology,
  • ALWAYS in the Ancient Jewish Bible,
  • ALWAYS in the Bible of the Kings, Prophets, Apostles, and New Testament Christians to the 5th century,
  • ALWAYS in the BIBLE JESUS USED . . . VERIFYING ITS ACCURACY!

When we use the dates of the BIBLE JESUS USED, then we find ALL OF THE BIBLE STORIES . . . PRECEDE the WORLDLY STORIES . . . by many hundreds if years!

THUS THE "WHO COPIED WHO"  SITUATION IS REVERSED!

  1. Adam and Eve, about 5500 years before Jesus - thus PRE-DATES ALL WORLDLY creation stories by more than 1,000 years!
  2. Noah's Flood, about 3260 years before Jesus - thus PRE-DATING ALL WORLDLY creation stories (which are in over 80 distinct cultures) . . . including the famous and well-proved EPIC of GILGAMESH by 700-900 years!
  3. Abraham, about 2188 years before Jesus - thus PRE-DATING ALL WORLDLY similar stories by 200-300 years!
  4. Which also places the Jewish exile in Egypt earlier, making it PREDATE Akhenaten, the stories of the EGYPTIAN God ISA, and his virgin Birth, saving the world, and many similarities!

SO . . . rather than the BIBLE copying heathen, pagan tales from cultures around them . . .

 . . . we learn that EVERY SINGLE ONE OF THEM COPIED from the Jews and their History, Culture, Religion and Bible!

  • Thus the FLOOD and CREATION stories ALL began with the Jews, then slowly spread around the world simultaneously as the population spread (else how would modernists explain cultures ALL OVER THE WORLD having the SAME STORIES IF NOT TRUE and sharing the SAME ORIGIN???);
  • Thus the Great Babylonian Leader Hammurabi (REMEMBER Abraham was also a Babylonian, with whom Hammurabi wold have had common language, culture, and kindred spirit), saw the GREAT SUCCESS of Abraham to his west and adapted Abraham's Principles of Law and Jusice fr his own!
  • Likewise, the EGYPTIANS learned from the Jews when (A) Joseph was their Pharaoh 'de facto' (Genesis 37-50) and . . . (B) when the Jews were their slaves, such as we read about the Egyptian midwives ADOPTING the Hebrew beliefs in Exodus 1, 2;
  • Likewise, the BABYLONIANS learned from the Jews (A) when the Jews were their slaves, . . . and (B) the Babylonians making Daniel their PRESIDENT of the whole kingdom through at least two administrations, Kings Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar as we read in MANY Hebrew books from King through the prophets, especially Daniel chapters 1-5, and many prophets;
  • Likewise the PERSIANS learned from the Jews (A) when having them as their slaves in Captivity, . . . (B) when maintaining Daniel as a leader of their empire under Kings Cyrus and Darius and . . . (C) having their great King Ahasuearus marry Jewess Queen Esther - all which coincide with the Bible! (See Isaiah, Daniel 6 - 11, and Esther, many prophets);
  • Likewise the GREEKS learned from the Jews (A) when they were sold as slaves to Greece (Grecia) when the Ten Tribes of the Northern Kingdom were conquered by the Assyrians and sold to the Greeks in the 8th century BC, and similarly (see 2 Esdras 13:39-45) ,. . . (B) when the Jews of Judah and Jerusalem were sold to the Greeks by the Babylonians in the late 7th century and early 6th centuries BC (see Joel 3:6), . . . (C) and again After Alexander the Great divided his Empire at death, and the Selucids conquered Israel, sending slaves to Greece from 200 - 165 BC (see 1 Maccabees 15:23);
  • And finally the ROMANS learned from the Jews, (A) as they lived thought their empire after Rome conquered Greece, when having them as their slaves in Captivity (see Acts 18:2) , . . . (B) even more so, as Christians infiltrated every level of Roman Government including Caesar's Household! (See Philippians 4:22)

Thus the GREAT TRUTH is, every empire learned of the ONE TRUE GOD, the principle of LAW ABOVE ALL, and of Jewish Synagogue Democracy from the Jews:

  1. Most Ancient Babylonians (Shinar) learned from Enoch, Noah,
  2. Ancient Assyrians learned from Shem and Job,
  3. Middle Age Babylonians learned from Abraham,
  4. Egyptians from Joseph, and Jews,
  5. Middle Age Assyrians from Northern Ten Tribes,
  6. Later Babylonians from Daniel and Jews,
  7. Persians from Daniel, Queen Esther, Mordecai and Jews,
  8. Greeks from Jewish Captives in 7th, 6th, and 3rd centuries,
  9. Rome from Jewish Captives and Jewish Christians;

As our hearts ALWAYS told us: GOD'S BIBLE HAD TO BE FIRST!

Now we know the explanation and the FALSE ACCUSATION made by thousands of college professors, destroying the faith of college student Christians IN THEIR BIBLES at 90% or more - declaring the BIBLE COPIED MANY THINGS from predecessors - has NO TRUTH AT ALL!

However, the College Professors don't know ANYTHING about the BIBLE JESUS USED! They have no idea that MODERN BIBLES are 1,500 years SHORTER (and 10 books of history shorter) than the BIBLE JESUS USED!

Neither do the Christian college students know this, . . .

 . . and neither do their parents with most Ministers know this . . .

 . . . and furthermore, they don't know how Christian student faith is being SO DESTROYED IN SECULAR, ATHEIST, PAGAN, SEX-DRUGS-ALCOHOL MODERN COLLEGES!

Add the above "false history" accusing the Bible of COPYING MUCH, . . . to "evolution" in the science classes, and teen-age Christians usually have their faith obliterated!

SAD FACTS:

SAD FACT: Over 90% of Christians TURN FROM THEIR FAITH in college!

SIMPLE FACT: MUCH of the false accusation that persuades them AGAINST the Bible,  would be OVERTURNED if we modern Christians would simply USE THE BIBLE JESUS USED!

NEAT FACT: Learning this TRUE CHRONOLOGY would allow MANY, MANY MANY deceived college Professors to TRULY BELIEVE the BIBLE JESUS USED IS THE WORLD OF GOD!

PLUS FACT: Getting the Biblical Chronology, history and archeology accurate would go a long way in helping College Science Professors see the many inaccuracies in Evolution Theory . . . which like all counterfeit beliefs . . . has a good deal of truth, but TRUE and SERIOUS ERROR!

BAD FACT: If the Science Professors weren't previously convinced by the History Professors that the CREATION BY GOD ACCOUNT was copied from several pagan religions, . . .

 . . . they would study Genesis and Creation seriously and see the massive amount of scientific truth therein!

Below is a Brief History of the Bible Jesus Used: THE GREEK SEPTUAGINT!

The Septuagint (pronounced 'sep TOO a gint' or SEP too a gint) is often represented by the Roman Numerals "LXX" for the 72  translators.

It is also well-known as the "Greek Old Testament".

The Septuagint is simply the ancient translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek that exists today, dated as early as approaching the late 4th century before Christ.

It is much quoted in the New Testament,[1] particularly in the writings of Paul the Apostle,[2] but also many times by Christ, most of the other NT Authors, and also by the Apostolic Leaders and later Greek and Roman Church Fathers.

The Septuagint continues to serve as the Eastern Orthodox Church Old Testament in the AD 2000 era.

The traditional story is that Ptolemy II sponsored the translation for use by the many Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew but fluent in Koine Greek,[3] which was the common language of Alexandria, Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean[4] from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE until the development of Byzantine Greek around 600 CE.

The Septuagint should not be confused with the seven or more other Greek versions of the Old Testament, most of which did not survive except as fragments (some parts of these being known from Origen's Hexapla, a comparison of six translations in adjacent columns, now almost wholly lost).

Of these seven, the most important are "the three:" those by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.

Name of Septuagint:

The Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters," (Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, "translation of the seventy ".[5] However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354–430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta.[6] The Roman numeral LXX (seventy) is commonly used as an abbreviation, as are  [7] or G.

Translation Tradition;

These titles refer to a legendary story, according to which seventy or seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.[8] This legend is first found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates,[9] and is repeated with embellishments by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus[10][11] and by various later sources, including St. Augustine.[12] A version of the legend is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud:

King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher." God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did.[13]

Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint,[14] says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the 12 tribes of Israel. This legend, with its miraculous details, underlines the fact that some Jews in antiquity wished to present the translation as authoritative.[8] A 2012 issue of Free Inquiry magazine argued that this legend was a fabrication.[15]

History

The date of the 3rd century BCE, given in the legend, is confirmed (for the Torah translation) by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.[16]

After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised.[17] The quality and style of the different translators also varied considerably from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative.

The translation process of the Septuagint can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity. The translation began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE,[18][19][20] initially in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere as well.[5]

The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament.[21]

Language

Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic.[22] Other books, such as the Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.[8] Jewish Koine Greek exists primarily a category of literature, or cultural category, but apart from some distinctive religious vocabulary is not distinct from other varieties of Koine Greek to be counted a separate dialect of Greek.

The Septuagint is also useful for elucidating pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the LXX, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing.[23] One must, however, evaluate such evidence with caution since it is extremely unlikely that all ancient Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents.[24]

Disputes over canonicity

As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Torah (Pentateuch in Greek) always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon; but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Jewish Nevi'im, had various hagiographical works incorporated into it.

In addition some newer books were included in the Septuagint: those called anagignoskomena in Greek, because they are not included in the Jewish canon. Among these are the Maccabees and the Wisdom of Ben Sira. Also, the Septuagint version of some Biblical books, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Jewish canon.[25] Some of these "apocryphal" books (e.g. the Wisdom of Solomon, and the second book of Maccabees) were not translated, but composed directly in Greek.

The canonicity of the larger group of "writings" (the Jewish ketuvim) had not yet been established, although some sort of selective process must have been employed because the Septuagint did not include other well-known Jewish documents such as Enoch or Jubilees or other writings that are not part of the Jewish canon. (These are now classified as Pseudepigrapha).

Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a Council of Jamnia, mainstream rabbinic Judaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, some mistranslations were claimed. Second, the Hebrew source texts used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which was chosen as canonical by the Jewish rabbis.[26] Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity.[20][27] Finally, the rabbis claimed for the Hebrew language a divine authority, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek - even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given the same holy language status as Hebrew).[28]

In time the LXX became synonymous with the "Greek Old Testament", i.e. a Christian canon of writings which incorporated all the books of the Hebrew canon, along with additional texts. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches use most of the books of the Septuagint; however, Protestant churches usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called "Apocrypha" (i.e. of questionable authenticity). The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the Revised Standard Version.[29]

Final form

See also Table of books below.

All the books of western canons of the Old Testament are found in the Septuagint, although the order does not always coincide with the Western ordering of the books. The Septuagint order for the Old Testament is evident in the earliest Christian Bibles (4th century).[8]

Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic text are grouped together. For example the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the LXX one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν ("Of Reigns"). In LXX, the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paraleipoménon (Παραλειπομένων—things left out). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve.[8]

Some scripture of ancient origin are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151.

The canonical acceptance of these books varies among different Christian traditions, and there are canonical books not derived from the Septuagint. For more information regarding these books, see the articles Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Books of the Bible, and Deuterocanonical books.

Incorporations from Theodotion

In most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic text. The Septuagint version was discarded in favour of Theodotion's version in the 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century, and in Latin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not record the reason for this, and St. Jerome reports, in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, This thing 'just' happened.[30] One of two Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book.[8]

The canonical Ezra-Nehemiah is known in the Septuagint as "Esdras B", and 1 Esdras is "Esdras A". 1 Esdras is a very similar text to the books of Ezra-Nehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from the same original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that "Esdras B" – the canonical Ezra-Nehemiah – is Theodotion's version of this material, and "Esdras A" is the version which was previously in the Septuagint on its own.[30]

Use

Jewish use

Starting approximately in the 2nd century CE, several factors led most Jews to abandon use of the LXX. The earliest gentile Christians of necessity used the LXX, as it was at the time the only Greek version of the Bible, and most, if not all, of these early non-Jewish Christians could not read Hebrew. The association of the LXX with a rival religion may have rendered it suspect in the eyes of the newer generation of Jews and Jewish scholars.[21] Instead, Jews used Hebrew/Aramaic Targum manuscripts later compiled by the Masoretes; and authoritative Aramaic translations, such as those of Onkelos and Rabbi Yonathan ben Uziel.[31]

What was perhaps most significant for the LXX, as distinct from other Greek versions, was that the LXX began to lose Jewish sanction after differences between it and contemporary Hebrew scriptures were discovered (see above). Even Greek-speaking Jews tended less to the LXX, preferring other Jewish versions in Greek, such as that of the 2nd-century Aquila translation, which seemed to be more concordant with contemporary Hebrew texts.[21] While Jews have not used the LXX in worship or religious study since the 2nd century CE, recent scholarship has brought renewed interest in it in the field of Judaic Studies.

Christian use

The Early Christian Church used the Greek texts[32] since Greek was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire at the time, and the language of the Greco-Roman Church (Aramaic was the language of Syriac Christianity, which used the Targums).

The relationship between the apostolic use of the Old Testament, for example, the Septuagint and the now lost Hebrew texts (though to some degree and in some form carried on in Masoretic tradition) is complicated. The Septuagint seems to have been a major source for the Apostles, but it is not the only one. St. Jerome offered, for example, Matt 2:15 and 2:23, John 19:37, John 7:38, 1 Cor. 2:9.[33] as examples not found in the Septuagint, but in Hebrew texts. (Matt 2:23 is not present in current Masoretic tradition either, though according to St. Jerome it was in Isaiah 11:1.) The New Testament writers, when citing the Jewish scriptures, or when quoting Jesus doing so, freely used the Greek translation, implying that Jesus, his Apostles and their followers considered it reliable.[2][22][34]

In the Early Christian Church, the presumption that the Septuagint was translated by Jews before the era of Christ, and that the Septuagint at certain places gives itself more to a christological interpretation than 2nd-century Hebrew texts was taken as evidence that "Jews" had changed the Hebrew text in a way that made them less christological. For example, Irenaeus concerning Isaiah 7:14: The Septuagint clearly writes of a virgin that shall conceive. While the Hebrew text was, according to Irenaeus, at that time interpreted by Theodotion and Aquila (both proselytes of the Jewish faith) as a young woman that shall conceive. According to Irenaeus, the Ebionites used this to claim that Joseph was the (biological) father of Jesus. From Irenaeus' point of view that was pure heresy, facilitated by (late) anti-Christian alterations of the scripture in Hebrew, as evident by the older, pre-Christian, Septuagint.[35]

When Jerome undertook the revision of the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint, he checked the Septuagint against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He came to believe that the Hebrew text better testified to Christ than the Septuagint.[citation needed] He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament of his Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine, his contemporary; a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome as a forger. But with the passage of time, acceptance of Jerome's version gradually increased until it displaced the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint.[21]

The Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the LXX as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages. The Eastern Orthodox also use LXX untranslated where Greek is the liturgical language, e.g. in the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, the Church of Greece and the Cypriot Orthodox Church. Critical translations of the Old Testament, while using the Masoretic Text as their basis, consult the Septuagint as well as other versions in an attempt to reconstruct the meaning of the Hebrew text whenever the latter is unclear, undeniably corrupt, or ambiguous.[21] For example, the Jerusalem Bible Foreword says, "... only when this (the Masoretic Text) presents insuperable difficulties have emendations or other versions, such as the ... LXX, been used."[36] The Translator's Preface to the New International Version says: "The translators also consulted the more important early versions (including) the Septuagint ... Readings from these versions were occasionally followed where the MT seemed doubtful ..."[37]

Textual history

Table of books

The Orthodox

Old Testament [5][38][39]

Greek-based

name    Conventional

English name

Law

Γένεσις Génesis                Genesis

Ἔξοδος Éxodos Exodus

Λευϊτικόν            Leuitikón             Leviticus

Ἀριθμοί                Arithmoí              Numbers

Δευτερονόμιον                Deuteronómion               Deuteronomy

History

Ἰησοῦς Nαυῆ     Iêsous Nauê       Joshua

Κριταί   Kritaí      Judges

Ῥούθ     Roúth    Ruth

Βασιλειῶν Αʹ[40]

I Reigns                I Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Βʹ      II Reigns               II Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Γʹ       III Reigns              I Kings

Βασιλειῶν Δʹ      IV Reigns             II Kings

Παραλειπομένων Αʹ       I Paralipomenon[41]

I Chronicles

Παραλειπομένων Βʹ       II Paralipomenon             II Chronicles

Ἔσδρας Αʹ           I Esdras 1 Esdras;

Ἔσδρας Βʹ           II Esdras               Ezra-Nehemiah

Τωβίτ[42]

Tobit      Tobit or Tobias

Ἰουδίθ   Ioudith Judith

Ἐσθήρ   Esther   Esther with additions

Μακκαβαίων Αʹ               I Makkabees

1 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Βʹ                II Makkabees

2 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Γʹ                III Makkabees

3 Maccabees

Wisdom

Ψαλμοί                Psalms  Psalms

Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ     Psalm 151

Psalm 151

Προσευχὴ Μανάσση      Prayer of Manasseh

Prayer of Manasseh

Ἰώβ         Iōb         Job

Παροιμίαι           Proverbs              Proverbs

Ἐκκλησιαστής    Ecclesiastes        Ecclesiastes

Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Song of Songs

Song of Solomon or Canticles

Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος         Wisdom of Solomon       Wisdom

Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ        Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach

Sirach or Ecclesiasticus

Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος      Psalms of Solomon

Psalms of Solomon[43]

Prophets

Δώδεκα               The Twelve         Minor Prophets

Ὡσηέ Αʹ                I. Osëe  Hosea

Ἀμώς Βʹ                II. Ämōs               Amos

Μιχαίας Γʹ           III. Michaias        Micah

Ἰωήλ Δʹ IV. Ioel  Joel

Ὀβδίου Εʹ[44]

V. Obdias             Obadiah

Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ'               VI. Ionas              Jonah

Ναούμ Ζʹ             VII. Naoum         Nahum

Ἀμβακούμ Ηʹ     VIII. Ambakum  Habakkuk

Σοφονίας Θʹ       IX. Sophonias     Zephaniah

Ἀγγαῖος Ιʹ            X. Ängaios           Haggai

Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹ      XI. Zacharias       Zachariah

Ἄγγελος ΙΒʹ         XII. Messenger Malachi

Ἠσαΐας Hesaias Isaiah

Ἱερεμίας              Hieremias            Jeremiah

Βαρούχ                Baruch  Baruch

Θρῆνοι Lamentations    Lamentations

Ἐπιστολή Ιερεμίου          Epistle of Jeremiah

Letter of Jeremiah

Ἰεζεκιήλ                Iezekiêl                Ezekiel

Δανιήλ Daniêl   Daniel with additions

Appendix

Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα      IV Makkabees

4 Maccabees[45]

Textual analysis

 

 

The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). LXX here denotes the original septuagint.

Modern scholarship holds that the LXX was written during the 3rd through 1st centuries BCE. But nearly all attempts at dating specific books, with the exception of the Pentateuch (early- to mid-3rd century BCE), are tentative and without consensus.[8]

Later Jewish revisions and recensions of the Greek against the Hebrew are well attested, the most famous of which include the Three: Aquila (128 CE), Symmachus, and Theodotion. These three, to varying degrees, are more literal renderings of their contemporary Hebrew scriptures as compared to the Old Greek. Modern scholars consider one or more of the 'three' to be totally new Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible.[46]

Around 235 CE, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στἰχος) belonged.[47] Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.[8]

Manuscripts

Main article: Septuagint manuscripts

The oldest manuscripts of the LXX include 2nd century BCE fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957), and 1st century BCE fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets (Alfred Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943). Relatively complete manuscripts of the LXX postdate the Hexaplar rescension and include the Codex Vaticanus from the 4th century CE and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century. These are indeed the oldest surviving nearly complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date some 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century.[21][48] The 4th century Codex Sinaiticus also partially survives, still containing many texts of the Old Testament.[49] While there are differences between these three codices, scholarly consensus today holds that one LXX — that is, the original pre-Christian translation — underlies all three. The various Jewish and later Christian revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices.[8]

Differences with the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic text

The sources of the many differences between the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic text have long been discussed by scholars. Following the Renaissance, a common opinion among some humanists was that the LXX translators bungled the translation from the Hebrew and that the LXX became more corrupt with time. The most widely accepted view today is that the original Septuagint provided a reasonably accurate record of an early Hebrew textual variant that differed from the ancestor of the Masoretic text as well as those of the Latin Vulgate, where both of the latter seem to have a more similar textual heritage.

These issues notwithstanding, the text of the LXX is generally close to that of the Masoretes and vulgate. For example, Genesis 4:1–6 is identical in both the LXX, Vulgate and the Masoretic Text. Likewise, Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7, to wit:

Genesis 4:7, LXX (NETS)

Genesis 4:7, Masoretic and English Translation from MT (Judaica Press)

Genesis 4:7, Latin Vulgate (Douay-Rheims)

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned? Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.       הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ: Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it."                If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.

This instance illustrates the complexity of assessing differences between the LXX and the Masoretic Text as well as the Vulgate. Despite the striking divergence of meaning here between the Septuagint and later texts, nearly identical consonantal Hebrew source texts can be reconstructed. The readily apparent semantic differences result from alternative strategies for interpreting the difficult verse and relate to differences in vowelization and punctuation of the consonantal text.

The differences between the LXX and the MT thus fall into four categories.[50]

1.            Different Hebrew sources for the MT and the LXX. Evidence of this can be found throughout the Old Testament. Most obvious are major differences in Jeremiah and Job, where the LXX is much shorter and chapters appear in different order than in the MT, and Esther where almost one third of the verses in the LXX text have no parallel in the MT. A more subtle example may be found in Isaiah 36.11; the meaning ultimately remains the same, but the choice of words evidences a different text. The MT reads "...al tedaber yehudit be-'ozne ha`am al ha-homa" [speak not the Judean language in the ears of (or — which can be heard by) the people on the wall]. The same verse in the LXX reads according to the translation of Brenton "and speak not to us in the Jewish tongue: and wherefore speakest thou in the ears of the men on the wall." The MT reads "people" where the LXX reads "men". This difference is very minor and does not affect the meaning of the verse. Scholars at one time had used discrepancies such as this to claim that the LXX was a poor translation of the Hebrew original. With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, variant Hebrew texts of the Bible were found. In fact this verse is found in Qumran (1QIsaa) where the Hebrew word "haanashim" (the men) is found in place of "haam" (the people). This discovery, and others like it, showed that even seemingly minor differences of translation could be the result of variant Hebrew source texts.

2.            Differences in interpretation stemming from the same Hebrew text. A good example is Genesis 4.7, shown above.

3.            Differences as a result of idiomatic translation issues (i.e. a Hebrew idiom may not easily translate into Greek, thus some difference is intentionally or unintentionally imparted). For example, in Psalm 47:10 the MT reads "The shields of the earth belong to God". The LXX reads "To God are the mighty ones of the earth." The metaphor "shields" would not have made much sense to a Greek speaker; thus the words "mighty ones" are substituted in order to retain the original meaning.

4.            Transmission changes in Hebrew or Greek (Diverging revisionary/recensional changes and copyist errors)

Dead Sea Scrolls

The Biblical manuscripts found in Qumran, commonly known as the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS), have prompted comparisons of the various texts associated with the Hebrew Bible, including the Septuagint.[51] Peter Flint,[52] cites Emanuel Tov, the chief editor of the scrolls,[53] who identifies five broad variation categories of DSS texts:[54]

1.            Proto-Masoretic: This consists of a stable text and numerous and distinctive agreements with the Masoretic Text. About 60% of the Biblical scrolls fall into this category (e.g. 1QIsa-b)

2.            Pre-Septuagint: These are the manuscripts which have distinctive affinities with the Greek Bible. These number only about 5% of the Biblical scrolls, for example, 4QDeut-q, 4QSam-a, and 4QJer-b, 4QJer-d. In addition to these manuscripts, several others share distinctive individual readings with the Septuagint, although they do not fall in this category.

3.            The Qumran "Living Bible": These are the manuscripts which, according to Tov, were copied in accordance with the "Qumran practice" (i.e. with distinctive long orthography and morphology, frequent errors and corrections, and a free approach to the text. Such scrolls comprise about 20% of the Biblical corpus, including the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa-a):

4.            Pre-Samaritan: These are DSS manuscripts which reflect the textual form found in the Samaritan Pentateuch, although the Samaritan Bible itself is later and contains information not found in these earlier scrolls, (e.g. God's holy mountain at Shechem rather than Jerusalem). The Qumran witnesses – which are characterized by orthographic corrections and harmonizations with parallel texts elsewhere in the Pentateuch – comprise about 5% of the Biblical scrolls. (e.g. 4QpaleoExod-m)

5.            Non-Aligned: This is a category which shows no consistent alignment with any of the other four text-types. These number approximately 10% of the Biblical scrolls, and include 4QDeut-b, 4QDeut-c, 4QDeut-h, 4QIsa-c, and 4QDan-a.[54][55][56]

The textual sources present a variety of readings. For example, Bastiaan Van Elderen [53] compares three variations of Deuteronomy 32:43, the last of the Song of Moses.[57]

Deuteronomy 32.43, Masoretic Deuteronomy 32.43, Qumran     Deuteronomy 32.43, Septuagint

1 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people

2 For he will avenge the blood of his servants

3 And will render vengeance to his adversaries

4 And will purge his land, his people.

 

                1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him

2 And worship him, all you divine ones

3 For he will avenge the blood of his sons

4 And he will render vengeance to his adversaries

5 And he will recompense the ones hating him

6 And he purges the land of his people.

                1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him

2 And let all the sons of God worship him

3 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people

4 And let all the angels of God be strong in him

5 Because he avenges the blood of his sons

6 And he will avenge and recompense justice to his enemies

7 And he will recompense the ones hating

8 And the Lord will cleanse the land of his people.

 

The Dead Sea Scrolls, with its 5% connection to the Septuagint, provides significant information for scholars studying the Greek text of the Hebrew Bible.

Printed editions

The texts of all printed editions are derived from the three recensions mentioned above, that of Origen, Lucian, or Hesychius.

•             The editio princeps is the Complutensian Polyglot. It was based on manuscripts that are now lost, but seems to transmit quite early readings.[58]

•             The Aldine edition (begun by Aldus Manutius) appeared at Venice in 1518. The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than the Complutensian. The editor says he collated ancient manuscripts but does not specify them. It has been reprinted several times.

•             The most important edition is the Roman or Sixtine Vulgate, which reproduces the Codex Vaticanus" almost exclusively. It was published under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, with the help of various savants, in 1586, by the authority of Sixtus V, to assist the revisers who were preparing the Latin Vulgate edition ordered by the Council of Trent. It has become the textus receptus of the Greek Old Testament and has had many new editions, such as that of Robert Holmes and James Parsons (Oxford, 1798–1827), the seven editions of Constantin von Tischendorf, which appeared at Leipzig between 1850 and 1887, the last two, published after the death of the author and revised by Nestle, the four editions of Henry Barclay Swete (Cambridge, 1887–95, 1901, 1909), etc.

•             Grabe's edition was published at Oxford, from 1707 to 1720, and reproduced, but imperfectly, the "Codex Alexandrinus" of London. For partial editions, see Fulcran Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, 1643 sqq.

•             Alfred Rahlfs, a longtime Septuagint researcher at Göttingen, began a manual edition of the Septuagint in 1917 or 1918. The completed Septuaginta was published in 1935. It relies mainly on Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, and Alexandrinus, and presents a critical apparatus with variants from these and several other sources.[59]

•             The Göttingen Septuagint (Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum) is a major critical version, comprising multiple volumes published from 1931 to 2009 and not yet complete (the largest missing parts are the history books Joshua through Chronicles except Ruth, and the Solomonic books Proverbs through Song of Songs). Its two critical apparatuses present variant Septuagint readings and variants from other Greek versions.[60]

•             In 2006, a revision of Alfred Rahlfs's Septuaginta was published by the German Bible Society. This editio altera includes over a thousand changes to the text and apparatus.[61]

•             Apostolic Bible Polyglot contains a Septuagint text derived mainly from the agreement of any two of the Complutensian Polyglot, the Sixtine, and the Aldine texts.[62]

English translations

The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954.

The translation of Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton, published in 1851, is a long-time standard. For most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. It is based primarily upon the Codex Vaticanus and contains the Greek and English texts in parallel columns. There also is a revision of the Brenton Septuagint available through Stauros Ministries, called The Apostles' Bible, released in January 2008. [2] There is presently a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint in development, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator the World English Bible, (WEB) Michael Paul Johnson.

The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) has produced A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title (NETS), an academic translation based on standard critical editions of the Greek texts. It was published by Oxford University Press in October 2007.

The Apostolic Bible Polyglot, published in 2003, includes the Greek books of the Hebrew canon along with the Greek New Testament, all numerically coded to the AB-Strong numbering system, and set in monotonic orthography. Included in the printed edition is a concordance and index.

The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition also includes the New Testament as well which was also uses the New King James version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.[63]

The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.

Promotion

The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS), a nonprofit, learned society formed to promote international research in and study of the Septuagint and related texts,[64] has established February 8 annually as International Septuagint Day, a day to promote the discipline on campuses and in communities.

See also

                Bible portal

•             Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint

•             Alfred Rahlfs — editor of a commonly distributed critical edition of LXX.

•             La Bible d'Alexandrie

•             Documentary hypothesis — discusses the theoretical recensional history of the Torah/Pentateuch in Hebrew.

•             Tanakh at Qumran — some of the Dead Sea Scrolls are witnesses to the LXX text.

•             Septuagint manuscripts

•             Vulgate

•             Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts

•             Hellenistic Judaism

Manuscripts of Septuagint

•             Cotton Genesis

•             Codex Marchalianus

•             Papyrus Rylands 458 – the oldest manuscript

•             Papyrus Fouad 266 – the second oldest manuscript

References

1.            ^ "The quotations from the Old Testament found in the New are in the main taken from the Septuagint; and even where the citation is indirect the influence of this version is clearly seen.""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

2.            ^ a b "His quotations from Scripture, which are all taken, directly or from memory, from the Greek version, betray no familiarity with the original Hebrew text (..) Nor is there any indication in Paul's writings or arguments that he had received the rabbinical training ascribed to him by Christian writers (..)""Paul, the Apostle of the Heathen". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

3.            ^ "[T]he Egyptian papyri, which are abundant for this particular period, ... have in a measure reinstated Aristeas (about 200 B.C.) in the opinion of scholars. Upon his "Letter to Philocrates" the tradition as to the origin of the Septuagint rests. It is now believed that even though he may have been mistaken in some points, his facts in general are worthy of credence (Abrahams, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." xiv. 321). According to Aristeas, the Pentateuch was translated at the time of Philadelphus, the second Ptolemy (285-247 B.C.), which translation was encouraged by the king and welcomed by the Jews of Alexandria. Grätz ("Gesch. der Juden," 3d ed., iii. 615) stands alone in assigning it to the reign of Philometor (181-146 B.C.). Whatever share the king may have had in the work, it evidently satisfied a pressing need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was rapidly waning before the demands of every-day life.""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012.

4.            ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Hellenism: Range of Hellenic Influence: "Except in Egypt, Hellenic influence was nowhere stronger than on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Greek cities arose there in continuation, or in place, of the older Semitic foundations, and gradually changed the aspect of the country."

5.            ^ a b c Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN 1-84227-061-3.

6.            ^ Sundberg, in McDonald & Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate, p.72. See Augustine, The City of God, 18.42, where Augustine says that "this name ["Septuaginta"] has now become traditional", indicating that this was a recent event. But Augustine offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development.

7.            ^ Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, for instance.

8.            ^ a b c d e f g h i Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.

9.            ^ Davila, J (2008). "Aristeas to Philocrates". Summary of lecture by Davila, February 11, 1999. University of St. Andrews, School of Divinity. Retrieved June 19, 2011.

10.          ^ Flavius Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews.

11.          ^ William Whiston (1998). The Complete Works of Josephus. T. Nelson Publishers. ISBN 0-7852-1426-7.

12.          ^ Augustine of Hippo, The City of God 18.42.

13.          ^ Tractate Megillah, pages 9a-9b. The Talmud identifies fifteen specific unusual translations made by the scholars, but only two of these translations are found in the extant LXX.

14.          ^ "(..) Philo bases his citations from the Bible on the Septuagint version, though he has no scruple about modifying them or citing them with much freedom. Josephus follows this translation closely.""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

15.          ^ Paulkovich, Michael B. (2012). "A Tale of Two Tomes". Free Inquiry 32 (5): 39–45.

16.          ^ J.A.L. Lee, A Lexical Study of the Septuagint Version of the Pentateuch (Septuagint and Cognate Studies, 14. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983; Reprint SBL, 2006)

17.          ^ Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint

18.          ^ Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004), Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p.363

19.          ^ Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111

20.          ^ a b "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (..) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff

21.          ^ a b c d e f Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995.

22.          ^ a b H. B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, revised by R.R. Ottley, 1914; reprint, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1989.

23.          ^ Hoffman, Book Review, 2004.

24.          ^ Paul Joüon, SJ, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and revised by T. Muraoka, vol. I, Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2000.

25.          ^ Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint," (Accessed 2006.9.5).

26.          ^ "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah." "Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

27.          ^ "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [...] In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible [...] It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church.""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

28.          ^ Mishnah Sotah (7:2-4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic or Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.

29.          ^ "NETS: Electronic Edition". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

30.          ^ a b This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica article "TEXT AND VERSIONS", a publication now in the public domain.

31.          ^ Greek-speaking Judaism (see also Hellenistic Judaism), survived, however, on a smaller scale into the medieval period. Cf. Natalio Fernández Marcos, The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Bible, Leiden: Brill, 2000.

32.          ^ "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah (..) Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] (..) In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible (..) It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church.""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

33.          ^ St. Jerome, Apology Book II.

34.          ^ "The quotations from the Old Testament found in the New are in the main taken from the Septuagint; and even where the citation is indirect the influence of this version is clearly seen (..)""Bible Translations - The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

35.          ^ Irenaeus, Against Herecies Book III.

36.          ^ Jerusalem Bible Readers Edition, 1990: London, citing the Standard Edition of 1985

37.          ^ "Life Application Bible" (NIV), 1988: Tyndale House Publishers, using "Holy Bible" text, copyright International Bible Society 1973

38.          ^ Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. — The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX.

39.          ^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.

40.          ^ Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia).

41.          ^ That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.

42.          ^ also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.

43.          ^ Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/

44.          ^ Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias," which opens the book.

45.          ^ Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon

46.          ^ Compare Dines, who is certain only of Symmachus being a truly new version, with Würthwein, who considers only Theodotion to be a revision, and even then possibly of an earlier non-LXX version.

47.          ^ Jerome, From Jerome, Letter LXXI (404 CE), NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustin, with a Sketch of his Life and Work, Phillip Schaff, Ed.

48.          ^ Due to the practice of burying Torah scrolls invalidated for use by age, commonly after 300–400 years.

49.          ^ Würthwein, op. cit., pp. 73 & 198.

50.          ^ See, Jinbachian, Some Semantically Significant Differences Between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, [1].

51.          ^ "Searching for the Better Text – Biblical Archaeology Society". Bib-arch.org. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

52.          ^ Dr. Peter Flint. Curriculum Vitae. Trinity Western University. Langley, BC, Canada. Accessed March 26, 2011

53.          ^ a b Edwin Yamauchi, "Bastiaan Van Elderen, 1924– 2004," SBL Forum Accessed March 26, 2011.

54.          ^ a b Tov, E. 2001. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd ed.) Assen/Maastricht: Van Gocum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press. As cited in Flint, Peter W. 2002. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls as presented in Bible and computer: the Stellenbosch AIBI-6 Conference: proceedings of the Association internationale Bible et informatique, "From alpha to byte", University of Stellenbosch, 17–21 July, 2000 Association internationale Bible et informatique. Conference, Johann Cook (ed.) Leiden/Boston BRILL, 2002

55.          ^ Laurence Shiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 172

56.          ^ Note that these percentages are disputed. Other scholars credit the Proto-Masoretic texts with only 40%, and posit larger contributions from Qumran-style and non-aligned texts. The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 6: Questions of Canon through the Dead Sea Scrolls by James C. VanderKam, page 94, citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts: Qumran scribe type c.25%, proto-Masoretic Text c. 40%, pre-Samaritan texts c.5%, texts close to the Hebrew model for the Septuagint c.5% and nonaligned c.25%.

57.          ^ Bastiaan Van Elderen. The Dead Sea Scrolls. Appendix 1, p. 8. Accessed March 26, 2011.

58.          ^ Joseph Ziegler, "Der griechische Dodekepropheton-Text der Complutenser Polyglotte," Biblica 25:297–310, cited in Würthwein.

59.          ^ Rahlfs, A. (Ed.). (1935/1979). Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

60.          ^ IOSCS: Critical Editions of Septuagint/Old Greek Texts

61.          ^ German Bible Society

62.          ^ Introduction to the Apostolic Bible

63.          ^ "Conciliar Press". Orthodox Study Bible. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

64.          ^ "IOSCS". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

Further reading

•             Bons, Eberhard, and Jan Joosten, eds. Septuagint Vocabulary: Pre-History, Usage, Reception (Society of Biblical Literature; 2011) 211 pages; studies of the language used

•             Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: A yearby-year history from Creation to the present, Jason Aronson Inc., London, 1992

•             Alfred Rahlfs, Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments, für das Septuaginta-Unternehmen, Göttingen 1914.

•             W. Emery Barnes, On the Influence of Septuagint on the Peshitta, JTS 1901, pp. 186–197.

•             Andreas Juckel, Septuaginta and Peshitta Jacob of Edessa quoting the Old Testament in Ms BL Add 17134 JOURNAL OF SYRIAC STUDIES

•             Martin Hengel, The Septuagint As Christian Scripture, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

•             Rajak, Tessa, Translation and survival: the Greek Bible of the ancient Jewish Diaspora (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

•             Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings; 608 pages, Oxford University Press (July, 2011); ISBN 978-0-19-975753-4

•             Hyam Maccoby. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity; 238 pages, Barnes & Noble Books (1998); ISBN 978-0-7607-0787-6

External links

General

                Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The complete Greek text of the modern Septuagint

                Wikisource has original text related to this article:

1911 Britannica entry

•             The Septuagint Online – Comprehensive site with scholarly discussion and links to texts and translations

•             The Septuagint Institute

•             Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): Bible Translations

•             Catholic Encyclopedia (1913): Septuagint Version

•             Catholic Encyclopedia (1913): Versions of the Bible

•             Searching for the Better Text: How errors crept into the Bible and what can be done to correct them (Biblical Archaeology Review)

•             Codex: Resources and Links Relating to the Septuagint

•             Extensive chronological and canonical list of Early Papyri and Manuscripts of the Septuagint

•               Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Septuagint". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Texts and translations

•             Septuagint/Old Greek Texts and Translations LXX finder, listing dozens of editions, both print and digital, in various languages and formats. A good place to start.

•             Septuagint and New Testament – Despite its name, this site does not in fact provide the LXX, rather a shortened version which eliminates all the LXX books later called "deuterocanonical." The Greek NT is presented in full. Both Greek texts, the (incomplete) LXX and the NT, have parsing and concordance.

•             Elpenor's Bilingual (Greek / English) Septuagint Old Testament Greek text (full polytonic unicode version) and English translation side by side. Greek text as used by the Orthodox Churches.

•             PDF version of the Septuagint (Does not include deuterocanonicals, and lacks diacritical marks)

•             Titus Text Collection: Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes (advanced research tool)

•             Septuagint published by the Church of Greece

•             Plain text of the whole LXX

•             Greek-English interlinear of OT & NT. Monotonic orthography.

•             Bible Resource Pages – contains Septuagint texts (with diacritics) side-by-side with English translations

•             The Septuagint in Greek as an MS Word document (requires Vusillus Old Face (Archive copy at the Wayback Machine). Introduction and book abbreviations in Latin.)

•             The Book of Daniel from an Old Greek LXX[dead link] (no diacritics, needs special font)

•             Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton's translation

•             The New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), electronic edition

•             Project to produce an Orthodox Study Bible (OSB) whose Old Testament is based entirely on the Septuagint.[dead link]

•             EOB: Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible: includes comprehensive introductory materials dealing with Septuagintal issues and an Old Testament which is an extensive revision of the Brenton with footnotes.

•             The Septuagint LXX in English (Online text of the entire LXX English translation by Sir Lancelot Brenton)

•             (Online text of the entire LXX English translation by Sir Lancelot Brenton in PDF)

•             The Holy Orthodox Bible translated by Peter A. Papoutsis from the Septuagint (LXX) and the Official Greek New Testament text of the Ecumenical Patriarch.

•             Septuagint LXX - The Septuaginta LXX is an on-going Septuagint project that aims to produce an online critical text of the Septuagint with a comprehensive critical apparatus, and English translation of the Septuagint, Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus.

The LXX and the NT

•             Septuagint references in NT by John Salza

•             An Apology for the Septuagint – by Edward William Grinfield



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    [48] “MEDIPEDIA™" – Why Do MEDICAL DOCTORS DIE YOUNGER?
    [49] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
    [50] “MEDIPEDIA™" – BIBLE HEALTH: ANTI-AGING SECRETS: Moses Said His "Natural Force" was NOT Abated!
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    Can you explain to a Spouse, a Child, or a Friend, HOW "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" (Rom 6:23), Unearned and Undeserved? Eph 2:8-9
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    Obviously, all branches of Christianity do not agree doctrinally - or politically - and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular scripture, event, leader, nation or situation: Thus there are well over 10,000 denominations in the world!

      (THAT'S WHY JESUS WARNED US AGAINST "GNAT STRAINING!" - and "CAMEL SWALLOWING!")

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    Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion NOT be made known for various reasons.

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    Finally, we trust, hope, and pray, that ALL BELIEVERS who look to the Lord Jesus ONLY, to the Word of God ONLY, to "God's WILL ONLY, being done on this Earth AS IN HEAVEN!" (Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2). . . . . .(IS THIS YOUR PRAYER, DAILY GOAL FOR YOUR CHURCH, CITY, STATE, NATION, and THE WORLD???)

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    ASSOCIATION DISCLAIMER

      *Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . .

      . . . we at "CAMBRIDGE in the USA!" are carrying on their "Christian Values of nearly 1,000 Years!" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way, and contrary to every Scripture.

      Cambridge Theological Seminary USA, with the tremendous growth in Global Ministry has had to undergo radical restructuring - as China, alone - swallows up time an resources helping start 400 Churches a month, plus India, and even hostile Muslim Nations!

      Under re-construction and growing greatly, we plan to have the full program in operation again in 2014;

      Pray for us, please!

      MBF


    *Cambridge Theological Seminary:

      Cambridge Theological Seminary is a "Church" and recognizes no agency or religious institution apart from the local Church:

      FACT! Jesus Christ only claimed ONE INSTITUTION as His Own, HIS CHURCH! (Matt 16:18); Thus Scripturally, we recognize no religious institution apart from Christ's Church, be it a SEPARATE Bible College, Seminary, University, Mission Board, TV-RADIO Media Ministry, etc., etc.,

        JESUS ORDAINED NO ORGANIZATION-INSTITUTION EXCEPT HIS CHURCH, ESTABLISHING ITS PURPOSE, GOVERNMENT and AUTHORITY!

        And any Christian Day School, Christian Bible School, Seminary (training Ministers), that is NOT CHURCH is NOT SCRIPTURAL.

      FACT! Jesus - as leader of His Church here on Earth - TRAINED MINISTERS as part of HIS CHURCH . . . Jesus did NOT ordain a "separate" institution, or set up a "different" way, with "other" goals, and it's "own" authority, to train-educate Ministers!

      FACT! If a Bible School or Seminary is NOT a Church, it is NOT Scriptural School, and has NO RIGHT to train-educate Ministers, Christian School Teachers!

      FACT! If a Church is NOT Teaching Doctrine, Training and Ordaining Ministers, it is NOT a Scriptural Church - NOT a True Church - regardless what the IRS declares according to 501-C-3!

        (PS. Church is also NOT a Singing-and-Entertainment Center!);


      FACT! "Doctor" has NOTHING to do with medicine (except in modern American slang and pop" culture;

      FACT: "Doctor" in the Greek is "Master Teacher" and was used by Jesus many times!

      FACT! Old Testament Scholars were "Doctor's of the Law" over 3,000 years BEFORE modern Schools "copied" the word "Doctor" from the Bible!

      FACT! Likewise the word "Degree!"

      FACT: Thus "Doctor" and "Degree" are both Scriptural Concepts and words of Doctrine preceding the MODERN STATE UNIVERSITIES by millennia!

      FACT: That Harvard and Yale, Cambridge an Oxford CHOOSE to copy these terms from the Holy Scriptures, DOES NOTE preclude Christ's Church from retaining - and using - what has ALWAYS been ours!

    Go thou and teach likewise!


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