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Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:



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Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

(From Title Page of His Later Concordance)







    Alexander Cruden: Man of God:

      He devoted most of his life to the perfecting of the Cruden's Concordance, first published in 1737, other editions following and the last in 1769.

      He never married.

      He died suddenly while praying, and was found on his knees - dead - in his lodgings in Camden Passage, Islington, November 1st, 1770.


      (A maid) "She proceeded to his closet, and found him dead, in the attitude of prayer, kneeling against a chair."

    Alexander Cruden's Preface in his own words [Notes in brackets[]:]

      "The Sacred Scriptures, of the Old and New Testament, were written and published in the same manner and form as other books of the age and country to which they belong.

      The prose writings had originally that unbroken flow which distinguishes this species of composition, whilst the poetic parts of the Old Testament were subjected to such arrangements as formed the peculiar quality of Hebrew poetry.


      The divisions into chapters and verses, which now prevail, were the work of industrious men in later ages, when, in consequence of that strict investigation which the Scriptures had to undergo, for the support or confutation of various disputed points;

      [T]there arose an eager desire for a verbal examination of their contents, and a consequent necessity for frequent references.

      It may be, that neither religion nor the Scriptures would have made a worse appearance at the present day, if these changes had never taken place.


        [1] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES: The breaks made by the chapters frequently occasion a misapprehension of the meaning of the sacred writers,

        [2] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES: as they sometimes occur in the midst of a chain of reasoning,

        [3] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES: separating the conclusion from the premises,

        [4] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES: [often separating the conclusion and premises] both from their application.

        [5] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES:And as most persons, from the force of habit, continue to read, both in public and private, neither more nor less than a chapter,

        [6] WHY NO CHAPTERS-&-VERSES: the errors which are acknowledged to arise from these injudicious divisions, fail of being corrected in practice.

          Amongst innumerable instances of this kind, the fourth and fifth chapters of the Epistle to the Romans, the fourth and fifth of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, and the first and second of the Second Epistle of Peter, may be mentioned as illustrations.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

His Prophecy Comes True:


[7] The division into verses has produced a still more injurious effect. These break the continuity and even surface of the Scriptures into an infinite number of sections, all like electric points, glistening with the fires of controversy;

[8] [W]whilst they bring these, apparently distinct and independent propositions, into a state of unnatural prominence. In consequence of these arrangements, all the varieties of sects with which Christendom abounds, are enabled to bring " chapter and verse" for their conflicting and sometimes contradictory statements.

[9] Yet, though these distinctions may not have been of advantage to the cause of truth, and to the right understanding of the Scriptures, they have frequently assisted the meditations of the pious Christian, and been found convenient to divines, in the composition of their public discourses.

The detached form in which the most important and interesting sentiments appeal, gives the memory a firmer hold upon them, and impresses them more strongly on the feelings of the heart.

[10] Whether, however, this condition of the Scripture has beet for the better or the worse, it has now gained so firm establishment, as probably to be unalterable; and it forms the basis on which Concordances are constructed, whilst it greatly increases their use and necessity. END CRUDEN'S COMMENTS ON CHAPTER SEPARATIONS:

The Greatness of His Work:

The preface to the first edition of Cruden's concordance gives an historical account of all concordances that had preceded his own; and states very clearly the advantages of the great work on which he exerted the energies of his mind, and employed the most active portion of his life.

The numerous editions which have been published, and the innumerable copies which have been sold, prove its excellence, and its perfect adaptation to the servants of the public.

As, however the value of such a work is greatly dependent on its correctness, much labour has been bestowed in every succeeding edition, to obtain this result. With what degree of success this difficult task has been attended, may be judged fromthe fact, that in the first fifty pages of the best quarto edition, have been discovered nearly one hundred typographical errors.

The publishers of the present edition have exhausted the resources of their art in producing a clear and legible page, and they have adopted every precaution for the attainment of the highest possible degree of accuracy.

If defects should still be discovered, their existence will not arise from any deficiency of labour or expense it the execution of the work.

Few of those who consult a Concordance will think of seeking for entertainment from a life of the author; and fewer still would imagine, that a man, who could confine himself for years to such an employment, could be the subject of that 'waywardness of mind' which frequently attends the higher powers of genius, and excites the sympathies of mankind.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Difficult Personal Life:

Yet Alexander Cruden was one of those and he writes:

    "Or crazed by care, or crossed by hopeless love," who trod the path of life on the verge of that awful abyss, where the hopes and happiness of so many great minds have been ingulfed. And if madness was, in his case, softened into eccentricity, or directed to the correction and amendment of the generation in which he lived,

    [H]he was probably indebted, for his escape, to that absorption of mind which such a work as this must have occasioned. What would have been to others intolerable drudgery', was a sedative to his agitated mind; and the labour, which would have wasted the energies of a happier man, . . .

    . . .was the balm of his wounded spirit.



Who then was Alexander Cruden?

And what were those sorrows which sought relief in the intensity of mental application, and in unwearied, though often visionary, efforts for the public good?

He is recorded to nave been the second son of a worthy citizen, a Baillie or alderman of Aberdeen, where he was born in 1699-1701, [A contemporary of Whitefield, the Wesleys, Jonathan Edwards, and even George Washington; died in 1770] and educated in the grammar-school of that city.

In this school he was the companion of some who afterwards became eminent, amongst whom he is said to have frequently mentioned George Earl Marischal, and James afterwards the celebrated Mareschal Keith.

At the age of nineteen, he took the degree of Master of Arts, at Marischal College, and attended, probably with a view to the ministry, the divinity lectures of the Rev. Mr. Blackwell; . . .

. . .but an "incident occurred, at this period of his life, which, operating on a sensitive and irritable constitution, blasted his fondest hopes, darkened his fairest prospects, and cast him upon the world with a shattered and distracted mind.

Whilst a student at the university, he had imbibed an ardent affection for the daughter of a minister at Aberdeen. This attachment he pursued with his characteristic ardour, but failed of obtaining the success which he desired.

The lady was determined against his suit, and the eagerness and obtrusiveness of his applications at last determined her father to close his doors against him.

The disappointment overpowered his reason, and his friends were obliged to confine him in a private receptacle for lunatics.

The covert of this asylum sheltered him from a heavier calamity; for it was subsequently discovered that this unhappy lady had been the victim of a guilty attachment to one of her brothers.

But the wound of unrequited love was incurable, and rankled in his bosom to the close of his earthly career.

Many years afterwards, when he was settled in London, his friend Mr. Chalmers, wishing to serve him, offered to introduce him to a merchant near the Royal Exchange, who happened to be a near relation of the young lady.

On knocking at the door, Alexander Cruden was astonished to see it opened by the lady herself. He started back with visible signs of wonder and agony, and grasping his friend's hand, exclaimed wildly, "Ah! she has still her fine black eyes."

The door to which he had been accidentally led, was that of her youngest brother. No subsequent interview took place, but he never mentioned her without the strongest manifestations of grief and compassion.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Disappointment at response to Concordance:

In the year 1737, from disappointment in the expected patronage to his Concordance, he was again attacked by his former malady, and was placed in a private asylum at Bethnal Green.

On his release, he published a whimsical and satirical pamphlet, describing the hardships to which he had been subjected. He also commenced an action in Westminster Hall against Dr. Munro and others, which was disposed of on July 7th, 1739, by a verdict for the defendants, and exposed him to the taunt of Chief Justice Lee.

He underwent another temporary confinement at Chelsea in 1753, and again endeavoured to avenge himself by publishing an account of those receptacles for the disordered in mind.

He also entered into a correspondence with his sister, and some other persons, in which he proposed to them, with great simplicity, a mode by which they might recompense him in a slight degree for the injustice which they ad done him.

He would have persuaded his friends to submit to imprisonment in Newgate, and to his sister he offered, what appeared to him very mild terms, that she should pay him a fine of £10 to £15, and take her choice of 48 hours' confinement in the prisons of Newgate, Reading, Aylesbury, or that in Windsor Castle.

There is reason to apprehend, that the treatment of the inmates of public and private asylums for lunatics was, at that period, exceedingly improper, harsh, and often cruel. None of the maladies to which our nature is exposed require, in a greater degree, the kindness and sympathy of our fellows; and in none is there so great temptation to the exercise of arbitrary and despotic authority.

The unhappy patients are, of necessity, abandoned by their friends, to the sole care and control of professional strangers; and these are, likewise, obliged to delegate their authority to inferior ministers. Sad and bitter must have been the feelings of such as were capable of appreciating the injustice to which they were exposed, and of comparing the stem discipline of a mad-house, with the indulgence and tenderness of domestic intercourse.

It cannot therefore be surprising that Mr. Cruden, after his escape, should retain an indignant recollection of his confinement, and seek to expose the evils of those abodes of wretchedness.

In later times, the efforts of individuals and of the legislature have been strenuously exerted to redress these evils; and by these, together with the progress of medical science, and of humane and religious principles, the lot of that unhappy portion of our race has, perhaps, received all the amelioration of which it is capable.

It is due, however, to the memory of Smollett to remark, that the first impulse to this course of humanity and benevolence was given by him, in that exquisitely pathetic tale, "The Adventures of Sir Lancelot Graves."


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Moves to London for New Start:

Mr. Cruden, as soon as he was released from his first confinement at Aberdeen, determined to quit the place of his birth, and try his fortune in London, where he arrived in 1722. In the metropolis and its neighbourhood, he obtained successive engagements, as private tutor to young men who were preparing for the university.

One of these was at Ware in Hertfordshire. Some unknown cause also led him to the Isle of Man, where he spent several years in similar occupations.

He returned to London in 1732, and obtained employment as corrector of the press; in which engagement his knowledge, assiduity, and integrity, obtained him not only the good will of his employers, but also the esteem and patronage of many distinguished persons.

By the Lord Mayor and some of the aldermen, and other eminent citizens of London, he was recommended to Sir Robert Walpole, and after a long period of tedious suspense, was, by his influence, appointed, in 1735, bookseller to Queen Caroline, consort of George the Second.

He then began to apply himself seriously to the great work, with which he had been some time occupied, the composition of a Concordance of the sacred Scriptures, and, through his great diligence, and persevering industry, the first edition was published in 1737.

It was dedicated to the Queen, to whom he presented a copy, which met with very gracious acceptance; but all hopes of pecuniary assistance were cut off, by the Queen's death, which happened sixteen days after her majesty's declaration, that " she would not fail to remember the author."

This was a heavy stroke upon a poor author, whose little all was embarked in this mighty undertaking; and the disappointment had such an unfavourable effect both on his mind and circumstances, that it brought on his second access of derangement. He was confined again, as has been said, at Bethnal Green;

He contrived to escape, though chained to his bedstead, and, as soon as he was at liberty, published a history of his sufferings, with this characteristic title,

    "The London citizen exceedingly injured; giving an account of his severe and long confinement at Bethnal Green, for nine weeks and six days; the citizen being sent there in March 1738, by Robert Wightman, a notoriously conceited and whimsical man; where he was chained, handcuffed, strait-waist-coated, and imprisoned; with a history of Wightman's Blind Bench; a sort of court that met at Wightman's room, and unac- countably proceeded to pass decrees in relation to the Lon- don citizen," &c. &c.

It was on this occasion that he instituted the suit against Wightman the proprietor of the madhouse, and Dr. Munro the physician, and by pleading his own cause insured a verdict for the defendants.

Neither his misfortunes, nor his derangement, however, prevented him from obtaining engagements as corrector of the press; and during fifteen succeeding years he showed the acute state of his mind, by superintending the publication of several editions of the Greek and Roman classics;

[A]and manifested the most simple and inoffensive manners, and the most conscientious integrity, in all his under- takings.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

More Difficulties:

Eventually, he unfortunately happened to have some dispute, at his lodgings, with his sister, who had, about a twelvemonth before, named a Mr. Wild ; and, through her influence, he was again confined for the space of seventeen days, the shortness of which time seems rather to indicate, that his disorder was not of a very malignant nature.

His release was speedily followed by another narrative of ad- ventures, in which he assumed the permanent character of Alexander the Corrector, the title of which was not less curious than that of his former history: "The adventures of Alexander the Corrector, wherein is given an account of his being sent to Chelsea, and of his bad usage during the lime of his Chelsea campaign, which continued seventeen days, from the 12 th to the 29 th of September 1753. "

With an account of the Chelsea academies, or the private places for the confinement of such as are supposed to be deprived of the exercise of their reason.

To which is added an account of the prophecies of some pious ministers of the gospel, foretelling that Alexander's afflictions are designed by Divine Providence to being an introduction, and reparation, to his being a Joseph and a prosperous man.

With observations on the necessity of a reformation, by executing the "laws against swearers, sabbath-breakers, and other offenders."

It was after the publication of this pamphlet that he made the propositions for indemnity before alluded to.

The remaining portion of his life was passed in a kind of happy and harmless lunacy, which left him sufficiently in possession of his rational faculties, to perform the duties of his arduous occupation, and to exercise himself in the execution of the commission, with which he fancied himself intrusted, to correct the public manners and morals. But, in fulfilling this object, he was not unfrequently led into a course of conduct, which occasioned trouble to his friends and others, and cast a cloud over his name, which, but for this aberration of mind, would have been conspicuous amongst the benefactors of mankind.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Claims Supernatural Communication:

Under the impression of this divine commission, he published several tracts, asserting his claims to supernatural communications, and visited Oxford and Cambridge to exhort the idlers of both sexes to a strict observance of the sabbath, under the threat of eternal vengeance.

His interference was, as may be supposed, in some cases rather uncourteously received.

But it was in London that his principal attempts were made; and to render them efficient, he thought it desirable that his authority should be recognised by the king in council, and that he should be nominated Corrector of THE People, by act of Parliament.

His applications to the higher powers, for this purpose, were supported by testimonials from many ladies, at the head of which was the name of the Lady Mayoress, and those of other ladies of rank.

He also made a formal application to His Majesty, for the honour of knighthood, not from personal vanity, but because he thought it would give weight to his endeavours in the " good cause."

He gives an amusing account of his interviews with the lords in waiting, secretaries of state, and other great men, for this purpose. Being well known and respected, he was not treated with rudeness; but he complains that he was not attended to, except by Earl Pauletf, who, he says, "always spoke civilly to him; and being goutish in his feet, could not run away from the Corrector, as others were wont to do."

RUNS FOR PUBLIC OFFICE: From this same delusion, he offered himself at the general election in 1754, to represent the city of London in Parliament, and his influence was sufficient to induce Mr. Sheriff Chitty to nominate him in the Common Hall.

But, though several hands were held up for him, he declined standing a poll, comforting himself with the persuasion that he had the hearts, if not the hands, of the London citizens.

His next project was of a more private and personal nature, to pay his addresses to Miss Abney, daughter of Sir Thomas Abney of Newington. This lady he addressed under the name of Elizabeth of Silesia; and he made his suit with such persevering ardour, as must have occasioned no small perplexity to that good family.

Among other strange behaviours, he sent round " praying bills" to various congregations, on her going abroad in 1754, that intercession might be made to Almighty God for the safety of herself and attendants. When she returned, he circulated similar forms of thanksgiving.

It cost Miss Abney and her atendants some trouble, to free her from such a persevering suitor.

Yet, amidst all these diversions, he still pursued his business with unabated assiduity, and especially the Correction of his Concordance, and the preparing it for a new edition; which was published in 1761, and presented in person by the author to the King, who gave him a donation of £100.

He had also the honour of presenting it to Queen Charlotte, and to the Princess Dowager of Wales. At this time, Mr, Crudeuwas corrector of the press to Mr. Woodfall, in the publication of the Public Advertiser, a paper celebrated by being made the vehicle of the Letters of Junius.

Here he had full occupation. At one o'clock in the morning he finished the labours of the office, and at six, he was turning over his Bible, with the most careful attention, for the correction of his Concordance. In the evening, he again returned to the printing office, near to which he lodged, at "the Flating Mill, over against the Ship, in Ivy Lane."

In this round of public and private duty he passed his time tranquilly and Happily, embracing every opportunity of performing acts of benevolence to his fellow-creatures; one of which is especially recorded to his honour.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Prison Work:

In 1762 one Richard Potter, a poor ignorant sailor, was tried, and convicted, at the Old Bailey, of forging, or uttering knowing it to be forged, a seaman's sin.

Mr. Cruden was in the court, and was so fully convinced of his being merely the tool of some designing villain, that he deter- mined to interfere in his behalf, and endeavour to move the Royal clemency.

For this purpose, he visited him in Newgate, conversed with him on religious subjects, exhorted, instructed, and prayed with him. The man was awakened to a sense of his condition as a sinner, and appeared to be truly converted to God.

Encouraged by this success, Mr. Cruden began to take measures for saving his life. By repeated applications to Lord Hallifax, Secretary of State, he obtained a change of the sentence, from death to transportation.

As an acknowledgment of his obligations to Lord Hallifax, he presented him with a copy of the second edition of his Concordance, to which he prefixed an elegant manuscript Latin dedication, acknowledging his Lordship's kind interference on behalf of Potter. He published an account of this transaction also, in a quaint yet interesting work, entitled " The history of Richard Potter, &c."

The knowledge which Mr. Cruden obtained, through these visits, of the wicked and degraded state of the felons in Newgate, and the success which had attended his endeavours in the case of Potter, induced him to continue his attempts for the reformation of that prison.

He distributed New Testaments and catechisms amongst its inmates, which were accompanied with personal instructions, and the occasional presentation of small rewards to the most docile of his pupils. But the state of the prison at that period, and the total want of discipline which then prevailed, ren- dered his efforts abortive.

They sold his books, and spent the money in drinking. A philanthropist of the present day has cultivated this waste with greater success.

Uniting female tenderness with the loftiest principles of Christian enthusiasm, assisted by the progress of knowledge and humanity, and increased facilities of religious instruction, and aided by the countenance of the wise and good in the higher classes of society, Mrs. Fry has been able to accomplish what was denied to Cruden and Howard.

Though disappointed in this attempt, he still continued his benevolent exertions in individual instances ; and though he might in some cases appear obtrusive, his motives were always kind, and his pleasure was great whenever he could promote the welfare and happiness of his fellow-creatures.

One Sunday evening, returning from meeting, he met a man who appeared to be suffering under the extremity of misery, and, on inquiring into his circumstances, learned that the sufferings of his family, through poverty, and other causes, had determined him to destroy himself. By suitable admonitions and consolations, with some pecuniary donation, and promises of future attentions, he restored this unhappy man, to his own great joy, to peace and comfort.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Befriends a Prostitute:

Another evening, he is said to have been accosted by a miserable female (prostitute), whom he permitted to accompany him to his own door, and then on quitting her, remonstrated with her on the criminal and ruinous course she was pursuing, and earnestly exhorted her to repentance and amendment.

The poor girl assured him, with tears, that she would gladly quit her present course of life, but knew not where to go."

"It is too late, said he, to talk of this to-night, but, if you remain in the same mind, call on me to-morrow, and I will befriend you."

She came to him on the morrow, and declared herself willing to engage in the lowest and most laborious occupation, if she could but disengage herself from that life of infamy. Not knowing where to place her, Mr. Cruden took her to his own house, as assistant to his servant.

There she continued till his death, and, by the propriety of her behaviour, manifested the sincerity of her repentance.

In the well known contest which took place between the British government and John Wilkes, in consequence of the publication of No. 45 of the North Briton, Mr. Crudentook a very decided part in the defence of government. He published a pamphlet against Wilkes, and always ex- pressed the utmost abhorrence of his moral and religious character, declaring that such a profligate could not be a patriot.

To express, in the most efficacious manner, his dislike, he provided himself with a sponge, and took many a long and tedious walk to efface the badge of party, No. 45, wherever he found it chalked on doors or window-shutters, as well as all other inscriptions offensive to good manners.

In the year 1769, he visited his native city for the last time, where he still maintained his vocation as a public Corrector. He began with giving a couple of lectures, in Latin and English, on the necessity of a general reformation.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

His Tract Ministry:

These were followed by printing, as a hand-bill, the Fourth Commandment, which he distributed every Sunday, to all descriptions of persons.

At a considerable expense, he stored his pockets with various religious tracts, which were given to every one who would promise to read them. He was particularly kind and attentive to children, and by his earnest piety, and simple, unaffected benevolence, obtained the general esteem of his townsmen.

His efforts to do good, however, still partook of his characteristic eccentricity.

"To a young clergyman whom he thought too conceited and modem, he very gravely and formally presented a little catechism, used of children in Scotland, called, ' The Mother's Catechism,' Dedicated to the Young and Ignorant."

The end of his career was now at hand. After the residence of about a year in Aberdeen, he returned to London, and took lodgings in Camden Street, Islington.

His death was marked with something of the peculiarity of his life. No illness or decay indicated his approaching dissolution. He had suffered from a slight attack of asthma, but retired to rest, on his last evening, as usual.

In the morning, his maid rang the bell to summon him to breakfast. No answer was returned; and she entered his bed-room, but he was not there.

She proceeded to his closet, and found him dead, in the attitude of prayer, kneeling against a chair.

Thus lived and thus died Alexander Cruden, who might justly say with Horace ,

" Exegi monumentum aere perennius."

He had, amidst the avocations of business, and the disturbance of a deranged intellect, accomplished a work which will live as long as the English language, and accompany the sacred Scriptures, which are circulated in that language, through all parts of the habitable world. Well may it be said of this pious, benevolent, and industrious man, "

He rests from his labours, and his works do follow him."

Mr. Cruden was a Calvinistic dissenter, and firmly maintained his religious opinion, perhaps influence by the Wesley's amd Arminius.

And his religion was not separated from morality, for his was "the faith which worketh by love."

He was a member of the church which assembled at Great St. Helen's, under the care of Dr. Guise, whom he used to call " his beloved pastor."

On the retirement of Dr. Guibe in 1762, he attended the ministry of Dr. Conder, in Moorfields, and, afterwards, that of Mr. Cruikshank, in Swallow Street. He still however maintained his connexion with the church at Great St. Helen's, where he received the sacrament of the Lord's Supper on the first Sunday of each month. His death took place November 1, 1770.

As Mr. Cruden never married, he distributed his small property amongst his relations, except a sum which he gave to his native city, to be expended in religious books for the poor.

He also founded an exhibition of five pounds per annum to assist in educating a student at Marischal College. His will specified the terms on which this assistance should be enjoyed, one of which was, a perfect acquaintance with Vincent's Catechism.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

His Works:/h3>

Besides the works which have been mentioned before, he wrote "An Account of the History and Excellency of the Holy Scriptures" prefixed to a Compendium of the Holy Bible.

He also compiled a "Scripture Dictionary," which was published at Aberdeen after his death, in 2 vols.

He was employed to compile the elaborate verbal index to Bishop Newton's edition of Milton's Works; a work of great labour and talent, and which he is said to have undertaken at the request of Auditor Benson.

On the enlarging and perfecting of his great work, the Concordance, he employed all the leisure hours of the later periods of his life.

The second edition was published in 1761, and dedicated to his late Majesty George the Third.

The third appeared in 1769, with the Author's last corrections.

The profit of these compensated for the loss upon the first. He received £500 for the second edition, and £300 for the third, with twenty copies printed on fine paper.

These sums, with the product of his other labors, supplied his own moderate personal wants, and formed a fund for those labours of love in which his heart delighted.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:


Cruden wrote:

    "This CONCORDANCE, the work of several years, was begun with a design to promote the study of the Holy Scriptures; and, in pursuance thereof, is now published with many improvements beyond any book of this kind in the English language.

    Long before this Work was ready for the press, I designed humbly to offer it to your Majesty, and to beg leave to publish it under your royal protection.

    Your Majesty's illustrious qualities and example in the great scenes of your valuable life, encourage me humbly to beg your countenance to a well-meant attempt for promoting the knowledge of our holy Religion.

    The beauty of your person, and the fine accomplishments of your mind, were so celebrated in your fatlier's court, that there was no Prince in the Empire, who had room for such an alliance, that was not ambitious of gaining a Princess of such noble virtues into his Family, either as a Daughter, or as a Consort.

    And though the heir to all the dominions of the house of Austria was desirous of your alliance, yet you generously declined the prospect of a Crown that was inconsistent with the enjoyment of your Religion.

    The great Disposer of all things, however, kept in store a reward for such exalted virtue, and by the secret methods of his wisdom hath brought your Majesty to a Crown, as famous for defending and supporting the Protestant Religion, as it is conspicuous for its glory and splendour;

    which is such a return of Divine Providence as is to be admired with great thankfulness, though without the least surprise, since He whose kingdom ruleth over all hath declared, that such as honour Him, He wilt honour.

    It was the fame of this heroic constancy that determined his Majesty to desire in marriage a Princess who was now more celebrated for her Christian magnanimity, than for the beauty of her person, which had been so universally admired.

    We of the British nation have reason to rejoice that such a proposal was made and accepted, and that your Majesty, with regard to these two successive treaties, snowed as much prudence in your compliance with the one, as piety in your refusal of the other.

    You no sooner arrived at Hanover than you improved the lustre of that court, which was before reckoned among the politest in Europe, and increased the happiness of a people, who were before looked upon as the happiest in the Empire.

    And you immediately became the darling of the Princess Sophia, a Princess, justly acknowledged to be one of the most accomplished women of the age in which she lived, who was much pleased with the conversation of one, in whom she saw so lively an image of her own youth.

    We daily discover those admirable qualities for which your Majesty was famed in other country, and rejoice to see them exerted in our Island, where we ourselves are made happy by their influence.

    We behold the throne or these kingdoms surrounded by your Majesty's royal and numerous Progeny, and hear with pleasure of the great care your Majesty takes to instil early into their minds the principles of Religion, Virtue, and Honour.

    Your Majesty is possessed of all those talents which make conversation either delightful or improving. Your fine taste in the elegant arts, and skill in several modern languages, is such, that your discourse is not confined to the ordinary subjects of conversation, but is adapted, with an uncommon grace, to every occasion, and entertains the politest persons of different nations.

    That agreeable turn which appears in your sentiments upon the most ordinary affairs of life, which is so suitable to the delicacy of your sex, the politeness of your education, and the splendour of your quality, is observed by every one who has the honour to approach you.

    But the great regard your Majesty has shown to religion, which diffuses the greatest glory around a human character, encourages me to hope that this Work will meet with your favourable acceptance.

    May it therefore please your Majesty to take into your royal protection this Concordance, the design of which is to render the study of the Scriptures more easy.

    Whatever may be wanting either in the Work or Author, is abundantly supplied by the dignity of the subject; which consideration chiefly encouraged me to presume to offer it to your Majesty, whom God hath exalted to the most eminent station, and blessed with extraordinary endowments of mind, and with a benevolent and beneficent disposition.

    To whom then can I more properly offer this Work than to your Majesty, who is celebrated both for your inclination and capacity to do good?

    May the great God continue to multiply his blessings upon the King, your Majesty, and every branch of your Royal Family: May your life be long continued to serve God faithfully on earth, and may you reign for ever with Him in heaven, through Jesus Christ our Lord.


    These are the sincere prayers of him who is, with the most profound respect,

    May it please your Majesty,

    Your Majesty's Most dutiful and Most obedient servant,


    London, October, 1737.

• The first Edition of this Concordance was dedicated to Queen Caroline, and was presented, November 3, 1737, to her Majesty, who departed this Earth that very month!


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Appeals to the King:/h3>



    This CONCORDANCE was begun with a design to promote the study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, and the method taken therein is deemed by competent judges to be the best towards a complete Concordance that hath hitherto appeared in our language.

    It is acknowledged to be a useful book to private Christians who search the Scriptures, and to to very necessary for all the Preachers of the Gospel. Therefore to whom can this new Edition be more properly offered than to your Majesty, now in the beginning of your reign, having already manifested a great regard to religion, and an earnest concern for promoting it among your subjects?

    All other books are of little or no importance in comparison of the Holy Scriptures, which are a revelation from God, and are given as the only rule of faith and practice.

    If the kings of Israel were required not only "to read the law of Moses all the days of their life, but also to write out a copy of it with their own hand, that they might learn to fear the Lord their God, and keep all the words of his law;" 2 Kings 17:33

    [I]it may be reasonably expected that Christian Princes should make the glorious Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ their daily stay, that it may become their constant guide and rule for the government of their people, as well as for their own salvation.

    It hath been often observed, that the most effectual way to a general external reformation is "to make Religion a step to preferment [advancement or promotion in dignity], and Irreligion a bar to it;"

    because example has a more powerful influence over the minds of men than precept, or even than punishment.

    The early declarations and strong resolutions which your Majesty was pleased to make at your coming to the throne, 'That you would encourage those who are religious, and discourage those that are otherwise,' rejoiced the hearts of all who earnestly desire the revival of vital and practical religion, and to see your Majesty's subjects a holy and happy people.

    True piety has been in all ages accounted the truest honour;

    [F]for religion diffuses the greatest glory around a human character, and sweetens and embalms the memory of Princes.

    A pious Prince, who hath shown a hearty concern for the eternal happiness of his people, as well as for their present protection, will be remembered with great esteem and honour; for the Scripture says, that "the memory of the just is blessed."

    When they are spoken of, it is with praise and commendation by all good men. All other accomplishments, without true grace and real religion, cannot make the children of men happy, who must all die and rise again, " and appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or bad.'

    The memory of Hezekiah, the religious king of Judah, is precious: he hath been celebrated in all ages of the Church for his pious zeal in the reformation of his people at the beginning of his reign;

    for "God honours those that Honour him, and they who despise him shall be lightly esteemed." 1 Samuel 2:30-31

    It is said of that pious King, that "he trusted in the Lord God of Israel, so that after him there was none like him among all the Kings of Judah, nor any that were before him: for he clave to the Lord, and departed not from following him, but kept his commandments, which the Lord commanded Moses."

    Hezekiah, like your Majesty, began his reign in his youth, yet his zeal for the worship of God, and for promoting religion among his subjects, carried him through the great difficulties of reforming a people, who had so much degenerated into gross idolatry.

    May the great God be the guide of your life, and direct and prosper you, that it may be said by the present and future ages, that King George the Third hath been an Hezekiah to our British Israel.

    I doubt not but your Majesty will pardon my forbearing to enter upon your valuable personal accomplishments: I shall only add that, when it pleased God, the sovereign Lord of life and death, to deprive us of the blessing of your Royal Grandfather King George the Second, the Protector of our Religion and Liberties for many years,

    it was esteemed a national blessing that God had favoured Great Britain with a Prince born and educated among us ; who makes the happiness of his People the rule of his government; and without Religion there can be no real happiness for Prince or People.

    When your Majesty came to the throne, the loyal and affectionate addresses from your subjects in all parts of the British dominions, shewed their great hopes and strong expectations of being happy under your Majesty's government.

    We of the British nation have reason thankfully to remember the appearances of Divine Providence in the preservation of our Religion and Liberties, particularly in settling and establishing the Protestant Succession, and in disappointing from time to time all the contrivances and attempts of its enemies, whether secret or open;

    and in your Majesty's coming to the throne with the hearts of all your subjects united to you as the heart of one man.

    May it please God to bestow his choicest gifts upon your Majesty, upon your Royal Mother the Princess Dowager of Wales, and all the Royal Family, and upon your numerous and powerful People.

    May you be blessed, and made a real blessing, and may your reign be long and prosperous ; and after you have been enabled to serve God faithfully here upon earth, may you reign for ever with him in heaven through Jesus Christ.

    This is the sincere and earnest prayer of him who is, with great humility and profound respect.

    May it please your Majesty,

    Your Majesty's most dutiful,

    And most obedient subject and servant,


    London, June 11, 1761,


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION: History of Concordances;/h3>

    A CONCORDANCE is a Dictionary, or an Index, to the BIBLE, wherein all the words used through the inspired writings are arranged alphabetically, and the various places where they occur are referred to, to assist us in finding out passages, and comparing the several significations of the same word.

    A work of this kind, which tends so much to render the study of the holy Scriptures more easy to all Christians, must be acknowledged to be very useful; for if a good Index to any other book is to be valued, much more ought one to the Bible, which is a revelation from God, given as the only rule of our faith and practice, and to discover to us the way to eternal life through our Lord Jesus Christ.

    1 do not here propose to treat of the incomparable excellences of that divine book, which is above all commendation, and will be in the highest esteem by all the true members of the church of God, whose faith, hope, and comfort are built upon these divine Oracles.

    What I shall further do in this Preface, shall be to present the Reader with a short historical account of Concordances, which will tend to display their great usefulness ; and then acquaint him with the method I have followed in this.

    FIRST CONCORDANCE, LATIN: AD-1250-62, Had 500 Helpers!

    Hugo de S. Charo, a preaching Friar of the Dominican order, who was afterwards a Cardinal, was the first who compiled a Concordance to to holy Scriptures: he died in the year 1262.

    He had studied the Bible very closely, and for carrying on this great and laborious work the more successfully, we are told he employed five hundred Monks of his order to assist him. He framed an Index of all the declinable words, and referred to the places where they were to be found.

    This Latin Concordance has been frequently printed with improvements; and since that time works of this sort have been brought to much greater perfection than formerly.

    At first it was thought sufficient to specify the chapter wherein the word occurred, with these letters a, b, c, d, as marks to point out the beginning, the middle, or the end of the chapter.


    But after Robert Stephens, in the year 1543, had divided the chapters of the Bible into verses, the verses likewise began to be numbered, and the letters in the editions of the Concordances to be suppressed.

    And in 1555 this eminent Printer published his fine Concordance, wherein the chapters and verses are exactly distinguished.

    It could not be thought that when so useful a work as Cardinal Hugo's came to be known, men, who carefully studied the Scriptures, would be satisfied that such assistance should be confined only to those who understood Latin: accordingly several have been published in various languages, particularly Rabbi Mordecai Nathan, otherwise called Isaac Nathan, composed an Hebrew Concordance in imitation of Cardinal Hugo's.


    He began it in the year 1438, and completed it in 1448, being no less than ten years in finishing it; and besides, as he himself says, he was obliged to employ a great many writers in this work.

    After printing was invented, it was printed several times: first at Venice by Daniel Bomberg, in the year 1523, under the title of Meir Netib, that is to say. Which giveth light in the way; at Bim by Frobenius m 1581, and at Rome in 1621.

    This was the foundation of that noble work published by John Buxtorf, the son, being assisted by his father's papers, at Basil, in 1632.


    As to the Greek text of the New Testament, a Concordance was published by Henry Stephens at Geneva in 1599, and republished in 1624: but a more accurate one was compiled by Erasmus Schmiaim, and published at Wittembergin 1638, •which was republished more correctly at Leipsic in 1716, and is reckoned a very complete performance.


    A Greek Concordance to the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament, must be owned to be very useful to such as are for comparing the expressions used in it with those of the New Testament, and to those who read the Fathers.

    Conrad Kircher of Augsbourg is celebrated for his Greek Concordance of the Old Testament, printed at Franc fort in 1602. This author has inserted the Hebrew words in an alphabetical order, and placed under them the Greek words to which they answer.

    But since that time, an excellent Concordance to the Old Testament has been published at Amsterdam in 1718, by the aged and worthy Minister of Groningen, M. Abraham Trommius, who instead of following the Hebrew alphabet with Kircher, has chosen rather to observe the order of the Greek alphabet.


    There have been Concordances likewise published in various modern languages; in French by M. Gravelin; in Hish Dutch and Low Dutch by several ; the most complete one in Low Dutch is that begun by M. Martinitz, and finished by M. Trommius before mentioned. In English we have had many. The first was published by Mr. Marbeck in 1550, which is dedicated to the pious King Edward VI. but this referred only to chapters, not verses.

    Then Mr. Cotton published a pretty large Concordance, which has been often printed. Afterwards Mr. Newman published one more complete; and lastly, we have had one published under the title of the Cambridge Concordance.

    There have been several abstracts or small Concordances published: First by Mr. Downame, the next by Mr. Vavasor Powell, then by Mr. John Jackson, and afterwards by Mr. Samuel Clarke.

    As also other works of this nature have been written by way of a Dictionary or Concordance, but in a different method, as Mr. Wilson's Christian Dictionary, Mr. Knight's Axiomatical Concordance, Mr. Bernard's Thesaurus Biblicus, and Mr. Wicken's Concordance, &c.

    Thus it appears that we have had Concordances to the Bible some centuries ago; and the world has been so sensible of their usefulness, that many of them have been composed and published in different languages. But as there are several in our language, it may be inquired.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Why Cruden Did His Concordance:

    What occasioned my undertaking this great and laborious work, or what advantages it has above any other hitherto published?

    When I first began this work, I designed to compose a useful Concordance in Octavo; but after I had printed several specimens, I found it necessary to alter my scheme, and to compile one to be printed in this large volume, in order tomake those improvements which now render it preferable to any other.

    The method is easy and regular, and each text of Scripture is generally contained in one line, whereby the reader may readily find the place he wants, if he remembers any material word.

    When there are two or more texts of Scripture that are parallel, I nave generally mentioned the first that occurs in order in the Bible, and have directly added the parallel texts.

    It is printed with a good letter, though pretty small, which was necessary in order to bring it into this volume, and make it contain multiple columns, much in a little compass ; and great care has been taken that the figures preferring to the chapters and verses of the Bible be exact and correct. When a text is marked with a f , it denotes a marginal reading.

    This Concordance is divided into three Alphabets.

    The first Alphabet contains the appellative or common words, which is the principal part. It is very full and large, and any text may be found by looking for any material word, whether it be substantive, adjective, verb, &c.

    In this part, I have given the various Significations of the principal words, which, I hope, will be esteemed a use full improvement, there not being any thing of this kind in the other large Concordances.

    By this improvement the Reader will have many texts explained, and difficulties removed; and the meaning of the Scripture may be here known by that which is accounted the best rule of interpreting Scripture, namely, bi/ comparing one Scripture with another.

    There is so large a collection of the various Significations of many words in Scripture, as may, perhaps, be not only useful to private Christians, but also to those who preach the Gospel; for hereby many important things may be observed at one view, without the trouble of turning over several volumes;

    and occasion is sometimes taken to give an account of the Jewish customs and ceremonies, by which the Reader is led into the meaning of many passages of Scripture, as may be seen in the words, Elder, Ephod, Synagogue, &c.

    The second Alphabet contains the Proper Names in the holy Scriptures, which the Reader will receive with improvements, as in Abraham, David, &c. The texts referred to where those names are mentioned, give a short historical account of the remarkable things recorded in Scripture concerning them.

    To this part is prefixed a Table, containing the Significations of the words in the original languages from which they are derived.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:


    The third and last Alphabet is a Concordance for those books that are called Apocryphal, which is only added that this work might not be deficient in any thing that is treated of in any other Concordance;

    those books not being of divine Inspiration, nor any part of the Canon of Scripture, and therefore are of no authority in the church of God.

      I conclude this Preface, with praying that God, who hath graciously enabled me to bring this large Work to a conclusion, would render it useful to those who seriously and carefully search the Scriptures ;

      and grant that the sacred writings, which are so important and highly worthy of esteem, may meet with all that affection and regard which they deserve. May those who profess to believe the Scriptures to be a revelation from God, apply themselves to the reading and study of them ;

      and may they by the Holy Spirit of God, who indited the Scriptures, be made wise to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.


      A. C. (Alexander Cruden)

      London, October, 1737.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:


Alexander Cruden wrote:

    "As to what respects this new Edition, notwithstanding the great pains taken in the First, there was room for improvements. The filling up of the lines to make the text fuller could not so well be done in the manuscript copy, as in the printed.

    This renders the sentences more complete in many thousands of places: moreover the texts are more distinct in many places by the leading words being distinguished in Italic characters.

    Some texts are added, and some improvements are made in the Significations of words, and an historical account is given of some eminent persons under their Proper Names; and other things that need not be particularly mentioned.

    Tne labours of many persons to compile Concordances to the Bible, and their acceptance from time to time by the public, shew their great usefulness.

    It may be reckoned a good sign that religion is revived in some considerable degree in the present age, by the great demand for Concordances and religious books.

    The First Edition of several thousands in number has been long sold off, which shews this book's favourable reception from the public; and a demand has been long made for a new Edition.

    There are few books more necessary to those who study their Bibles than a Concordance, whether private Christians, or Ministers of the Gospel who make the Scripture the standard of their preaching.

    I was told by an eminent Minister, that the Bible and this Concordance taught him to preach. This Dictionary may be a help, but the Spirit of God is the best Teacher, who alone can powerfully and effectually teach and impress the heart with the truths revealed in the Scriptures, and make those who read and study the sacred writings wise to salvation.

      My great aim and design in this Work is, that it may be the means of propagating among my countrymen, and through all the British dominions, the knowledge of God through our Lord Jesus Christ, and of ourselves, as the same is revealed in the Scriptures; for whose good I heartily wish that it were more complete than it is.

    For though it be called in the title-page, A Complete Concordance, poor sinful man can do nothing absolutely perfect and complete, and therefore the word complete is only to be taken in a comparative sense: yet competent judges are of opinion that the method here taken is the best which has appeared in our language towards a complete Concordance.

    It is hoped that the above-mentioned improvements in this new Edition will serve to recommend the work more and more to the favour of the public.

    May it please God, by the powerful operations of his Spirit, to make it useful for the spiritual benefit of those who diligently and carefully use it.

    Alexander Crudens

    London, June 11, 1761.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:


Alexancer Cruden Wrote:

    The First and Second Editions of this Concordance having been well received by the public, seems to shew the great usefulness of such a Dictionary to the Bible; for it may be.

    Justly said, that if Christians were convinced that Concordances tended so much as they really do to promote the study and knowledge of the holy Scriptures, they would be more desirous of having one;

    and some Ministers have expressed so great an esteem for this Concordance, that they have said, "If they could not have another copy, they would not part with it for many pounds."

    This third Edition now appears, with some improvements, which it is hoped will engage the continuance of the public approbation this work has already been favoured with.

    May it please God to make it more and more useful, and a blessing to the Church of God through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

    A. C.

    London, March 24, 1769.

He died the next year, found literally in his prayer closet, dead, on his knees, kneeling at a chair.

A bible dictionary that bears his name was finished in the raw notes, and was finally published two years later.


Alexander Cruden;

Author of First Complete Concordance;

Devoted his whole Life to God: Never Married:

Alexander Cruden's Legacy?

And may it be said of NewtonStein: He died the next year, found literally in his prayer closet, dead, on his knees, kneeling at a chair.

A bible dictionary that bears his name was finished in the raw notes, and was finally published two years later.

For these 275 years, God's people the world around has profited from Cruden's Life's work:

And what is YOUR Legacy?


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COPYRIGHT (c) 1965 Cambridge Bible Institute, NewtonStein


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[2] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Potential President Marsha Blackburn: TEA-PARTY SUPER-HERO!

[3] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Ronald-Reagan Files: The Great Communicator

[4] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Kristi Noem, The New TEA-PARTY-PRINCESS!

[5] "AMERIPEDIA™" – REAGAN REPUBLICAN Michelle Bachmann for President: 2012 or 2020?


[7] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Barack Obama Files: His Muslim Connections



[10] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Conservative Politics?

[11] "AMERIPEDIA™" - SARAH PALIN HOME PAGE: "Winning Big Winning Easy in 2012!"

[12] "AMERIPEDIA™" - TALK-RADIO-CONSERVATIVES Home Page: For a Judaeo-Christian America


[14] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Sarah Palin Blog: The Webs Largest "Pro Sarah Palin Site!"

[15] "AMERIPEDIA™" - The "Rush-Recommended Republican Blueprint!"

[16] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[17] "AMERIPEDIA™" - PNN, "PALIN NEWS-NETWORK”: Her Book Sales Set Records!


[19] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[20] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

[21] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "American Bible Catholics!"


[23] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Reagan Republicans Home Page


[25] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Michele-Bachmann, TEA PARTY DARLING Causing “Hysteria-on-the-Left!”

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