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    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

      DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT" -

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!


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Letter "A - I" Below

    Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek Alphabet, are used in Scripture for the beginning and end — representative of Christ.

    In mathematics, letters are used as representatives of nimibers, Hues, angles and quantities. In arguments, letters are substitu- ted for persons, in cases supposed, or stated for illustration, as A contracts with B to deliver property to D. The English




    jJuaseolonjy " a landlord has a hundred a year," " the sum amounted to ten dollars rt man," a is merely tlie adjective one, and this mode of expression is idiomatic ; a hundred in o [one] year ; ten dollars to a

    AAM, n. [Ch. riDN, or xnK a cubit, a measure containing 5 or 6 palms.] A measure of liquids among the Dutch equal to 288 English pints.

    A 'TRONIC, u. Tert&ining to Aaron, the ■Jrwish High P) icst, or to the priesthood of which he was the head. Doddridge.

    AB, In Knghsh names, is an abbreviation of Abbey or Abbot ; as Abbingdon, Abbey- town, Abbeyhill, Abbol-town.

    AB, a prefix to words of Latin origin, and a Latin preposition, as in abscond, is the Greek arco, and the Eng. of, Ger. ab, D. af, Sw. Dan. af, written in ancient Latin af. It denotes from, separating or departure.

    AB, The Hebrew name of Father. See Abba.

    AB, The eleventh month of the Jewish civil year, and the fiflh of the ecclesiastical year, answermg to a part of July, and a part of August. In the Syriac Calendar, ab is the name of the last summer month.

    AB'ACIST, n. [from abacus.]

    One that casts accoimts ; a calculator. [JVot much ^ised.]

    ABACK' adv. [a and back, Sax. on bcec ; at, on or towards the back. See Back.]

    Towards the back ; on the back part ; back- ward. In seamen's language it signifies tlie situation of the sails, when pressed back against the mast by the wind.

    7'aken aback, is when the sails are carried back suddenly by the wind.

    Laid aback, is when the sails are purposely placed in that situation to give the shi| sternway, -- . . _.

    can and Doric orders. Encm.


    plication table, invented by Pvthagoras. ABACUS HARMONICUS, The structure

    and disposition of the keys of a musical

    instrument. ABACUS MAJOR, A trough used in mines,

    to wash ore in. Encyc.

    AB'ADA, n. A wild animal of Africa, of the of a steer, or half grown colt, having

    to the plinth above the boultin in the Tus-f|ABAN'DONER, n. One who abandons.

    two horns on its forehead and a third on ABAN'GA, n. The ady ; a species of Palm- the nape of the neck. Its head and tail

    AB'ACOT, n. The cap of State, formerly ^ used by Enghsh Kings, wrought into the figure of two crowns.

    ABACTOR, n. [Latin from abigo, ab and ago, to drive.]

    tn law, one tliat feloniously drives away or steals a herd or numbers of cattle at once, in distinction from one that steals a sheep or two.

    AB'ACUS n. [L. abacus, any thing flat, as a cupboard, a bench, a slate, a table or board for games; Gr. agot. Usually deduced from the Oriental, n3X abak, dust, be cause the ancients used tables covered with dust for maldng figures and dia- grams.]

    1. Among the Romans, a cupboard or buffet

    2. An instrument to facilitate operations in arithmetic ; on this are drawn lines counter on the lowest line, is one ; on the next, ten ; on the third, a hundred, &c On the spaces, counters denote half the number of the line above. Other schemes are called by the same name. The name is also given to a table of numbers cast up, as an abactts of addition ; and by analogy, to the art of numbering, as in itnighton's Chronicon. ^ "Encyc

    3. In architecture, a table constituting the up- per member or crowning of a column and its capital. It is usually square, but some- times its sides are arched inwards. The name is also given to a concave nioldmg on the capital of the Tuscan pedestal ; and

    resemble those of an ox, but it has cloven feet, like the stag. Cyc.

    ABADDON, n. [Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. n3N, to be lost, or destroyed, to perish.]

    1. The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit. Rev. ix.

    2. The bottomless pit. Milton. AB'AFT, adv. or prep. [Sax. eft or aft, again.

    Hence efler or cefter, after, subsequent ; Sax. (eftan, behind in place ; to which word be is prefixed — beaiftan, behind, and this word is corrupted into abaft.]

    A sea-term signifying in or at the hinder part of a ship, or the parts which lie to- wards the stern ; opposed to afore. Rela- tively it denotes /uri/ier ajl or towards the stern ; as abaft the mainmast. Abajl the beam, is ui that arch of the horizon which is between a hne drawn at right angles with the keel, and the point to which the stern is directed. It is often contracted into aft. Mar. Diet.

    AB AGUN, n. The name of a fowl in Ethi- o])ia, remarkable for its beauty and for a sort of horn, growing on its head. The wcpi-il hianifies statelv Abbot. Crabbe.

    Al'.AISA.NCE, [See Obeisance. Maiiner''s Dic't.W^ 15 V LI UN ATE v. t. [See Alienate, Aliene.

    title of property from one to another — a term of the civil law — rarely or never used in common law proceedings.

    ABALIENA'TION, n. The transferring of title to propenv. [See Alienation.]

    ABAN'DON, D. «. [Fr. abandonner; Sp. and Port, abandonar ; It. abbandonare ; said to be from ban, and donner, to give over to the ban or proscription ; or from a or ab and bandum, a flag or ensign.]

    1. To forsake entirely ; as to abandon hopeless enterprize.

    Wo to that generation by which the te^itimony of God shall be abandoned. Dr. .Mason.

    2. To renounce and forsake ; to leave witl a view never to return ; to desert as lost or desperate ; as to abandon a country ; to abandon a cause or party.

    3. To give up or resign witliout control, as when a person yields himself, witliout res traint, to a propensity ; as to abandon one's self to intemperance. Abandoned over and abandoned of are obsolete,

    4. To resign ; to yield, relinquish, or give over entirely.

    Varus abandoned the cares of empire to hi- wiser colleague. Gibbon

    ABAN'DON, n. One who totally forsake> or deserts. Obs.

    3. A relinquishment. [Xot used.] Karnes.

    ABAN'DONED, pp. Wholly forsaken or deserted.

    iVBAN'DONING, ppr. Forsaking or de- serting wholly ; renoimcing ; yielding one's self without restraint.

    ABAN'DONING, n. A forsaking ; total de- sertion.

    lie hoped his past meritorious actions might outweigh his present abandoning the thought of future actions. Clarendon.

    ABAN'DONMENT, n. A total desertion ; a .state of being forsaken.

    3. Given up

    hence, extremely

    tree. [See Ady.]

    ABANNI'TION; «. [Low Lat.]

    A banishment for one or two years for man- slaughter. [JVot used.] Diet.

    ABAPTIS'TON, n. The perforating part of he trephine, an instrimient used in tre- panning. Coxe.

    ABA'RE, V. t. [Sax. abarian. See Bare.]

    To make bare ; to uncover. [Abi in use.]

    ABARTICULA'TION, n. [See Articulate.] In anatomy, that species of articulation or structure of joints, which admits of mani- fest or extensive motion ; called also diar- tlirosis and dearticulation. Encyc. Coxe.

    ABAS', n. A weight in Persia used in weighing pearls, one eighth less than the European carat. Encyc.

    ABA'SE, V. t. [Fr. abaisser, fi-om bas, low, or the bottom ; W. bais ; Latin and Gr. basis ; Eng. base ; It. Abbassare ; Sp. baxo, low. See "Aba^h.]

    1. The literal sense of aba^e is to lower or depress, to throw or cast down, as used by Bacon, " to abase the eye." But the word is seldom used in reference to material tilings.

    3. To cast down ; to reduce low ; to de- press ; to humble ; to degrade ; applied to the passions, rank, oflice, and condition in Ufe.

    Those that walk in pride he is able to abase. Dan. iv.

    Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased. Mat. xxiii. Job, xl. 2 Cor. xi.

    ABASED, pp. Reduced to a low state, humbled, degraded.

    In heraldry, it is used of tlie wings of eagles,, when the tops are turned downwards to- wards the point of the shield ; or when the wings are shut, the natural way of bear- ing them being spread, with the top point- ing to the cJiief of the angle.

    Bailey. Chambers.

    ABA'SEMENT, n. The act of humbling or bringing low ; also a state of depres- sion, degradation, or humiliation.

    ABASH', V. t. [Heb. and Ch. lyu bosh, to be confounded, or ashamed.]

    To make the spirits to fail ; to cast down the countenance ; to make ashamed ; to con- fuse or confoimd, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness of guih, error, inferiority,&c. They heard and were abashed. Milton..

    ABASH'ED, pp. Confused with shame ; confounded ; put to silence ; followed by at.

    ABASHING, ppr. Putting to shame or

    ABASII'MENT, n. Confusion from shame.

    [Little used.] ABASING, ppr. Humbling, depressing,

    liringing low. ABAS'SI, or ABASSIS, ?!. A silver

    wicked, or sinning without restraint; irre-i of Persia, of the v;iluc of twenty cents, claimablv wicked. " about ten ncnce sterlins. Encic.

    claimably wicked,

    about ten pence sterling.



    ABATABLE, a. That may or can be aba- ted ; as ail abatable writ or nuisance.

    ABA'TE, V. t. [Fr. abattre, to beat down ; battre, to beat, to strike ; S|i. balir, abatir ; Port, bater, abater; It. battere, abbattere; Heb. CIi. £33n, to beat; Syr. .^ela< id.

    Ar. tiA^i gabata, to beat, and i-Haa^s kabatha, to beat down, to prostrate. The Saxon has the pai'ticiple gebatod, abated. The prefix is sunk to a in abate, and lost in heat. See Class Bd. No. 2,3, :«.]

    1. To beat down ; to pull down ; to destroy in any manner ; as to abate a nuisance.

    2. To lessen ; to diminish ; to moderate ; as to abate zeal ; to abate pride ; to abate a demand ; to abate courage.

    3. To lessen ; to mitigate ; as to abate pain or sorrow.

    4. To overthrow ; to cause to fail ; to fru trate by judicial sentence ; as to abate a writ.

    5. To deject ; to depress ; as to abate the sold. Obs.

    6. To deduct ;

    Nothing to add and nothing to abate. Pope.

    7. To cause to fail ; to annul. By the Eng- lish law, a legacy to a charity is abated by a deficiency of assets.

    8. In Connecticut, to remit, as to abate a tax. ABA'TE, V. i. To decrease, or become less

    in strength or violence ; as pain abates ; a storm abates.

    2. To fail I to be defeated, or come to naught; as a writ abates. By the civil law a legacy to a charity does not abate by deficiency of assets.

    3. In laiv, to enter into a freehold after the death of the last occupant, and before the heir or devisee takes

    4. In horsemanship, to perform well a down ward motion. A horse is said to abate, or take down iiis curvets, when, working upon curvets, he puts both his hind legs to the ground at once, and observes the same exactness in all the times. Encyc. ABA'TED, pp. Lessened ; decreased ; destroyed ; mitigated ; defeated ; remit ted ; overthrown. - ABATEMENT, n. The act of abating ; the state of being abated.

    2. A reduction, removing, or pulling down, as of a nuisance. Blackstone.

    3. Duninution, decrease, or mitigation, as of grief or pain.

    4. Deduction, sum withdrawn, as from an account.

    3. Overthrow, failure, or defeat, as of a writ. Blackstoiu G. The entry of a stranger into a freeholi after the death of the tenant, before the heir or devisee. Blacksto

    7. In heraldry, a mark of dishonor in a coat of arms, by which its dignity is debase< for some stain on the character of the wearer. •- ABATER, n. The person or thing that abates. ABATING, ppr. PuUing down, diminish ing, defeating, remitting. __ ABATOR, n. A person who enters into j ju freehold on the death of the last possessor,

    I before the heir or de\'isee. Blackstone


    \TTIS, ) n. [from beating or pulling

    ABATIS, ^ down. Fr. abattre.]

    Rubbish. In fortification, piles of trees, or branches of trees sharpened, and laid with the points outward, in front of ramparts, to prevent assailants from mounting the walls. Encyc.

    AB'ATURE, n. [from abate.] Grass beaten or trampled down by a stag in passing.


    ABB, n. [Sax. ab or ob.] Among weavers, yarn for the warp. Hence abb-wool is wool for the abb. Encyc.

    AB'BA, n. In the Chaldee and Syriac, a father, and figuratively a superior. Sans. appen.

    In the Syriac, Coptic and Ethiopic churches, it is a title given to the Bishops, and the Bishops bestow the title, by way of dis- tinction, on the Bishop of Alexandria. Hence the title Baba, or Papa, Pope or great father, which the Bishop of Alexan dria bore, before the Bishop of Rome. '4 AB'BAC Y, n. [trom abba, Low Lat. abba-j tia.] The dignity, rights and privileges of| an abbot. It comprehends the govern- ment and revenues.

    ABBAT'I€AL. ) r, , . . , ,

    ABBATIAL, J "' Belongmg to an abbey

    AB'BE, n. Ab'by, [from abba.]

    In a monastic sense, the same as an abbot ; but more generally, a title, in Catholic countries, without any determinate rank, office or rights. The abbes are numerous, and generally have sojie literary attain- ments ; they dress as academics or schol ars, and act as instructors, in colleges and private families ; or as tutors to young gentlemen on their travels ; and many of them become authors.

    AB'BESS, n. [from abba.]

    A female superior or governess of a nun nery, or convent of nuns, having the authority over the nuns which the abbot have over the Monks. [See Abbey.]

    AB'h^\,n.plu. abbeys, [from abba.]

    A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded fi-om the world and devoted to rehgion. The males are called monks. and governed by an abbot; the females are called nuns, and governed by an abbess. These institutions were suppressed in England by Henry VIII.; but they still exist in Catholic countries.

    ABBEY-LUBBER, n. A name given t monks, in contem])t for their idleness.

    AB'BOT, n. [formerly abhat, tViuii nhh< latinized abbas, or from Hrh. jiliiral ni3N.]

    The superior or governor of an alibi y or monastery. Originally monasteries were founded m retired places, and the religious had no concern with secular affairs, being entirely subject to the prelates. But the abbots possessing most of the learning, in ages of ignorance, were called from their seclusion to aid tlic rliurches in opposing

    hcn-si,-s ; n„.n,-istrnrs vv,-n- W .led in

    thi- vir,nit\ ..f ,-,,„-- liH- :,Mh,i. brcanie

    weiiltliMii.l he. II.. I-; s.,ii„. ., I'll, , -III .-i>sumed the miter, threw off" their depentlence on the bishops, and obtained seats ui parha- ment. For many centuries, princes and noblemen bore the title of abbots. At present, m catholic coimtries, abbots are regular, or such as take the vow, and wear

    A B D

    the habit of the ordi^r ; an<\ coynmendatury, such as are seculars, but obliged, when of suitable age, to take orders. The title is borne also by some persons, who have not the govermnent of a monastery ; as bisli- ops, whose sees were formerly abbeys.


    AB'BOTSHIP, n. Tlie state of an abbot.

    ABBREUVOIR, n. [Fr. abreuvoir, from abreuver, to water ; Sp. abrevar, id. ; from Gr. Bf>fx>^.]

    Among masons, the joint between stones in a wall, to be filled wth mortar. Diet.

    [ I know not whether it is now used.]

    ABBREVIATE, v. t. [It. abbreviare ; Sp. abreviar ; Port, abbreviar ; fi'om L. ahbrevio, brevio, from hrevis, short ; con- tracted from Gr. Bpo;^j, from the root of break, which see.]

    1. To shorten ; to make shorter by contract- ing the parts. [In this sense, not much used, nor often applied to material sub- sta7ices.]

    2. To shorten ; to abridge by the omission or defalcation of a part ; to reduce to a smaller compass ; as to abbreviate a writing.

    3. In mathematics, to reduce fractions to the lowest teniis. Wallis.

    ABBREVIATED, pp. Shortened ; reduced in length ; abridged.

    2. In botany, an abbreviated perianth is shorter than the tube of the corol.


    ABBREVIATING, ppr. Shortening ; con- tracting in lengtli or into a smaller com-

    ABBREVIATION, n. The act of shorten- ing or contracting.

    2. A letter or a few letters used for a word : as Gen. for Genesis ; U. S. A. for United States of America.

    3. The reduction of fractions to the lowest terms.

    ABBRE'VIATOR, n. One who abridges or reduces to a smaller compass.

    ABBRE'VIATORS, a college of seventy- two persons in the chancery of Rome, whose duty is to draw up the Pope'.s briefs, and reduce petitions, when granted, to a due fiirm for bulls.

    ABBRE'VIATORY, a. Shortening, con- tracting.

    ABBRE VIATURE, n. A letter or charac- ter for shortening ; an abridgment, a

    \. H.

    The tlrree first letters of the alpha- bi-i, used lor the whole alphabet. Also a litll.- book for teaching the elements of reading. Shak.

    AB'DALS, n. The name of certain fanatics in Persia, who, in excess of zeal, some- times run into the streets, and attempt to kill all they meet who are of a different religion ; and if they are slant for their madness, they think it meritorious to die, and by the vulgar are deemed martyrs.


    AB'DERITE, n. An inhabitant of Abdera, a maritime town in Thrace. Democritus is so called, from being a native of the place. As he was given to laughter, fool- ish or incessant laughter, is called abde- rian. Whitaker.

    AB DI€ANT, a. [See Abdicate.] Abdicating : renouncing.

    A B D



    ABDICATE, V. t. [L. abdico ; ah and dico, to cieilioate, to bestow, but the literal jiri- iiiary sense (li dico is to send or thrust.]

    1. In a g-ejiemi seijse, to relinquish, renounce, or abandon. Forster.

    'J. To abandon an office or trust, without a formal resignation to those who confer- red it, or without their consent ; also to abandon a throne, without a formal sur- render of the crown.

    Case of King James, Blackstone.

    3. To relinquish an office before the expira- tion of the time of service.

    Case of Diocletian, Gibbon; also Case of Paul III. Coxe's Russ.

    4. To reject ; to renoiuice ; to abandon as a right. Burke.

    5. To cast away ; to renounce ; as to abdi- cate our mental faculties. [Unusual.l

    J. P. Smith.

    G. In the civil law, to disclai]

    expel him from the family, as a father ;

    to disinJierit during the Ufe of tlie father.


    AB'DI€ATE, v. i. To renoimce ; to aban- don ; to cast off; to relinquish, as a right, power, or trust.

    Though a ICing may abdicate for his own per son, he cannot abdicate for the monarchy.


    AB'DI€ATED, pp. Renounced ; rehnquish- ed without a formal resignation; aban- doned.

    ABDICATING, ppr. Relinquishing with- out a formal resignation ; abandoning.

    ABDICA'TION, n. The act of abdicating the abandoning of an office or trust, with out a formal surrender, or before the usual or stated time of expiration-

    9. A casting off; rejection.

    ABDICATIVE, o. Causing or implying abdication. [LAftte used.] Diet.

    AB'DITIVE, a. [L. abdo, to hide ; ab and do.] Having the power or quality ol' hiding. [Little used.] Diet

    AB'DITORY, 71. A place for secreting or preserving goods. Cowel.

    ABDOMEN, or ABDOMEN, n. [L. per haps abdo and omentum.]

    I. Tiie lower belly, or that part of the body which lies between the thorax and the bottom of the pelvis. It is lined with membrane called peritoneum, and co tains the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bladder and guts. It is separated from the breast internally by the dia phragm, and externally, by the extremi ties of the ribs. On its outer surface it ii divided into four regions — the epigastric, the umbilical, the hypogastric and limibar. Quincy

    '?. In insects, tlie lower part of the animal united to the corslet by a thread. In species, it is covered with wings, and 'H case. It is divided into segments and rings, on the sides of which are small t^piracles bv which the insect respires

    D. JVat. Hist.

    ABDOMINAL, a. Pertaining to the lower

    hellv. ABDOM'INAL, n. phi. abdominals. liil ichthyology the abdominals are a class of fish whose ventral fins are placed behind the pectoral, and which laelong to the division of 6oni/_/5sA. The class contains nine genera — the loche, sahnon, pike,

    argentine, atherine, mullet, flying fish,

    herring and carp. JEnci/c.


    RING, an oblong tendinous ring in both

    groins, through which pass the spermatic ABERR A'TION, n. [L. abeiratio.] The

    cord in men, and the round ligaments of the uterus in women. Med. Diet.

    ABiJOM'INOUS, a. Pertaining to the abdo- men ; having a large belly. Cowper.

    ABDU'CE, V. t. [L. abduco, to lead away, of a6 and duco, to lead. See Duke.]

    To draw from ; to withdraw, or draw to a fferent part ; used chiefly in anatomy.

    ABDU'CENT, a. Drawing from, pulUng back ; used of those muscles which pidl back certam parts of the body, for sepa- rating, opening, or bending them. The abducent muscles, called abductors, are opposed to the adducent muscles or adduc- tors. Med. Diet. son andf|ABDU€'TION, n. In a general sense, the act of drawing apart, or carrying aw;

    2. In surgery, a species of fracture, in which the broken parts recede from each other,

    3. In logic, a kind of argimientation, called by the Greeks apagoge, in which t" major is evident, but the minor is not clear, as not to require farther proof. As in this syllogism, "all whom God absolves are free from sin ; God absolves all who are in Christ; therefore all who are in Christ are free from sin." Encyc.

    4. In lata, the takuig and carrying away of a child, a ward, a wife, &c. either by fraud, persuasion, or open violence.


    ABDUCTOR, n. In anatomy, a muscle which serves to withdraw, or pull back a certain ])art of the body ; as the abductor oculi, which pulls the eye outward

    ABEA'R, V. t. ahare, [Sax. abccran.] To bear ; to behave. Obs. Spenser.

    ABE A'R ANCE, n. [from abear, now disused ; from tear, to carry.] Behavior, demeanor. [Little used.] Blacksto

    ABECEDA'RIAN, n. [a word formed from the first four letters of the alphabet.] O who teaches the letters of the alphabet, a learner of the letters.

    ABECE'DARY, a. Pertaining to, or formed by the letters of the alphabet.

    ABED', adv. [See Bed.] On or in bed,

    ABE'LE, or ABEL-TREE, n. An obsolete name of the white poplar. [See Poplar.]

    ABE'LIANS, ABELO NIANS or ABEL ITES, m Church history, a sect in Africs which arose in the reign of Arcadius they married, but lived in continence, after the manner, as they pretended, of Abel, and attempted to maintain the sect by adopting the cliildren of others.


    A'BELMOSK, n. A trivial name of a spe cies of hibiscus, or Syrian mallow. The plant rises on a herbaceous stalk, three or foiu- feet, sending out two or three side branches. The seeds have a musky odor, (whence its name, iiouxoi,) for which rea- son the Arabians mix them with coffee.

    ABER'RANCE, > n. [L. aberrans, aberro,

    ABER'RANCY, \ to wander from ; of ab and erro, to wander.]

    A wandering or deviating from the right way, but rarely used in a literal sense. In a figurative sense, a deviation from truth,

    error, mistake ; and in morals, a fault, a

    deviation from rectitude. Brown.

    ABER'RANT, a. Wandermg, stray mg from

    the right way. [Rarely tised.]

    of wandering from the right way ; devia- tion from truth or moral rectitude ; devia- tion from a strait line.

    2. In astronomy, a small apparent motion of the fixed stars, occasioned by the progres- sive motion of light and the earth's annua) motion in its orbit. By this, they some- times appear twenty seconds distant frozn their true situation. Lunier.

    3. In optics, a deviation in the rays of light, when inflected by a lens or speculum, by which they are prevented from uniting in the same point. It is occasioned by the figure of the glass, or by the imequa) re- frangibility of the rays of light. Encyc.

    Crown of abeiration, a luminous circle sur- rounding the disk of the sun, depending on the aberration of its rays, by which its ajiparent diameter is enlarged. Cyc.

    ABER'RING, part. a. Wandering; going astray. Broken.

    ABERRUN'CATE, v. t. [L. averrunco.] To pull up by the roots ; to extkpate utterly. [ATot used.] Did.

    ABET', V. t. [Sax. betan, gebetan ; properly to push forward, to advance ; hence to amend, to revive, to restore, to make bet- ter ; and applied to fire, to increase the flame, to excite, to promote. Hence to aid by encouraging or instigating. Hence in Saxon, " Na bete nan man that fyr." Let no n)an bet, [better, excite] the fire, LL. Ina. 78.]

    1. To encourage by aid or countenance, but now used chiefly in a bad sense. " To abet an opinion," in the sense of support, is used by Bishop Cumberland ; but this use is hardly allowable. In law, to encourage, counsel, incite or assist in a criminal act.

    ABET', n. The act of aiding or encouraging crime. [JVbt used.]

    ABETMENT, n. The act of abetting.

    ABETTED, pp. Incited, aided, encour- aged to a crime.

    jVBETTING, ppr. CounseUiug, aiding or encouraging to a crime.

    ABET'TOR, n. One who abets, or incites, aids or encourages another to commit a crime. In treason, there are no abettors; all persons concerned being principals.

    ABEVA€UA'TION, n. [ab and e-acuation.] In medicine, a partial evacuation of mor- bid humors of the body, either by nature or art. Cyc.

    [ABKY'ANCE, n. pron. abuyance. [Norm. abbaiaunce, or abaizance, in expectation ; boyance, expectation. Qu. Fr. bayer, to gape, to look a long time with the mouth open ; to stand looking in a silly manner ; It. badare, to amuse one's self, to stand trifling ; " tenere a bada," to keep at bay ; " Star a bada," to stand trifling. If B d are the radical letters, it seems to belong to the root of abide. See Bay.]

    In pxi)ectation or contemplatiou of law. The fee simple or inheritance of lands and tenements is in abeyance, when there is no person in being in whom it can vest ; so that it is in a state of expectancy or waiting until a proper person shall appear.

    A B 1

    A B J

    A B L

    Tlius if land is leased to a man for life, retiiaiiuler to another for years, the re- mainder for years is in abeyance, till the death of the lessee, for life. Blackstone. ABHOR', v.t. [L.abhorreojofabandhorreo, to set uj) bristles, shiver or shake ; to look terrible.]

    1. To hate extremely, or with contempt ; to lothe, detest or abominate. iShak.

    2. To despise or neglect. Ps. xxii. 24. Amos vi. 8.

    3. To cast off or reject. Ps. kxxix. ii8. ABHORRED, pp. Hated extremely, de

    tested. ABHOR'RENCE, } n. Extreme hatred, de ABHOR'RENCY, ^ testation, great aver

    ABHOR'RENT, a. Hating, detesting, struck with abhorrence.

    2. Contrary, odious, inconsistent with, ex pressive of extreme opposition, as, "Slan der is ahhortxnt to all ideas of justice." In this sense, it should be always followed by to — abhorrent from is not agreeable tc the Eixjrlish idiom.

    ABHOR'RENTLY, adv. With abhorrence,

    ABHOR'RER, n. One who abhors.

    ABHOR'RING,;)pr. Having great aversion detesting. As a noun, it is used in Isaiah l.wi. for the object of hatred — "An ahhor ring to all flesh."

    A'BIB, n. [Heb. 3X, swelUng, protuberant Ch. 33X, to produce the fu-st or early fruit 3'3N, a full grown ear of corn.]

    The first month of the Jewish ccclesiastica year, called also Nisan. It begins at the spring equinox, and answers to the latter part of March and beginning of April Its name is derived fi-om the foil growtl of wheat in Egypt, which took place an- ciently, as it does now, at that

    ABI'DE, V. i. pret. and part, abode. [Ai-. ^x j \ abada, to be, or exist, to continue ; W. hod, to be ; Sax. bidan, abidan; Sw. bida D. beiden ; Dan. bier ; Russ. vitayu, to dwell, rest, continue, stand &-m, or be stationary for any tune indefinitely. CI Bd. No 7.]

    1. To rest, or dwell. Gen. xxix. 19.

    2. To tarry or stay for a short time. Gen; x.\iv. 55.

    3. To continue permanently or in the same state ; to be firm and inunovable. Ps CXLX. 90.

    4. To remain, to continue. Acts, xxrii. 31 Eccles. viii. 15.

    ABI'DE, li. t. To wait for ; to be prepared for ; to await.

    Bonds and afflictions abide me. Acts, xx. 23 [For is here understood.]

    2. To endure or sustain.

    To abide the indignation of the Lord. Joel x.

    3. To bear or endure; to bear patiently " I cannot abide his impertinence."

    This verb when intransitive, is followed by in or at before the j)lace, and with before the person. " Abide icith me — at Jerusa- lem or in this land." Sometimes by the sword shall abide on his cities; antj in the sense of wait, by for, abide/or jne. Hosea, iii. 3. Sometuues by by, abide by the crib. Job, .xxxix.

    In general, abide by signifies to adhere to. maintain, defend, or stand to, as to abide by a promise, or by a fiiend ; or to sufter

    the consequences, as to abide by the event, that is, to be fixed or permanent in a par- ticular condition.

    ABI'DER, n. One who dwells or continues.

    ABIDING, ppr. Dwelling; remaining; Mlinuing; enduring; awaiting.

    ABl DING, n. Continuance ; fixed state ; residence ; an enduring.

    .-VBI'DINGLY, adv. In a manner to con- tinue ; permanently. Haweis.

    ABIL'ITY, 71. [Vr.habilM; It. abilita; Sp. habilidad ; L. habUitas, ableness, fitness, from habeo, to have or hold.]

    1. Physical power, whether bodily or men- tal ; natural or acquired ; force of under- standing ; skill in arts or science. Ability is active power, or power to perform ; as opposed to cfipacitjf, or power to receive. In the jiluiul, abilities is much used in a like sense ; and also for faculties of the mind, and acquired qualifications.


    2. Riches, wealth, substance, which are the means, or which furnish the poiver, of doing certain acts.

    Tliey gave after their ability to the work. Ez. ii.

    3. Moral power, depending on the will — a metaphysical and theological sense.

    4. Civil or legal power ; the power or right to do certain things, as an ability to trans- fer property or disj)Ose of effects — ability to inherit. It is opposed to disability.


    ABINTEST'ATE, a. [L'. ah and intesla- ttis — dying without a will, from in and tc.

    In tlie civil law, inheriting the estate of one dying without a will.

    ABJECT', V. t. To throw away ; to cast out. Ohs. Spenser

    ABJECT, a. [L. abjectm, &om abjicio, tc throw away, from ab and jacio, to throw.]

    1. Sunk to a low condition ; applied to per- sons or things. Hence,

    2. Worthless, mean, despicable, low in esti- mation, without hope or regard.

    AB'JEiT, )!. A person in the lowest con- dition and despicable. Ps. xxxv.

    ABJECT EDNESS, ft. A very low or des )iicable condition. [Little used.]

    ABJECTION, )i. A state of being cast away ; hence a low state ; meanness of] spirit ; baseness.

    ABJECTLY, adv. In a contemptible man ncr ; nieanlv : servilelv.

    AB JECTNE'SS, n. The state of being abject ; meanness ; servilit3^

    ABJURATION, n. [See Abjure.]

    I. The act of abjuring ;, a renunciation upon oath ; as "an abjuration of the realm," by which a person swears to leave the coiui try, and never to return. It is used also for the oath of renunciation. Formerly in England, felons, takhig refiige in a church, and confessing their guilt, could not be arrested and tried, but might save their lives by abjuring the realm ; that ' by taking an oath to qiut the kingdom for-

    2. A rejection or denial with solemnit;

    total abandonment; as "an abjuration of

    heresv." ABJU'RATORY, a. Containing abjura

    tion. Encyc.

    ABJII'RE, V. t. [L. abjuro, to deny upon oath, from ab and juro, to swear.]

    1. To renounce upon oath ; to abandon ; as to abjure allegiance to a prince.

    2. To renounce or reject with solemnity ; to reject ; as to abjure errors ; abjure

    .3. To recant or retract. Shak.

    4. To banish. [J\rot used.]

    ABJURED, pp. Renounced upon oath;

    solemnlv recanted. ABJU'RER, ft. One who abjures. ABJURING, ppr. Renouncing upon oath ;

    disclaiming with solenmit)^ ABLAC'TATE, t-. t. [L. ablacto ; from ab

    and lac, milk.] To wean from tlie breast.

    [LitUe used.] ABLACTA'TION, n. [L. ab and lac, miUc.

    Lacto, to suckle.]

    1. In medical authors, the weaning of a child from the breast.

    2. Among ancient gardeners, a Siethod of grafting in which the cion was not sepa- ratee! (Vcjiii till' parent stock, till it wa.s firmly uiiitid to that in which it was in- serted. Tills is now called grafting by approach or inarching. [See Craft.] Encyc.

    ABLAQUEATION, [L. allaqucatio, fi-om ab and laquear, a roof or covering.]

    A laying bare the roots of trees to expose them to the air and water — a practice niiiong eardeners.

    ABLATION, n. [L.o6 anAlatio, a carrj-- ing-]

    A carrying away. In medicine, the taking from the body whatever is hurtful ; evac- uations in general. In rhimistry, the re- moval of whatever is finished or no longer necessarv.

    AB'LATIVE, a. [F. ahlaiif; It. ablativo ; L. ahhilirtis ; L. ablatus, from aufero, to cany away, c^fah and /fro.]

    \ word applied to the sixth case of nouns in the Latin language, in which case are u.scd words when the actions of carrying away, or taking from, are signified.

    Ablative absolute, is when a word in that case, is independent, in construction, of the rest of the sentence.

    ABLE, a. a'bl. [L. habilis ; Norm, ablez.] V

    1. Having physical power sirfficient ; having competent power or strength, bodily or mental ; as a man able to perform miUtary service — a child is not able to reason oii abstract subjects.

    2. Having strong or imusual nowers of mind, or intellectual qualificanons ; as an able minister. Provide out of all Israel able men. Ex. xviii.

    3. Having large or competent property ; or simply having property, or means. Everj' man shall give as he is able. Dcut. xvi.

    4. Having competent strength or fortitude. He is not able to sustain such pain or affliction.

    5. Having sufficient knowledge or sldll. He is able to speak French. She is not able to play on the piano.

    G. Having competent moral power or quali- fications. An illesilimate son is not able to take by inher-

    A'BLE-B6DIED,n. Havmg a sound, strong body, or a body of competent strength for service. In marine language, it deuctcs sldll in seamanship. Mar. Diet.


    -AB'LEN, or AB'LET, n. A Miiail fresh

    water fish, the bleak. A'BLENESS, n. Abihty of body or mmd ;

    force ; vigor ; capabihty. AB'LEPSY, n. [Gr. oisjif+ia.] Want of

    sight ; blindness. ABLER, and A'BLEST, Comp. and superl

    of able. AB'LOCATE, V. t. [L. abloco, ah and loco

    to let out.] To let out ; to lease. Calvin ABLOCA'TION, n. A letting to hire. ABLU'DE, v.t.[L. abludo, ah and ludo, to play.' To be unhlte ; to differ. [N'ol used.] Hall AB'LUENT, a. [\.. ahluo, to wash away;

    ab and luo, or lavo, to wash ; Ir. lo or liui.

    water.] Washing clean ; cleansing by water or li- quids. [Little used except as a noun.] AB'LUENT, n. In medicine, that which

    thins, purifies or sweetens tlie blood.


    [See Diluent and Abstergent.] ABLUTION, n. [L. abhitio, from ab and luo

    or lavo to wash.]

    1. In a general sense, the act of washing a cleansing or purification by water.

    2. Appropriately, the washing of the body as a preparation for religious duties, enjoin: ed by Moses and still practiced in many countries.

    3. In chimistry, the purification of bodies by the affusion of a proper liquor, as water to dissolve salts. Qiiincy.

    4. Ill medicine, the washing of the body ex- ternally, as by baths ; or internally, by diluting fluids.

    5. Pope has used ablution for the water used in cleansing.

    6. The cup given to the laity without conse cration, in popish churches. Johnson

    A'BLY, adv. In an able manner ; with great abilitv.

    AB'NEGATE, v. I. To deny. [JVb« used:

    ABNEGATION, n. [L. abnego, to deny, from ab and neso ; W. 7mca, nacau ; Sw. 7}eka, to deny ; W. nac, no ; Eng. nay; L. nee, not ; Ir. nach, not.] A denial ; a re- nunciation ; self-denial. Hammond.

    AB'NEGATOR, n. One who denies, re- nounces, or opposes any tiling. Sandys.

    ABNODA'TION, n. [L. abnodo ; ab and nodus, a knot.] The act of cutting away the knots of trees. Diet.

    ABNORM'ITY, n. [L. ainormu, in-egular ; ah and norma, a rule.] Irregularity ; de- formity. [Little used.] Diet.

    ABNORIVrOUS, a. [L. abnormis, supra.] Irregular ; deformed. [Little used.] Diet.

    ABOARD, adv. [a and board. See Board.] Within a ship, vessel, or boat.

    Togo aboard, to enter a ship, to embark.

    To fall aboard, to strike a ship's side.

    Aboard main tack, an order to draw a corner

    of the main-sail down to the chess-tree.

    Encyc. Mar. Diet.

    ABO'DANCE, n. [from bode.] An omen. [j\"ot used.] Johnson.

    ABO'DE, pret. of abide.

    ABO'DE, n. [See Abide.] Stay; continuance in a place ; residence for a longer or shor- ter time.

    2. A place of continuance ; a dwelling ; a habitiition.

    3. To make abode, tn dwell or reside. ABO'DE, v.t. [See Bode.] To foreshow.



    ABO'DE, V. i. To be an omen. Dryden

    ABO'DEMENT, n. [from bode.] A secret anticipation of something future. Shak

    ABO'DING, ji. Presentiment ; prognostica tion. Hall.

    ABOL'ISH, v.t. [Fr. abolir; L. aholeo ; {rom ah and oleo, olesco, to grow.]

    1. To make void; to annul; to abrogate applied chiefly and appropriately to estab- fished laws, contracts, rites, customs and institutions — as to abolish laws by a repeal, actual or virtual.

    9. To destroy, or put an end to ; as to abol- ish idols. Isa. ii. To abolish death, 2 Tim. i. This sense is not common. To abolish posterity, in the translation of Pau sanias. Lib. 3. Ca. 6. is hardly allowable.

    ABOL'ISHABLE, a. That may be annul led, abrogated, or destroyed, as a law, rite, custom, &c.

    ABOL'ISHED,;;;?. AnnuUed ; repealed ; ab rogated, or destroyed.

    ABOL'ISHER, n. One who aboUshes.

    ABOL'ISIIING, ppr. JIaking void ; annul

    ling ; destroving. ABOLISHMENT, n. The act of aimul

    ing ; abrogation ; destruction. Hooker

    ABOLI"TION, n. abolishun. The act of abolishing ; or the state of beuig abolish ed ; an annulfing ; abrogation ; utter des truction ; as the abolition of laws, decrees ordinances, rites, customs, debts, &lc.

    The appUcation of this word to persons and things, is now uimsual or obsolete. To abolish persons, canals and senses, the Ian guage of good writers formerly, is no Ion ger legitimate.

    ABOM'INABLE, a. [See Abomiiiate.] Very hateful ; detestable ; lothesome. This word is appficable to whatever odious to the mind or offensive to the senses. Milton.

    3. Unclean. Lcvit. vii-

    IaBOMTNABLENESS, n. The quality or tate of being very odious; hatefuhiess.

    ABOM'INABLY, adv. Very odiously ; de testably ; sinfiilly. 1 Kings xxi.

    2. In vulgar language, extremely, exces sivelv.

    ABOMTNATE, v. t. [L. abomino, supposed to be formed by ab and omen ; to depre cate as ominous ; may the Gods avert the evil.]

    To hate extremely ; to abhor ; to detest.


    ABOM'INATED, pp. Hated utterly; de tested ; abhon-ed.

    ABOMINATING, ppr. Abhorring ; hating extremely.

    ABOMINA'TION, n. Extreme hatred ; de testation. Sieijl^

    2. Theobject of detestation, a common signi- fication in scripture.

    The way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord. Prov. xv.

    3. Hence, defilement, pofiution, in a physica' sense, or evil doctrines and practices, which are moral defilements, idols and idolatry, are called abominations. The Jews were an abomination to the Egyp- tians ; and the sacred animals of the Egj'jJtians were an abomination to the Jews. The Roman army is called the abomination of desolation. Mat. xxiv. 13. In short, whatever is an object of extreme hatred, is called an abomination.


    ABO'RD, n. [Fr. See Border.] Literally, ar- rival, but used for first a|)pearance, man- ner of accosting, or address, but not an Enghsh word. Chesterfield.

    ABO'RD, v.t. To accost. [JVotinuse.]

    ABO'REA, n. A species of duck, called by Edwards, the black-bellied whistling duck. This fowl is of a reddish brown color, with a sort of crest on its head ; the belly is spot- ted with black and white. It belongs to the genus, anas.

    ABORIG'INAL, a. [L. ab and origo, origm. See Origin.]

    First ; original ; primitive ; aboriginal people are the first inhabitants of a country. Aboriginal tribes of America.

    President Smith

    ABORIG'INAL, n. An original, or primitive inhabitant. The first settlers in a country are called aboriginals ; as the Celts in Eu- rope, and Indians in America.

    President Smith.

    ABORIGINES, n. plur. Aborigmals— but word.

    not an Enghsh i It may be well to let it pass into disuse. [See

    Aboriginal.] ABORSEMENT, n.abors'ment. [See Abort.]

    Abortion. [jVot in use.] ABORT', V. I. [L. aborto ; ab and ortus, orior.]

    To miscarry in birth. [JVb< in use.]

    Herbert. ABORT', n. An abortion. [JSTotinuse.]

    Burton. ABORTION, n. [L. aioj-ito, a miscarriage ;

    usually deduced from o6 and orior.]

    1. The "act of miscarrying, or jwoducing young before the natural time, or before the fetus is perfectly formed.

    2. In a figurative sense, any fruit or produce that does not come to maturity, or any thing which fails in its progress, before it is matured or perfect, as a design or pro- ject.

    3. The fetus brought forth before it is per- fectly formed.

    ABOR'TIVE, a. Brought forth m an imma- ture state ; failmg, or coming to naught, before it is comj)lete.

    2. Failing in its effect ; miscarrying ; pro- ducing nothing ; as an abortive scheme.

    3. Rendering abortive; as abortive gulf, in Milton, but not legitimate.

    4. Pertaining to abortion ; as abortive vellum, made of the skin of an abortive calf


    5. In botany, an abortive flower is one which falls without producing fruit. Martyn.

    ABOR'TIVE, n. That which is brought forth or born prematurely. [Little used.]

    ABOR'TIVELY, adv. Immaturely ; in an untimely manner.

    ABOR'TIVENESS, n. The state of being abortive ; a failuig in the progress to per- fection or maturity ; a failure of producing the intended effect. llbVBORT'MENT, n. An untimely birth.

    ABOUND', v.i. [L.abundo;Fr.abonder; It. abbondare ; Sp. abundar. If this word is from L. unda. a wave, the latter has prob- ably lust its first consonant. Abound may n;it"inally be deduced from the Celtic. Anil. /;«(», I'leiity ; fonna,lo abound; W. fyniaw. tn prudiiie, to generate, to abound, from fu'n, a source, the root of fynon. L. fons, a fountain.]

    A B G

    1. To have or possess in great quantity; to be copiously supplied; followed by with or in ; as to abound tvith provisions ; to abound in good things.

    2. To be in great plenty ; to be very prevalent.

    Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. Rom. v.

    ABOUNDING, ppr. Having in great plen- ty ; being in great plenty ; l)eing very pre- valent ; generally prevaiUng.

    ABOUND'ING, ji. Increase. South.

    ABOUT', prep. [Sax. abutan, onbutan, em- butan, about, around ; on or emb, coincid- ing with Or. a^$i, and butan, without, [see but,] Uterally, around, on the outside.]

    1. Around ; on the exterior part or surface.

    Bind them about thy neck. Prov. iii. 3. Isa. 1. Hence, .

    2. Near to iti place, with the sense of circiUa- rity.

    Get you up from about the tabernacle. Num. xvi.

    3. Near to in lime. .

    He went out a6«u( the third hour. Mat.xxi.iJ.

    4. Near to, in action, or near to the perform- ance of some act.

    Paul was about to open his mouth. They were about to flee out of the ship. Acts, xviii. 14— xxvii. 30. , , , , ,

    5. Near to the person ; appended to the clothes Every thing about him is in order. Is your snuffbox about you ?

    From nearness on all sides, the transition

    is easy to a concern with. Hence,

    C. Concerned in, engaged in, relating to, re-

    A B O

    The weight is above a tun.

    4. More in degree; in a greater degree. Hannaniah feared God above many. Neh,

    vii. 2.

    The serpent is cursed above all catUe. Gen. m

    5. Beyond ; in excess. I In stripes above measure. 2 Cor. xi.

    God will not suffer you to be tempted above I what ye are able, 1. Cor. x. 13.

    6. Beyond ; in a state to be unattainable ; as things above comprehension.

    7. Too proud for. This man is above his business.

    8. Too elevated in mind or raiilc ; having too much dignity for ; as

    This man is above mean actions


    I must be about my father's busmess. Luke, ii. 49. The painter is not to take so much pains about the drapery as about tlie face. I>ryd( flTiat is he about ? 7. In compass or circumference ; two yards

    about the trunk. ABOUT', ofrfi'. Near to in number or quantity There fill tliat day about three thousand men, Ex. xxxii.

    2. Near to in quality or degree ; as about as high, or as cold.

    3. Here and there ; around ; in one place and another.

    Wandering about from house to house. 1. Tim. v.

    4. Round, or the longest way, opposed to across, or the shortest way. A mile about, and half a mile across.

    To bring about, to bring to the end; to ef- fect or accomplish a purpose.

    To come about, to change or turn ; to come to the desired point. In a like sense, sea- men say go about, when a ship changes her course and goes on the other tack

    Ready about, about ship, are orders for tack- ing.

    To go aboiit, signifies to enter upon ; also to prepare ; to seek the means.

    fvhy go ye about to kill nie. John, vii. -^ ABOVE', prep. [Sax. abufan, bufan, bufon , D. ftoi'cn.]

    1. Literally, liigher in place.

    The fowls that fly above the earth. Gen. i. 20

    2. Figuratively, superior in any respect.

    I saw a light above the brightness of the Sun Acts, xxvi.

    The price of a virtuous woman is above ru bies, Prov. xxxi.

    3. More in number or qnantity.

    He was seen by above five hundred brethren at once, 1. Cor. xv. 6.

    3. It is often used elliptically, for IieavcU; the celestial regions.

    Let not God regard it from above. Job, iii The powers above. 10 In a book or writing, it denotes if/on in a former place, as what has been said above ; supra. This mode of speakiii originated in the ancient maimer of writ- ing, on a strip of parchment, beginning one end and proceeding to the other. The, beginning was the upper end. ABOVE', adv. Overhead ; in a higher place. Bacon. 2. Before. Dnjden.

    ."?. Chief in rank or power. Deut. xxviii. I'e all is elliptical; above all considera- ons ; chiefly ; in preference to other things. Above board ; above the board or table ; in open sight ; without trick, concealment or deception. This expression is said by Johnson to be borrowecl from gamesters, who, when they change their cards, put their hands imder the table. ABOVE-CITED, Cited before, in the pre

    ceding part of a book or wi-ituig. ABOVE-GROUND, Alive, not buried. ABOVE-MENTIONED, Mentioned before. A. Bp. Al)brev. for Archbishop. ABRACADAB'RA, The name of a deity worsliipped by the Syrians : a cabaUstic word. The letters of his name, written on paper, in the form of an inverted cone, were recommended by Samonicus as an antidote against certain diseases. Encyc. ABRA'DE, V. t. [L. abrado, to scrape, from

    rado.] To rub or wear off; to waste by friction used especially to express the action of sharp, corrosive medicines, in wearing away or removing the mucus of the mem- branes. ABRA'DED, pp. Rubbed or worn off; worn ;

    scraped. ABRA'DING, ppr. Rubbing off; wearing. ABRAHAM'IC, a. Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch, as Abrahamic Covenant


    ABRA'SION, n. abra'zhun. The act ol

    wearing or rubbing off; also substance

    worn off by attrition. Quinn/.

    ABREAST', adv. abresV, [from a and breast.]

    1. Side by side ; with the breasts in a line Two men rode abreast.

    2. In marine language, ships are abreast when their heads are equally advanced and tliev are abreast of objects when the objects "are on a line with the beam- Hence,

    3. Opposite ; against ; on a line with— as a I ship was abreast of Montauk point. — .3| I seaman's phrase.


    .\BRID6E', V. t. abridj', [Fr. ahriger, from Gr. 9<^xv(, short, or its root, from the root oi break or a verb of that family.] To make shorter ; to epitomize ; to con- tract by using fewer words, yet retaining the sense in substance— used of writings.

    Justin abridged the history of Trogus Pom- peius.

    2. To lessen; to diminish; as to abridge labor ; to abridge power or riglits. Smith.

    3. To deprive ; to cut off from ; followed by of; as to abridge one of his rights, or enjoy- ments. To abridge from, is now obsolete or improper.

    4. In algebra, to reduce a compound quantity or equation to its more simple expression. The equation thus abridged is called a for- mula.

    ABRIDG'ED pp. IMade shorter ; epitomized; reduced to a smaller compass ; lessened ; deprived.

    ABRID(i'ER, It. One who abridges ; one who makes a compend.

    ABRIDGING, ppr. Shortening; lessening; depriving ; debarring.

    ABRIDGMENT, n. An epitome ; a com- pend, or sumraaiT of a book.

    2. Diminution ; contraction ; reduction — as an abridgment of expenses.

    3. Deprivation ; a debarring or restraint— as an ahridgment of pleasures.

    ABROACH, adv. [See Broach.] Broached ; letting out or yielding liquor, or in a posture for letting out ; as a cask is abroach. Figuratively used by Shakespeare for setting loose, or in a state of being dif- fused, "Set miscliief abroach;" but tliis sense is unusual. ABROAD, adv. abrawd'. [See Broad.] In a general sense, at large ; widely ; not confined to naiTow limits. Hence,

    1. In the open air.

    ' Beyond or out of the walls of a house, as

    o walk abroad. 3. Beyond the limits of a camp. Deut. xxiii. 10.

    Beyond the bounds of a country ; in for- eign countries — as to go abroad for an ed- ucation. — We have broils at home and en- emies abroad.

    5. Extensively ; before the public at large. He began to blaze abroad the matter. Mark i. 45. Esther 1.

    i Widely ; with expansion ; as a tree spreads its branches abroad.

    AB ROGATE, v. t. [L. abrogo, to repeal, from ab and rog-o, to ask or propose. See the EnffUsh reach. Class Rg.]

    To repeat; to annul by an authoritative act ; to abolish by the authority of the malter or his successor ; applied 'to the repeal of laws, decrees, ordinances, the abolition of established customs &c.

    AB'ROGATED;)?). Repealed ; annulled by an act of authority.

    AB'ROGATING,;>/)r. Repealing by author- itv ; ni.iking void.

    ABROGATION, n. The act of abrogating; a repeal by authority of the legislative power.

    ABROOD' adv. [See Brood.] In the action ofbroodins. [.Vo« in «.?e.] Sancrojt.

    ABROOD'ING, n. A sitting abrood. [Aot in use.] B.isset.

    ABROOK', V. t. To brook, to endure. |.Vo/ in I'se. Sec Brook.] .^kak.

    A B S

    ABRO TANUM, n. [Gr. A§poforov.]

    A species of ]ilant arranged under the Genus,

    Artemisia ; called also southern wood. ABRUPT', a. [L. abruplus, from abrumpo, to

    break of, oi ah and rumpo. See Rupture.]

    1. Literally, broken off, or broken sliort. Hence,

    2. Steep, craggy ; applied to rocks, precipi- ces and the like.

    3. Figurativdy, sudden ; without notice to prejjare the mind for the event ; as an ab- rupt entrance and address.

    4. Unconnected ; having sudden transitions from one subject to another ; as an abrupt style. Ben Jonson

    5. In botany, an abrupt pinnate leaf is one which has neither leaflet, nor tendiil at the end. MaHyn

    ABRUPT' n. A chasm or gulf with steep sides. " Over the vast abrupt." Milton. [T)ds use of the word is infrequent.']

    ABRUP'TION, n. A sudden breaking off; a violent separation of bodies. IVoodward.

    -VBRUPT'LY, adv. Suddenly; without giv- ing notice, or without the usual forms ; as, the Mmister left France abruptly.

    ABRUPT'NESS, n. A state of being brok- en ; craggediiess ; steepness.

    2. Figuratively, suddenness ; unceremonious haste or vehemence.

    AB'SCESS, n. [L. abscessus, from ab and cedo, to go from.]

    An imposthume. A collection of morbid matter, or pus in the cellular or adipose membrane ; matter generated by the sup- puration of an inflammatory tumor.

    QuinoT/. Hooper.

    ABSCIND', vt. [L. absci7ido.] To cut off. [Little used.]

    AB'SCISS, n. [L. abscissus, from ab and scindere, to cut ; Gr. ff;ti?u. See Scissors.]

    In conies, a part of the diameter, or transverse axis of a conic section, intercepted be- tween the vertex or some other fixed point, and a semiordinate. Encyc.

    ABSCIS"SION, n. [See Absciss.]

    A cutting off, or a being cut oft". In surgery, the separation of any corrupted or useless part of the body, by a sharp instrimient ; applied to the soft parts, as amputation is to the bones and flesh of a limb. Quincy.

    ABSCOND', t).t. [L.abscondo, to hide, of abs and condo, to hide, i. e. to withdraw, or to thrust aside or mto a corner or secret place.]

    1. To retire from public view, or from the place in which one resides or is ordinarily to be found ; to withdraw, or absent one's self in a private manner ; to be concealed ; appropriately, used of persons who secrete themselves to avoid a legal process.

    2. To hide, withdraw or be concealed ; as, " the marmot absconds in winter. [lAttle used.] Ray.

    ABSCOND'ER, n. One who withdraws from public notice, or conceals himself from public view.

    ABSeOND'ING, ppr. Whhdrawing pri- vately from public view ; as, an absconding (/eJtor, who confines himself to his apart- ments, or absents himself to avoid the mi- ;iisters of justice. In the latter sense, it is properly an adjective.

    AB'SENCE, n. [L. absens, from ahsum, abesse, to be away ; ab and sum.]

    1. A state of being at a distance in place, or


    not in company. It is used to denote any distance indefinitely, either in the sann town, or country, or in a foreign country and primarily supposes a prior presence. " Speak well of one in his absence."

    2. Want ; destitution ; implying no previous presence. " In the absence of conventiona' law." Ch. Kent.

    3. In law, non-appearance ; a not being ii court to answer.

    4. Heedlessness ; inattention to things pre sent. Absence of mind is the attention of the mind to a subject which does not occu py the rest of the company, and wliicl draws the mind from things or objects which are present, to others distant or for- eign.

    AB'SENT, a. Not present ; not in compa- ny ; at such a distance as to prevent com- munication. It is used also for being in i foreign country. A gentleman is absent on his travels. Absent from one another. Gen. xxxi. 49.

    2. Heedless ; inattentive to persons pre- sent, or to subjects of conversation m com pany.

    An absent man is uncivil to the company. In familiar language, not at home ; as, the master of the house is absent. In other words, he does not wish to be disturbed by company.

    ABSENT', V. t. To depart to such a dis tance as to prevent intercourse ; to retire or withdraw ; to forbear to appear in pre- sence ; used with the reciprocal pronoun.

    Let a man absent himself from the company

    ABSENTEE', n. One who withdraws iron his coimtry, ofiiee or estate ; one who removes to a distant place or to another country.

    ABSENt'ER, n. One who absents himself

    /VBSENT'MENT, ,i. A state of being ab- sent. Barroto.

    ABSINTH'IAN, a. [from absinthium.] Of the natuie of wormwood. Randolph

    ABSINTH'IATED, a. Impregnated with wormwood. Diet.

    ABSINTH'IUM, n. [Gr. o+aS™. ; Per.

    ...AAAAMil afsinthin ; the same inChal-

    daic. BudEBus in his commentaries on Theophrast, supposes the word composed of a priv. and ^itSos, dehght, so named from its bitterness. But it may be an Ori- ental word.] The common wonnwood; a bitter plant, us- ed as a tonic. A species of Artemisia. VB'SIS, In astronomy. [See Apsis.] AB'SOLUTE,a. [L.absolutus. See Absolve.]

    1. Literally, in a general sense, free, indepen- dent of any thing extraneous. Hence,

    2. Complete in itself ; positive ; as an abso- lute declaration.

    3. Unconditional, as an absolute promise.

    4. Existing independent of any other cause, is God is absolute.

    5. Unlimited by extraneous power or control, as an absolute government or prince.

    C. Not relative, a.s absolute space. StUlingfleet.

    In grammar, the case absolute, is when a word or member of a sentence is not im- mediately dependent on the other parts of the sentence in government.

    Absolute equation, in astronomy, is the ag- gregate of the oplic and eccentric equa-


    tions. The apparent inequality of a planet's motion in its orbit, arising from its unequal distances from the earth at different times, is called its optic equation : the eccentric inequahty is caused by the uniformity of the planet's motion, m an elliptical orbit, which, for that reason, appears not to be imiform.

    Absolute numbers, in algebra, are such as have no letters annexed, as 2a-|-3(j=48. The two latter numbers are absolute or pure. Encyc.

    Absolute space, in physics, is space consid- ered without relation to any other object. Bailey.

    Absolute gravity, in philosophy, is that prop- erty in bodies by which they are said to weigh so much, without regard to circum- stances of modification, and this is always as the quantity of matter they contain.


    AB'SOLUTELY, adv. Completely, wholly, as a thing is absolutely uninteUigible.

    2. Without dependence or relation ; in a state unconnected.

    Absolutely we cannot discommend, we can- not absolutely approve, either willingness to live, or forwardness to die. Hooker.

    3. Without restriction or Umitation ; as God reigns absolutely.

    4. Without condition, as God does not for- give absolutely, but upon condition of faith and repentance. Positively, peremptorily, as command me

    absolutely not to go. Milton.

    AB'SOLUTENESS, n. Independence ; com- pleteness in itself

    2. Despotic authority, or that which is sub- ject to no extraneous restriction, or con- trol.

    ABSOLU'TION, n. In the civil law, an acquittal or sentence of a judge declaring an accused person innocent. In the canon law, a remission of sins pronounced by a priest in favor of a penitent. Among protestants, a sentence by which an ex- communicated person is released from his hability to punishment. Ayliffe. South.

    AB'SOLUTORY, a. Absolving; that ab-

    ABSOLV'ATORY, a. [from absolve.] Con- taining absolution, pardon, or release ; having power to absolve. Cotgrave.

    ABSOLVE', V. t. abzolv', [L. absolvo, from ah and solvo, to loose or release ; Ch. nblV, to absolve, to finish ; Heb. ^\3, to loose or loosen. See Solve.]

    To set free or release from some obligation, debt or responsibility ; or from that which subjects a person to a burden or penalty ; as to absolve a person from a promise ; to absolve an offender, which amounts to an acquittal and remission of his punishment. Hence, in the civil law, the word was used for acquit ; and in the canon law, for for- give, or a sentence of remission. In ordi- nai-y language, its sense is to set free or release from an engagement. Formerly, good writers used the word ui the sense of finish, accomplish; as to absolve work, in "Milton ; but in this sense, it seems to be obsolete.

    ABSOLVED, jjjj. Released; acquitted; re- mitted : declared imiocent.

    ABSOLV'ER, n. One who absolves; also that pronounces sin to be remitted.

    A B ?<

    A B S

    A B 8

    ABSOLVING, ppr. Settin:; ficc from a flebt. or fliarge ; arqiiitting; remitting.

    AIVSONANT, a. [See Absonous.] Wide from the purpose ; contrary to reason.

    AB'SONOTJS, a. [L. absonus ; ah and sonus, sound.] Unmusical, or untiiuable.


    ABSORB', v- t. [L. absorbeo, ah and sorheo,

    ft^n or lU^n, id. ; Rab. tjlty, to diaw or drink in ; whence simp, sherbet, shnib.]

    1. To drink in ; to suck up ; to imbibe ; as a spunge, or as the lacteais of the body.

    2. To drink in, swallow up, or overwhelm with water, as a body in a whirlpool.

    ;j. To waste wholly or sink in expenses ; to exhaust ; as, to absorb an estate in luxury.

    4. To engross or engage wholly, as, absorbed in study or the pursuit of wealtli.

    ABSORBABIL'ITY, n. A state or quality of being absorbable.

    ABSORB'ABLE, a. That may be imbibed or .swallowed. Kerr^s Lavoisier.

    ABSORB' ED, or ABSORPT', pp. Im- bibed ; swallowed ; wasted ; engaged ; lost in study ; wholly engrossed.

    ABSORB'ENT, a. Imbibing ; swallowimr.

    ABSORB'ENT, n. In anatonv/, n vrs'sol which imbibes, as the lacteal-. I\ in|ili:itir^, and inhaling arteries. In mu/i, in,-, .i n — taceous powder, or other substniice, « liiili imbibes the humors of the body, as chalk or magnesia. Encyc.

    ABSORB'ING, ;)pc. Imbibing; engrossing; wasting.

    ABSORP'TION, n. The act or process ofl imbibing or swallowing ; either by water which overwhelms, or by substances,which drink in and retain liquids ; as the absorp- tion of a body in a whirlpool, or of water by the earth, or of the humors of the body by dry powders. It is used also to express the swallowing up of substances by the earth in chasms made by earthquakes, am' the sinking of large tracts in violent com motions of the earth.

    % In chimistry, the conversion of a gaseous fluid into a liquid or solid, by union with another substance. Ure.

    _\BSORP'TIVE, a. Having power to hn- bibe. Darwin

    ABSTA'IN, V. i. [L. abstineo, to keep from abs and

    In a general sense, to forbear, or refi-ain from, voluntardy ; but used cliiefly to de- note a restraint upon the passions or ai)petites ; to refrain fi-om indulgence. Abstain from meats offered to idols. Acts, xv

    To abstain from the use of ardent spirits ; to abstain (com luxuries.

    ABSTE'MIOUS, a. [L. abstemius ; from abs and temetum, an ancient name of strong wine, according to Fabius and Gellins But Vossius supposes it to be from absti- 7ieo, by a change of n to m. It may be from the root of timeo, to fear, that is, to withdraw.] Sparing in diet ; refraining from a free use of food and strong drinks. Instances of longevity are chiefly among the abstemious. .irbuthnot.

    2. Sparing in the enjoyment of animal pleas- ures of any kind. [TTiis sense is less com- mon, a/id perhaps not legitimate.]

    3. Sparingly used, or used with temperance ;

    belonging to abstinence ; as an abstemious diet ; an abstemious life.

    ABSTE'MIOUSLY, adv. Temperately with a spiiriiig use of meat or drink.

    AHSTH'AllorsNESS, n. The quality of liiinir tiHijii rate or sparing in the use of Inod .mikI .-iioiigdrink.s.

    This word expresses a greater degree of abstinence than temperance.

    ABSTERGE', V. t. absterj'. [L. abslergeo, of abs and tergeo, to wipe. Tergeo may have a common origin with the Sw. torcka, G. trocknen, D. droogen, Sax. drygan, to dry; for these Teutonic verbs signify to ivipe, as well as to dry.]

    To wipe or make clean by wiping ; to cleanse by resolving obstructions in the body. [ Used chiefly as a medical term.]

    ABSTERG'ENT, a. Wiping; cleansing.

    ABSTERg'ENT, n. A medicine which frees tlie body from obstructions, as soap ; but the use of the word is nearly superseded by detergent, which see.

    ABSTER'SION, n. [(romh.abstergeo,abster SM«.] The act of wiping clean; or a clean- sing by medicines which resolve obstruc- tions. [See Deterge, Detersion.] Bacon.

    ABSTER'SIVE, o. Cleansing; having the qualit.v of removing obstructions. [See Detersive.]

    \B'STINENCE, n. [L. abstinentia. See Abstain.] In general, the act or practice of voluntarily refraining from, or forbear- ing any action. ^^ Abstinence from every thing which can be deemed labor."

    Foley's Philos. More appropriately,

    2. The refraining from an indulgence of appetite, or from customary gratificat" of animal propensities. It denotes a total forbearance, as in fasting, or a forbearance of the usual quantity. In the latter se it may comcide with temperance, but in general, it denotes a more sparing use of enjoyments than temperance. Besides, abstinence implies previous free indul gencp ; temperance does not.

    AB'STINENT, a. Refiaining from indul gence, especially in the use of food and drink.

    AB'STINENTLY, adv. With abstinence

    AB'STINENTS, a sect which appeared France and Spain in the third century, who opposed marriage, condemned the use of flesh meat, and placed tlie Holy Spirit in the class of created beings.

    ABSTRACT', v. t. [L. abstraho, to draw from or separate; from abs and trako, which is the Eng. draw. See Draw.]

    1. To draw from, or to separate ; as to abstract an action fi-om its evil effects ; to abstract spirit from any substance by distillation : but in this sense extract is now more gen- erally used.

    2. To separate ideas by the operation of the mind ; to consider one part of a complex object, or to have a partial idea of it in the mind. Home.

    3. To select or separate the substance of a book or writing ; to epitomize or reduce to a suimnary. Jf'atts.

    4. In chimistry, to separate, as the more volatile parts of a substance by repeated distillaticm, or at least bv distillation.

    AB'STRAGT, a. [L. absiractus.] Separate 2

    distini't troni sonioil.iii!: fl>e. An abstract idea, in iiict.-i|ili\ -ir. i :i,i idea separated from a <-(iiii|il.-\ ohp ■,- i- iVom other ideas wliicli natm-iilly :ii-i-i>iiniaiiy it, as the so- lidity of marble contemplated apart fi-om its color or figure. Encyc

    Abstract terms are those which express ab- stract ideas, as beauty, whiteness, round- ness, without regarding any subject in wliich they exist; or abstract terms arc the names of orders, genera, or species of things, in which there is a combination of similar quahties. Stewart.

    Abstract numbers are numbers used with- out apphcation to things, as, 6, 8,10: but when applicti to any thing, as 6 feet, 10 men, they become concrete.

    Abstract or pure mathematics, is that wliich treats of magnitude or quantity, without restriction to any species of par- ticular magnitude, as arithmetic and gcomcti-y ; opposed to which is mixed iiiailii MKitirs, w liiih trcatsof sunple prop- erti(^. .'iikI till- relations of quantity, as a|>|ili( .1 \n -i-ii-ililc objects, as hydi-ostat- ics, iiuMguti'ju, optics, &c. Encyc.

    2. Separate, existing in the mind only ; as an abstract subject ; an abstract question ; and hence difficult, abstruse.

    AB'STRAeT, ?!. A simmiai-y, or epitome, containing the substance, a general view, or the principal heads of a treatise or writing. ti'att.t.

    2. Formerly, an extract, or a smaller quan- tity, contaming the essence of a larger.

    In the abstract, in a state of separation, as a subject considered in the abstract, i. c. without reference to particular persons of things.

    ABSTR A€T'ED, pp. Separated ; refined ; exalted ; abstruse ; absent in mind.

    Milton. Donne. •

    ABSTRA€T'EDLY, adv. In a separate state, or in contemplation only.


    ABSTRA€T'EDNESS, n. The state of be- ing abstracted. Baxter.

    ABSTRAeT'ER, n. One who makes an abstract, or summary.

    ABSTRA€T'ING,/);)r. Separating ; making a sunnnary.

    ABSTRA€'TI0N, n. The act of separating, or state of being separated.

    2. The operation of the mind when occupied by abstract ideas ; as when we contem- plate some particular part, or property of a complex object, as separate from the rest. Thus, when the mind considers the branch of a tree by itself, or the color of the leaves, as separate from their size or figure, the act is called abstraction. So also, when it considers whiteness, softness, virtue, erislence, as separate from any par- ticuliu- objects. Encyc.

    The power which the understanding has of separating the combinations which are presented to it, is distinguished by logi- cians, by the name of absiraction. Steieart. Abstraction is the ground- work of clas- sification, by which things are an-anged in orders, genera, and species. We separate in idea the qualities of certain objects which are of the same kind, from others which are diflferent in each, and arrange the objects having the same properties in a class, or collected bodv.



    A C A

    3. A separation from woi-ldly objects ; a re- cluse life ; as a lierinit's abstraction.

    4. Absence of mind ; inattention to present objects.

    5. In the process of distillation, the term is used to denote tlie separation of the volatile parts, which rise, come over, and are con- densed in a receiver, from those which are fixed. It is chiefly used, when a fluid is repeatedly poured upon any sub- stance in a retort, and distilled off", to change its state, or the nature of its com- position. JVicholson.

    ABSTRACT'IVE, a. Having the power or qualitv of abstracting.

    ABSTRACT'IVE, ? a. Abstracted, or

    ABSTRA€TI"TIOUS, S drawn from other substances, particularly from vegetables, without fermentation. Cyc.

    AB'STRA€TLY, adv. Separately ; absolute- ly ; in a state or manner unconnected witli any thing else ; as, matter abstractly con- sidered.

    AB'STRACTNESS, n. A separate state ; a .state of being in contemplation only, or not connected with any object.

    ABSTRU'DE, v. t. [Infra.] To thrust or puU away. [JVoi used.]

    ABSTRU'SE, a. [L. abstrusus, from abstru- do, to thrust away, to conceal; abs and

    tnido ; Ar. j^j.Ia tarada ; Cli. Tit3, to thrust ; Syr. Sam. id.; Eng. to thrust] Hid; con- cealed ; hence, remote from apprehension ; difficult to be comprehended or under- stood ; opposed to what is obvious. [.Vbi used of material objects.]

    Metaphysics is an abstruse science. Eneyc. ABSTRU'SELY, adv. In a concealed man- ner ; obscurely ; in a manner not to be easily understood. •ABTRU'SENESS, n. Obscurity of mean- ing ; the state or quaUty of being difficult to be understood. Boyle.

    ABSURD', a. [L. absurdus, from ab and .nirdus, deaf, insensible.] Opposed to man- ifest truth ; inconsistent with reason, or the plain dictates of conmion sense. An ab- .?urd man acts contrary to the clear dic- tates of reason or sound judgment. An ab- surd proposition contradicts obvious truth. An absurd practice or opinion is repugnant to the reason or common apprehension of men. It is absurd to say sLx and six make ten, or that plants will take root in stone. VBSURD'ITY, n. The quality of being in consistent with obvious truth, reason, or sound judgment. Want of judgment, ap- plied to men ; want of propriety, applied to things. Johnson

    'I. That which is absurd ; in this sense it has

    a plural ; the absurdities of men. ABSURD'LY, adv. In a maimer

    tent with reason, or obvious propriety ABSURD'NESS, n. The same as absurdity,

    and less used. \BUND'ANnE, n. [F. abondance. See Abound.] Great plenty; an overflowing quantity ; ami)le sufficiency ; in strictness applicable to quantity only ; but custom- arily used of number, as an abundance ol peasants. Addison

    In scripture, the abundance of the rich is great wealth. Eccl. v. Mark, xii. Luke, xxi.

    The abundance of the seas is great plenty of] fish. Dcut. x^xlii.

    It denotes also fullness, overflowing, as the oftM/M/traff of the heart. Mat. xii Luke, vi.

    ABUND'ANT, a. Plentiful; in great quan- tity ; tiilly sufficient ; as an abundant sup- ])ly. in scripture, abounding; having in great quantity ; overflowing with.

    The Lord God is abundant in goodness and tmth. Ex. xxxiv.

    Abundant number, in arithmetic, is one, the sum of whose aliquot parts exceeds the number itself Thus 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, the aliquot parts of 12, make the sum of IC. This is opposed to a deficient number, as 14, whose aUquot parts are 1, 2, 7, the : of which is 10 ; and to a perfect nunilier, which is equal to the sum of its ahqu< parts, as 6, whose aUquot parts are 1, 2, 3.

    ABUND'ANTLY, adv. Fully ; amply ; plen tifully ; in a .sufficient degree.

    [ABU'SAGE, n. Abuse. [Kot used.]

    ABU'SE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. abuser ; Sp. abu sar ; It. abusare ; L. abutor,, of ab and utor, to use ; Ir. idh ; W. gtveth, use ; Gr. (9w, to accustom. See Use.]

    1. To use ill; to maltreat; to misuse; to use with bad motives or to wrong purposes ; as, to abuse rights or privileges.

    They that use this world as not abusing it. 1 Cor. vii.

    2. To violate ; to defile by improper sexual intercourse. Spenser.

    3. To deceive ; to impose on. Nor be with all these tempting words abtised.

    Pope. . To treat rudely, or with reproachful lan- guage ; to revile.

    He mocked and abused them sliamcfully.

    Mac. 5. To pervert the meaning of; to misapply ;

    as to abuse words. ABU'SE, n. Ill use; impro])er treatment or employment ; application to a wrong pur- pose ; as an abuse of our natural powers ; an abuse of civil rights, or of rehgious pri- vUeges ; abuse of advantages, &c.

    Liberty may be endangered by the abuses of Ubei-ty, as well as by the abuses of power.

    Federalist, Madison

    2. A corrupt practice or custom, as the abuses of government.

    3. Rude speech; reproachful language ad dressed to a person ; contumely ; reviUng words. Milton.

    . Seduction.

    After the abuse he forsook me. Sidney.

    5. Perversion of meaning; improper use or

    appUcation ; as an abuse of words. ABU'SED, pp. s as z. Ill-used ; used to a

    bad purpose ; treated with rude language ;

    misemployed ; perverted to bad or wrong

    ends ; deceived ; defiled ; violated. ABU'SEFUL, a. Using or practicing abuse;

    abusive. [JVot used.] Bp. Barlotv.

    ABU'SER, n. s as :. One who abuses, in

    speech or behavior; one that deceives;

    a ravisher ; a sodomite. 1 Cor. vi. ABU'SING, ppr. s as z. Using ill ; employ

    ing to bad purposes; deceiving; violating

    the person ; perverting. ABU'SION, n. abu'zhon. Abuse; evil or

    ru])t usage ; reproach. [Idttle ttsed.] ABU'SIVE, a. Practicing abuse; offering

    harsh words, or ill treatment ; as an ahi

    sive author; an abusive fellow. 2. Containing abuse, or that is the instru- of abuse, as abusive words ; rude

    reproachful. In the sense of deceitful, as an abusive treaty. [Littk itsed.] Bacon.

    ABUSIVELY, adv. In an abusive manner ; iiidelv ; reproachfiiUy.

    ABU'SIVENESS, n. lU-usage ; the quality of being abusive ; i-udeness of language, or violence to the person. Barlow.

    ABUT', v. i. [Fr. aboutir. See About.] To border upon ; to be contiguous to ; to meet : in strictness, to adjoin to at the end ; but this distinction has not always been ob- served. The word is chiefly used in de- scribing the bounds or situation of land, ami ill |i(ijiular language, is contracted into but, as hutted and bounded.

    \BUT'iMENT, «. The head or end; that which unites one end of a thing to an- other; chiefly used to denote the soUd pier or mound of earth, stone or timber, which is erected on the bank of a river to support the end of a bridge and connect it with the land.

    2. That which abuts or borders on another. Bryant.

    ABUT'TAL, n. The butting or boundary of land at the end ; a head-land.

    Spelman. Cowel.

    ABY', V. t. or i. [Probably contracted from abide.] To endure ; to pay dearly ; to re- ain. Ohs. Spenser.

    ABYSM', n. abyzm'. [Old Fr., now abime. See Abyss.] A gulf. Shak.

    ABYSS', n. [Gr. ASvaaoi, bottomless, from a priv. and Svsio;, bottom. Ion. for 8v8os. See Bottojn.] A bottomless gulf; used also for a deep mass of waters, supposed by some to have encompassed the earth before the flood.

    Darkness was upon the face of the deep, oi abyss, as it is in the Septuagint. Gen. i. 2. The word is also used for an immense cavern in the earth, in which God is sup- posed to have collected all the waters on the third day of the creation. It is used also for hell, Erebus.

    2. That which is immeasurable; that m which any thing is lost.

    Thy throne is darkness, in the abyss of light.

    Milton. The o5!/ssoftime. Dryden.

    3. In antiquity, tlieCCESSARINESS, See ACCESSORI-

    NESS. ACCESSARY, See ACCESSORY. ACCESSIBIL'ITY, n. The quahty of heiiig

    approachable; or of admitting access. ACCESS'IBLE,a. That may be approached

    or reached ; approachable ; applied to

    things ; as an accessible town or mountain. 2. Easy of approach ; affable ; used ofpeisons. ACCESS'ION, n. [L. accessio.] A coming to ;

    an acceding to and joining ; as a king's

    accession to a confederacy.

    2. Increase by something added ; that which is added ; augmentation ; as an accession of wealth or territory.

    3. Inlaw, a mode of acquiring property, by which the owner of a corporeal substance, which receives an addition by growth, or by labor, has a right to the thing added or the unprovement ; provided the tiling is not changed into a different species. Thus the owner of a cow becomes the owner of her calf Blackstone.

    4. The act of arriving at a throne, an ofiice, or dignity.

    5. That which is added.

    The only accession which the Roman Em- pire received, was the province of Britain.


    6. The invasion of a fit of a periodical dis- ease, or fever. It difiers from exacerbation. Accession uiiphesa total previous intermis- sion, as of a fever ; exacerbation impUes

    ■ only a previous remission or abatement of violence. ACCESS'IONAL, a. Additional. ACCESSO'RIAL, a. Pertaining to an acces- sory; as accessorial agenc}', accessorial guilt. Burr's Trial. ACCESSORILY, arfu. [Sec Accessory.] In the manner of an accessory ; fiy subordi-

    A C C

    Dale means, or in a secondary chai

    not as principal, but as a subordinate agent.

    A€'CESSORINESS, n. The state of being accessory, or of being or acting in asecon dary character.

    ACCESSORY, n. [L. Accessorius, fi-om ac cessus, accedo. See Accede. This word i accented on the first syllable on accoinit of| the derivatives, which require a seconda ry accent on the third ; but the natural accent of accessory is on the second sylla ble, and thus it is often pronounced b) good speakers.]

    1. Acceding ; contributing ; aiding in prochic- ing some effect, or acting in subordination to the principal agent. Usually, in a bad sense, as John was accessory to the felony

    1. Aiding in certain acts or effects in a sec- ondary manner, as accessory sounds in mu- sic. Encyc,

    Ae'CESSORY, n. In latv, one who is guilty of a felony, not by committing tlie offense in person or as principal, but by advising or commanding another to commit the crime, or by conceaUng the offender. There may be accessories in all felonies, but not in treason. An accessory before the fact, is one who counsels or commands another to commit a felony, and is not present when the act is executed ; aftei the fact, when one receives and conceals the offender.

    3. That wliich accedes or belongs to some- thing else, as its principal.

    Accessory nerves, in anatomy, a pair of nerves wiiich arising from the medulla in the ver- tebers of the neck, ascend and enter the skull ; then passing out with the par va gum, are distributed into the muscles of| the neck and shoidders.

    Accessory, among paijiters, an epithet given to paits of a history-piece which are ly ornamental, as vases, armor, &c.

    .\€'CIDENCE, n. [See Accident] A small book containing the rudiments of grammai'.

    ACCIDENT, n. [L. accidens, faUing, fioni ad and cado, to fall; W. codum, a fall cicyzaw, to fall ; Ir. kudaim ; Corn, kotha . .\rm. kueika, to fall. See Case and Ca- dence. Class G d.]

    1. A coming or falling; an event that takes j)lace without one's foresight or cxpecta tion ; an event which proceeds from ar miknown cause, or is an unusual effect of alinown cause,^ and therefore not expect ed ; chance ; casuahy ; contingency.

    2. That which takes place or begms to exist without an efficient intelligent cause and without design.

    All of them, in his opinion, owe their being, to fate, accident, or the blind action of stuptd matter. Bwight.

    :\ In logic, a property, or quaUty of a being which is not essential to it, as whiteness in paper. Also all quahties are called acci- dents, in opposition to substance, as sweet- ness, sojlness, and tilings not essential to a body, as clothes. Encyc.

    4. In grammar, something belonging to a word, but not essential to it, as gender number, inflection. Encyc.

    a. In heraldry, a point or mai'k, not essential to a coat of arms. Encyc.

    ACCIDENT'AL, a. Happerung by chance, or rather imexpectedly ; casual" ; fortui-

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    tons ; taking place not according to the usual course of tilings ; opposed to that which is constant, regular, or intended ; as an accidental visit.

    2. Non-essential ; not necessarily belonging to ; as songs are accidental to a play.

    Accidental colors, are those which depend upon the affections of the eye, in distinc- tion from those which belong to the light itself. Encyc.

    Accidental point, in perspective, is that point in the horizontal line, where tlie projec- tions of two lines parallel to each other, meet the perspective plane.

    ACCIDENT' ALLY, arfy. By chance; casu ally ; fortuitously ; not essentially.

    ACCIDENT'ALNESS, n. The quaUty of] being casual. [Little used.]

    ACCIDEN'TIARY, a. Pertaining to the ac- cidence. [JVot used.] Morton

    ACCIP'ITER, n. [ and ca;)io, to seize.]

    1. A name given to a fish, the milvus or hi

    cerna, a species of Trigla. Cyi

    9. In ornithology, t\m name of the order of

    rapacious fowls. The accipiters have a hooked bill, the su))e- rior mandible, near the base, being exten- ded on each side beyond the inferior. The genera are the vultur, the falco, or hawk and the strix, or owl. AeCIF'ITRINE, a. [Supra.] Seizing ; ra- pacious ; as the accipitrine order of fowls. Ed. Encyc. AeCI'TE, V. t. [L. ad and aft, to cite.] To

    call ; to cite ; to summon. [.Vot used.] A€€LA'IM, V. t. [L. acclamo, ad and clamo. to cry out; Sp.clamar; Fort. clamar ; It. clamare; W. llevain; Ir. liumham. See Claim, Clamor.] To applaud. [Little used.] Hall. A€€LA'IM, n. A shout of joy ; acclama- tion. Milton. ACCLAMA'TION, n. [L. acclamatio. See

    Acclaim.] A shout of applause, uttered by a multitude. Anciently, acclamation was a form of words, uttered with vehemence, some wtat resembUng a song, sometimes accorapan ed with applauses which were given by the hands. Acclamations were ecclesias- tical, military, nuptial, senatorial, synodi cal, theatrical, &c. ; they were musical, anil i7thmical ; and Ijestowed for joy, re spect, and even reproach, and oflen ac companied with words, repeated, five twenty, and even sixty and eighty times! In the later ages of Rome, acclamations were performed by a chorus of music in structed for the pui-pose.

    In modem times, acclamations are expres sed by huzzas; by clapping of hands ; and often by repeating vivat rex, vivaf respubll ca, long live the king or repubhc, or other words expressive of joy and good wishes. ACeLAM'ATORY, a. Expressing joy or

    applause by shouts, or clapping of hand ACCLI'MAT ED, a. [Ac for ad and cli- mate.] Habituated to a foreign climate, or a cUmate not native ; so far accustom- ed to a foreign chmate as not to be pecu- liarly liable to its endemical diseases.

    Med. Repository. AeeLIV'ITY, n. [L. acclivus, acclivis, as- cending, from ad and clivus, an ascent ;

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    Ir. clui; Gr. Eol. xAirtvj; Sax. clif, a

    cliff, bank or shore; clifian, cleofian, to

    cleave, or split. See Cliff.] -\ slope or inclination of the earth, as the

    side of a hill, considered as ascending, in

    oi)position to declivity, or aside descending.

    Rising groiuid ; ascent ; the talus of a

    rampart. ACCLI'VOUS, a. Rising, as a hill with a

    slope. A€€LOY', V. t. To fill ; to stuff: to fill to

    satiety. [.Yot used.] [See Cloy.] Spenser. A€€OIL'. [See Cor7.] A€'€OLA, n. A delicate fish eaten at Maha. ACCOLA'DE, n. [L. ad and collum, neck.] A ceremony formerly used in conferring

    knighthood ; but whether an embrace or

    a blow, seems not to be settled. Cyc.

    ACCOM'MODABLE, a. [Fi. accommodable.

    See Accommodate.] That may be fitted, made suitable, or made

    to agree. [Little used.] A€€OM']MODATE,i;.f. [L. accommodo, to

    apply or suit, from ad and commodo, to

    profit or help ; of con, with, and modus,

    measure, proportion, limit, or manner. See


    1. To fit, ada])t, or make suitable ; as, to ac- commodate ourselves to circumstances ; to accommodate the choice of subjects to the occasions. Paley.

    2. To supply with or furnish ; followed by with ; as, to accommodate a man idth apartments.

    •3. To supply with conveniences, as to ac- commodate a fi-iend.

    4. To reconcile things which are at vari- ance ; to adjust ; as to accommodate differ- ences.

    5. To show fitness or agreement ; to api)ly ; as, to accommodate prophecy to events.

    i. Toiend— a commercial sense.

    In an intransitive sense, to agree, to be con- formable to, as used by Boyle. Obs.

    A€€OM'MODATE,n, Suitable; fit; adapt- ed ; as means accommodate to the end.

    Ray. TUloUon.

    ACCOMMODATED, pp. Fitted ; adjust- ed ; adapted ; apphed ; also fiimished with conveniences.

    We are well accommodated with lodgings.

    ACCOM'MODATELY, adv. Suitably ; fitly. [Little used.] More.

    ACCOM MODATENESS,)). Fitness. [Lit- tle %ised.]

    ACCOMMODATING, ppr. Adapting ; making suitable ; reconciling ; furnishing with conveniences ; applying.

    ACCOMMODATING, a. Adapting one's self to ; obliging; yielding to the desires of others ; disposed to comply, and to oblige another ; as an accommodating man.

    \CCOMMODA TION, n. Fitness ; adapta- tion ; followed by to.

    The organization of the body with accommo- dation to its functions. Hale.

    I. Adjustment of differences ; reconciliation;

    as of parties in dispute. 3. Provision of conveniences.

    In the plural ; conveniences ; things fur- nished for use ; chieffy applied to lodgings. In mercantile language, accommodation is used for a loan of money ; which is often a great convenience. An accommodation

    A C C

    .'o/f, in the language of bank directors, is one drawn and offered for discount, fo the purpose of borrowing its amount, ii opposition to a note, which the owner has received in payment for goods.

    In England, accommodation hill, is one given instead of a loan of money. Crabbe

    6. It is also used of a note lent merely to accommodate the borrower.

    7. In theology, accoimnodation is the appli cation of one thing to another by analogy, as of the words of a prophecy to a future

    Many of those quotations were probably in- tended as nothing more than accommodations. Paley

    ^. In marine language, an accommodation- ladder is a hglit ladder hung over the side of a ship at the gangway.

    A€COM'MODATOR, ti. One that accom niodates ; one that adjusts. Warburton.

    A€€t)lM'PANABLE, a. [See Accompany. Sociable. [J^Totused.]

    A€€ClM'PANIED, pp. Attended; joined with in societv.

    ACeOM'PANIMENT, n. [Yr.A'-compagne. ment. See Accompany.] Something that attends as a circumstance, or which is ad- ded by way of ornament to the principal thing, or for the sake of symmetry. Thus instruments of music attending the voice ; small objects in pauituig ; dogs, guns and game in a hunting piece ; warlike instru- ments with the portrait of a military cha- racter, are accompaniments.

    A€€OM'PANIST, n. The performer in mu- sic who takes the accompanying part.


    ACCOM'PANY, V. t. [Fr. accompagner ; Sp, acompahar ; Port, acompanhar. See Com- pany.]

    1. To go with or attend as a companion or associate on a journey, walk, &c. ; as a man accompanies his friend to church, or on a tour.

    2. To be with as connected ; to attend ; as pain accompanies disease.

    A€€OM'PANY, V. i. To attend; to be associate ; as to accompany with others. Obs. Bacon.

    2. To cohabit. Milton.

    3. In music, to perform the accontpanying part in a composition. Busby.

    A€€OM'PANYING, ppr. Attending ; going with as a companion.

    A€€OM'PLICE, n. [Fr. complice ; L. com- plicatus, folded together, of coji, with, and plico, to fold ; W. plegy, to plait ; Arm. plega. See Complex and Pledge.] An asso- ciate in a crime ; a partner or partaker in guilt. It was formerly used in a good .sense for a co-opei-ator, but this sense is wholly obsolete. It is followed by loith be- fore a person ; as, A was an accomplice with B in the murder of C. Dryden uses it with to before a thing.

    A€eOM'PLISH, V. t. [Fr. accomplir, to fin- ish, from ad and L. compleo, to complete. See Complete.] To complete ; to finish entirely.

    That He would acco?nplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem. Dan. ix.

    2. To execute ; as to accomplish a vow, wrath or fury. Lev. xiii. and xx.

    3. To gain ; to obtain or cfiiict by successful

    A C C

    exonions ; as to accomplish a purpose. Prov. xiii. 4. To fulfil or bring to pass ; as, to accomplish

    oust yet be accomplished

    prophecy. Tliis that is written in me. Luke, xxii. >. To fin-nish with qualities whicli serve to render the mind or body complete, as with valuable endowments and elegant man- ners. .\C€OM'PLISHED, pp. Finished ; complet cd ; fidfiUed ; executed ; effected.

    2. a. Well endowed with good qualities anc manners ; complete in acquirements ; hav- ing a finished education.

    3. Fashionable. Swift. ACeOM'PLISHER, n. One who accoiii


    A€€OM'PLISHING, ppr. Finishing; com pleting ; fulfilHng ; executing ; effecting ; furnishing with valuable qualities.

    A€eOM'PLISHMENT,?i. Completion; ful- filment ; entire performance ; as the accom- plishment of a prophecy.

    2. The act of carrying into effect, or obtain- ing an object designed ; attainment ; as the accomplishment of our desires or ends.

    ?. Acquirement ; that which constitutes ex- cellence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by education.

    A€€OMPT'. Obs. [See Account.]

    ACCOM PT' ANT. Obs. [See Accountayit.]

    ACCORD', n. [Fr. accord, agreement, con- sent ; accorder, to adjust, or reconcile ; Sp acordar ; Arm. accord, accordi ; It. accordo. accordare. The Lat. has concors, concordo. Qu. cor and cordis, the heart, or from the same root. In some of its apphcations, it is naturally deduced from chorda. It. da, the string of a musical instrument ^ Agreement ; harmony of minds ; consent or concurrence of opinions or wills.

    They all continued with one accord in prayei Acts, i.

    2. Concert ; harmony of sounds ; the union of different sounds, which is agreeable to the ear ; agreement in pitch and tone ; tjie accord of notes ; but in this sense, it is more usual to employ concord or chord.

    •3. Agreement ; just correspondence of things ; as the accord of hght and shade in painting,

    4. Will ; voluntary or spontaneous motion ; used of the will of persons, or the natural motion of other bodies, and preceded by oum


    ;ing more forward of his own accord. 2

    That which groweth of its own accord thou shalt not reap. Lev. xxv. . Adjustment of a difference ; reconciliation. The mediator of an accord.

    6. In law, an agreement between parties in controversy, by which satisfaction for an injury is stiptdated, and which, when ex- ecuted, bars a suit. Blackstone.

    7. Permission, leave. ACCORD', J', t. To make to agree, or cor-

    •espond ; to adjust one thing to another.

    Her hands accorded the lute's music to the

    voice. Sidney.

    2. To bring to an agreement ; to settle, ad- just or compose ; as to accord suits or con- troversies. Hall.

    \CCORD', V. i. To agree ; to be in corres- pondence.

    My heart accnrdeth with my tongue. Shak. To agree in pitch and tone.

    A C C

    AecORD'ABLE, a. Agreeable; consonanf.

    ^ Goiver

    ACCORD' ANCE, n. Agreement with a per

    son ; contbrmity loifh a thing. ACCORD'ANT, a. Corresponding; conso- nant ; agreeable. ACCORD'ED, pp. Made to agree ; adjusted. Shak. ACCORD'ER, n. One that aids, or favors

    [Little used.] ACCORD'ING, ppr. Agreeing ; harmoni- zing.

    Th' according music of a well mixt state.

    2. Suitable ; agreeable ; in accordance with In these senses, the word agrees with or refers to a sentence.

    Our zeal should be according to knowledge. Spral. Noble is the fame that is built on candor and ingenuity, according to those beautiful lines ol Sir John Denham. Spectator.

    Here the whole preceding parts of the sentence are to accord, i. e. agree with, correspond with, or be suitable to, what follows. According, here, has its true parti- cipial sense, agreeing, and is always fol- lowed by to. It is never a preposition. ACCORD'INGLY, adv. Agreeably; suita- bly ; in a manner conformable to. Those who live in faith and good works, will

    be rewariled accordingly. ACCORP'ORATE, v. t. To unite ; [JVot in

    use.] '" ' ■ ^ - -

    ACCC side, border, coast ; G. kiiste ; D. kust : Dan. kyst.] To approach ; to draw near ; to come side

    by side, or face to face. [JVo< in use.] 2. To speak first to ; to address. Milton.

    Dryden, ACCOST', i;. i. To adjoin. [J^ot in use.]

    Spenser. ACCOST'ABLE, o. Easy of access ; famil- iar. Howell.

    •e.] [See Incorporate.] Milton.

    DOST' V. t. [t r. accoster ; ad and cote.

    ACCOST'ED, pp. Addressed ; first spoken In heraldry, being side by side.

    ACCOST'ING, ppr. Addressijig by first speaking to.

    ACCOUCHEUR, n. accooshdre. [Fr.] A man who assists women in cliildbirth.

    ACCOUNT', n. [Fr. conte ; It. conto ; Sp. cuenta; Ann. count ; an account, reckon- ing, computation. Formerly writers used accompt from the Fr. compte. See Count]

    1. A sum stated on paper; a registry of a debt or credit ; of debts and credits, or charges ; an entry in a book or on paper of things bought o^- sold, of payments, ser- vices &,c., including the names of the par- ties to the transaction, date, and price or value of the thing.

    Account signifies a single entry or charge, or a statement of a number of jjar- ticular debts and credits, in a book or on a separate paper ; and in the plural, is used for the books containing such entries. A computation of debts and credits, or a general statement of particular sums; as, the accou7it stands thus ; let him exliibit his account.

    A computation or mode of reckoning ; applied to other things, than money or trade ; as the Julian account of time. t|4. Narrati\ e ; relation ; statement of facts :

    A C C

    A C C

    A C C

    recital of particular transactions and events, verbal or written ; as an account of the revolution in France. Hence,

    5. An assigmnent of reasons ; explanation by a recital of particular transactions, giv- en by a person in an employment, or to a sujierior, often implying responsibility.

    Give axi account of thy stewardship. Luke, xvi. Without responsibility or obligation. He giveth not account of his matters. Job, xxxiii.

    6. Reason or consideration, as a motive ; as on all accounts, on every account.

    7. Value ; importance ; estimation ; that is, such a state of persons or things, as rend- ers them worthy of more or leas estima- tion ; as men of account.

    What is the son of man that thou niakest ac- count of \ata. Ps. cxliv.

    8. Profit ; advantage ; that is, a result or pro- duction worthy of estimation. To find our account in a pursuit ; to tuni to ac- count. Philip. 4.

    9. Regard; behalf; sake; a sense deduced from charges on book ; as on account of public affairs.

    Put that to mine account. Philem. xviii.

    To make account, that is, to have a previous opinion or e.xpectation, is a sense now ob- solete.

    A writ of account, in law, is a writ which the plaintiffbrings demanding that the de- fendant should render his just account, or show good cause to the contrary ; called also an action of account. Cowel.

    A€€OUNT', V. t. To deem, judge, consid- er, think, or hold in opinion.

    I and my son Solomon shall be accounted of- fenders. 1. Kings, i.

    2. To account of, to hold in esteem ; to value.

    Let a man so account of us as of minister of Christ. 1 Cor. iv.

    Silver was not any thing accounted of in Ih cLiys of Solomon. 1 Kings, x.

    3. To reckon, or compute ; as, the motion of the sun whereby years are accounted- also to assign as a debt ; as, a project a counted to his service ; but these uses are antiquated.

    A€€OUNT', V. i. To render an

    or relation of particulars. An oflicer must

    account with or to the Treasurer/or money

    received. t}. To give reasons; to assign the

    to explain ; with for; as, idleness accounts for poverty. 3. To render reasons ; to answer for

    responsible character. We must account for all the talents entrusted

    to us. -.A€€OUNTABIL'ITY, n. The state of being

    liable to answer for one's conduct ; habil-

    jty to give account, and to receive reward

    or punishment for actions.

    The awful idea of accountability.

    R. Hall 2. Liability to the payinent of money or of

    damages ; responsibility for a trust ACCOUNT' ABLE, a. Liable to be called to

    account ; answerable to a superior. Every man is accountable to God /or his con

    duct. 2. Subject to pay, or make good, in case of

    loss. A sheriff is accountable, as bailiff and

    receiver of goods. .Accountable for, that may be explained. [.Vot


    .\CCOUNT'ABLENESS, n. Liablencss to answer or to give accoimt ; the state ofj being answerable, or liable to the payment of monev or damages.

    ACCOUNT' ANT, n. One skilled in mercan- tile accounts ; more generally, a person who keeps accounts ; an oflicer in a pub- lic oflice who has charge of the accounts. In Great Britain, an officer in the court of chancery, who receives money and pays it to the bank, is called accountant- general.

    ACCOUNT'-BOOK, n. A book in which accounts are kept. Sufijt.

    ACCOUNT'ED, pp. Esteemed; deemed; considered ; regarded ; valued.

    Accounted for, ex]>lained.

    A.CCOUN'T'ING, n;7r. Deeming ; esteeming ; reckoning ; rendering an account.

    Accounting for, rendering an account ; as- signing the reasons ; unfoldmg the causes.

    ACCOUNT'ING, n. The act of reckoning or adjusting accounts.

    VCCOUPLE, V. t. accup'plc. To couple ; to join or link together. [See Couple.]

    ACCOUPLEMENT, n. accup'plement. A couphng ; a connecting in paus ; jimction. {Ijittle used.]

    ACCOUR'AGE, v. t. accur'age. [See Cour-\ age.] To encourage. [JVut tised.]


    ACCOURT, V. t. [See Court.] To entertain' witli courtesy. [Ao< used.] Spenser}

    ACCOUTER, tJ. f. accoot'er. [Fr. accoutrer ;' contracted from accoustrfr, from Norm.j costc, a coat, coster, a rich cloth or vest- ment for festivals. I think this to be the! true origin of the word, rather than cou-\ dre, couture, couturier.] [

    In a general sense, to dress ; to equip ; but ^ appropriately, to array in a militaiy dress •^' to put on, or to ftu'nish with a military dress and arms ; to equip the body for military service.

    ACCOUt'ERED, pp. Dressed in arms;

    Ai't'Ol T ERIXG, ppr. Equipping with iiiilitarv haliilinients. *

    ACCOUt'ERMENTS,?!. plu. Dress ; equip- age ; furniture for the body ; appropri- ately, miUtary dress and arms ; equijiage for miUtary service.

    3. In common usage, an old or unusual Ai

    ACCOY', V. t. [old Fr. accoisir. Todd.]

    To render quiet or diffident ; to soothe ; to caress. [Obs-] Spenser.

    ACCRED'IT, r. «. [Fr. accrcrfi7er; Sp. acrc- ditar; It. accreditare; to give authority or reputation ; from L. ad and credo, to be-! heve, or give faith to. See Credit.] j

    To give credit, authority, or reputation ; to' accredit an envoy, is t6 receive him in his public character, and give him credit and rank accordinglv.

    ACCREDITATION, n. That which sives title to credit. [Ldttle used.]

    ACCRED'ITED, pp. Allowed ; received with reputation ; authorized in a public character. Christ. Obs.

    ACCRED'ITING,;>p-. Giving authority or reputation.

    ACCRES'CENT, a. [See Accretion.] In- creasing. Shuckford.

    ACCRE'TION, n. [Lat. accretio accres'co, to increase, literally, to grow

    ad .iiid cresco ; Eiig. accrue ; Fr. accroitre. See Increase, Accrue, Grow.]

    \. A growing to ; an increase by natural growth ; applied to the increase of organic bodies by the accession of parts.

    Plants have an accretion, but no alimenta- tion. Bacon.

    2. In the civil law, the adhering of property to sometlijng else, by which the owner of one thing becomes possessed of a right to anotlier ; as, when a legacy is lef\ to two persons, and one of them dies before the testator, the legacy devolves to the sur- vivor by right of accretion. Encyc.

    ACCRE'TIVE, a. Increasing by growth; growing; adding to by growth; as the accretive motion of plants.

    ACCROACH, V. i. [Fr. accrocher, to fix on a hook ; from croc, crochet, a hook, from the same elements as crook, which see.]

    1. To hook, or draw to, as with a hook ; but in this sense not used.

    2. To encroach ; to draw away from an- other. Hence in old laws to assume the e.vercise of royal prerogatives.


    The noun accroachment, an encroachment, or attempt to exercise royal power, is rarely or never used. [See Encroach.]

    ACCRUE, V. i. accru'. [Fr. accroitre, accru, to increase; L. accresco, cresco; Sp. crecer and acrectr ; It. crescere, accrescere ; Port. crecer : Arm. crisqi.]

    Literally, to grow to; hence to arise, pro- ceed or come ; to be added, as increase, profit or damage ; as, a profit accrues to government from the coinage of copper ; a loss accrues from the coinage of gold and silver.

    ACCRUE, n. accru'. Something that ac- cedes to, or follows the property of an- other. 04s.

    ACCRU'ING, ppr. Growing to ; arising ; coming ; being added.

    .'V.CCRU'MENT, n. Addition ; increase. [Little used.] Montagu.

    (fACCUBA'TION, n. [L. accubatio, a rechn- ing, from ad and cubo, to lie down. See Cube.] A lying or reclining on a couch, as the ancients at their meals. The manner was to rechne on low beds or couches with the head restmg on a pillow or on the elbow. Two or three men lay on one bed, the feet of one extended behind the back of another. This practice was not permit- ted among soldiers, children, and senants ; nor was it known, until luxury had cor- rupted manners. Encyc.

    .^iCCUMB', V. i. [L. accumbo ; ad and cubo.] recline as at table. [.Vot used.]

    ACeUM'BENCY, n. State of being accum- bent or reclining.

    ACCUM'BENT, a. [L. accumbens, accumbo, from cubo. See Accubation.] Leaning or reclining, as the ancients at their meals.

    ACCU'MULATE, v. t. [L. md cumulo, to heap; cumulus, a heap; Sp. acuimilar ; It. accumulare ; Fr. accumu- ler, combler.]

    1. To lieap up ; to pile ; to amass ; as, to accu- mulate earth or stones.

    2. To collect or bring together; as to accu- mulate causes of misery ; to accumulate wealth.

    ACCU'MULATE. v. i. To grow to a grea'.

    A C C

    .-ii/e, mmiber or quantity ; to ^'leatly ; as public evils uccumulale

    ACCUMULATE, a. Collected into a mass, orfjiiaiitity. Bacon

    ACCUMULATED, ipp- Collected into i lic,-i|i i.r ^'irat quantity.

    Aid Ml LV'l'lNG, ;);))•. Heaping up i(iM^(>-in^ : increasing greatly.

    ACCLMULATION, n. Thekct ofaccunni latiiig ; tlie state of being accumulated ; ai amassing; a collecting together; as ai: nccumulation of earth or of evils.

    •2. In tat', the concun-ence of several titles to the same thing, or of several circum stances to the same proof. Encyc.

    3. In Universities, an accumulation of degrees, is tlie taking of several together, or at .smaller intervals than usual, or than is allowed by the rules. Encyc.

    AeCU'MULATIVE, a. That accumulates; heapuig up ; accumulating.

    ACCU'MULATOR, n. One that accumu- lates, gathers, or amasses.

    ACCURACY, n. [L. accuratio, from accu- rare, to take care of; ad and curare, to take care ; cxira, care. See Care.]

    1. Exactness ; exact conformity to truth ; or to a rule or model ; freedom from mistake ; nicety; correctness; precision wliich re- sults from care. The accuracy of ideas or ophiions is conformity to truth. The val- ue of testimony depends on its accuracy ; copies of legal instruments should be taken with accuracy.

    2. Closeness ; tightness ; as a tube sealed with accuracy.

    ACCURATE, a. [L. accuratus.] In exact conformity to truth, or to a standard or rule, or to a model ; free from failure, error, or defect ; as an accurate account ; accurate measure ; an accurate expression

    2. Determinate ; precisely fixed ; as, one body may not have a very accurate influence on another. Bacon

    3. Close ; perfectly tight ; as an accurate seal- ing or luting.

    ACCURATELY, adv. Exactly ; in an accu- rate manner ; with precision ; without er- ror or defect ; as a writing accurately copied.

    9. Closely; so ' • ■ ■ ^ J-




    2. The charge of an offense or criiiif

    the declaration containing the charge.

    They set over his head his accusation, ]

    ACCU'SATIVE, a. A term given to a case of noims, in Grammars, on which thi tion of a verb terminates or falls ; called in English Grammar the objective case.

    ACCU'SATIVELY, adv. In an accusative manner.

    2. In relation to the accusative case Grammar.

    ACCU'SATORY, a. Accusing ; containing an accusation ; as an accusatory libel.

    ACCU'SE, ». <. sasz. [L. accuse, to blame. ad and causor, to blame, or ac- causa, blame, suit, or process.



    lui ui ucicci, asu n rnmg accurately copiea. Closely ; so as to be peifectly tight ; as a vial accurately stopped. Comstock.

    3'eURATENESS, n. Accuracy; exact- ness ; nicety ; precision. ACCURSE, V. t. accurs', [Ac for ad and curse.] To devote to destruction ; tounpre cate misery or evil upon. [This verb i rarely used. See Curse.] ACCURS'ED, pp. or a. Doomed to destruc tion or misery :

    The city shall be accursed. John vi. 2. Separated fi-om the faithful ; cast out of the church ; excommunicated.

    I could wish myself accursed from Christ.

    St. Paul, \S. Worthy of the curse : detestable ; exe- crable.

    Keep from tlie accursed tiling. Josh. vi. Hence, 4. Wicked ; malignant in the extreme. ACCU'SABLE, a. That may be accused ; chargeable with a crime ;"blamable; ha- ^ ble to censure ; followed by of. ACCU'SANT, n. One who accuses. Hall. ACCUSA'TION, n. The act of charging with a crime or offense ; the act of accus- ing of any wrong or injustice.

    cause ; t v. accuser ;

    accusar; It.accusare; Arm. accusi. The sense is, to attack, to drive against, t( charge or to fall upon. See Cause.]

    1. To charge with, or declare to have com mitted a crime, either by plaint, or com plaint, information, indictment,or impeach- ment ; to charge with an offense against the laws, judicially or by a public process as, to accuse one of a high crime or mis- demeanor.

    2. To charge with a fault ; to blame. Their thoughts, in the meanwhile, accusing

    or excusing one another. Rom. ii.

    It is followed by o/ before the subject of ac- cusation ; the use of for after this verb is illegitimate.

    ACCU'SED, pp. Charged with a crime, by a legal process ; charged with an offense blamed.

    ACCU'SER, n. One who accuses or blames an oflicer who prefers an accusation against another for some offense, in the name of the government, before a tribu nal that has cognizance of the offense.

    ACCU'SING, ppr. Charging with a crime blaming.

    ACCUS'TOM, V. t. [Fr. accoutumer, from ad and coutume, coustume, custom. See Cus- tom.]

    Toinake familiar by use ; to form a habit I: _ practice ; to habituate or inure ; as to accustom one's self to a spare diet.

    ACCUS'TOM, V. i. To be wont, or habitu ated to do any thing. [Little used.]

    3. To cohabit. [Abi«serf.] Milton. ACCUS'TOM, n. Custom. [JVot used.]

    Milton ACCUS'TOMABLE, a. Of long custom ;

    habitual ; customary. [Little used.] ACCUS'TOMABLY, adv. According

    custom or habit. [Little used.] ACCUS'TOMAISfCE, n. Custom ; habitual

    use or practice. [JVotused.] Boyle.

    ACCUS'TOMARILY, adv. AcconUng to

    custom or common practice. [See Cus- ■" '; used.] , a. Ui

    [See Ciistoman/.] [Little used. ACCUS'TOMED, pp. Being fainihar by

    use ; habituated ; inured. 2. o. Usual ; often practiced ; as in their ac-

    customed manner. ACCUS'TOrMING, ppr. Making famihar

    by practice ; inuring. ACE, n. [L. as, a unit or pound ; Fr. as ;

    It. asso; D. aas; G. ass; Sp. as.] A unit ; a single point on a card or die ; or

    the card or die so marked.

    tomarily.] [Little used. ACCUS'TOMARY, a. Usual; customary

    2. A very small quantity; a panicle; an atonj; a trifle ; aw a creditor will not abate an ace of his demand. ACEL'DAMA, n. [Ch. Spn, a field, and

    KOI, Ch. Syr. and Sam., blood.] A field said to have lain south of Jerusalem, the same as the potters field, purchased with the bribe which Judas took for betray- ing his master, and therefore called the field of blood. It was appropriated to the interment of strangers. ACEPH'ALOUS, a. [Gr. a priv. and«t«„,

    a head.] Without a head, headless. In lustory, the term Acephali, or AcephaUtes was given to several sects who refused to follow some noted leader, and to such bishops as were exempt from the jurisdiction and dis- cipline of their patriarch. It was also given to certain levelers who acknowl- edged no head in the reign of Henry 1st. It was also applied to the Blemmvcs, a pretended nation of Africa, and to "other tribes in the East, whom ancient natural- ists represented as havhig no head : their eyes and mouth being plncnl in other parts. Modern discoverjis li:n c ili>-i|>;it- ed these fictions. In Kii?jli-li l.;i\\ >. men who held lands of no paiti. iilai lonl, and clergymen who were under no bisliop. L. L. Hen. I. Cowel. ACEPH'ALUS, n. An obsolete name of the tjenia or tape worm, which was formerly supposed to have no head ; an error now exploded. The term is also used to ex- press a verse defective in the begimiing. ACERB', a. [L. acerbus ; G. herbe, harsh, sour, tart, bitter, rough, whence herbst, autumn, herbstzeit, harvest time ; D. herfst, harvest. See Harvest] Sour, bitter, and harsh to the taste ; sour, with astringency or roughness ; a quaUty of unripe fruits. Qtiincy.

    ACERB'ITY, n. A sourness, with rough- ness, or astringency.

    Figuratively, harshness or severity of temper in man. ACER'IC, a. [L. acer, a maple tree.] Pertaining to the maple ; obtamed from the na))le, as aceric acid. Ure.

    AC'EROUS, a. [L. acerosus, chaflfy, from acus, chaffer a point.] In botany, chaffy ; resembling chaff. 2. An acerous or acerose leaf is one which is linear and permanent, in form of a nee- dle, as m pine. Martyru ACES'CENCY, n. [L. acescens, turning sour, from acesco. See Acid.] A turning sour by spontaneous decomposition ; a state of becoming sour, tart, or acid ; and hence a being moderately sour. ACES'CENT, a. Turning .sour; becoming tait or acid by spontaneous decomposition. Hence sliglitly sour ; but the latter sense is usually expressed by acidulous or sub- acid. JVicholson. ACES'TE, n. In entomology, a species of papUio or butterfly, with subdentated wings, found in India. Cyc. ACES'TIS, n. [Gr.] A factitious sort of chi-ysocolla, made of Cyprian verdigris, urine, and niter. Cyc. ACETAB'ULUM, n. [L. from acetum, vin- egar. See Acid.] Among the Romans a

    A C H

    A C I

    A C 1

    vinegar cnise or like vessel, and a meas- ure of about one eighth of a pijit. 1. In anatomy, the cavity of a bone for receiv- ing the protuberant end of another bone, and therefore forming the articulation cal- led enarthrosis. It is used especially for the cavity of the os Innominatum, which receives the liead of the thigh bone

    ACTIE'AN, a. Pertaining to Acliaia in Greece, and a celebrated league or con- federacy established there. Tliis State lay on the gulf of Corinth, within Pelopon- nesus.

    ACIIERN'ER, n. A star of the first magni- tude m the southern extremity of the con- stellation Eridanus.

    2. In botfiny, the trivial name of a species of A€H'ER!SET, n. An ancient measure of ■■ ■ " ■ corn, supposed to be about eight bushels.


    ACHIE'VABLE, a. [See Achieve.^ That

    may be performed. Barrow.

    ACHIE'VANCE, n. Performance. Ehjol.

    .'VCIIIE'VE, v.t. [, to finish; Ann.

    acchui; old Fr. cJicver, to come to the end,

    from Fr. chef, the head or end ; old Eng.

    cheve ; Sp. and Port, acabar, from cabo, end,

    cnpe. See Chief.]

    1. To i)erform, or execute ; to accomplisli ; to finish, or carry on to a final close. It is apiiropriately used for the effect of efforts made by tlie hand or bodily exertion, as fleeds achieved by valor.

    2. To gain or obtain, as the result of exertion. Show all the spoils by valiaat Kings achieved.

    Prior. AOIIIE'VEn, pp. Performed; obtained ;

    piv.izn, the cup peziza ; so called from its reseinbliince to a cup.

    3. A glandular substance found in the placen- ta of some anunals.

    4. It is sometimes used in the sense of Coty- ledon.

    5. A species of lichen. Cyc. ^AC'ETARY, n. [^ee Acid.] An acid pulpy

    substance in certain fi-uits, as the pear, in- closed in a congeries of small calculous bodies, towards the base of the fruit.


    ACETATE, n. [See Acid.] In chimistry, a neutral salt formed by the union of the acetic acid, or radical vuiegar, with any saUfiable base, as with earths, metals, and alkalies; as the ace/aie of alumine, of lime, or of copper. Lavoisier.

    AC'ETATED, «. [See Acid.] Combined with acetic acid, or radical vinegar.

    ACE'Tle, o. [See Acid.] A term used to denote a particular acid, acetic acid, the concentrated acid of vinegar, or radical vinegar. It may be obtained by exposing common vinegar to fi-ost — the water frcez" ing leaves the acetic acid, in a state of pu rity.

    ACETIFI€A'TION, n. The act of making acetous or sour; or the operation of mak- ing vinegar. Cyc.

    ACE'TIFY, V. t. To convert into acid oi vinegar. Aikin

    AC'ETITE, n. [See Add.] A neutral salt formed by the acetous acid, with a salifi able base ; as the acelitc of copper, alumi nous acetite. Lavoisier

    ACETOM'ETER, n. [L. acetum, vinegar, and liftfiov, measure.]

    An instrument for ascertaining the strengtl of vinegar. Ure.

    ACETOUS, a. [See Acid.] Sour; hke or having the nature of vinegar. Acetous acid is the term used by chimists for dis tilled vinegar. Tliis acid, in union with different bases, forms salts called acetites.

    ACETUM, n. [L. See Add.] Vmegar; a sour liquor, obtained from vegetables dis solved in boiUng water, and from ferment ed and spirituous liquors, by expositig tliem to heat and air.

    This is called the acid or acetous fermenta tion.

    A€HE, V. i. ake. [Sax. ace, ece ; Gr. axtu. to aclie or be in pain ; a;K05, pain. Tli primary sense is to be pressed. Perhaps the oriental pi;? "

    1. To suffer pain ; to have or be in pain, or

    in continued pain ; as, the head aclm.

    • 2. To suffer grief, or extreme grief; to be

    - ' distressed ; as, the heart aches

    AGHE, 7!. ake. Pain, or continued pain, in

    opposition to sudden twuiges, or spasmod

    ic ])ain. It denotes a more moderate de

    gree of pain than pang, anguish, suid tor-

    Vol. L

    VCIllK'VEMENT, n. The performance of


    2. A great or heroic deed ; something ac- complished by valor, or boldness.

    3. An obtaining by exertion.

    4. An escutcheon or ensigns armorial, grant- ed for the performance of a great or hon- orable action. Encyc.

    ACHIE'VER, n. One who accomplishes a purpose, or obtains an object by his exer- tions,

    ACHIE'VING,p;)r. Performing; executing ; gaining.

    A'ellING, ppr. Being in pain ; suffering distress.

    A'€HING, n. Pain; continued pain or distress.

    A'CHIOTE, n. The anotta, a tree, and adriig

    used for dyeing red. The bark of the tree

    makes good cordage, and the wood is used

    to excite fire by friction. [See Anotta.]


    A'€HOR, n. [Gr. a;t"P, sordes capitis.] . The scald head, a disease forming scaly eruptions, supposed to be a critical evac- uation of acrimonious humors ; a species of herpes. Hooper. Quincy.

    . In mythology, the God of flies, said to have been worshipped by the Cyreneans, avoid being vexed bv those insects. Encyc.

    A€HR03IAT'I€, a. "[Gr. a priv. and ;i:p"iu

    Destitute of color. Achromatic telescopes are formed of a combination of lenses which separate the variously colored rays of light to equal angles of divergence, ';ii different angles of refi-action of the niuai ray. In this case, the rays being made i. refract towards contrary parts, the w holt ray is caused to deviate from its course,! without being separated into colors, and} the o[)tical aberration arising fi-om the rious colors of light, is prevented. This telescope is an invention of DoUand.

    JVicholson. \CI€'ULAR, a. [L. adcula, Priseian, a needle, froniGr. axtj, L. acies,3. point. See Acid.]


    Intlic shape of a needle; having sharp point* like iieedlcs. Kirwan. Martyn.

    \n ncicidar prism is when the crystals are slender and straight. Phillips.

    ACl€'ULARLY, adv. In the manner of needles, or prickles.

    ACID, a. [L. acidus ; Sax. aced, vine- gar ; from the root of ades, edge ; Gr. axr] ; W. oKif, an edge or point. See Edge.]

    Sour, sharp or biting to the taste, having the taste of vinegar, as addfruils or liquors.

    AC'ID, n. In chimistry, acids are a class of of substances, so denominated from their taste, or the sensation of .sourness which they ijnidnce on the tongue. But the namc^ is now given to several substances, which ha\e not this characteristic in an eminent degree. The properties, by which they are distinguished, are these :

    1. When taken into the mouth, they occa- sion the taste of sourness. They are cor- rosive, unless diluted with water ; and some of them are caustic.

    2. They change certain vegetable blue colors to red, and restore blue colors which have been tiu-ned green, or red colors which have been turned blue by an alkali.

    3. iWost of them unite with water in all pro- jjortions, with a condensation of volume and evolution of heat ; and many of them have so strong an attraction for "water, as not to appear in the sohd state.

    4. They have a stronger affinity for alka- hes, than these have for any other sub- stance ; and in combining with them, most of them produce effervescence.

    They unite with earths, alkaUes and me- tallic oxyds, forming interesting com- pounds, usually called salts.

    6. With few exceptions, they are volatiUzed or decomposed by a moderate heat.

    The old chimists divided acids into ani- mal, vegetable, and mineral — a division now deemed inaccurate. They are also divided into oxygen acids, hydrogen acids, and acids destitute of these acidifiers. Another division is into acids with simple radicals, acids with double radicals, acids with triple radicals, acids with imknown radicals, compound acids, dubious acids, and acids destitute of oxygen. Lavoisier. Thomson. J^icholson. Aikin.

    ACIDIF'EROUS, a. [Acid and L. fero.] Containing acids, or an acid.

    Acidiferous minerals are such as consist of an earth combined with an acid; as carbo- nate of Ume, alumuiite, &c. Phillips.

    VCID'IFIABLE, a. [From Acidify.]

    Capable of being converted into an acid, by union with an acidifying principle, with- out decomposition.

    ACIDIFI€A'TION, n. The act or process of aridifvuig or changing into an acid.

    \ril) II'IKD, pp. Made acid; converted

    veil* ll'IKR, n. That which by combina- tion Ibiins an acid, as oxygen and hydro- gen.

    ACID'IFY, I', t. [Add and L.fncio.]

    To make acid ; but appropriately to convert into an acid, chimically so called, by com- bination with any substance.

    ACIDIFYING, ppr. Making acid; con- verting into an acid ; having power to change into an acid. Oxygen is called the acidifying principle or element.

    A C K

    ACIDIM'ETER, n. [Acid and Or. nitf^ov, measure.]

    All instrument for ascertaining tlie strength of acids. Ure.

    ACID'ITY, n. [Fr. aciditi, from acid.]

    The quality of being sour; sourness; tart- ness ; sharpness to the taste.

    AC'IDNESS, n. The quahty of being sour; acidity.

    ACIDULATE, v. t. [L. addulus, shghtly sour; Fr. aarfwier, to make sour. See^a'rf."

    To tuige with an acid ; to made acid in i moderate degre. A-buthnot.

    ACID'ULATED, pp. Tinged with an acid ; made slightly sour.

    ACID'ULATING,;7jur. Tinging with an acid

    AC'IDUIiE, \ 11. In chimistry, a compound

    ACID'ULUM, S salt, in which the alkahne base is su])ersaturated with acid ; as, tarta reous aciduhim ; oxalic acidulum.

    ACIDULOUS, a. [L. addulus. See Add.]

    Slightly sour ; sub-acid, or having an ex cess of acid ; as, addulous sulphate.

    ACINAC'IFORM, a. [L. acmaces, a cime ter, Gr. axuaxs;?, and Tl,. forma, form.]

    In botany, formed like, or resembling a cim- eter. Marfyn.

    AC'INIFORM, a. [L. annus, a grape stone and forma, shape.]

    Having the form of grapes ; being ui clusters Uke grapes. The uvea or posterior la- men of the iris in the eye, is called the adniform tunic. Anatomists apply the term to many glands of a similar forma tion. Qtiincy. Hooper

    ACINOSE, > a. [From L. acinus. Set

    ACINOUS, S Adniform.]

    Consisting of minute granular concretions used in mineralogy. Kirwan

    ACINUS, n. [L.] In botany, one of the small grains, which compose the fruit of the blackbeiTy, &c.

    ACIPENSER, a. In ichthyology, a genus of fishes, of the order of chondropterygii, having an obtuse head ; the mouth under the head, retractile and without teeth. To this genus belong the sturgeon, ster- let, huso, &c. Cyc

    \CIT'LI, n. A name of the water hare, or great crested grebe or diver.

    Diet, of Nat. Hist

    A€KNOWL'EDGE, v.t. Aknol'edge, [ad and knoivledge. See Kno%p.]

    J. To own, avow or admit to be true, by a declaration of assent ; as to acknoiuh'dge the being of a God.

    '3. To own or notice with particular regard. In all thy ways acknowledge God. Prov. iii. Isa. xxxiii.

    ?i. To own or confess, sciousness of guilt.

    1 acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. Ps. li. and x.\xii.

    4. To own with assent ; to admit or receive with approbation.

    He tliat acknowledgeth the son, hath the the father also. 1 John ii. 2 Tim. ii.

    3. To own with gratitude ; to own as a ben- efit ; as, to acknowledge a favor, or the re- ceipt of a gift.

    They his gifts acknowledged not. Milton.

    G. To own or admit to belong to ; as, to ac- knowledge a son.

    7. To receive with respect.

    AU tbat eee them shall acknowledge that

    A C O

    implying a con-

    they are the seed which the Loid hath blessed Isa. vi. I Cor. xvi.

    8. To own, avow or assent to an act in a le- gal foriri, to give it validity ; as, to acknowl- edge a deed before competent authority.

    A€KNOWL'EDGED, pp. Owned ; con- fessed ; noticed with regard or gratitude ; received with approbation ; owned before authoritv-

    A€KNOWL'ED(iING, ppr. Owning ; con fessing ; approving ; grateful ; but the lat- ter sense is a galUcism, not to be used.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT, n. The act of owning ; confession ; as, the acknowledg- ment of a fault.

    2. The ownuig, with approbation, or m the true character ; as the acknowledgment of a God, or of a pubUc mmister.

    3. Concession ; admission of the truth ; as, of a fact, position, or principle.

    4. The owning of a benefit received, accom- panied with gratitude ; and hence it com bines the ideas of an expression of thanks. Hence, it is used also for something given or done ui return for a favor.

    5. A declaration or avowal of one's own act to give illegal vahdjty ; as the acknowledg- ment of a deed before a proper officer.

    icknoivledgment-money, in some parts of Eng- land, is a stun paid by tenants, on the death of their landlord, as an acknowledgment of their new lords. Encyc.

    A€'aiE, n. Ac'my. [Gr. axuri.]

    The top or highest point. It is used to de- note the maturity or perfection of an ani- mal. Among physicians, the crisis of a disease, or its utmost violence. Old med- ical writers divided the progress of a dis- ease into four periods, the arche, or begin- ning, the anabasis, or increase, the acme or utmost violence, and the paracme. or decline. But acme can hardly be con- sidered as a legitimate English word.

    A€'NE, n. Ac'ny. [Gr.]

    A small hard pimple or tubercle on the face. Qiiincy.

    ACNES'TIS, n. [Gr. a priv. and xiuu, to rub or gnaw.]

    That part of the spine in quadi'upeds which extends from the metaphrenon, between the shoulder blades, to the loins ; which the animal cannot reach to scratch.

    Coxe. (^uincy.

    A€'0, n. A Mediterranean fish, called sarachus.

    AG'OLIN, n. A bird of the partridge kind

    in Cuba. Its breast and belly are white ;

    its back and tail of a dusky yellow brown

    Diet. ofJVat. Hist

    A€OL'OTHIST, ? ,„ , « i

    A€'OLYTE, I "• [^■■- <""'^»'"-]

    In the ancient church, one of the subordinate officers, who hghted the lamps, prepared the elements of the sacraments, attended the bishops, &c. An oflicer of the like character is still employed in the Romish Church. Encyc.

    A€'ONITE, n. [L. aconitum; Gr. axo^^To^"

    The herb wolf's bane, or monks-hood, poisonous plant ; and in poetry, used for poison in general.

    AeON'TIAS, n. [Gr. axovtias dart, from axuv.]

    1. A species of serpent, called dart -snake, or jaculum, liomits maimer of dartuig on its prey. This serjieni is about three feet iji


    length ; of a hght gray color witli blaclr spots, resembling eyes ; the belly perfectly white. It is a native of Africa and the Mediterranean isles; is the swiftest of its kind, and cods itself upon a tree, from which it darts upon its prey.

    2. A comet or meteor resembUiig the serpent.

    ACOP', adv. [a and cope.}

    JAt the top. Obs. Jonsort.

    A'€ORN, n. [Sax. eecem, from ace or ac, oak, and com, a grain.]

    1. The seed or fruit of the oak ; an oval nut which grows in a rough permanent cup.

    The first settlers of Boston were reduced to the necessity of feeding on clams, muscles, ground nuts, and acorns. B. Trumbull.

    2. In marine language, a small ornamental piece of wood, of a conical shape, fixed on the point of the spindle above the vane, on the mast head, to keep the vane from be- ing blown off. Mar. Diet.

    3. In natural history, the Lepas, a genus of shells of several species found on the Brit- ish coast. The shell is multivalvular, un- equal, and fixed by a stem ; the valves are parallel and pei-pendicular, but they do not open, so that the animal performs its func- tions by an aperture on the top. These shells are always fixed to some solid body.

    A'€ORNED, a. Furnished or loaded with

    acorns. A'eORUS, n. [L. from Gr. axopoi.]

    1. Aromatic Calamus, sweet flag, or sweet rush.

    2. In natural history, blue coral, which grows in the form of a tree, on a rocky bottom, in some parts of the African seas. It is brought from the Camarones and Benin.


    3. In medicine, this name is sometimes given to the great galangal. Encyc.

    A€OTYL'EDON, n. [Gr. a priv. and xotv- ^yjiuv from xotvt.ij, a hollow.}

    In botany, a plant whose seeds have no side s, or cotyledons. Martim.

    ACOTYLEDONOUS, a. Having no side lobes.

    ACOUS'TIC, a. [Gr. oxoisnaioj, from axovu, to hear.]

    Pertaining to the ears, to the sense of hear- ing, or to the doctrine of sounds.

    Acoustic duct, in anatomy, the meatus audito- rius, or external passage of the ear.

    Acoustic vessels, in ancient theaters, were bra- zen tubes or vessels, shaped like a bell, used to proj)el the voice of the actors, so as to render them audible to a great dis- tance ; in some theaters at the distance of 400 feet. Encyc.

    icoustic instrument, or auricular tube, called

    in popidar language, a speaking trumpet.


    Acoustics, or acousmalics, was a name given to such of the disciples of Pythagoras, as had not completed their five years proba- tion.

    A€OUS'TICS, n. The science of sounds, teaching their cause, nature, and phenom- ena. This science is, by some writers, di- vided into diacoustics, which explains the properties of sounds coming du-ectly from the sonorous body to the ear; and catacou- stics, which treats of reflected sounds. But the distinction is considered of httl© real utility.

    2. lu medicine, this term is sometimes usetj

    A c a

    A c a

    A C R

    for remedies for deafness, or imperfect

    hearinj^. quincij.

    ACQUA'INT, V. t. [Old Fr. accointer, to

    make known ; whence accointance, ac-

    qnaintance. Qu. Per. \^l^s kunda, knowing, intelligent ; Ger. kunde, knowl- edge ; kwid, known, public ; D. kond or kunde, knowledge ; Sw. klind, known ; Dan. kimder, to know, to be acquainted with. These words seem to have for their primitive root the Goth, and Sax. kunnan, to know, the root of cunning ; Ger. ken- nen ; D. kunnen, kan ; Eng. can, and ken ; which see.]

    1. To make known ; to make fully or inti- mately known ; to make famiUar.

    A man of sorrows and acquainted with giicf. Isaiah liii.

    2. To inform ; to communicate notice to ; as, a friend in the country acquaints me with hi; success. Of before the object, as to ac- quaint a man o/this design, has been used, but is obsolete or improper.

    3. To acquaint one^s self, is to gain an inti- mate or particular knowledge of

    JJcquaiiit now thyself with him and be at peace. Job xxii.

    A€QUAI'NTANCE, ?i. Famihar know- edge ; a state of being acquainted, or of having intimate or more than sUght or su- perficial knowledge ; as, 1 knotv the man, but have no acquaintance with him. Some- times it denotes a more slight knowledge.

    9. A person or persons well known ; usually persons we have been accustomed to see and converse with; sonietmies, persons more slightly known.

    Lover and friend hast thou put far from me, end mine acquaintance into darkness. Ps bixxviii.

    •Acquaintances, in the plural, is used, as ap plied to individual persons known; but more generally, acquaintance is used for one or more.

    Jicquaintant, in a like sense, is not used.

    ACQUAINTED, pp. Known; famiharly known ; informed ; having personal know- ledge.

    ACQUAINTING, ppr. Making known to ; giving notice, or information to.

    ACQUEST', n. [L. acquisitus, acquiro.]

    1. Acquisition ; the tiling gained. Bacon.

    2. Conquest ; a place acquired by force. ACQUIESCE, V. i. acquiess'. [L. acquiesco

    of ad and quiesco, to be quiet ; quies, rest Fr. acquiescer.]

    1 . To rest satisfied, or apparently satisfied, or to rest without opposition and discontent ; usually implying previous opposition, m easiness, or dislike, but ultimate compl: ance, or submission ; as, to acquiesce in the dispensations of providence.

    2. To assent to, upon conviction ; as, to ac- quiesce in an opmion ; that is, to rest satis- fied of its correctness, or propriety.

    Acquiesced in, in a passive sense, comphcd with ; submitted to, without opposition as, a measure has been acquiesced in.

    ACQUIES'CENCE, n. A quiet assent ; a si- lent submission, or submission with appa rent content ; distinguished from avowed consent on the one" hand, and on the other,

    from opposition or open discontent ; as, an acquiescence in the decisions of a court, or in the allotments of providence.

    ACQUIES'CENT, a. Resting satisfied; easy; submjtthig; disposed to submit.


    ACQUIES'CING, ppr. Quietly submitting ; resting content.

    ACQUI'RABLE, a. That inay be acquired.

    ACQUI'RE, V. t. [L. acquiro, ad and quwro, to seek, that is to follow, to press, to urge ; ac- quiro signifies to jmrsue to the end or ob- ject;^uenr; Sp. arfgutnV ; Ar. Sy'i, Heb. Ipn to seek, to make towards, to fol- low. The L. qucesivi, unless contracted, is jnobably from a difierent root. See class Gr. and Gs.]

    To gain, by any means, something wliich is in a degree permanent, or which becomes vested or inherent in the possessor ; as, to acquire a title, estate, learning, habits, skill, dominion, &.C. Plants acquire a green color from the solar rays. A mere tempo- rary possession is not expressed by acquire, but by gain, obtain, procure ; as, to obtain [not acquire] a book on loan.

    Descent is the title whereby a man, on the the deatli of liis ancestor, acquires liis estate, by right of representation, as his heir at law.


    ACQUI'RED, pp. Gained, obtained, or re- ceived fi-om art, labor, or other means, in distinction from thosQ,things which are bestowed by nature. Thus we say, abili- ties, natural and acquired. It implies title, or some permanence of possession.

    ACQUI'REMENT, n. The act of acquiring, or that wliich is acquired ; attainment, is used ui opposition to natural gifts ; as, eloquence, and skill in music and painting, are acquirements ; genius, the gift of nature. It denotes especially personal attainments, in opposition to material or external thuigs gained, whicli are more usually called ac- quisitions ; but this distinction is not always observed.

    ACQUI'RER, n. A person who acquires.

    ACQUIRING, ppr. Gaining by labor or other means, something that has a degree of permanence in the possessor.

    ACQUI'RY, n. Acquirement. [.Vo< used.]


    AC'QUISITE, a. s as ;. Gained. [.Vot used.] Burton.

    ACQUISI"TION, n. [L. acquisitio, fi-om ac- quisitxts, acqucesivi, which are given as the part, and prct. of acquiro ; but quasivi is probably from a different root ; W. ceisiaw ;

    Eth. rhUJUJ chasas, jchas ; Ar. ^i kassa, to seek. Class Gs. ]

    1. The act of acquiring ; as, a man takes pleasure m the acquisition of property, as well as in the possession.

    2. The thing acquired, or gained ; as, learn- ing is an acquisition. It is used for mtellec- tual attainments, as well as for external things, property, or dominion ; and in a good sfiisp. (I<>niitiiig something estimable.

    ACQl'lH rrn K. «. That is acquu-ed; ac- quii-i-il : \hiit improper.] Walton.

    ACQUI.-« 1TI\ ELY, adv. Noting acquirc- meut, with to or for followuig.

    Lilifs Grammar.

    ACQUIST', n. See Acquest. [JVol used.]


    ACQUIT', v.t. [Fr. acquiUer; W. gadit, gadaw ; L. cedo ; Arm. kitat, or quytaat, to leave, or forsake ; Fr. quitter, to forsake ; Sp. quitar; Port, quitar; It. quitare, to re- mit, forgive, remove ; D. kttyten ; Ger. quil- tiren.]

    To set free ; to release or discharge from an obligation, accusation, guilt, censure, sus- picion, or whatever Ues upon a person as a charge or duty ; as, the jury acquitted xho prisoner ; we acquit a man of evil inten- tions. It is followed by of before the ob- ject ; to acquit from is obsolete. In a re- ciprocal sense, as, the soldier acquitted himself well in battle, the word has a like sense, implying the discharge of a duty or obhgation. Hence its use in expressing excellence in performance ; as the orator ac- quitted himself well, that is, in a manner that his situation and public expectation demanded.

    ACQUIT'MENT, n. The act of acquitting, or state of being acquitted. South.

    S'his word is superseded by acquittal.] IT'TAL, n. A judicial setting free, or deliverance from the charge of an offense ; as, by verdict of a jury, or sentence of a court.

    The acquittal of a principal operates as an acquittal of the accessories.

    ACQUITTANCE, n. A discharge or re- lease from a debt.

    2. The writing, which is evidence of a dis- charge ; a receipt in full, which bars a fui-thcr demand.

    ACQUIT TED, pp. Set fiee, or judicially (liscliiu-fi-cd iWiiri an accusation ; released fri>iri H (Ic hi, iluty, obligation, charge, or su.spi<-ioii of guilt.

    ACQUIT'TING, ppr. Setting free from ac- cusation ; releasing from a charge, obliga- tion, or suspicion of guilt.

    ACRA'SE, I V. t. To make crazy ; to in-

    ACRA'ZE, S fatuate. [JYot in use.] [See Crazy.]

    2. To impair; to destroy. [JVotin use.]

    AC'RASY, n. [Gr. axpaaia, from a priv. and xpost;, constitution or temperament.]

    In medical authors, an excess or predominan- cy of one quahty above another, in mix- tin-e, or ui the human constitution. Bailey.

    ACRE, n. a'ker. [Sax. acer, acera, or acer ; Ger. acker ; D. akker ; Sw. acker ; Dan. ager ; W. eg- ; Ir. acra ; Gr. oypof ; Lat. ager. In these languages, the word re- tains its primitive sense, an open, plowed, (II- >.i\\i',l III 111. In Eng. it retained its ori- ^■ -ii;iiii;r:iiiiin, that of any open field, iiiiiil II \\,i- liMiitod to a definite quantity liv .i,,rin. > -il. Ed. 35. Ed. 1. 24. H. 8. ' Cowel.]

    1. A quantity of land, containing 160 square rods or jierches, or 4840 square yards. This is the EngUsh statute acre. ' The acre of Scotland contains 6150 2-5 square yards. The French arpent is nearly equal to the Scottish acre, about a fifth larger than the English. The Roman juger was 3200 square yards.

    •2. In the 3Iogul's dominions, acre is the same as lack, or 100,000 rupees, equal to £12,500 sterUng, or S55,.500.

    Acre-fght, a sort of duel in the open field.

    A C R

    formerly fought by English and Scotch combatants on their frontiers.

    Acre-tax, a tax on land in England, at a cer- tain sum for each acre, called also acre-shot.

    A'€RED, a. Possessing acres or landed pro- perty. Pope.

    A€'R1D, a. [Fr. acre ; L. acer.]

    Sharp; pungent; bitter; sharp or biting to the taste ; acrimonious ; as acrid salts.

    A€'RIDNESS, n. A sharp, bitter, pungent quahty.

    A€RIMO'NIOUS, a. Sharp; bitter; corro- sive ; abounding with acrhnony.

    2. Figuratively, severe ; sarcastic ; apphed to language or temper.

    A€RIMO'NIOUSLY, adv. With sharpness or bitterness.

    ACRIMONY, n. [L. (uriinonia, from acer, sharp. The latter part of the word seems to denote likeness, state, condition, like head, hood, in knighthood; in which case it may be from thesame root as maneo, Gr.


    1. Sharpness ; a quality of bodies, which rodes, dissolves, or destroys others ; as, the acrimony of the hiunors. Bacon.

    2. Figuratively, sharpness or severity oftem- per ; bitterness of expression proeeeduig from anger, ill-nature, or petulance. South

    AC'RISY, n. [Gr. o priv. and xptsi;-, judg ment.]

    A state or condition of which no right judg- ment can be formed ; that of which no choice is made ; matter in dispute ; inju djciousness. [Ldttle used.] Bailey.

    AC'RITUDE, n. [See Acrid.]

    An acrid quahty ; bitterness to the taste biting heat.

    ACROAMAT'Ie, a. [Gr. oxpottjuof txo;, from axpooo/iat, to hear.]

    .\bstruse ; pertaining to deep learning ; an epithet applied to the secret doctrines of Aristotle. Enfield,

    ACROAT'IC, a. [Gr. axpoartxo;.]

    Abstruse ; pertaining to deep learning ; and opposed to exoteric. Aristotle's lectures were of two kinds, acroatic, acroamatic, or esoteric, which were dehvered to a class of select disciples, who had been previously instructed in the elements of learning; and cxotenc, which were dehvered in public. The former respected being, God, and na- ture ; the principal subjects of the latter were logic, rhetoric, and policy. The ab- struse lectures were called acroatics.


    ACROCERAU'NIAN, a. [Gr. axpa, a sum- mit, and xsfavvoi, thunder.]

    An epithet apphed to certain mountains, between Epirus and lUyricum, hi the 41 degree of latitude. Tliey project into the Adriatic, and are so termed from beuig often struck with lightning. Encyc.

    ACRO'MION, n. [Gr. axpos, highest, and u/ios, shoulder.]

    In anatomy, tliat part of the spine of the

    scapula, whicli receives the extreme pan

    of the clavicle. Quj'ncT/.

    A€RON'I€, I a. [Gr. axpos, extreme, and

    A€RON'I€AL, S rul, night.]

    (n astronomy, a term applied to tlie rising of

    a star at sun set, or its setting at sun rise.

    This rising or setting is called acronical.

    The word is opposed to cosmical.

    Banley. Encyc. Johnson.

    A C T

    A€RON'l€ALLY, adv. In an acronical

    manner ; at the rising or setting of the

    sun. .\€'ROSPIRE, n. [Gr. axpos, highest, and

    artcifa, a spire, or spiral line.] A shoot, or sprout of a seed ; the plume, or

    plumule, so called frotnits spu-alform.

    Mortimer. A€'ROSPIRED, a. Having a sprout, or

    having sprouted at both ends. Mortimer. ACROSS', prep, akraus'. [a and cross. See

    Cross.] 1. From side to side, opposed to along, which

    is in the direction of the length ; athwart ;

    quite over ; as, a bridge is laid across a

    river. i. Intersecting ; passing over at any angle ;

    as a line passing across another. A€ROS'Tl€, n. [Gr. axpa, extremity or be- ginning, and atix"!, order, or verse.] A composition in verse, in which the first

    letters of the Unes, taken in order, form the

    name of a person, khigdom, city, &c.

    which is the subject of the composition

    or some title or motto. A€ROS'Tle, a. That relates to, or contains

    an acrostic. ACROS'TICALLY, adv. ,In the manner of


    A€T, V. t. To perform ; to represent a character on the stage.

    Act well your part, there all the honor lies. Pope. To feign or counterfeit. Obs. or improper. With acted fear the villain thus pursued.

    Xh-yden. To put m motion ; to actuate ; to regulate

    [In this latter sense, obsolete and superseded by actuate, which see.]

    ACT, ji. The exertion of power; the effect, of which power exerted is the cause ; as, the act of giving or receiving. In thia sense, it denotes an operation of the mind. Thus, to discern is an act of the understand- ing ; to judge is an act of the will.

    2. That which is done ; a deed, exploit, or achievement, whether good or ill.

    And his miracles and his acts wUch he did in the midst of Egypt. Deul. xi.

    3. Action ; performance ; production of ef- fects ; as, an act of charity. But this sense is closely allied to theforegoing.

    A state of reality or real existence, as

    A€ROTELEU'Tl€, li. [Gr. oxpo;, extreme and Ti'Kivrij, end.]

    \mong ecclesiastical ivriters, an appellation given to any thing added to the end of a psahn, or hymn ; as a doxology.

    AC'ROTER, n. [Gr. oxpoyjjp, a summit.]

    In architecture, a small pedestal, usually witl out a base, anciently placed at the two extremes, or m the middle of pediments or frontispieces, serving to .support the statues, &c. It also signifies the figures placed as ornaments on the tops of churches, and the shaip pinnacles that stand in ranges about flat builduigs with rails and balusters. Anciently the word signified the extremi- ties of the body, as the head, hands, and feet. Encyc.

    ACROTHYM'ION, n. [Gr. azpos, extreme, and Su^of, thyme.]

    Among physicians, a species of wart, with a narrow basis and broad top, having the color of thyme. It is called Thymus.


    ACT, V. i. [Gr. ayu, Lat. ago, to urge, drive, lead, bring, do, perform, or in gen- eral, to move, to exert force ; Cantabrian, eg-, force ; W. eg'ni; Ir. cig-eon, force ; Ir. aige, to act or carry on ; eachdmn, to do or act ; actaim, to ordain ; eacht, acht, deed, act, condition ; F. agir ; It. agire, to do act.]

    1. To exert power: as, the stomach acts upon food ; the will acts upon the body in pro- ducing motion.

    2. To be in action or motion ; to move. He hangs between in doubt to act or rest.


    3. To behave, demean, or conduct, as in morals, private duties, or public offices as, we know not why a minister has acted in this manner. But in this sense, it i.' most frequent in popular language ; as how the man acts or has acted.

    To act up to, is to equal in action ; to fulfil or perform a correspondent action ; as, he has acted up to his engagement or hi: advantages.

    opposed to a possibility. The seeds of plants are n

    not at first in act, but in possibility, what they afterwards grow to be. Hooker.

    5. In general, act denotes action completed ; but preceded by in, it denotes incomplete action.

    She was taken in the very act. John viii. In act is used also to signify incipient action, or a state of preparation to exert po wer ; as, " In act to strilte," a poetical use. A part or division of a play, to be perform- ed without interruption ; after which the action is suspended to give respite to the performers. Acts are divided into smaller portions, called scenes.

    7. The result of pubhc deliberation, or the decision of a prince, legislative body, council, court of justice, or magistrate : a decree, edict, law, judgment, resolve, award, determination ; as an act of par- hament, or of congress. The term is also transferred to the book, record, or writing, containing the laws and determinations. Also, any instrument in writing to verily facts.

    In the sense of agency, or power to pro- duce effects, as in the passage cited by Johnson, from Shakespeare, the use is im- proper.

    To tiy the vigor of them and apply AUayments to their act.

    .id, in English Universities, is a thesis maintained in pid)lic, by a candidate for a degree, or to show the proiSciency of a stu- dent. At Oxford, the time when masters and doctors complete their degrees is also called the aci, which is held with great so- lemnity. At Cambridge, as in the United States," it is called commencement. Encyc.

    Act of faith, auto da fe, in Cathohc countries, is a solenm day held by the Inquisition, for the punishment of heretics, and the absolution of accused persons found inno- cent ; or it is the sentence of the Inquisi- tion.

    Acts of the Apostles, the title of a book in the New Testament, containing a history of the transactions of the Apostles.

    Acta Diiirna, among tiie Romans, a sort of




    Gazette, containing an authorized account of transactions in Rome, nearly siHiilar to our newspapers.

    ^cta popuh, or atta publica, the Roman re- gisters of assemblies, trials, executions, biLililih'js, Iiirlii<. marriages, and deaths of iili(-;n.'.,i-|,rr-i„,,s&c.

    ^di: .<. ,)(/hs-. mil, lit. 's of what passed in the Rumaii Mjiiute, culled also conunentarii, coniinciitaries.

    A€T'ED,pp. Done; performed; represent- ed oil the stage.

    A€'TIAN, a. Relating to Actium, a town and promontory of Epirus, as Actian games, which were instituted by Augus- tus, to celebrate his naval victory over Anthony, near that town, Sep. 2, B. C. 31. They were celebrated every five years. Hence, Actian years, reckoned from that era. Encyc.

    ACT'ING,;>;)r. Doing; performing; behav- ing ; representing the character of another.

    A€T'ING, n. Action ; act of performing a part of a play. Shak. Churchill.

    A€'TINOLITE, n. [Gr. axnv, a ray, and ueo;, a stone.]

    A mineral, called, by Werner, strahlstcin, ray-stone, nearly allied to hornblend. It occurs in prismatic crjstals, which are long, and incomplete, and sometimes ex- tremely minute and even fibrous. Its prevailing color is green of different shades, or shaded with yellow or brown. There are several varieties, as the com- mon, the massive, the acicular, the glassy, and the fibrous.

    Werner. Kirwan. Cleaveland.

    AetinoUte is crystalized, asbestiform, and

    glassy. Phillips.

    A€TlNOLIT'I€, a. Like or pertaining to actinolite.

    A€'T10N, n. [L. actio. See Act.]

    1. Literally, a driving ; hence, the state of acting or moving ; exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another ; or action is the effect of power exerted on one body by another ; motion produced. Hence, action is opposed to rest. Action, when produced by one body on another, is mechanical ; when produced by the will of a living being, spontaneous or voluntary. [See Def. 3.]

    2. An act or thing done ; a deed.

    The Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him are actions weighed. 1. Sam. ii. ■i. In mechanics, agency ; operation ; driving impulse ; effort of one body upon another ; as, the action of wind upon a ship's sails. Also the effect of such aetion.

    4. In ethics, the external signs or expression of the sentiments of a moral agent ; con- duct ; behavior ; demeanor ; that is, mo- tion or movement, with respect to a rule or propriety.

    5. In poetry, a series of events, called also the subject or fable ; this is of two kinds ; the principal action which is more strictly the fable, and the incidental action or epi- sode. Encyc.

    6. In oratory, gesture or gesticulation ; the external deportment of the speaker, or the accommodation of his attitude, voice, gest- ures, and countenance to the subject, or to the thoughts and feelings of the mind.


    7. In physiology, the motions or functionsof

    the body, vital, animal, and natural ; vi- tal and involuntary-, as the action of the heart and lungs ; animal, as muscidar, and all voluntary motions; natural, as mandu- cation, deglutition, and digestion. Encyc. 8. In laiv, literally, an urging for right ; a suit or process, by which a demand is made of a right ; a claim made before a tribunal. Actions are real, personal or mixed ; real, or feudal, when the demand- ant claims a title to real estate ; personal, when a man demands a debt, jjersonal duty, or damages in Ueu of it, or satisfac- tion for an injury to person or property ; and mired, when real estate is demanded, with damages for a wrong sustained. Actions are also civil or penal ; civil, when instituted solely in behalf of private per- sons, to recover debts or damages ; penal, when instituted to recover a penalty, im- posed by way of punishment. The w-ord is also used for a right of action ; as, the law gives an action for every claim.

    Blackstone. A chose in action, is a right to a thing, in opposition to the possession. A bond or note is a chose in action [Fr. chose, a thing,] and gives the owner a right to prose- cute his claim to the money, as he has an absolute property in a light, as well as in a thing, in possession. In some countries of Europe, action is a share in the capital stock of a company, or in the pubhc funds, equivalent to oiir term sluire ; and consequently, in a more general sense, to stocks. The word is also used for movable effects.

    10. In painting and sculpture, the attitude or position of the several parts of the body, by wliich they seem to be actuated by pas- sions ; as, the arm extended, to represent the act of giving or receiving.

    11. Battle ; fight ; engagement between troops in war, whether on land or water, or by a greater or smaller number of com- batants. This and the 8th definition ex- hibit the Uteral meaning of ac/to/i — a driv- ing or urging.

    Quantity ofaction, in physics, the product of the mass of a body by the sjiace it runs through and its velocity. Encyc.

    In many cases action and act are synony- mous : but some distinction between them is observable. Action seems to have more relation to the power that acts, and its operation and process of acting ; and act, more relation to the effect or operation complete. Action is also more generally used for ordinary transactions ; and act, for such as are remarkable, or dignified ; as, all our actions should be reg- ulated by prudence ; a prince is distinguish- ed by acts of heroism or humanity. Encyc.

    Action taking, in Shakespeare, is used for hti- gious.

    A€'TIONABLE, a. That will bear a suit, or for which an action at law may be sus- tained ; as, to call a man a thief is actionable.

    A€'TIONABLY, adv. In a manner that sub- jects to legal process.

    AC'TIONARY or AC'TIONIST, n. In Europe, a proprietor of stock in a trading company ; one who owns aefiois or shares of stock.

    ACT'IVE, a. [L. activus ; Fr. actif]

    That has the power or quality of acting ; that

    contains the principle of action, indepeii- ilciit of any visible external force ; as, attraction is an active power : or it may be defined, that communicates action or mo- tion, opposed to passive, that receives ac- tion ; as, the active powers of the mind.

    2. Having the power of quick motion, or disposition to move with speed ; niTnble ; hvely ; brisk ; agile ; as an active animal. Hence,

    3. Busy ; constantly engaged in action ; pursuing business"with vigor and assidu- ity ; op))osed to dull, slow, or indolent; as an aetive officer. It is also opposed to sedentary, as an active life.

    4. Requiring action or exertion ; practical ; operative ; producing real effects ; opposed to speculative ; as, the active duties of Ufe.

    a. In grammar, active verbs are those which not only signify action, but have a noun or name following them, denoting the object of the action or impression ; called also transitive, as they imply the passing of the action expressed by the verb to the object ; as, a professor instructs his pupils.

    6. Active capital, or wealth, is money, or prop- erty that may readily be converted into money, and used in commerce or other employment for profit. Hamilton,

    7. Active commerce, the commerce in which a nation carries its own productions and foreign commodities in its own ships, or which is prosecuted by its own citizens ; as contradistinguishedfrom passive com- merce, in which the productions of one country are transported by the people of another country.

    The commerce of Great Britain and of the United States is active ; that of China is passive.

    It maybe the interest of foreign nations to deprive us, as far as possible, of oil active commerce in our own bottoms.

    Federalist, Hamilton.

    ACTIVELY, adv. In an active manner; by action ; nunbly ; briskly ; also in an active signification, as a word is used actively.

    A€T'IVENESS, n. The quality of being active; the faculty of acting; nimbleness; quickness of motion; less used than activity.

    A€T1V ITY, n. The quality of being ac- tive; the active faculty ; nimbleness; agil- ity ; also the habit of diligent and vigorous pursuit of business ; as, a man of activity. It is apphed to persons or things.

    Sphere of activity, is the whole space in which, the virtue, power, or influence of any ob- ject, is exerted.

    To put in activity, a French phrase, for put- ting in action or employment.

    A€T'OR, n. He that acts or performs ; an active agent.

    3. He that represents a character or acts a part in a play ; a stage player.

    3. Among civilians, an advocate or proctor in civil courts or causes.

    ACTRESS, n. A female who acts or per- forms, and especially, on the stage, or in a play.

    A€T UAL, a. [Fr. actuel. See Act.]

    Real or eftective, or that exists truly and absolutely ; as, actual heat, opposed to that, which is virtual or potential ; actual cautery, or the burning by a red-hot iron, opposed to a cautery- or caustic appUcation,

    A C U

    that may produce the same effect upon the body by a different process.

    2. Existing in act ; real ; in opposition to sijecidative, or existing in theory only; as an actual crime.

    3. In theology, actual sin is that which is committed by a person himself, opposed to original sin, or the corruption of nature supposed to be communicated from Adam.

    4. That includes action.

    Besides her walking and other actual per- formances. [Hardly legitimate.} Shak.

    A€TUAL'ITY, n. ReaUty. Haweis.

    A€T'UALLY, adv. In fact ; really ; in truth.

    ACTUARY, n. [L. aduan'its.]

    A register or clerk ; a term of the civil law, and used origmally in courts of civil law jurisdiction ; but in Europe used for i clerk or register generally.

    ACT'UATE, a. Put in action. ILiUle used.

    A€T UATE, V. t. [from act.]]

    To put into action ; to move or incite to action ; as, men are actuated by motiv or passions. It seems to have been used formerly in the sense of invigorate, noting increase of action ; but the use legitimate.

    ACTUATED, pp. Put in action ; incited to action.

    ACTUATING, ppr. Putting in action ; in citing to action.

    ACTUATION, n. The state of being put in action ; effectual o])eration. Glanville

    ACT'US, n. Among the Romans, a measure in building equal to 120 Roman feet. In agriculture, the length of one furrow.

    ACIJ ATE, V. t. [L. acuo, to sharpen. See Acid.]

    To sharpen ; to make pungent, or coiTosive. [Little %ised.] Harvey.

    ACUBE'NE, n. A star of the fourth magni- tude in the southern clavif of Cancer.

    ACUI "TION, n. [from L. acuo, to shaqien.]

    The sharpening of medicines to increase their effect.

    ACU'LEATE, a. [L. aculeus, from acus. Gr. axri, a point, and the diminutive ul. See Acid.]

    In botany, having prickles, or sharp points ; pointed; used chiefly to denote prickles lixed in the bark, in distinction from thorns, which grow from the wood.


    2. In zoology, having a sting.

    ACU'LEI, n. [L.] In botany and zoology, piickles or spmes.

    AC'ULON, or AC ULOS, n. [Gr. axv^oj, probably from ac, an oak.]

    The fruit or acorn of the ilex, or scarlet oak

    ACU'MEN, )!. [L. acumen, from acus oi acuo.']

    A sharp point; and figm-atively, quickness of perception, the faculty of nice discrim ination.

    ACU'MINATE, a. [L. acuminatus, from

    Endins in a sharp point ; pointed.

    ACU'MINATEK, a. Sliarpened to a point.

    ACUMINA'TION, n. A sharpening ; termi- nation in a sharp point.

    ACUPUNCTURE, n. [L. acus, needle, and punctura, or punctus, a pricking.]

    Among the Chinese, a surgical operation, performed by pricking the part aftected with a needle, as in head-aches and lethar- gieg. Encyc.

    A D

    AC'URU, n. The name in India of a fragrant aloe-wood. As. Researches.

    A'CUS, n. [L.] The needle-fish, or gar-fish.

    3. The ammodyte or sand eel. Cyc.

    3. The oblong cimex. Cyc.

    ACUTE, a. [L. acutus, sharp-pointed ; Qu. from acuo, acus, or from the Oriental m had or chad, sharji, Heb. Ch. Ar.]

    Shar]) at the end ; ending in a sharp point ; opposed to blunt or obtuse. An acute angle in geometry, is one which is less than a right angle, or which subtends less than ninety degrees. An acute angled triangle is one whose three angles are all acute, or less than ninety degrees each.

    2. Figuratively, applied to mental powers; penetrating ; having nice discernment ; perceiving or using minute distinctions; opposed to dull or stupid ; as an acute soner.

    3. Applied to the senses ; having nice or quick sensibility ; susceptible of slight impres- sions ; having power to feel or perceive small objects ; as, a man of acute eye sight, hearing, or feeling.

    4. Aji acute disease, is one which is attended with violent symptoms, and comes speedily to a crisis, as a pleurisy ; opposed to chronic

    5. An acute accent, is that wMch elevates or sharpens the voice.

    6. Ill music, acute is applied to a tone which is sharp, or high ; opposed to grave.

    . In botany, ending m an acute angle, as leaf or perianth. Martyn.

    ACUTELY, adv. Sharply ; keenly ; with nice discrimination.

    ACU'TENESS, n. Shaipness ; but seldom used in this hteral sense, as apphed to ma- terial things.

    2. Figuratively, the faculty of nice discern- ment or perception ; app'Ued to the senses, or the understanding. By an acuteness of feeUng, we perceive small objects or slight impressions ; by an acuteness of intellect, we discern nice distinctions.

    3. Sharpness, or elevation of sound, in rhet- oric or music. Boyle

    4. Violence of a disease, which brings i) speedily to a crisis.

    ACUTIA'TOR, n. In the middle ages, a per- son whose office was to sharpen instru- ments. Before the invention of fire-arms, such officers attended armies, to sharpen their instruments. Encyc.

    AD. A Latin preposition, signifying to. It is probably from Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. Eth.

    nn«, Ar. 4^;;^, to come near, to approach; from which root we may also deduce at. In composition, the last letter is usually changed into the first letter of the word to which it is prefixed. Thus for addamo, the Romans wrote acclamo ; for adgredior, aggredior ; for adjirmo, affirmo ; for adlego, allego ; for adpono, appono ; for adripio, ai-npio ; for adscribo, ascribo ; for adtineo, attineo. The reason of tliis change is found in the ease of pronunciation, and agreea- bleness of the sounds.

    Ad hominem, to the man, m logic, an argu- ment, adapted to touch the prejudices of the person addressed.

    Ad inquirendum, in law, a judicial writ com manding inquiry to be made.

    Ad libitum, [L.] at pleasure.


    Ad valorem, according to the value, Lti' com* merce and finance, terms used to denote duties or charges laid upon goods, at a certain rate per cent, upon their value, a? stated in their mvoices ; in opposition to a specific sum upon a given quantity or number.

    AD'AcjE, n. [L. adagium, or adagio; It. adagio.]

    A proverb ; an old saying, which has obtain- ed credit by long use ; a wise observation handed down from antiquity.

    ADA'GIO, 71. [It. ffrfcfg-io, a compound of arf and agio, leisure ; Sp. and Port, ocio ; L. otium\; Fr. aise ; Eng. ease.]

    In music, a slow movement. As an adverb, slowly, leisurely, and with grace. When repeated, adagio, adagio, it directs the movement to be very slow.

    AD'AM, n. InHeb.Ch. Syr.Eth.Ar.,jV/an; primarily, the name of the human species, mankind ; appropriately, the first Man, the progenitor of the human race. The word signifies form, shape, or suitable form : hence, species. As a verb, the word signi- fies, in Ethiopic, to please or be agreeable ; in Arabic, to join, imite, or be accordant, to agree. It is evidently connected with nm damah, Heb. Ch. Syr., to be like or equal, to form an image, to assimilate. Whence the sense of likeness, image, form, shape ; Gr. Sefms, a body, like. [See Man.]

    Adam's apple, a species of citron, [see Cit- ron ;] also the prominent part of the throat.

    Ad'am's needle, the popular name of the yucca, a plant of four species, cidtivated in gardens. Of the roots, the Indians make a kind of bread. [See Y^tcca.]

    AD'AMANT, n. [Gr. aSa^a;; L. adamas; a word of Celtic origin ; W. ehedvaen, a load stone, from ehed, to fly or move, and vaen, or maen, a stone. Chaucer uses ada- mant for the load stone. Romaunt of the Rose, L. 1182. Ger. diamant, is adamant and diamond ; Sp. diamante ; Sw. damant ; Fr. aimant, loadstone. See Diamond.]

    A very hard or imiieuetrable stone ; a name given to the diamond and other substan- ces of extreme hardness. The name has often been given to the load stone ; but in modern mineralogy, it has no technical signification.

    ADAMANTE'AN, a. Hard as adamant.


    ADAMANT'INE, a. Made of adamant ; ha- ving the quaUties of adamant ; that cannot be broken, dissolved, or penetrated ; as adamantine bonds, or chains.

    Adamantine Spar, a genus of earths, of three varieties. The color of the first is gra)', with shades of brown or green ; the form when regular, a hexangular prism, two sides large and four small, without a pyramid ; its surface striated, and with a thin covering of white mica, mterspersed with particles of red felspar ; its fracture, foliaceous and sparry. The second variety is whiter, and the texture more foliaceous. Tlie third variety is of a reddish brown color. This stone is very hard, and of difficult fusion. Enajc.

    A variety of corundum. Cleaveland.

    AD'AMie, a. Pertaining to Adam. \Adamic earth, is the term given to common red clay, so called by means of a mistaken opinion thai .\daiii means red earth.




    AD'AMITES, in Church hislonj, a sect of visionaries, who pretended to establish a Btate of innocence, and like Adam, went naked. They abhorred marriage, holding it to be theeffect of sin. Several attempts have been made to revive this sect ; one as late as the 15tli century. Encyc.

    ADAMIT'I€, a. Like the Adamites.


    ADANSO'NIA, n. Ethiopian sour gourd, monkey's bread, or African calabash-tree. It is a tree of one species, called baobab, a native of Africa, and the largest of the vegetable kingdom. The stem rises not al)ove twelve or fifteen feet, but is from sixty-five to seventy-eight feet in circum- ference. The branches shoot horizontally to the length of sixty feet, the ends bend- ing to the ground. The fruit is oblong, pointed at both ends, ten inches in length, and covered with a greenish down, under whicl) is a hard ligneous rind. It hangs to the tree by a pedicle two feet long, and contains a white spungy substance. The leaves and bark, dried and powdered, are used by the negroes, as pepper, on their food, to promote perspiration. The tree is named from M. Adanson, who has given a description of it.

    ADAPT', «.<. [Sp.flrfaptar; It. adattare; L. ad. and apto, to fit ; Gr. ortru.]

    To make suitable ; to fit or suit ; as, to adapt an instrument to its uses ; we have pro- vision adapted to our wants. It is appUed to things material or immaterial.

    ADAPT' ABLE, a. That may be adapted.

    ADAPTA'TION, n. The act of making suitable, or the state of being suitable, or fit; fitness.

    ADAPT'ED, pp. Suited ; made suitable ; fitted.

    ADAPT'ER. See adopter.

    ADAPTING, ;);>r. Suitint' ; making fit.

    ADAPTION, n. Adaptation ; the act of fitting. [Little used, and hardly legitimate.]

    ADAPT'NESS, n. A state of being fitted. [.Vot used.] JVewton.

    A D.\R, n. A Hebrew month, answering to the latter part of February and the begin- ning of March, the 12th of the sacred and 6th of the civil year ; so named from "nx, to become glorious, from the exuberance of vegetation, in that month, in Egypt and Palestine. Parkhurst.

    ADAR'CE, n. [Gr. a«opx»;s.]

    A saltish concretion on reeds and grass in marshy grounds m Galatia. It is lax and porous, like bastard spunge, and used to clear the skin ui leprosy, tetters, &c.

    Qufnci/. Plot.

    ADAR'€ON, n. In Jeurish antiquity, a gold coin worth about three dollars and a tliird, or about fifteen shillings sterhng.

    ADAR'ME, n. A Spanish weight, the s teenth of an oimce ; Fr. demi-gros. The Spanish ounce is seven per cent, lighter than that of Paris.

    Encyc. Span. Diet.

    AD'ATIS, n. A muslin or species of cotton cloth from India. It is fine and clear ; the piece is ten French ells long, and three quarters wide.

    AD>AUNT, V. t. To subdue. [JVot used. See Daunt.] Skelton.

    ADAW, r. t. To daunt ; to subject. [.Vot used.] Spenser.

    ADA'YS, adv. On or in days ; as in tiie

    phrase, now adays. ADD, V. t. [L. addo, from ad and do, to give.]

    1. To set or put together, join, or unite, as, one thing or sum to another, in an aggre- gate ; as, add three to four, the sum is

    2. To unite in idea or consideration ; to subjoin.

    To what has been alledged, let this argument be added.

    3. To increase number.

    Thou shall add tliree cities more of refuge. Deut. xix.

    4. To augment.

    Rehoboam said, I will add to your yoke.

    1 Kings, xii. Ye shall not add to the word wliich I com- mand you. Deut. iv.

    As here used, the verb is intransitive, but there may be an eUipsis.

    To add to, is used in scripture, as eqtuvalent to g^'re, or bestow upon. Gen. xxx. Matt, vi. In Gal. ii. the word is understood to signify instruction. " In conference they added nothing to me." In narration, he or they added, is elUptical ; he added words, or what follows, or he continued his dis- course.

    In general, when used of things, add impUes a principal thuig, to which a smaller is to be annexed, as a part of the whole sum, mass, or immber.

    ADDEC'IMATE, v. t. [L. ad and decimus, tenth.]

    To take, or to ascertain tithes. Did.

    ADD'ED, pp. Joined in place, in sum, in mass or aggregate, in number, in idea or consideration ; united ; put together.

    ADDEE'M, V. t. [See Deem.] To award ; to sentence. [Little used.]

    AD'DER, n. [Sax. aetter or aettor, a serpent and poison ; D. adder. Qu. Sax. naedre, a serpent ; Goth, nadr ; G. Jintfer ; W. neider ; Corn, naddyr ; Ir. nathair ; L. natrix, a serpent.]

    A venomous serpent or viper, of several species.

    AD'DER-FLY, n. A name of the dragon- fly or libellula ; sometimes called adder-bolt.

    ADDER'S-GRASS, ji. A plant about which serpents lurk.

    ADDER'S-TONGUE, n. A plant whose seeds are produced on a spike resembling a serpent's tongue.

    ADDER'S- WORT, n. Snakeweed, so named Com its supposed virtue in curing the bite of serpents.

    ADDIBIL'ITY, n. The possibihty of being added. Locke.

    AD'DIBLE, a. [See Add.] That may be added. Locki

    AD'DICE, obs. [See Jldz.]

    ADDICT', a. Addicted. [JVot much used.]

    ADDICT', V. t. [L. addico, to devote, from ad and dico, to dedicate.]

    To apply one's self habitually ; to devote tune and attention by customary or con slant practice ; sometimes in a good se7ise.

    They have addicted themselves to the minis- try of the saints. 1 Cor. xv.

    More usually, in a bad sense, to follow cus tomarily, or devote, by habitually prac- tising that which is ill ; as, a man is addicted to uitemperance.

    To addict oyie's self to a person, a sense bor- rowed from the Romans, who used the

    word for assigning debtors in service to their creditors, is found in Ben Jonson, hut is not legitimate in English.

    ADDICTED, pp. Devoted by customary practice.

    ADDICT'EDNESS, n. The quaUty or state of being addicted.

    ADDIcT'ING, ppr. Devoting time and at- tention ; practicing customarily.

    ADDICTION, n. The act of devoting or givhig up in practice ; the state of being devoted.

    His ctddiclinn was to courses vain. Shak.

    2. Among the Romans, a making over goods to another by sale or legal sentence ; also an assignment of debtors in service to their creditors. Encyc.

    ADDING, ppr. Joining ; putting together ; increasing.

    ADDIT'AMENT, n. [l..addilamentum,trom additus and ment. See Md.]

    An addition, or rather the thing added, as furniture in a house ; any material mixed with the principal ingredient in a com- pound. Ancient anatomists gave the name to an epiphy.sis, or junction of bones with- out articulation. [Little used in either sense.]

    ADDP'TION, n. [L. additio, from addo.]

    1. The act of adding, opposed to subtraction, or diminution ; as, a sum is increased by addition.

    2. Any thing added, whether material or immaterial.

    3. In arithmetic, the uniting of two or more numbers in one sum ; also the rule or branch of arithmetic which treats of add- ing numbers. Simple addition is the join- ing of .sums of the same denomination, as pounds to pounds, dollars to dollars. Compound addition is the joining of sums of different denominations, as dollars and cents.

    4. In laiv, a title annexed to a man's name, to show his rank, occupation or place of residence ; as, John Doe, Esq. ; Richard Roe, Gent ; Robert Dale, Mason; Thomas Way, of .Yeie- York.

    5. In music, a dot at the side of a note, to lengthen its sound one half.

    j6. In heraldry, something added to a coat of arms, as a mark of honor, opposed to abate- ments, as bordure, quarter, canton, gyroii,

    I pile, &.C. See these terms. Encyc.

    7. In distilling, any thing added to the wash

    I or Uquor in a state of fermentation.

    |8. In popular language, an advantage, orna- ment, improvement ; that is, an addition

    1 bv wav of eminence.

    ADDI tlONAL, a. That is added. It is used by Bacon for addition ; but improp-

    A DDL TION ALLY, adv. By way of addi-

    I lion.

    ADD'ITIVE, a. That may be added, or thar

    is to be added. ADD'ITORY, a. That adds, or may add. [ADDLE, a. [W. hadyl, corrupt ; hadlu, to

    decay, to putrilj' ; Heb. Snn, to fail ; Ar.

    J t° decline, and J j^^to frustrate, to fail, to cease.] In a morbid state ; putrid ; apphed to eggs. Hence, barren, producing nothing.

    His brains grow addle. Dryden.


    AD'DLED, n. Morbid, coiriipt, putrid, or l);areii. Broicn

    AD'DLE-PATED, a. Having einptv brains 'Dryden

    ADDOOM', V. t. [See Doom.] To adjudge. Spenser

    ADDORS'ED, a. [L. ad and dorsum, tlie baclv.]

    Ill heraldry, having the backs turned to each other, as beasts.

    ADDRESS', v.t. [Fr. adresser ; Sp. ende rezar ; It. dirizzare, to direct, to make straiglit. Thi.s is suppo.sed to be from L, dirigo ; it also coincides with Ch. Sin,

    Ai: |jo»j'j ^yr- id., to direct, to rectify to fir. See Dress.]

    1. To prepare ; to make suitable dispositions for.

    Tumus addressed his men to single fight. IJryd, The archangel and the evil spirit addressing themselves/or the combat. Addison

    [This sense is, I believe, obsolete or little tised.] y. To direct vi'ords or discom-sc ; to a])ply to by words ; a.s, to address a discourse to ai assembly ; to atldress the judges.

    3. To tlirect in writing, as a letter ; or to di- rect and transmit ; as, he addressed a letter to the speaker. Sometimes it is used witl the reciprocal pronotui, as, he addressed himself to the speaker, instead of, he ad- dressed his discourse. The phrase is faulty ; but less so than the followuig.

    " To such I would address with tliis most af-

    ectiouate petition.

    Young Tumus to the beauteous maid adtlrest.


    The latter is admissible m poetry, as an

    elliptical phrase.

    4. To present an address, as a letter of thanks or congratulation, a petition, or a testimony of resjoect ; as, the legislature addressed the president.

    5. To court or make suit as a lover.

    (i. In commerce, to consign or entrust to the care of another, as agent or factor ; as, the ship was addressed to a merchant in Bal- timore.

    ADDRESS', Ji. A speaking to ; verbal ap- plication; a formal manner of speech ; as, when introduced, tlie president made a short address.

    2. A written or formal appUcation ; a mes- sage of respect, congratulation, thanks, pe- tition, &c.; as, an address of thanks ; an officer is removable upon the address of both houses of assembly.

    3. Manner of speakmg to another ; as, a man of pleasing address.

    4. Com-tship ; more generally m the plural, addresses ; as, he makes or pays his addresses to a lady.

    5i Skill ; dexterity ; skUlful management ;

    as, the envoy conducted the negotiation

    with address. G. Direction of a letter, includuig the name,

    title, and place of residence of the person

    for whom it is intended. Hence these

    liarticidars are denominated, a man'

    address. ADDRESS'ED, pp. Spoken or applied to ;

    directed ; courted ; consigned. ADDRESS'ER, n. One who addresse


    A D E

    ADDRESS'ING, ppr. Spealdng or applyin: to ; directing ; courting ; consigning.

    ADDU'CE, V. t. [L. adduco, to lead or bring to ; ad and duco, to lead. See Duke.]

    1. To bring forward, present or offer; as, a witness was adduced to prove the fact.

    2. To cite, name or introduce ; as, to adduce an authority or an argmnent.

    ADDU'CED, pp. Brought forward ; cited alledged in argument.

    ADDU^CENT, a. Bringing forward, or to gether ; a word apphed to those muscles of the body which ])ull one part towar ' another. [See Mductor.]

    ADDU'CIBLE, a. That may be adduced.

    ADDU'CING, ppr. Bringing forward ; cituig in argiunent.

    ADDirt'TION, n. The act of bringuig forward.

    ADDU€'TIVE, a. That brings forward,

    ADDUCTOR, n. [L.]

    A muscle which draws one part of the body towards another; as the adductor oculi. which turns the eye towards the nose ; the adductor pollicis manus, which draws the thumb towards the fingers.

    \DDULCE, 1-. t. adduls'. [L. ad and dul cis, sweet.]

    To sweeten. [.Ybf used.] Bacon

    AD'EB, n. An Egyptian weight of 210 okes, each of three rotolos, which is a weight of about two drams less than the English pound. But at Rosetta, the adeb is only 150 okes. Eneyc.

    ADELANTA'DO, «. [Spanish.] A govern- or of a province ; a heutenaut governor. BobcHson.

    AD'ELING, n. A title of honor, given by our Saxon ancestors to the children of princes, and to young nobles. It is com- posed of adel, or rather eeth^l, the Teuton- ic term for noble, illustrious, and ling. young, posterity. Spclman. Sw. adelig '; D. edel ; Ger. e'del and adelig, noble ; Sp. hidalgo. We observe the term in many Saxon names of princes, as Ethel-wolf, noble wolf, or noble help, Ethel-bald, noble bold, Ethel-bert, noble brightness. Ar.

    \ •■( athala, to be well rooted, to be of

    noble stock or birth. Class Dl.

    AD'ELITE, n. AdeUtes or Almoganens, m Spain, were conjurers, who predicted the fortunes of individuals by the flight and singing of birds, and other accidental cir- cumstances. Ed. Encyc.

    ADEMP'TION, 71. [L. adimo, to take away ; of arf and emo, to take.]

    In the civil law, the revocation of a grant, donation, or the like.

    ADENOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. aS,.-, a gland and ypa^u, to describe.]

    That part of anatomy wliich treats of the glands.

    AD'ENOID, a. [Gr. oSjjv, a gland, and ttSoj, form.]

    In the form of a gland ; glandiform ; glan- dulous ; appUed to the prostate glands

    ADENOLOg'ICAL, a. Pertaining to the doctrine of the glands. Encyc.

    ADENOL'OgY, n. [Gr. aS^v, a gland, and ■Kayo;, discourse.

    In anatomy, the doctrine of the glands, their nature, and then- uses.

    A D H

    .-VD'ENOS, n. A species of cotton, from Aleppo, called also marine cotton.

    ADEPT', n. [L. adeptus, obtained, from adipiscor.]

    One fully skilled or well versed in any art. The term is borrowed from the Alchimists, who applied it to one who pretended to have found the philosopher's stone, or the panacea. Encyc.

    ADEPT', a. Well skilled ; completely vers- ed or ac(|uainted with. Boyle.

    ADEP'TION, n. [L. adeptio.]

    An obtaining ; acquirement. Obs. Bacon.

    AD'EQUACY, ra. [L. adcequatus, of ad amd cequatus, made equal.]

    The state or quahty of being equal to, pro- portionate, or sufficient ; a sufficiency for a particular purpose ; as, " the adequacy of supply to the expenditure."

    fVar in Disguise.

    AD'EQUATE, a. Equal ; proportionate ; correspondent to ; fully sufficient ; as, means adequate to the object ; we have no adequate ideas of infinite power.

    Adequate ideas, are such as exactly represent their object.

    AD'EQUATE, v. t. To resemble exactly. \_JVotused.] Shelford.

    AD'EQUATELY, adv. In an adequate maimer ; in exact proportion ; with just correspondence, representation, or pro- portion ; in a degree equal to the object.

    AD'EQUATENESS.Ti. The state of being adequate ; justness of proportion orrepre- sentation ; sufficiency.

    ADEQUA'TION, ji. Adequateness. [JVot used.] Bp. Barlow.

    ADESSENA'RIANS, n. [L. adesse, to be present.]

    In church history, a sect who hold the real presence of Clirist's body in the euchaiist, but not by transubstantiation. They dif- fer however as to this presence ; some holding the body of Christ to be in the bread ; others, about the bread. Encyc.

    ADFE€T'ED, a. In algebra, compounded : consisting of different powers of the un- known quantity. Bailey.

    ADFIL'IATED, ff. Adopted as a son. [See .IjffUiale.]

    ADFILIA'TION,)!. [L. ad and flius, a. soa.]

    A Gothic custom, by which the children of a former marriage, are put upon the same footing with those of a succeeding one ; still retained in some parts of Germany.

    ADHE'RE, V. i. [L. adhareo, ad and h(Ereo, to stick ; Ir. adharadh.]

    1. To stick to, as glutinous substances, or by- natural growth ; as, the lungs sometimes adhere to the pleura.

    2. Tobejoined, or held in contact; to cleave to.

    3. Figuratively, to hold to, be attached, or remain fixed, either by personal union or conformity of faith, principle, or opinion ; as, men adhere to a party, a leader, a cliurch, or creed.

    4. To be consistent ; to hold together as the jtarts of a system.

    Every thing adheres together. Shak.

    .IDHE'RENCE, n. The quahty or state of

    sticking or adhering. 3. Figuratively, a being fixed in attachment ;

    A D I

    A D J

    A D J

    fidelity ; steady attachment ; as, an adhe- rence to a iiarty or opinions.

    ADHE'RENCY, n. The same as adherence. In tlie sense oi'that which adheres, not le- gitimate. Decay of Piety

    ADIIE'RENT, a. Sticking, uniting, as glue or wax ; iniited with, as an adherent mode in Locke, that is, a mode accidentally join ed with an object, as wetness in a cloth.

    ADIIE'RENT, n. The person who adiieres ;

    one who follows a leader, party or profes

    sion ; a follower, or partisan ; a behever

    in a particular faith or church.

    In the sense of an appendage. Obs.

    ADHERENTLY, adv. In an adherent manner.

    ADHE'RER, n. One tliat adiieres ; an ad- herent.

    ADHE'SION, n. adhe'zhun. [L. adhcesio.]

    1. The act or state of sticking, or being united and attached to ; as the adhesion of glue, or of parts united by growth, cement, and the like. Adhesion is generally used in a literal ; adherence, in a metaphorical sense.

    2. Sometimes Jiguratively, adlierence, un- ion or steady attachment ; firmness in opinion ; as, an adhesion to vice : but in this sense nearly obsolete. The union of bodies by attraction is usually denoniuia- ted cohesion.

    ADHE'SIVE, a. Sticky ; tenacious, as glu- tinous substances ; apt or tending to ad- here. Thus gums are adhesive.

    ADHE'SIVELY, adv. In an adhesive man- ner.

    ADHE'SIVENESS, n. The quality of stick- ing or adhering ; stickiness ; tenacity.

    ADHIB'IT, V. t. [L. adhibeo, ad andhabeo, to have.]

    To use, or apply. [Rarely used.]

    ADHIBI "TION, n. AppUcation ; use.


    AD'HIL, n. A star of the sixth magnitude, upon the garment of Andromeda, under tlie last star in her foot. Encyc.

    ADHORTA'TION, ?i. [L. adhortatio.]

    Advice. [Seldom used.]

    ADHORT'ATORY, a. [L. adhortor, to ad- vise, ad and hx>rtor.]

    Advisory ; containing coimsel or warning. Potter's Antiq.

    ADIAPH'ORISTS, n. [Gr. ae«»4.opo5, uadif- ferent.]

    Moderate Lutherans ; a name given in the sixteenth century, to certain men that followed Melancthon, who was more pa- cific than Luther. Encyc. The adiaphorists held some opinions and ceremonies to be indifferent, which Luther condenmed as sinful or heretical.

    ADIAPH'OROUS, a. Indifferent ; neutral ; a name given by Boyle to a spu-it distilled from tartar, and some other vegetable sub- stances, neither acid, nor alkaline, or not possessing the distinct character of any chimical body.

    ADIEU', Adu'. [Fr. adieu, to God ; a com- pound word, and an elliptical form of^ speech, for / commend you to God. It is called an adverb, but it has none of t properties of a modifying word.]

    Farewell ; an expression of kind wishes the parting of friends.

    ADIEU', n. A farewell, or commeiidatii

    Vol. I.

    to the care of God ; as an everlastijig adieu.

    ADIPOC'ERATE, v. t. To convert into adipooere.

    ADIPOCERA'TION, n. The act or pro cess of being changed into adlpocere.

    AD'IPOCERE, n. [L. adeps, fat, and cera, Fr. are, wax.]

    A soft unctuous or waxy substemce, of a light brown color, into which the muscular fibers of dead animal bodies are convert- ed, when protected from atmospheric air, and under certain circumstances of tem- perature and humidity. This substance was first discovered by Fourcroy, in the burying ground of the Chiu-ch des Inno- cens, when it was removed in 1787. It is speedily produced, when the body is im- mersed in running water.

    Lunier. Med. Repos. Ed. Encyc.

    AD'IPOSE, } a. [L. adiposus, from adeps,

    AD'IPOUS, S fat. Qu. Ch. tffSa, to grow fat ; Heb. and Ch., fat, gross, stupid ; Ar.

    i.il9 ) fat, bulky.]

    at. The adipose membrane is the cellular membrane, containing tlie fat in its cells, and consisting of ductile membranes, con- nected by a sort of net-work. The adipose vein spreads itsell' on the coat and fat that covers the kidneys. The adipose ducts are the bags and ducts which contain the fat. Quincy. Coxe.

    AD'IT, n. [L. aditus, fvom'adeo, aditum, to approach, ad and eo, to go.]

    An entrance or passage ; a term in minmg. used to denote the opening by which a mine is entered, or by which water and ores are carried away. It is usually made in the side of a hill. The word is some- times used for air-shaft, but not with strict propriety. Encyc.

    ADJA'CENCY, n. [L. adjaceo, to lie con- tiguous, from ad andjaceo, to lie.]

    The state of lying close or contiguous ; a bordering uiion, or lying next to ; as the adjacency of lands or buildings. In the sense of that which is adjacent, as used by Brown, it is not legitimate.

    ADJA'CENT, a. Lying near, close, or con- tiguous ; bordering upon ; as, a field adja- cent to the highway.

    ADJA'CENT, n. That which is next to or contiguous. [Little itserf.] Locke.

    ADJECT', v.t. [L. adjicio, of ad and jado, to throw.]

    To add or put, as one thing to another.


    ADJEC'TION, n. The act of adding" or thing added. [Little used.] Brown.

    ADJE€TI "TIOUS, a. Added.

    Parkhurst, Gram.

    AD'JECTIVE, n. In grarnmar, a word used with a noun, to express a quality of the thing named, or something attributed to it, or to limit or define it, or to specify or describe a thing, as distinct from some- thing ejse. It is called also an attributive or attribute. Thus, in the phrase, a toise ruler, wise is the adjective or attribute, ex- pressing a particular property of rufer.

    .\D'JE€TIVELY, adv. In the manner of an adjective ; as, a « ord is used adject ively.


    yVDJOIN', v.t. [Fr. adjmndre ; L. adjungo, adnndjungo. Hee Join.]

    To join or unite to ; to put to, by placing ui contact ; to unite, by fastening together with a joint, mortise, or knot. But in these transitive senses, it is rarely used.

    J See Join.] JOIN', V. i. To lie or be next to, or in contact ; to be contiguous ; as, a farm ad- joining to the highway. This is the com- mon use of the word, and to is often omit- ted ; as, adjoining the highway.

    ADJOIN' ANT, a. Contiguous to. [A'ol used.] Carew.

    ADJOINED, pp. Joined to ; united.

    ADJOIN'ING, ppr. Joining to; adjacent; contiguous.

    ADJOURN', V. t. Adjum'. [Fr. ajoumer, from joumie, a day, or day's work, or journey; It. giomo. See Journal, Journey.]

    Literally, to put off, or defer to another day; but now used to denote a formal intermis- sion of business, a putting off to any fu- ture meeting of the same body, and appro- priately used of public bodies or private conmiissioners, entrusted with business; as, the court adjourned the consideration of the question.

    ADJOURN', V. i. To suspend business for a time ; as, from one day to another, or for a longer period, usually pubUc business, as of legislatures and courts, for repose or refreshment ; as, congress adjourned at four o'clock. It is also used for the act of closing the session of a pubUc body ; as, the court adjourned without day.

    It was moved that parliament should adjourn for six vpeeks. Select Speeches, Vol. v. 403.

    ADJOURNED, pp. Put off, delayed, or deferred for a hmited time.

    2. As an adjective, existing or held by ad- journment, as an adjourned session of a court, opposed to stated or regular.

    ADJOURNING, ;>pr. Deferring; suspend- ing for a time ; closing a session.

    ADJOURNMENT, n. The act of ad- journuig ; as, in legislatures, the adjourn- ment of one house is not an adjournment oC the other.

    2. The puttuig off till another day or time specified, or without day ; that is, the closmg of a session of, a pubhc or official body.

    3. The tune or intenal during which a pub- lic body defers business ; as^ during an ad- joumment. But a suspension of business,

    between the formuig of a house and an adjournment for refreshment, is called a recess. In Great Britain, the close of a session of parliament is called a proroga- tion ; as the close of a parhament is a dis- solution. But in Great Britain, as well as ui the United States, adjournment is now used for an intermission of business, for any indefinite time ; as, an adjournment of parliament fbr six weeks.

    Select Speeches, Vol. v. 404.

    ADJUDGE', V. t. [Fr. adjuger, from juge, judge. See Judge.]

    To decide, or determine, in tlie case of a con- troverted question ; to decree by a judicial opinion ; used appropriately of courts of law and equity.

    The case was adjudged in Hilary term. The prize was adjudged to the victor ; a criminal was adjudged to sufler death.

    A D J

    A D J


    it has been used in the sense of to judge ; as, he adjudged him unworthy of his friend- ship. But this sense is unusual.

    ADJUDGED, pp. Determined by judicial opinion ; decreed ; sentenced.

    ADJUDG'ING, ppr. Determining by judicial opinion ; sentencing.

    ADJUDGMENT, n. The act of judgini; ; sentence. Ttinple.

    ADJU'DI€ATE, v. t. [L. adjudko, to ^ive sentence. See Judge.'\

    To adjudge ; to try and determine, as a court. It has the sense of adjudge.

    'VDJU'DJeATE, V. i. To try and determine judicially ; us, the court adjudicated upoi the case.

    ADJU'DI€ATED,;);>. Adjudged; tried and decided.

    .^DJU'DI€ATING, ppr. Adjudging; try- ing and determining.

    ADJUDICATION, n. The act of ad- judging ; the act or process of trying and determining judicially ; as, a ship was ta- ken and sent into port for adjudication.

    2. A judicial sentence ; judgment or deci- sion of a court.

    Whose families were parUes to some of the former adjwlicalions. Blackstotie

    3. In Scots law, an action by wliich a cred- itor attaches the heritable estate of his debtor, or his debtor's heir, in payment or security of his debt ; or an action by which the holder of an heritable right, laboring under a defect in point of form, may sup- ply tliat defect. Encyc

    AD'Jl^MENT, n. [L. adjumentum.]

    Help ; support, [.^otused.]

    ADJUNCT, n. [L. adjunctus, joined, from adjungo. See Join.]

    1. Something added to another, but sentially a part of it ; as, toater absorbed by a cloth or spunge is its adjunct. Also a person joined to another.

    ^. In metaphysics, a quality of the body or the mind, whether natural or acquired color, in the body ; thinking, in the mind.

    3. In grammar, words added to illustrate or aniphfy the force of other words ; as, the History of the American revolution. The words in Italics are the adjuncts of His- tory.

    4. In music, the word is employed to denom inate the relation between the principal mode and the modes of its two fifths.

    Encyc The adjunct deities, among the Romans were inferior deities which were added as assistants to the principal gods ; as Bello- na, to Mars; to Vulcan, the Cabin; U the Good Genius, the Lares ; to the Evil, the Lemures. In the royal academy of sciences at Paris, the adjuncts are certain members at tached to the study of particular scien ces._^ They are twelve in number, created in 1716. Encyc

    Adjunct has been used for a colleague, but rarely. Walton.

    AD'JUN€T, o. Added to or united with, as an adjunct professor.

    ADJUNc'TlON, n. The act of joining ; the tiling joined.

    ADJUNCTIVE, a. Joining; having the quality of joining.

    .ADJUNCTIVE, n That which is joined

    \DJUN€'TIVELY, adv. In an adjunctive manner.

    ADJUN€T'LY, adv. In comiection witli ; consequently.

    ADJURA'TION, n. The act of adjming ; a solenm charging on oath, or under the penalty of a curse.

    2. The form of oath. Addison.

    ADJU'RE, V. t. [L. adjuro, to swear solemn- ly, or compel one to swear ; from ad and juro, to swear.]

    1. To charge, bLiid or command on oath, or under the penalty of a curse.

    Joshua adjured them at that time, saying, cursed be the man before the Lord, that riseth up and buildeth this city of Jericho. Josh. vi.

    2. To charge earnestly and solemidy, on pain of God's wrath.

    I adjure Ihce by the living God. Mat. xxvi. Acts, xix.

    3. To conjure ; to charge, lu-ge or summon with solemnity.

    The magistrates adjured by all the bonds of civil duty. Milton.

    Ye sacred stars, be all of you adjured.

    Dry den.

    The Commissioners adjured them not to let

    pass so favorable an opportunity of securiuo,

    their liberties. Marshall's Life of Washington.

    \DJU'RED, pp. Charged on oath, or with

    a denunciation of God's wrath ; solemnly


    ADJU'RER, n. One that adjures; one that

    exacts an oath. ADJU'RING, ppr. Charging on oath, or on the penalty of a curse ; beseeching with solemnity. ADJUST',' t). t. [Sp. ajuslar; Port, id; It. aggiustare ; Fr. ajuster, to fit or frame ; of L. ad, andjusttis, just, exact. See Just.]

    1 . To make exact ; to fit ; to make corres- pondent, or conformable ; as, to adjust e garment to the body, an event to the pre- diction, or things to a standard.

    Swift. Locke. Addison

    2. To jiut in order ; to regulate or reduce to system ; as to mljust a scheme ; to adjust affairs.

    To make accurate ; to settle or bring to a satisfactory state, so that parties ar agreed in the result ; as to adjust accounts ; the differences are adjusted.

    ADJUST'ED, pp. Made exact or conforma- ble ; reduced to a right form or standard; settled.

    ADJUST'ER, n. A person who adjusts : hat which regulates.

    ADJUSTING, ppr. Reducing to due form : fitting ; making exact or correspondent : settling.

    ADJUST'MENT, n. The act of adjusting ; regulation ; a reducing to just form or or- der ; a making fit or conformable ; settle- ment. Watts. Woodward.

    AD'JUTANCY, n. [See Adjutant.] The

    office of an adjutant ; skillful arrangement


    AD'JUTANT, n. [L. adjutans, aiding ; fron adjuto, to assist ; of ad and juvo, jutum, t<

    In military affairs, an officer whose busines.-

    is to asM.-t the ]M ijor by receiving am coniiii;;iin or;ii': cr 'c is. Each battalion ol fool. r -.nt of horse has ai

    adjnt^,..,. - ) ,. i,\cs orders fi-om thi BrijLi^iiii' Aiiiioj, to ciimmuniccte to tin Colonel, and to subalterns. He places

    guards, receives and distributes ammuni- tion, assigns places ol rendezvous, &c.

    Adjutant- General, in an army, is the chief djiitant.

    Adjutants General, among the Jesuits, were a select number of lathers, who resided with the general of the order, each of whom had a province or country assign- ed to his care. Their business was to correspond with that province, by their delegates, emissaries or visitors, and give information of occmrences to the father general. Encyc.

    ADJU'TE, V. t. To help. [J^Tot used.]

    ADJU'TOR, n. A heljier. [Little used; its compound coadjutor is in common use.]

    ADJU'VANT, a. Helping; assisting. Howell.

    \DLEGA'T10N, n. [L. ad and legatio, an embassy, from lego, to send. See Legate.]

    In the public law of the German Empire, a right claimed by the states, of joining their own ministers with those of the Emperor, in pubUc treaties and negotiations, relating to the common interest of the Empire.


    ADLOCU'TION, rf. [See Allocution.]

    ADMEAS'URE, v. t. admezh'ur. [ad and measure. See Measure.]

    1. To measure or ascertain dimensions, size or capacity ; used for measure.

    2. To apportion ; to assign to each claimant his right ; as, to admeasure dower or com- mon of pa.sture. Blackstone.

    ADMEASURED, pp. Measured ; appor- tioned.

    ADMEASUREMENT, n. The measur- ing of dimensions by a rule, as of a ship, cask, and the like.

    2. The measure of a thing, or dimensions as- certained.

    In these uses the word is equivalent to measurement, mensuration and measure.

    3. The adjustment of proportion, or ascer- tainment of shares, as of dower or pasture held in common. This is done by writ of admeasurement, directed to the sheriff.


    ADMEAS'URER, n. One that admeasures.

    \DMEAS'URING,/)p-. Measuring; appor- tioning.

    ADMEN.-^URA'TION is equivalent to ad- measurement, but not much used. [See Mensuration.]

    ADiMIN'ICLE, n. [L. adminiculum.']

    liel|i ; snpiiort. [M)t used."]

    ADMINICULAR, a. Supplying help ; help- ful.

    ADMIN'ISTER, v. i. [L. administro, of ad and ministro, to serve or manage. See Minister.]

    1. To act as minister or chief agent, in man- aging public affairs, under laws or a constitution of government, as a kin^, president, or other supreme officer. It is used also of absolute monarchs, who rule not in subordination ; but is more strictly ai>plicahle to limited monarchs and other snjjreine executive officers, and to gover- nors, vice-roys, judges and the like, who are imder the authority of laws. A Idng or a president administers the government or laws, when he executes them, or carries rheni uito effect. A judge administers th& laws, when he applies them to particular ca- ses or persons. In short, to administer is t(> direct the execution or application of lawg»



    A D M

    2. To dispense, as to admiyiisler justice or the sacrament.

    3. To afford, give or furnish ; as, to adminis- ter relief, tliat is, to act as the agent. To administer medicine is to direct and cause it to be taken.

    4. To give, as an oath ; to cause to swear according to law.

    ADMIN' ISTER, v. i. To contribute ; to bring aid or supplies ; to add something ; as, a shade administers to our comfort.

    2. To perform the office of administrator ; as, A administers upon the estate of B.

    ADMINISTERED, pp. Executed ; mana- ged ; governed ; afforded ; given ; dis- pensed.

    ADMINISTE'RIAL, a. Pertaining to ad- ministration, or to the executive part of| government.

    ADMINISTERING, ppr. Executing ; car- rying into effect; giving; dispensing.

    ADMINISTRATE, in the place of admin ister, has been used, but is not well author

    ADMINISTRA'TION, n. The act of admin- istering ; direction ; management ; gov ermneut of public affairs ; the conducting of any office or employment.

    2. The executive part of government, con sisting in the exercise of the constitutional and legal powers, the general superintend ence of national affairs, and the enforce ment of laws.

    3. The persons collectively, who are entrust ed with the execution of laws, and the su perintendence of public affairs ; the chief magistrate and his council ; or the counci alone, as in Great Britain.

    4. Dispensation ; distribution ; exhibition as the administration of justice, of the sa cranient, or of grace. 1 Cor. xii. 2 Cor. ix.

    5. The management of the estate of an ui- testate person, under a commission from the proper authority. This management consists in collecting debts, payhig debts and legacies, and distributmg the property among the heirs.

    C. The power, office or coimiiission of an administrator.

    Surrogates are authorized to grant adminis- Iration. Laws of JVew- Vork.

    It is more usual to say, letters of administra- tion. Slackstone.

    7. This name is given by the Spaniards, to the staple magazine or warehouse, at Ca " lao, in Peru, where foreign ships must ui load. Enciic.

    ADMINISTRATIVE, a. That administers, or by which one admuiisters.

    ADMINISTRATOR, n. A man who, by virtue of a commission from the Ordinary, Surrogate, Court of Probate, or other proper authority, has the charge of the goods and estate of one dying witliout a will.

    2. One who administers, or who directs, manages, distributes, or dispenses laws and rites, either in civil, judicial, political, or ecclesiastical affairs.

    3. In Scots lam, a tutor, curator or guardian having the care of one who is incapabli_ of acting for hhnself. The term is usually applied to a father who has power over his children and their estate, during their jninority. Eiicyc.

    ADMINISTRATORSHIP, n. The office

    of an administrator. ADMINISTRATRIX, n. A female who

    Iniinisters upon the estate of an intestate ;

    so a female wlio administers govern-

    AD MIRABLE, a. [L. admirabUis.] To be admired; worthy of admiration ; hav- ing qualities to excite wonder, with appro- bation, esteem or reverence ; used of per- sons or things ; as, the admirable structure of the body, or of the universe. AD'MIRABLENESS, n. The quality of be- ing admirable ; the power of exciting ad-

    AD'MIRABLY, adv. In a manner to excite wonder, mingled with approbation, esteem or veneration.

    AD'MIRAL, ?!. [In the Latin of the middle ages, Jlmira, Amiras, Admiralis, an Emir Sp. almiranle ; Port. id. ; It. ammiraglio ;

    amara, to coin

    Fr. amiral ; from Ar. j.^ ?

    mand, .^^J, a commander; Sans.

    Ileb. Ch. Syr. Sam. ION, to speak. The terminating syllable of admiral may be from a?t5, the sea. This word is said to have been introduced into Europe by tl Turks, Genoese or Venetians, in the I2th or 13th century.] A marine coiiunander in chief; the com- mander of a fleet or navy.

    1. The Lord High Admiral'in Great Britain, is an officer who superintends all mar' time affairs, and has the government of the navy. He has also jurisdiction over all maritime causes, and commissions the naval officers.

    2. The Admiral of th^ fleet, the highest officer under the admiralty. When he embarks on an expetlition, the union flag is display- ed at the main top gallant mast head.

    3. The Vice Admiral, an officer next in rank and coiTuuand to the Admiral, ha command of the second squadron. H( carries his flag at the fore top gallant mast head. This name is given also to certain officers who have power to hold courts of vice-admiralty, in various parts of the Britisli dominions.

    4. The Rear Admiral, next in rank to the Vice Admiral, has command of the third squadron, and carries his flag at tl top gallant mast head.

    5. The commander of any single fleet, or in general any flag officer.

    The ship which carries the admiral ; also the most considerable ship of a fleet of merchantmen, or of fishin^


    7. In zoology, a species of sheU-fish. [Set Valuta.]

    2. Also a butterfly, which lays her eggs or the great sthiging nettle, and delights ii: brambles. Encyc

    AD'MIRALSHIP, n. The office or powei of an admiral. [Little used.]

    AD'lMIRALTY, ii. In Great Britain, tht office of Lord High Admiral. This office is discharged by one person, or by Com- missioners, called Lords of the Admiralty . usually seven in nmnber.

    The admiralty court, or court of admiralty, is

    the supreme court for the trial of maritime causes, held before the Lord High Admi- ral, or Lords of the admiralty.

    In general, a court of admiralty is a court for the trial of causes arising on the high seas, as prize causes and the hke. In the Uni- ted States, there is no admiralty court, distinct from others ; but the district courts, established in the several states by Congress, are mvested with admiralty powers.

    ADMIRATION, n. Wonder mingled with pleasing emotions, as approbation, esteem, love or veneration ; a compoimd emotion excited by something novel, rare, great, or excellent ; applied to persons and their works. It often includes a shght degree of surprise. Thus, we view the solar sys- tem with admiration.

    Very near to admiration is the wish to ad- mire. Anon.

    It has been sometimes used in an ill sense,

    denoting wonder with disapprobation.

    Your boldness I with admiration see.

    Dryden. Wien I saw her I wondered with great admi- ration. Luke xvil.

    ADMI RATIVE, n. A note of admiration, thus I [J\"ot used.] Cotgrave.

    ADMI'RE, V. t. [L. admiror, ad and miror, to wonder ; Sp. and Port, admirar ; Fr. admirer ; It. ammirare ; Fr. mirer, to look, to take aim ; Corn, miras, to look, see or face ; Arm. miret, to stop, hold, keep ; W. mir, visage ; also fair, comely ; and maer, one that looks after, keeps or guards, a mayor, or baihff ; Russ. zamirayu, to be as- tonished or stupified ; za, a prefix, and mir, peace ; miryu, to pacify ; zamiriayu, to make peace. The primary sense is to hold, to stop, or strain. Ch. and Syr. IDT ; L. demiror. See Moor and Mar.]

    1. To regard with wonder or surprise, ming- led with approbation, esteem, reverence or affection.

    When he shall come to be glorified in his saints and be admired in all them that love him. 2 Thes. i.

    Tliis word has been used in an ill sense, but seems now correctly restricted to the sense here given, and implying something great, rare or excellent, in the object ad- mired.

    2. To regard with affection ; a familiar term for to love greatly.

    ADMI'RE, V. i. To wonder ; to be affected with shght surprise ; sometimes with at ; as, to admire at his own contrivance. Ray.

    To admire at sometimes implies disapproba-

    ADMI'RED, pp. Regarded with wonder,

    mingled with pleasurable sensations, as

    esteem, love or reverence. ADMI'RER, n. One who admires ; one

    who esteems or loves greatly. .\I)iMI'RING, ppr. Regarding with wonder

    united with love or esteem. ADMIRINGLY, adv. With admiration ; in

    the manner of an admirer. ADMISSIBILITY, n. The quality of being

    admissible. Chase.

    ADMISSIBLE, a. [See admit.] That may

    bo admitted, allowed or conceded ; as, the

    testimonv is admissible. ADMISSION, n. [L. admissio.^ 1. The act or practice of admitting, as the


    admission of aliens into our country also tlie state of being admitted.

    2. Admittance ; power or permission to en ter ; entrance ; access ; power to approach as, our laws give to foreigners easy admis- sion to the rights of citizens ; the admis- sion of a clerk to a benefice.

    3. Allowance ; grant of an argument or position not fully proved.

    ADMIT', V. t. [L. admitlo, from ad and init- io, to send, Fr. meltre.]

    1. To suffer to enter ; to grant entrance ; wliether into a place, or an office, or into the mind, or consideration ; as to admit a student into college ; to admit a serious thought into the mind.

    2. To give right of entrance ; as, a ticket admits one into a play house.

    3. To allow; to receive as true; as, tlie ar gument or fact is admitted.

    4. To permit, grant or allow, or to be capa- ble of; as, the words do not admit of such a construction. In this sense, of may be used after the verb, or omitted.

    ADMIT'TABLE, a. That may be admitted

    or allowed. ADMITTANCE, n. The act of admitting

    allowance. More usually,

    2. Permission to enter ; the power or right of entrance; and hence, actual entrance; as, he gained admittance into the church.

    3. Concession ; admission ; allowance ; as the admittance of an argument. [JVot ^lsed.]

    4. Skakespeare uses the word for *the cus- tom or prerogative of being admitted ; " Sir John, you are a gentleman of excel- lent breetUng, of great admittance": but the license is unwarrantable.

    ADMIT'TED, pp. Permitted to enter or ap])roach ; allowed ; gi-anted ; conceded,

    ADMIT'TER, n. He that admits.

    ADMIT'TING, ppr. Permitting to enter or apin-oach ; allowing ; conceding.

    ADMIX', V. t. To mingle with something else. [See Mix.]

    ADMIX'TION, n. admix'chun, [L. admixtio. or admistio ; of ad and misceo, to mix, See Mx.]

    A mingluig of bodies ; a union by mixing diflferent substances together. It differs from composition or chimical combination ; for admixtion does not alter the nature of the substances mixed, but merely blends them together ; whereas in composition, the particles unite by affinity, lose then- former properties, and form new com pounds, with different properties.

    ADMIX'TURE, n. [From admix.]

    The substance mingled with another ; some tunes the act of mixture. We say, an ad- mixture of sulphur with alum, or the ad- mixture of different bodies.

    ADMONTSH, v.t. [L. admonco, arf and mo- neo, to teach, warn, admonish ; Fr. admon- eter; Norm, amonester ; Sp. amonestar ; Port, amoestar, or admoestar ; It. ammonire ; G. mahnen, ermahnen ; D. maanen, to dun, vermaanen, to admonish ; Sw. mana, for- mana ; Dan. maner, fonnaner ; Sax. mxnan, to mean.]

    I. To warn or notify of a fault ; to reprove with mildness.

    Coimt him not as an enemy, but admonish bim as a brother. 2Thess. iii.


    2. To counsel against wrong practices; caution or advise.

    3. To mstruct or direct. Moses was admonished of God, when he was

    about to make the tabernacle. Heb. ■

    4. In ecclesiastical affairs, to reprove

    ber of the church for a fault, either publicly or privately ; the first step of church disci phne. It is followed by of, or against ; as, tc admonish of a fault committed, or against committing a fault. It has a like use in colleges.

    \DMON'ISIIED, yjp. Reproved; advised; warned ; instructed.

    ADMON'ISHER, n. One who reproves or counsels.

    ADMON'ISHING, ppr. Reproving ; warn- ing ; coun.seluig; dhecting.

    ADMON'ISIIMENT, n. Admonition. Shak.

    ADMONI"TION, n. Gentle reproof; coun- seling agahist a fault ; instruction in du- ties ; caution ; direction. Tit. iii. 1 Cor. X. In church discipline, public or private reproof to reclaim an offender ; a step preliminary to excommunication.

    ADMONI"TIONER, n. A dispenser of ad- monitions. Hooker.

    ADMON'ITIVE, a. Containing admonition Burroiv.

    ADMON'ITOR, n. An atbnonisher, a mou-

    ADMON'ITORY, a. Containing admoni- tion ; that admonishes. ADMORTIZA'TION, n. The reducing of lands or tenements to mortmain. [See Mortmain.] Encyc.

    ADMOVE', V. /. [L.admoveo.] To move to ; to bring one thing to another. [Little used.] Brown

    ADNAS'CENT, o growing.]

    Growing on something else. Evelyn.

    ADNA'TA, n. [L. ad and nalus, grown, from nascor, to grow.] in anatomy, one of the coats of the eye, vyhich is also called albuginea, and is sonie- times confounded with the conjunctiva. It hes between the sclerotica, and con- junctiva.

    2. Such parts of anmial or vegetable bodies as are usual and natural, as the hair, wool, horns ; or accidental, as fungus, misletoe, and excrescences.

    Offsets of plants, germinating under ground, as from the lily, narcissus, and hyacinth. ' Quincy. Encyc.

    AD'NATE, a. [L. ad and nai^s, grown.]

    In botany, pressing close to the stem, or growing to it. Martyn.

    AD'NOUN, n. [ad and noun.]

    In grammar, an adjective, or attribute. [Lit- tle used.]

    AD6', ti. [Qu. a and do.]

    Bustle ; trouble ; labor ; difficulty ; as, to make a great ado about trifles ; to per- suade one with much ado.

    ADOLES'CENCE, n. [L. adolescens, grow- ing, of ad and olesco, to grow, from oleo.

    [L. ad and nascens


    rhp, to ascend; Ar. )JL«, to be

    high.] [The state of growing, applied to the young

    of the human race ; youth, or the period I of life between childhood and manhood.


    ADOLES'CENT, „. Growing; advandng from clnldhood to manhood.

    ADONE'AN, a. Pertaining to Adonis. j

    Fair Adonean Venus. Faberk

    ADO'NIA, n. Festivals celebrated anciently in honor of Adonis, by females, who spent two days in lamentations and infamous pleasures. Encyc

    ADO'NIC, a. Monic Verse, a short verse^ in wliich the death of Adonis was bewailed! It consists of a dactyl and spondee or tro-

    , fhee. Bailey. Cvc.

    [ADO'NIC, n. An Adonic verse.

    ADO'NIS, n. In mythology, the favorite of Venus, said to be the son of Cinyras, king of Cyprus. He w^s fond of hunting, and received a mortal wound from lljc tusk of a wild boar. Venus lamented his death, and changed him into the flower, aue- mony.

    ADO'NIS, in botany, bird's eye or pheas- ant's eye.

    ADO'NISTS, n. [Heb. Ch. and Syr. |n^? adon, Lord, a scriptural title of the Su- preme Being.]

    Among critics, a sect or party who maintain that the Hebrew points ordinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Jehovah, are not the natural points belonging to that word, anti that they do not express the true pronunciation of it ; but that they are vowel pomts belongmg to the words, Mo- nai and Elohim, apphed to the ineffable name Jehovah, which the Jews were forbid to utter, and the true pronunciation of which was lost ; they were therefore al- ways to pronounce the word Adonai, instead of Jehovah. Encyc.

    ADOPT', V. t. [L. adopto, of ad and opto, to desire or choose. See Option.]

    1. To take a stranger into one's family, as son and heir ; to take one who is not a child, and treat him as one, giving him a title to the privileges and rights of a child.

    2. In a spiritual sense, to receive the sinful children of men into the uivisible church, and into God's favor and protection, by which they become heirs of salvation by Christ. Brown.

    3. To take or receive as one's own, that which is not naturally so ; as, to adopt the opinions of another ; or to receive that which is new ; as, to adopt a particular mode of husbandry.

    4. To select and take ; as, which mode will you adopt ?

    ADOPT'ED, pp. Taken as one's own ; re- ceived as son and heir ; selected for use.

    ADOPT'EDLY, adv. In the manner of something adopted.

    ADOPT'ER, n. One who adopts.

    2. In chimistry, a large round receiver, with two necks, djametrically opposite to each other, one of which admits the neck of a retort, and the other is joined to another receiver. It is used in distillations, to give more space to elastic vapors, or to increase the lengtli of the neck of a retort.

    ADOPT'ING, ppr. Taking a stranger as a son ; taking as one's own.

    ADOP'TION, n. [L. adoptio.]

    1. The act of adojrting, or the state of being adopted ; the taking and treatuig of a stranger as one's o^vn cliild.



    A D U

    2. Th«

    viiig as one's own, what is new


    3. God's taking the sinful children of men into his favor and protection. Eph. iv,

    Adoption by arms, an ancient ceremony of presenting arms to one for his merit or valor, whirh laid the person under an oh- ligation to defend the giver.

    Moption by baptism is the spiritual affinity whicli is contracted by god-fathers and

    fod-children, in the ceremony of baptism, t was introduced into the Greek church, and afterwards among tlie ancient Frank.s. This affinity was supposed to entitle the god-child to a share of the god-father's estate. Encyc.

    Adoption by hair was performed by cutting off the hairof a person and giving it to the adoptive father. Thus Pope John VIII adopted Boson, king of Aries.

    Adoption by matrimony is the taking the chil- dren of a wife or husband, by a former marriage, into the condition of natural chilihcii. Tliis is a practice pecuUar to tlic (Iciiiiiiiis ; but is not so properly aduiitioii ;is itiljilialion. Encyc.

    Adoption by testament is the appointing of a person to be heir, by will, on condition of his taking the name, arms, &c. of the adopter. Encyc.

    In Europe, adoption is used for many kinds of admission to a more intimate relation, and is nearly equivalent to recepti the admission of persons into hospitals, or monasteries, or of one society into tlier. Encyc.

    ADOPT'IVE, Of. [L. adoptivus.]

    That adopts, as an adoptive father ; or that is adf>])ted, as an adoptive son.

    ADOPT'IVE, n. A (lerson or thing adopted,

    AUO'RABLE, o. That ought to be adored; woitliy of divine honors. In popular use, wiii-tliv I't'ihr utmost love or respect.

    ADO I! \l{|,i;M;!?S,n. The quality of being ador.-ililc, iir worthy of adoration.

    ADO'RAliLY, adv. In a maimer worthy of adoration.

    ADORA'TION, n. The act of paying lionnrs to a divine being ; the worship paid to (.'od ; the ;lc I of addressing as a God. Adm-iilion i-oii.^ists in external homage, ac- coiiipaiiifd willi the highest reverence. It is used for tlie act of praying, or prefer- ring requests or thanksgiving, to the Su- preme Being.

    2. Homage paid to one in high esteem ; pro- found reverence.

    Adoration, among the Jews, was per- formed by bowing, kneeling and prostra- tion. Among the Romans, the devotee with his head uncovered, applied his right hand to his lips, bowing and turning him- self from left to right. The Persians fell on the face, strildng the forehead against the earth, and kissing the ground. The adoration paid to the Grecian and Roman emperors, consisted in bowing and kneel- ing at the feet of the prince, laying hold of his robe, then withdrawing the hand and clapping it to the lips. In modern times, adoration is paid to the pope by kissing his feet, and to princes, by kneeling and kissing the hand. This word was used by the Romans for acclamation or great ap- plause, given to public performers ; and the election of a pope is sometimes by adora-

    tion, that is, by sudden acclamation with- out scrutiny. Encyc.

    ADO'RE, V. t. [L. adoro. In Ch. and Heb. ^^n, to honor, reverence or glorify, to adorn; Heb. T1X, to be magnificent or glorious, to magnify, to glorify. Thi^ word is usually referred to the Latin ad orare, to carry to one's mouth; ad auil OS, oris ; as, in order to kiss one's hand, the hand is earned to one's mouth. See Cal- met, ad verbum, who cites, in confirmation of this opinion, the ancient practice of kiss- ing the hand. See Job. xxxi. 1 Kings, xix. Ps. ii. Gen. xli. Ainsworth sup! poses the word to be a compound of ad and oro, to pray; and if the word is com- pound, as I suspect, this opinion is most probably correct.]

    To worship with profound reverence ; to address with exalted thoughts, by prayer and thanksgiving ; to pay divine honors to ; to honor as a god or as divuie.


    2. To love in the highest degree ; to regard

    with the utmost esteem, affection and

    respect ; as, the people adore their prince.


    ADO'RED, pp. Worshipped as divine ; high- ly reverenced ; greatly beloved.

    AUO'RER, n. One who worships, or hon- ors as divine ; in popular language, an ad- miring lover.

    ADO'RING, ppr. or a. Honoring or ad- dressing as divine ; regaijling with great love or reverence.

    ADORN', V. t. [L. adorno, ad and omo, to deck, or beautify", to dress, set off, extol, furnish; Fr. omer ; Sp. Port, omar; It. ornare ; Arm. aouma. Omo is probably the Saxon hrinan, gerenian, gerinan, ge- hiinan, to touch, to strike, to adorn, that is, to put on.]

    To deck or decorate ; to make beautiful ; to add to beauty by dress ; to deck with external ornaments.

    Abiide adorneth herself with jewels. Isa. vi.

    2. To set off to advantage ; to add orna- ments to ; to embellish by any tiling ex- ternal or adventitious ; as, to adorn a speech by appropriate action, sentiments with elegance of language, or a gallery with pictures.

    •3. To make pleasing, or more pleasing ; as, great abiUties adorned by vutue or affabil-

    4. To display the beauty or excellence of ; as, to adorn the doctrine of God. Titus ii.

    ADORN', 71. Ornament. Obs. Spenser.

    ADORN', a. Adorned ; decorated. Obs. Milton.

    ADORN'ED, jojj. Decked ; decorated ; em- bellished.

    ADORN'ING, ppr. Ornamenting ; decora- tiiiff ; disi)laying beauty.

    ADORN'ING, n. Ornament; decoration. 1 Pet. iii.

    ADOS€ULA'TION, n. [L. ad and osculatio, a kissing, from osculum, a kiss, or mouth.]

    The impregnation of plants by the falling of tlie farina on the pistils. Encyc.

    Adosculation is also defined to be the insi mg of one part of a plant into another,


    ADOS'SED, a. [Fr. adossie, part, ofadosser, to set back to back ; dos, the back '

    In heraldry, denoting two figures or bear- ings placed back to back. Encyr.

    ADOWN', prep, [a and down.] From a liigher to a lower situation ; downwards ; iniplying descent.

    ADOWN , adv. Down; on the ground ; at

    \l)ltlv\l), a. Adred'. [See Dread.] Af- ffctcl by dread. Obs.

    ADRIATIC, a. [L. Adria, or Hadria, the gulf of Venice.]

    Pertaining to the Gulf, called, from Venice, the Venetian Gulf

    ADKIVTIC, n. The Venetian Gulf; a (/iill'ilial washes tlie eastern side of Italy.

    ADRIFT, a. or adv. [Sax. adrifan, gedri- fan, antl drifan, to drive. See Drive. Adrift is the participle of the verb.]

    Literally, driven ; floatmg ; floating at ran- dom ; inqielled or moving without direc- tion. As an adjective, it always follows its noun ; as, the boat was adrift.

    ADROGA'TION, n. [L. arf and rogo, to ask. See Interrogate and Rogation.]

    A species of' adoption in ancient Rome, by wliieli a person, capable of choosing for himself, was admitted into the relation of a son. So called from the questions put to the parties. Encyc.

    ADROIT', a. [Fr. from droit, right, straiglit, direct ; whence droite, the right hand ; It. diritto, right, straight, contracted from the L. directus, dingo ; Arm. dret. See Right.]

    Dextrous ; skilful ; active in the use of the hands, and figuratively, in the exercise of the mental faculties ; ingenious ; ready in invention or execution.

    ADROIT' LY, adv. With dexterity ; in a ready skilful manner. Chesterfield.

    ADRdlT'NESS, n. Dexterity ; readiness in the use of the limbs, or of the mental fac- ulties. Home.

    ADRV, a. [Sax. adrigan, to dry.]

    Thirsty, in want of drink. [This adjective always follows the noun.] Spectator.

    ADSCITI'TIOUS, a. [h. ascititius, &oin adscisco, ascisco, to add or join.]

    Added ; taken as supplemental ; additional ; not requisite. Warlon.

    ADSTRle'TION, n. [L. adstridio, astrictio, of ad and stringo, to strain or bind fast. See Strict.]

    A binding fast. Among physicians, the ri- gidity of a part of the body, occasioning a retention of usual evacuations ; costive-- ness ; a closeness of the emunctories ; al- so the styptic effects of medicines.

    Encyc. Quincy.

    ADSTRleTORY, ADSTRING'ENT. [See Astringent.]

    ADULA'RIA, 71. [From Adula, the summit of a Swiss mountain.]

    A mineral deemed the most perfect variety of felspar; its color white, or with a tinge of green, yellow, or red. Cleaveland.

    ADULA'TION, n. [L. adulatio.]

    Servile flattery ; praise in excess, or beyond what is merited ; high coni])liment. Shak.

    IaD'ULATOR, n. A flatterer ; one who of- fers praise servilely.

    ADULATORY, a. Flattering ; containing excessive praise or compUments ; servilely praising ; as, an adulatory address.

    AD'ULATRESS, n. A female that flatter? with servility.

    A D U

    -VDULT', n. [L. adultus, grown to maturity, from oleo, to grow ; Heb. rhp, to ascend

    Having arrived at mature years, or to full size and strength ; as an adult person or plant.

    ADULT', n. A person grown to full size and strength, or to the years of manhood. It is also applied to full grown plants. Among civilians, a person between four- teen and twenty-five years of age. Enaic.

    ADl'LTERANT, n. The person or thing tliat adulterates.

    ADUL'TERATE, v. t. [L. adultero, from adulter, mixed, or an adulterer ; ad and alter, other.]

    To corrupt, debase, or make impure by ar admixture of baser materials; as, to adul terale hquorb-, or the coin of a country.

    ADUL'TERATE, v. i. To" commit adultery. Obs.

    ADUL'TERATE, a. Tainted with adidte rv ; debased by foreign mixture.

    ADUL'TERATED, pp. Corrupted ; debased by a mixture with something of less value.

    ADUL'TERATENESS, n. The quahty or state of beuig debased or counterfeit.

    ADUL'TERATING, ppr. Debasing; cor- rupting ; counterfeituig.

    ADULTER A'TION, n. Theact of aduher- ating, or the state of being adulterated, corrupted or debased by foreign mixture.

    The adulteration of liquors, of diaigs, and even of bread and beer, is common, but a scandalous crime.

    ADUL'TERER, n. [L. adulter.]

    1. A man guilty of adultery ; a man who has sexual commerce with any maiTied wo- man, except his wife. [See Adultery.]

    9. In scripture, an idolater. Ezek. xxiii.

    3. An apostate from the true faith, or one who violates his covenant engagements ; a very wicked person. Jer. ix. and xxiii.

    4. One devoted to earthly things. James, iv. ADULTERESS, n. A married woman

    guilty of incontinence.

    ADUL'TERINE, a. Proceeding fiom adul- terous commerce ; spurious. Hall.

    ADUL'TERINE, n. In the cm7 foif, achild issumg from an adulterous connection.

    ADUL'TEROUS, a. Guilty of adultery; pertainuig to adultery.

    2. In scripture, idolatrous, very wicked. Mat. xii. and xvi. Mark, viii.

    ADUL'TERY, J,. [L. adultcrium. SeeMul- terate.]

    1. Violation of the marriage bed ; a crime, or a civil injury, which introduces, or may introduce, into a family, a spurious off- spring.

    By the laws of Connecticut, the sexual intercourse of any man, with a married woman, is the crime of adulteiy in both : such intercourse of a married man, with an unmarried woman, is fornication m liotli, and adultery of the man, within the meaning of the law respecting divorce ; but not a felonious adultery in either, or the crime of adultery at common law, or by statiue. This latter offense is, in Eng- land, proceeded with only in the ecclesi- astical courts.

    In common usage, adidtery means the unfaithfulness of any married person to the marriage bed. In England, I'arlia-

    A D V

    ment grant absolute divorces, for Lnfideli ty to the marriage bed in either party ; ane the spiritual courts divorce a me?isa el thoro. '2. In a scriptural sense, all manner of lewd ness or unchastity, as in the seventh com mandment.

    3. In senpture, idolatrj', or apostasy fj'oin the true God. Jer. iii.

    4. In old laws, the fine and penalty imposed for the offense of adultery.

    5. In ecclesiastical affairs, the intrusion of a person into a bishopric, during the life of the bishop. Encyc.

    6. Among ancient naturalists, the grafting of trees was called adultery, being consider- ed as an unnatural uuion. Pliny.

    ADULT'NESS, n. The state of being aduh.

    ADUM'BRANT, a. [See Adumbrate.] Giv- ing a faint shadow, or shght resemblance.

    ADUM'BRATE, v. t. [L. adumbro, to shade, from umbra, a shade ; Fr. ombre ; Sp. som- bra ; It. ombra.]

    To give a faint shadow, or slight likeness ; to exhibit a faint resemblance, hke shadow.

    ADUMBRA'TION, n. The act of maldng a shadow or faint resemblance.

    2. A faint sketch ; an imperfect represeiua- tion of a thing. Bacon.

    3. In heraldry, the shadow only of a figure, outhned, and painted of a color darker than the field. Diet.

    ADUNA'TION, n. [L. ad and mius, tinio.]

    The state of being united ; union. [ATot used.] Cranmer.

    ADUN'CITY, n. [L. aduncitas, hookedness, of ad and uncus, a hook.]

    Hookedness ; a bending in form of a hook. Arbulhnoi

    ADUN'COUS, a. [L. aduncxis.]

    Hooked ; bent or made in the form of a hook, Bacon.

    ADUNQUE, o. Adunk'. Hooked. [JVol used.] Bacon.

    ADU'RE, V. I. [L. aduro, ad and uro, to burn.]

    To burn up. [JVb< used.] Bacon.

    ADUST', a. [L. adustus, burnt, the partici- ple of aduro, to burn.]

    Burnt ; scorched ; become dry by heat ; hot and fiery.

    ADUST'ED, a. Become hot and dry ; burnt ; scorched.

    ADUS'TION, n. The act of burning, scorch- ing, or heating to dryness ; a state of being thus heated or dried.

    ADV'ANCE, V. t. adv'ans. [Fr. avancer; Sp. avanzar, to move forward ; It. avanzare, to get or increase ; Ai-m. avans, to advance. This word is formed on van, the front, which seems to be the Ch. and Heb. ms, D'J3, surface, face ; whence, Fr. avant, It. avanti, before.]

    1. To bring forward ; to move further in front. Hence,

    2. To promote ; to rawo-^o a higher rank ; as, to advance one from the bar to the bench.

    3. To improve or make better, which is con- sidered as a progression or moving for- ward ; as, to advance one's true int^

    4. To forward ; to accelerate growth advance the growth of plants.

    5. To offer or propose ; to bring to v

    A D V

    notice ; as, to advance an opinion or an argument. (3. In commerce, to supply beforehand ; to furnish on credit, or before goods are delivered, or work done ; or to furnish as a part of a stock or fund ; as, to advance money on loan or contract, or towards a purcliase or estabhshment.

    7. To furnish for others; to supply or pay for others, in expectation of reimburse- ment.

    They advanced the money out of their own funds, and took the sheriffs deeds in their own name. lient, Johnson's Rep.

    8. To raise ; to enhance ; as, to advance the price of goods.

    ADVANCE, v. i. To move or go forward ; to proceed ; as, the troops advanced.

    2. To improve, or make progress ; to gi-ow better, greater, wiser or older ; as, to ad- vance m knowledge, in stature, in wisdom, or in years.

    3. To rise in rank, office, or consequence : to be preferred, or promoted ; as, to advance in political standing.

    .\DV>ANCE, n. A moving forward, or to- wards the fl-ont. Clarendon.

    2. Gi-adual progres.sion ; improvement ; as, an advance in rehgion or Itnowledge.


    3. Advancement ; promotion ; preferment : as, an advance in rank or office.

    4. First hint by way of invitation ; first step towards an agreement ; as, A made an advance towards a reconciliation with B. In this sense, it is very frequently used in the plural.

    The amours of an empress require the plainest advances. Gibbon.

    5. In trade, additional price ; profit ; as, an advance on the prime cost of goods.

    6. A giving beforehand ; a furnishing of some- thing, on contract, before an equivalent is received, as money or goods, towards a capital or stock, or on loan ; or the money or goods thus furnished ; as, A made large advances to B.

    7. A furnishing of money or goods for oth- ers, in expectation of reimbursement ; or the property so furnished.

    I shall, with great pleasure, make the neces- sary advances. Jay. The account was made up witli intent to show what advances had been made. ITent.

    In advance, in front ; before ; also before- hand ; before an equivalent is received, or when one partner in trade has furnished more than his ]>roportion ; as, A is in advance to S a thousand dollars or pounds.

    ADV>ANCED, pp. Moved forward ; pro- moted ; improved ; furnished beforehand ; situated in front, or before the rest ; also old, having reaclied the decline of life ; as, advanced in years ; an advanced age.

    ADV>ANCEMENT, n. The act of moving forward or proceeding.

    2. The state of being advanced ; preferment ; promotion, in rank or excellence ; the act of ]ironioting.

    3. Settlement on a wife, or jointure.

    4. Provision made by a parent for a child, by gift; of property, during his, the parent's life, to which the child would be entitled as heir, after his parent's death.

    R. M. Sherman.

    A D V

    A D V

    A D V

    ADVANCER, n. One who advances; a promoter.

    Among sportsmen, a start or branch of a biirk's attire, between the back antler and tlie pahii. Encyc.

    ADV' ANCING, ppr. Moving forward ; pro- ceeding ; promoting ; raising to higher rank or excellence ; improving ; supply- ing beforehand, as on loan, or as stock in trade.

    ADV'ANCIVE, a. Tending to advance, or promote.

    ADV>ANTA6E, n. [Pr. avantage, from avaiit, before ; It. vantaggio ; Sp. ventaja.]

    1. Any state, condition, or circumstance, favorable to success, prosperity, ijiterest, or reputation.

    TTie enemy had tlie advantage of elevated ground.

    2. Benefit ; gain ; profit.

    \\ hat advantage will it be to thee .' Job xxxv.

    There exists, In the economy and comse of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness; between duty and advantage.


    3. Means to an end ; opportunity ; conven- ience for obtaining benefit ; as, students enjoy great advantages for improvement.

    The General took advantage of his enemy' negligence.

    4. Favorable state or circumstances ; as jewels set to advantage.

    5. Superiority, or prevalence over ; with of or over.

    Lest Satan should get an advantage o/ us, ( over us.) 2 Cor. ii. G. Superiority, or that which gives it ; as, the advantage of a good constitution.

    7. Interest ; increase ; overplus.

    And with advantage means to pay thy love. Obs. Slmk

    8. Additional circumstance to give prepou deration.

    ADVANTAGE, v. t. To benefit ; to j-ield profit or gain.

    What is a man advantaged, if he gain th( whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away Luke Lx.

    '2. To promote ; to advance the interest of.

    ADV>ANTAGEABLE, a. Profitable ; con veiiient ; gainfid. [Little used.]

    ADV>ANTAGED,;);j. Benefitted ; promoted.

    ADVANTAGE-GROUND, n. Ground that gives advantage or superiority ; a state that gives superior advantages for annoy- ance or resistance. Clarendon

    ADVANTAGEOUS, a. Being of advan- tage ; furnishing convenience, or opportu- nity to gain benefit ; gainful ; profitable ; useful ; beneficial ; as, an advantageous position of the troops ; trade is advanfa geous to a nation.

    ADVANTAGEOUSLY, adv. In an advan tageous manner ; profitably ; usefully ; conveniently. Arbuthiiol.

    ADVANTA'GEOUSNESS, n. The qualitj- or state of being advantageous; profita- bleness ; usefulness ; convenience.


    ADV'ANTAGING, ppr. Profiting ; bene- fiting.

    .\DVE'NE. V. i. [L. advenio, to come to, ad and venio.]

    To accede, or come to ; to be added to, become a part of, though not essential. {Little used.]

    ADVE'NIENT, a. Advening ; coming fromi outward causes.

    AD'VENT, n. [L. adventus, from advenio, of, ad and venio, to come. See Find.] |

    A coming ; appropriately the coming of our Savior, and in the calendar, it includes four sabbaths before Christmas, beginning on St. Andrew's Day, or on the sabbath next before or after it. It is intended as a season of devotion, with reference to the coming of Christ in the flesh, and bis sec- ond coming to judge the world. Encyc.

    ADVENT'INE, a. Adventitious. [ATot used.] Bacon.]

    ADVENTI"TIOUS, a. [L. adventitius, from\ advenio. See Advent.]

    Added extrinsically ; accidental ; not essen- tially iidierent ; casual ; foreign.

    Diseases of continuance get an adventitious strength from custom. Bacon.

    ADVENTL'TIOUSLY, adv. Accidentally.

    ADVENT'IVE, a. Accidental ; adventitious. [Little used.] Bacon.

    ADVENT'IVE, n. The thing or person that

    comes from without. [Little used.] j


    .ADVENT'UAL, o. Relating to the season of advent. Saunderson.i

    ADVENTURE, n. [Fr. aventure, from advenio. See Advent.] |

    L Hazard ; risk ; chance ; that of which one| has no direction ; as, at all adventures, that, is, at all hazards. [See Venture.] \

    2. An enterprize of hazard; a bold under-; taking, in which hazards ajre to be encoun-! tered, and the issue is staked upon imfore- seen events. Drydenl

    3. That which is put to hazard ; a sense in' popular use with seamen, and usually! pronounced venture. Something which a! seaman is permitted to carry abroad, with a view to sell for profit.

    A hill of adventure, is a writing signed by a[ person, who takes goods on board of his ship, wholly at the risk of the owner.


    ADVENT'URE, v. t. To risk, or hazard ; to put in the power of unforeseen events; as,l to adventure one's life. [See Venture.]

    ADVENT'URE, v. i. To dare ; to try the chance ; as, to adventure on " the tempes- tuous sea of hbertj'." '

    ADVENT'URED, pp. Put to hazard ; ven-j tured ; risked.

    ADVENTURER, n. One who hazards, or puts something at risk, as merehant- advatturers.

    2. One who seeks occasions of chance, or attempts bold, novel, or extraordinary en- terprizes.

    ADVENTURESOME, a. Bold ; daring ; incurring hazard. [See Vejituresome.]

    ADVENT URESOMENESS, n. The qual ity of being bold and venturesome.

    ADVENTURING, ppr. Putting to risk hazarding.

    ADVENT' UROUS, a. [Fr. aventttreux.]

    1. Inchned or wilhng to incur hazard ; bold to encoumer danger; daring; courageous ; enterprizing : applied to persons.

    2. Full of ha'zai-d ; attended with risk ; ex- posing to danger ; requiring courage : applied to things ; as, an adventurous un- dertaking.

    Ajid followed freedom on the adventurous tide, Trumbull.

    ADVENTUROUSLY, adv. Boldly ; dar- ingly ; in a manner to incur hazard.

    ADVENT UROUSNESS, n. The act or quality of being adventurous.

    AD' VERB, n. [L. adverbium, of ad and ver- bum, to a verb.]

    In grammar, a word used to modify the sense of a verb, participle, adjective or attribute, and usually placed near it ; as, he writes well ; paper extremely wliite. This part of speech might be more signi- ficantly named a modifier, as its use is to modify, that is, to vary or quaUfy the sense of another word, by enlarging or restraining it, or by expressing form, qual- ity or manner, which the word itself does not express. The term adverb, denoting position merely, is often improper.

    ADVERB lAL, a. Pertaining to an adverb.

    ADVERB'IALLY, adv. In the manner of an adverb.

    ADVERSA'RIA, n. [L. from adversus. See Adverse.]

    Among the ancients, a book of accounts, so named from the placing of debt and credit in opposition to each other. A common- I>lace book. Encyc.

    AD'VERSARY, n. [See Adverse.]

    1. An enemy or foe ; one who has enmity at heart.

    In scripture, Satan is called THE .\d vef.- 4RT, by way of eminence. 1 Pet. v.

    2. An opponent or antagonist, as in a suit at law, or in smgle combat ; an opposing litigant.

    AD'VERSARY, a. Opposed; opposite to; adverse. In law, having an opposing par- ty, as an adversaiy suit; in distinction from an appUcation, in law or equity, to which no opposition is made.

    ADVERS'ATIVE, a. Noting some differ- ence, contrariety, or opposition ; as, John is an honest man, but a fanatic. Here but is called an adversative conjunction. This denomination however is not always cor- rect ; for but does not always denote opposition, but somethins additional.

    ADVERS ATIVE, n. A word denoting con- trariety or opposition.

    ADVERSE, a. [L. adversus, opposite ; of arf and versus, turned ; from verto, to turn. See Advert. This word was formerly ac- cented, by some authors, on the last sylla- ble ; but the accent is now settled on the first.]

    L Opposite ; opposing ; acting in a contrarj- direction ; conflicting ; counteracting ; as, adverse wmds ; an adverse party.

    2. Figuratively, opposing desire ; contrary tQ the wishes, or to supposed good ; hence, unfortunate ; calamitous ; afflictive ; per- nicious ; unprosperous ; as, adverse fate or circumstances.

    ADVERSE, v. t. advers'. To oppose. [JVot itsed.] Gower.

    AD'VERSELY, adv. In an adverse man- ner ; oppositely ; unfortunately ; unpros- jierously ; in a manner contrary to desire or success.

    .AD'VERSENESS, j^ Opposition ; impros- perousness.

    ADVERSITY, n. An event, or series of events, wliich oppose success or desire :

    A D V

    luiilDiluui; ; calamity ; affliction ; distress ; state of unliappiness.

    In the day of adversity, consider. Eccl. vii. Ye have rejected God, who saved you out of all your adversities. 1 Sam. x. \DVERT', V. i. [L. adverto, oi ad and verto

    to turn.] To turn tlie mind or attention to ; to regard, observe, or notice ; with to ; as, he adverted to what was said, or to a cu-cumstance that occurred. ADVERT'ED, pp. Attended to ; regarded ;

    with to. ■VDVERT'ENCE, ) n. A cUrection of the \DVERT'ENCY, ^ mind to ; attention ; notice ; regard ; consideration ; heedful- ness. ADVERT'ENT, a. Attentive ; heedful. ADVERTING, ppr. Attending to ; regard- ing; observing. ADVERTI'SE, v. t. s as z. [Fr. avertir ; Arm. avertisza, to inform ; fi-om ud and verto, to turn. See Advert.] 1. To inform ; to give notice, advice or intel- ligence to, whether of a past or present event, or of something future.

    I will advertise thee what this people will to thy people in the latter day. Num. xsiv.

    I thought to advertise thee, saying ; buy it before the inhabitants and elders of my people Ruth iv.

    In this sense, it has o/" before the subject of information ; as, to advertise a man of his losses. % To publish a notice of; to publish a writ- ten or printed account of; as, to adveyiise goods or a farm. ADVERTI'SED, pp. Informed ; notified ; warned ; icsed of persons : pubUslied ; made known ; used of things. ADVER'TISEMENT, n. Information ; ad- monition ; notice given. More generally, a publication intended to give notice ; this may be, by a short account printed in s newspaper, or by a written account posted, or otherwise made pubUc. ADVERTI'SER, n. One who advertises.

    This title is often given to pubhc prints. ADVERTI'SING, ppr. Infonning; givuig notice ; pubhshing notice.

    2. a. Furnishing advertisements ; as, adver- tising customers.

    3. In the sense of monitory, or active in giv- ing intelUgence, as used by Shakespeare \jYot now used.]


    A D V

    !2. Open to advice. South.

    ADVI'SABLENESS,n. The quality of being

    advisable or expedient. ADVI'SE, V. f. s. as z. [Fr. aviser; Arm.

    avisa ; Sp. avisar ; It. avvisare. See Advice.] To give counsel to ; to offer an opinion, as

    worthy or expedient to be followed ; as, I

    advise you to be cautious of speculation,

    2. To give information ; to communicate n tice ; to make acquainted with ; followed by of, before the thing communicated ; the merchants were advised of the risk.

    3. To deUberate, consider, or consult. .Advise thyself of what word I shall bring

    again to him that sent me. 1 Ch. xxi.

    in this sense, it is usually intransitive. \DVrSE, v. i. To deUberate, weigh well. or consider.

    Advise and see what answer I shall return to him that sent me. 2 Sam. xx To advise with is to consult for the puq)Ose

    of taking the opinions of others. ADVrSED, pp. Informed ; counseled ; alsc cautious; prudent; acting with deUbera- tion.

    Let him be advised In his answers. Bacon

    With the well advised is wisdom. Prov. xiii.

    2. Done, formed, or taken with advice or

    deUberation ; intended ; as, an advised act

    or scheme.

    ADVI'SEDLY, adv. With deliberation oi

    advice ; heedfuUy ; purposely ; by design

    as, an enterprize advisedly undertaken.

    VDVI'SEDNESS, n. Dehberate considera

    tion ; prudent procedure. ADVrSEMENT, n. Counsel; informa- tion ; circumspection. 2. Consultation.

    The action standing continued nisi for advise. ment. Mass. Reports

    ADVI'SER, n. One who gives advice or admonition ; also, in a bad sense, one who instigates or persuades. ADVrSING, j)pr. Giving counsel. ADVI'SING, n. Advice ; coimsel. Shak. ADVI'SORY, a. Having power to advise. The general association has a general adviso- ry superintendence over all the ministers and churches.

    VDVI'CE, n. [ Arm. avis. This and the verb aviser, to

    avis, opuuon, notice ;

    A D V

    grants of land, with power to lead the vas- sals of the church to war. Fiscal advocates, in ancient Rome, defended causes in which the pubhc revenue was concerned. Juridical advocates became judges, in conse- quence of their attending causes in the earl's court. Matricular advocates defended the cathedral

    churches. Militaiy advocates were employed by the church to defend it by arms, when force gave law to Europe. Some advocates were called nominative, from their beuig nominated by the pope or king; some regular, from their being qualified by a proper course of study. Some were supreme ; others, subordinate. Advocate, in the German pohty, is a magis- trate, appointed in the emperor's name, to administer justice. Faculty of advocates, \n Scotland, is a society of emuient lawyers, who practice in the highest courts, and who are admitted members only upon the severest examina- tion, at three different times. It consists of about two hundred members, and fi'om this body are vacancies on the bench usually supplied. Lord advocate, in Scotland, the principal

    crown lawyer, or prosecutor of crimes. Judge advocate, in courts martial, a person

    who manages the prosecution. In Enghsh and American courts, advo- cates are the same as counsel, or counsel- ors. In England, they are of two degrees, barristers and Serjeants ; the former, being apprentices or learners, cannot, by ancient custom, be admitted Serjeants, till of six- teen years standing. Blackslonc. Encyc. 3. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses a cause, by argument ; one who is friendly to ; as, an advocate for peace, or for the oppressed. In scripture, Christ is called an advocate for

    ad^^se, seem to be formed of ad and the L. viso, to see, to visit.]

    1. Counsel ; an opuiion recommended, or of- fered, as worthy to be followed.

    What advice give ye ? 2 Ch. x. With good advice make wai-. Prov. xx. We may give advice, but we cannot give conduct. Franklin.

    2. Prudence ; dehberate consideration.


    3. Information ; notice ; intelligence ; as, we liave late advices from France.

    To take advice, is to consult with others. ADVI'CE BOAT, n. A vessel employed to

    carry dispatches or information. ADVI'SABLE, a. [See Advise.] 1. Proper to be advised ; prudent ; expedient :

    proper to be done or practiced.

    It is not advisable to proceed, at this time, to

    i.-lioirt> of officers.

    TruinbulVs Hist. Conn. Madison. Ramsay, Hist. Car. 2. Containing advice ; as, their opinion is

    merely advisory. AD'VO€ACY, n. The act of pleading for ;

    intercession. Brown

    2. J udicial pleading ; law-suit. Chaucer.

    AD'VO€ATE, n. [L. advocatus, fi-om advoco.

    to call for, to plead for ; of ad and voco,

    to call. See Vocal.]

    Advocate, in its primary sense, signifies,

    one who pleads the cause of another in a

    court of civil law. Hence, 2. One who pleads the cause of another be- fore any tribunal or judicial court, as e

    ban-ister in the Enghsh courts. We say,

    a man is a learned lawyer and an able

    advocate. In Europe, advocates have different titles,

    according to their particular duties. Consistoricd advocates, in Rome, appear be

    fore the Consistory, in opposition to tin

    disposal of benefices. Elective advocates are chosen by a bishop

    abbot, or chapter, with hcense from the

    prince. Feudal advocates were of a military kind

    and to attach them to the church, had

    We have an advocate with the father.

    1 John, ii. ,AD'VO€ATE, v. t. To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribiuial ; to support or vindicate.

    Tliose who advocate a discrimination.

    Hamilton's Report on public debt. The Duke of York advocated the amendment. Debates on the Regency in the House of Lordt, Dec. 27, 1810.

    The Earl of Buckingham advocated the ori- ginal resolution. Ibid. The idea of a legislature, consisting of a single branch, though advocated by some, was gene- rally reprobated. Ramsay, Hist. Carolina. How little claim persons, who advocate this sentiment, really possess to be considered cal- vinists, will appear from the following quotation. Mackenzie's Life of Calvin. The most eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause. Mitford. A part only of the body, whose cause he ad- vocates, coincide with him in judgment.

    Chris. Obs. xi. 434. Scott. AD'VOeATED,;;;). Defended by argument ;

    vindicated. AD'VOCATESS, n. A female advocate. Taylor. AD'VO€ATING, ppr. Supportuig by rea- sons; defending; nuiintaining. ADVOCA'TION, n. A pleading for: plea; apology.

    A E D

    A E R

    A F F

    •.iliU of advocation, in Scotland, is a written Application to a superior court, to call an action before them from an inferior court. The order of the superior court for this purpose is called a letter of advocation.

    ADVOU'TRESS, n. An adulteress. Bacon.

    ADVOU'TRY, )i. Adultery. [Utile used.'\ Bacon.

    ADVOWEE', n. He that has the right of| advowson. Cowel.

    2. The advocate of a church or religious house. Cyc.

    ADVOWSON, ». sas z. [Fr. awwene.from avouer, to avow ; Norm, avoerie, aravoeson. But the word was latinized, advocatio, from advoco, and avoio is from advnco.]

    In English law, a right of presentation to a vacant benefice ; or in other words, a right of nominating a person to officiate in a va- cant church. The name is derived from advocatio, because the right was first ob- tained by such as were founders, benefac- tors or strenuous defenders, advocates, of the church. Those who have this right are styled patrons. Advowsons are of three kinds, presentative, collntirt, and donative i presentative, when the patron presents his clerk to the bishop of the diocese to be instituted ; collative, when the bishop is the patron, and institutes, or col- lates his clerk, by a single act ; dourilive, when a church is founded by tlic kiri^, and assigned to the patron, willjiHii licing subject to the ordinary, so that the patron confers the benefice on his clerk, without presentation, institution, or induction.

    Advowsons are also appendant, that is, an- nexed to a manor ; or, in gross, that is, annexed to the person of the patron.


    ADVOY'ER, or ^voy'er, [Old Fr. advoes.]

    A chief magistrate of a town or canton in Switzerland.

    A'DY, n. The abanga, or Thernel's restora- tive ; a species of Pahn tree, in the West Indies, tall, upright, without branches, with a thick branching head, which fiir- nishes a juice, of which the natives make a drink by fermentation. Encyc. Coxe.

    ADZ, n. [Sax. adese ; Sp. azuela ; formerly written in Eng. addice.]

    An iron instrument with an arching edge, across the line of the handle, and ground from a base on its inside to the outer edge ; used for chipping a horizontal surface of tuuber. Encyc.

    JE, a diphthong in the Latin language ; used also by the Saxon writers. It answers to the Gr. ai. The Sax. os has been changed into e or ea. In derivatives fi-om the learn- ed languages, it is jnostly superseded l)y e, and convenience seems to require it to be wholly rejected in anglicized words. For such words as may be found with this initial combination, the reader will there- fore search mider the letter E.

    JED, erf, corf, syllables found in names from the Saxon, signify happy ; as, Eadric, happy kingdom ; Eadrig, liappy victory ; Edward, prosperous watch ; Edgar, suc- cessful weapon. Gibson. Lye.

    JE'DJLE, n. [Lat.] In ancient Rome, an officer or magistrate, who had the care of the public buildings, [ades,] streets, high- ways, pubUc spectacles. &c.

    Vol. I.

    iE'GlI.OPS, n. [Gr. aiyiXu^; ai?, a goat, and w^, the ej'e.]

    A tumor in the corner of the eye, and a plant so called. Quincy.

    .(E'(iIS, n. [Gr. aiyi;, a goat skin, and shield ; from a(4, a goat.]

    AshieUl, or defensive atmor.

    jEt^al, alh or eal, in Saxon, Eng. all, arc seen in many names ; as, in JElfrcd, Alfred, all peace ; JEhdn, all conqueror. Gibson

    ^LF, seems to be one form ofhelp, but more generally written elph or utph ; as, in JElftmn, victorious aid ; .^thehmdph, illus- trious help. Gibson

    AE'OLIST, n. [L. .Eohis.]

    A pretender to inspiration. Sivifl.

    A'ERATE, V. t. [See Air.] To combine with carbonic acid, formerly called fixed air. [The word has been discarded from modem chijnistry.]

    A'ERATED, pp. Combined with carbonic acid.

    A'ERATING, ppr. Combining with car bonic acid.

    AERA'TION, n. The act or operation of combining with carbonic acid.

    AERIAL, o. [L.aerius. See Air.]

    \. Belonging to the air, or atmosphere ; as, aerial regions.

    ^. Consisting of air; partakingof the nature of air; as, aerial particles.

    :?. Produced by air ; as, aerial honey. Pope.

    4. Inhabiting or frequenting the air ; as, aerial songsters.

    5. Placed in the air ; high ; lofty ; elevated ; as, aeiial spii-es ; aeiial flight.

    AE'RIANS, n. In church history, a branch of]

    Arians, so called from Aerius, who

    tained, that there is no difference between

    bishops and priests. A'ERIE, n. [W. eryr. Corn, er, an eagle.] The nest of a fowl, as of an eagle or hawk ;

    a covey of birds. Shak.

    AERIFICA'TION, n. Theact of combining

    air with ; the state of being filled with air,


    3. The act of becoming air or of changing

    into an aeriform state, as substances wliicl

    are converted fi-om a liquid or solid form

    into gas or an elastic vapor ; the state of

    being aeriform. Fourcroy.

    AERIFIED, pp. Having air infused, or

    combined with. A'ERIFORM, a. [L. aer, air, and forma,

    form.] Having the fonn or nature of air, or of an

    elastic, invisible fluid. The gases are aeri

    form fluids. AERIFY, V. t. To infuse air into ; to fill

    with air, or to combine air with. AEROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. a^, air, and

    ypoijjw, to describe.] A description of the air or atmosphere ; but

    aerolog}/ is chiefly used. A'EROLITE, n. [Gr. ojjp, air, and udos,

    a stone.] A stone falling from the air, or atmospheric

    regions ; a meteoric stone.

    Guidotte. Med. Rep. AEROLOg l€AL, a. Pertaining to aero-

    AEROL'OgIST, )i. One who is versed in

    aerology. AEROL'OgY, n. [Gr. o.:p, air, an.l ?.o-/o5,


    ascertaining the i

    A'ERONAUT, n. sailor, from rouj,

    Adescri|)tion of the air-; that branch of phi

    ^ losophy which treats of the air, its con-

    1 stituent parts, properties, and phenomena.

    I Encyc.

    jA'EROMANCY, n. [Gr. arp, and fiautua,

    \ divination.]

    jDivination by means of the air and winds. [lAttle used.]

    AEROM'ETER, n. [^p, air, and /Kffpoi,

    I measure.]

    An instrument for weighing air, or for ascer- taining the mean bidk of gases.

    Journ. of Science.

    AEROM'ETRY,n. [as above.] The science of measuring the air, including the doc- trme of its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, and condensation. Encyc.

    Rather, aeronietry is the art or science of lean bulk of the gases.

    Encyc. Ure. [Gr. ai;p, and vourjjj, a ship.]

    One who sails or floats in the air ; an aerial navigator ; applied to persons who ascend in air balloons. Burke.

    AERONAUT IC, a. Sailing or floating in the air ; pertaining to aerial sailing.

    AERONAUT'leS, n. The doctrine, science, or art of sailing in the air, by means of a balloon.

    A'ERONAUTISM.n. The practice of ascen- ding and floating in the atmosphere, in balloons. Journ. of Science.

    AEROS'€OPY, n. [Gr. atjp, and axotro^a,. to sec]

    The observation of the air. [Little used.l

    A'EROSTAT, n. [Gr.a,p, and Bfaro;, sus- taining, from tarr,/ii, to stand.]

    A machine or vessel sustaining weights in the air ; a name given to air balloons.


    AEROSTAT'Ie, a. Suspending in air ; per- taining to the art of aerial navigation.

    AEROSTATION, n. Aerial navigation : the science of raising, suspending, and guiding machines in the air, or of ascend- ing in air balloons. Mams.

    2. The science of weighing air.

    A'ERYLIGHT, in Milton, light as air : used for airy light.

    AF'AR, adv. [a and far. See Far.]

    1. At a distance in place ; to or from a dis- tance ; used wth from preceding, or off following ; as, he was seen from afar ; 1 saw him afar off.

    2. In scripture, figuratively, estranged in af- fection ; alienated.

    My kinsmen stand afar off. Ps. xxxviii.

    3. Absent ; not assisting. Why standest thou afar off, O Lord ? Ps. x.

    4. Not of the visible church. Eph. ii. AFE'.\RD, a. [Sax. aferan, to make afraid.

    Afeard is the participle passive. See Fear.]

    Afraid ; affected with fear or apprehension, in a more moderate degree than is express- ed by terrified. It is followed by of, but no longer irsed in books, and even in pop- ular use, is deemed vulgar.

    AF'FA, n. A weight used on the Guinea coast, equal to an ounce. The half of it is called eggeha. Encyc.

    .\FFABIL ITY, n. [See Affable.] The qual- ity of being affable ; readiness to con- verse ; ciWlity and courteousness, in re- ceiving others, and in conversation : con-

    A F F

    A F I

    A F F

    our attairs.

    desceiisioii in niaiiners. Affahilily of coun- tenance is that mikhiess of aspect, which invites to free social intercourse.

    AF'FABLE, a. [L. affabiUs, of ad ani fab- ulor. See Fable.]

    1. Easy of conversation; admitting others to free conversation without reserve ; cour- teous ; complaisant ; of easy manners ; condescending ; usually applied to superi ors ; as, an affable prince.

    3. Applied to external appearance, affable denotes that combination of features, which invites to conversation, and ren ders a person accessible, opposed to a for- bidding aspect ; mild ; benign ; as, an affa- ble countenance.

    AF'FABLENESS, n. Affability.

    AF'FABLY, adv. In an affable manner: courteously ; iuvituigly.

    AFFA'IR, n. [Fr. affaire, from /aire, to make or do; L. facere ; Sp. hacer ; It. fare. The prunary sense of facio is to urge, drive, impel.]

    1. Business of any kind ; that which is done, or is to be done ; a loord of very indefinite and undefnabk signification. In the plural, it denotes transactions in general ; as hu- man affairs ; pohtical or ecclesiastical af- fairs : also the business or concerns of an uidividual ; as, liis affairs are embarrassed.

    9. Matters ; state ; condition of business or concerns.

    I have sent that ye may Eph. vi.

    3. In the singular, it is used for a private dis pute, or duel ; as, an affair of honor ; and sometimes a partial engagement of troops.

    In the phrase, at the head of affairs, the word means, the pubhc concerns of ex- ecuting the laws, and administering the government. Junius.

    AFFECT' V. t. [L. officio, affectum, of ad and facio, to make ; L. affecto, to desire, from the same root. Jtffecl is to make to, or upon, to press upon.]

    1. To act upon ; to produce an effect or change upon ; as, cold affects the body ; loss affects our interests.

    2. To act upon, or move the passions ; as, affected with grief

    .3. To aim at ; aspire to ; desire or entertain pretension to ; as, to affect imperial sway. [See the etymology of ^^air.]

    4. To tend to by natural affinity or disposi- tion ; as, the drops of a fluid affect a spher- ical form.

    5. To love, or regard with fondness.

    Think not that wars we love and strife affect. Fairfax. {This sense is closely allied to the third.] 0. To make a show of ; to attempt to imi- tate, in a manner not natural ; to study the appearance of what is not natural, or real ; as, to affect to be grave ; affected friendship.

    It seems to have been used formerly for mnvict or attaint, as in Aylifie's Parergon ; but this is not now in use. AFFECTA'TION, n. [L. affectatio.] J. An attemjit to assume or exhibit what is not natural or real ; false pretense ; artifi- cial appearance, or show ; as, an affectation of wit, or of virtue. 2. Fondness ; affection. [jYot used.]

    Hooker. Hall. AFFECT'ED, pp. Impressed; moved, or

    touclied, either in person or in interest having suffered some change by external force, loss,, danger, and the like ; as, we are more or less affected by the failure of the banJc.

    3. Touched in tlie feelings ; having the feel ings excited ; as, affected with cold or heat.

    ■i. Having the passions moved; as, affected with sorrow or joy.

    4. a. Inclined, or disposed ; followed by to as, well affected to government.

    5. a. Given to false show ; assuming, or pretending to possess what is not natural or real ; as, an affected lady.

    I), a. Assumed artificially ; not natural ; as, affected airs.

    AFFECT'EDLY, adv. In an affected man- ner ; hypocritically ; vrith more show than reahty ; formally ; studiously ; unnatural- ly ; as, to walk affectedly ; affectedly civil.

    AFFE€T'EDNESS, n. The quaUty of being affected ; affectation.

    AFFE€T'ING, ppr. Impressing ; havin, an effect on ; touching the feehngs moving the passions ; attempting a false show ; greatly desiring ; aspiring to pos

    2. a. Having power to excite, or move the passions ; tenduig to move the affections pathetic ; as, an affecting address.

    The most affecting music is generally the most simple. Milford.

    AFFECT'INGLY, adv. In an affecting manner ; in a manner to excite emotions.

    AFFE€'TION, n. The state of being af- fected. {Little used.]

    2. Passion ; but more generally,

    3. A bent of mind towards a particular ob- ject, holding a middle place between dis- position, which is natural, and passion, which is excited by the presence of its ex- citing object. Affection is a permanent bent of the mind, formed by the ])resence of an object, or by some act of another person, and existing without the presence of its object. Encyc.

    4. In a more particular sense, a settled good will, love or zealous attachment ; as, the affection of a parent for his child. It was formerly followed by to or towards, but is now more generally followed hy for.

    5. Desire ; inchnation ; propensity, good or evil ; as, virtuous or vile affections. Rom. i. Gal. 5.

    6. In a general sense, an attribute, quality or ])roperty, wliich is inseparable from its object ; as, love, fear and hope are affec- tions of the mind ; figure, weight, &c., are affections of bodies.

    7. Among physicians, a disease, or any par- ticular morbid state of the body; as, c gouty affection ; hysteric affection.

    '. In painting, a Uvely representation of

    passion. Shakespeare uses the word for affectation;

    but this use is not legitimate. AFFE€'T10NATE, a. [Fr. affictionn/.]

    1. Having great love, or affection ; fond ; as, an affectionate brother.

    2. Warm in affection ; zealous.

    Man, in )iis love to God, and desire to please him, can never be too affectionate. Sprat.

    3. Proceeding from affection ; indicating love ; benevolent ; tender ; as, the affec- tionate care of a parent ; an affectionate countenance.

    4. Inchned to ; warndy attaclied. {LittU used.] Bacon.

    AFFE€'TIONATELY, adv. With affec- tion ; fondly ; tenderly ; kindly. 1. Thes. ii.

    AFFE€'TIONATENfcSS, )(. Fondness: goodwill ; affection.

    AFFEC'TIONED, a. Disposed ; having an affection of heart.

    Be ye kindly affectioned one to another.

    Rom. xii

    2. Affected; conceited. Obs. Shak.

    AFFE€T'IVE, a. That affects, or excite^ emotion ; suited to affect. {Little used.]

    AFFE€T'IVELY, adv. In an affective or impressive nmimer.

    AFFE€T'OR, ? n. One that affects; one

    AFFE€T'ER, S that practices affectation.

    AFFE€T'UOUS, a. FuU of passion. [JSTot Mserf.] Leland.

    AFFEE'R, V. t. [Fr. affier, to set.]

    To confirni. [jYot used.]

    AFFEE'R, v.t. {Fr. afferer, aff'eurer, or affo- rer, to assess or value.]

    Ill law, to assess or reduce an arbitrary penalty or amercement to a precise sum ; to reduce a general amercement to a sum certain, accorduig to the circumstances of the case. Blacksfone.

    AFFEE'RED, pp. Moderated in sum ; as- sessed ; reduced to a certainty.

    AFFEE'RMENT, n. The act of affeering, or assessing an amercement, according to the circumstances of the case.

    AFFEE'ROR, n. One who affeers ; a per- son sworn to assess a penalty, or reduce an uncertain penalty to a certainty. Cowel.

    AFFETTUO'SO, or conaffetto, [It., from L. affectus.']

    In music, a direction to render notes soft and affecting.

    AFFI'ANCE, n, [Norm, affiaunce, confi- dence ; Fr. fancer, to betroth ; Sp. fanza, security in bail, afianzar, to give security or bail, from far, to trust, to bail, to confide in ; Port, id ; Fv.fier, to trust ; It. fidare, qffidare, to trust, fidanza, coniidence,fidan- zare, to betroth, from L. fdo, fdes.]

    1. The marriage contract or promise ; faith- pledged.

    2. Trust in general ; confidence ; rehance.

    The Christian looks to God with implicit affi- ance. Hammond.

    AFFI'ANCE, V. t. To betroth ; to pledge one's faith or fidehty in marriage, or to promise marriage.

    To me, sad maid, he was affianced. Spenser.

    2. To give confidence.

    Affianced in my faith. Pope.

    AFFI'ANCED, pp. Pledged in marriage ; betrothed ; bound in (kith.

    AFFI'ANCER, n. One who makes a con- tract of marriage between parties.

    AFFI'ANCING, ppr. Pledging in marriage ; promising fidelity.

    AFFIDA'VIT, n. [An old law verb in the perfect tense ; he made oath ; from ad and fdes, faith.]

    A declaration upon oath. In the United States, more generally, a declaration in writing, signed by the party, and sworn to, iiefore an authorized magistrate.

    AFFI'ED, a. or part. Joined by contract ; affianced. [.Voi %t.ied.] Shak.

    AFFI'LE, 1!. i. [Fr. affiler.]

    To polish. [JVot used.] Chaucer.

    AFFIL'IATE, v. t. [Fr. affdier, to adopt,

    A F F

    A F F

    A F F

    to initiate into the mysteries of a reDgious order ; L. ad a.nd Jilius, a son.]

    1. To adopt ; to receive into a family as a son.

    2. To receive into a society as a member, and initiate in its mysteries, plans, or in trigues — a sense in which the word was muih used by the Jacobins in France, during the revolution.

    AFFILIATION, n. Adoption ; association

    in the same family or society. AFFIN'ITY, n. [L. affinilas, from nffinis,

    adjacent, related by marriage ; ad and

    Jiriis, end.]

    1. The relation contracted by marriage, be- tween a husband and his wife's kindred, and between a wife and her husband's kindred ; in contradistinction from consan- guinity or relation by blood.

    Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh.

    I Kings iii.

    2. Agreement ; relation ; conformity ; resem- blance ; connection ; as, the affinity of sounds, of colors, or of languages.

    3. In chimistry, attraction ; elective attrac- tion, or that tendency which different spe- cies of matter have to unite, and combine with certain other bodies, and the power that disposes them to continue iti combi- nation. There are two kinds of affinity.

    1. Affinity of aggregation, which is tlic power that causes two homogeneous bod- ies to tend towards each other, unite and cohere, as tHodrups (if watii, whicli iiiiiro in one. -'. .■Iffinilii i.f roinjiosiihin, u hid] is the tciiilciicy '"l'" ludics of dilh-ii-iit kinds to ujiitc and fmiu new coiiihiiiii- tions of bodies witli different projierties. Such is the affinity which unites acids and alkaUes, the results of which combination are neutral salts.

    The operations of this princii)le rious. When heterogeneous bodies have mutually an equal attraction, it is called compound affinity. When one substance decomposes a combination of otliers, imites with one of them and precipitates the other, the power is called the affinity of decomposition. When bodies will not unite, but by means of a third, which ena bles them to combine, this is affinity by means of a medium.

    Double affinity is when by means of four bodies, two decompositions and two new combinations are effected.

    Fourcroy. Hooper AFFIRM, V. t. afferm'. [L. affirmo ; ad and

    firmo, to make rtrm. See Firm.'] I. To assert positively ; to tell witli confi dence ; to aver ; to declare the existence of soniethmg ; to maintain as true; oppo- sed to deny.

    Of one Jesus whom Paul affirmed to be alive, Acts 25. 9. To make firm ; to establish, confirm or ratify ; as, the Supreme court affirmed the judgment.

    \FFIRM' V, i. To declare solemnly before a court or magistrate, for confirming a fact, or to have an affirmation administer ed to, by way of confirmation, or as a sub stitute for an oath ; as, the witness affirm ed to the fact, or he was affirmed to the fact. AFFIRM'ABLE. a. That may be asserted

    or declared ; followed by of; as, an atlri bute affirmable of every just man. AFFIRM'ANCE, n. Confirmation; ratifi cation ; as, the affirmance of a judgment ; a statute in affirmance of common law.

    2. Declaration ; affirmation. [Little used.]

    Selden. Cowper.

    AFFIRM'ANT, n. One who affirms.

    AFFIRMA'TION, n. The act of affirming or asserting as true ; opposed to negation or denial. Shak.

    3. That which is asserted ; position declared as true ; averment. Hammond.

    3. Confirmation ; ratification ; an establish- ing of what had been before done or de- creed. Hooker.

    4. 'A solemn declaration made under the penalties of perjury, by persons who con- scientiously decline taking an oath ; whicli affirmation is in law equivalent to testimo- ny given imder oath.

    AFFIRM'ATIVE, a. That affirms, or as- serts; declaratory of what exists ; ojjposed to negative ; as, an affirmative proposition.

    2. Confirmative ; ratifying ; as, an act affii alive of common law.

    3. In tibj-rhrn, pc>siti\c : a term .Tppliod to mnnlici- wIhcIi tlir si-ii -f /,/».s-, de

    4. Positive ; dogmatic. Obs. Taylor

    AFFIRM'ATIVE, n. That side of a ques tioii which affirms or maintains ; opposed to negative ; as, there wftre seventy votes in the affirmative, and thirty-five in the ne- gative.

    AFFIRM'ATIVELY, adv. In an affirma- tive manner ; positively ; on the affirma- tive side of a question ; opposecl to nega- tively.

    \¥FiYiM''E.D,pp. Declared ; asserted ; aver- red ; confirmed ; ratified.

    AFFIRM'ER, n. One who affirms.

    AFFIRM'ING, ppr. Assertuig; declaring positively ; eonfirmuig.

    AFFIX', V. t. [L. affigo, affirum, of arf and fgo, to fix ; Gr. rtriyu, nrp/mu, rf^?M ; Eng. peg See Fii.]

    1. To unite at the end ; to subjohi, annex, or add at the close ; as, to affix a syllable word ; to affix a seal to an instrument.

    2. To attach, unite, or connect with, as names affixed to ideas, or ideas affixed to things.

    3. To fix or fasten in any manner. In this sense,/j; is more generally used.

    AF'FIX, n. A syllable or letter added to the end of a word.

    AFFIX'ED, pp. United at the end ; annex- ed ; attachetl.

    AFFIX'ING, ppr. Uniting at the end ; sub- joining; attaching.

    AFFIX'ION, n. The act of uniting at the end, or state of being so united. [lAltle used.']

    AFFIX'TURE, n. That which is affixed,


    AFFLA'TION, n. [L. afflo, affiatum, of and/o; Eng. 6/oic. See Blow.]

    A blowing or breathing on.

    AFFLATUS, n. [L.]

    1. A breath or blast of wind.

    2. Inspiration ; coiraniniication of divine knowledge, or the power of prophesy.


    AFFLICT', v.t. \h.affligo,affiieto,ol'ad anCi Jligo, to strike ; Eng. flog ; Gr. Eol. ^xtyu, to strike ; Gr. tXjjyjj, L. phiga, a stroke ; Onth.flekan, to strike. Hence, Ger.flegel; D. vlegel ; Eug.flaU, g being suppressed ; L. flagellum. See Flog.]

    I . To give to the body or mind i)ain which is continued or of some permanence ; to grieve, or distress ; as, one is afflicted with the gout, or with melancholy, or with loss- es and misfortunes.

    They afflict thy heritage, O Lord. Ps. xcv.

    3. To trouble ; to harass ; to distress.

    AFFLICT'ED, pp. Affected with continued or often repeated pain, either of body or mind ; suffering grief or distress, of any liiud ; followed by at, by or tirith ; as, afflicted at the loss of a cmld, by the rheu- matism, or vnth losses.

    AFFLI€T'EDNESS, n. The state of being afflicted ; but superseded by affliction.

    AFFLI€T'ER, n. One who afflicts, or causes pain of body or of mind.

    AFFLI€T'ING, ppr. Causing continued or durable pain of body or mind ; grieving : distressing.

    AFFLICT'ING, a. Grievous; distressing: as, an (Riding event.

    AFFLl€'TION, n. The state of being af- flicted ; a state of pain, distress, or grief. Some virtues are seen only in affliction.

    3. The cause of continued pain of body or mind, as sickness, losses, calamity, ad- versity, persecution.

    Many are the afflictions of the righteous. Ps. xxxiv.

    AFFLICTIVE, a. Giving pain; causing continued or repeated pain or grief; pain- fid ; distres.sing. Hall.

    AFFLICT'IVELY, adv. In a manner to give pain or grief. Brown.

    AF'FLUENCE, n. [L. affiuentia, of ad and ffvo, toflow. See Flow.]

    1. Literally, a flowing to, or concourse. In this sense it is rarely used. It is sometimes written affiuency.

    2. Figuratively, abundance of riches ; great |)leiity of worldly goods; wealth. Rogers.

    AF'FLUENT, o. "Flowing to ; more general- ly, wealthy ; abomiding in goods or riches ; abundant." Prior.

    AF'FLUENTLY, adv. In abundance ; abim- dantly.

    AF'FLUX, n. [L. affiuxum, from affiuo. See Flow.]

    The act of flowing to ; a flowing to, or tliat which flows to ; as, an afflux of blood to the head.

    AFFLUX'ION, n. The act of flowing to ; that whicli flows to. [Sec Afflux.]

    AF'FORAGE, n. [Fr. afforer, to value. See Affeer.]

    In France, a duty paid to the lord of a dis- trict, lor pci-niission to sell wine or other li(|M(>is. within liis seignorv. Encyc.

    AFl'O UC1:M1:NT, n. [ad and force.]

    In old charters, a fortress ; a fortification for defense. Obs. Cyc.

    AFFO'RD, V.t. [ad and the root of forth, further ; G.fordem, to further or promote ; D. voorderen ; Dan. befordrer, to further. The sense is to send forth. But I have not found this precise word in the exact sense of the English, in any other lan- guage.]

    1. To yield or produce as fruit, profit, issuei=.

    A F 1

    or result. Tims, the eanli affords grain

    u well affords water ; trade affords profit

    distilled liquors afford spirit. a. To yield, grant or confer ; as, a good life

    affords con.«olation in old age. 'J. To be able to grant or sell with profit or

    without loss ; as, .4 can afford wine at

    less price than B.

    4. To be able to expend without injury one's estate ; as, a man can afford a sinn yearly in charity ; or be able to bear ex- penses, or the price of the thing purchased ; as, one man can afford to buy a farm, which another cannot.

    5. To be able without loss or with profit.

    The merchant can afford to trade for smalle profits. Hamilton

    AFFO'RDED, pp. Yielded as fruit, pro- duce or result ; sold without loss or with profit. AFFO'RDING, /);>r. Yielding; producing

    selling without loss ; bearing expenses. AFFOR'EST, v. t. [ad and forest] To convert ground into forest, as was done by the first Norman kings in England, for the purpose of affording them the pleas- ures of the chase. AFFORESTA'TION, n. The act of turn- ing ground into forest or wood land.

    Black stone. AFFOR'ESTED, pp. Converted into forest. AFFOR'ESTING, ppr. Converting into

    forest. AFFRANCHISEMENT, n. [See Fran- chise and Disfranchise.] The act of making free, or liberating from

    dependence or servitude. [Little used.] AFFRAP', v.t. [Fr. /rapper, to striliejEng.

    rap.] To strike. Ohs. Spenser.

    \FFR A' Y, I n. [Fr. effrayer, to fright-

    VFFRA' YMENT, S en ; effroi. terror ; Arm.

    effreyza, effrey.] I. In law, the fighting of two or more per- sons, in a pubUc place, to the terror of others. A fighting in private is not, in a legal sense, an affray. Blackstone.

    ■2. la popular language, fray is used to ex- press any fighting of two or more persons ; but the word is now deemed inelegant. 3. Tumult ; disturbance. Spenser.

    \FFREIGHT', V. t. affra'te. [See Freight.] To liire a ship for the transportation of goods or freight. Commerce

    AFFREIGIIT'ED, pp. Hired for transport- ing goods. \FFREIGHT'ER, n. The person who hires or charters a ship or other vessel to con vev goods. Walsh, Am. Rev

    .\FFREIGHT'MENT, n. The act of hiruig a ship for the transportation of goods.

    American Review, J)pp. AFFRET', n. [It. affrettare, to hasten.] A furious onset, or attack. [jYot used.]


    AFFRIC'TION, n. The act of rubbing

    [JVot used.] [See Friction.] Boyle

    A.FFRIENDED, a. affrend'ed. Made friends

    reooncilfid. Ohs. Spenser

    AFFRI'GHT. v.t. affri'te. [Sax. frihtan

    See Fright.] To impress with sudden fear ; to frighten to terrify or alarm. It expresses a strong- er impression than fear or apprehend, and perhaps less than terror. AFFRI'GHT, n. Sudden or great fear : ter

    A F 1

    ror ; also, the cause of terror ; a frightfid

    object. AFFRI'GHTED, pp. Suddenly alarmed

    with fear ; teriified ; followed by at or

    ivith, more generally by at ; as, affrighted a

    the cry of fire. AFFRI'GHTER, n. One who frightens. AFFRi GIITFUL, a. Terrifying'; terrible

    tiiat niav excite great fear ; dreadful. AFl'RI'GIITING, ppr. Impressmg sudden

    fear ; terrifying. AFFRl'GHTMENT, n. Affiight ; terror ; the

    state of being frightened. [Rarelv used.] [In common discourse, the use ofthu word, in

    all its forms, is superseded by fright, fright-

    ed,frightful.] AFFRONT', V. t. [Fr. affronter, to encounter

    face to face, oi' ad and L.frons, front, face.]

    1. Literally, to meet or encounter face to face, in a good or bad sense ; as.

    The seditious affronted the king's forces.

    Hayward. Milton. Shak. [TVie foregoing sense is obsolete.]

    2. To offer abuse to the face ; to insidt, dare or brave openly ; to offer abuse or insult in any manner, by words or actions ; as, to affront one by giving liim the he.

    3. To abuse, or give cause of offense to, without being present with the person ; to make shghtly angry ; a popular use of the word.

    AFFRONT', n. Opposition to the face; open defiance ; encounter. Oi*.

    2. Ill treatment ; abuse ; any thmg reproach- ful or contemptuous, that excites or justi- fies resentment, as foul language, or per- sonal abuse. It usually expresses a less degree of abuse than insult.

    3. Shame ; disgrace. [Not tisual.] Arbuthnot.

    4. In popular language, shght resentment ; displeasure.

    AFFRONT'ED, pp. Opposed face to face; dared ; defied ; abused.

    2. In popidar language, offended ; shghtly an- gry at ill treatment, by words or actions ; displeased.

    AFFRONTEE', a. In heraldry, front to front; an epithet given to animals that face each other. Ash.

    AFFRONT'ER, n. One that affi-onts.

    AFFRONT'ING,;j/)r. Opposing face to face ; defying ; abusing ; ofteruig abuse, or any cause of displeasure.

    AFFRONT'ING, a. Contumelious; abusive.

    AFFRONT'IVE, a. Giving offense ; tend- ing to offend ; abusive.

    AFFRONT'IVENESS, n. The quahty that gives offense. [Little used.]

    AFFU'SE, V. t. s as z. [L. affundo, affusum, ad and fundo, to pour out. See Fu^e.]

    To pour upon ; to sprinkle, as with a liquid.

    AFFU'SED, pp. Sprinkled with a liquid ; sprinkled on ; having a liquid poured upon.

    AFFU'SING,p;7r. Pouring upon, or sprink- ling.

    AFFU'SION, n. affu'zhnn. The act of pour- ing iqjon, or sprmkling with a hquid sub- stance, as water upon a diseased body, or upon a child in baptism.

    AFFV', V. t. [Fr. affier.] To betroth; bind or join. [JVbt xised.]

    AFFY', v.t. To trust or confide in. [Not

    u.^ed.] AFlE'hT), adv. [a ami f eld.]

    To the field. Mlton

    A F R

    AFI'RE, adv. On fire. Cower.

    AFLAT', adv. [a and fat.] Level with the ground. Bacon.

    AFLO'AT, orfti. or o. [a and float.]

    1. Borne on the water ; floating ; swim- ming ; as, the ship is afloat.

    2. Figuratively, moving; passing from place to place ; as, a rumor is afloat.

    3. Unfixed ; moving without guide or con- trol ; as, our affairs are all afloat. [As ati adjective, this icord ahoays foilotvs the noun.]

    AFOOT', adv. [a or on and foot.] On foot ;

    borne by the feet ; opposed to riding. 2. In action ; in a state of being planned for

    execution ; as, a design is afoot, or on foot. AFO'RE, adv. or prep, [a and fore.] In


    2. Between one object and another, so as to intercept a direct view or intercourse ; as, to stand between a person and the light of a candle — a popular use of the word.

    3. Prior in time ; before ; anterior ; prior time being considered as in front of sub- sequent time.

    The grass which withereth afore it growetli up. Ps. cxxix.

    In all these senses it is now inelegant, and superseded by before.

    4. In seaman's language, toward the head of the ship ; further forward, or nearer the stem ; as, afore the windlas. Afore the mast, is a plu-ase which is applied to a common sailor, one who does duty on the main deck, or has no office on board the ship.

    Mar. Diet. AFOREGOING, a. Gomg before. [See

    Foregoing, which is chiefly used.] AFO'REHAND, adv. [afore and hand.] In time previous ; by previous provision ; as, he is ready aforehand.

    She is come aforehand to anoint my body. Mark xiv. a. Prepared ; previously provided ; as, to be aforehand in business. Hence in popular language, amply provided ; well supphed with the means of livu)g ; having means beyond the requirements of neces- sity ; moderately wealtliy. This word is popularly changed into aforehanded, before- handed, or rather forehanded ; as, a fore- handed farmer. AFO'REMENTIONED, a. [afore and men- tion.] Mentioned before in the same writing or discourse. Addison.

    AFO'RENAMED, a. [afore and name.] Named before. Peacham,

    AFO'RESAID, a. [afore and say.] Said or recited before, or in a preceding

    part. AFO'RETIME, adv. [afore and time.] _ In time past ; in a former time. Bible.

    AFOUL', adv. or a. [a and foul.] Not free; entangled. Columbiad

    AFRA'ID, a. [The participle of a^ay.] mpressed wth fear or apprehension ; fear- ful. This word expresses a less degree of fear than terrified or frightened. It is fol- lowed by of before the object of fear; as, to be afraid o/" death.

    Joseph was afraid to sin against God. AFRESH', adv. [a and fresh.] Anew ; again ; recently ; after intermission. They cracify tfie son of God afresh. Heb. vi. AF'RieA, n. [Qu. L. a neg. and frigus, cold.]



    A G A

    One of the four quarters or largest divisions of the globe ; a continent separated from Europe by the Mediterranean sea.

    AF'RI€AN ( "■ P6'"tai"'"S to Africa.

    AF'RI€An1 n. A native of Africa.

    This*name is given also to the African mary- gold. Tate's Cowley.

    AFRONT', adv. In front. Shak.

    'AFT, a. or adv. [Sax. wfl, eft, after, behind.]

    Li seaman's language, a word used to denote the stern or what pertains to the stern of a ship ; as, the aft part of the ship ; haul aft the main sheet, that is, further towards the stern. Fore and aft is the whole length of a ship. Right aft is in a direct line with the stern. Mar. Diet.

    'AFTER, a. [The comparative degree ofl aft. But in some Teutonic dialects it is written with g ; D. ag^er ; Dan. agters. The Eng. corresponds with the Sax. after, Sw. efter, Goth, ftaro, Dan. efter.]

    1. In marine language, more aft, or towards the steru of the ship ; as, the after sails ; after hatchway.

    2. In common language, later in tune ; as, an after period of Ufe. Marshall.

    In this sense, the word is often combi- ned with the following noun ; as In after- noon. AFTER, prep. Behind in place ; as, men

    placed in a line one after another. "2. Later in tune ; as, after supper. This word often precedes a sentence, as a governing preposition.

    4/ter 1 have arisen, 1 will go before you into Galilee. Math. xxvi. 8. In pursuit of, that is, moving behind, following ; in search of.

    .Mfter whom is the king of Israel come out ?

    1 Sam. xxiv. Ye shall not go afier other Gods. Deut. vi.

    4. In imitation of ; as, to make a thing aftei a model.

    5. According to ; as, consider a thing after its intrmsic value. Bacon.

    6. Accoriling to the direction and influence of.

    To walk after the flesh ; to live after the flesh

    Rom. viii

    To judge after the sight of the eye. Is. xi

    To inquh-e after is to seek by asking ; to ask concerning.

    To follow after, in scriptiu-e, is to pursue, or imitate ; to serve, or worship.

    'AFTER, adv. Posterior ; later in time ; as. it was about the space of three hours after. In this sense, the word, however, is really a preposition, the object being imderstood ; about three hours after the time or fact before specified.

    -ifter is prefixed to many words, formuig compounds, but retaining hs genuine sig nification. Some of the following words are of this kind, but in some of them aftei seems rather to be a separate word.

    'AFTER- ACCOUNT, n. A subsequent reck- oning. KiUingbeck

    'AFTER-A€T, n. A subsequent act.

    'AFTER-AgES, n. Later ages ; succeedmg times. After-age, in the singular, is not improper. Addison.

    'AFTER ALL is a phrase, signifying, when all has been considered, said or done last : in the final result. Pope.

    'AFTER-BAND, n. A future band. Milton.

    AFTER-BIRTH, n. The appendages of the fetus, called also secundines. Wiseman.

    .\FTER-€LAP, n. An unexpected, subse- quent event ; something happening after an aflair is supposed to be at an end.


    AFTER-COMER, n. A successor.

    AFTER-COMFORT, n. Future comfort. Jonson.

    AFTER-€ONDUCT, n. Subsequent be- havior. Sherlock.

    AFTER-CONVl€'TION, ?;. Future con- viction. South.

    AFTER-COST, n. Later cost ; expense after the execution of the main design.


    AFTER-COURSE, n. Future course.


    AFTER-CROP, n. The second crop in the same year. Mortimer.

    AFTER-DAYS, n. Future days. Congreve.

    AFTER-EATAGE, n. Part of the increase of the same year. [Local.] Burn

    AFTER-ENDEAV'OR, n. An endeavor after the first or former effort. Locke.

    AFTER-GAME, «. A subsequent scheme, or expedient. Wotton.

    AFTER-GUARD, n. The seaman stationed on the poop or after part of the sliip, to attend the after sails. Mar. Diet.

    AFTER-HOPE, n. Future hope. Jonson.

    -AFTER-HOURS, n. Hours tliat follow ; time following. Shak.

    'AFTER-IGNORANCE, n. Subsequent ig- norance. • Stafford.

    'AFTER-KING, n. A succeeding khig.


    'AFTER-LIFE, n. Future Ufe or the life after this. Dryden. Butler.

    3. A later period of life ; subsequent life.

    'AFTER- LIVER, n. One who lives in suc- ceeding times. Sidney.

    'AFTER-LOVE, n. The second or later love. Shak.

    'AFTER-MALICE, n. Succeeding mahce, Dryden.

    'AFTER-MATH, n. [after and math. See Moio.]

    A second crop of grass, in the same season ; roweii. Holland.

    'AFTER-MOST, a. Superl. In marine lan- guage, nearest the stern, opposed to fore- most ; also hindmost.

    'AFTER-NOON', n. The part of the day which follows noon, between noon anil evening. Dryden.

    'AFTER-PAINS, n. The pains which suc- ceed child birth.

    AFTER-PART, n. The latter part. In marine language,xbe part of a ship towards the stern. Mar. Die.

    'AFTER-PIECE, n. A piece performed after a play ; a farce or other 'entertain- ment. Cumberland.

    'AFTER-PROOF, n. Subsequent proof or evidence ; quahties known by subsequent experience. ff'otton.

    AFTER-REPENTANCE, n. Subsequent repentance. South.

    'AFTER-REPORT, n. Subsequent report, or information. South.

    'AFTER-SAILS, n. The sails on the mizen- mast and stays, between the main and mizen-masts. Mar. Diet.

    'AFTER-STATE, n. The future state.


    AFTER-STING, n. Subsequent sting.


    AFTER-STORM, n. A succeeding or fu- ture storm. Dryden.

    AFTER-SUPPER, n. The time between supiicr ;ii]il fioiiiir to bed. Shak.

    AFTKK-SW AKAI, n. A swarm of bees whic h Iravcs tl)i' hive after the first.

    AFTER-TASTE, n. A taste which suc- ceeds eatuig and drinking.

    AFTER-THOUGHT, n. [See Thought.] Reflections after an act ; later thought, or e.\|i

    AFTl'.K-'l'lMi:.-;. (I, Succeeding times. It may In' iimiI in tiie singular. Dryden.

    'AFTF.K-'l'OSSIXG, n. The sweU or agita- tion of the sea after a storm.


    [See Hard.] In later or subsequent time.


    'AFTER- WISE, a. Wise afterwards or too late. Addison.

    'AFTER-WIT, n. Subsequent wit ; wisdom that comes too late. L Estrange.

    AFTER- WRATH, n. Later wrath ; anger after the provocation has ceased. Shak.

    AFTER-WRITER, n. A succeeding wri- ter. Shuckfttrd.

    AG A, n. [Per. o \ and IX I ak and aka, lord, dominus, herus ; also sir, a title of respect ; Tart. aha. Qu. the och in Beloch, and ak in Balak.]

    In the Turkish dominions, a commander or chief officer. The title is given to various chief oflicers, whether civil or military. It is also given to great land holders, and to the eunuchs of the Sultan's seragho.

    En eye.

    AGAIN, adv. agen'. [Sax. gean, agen, agean, ongean ; D. with a different prefix, tegen; G. dagegen,gegen; Sw. igen ; Dan. igien ; qu. L. con, whence contra ; It. coinne, opposite, a meetmg. Hence Sax. togeanes, togegnes, against ; but placed after its ob- ject; as, " hi comen heom togeanes," they come them against. D. tegens, against; jegens, towards; G. entgegen, dagegen, against ; begegnen, to meet or encoimter. The primary sense is to turn, or to meet in fi-ont ; or the name of the face, front or forepart. So in Dan. and Sw. mod, imod, emot, against, is our word meet.]

    1. A second time ; once more.

    I will not again curse the ground. Gen. viii.

    2. It notes sometlimg further, or additional to one or more particulars.

    For to which of the angels said he at any lime, thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee .' and again, I will be to him a father, and he sliall be to me a son .' and again, let all the angels of God worship him. Heb. i. All the uses of this word carry in them the ideas of return or repetition ; as in these phrases ; give it back again ; give huii as much again, that is, the same once more or repeated.

    There is not, in the world again, such a com- merce as in London.

    Who art thou that answerest again .'

    Brini; us word again. Again and again, often ; with frequent repe- tition.


    A G yV

    AGAINST, p-e/). agenst'. [Sax. logermes. See Jlgain.]

    1. In opposition ; noting enmity or ilisappro- bation.

    His hand will be against every man.

    Gen. xvi. I am against your pillows. Ez. xiii.

    2. In opposition, noting contrariety, contra- diction, or repugnance ; as, a decree against law, reason or public opinion.

    3. In opposition, noting competition, or dif- ferent sides or parties ; as, tliere twenty votes in the affirmative against ten in the negative.

    4. In an opposite direction; as, to ride against the wind.

    5. Opposite in place ; abreast; as, a ship against the mouth of a river. In th sense it is often preceded by over.

    Aaron lighted the lamps over against the candlesticks. Num. viii.

    6. In opposition, noting adversity, injury, or contrariety to wishes ; as, this change of measures is against us.

    7. Bearuig upon ; as, one leans against wall.

    8. In provision for ; in preparation for.

    Urijah made it against king Ahaz came from Damascus. 2 Kings, xvi.

    In this sense against is a preposition, with the following part of the sentence for an object. See 3/ier, prep. def. 2.

    In short, the .sense of this word is oppo- sition, variously modified according to its application to different objects.

    AG'ALLOCH, > r«/- • / 7 •■

    AGAL'LO€HUM, T" [Of oriental ongm

    Aloes-wood, the product of a tree growing in China, and some of the Indian isles There are three varieties, the calambac, the common hgnuni aloes, and the calam- bour. The first variety is light and porous, and so filled with a fragrant resin, that it may be molded by the fingers ; the sec- ond is denser and less resinous ; and the third is the aloes-wood used by cabinet makers and inlayers. Encyc.

    AGALMAT'OLITE, n. [Gr. oyaTi^a, im- age, and TLtBof, stone.]

    A name given by Klaproth to two varieties of the pierre de lard, lard stone, of China. It contams no magnesia, but otherwise has the characters of talck. It is called in Ger- man, bildstein, figure-stone, and by Brong- niart, steatite pagodite. Cyc. Ure.

    AG^APE, adv. or a. [a and gape. See Gape.]

    Gaping, as with wonder, expectation, or eager attention ; having the mouth wide open. Milton.

    ■\G'APE, n. ag'apy. [Gr. ayartt;, love.]

    Among the primitive christians, a love feast or feast of charity, held before or after the communion, when contributions were made for the poor. This feast was held at first without scandal, but afterwards being abused, it was condemned at the council of Carthage, A. D. 397. Encyc.

    AG'ARI€, n. [Gr. ayafiixov. Qu. from Aga- ria, in Sarniatia. Dioscorides.]

    h\ botany, mushroom, a gfinus of fiuiguses, containing numerous species. Mushrooms grow on trees, or spring from the earth ; of the latter species some are valued as

    A G A

    articles of food ; others are poisonous, The name was originally given to a fun- gus growing on the larch. This species ii now frequent in the shops, and distin guished by the name of female agaric. From this fungus is extracted a tui-pen- tine, of which three fourths of its weight is a resinous substance ; the rest, a sli- my, mucilaginous, earthy matter, tena- cious and almost insoluble in water. It is used in dyeing, but is little esteemed in medicine. Theoph. Macquer. Quincy. fie Agaric of the oak is called towh-wood, from its readiness to take fire. Boletus Igniarius, lAnne.

    Agaric mineral, a calcarious earth, or ( bonate of lime, resembling a fungus color and texture; found in fissures of rocks, and on the roofs of caverns. It sometimes used as an astringent in fluxes, and a styptic in hemorrhages. It occurs in a loose semi-indurated form, white or whitish red, or yellow, light and friable. Kinvan mentions three varieties.

    AG' AST or AGH AST, a. [Qu., a contrac- tion of agazed, or Goth, agis, Sax. egesa, horror. See Aghast and Gaze.]

    .Struck with terror, or astonislunent ; ama- zed ; struck silent with horror.

    With shuddering horror pale and eyes agasf. Milton.

    AGA'TE, adv. [a and gate.]

    On the way ; going. Obs. Gotver.

    AG' ATE, n. [Fr. agate ; L. achates, gagates ; Gr. ytvyatTjf ; so called, saj's Pliny, 37, 10, because found near a river of that name in Sicily. So also SoUnus and Isidore. But Bochart, with more probability, deduces it from the Pimic and Hebrew ipy, and with a different prefix npj, spotted. The word is used. Gen. xsx. and xxxi., to describe the speckled and spotted cattle of Laban and Jacob.]

    A class of siliceous, semi-pellucid gems of many varieties, consisting of quartz-crjs- tal, flint, horn-stone, chalcedony, amethyst,, jasper, comehan, heUotrope, and jade, in various combinations, variegated witl dots, zones, filaments, ramifications, ar- borizations, and various figures. Agates seem to have been formed by successive lay- ers of siliceous earth, on the sides of cavi- ties which they now fill entirely or in part They are esteemed the least valuable of the precious stones. Even in Phny'stime, they were in Uttle estimation. They are found in rocks, in the form of fragments, in nod ules, in small rounded lumps, rarely in stalactites. Their colors are various. They are used for rings, seals, cups, beads, boxes and handles of small uten- sils. Kinmn. Encyc. Cleaveland.

    AG'ATE, n. An instrument used by gold wire drawers, so called from the agate ii the middle of it.

    AG'ATINE, a. Pertaining to agate.

    AG'ATINE, 71. A genus of shells, oval or oblong.

    AG'ATIZED, a. Having the colored lines and figures of agate. Fourcroy.

    Agatized wood, a substance apparently pro- duced by the petrifiiction of wood ; a spe- cies of hornstone. U'erner.


    AG'ATY, a. Of the nature of agate.

    4 r' A i\TV rfi ^Voodward.

    AtiA VJ;,, n. [Gr. ayauo?, admirable.]

    1. The American aloe. The great aloe rises twenty feet, and its branches form a sort of pyramid at the top. Encyc.

    2. A genus of univalvular shells. AGA'ZE, V. t. [from gaze.] To strike with , a"iazeniient. Obs. Spenser. AGA'ZED, pp. Struck with amazement.

    [JVot m use.] shak.

    AGE, n. [Fr. age; Arm. oage ; deduced by Lunier from Lat. alas, or a;vum. But these are undoubtedly contracted words, Goth. aim ; D. eemv ; Gr. aiur ; from the Celtic, W. haug, fullness, completeness, an age, a space of time ; plu. hogix)n ; the g being sunk in the Latin words ; in the Sanscrit, yuga.]

    The whole duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other kind ; as, the usual age of man is seventy years ; the age of a horse may be twenty or tliirty years ; the age of a tree may be four hun- dred years.

    3. That part of the duration of a being, which is between its beginning and any given time ; as, what is the present age of a man, or of the earth ?

    . The latter part of life, or long continued duration ; oldness.

    TTie eyes of Israel were dim for age. Gen.

    4. A certain period of human life, marked by a difference of state ; as, life is divided into four stages or ages, infancy, youth, manhood, and old age ; the age of youth ; the age of manhood.

    5. The period when a person is enabled by law to do certain acts for himself, or when he ceases to be controlled by parents or guardians ; as, in our country, both males and females are of ag-e at twenty-one years old.

    6. Mature years ; ripeness of strength or discretion.

    He is of age, ask him. John ix.

    7. The time of hfe for conceiving children, or perhaps the usual time of such an event.

    Sarah was delivered of a son when she was past age. Heb. xi.

    8. A particular period of time, as distin- guished from others ; as, the golden age, the age of iron, the age of heroes or of chivalry.

    The people who live at a particular peri- od ; hence, a generation and a succession of generations ; as, ages yet unborn. The mysteiy hid from ages. Col. i.

    10. A century ; the period of one hundred years.

    A'GED, a. Old ; having lived long ; having lived almost the usual time allotted to that species of being ; applied to animals or plants ; as, an aged man, or an aged oak.

    2. Having a certain age ; having lived ; as, a man aged forty years.

    A'GED, n. Old persons.

    And the aged arose and stood up. Job xxix.

    AGEN', for again. Obs.

    A'GENCY, «. [h.agens. See Act]

    1. The quality of moving or of exerting power ; tlic state of being in action ; ac-

    A G G

    A G G

    A G G

    ijon ; operation ; instrumentality ; as, the agency ot'provitlence in thf; natural world.

    U. The office of an agent, or factor ; busi- ness of an agent entrusted witli the con- cerns of another ; as, the principal pays the charges of agency.

    A6END'A, re. [L. things to be done.]

    A nieraoranduiii-book ; the service or office of a church ; a ritual or liturgy. Encyc.

    A'6ENT, a. Acting ; opposed to patient, sustainuig action ; as, the body agent. ilAltle used.] Bacon.

    A'GENT, >i. An actor; one that e.xerts pow- er, or has the power to act ; as, a moral agent.

    2. An active power or cause; tliat which has the power to produce an effect ; as, heat is a powerful ag'cn^.

    3. A substitute, deputy, or factor ; one en- trusted with the business of another ; an attorney ; a minister.

    A'GENTSHIP, «. The office of an agent [JVot used.] We now use agency.

    AGGELA'TION, Ji. [L. gelu!] Concretion of a fluid. Uyht used.] Brmon

    AGgENERA'TION, n. [L. ad and genera- tio.] The state of growing to another Wot used.] Broum

    AG'GER, 71. [L.] A fortress, or inoundt [JVot used.] Heame

    AG'6ERATE, v. t. [L. aggero.] To heap [jVbt iwcrf.]

    AGGERA'TION, n. A heaping ; accumula- tion ; as, " aggerations of sand." Ray.

    AGGLOM'ERATE, v. t. [L. agglomero, ad and glomero, to wind into a ball, from glomus, a ball of yarn ; from the Hob. d'7J;

    to involve; Qu. Ar. J to go round m a

    circle, to be round, to collect, or con dense.]

    To wind, or collect mto a ball ; to gather into a mass. Young.

    AGGLOM'ERATE, v. i. To gather, giow or collect into a baU or mass. Thomson.

    AGGLOM'ERATED, pp. Wound or col- lected into a ball.

    AGGLOM'ERATING, pp: Winding into a ball ; gathering uito a lump.

    AGGLOMERA'TION, n. Tlie act of wind ing into a ball ; the state of being gathered into a ball or mass.

    AGGLU'TINANT, n. Any viscous sub- stance which unites other substances, by causing an adhesion ; any application which tends to unite parts which have too little adhesion. Coxe

    AGGLU'TINANT, a. Uniting as glue ; tend- ing to cause adhesion.

    AGGLU'TINATE, v. t. [Lat. agglutino, ad and glutino, from gluten ; Eng. glue ; Fr. glu ; Arm. glud ; W. gbjd. See Glue.]

    To unite, or cause to adhere, as with glue or other viscous substance; to unite by causing an adhesion of substances.

    AGGLUTINATED, pp. Glued together; united bv a viscous substance.

    AGGLU'T INATING,;3pr. Gluing together ; uniting bv causing adhesion.

    AGGLUTI'NA'TION, n. The actofimiting by glue or other tenacious substance ; the state of being thus united.

    AGGLU'TINATIVE, a. That tends to unite, or has power to cause adhesion.

    AGGRA'CE, V. t. To favor. [Mt used.] Spenser. H"

    AGGRA'CE, n. Kindness ; favor. [Xol iised.] Spenser.

    AGGRANDIZA'TION, n. The act of ag- grandizing. IJVot used.] fVaterhouse.

    AG'GRANDIZE, v. t. [Fr. agrandir, oi L. ad and grandis. See Grand.]

    1. To make great or greater in power, rank or honor ; to exalt ; as, to aggrandize a family.

    2. To enlarge, applied to things ; as, to ag- grandize our conceptions. It seems to be never appUed to the bulk or dimensions of material bodies.

    AG'GRANDIZED,/p;>. Made great or great

    er ; exalted ; enlarged. AGGRAND'IZEMENT, n. The act of aggrandizing ; the state of being exalted in power, rank or honor ; exaltation enlargement.

    The Emperor seeks only the aggrandizement of his own family.

    AG'GRANDIZER, n. One that aggrandizes

    or exalts in power, rank or honor. AG'GRANDIZING, ppr. Makhig great :

    exalting ; enlarging. AGGRA'TE, v. t. [It.] To please. [JVot

    used.] Spenser.

    AG'GRAVATE, v. t. [L. aggrajvo,oi' ad and

    gravis, heavy. See Grave, Gravity.]

    1. To make heavy, but not used in this literal sense. Figuratively, to make worse, more severe, or less tolerable ; as, to aggravate the evils of Ufe ; to aggravate pain or pun ishment.

    2. To make more enoi-mous, or less excusa- ble ; as, to aggravate a crime.

    3. To exaggerate.

    4. To give coloring in description ; to giv( an exaggerated representation ; as, to ag- gravate a charge against an offender ; to aggravate circumstances.

    Guthrie, Quint. Paley.

    .Vctions and motives maliciously aggravated.

    Washington's Life.

    The propriety of the word in the latter passage is questionable. Aggravate is gen- erally used In reference to evils, or some- thing improper or unnatui-al.

    AGGRAVATED, pp. Increased in severity or enormity ; made worse ; exaggerated.

    AGGRAVATING, ppr. Increasmg m se- verity, enormity, or degree, as evils, mis- fortunes, pam, punishment, crimes, guilt, &c. ; exaggerating.

    AGGRAVATION, n. The act of making worse, used of evils, -natural or moral ; the act of increasing severity or ness ; addition to that which is evil or improper ; as, an aggravation of pain or grief

    2. Exaggerated representation, or height- ened description of any thing wrong, improper, or unnatural; as, an aggrava- tion of features in a caricature.

    Paley. Addison.

    AG'GREGATE, v. t. [L. aggrego, to collect in troops ; of ad and grex, a herd or band. See Gregarious.]

    To bring together ; to collect particulars into a sum, mass or body.

    AGGREGATE, a. Formed by a collection of particulars into a \\ hole mass or sum ; as, the aggregate amount of charges.

    Aggregate Jlowers, in botany, are such as are composed of florets united by means of the receptacle or calyx. Milne.

    f Aggregate corporation, in laiv, is one which consists of two or more persons united, whose existence is preserved by a suc- cession of new member*. Blackstone.

    AG'GREGATE, n. A sum, tnass or assem- blage of particidars ; as, a house is an aggregate of stones, bricks, timber, &c. It chffers from a compound in this, that the particulars of an aggregate are less intimately mixed than in a compound.

    AGGREGATED,;)/). Collected mto a sum, mass or system.

    AGGREGATELY, adv. Collectively ; taken in a sum or mass.

    AGGREGATING, ppr. Collecting into a

    AGGREGATION, n. The act of aggre- gating ; the state of being collected into a sum or mass ; a collection of particulars ; an aggregate.

    2. In chimistry, the affinity of aggregation, is the power which causes homogeneous bodies to tend towards each other, and to cohere, when united. The aggregate, in this case, differs from a heap, w'hose parts do not cohere ; and from a mixture, which consists of pans dissimilar in their nature. The word is used of soUd, fluid, or aeri- form bodies.

    3. The imion and coherence of bodies of the same nature.

    AG'GREGATIVE, a. Taken together ; col- lective.

    .AGGREGATOR, n. He that collects mto a whole or mass. Burton.

    AGGRESS', V. {. [L. aggredior, aggressus, of ad and gradior, to go. See Grade.]

    To make a first attack ; to commit the first act of hostihty or offense ; to begin a (juanel or controversy ; to assault first or invade. Prior.

    AGGllESSlJiG, ppr. Commencing hostility first ; making the first attack.

    AGGRESSION, n. The first attack, or act of hostility; the first act of injury, or first act leading to war or controversy.


    AGGRESS'IVE, a. Tending to aggress ; making the first attack. Ctarkson.

    AGGRESS'OR, ^^. The person who fii-st attacks ; he who first commences hostihty or a quarrel ; an assaulter ; an invader.

    Dn/den. The insolence of the aggressor is usually proportioned to the tameness of the sufferer.


    AGGRIE'VANCE, n. [See Aggrieve.]

    Oppression ; hardship ; injury. But griev- ance is more generally used.

    AGGRIE'VE, V. t. [of ad and grieve, from grief. Perhaps tlie word is borrowed directly from the Sp. agraviar, to injure ; Fr. grever. See Grief and Grave.]

    To give pain or son-ow ; to afflict. In this sejtse, it is nearly superseded by grieve.

    2. To bear hard upon ; to oppress or injure, in one's rights ; to vex or harass by civil or political injustice.

    AGGRIE VE, V. i. To mourn ; to lament. [JVot used. See Grieve.]

    A G

    A G N


    AGGRIEVED, pp. Pained ; afflicted ; civ illy or politically oppressed.

    AGGRIE'VING,;);jr. Afflicting; imposing hardships on ; oppressing.

    AGGRoUP', > V. t. [Sp. agrvpar ; It. ag

    AGGROOP', I gruppare, aggroppare, u knot or bring together. See Group.']

    To bring together ; to group ; to collect many persons in a crowd, or many figures into a whole, either in statuary, painting or description. Encyc.

    AGGROUP'ED, I pp. Collected into a group

    AGGROOP'ED, $ or assemblage.

    AGH'AST, or more correctly agast, a or adv. [Perhaps the participle of agaze ; oth- erwise from the root of ghastly and ghost.]

    Struck with amazement ; stupified with siid den fright or horror.

    AGILE, a. [Fr. agile; L. agilis, from ae-o. See Act.]

    Nimble ; having the faculty of quick motion in the limbs ; apt or ready to move ; brisk ; active.

    Ati'ILENESS, 91. Nimbleness ; activity ; the faculty of moving the limbs quickly ; agility.

    AGlL'lTY, n. [L. agilitns.]

    The power of moving the limbs quickly ; nimbleness ; briskness ; activity ; quick- ness of motion. Watts.

    A'GIO, n. [Ital. aggio, surplus, difference.]

    1. In commerce, the difference between bank notes and current coin. In Holland, the agio is three or fovn- per cent. ; in Rome, from fifteen to twenty-five per cent. ; in Venice, twenty ))er cent. : but the agio is subject to variation. Encyc.

    2. Premium ; sum given above the nominal value. Lunier.

    AGIST', V. t. [If the primary sense is to lie, or to rest, this is from Fr. gesir ; Norm. agiser, to be levant and couchant, from giser, to lay or throw down ; whence gist, cast ; gistance, a casting. Class Gs. No. 18. If the primary signification is to feed, see Nos. 5, 6, 10, 12, and 5G. Ch. Class Gs.]

    In law, to take the cattle of others to graze, at a certain simi ; to feed or pasture the cattle of others ; used originally for the feeding of cattle in the king's forest.

    Coivel. Blackstone.

    AGISTMENT, n. The taking and feeding other men's cattle in the king's forest, or on one's own land ; also, the price paid for such feeding. It denotes also a bur- den, charge or tax. [In canon lam, a modus, orcomposition. Johnson, Qu.]

    Cotvel. Blackstone. Encyc.

    AGISTOR, or AGIST A'TOR, n. An officer of the king's forest, who has the car cattle agisted, and collects the money for the same ; hence called gist-taker, which ill England is cori-upted into guest-taker. Encyc.

    AG'ITABLE, a. [See Agitate.] That may be agitated, shaken or discussed.

    AG'ITATE, v. t. [L. agito, from ago. See Act.]

    I. To stir violently ; to move back and forth with a quick motion ; to shake or mc briskly ; as, to agitate water in a vessel

    a. To move or force into violent irregular action : as, the wind agitates the sea.

    3. To disturb, or excite into tumult ; as, to agitate the mind or passions.

    4. To fliscuss ; to debate ; to controvert ; to agitate a question.

    5. To consider on all sides ; to revolve the mind, or view in all its aspects ; to contrive by mental deliberation ; as, poli- ticians agitate desperate designs.

    King Charles

    G. To move or actuate. [jVb< used.]


    Agitated, pp. Tossed from side to side ; shaken ; moved violently and irregularly disturbed; discussed; considered.

    AGlTATING,;>pr. Shaldng ; moving with violence ; disturbing ; disputing ; ( tiiving.

    AGITATION, n. The act of shaking ; the state of being moved with violence, or with irregular action ; commotion ; as, the sea after a storm is in agitation. Bacon

    2. Disturbance of tranquility in the mind

    perturbation ; excitement of passion. '. Discussion ; examination of a subject in controversy. L'Estrange.

    4. A state of being deliberated upon, with a view to contrivance, or plan to be adopted ; as, a scheme is in agitation.

    AGITA'TO, in music, denotes a broken style of performance, adapted to awaken sur- prise or perturbation. Diet, of Music,

    AG'ITATOR, n. One who agitates ; also, an insurgent ; one who excites sedition or re- volt. In antiquity, a chariotteer, that is, a driver. In Cromwell's time, certain offi- cers appointed by the army to manage their concerns, were called agitators.


    AG'LET, > n. [Fr. aiguillette, a point, from

    ATGLET, \ aiguille, a needle, from aigu sharp. See Acid.]

    A tag of a point curved into the represen- tation of an animal, generally of a man ; a small plate of metal.

    2. In botany, a pendant at the ends of the chives of flowers, as in the rose and tuUp.

    AG'LET-BABY, n. A small image on the top of a lace. Shak.

    AG'MINAL, a. [L. agmen, a troop or body of men arrayed, fiom ago.]

    Pertaining to an army or troop. [Little used.]

    AG'NAIL, n. {ad and nail, or Sax. ange, pain, and nail. See J^ail.]

    A disease of the nail ; a whitlow ; an inflani mation round the nail. Bailey.

    AG'NATE, a. [L. agnatus.] Related or akin by the father's side.

    \G"'NATE, n. [L. agnatus, adnascor, of ad and nascor, to be born. See JSTature.]

    Any male relation by the father's side.


    AGNAT'Ie, a. Pertaining to descent by the male line of ancestors. Blackstone

    AGNA'TION, n. Relation by the fatlier's side only, or descent in the male hue, dis tinet from cognation, which includes des- cent in the male and female lines.

    AG'NEL, n. [From agnus, a lamb, the figure struck on the coin.]

    An ancient French coin, value twelve sols, six deniers. It was called also mouton d'or and agnel rf' or. Encyc.

    AGNI"TION, n. [L. agnitio, agnosco.]

    Acknowledgment. [Little used.] Pearson.

    AGNI'ZE, V. t. To acknowledge. [Wo/ /„ ««f-] Shak.

    AGNOMINATE, v. t. [L. agnomina ; ad and nomino, nomen, namc.J

    To name. [Little used.]

    AGNOMINA'TION, n. [L. agnomen, a sur- name, of ad and nomen. See JVame.]

    1. An additional name, or title; a name ad- ded to another, as expressive of some act, achievement, &c. ; a surname.

    Camden. Encyc.

    2. Allusion of one word to another by sound.

    AGNUS CASTUS. A species of vitex, so called from the Gr. o^toj, chaste, or from a negative, and ymos, seed, from its imagined virtue of preserving chastity. The Athenian ladies reposed on the leaves of this plant at the feast of Ceres. The Latin Castus, chaste, now added to the name, forms a dupUcation of the sense. Encyc.

    AGNUS DEI. [Lamb of God.]

    In the Romish Church, a cake of wax stamp- ed with the figure of a lamb, supporting the banner of the cross. It is supposed to possess great virtues in preserving those who carry it, in faith and from accidents,

    • &c. Also a part of the mass in which these words are repeated by the priest. Encyc.

    AGNUS SCYTHICUS. [Scythian Lamb.]

    A name appUed to the roots of a species of fern, Aspidium Baromez, covered with brown wooly scales, and, in shape, resem- bling a lamb ; found in Russia and Tartaiy.

    AGO', adv. or a. [Sax. agan, or geond, the participle of gan, to go ; contracted from agone. See Go.]

    Past ; gone ; as, a year ago.

    AGOG' adv. [Fr.' agogo ; vivre it gogo, to live in clover.]

    In a state of desire ; highly excited by eager- ness after an object.

    The gaudy gossip when she's set agog.


    AGO'ING. [The participle of go, with the prefix a.]

    In motion, as to set a mill agoing ; or about to go ; ready to go ; as, he is agoing immediately. The latter use is vulgar.

    A'GON, n. [Gr.]

    The contest for the prize. [JVot used.]


    AGONE, pp. agaivn', [See Ago and Gone.]

    Ago ; past ; since. [JVearly Obs.]

    AGONISM, n. [Gr. ayund^oj,]

    Contention for a prize. Diet.

    AGONIST, n. One who contends for the prize in public games. Milton has used Agonistes in this sense, and so called his tragedy, from the similitude of Sampson's exertions, in slaying the Philistines, to prize fighting. In church history, the dis- ciples of Donatus are called agonistics.

    AGONIST'I€, \ Pertaining to prize-

    AGONIST'l€AL, \ "' fighting, contests of strength, or athletic cpmbats. Enfield.

    AGONIST'I€ALLY, adv. In manner ; like prize-fighting.

    AG'ONIZE, v.t. [Gr. ayu«fio,t Agony.]

    To writhe with extreme pain ; lent anguish. To Finart ami agonize at every pore. Pnpe

    n agomstic strive. See 3 suffer vio-

    A G R

    A G R

    A G R

    AG'ONIZE, V. t. To distress with extreme pain ; to torture. Pope.

    AG'ONIZING, ppr. Suffering severe pain writhing witli torture.

    AG'ONIZINGLY, adv. With extreme an guish.

    AG'ONY, n. [Gr. a^uv, a contest with bod ily exertion ; a word used to denote the atliletic games, in Greece ; whence (vyuvia, angiiisi), solicitude ; from (vyw, L. ago. In Ir. ag-A, is a battle, conflict; Gr.ayunfw, to strive. See Act."]

    1. In strictness, pain so extreme as to cause writhing or contortions of the body, sim lar to those made in the athletic contests in Greece. Hence,

    '3. Extreme pain of body or mind ; anguish ; appropriately, the pangs of death, and the sufferings of our Savior in the garden of Gethsemane. Luke xxii.

    3. Violent contest or striving. More.

    AGQQD', adv. In earnest. [JVo< used.] Slutk.

    AGoUTY, n. [Qu. Sp. agudo, sliarp ; L. acu- tus.]

    A quadruped of the order Rodcntia ; arran- ged by naturalists in the genus Cama. It is of the size of a rabbit. The upper part of the body is brownish, with a mixture oi"| red and black ; the belly yellowish. Three varieties are mentioned, all peculiar to South America and the West Indies. It burrows in the ground, or in hollow trees lives on vegetables ; is voracious like a pig, and makes a similar grunting noise. It holds its meat in its fore paws, like a squir- rel. When scared or angry, its hair is erect, and it strikes the ground with it« hind feet. Its flesh is white and well tast- ed. Emyc.

    AGRA'RIAN, a. [L. agrarius, from ager, a field.]

    Relating to lands. Appropriately, denoting or pertaining to an equal division of lands ; as, the agrarian laws of Rome, which dis- tributed the conquered and other public lands equally among all the citizens, limit- ing the quantity which each might enjoy. Authors sometimes use the word i noun ; an agranan, {or agrarian laic.


    An agrarian distribution of land or property

    would make the rich, poor, but would not make

    the poor, rich.

    AGREE', V. i. [Fr. agrhr, from gre', will, accord. This is contracted from Sp. agra- dar, Port, id, to please, to gratify, whence agradable, agreeable ; from the root of L gratia, W. rhad, grace, favor, that comes treely. The primary sense is advancing, from the same root as L. gradior ; W. rkaz. [rliath]; Syr. j ,; radah, to go.]

    1. To be of one mind ; to harmonize in opin-

    In the expediency of the law, all the partiei agree.

    2. To hve in concord, or without contention as, parents and children agree well to- gether.

    3. To yield assent; to approve or admit followed by to ; as, to agi-ee to an offer, or to an opinion.

    4. To settle by stipulation, the minds of par- ties being agreed, as to the terms ; as.

    Didst thou not agree with me for a penny a day ? Mat. xx. To agree on articles of partnership.

    Vol. I.

    5. To come to a compromise of differences ; to be reconciled.

    Jlgree with thy adversaiy quickly. Mat. v. G. To come to one opinion or muid ; to con- cur ; as, to agree on a place of meeting. This sense differs not essentially from the fourth, and it often unplies a resolving to do an act. John ix.

    7. To be consistent ; to harmonize ; not to contradict, or be repugnant.

    Their wiuiess agreed not together. Mark xiv.

    This story agrees with what has been related by others.

    8. To resemble ; to be similar ; as, the pic- ture does not agree with the original.

    9. To suit ; to be acconunodated or adapted to ; as, the same food does not agree with every constitution.

    AGREE', V. t. To admit, or come to one mind concerning ; as, to agree tlie fact. Also, to reconcile or malte friends ; to i>ut an end to variance; but these senses are unusual and hardly legitimate. Let the parties agree the fact, is really eUiptical ; let them agree on the fact.

    AGREEABIL'ITY, n. Easiness of disposi- tion. [JVot used.] Chaucer

    AGREE' ABLE, a. Suitable ; conformable ; correspondent ; consistent with ; a.s, the practice of virtue is agreeable to the law of God and our own nature.

    2. In pursuance of; in conformity with ; as, agreeable to the order of the day, the house took up the report of the committee. It is not correctly followed By with. In this sense, some writers use agreeably, for agree- able, but in violation of the true principles of construction ; for the word is an adjec- tive or attribute, in agreement with the last clause of the sentence. The house took up the report of a committee, (which taking up was) agreeable to the order of the day. The use of agreeably in this sen- tence would pervert the sense.

    •3. Pleasing, either to the mind or senses ; as, agreeable manners ; fruit agreeable to the taste.

    AGREE'ABLENESS, n. Suitableness ; con- formity ; consistency ; as, the agreeable- ness of virtue to the laws of God.

    2. The quality of pleasing ; that quality which gives satisfaction or moderate pleasure to the mind or senses ; as, an agreeableness of manners ; there is an agreeableness in the taste of certain fruits. This is the usual sense of the word.

    .3. Resemblance ; Ukeness ; with to or be- tween ; as.

    The agreeableness between man and' other parts of creation. Obs. Grew.

    AGREE'ABLY, adv. Pleasingly ; in an agreeable manner; in' a maimer to give pleasure ; as, to be agreeably entertained with a discourse.

    2. Suitably ; consistently ; conformably ;

    The eifect of wliich is, that marriages grow less frequent, agreeably to the maxim above laid down. Paley.

    This is a gross error, proceeding from mistake. Agreeably signifies, in an agree- able manner ; but tliis is not the sense, nor does the word modify the verb grow. The sense is, marriages grow less frequent, which [fact, or whole member of the sen- tence, or proposition] is agreeable to the


    maxim above laid down. This use ol' agreeably is common, but grossly erro-

    .3. Alike ; in the same manner.

    Both armed agreeably. Obs. Spenser.

    AGREE'D, pp. Being in concord or har- mony of opinion ; of one mind.

    Can two walk together except they be agreed ■ .■Vmos. iil.

    2. .'Assented to ; admitted ; as, a proposition is agreed to.

    3. Settled by consent ; implying bargain or contract ; as, the terms were agreed to, or agreed upon.

    AGREE'ING, ppr. Living in concord ; con- curring ; assenting ; settling by consent.

    AGREE'INGLY, adv. In conformity to. [Little used.]

    AGREE'Mfc^NT, n. Concord ; harmony : conformity.

    What agreement hath the temple of God with idols. ? 2 Cor. vi.

    2. Union of opinions or sentiments ; as, a good agreement subsists among the mem- bers of the council.

    3. Resemblance ; conformity ; similitude.

    Ex|iansion and duration have this farther agreement. Locke.

    4. Union of minds in regard to a transfer of interest ; bargain ; compact ; contract ; stipulation.

    Make an agreement with me by a present. 2 Kings xviii.

    He made an agreement for the purchase of a house.

    AGRES'TIe, I [L. agrestis; Fr. a-

    AGRES'TI€AL, J "' greste ; from L. ager, a field, or the same root.]

    Rural ; rustic ; pertainmg to fields or the coimtry, in opposition to the city ; unpol- ished. Gregory.

    AG'RIeULTOR, n. [L. ager, afield, and cultor, a cultivator.]

    One whose occupation is to till the ground ; B farmer ; a husbandman ; one skilled in husbandrv.

    AGRIeUL'TURAL, a. Pertaining to hus- bandry, tillage, or the cidture of the earth.

    AGRICULTURE, n. [L. ager, a field, and cultura, cultivation. See Acre and Culture.]

    In o general sense, the cultivation of the ground, for the purpose of producing veg- etables, and fruits, for the use of man and beast ; or the art of preparing the soil, sowing and planting seeds, dressing the plants, and removing the crops. In this sense, the word includes gardening, or horticulture, and also the raising and feed- ing of cattle, or stock. But in a more common and appropriate sense, it is used to signify that species of cultivation which is intended to raise grain and other crops for man and beast. It is equivalent to husbandry. Agriculture is the most general occupation

    AGRICUL'TURISM, n. The art or science of agriculture. [Little used.]

    AGRICULTURIST, n. One skilled in the art of cultivating the ground ; a skUful husbandman.

    AG'RIJIONY, n. [L. argemonia, from the Gr. Thus it is written by Pliny. But in lower Latin it is written agrinionia. Said to be from Gr. apyt^a, the web or pearl of the eye, from opyof, white, which this plant was supposed to cure. See Theojih. 887.]

    .\ genus of pkints, of several specie?. Of

    A G U

    A I A

    A I H

    these, the eupatoria or common agrimony, and the odorata or sweet scented, are tlie most useful. Encyc.

    AGRIPPJX 1 WS. ». In Church history, the follower-- (if \i;ii|.|MnMs, bishop of Car- thage, in tilt- iliuil ri-iitury, who first taught and defended 1 he doctrine of rebaptization. Encyc.

    AGRiSE, V. i. [Sax. agnsan.]

    To shiver. [J^Tot in use.] Chaucer.

    AGRiSE, V. t. To terrify ; also, to make frightful. [.Voi in use.'] Spenser.

    A'GROM, n. A disease frequent in Bengal, and other parts of the E. Indies, in which the tongue chaps and cleaves, becomes rough and sometimes covered with white spots. The remedy is some chalybeate liquor, or the juice of mint. 'Encyc.

    AGROSTEM'MA, n. A genus of plants of several species, containing the common corn cockle, wild lychnis or cantijion, &c.

    AGROS'TIS, n. [Gr. aypuf^.]

    Bent grass; a genus of many species.

    AGROUND', adv. [Of a, at or on, and ground.]

    J. On the ground ; a marine terra, signifying that the bottom of a ship rests on the ground, for want of sufficient depth of water. When the groimd is near the shore, the ship is said to be ashore or stranded.

    Q. Figuratively, stopped; impeded by insu- perable obstacles.

    AGUAPE€A'€A, n. The Jacana, a Brazil- ian bird, about the size of a pigeon. In the extremity of each whig, it has a sharp prickle which is used for defense.

    Did. ofJVat. Hist.

    A'GUE, n. a'gti, [Sax. a:ge, oga, or hoga, fear, horror ; Arm. hegea, to shake ; Goth. agis, fear, agyan or ogan, to fear ; Ir. agh, fear, ag}ia or aghaim, to fear. The radical idea is a shaking or shivering similar to that occasioned by terror.]

    1. The cold fit which precedes a fever, or a paroxysm of fever in intermittents. It is acconqianied with shivering.

    2. Chilliness ; a chill, or state of shaking with cold, though in heahh.

    3. It is used tor a periodical fever, an inter- mittent, whether quotidian, tertian, or quartan. In this case, the word, which signifies the preceding cold fit, is used for the disease.

    A'GUE, 17. t. To cause a shivering in; to strike with a cold fit. Haywood.

    A'GUE-CAKE, n. A hard tumor on the left side of the belly, lower than the false ribs ; supposed to be the efiect of inter- mitting fevers. Encyc.

    A'GUED, a. Chilly ; having a fit of ague ; .shivering with cold or fi;ar. Shak.

    A'GUE-FIT, n. A paroxysm of cold, or shivering ; chilliness.

    A'GUE-PROOF, n. Able to resist agues; proof against agues.

    AGUER'RY, i)./.''[Fr. aguerrir; from gtierre,

    war.] To inure to the hardships of war ; to in- struct in the art of war. [Not in use.]


    A'GUE-SPELL, n. A charm or spell to ciu-e or prevent ague. Gay

    A'GUE-STRUCK, a. Struck with ague.


    A'GUE-TRKK, n. A name sometimes ap-

    plied to sassafras, on account of its febri fuge quaUties. Encyc

    AGUI'SE, V. t. [See Guise.] to dress ; to adorn. [JVbt in use.] Spenser.

    AGUI'SE, n. Dress. [JVot in use.] More.

    A'GUISII, a. Chilly ; somewhat cold or shivering; also, having the quaUties of an ague.

    Her aguish love now glows and bums.


    A'GUISHNESS, n. Cliilliness ; the quahty of being aguish.

    AGUILLANEUF', n. [From a, to, gui, mis- leto, and Van neuf, the new year.]

    A form of rejoicing among the ancient Franks, on the first day of the year ; de- rived from the drnidical custom of cutting misleto, which was held sacred by the druids, and on the first day of the year, consecrating it by cryuig, aguillaneuf, the year to the misleto. This cry is said to be still observed in some parts of France; and the term came to signify also a beg- ging of New Year's gifts. Encyc.

    A'GUL, n. A species of the hedysarum.

    AH, An exclamation, expressive of surprise, pity, complaint, contempt, disUke, joy, ex- ultation, &c., according to the manner of iitterance.

    ^\irA. An exclamation expressing triumph, contempt, or simple surprise ; but the senses are distinguished by very differ- ent modes of utterance, and different mod- ifications of features.

    2. A sunk fence, not visible, without near approach. Mason.

    AHAN'IGER, n. A name of the gar-fish.

    AHEAD, adv. Med', [a and head, or at head.] Further forward than another thing ; in fi-ont ; originally a sea term, denoting fur- ther forward than another ship, or on the point to which the stem is directed, in op- jiosition to astern. Mar. Diet.

    2. Onward ; forward ; towards the point be- fore the stem or head ; as, move ahead.

    3. Headlong ; without restrauit ; precipitant- ly ; as, children suffered to run ahead. [.Yot used.] L'Estrangc.

    \1IEI'GHT, adv. [a and height.]

    Aloft ; on high. [J\'ot used.] Shak.

    AHI€CYAT'LI, n. A poisonous serpent of Mexico, somewhat resembling the rattle- snake, but destitute of rattles. Its poison is as fatal as that of any known species of] serpent. Encyc.

    AHI'GH, arfv. On high. [JVofused.]

    AIIO'LD, adv. Near the wind; as, to lay a ship ahold. [jYot in use.] Shak.

    AHOVAI, n. A trivial name synonymous with Cerhera, a very poisonous species of plum.

    AHOY', Exclam. A sea term used in hail ing.

    AHRIMAN. [See ^riman.]

    AHUIT'LA, n. A worm found in the lake of Mexico, four inches in lengtli, as thick as a goose-quill ; the tail, which is hard and poisonous, contains a sting. Clavigero.

    AHUIT'ZOTE, n. An amphibious quadru- ped of the tropical climate of America, whose body is a foot long, its snout long and sharp, its skin of a mixed black and brown color. Clavigero

    A'lA, n. A Brazilian fowl of the spoon-bill kind, and resendiling that bird in form and size. Diet. ofJVat. Hist

    AICU'RUS, n. A large and beautiful species' of parrot, foundm Brazil ; its head beauti- fully variegated with yellow, red and vio- let colors ; its body green ; the tips of its wings red, and its tail long and yellow.

    Diet, of Nat. Hist.

    AID, v.t.. [Fr. aider, to help ; It. aiutare, which seems to be contracted from L. ad-

    juto. In Ar. ^ U or ^j\ signifies to assist

    or strengthen, and | ^ \ and j i 1 to help. In Welsh, ced is a benefit, and the word was used to denote the aids of feudal ten- ants.]

    To help ; to assist ; to support, either by furnishing strength or means to effect a jjurpose, or to prevent or remove evil.

    AID, n. Help ; succor ; support ; assistance. ff'atts.

    2. The person who aids or yields support ; a helper ; an auxihary ; also the thing that aids or yields succor.

    3. In English law, a subsidy or tax granted by parliament, and making a part of the king's revenue.

    In France, aids are equivalent to customs, or duties on imj)orts and exports. Encyc.

    4. In England, a tax paid by a tenant to his lord ; originally a mere gift, which afVer- wards became a right deniandable by the lord. The aids of this kind were chiefly three. 1. To ransom the lord when a prisoner. 2. To make the lord's eldest son a knight. 3. To marry the lord's eld- est daughter. Bladcslonc.

    5. An aiddecamp, so called by alilin-Matiou. (i. To pray in aid, in law, is to call in a ])er-

    son interested in a title, to assist in defend- ing it. Thus a tenant for life may pray in the aid of him in remauider or rever- sion ; that is, he may pray or petition that he may be joined in the suit to aid or help maintain the title. This act or petition is called aid-prayer. Cowel. Blackstone.

    Court of aids, in France, is a court which has cognizance of causes respecting duties or customs. Encyc.

    A'IDANCE, n. Aid ; help ; assistance. [Lit- tle used.] Shak.

    A'IDANT, a. Helping ; helpfid ; supplying aid. [Not used.]

    A'IDDE€AMP, n. plur. Aiddecamps. [Fr., but naturalized, and here angUcized.]

    In military affairs, an officer whose duty is to receive and communicate the orders of a general officer. [The pronunciation should be English, according to the orthography, not aid de cong.]

    A'IDED, pp. Assisted; supported; furnish- ed with succor.

    A'IDER, n. One who helps ; an assistant, or auxiliary.

    A'IDING, iqir. Helping; assisting.

    A'lDM'.SS, (/. Helpless; without aid; un- siippoited ; undefended. Shak.

    A'I(ii;i:T, AIGRETTE, n. In zoologxj, a name of the small white heron.

    Diet, of Nat. Hist.

    2. In botany. [See Egret.]

    A'lGULET, n. [Fr. Usually contracted in- to aiglet, which see.]

    A point or tag, as at the ends of fringes.

    A'IKRAW, n. A popular name of a species of hchen, or moss. Fam. of Plants.



    A I R

    AIL, V. I. [Sax. eglian, to be troubled, to be irksome ; egle, trouble, grief. In the Sax- on, it is impersonal.]

    To trouble ; to affect with imeasiness, either of body or mind ; used to express some un- easiness or affection, whose cause is un- known ; as, what ails the msui .' I know not what ails him.

    What aileth thee, Hagar .' Gen. xxi.

    It is never used to express a specific dis case. We never say, he ails a pleurisy but it is usual to say, he ails something he ails notliing ; nothing ails him.

    AIL, n. Indisposition, or morbid affection.

    A'lLING, ppr. Diseased ; indisposed ; full of complaints.

    A'lLMENT, n. Disease ; indisposition morbid affection of the body ; but the word is not appUed ordinarily to acute diseases.

    AIM, V. i. [Qu. Ir. oigham, to eye. Skin- ner refers this word to the old Pr. esmer. If this was the orthography, I know not its afiinities.]

    To point at, Avith a missive weapon ; to d rect the intention or purpose ; to attempt to reach, or accomplish ; to tend towards ; to endeavor ; followed by at before the object ; as, a man aims at distinction ; o aims to be rich.

    -AIM, V. t. To direct or point as a weapon to direct to a partieidar object ; as, to aivi a musket or an arrow, the fist or a blow ; to aim WKitire or a reflection at some per- son or Wee.

    AIM, n. The pointmg or direction of a mis- sile weapon ; the direction of any thing to a particular point or object, with a view to strike or affect it ; as a spear, a blow, a discourse or remark.

    9. The point intended to be hit, or object tended to be affected ; as, a man missed his aim.

    3. Figuratively, a purpose ; uitention ; d' sign ; scheme ; as, men are often disap- pointed of their aim.

    4. Conjecture; guess.

    It is impossible, by aim , to tell it. [A'ot useJ.] Spenser on Ireland.

    AIMED, p/j. Pointed; directed; intended to strike or affect.

    AIMER, n. One that aims.

    A'IMING, ppr. Pointing a weapon

    object ; directing any thing to an object ; intending ; purposing.

    A'IMLESS, a. Without aim. May.

    \IR, n. [Fr mV; L. acr; Gr. aj?p; It. ana ; S[). ayre; Port, ar ; Arm. tar, eer; Ir. aer W. atcyr; Ch. TIN ; Syr. ; ] ] ; Eth. ^ _£ /J Ar. lj<. This word, in the Shemitic languages, falls under the root iix Heb. and Ch., to sliine. The radical sense to open, expand ; whence clear ; or to flow, to shoot, to radiate.]

    1. The fluid which we breathe. Air is ino- dorous, invisible, insipid, colorless, elastic possessed of gravity, easily moved, rarefi ed, and condensed.

    .llmospheric air is a compound fluid, con sisting of oxygen gas, and nitrogen or azo- te ; the proportion of each is stated by chimists differently ; some exjieriments making the oxygen a twenty-eighth part of a hundred ; others, not more than a!

    twenty-third, or something less. The lat- ter is probably the true proportion. Oxrjgen gas is called vital air. The body of air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. The specific gravity of air is to that of water, nearly as 1 to 828. Air is necessary to life ; being inhaled into the lungs, the oxygenous part is separated from the azotic, and it is supposed to fur- nish the body with heat and animation. It is the medium of sounds and necessary to combustion. Air in motion ; a Ught breeze.

    Let vernal airs through trembling osiers play. Pope.

    3. Vent ; utterance abroad ; publication ; pubhcity ; as, a story has taken air.

    You gave it air before me. Drydtii.

    Wind is used in like mamier.

    4. A tune ; a short song or piece of music adapted to words; also, the pecuUar mod- ulation of the notes, which gives music its character ; as, a soft air. A song or piece of poetry for singing ; also, the leading part of a tune, or that wliich is intended to exhibit the greatest variety of melody.

    5. The peculiar look, appearance, manner or mien of a person ; as, a heavy air ; the air of youth ; a graceful air ; a lofty air. It is applied to manners or gestures, as well as to features.

    6. Mrs, in the plural, is used to denote an af- fected manner, show of j)ride, haughti- ness ; as, when it is said of a person, he puts on airs. The word'is used also to express the artificial motions or carriage of a horse.

    In painting, that which expresses the life of action; manner; gesture; attitude.

    8. Any thing hght or luicertain ; that is hght as air.

    Who builds his hope in air of your fair looks Qu. Obs. Shah-

    !). Advice ; mtelligence ; information. Obs. Bacon

    10. Different states of air are characterized by different epithets ; as, good air, foul air morning air, evening air ; and sometimes airs may have been used for ill-scent vapor, but the use is not legitimate.

    To take the air, is to go abroad ; to walk or ride a little distance.

    To take air, is to be divulged ; to be made public.

    AIR, V. t. To expose to the air ; to give ac cess to the open air ; to ventilate ; as, t< air clothes ; to air a room.

    2. To expose to heat ; to warm ; as, to air liquors.

    :?. To dry by a fire ; to expel dampness; as to air iinen.

    A'IRA, n. Hair grass, a genus of plants.

    A'IR-BALLOON. [See Balloon.]

    A'IR-BLADDER, n. A vesicle or cutifk

    filled with air ; also, the bladder of a fish


    A'IR-RORN, a. Bornof the air. Congreve

    AIR-BRAVING, a. Braving the winds.


    A'IR-BUILT, a. Erected in the air; hav- ing no solid foundation ; chimerical ; as, an air-built castle ; air-built hopeti.

    A'IR-DRAWN, a. Drawn in air ; imagina- I ry. Shak.

    ' A'IRED, pp. E.xposed to air ; cleansed by

    air ; heated or dried by exposure to a fire ; ventilated.

    ;\'IRER, 7[. One who exposes to the air.

    A'IR-GUN, n. A pneumatic engine, resem- bling a musket, to discharge bullets by means of the elastic force of compressed air. Encyc.

    V'IR-HOLDER, n. [Air and hold.]

    An instrument for holding air, for the pur- pose of counteracting the pressure of a decreasing coliunn of mercury.

    Clayfield. Davy.

    A'lR-HOIiE, n. An opening to admit or dLscharge air.

    .\'IRINESS, n. Exposure to a free current of air ; openne.=s to the air; as, the airi- ness of a country seat.

    2. Gayety ; levity ; as, the airiness of young persons.

    A'IRING, ppr. Exposing to the air ; warm- ing ; drying.

    A'IRING, n. An exposiu-e to the air, or to a fire, for warming or drying ; also, a walk or ride in the open air ; a short excursion. The exercise of horses in the open air.

    A'IR-JACKET, n. A leather jacket, to which are fastened bags or bladders filled with air, to render persons buoyant in swimming. Encyc.

    A'IRLESS, a. Not open to a free current of air; wanting fi-esh air, or commmiica- tion with open air.

    A'IRLING, a. A thoughtless, gay person. Jonson.

    A'IR-PIPE, n. A pipe used to draw foul air from a ship's hold, by means of a commu- nication with the furnace, and the rare- faction of the air by fire. This pipe is in- tended to supply the combustion with the air of the hold, by preventing the access of other air to the fire. Encyc.

    AIR-POISE, n. [Air and poise.]

    An instrument to measure the weight of the air.

    A'IR-PUMP, n. A macliine for exhausting the air of a vessel. The machines for this purpose are of different constructions.

    A'IR-SACS, n. Air bags in birds, which are certain receptacles of air, or vesicles lodg- ed in the fleshy parts, in the hollow bones and in the abdomen, wldch all communi- cate with the lungs. These are supposed to render the body specifically lighter, and to supply tlie place of a muscular dia- phragm. Encyc.

    AIR-SHAFT, n. A passage for air into a mine, usually opened in a perpendicular direction, and meeting the adits or hori- zontal passages, to cause a free circuJa-^ tion of fresh air through the mine. Encyc.

    AIR-STIRRING, a. Puttmgthe air in mo. tion. May.

    A'lR-TIIREAD, n. A name given to die siiiiler's webs, which are often seen float-< log in the air. These filaments are at- tached to the tops or ends of branches of shrubs or trees, and serve to support llie spider when in quest of prey. Encyc.

    A'IR-THREATENING, a. Threatenine the air ; lofty. Todd.

    ,-V IR-VES.*«EL, n. A spiral duct in plants containbig air, and supposed to be analo- gous to the lungs in animals. Encyc.

    A'IRY, a. Consisting of air ; as, an airy substance.

    A K 1

    a. Relating or belonging to air ; high in air ; as, an airy flight ; airy region.

    3. Open to a free current of air ; as, an airy situation.

    4. Light as air; resembling air; thin; un- substantial ; without soBcUty ; as, airy ghosts. An airy dress is one which ad- mits air, and is cool.

    5. Without reality ; having no sohd founda tion ; vain ; trifling ; as, an airy scheme ; airy notions.

    6. Gay; sprightly; full of vivacity and Ic^n- ty ; light of heart ; Uvely ; as, an airy girl,

    A'IRY, or A'ery, n. [See Aery.]

    Among sportsinen, the nest of the hawk or eagle.

    A'IRY-FLYING, a. Flying like air.


    AISLE, or AILE, n. Pronounced Re. [Fi aite, a wing ; L. ala.]

    The wing of a quire ; a walk in a church.

    AIZO'ON, n. [Sax. aizon, from L. aizoon It seems to be composed of Or. au, always. Sax. aa, Eng. aye, and |uor, livuig.]

    A genus of plants, called by Miller semper

    vine. Tlie name has, by some writers, been

    applied to the house leek and to the aloes,


    AJA'VA, n. The seed of a plant brought from Malabar, said to be an excellent car minative, and very useful in the colic.


    AJU'GA, n. Bugle, a genus of plants.


    AJU'RU-CATINGA, n. A species of Amer ican parrot, of a green color, with eyes of a fiery red, encircled with white.

    AJU'RU-€URAU, n. An American parrot, of a Uvely green color, with a blue crown ; the throat, and sides of the head, of a fine yellow.

    AJU'RU-PARA, n. A small parrot of Amer- ica, of a beautiful green, with the beak, legs and circlets of the eyes white.

    Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    VJ'UTAGE, or AD'JUTAgE, n. [Fr. from ajouter, to join.]

    \ tube fitted to the mouth of a vessel through which the water of a fountain is to be played.

    AKE, V. i., less properly written acAe. [Sax, ace, pronounced ake. See .^che.]

    1. To be in pain ; usually, in pain of some con- tinuance.

    2. To feel distress of mind ; to be grieved ; as, the heart akes.

    AKE, n. Continued pain, less severe than is expressed by pang, agony, and torment ; as, the tooth-aie ; head-afte. It is com monly used in composition with the name of the jjart aflfected, as head-ake.

    A'KER, n. [Gr. (vypoj; L. ager; Sax. acer, pronounced aker ; Germ, acker. The most correct orthography is aker.]

    Origuially an open field. But in G. Britain, the quantity of land in the aker is fixed by statute at four thousand eight hundred and forty square yards, n]aking one hundred and sixty square rods, perches or poles ; and this is the quantity of land it contauis in the United States of America. [See Acre.]

    AKIN', a. [a or of and kin. See Kin.]

    i. Related by blood, used of persons ; as, the two lamilies are near akin.

    % Allied by nature ; partaking of the same


    properties; as, envy and jealousy at akin. [This adjective is used only after the noun.]

    A'KING, ppr. Having continued pain ; suf- fering distress of mind, or grief.

    A'KING, n. Continued pain, or distress of mind.

    AL, in Arabic, an adjective or inseparable prefix, answering to the ItaUan il, and Sp el and la. Its use is to render nouns defi nite, Uke the Enghsh tlit ; as, alkoran, the koran or the book by eminence ; alcove alchimy, alembic, almanac, &c.

    AL, in Enghsh, is sometimes a contraction of the Saxon ccthel, noble or illustrious.

    More generally al, in composition, is a con traction of aid or alt, old, and it is prefix- ed to many names, as Alburg. Sax. eald Germ, alt, old.

    Al, m the composition of Latin words, is written before I for ad, for the ease of pro nunciation ; as, in allevo, alludo, for ad levc ad tudo.

    AL'ABASTER, n. [L. from Gr. axoffafpor

    A sub-variety of carbonate of lime, found in large masses, formed by the deposition of calcarious particles in caverns of lime stone rocks. These concretions have i foliated, fibrous or granular structure, and are of a pure white color, or more generally they present shades of yellow red or brown, in undulating or concentric stripes, or in spots. Cleaveland.

    Among the ancients, alabaster was also the name of a vessel in which odoriferous li quors were kept ; so called from the stone of which it was made. Also, the name of a measure, containing ten ounces of wine or nine of oil. Encyc. Macquer. Pliny.

    AL'ABASTER, a. Made of alabaster, resemhhng it.

    Alabastrum dendroide, a kind of laminated alabaster, variegated with figures of shrubs and trees, found in the province of Hohen stein. Encyc.

    ALACK', exclam. [Per. jsTiViil'alaka, per- dition, destruction, and alaksadan, to per- ish.]

    An exclamation expressive of sorrow.

    ALACK' ADA Y. An exclamation uttered to express regret or sorrow.

    ALAC'RIOUSNESS, n. Briskness. [jVof used.]

    ALA€'RITY, «. [L. alacritas, from alacer, alacris.']

    Cheerfulness ; gayety ; sprightliness ; more usually, a cheerful readiness or prompt' tude to do some act ; cheerful willingness as, the soldiers advanced with alacrity to meet the enemy.

    ALAD'INISTS. Free thinkers among the Moliammedans. Encyc.

    AL'ALITE, ». A crystalized mineral; diop- side ; a semi-transparent pyroxene. A variety with twelve sided prisms, was found by Bonvoisin, near the village of Ala in Piedmont, and by him called Ala- lite. Cleaveland.

    ALAMJRE', n. The lowest note but one, in Guidci Aretine's scale of music. Johnson.

    ALAMODAL'ITY, n. Conformity to ihr prevailing ijjode, or fashion of the times [Little used.] Encyt


    ALAMO'DE adv. [Fr. a la mode, after the fashion.]

    According to the fashion or prevailing mode fVhittock.

    ALAMO'DE, n. A thin glossy silk for hoods, scarfs, &,c.

    ALAND', adv. At or on land. Sidney.

    AL'ARM, «. [Dan. larm, noise, bustle, alarm; larmer, to make a noise or bustle, to alarm; G. larm, laitnen, \d ; Sw. larm, larma, id ; Fr. alarme, alarmer ; Sp. alarma, alarmar ; It. aUarme, allarmare ; W. alarm, a great shout, compounded of al, very, most, and garm, an outciy. The Welsh gives the true origin and primary signifi- cation.]

    1. Any sound, outcry or information, intend- ed to give notice of approaching danger as, to sound an alarm.

    8. A summon to arms. Dryden.

    3. Sudden surprise with fear or terror ; as, the fire or the enemy excited an alarm.

    4. Terror ; a sensation excited by an appre- hension of danger, from whatever cause ; as, we felt an alann at the cry of fire.

    5. In/eraawg-, an appeal or challenge. Encyc. AL^ARM, V. t. To give notice of danger ;

    to rouse to vigilance, and exertions for safety.

    2. To call to arms for defense.

    3. To surprise with apprehension of danger ; to disturb with terror ; to fill with anxiety

    by the prospect of evil.

    AL' ARM-BELL, ji. A beU that gives no- tice of danger.

    AL' ARMED, pp. Notified of sudden danger ; surprised with fear ; roused to vigilance or activity by apprehension of approach- ing danger ; solicitous at the prospect or expectation of evil. Thus, we are alarmed at the approach of danger, or alarmed for the safety of friends at sea.

    AL' ARMING, ppr. Givijig notice of ap- proaching danger ; rousing to vigilance ; exciting sohcitude by a prospect of evil.

    AL' ARMING, a. Exciting apprehension ; terrifying ; awakening a sense of danger; as, an alarming message.

    ALARMINGLY, adv. Whh alarm ; in a manner to excite apprehension.

    AL'ARMIST, n. One that excites alarm.

    AL' ARM-POST, n. A place to which troops are to repair in cases of an alarm.

    AL' ARM-WATCH, n. A watch that strikes the hour by regulated movement. Herbert. RUM, foi ■

    i be used.

    ALARUM, for alarm, is a corruption, and

    ALAS' ex. [Dutch helaas ; Fr. helas.] An exclamation expressive of sorrow, grief, pity, concern, or apprehension of evil ; sometimes followed by day or while ; alas the day, like alack a day ; or alas the while, (Obs. Spenser.) expressing an unhappy time. ALA'TE, adv. Lately. [M>t used.] ALA'TED, a. [L. a/a, a wing; ate/«s, wing- ed.] Winged ; having dilatations like wings.

    Botany. AL'ATERN, n. A trivial name of a species

    of rhamnus or buckthorn. ALB, n. [L. albus, Gr. cA^os, white.] A surplice or vestment of white linen, reach- hig to the feet, worn by the Romish cler- gy. Also a Turkish coin, called also an asper, value one hundred and twelve mills


    AL'BATROS, n. An aquatic fowl, belong' ing to the order of ansers. Tlie bill ii strait ; the upper mandible crooked at the point, and the lower one truncated ; the nostrils are oval, open and Uttle promi nent, and placed on the sides ; the wings are pennated, and there are three webbed toes on each foot. The upper part of the body is of a spotted brown, and the belly white. It is of the size of a pelican or larger, very voracious, preying on fish and small water fowls. These fowls are seen, in great numbers, about the capes of the two continents, and on the northern shores of Asia. They are sometimes called the great gull. Encyc.

    ALBE'IT, [This is supposed to be a com- pound of aH, fceand it, and is equivalent to admit, or grant it all.]

    Be it so ; admit all that ; althougli ; notwith- standing.

    Whereas ye say, the Lord saith it, albeit I have not spoken. Ez. xiii.

    [This word ts now antiquated.]

    AL'BELEN, n. A fish of the truttaceous or trout kind, found in the German lakes, weighing five or six pounds.

    Did. o/Nat. Hist.

    ALBES'CENT, a. [L. albesco, to grow white.]

    Becoming white, or rather, whitish ; mod- erately wliite. Encyc.

    AL'BleORE, -II. [Port, albacor; at and bacoro, a little pig.]

    A marine fish, like a tunny, noted for follow- ing ships.

    ALBIGEN'SES, ALBEgEOIS, n. A party of Reformers, who sejjarated from the church of Rome, in tlie 12th century ; so called from the Albegeois, asmallterritoiy in France, where they resided. They are sometimes confounded with the fValdenses ; but they were prior to them in time, differ- ed from them in some of their tenets, and resided in a different part of France. The catholics made war ujion them, and they gradually dwindled, till the reformation, when the remains of them fell in with the followers of ZuingUus and the Genevan Protestants. Encyc.

    AL'BIN, n. [L. albus, wliite.]

    A mineral, of an opake white color, consist- ing of aggregated crj'staline lamins, found in Bohemia.

    This is regarded as a variety of apophyllite. Werner. Cleaveland.

    ALBI'NO, n. [L. albus, white.]

    A white descendant of black parents, or a white person belonging to a race of blacks. A person unnaturally white.

    ALBI'NOS, n. A name signifying white men, given by the Portuguese to the white negroes of Africa. The color of this race appears like that of persons affected with leprosy ; and the negroes look upon them as monsters. Encyc.

    AL'BION, n. An ancient name of England, still used in poetry. It is supposed this name was given to it on account of its white cliffs.

    ALBO'RA, n. A sort of itch or rather lep rosy, terminating without ulceration, but with fetid evacuations in the mouth and nostrils. Qutnei/.

    ALBO'RO, n. The erythrinus, a small red fisb of the Mediterranean.

    Diet. of. Vat. Hist.

    A L C

    ALBUgIN'EOUS, a. [L. albugo, the white spot in the eye, from albus white.]

    Pertaijiing to or resembling the wliite of the eye, or of an egg. Encyc.

    Mbugineous humor, the aqueous humor ofthe eye. Encyc. ^uincy.

    ALBU'GO, n. The white speck in the eye, called the fihn, haw, dragon, pearl or cicatrice. Also a disease ofthe eye, occa- sioned by a white opake spot growing on the cornea and obstructing vision. It is called also leucoma, nebula, pannus oculi, onyx, unguis, &c. Quincy. Encyc.

    ALBU'LA, n. A species of truttaceous fish, destitute of teeth. The Albula Indica is called by the Dutch wit-fish, and is ofthe size of a herring. The Albula nobilis is a fish caught in the lakes of Germany.

    Did. o/JVdf. Hist.

    AL'BUM, n. [L. albus, white.]

    1. Among the Romans, a white table, board or register, on which the names of public officers and pubUc transactions were en- tered. Lat. Did.

    2. A book, originally blank, in which for- eigners or strangers insert autographs of celebrated persons, or in which friends in- sert pieces as memorials for each other.

    ALBU'MEN, n. [L. from albus, white.]

    The white of an egg. A like substance is a hief con.stituent in all animal solids. Ure.

    ALBU'MINOUS, a. Pertaining to, or hav- ing tlie properties of albumen.

    AL'BURN, ? 71. [L. alburnum, from albus,

    ALBURNUM, S white.] .

    The white and softer part of wood, between the inner bark and the wood. In Amer- ica, it is popularly called the sap. This is annually acquiring hardness, and becom- ing wood. Milne.

    AL'BURN, n. [L. albumus, from albus, white.]

    A fish called the bleak. It belongs to the order of abdominals, and the genus Cypri- nus. It is five or six inches in length, and esteemed delicious food. Artificial pearls are made of its scales. Encyc.

    AL'€AHEST, or AL'KAHEST, n. [Arabic]

    A pretended universal dissolvent, or men- struum. [See Alkahest.]

    AL€A'le, a. Pertaining to Alcaeus, a Lyric poet of Mitylene, in Lesbos, who flourished about the forty-fourth Olym|)iad ; or to other poets of the same name, of which three are mentioned ; one an Athenian tragic poet, and anotlier a Messenian.

    AL€A'ICS, n. plu. Several kinds of verse, so called from Alcfeus, their inventor. One kind consists of five feet, a spondee or iambic, an iambic, a long syllable and two dactyls. Encyc.

    AL€A'ID, n. [Sp. alcayde-; Port. alcaide; Ar.

    Jv J li' kaidon, with the prefix al, from j I. ji

    to lead, rule, govern. Hence the Cadi of the Turks.]

    Among the Moors, Spaniards and Portu- guese, a governor. In Portugal, the chief civil magistrate of a town or city ; also the jurisdiction of certain judges of appeal. In Spain, the governor of a castle or fort : also a jailer. Span, and Port. Diet.

    AL€AN'NA, n. [Arabic] A plant ; and a powder, prepared from the leaves of the

    A L C

    Egyptian privet, used by the Turkish fe- males to give a golden color to tlie nails and hair. Infused in water, it forms a yellow color ; with vinegar, it forms a red. From the hemes is extracted an oil, used in medicine. In Cairo, it forms an article ofconmierce. Encyc. Theophrast.

    AL'CATRAZ, n. The Spanish name of tlie Pelecanus Onocrotalus of Linne ; a peU- can ; also a fish taken on the coast of India. Span. Did.

    ALCAV'ALA, n. In Spain, a tax on every transfer of property, real or personal.


    ALCE'DO, n. [L.]

    The king fisher ; a genus of birds, of the order of Picae. The species are numerous. They usually live about rivers, feeding on fish, which they take by darting into the water with surprising velocity. [See Hal- cyon.

    ALCHIM'le, \ a. Relating to alchimy,

    AL€lIIM'l€AL, i or produced by it.

    ALeHIM'l€ALLY, adv. In the manner of alchimv.

    AL'CHIMIST, n. One who practices al- chimy.

    ALCHIMIST'Ie, la. Practicing alchi-

    ALCHIMIST'ICAL, S my, or relating to it. Bxirke, Rev.

    AL'€HIMY, n. [It. alchimia; Ar. al, the,

    and Ia.«.a.S5 kimia, secret, hidden, or

    the occult art, from ^ ^ ^^^^kamai. to hide. See Chimistry.]

    1. The more sublime and difficult parts of chimistry, and chiefly such as relate to the transmutation ofmetals into gold, the find- ing a universal remedy for diseases, and an alkahest or universal solvent, and other things now treated as ridiculous. This pretended science was much cultivated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but is now held in contempt.

    2. Formerly, a mixed metal used for uten- sils.

    .4L€MA'NIAN, a. Pertaining to Alcman, a lyric poet of the twenty-seventh Olym- piad, celebrated for his amorous verses. The Alcmanian verse consisted of two dac- tyls and two trochees. Encyc.

    AL'CO, n. A quadruped of America, nearly resembhng a dog, but mute and melan- choly ; and this circumstance seems to have given rise to the fable that dogs, trans- ported to America, become mute. The animal was used for food by the native Americans, and the first Spanish settlers ; but it is said to be now extinct. It is known also by the name of Techichi.


    ALCOHOL, «. [Ar. J..=:v^5 kahala; Heb.

    Syr. and Eth. Snj, to paint with a prepa- ration of powder of antimony. The oi-i- ental females still practice the painting of the eye brows with this material. The name was appHed to this substance, and afterwards to other fine powders, and to highly rectified spirits.]

    Pure or highly rectified spirit, obtained from fermented liquors by distillation. It con-

    A L D

    sisis of liydrogen, carbon and n\yj;ei it is extremely light and inflammable, an a powerlul stimulant and antiseptic. This is the usual sense of the word ; but ori- ginally, in Arabic, it signified a fine impal- pable powder, in which sense it is still used. Enajc.

    »\LCOHOL'I€, o. Pertaining to alcohol, or partaking of its qualities. Med. Rep.

    ALCOHOLIZATION, n. The act of fying spirit, till it is wholly dephlegniated?; or of reducuig a substance to an impalpa- ble powder.

    AL'€OHOLIZE, V. t. To convert into alco- hol; to rectify spirit till it is wholly de- plilegmated ; also, to reduce a substance to an impalpable powder.

    .\L'€OR, 11. [Ar.] A small star adjoining to the large bright one in the middle of the tail of Ursa Major. Encyc.

    ALCORAN. [See Korun and Alkoran.]

    \L'€OVE or ALCO'VE, n. [Sp. alcoba,

    composed of o/, with the Ar. t^S kabba,

    to arch, to construct with an arch, and its derivatives, an arch, a round Jfcuse ; Eng. cubby.]

    I. A recess, or part of a room, separated by an estrade, or partition of columns, or by other corresponding ornaments ; in which is placed a bed of state, and sometimes seats for company. The bed is sometime raised two or three steps, with a rail at the foot. These are frequent in Spain.


    ii. A recess in a library, or small lateral apartment for books.

    AL'CYON, n. A trivia' name of the king- fisher. [See Halcyon.]

    AL'CYONITE, n. [Supra.]

    A fossil zoophite, somewhat resembling a fungus. J. of Science

    ALCYO'NIUM, n. The name of a subma ruie plant, or bastard spunge. Also a kind


    tioii. In general, aldermen have the pow- ers of a justice of the peace, and, with the mayor, they constitute the court of the corporation. In most of our cities, they are annually elected by the citizens.

    \L'DERMANLY, o. Pertaining to or like an alderman. . Simft.

    AL'DERN, a. Made of Alder.

    ALE, n. [Sax. eala, tale, or aloth ; G. al ; Sw. Ol ; Dan. til ; Ir. ol. Q,u. Ir. olam, to drink.]

    1. A liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation. It ditters from beer, in having a smaller proportion of hops. It is of different sorts, chiefly pale and broimi ; the first made from malt slightly dried : the second, from malt more considerably dried or roasted. Ale was the common drink of the ancient inhabitants of Evn-ope. It is usually made with barley ; but some- times with"wheat, rye, millet, oats, &c.

    a fo!

    sil foimd in Eng- Encyc. Fr. aune, aulne ;

    of astroit or land.

    \L'DER, n. [L.alnus;

    ■ Sax. «?)■.]

    \ tree, usually growing in moist land, and belonging to the genus Alnus. The name is applied also to some species of other genera.

    ALD'ERMAN, n. phi. Aldermen. [Sax. aid or eald, old, comp, aider, older, and man ; G. alt ; D. oud.]

    I . Among our Saxon Ancestors, a senior or superior. The title was applied to princes, dukes, earls, senators and presiduig magis- trates ; also to archbishops and bishops, implying superior wisdom or authority. Thus, Ethelstan, duke of the East-Angh- ans, was called alderman of all England ; and there were aldeniien of cities, coun ties, and castles, who had jurisdiction within their respective districts,

    i>. In present usage, a magistrate or oflicer ofl a town coi-porate, next in rank?below the mayor. The number of aldermen is differ ent in different cities. In London the niunber is twenty-six, one in each ward, and the office is held for life.

    Spelman. Cowel. Encyc.

    In the United Slates, the number of alder

    men depends on the charters of iucorpnra

    Q. A merry meeting in EngUsh coimtry ]>\a ces, so called from the liquor drank.

    Ben Jonson

    Medicated Ales are those which are preparecll

    for medicinal purposes, by an infusion of

    herbs during fermentation. Encyc.

    .\'LE-BENCH, n. A bench in or before an

    ale house. Homilies.

    A'LE-BERRY, n. A beverage, made by

    boiling ale with spice, sugar and sops of

    bread. Jolmson.

    A'LE-BREWER, n. One whose occupation

    is to brew ale. A'LE-€ONNER, n. [ale and con, to kiiow

    see.] An officer in London, whose busuiess inspect the measures used in public houses, to j)revent frauds hi selluig liquors. Four of these are chosen annually by the livery men, in common hall, on midsummer's day. Ad of Pari.

    A'LE-€OST, n. Costmary, a plant, a spe- cies of Tanacetum. A'LE-FED, a. Fed with ale. Stafford.

    A'LE-GAR, )i. [ale, and Fr. aigre, sour.] Sour ale ; the acid of ale. A'LE-HOOF, n. [D. eiloof, a plant used

    brewing.] Ground-ivy, the glechoma hederacea, of Linne. "The leaves of this plant are used to clarify and give flavor to ale.

    Lee. Encyc. A'LE-HOUSE, n. A house where ale is re- tailed ; and hence a tijiling house. A'LE-HOUSE-KEEPER, n. One who

    keeps an ale-house. A'LE-KNIGHT, n. A pot coinpani(

    Chaucer. A'LE-SHOT, (1. A reckoning to be paid lor

    ale. A'LE-SILVER, n. A duty paid to the Lord Mayor of London, by the sellers of ale within the city. A'LE-STAKE, n. A stake set as a sign be- fore an ale-house. Chaucer. A'LE-TASTER, n. An officer apiwinted in every court leet, and sworn, to inspect ale, beer and bread, and examine the quality and quantity within the precincts of the lordship. Cowel. A'LE-VAT, n. A vat in which ale is fer- mented.


    V'LE-WASHED, a. Steeped or soaked in

    ale. Shak.

    A'LE-WIFE, )i. A woman who keeps an

    ale house. A'LEWIFE, or A'LOOF, n. [This word is properly aloof, the Indian name of a fish. See Winthrop on the culture of maiz iu America, Phil. Trans. No. 142. p. 1065. and Baddam's Memoirs, vol. 2. 131.]

    An American fish, belonging to the genus Clupea, and called Clupea Serrata. It resembles the herring. The estabhshed pronunciation is alewifc, plu. alewives.

    ALE€TRYOM'ANCY, n. [Gr. ax^xifvuv, a cock, and fiavreta, divination.]

    An ancient practice of foretelling events by means of a cock. The twenty four letters were laid on the ground, and a grain of corn on each ; a cock was then permitted to pick up the grains, and the letters under the grains selected, being formed into words, were supposed to foretel the event desired. Encyc.

    ALEE', adv. [a or at and lee. See Lee.]

    In seaman's language, on the side opposite to the wind, that is, opposite to the side on which it strikes. The helm of a ship is alee, when pressed close to the lee side.

    Hard alee or luff alee, is an order to put the helm to the lee side.

    Helm's alee, that is, the helm is alee, a notice given as an order to the seamen to cause the head-sails to shake in the wind, with a view to bring the ship about. Mar. Diet.

    A'LEgER, a. [Fr., Sp. aUgre ; L. alacer.]

    Gay ; chcerfid ; sprightly. [JVot used.]


    ALEGGE, v. t. To lighten ; to lessen ; lo assuage. [JVot used.]

    ALEMB'DAR, n. In Turkey, an officer who bears the green standard of Mohammed, when the Sultan appears in public.


    rVLEM'BIC, ji. [Ar. ul and^xil or so? " ..

    XX j< a chimical vessel.]

    A chimical vessel used in distillation ; usually made of glass or copper. The bottom part containing the liquor to be distilled, is called the cucurbit ; the upper part which receives and condenses the steam, is called the head, the beak of which is fitted to the neck of a receiver. The head is more properly the alembic. This vessel is not. so generally used now, as the worm still and retort.

    ALENGTH', adv. [a and length.]

    At full length ; along ; stretched at fidl length. Chaucer.

    ALEP'IDOTE, n. [Gr. a priv. and Afrtis, a scale]

    Any fish whose skin is not covered with scales.

    ALERT', a. [Fr. alerte ; Sp. oleHo, vigilant, watchful, estar aleria, to be on the watch.]

    1. Watchful ; vigilant ; active in vigilance. Hence the miUtary phrase, upon the alert, upon the watch, guarding against siu-- prise or danger.

    2. Brisk ; nimble ; moving with celerity.


    ALERT'NESS, n. Briskness; nhnbleness;

    sprightUncss ; levity. Addison-

    A L G

    A L I

    A L

    ALEUROiAI'ANCY, n. [Gr. a^vpor, meal, and liavriia, divination.]

    A kind of divination by meal, used by the ancients. Encyc.

    ALEU'TIAN, or ALEU'TI€, a. Designating certain isles in tlie Pacific ocean, eastward of Kamtschatka, extending northeastward towards America. The word is formed from aleui, which, in Russian, is a bald rock. Tooke. Pinkerton.

    ALEX^ANDERS, n. The name of a plant of the genus Smyrniuin. Muhlenberg.

    ALEX' ANDER'S" FOOT, n. The name of a plant.

    ALEX' ANDRIAN, n. Pertaining to Ale.xan- dria. There are many cities of this name, in various parts of the earth. The term is often applied as an attribute, or used as a noun, for one who professed or taught the sciences in the school of Alexatidria, in Egypt ; a place highly celebrated for its literature and magnificence, and whose library, it is said, consisted of 700,000 volumes. The Persians and Turks write for Alexander, Scander, or Sconder ; and for Alexandria, Scanderona ; hence Scan- deroon, a sea port in Syria.

    ALEX ANDRINE, or ALEXANDRLVN, n. A kind of verse, consisting of tweh t syllables, or of twelve and thirteen alter nately ; so called from a poem written ii French on the Ufe of Alexander. Thi; species of verse is pecuhar to modern poeti7, but well adapted to epic poems. The Alexandrine in English consists of twelve syllables, and is less used than this kind of verse is among the French, whose tragedies are generally composed of Alex- andruies. Pope. Dryden.

    ALEXIPH'ARMI€, a. [Gr. o.'Ki%^, to expel, and ^Kip/jaxof, poison.]

    Expelling poison ; antidotal ; sudorific ; that has the quality of expelling poison or uifec tion bv sweat.

    ALEXi'PH'ARMie, n. A medicine that i:

    intended to obviate the effects of poison ;

    an antidote to poison or infection. By tli

    Greeks, the word was used for an amulet.

    Quincy. Encyc.

    ALEXITER'le, ? a. [Gr. aXf|J, to expel,

    ALEXITE'RLAL, \ and brp.r,iv,i,iov, po son.]

    Resisting poison ; obviating the efllects of venom. Qiiincy. Encyc.

    ALEXlTER'Ie, \ n. A medicine to re-

    ALEXITER'I€AL, \ sist the effects of poison, or the bite of venomous animals ; nearly synonymous with akxtpham Used also by the Greeks for an amulet,

    AL'GAROT, or AL'GAROTH, n. The name of an emetic powder, prepared from the regulus of antimony, dissolved in acids, and separated by repeated lotion; in waim water. It is either an Arabic term, or the name of the inventor, a phy- sician of Verona. Qittnci/. Encyc.

    AL'GEBRA, n. [Ar. al and

    the re

    duction of parts to a whole, or fractions to whole numbers, from the verb, which sig- nifies to consolidate ; Heb. Ch. Syr. aiid Eth.l2J, to be strong.] The science of quantity in general, or imi versal arithmetic. Algebra is a general ijiethod of computation, in which signs and

    sjniibuls, which are commonly tiic letters of the al])habet, are made to represent numbers and quantities. It takes an un- known quantity souglit, as if granted ; and, by means of one or more quantities given, proceeds till the quantity supposed is discovered, by some other known quan- tity to which it is equal.

    This science was of Oriental discovery ; but vhether among the Arabians or Indians, s uncertain.

    ALgEBRA'I€, }a. Pertaining to alge-

    ALgEBRA'I€AL, I bra ; containing an operation of Algebra, or deduced from such operation.

    Algebraic curve, a figure whose intercepted diameters bear always the same propor- tion to their respective ordinates. Bailey.

    ALgEBRA'IST, n. One who is versed in tlie science of algebra.

    AL'gENEB, n. A fixed star of the second magnitude, in the right side of Perseus Long. 27° 40' 12" of Taurus ; Lat. 30° 05' 28" North. Encyc.

    AL6ERiNE', n. [from Algiers.] A native of] Algiers, a city and a govermnent on the coast of Africa.

    ALgER'iNE', a. Belonging to Algiers.

    AL'GID, a. [\.. algidus.] Cold. [.Votused.^

    AL'GOL, n. A fixed star of the third mag- nitude, called Medusa's head, in Perseus ; Long. 21° 50' 42" of Taurus ; Lat. 23° 23' 47" North. Encyc.

    AL'GOR, n. [Lat.] Among physicians, an luiusual coldness in any p^rt of the body.

    ALGORITHM, or AL'GORISM, n. An Arabic term, signifying numerical com- putation, or the six operations of arith- metic. Johnson. Encyc.

    AL'GOUS, a. [L. alga, sea weed.]

    Pertaining to sea weed ; aboimding with, or like sea weed.

    ALHEN'NA, n. [See Alkenna.]

    A'LIAS, [L.] Otherwise ; as in this exam- ple, Simson alias Smith ; a word used in judicial proceedings to connect the diffc ent names by which a person is called, who attempts to conceal his true name and pass under a fictitious one.

    A'LIAS, 7!. A .second writ, or execution, issued when the first has failed to enforce the judgment.

    AL'IBI, n. [L.] Elsewhere; in another place ; a law term. When a person is charged with an offense, and lie proves that he could not have committed it, be cause he was, at the time, in another place he is said to prove an alibi. The part of a plea or allegation, which avers the party to have been in another place, is als( called an alibi.

    A'LIEN, a. dlyen, [L. alienns, from al!ii.i another ; Ir. aile, eile, oile, another ; W all, other, and ail, second ; Arm. eel, all, eguile ; Corn, gele ; Gr. aJ-Ao;. Hence, L. alieno, to alienate ; cdter, another ; whence Fr. alterer, to alter ; L. altemo, to alter, to alternate, and alterco, altercor, to altercate Eth. t\Cih kalea, to alter, to change whence alius, another, the second ; the first letter being lost, except in the Cor nish and Armoric, as it is in all. See Class Gl. No. 36, and Ludolf, 387.] . Foreign ; not belonging to the same coun- try, land or government.

    2. Belonging to one who is not a citizen.

    3. Estranged ; foreign ; not allied ; adverse to ; as, principles alien from our rehgion,

    A'LIEN, n.d/7/c»i. A foreigner; one born in, or belonging to, another country ; one who is not a denizen, or entitled" to the privileges of a citizen.

    2. In scripture, one who is a stranger to the church of Christ, or to the covenant of grace.

    At that time, ye were without Christ, be- ing aliens from the commonwealth of Israel. Eph. ii.

    In France, a child born of residents who are not citizens, is an alien. In Great Britain, the children of aliens born in that coun- try, are mostly natural bom subjects ; and the childi'en of British subjects, owing al- legiance to the crown of England, though born in other countries, are natural sub- jects, and entitled to the privileges of resi- dent citizens. Blackstone.

    Alien-duty, a tax upon goods imported by aliens, beyond the duty on the liice goods imported by citizens ; a discruninating duty on the tonnage of ships belonging to aUens, or any extra duties imposed by laws or edicts on ahens.

    A'LIEN, I . r, ,. T

    ALIE'NE, \ "■ '• fL- "heno.]

    1. To transfer title or property to another : to sell.

    Nor could he aliene the estate, even willi the consent of the Lord. Blackstone.

    2. To estrange ; to make averse or indiffer- ent ; to turn the affections from.

    The prhice was aliened from all thoughts of

    the marriage. Clarendon.

    In this sense, it is more common to use

    ilienate. ' ALIENABIL'ITY,n. The capacity of beuig alienated or transferred.

    The alienability of the domain. Burke.

    A'LIENABLE, a. That may be sold, or transferred to another ; as, land is alien- able according to the laws of the State. A'LIENAgE, n. The state of being an aUen. Why restore e.states, forfeitable on account of alienage ? Stori/.

    A'LIENATE, v. i. [L. alieno.]

    1. To transfer title, property or right to another ; as, to alienate lands, or sove- reignty.

    2. To estrange; to withdraw, as the affec- tions ; to make indifferent or averse, where love or friendship before subsisted ; with

    from ; as, to alienate the heart or afiec- tions ; to alienate a man from the friends of his youth.

    3. To apply to a WTong use.

    niey shall not alienate the fruits of the land. Ezek. xlviii. A'LIENATE, a. [L. alienatus.] Estranged ; withdrawn from ; stranger to ; with/rmn.

    O alienate from God, O spirit accurst.

    Milton. The whigs were alienate from truth. Swijt. ALIENA'TION, n. [L. alienatio.^

    1. A transfer of title ; or a legal conveyance of property to another.

    2. The state of being alienated.

    3. A withdiawing or estrangement, as of the heart or affections.

    4. Delirium ; derangement of mental facul- ties ; insgnitv. Hooker,

    A L

    A L K

    A L K

    Alienation-office, in Great-Britain, is an of- fice to which all writs of covenant and en- try, on wliich fines are levied and recove- ries suffered, are carried, to have fines for alienation set and paid thereon. Encyc.

    A'LIENATOR, n. One that ahenates or transfers property. JVarton.

    ALIENEE', n. One to whom the title to property is transferred.

    If the aVuncc enters and keeps possession.


    ALI'FE, adv. {a or on and lift.']

    On my life. Shak.

    ALIF'EROUS, a. [L. ala, whig, and fero, to bear.]

    Having wings.

    AL'IFORM, a. [L. ala, ^ving, and forma, sliapc.]

    Having the shape of a wing ; a term applied to a certain process and muscles of the body, as the pterygoid process, and the muscles arismg from that pi-ocess.

    ALIG'EROUS, a. [L. ala wing, and gero, to carry.]

    Having wings.

    ALI'GHT, V. i. [Sax. alihtan, gelihtan. Uh- lan. See Light]

    1. To get down or descend, as from on horseback or from a carriage.

    2. To descend and settle ; as, a flying bird alights on a tree.

    3. To fall or descend and lodge ; as, snow alights on a roof.

    ALI'KE, a. [Sax. gelic. See Like.] Having resemblance or similitude ; similar. The darkness and the light are both alike to

    thee. Ps. xiii. [This adjective never precedes the noun which

    it qualifes.] ALI'KE, adv. In the same manner, form or


    We are all alike concerned in religion. He fashioneth their hearts alike. Ps. xxxiii ALI'KE-MINDED, a. Having the same

    mind ; but like-minded is more generally

    used. AL'IMENT, n. [L. alimentum, from alo, to

    feed ; Ir. alaim, ailim, olaim, to feed or

    That which nourishes ; food ; nutriment ; any thmg which feeds or adds to a sub stance, animal or vegetable, in natural srowth.

    ALFMENT'AL, a. Supplying food ; that has the quaUty of nourishing ; that fur- nishes the materials for natural growth as, chyle is alimental ; alimental sap.

    ALIMENT'ALLY, adv. So as to serve for nourishment or food.

    ALIMENT' ARINESS, n. The quality of| supi)lying nutrmient.

    ALIMENT' ARY, a. Pertaining to aliment or food ; having the quahty of nourishing as, alimentary particles.

    The alimentary canal, in animal bodies, is the great duct or intestuie, by which ah ments are conveyed through the body, and the useless parts evacuated.

    Alimentary law, among the Romans, was law which obliged children to support their parents. Encyc.

    Ohligation of aliment, in Scots law, is the natural obligation of parents to ])rovide for their children. Encyi

    ALIMENTA'TION, n. The act or power of affording nutriment.

    2. The state of being nourished.

    Johnson. Bacon.

    ALIMO'NIOUS, a. [See Alimony.]

    Nourishing ; affording food. [lAttle used.]

    AL'IMONY, n. [L. alimonia, of alo, to feed. See Aliment.]

    An allowance made for the support of a woman, legally separated from her hus- band. The sum is fixed by the proper judge, and granted out of the husband's estate. Blackstone.

    AL'IPED, «. [L. ala, wing, and pes, foot.]

    Wing-footed ; having the toes connected by a membrane, which serves as a wing.

    AL'IPED, n. [Supra.]

    An animal whose toes are connected by a membrane, and which thus sei-ve for wings ; a cheiropter ; as, the bat.


    AL'IQUANT, a. [L. aliquantum, a little.]

    In arithmetic, an ahquant number or part that which does not measure another number without a remainder. Thus 5 an aliquant part of 16, for 3 times 5 is 15, leaving a remainder 1.

    ALIQUOT, a. [L.]

    An aliquot part of a number or quantity one which will measure it without a r mainder. Thus 5 is the aliquot part of 15.

    \'LISH, a. [From ale.]

    Like ale; having the quaUties of ale.


    ALI'VE, a. [Sax. gelifian, to Uve, from li fan, to live. See Life.]

    1. Having Ufe, in opposition to dead ; living ; being in a state in which the organs per form their functions, and the fluids move whether in animals or vegetables ; as, the man or plant is alive.

    2. In a state of action ; unextinguished ; uii destroyed ; unexpu-ed ; in force or opera tion ; as, keep the process alive.

    3. Cheerfld ; sprightly ; Hvely ; full of alac ity ; as, the company were aU alive.

    4. Susceptible ; easily impressed ; having lively feeUngs, as when the mind is solici tons about some event ; as, one is alive to whatever is mterestlng to a friend.

    Exhibiting motion or moving bodies ir great numbers.

    The city was all alive, when the General en tered. 6. In o scriptural sense, regenerated ; born again.

    For this my sou was dead and is alive. J

    [TViis adjective always follows the noun which it qualifies.]

    AL'KAHEST, n. [Arab.]

    A universal dissolvent ; a menstruum capa- ble of dissolving every body, which Para- celsus and Van Helmont pretended they possessed. This pretense no longer ' poses on the creduUty of any man.

    The word is sometimes used for fixed salts volatilized. Encyc.

    ALKALES'CENCY, n. [See Alkali.]

    A tendency to become alkahne ; or a ten dency to the properties of an alkah ; oi the state of a substance in which alkahne properties begin to he developed, or to be inedominant. Ure.

    ALKALES'CENT, a. Tending to the pro- perties of an alkali ; slightly alkaline.

    AL'KALI, n. plu. Alkahes. [Ar. ^jXi" ka- li, with the common prefix, tlie plant call- ed glass wort, from its use in the manu- facture of glass ; or the ashes of the plant, which seems to be its prunitive sense, for the verb signifies to fry.]

    In chimistry, a term applied to all bodies which possess the following properties : 1. a caustic taste ; 2. volatiUzable by heat ; 3. capability of combining with acids, and of destroying their acidity ; 4. solubility in water, even when combined vnth carbonic acid ; 5. capability of con- verting vegetable blues to green.


    The term was formerly confined to three substances : 1. potash or vegetable fixed alkah, generally obtained from the ashes of wood ; 2. soda or mineral fixed alka- h, wliich is found in the earth and procu- red from marine plants ; and 3. ammo- nia or volatile alkali, an animal product.

    Modern chimistry has discovered many new substances to which the term is now ex- tended.

    The alkahes were formerly considered as elementary substances; but it is now as- certainetl that they are all compounds.

    The alkahes are used in the manufacture of glass and soap, in bleaching and in medi-

    AL'KALIFY, v. t. To form, or to convert into an alkali.

    AL'KALIFY, v. i. To become an alkali.

    ALKALIG'ENOUS, a. [Alkali, and yivvau,, to generate.]

    Producing or generating alkali.

    ALKALIM'ETER, n. [Alkali and Gr. ^£- ■fpoi/, measure.]

    An instrument for ascertaining the strength of alkalies, or the quantity of alkah in pot- ash and soda. Ure.

    AL'KALINE, a. Having the properties of alkali.

    The quahty which coii- Thomson. Alkaline ; impregnated Boyle. JVewton. n. The act of render- ing alkahne by impregnating with an al- kali.

    AL'KALIZE, V. t. [and formerly Alkali- zate.]

    To make alkaline ; to conununicate the pro- perties of an alkali to, by mixture.

    AL'KANET, n. The plant bugloss. The root is used to unpart a deep red color to oily substances, ointments, plasters, &c.


    ALKEKEN'GI, n. The winter cherry,' a species of physalis. The plant bears a near resemblance to solanuiii, or night- shade. The berry is medicinal.


    ALKEN'NA, or ALHEN'NA, n. Egyptian privet, a species of Lawsonia. The pulveri- zed leaves of this plant are much used by the eastern nations for staining their nails yellow. The powder, being wet, forms a paste, which is bound on the nails for a night, and the color thus given will last several weeks. Enq/c.


    stitutes an alkali. AL'KALIZATE, a.

    with alkah. Obs. ALKALIZA'TION,



    A L L

    ALKERM'ES, n. [Arab. See Kennes.]

    In pharmacy, a compound cordial, in the form of a confection, derived from the kermes berries. Its other ingredients are said to be pippin-cider, rose water, sugar, ambergris, nmsk, cinnamon, aloes-wood, pearls, and leaf-gold.

    Quincy. Chambers. Enajc.

    ALKER'VA, n. An Arabic name of tlie Palma Cbristi. Quincy.

    AL'KORAN, n. [Arab, al, the, and koran, book. The book by way of eminence, as we say the Bible. See Koran. It is pro- nounced, I beUeve, by orientalists, alko- raivn.]

    The book wliich contains the Mohammedan doctrines of faith and practice. It was written by Mohammed, in the dialect of the Korcish, whicli is the purest Arabic ; but the Arabian language has suffered such changes, since it was written, that

    the language of the Alkoran is not now in- telligible to the Arabians themselves, with- out being learnt like other dead languages. JViebukr. Encyc.

    AL'KORANIST, n. One who adheres strictly to the letter of the Alkoran, re- jecting all comments. The Persians are generally AUtoranists ; the Turks, Arabs, and Tartars admit a multitude of tradi- tions.

    ALKUS'SA, n. A fish of the Silurus kind, with one beard only under the chin.

    Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    ALL, a. awl. [Sax. eal ; Dan. al; G. all; Sw. all.; W. oil or hall ; Ann. oil ; h: ■uile ; Gr. oXo; ; Shemitic Sj, from rhj ealah, to be ended or completed, to pc feet. The Welsh retains the first radic letter. This is radically the same word as heal ; for in Sw. hel, and in Dan. hele, signi- fy all, and these words are from the root of heal. See Call, Heal and Whole.]

    1. Eveiy one, or the whole number of par- tictilars.

    '■I. The whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, quality, or degree ; as, all the wheat ; all the land ; all the year ; all the strength. This word signifies then, the whole or entire thing, or all the parts or )iarticulars which compose it. It alway; precedes the definitive adjectives, the, my, Ihy, hi.f, our, your, their ; as, all the cattle ; all my liibor ; all thy goods ; all his wealth ; nil oiii- families ; all your citizens ; all their prn,.(.rty.

    This word, not only in popular language, but in the scriptures, often signifies, indef- initely, a large portion or number, or a great part. Thus, all the cattle in Egypt died ; all Judea and all the region round about Jordan ; all men held John as a prophet ; are not to be understood in a literal sense, but as including a large part or very great numbers.

    This word is prefixed to many oth words, to enlarge their signification ; as already, always, all-prevailing.

    ALL, adv. Wholly ; completely ; entirely ; as all along ; aU bedewed ; all over ; my friend is all for amusement ; I love my father all. In the ancient phrases, all too dear, all so long, this word retains its ap- pro])riate sense ; as, " he thought them six- pence all too dear," that is, he thought

    Vol. I.

    them too dear by the sum of sixpence, In tlie sense a( although, as "all were it as the rest," and in the sense ot just, or at tht moment, as "oH as his straying flock he fed," it is obsolete, or restricted to poetry,

    It is all one is a phrase equivalent to the same thing in effect ; that is, it is wholly the same thing.

    All the better is equivalent to wholly the bet- ter; that is, better by the whole difierence.

    ALL, n. The whole number; as, aH hav not the .same disposition ; that is, all men.

    2. The whole ; the entire thing ; the aggre- gate amount ; as, our all is at stake.

    And Laban said, all tliat thou seest is mine. Gen. xxxi.

    This adjective is much used as a noun, and applied to persons or things. ]

    Ml in all is a phrase which signifies, alii

    tlrings to a person, or every thuig desked.j

    Thou shall be all in all, and I in thee, |

    Forever. Milton:

    When the words, and all, close an enumera-j tion of particulars, the word all is either intensive, or is added as a general term to express what is not enumerated ; as, a tree fell, nest, eagles and all. L'Estrange]

    At all is a phrase much used by way of en- forcement or emphasis, usually in negative! or interrogative sentences. He has no] ambition at all ; that is, not in the least de-' gree. Has he any property a< a/i? j

    fill and some, in Spenser, Mason interprets,! one and all. But from Lye's Saxon Die-, tionary, it appears that the phrase is a| corruption of the Sax. emlle cet somne, all together, all at once, from somne, togeth-j er, at once. See Lye under Somne. |

    All in the wind, in seamen's language, is ai phrase denoting that the sails are parallel^ with the course of the wind, so as to| shake. Mar. Dict.i

    All is well is a watchman's phrase, express- ing a state of safety. | I, in composition, enlarges the meaning, or adds force to a word ; and it is generally more emphatical than most. In some in- stances, all is incorporated into words, as in almighty, already, ahvays ; but in most' instances, it is an adjective prefixed to other words, but separated by a hyphen.

    ALL-ABAN'DONED, a. Abandoned bv all. Sk'elton.

    ALL-ABHORRED, a. Detested by all.


    ALL-A€€OM'PLISHED, a. Fully accom- plished ; whose education is highly finish- ed or complete.

    ALL-ADMI'RING, a. WTioUy admiring. Shak.

    ALL-ADVI'SED, a. Advised by all.


    ALL-APPROVED, a. Approved by all.


    ALL-ATO'NING, a. Atoning for all ; ma- king complete atonement. Dryden.

    ALL-BEA'RING, a. Producing every thing : omniparous. Marston.

    ALL-BEAU'TEOUS, a. Perfectly beautiful. Pope.

    ALL-BEHOLDING, a. Beholding or see- ing all things. Drayton.

    ALL-BLASTING, a. Blasting all ; defam-

    I ing or destroying all. Marston.


    ALL-BOUN'TEOUS, ? Perfectly bouuu

    ALL-BOUN'TIFUL, i; "• ful ; of infinite boimty.

    ALL-CHA'NuING, a. Perpetually chang- ing- Shak.

    ALL-CHEE'RING, a. That cheers all ; that gives gavetv or cheerfulness to all. Shak.

    ALL-€0MM"ANDING, a. Having com- mand or sovereignty over all. Raleigh.

    ALL-COMPLYING, a. Complying in ev- ery respect. More.

    ALL-eOMPO'SING, a. That makes all tranquil or peaceful. Crashaw.

    ALL-€OMPREHEN'SIVE, a. Compre- hending all things. GlanvUte.

    ALL-€ONCE'ALING, a. Hiding or conceal- ing all. Spenser.

    ALL-CONQUERING, a. That subdues all. Milton.

    ALL-CONSCIOUS, a. Conscious of all ; all-knowing.

    ALL-CONSTRAINING, a. Constraining all. Drayton.

    ALL-CONSU'MING, a. That consumes or vours all. Pope.

    ALL-DA'RING, a. Daring to attempt evei-y thing. Jonson.

    ALL-DESTROYING, a. Destroying every thing. Fanshaw.

    ALL-DEVASTATING, a. Wasting every thing.

    ALL-DEVOUR ING, a. Eating or consum- ing all. Pope.

    ALL-DIMMING, a. Obscuring every thing. Marston.

    ALL-DISCOV'ERING, a. Discovering or disclosing every thmg. More.

    ALL-DISGRACED, a. Completely disgra- ced. Shak.

    ALL-DISPENSING, a. Dispensing all things ; affording dispensation or permis- sion. Milton. Dryden.

    ALL-DIVI'NE, a. Supremely excellent.


    ALL-DIVI'NING, a. ForeteUing all thijigs. Fanshaw.

    ALL-DREADED, a. Dreaded by all.


    ALL-EFFI' CIENT, a. Of perfect or un- limited efficacy or efficiency.

    ALL-EL'OQUENT, a. Eloquent in the highest degree. Pope.

    ALL-EMBRA'CING, a. Embracing all things. Crashaw.

    ALL-ENDING, or. Puttiiic an end to all things. " Shak.

    ALL-ENLI'GHTENING, a. Enlightening all things. Cotton.

    ALL-ENRA'GED, a. Highly enraged. Hall.

    ALL-FLA'MING, a. Flaming in all direc- tions. Beaumont.

    ALL-FOOL'S-DA\% n. The first of April.

    ALL-FORGIVING, a. Forgiving or par- doning all. Dniden.

    ALL-FOURS, n. [all and/our.]

    A game at cards, played by two or four per- sons ; so called from the possession of^the four honors, by one person, who is then said to have all fours.

    To go on all fours is to move or walk on foin- legs, or on the two legs and two arms.

    ALL-GIV'ER, n. The giver of all things. Milton.

    ALL-GOOD', a. Completely good. Dryden.

    ALL-GQOD'. n. The popular name of thr




    plant Good-Henry, or Englisli Mercury, Chcnopodium bonus Henricus.

    ALL-GRA'CIOUS, a. Perfectly gracious.

    ALL-GUI'DING, a. Guiding or conducting all things. Sandys.

    ALL-HA'IL, ex. [all and Sax. heel, health.]

    All health ; a phrase of salutation, express- ing a wish of all health or safety to the person addressed.


    All Saints day, the first of November ; a feast dedicated to all the saints in general.

    ALL-HALLOW-TIDE, n. [lid, in Sax., is time.]

    The time near All Saints, or November first.

    ALL-HAP'Py, a. Completely happy.

    ALL-HE'AL, 72. The popular name of sev- eral plants.

    ALL-HE'ALING, a. Healing all things.


    ALL-HELP'ING, a. Assisting all. Selden.

    ALL-HI'DING, a. Concealing all things. Shak.

    ALL-HON'ORED, a. Honored by all.


    ALL-HURTING, a. Hurting all things


    ALL-I'DOLIZING, a. Worshiping any thing. Crashnw.

    ALL-IM'ITATING, a. Imitating every thing. More.

    ALL-INFORM'ING, a. Actuating all by vital powers. Sandys.

    ALL-IN'TERESTING, a. Interesting in the lushest degree.

    ALL-INTER'PRETING, a. Explaining all things. Milton.

    ALL-JUDG'ING, a. Judging all ; possessing the sovereign right of judging. Roive.

    ALL-JUST', a. Perfectly just.

    ALL-KI'ND, a. Perfectly Icind or benevo- lent.

    ALL-KNO'WING, a. Having all knowl- edge ; omniscient. Mlerbury.

    ALL-LI'CENSED, a. Licensed to every thing. Shak.

    ALL-LOVING, a. Of infinite love. More.

    ALL-MA'KING, a. Maldng or creating all oninitic. Dn/den.

    ALL-MATU'RING, a. Maturing all things. Dryden.

    ALL-MERCIFUL, a Of perfect mercy or compassion.

    ALL-MURDERING, a. Killing or destroy- ing every thing. Fanshatv,

    ALL-OBEDIENT, a. Entirely obedient. Crashaw.

    ALL-OBEYTNG, a. [See Obey.] Receiving obedience from all. Shak.

    ALL-OBLIV'IOUS, a. Causing total obliv- ion. Shak.

    ALL-OBSeU'RING, a. Obscuring every thing. King.

    ALL-PA'TIENT, a. Enduring every thing witiiout nuiriuurs. Mitford.

    ALL-PEN'ETRATING, a. Penetrating ev- ery thing. Stafford. ,VLL-PER'FECT, a. Completely perfect; having all perfection.

    ALL-PER'FE€TNESS, n. The perfection

    of the whole ; entire perfection. More

    \LL-PIER'CING, a. Piercing every thing.


    ALL-POW'ERFUL, rt. Almighty ; omniiio

    tent, Swijl.

    ALL-PRAISED, a. Praised by all. Shak

    ALL-RULING, a. Governing all things. Milton.

    ALL-SAGA'CIOUS, a. Having all sagacity ; of perfect discei-nment.

    ALL-SAINTS-DAY, n. The first day of November, called also all hallows ; a feast in honor of all the saints.

    \LL-SAN€'TIFYING, a. Sanctifying the whole. ff^est.

    ALL-SA'VING, a. Saving all. Selden.

    ALL-SEARCH'ING, a. Pervading and seacbing every thing. South.

    ALL-SEE'ING, a. Seeing every thing.


    ALL-SEE'R, n. One that sees every thing. Shak.

    ALL-SHA'KING, fi. Shaking all things. Shak.

    ALL-SHUN'NED, a. Shmmed by all. Shak.

    ALL-SOULS-DAY, »i. The second day of November ; a feast or solenmity held by the church of Rome, to supplicate for the soids of the faithfijl deceased.

    ALL'-SPICE, n. The berry of the pimento, a tree of the West Indies ; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aro- matic.

    ALL-SUFFI"CIENCY, 7i. Complete or in- finite aliilitv. Hall.

    ALL-SUFFI''CIENT, a. Sufiicient to every thing ; inflnitelv able. Hooker.

    ALL-SUFFI"CIENT, n. The all-sufficient Being; God. Whitlock.

    ALL-SURROUND'ING, a. Encompassing the whole.

    ALL-SURVEY'ING, n. [See Survey.] Sur- veying every thing. Sandys.

    ALL-SUSTA'INING, a. Upholding all things. Beaumont.

    ALL-TELL'ING, a. TelUng or divulging every thing. Shak.

    \LL-tRI'UMPHING, a. Triumphant eve- ry where or over all. Jonson.

    \LL-WaTCH'ED, a. Watched throughout, Shak

    ALL-WI'SE, a. Possessed of infinite wis- dom. South.

    ALL-WIT'TED, a. Having all kinds of wit Jonson

    ALL-WOR'SHIPED, a. Worshiped oi adored by all. Milton

    ALL-WOR'THY, a. Of infinite worth ; of the highest worth.

    AL'LAGITE, n. A mineral, of a brown or green color, massive, with a flat conchoi- dal fracture, and nearly opake, found in the Ilartz near Elbingerode. Phillips.

    AL'LANITE, n. A mineral named from Mr. Allan, of Edinburgh, who first recog- nized it as a distinct species. It is massive- of a brownish black color, and conchoidal fracture. A sUiceous oxyd of cerium.

    Cleaveland. Jameson. Ure.

    ALLANTOIS' or ALLANTOID', n. [Gr. ax>.as, a sausage, and fiSo;, form.]

    A thin membrane, situated between the cho- rion and amnios in quadrupeds, and form- ing one of the membranes which invest the fetus in those animals. Ed. Encyc.

    AL'LATRATE, v. t. [L. allatro.]

    To bark, as a dog. [J^oi used.] Stubbes.

    ALLA'Y, V. t. [Sax. alecgan, alegan, to lay. to set, to depress, lecgan, to lay, to cast or strike down ; G. legen, D. kggen, to lay

    Gr. ^»;yu. The Fr. allier, to alloy, Sp. ligar, seems to be directly from the L. ligo, to bind ; but this may be the same word difiereiuly applied, that is, to set, to fix, to make fast, to unite. Allay and alloy were formerly used indifierently ; but! have recognized an entire distinction be- tween them, applying alloy to metals.]

    1. To make quiet; to pacify, or appease ; as, to allay the tumult of the passions, or to allay civil commotions.

    2. To abate, mitigate, subdue or destroy ; as, to allay grief or pain.

    Females, who soften and allay the bitterness of adversity. Rawle.

    3. To obtund or repress as acrimony ; as, to' allay the acrid qualities of a substance.

    4. Formerly, to reduce the purity of ; as, to allay metals. Birt, in this sense, alloy is now exclusively used. [See Alloy.]

    ALLA'Y, n. Formerly, a baser metal mixed with a finer ; but in this sense it is now written alloy, which see.

    2. That which allays, or abates the predom- inant qualities ; as, the allay of colors.

    JVeictoit. Also, abatement ; diminution by means of some mixture ; as, joy without allay. But alloy is now more generally used.

    ALLA'YED, pp. Layed at rest ; quieted ; tranqiulized ; abated ; [reduced by mixture. Obs.]

    ALLA'YER, n. He, or that, which allays.

    ALLA'YING, ppr. Quieting ; reducing to tranquilUty ; abating ; [reducing by mixt- ure. Obs.]

    ALLA'YMENT, n. The act of quieting, or a state of tranquillity ; a state of rest after disturbance ; abatement ; ease ; as, the allayment of grief. Shak.

    AL'LE, n. ally. The little auk, or black and white diver.

    ALLEC'TIVE, a. Alluring. [JYot used.]


    ALLEC'TIVE, n. Allurement. [.Vol u.^ed.] Eliot.

    ALLEDgE' 1'. t. [L. allego, ad and lego, to send ; Fr. alleguer ; Sp. alegar ; Port, aile- gar ; It. allegare. This is only a modified application of the Eng. lay ; Ij. loco, to set, or throw. See Class L g.]

    1. To declare ; to affirm ; to assert ; to pro- nounce with positiveness ; as, to alledge a fact.

    2. To produce as an argument, plea or ex- cuse ; to cite or quote ; as, to alledge the authority of a judge.

    ALLEDG'ED, pp. Affirmed ; asserted, whether as a charge or a plea.

    ALLEDg'ER, n. One who affirms or de- clares.

    ALLED(i'ING, ppr. Asserting; averring; declaring.

    ALLEGA'TION, n. Aflii-mation ; positive assertion or declaration.

    2. That which is affirmed or asserted ; that which is offered as a plea, excuse or justifi- cation.

    3. In ecclesiastical courts, a formal complaint, or declaration of charges.

    ALLEGE. [See M^dge.] ALLEG'EABLE, a. That maybe alledged.

    [JVot used.] Brown.

    ALLE'GEAS, or A LLE'GIAS, n. A slutf

    manufactured in the East Indies, of twt




    kinds, one of cotton, the other of variou plants which are spun like flax. Encyc.

    ALLEG'EMENT, 7!. Allegation. [A^o^intt^e.]

    ALLEGHA'NEAN, a. Pertaining to the mountains called Alleghany, or Alle- ghenny.

    ALLEGHA'NY, n. The chief ridge of the great chains of mountains which run from N. East to S. West through the middle and southern states of North America ; but, more appropriately, the main or un broken ridge, which casts all the waters on one side to the east, and on the other side to the west. This ridge runs from Pennsylvania to Georgia, and chains e.x- tend through the U. States.

    This name is given also to the river Ohio, above its confluence with the Mo- nongahela ; but improperly, as the Indian name of the river to its source is Ohio.

    ALLE'GIANCE, n. [Old Fr. from L. alligo, of arf and ligo, to bind. See Liege and Leagiie.]

    The tie or obligation of a subject to his Prince or government ; the duty of fidelity to a king, government or state. Every native or citizen owes allegiance to the government under which he is born. This is called natural or implied allegiance, which arises from the connection of a per son with the society in which ho is born, and his duty to be ii t'liilil'iil sulijcct, inde- pendent of any expic-- |ii uinisc. Express allegiance, is that iililii;ati(iii which pro- ceeds from an express promise, or oath of fideUty.

    Local or temporary allegiance is due from an alien to the government or state in which he resides. Blackstone.

    ALLE'(iIANT, a. Loyal. [ATot used.] Shak.

    ALLEGOR'I€, > a. In the manner of al-

    ALLEGOR'IeAL, ^ legory ; figurative ; describing by resemblances.

    ALLEGOR'IeALLY, adv. In a figurative manner ; bv way of allegory.

    ALLEGOR'i€ALNESS, n. ^lie quaUty of being allegorical.

    AL'LEGORIZE, v. t. To form an allegory; to turn into allegory ; as, to allegorize the history of a people. Campbell.

    2. To understand in an allegorical sense ; as, when a passage in a writer may be under- stood literally or figuratively, he who gives it a figurative sense is said to allegorize it.

    AL'LEGORIZE, v.i. To use allegory; as, a man may allegorize, to please his fancy.

    AL'LEGORIZED, pp. Tm-ned into allegory, or understood allegorically.

    AL'LEGORiZING,;)j9r. Turning into alle- gory, or understanding in an allegorical sense.

    AL'LEGORY, n. [Gr. aitx^yopia, of a%%0!, other, and ayopfvu, to speak, from oyopa, a forum, an oration.]

    A figurative sentence or discourse, in which the principal subject is described by an- otlier subject resembling it in its properties and circumstances. The jirincipal subject is thus kept out of view, and we are left to collect the intentions of the writer or speaker, by the resemblance of the secon dary to the primary subject. Allegory ii in words what hieroglyphics are in'paint ing. We have a fine example of an alle gory in the eightieth psalm, in which God'i chosen people are represented by a vine-

    yard. The distinction in scripture betw a parable and an allegory, is said to be that a parable is a supposed history, and an allegory, a figurative description of real facts. An allegory is called a continued metaphor. The following Une in Virgil ' an example of an allegory. Claudite jam rivos, pueri, sat prata biberuiit. Stop the currents, young men, the mead- ows have drank suSiciently ; that is, let your music cease, our ears have been suf- ficiently delighted. Encyc.

    ALLEGRET'TO, [from allegro,] dcn( in music, a movement or time quicker than andante, but not so quick as allegro.

    Rousseait. Busby.

    ALLE'GRO. [It. merry, cheerful ; It. leg-

    flere ; Sp. ligero ; Fr. leger, light, nimble, ee Light.]

    In music, a word denoting a brisk movement ; a sprightly part or strain ; the quickest except presto. Piu allegro is a still quicker movement. Roit-sseau. Encyc.

    IaLLELU'IAH, n. [Heb. H'-lSSn, praise to

    1 Jah.]

    [Praise to Jehovah ; a word used to denote pious joy and exultation, chiefly in hymns and anthems. The Greeks retained the word in their E»,f7.fti Irj, praise to lo ; probably a corruption of Jah. The Ro mans retained the latter word in their lo triumphe.

    ALLEMAND', n. A slow air in common time, or grave, solemn music, with a slow movement. Also a brisk Sauce, or a figure in dancing. Diet, of Music.

    ALLEMAN'Nl€,a. Belonging to the Ale anni, ancient Germans, and to Alemannia, their country. The word is generally sup- posed lo be composed of all and manni, all men. Cluver, p. G8. This is probably an error. The word is more probably com- posed of the Celtic all, other, the root of Latin alius and man, place ; one of ano- ther place, a stranger. The Welsh all- man is thus rendered, and this seems to be the original word. Owen, ii'elsh Did

    The name, Alemanni, seems to have been first given to the Germans who invaded Gaul in the reign of Augustus.

    Cluver, Germ. Antiq.

    ALLER'ION, n. In heraldry, an eagle with- out beak or feet, with expanded wings denoting Imperialists vanquished and dis- armed. Encyc.

    .■VLLEVEU'R, n. A small Swedish coin, value about a cent. Encyc.

    ALLE'VIATE, v. t. [Low L. Mevio ; ad and levo, to raise, lexfis, light ; Fr. lever ; It, levare, to raise ; Sp. llevar, to carry, le- vantar, to raise, and leyante, a rising, and the eastern coasts of' the Mediterranean the east, so called from the rising of the sun, hke oriental, fi-om orior, to rise ; Sax Mifian, to be eminent. See Lift.]

    1. To make light ; but always in a figurative sense, as it is not applied to material ob- jects. To remove in part ; to lessen, miti- gate, or make easier to be endured ; ap- plied to evils ; as, to a//cw"a

    |2. To make less by representation ; to lessen the magnitude or criminality ; to extenu-

    I ate ; applied to mora] conduct ; as, to alle-

    viate an offense. [This sense of the word is

    ALLEVIATED,;);?. Made lighter ; mitiga- ted ; eased ; extenuated.

    ALLE'VIATING, ppr. Making lighter, or more tolerable ; extenuating.

    ALLEVIA'TION, n. The act of lightening, allaying, or extenuating ; a lessening or mitigation.

    2. That which lessens, mitigates or makes more tolerable ; as, the sympathy of a friend is an alleviation of grief.

    I have not wanted such alleviations of life, as friendship could supply. Dr. Johnson's letter to Mr. Hector. Boawell.

    This use of alleviation is hardly legiti- mate without supplying some word ex- pressing evil, as trouble, sorrow, &c.

    Without such alleviations of the cares oi troubles of life.

    ALLE'VIATIVE, n. That which mitigates. [M)t in use.]

    AL'LEY, n. al'ly. [Fr. aHee, a passage, from alter to go ; Ir. alladh. Literally, a passing or going.]

    L A walk in a garden ; a narrow passage.

    2. A narrow passage or way in a city, as distinct from a public street.

    3. A place in London where stocks are bought and sold. Ash.

    ALLIA'CEOUS, a. [L. allium, garUc] Pertaining to allium, or garlic ; having the properties of garhc. Barton.

    ALLI'ANCE, n. [Fr. alliance, from allier, Her, to tie or unite, from L. ligo, Gr. Xvyow; Sp. alianza ; Port, alianca ; It. alleanza ; from the same root as liege, league, alle- giance ; class L. g.]

    1. The relation or union between families, contracted by marriage. Dryden.

    2. The union between nations, contracted by compact, treaty or league.

    •3. The treaty, league, or compact, which is the instrument of confederacy ; some- times perhaps the act of confederating.

    4. Any union or connection of interests be- tween persons, famihes, states or corpora- tions ; as, an alliance between church and state.

    5. The persons or parties allied ; as, men or states may secure any alliances in their power. Addison.

    ALLI'ANT, n. An ally. [.Yot used.]


    ALLI"CIENCY, n. [Lat. aUicio, ad and lacio ; G. locken ; D. lokken ; Sw. locka ; Dan. lokker ; L. allecto, elicio. Class Lg-]

    The power of attracting any thing ; attrac- tion ; magnetism. [Little t<-serf.] Glanville.

    ALLI"CIENT, n. That which attracts. [JVot rised.] Robinson.

    ALLI'ED, pp. Connected by marriage, treatv or similitude. [See All'i/.]

    AL'LIGATE, v. t. [L. alligo, a^ and ligo, to bind. See Allegiance, Liege, League.]

    To tie together ; to imite by some tie.

    ALLIGA'TION, n. The act of tying to- gether; the state of being tied. [Little used.]

    2. A rule of arithmetic, for finding the price or value of compounds consisting of ingre- dients of different values. Thus if a quan- tity of sugar, worth eight cents the pound, and another quantity worth ten cents, are mixed, tlie question to be solved by alliga-


    Hon is, vrhat is the value of the mixture by the pound. Alligation is of two kinds, medial and alternate ; medial, when the rate of a mixture is sought from the and quantities of tlie simples when the quantities of the simpl sought from the rates of the simple the rate of the mixture.

    ALLIGA'TOR, n. [Properly allagarto, from the Spanish and Portuguese lagarto, lizard ; L. lacerta. The Latin word seems to be connected with lacertus, the arm ; and the animal may be named from the resemblance of his legs to arms.]

    The American crocodile. This animal is of the Uzard genus, having a long naked body, four feet, with five toes on thej fore feet, and four on the hind, arm- ed with claws, and a serrated tail. The' mouth is very large, and furnished with sharp teeth ; the skin is brown, tough, and, on the sides, covered with tubercles. The largest of these animals grow to the length of seventeen or eighteen feet. They live in and about the rivers in warm cli- mates, eat fish, and sometimes catch hogs, on the shore, or dogs wliich are swimming. In winter, they burrow in the earth, which they enter under water and work upwards, lying torpid till spring. The female lays a great number of eggs, which are deposited in the sand, and left to be hatched by the heat of the sun. Encyc.

    ALLIGATOR-PEAR, n. A West India fruit, resembling a pear in shape, from one to two pounds in weight, (Lawus Persea, Linne.) It contains within its rind a yellow butyraceous substance, which, when the fruit is perfectly ripe, constitutes an agreeable food. Encyc.

    ALLIG'ATURE, n. See Ligature, which is the word in use.

    ALLI'NEMENT, n. [Fr. alignement, a row, a squaring, from ligne, line ; L. linea.]

    A reducing to a hne or to a square ; a state of being in squares, in a hne, or on a level ; a line ; a row. Asiat. Res. Columhiad.

    •\L'LIOTH, n. A star in the tail of the great bear, much used for finding the latitude at sea. Encyc.

    ALLISION, n. atlizh'un. [h.allido, to dash or strike against, of ad and Icedo, to hurt by striking ; Ir. leas, a sore ; D. leed, a hurt ; D. beleedigen ; Ger. beleidigen, to hurt ; Fr. blesser, to hurt. Lcedo forms its par- ticiple Iwsus. Class. L d. L s.]

    A striking against; as, the allision of the sea against the shore. Woodward.

    ALUTERA'TION, n. [L. ad and Ultra, a letter.

    The repetition of the same letter at the be- ginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short inter- vals ; as/and g in the tbllowing line : Fields ever fresh, and groves forever green.

    ALLITERATIVE, a. Pertaming to, or consisting in, alliteration.

    ALLO€A'TION, n. [L. ad and locatio, a placing, from locus, place. See Local.]

    The act of putting one tiling to another ; hence its usual sense is the admission of an article of account, or an allowance made upon an account ; a term used in the En lish Exchequer. [See Allow.]

    Chambers. Johnson.

    AL'LOCHROITE, n. An amorphous, mass-


    ive, opake mineral, of a grayish, yellowish or reddish color, found in Norway ; con sidered as a variety of garnet. Its name is said to be given to it, as expressive of its changes of color before the blowpipe ; Gr, ayJKo;, other, and ;tpo'», color. Cleaveland. ALLO€U'TION, n. [L. allocutio, of ad amX loquor, to speak. See Eloquence.'

    1. The act or manner of speaking to, or of addressing in words.

    2. An address ; a formal address ; as, of a General to his troops; a Roman term rarely used in Enghsh. Addison. Encyc

    ALLO'DIAL, a. Pertaining to allodium ; freehold ; free of rent or service ; held independent of a lord paramount ; oppo- sed to feudal. Blackstone

    ALLODIAN is sometimes used, but is not well authorized. Cowel

    ALLO'DIUM, n. [Fr. alleu, contr. word, According to O'Brien, in his Focaloir, or Dictionaiy of the Irish, this word is the Celtic allod, ancient. According to Pont

    oppidan, it is composed of all and odh. all-property, or whole estate.]

    Freehold estate ; land which is the absolute property of the owner ; real estate held ii absolute independence, without being sub- ject to any rent, service, or acknowledg ment to a superior. It is thus opposed to feud. In England, there is no allodial land, all land being held of the king but in the United States, most lands are allodial.

    ALLONGE', n. allunj'. [Fr. allonger, to lengthen, to thrust, allonge, lengthened, of ad and long.]

    1. A pass with a sword ; a thrust made by steppuig forward and extending the arm ; a term used in fencing, often contracted into lunge.

    2. A long rein, when a horse is trotted m the hand. Johnson

    ALLOO', V. t. or i. To incite dogs by a call. Phillips ee the correct word. Halloo.] AL'LOPHANE, n. [Gr. auoj, other, and

    ivu, to appear.]

    A mineral of a blue, and sometunes of e

    green or brown color, which occurs mas

    sive, or in imitative shapes. It gelatini

    zes in acids. Ure

    AUophane is a variety of clay, occurring

    amorphous, botryoidal or reniform

    isses. Cleaveland.

    ^LhOT',v.t. [of ad and lot; Sax. Mot. See


    1. To divide or distribute by lot.

    2. To distribute, or parcel out in parts orpor tions ; or to distribute a share to each in dividual concerned.

    3. To grant, as a portion ; to give, assign oi appoint in general.

    Let every man be contented with that which providence allots to him. ALLOT'MENT, n. That which is allotted a share, part, or portion granted or dis tributed ; that which is assigned by lot, or by the act of God. 2. A part, portion or place appropriated. In a field, there is an allotment for olives. Sroome ALLOT'TED, pp. Distributed by lot ; grant

    ed ; assigned. ALLOT'TERY is used by Shakespeare for allotment ; but is not authorized by usage.


    ALLOT'TING, ppr. Distributing by lot ;

    £iving as portions; assigning. LOW, V. t. [Fr. allouer, from louer; L. loco, to lay, set, place ; W. llogi ; Norm. allutr. See Lay. Class. L g.]

    1. To grant, give or yield ; as, to allow a servant his liberty ; to allow a pension.

    2. To admit ; as, to allow the truth of a ])ropositioM ; to allotv a claim.

    •3. To admit ; to own or acknowledge ; as, to allow the right of the President to dis- place officers.

    4. To approve, justify or sanction. Ye allow the deeds of your fathers.

    Luke xi. Rom. vii.

    .5. To afford, or grant as a compensation ; as, to allow a dollar a day for wages.

    G. To abate or deduct ; as, to allow a sum for tare or leakage.

    7. To permit ; to grant hcense to ; as, to allow a son to be absent.

    ALLOWABLE, a. That may be pennitted as lawful, or admitted as true and proper ; not forbid ; not unlawful or miproper ; as, a certain degree of freedom is allowable among friends.

    ALLOW'ABLENESS, 7i. The quality of being allowable ; lawliilness ; e.xemption from prohibition, or impropriety. South.

    ALLOWABLY, adv. In an allowable man- ner ; with propriety. Lowth.

    ALLOWANCE, n. the act of allowing or admitting.

    2. Permission ; license ; approbation ; sanc- tion ; usually slight approbation.

    Locke. Shak.

    3. Admission ; assent to a fact or state of things ; a grantmg. Hooker.

    4. Freedom from restraint ; indulgence.

    5. That which is allowed ; a portion appoint- ed ; a stated quantity, as of food or drink : hence, in seamen''s language, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provis- ions fall short.

    6. Abatement ; deduction ; as, to make an allowance for the inexperience of youth.

    7. Established character ; reputation ; as, a pilot of approved oHOTflajice. Obs. Shak.

    ALLOWANCE, v. t. To put upon allow- ance ; to restrain or limit to a certain quantity of provisions or drink.

    Distress compelled the captain of the ship to allowance his crew.

    ALLOAV'ED, pp. Granted ; permitted ; as- sented to ; admitted ; apjiroved ; indulged ; appointed ; abated.

    ALLOWING, ppr. Granting ; permitting ; admitting ; approving ; indulging ; de- ducting.

    ALLOY', V. t. [Fr. allier, to unite or mix ; L. alligo, ad and ligo, to bind ; Gr. 7.V70W ; Sp. ligar, to tie or bind, to alloy or mix base metals with gold or silver, to league or confederate ; Port. id. ; It. legare. We observe that aUoy and league, alliance, ally, are from the same root. Class L g.]

    1. To reduce the piu-ity of a metal, by mixing ^vith it a portion of one less valuable ; as, to alloy gold with silver, or silver with copper.

    2. To mix metals. Lavoisier.

    3. To reduce or abate by mixture ; as, to alloy pleasure with misfortunes.

    ALL6Y', n. A baser metal mixed with a

    finer. 2. The mixture of different metals ; any me-


    A L M

    A L M

    fallic compound ; this is its common sig- nification in cliimistry.

    3. Evil mixed with good ; as, no happiness is witliout alloy.

    ALLOY' A6E, n. [Ft. alliage, from oilier.]

    1. The act of alloying metals, or the mixture of a baser metal with a finer, to reduce its purity ; the act of mixing metals.

    2. The mixture of different metals.


    ALLOY'ED, pp. 3Iixed ; reduced in purity ; debased ; abated by foreign mixture.

    ALLOY'ING, ppr. JMixing a baser metal with a finer, to reduce its purity ; abating by foreign mixture.

    ALL'SPICE. [See under the compomids of all.]

    ALLU'DE, V. i. [L. alludo, to smile upon or make sport with, of ad and ludo, to play ; Sp. Port, aliulir ; It. alludere. Class L d.]

    To refer to something not directly mention- tioned ; to have reference ; to hint at by remote suggestions ; as, that story alludes to a recent transaction.

    ALLU'DING, ppr. Having reference ; hint- ing at.

    ALLU'MINOR, n. [Fr. allumer, to hght. See i/imner.]

    One who colors or paints upon paper or parchment, giving light and ornament to letters and figures. Cowel. Encye.

    This is now written limner.

    ALLU'RE, V. t. [Fr. leurrer, to decoy, from leurre, a lure.]

    To attempt to draw to; to tempt by the oflTerofsome good, real or apparent; tc invite by something flattering or accepta- ble ; as, rewards allure men to brave dan ger. Sometimes used in a bad sense, to allure to evil ; but in this sense entice is more common. In Hosea, ii. 14, allure is used in its genuine sense ; in 2 Peter, ii. 18, in the sense of entice.

    ALLU'RED, pp. Tempted ; di-awn, or in- vited, by something that appears desira- ble.

    ALLU'REMENT, n. That which allures ; any real or apparent good held forth, or operating, as a motive to action ; tempt lion ; enticement ; as, the allurements of| pleasure, or of honor.

    ALLU'RER, ?i. He, or that, wliich allures.

    ALLU'RING, /)/>»•. Dravvmg; tempting; in viting by some real or apparent good.

    2. a. Inviting ; having the quality of attract ing or tempting.

    ALLU'RINGLY, adv. In an alluring man- ner ; enticingly.

    ALLU'RINGNESS, n. The quality of allur- ing or tempting by the prospect of some good. [Rarely used.]

    ALLU'SION, n. allitzhun. [Fr. from allusio Low L. See Allude.]

    A reference to something not explicitly men- tioned ; a hint ; a suggestion, by which something is applied or understood to be- long to that which is not mentioned, by means of some similitude which is per- ceived between them. Burnet.

    ALLU'SIVE, a. Having reference to some- thing not fully expressed. South.

    ALLU'SIVELY, adv. By way of allusion : by implication, remote suggestion or insin- uation. Hammonds

    ALLU'SIVENESS, n. The quality of being allusive. [Rarely used.]

    ALLU'VIAL, a. [See Muvion.]

    1. Pertaining to alluvion ; added to land by

    the wash of water. 3. Washed ashore or down a stream ; formed

    by a current of water ; as, alluvial ores ;

    alluvial soil. Kiruian.

    ALLU'VION, I n. [L. alluvia, of ad and ALLU VIUM, i lavo or luo, alluo, to wash.

    See iMve.]

    1. The msensible increase of earth on a shore, or bank of a river, by the force of water, as by a current or by waves. The owner of the land thus augmented has a right to the alhnial earth.

    2. A gradual washuig or carrying of earth or other substances to a shore or bank ; the earth thus added.

    .3. The mass of substances collected by means of the action of water.

    In this alluvium was found the entire skele- ton of a whale. Buckland.

    ALLU'VIOUS, a. The same as alluvial, and less frequently used.

    ALLY', V. t. [Fr. allier ; reciprocal verb, s^al- lier, to match or confederate ; from ad and Her, to tie or unite. L. ligo.]

    1. To unite, or form a relation, as between famihes by marriage, or between princes and states by treaty, league or confede- racy.

    2. To form a relation by simiUtude, resem- blance or friendship. Note. This word is more generally used in the passive form, as families are allied by blood ; or recip- rocally, as princes ally theijiselves to pow- erful states.

    ALLY' n. A prince or state united by treaty or league ; a confederate.

    The allies of Rome were slaves. -imes.

    2. One related by marriage or other tie ; but seldom apphed to individuals, except to princes in their public capacity.

    ALLY'ING, ppr. Uniting by mamage or treaty.

    AL'MACANTAR, n. [See .mmucantar.]

    ALMADIE, n. A bark canoe used by the Africans ; also a long boat used at CaU- cut, in India, eighty feet long, and six or seven broad ; called also cathuri. Encyc.

    AL'MAgEST, 11. [al and ncytsi, greatest.]

    A book or collection of problems in astron omy and geometry, dravni up by Ptolemy The same title has been given to othe works of the like kind. Encyc.

    ALMA'GRA, n. A fine deep red ocher, with an admixture of purple, ver^ heavy, dense but friable, with a rough dusty surface. It is the sil atticum of the ancients. It is austere to the taste, astringent, melting the mouth and staitiing the skin. It is used as a paint and as a medicine. Encyc.

    aL'MANACK, 71. [Ar. al and ^i^ manacli, manack, a calendar, or diary.]

    A small book or table, containing a calen- dar of days, weeks and months, with the times of the rising of the sun and moon, changes of the moon, ecUpses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, stated terms of courts, observations on the weath er, &c. for the year ensuing. This calen- dar is sometimes published on one side of a single sheet, and called a sheet-almanack.

    The Baltic nations formerly engraved their

    calendars on pieces of wood, on swords, helves of axes, and various other utensils, and especially on walking sticks. Many of these are jjreserved in the cabinets of the curious. They are called by difterent nations, rimstocks, primstaries, runstocks, runslaffs, clogs, &c.

    The characters used are generally the Runic or Gothic.

    Junius. Encyc. Tooke''s Russia.

    ALMANACK-MAKER, n. A maker of al- manacks.

    AL'MANDINE, n. [Fr. and It.] In mine- ralogy, precious garnet, a beautiful mineral of a red color, of various shades, some- times tinged with yellow or blue. It is commonly translucent, sometimes trans- parent. It occurs crystalized in the rhom- bic dodecahedron. Phillips.

    AL'ME, or AL'MA, n. Gnls in Egjpt, whose occupation is to amuse company with singing and dancing. Encyc. Savary.

    .\LME'NA, 91. A weight of two pounds, used to weigh saffron in several parts of Asia. Sp. Diet.

    ALMI'GIITINESS, n. Omnipotence ; infi- nite or boundless power ; an attribute of God only.

    ALMIGHTY, Mght.]

    Possessing all power ; oimiipotent ; being of unlimited might ; being of boundless suf- ficiency ; appropriately applied to the Su- preme Being.

    ALMIGHTY, 11. The Omnipotent God.

    ,\L'MOND, n. [Fr. amande ; It. mandola ; Sp. almendra ; Germ, mandel.]

    1. The fi-uit of the almond tree ; an ovate, compressed nut, perforated in the pores. It is either sweet or bitter. [It is popu-

    [all and mighty. See

    larly pronounced ammond.]

    JVicholson. Encyc.

    2. The tonsils, two glands near the basis of the tongue, are called almonds, fi-om their resemblance to that nut; ^iilgularly, but improperly, called the almonds of the ears, as they belong to the throat.

    Qiiincy. Johnson.

    3. In Portugal, a measure by which wine is sold, twenty-six of which make a pipe.

    Encyc. [But in Portuguese it is written almude.]

    I. Among lapidaries, almonds signify pieces of rock crystal, used in adorning branch candlesticks, so called from then- resem- blance to this fruit. Encyc.

    ALMOND-FURNACE, among refners, is a fiu-nace in which the slags of Utharge, left in refining sUver, are reduced to lead, by the help of charcoal ; that is, according to modern chimistrj', in which the oxyd of lead is deoxydized, and the metal revived.

    ALMOND-TREE, n. The tree which pro- duces the almond. The leaves and flow- ers resemble those of the peach, but the fruit is longer and more compressed, the green coat is thinner and drier when ripe, and the shell is not so rugged. Miller.

    ALMOND-WILLOW, n. A tree ^vith leaves of a hght green on both sides.

    Mason from Shenstone.

    AL'IMONER, 71. [See M,ns.]

    An officer whose duty is to distribute charity or ahns. By the ancient canons, every monastery was to dispose of a tenth of its

    A L M

    income in alms to the poor, and all bish- ops were obliged to keep an almoner. This title is sometimes given to a chap- lain ; as, the almoner of a ship or regi- ment.

    The Lord Almoner, or Lord High Almoner in England, is an ecclesiastical officer, generally a bishop, who has the forfeiture of all deodands, and the goods of self- nmrderers, which he is to distribute to the poor.

    The Grand Almoner, in France, is the first ecclesiastical dignitary, and has the super- intendence of hospitals. Encyc.

    ALMONRY, n. [Corrupted into ambry, aum- bry, or aumery.]

    The place where the almoner resides, or where the alms are distributed.

    ALMOST, adv. [all and most. The Saxon or- der of writing was thus : " all most who were present." Sax. Chron. p. 225. Wc now use a duplication, almost all who were present.]

    IS'early ; well nigh ; for the greatest part. Almost thou peisuadest me to be a christiaii. Acts xxvi.

    "ALMS, n. kmz. [Sax. almes ; old Eng. almesse ; Norm, almoignes ; Fr. aumunes D. aalmoes ; Sw. almosa ; Dan. almisse ; G. almosen ; L. cleemosyna ; Gr. Aii^ixoavrr;. The first syllables appear to be from Aitu,

    top'ty-] . , ,. ,

    Any tliitig given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as money, food, or clothmg, other- wise called charity.

    A lame man was" laid daily to ask an alms Acts iii.

    Cornelius gave much alms to the people. Acts

    Tenure by free alms, or frank-almoign England, is that by which the possessor is bound to pray for the soul of the donor, whether dead or alive ; a tenure by which most of the ancient monasteries and reli- gious houses in England held their lauds, as do the parochial clergy, and many ecclesiastical and eleemosynary establish- ments at this day. Land thus held was free from all rent or other service.

    Blackstone. ALMS-BASKET; ALMS-BOX; ALMS- CHEST ; vessels appropriated to receive alms. 'ALMS-DEED, n. An act of charity ; a char- itable gift. 'ALMS-FOLK, n. Persons supporting oth- ers by alms. [JVot used.] 'ALMS-GIVER, n. One who gives to the poor. Bacon.

    'ALMS-GIVING, n. The bestowinent of


    'ALMS-HOUSE, n. A house appropriated

    for the use of the poor, who are sui)ported

    by the public.

    •\LMS-MEN, I n. Persons supported

    ALMS-PEOPLE, I by charity or by pubhc

    provision. AL'MU€ANTAR, n. [Arabic] A series of| circles of the sphere passing through th center of the sun, or of a star, parallel t the horizon. It is synonymous with a parallel of altitude, whose common zenith is the vertical point.

    Bailey. Encyc. Johnson,

    ALMU€ANTAR'S STAFF. An instrument

    of box or pear-tree, having an arch of fif-

    A L O

    teen degrees, used to take observations of the sun, about the time of its rising or set- ting, to find the amplitude and the varia- tions of the compass. Encyc. Chambers. ALMU'DE, n. A wine measure in Portugal, of which twenty-six make a pipe.

    Port. Did. AL'MUG, }n. In scripture, a tree or wood AL'GUM, S about which the learned are not agreed. The most probable conjee ture is that the word denotes gummy or resinous wood in general. The Vulgate translates it ligna thyina, and the Septuagmt, ivrought-wood ; others, eb ony, bravil or pine, and the Rabbins ren der it coral. It was used for musical instruments, stair cases, &c. The thyinum is the citron tree, from Maur tania, much esteemed by the ancients for its fragrance and beauty. The almug. almugim, or algumim, or simply gummim, is most probably a gummy wood, and perhaps may be the Shittim, often men tioned in Scripture. See 1 Kings, x. 11. Calmet. Encyc. AL'NAGE, n. [Fr. aulnage, now softened into aunage ; L. ulna ; Gr. u'Kct'tj, an arm. a cubit ; W. elin ; Ir. uelen, uUe, or iiilean. an elbow, a nook, or corner. See Ell.] A measuring by the ell. AL'NAGER, or AL'NAGAR, n. A meas- urer by the eU ; a sworn officer, whose duty was to inspect and measure woolen cloth, and fix upon it a seal. This office was abolished by Statute, 11. and 12. Will 3. No duty or office of this kind exists in the United States. AL'NIGHT, n. A calie of wax with the wick in the midst. Bacon.

    AL'OE, n. al'o, plu. aloes, pronounced aloze and popularly al'oez, in three syllables, ac- cording to the Latin. [L. aloe ; Gr. a>.o)j Sp. Port. It. Fr. aloe ; Ileb. plu. D'^HN aloe trees.] In botany, a genus of monogynian hexanders, of many species ; all natives of warm cli- mates, and most of them, of the southern part of Africa. Among the Mohammedans, the aloe is a sym- bohc plant, especially in Egypt ; and every one who returns from a pilgrimage to Mecca, hangs it over his street door, as token that he has performed the journey. In Africa, the leaves of the Guinea aloe are made into durable ropes. Of one species are made fishing Unes, bow strings, stock- ings and hammocs. The leaves of another species hold rain water. ALOES, in medicine, is the inspissated juice of the aloe. The juice is collected from the leaves, which are cut and put in a tub, and when a large quantity is procured is boiled to a suitable consistence ; or it is exposed to the sun, till all the fluid par exhaled. There are several kinds sold in the shops ; as the socotrine aloes from So- cotora, an isle in the Indian ocean ; the hepatic or conunon Barbadoes aloes ; and the fetid or caballine aloes. Aloes is a stimulating stomachic purgati when taken m small doses, it is useful for people of a lax habit and sedentary hfe. Encyc.

    A L O

    AL'OES-WOOD, n. [See Agallochum.]

    ALOET'I€, > Pertaming to aloe or

    ALOET'l€AL, ^ "' aloes ; partakmg of the quahties of aloes.

    ALOET'Ie, n. A medicine consisting chiefly of aloes. Qut'ncy.

    ALOFT', adv. [a and lofl. See Loft and Luff-]

    On high ; in the air ; high above the ground ; as, the eagle soars aloft. In seamen's language, in the top ; at the mast head ; or on the higher yards or rig- ging. Hence on the upper part, as of a building.

    ALO'GIANS, 71. [a neg. and >.oyo5, word.]

    In chxirch history, a sect of ancient heretics, who denied Jesus Christ to be the Logos,^ and consequently rejected the gospel of St. John. Buck. Encyc.

    AL'OGOTROPHY, n. [Gr. oOoyos, uiyeason- able, and rpoijjJ?, nutrition.]

    A disproportionate nutrition of the parts of the body, as when one part receives more or less nourishment and growth than an- other. Bailey.

    AL'OGY, n. [Gr. a and >,oyo5.]

    Unreasonableness; absurdity. Obs. Brown.

    ALO'NE, a. [all and one ; Germ, allein ; D. alleen ; Sw. allena ; Dan. allene.']

    1. Single ; soUtary ; without the presence of another ; applied to a person or thing.

    It is not good that man should be alone. Gen. ii. [This adjective follows its noun.]

    2. It is applied to two or more persons or tlungs, when separate fi-om others, in a place or condition by themselves ; with- out company.

    And when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples. Mark, iv.

    .3. Only.

    Thou whose name alone is Jehovah. Ps. Ixxxiii.

    This sense at first appears to be adver- bial, but really is not ; whose name single, solitary, without another, is Jehovah.

    To let alone is to suflTer to rest ; to forbear molesting or meddling with ; to suffer to remain in its present state. Alone, in this ])lirase, is an adjective, the word to which it refers being omitted ; let me alone ; let them alone ; let it alone ; that is, suffer it to be unmolested, or to remain as it is, or let it remain by itself

    ALO'NE, adv. Separately ; by itself

    ALO'NELY, a. or adv. Only; merely; singly. [JVot used.] Gower.

    ALO'NENESS, n. That state which be- longs to no other. [JVot used.] Montague.

    ALONG', adv. [Sax. and-lang or ond-lang ; Fr. au long, le long. See Long. The Sax- ons always prefixed and or ond, and the sense seems to be, by the length, or oppo- site the length, or in the direction of the length.]

    1. By the length ; lengthwise ; in a line with the length ; as, the troops marched along the bank of the river, or along the high- way. 1 Sam. vi.

    2. Onward ; in a line, or with a progressive motion ; as, a meteor glides along the sky ; let us walk along.

    I along signifies the whole length ; through the whole distance ; in the whole way or length.



    A L T

    ■Ahv)^, tvith signifies in company ; joined witi) ; as, Go along with us. Sometimes mth is omitted ;

    Come then, my friend, my genius, come along. Pope.

    Along side, in seamen's language, that is, by the length or in a line with the side, signi- fies side by side, as by another ship or by the side of a wharf.

    ^long shore is by the shore or coast, length- wise, and near the shore.

    Lying along is lying on the side, or pressed down by the weight of sail. Mar. Did.

    ALONGST', adv. Along ; through or by the length. Ol)S. Knolles.

    ALOOF', adv. [Probably from the root of leave, to depart.]

    1. At a distance, but within view, or at a small distance, in a literal sense ; as, to stand aloof.

    2. In a figurative sense, not concerned in a design ; decUning to take any share, im- plying clrcum.spection ; keeping at a dis- tance from the point, or matter in debate.

    AL'OPECY, n. [Gr. aX«rtj;|, a fox, whose urine is said to occasion baldness.]

    A disease, called the fox-evil or scurf, which is a falling oft' of the hau-, from any part of the body. Qiiincy. Encyc. Bailey.

    ALO'SA,M. A fish of passage, called the shad, or mother of herrings, a species of Clu- pea. It is an abdominal) and some natur- alists allege it to be a different species from the shad. Encyc. Diet, of Mit. Hist.

    ALOUD', adv. [a and loud ; Sax. gehJyd, clamor. See Loud.]

    Loudly ; with a loud voice, or great noise. Ciy aloud, spare not. Isa. Iviii.

    ALP, ALPS, n. [Qu. Gr. ax^o;, white ; L. albus. The Celts called all high moun- tains alpes or olbe. Cluver. Thucydides mentions a castle, In the territory of Argos, situated on a hill and called Olpas or Olp. Lib. 3. Ca. 105. Pelloutier, Hist, des Gel- tes, Liv. 1. 15. The derivation of th< word fi-om 0^05, wliite, is therefore doubt ful. In Ir. or Gaelic, ailp is a huge mass 01 lump.]

    A high mountain. The name, it is supposed, was originally given to mountains whose tops were covered with snow, and bene appropriately a])plied to the mountains of Swisserland ; so that by Alps is generally understood tlie latter mountains. But ge- ographers apply the name to any high mountains. Pinkerton.

    .\LPAG'NA, n. An animal of Peru, used as a beast of burden ; the Camelus Paco of Linne, and the Paces of Pennant. .' Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    AL'PHA, n. [Ileb. t^iSx an ox, a leader.]

    The first letter in the Greek alphabet, an- swering to A, and used to denote first or beginning.

    I am Alpha and Omega. Rev. i.

    As a numeral, it stands for one. It was merly used also to denote chief ; as, Plato was the Alpha of the wits.

    AL'PHABET, n. [Gr. aXij>a and Bijro, A and B.]

    The letters of a language arranged in the customary order ; the series of letters which form the elements of speech.

    AL'PHABET, v. t. To arrange in the order

    of an alphabet ; to form an alphabet in a hook, or designate the leaves by the letters of the alphabet.

    ALPHABETA'RIAN, n. A learner while in the A. B. C.

    ALPHABETIC, ) In the order of an

    ALPHABETICAL, J alphabet, or in the order of the letters as customarily ar- ranged.

    ALPHABET'ICALLY,(H/i>. In an alphabet- ical manner ; in the customary order of the letters.

    ALPHE'NIX, n. [al and phmnix.]

    White barley sugar, used for colds. It common sugar boiled till it will easily crack ; then poured u])on an oiled marble table, and molded into various figures.


    AL'PHEST, n. A small, having a pur- ple back and belly, with yellow sides, a smooth mouth, and thick fleshy lips ; always caught near the shore or amon, rocks. Lahrus Cinwdus, lAnne.

    Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    .\LPHON'SIN, n. A surgical instrument for extracting bullets from wounds, so called fi'om its inventor, Alphonsus Fer- rier of Naples. It consists of three branches, which close by a ring, and open when it is drawn hack. Encyc.

    .'VLPHON'SIN TABLES. Astronomical bles made by Alphonsus king of Anag^


    AL'PHUS, n. [Gr. a\^o,, white.]

    That species of leprosy called vitiligo, in hich the skin is rough, with white spots. Quincy.

    AL'PINE, a. [L. alpinus, fi-om Alpes.] Pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountain ; very high ; elevated.

    2. Growing on liigh mountains ; as, alpine plants. Milton. Thomson.

    AL'PINE, n. A kind of strawberry grow- ing on lofty hills.

    AL'PIST, or AL'PIA, 71. The seed of the fox-tail ; a small seed, used for feeding birds. Encyc.

    AL'QUIER, )i. A measure in Portugal for dry tilings, as well as liquids, containing half an alniude or about two gallons. It is called also Cantar. Port. Diet.

    AL'QUIFOU, n. A sort of lead ore, which, when bi'oke, looks like antimony. It is found in Cornwall, England ; used by potters to give a green varnish to their wares, and called potters ore. A small nii.xture of manganese gives it a blackish hue. Encyc.

    ALREAD'Y, adv. alred'dy. [all and ready. See Ready.]

    Literally, a state of complete preparation ;

    but, by an easy deflection, the sense is, at

    tliis time, or at a specified time.

    Elias is come already. Mat. xvii.

    Joseph was in Egypt already. Ex. i.

    It has reference to past tune, but may be used for a future past ; as, when you shall arrive, the business will be already com- pleted, or will have been completed al- readij.

    ^L'SO, adv. [all and so. Sax. eal and swa ; eal, all, the whole, and swa, so.]

    Likewise ; in lil

    Where your treasure is, there will your heart lie uho. Mat. xvi.

    ALT or AL'TO, a. [It. from L. alius, higli ;

    Ct'k, all, nilt, a high place ; Heb. rf^' upper, hy, high.]

    In music, a term applied to high notes in the scale. In sculpture, alto-relievo, high re- lief, is when the figures project lialf or more, without behig entirely detached from the groimd. Enaic. Cue.

    ALTAIC, or ALTA'IAN, a. [tart, a'la- tau, perhaps aZ-ta^, high mountain. Tookc

    Pertaining to the Altai, a vast ridge of moim- tains extending, in an easterly direction, through a considerable pan of Asia, and forming a boundary between the Russian and Chinese dominions.

    Pinkerton. Encyc.

    jJiL'TAR, n. [L. allure, probably from the same rootasaftws, higli ; Celtic, alt, a high place.]

    1. A mount ; a table or elevated place, on which sacrifices were anciently offered to some deity. Altars were originally made of turf, afterwards of stone, wood or horn ; some were round, others square, others triangular. They differed also in liighth, but all faced the east. The principal altars of the Jews were, the altar of in- cense, of burnt-ofterings, and of show- bread ; all of shittim wood, and covered with gold or brass. Encyc.

    3. In modem churches, the communion table ; and, figuratively, a chiu-cli ; a place of worship.

    3. In scripture, Christ is called the altar of Christians, he being the atoning sacrifice for sin.

    We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat, who serve tabernacles. Heb. xiii.

    AL'TAR-CLOTH, n. A cloth to lay upon an altar in churches.

    .\L'TAR-PIECE, n. A painting placed over the altar in a church. IVarton.

    .^.L'TAR-WISE, adv. Placed in the man- ner of an altar. Howell.

    AL'TARAgE, n. The profits arising to priests from oblations, or on account of the altar. Also, in law, altars erected in virtue of donations, before the reforma- tion, within a parochial church, for the purpose of singing a mass for deceased friends. Encyc.

    AL'TARIST, or ALTAR-THANE, n. In old laws, an appellation given to the priest to whom the altarage belonged ; also a chaplain. Cue.

    AL'TER, v. t. [Fr. alterer ; Sp. alterar ; It. alterare ; from L. alter, another. See Alien. Alter is supposed to be a contrac- tion of ox^ofcppot, alienus, of 0^.05 and


    1. To make some change in ; to make differ- ent in some particular ; to vary in some degree, without an entire change.

    My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that has gone out of my lips. Ps. Ixxxix.

    2. To change entirely or materially ; as, to cdier an opinion. In general, to alter is to change partially ; to change is more gene- rally to substitute one thing for another, or to make a material difference in a thing.

    AL'TER, V. i. To become, m some respects, different ; to vary ; as, the weather alters ahiiost daily.

    The law which alterelh not. Dan. vi.

    AL'TERABILITY, 71. The quaUty of being susceptible of alteration.




    AL'TERABLE, a. That may become dit" feieiit ; tliat may vary.

    AL'TERABLENESS, n. The quaUty of admitting alteration ; variableness.

    /kL'TERABLY, adv- In a manner that may be altered, or varied.

    AL'TERAGE, n. [From ah, to feed.]

    The breeding-, nourishing or fostering of a child. Sir J. Davits. But this is not an English word.

    AL'TERANT, a. Altering ; gradually chang- uig.

    Ai'TERANT, n. A medicine whicli, with- out a sensible operation, gradually eonects the state of the body and changes it from a diseased to a healthy condition. An al terative. Enmic. Q\dncy.

    ALTERA'TION, n. [L. alteratio.]

    The act of making different, or of varying in some particular ; an altering or partial change ; also the change made, or the loss or acquisition of quaUties not essential to the form or nature of a tiling. Thus a cold substance suffers an alteration when it becomes hot.

    AL'TERATIVE, a. Causmg alteration ; having the jiower to alter.

    AL'TERATIVE, n. A medicuie wliich, without sensible operation, gradually in- duces a change in the habit or constitu- tion and restores healthy functions. This word is more generally used than alterant.

    AL'TERCATE, I., i. [L. altercor, alterco, from alter, another.]

    To contend in words ; to dispute with zeal, heat or anger ; to wrangle.

    ALTER€A'TI0N, n. [h. altercatio.]

    Warm contention in words ; dispute can-ied on with heat or anger ; controversy ; wrangle.

    AL'TERN, a. [h. alternus, of alter, another,^

    1. Acting by turns ; one succeeding another"; alternate, which is the word generally used.

    2. In chry.Halography, exhibiting, on two parts, an upper and a lower part, feces which alternate among themselves, but which, when the two parts are compared, correspond with each other. Cleaveland.

    Altem-hase, in trigonometry, is a term used in distinction from the true base. Thus in oblique triangles, the true base is the sum of the sides, and then the difference of the sides is the altern-base ; or the true base is the difference of the sides, and then the sum of the sides is the altern-base.


    AL'TERNACY, n. Performance or actions by turns. [Little used.]

    ALTERN'AL, a. Alternative. [Liille used.]

    ALTERN'ALLY, adv. By turns. [Little used.] May.

    ALTERN'ATE, a. [L. alttmaius.]

    1. Beuigby turns ; one following the other in succession of time or place ; hence recip- rocal.

    Ana bij alternate passions fall and rise.


    2. In botany, branches and leaves are alter- nate, when they rise higher on opposite sides alternately, come out singly, and follow in gradual order. Encyc. Lee.

    Mternate alligation. [See Migation.] Mternate angles, in geometry, the internal angles made by a line cutting two paral- lels, and lying on opposite sides of the

    cutting line ; the one below the first paral- lel, and the other above the second.


    In heraldry, the first and fourth quarters and the second and third, are usually ol the same nature, and are called alternate quarters.

    ALTERN'ATE, n. That which happens by tiu-ns with something else; vicissitude,


    AL'TERNATE, v. t. [L. alterno. See Alter. With the accent on the second syllable the participle alternating can liardly be pronounced.]

    To perform by turns, or in succession ; to cause to succeed by turns ; to change thing for another reciprocally ; as, God alternates good and evil.

    AL'TERNATE, v. i. To happen or to acl by turns; as, the flood and ebb tides o/«er- note with each other.

    2. To follow reciprocally in place.

    Difl'erent species alternating with each oth- er. Kirwan

    ALTERN'ATELY, adv. In reciprocal suc- cession ; by turns, so that each is succeed- ed by that which it succeeds, as night fol- lows" day and day follows night.

    ALTERN'ATENESS, n. The quality ol being alternate, or of following m sucees

    AL'TERNATING, ppr. Performing or fol- lowing by turns.

    ALTERNA'TION, n. The reciprocal suc- cession of things, in time or place ; the act of following and being followed in succession ; as, we observe the alternation of day and night, cold and heat, summer and winter.

    2. The different changes or alterations o orders, in numbers. Thus, if it is required to know how many changes can be rung on six bells, multiply the numbers 1, 2, .3, 4, 5, 6, continually into one another, and the last product is the number required, This is called permutation.

    .3. The answer of the congregation speaking alternately with the minister.

    4. Alternate performance, in the choral sense. Mc

    ALTERN'ATIVE, a. [Fr. allematif.]

    Offering a choice of -two tilings.

    ALTERN'ATIVE, n. That which may be chosen or omitted ; a choice of two things, so that if one is taken, the other must be left. Thus, when two things oflTer a choice of one only, the two things are called alter- natives. In strictness, then, the word can not be appUed to more than two thingi and when one thing only is offered for choice, it is said there is no alternative.

    Between these alternatives there is no mid- dle ffiound. Crunch

    ALTERN'ATIVELY, adv. In the manner of alternatives ; in a manner that admits the choice of one out of two things.

    ALTERN'ATIVENESS, n. The quality or state of being alternative.

    ALTERN'ITY, n. Succession by turns; alternation.

    ALTHE'A, 71. [Or. aJ.9oia, from a%9a, or, to heal.]

    In botany, a genus of polyandrian mona- delphs, of several species ; called in Eng- lish marsh-malloiD.

    Tlie common species has a perennial root.

    and an annual stalk rising four or five feet. It abounds with mucilage, and is used as an emolhent. Encyc.

    ALTHO'UGH, altho', obs. verb, or used only in the Imperative, [all and though ; from Sax. thah, or theah ; Ir. daighim, to give ; Ger. doch ; D. dog ; Sw. doch, and endoch ; Dan. dog, though. See Though.]

    Grant all this ; be it so ; allow all ; suppose that; admit all that; as, '^although the fig-tree shall not blossom." Hab. iii. That is, grant, admit or suppose what follows — " the fig-tree shall not blossom." It is a transitive verb, and admits after it the definitive that — although that the fig-tree shall not blossom ; but this use of the verb, has been long obsolete. The word may be defined by notwithstanding, non obstan- te ; as not opposing may be equivalent to admitting or supposing.

    ALTIL'OQUENCE, n. [L. alius, high, and loquor, loquens, speiddng.]

    Lofty speech ; pomiious language.

    ALTIM'ETER, n. [L. altus, high, and Gr. fiitfov, measure. See Measure and Mode.]

    An mstruraent for taking altitudes by geo- metrical principles, as a geometrical quad- rant.

    ALTIM'ETRY, n. The art of ascertaining altitudes by tneans of a proper instrument, and by trigonometrical principles without actual mensuration.

    AL'TIN, ?i. A money of account in Russia, value three kopecks, or about three cents ; also a lake in Siberia, ninety miles in length. Tooke. Encyc.

    ALTIN'€AR, n. A species of factitious salt or powder, used in the ftision and purifi- cation of metals, prepared in various ways. [See Tincal.] Encyc.

    ALTIS'ONANT, ? a. [L. altus, high, and

    ALTIS'ONOUS, ^ sonans, sounding; sonus, sound.]

    High soundmg, lofty or pompous, as lan-

    £uage. Evelyn.

    'TITUDE, n. [h. altitudo, of altus, high, and a common termination, denoting state, condition or manner.]

    1. Space extended upward; highth; the elevation of an object above its founda- tion ; as, the altitude of a mountain, or column ; or the elevation of an object or place above the surface on which we stand, or above the earth ; as, the attitude of a cloud or a meteor ; or the elevation of one object above another ; as, of a bird above the top of a tree.

    2. The elevation of a point, a star, or other object above the horizon. This is true or apparent altitude ; true, when taken from the rational or real horizon ; apparent, when taken from the sensible, or apparent horizon.

    3. Figuratively, high degree ; superior ex- cellence; highest point of excellence.

    He is proud to the altitude of his virtue.


    The altitude of the eye, in perspective, is a right Hue let fall fi-om the eye, perpendic- ular to the geometrical plane. Encyc.

    Meridian altitude is an arch of the merid- ian between the horizon and any star or point on the meridian.

    ALTIV'OLANT, a. [L. altus, lugh, and ro- Inns, flying.]

    Flying high.

    A L U

    A M

    A M A

    Al.'TO. [It. fioni L. alius.] High.

    .Ilto and Basso, high and low, in old terms used to signify a suhiiiissioii of all differences of every kind to arbitration.

    AJVTO-0€TA'VO. [It.]

    An octave higher.


    High relief, iii sculpture, is the projection of a figure half or more, without being en tirely detached. Cyc.

    AL'TO-RIPIE'NO. [It.]

    The tenor of the great chorus, whicli and plays only in particular places. Encyc.

    AL'TO-VIOLA. [It.]

    A small tenor viol.

    AL'TO-VIOLINO. [It.]

    A small tenor violin.

    ALTOGETH'ER, adv. [all and togethe See Together.]

    Wholly ; entirely ; completely ; without ex- ception.

    Every man at his best estate is altogether vanity. Ps. xxxix.

    AL'UDEL, n. [a and lutum, without lute. Lunier.]

    In chimistry, aludcls are earthern pots with- out bottoms, tliat they may be e.\actly fit- ted into each other, and used in subfima- tioiis. At the bottom of the furnace is a pot containing the matter to be sublimed, and at the top a head to receive the vola- tile matter. Quincy. Encyc.

    AL'UM, n. [L.alumen.]

    A triple sulphate of alumina and pota.ssa. This substance is white, transparent and very astringent ; but seldom found pure or crystalized. This salt is usually pre- pared by roasting and lixiviating certain clays containing pyrites, and to the lye adding a certain quantity of potassa ; the salt is then obtained by crystalization. Alum is of great use in medicine and the arts. In medicine, it is used as an astrin- gent ; internally, in henioptoe, diarrhea, and dysentery ; externally, as a styptic applied to bleeding vessels, and as an es- oharotic. In the arts, it is used in dyeing to fix colors ; in making candles, for hard- ening the tallow ; in tanning, for restoring the cohesion of skins.

    Encyc. Fourcroy. Webster^s Manual.

    ALUM-EARTH, n. A massive mineral, of a blackish brown color, a dull luster, and soft consistence. Ure.

    AL'UMIN, ) n. An earth, or earthy sub-

    VLU'MINA, ^ stance, which has been con- sidered to be elementary, and called pure clay ; but recently, chimical experiments have given reason to beUeve it to be a metallic oxyd, to the base of which has been given the name aluminum. This metallic base however has not been ob- tained in such a state as to make its pro- perties susceptible of examination. Alum- ina is destitute of taste aud smell. When moistened with water, it forms a cohesive and ductile mass, susceptible of being kneaded into regular forms.

    Dam/. Cyc. Webster's Manual.

    ALU'MINIFOliM, a. Having the form of alumina. Chnptal.

    AL'UMINITE, n. Subsulphate of alumina; a mineral that occurs in small roundish or reniform masses. Its color is snow white or yellowish white.

    Aikin. Jameson. Cleaveland.l

    Vol. I.

    ALU'MINOUS, a. Pertaining to alum oi alumina, or partaking of the same proper- ties.

    ALU'MINUM, n. The name given to the supposed metallic base of alumina.


    AL'UMISH, a. Having the nature of alum ; somewhat resembling ahun.

    ALUM-SLATE, n. A mineral of two spe cies, conunon and glossy.

    ALUM-STONE, n. The siliceous subsul phatc of alumina and potash. Cleaveland.

    ALU'TA, n. [L.] A species of leather- stone, soft, pliable atid not laminated.


    ALUTA'TION, n. [L. alula, tanned leath- er.]

    The tanning of leather.

    AL'VEARY, n. [L. alvearium, alveare, a bee hive, from alvus, the belly.]

    The hollow of the external ear, or bottom of the concha. Qidncy.

    AL'VEOLAR, ? a. [L. alveolus, a socket.

    \L'VEOLARY, S from alveus, a hollow ves ael.]

    Containing sockets, hollow cells or pits ; per- taining to sockets. Anatomy.

    AL'VEOLATE, a. [L. alveolatus, from al- eus, a hollow vessel.]

    Deeply pitted, so as to resemble a honej- comb. Martyn

    AL'VEOLE, ? ri 1- e 1 i

    AL'VEOLUS, \ "■ [L- ''™- of '^»'^»«-]

    1. A cell in a bee hive, or in a fossil.

    2. The socket in the jaw, m which a tooth is fixed.

    3. A sea fossil of a conic figure, composed of] a tunnlier of cells, like bee-hives, joined by a pipe of communication. Encyc.

    AL'VEOLITE, n. [L. alveolus, and Gr.


    Ill natural history, a kind of stony polypiers, of a globular or hemi.spherical shape formed by umnerous concentric beds, each composed of a union of httle cells.

    Diet, of JSi'at. Hist.

    AL'VINE, a. [from alvus, the belly.]

    Belonging to the belly or intestines.


    ALAVAR'GRIM, n. The spotted plover, Charadrius Apricarius. Pennant.

    AL'WAY or AL'WAYS, adv. [all and loay ; Sax. eal, and toeg, way ; properly, a going, at all goings ; hence, at all times.]

    1. Perpetually ; throughout all time ; as, God is always the same.

    2. Continually ; without variation.

    3. Continually or constantly during a certain period, or regularly at stated intervals.

    Mephiboshelh shall eat bread alway at my ta- ble. 2 Sam. ix.

    4. At all convenient times ; regularly. Cornelius prayed to God alway. Acts x.

    Luke xviii. Eph. vi.

    Alway is now seldom used. The applica- tion of this compound to time proceeds from the primary sense of way, which is a going or passing ; hence, contuiuation

    A. M. stand for Artium Magister, master of arts, the second degree given by universi- ties and colleges ; called in some conn tries, doctor of philosophy. In America this degree is conferred without examina- tion, on bachelors of three years standing

    8 "

    A. M. stand also for Anno Mundi, in tJn

    i year of the world.

    AM, the first person of the verb to be, in tlif indicative mode, present tense. Sax. com : Gr. it/xt ; Goth, im ; Pers. am. I AM that 1 AM. Ex. iii.

    A'MA, or H.VMA, n. [D. aam, a vessel.]

    In church affairs, a vessel to contain wine ibi- the eucharist ; also, a wine measure, as ii cask, a pipe, &c. Enaic.

    AMABIL'ITY, 71. [h. amaUlis, from amo. to love.]

    Loveliness ; the power of pleasing, or rather the combination of agreeable qualities which win the aflfections. Taylor.

    AMAD'AVAD, n. A small curious bird ot the size of the crested wren ; the upper part of the body is brown, the prime feath- ers of the wings black.

    Diet. ofJ\rat. Hist.

    AMADET'TO, n. A sort of pear, so called,

    it is said, from a person who cultivated it.


    AMAD'OGADE, n. A small beautiful bird in Peru ; the upper part of its body and wings are of a lively green, its breast red, and its belly white. Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    AM'ADOT, J^. A sort of pear. Johnson.

    AM'ADOU, n. A variety ofthe boletus ignia- rius, found on old ash and other trees.


    This is written also amadow, and called black match, and pyrotechnical spunge, on accoimt of its inflammability. Cyc.

    AMA'IN, adv. [Sax. a and mcegn, force, strengtli. See May, Might.]

    With force, strength or violence ; violently ; furiously ; suddenly ; at once.

    WTiat, when we fled amain. Milton.

    Let go aviain, in seamen's language, or strike amain, is to let fall or lower at once.

    Mar. Diet.

    A3IAL'GAM, 71. [Gr. na^aiyfta, from fuiAaasu, soften. Its usual derivation is certainly •oneous.]

    1. A mixture of mercui-y or quicksilver with another metal ; any metallic alloy, of which mercury forms an essential constituent part. Cyc.

    2. A mixture or compoimd of different things. Burke.

    AMALGAMATE, v. t. To mix quicksilver with another metal. Gregory uses amal- gamize.

    2. To mix different things, to make a com- pound ; to unite.

    ABIAL'GAMATE, v. i. To mix or unite in an amalgam ; to blend.

    AMALGAMATED,/!;). Mixed with quick- silver; blended.

    AMAL'GAMATING, ;>;»•. Mixing quicksil- ver with another metal ; compounding.

    AMALGAMA'TION, n. The act or opera- tion of mixing mercury with another metal. Encyc.

    2. The mixing or blending of different things.

    AM'ALOZK, n. A large aquatic fowl of Mexico. Did. of J^'at. Hist.

    AMAN'DOL.\, n. A green marble, having the ajipearance of honey comb, and con- taining white spots ; of 100 parts, 76 are mild calcarious earth, 20 shist and 2 iron. The cellular appearance proceeds from the shist. Kirwmi. .Vicholson.

    A M A

    A M B

    A M B

    AMANUEN'SIS, n. [L. fyommmnis, band.] A person whose employment is to write what

    another dictates. AM'ARANTH, ) n. [Gr. a>.aporro5, of o AMARANTH'lIS, \ neg. and fiopoii-w, to decay ; so called, it is said, because, when croj)ped, it does not soon wither.] Flower-gentle; a genus of plants, of many species. Of these the tricolored has long been cidtivated in gardens, on account of the beauty of its variegated leaves.


    /VjM'ARANTH, n. A color inclinijig to pur- ple. Cyc.

    AMARANTH'INE, a. Belonging to ama- ranth ; consisting of, containing, or resem- bling amaranth.

    AMAR'ITUDE, n. [L. amaiitudo, from ama- rus, bitter ; from Heb. ID bitter.]

    Bitterness. [JVot much used.^

    AMARYL'LIS, n. [The name of a country girl in Theocritus and Virgil.]

    \nhotany, lily-daffodil, a genus of lihaceoiis plants of several species, which are cidti- vated ill gardens for the beauty of their flowers. Encyc

    AM'ASS, V. t. [Fr. amasser ; It. anunassare L. massa, a heap or lump ; Gr. ^uofo. See Mass.]

    1. To collect into a heap; to gather a great quantity ; to accumulate ; as, to amass a treasure.

    2. To collect in great numbers ; to add many things together ; as, to amass words or phrases.

    AlVrASS, re. An assemblage, heap or accu- mulation. [Tliis is superseded by Mass.]

    AM'ASSED, pp. Collected in a heap, or in a great quantity or number ; accumulated

    AM'ASSING, ppr. Collecting in a heap, or in a large quantity or number.

    AlVrASSMENT, n. A heap collected large quantity or number brought togeth- er ; an accumulation.

    AMA'TE, V. i. [See Mate.] To accompany also to terrify, to perplex. [.Yot used.]

    AMATEU'R, 11. [Fr., from L. amator, i lover, from amo, to love.]

    A person attached to a ])articular pursuit study or science, as to music or pamting one who has a taste for the arts. Burke.

    AMATO'RIAL, ? a. [L. amatorius, from amo,

    AMATORY, <, to love.]

    I. Relating to love ; as, anialonal verses ; cau- sing love ; as, amatory potions ; produced by sexual intercourse ; as, amatorial pro- geny. Darwin.

    •2. In anatomy, a term applied to the oblique muscles of the eye, from their use oghng.

    .\MAT0'RIALLY, adv. In an amatorial manner ; by way of love. Danoin.

    AMAURO'SIS, n. [Gr. a^avpof, obscure

    A loss or decay of sight, without any visible defect in the eye, except an immovable pupil ; called also gutta serena. Some times the disease is periodical, coming on suddenly, continuing for hours or days, and then disappearing. It has sometimes been cured by electricity. Encyc. Coxe

    AMA'ZE,v.t. [Qu. Ar. ^e to perplex

    or confuse ; or from maze.] To confound with fear, sudden surprise, or wonder ; to astonish.


    Tliey shall be afraid ; they shall be amaztil one another. Is. xiii.

    ere all amazed and glorified God.

    Mark ii. Luke v.

    Tills word implies astonishment or perplex- ity, arising from something extraordinary, unexpected, unaccountable, or frightfuh"

    AMA'ZE, re. Astonishment ; confusion ; per- plexity, arising from fear, surprise or won- der. It is chiefly used in poetry, and is nearly synonymous with amazement.

    AMA'ZED, pp. Astonished ; confoiuided with fear, sui-jirise or wonder.

    AM A'ZEDLY, adv. With amazement ; in a to confound. [Little used.]

    AMA'ZEDNESS,re. The state of being con- foimded with fear, surprise or wonder ; astonishment ; great wonder.

    AMA'ZEMENT, n. Astonishment; confu- sion or perplexity, from a sudden impress- ion of fear, surprise or wonder. It is some- times accompanied with fear or terror ; sometimes merely extreme wonder or ad- miration at some great, sudden or unex- |)ected event, at an unusual sight, or a' the narration of extraordinary events.

    AMA'ZING, ppr. Confoundmg with fear, surprise or wonder.

    2. a. Very wonderful ; exciting astonish ment, or perplexity. - "'NGLY, adv.

    gree ; in a manner to excite astonishment, or to perplex, confound or terrify.

    AM'AZON, n. [This is said to be formed of a neg. and f«i?05, breast. History inform; us, that the Amazons cut off their right breast, that it might not incommode them in shooting and hurling the javelin. This is doubtless a fable.]

    1 . The Amazons are said by historians, to have been a race of female warriors, who foun- ded an empire on the river Thermodon, in Asia Minor, on the coast of the Eux They are said to have excluded men from their society ; and by their warlike enter prises, to have conquered and alanned surrounding nations. Some writers treat these accounts as fables.

    Herodian. Justin

    2. By analogy, a warlike or masculine wo man ; a virago.

    3. This name has been given to some Anieri can females, on the banks of the largest river in the world, who joined their hus- bands in attacking the Spaniards that first visited the country. This trivial occur rence gave the name Amazon to that river, whose real name is Maranon,

    Garcilasso, p. 606.

    AMAZO'NIAN, a. Pertaining to or resem- bling an Amazon. Applied to females. bold ; of mascuhne manners ; warlik

    2. Belonging to the river Maranon in South America, or to Amazonia, the country- lying on that river.

    AMB, AM. About ; around ; used in compo sition. Sax. enib, ymb ; W. am ; Ir. im um ; G. um ; D. om ; Dan. om ; Sw. om Gr. a/i$i ; Lat. am or amb.

    AMBA'gES, re. [L. amb and ago, to drive.] . A circumlocution ; a circuit of words to express ideas which may be expressed in fewer words.

    2. A winding or turning.

    AMBAS'SADOR, 71. [This is the more com- mon orthography ; but good authors write

    also embassador ; and as the orlhography of embassy is established, it would he bet- ter to write embassador. See Embassador.]

    AM'BE or AMBI, n. [Gr. a^S^, a brim ; from amb, about.]

    Literally, a brim ; but in surgery, an instru- ment for reducing dislocated shoulders, so called from the jutting of its extremity. Also the mango tree.

    Qidncy. Encyc. Core.

    AM'BER, re. [Fr.ambre; Sp. ambar; Port. id; It. ambra; an oriental word ; Pers.

    j^ic anbar or anabar; Ar. j^is anba-

    ron. In 1 ICings x. 2. 10, the Arabic is ren- dered spices. Tlie Arabic word is render- ed by Castle, amber, a marine fish, a shield made of skuis, crocus and finius. In Eth. OtII^ anbar is rendered a whale, and the word is used in Jonah, ii. 1. and Math, xii. 40. This word is placed by Castle under

    i-*.A£ to produce grapes, and ^^ic

    signifies grapes, Ch. and Heb. 33^. The Chaldee verb signifies to joui or connect, and the sense of this word, apphed to grapes, is a cluster, hke grape in Enghsh. It signifies also in Ch. a tumor, a pustle, a mountain, the sense of which is'a lump or mass collected ; and this may be the sense of amber. In German, Dutch, Swe- dish and Danish, it has the name of burn- stone.]

    A hard semi-pellucid substance, tasteless and without smell, except when pounded or heated, when it emits a fragrant odor. It is found in alluvial soils, or on the sea shore, in many places ; particularly on the shores of the Baltic, in Europe, and at Cape Sable, in Maryland, in the V. States. The ancient opinion of its vegetable origin seems now to be estabhshed, and it is be- lieved or known to be a fossil resin. It yields by distillation an empyreumatic oil, and the succinic acid, which sublimes in small white needles. Its color usually pre- sents some tinge of yellow. It is highly electrical, and is the basis of a varnish. Journal of Science. Encyc. Chambers.

    AM'BER, a. Consisting of; or resembUng amber.

    AM'BER, Ji. t. To scent with amber.

    AM'BER-DRINK, n. A drink resembUng amber in color.

    AM'BER-DROPPING, a. Dropping amber. Milton.

    AM'BER-SEED, n. Musk-seed, resembUng millet. It is of a bitterish taste, and brought from Egypt and the Vl^. Indies.


    AMBER-TREE, n. The EhgUsh name of a species of Anthospermum, a shrub, with evergreen leaves, which, when bruised, emit a fragrant odor. Miller.

    AM'BERGRIS, n. [amber and Fr. gris, gray ; gray amber.]

    A solid, opake, ash-colored inflammable sub- stance, variegated like marble, remarkably light, rugged on its surface, and when heated, it has a fragrant odor. It does not effervesce with acids ; it melts easily into a kind of yellow resin, and is highly solu- ble in spirit of wine. Various opinions

    A M B

    A M B

    A M B

    have been entertained respecting its ori- gin ; but it is well ascertained, that it is indurated fecal matter, discharged by the spermaceti whale, a species of physeter. It has been found in that species of whale, but usually is found floating on the surface of the ocean, in regions frequented by whales ; sometimes in masses of from CO to 225 lbs. weight. In this substance are found the beaks of the cuttle fish, on which that whale is known to feed. It is highly valued as a material in perfumery.

    Encyc. AM'BIDEXTER, n. [L. ambo, both, and dexter, the right hand.]

    1. A person who uses both hands with equal facihty.

    2. A double dealer ; one equally ready to act on either side in party disputes. [This sense is used in ludicrous luTiguage.]

    3. Inlaw, a juror who takes money of both parties, for giving his verdict ; an embra- cer. Cowel.

    AMBIDEXTERITY, > n. The faculty

    AMBIDEX'TROUSNESS, \ of using both hands with equal facility ; double dealing ; the taking of money from both parties for a verdict.

    AMBIDEXTROUS, a. Having the faculty of using both hands with equal ease ; prac- ticing or siding with both parties.

    AM'BIENT, a. [L. ambiens, from ambio, to go round, from amb, about, and eo, to go.]

    Surrounding ; encompassing on all sides ; investing ; appUed to fluids or diffusible substances ; as, the ambient air. Milton.

    AMBKi'ENAL, a. [L. ambo, both, and genu, a knee.]

    An ambigenal hyperbola is one of the triple hyperbolas of the second order, having one of its infinite legs falling within an angle formed by the asymptotes, and the other without. Enaic.

    AM'BIGU,n. [Fr. See Jlmbiguity.]

    An entertainment or feast, consisting of a medley of dislies. King.

    AMBIGU'ITY, 71. [L. ambiguitas, fi-om ambigo.]

    Doubthdness or uncertainty of signification, from a word's being susceptible of differ- ent meanings ; double meaning.

    Words should be used which admit of no am-


    AMBIG'UOUS, a. [L. ambiguus.]

    Having two or more meanings; doubtful; being of uncertain signification ; suscep- tible of different interpretations ; hence, obscure. It is applied to words and ex- pressions; not to a dubious state of mind, though it may be to a person using words of doubtful signification.

    The ancient oracles were ambiguous, as were their answers.

    AMBIG'UOUSLY, adv. In an ambiguous mamier ; with doubtful meaning.

    AMBIG'UOUSNESS, n. The quality of being ambiguous ; uncertainty of mean- ing ; ambiguity ; and hence, obscurity

    AMBIL'06Y, n. [ambo, both, and xo speech.]

    Talk or language of doubtful meaning.

    AMBILOQUOUS, a. [ambo, both, and loquor, to speak.]

    Using ambiguous expressions.

    AM'BIT, n. [L. ambitus, a circuit, from ambio, to go about. See ^jnbient.]


    The line that encompasses a thing ; in geom etry, the perimeter of a figure, or the sur face of a body. The periphery or circum feronce of a circular body.

    Johnson. Encyc.

    AMBI"TION, n. [L. ambitio, from ambio, tol go about, or to .seek by making interest, of| amb, about, and eo, to go. See Amhagt This word had its origin in the practice of Roman candidates for office, who went about the city to solicit votes.]

    A desire of preferment, or of honor ; a desire of excellence or superiority. It is used ' a good sense ; as, emulation may spring from a laudable ambition. It denotes also an inordinate desire of power, or emi nence, often accompanied with illegal means to obtain the object. It is .some- times followed by of ; as, a man has ambition of wit. Blilton has used the word in the Latin sense of going about, or at tempting ; but this sense is hardly legiti- mate.

    AMBI'TION, V. t. [Fr. ambitionner.]

    Ambitiously to seek after. [Little used.]


    AMBI"TIOUS, a. Desirous of power, honor, office, superiority or excellence ; aspiring eager for fame ; followed by of before a noun ; as, ambitious o/ glory.

    2. Showy ; adapted to command notice o praise ; as, ambitious ornaments.

    3. Figuratively, eager to swell or rise higher as, the ambitioUrS ocean. ' Shak.

    AMBI"TIOUSLY, adv. In an ambitious manner ; with an eager desire after pre- ferment, or superiority.

    AMBI"TIOUSNESS, n. The quality of be- ing ambitious ; ambition. Being nearly synonymous with ambition, it is not often u.sed.

    AM'BLE, V. i. [Fr. ambler, from L. ambulo, to walk ; Qu. amb, about, and the root of Fr. aller.]

    1. To move with a certain peculiar pace as a horse, first lifting his two legs on one side, and then changing to the other.

    Edin. Encyc.

    2. To move easy, without hard shocks.

    Him time ambles withal. Shak

    3. In a ludicrous sense, to move with sub- mission, or by direction, or to move af- fectedly. Johnson.

    AM'BLE, n. A peculiar pace of a horse.

    AMBLER, n. A horse which ambles ; a pacer.

    AM'BLIGON, or AM'BLYGON, n. [Gr. a^SXiif, obtuse, and yavta, an angle.]

    An obtuse angled triangle ; a triangle with one angle of more thau ninety degrees.

    Bailey. Encyc.

    AMBLIG'ONAL, a. Containing an obtuse anffle. jlsh

    AM'BLIGONITE, n. [Gr. au8t.vyuvios, hav ing an obtuse angle.]

    A greenish colored mineral, of different pak shades, marked on the surface with red dish and yellowish brown spots. It occur: massive or crystahzed in oblique four sided prisms, in granite, with topaz and tounnaUn, in Saxony. t're,

    AJI'BLING, ppr. or a. Lifting the two legs on the same side at first going oft', and then changing.

    AM'BLINGLY, adv. With an ambUng gait.

    AM'BLYOPY, n. [Gr. a^S?^-?, dull, and ^. eye.]

    Incipient amaurosis ; dulness or obscurity of sight, without any apparent defect of tlie organs ; sig'ht so depraved that objects can be seen only in a certain light, dis- tance, or position. Encyc. Coir.

    AM'BO, n. [Gr. afiSui, a pulpit ; L. umbo, a boss.]

    A reading desk, or pulpit. Ifhekr.

    AMBREA DA, n. [from amber.] A kind of factitious amber, which the Europeans sell to the Africans. Encyc.

    AMBRO'SIA, n. ambro'zha, [Gr. a neg. and eporoj, mortal, because it was supposed to confer immortality on them that fed on it.]

    1. In heathen antiquity, the imaginary food of the gods. Hence,

    2. Whatever is very pleasing to the taste or smell. The name has also been given to certain alexipharmic compositions.

    AJIBRO'SIAL, a. amhro'zhal. Partaking of the nature or qualities of ambrosia ; fra- grant ; dehghting the taste or smell ; as, ambrosial dews. Ben Jonson uses ambro- siac in a hke sense, and Bailey has am- brosian, but these seem not to be war- ranted by usage.

    AMBRO'SIAN, a. Pertaining to St. Am- brose. The Jlmbrosian office, or ritual, is a formula of worship in the church of Milan, instituted by St. Ambrose, in the fourth century. Encyc.

    AM'BROSIN, n. In the middle ages, a coin .struck by the dukes of Milan, on which St. Ambrose was represented on horse- back, with a whip in his right hand.


    AM'BRY, n. [contracted from Fr. aumo- nerie, ahuonry, from old Fr. almoigne, alms.]

    1. An abnonry; a place where alms are deposited for distribution to the poor. In ancient abbeys and priories tliere was an office of this name, in which the almoner Uved.

    2. A place in which are deposited the uten- sils for house keeping ; also a cupboard : a place for cold victuals.

    AMI5S'-AC'E, n. [L. ambo, both, and ace.]

    A double ace, as when two dice turn up the ace. Johnson.

    AM'BULANT, a. [L. ambulans, from am- bulo.]

    Walking ; moving from place to place.


    Ambulant brokers, in Amsterdam, are ex- change-brokers, or agents, who are not sworn, and whose testimony is not re- ceived in courts of justice. Encyc

    AMBULATION, n. [L. ambulatio.] A wag- ing about ; the act of walking.

    AM'BULATOR, ji. In entomology, a species of Lamia, whose thorax is armed on each side with two spines ; a Cerambyx of Lmne. Cuc.

    AMBULATORY, a. That has the power or faculty of walking ; as, an animal is ambulatory.

    2. Pertaining to a walk ; as, an ambulatoiy view.

    3. Moving from place to place ; not station- arj- ; as, an ambuUitory court, which exer- cises its jurisdiction in different places.

    Johnson. AMBULATORY, n. A species of ichneu-

    A M E

    A M E

    A M E

    moil, with a yellowish sciitellum ami spot- ted thorax. Ci/c.

    AM'BURY, 01- .\N'BURY, n. [Qu. L. umbo, the navel ; Gr. a/iS^v.]

    Among farriers, a tumor, wart or swelling on a horse, full of blood and soft to the toucli. Encyc.

    AM'BUS€ADE,n. [Fr. emhiscade ; Sp.Port. emboscada ; It. imboscata ; from It. imbos- eare, Sp. emboscar, to lie in bushes, or concealed ; in and bosco, bosque, a. wood ; Eng. biish.]

    1. LiUrnlly, a lying in a wood, concealed, for the purpose of attacking an enemy by surprise : hence, a lying in wait, and con- cealed in any situation, for a like puiTiose.

    2. A private station in which troo()S lie concealed with a view to attack their ene- my by sui-prise ; ambush.

    AM'BUS€ADE, v. t. To lie in wait for, or to attack from a concealed position.

    AM'BUS€ADED, pp. Having an ambush laid against, or attacked from a private station ; as, his troops were ambuscaded.

    AM'BUS€ADING, ppr. Lying in wait for ; attacking from a secret station.

    AM'BUSH, n. [Fr. embikhe, of in and bush ; Dan. busk ; D. bosch ; Germ, busch ; Fr. bosquet, boscage, bocage, bois. See Bush.]

    1. A private or concealed station, where troops lie in wait to attack their enemy by surjjrise.

    2. The state of lying concealed, for the pur- pose of attacking by surprise ; a lying in wait.

    3. The troops posted in a concealed place for attacking by surprise.

    Lay thee an ambush for the city. Josli. viii. AM'BUSH, V. t. To lie in wait for ; to sur- prise, by assailing unexpectedly from a concealed place. AM'BUSH, V. i. To lie in wait, for the pur- pose of attacking by surprise. Nor saw the snake, that ambush'd for his prey. Trumbull AM'BUSHED, pp. Lain in wait for ; sud- denly attacked from a concealed station. AM'BUSHING, ppr. Lying in wait for ; at- tacking from a concealed station. AM'BUSHMENT, n. An ambush ; which

    see. AMBUS'TION, )!. [L. ambustio, from am buro, to burn or scorch, o{amb, about, and ttro, to burn.] Among physiciatis, a burning ; a burn or


    AMEl'VA, n. A species of lizard, found in

    Brazil. Bid. of JVai. Hist.

    AM'EL, n. [Fr. email.'] The matter with

    which metallic bodies are overlaid ; but its

    use is superseded by enamel ; which see.


    AME'LIORATE, v. t. [Fr. ameliorer, from

    L. melior, better.] To make better ; to improve ; to meUorate,

    S. S. Smith. Christ. Obs. Buchanan. AME'LIORATE, v. i. To grow better ; to

    meliorate. AMELIORA'TION,n. A making or becom- ing better ; improvement ; melioration. AMEN'. This word, with slight differences of orthography, is in all the dialects of the Assyrian stock. As a verb, it signifi confirm, estabhsh, verify ; to trust, or give confidence ; as a noun, truth, f trust, confidence ; as an adjective, firm,

    stable. In English, after the oriental manner, it is used at the beginning, but more generally at the end of declarations and prayers, in the sense of, be it firm, be it established.

    And let all the people say amen. Fs. cvi. The word is used also as a noun.

    " All (he promises of God are amen in Christ ;" that is, firmness, stability, constancy. ;VME'NABLE, a. [It. menare ; Fr. mener, amener ; Norm, amesner, to lead, to brhig ; Fr. amener. It. ammainare, in marine lan- guage, to strike sail.]

    1. In old law, easy to be led ; governable, as a woman by her husband. [This sense is obsolete.}

    2. Liable to answer ; responsible ; answera- ble ; liable to be called to account ; as, ev- ery man is amenable to the laws.

    We retain thi.s idiom in the popular

    phrase, to Irring in, to make answerable ;

    as, a man is brought in to pay the debt of


    AM' ENAGE,r.<. To manage. Obs.,

    AM'ENANCE, n. Conduct, behavior. Obs.


    AMEND', D.i. [Fr. amender ; h. emendo, of e neg, and menda, mendum, a fault ; W. mann, a spot or blemish ; Sp. Port, emen- dnr ; It. ammendare. See Mend.]

    1. To correct ; to rectify by expunging a

    listake ; as, to amend a law.

    3. To reform, by quitting bad habits ; to make better in a moral sense ; as, to amend our ways or our conduct.

    3. To correct ; to sup])ly a defect ; to im- prove or make better, by some addition of what is wanted, as well as by expunging what is wrong, as to amend a bill before a legislature. Hence it is applied to the correction of authors, by restoring passa- ges which had been omitted, or restoring the true reading.

    AMEND', V. i. To grow or become better, by reformation, or rectifying something wrong in maimers or morals. It differs from improve, in this, that to amend im plies something previously wrong ; t( improve, does not.

    .\MEND', n. [Fr.] A pecuniary punishment, or fine. The amende honorable, in France, is an infamous punishment inflicted on traitors, parricides and sacrilegious per- sons. The offender, being led into court with a rope about his neck, begs pardon of his God, the court, &c. These words denote also a recantation in open court, or in presence of the injured person.


    AMEND' ABLE, a. That may be amended ; capable of correction ; as, an amendable writ or error.

    AMEND'ATORY, a. That amends ; sup plying amendment ; corrective.

    AMEND'ED,^;). Corrected; rectified; re formed ; improved, or altered for the better.

    AMEND'ER, n. The person that amends.

    AMEND'ING, jop\ Correcting; reforming altering for the better.

    AMEND'MENT, n. An alteration or change for the better ; correction of a fault or faults ; reformation of life, by quitting vices.

    2. A word, clause or paragraph, added or proposed to be added to a bill before a legislature.

    3. In laie, the correction of an error in a writ or process.

    Shakespeare uses it for the recovei-y of health, but this sense is unusual.

    AMENDS', n. plu. [Fr. amende.]

    Compensation for an injury; recompense; satisfaction ; equivalent ; as, the happiness of a future life will more than make amends for the miseries of this.

    AME'NITY, n. [L. ammnitas ; Fr. aminiti ; L. amamis ; W. mwyn, good, kind.]

    Pleasantness ; agreeableuess of situation ; that which delights the eye ; used of pla- ces and prospects. Brown.

    AM'ENT, n. [L. amentum, a thong, or strap.]

    In botany, a species of inflorescence, from a common, chafiy receptacle ; or consisting of many scales, ranged along a stalk or slender axis, which is the common recep- tacle ; as in birch, oak, chesnut. Martyn.

    AMENTA'CEOUS,a. Growing in an ament ; resembling a thong ; as, the chesnut has an amentaceous inflorescence. Martyn.

    AMERCE, V. t. amers'. [A verb formed from a for on or at, and Fr. merci, mercy, or from L. merces, reward.]

    1. To inflict a penalty at mercy ; to punish by a pecuniary penalty, the amoimt of which is not fixed by law, but left: to the discre- tion or mercy of the coin-t ; as, the court amerced the criminal in the sum of one hundred dollars.

    2. To inflict a pecuniary penalty ; to punish in general. Milton uses of afler amerce .- " Millions of spirits amerced of heaven ;" but this use seems to be a poetic license.

    A3IER'CED, pp. Fined at the discretion of a court.

    AMERCEMENT, n. amers'ment. A pecun- iary penalty inflicted on an offender at the discretion of the court. It differs from a fine, in that the latter is, or was originally, a fixed and certain sum prescribed by stat- ute for an offense ; but an amercement is arbitrary. Hence the practice of affeering. [See Affeer.] But in America, the word fine is now used for a pecuniary penalty which is uncertain ; and it is common in stat- utes, to enact that an offender shall be fined, at the discretion of the court. In England also, fines are now usually dis- cretionary. Thus the word fine has, in a measure, superseded the use of amerce- ment. This word, in old books, is written amerciament.

    Amercement royal is a penalty imposed on an officer for a misdemeanor in his office.

    AMER'CER, n. One who sets a fine at dis- cretion, upon an offender.

    AMER'l€A, n. [from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, who pretended to have first discovered the we.-^tern continent.]

    One of the great comments, first discovered by Sebastian Cabot, June 11, O. S. 1498, and by Columbus, or Christoval Colon, Aug. 1, the same year. It extends from the eightieth degree of North, to the fifty- fourth degree of South Latitude ; and from the thirty-fifth to the one hundred and fifty-sixth" degree of Longitude West from Greenwich, being about nine thou- sand miles in length. Its breadtli at Darien is narrowed to about forty-five miles, hut at the northern extremity is nearly four the iisand miles. From Darien

    A M I

    to the JVorth, tlie continent is called ^Torth America, and to the South, it is called South Ancrica.

    AMER'1€AN, a. Pertaining to America.

    AMER'ICAN, n. A native of America originally ai)plied to the aboriginals, or copper-colored races, found here by the Europeans; but now applied to the des- cendants of Europeans born in America. The name American must always exalt thi pride of patriotism. • Washington

    AMER'I€ANISM, n. The love which Amer- ican citizens have to their own country, or the preference of its interests. Analogi- cally, an American idiom.

    AMERICANIZE, v. t. To render Amer- ican ; to naturalize in America.

    AMER'ICIM, n. A species of lizard in South America, not more than two inches in length, and the third of an inch in diam- eter. Its legs are of the size of a hog's bristle. Did. o/JVat. Hist.

    AMETH'ODIST, n. A quack. [M,t used.]

    AM'ETHYST, n. [L. amethystus ; Gr. afiiBvioi, which the Greeks supposed to be formed from a nag. and /ufSnu, to ine- briate, from some supposed quality in the stone of resisting intoxication. Phn. xxxvii. 9, mentions an opinion that it takes its name from its color approachuig that of wine, but not reaching it.]

    A sub-species of quartz, of a violet blue color, of different degrees of mtensity. I generally occurs crystalized in hexahedral prisms or pyramids ; also in rolled frag- ments, composed of imperfect prismatic crystals. Its fracture is conchoidal oi splintery. It is wrought into various arti- cles of jewelry. Cleaveland. Encyc

    AM'ETHYST, in heraldry, signifies a pur- ple color. It is the same, in a nobleman's escutcheon, as purpure, iji a gentleman's

    • and mercury, in that of a prince. Encyc.

    AMETHYST'INE, a. Pertaining to or re- sembling amethyst ; anciently apjilied to a garment of the color of amethyst, as dis- tinguished from the Tyrian and hyacuith- ine purple.

    AM'IA, n. A genus offish, of the abdomin-

    eJ order, foimd in the rivers of Carolina.


    A'MIABLE, a. [Fr. amiable ; L. amabilis ; from amo, to love.]

    1. Lovely ; worthy of love ; deserving of af- fection ; applied usually to persons. But in Ps.lxxxiv. 1, there is an exception, " How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord."

    3. Pretending or showing love.

    Lay amiable siege to the honesty of this Ford's wife. Shak

    But this use is not legitimate.

    A'MIABLENESS.n.The quahty of deserv- ing love ; loveliness.

    A'MIABLY, adv. In an amiable manner in a manner to excite or attract love.

    AM'IANTH, } „ [Gr.;, of a neg.

    AMIANTH'US, S and a"*'-"-, to pollute, or vitiate ; so called from its incombusti- bility. Plin. 3(3. lit.]

    Earth-flax, or mountain flax ; a mineral sub- stance somewhat resembling flax ; usually grayish, or of a greenish white ; sc times of a yellowish or silvery wliite, ohve or mountain green, of a pale flesh red or ocher color. It is composed of delicate filaments, very flexible and somewhat

    A M I

    elastic, often long and resembling threads of silk. It is incombustible, and has sometimes been wrought into cloth paper. Kirwan. Encyc. Cleaveland.

    AMIANTH'IFORM, a. [Amianth a.nd form.]

    Having die form or Ukeness of amianth. Amianthiform arseiiiate of copper. Phillips.

    AMIANTH'INITE, n. A species of amor- phous mineral, a variety of actinolite ; its color ash, greenish or yellowish gray, olicn mixed with yellow or red ; its f " - ture confusedly fohated and fibrous.


    AMIANTH'OID, n. [Amianth and Gr. fi6of, form.]

    A mineral which occurs in tufts, composed of long capillary filaments, flexible and very elastic ; more flexible than the fibers of asbestus, but stiffer and more elastic than those of amianth. The color is olive green, or greenish white. HaiXy. Cleaveland.

    AMIANTH'OID, a. Resembhng amianth in form.

    AM'ICABLE, a. [L. amicabilis, from ami a friend, from amo, to love.]

    1. Friendly ; peaceable ; harmonious in social or mutual transactions ; usually apphed to the dispositions of men who have busi ness with each other, or to their inter course and transactions ; as, nations oi men have come to an amicable adjustment of their diflerences.

    2. Disposed to peace and friejidship ; as, an amicable temper. [But rarely applied ' single person.]

    AM'IeABLENESS, n. The quahty of being peaceable, friendly, or disposed to peace"; friendliness ; a disposition to preserve peace and fi^iendship.

    AM'I€ABLY, adv. In a friendly manner; with harmony or good will ; without con troversy ; as, the dispute was amicably ad usted.

    jusl .M'l

    ICE, n. [L. amictus from amicior, to

    clothe ; Fr. amid ; Sp. amito ; Port, amicto.] A square hnen cloth that a Cathohc priest

    ties about his neck, hanging down behind

    under the alb, when he officiates at mass.

    Sp. and Port. Did.

    AMID', > ,.„„ [of a and Sax. midd,

    AMIDST', (iP'^P- the middle, L. medius.

    Amidst is the superlative degree middest.

    a contraction of Sax. mid-mesta, mid-most.

    See Middle and Midst.]

    In the midst or middle. 2. Among ; mingled with ; as, a sheplierd

    amidst his flock. .3. Sun-ounded, encompassed, or envelop

    ed with ; as, amidst the shade ; amid the

    waves. Amid is used mostly in poetry. AMID'-SHIPS, in marine language, the

    middle of a ship, with regard to her

    lengtli and breadth. AM'ILOT, n. A white fish in the Mexican

    lakes, more than a foot in length, and

    much esteemed at the table. Clavigero. AMISS', a. [a and miss. See Miss.]

    1. Wrong ; fauhy ; out of order ; impi'oper ; as, it may not be amiss to ask advice. [This adjective always follows its noun.]

    2. adv. In a faulty manner ; contrary to propriety, truth, law or morality.

    Ve ask and receive not, because ye ask amiss. James, iv. Applied to the body, it signifies indisposed ; as, I am somewhat amiss to day.

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    AM'ITY, n. [Fr. amilie ; It. amistct, aviitt- dde ; Sp. amistad, from amistar, to recon- cile ; Port, amizade ; Norm, amistee, ti'iend- ship, amez, friends, ameis, amdz, beloved. Qu. L. amo, amicitia.]

    Friendship, in a general sense, between in- dividuals, societies or nations ; harmony ; good understanding ; as, our nation is in amity with all the world ; a treaty of amity anil conmierce.

    AM'MA, n. [Heb. DK mother.]

    1. An abbess or spiritual mother.

    2. A girdle or truss used in ruptures. [Gr. a/ifna.] Coie.

    AM'MAN, n. [G. amimann ; D. amptman ; Da.n. amtmand ; a compound ofampt, Sas. ambahl or embeht, office, duty, charge, and man. See Embassador.]

    In some European nations, a judge who has cognizance of civil In Prance, a notary or ofiicer who di-aws deeds and other writings. Encyc.

    AM'IMITE or HAM'MITE, n. [Gr. .v^oj, sand.]

    A sand-stone or free-stone, of a pale brown color, very heavy, of a lax texture, com- posed of smaU round granides, cemented by an earthy spaiTy matter. The grit or granules are small stalagmites, composed of crusts or coats including one another. It is the roe-stone or oohte of recent au- thors. Da Costa. Plin. 37. 10.

    AM'MOCETE, n. An obsolete name of the ammodyte. In Cuvier, the name of a genus of fish, including the lampern, Petroniy- zon hranchialis, Linne.

    AM'MOeURYSE, n. am'mokris, [Gr. au- Hos, sand, and jfpvffoj, gold.]

    A yellow soft stone, found in Germany, con- sisting of glossy yellow particles. When rubbed or ground, it is used to strew over writing, Uke black sand with us. tin. yel- low mica. Plin. 37. 11. Encyc.

    AMMODYTE, n. [Gr. a^^oj, sand, and Svu, to enter.]

    The sand eel, a genus of fish, of the apodal order, about a foot iti length, with a com- pressed head, a long slender body, and scales hardly perceptible. There is but one species, the tobianus or lance. It bu- ries itself in the sand, and is found also in the stomach of the porpess, which indi- cates that the latter fish roots up the sand like a hog. Encyc.

    This name is also given to a serpent of the size of a viper, and of a yellowish color, found in Africa ; also to a large serpent of Ceylon, of a whitish ash color, and very venomous. Did. ofJVat. Hist.

    AMMO'NIA, I [The real origin of this

    AM'MONY, ^ "■ word is not ascertained. Some authors suppose it to be from Am- nion, a title of Jupiter, near whose temple in upper Egypt, it was generated. Others suppose it to be fi-om Ammonia, a Cyre- naic territory ; and others deduce it fi-om an/ios, sand, as it was found in sandy ground. Anghcized, this forms an elegant word, ammony.]

    Volatile alkali ; a substance, which, in its purest form, exists in a state of gas. It is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen. Combined with the muriatic acid, it fijrma the muriate of ammonia, called also sal ammoniac at(,d hydro-chlorate of ammo-

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    A M O

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    Ilia. Native muriate of ammony is found in Egypt, where it is said to be generated in large inns and caravanseras, from the excrements of camels and other beasts, It occurs also massive and crystalized in the vicinity of volcanoes. Ammony, pop- ularly called hartshorn, is extremely pun- gent and acrid, but when diluted, is an agreeable stimulant. It extinguishes flame, and is fatal to animal life. It combines with acids, and produces a class of salts, which, with few exceptions, are soluble water. Nicholson. Thompson. JVehstcr's Manual.

    AMMONIAC, ) Pertaining to am

    AMftlONI'AeAL, S "• nia, or possessing its properties.

    AMMONIAC, or AMMONIAC GUM, n [See Ammonia.'^

    A gam resin, from Africa and the East brought in large masses, composed of tears, internally white and externally yel- low ; supposed to be an exudation from ar umbelhferous plant. It has a fetid smell, and a nauseous sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, soluble in water and spirit of wine, and is used in medicine, as a deobstruent, and resolvent. Encyc.

    AMMO'NIAN, a. Relating to Ammonius, surnamed Saccas, of Alexandria, who flourished at the end of the second ( tury, and was the founder of the eclectic system of Philosophy ; or rather, he com pleted the estabhshment of the sect, whicl originated with Potamo. Enfield.

    AM'MONITE, n. [Cornu amnwms, from Jupiter Amman, whose statues were rep resented with rani's horns.]

    Serpent-stone, or cornu ammonis, a fossil shell, curved into a spiral, hke a ram's horn ; of various sizes, from the smallest grains to three feet in diameter. This fos sil is found in stratums of limestone and clay, and in argillaceous iron ore. It is smooth or ridged ; the ridges strait, crook- ed or undulated. Cyc. Encyc. Plin. 37. 10,

    AMMO'NIUM, n. A name given to the sup- posed metallic basis of ammonia. If mer- cury, at the negative pole of a galvanic bat- tery, is placed in contact with a solution of ammonia, and the circuit is completed an amalgam is formed, which, at the tern perature of 70° or 80" of Fahrenheit, is of the consistence of butter, but at the freez- ing point is a firm and crystalized mass. This amalgam is supposed to be formed by the metallic basis, ammonium.

    Davy. Thomson.

    AMMONI'URET, n. The solution of a sub- stance ill ammonia. Ed. Encyc

    AMMUNI"TION, n. [L. ad and munitio, from munio, to fortify.]

    Military stores, or provisions for attack or defense. In modern usage, the significa- tion is confined to the articles which are used in the discharge of fire-arms and ordnance of all kinds ; as powder, balls, bombs, various kinds of shot, &c.

    Ammunilion-bread, bread or other provisions to supply troops.

    AM'NESTY, n. [Gr. ani'Tjatta, of aneg. and nvrjats, memory, from the root of mens. mmd. See Mind.]

    An act of oblivion ; a general pardon of the

    offenses of subjects against the govern- ment, or the proclamation of such pardon.

    AM'NIOS or AM'NION, n. [Gr. aftvM,', a vessel or membrane.]

    The innermost membrane surrotmding the fetus in the womb. It is thin, transparent, soft and smooth on the inside, but rougl on the outside. Encyc.

    AMNIOT'IC, o. Obtained from the liquor of the amnios, as the amniotic acid.


    AMOBE'AN, a. Alternately answering.


    AMOBE'UM, n. [Gr. a^otffaioj, alternate; afioiSri, change.]

    A poem in which persons are represented as speaking alternately, as the third and seventh eclogues of Virgil. Encyc.

    AMO'MUM, n. [Gr. auu.f.o..; Ar. UL.,^

    hamauma, from ^ ~. lianinia, to warm

    or heat ; the heating plant.]

    A genus of plants ; all natives of warm cli- mates, and remarkable for their pungen- cy and aromatic properties. It includes the common ginger or zingiber, the ze rumbet, zedoary, cardamom, and granun paradisi or grains of paradise. The roots of the three former, and the seeds of the two latter, are used in medicine as cai natives and stunulants, and in cookeiy as condiments. They are important articles of commerce. Cyc.

    True amomum is a round fruit, from the East, of the size of a grape, containing, under membranous cover, a number of angular seeds of a dark brown color, in three cells. Of this fruit, ten or twelve grow in a cluster, adhering, without a pedicle, to a woody stalk. It is of a pungent taste and aromatic smell, and was formerly much used in medicine, but is now a stran- ger to the shops. Plin. 12. 13. Encyc.

    AMONG', I Amung', ) [Sax. on-

    AMONGST', \P''''P- Amungst',lmang,on- gemang, among ; gemangan, to niuigle ; D. and Ger. mengen ; Sw. mangia ; Dan. mmnger, to mingle ; Gr. /iiyvvu. See Mingle.]

    1. In a general or primitive sense, mixed or mingled with ; as tares among wheat.

    2. Conjoined or associated with, or niak: part of the number.

    Blessed art thou among women. Luke, i.

    3. Of tlie number ; as, there is not one among a thousand, possessing the hke qualities.

    AMO'NIAN, a. [from Anion or Hamon, a title of Jupiter, or rather of the sun ; Ar. Heb. and Ch. an, rron. Ham or Camah, which, as a verb, signifies to heat or warm, and as a noun, heat or the sun ; and in Arabic, the supreme God.]

    Pertaining to Jupiter Amon, or to his temple and worship in upper Egypt. Bryant.

    AMOR.\'DO, n. [L. amor, love, amo, to love. But the word is ill formed.]

    A lover. See Inamorato, which is chiefly used. Ch. Rel. Appeal.

    AMO'RE, n. A name given by Marcgrave, to a tribe offish, of three species, the pix- unia, guacu, and tinga. They are found about the shores of South America, and are used for food. Cyc. Diet. ofJVat. Hist.

    AMORE'ANS, n. A sect of Gemaric doc-

    tors or commentators on the Jerusalem Tahnud. The Amoreans were followed by the Mishnic doctors, and these by the Sebureans.

    .\MORET', n. [L. amor, love ; Fr. amour- ette.]

    A lover ; an amorous woman ; also a love knot or a trifling love affair.

    Good's Sacred Idyls. Chaucer.

    AM'ORIST, n. [L. atnor, love.]

    A lover ; a gallant ; an inamorato. Boyh.

    AMORO'SO, n. [It. fi-om amor, love.]

    A lover ; a man enamored.

    AM'OROUS, a. [Fr. amoreux ; It. amoroso ; from L. amor, love.]

    1. Inclined to love ; having a propensity to love, or to sexual enjoyment ; loving ; fond.

    '2. In love ; enamored. Shak.

    3. Pertaining or relating to love ; produced by love ; indicating love ; as, amorous de- light ; amorous airs. Milton. Walter.

    AM'OROUSLY, adv. In an amorous man- ner ; fondly ; lovingly.

    AM'OROUSNESS, n. The quahty of being inclined to love, or to sexual pleasure ; ; lovingness. Sidney.

    AMORPH'A, n. [Gr. a neg. and /top^r;, form.]

    False or bastard uidigo. The plant is a na- tive of Carolina, constituting a genus. It rises, with many irregular stems, to the highth of twelve or fourteen feet ; the leaves, beautifully pinnated, are of an ad- mired green color, and its purple flowers grow in spikes of seven or eight inches long. Of this plant has been made a coarse kind of uidigo. Encyc.

    AMORPHOUS, a. [Gr. a neg. and aop*?, form.]

    Having no determinate form ; of iiTegular shape ; not of any regular figure. Kirwan.

    AMORPH'Y, n. Irregularity of form ; de- viation from a determinate shape. Swifl.

    AMORT', adv. [L. mors, mortuus.]

    In the state of the dead. Shak.

    AM ORTIZ ATI ON or AMORTIZE- MENT, n. The act or right of ahena- ting lands or tenements to a corporation, which was considered formerly as trans- ferring them to dead hands, as such alien- ations were mostly made to religious hous- es for superstitious uses. Btackstone.

    AMORT'IZE, V. t. [Norm, amortizer, amor- tir ; Sp. amortizar, to sell in mortmain ; It- ammortire, to extinguish, from morte, L. mors, death. See Mortmain.]

    In English law, to alienate in mortmain, that is, to sell to a corporation, sole or aggre- gate, ecclesiastical or temporal, and their successors. This was considered as sell- ing to dead hands. This cannot be done without the king's hcense. [See Mort-

    main.] Blackstone. Cotvel.

    AMOTION, n. [h. amotio ; a7iioveo.]

    Removal. fVarton.

    AMOUNT', V. i. [Fr. monter, to ascend ; Norm, amont, upwards ; Sp. Port, montar ; It. montare ; from L. mons, a mountain, or its root ; W. mynyz.]

    1. To rise to or reach, by an accumulation of particulars, into an aggregate whole ; to compose in the whole ; as, the interest on the several sums amounts to fifty dollars.

    •2. To rise, reach, or extend to, in eflfect, or substance ; to result in, by consequence, when all things are considered ; as, the

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    testimony of these witnesses amounts to very little. Bacon.

    AMOUNT', n. The sum total of two or more particular sums or quantities ; as. the amount of 7 and 9 is 16.

    2. The effect, substance or result ; the simi as, the amount of the testimony is this.

    AMOUNT'ING, ppr. Rising to, by accumu- lation or addition ; coming or increasing to ; resulting in effect or substance.

    AM6UR', n. [Fr., from L. amor, love.]

    An unlawful connection in love ; a lov trigue; an affair of gallantry. South.

    AMoV'AL, n. [L. amoveo.]

    Total removal. [M)t used.] Evelyn.

    AMOVE', V. t. [L. amoveo, a and moveo, to move.]

    To remove. [JVotused.] Hall. Spenser.

    AM'PELITE, Ji. [Gr. a^rttXoj, a vine. The name of an earth used to kill worms on vines. Phny says it is like bitumen. Lib. 35, 16.]

    Cannel coal, or candle coal ; an inflammable sub.stance of a black color, compact tex ture, and resinous luster, and sufficiently hard to be cut and polished. It burns with a bright flame, of a short duration and gives but a moderate heat. It is used Uke jet for making toys. It is found France and England, where husbandmen smear vines with it to kill vermin.

    Encyc. Cleaveland.

    AMPHIB'IAL, AMPHIB'IA, n. [Gr.., both or about, and (Jio{, life.]

    In zoology, amphibials are a class of animals, so formed as to live on land, and for a long time under water. Their heart has but one ventricle ; their blood is red and cold ; and they have such command of the lungs, as for a considerable time, to suspend f espu'ation. This class of anunals is divided into two orders, the Reptiles and the Serpents. To the first belong the testudo, or tortoise, the draco or dragon, the lacerta or hzard, and the rana or frog ; to the second, the crotalus, boa, coluber, anguis, amphisbena, and cecilia. Linne.

    The term has also been appUed to such quadrupeds, as frequent the water, par- ticularly the marine quadrupeds, such as the seal, walrus and laniantin. Encyc.

    AMPHIB'IOLITE, n. [Gr. a.utiSwj, am- phibious, and %Woi, stone.]

    A fragment of a petrified amphibious ani- mal. Diet, of JVat. Hist

    AMPHIBIOLOG'I€AL, a. [Infra.]

    Pertaining to amjihibiology.

    AMPHIBIOL'OGY, n. [Gr. aixft, on both sides, (Jioj, life, and >.oyo{, discourse.]

    A discourse or treatise on amphibious mals, or the history and description of such animals.

    AMPHIBIOUS, a. [See AmpUhial]

    1. Having the i>ower of living in two ele- ments, air and water, as frogs, crocodiles, beavers, and the like.

    2. Of a mi.xed nature ; partaking of two tures; as, an amphibious breed.

    AMPHIB'IOUSNESS, n. The quahty oil

    being able to live in two elements, or of

    partaking of two natures. AMPHIB'IUM, n. That which lives in two

    elements, as in air and water. AM'PHIBOLE, n. [Gr. a/iijn«o?.05, equivocal

    an^i and )3a?.J.u.] A name given by Haoy to a species of min

    erals, including the Tremohte, Hornblend, and Aclinohte. Its primitive form is an oblique rhombic prism. Cleaveland.

    AMPHIBOLIC, «. Pertaining to anqjhi- bole ; resembling amphibole, or partaking of its nature and characters. Cooper.

    AMPHIBOLOGICAL, a. Doubtful ; of doubtful meaning.

    AMPHIBOLOG'ICALLY, adv. With doubtful meaning.

    AMPHIBOL'OgY, n. [Gr. afi^i, (Saxxu and Xoyos, speech, ajifiSo^oym.]

    A phrase or discourse, susceptible of two in terpretations ; and hence, a phrase of un certain meaning. Amphibology arises from the order of the phrase, rather than from the ambiguous meaning of a word, which is called equivocation. We have an example in the answer of the oracle to Pyrrhus. "Aio te Romanes vincere pos se." Here te and Romanos, may either of them precede or follow vincere posse, and the sense may be either, you may conquer the Romans, or the Romans may conquer you. The English language seldom ad- mits of amphibology. Encyc. Johnson

    AMPHIB'OLOUS, a. [Gr. afi^iSoxos, 0^4,, and (3OW.C0, to strike.]

    Tossed from one to another ; striking each way, with mutual blows. [lAttle used.]

    AMp'hIB'OLY, ji. [Gr. a;/$iffo?.to, 0^.4.', both ways, and liaMM, to strike.^

    Ambiguity of meaning. [Rarely used.


    AMPHIBRACH, n. [Gr. a^f, and |3pa;tis, short.]

    In poetry, a foot of three syllables, the middle one long, the first and last short ; as ha here, in Latin. In English verse, it is used as the last foot, when a syllable is added to the usual number forming a double rhyme ; as.

    The piece, you think, is incorrect, why take it ? Pope. Trumbull

    AM'PHICOME, n. [^t andxo,.,, hair.]

    A Idnd of figured stone, of a round shape, but rugged and beset with called Erotylos, on account of its power of exciting- love. Anciently, it was used in divination ; but it is Uttle known to the moderns. Encyc.

    AMPHICTYON'IC, a. Pertammg to the august council of Aniphictyons.

    AMPHIC'TY'ONS, n. In Grecian history, an assembly or council of deputies from the different states of Greece, supposed to be so called from Ampliictyon, tlie son of Deucahon, but this opinion is probably a fable. Ten or twelve states were re presented in this assembly, which sat a Thermopylse, but ordinarily at Delphi Each city sent two deputies, one called Hieromnemon and the other Pylagoras. The former mspected the sacrifices and ceremonies of rehgion ; the latter, had the charge of deciding causes and differences betweeti private persons. The former was elected by lot ; the latter by a plural ity of voices. They had an equal right to dehberate and vote in all matters relatuig to the common interests of Greece.

    Pans. Plin. Strabo. Encyc.

    AM'PHIgENE, n. [Gr. oa<}>t and yeros.]

    In mineralogy, another uatne of the leucite or Vesuviau.

    AMPHIHEXAHE'DRAL, a. [Gr. auft, and hexahedral.]

    In cryslalugraphy, when the faces of the crys- tal, counted in two different directions, give two hexahedral outlines, or are found to be six in number. Cleaveland.

    AMPHIM'AGER, n. [Gr. o^t'faxpos, long 1 both sides.]

    In ancient poetry, a foot of three syllables, the iniddle one short and the others long, as in castitas.

    AMPHIS'BEN, > »i. [Gr.o;«$i«e

    AMPlllSBE'NA, 5 and ffoim, to go ; indi- cating that the animal moves with either end foremost.]

    A genus of serpents, with the head small, smooth and blunt ; the nostrils small, the eyes minute and blackish, and the mouth furnished with small teeth. The body is cylindrical, destitute of scales, and divided into numerous annular segments ; the tail obtuse, and scarcely to be distinguished from the head, whence the beUef that it moved equally well with either end fore- most. There are two species ; the fuli- ginosa, black with white spots, found in Africa and America ; and the alba, or white species, found in both the Indies, and generally in ant-hillocks. They feed on ants and earth-worms, and were for- merly deemed poisonous ; but this opinion is exploded. Plin. 8. 23. Encyc. Cyc.

    The aquatic amphisben, Gordius aquaticue, Linne, is an animal resembling a horse hair, found in water, and moving with ei- ther end foremost. The vulgar opinion that this is an animated horse-hair is found to be an error. This hair Avorra is generated in the connnon black beetle, in which the parent worm lays its eggs ; and is sometimes found in the earth and on the leaves of trees.

    Lister, Phil. Trans. jVo. 8.3.

    AMPHIS'CII, I [Gr. o;.$i, on both

    AMPHIS'CIANS, ^"- sides, and (Tx«., shad- ow.]

    In geography, the inhabitants of the tropics, whose shadows, in one part of the year, are cast to the north, and in the other, to the south, according as tlie sun is in the south- ern or northern signs.

    AM'PHITANE, n. A name given by an- cient naturahsts to a fossil, called by Dr. Hill pyricubium. Pliny describes it as of a square figure and a gold color. Qu. Cubic pyntcs. Pliny, 37. 10. Encyc.

    AMPHITHE'ATER, n. [iSr. af,^i9iaTpo,; of afL^i, about, and fiforpoi', theater, from eeoMfiai, to .see or look.]

    1. An edifice in an oval or circular form, hav- ing its area encompassed with rows of seats, rising higher as they recede from the area, on which people used to sit to view the combats of gladiators and of wild beasts, and other sports. The ancient theater was a semicircle, but exceeding it by a fourth part of its diameter ; the am- phitheater was a double theater, and its longest diameter was to its shortest as 1 1-2 to 1. It was at first of wood, but in the reign of Augustus one was erected of stone. The area or cavea being covered with sand was called arena. Kennel.

    2. In gardening, a disposition of shrubs and trees in the form of an amphitheater, on a slope, or forming a slope, by placing the



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    lowest in front. An ampliitheater may also be formed of turf only. Encyc.

    AMPHITHE'ATRAL, a. Resembliiif; at amphitheater. Tooke

    AMPHITHEAT'RICAL, a. Pertaining to or exhibited in an amphitheater. H'arton.

    AM'PHITRITE, n. [Gr. oit^crp.t,,, a dess of the sea.]

    A genus of marine animals, of the Linnean order, Mollusca.

    AM'PHOR, or AM'PHORA, n. [L. ampho- ra ; Gr. oi/t^iopfvs, or a^ifii^opfvs ; a^f and $opfu.]

    Among the Greeks and Romans, a liquid measure. The amphora of the Romans contained about forty-eight sextaries, equal to seven gallons and a pint, English wine measure. The Grecian or Attic amphor contained about a third more. This was also, among the Romans, a dry measure of about three bushels. Among the Ve- netians, it is a hquid measure of sixteen quarts.

    This name was formerly used in England ; hut t)ie capacity of the Sax. ambra is not certainly known.

    LL. In

    AM'PLE, a. [Fr. ampk ; L. amplus.]

    1. Large ; wide ; spacious ; extended ; as ample room. This word carries with it the sense of room or space fully sufficient for the use intended.

    2. Great in bulk, or size ; as an ample tear


    3. Liberal ; unrestrained ; without parsimo- ny ; fully sufficient ; as, ample provision for the table ; ample justice.

    4. Liberal ; magnificent ; as ample promises.

    5. Diffiisive ; not briefer contracted ; as an ample narrative.

    AM'PLENESS, n. Largeness; spacious ness ; sufficiency ; abundance.

    A3IPLEX'I€AUL, a. [L. amplexor, to em- brace, of amh about, and plico, plexus, to fold, and caulis, xavXo;, a stem.]

    In botany, suiTounding or embracing the stem, as the base of a leaf.

    AM'PLIATE, V. t. [L. amplio. See Ampk

    To enlarge ; to make greater ; to extend. [Little used.]

    AMPLIA'TION, n. Enlargement ; ampl fication ; diffuseness. [lAttle used.]

    3. In Roman antiquity, a deferring to pass sentence ; a postponement of a decision, to obtain further evidence. Encyc.

    AMPLIFl€A'TION, n. [L. amplificatio.]

    1. Enlargement ; extension.

    2. In rhetoric, diffusive description or dis- cussion ; exaggerated representation ; co- pious argument, intended to present the subject in every view or in the strongest light ; diffuse nai-rative, or a dilating upon all the particulars of a subject ; a description given in more words tlian are necessary, or an illustration by various ex- atnples and proofs.

    AM'PLIFIED, pp. Enlarged; extended diffusively treated.

    AM'PLIFIER, n. One who amplifies or en- larges ; one who treats a subject diffusive- ly, to exhibit it in the strongest light.


    AM'PLIFY, V. t. [Fr. amplifier ; L. amplijfi- CO ; of amplus and facto, to make large.]

    1. To enlarge; to augment ; to increase or

    extend, in a general sense ; applied to te.rial or immaterial things.

    2. In rhetoric, to enlarge in discussion or by representation ; to treat copiously, so as to present the subject in every view and in the strongest fights.

    •3. To enlarge by addition ; to improve or extend ; as, to amplify the sense of ai thor by a paraphrase.

    AM'PLIFY, V. i. To speak largely or co- piously ; to be diffuse in argument or de scription ; to dilate upon ; often followed by on ; as, to amplify on the several topics of discourse. JFatts.

    2. To exaggerate ; to enlarge by representa- tion or description ; as.

    Homer amplifies — not invents. Pope

    AM'PLIFYING, ppr. Enlarging; exag- gerating ; diffusively treating.

    AM'PLITUDE, n. [L. amplitudo, from am- plus, large.]

    1. Largeness ; extent, appUed to bodies ; as, the amplitude of the earth.

    2. Largeness; extent of capacity or intellec- tual powers ; as, amplitude of mind.

    3. Extent of means or power ; abiuidance ifficiency. ^'iite.

    Amplitude, in astronoiny, is an arch of tlie horizon intercepted between the east and west point, and the center of the sun or star at its rising or setting. At the rising of a star, the amplitude is eastern or ortive ; at the setting, it is western, occiduous, oi occasive. It is also northern or southern, when north or south of the equator.

    Johnson. Encyc.

    Amplitude of the range, in projectiles, is the horizontal fine subtending the path of a body thrown, or the line which measures the distance it has moved.

    Johnson. Chambers

    Magnetical amplitude is the arch of the hori- zon between the sun or a star, at rising or setting, and the east or west point of the horizon, by the compass. The difference between this and the true amplitude is the variation of the compass. Entye.

    AM'PLY, adv. Largely; Uberally ; fully; sufficiently ; copiously ; in a diffusive manner.

    AM'PUTATE, V. t. [L. amputo, of amb. about, and puto, to prune.]

    1. To prune branches of trees or vines ; to cut off.

    2. To cut off a limb or other part of an ani mal body ; a term of surgery.

    AM'PUTATED,;7p. Cutoff; separated from tlie bodv.

    AM'PUTATING,jtii;)r. Cutting offafimb or part of tlie body.

    AMPUTA'TION, n. [L. amputatio.] .

    The act or operation of cutting off a limb or some part of the body.

    AM'ULET, n. [L. amitletum; Fr. amnlette ; Sp. amuleto ; from Lat. amolior, amolitus, to remove.]

    Something worn as a remedy or preserva live against evils or mischief, such as dis eases and witchcraft. Amulets, in dayi of ignorance, were common. They con sisted of certain stones, metals or plants ; sometimes of words, characters or senten- ces, arranged in a particular order. They were appended to the neck or body. Among some nations, they are stiU in use. Enaji

    AMU'SE, I), t. s as z. [Fr. am%iser,to stop or keep at bay, to detain ; from muser, to loiter, or trifle ; It. musare, to gaze or stand idle ; Ger. miissig, idle. Qu. Gr. ^i^« ; Lat. musso.]

    To entertain the mind agreeably ; to occu- py or detain attention with agreeable ob- jects, whether by singing, conversation, or a show of curiosities. Dr. Johnson re- marks, that amuse implies something less Uvely than divert, and less important than please. Hence it is often said, we are amu- sed with trifles.

    2. To detain ; to engage the attention by hope or expectation ; as, to amuse one by flattering promises.

    AMU'SED, pp. s as z. Agreeably entertain- ed ; having the mind engaged by soine- thing pleasing.

    AMU'SEMENT, n. sasz. That which amuses, detains or engages the mind ; en- tertainment of the mind ; pastime ; a pleas- urable occupation of the senses, or that which furnishes it, as dancing, sports or music.

    AMU'SER, n. s as z. One who amuses, or affords an agreeable entertainment to tlic mind.

    AMU'SING, ppr. or a. s as -. Entertaining ; giving moderate pleasure to the mind, so as to engage it ; pleasing.

    AMU'SINGLY, adv. s as :. In an amusing manner.

    AMU'SIVE, a. That has the power to amuse or entertain the mind.

    AMYG'DALATE, a. [L. amygdalus, an almond.] Made of almonds.

    AMYG'DALATE, n. An emulsion made of almonds ; milk of almonds.

    Bailey. Core.

    AMYG'DALINE, a. Pertaining to or resem- bfing the almond.

    AMYG'DALITE, n. A plant ; a species of spurge, with leaves I'esembling those of the almond. Ash.

    AMYG'DALOID, n. [Gr. a.^lvySa^fa, an al- mond, and fi6o{, form ; G. mandel-stein, almond-stone.]

    Toad-stone ; a compound rock, consisting of a basis of basalt, greenstone or some other variety of trap, imbedduig nodules of various minerals, particularly calcarious spar, quartz, agate, zeofite, chlorite, &c. When the imbedded minerals are detach- ed, it is porous, like lava. Cleaveland.

    (VMYG'DALOIDAL, a. Pertaining to amyg- daloid.

    .^MYLA'CEOUS, a. [L. amylum, starch, of o priv. and nVKiq, a miU, being formerly made without grmding. Plin. 18. vii.]

    Pertaining to starch, or the farinaceous part of grain ; resembling starch.

    AM' YLINE, n. [L. amyhim ; Gr. afivXov ; o^vXoj, imground, a and fivTtti, null.]

    A farinaceous substance between gum and starch. IVebster's Mantud.

    A3I'YRALDISM, n. In church history, the doctrine of universal grace, as explained by Amyraldus, or Amyrault, of France, in the seventeenth century. He taught that God desires the happiness of all men, and that none are excluded by a divine decree, but that none can obtain salvation without faith in Christ ; that God refuses to nono the power of believing, though he does not




    grant to all his assistance to improve tlii.- poucr. Encijc

    \MVZ'TLI, n. A Mexican name of the sea- lion, an amphibious quadruped, inhabiting the shores and rivers of America, on the Pacific ocean. Its body is three feet in length, and its tail, two feet. It has a long snout, short legs and crooked nails. Its skin is valued for the length and softness of its hair. Clavigero.

    AN, a. [Sax. an, ane, one ; D. een ; Ger. ein . Sw. and Dan. era ; Fr. on, un, une ; Sp un, uno ; It. uno, ima ; L. unus, una, unum ;; Ir. em,ertn, oon ; W. un, yn ; Corn uynyn ; Arm. yunan.]

    One ; noting an individual, either definitely, known, certain, specified, or understood ; or indefinitely, not certaui, known, or spe- cified. Definitely, as "Noah built an ark of Gopher wood." " Paul was an eminent apostle." Indefinitely, as " Bring me an orange." Before a consonant the letter is dropped, as a man ; but our ancestors wrote an man, an king. This letter repre- sents an definitely, or indefinitely. Definite ly, as " I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God." Ex. vi. In- definitely, as " the province of a judge is to decide controversies." An being the sam word as one, should not be used with it " such an one" is tautology ; the true phrase is such one. Although an, a and one, are the same word, and always have the same sense, yet by custom, an and a are used exclusively as a definitive adjec- tive, and one is used in numbering. Where our ancestors wrote an, tuia, thry, we now use one, two, three. So an and a are never used except with a noun ; but one like other adjectives, is sometimes used with- out its noun, and as a substitute for it ; " one is at a loss to assign a reason for such conduct."

    AN, in old English authors, signifies if; as, " an it please your honor." So in Gr,

    cai', Ar. • 1, Sam. and L.

    if or

    whether ; Ir. an, Ch. ]X or yn, if, whether, It is probably an imperative, like if, gif, give. Qu. Sax. annan, or anan, to give

    A'NA, (id, or a. [Gr. ara.]

    tn medical prescriptions, it signifies an equal quantity of the several ingredients; wine and honey, ana, da or a ^ ii. that is, of wine and honey each two ounces.

    .\'NA, as a termination, is annexed to the names of authors to denote a collection of their memorable sayings. Thus, Scalige- rana, is a book containing the sayings of Scaliger. It was used by the Romans, as in Collectaneus, collected, gathered.

    ANABAP'TISM, n. [See Anabaptist.]

    The doctrine of tlie Anabaptists.

    ANABAP'TIST, n. [Gr. otu, again, and ia7tri;t;i, a hajitist.]

    One who holds the doctrine of the baptism of adults, or of the invalidity of infant bap tism, and the necessity of rebaptization ii an adult age. One who maintains that baptism ought always to be performed by immersion. Encyc

    ANABAPTIST'IC, ) Relating to the

    ANABAPTIST'ICAL, ^ "" Anabaptists to their doctrines. Milton, j

    Vol. I.

    ANABAP'TISTRY, n. The sect of Ana- baptists.

    ANABAPTI'ZE, v. t. To rebaptize. [^rut used.] Whitl

    ANA€A, n. A speciesofparokeet, about the size of a lark ; the crown of the head is a dark red, the upper part of the neck, sides, back and wings are green.

    Did. of J^nt. Hist.

    ANA€AMP'TI€, a. [Gr. aro and xo/xrtru, to bend.]

    1. Reflecting or reflected ; a word formerly appUed to that partof optics, which treats of reflection; the same as what is now called catoptric. [See Catoptrics.]

    2. Anacamptic sounds, among the Greeks, were sounds produced by reflection, a echoes ; or such as proceeded downwards from acute to grave. Rousseau. Busby.

    ANACAMP'TleS, n. The doctrine of re- flected light. [See Catoptrics.]

    ANA€AR'DIUM, n. The cashew-nut, or marking nut, which produces a thickish, red, caustic, hiflammable Hquor, which, when used in marking, turns black, and is very durable. Ure.

    ANA€ATHAR'TI€, a. [Gr. a.u, upward, and xaOapnts, a purging. See Cathartic]

    Throwing upwards ; cleansing by exciting vomiting, expectoration, &c. Quincy.

    ANA€ATHAR'TI€, n. A medicine whicl excites discharges by the mouth, or nose as expectorants, emetics, sternutatories and masticatories. Quincy.

    ANA€HORET. [See Anchffret.]

    ANA€H'RONlSM, n. [Gr. am, and ;tpoM5 time.]

    An error in computing time ; any error in chronology, by which events are mis- placed.

    ANA€HRONIS'TIe, a. Erroneous in date containing an anachronism. Warton

    .'VNACLAS'Tle, a. [Gr. ava and x^oaif, a breaking, from x\au>, to break.]

    Refracting ; breaking the rectilinear course of fight.

    Anaplastic glasses, sonorous glasses or phials, which are flexible, and emit a vehement noise by means of the human breath ; called also vexing glasses, from the fright which their resilience occasions. They are low phials with flat bellies, like inver- ted timnels, and with very thin convex bottoms. By dravring out a little air, the bottom springs into a concave form with a smart crack ; and by breathing or blow- ing into them, the bottom, with a like noise springs into its former convex form.


    ANA€LAS'TI€S, n. That part of optics which treats of the refraction of light, commonly called dioptrics, which see.


    ANA€OENO'SIS, n. [Gr. waxoivwuif ; ava and xoii-Of, common.] j

    A figure of rhetoric, by which a .speaker applies to his opponents for their opinion on the point in debate. Walker..

    ANAeOND'A, n. A name given in Ceylon to a large snake, a species of Boa, which is said to devour travelers. Its flesh is excellent food. Encyc.

    ANACREON'Tle, a. Pertaining to Anac- reon, a Greek poet, whose odes and epi- grams are celebrated for their dehcate, easy and graceful air, and for their exact


    imitation of nature. His verse consists oT three feet and a half, usually spondees and iambuses, sometimes anapests ; as in this line of Horace.

    " Lvdia, die per omnes." Encyc.

    ANACREON'TIe, n. A poem composed in the manner of Anacreon.

    AN'ADEME, n. [Gr. woiijfta.] A chaplet or crown of flowers. W. Broume.

    ANADIPLO'SIS, n. [Gr. avo, again, and iirtXoo;, double.]

    Duplication, a figure in rhetoric and poetry, consisting in the repetition of the last word or words in a line or clause of a sentence, in the beginning of the next ; as, " he re- tained his virtues amidst all his misfor- tunes, misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or prevent. Encyc.

    ANAD'R03I0US, o. [Gr. ava, upward, and Spo/iof, course.]

    Ascending ; a word applied to such fish as pass from the sea into fresh waters, at sta- ted seasons. Encyc.

    AN'AGLYPH, n. [Gr. oro, and y^vfu, to engrave.]

    An ornament made by sculpture.

    ANAGLYP'TIC, a. Relating to the art of carving, engraving, enchasing or emboss- ing plate. Evelyn.

    AN'AGOciE, ) [Gr. ot'oyuyjj, of oiu, up-

    AN'AGOGY, I "■ ward, and oywyj?, a leading, from oyu.]

    An elevation of mind to things celestial ; the spiritual meaning or application of words ; also the ap[)lication of the types and alle- gories of the old testament to subjects of the new. Encyc.

    ANAGOG'ICAL, a. Mysterious ; elevated ; spiritual ; as, the rest of the sabbath, in an anagogical sense, signifies the repose of the saints in heaven.

    ANAGOG'I€ALLY, adv. In a mysterious sense ; with religious elevation.

    ANAGOg'ICS, n. Mysterious considera- tions. Addison.

    AN'AGRAM, n. [Gr. aio, and ypo^/ao, a letter.]

    A transposition of the letters of a name, by which a new word is formed. Thus Ga- lenus becomes angelus ; William JVoy, (attorney general to Charles I., a laborious man,) may be tunied into Imoyl in law.

    ANAGR.AJ«MAT'I€, ? Making an

    ANAGRAMMAT'I€AL, l"' anagram. Camden''s Remains.

    ANAGRAMMAT'I€ALLY, adv. In the manner of an anagram.

    ANAGRAM'MATISM, n. The act or prac- tice of making anagrams. Camden.

    ANAGRAM'MATIST, n. A maker of ana- grams.

    ANAGRASI'MATIZE, v. i. To make ana- grams. Herbert.

    AN'AGROS, n. A measure of grain in Spain, containing something less than two bushels. Encyc.

    A'NAL, a. [L. anus.] Pertaining to the anus ; as, the anal fin. Encyc. Pennant.

    ANAL'CIM, ) Cubic zeolite, found in

    ANAL'CIME, I "■ aggregated or cubic crys- tals. Ure.

    This mineral is generally crystalized, but is also found amorphous, and in reniform, maminillary, laminated or radiated mass-




    es. By friction, it acquires a weak electri- city ; hence its name, Gr. araxxif, weak. Cleaveland. AN' ALE€TS, n. [Gr. aiw and^eya, to collect.] A collection of short essays, or remarks.

    Encyc. AN'ALEMMA, n. [Gr. woxij^^a, altitude.]

    1. In geometiy, a projection of the sphere on the plane of the meridian, orthographical ly made by straight hues, circles and ellip ses, the eye being supposed at an infinite! distance, and in the east or west points of the horizon. Also,

    2. An instrument of wood or brass on which tliis kind of projection is drawn, with a horizon and cursor fitted to it, ui which the solstitial colure, and all circles parallel it, will be concentric circles ; all circles oblique to the eye will be elhpses ; and all circles whose planes pass through the eye, will be right hues. Encyc. ,dsh.

    ANaLEP'SISj n. [Gr. avoa.r;^ti, from amrafi- eavu, to receive again.]

    The augmentation or nutrition of an emacia- ted body ; recovery ol' strength after a disease. Quinci/,

    ANALEP'TI€, a. Corroborating ; invigora- ting ; giving strength after disease.

    ANALEP'TIe, n. A medicine wliich gives strength, and aids in restoring a body to health after sickness ; a restorative.

    ANAL'OGAL, a. Analogous. [A^o< used.] Hale.

    ANALOci'IeAL, o. Having analogy ; used by way of analogy ; bearing some rela- tion. Thus analogicnl reasoning is reas- onuig fi-oin some similitude which things known bear to tilings unknown. An ana- logical word is one which carries with it some relation to the original idea. Thus the word_^rni primarily denotes solidity or compactness in a material body ; and by analogy, when used of the mind, it con- veys the idea of qualities having a simili- tude to the soUdity of bodies, that is, fixed- ness or immovability. IVatts.

    ANALOG'IeALLY, adv. In an analogical manner; by way of similitude, relation or agreement. Thus to reason analogically is to deduce inferences from some agree- ment or relation which things bear to eacl: other.

    ANAL06'I€ALNESS, n. The quality of being analogical ; fitness to be applie

    ANAL'OgISM, n. [Gr. a>.o?ioyia^o5.]

    An argument from the cause to the eflTect.


    Investigation of things by tlie analogy they bear to each other. Crahb'e.

    ANAL'OgIST, n. One who adheres to analogy.

    ANAL'OGIZE, v. t. To explain by analogy ; to form some resemblance between diftt'r- ent things ; to consider a thing with regard to its analogy to something else. Cheyne.

    ANAL'OGOUS, a. Having analogy ; bear- ing some resemblance or proportion ; fol lowed by to; as, there is something in tlit exercise of the mind analogous to that of the body.

    ANAL'OgY, »i. [Gr. a^aXoyio, of a™, and Xoyo;, ratio, proportion.]

    1. An agreement or likeness between things in some circumstances or effects, when tin things are otherwise entirely ditlerent

    Thus a plant is said to have life, because its growth resembles in some degree, that of an animal. In life and growth, then, there is an analogy between a plant and an animal. Learning enlightens the mind because it is to the mind, what light is to the eye, enabling it to discover tilings be- fore hidden. When the things which have an analogy follow a preposition, that prep- osition must be between or betwixt ; as there is an analogy between plants and animals, or between customs. When one of the things precedes a verb, and the other fol- lows, the prej)osition used must be to oi loiih ; as, a plant has some analogy to or ivith an animal.

    3. With grammarians, analogy is a confor- mity of words to the genius, structure or general rules of a language. Thus th general rule in Enghsh is that the plural of a noun ends in es ; therefore all nouns which have that plural termination have an analogy, or are formed in analogy with other words of a like kind.

    Johnsoit. Encyc.

    ANAL'YSIS, n. [Gr. (u«>ju(Jk, of ava and Xvffis, a loosing, or resolving, from, to loosen. See Loose.]

    1. The separation of a compound body into its constituent parts ; a resolving ; as, an analysis of water, air or oil, to discover its elements.

    2. A consideration of any thing in its sepa- rate pai-ts ; an examination of the difttjr- ent parts of a subject, each separately ; as the words which compose a sentence, the notes of a tune, or the simple propositions which enter into an argument. It is op- posed to synthesis.

    In mathematics, analysis is the resolving of problems by algebraic equations. The analysis of finite quantities is otherwise called algebra, or specious arithmetic. The analysis of infinites is the method of fluxions, or the differential calculus.


    In logic, analysis is the tracing of things to their soiu-ce, and the resolving of knowl edge into its original principles.

    3. A syllabus, or table of the principal head; of a continued discourse, disposed in their natural order.

    4. A brief, methodical illustration of the principles of a science. In this sense, it is nearly synonymous with synopsis.

    AN'ALYST, }i. One who analyzes, or is versed in analysis. Kirwan.

    ANALYT'I€, } Pertaining to analy

    ANALYTICAL, S "• sis ; that resolves uito first j)rinci|)les ; that separates into parts or original principles ; that resolves a com- pound body or subject ; as, an analytical experiment in chiniistry, or an analytical investigation. It is opposed to synthetic.

    ANALYTICALLY, adv. In the maimer of] analysis ; by way of separating a body into its constituent parts, or a subject, uito its principles.

    ANALYTICS, n. The science of analys [See Analysis.]

    AN'ALVZE, V. t. [Gr. araTivw. See Jlnal- ^ysis.]

    To resolve a body into its elements ; to sep- arate a compound subject into its parts or pro])ositions, for the jmrpose of an cxanii nation of each separately ; as, to anntyz

    a fossil substance ; to analyze an action to ascertain its morality.

    AN'ALYZED, pp. Resolved into its con- stituent parts or principles, for examina- tion.

    AN'ALYZER, n. One who analyzes ; that which analyzes or has the power to ana- lyze.

    AN'ALYZING, ppr. Resolving into ele- ments, constituent parts, or first princi- ples.

    ANAMORPHOSIS, n. [Gr. ava, and /m..- $uffi;, formation.]

    In perspective draidngs, a deformed or dis- torted portrait or figure, which, in onir point of view, is confused or unintelligible, and in another, is an exact and regulai representation ; or confused to the naked eye, but reflected from a plain or curved mirror, appearing regular, and in right proportion. Johnson. Encyc.

    ANA'NAS, n. The name of a species of Bromelia, the pine-apple. Encyc.

    AN'APEST, n. [Gr. am, and rtaiu, to strike. Bailey.]

    In poetry, a foot, consisting of three sylla- bles, the two first short, the last long ; the reverse of the dactyl; as.

    Can ft bosom so gentle remain Uiunoved when her Corydon sighs ?


    ANAPEST'IC, n. The anapestic measure. Bentley.

    ANAPEST'IC, a. Pertaining to an anapest : consisting of anapestic feet.

    ANAPH'ORA, n. [Gr. from ow-a^tpu.]

    1. A figui'e in rhetoric, when the same word or words are repeated at the beguming of two or more succeeding verses or clauses of a sentence ; as, " iPhere is the wise ? IVhere is the scribe ? H'here is the dis- puter of this world ?" Johnson.

    2. Amoi^g physicians, the discharge of blood or purulent matter by the mouth.

    Encyc. Coxe.

    ANAPLEROT'IC, a. [Gr. a.'artx^po«, to fill.]

    Filling up ; supplying or renovating flesh.

    ANAPLEROT'IC,/!. A medicuie wliich re- news flesh or wasted parts. Encyc. Coxe.

    AN'ARCH, n. [See Anarchy.] The author of confusion ; one who excites revolt.


    ANARCH'IC, ) Without rule or gov-

    ANARCH'ICAL, S ernment ; in a state of confusion ; apphed to a state or society. Fielding uses anarchial, a word of less dif- ficult pronunciation.

    AN'ARCHIST, n. An anarch ; one who excites revolt, or promotes disorder in a fitate. Stephens.

    AN'ARCHY, 7t. [Gr. ompzm, of a priv. and apxn, rule.]

    Want of government ; a state of society, when there is no law or supreme power, or when the laws are not efficient, and individuals do what they please with im- punitv ; i)olitical confusion.

    ANAR'HICHAS, n. The sea wolf; a genus of ravenous fish, of the order of Apodals, found in the northern seas.

    A'NAS, 71. [L.] A genus of water fowl of the order Anseres ; incliuling the swans, geese, and ducks. The species are very numerous.

    ANAS' ARCA, ?!. [Gr. wo, in or between, and (JO|)?, flesli.1


    A species of dropsy, from a serous humor spread between the skin and flesh ; or an accumulation of lymph in the cellular membrane, occasioning a soft, pale, ine- lastic swelling of the skin, ^uincy. Coxe. ANAS'AReOUS, a. Belonging to anasarca, or dropsy ; dropsical. |

    ANAS'TOMOSE, v. i. s as z. [Gr. ava, and,

    aro^o, mouth.] To inosculate ; to unite the mouth of onej vessel with another, as the arteries with the veins. Darwin. Encyc.

    ANASTOM'OSY, } The inosculation of ANASTOMO'SIS, S vessels, or the open- ing of one vessel into another, as an artery into a vein ; a relaxation or dilatation of the mouths of vessels ; also the communi- cation of two vessels, as a vein with a vein. Qiiincy. Encyc. Coxe. ANASTOMOT'IC, o. Opening the mouths

    of vessels, or removing obstructions. ANASTOiMOT'Ie, n. A medicine sup- posed to have the power of opening tlie mouths of vessels, and promoting circula- tion, such as cathartics, deobstruents and sudorifics. Encyc

    ANAS'TROPIIE, > „ [Gr. a.ufpot.?, a con- ANAS'TROPHY, \ "' version or inversion.: In rhetoric and grammar, an inversion of the natural order of words ; as saxa per et acopulos, for per saxa et scopulos. Encyc. AN'ATASE, n. [Gr. avataai!, extension, so

    named from the length of its crystals.^ Octahedrite ; octahedral oxyd of titanium ; a mineral that shows a variety of colors by reflected hght, from indigo blue to red dish brown. It is usually crystaUzed it acute, elongated, pyramidical octahedrons. Ure. Cleaveland. ANATII'EMA, n. [Gr. ava9ifia., from fifljfitti, to place behind, backward or at a distance, to separate.] X. Excommunication with curses. Hence, a curse or denunciation by ecclesiastical authority, accompanying excommunica tion. This species of excommunication was practiced in the ancient churches, against notorious oflenders ; all churches were warned not to receive them ; all magistrates and private persons were admonished not to harbor or maintain them, and priests were enjoined not to converse with them, or attend tlieir fu neral.

    There are two kinds of anathemas, Jurft ciary and abjuratory. The former i pronounced by a council, pope or hisliop the latter is the act of a convert who anathematizes the heresy which he ab jures. •J. In heathen mythology, an ofiering, or pres ent made to some deity and hung up in a temple. Whenever a person quitted hi; employment, he set apart, or dedicated hi; tools to his patron-deity. Persons who had escaped danger remarkably, or been otherwise very fortunate, testified their gratitude by some ofiering to their deity. Encyc. ANATIIEMAT'I€AL, a. Pertaining

    anathema. ANATHEMAT'ICALLY, adv. In the man

    ner of anathema. ANATHEMATIZATION, n. The act of| anathematizing. Encyc.

    ANATH'EMATIZE, v. t. To e.xcominuni-

    A N C

    cate with a denmiciation of curses ; to pro-j nouncc an anathema against. Hamynond.l

    ANATH'EMATIZED, pp. Excommunica-j ted with curses. i

    ANATHEMATIZING, ppr. Pronoimcing an anathema.

    ANATIF'EROUS, a. [L. anas, a duck, and /era, to produce.] Producing ducks. Brown.

    ANAT'OCISM, 71. [L. anatocismus, fromGr. gain, and roxos, usury.]

    Interest upon interest ; the taking of com- pound interest ; or the contract by which such interest is secured. [Rarely used.]

    Johnson. Cicero.

    ANATOMT€AL, a. Belonguig to anatomy or dissection ; produced by or according to the principles of anatomy, or natural structure of the body ; relating to the parts of the body when dissected or separated.

    ANATOM'leALLY, adv. In an anatomical manner; by means of dissection ; accord- ing to the doctrine of anatomy.

    ANATOMIST, n. One who dissects bodies ; more generally, one who is skilled in the art of dissection, or versed in the doctruie and principles of anatomy.

    ANAT'OMIZE, v. t. To dissect an animal ; to divide into the constituent parts, for the purpose of examining each by itself; to lay open the interior structure of the parts of a body or subject ; as, to anatomize an animal or plant ; to anatomize an argu

    ANAT'OMIZED, pp. Dissected, as au ani mal body.

    ANAT'OMIZING, ppr. Dissecting.

    ANAT'OM Y, n. [Gr. a.aroftij, of a.u, through and tf/ivu, to cut.]

    1. The art of dissecting, or artificially sepa- rating the different parts of an animal body, to discover their situation, structure and economy.

    "3. The doctrine of the structure of the body learned by dissection ; as, a physician understands anatomy. The act of dividing any thing, corporeal or intellectual, for the purpose of examm- ing its parts ; as, the anatomy of a plant or of a discourse.

    4. The body stripped of its integuments ; c skeleton, or the corporeal frame of bone* entire, without the skin, flesh and vessels an improper use of the ivord, and vulgar

    5. Ironically, a meager person. ANATREP'Tle, a. [Gr. amrpfrtu, to over


    Overthrowing ; defeating ; prostrating ; c word applied to the dialogues of Plato, which represent a complete defeat in the gymnastic exercises. Enfield.

    AN'ATRON, n. [from Gr. .xrpo^, niter.]

    1. Soda or mineral fixed alkali.

    2. Spume or glass gall, a scmn which r upon melted glass, in the furnace, and when taken off, dissolves in the air, and then coagulates into common salt.

    3. The salt which collects on the walls of vaults. Johnson. Core.

    AN'BURY, n. A disease in turneps, or an injury occasioned by a fly.

    AN'CESTOR, n. [Fr. ancestres, ancetres ; L. antecessor, of ante, before, and cedo, to go.]

    One from whom a person descends, either by the father or mother, at any distance of time, in the tenth or hundredth gene- ration. Au ancestor precedes in the order

    A N C

    of nature or blood ; a predecessor, m the

    order of office.

    iVNCES'TRAL, a. Relating or belonging to

    ancestors ; claimed or descendhig from

    ancestors ; as, an ancestral estate.

    AN'CESTRY, n. A series of ancestors, or

    progenitors ; lineage, or those who com-

    ])ose the line of natural descent. Hence,

    l)irth or honorable descent. Addison.

    \N'€HILOPS, n. [Gr. atyi?L«+, from o.|, a

    goat, and u+, an eye. Qu.] The goat's eye ; an abscess in the inner angle of the eye ; an incipient fistula lach- rymalis. Encyc. Coxe.

    AN'CIIOR, n. [L. anchora ; Gr. oyxvpa ; It. and Port, ancora ; Sp. ancla ; D. G. Dan. anker ; Sw. anchare ; Ir. ankaire, ancoir or ingir ; Corn, ankar; Ar. ankar; Pers. an- ghar ; Russ. iacor ; Fr. ancre ; Arm. ancor.] 1. An iron instrument for holding a ship or other vessel at rest in water. It is a strong shank, with a ring at one end, to which a cable may be fastened ; and with two arms and flukes at the other end, forming a suitable angle with the shank to enter the ground. In seamen's language, the anchor comes home, when it is dislodged from its bed, so as to drag by the violence of the wind, sea or cm-rent. Foul anchor is when the anchor hooks or is entangled with another anchor, or with a wreck or cable, or when the slack cable is entangled. The anchor a cock bill, is when it is sus- pended perpendicularly from the cat iiead, ready to be let go. The anchor a peek, is when it is drawn in so tight as to bring the ship directly over it. The anchor is a trip, or a weigh, when it is just drawn out of the ground, in a perpen- dicular direction, eitlier by the cable or the buoy-rope. To back an anclior is to lay down a small anchor ahead of that by which the sliip rides, with the cable fastened to the crowu of the latter to prevent its coming home. At anchor is when a ship rides by her an- chor. Hence, to lie or ride at anchor. To cast anchor, or to anchor, is to let go

    an ajichor, to keep a ship at rest. To weigh anchor is to heave or raise the

    anchor out of the ground. Anchors are of diflerent sizes. The princi- pal, and that on which most dependence is jilaced, is the sheet anchor. Then come the best bower, the small botcer, the spare anchor, the stream anchor, and the hedge anchor, which is the smallest. Mar. Diet. l2. In a figurative sense, that which gives sta- bility or security ; that on wliich we place dependence lor safety.

    Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast. Heb. vi. 3. In architecture, anchors are carved work, somewhat resembling an anchor. It is coimnonly a part of the ornaments of the botdtins of capitals in the Tuscan, Doric and Ionic orders, and on the moldings of cornices. In heraldry, anchors are emblems of hope.

    Encyc. AN'CHOR, V. t. To place at anchor ; to

    moor ; as to anchor a ship. 2. To fix or fasten on ; to fix in a stable con- dition.

    A N C

    A N C


    AN'CHOR, r. i. To cast anchor ; to come to anchor ; as, our ship anchored off the isle of Wiglit.

    2. To stop ; to fix or rest on.

    AN'ellORABLE, o. Fit for anchorage. [.Yo< used.] Herbert.

    AN'€HORAgE, n. Anchor-ground ; a place where a ship can anchor, where the ground is not too rocky, nor the water too deep nor too shallow.

    2. The hold of a ship at anchor, or rather t)ie anchor and all the necessary tackle for anchorhig.

    3. A duty imposed on ships for anchoring in a harbor.

    AN'€HORED, ;>jB. Lying or riding at an- chor ; held by an anchor ; moored ; fixed in safety.

    AN'€HORESS, n. A female anchoret.


    AN'€HORET, or ANCHORITE, n. [Gr. avax^fnjtTj^j from ai'a;twp£w, to retire, ol ara and ;t"pf"> to go. Written by some au thors, anachoret.]

    A hermit ; a recluse ; one who retires from society into a desart or soUtary place avoid the temptations of the world and devote himself to religious duties. Also a monk, who, with the leave of the abbot, retires to a cave or cell, with an allowance from the monastery, to five in solitude.


    AN'CHOR-GROUND, n. Ground suitable for anchoring.

    AN'€HOR-MdLD, );. The hold or fastness of an anchor ; security.

    AN'eHORING, ppr. Mooring ; coming tc anchor ; casting anchor.

    AN'€HOR-SMITH, n. The maker or for ger of anchors, or one whose occupation is to make anchors.

    ANCHO'VY, > [Port, and Sp. anchova

    AN'CHOVY, I "• Fr. anchois ; It. acciuga G. anschove.]

    A small fish, about three inches in lengtli, of the genus Chipea, found and caught, in vast numbers, in the Mediterranean, and pickled for exportation. It is used as a sauce or seasoning.

    ANCHO'VY-PEAR, n. A fi-uit of Jamaica, constituting the genus Grias. It is large, contains a stone, and is escident.

    AN'CIENT, a. Usually pronounced most anomalously, ancient. The pronunciation of the first vowel ought to accord with that in antiquity, anger, anchor, &c. [Fr. uncien ; It. anzmno, anzi; from L. ante, tiquus.]

    t. Old ; that happened or existed in former times, usually at a great di.stance of time as, ancient authors, ancient days. Old, says Johnson, relates to the duration of the tiling itself, as an old coat ; and ancient, to time in general, as an ancient dress. But this distinction is not always observed. We say, in old times, as well as ancient times ; old customs, &c. In general however, ancieiit is opposed to modern, and old to new, fresh or recent. When speak of a thing that existed formerly, whicli has ceased to exist, we commonly use ancient, as ancient repubUcs, ancient heroes, and not old republics, old heroes. But when the thing which began or existed in former times, is still m existence, we use cMier ancient or old; as, ancient statues

    or paintings, or old statues or paintings ; ancient authors, or old authors, meaning books. But in these examples ancient seems tlie most correct, or best author- ized. Some persons apply ancient to men advanced in years still living ; but this use is not common in modern practice, though foimd in scripture.

    With the ancient is wisdom. Job.

    3. Old ; that has been of long duration ; as, cient forest; an ancient city.

    .3. Known from ancient times; as the ancient

    continent, opposed to the new continent.


    AN'CIENT, n. [Supra.] Generally used in the plural, ancients. Those who lived in former ages, opposed to modems.

    In scripture, very old men. Also, governors, rulers, political and ecclesiastical.

    The Lord will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people. Isa. iii. Jer. xix.

    God is called the Ancient of days from his eternal existence. Dan. vii.

    Hooker uses the word for seniors, "They were his ancients," but the use is not au- thorized.

    2. Ancient is also used for a flag or streamer, in a ship of war ; and for an ensign or the bearer of a flag, as in Shakespeare. Cov/el supposes the word, when used for a flag, to be a corruption of end-sheet, a flag at the stern. It is probably the Fr. enseigne Johnson. Cowel. Encyc.

    Ancient demain, in Enghsh Law, is a tenure by which all manors belonging to the crown, in the reign of William the Con- queror, were held. The numbers, names &c. of these were all entered in a book called Domes-day Book. Cowel. Blackstone,

    AN'CIENTLY, adv. In old tunes; in times long since past ; as Rome was anciently more ])o])ulous than at present

    .AN'CIENTNESS, n. The state of being ancient; antiquity; existence from old time:

    AN'CIENTRY, n. Dignity of birth; the honor of ancient Uneage.

    Spenser on Ireland. Shak

    AN'CIENTY, n. Age ; antiquity. [JVo< in Martin

    AN'CIENTY, n. In some old English stat- utes and authors, eldership or seniority 14. Hen. III.

    AN'CILLARY, a. [L. ancilla, a female ser- vant.]

    Pertaining to a maid servant, or female ser- vice ; subservient as a maid servant.


    ANCIP'ITAL, a. [L. anceps.]

    Doubtful, or double ; double-faced or double- formed; apphed to the stem of a plant, it signifies a two edged stem, con and forming two opposite angles.

    Barton's Elem. of Botany. Lee,

    AN'€OME, n. A small ulcerous swelling coming suddenly. Boucher.

    \N'€ON, n. [L. ancon ; Gr. ayxut-, the el bow.]

    The olecranon, the upper end of the uhia, or elbow. Coxe.

    AN'€ONE, n. [Lat. ancon, Gr. oyxui'.] In architecture, the corner of a wall, cross- beam or rafter. Encyc.

    AN'€ONY, n. [Probably from oyxur, the

    cubit, from its resemblance to the arm.]

    In iron works, a ])iece of half wrouglit iron,

    111 the shape of a bar in the middle, but

    rude and unwrought at the ends. A piece of cast iron is melted off and hammered at a forge, into a mass of two feet long and square, which is called a bloom ; then, carried to a finery, and worked into an an- cony ; it is then sent to a chafery, where the ends are wrought into the shape of the middle, and the whole is made into a bar. Encyc.

    AND, conj. [Sax. and ; Ger. und ; D. endt ; and.]

    And is a conjunction, connective or conjom- ing word. It signifies that a word or part of a sentence is to be added to what pre- cedes. Thus, give me an apple and an orange ; that is, give me an apple, add or give in addition to that, an orange. John and Peter and James rode to New- York, that is, John rode to New- York ; add or fuHher, Peter rode to New- York ; add James rode to New-York.

    AN'DALUSITE, n. A massive mineral, of a flesh or rose red color ; sometime? found crystalized in imperfect four-si- ded prisms, nearly or quite rectangular. Its hardness is nearly equal to that of Corundum, and it is infusible by the blow pipe. It has its name from Andalusia, in Spain, where it was first discovered.

    Werner. Brongniart.

    ANDAN'TE, [It. from andare, to go ; Eng- to luend, to wander.]

    In music, a word used to direct to a move- ment moderately slow, between largo and allegro. Encyc.

    AN'DARAC, n. Red orpiment. Coxe.

    AN'DEAN, a. Pertaming to the Andes, the great chain of raountams extending through S. America. Cobimbiad, 3, 138.

    ANDi'RA, n. A species of bat in Brazil, nearly as large as a pigeon. jE>ic<. JVat. Hist.

    AND'IRON, n. [Teutonic, andena, or andc- la. In Sax. the corresponding word is brand-isen, brand or fire iron ; D. brand- yzer. The Fr. landier. Arm. lander, Junius thinks, is our and-iron, with the French I prefixed.]

    An iron utensil used, in Great Britam, where coal is the common fuel, to support the ends of a spit ; but in America, used to sujiport the wood in fire places.

    ANDORlN'HA, n. The Brazihan swallow. Did ofJSTat. Hist.

    ANDRANAT'OMY, n. [Gr. a*,jp, wSpos, a man, and avatojirj, dissection.]

    The dissection of a human body, especially of a male. Coxe. Quincy.

    AN'DREOLITE, n. A mineral, the harmo- tome, or cross-stone. Ure.

    ANDROG'YNAL, > [Gr. w^, a man,

    iANDROG'YNOUS, S and yr«j, woman.]

    Having two sexes ; being male and female ; hermaphroditical.

    In botany, the word is applied to plants which bear both male and female flowers^ from the same root, as birch, walnut, oak, chesnut, mulberry, &c. These plants con- stitute the monecian class in Linne's sys- tem, and frequently have an amentum, thong or catkin, for a calyx. Milne.

    ,\NDR0G'YNALLY, adv. With the parts of both sexes.

    ^VJNDROG'YNUS. ?i. A hermaphrodite.


    ANDROID, n. [Gr. aii;p, man, and «6os, form.]

    A N E

    A N G

    A i\ (J

    A maeliine, in the human form, which, by certain springs, performs some of the nat- ural niotions of a Uving man. One of these machines, invented by M. Vaucan- son, appeared at Paris in 1738, represent- ing a time player. Encyc.

    ANliROM'EDA, n. A northern constella- tion, behind Pegasus, Cassiopeia and Per- seus, representing the figure of a woman chained. The stars in this constellation, in Ptolemy's catalogue, are 23 ; in Tycho's, 22 ; in Bayer's, 27 ; in Flamsted's, 84.

    2. The name of a celebrated tragedy of Eu- ripides, now lost. Encyc.

    ANDROPH'AGi, n. [Gr. an^p, man, and ^(v/u>, to eat.]

    Blaii-eaters ; but the word is httle used, being superseded by anthropophagi, which see. Herodotus mentions people of this charac- ter. Melpoin, lOti.

    ANE'AR, prep. Near. Atterburtj.

    AN'E€DOTE, n. [Gr. o priv. and fxSiSuj^ui, to publish, part. fxSoTo;, given out.]

    In its original sense, secret history, or facts not generally known. But in more com mon usage, a particular or detached inci dent or fact of an interesting nature ; a biographical incident ; a single passage of private life. Procopius gave the title of anecdotes to a book he pubhslied agains Justinian and his wife Tlieodora ; and similar collections of incidents in the lives of eminent men are now common. Ena/c.

    ANE€DOT'IeAL, a. Pertaining to anec- dotes. Bolingbroke.

    ANE'LE, t>. t. [Sax. odl, oil.]

    To give extreme unction. [jVo/ used.] Shak.

    ANEMOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. aw^oj, wind, and ypa^i?, description.]

    A description of the winds. Johnson

    ANEMOL'OgY, n. [Gr. att^o;, wind, and Xoyos, discourse.]

    The doctrine of winds, or a treatise on the subject.

    ANEMOM'ETER, n. [Gr. aviftoi, wuad, and (utrpEu, to measure.]

    An instnunent or machine for measuring the force and velocity of the wind. Encyc.

    ANEM'ONE, \ [Gr. avi/iavt;, from 015^405,

    ANEM'ONY, S "■ wind. It was by the an cient Greeks written arf|U«M

    Wind-flower ; a genus of plants of numer- ous species. Some of the species are cul- tivated in gardens, of which their double flowers are among the most elegant oma ments.

    Sea Anemone. See Animal Flower.

    ANEM'OSCOPE, n. [Gr. o»^5, wind, and exorciu, to view.]

    A machine whieli shows the course or velo- city of the wind. Encyc.

    ANENT', prep. About ; concerning ; over against : a Scottish word. Qu. Gr. niavri

    AN'EURISM, n. [Gr. ova, and (vpwa, to di late, from tvpu;, broad.]

    A preternatural dilatation or rupture of the coats of an artery. This is encysted or diflused. The encysted atiewism is when the coats of the artery being only dilated, the blood is confined to its proper coat. Of this kind is the varicose. The diffused aneurism includes all those in which, from an aperture in the artery, the blood is

    spread about in the cellular membrane-, out of its proper course. Quincy. Coxe. ANEURIS'MAL, a. Pertaining to an aneu-

    ANEVV' adv. [a and neio.]

    Over again ; another time ; in a new form ; as, to arm anew ; to create anew.

    ANFRA€'TUOUS, a. [L. anfractus, of amb, about, and fractus, broken. See Break.]

    Winding ; full of windings and turnings ; written less correctly, anfractuose. Roy-

    ANFRAC'TUOUSNESS, n. A state of be- ing full of windings and turnings.

    ANGARIA'TION, n. [L. angaria ; Gr. ouyyopfuu, to compel ; a word of Persian origin.]

    Compulsion ; exertion. [Not xtsed.]

    AN6EIOT'03IY, n. See Angiotomy.

    AN'CtEL, n. Usually pronounced dngcl, but most anomalously. [L. angelus, Gr. oy-yfXo;, a messenger, from oyyirKu, to tell or aimounce ; fr. agalla, agallaim, to speak or tell ; from the root of call, or of Ar.

    J1.S to say, to tell. Sax. angel ; Ir. ain- geal, or aingiol ; D. G. Sw. • Dan. engel ; Sp. angel ; It. angelo ; Port, anjo ; Fr. ange ; Russ. angel.]

    1. Literally, a messenger ; one employed to communicate news or information from one person to another at a distance. But appropriately,

    2. A spirit, or a spiritual intelhgent being employed by God to commimicate his will to man. Hence angels are ministers of God, and ministring spirits. Heb. 1.

    3. In a bad sense, an evil spirit ; as, the angel of the bottomless pit. Math. xxv. 1 Cor. vi. Rev. ix.

    4. Christ, the mediator and head of the church. Rev. x.

    5. A minister of the gospel, who is an em- issador of God. Rev. ii. and iii.

    6. Any being whom God employs to execute liis judgments. Rev. xvi. Crudcn.

    7. In the style of love, a very beautiful per- son. Shak.

    AN'GEL, n. A fish found on the coast of CaroHna, of the thoracic order and genus Chajtodon. It has a small projecting mouth ; the lamens above the gills are armed with cerulean spines ; the body, a foot in length, ai)pears as if cut ofl^, and waved, and covered with large green scales. Pennant from Catesby.

    AN'GEL, ji. a gold coin formerly current in England, bearing the figure of an angel. Skimier says, this de^^ce was impressed upon it in allusion to an observation of Pope Gregory the Great, who, seeing some beautiful English youths, in tlie market at Rome, asked who they were ; being told they were Angli, English, he replied, they ought rather to be called an- geli, angels. This coin had different val- ues under different princes : but is now an imagmary sum or money of account, implying ten shillings sterling. Encyc.

    AN'GEL, a. Resembling angels ; angehc ; as, angel whiteness. Shak.

    AN6EL-AGE, n. The existence or state of angels. Beaumont, &c.

    AN'gEL-FISH, n. A species of shark, the squalus squatina. It is from six to eight feet long, with a large head, teeth broad at the

    ba.-e, but slender and sharp above, disposeil in five rows, all round the jaws. The fish takes its name from its pectoral fins, wliicli are very large and extend horizontally, hkc wings when spread. This fish con- nects the genus of rays, with that ot' sharks, partaking of the characters of both ; but it differs from both in this, thai its mouth is placed at the extremity of the head. Encyc.

    ANgEL'I€, } „ [L. angelicus.-] Resem- ANgEL'I€AL, ^ "• bling angels ; belong- ing to angels, or partaking of tlieir nature : suiting the nature and dignity of angels. ANgEL'I€A, n. A genus of digynian ])en- tanders, containing several species. The sort is cultivated for medicinal

    uses. It grows naturally in northern cli- mates, and has large umbels of a globose figure. The roots have a fragant aromatic smell, and are used in the aromatic tinct- m-e. The stalks make an agreeable sweet- meat. Encyr.

    AN6EL'I€ALLY, adv. Lil;e an angel.

    AN6EL'I€ALNESS, n. The quaUty of be- ing angehc; excellence more than hu-

    AN'GELITES, in Church history, so called from Angelicum in Alexandria, where they held their first meetings, h sect of heretics near the close of the 5th century, who held the persons of the trin- ity not to be the same, nor to e.vist by their own nature ; but each to be a God, existing by participating of a deity com- mon to them all. They are called also Severites, from Sevenis, their head ; and Theodosians, from one Theodosius, whom they made their Pope. Encyc.

    x\N'GEL-LIKE, a. ResembUng or having the manners of angels.

    ANGELOL'OgY, 71. [Angel and ^oyo;.]

    A discourse on angels ; or the doctrine of angelic beings. Ch. Spectator.

    AN'gELOT, n. [Fr. anche, the reed of a hautboy or other instrument of music]

    1. An instrument of music, somewhat re- sembUng a lute. Johnson.

    2. An ancient English coin struck at Paris while under the dominion Of England; so called from the figure of an angel sup- porting the escutcheon of the arms of England and France. Also, a small rich sort of cheese made in Normandy. Encyc.

    AN'GEL-SHOT, n. [Fr. ange, a chain-shot.]

    Chain-shot, being two halves of a cannon ball fastened to the ends of a chain.

    AN' GEL- WINGED, a. Winged Uke angels. Thomson.

    AN'gEL-WORSHIP, n. The worshiping of angels. Trapp.

    AN'GER, »i. ang'ger. [L. ango, to choke, strangle, vex ; whence angor, vexation, anguish, the quinsy, angina. Gr. (vy;);", to strangle, to strain or draw together, to vex. The primary sense is to press, squeeze, make narrow ; Gr. 07;^, near ; Sax. enge ; G. enge ; D. Dan. eng, nar- row, strait ; W. ing. This word may be connected in origin with the Ar.

    vJtA2> hanika, to be angry, and (Jiiji

    chanaka, to strangle ; Ileb. Ch. Sjt. Eth. pin, to strangle. In SaK. ange signifies

    A i\ G

    vuxoil ; iingmod, sad, anxious ; ang-set, a carbuncle ; angsum, pressed close ; anxsu-^. mian, to vex, to make anxious ; Eng. an-\ guish, anxious ; L. angustus, angina, &c. See Anguish.]

    1. A violent passion of the mind excited by a] real or supposed injury ; usually accom- panied with a propensity to take ven- geance, or to obtain satisfaction from the offending party. This passion however varies in degrees of violence, and in ingen uous minds, may be attended only with a desire to reprove or cliide the offender.

    Anger is also excited by an injury offer ed to a relation, friend or party to whici one is attached; and some degrees ofii may be excited by cruelt}', injustice or oppression offered to those with whon one has no immediate connection, or evenj to the community of which one is a mem-[ ber. Nor is it unusual to see sometliingj of this passion roused by gross absurditiesi in others, especially in controversy or dis-| cussion. Anger may be inflamed till it' rises to rage and a temporary delirium.

    2. Pain ; smart of a sore or swelling ; the' literal sense of the word, but little used.

    VN'GER, V. t. ang'ger. To excite anger; to^ provoke ; to rouse resentment. [

    :i. To make painful ; to cause to smart ; tO: inflame ; as, to anger an ulcer. Bacon!

    AN'GERLY, adv. [anger and like.] \

    In an angry manner ; more generally writ ten angrily.

    .\NgI'NA, n. [L. from ango, to choke. Sec Anger.]

    \ quinsy ; an inflammation of the throat ; f tumor impeding respiration. It is a gen- eral name of the diseases called sore- throat, as quinsy, scarlet fever, croup, mumps, &c. • Coxe.

    Angina pectoris, an anomalous or spasmodic affection of the chest and organs of res- piration ; or a disease of the heart. Coxe.

    ANOIOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. (vyyaiov, a vessel, and yfa^rj, description.]

    A description of the vessels in the human body. Ash.

    ANUIOL'OgY, n. [Gr. oyytioi', a vessel, and j.»yo5, discourse.]

    A treatise or discourse on the vessels of the

    hiunan body, as the arteries, veins, ly:

    phatics, &c. Qfiincy.

    VNGIOMONOSPERM'OUS, n. [Gr.ayynov

    a vessel, fioroc, alone, and jrtfp^ia, seed.]

    Producing one seed only in a pod.

    Bailey. Johnson

    AN'cilOSPERM, n. [Gr. ayyiiov, a vessel, and ortfpfta, seed.]

    In botany, a plant which has its seeds inclo- sed in a pericarp.

    ANGIOSPERM'OUS a. Having seeds in- closed in a pod or other pericarp. Ii Liime's system, the second order of plantsl in the didynamian class are called angio-\ spermia. This word is opposed to gv/m-j nosj)ermous, or naked-seeded.

    ANGIOT'OMY, n. [Gr. oyyaor, a vessel, and •ff/ivu, to cut.]

    The opening of a vessel, whether a vein or an artery, as in bleeding. It includes^ both arteriotomy and phlebotomy.

    AN'GLE, n. [Fr. angle ; L. angulus, a cor- ner ; Gr.aryxvf.or,W. ongle ; G. and B.angeU a hook, an ang/e ; Dan. angel, ahook, ojig^/f, a sting ; S*ax. iingel, a hook ; f^p. Port.l

    A N G

    angulo ; It. angolo. The German has an- geln, for angling with a hook ; but in D. hengel is the rod, and hengelen, to angle. Qu. hinge and hang.]

    In popular language, tlie point where two lines meet, or tlie meeting of two lines ' point ; a corner.

    In geometry, the space comprised between two straight lines that meet in a point, or between two straight converging lines which, if extended, woiUd meet ; or the quantity by which two straight lines, depar- ting fiom a point, diverge from each other. The point of meeting is the vertex of tlie angle, and the lines, coiitahiing the angle, are its sides or legs.

    In optics, the angle of incidence is the angle which a ray of light makes with a perpen dicidar to the surface, or to that poi nt of the surface on which it falls.

    The angle of refraction is the angle which a ray of hght refi-acted makes with the sur- face of the refracting medium ; or rather with a perpendicular to that pomt of the sijrface on wiiich it falls. Encyc.

    A right angle, is one formed by a right Une falling on another perpendicularly, or angle of 90 degrees, making the quarter of a circle.

    An obtuse angle is greater than aright angle, or more than 90 degrees.

    An acute angle is less than a right angle or less than 90 degrees.

    A rectilineal or right-Uned angle, is formed by two right lines.

    A curvitineal angle, is formed by two curved lines.

    A mixed angle is fonned by a right line with a curved line.

    Adjacent or contiguous angles are such as have one leg common to both angles, and both together are equal to two right an- gles.

    External angles are angles of any right-Uned figure without it, when the sides are pro- duced or lengthened.

    Internal angles are those which are within any right-hned figure.

    Oblique angles are either acute or obtuse, in opposition to right angles.

    A solid angle is the meeting of three or more plain angles at one point.

    A spheiical angle is one made by the meeting of two arches of great circles, which mu tually cut one another on the surface of the globe or sphere. Bailey.

    AN'GLE, n. A hook ; an instriunent to take fisli, consisting of a rod, a line and a hook, or a line and hook.

    AN'GLE, V. i. To fish with an angle, or with hne and hook.

    '2. V. t. or i. To fish for ; to try to gain by some bait or insinuation, as men angle for fish ; as, to angle for the hearts of peo- ple, or to angle hearts. Shak. Sidney.

    AN'GLED, a. Having angles — tised only in compounds.

    AN'GLER, n. One that fishes with an an- gle ; also a fish, a species of lophius.

    ANGLE-ROD, n. The rod or pole to which a line and hook are fastened.

    AN'GLIe, ) [From Ajigles, Sax. ing,

    AN'GLICAN, S "' « plain or meadow, and lie, like, or kzo;, like, which is the rool of the L. icus, in publicus, and all similar adje<.-tives. From ing, was formed Angles,

    A N G

    the English, to which is added this con>- niou affix, ic. The Angles, were the In- gtevones, of Tacitus, ing-ivoners, dwellera on the plain or level land, near the Elbe and Weser. [See English and fFont.] Ing is annexed to many English names, as Reading, Basing, Kittering, towns situated on flat land.]

    English ; pertaining to England or the Eng- lish nation ; as the Anglican church.


    ANGLICISM, n. An English Idiom;a forni of language pecuhar to the EngUsh.


    AN'GLICIZE, V. t. To make EngUsh ; to render conformable to the EngUsh idiom, or to English analogies.

    AN'GLING, ppr. Fishing with an angle.

    AN'GLING, n. A fishing with a rod and line.

    ANGLO-DA NISH, a. Pertaining to the English Danes, or the Danes who set- tled in England. fVotton.

    ANGLO-NORM'AN, a. Pertaining to the EngUsh Normans. ff'otton.

    .\NGLO-SAX'ON, a. Pertaining to the Saxons, who settled in England, or Eng- lish Saxons.

    ANGLO-SAX' ON, n. A kind of pear; also the language of the EngUsh Saxons.

    ANGOLA-PEA or PIGEON-PEA. A spe- cies of Cytisus.

    AN'GOR, n. [L. See Anger.] . Paul ; intense bodily pain.

    2. The retiring of the native bodily heat to the center, occasioning head-ache, palpi- tation and sadness. Encyc. Coxe,

    \N GRED or ANG'ERED, pp. Made an- gry ; provoked.

    VN'GRILY, adv. In an angry manner ; peevishly ; witli indications of resentment.

    AN'GRY, a. [See Anger.]

    1. Feeling resentment ; provoked; followed generally by with before a person.

    God is angry with tlie wicked evei-y day. Pa. vii.

    But it is usually followed by at before a thing.

    Wherefore should God be angry at thy voice ? Eccles. v.

    2. Showing anger ; wearing the marks of anger ; caused by anger ; as, an a/ngry countenance; angry words.

    Inflamed, as a sore ; red ; manifesting in- flammation.

    4. Raging ; furious ; tumultuous.

    Or chain the angry vengeance of the waves. Trumbull.

    ANGSA'NA or ANGSA'VA, n. A red gum of the East Indies, like that of dragon's blood. Coxe.

    AN'GU, ?i. Bread made of the Cassada, a plant of the W. Indies.

    AN'GUIFER, n. [L. anguis, a serpent, and fero, to bear ; Sans, agui.]

    In astronomy, a cluster of stars in the form of a man holding a serpent ; Serpentarius, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac.


    ANGUIL'LA, 71. [L. an eel.]

    In zoology, an eel ; also the name of a Med- iterranean fisli used for food, called also lii.^)iitiis and atherhia. Qu. Atherina,.^. l/iiuu. Diet. J^at. Hist.

    ANGI IL l.iroKM, a. [L. ang-ui/to, an eel, and forma, shajic]

    A N H

    lu Ihe form of an eel, or of a sei-pent ; re sembling an eel or serpent.

    AN'GUISH, n. [Fr. angoisse ; It. angoscia Sp. ansia ; Port, angustia, showing tlie direct derivation of this word from L. gustia, narrowness, from pressure ; D. and G. angst ; Dan. angest. This and a nu- merous class of words are from the root ang, eng, denoting narrow, from pressure. See Anger.]

    Extreme pain, either of body or mind. As bodily pain, it may dift'"' from agony, which is such distress of the whole body as to cause contortion, whereas avgidsh may be a local pain as of an ulcer, or gout, But anguish and agony are nearly synony- mous. As pain of the mind, it signi- fies any keen distress from sorro\y, re- morse, "despair and the kindred passions. And they hearkened not to Moses, for an- guish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. Ex. vi.

    AN'GUISH, V. t. To distress with extreme pain or grief Temple

    AN'GUISHED, pp. Extremely pained ; tor- tured ; deeply distressed.

    AN'GULAR, a. Having an angle, angles or corners ; pointed ; as an angular fig

    2. Consisting of an angle ; forming a gle ; as an angular point.

    ANGULAR'ITY, n. The quality of having an angle or corner.

    AN'GULARLY, adv. With angles, or cor ners ; in tlie direction of the angles.

    AN'GULARNESS, n. Tlic quality of being angular.

    AN'GULATED, a. Formed with angles or corners. If'oodward.

    AN'GULOUS, a. Angular ; having corners hooked. Glanville.

    ANGUST', a. [L. anffustus.]

    Narrow ; straight. [JVb< used.] Burton

    ANGUSTA'TION, n. [L. anguslus, narrow. See Anger.]

    The act ot making narrow ; a straightening, or being made narrow. Wiseman.

    ANGUST'I€LAVE, n. [L. anguslus, nar- row, and clavus, a knob or stud.]

    A robe or timic embroidered with purple studs or knobs, or by purple stripes, worn by Roman knights." The laticlave, with broader studs, was worn by,senators.

    Quijidilian. Kennet.

    ANHELA'TION, n. [L. anhelo, to pant oi breathe with difiiculty ; from halo, U. breathe.]

    Shortness of breath ; a panting ; difficult respiration, without fever, or with a sense of suffocation. Encyc. Coxe

    ANHELO'SE, a. Out of breath ; panting breathing witli difficulty. [Litlk used.]


    AN'HIMA, n. A Brazihan aquatic fowl, larger than a swan, somewhat like crane. Its head is small, its bill black, the toes armed with long claws. But what is remarkable, is a horn growing from its forehead ; and the second joint of the wing is armed with two straight tri- angular spurs, an inch in length. The fidelity between the male and female is sc great, that when one dies, the other re mains by the carcase, till it exi)irps.

    Did. oJWat. Hist.

    AN'HYDRITE, n. [See Anhydrous.]

    A species of sulphate of Ume, anhydrous sypsiun, of which there are several varie

    A N I

    ties ; compact, granular, fibrous, radiated,! sparry, siliciferous or vulpinite, and con- voluted. Jameson. Urc}

    ANHY'DROUS, a. [Gr. awhfoi, dry ; apriv.! and uJup, water.] I

    Destitute of water. Anhydrite is so called, j because it is destitute of the water of crys- talization. Cleavetand.l

    ANIENT'ED, a. [It. niente, nothing ; Norm neant ; Fr. aneantir, to annihilate.]

    Frustrated ; brought to naught. 06s.


    ANI'GHT, adv. [a or at, and night.]

    In the night time ; anights, in the plural, is used of frequent and customary acts. You must come in earlier anights. Shah.

    AN'IL, ?!. [Sp. am7, indigo; Port. antV; D.

    anyl; Ar. j.^; nilon, slender, nila, blue.]

    A shrub from whose leaves and stalks indi-

    is made ; Indigo/era, or the indigo plant.


    ANIL'ITY, ?!. [L. anilis, anilitas, from anus, an old woman ; Celtic, hen, old.]

    The state of being an old woman ; the old age of a woman; dotage.

    ANIMADVER'SION, n. [L. animadversio.]

    Remarks by way of censure or criticism ; reproof; blame. It may sometimes be' used for punishment, or punishment may be implied in the word, but this is not common. In an ecclesiastical sense, it differs from censure, says Aylifie ; censure, respecting spiritual j)uuishment, and ani- madversion, a temporal one. Glanville uses the word in the sense of perception but this use is not authorized.

    AMMADVER'SIVE, a. That has the pow ]ierceiving. Obs. Glanville.]

    ANIMADVERT', v. i. [L. animadverto, of animus, mind, and adverfo, to turn to.] I

    1. To turn the mind to ; to consider. |

    2. To consider or remark upon by way of criticism or censure. Dry'den.

    i. To inflict punishment ; followed by upon. Grew. ANIMADVERT'ER, n. One who animad- verts or makes remarks by way of cen-

    ANIMADVERT'ING,p;)r. Considering; re- marking by way of criticism or censure.

    AN'IMAL, n. [L. animal, from anima, air, breath, soul ; Gaelic anam, breath. The W. has envU, en, a being, soul, spirit, and mil, a beast ; Arm. aneval. Qu. Dan. aan- de, Sw. anda, breath.]

    An organized body, endowed with life and the power of voluntary motion ; a living, sensitive, locomotive body ; as, man is an intelligent animal. Animals are essential- ly distinguished from plants by the pro- perty of sensation. The contractile jtrop- erty of some plants, as the mimosa, has the appearance of the effect of sensation, but it may be merely tlie effect of irrita- bility.

    The distinction here made between animals and vegetables, may not be philosophical- ly accurate ; for we cannot perhaps as- certain the precise limit between the two kinds of beings, but this is sufficiently cor- rect for common practical purposes.

    The history of animals is called zoology.

    By way of contempt, a dull person is called, a stupid animal. '

    A N 1

    VN lAlAL, a. That belongs or reJuies to animals ; as animal functions.

    Animal is distinguished from intellcdual ; m animal appetites, the apjietites of the body. as hunger and thirst.

    The animal functions, are touch, taste, mo-

    ,&c. j Animal life is opposed to vegetable life.

    Animal is opposed also to spiritual or ration- al, which respects the soid and reasoning Jaculties ; as animal nature, spiritual na turc, rational nature.

    Aninud food may signify that food which nourishes animals ; but it usually denotes food consisting of animal flesh.

    Animal economy is the system of laws bi which the bodies of animals are governed and depending on their organic structure.

    Animal spirit is a name given to the nervous fluid.

    ^njma^ spirits in the plural, life, vigor, en- ergy.

    Animal system, or animal kingdom denotes the whole class of beings endowed with animal life. Encyc. Johnson.

    ANIMAL'€ULE, n. [L. animaiculum, ani- malcula.]

    A little animal ; but appropriately, an animal whose figure cannot be discerned without the aid of a magnifying glass ; such as an- invisible to the naked eye. Encyc.

    ANIMAL-FLOWER, n. In zoology, sea- anemone, sea-nettle or urtica marina, the name of several species of animals belong- ing to the genus actinia. They are called sea-nettle from their supposed property of stinging, and sea-anemone from the re- semblance of their claws or tentacles, to the petals of some flowers. These are disposed in regular circles, and tinged with various bright colors. Some of these animals are hemispherical, others cylin- drical ; others are shaped hke a fig. Some are stiff and gelatinous ; others, fleshy and muscular ; but all can aher their figure by extending their claws in search of food. These animals can move slowly, but are generally fixed by one end to rocks or stones in the sand. On the other extrem- ity, is the mouth in the center, which is surrounded by rows of fleshy claws and capable of great dilatation. They are very voracious, and will swallow a muscle, or crab, as large as a hen's egg.


    The term, Animal Flower, is also extended to many other marine animals, from their resemblance to flowers. They belong to the Holothurias, which with the Actinias, were ranged under tlie Molluscas, by Linne ; and to the Tubularias and Hydras, which were classed with the Zoophytes. They are all arranged imder the Zoophytes, by Cuvier. Cue.

    ANIMALIZA'TION, n. The act of giving animal Ufe, or endowuig with the proper- ties of an animal. Ure. Med. Repos.

    AN'IMALIZE, V. t. To give animal life to ; to endow with the properties of animals.

    -\N'IMALIZED, pp. Endowed with animal Ufe.

    AN'IMALIZING,;);ir. Giving animal hfe to.

    AN'IMATE, V. t. [L. animo. See Aninud.]

    1. To give natural life to ; to quicken ; to make aUve ; as, the soul animates the body.

    9. To give powers to, or to heighten tlji^

    A iN 1

    A N N


    I'owers or eflect of n thing ; as, to animak ii lyre.

    3. To give sjiiiit or vigor ; to infuse cour- age, joy, or other enlivening passion ; to stiinulate or incite ; as, to animate ilispii-it- cd troops.


    [This word is used chiefly in poetry for nnimated.]

    AN'IMATED, pp. Being endovired with an- imal life, as the various classes of anima- ted beings.

    )1. a. Lively ; vigorous ; full of spirit ; indi- cating animation ; as anonima

    AN'IMATING, pjtr. Giving life ; infusing spirit ; enlivening.

    ANIMA'TION, n. The act of infusing life ; the state of being animated.

    •i. The state of being lively, brisk or full of spirit and vigor ; as, he recited the story Avith great animation.

    AN'IMATIVE, a. That has the power of giving life or spirit. Johnson.

    ANIMATOR, n. One that gives Ufe ; that which infuses hfe or spirit.

    AN'IJIE, n. [Fr.] In heraldry, a term de noting that the eyes of a rapacious ani inal are borne of a different tincture fron the animal himself.

    AN'IJME, n. [Sp.] A resin exuding fi-oni the stem of a large American tree called by the natives courbarU ; by Piso, jetaiba. It is of a transparent amber color, a light agreeable smell, and of little or no taste, It dissolves entirely, but not readily, in rectified spirit of wine, and is used by the BraziUans in fumigations, for pains pro- ceeding from cold. Encyc.

    ANIMET'TA, n. Among ecclesiastical ic ters, the cloth which covers the cup of the eiicharist. Encyc.

    ANIMOS'ITY, n. [L. animositas ; Fr. anl mositi ; from L. animosiis, animated, cour- ageous, enraged ; from animus, spirit, mind, passion. So in Teutonic, mod, mind, signifies also pride, passion, angei Jlnimus, spirit, Gr. avifios, wind, breath, is from flowing, swelling, rushing, which gives the sense of violent action and pas sion. See Animal.]

    Violent hatred accompanied with active op- position ; active enmity. Animosity dif fers from enmity which may be secret and inactive ; and it expresses a less criminal passion than malice. Animosity seeks to gain a cause or destroy an enemy or rival, from hatred or private interest; malice seeks revenge for the sake of giving pain.

    ANIN'GA, n. A root growing in the VVest- Indies, like the Cliina plant, used in re- fining sugar. Encyc.

    AN'ISE, n. an'nis. [L. anisitm ; Gr. avijov ; Ar. ianison. Cast. 1C19.]

    An annual plant, placed by Linne under the genus Pimpinella. It grows naturally ir Egypt, and is cultivated in Spain and Mai ta, whence the seeds are imported. The stalk rises a foot and a half high, dividing into slender branches, garnished with nar- row leaves, cut into tlree or four naiTow segments. The branches terminate large loose umbels, composed of smaller umbels or rays, on long footstalks. The flowers are small and of a yellowish white (he seeds oblong and swelling. Anise

    seeds iiave an aromatic smell, and a pleas- ant warm taste ; they are useful in warm- ing the stomach and expelling wind. Enci/c. Theoph. Lib. 7. 3. Plin. 20. 17

    AN'ISE SEED, n. The seed of anise.

    ANK'ER, n. [Dutch.]

    A measure of Uquids used in Holland, con- taining about 33 gallons, English measure. Encyc.

    Chambers says it contains two stekans ; each stekan, 16 mengles ; each mcngle, 2 wine quarts. Chambers. Encyc.

    \NK'LE, n. a7ik'l. [Sax. ancleow; D. enkel.]

    The joint which connects the foot with the leg.

    ANK'LE-BONE, n. Theboneof the ankle.

    AN'NALIST, n. [See Annals.]

    A writer of annals.

    AN'NALlZE, V. t. To record ; to write an- nals. [N'ot much used.] Encyc,

    AN'NALS, n. plu. [L. annates, annalis, from annus, a year, the root of which may be the Celtic an, ain, a great circle. Varro says the word annus signifies a great cii-- cle.]

    1. A species of histoiy digested in order of time, or a relation of events in chronolog ical order, each event being recorded un der the year in which it happened. An nals differ from history, in merely relating events, without observations on the mo- tives, causes and consequences, which, in history, are more diffusively illustrated,

    2. The books containing annals, as the an- nals of Tacitus.

    AN'NATS, )i. [L. annus.-]

    A year's income of a spiritual living ; the first fruits, originally given to the Pope, upon the decease of a bishop, abbot or parish clerk, and paid by his successor In England, they were, at the reforma- tion, vested in tlie king, and in the reign of Queen Anne, restored to the church, and appropriated to the augmentation of poor livings. Encyc.

    ANNE'AL, V. t. [Sax. anmlan, on-wlan, to kindle or inflame, to heat ; firom (elan, to Idndle, to heat or bake, and to anoint with oil. Sax. Oil, oil. Hence it may be infer red that oil is named from inflaming o burning.]

    1. To heat ; to heat, as glass andiron for the purpose of rendering them less brittle, or to fix colors ; vulgarly called nealing. This is done by heating the metal nearly to fluidity, in an oven or furnace, and suffer- ing it to cool gradually. Metals made hard and brittle by hammering, by this process recover their malleability. Tht word is applied also to the bakhig of tiles

    Encyc. Bailey. Ash

    2. To temper by heat ; and Shenstone uses it for tempering by cold.

    ANNE'ALED,jo;j. Heated ; temjiered ; made

    malleable and less brittle by heat. ANNE'ALING, pjfr. Heating ; tempering

    bv heat. ANNEX', V. t. [L. annedo, annexum ; Fr

    annexer ; of ad and necto, to tie, or con


    1. To unite at the end ; as to annex a codi ril to a will. To subjoin, to aflix.

    2. To unite, as a smaller thing to a greater ; as to annex a province to a kingdom.

    3. To luiite to something preceding, as the main object ; to comicct with ; as to

    nex a penahy to a prohibition, or ptinish- ment to guilt.

    ANNEX', V. i. To jom ; to be united.


    ANNEX A'TION, n.The act of anne.xing, or umtiiig at the end ; conjunction ; addition ; the act of connecting; union. In English law, the uniting of lands or rents to the crown.

    ANNEX'ED, pp. Joined at the end; con- nected with ; aflixed.

    ANNEX'ING, ppr. Unidng at the end, affixing.

    ANNEX'ION, n. The act of annexing; an- nexation ; addition. [Little used.]

    ANNEX'MENT, n. The act of annexing : the thing annexed. Shak.

    ANNI'HILABLE, a. That may be amiihi lated.

    ANNI'HILATE, v. t. [L. ad and nihilum, nothing, of Me, not, and hilum, a trifle.]

    1. To reduce to nothing ; to destroy the ex- istence of.

    No human power can annihilate matter.

    2. To destroy the form or peculiar distinct- ive properties, so that the specific thing no longer exists ; as, to annihilate a forest by cutting and carrying away the trees, though the tunber may still exist ; to annihilate a house by demolishing the structure.

    ANNIHILATED, pp. Reduced to nothing ; destroyed.

    ANNI'HlLATING.ppr. Reducing to noth- ing ; destroving the specific form of.

    ANNIHlLA'tlON, n. The act of reducing to nothing or non-existence ; or the act of destroying the form or combination of parts under which a thing exists, .so that tlie name can no longer be applied to it, as the annihilation of a corporation.

    2. The state of being reduced to nothiiis.

    ANNIVERS'ARILY, adv. Annually. Hall.

    ANNIVERS'.ARY, a. [L. anniversarius, of a7inus, year, and tierto, to turn.]

    Returning with the year, at a stated time ; annual ; yearly ; as an anniversary feast.

    ANNIVERS'ARY, n. A stated day return- ing with the revolution of the year. The term is apphed to a day on which some remarkable event is annually celebrated, or a day on which an interesting event is commemorated by solemnities of religion, or exhibitions of respect. In the Romish church, a day in which an ofiice is yearly performed for the souls of the deceased.

    2. The act of celebration ; performance in honor of an event. Dryden.

    ANNO DOMINI. [L.] In the year of om- Lord, noting the time from our Savior's in- carnation ; as. Anno Domini, or A. D. 1800. This was written Anno Domini, 1S09, and revised A. D. 1.82.5 and 1827. W.

    ANNOMINA'TION, n. [L. ad and nomina- tio, from nomino, to name, from nomtn.]

    1. A piui ; the use of words nearly alike in sound, but of different meanings ; a paro- nomasy. Encyc.

    2. Alliteration, or the use of two or more woi-ds successively beginnuig with the same letter. Tyrwhitt.

    ANNO'NA, n. [L. annona, from annus, a year, and signifying a year's production or increase ; hence provisions.]

    The custard apple, a genus of several spe- cies, one ol' which, the papaw, is common



    A N O

    ill the southern and westera parts of the

    United States. [See Papaw.]

    AN'NOTATE, v. l [L. annoto.]

    To comment ; to make remarks on a writing.


    ANNOTA'TION, n. [L. annotatio, of arfand

    notatio, a marking, from nolo, to mark, or

    nota, a mark.] J . A remark, note or commentary on some

    passage of a book, intended to illustrate

    its meaning ; generally used in the plural,

    as annotations on the scriptures. 3. The first symptoms of a fever, or attack

    of a


    commentator ; a scholiast ; one who \vrites notes to illustrate the composition of an author,

    ANNOT'TA, n. Orlean, or roucou ; a hard, dry paste, consisting of the pelUclesof the seeds of the bixa orellana, a shrub grow ing in S. America and the W. Indies. It is moderately hard, of a brown color i the outside, and a didl red within. It used in dyeing to give an orange cast to a simple yellow. It is used also in coloring cheese. [See Anotta.] Ure,

    ANNOUNCE, v.t. annoims'. [Fr. anno7i. cer ; It. annunziare ; L. annuncio, to deliv- er a message, of ad and nuncio, to tell, from nuncius, a messenger.]

    1. To publish ; to proclaim ; to give notice, or first notice ; as, the biith of Christ was announced by an angel.

    2. To pronounce; to declare by judicial sen- tence. Prior.

    ANNOUN'CED, pp. Proclaimed ; first pub

    lished. ANNOUNCEMENT, n. announs'ment. The

    act of giving notice ; proclamation ; pul

    lication. Month. Mai

    ANNOUN'CER, n. One that announces, or

    first gives notice ; a proclaimer. ANNOUN'CING, ppr. Introducing notice ;

    first publishuig ; proclaiming. ANNOY', t;. t. [Norm, annoyer, from neure^

    nuire, to hurt ; Fr. nuire ; It. nuocere ; fi-om

    L. 7ioceo, to hurt, that is, to strike ; Syr.

    Jiij.Ar. {^j to strike, to hurt; Heb.

    and Ch. r\D3 to strike. Hence probably L. neco, to kill. See JVuisance and Aox- ious.]

    To incommode ; to injure or distiu-b by con- tinued or repeated acts; to tease, vex or jiiolest ; as, to annoy an army by hnpeding tlieir march, or by a continued cannonade.

    ANNOY', n. Injury or molestation from con- tinued acts or inconvenience.

    Shak. Beatiie.

    ANNOY'ANCE, n. That which annoys, or injures; the act of annoying ; the state of being annoyed. It includes something more than inconvenience.

    ANNOY'ED, pp. Incommoded, injured or molested by something that is continued or repeated.

    ANNOY'ER, n. One tliat annovs.

    ANNOY'FUL, a. Giving trouble; incom- moding ; molesting. [JVotused.] Chaucer.

    ANNOY'ING, ^jjr. Incommoding; hurtuig; molesting.

    ANNOY'OUS, a. Troublesome. [Xotu^ed.] Chaucer.

    AN'NUAL, a. [Fr. amine?; Sp. a»n,«/; It.

    Vol. 1.

    annuale; L. annalis, from annus, a year; Gr. ff05, (vvoi • Sans, anda.] . Yearly ; that returns every year ; coming yearly ; as an annual feast.

    2. Lasting or continuing only one year or season ; that requires to be renewed every year ; as an annual plant. Leaves that grow in the spring, and perish ill the au tumn, are called annual, in opposition t< evergreens.

    3. Performed in a year ; as the annual motion of the earth.

    AN'NUAL, n. A plant that lives but one year, or rather but one suinmer. Martyn.

    AN'NUALLY, adv. Yearly; returning every year ; vear by year.

    ANNU'ITANT, n. [See Annvily.]

    One who receives oris entitled to receive a amiuitv.

    ANNU'ITY, n. [Fr. annuite, from antiits, year. See Annual.]

    A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for hfe or for ever ; an annual income, charged on the person of the grantor ; or an annual al- lowance. Governments often borrow money upon annuities, that is, for a cer- tain sum advanced on loan, the govern- ment contracts to pay the lender a specific sum, for life, or for a term of years. The stock created by such loans is transfer- able.

    ANNUL', V. t. [Fr. annuller, of L. ad nullum, to nothing.]

    1. To make void; to nulhfy ; to abrogate to abolish ; used appropriately of laws, decrees, edicts, decisions of courts, other estabhshed rules, permanent and the like, which are made void by coin petent authority.

    3. To reduce to nothing ; to obliterate. [Ao< in muck une.] Milton.

    AN'NULAR, a. [L. annulus, a ring, fi-om Celtic ain, a circle, and ul, young, small ; annulus, a little circle.]

    Having the form of a ring ; pertainuig to ring.

    Annular crystal is when a hexahedral prism has six, or an octahedral prism eight mar ginal faces, disposed in a ring about eacl base ; or when these prisms are truncated on all their terminal edges. Cleaveland.

    AN'NULARY, a. Having the form of a ring, Ray,

    AN'NULATED, a. Furnished with rings, ' circles, like rings ; having belts.

    AN'NULET, n. [L. anmdus, a ring.]

    In architecture, a small square member in the Doric capital, under the quarter roimd; also a narrow flat molding, which " mon to many places, as in the bases or capitals ; called also a. fillet, or hstil, or cincture, or a list, tunea, eye brow or square rabbit. Encyc.

    In heraldry, a Uttle circle, borne as a charge in coats of arms ; formerly reputed a mark of nobihty and jurisdiction ; it being the custom of prelates to receive their investi- ture per hacidum et annidum, by stafi'and ring. It denotes also strength and eter- nity, by its circular form. Among the Ro- mans, it represented liberty and distinc- tion of rank. It denotes also difference, or mark of distinction, which the fifth brother of a family ought to bear on liis coat of arms. Encyc. Johnson.


    ANNUL'LED, pp. Made void ; abrogated.

    ANNUL'LING, ppr. Abrogating ; abolish- ing.

    ANNUL'MENT, n. The act of annulling.

    ANNU'MERATE, v. t. [L. annumero, of aj and numiro, to number, from numerus. number ; VV. niver ; Ir. nuiver or nuimhe,. See JVumter.]

    To add to a former number ; to unite t>i .something before mentioned. Johnson.

    ANNUMERA'TION, n. Addition to a for iner number.

    ANNUN'CIATE, v. t. [See Announce.]

    To brine tidings ; to announce. Chaucer.

    ANNUNCIA'TION, n. An announcing ; the tidings brought by the angel to Mary, of the incarnation of Christ. Also the day celebrated by the church, in memory oV the angel's salutation of the blessed vir- gin, which is the 25th of March. The Jews give the title to a part of the cere- mony of the passover. Encyc.

    2. Proclamation ; promulgation.

    ANNUNCIA'TOR, n. One who announ- ces ; an officer in the church of Constan- tinople, whose busuiess was to inform the Iieople of the festivals which were to be celebrated. Encyc.

    .VN'ODYNE, n. [Gr. o or a., priv. and oSnr. pain.]

    Any medicine which allays pain, or causes sleep, as an opiate, paregoric, narcotic. &c. Coit .

    AN'OD^NE, a. Assuaging pain ; causinjr sleep, or insensibUity.

    jVT', v.t. [Fr. omare, d. ouU ; Sp. p. ungir; It.


    oindre, p. oint ; un tar, to anoint; 1^. ungo ; ungere, or ugnere.] 1. To pour oil upon ; to smear or rub over with oil or unctuous substances ; also to spread over, as oil. We say, the man anoints another, or the oil anoints him. 3. To consecrate by unction, or the use of oil.

    Thou shalt anoint the altar, and sanctify it. Ex.xxii 3. To smear or daub.

    He anointed the eyes of the blind man witli clay. John ix. , To prepare, in allusion to the consecra ting use of oil.

    Anoint tlie shield. Isaiah xxi.

    To anoint the head with oil, Ps. xxiii. seems

    pify to CO

    oly Spirit.

    The use of oil in consecrations, was of higli

    antiquity. Kings, prophets and priests

    were set apart or consecrated to their ofii-

    ces by the use of oil. Hence the pecuhar

    apphcation of the term anointed to Jesus


    ANOINT'ED, pp. Smeared or rubbed with

    " ; set apart ; consecrated with oil. .ANOINT'ED, n. The Messiah, or Son of God, consecrated to the great office of Redeemer ; called the lord's anointed. Cyrus is also called the Lord's anointed. Isaiah xlv. ANOINT'ER, Ji. One who anoints. ANOINT'ING, ppr. Smearing with oil ; pouring on oil, or other oleaginous sub- stance ; consecrating. ANOINT'ING, n. The actof smearmgwith

    oil ; a consecrating. ANOINTMENT, 71. The act of anouiting. or state of being anointed.

    A N O

    ANO'LE, 71. A species of lizard in the W.; Indies, of a yellowish color, having several blue and green strii)es running down it; back. Did. ofJVat Hist.

    ANOftl'ALIPED, a. [Gr. aru^aTtta, inequal- ity, and rtot's, L. pes, foot.]

    An epithet given to fowls, wliose middle toe is united to the exterior by three phalan- ges, and to the interior by one only.

    ANOM'ALIPED, n. An anomalous footed fowl. [Sec the adjective.] Diet. J^Tat. Hist.

    ANOM'ALISM, n. An anomaly ; a deviation from rule.

    AN03IALI.S'TI€, } Irregular; de

    ANOMALIS'TI€AL, I "' parting from com mon or established rules.

    In astronomy, the anotfialistic year is the time in whicli the earth passes through her or- bit, which is longer than the tropical year, on account of the precession of the equi- noxes.

    ANOM'ALOUS, a. Irregular ; deviating from a general rule, method or analogy ; appli- ed, in grammar, to words which deviate from the connnon rules of inflection ; and in astronomy, to the seemingly irregular motions of the planets ; but applied also generally to whatever is irregular; as, an (tnomalous character ; anomalous pronun- ciation.

    ANOM'ALOUSLY, adv. Irregularly ; in a manner different from conmion ride, meth- od or analogy.

    ANOM'ALY, n. [Fr. anomalie ; Sp. anomxt- lia; Gr.avu/iaUa, inequality, ofapriv. and oftaTjii, equal, similar ; Celtic, W. hamal, or haval ; Ir. amhail, similar.]

    1. IiTegularity ; deviation from the common rule ; thus oxen, the plural of ox, is an anomaly,m grammar, as the regular plural would be axes.

    2. In astronomy, an irregularity in the motion of a planet, whereby it deviates from the aphelion or apogee. Encyc.

    3. In music, a false scale or interval. Busby. ANO'MEANS, n. [Gr. a^ofioio;, cUssimilar.] In church history, the pure Arians, as distin- guished from the Semi-Arians. Encyc.

    ANO'MIA, n. [Gr. avofna ; a priv. and I'Ofjos, rule.]

    A genus of bivalve shells, so called from their unequal valves ; the beaked cockle.

    AN'OMITE, n. A fossil shell of the genus anomia. Jameson.

    ANOMORHOM'BOID, j!. [Gr. avofio^o;, ir- regular, and foneoiilirii, of a rliomboidal figure.]

    \ genus of spars, pellucid, and crystaUne, of] no determinate form externally," but break- ing into regular rhomboidal masses. The species are five, mostly of a white color.


    AN'OMY, n. [Gr. avo^ca.j A violation of| law. [Rarely used.] Bramhall.

    ANON', adv. [Sax. on an, in one ; not, as Junius supposes, in one minute, but in con- tinuation, without intermission ; appUed originally to extension in measure, and then to time by analogy. " And sfedon that hi ssegon on north-east fir micel and brad with thone earthe, and weax on lengthe up on an to tham wolcne." Sax. Chron. A. D. 1022. And they said they saw in the north-east a great fire anil broad, near the eartli, and it increased in

    A N S

    length in r-ontimwiion to the clouds. S'

    also An. Dom. 1127.] . Quickly; without intermission; sooi


    The same is he that heareth the word, and

    anon Avith joy receivetli it. Matt. xiii. 2. Sometimes; now and then ; at other times

    accompanied with ever, ever and ation. ANON'YMOUS, a. [Fr. anonjrme ; U anon

    ymus ; Gr. arwi'v^uoj, ot' a priv. and opofia,

    name. See Mime.] Nameless ; wanting a name ; without the

    real name of the author ; as, an anonymous

    jiamjjhlet. ANON'YMOUSLY, adv. Without AN'OPLOTHER, ( [Gr. ap neg.,

    ANOPLOTHE'RIUM, \ "• o^ao^, arms, and

    Sjjpior, a beast.] This is the name which Cuvier has given to

    a genus of anunals, whose bones are found

    in the gypsiun quarries near Paris ; a genus

    now extinct. ANOP'SY, n. [Gr. m neg. and a^, sight.] Want of sight ; mvision. [Little used.]

    Broum. AN'OREXY, n. [Gr. a priv. and optlij, appe- tite. Want of appetite, without a lothing of food,, ANOTH'ER, a. [an, or one and- otter.]

    1. Not the same ; different ; as, we have one form of government ; France, another.

    2. One more, in adilition to a former num- ber, indefinitely ; as, grant one request, they will ask another favor, another and another.

    3. Any other; any different person, indefi- nitely ; as, " Let another praise thee and not thy own mouth." This word is often used without a noun, becoming a substitute for the name of the person or thing; as in the last example. It is also much used in op- position to one, as in the first and second passages cited. It is also frequently used with one, in a reciprocal sense ; as, " love one another ;" " bear one another's burdens ;" that is, love one, or let one love another.

    ANOTH'ER-GAINES, adv. Of another kind. Obs. Sidney.

    ANOTH'ER-GATES, adv. Of another sort. Obs. Sanderson.

    ANOTH'ER-GUISE, a. [anofJier and guise, Fr. way, manner ; Sax. (me. The Saxon manner of writuig this word would be another-wise.]

    Ol'a different kind ; different. This is a vid- gar word, and usually contracted uito other guess.

    ANOT'TA, n. An elegant red color, fonned from the pelhcles or pulp of the seeds of the bixa, a tree conmion in South America. This is called also Terra Orleana and Roco. The annotta is made by steeping the seeds for seven or eight days, pounding them to separate the red sldns, then strain- ing the liquor, boiling it, taking off" the scum which is the coloring matter, then boiling it to a due consistence, and making it into balls. Ejtcyc.

    AN'SATED, a. [L. ansatus, from ansa, a handle.]

    Having a handle or handles, or something in the form of handles. Johnson.

    AN'SER, 71. [L. a goose.]

    In zoology, the iinnic of the goose, whether

    A N S

    me or wild. The domestic goose is the gray-lag or wild goose, domesticated.

    2. In astronomy, a small star, in the milky way, between the swan and eagle. Encyc -

    .•VN'SERINE, a. [L. anserinus, from anser. a goose.]

    1. Resembling the skin of a goose ; imeven ; as, an anserine skin. Encyc.

    2. Pertaining to the ansers.

    AN'SERS, n. In Lume's system, the third order of avea or fowls, whose character- istics are a smooth bill, broadest at the point, covered with a smooth skin, and furnished with teeth. The tongue is fleshy, and the toes are webbed or palmated. It includes all the web-footed water fowls, with legs and feet adapted to swmmiinff.

    AN'SLAIGHT, n. [See Slay.] An attack ; an affiay. [JVot in use.]

    ANSWER, V. t. dnsvr. [Sax. andswarian, ofanti, against, and Sax. swaran, or sioe- rian or swerigan, Goth, srvaran, to swear. The primitive sense of swear was merely to speak or affirm, and hence, originally, oath was used after it, to steear an oath : which is not a pleonasm, as Lye supposes, biit the primitive fonn of expression re- tained. The sense of answer is an oppo- site, a returned word or speech. Hence we observe the Saxon has andwyrd, anti- word, an answer; Goth, andawaurd; D. aniicoord; Ger. antwort.]

    1. To speak in return to a call or question, or to a speech, declaration or ai-gument of another person ; as, " I have called and ye have not answered." " lie answered the question or the argument." This may be in agreement and confij-mation of what was said, or in opposition to it.

    2. To be equivalent to; to be adequate to, or sufficient to accomphsh the object. " Money answerelh all things," noting, primarily, return.

    3. To comply with, fidfiU, pay or satisfy ; as, he anstvered my order ; to answer a debt.

    4. To act ui return, or opposition ; as, the ene- my answered our fire by a shower of grape shot.

    5. To bear a due projiortion to ; to be equal or adequate ; to suit ; as, a weapon does not aTiswer the size and strength of the man using it ; the success does not answer our expectation.

    6. To perform what was intended ; to ac- complish ; as, the measure does not ansiver its end ; it does not ansiver the purpose.

    7. To be opposite to ; to face ; as, fire an- swers fii-e. Shak.

    1. To write in reply ; to reply to another writing, by way of explanation, reftitation or justification ; as, to answer a pamphlet.

    9. To solve, as a proposition or problem in mathematics.

    This word may be apphed to a great variety of objects, expressing the idea of a return ; as the notes, or sounds of birds, and other animals ; an echo, &c.

    'ANSWER, v. i. To reply ; to speak by way of return ; a.*, there is none to answer. 1 Kings xviii.

    2. To be accountable, liable or responsible ; followed by to before the person, and for before the thing for which one is hable ; as, the man must answer to his employer /or the money rntrustcd to his care ; we cajo to Godybc our offenses.

    A N S


    A N T

    rj. To vindicate, or give a justificatoi-y aC' coiuit of; followed by for; as, a man can not answer for liis friend.

    4. To correspond with ; to suit with ; follow- ed by to.

    In water face answereth to face, so the heart of man to man. Prov. 27.

    .'5. To act reciprocally, as the .strings of an instrument to the hand. Dryden

    {». To stand as opposite or correlative ; as, al legiance in the subject answers to {irotec- tion on the part of the prince or govern- ment.

    7. To rettu-n, as sound reverberated ; to echo.

    The noise seems to fly away, and answer at agreat distance. Encyc. Jlrt. Echo.

    8. To succeed ; to efiect the object intended ; to have a good effect ; as, gypsum aTiswers as a manure on a dry soil.

    *ANS WER, n. A reply ; that which is said, in return to a call, a question, an argument, or an allegation.

    A soft answer turaeth away wrath. Prov. I called him, but he gave me no answer. Cant. v. 'Jt. An account to be rendered to justice. He will call you to so hot an answer for it.


    3. In law, a counter-statement of facts, in a course of pleadings ; a confutation of what the other ijaity has alledged.

    4. A writing, pamphlet or book, in reply to another.

    .'>. A reverberated sound ; an echo.

    6. A return ; that wliich is sent in conse- quence of some petition, as a blessing is sent in answer to ju-ayer.

    7. A solution, the result of a mathematical operation.

    'ANSWERABLE, a. That may be answer- ed ; that to which a reply may be made, usually implying that the answer may be satisfactory ; as, an answerable argument.

    il. Obliged to give an accoimt, or Uable to be called to account ; amenable ; respon- sible ; as, an agent is answerable to his prin- cipal.

    3. Obliged or Uable to pay, indeimiify or make good ; as, to be answerable for a debt or for damages.

    4. Correspondent ; agreeing with ; in con- formity with ; as, the featm-es expressed in a picture are answei-able to the original.

    5. Suitable ; suited ; proportionate ; as, an achievement answerable to the preparation for it.

    C. Equal ; correspondent ; proportionate ; as,

    the success is answerable to my desires. "ANSWERABLENESS, n. The quality of being answerable, liable, responsible, or correspondent. 'ANSWERABLY, adv. In due proportion, ' correspondence or conformity ; suitably ; as, continents have rivere answerably lar ger than isles. ANSWERED, pp. Replied to; fulfilled paid ; complied with ; accompUshed ; solv- ' ed ; confuted.

    ' '.VNSWERER, n. One who an.swers ; he or '' tliat which makes a return to what anoth- er has spoken ; he who writes an answer. ; ANSWERING, ppr. Repljang ; correspond- 1 ing to ; fidfiUing ; solving ; succeeding ; re-

    (verberating ; confutuig. ANSWER-JOBBER, n. One who makes a business of WTitmg answers. Sirifl.

    AN'T, in okl authors, is a contraction of an it, that is, if it. [See An.]

    ANT, in our vulgar dialect, as in the phrases, I mt, you dvi, he ant, we dnt, &c., is un- doubtedly a contraction of the Danish er. tre, the substantive verb, in the present tense of the Indicative iVIode, and not, I er-not, we ere-not, he er-not, or of the Swe dish ar, the same verb. Infinitive vara, U be. These phrases are doulrtless legiti- mate remains of the Gothic dialect.

    *ANT, n. [Sax. cemet, emmet, contracted into ant ; Germ, ameise.]

    An enunet ; a pismire. Ants constitute a ge- nus of insects of the hymenopteral order, of which the characteristics are; a small scale between the breast and belly, with a joint so deep that the animal appears as if almost cut in two. The females, and the neuter or working ants, which have no se.xua! characteristics, are furnished with a hidden sting ; and both males and fe males have wings, but the neuters hav< none. These uisects meet together in companies, and maintain a sort of repub lie. They raise hillocks of earth, in which they Uve. In these there are paths, lead- ing to the repositories of their provisions, The large black ants, in the warm climates of America, to avoid the eflfects of gr rauis, build large nests on trees, of Ught eanh, roundish and plastered smooth. Encyc,

    ANT-BEAR or ANT-EATER, n. A quad- ruped that feeds upon ants. This animal has no teeth, but a snout or muzzle, with a long cyUndi-ical tongue. The body is i ered with long hair. There are several species, constituting the genus, myrmeco- pkaga, ant eaters. Encyc.

    'ANT-EGGS, n. Little white balls found in the hillocks of ants, usually supposed to be their eggs, but foimd on e.xamination to be the yomig brood, in their first state. They are verniicules, vvTapped in a fiLn, compo- sed of a silky substance spun Uke a spi- der's webb. " Encyc.

    'ANT-HILL, n. A little tunmlus or hillock, formed by ants, for their habitation.

    AN'TA, n. In ancient architecture, a square coliinm, at the corner of a building ; a pil- aster ; written also ante.

    ANTACID, 71. [ajiti and acid.]

    In pharmacy, an alkaU, or a remedy for sour- ness or acidity ; better written anti-acid.

    ANTAC'RID, n. [anti and aciid.] That which corrects acrimony ; better written anti-acrid.

    ANTAG'ONISM, n. Opposition of action ; counteraction of things or principles.

    Good, B. ofJVature.

    ANTAGONIST, n. [Gr. avu, against, and oyuMf);;, a champion. See Jlct and Agony.]

    1. One who contends with another in com bat ; used primarily in the Grecian games. An adversaiy.

    2. An opponent in controversy. Campbell.

    3. In anatomy, a muscle which acts in opjio- sition to another ; as a flexor, which bends a pail, is the antagonist of an extensor, which extends it.

    ANTAG'ONIST, a. Counteracting ; oppo- sinc ; combatins ; as, an ajitagonist muscle.

    ANTAGONIS'TIC, a. Opposing in combat; contending agamst.

    ANTAGONIZE, v.i. To contend against ;

    to act in o]>position ; to oppose in argu-

    ANTAG'ONY, n. Contest ; opposition. [j\ol used.] MUloit.

    ANTAL'tilC, n. [Gr. om, against, and oOyo;. pain.]

    Alleviating pain ; anodyne. [Little used.

    ANTANA€LA'SIS, n. [Gr. o.roiax>.o!»;, a driving back.]

    1. In rhetoric, a figure, whicli consists in re- peatino^ the same word in a different sense ; as, winlst we live, let us live. Learn sonic crnfl when young, that « hen old you ma.\ live without craft.

    2. It is also a repetition of words, beginnint a sentence, after a long j)arenthesis ; ai^, shall that lieai-t, (which not only feeU them, hut which has all motions of lile placed in them,) shall that heart. Sec.

    Smith's Rhtl.

    ANTANAGO'gE, n. antanago'gy. [Gr.a^r.. against, and avar/i^rj, a taking uj).]

    In rhetoric, a figure which consists in replying to an adversary, by way of recrimination : as, when the accusation of one party is un- answerable, the accused person charges him with the same or other crime. BaUey.

    ANTAPHRODIS'IAC, a. [Gr. wr,, again^, and a^poSioiof, venereal, from tKjjpoStri;. Venus.]

    Antivenereal ; having the quality of extin- guishmg or lessening venereal desire.

    ANTAFHRODIS'IAe, n. A medicine tha; lessens or extinguishes tlie venereal appe- tite. Encyc. Coxe.

    ANTAPHRODIT l€, a. [Gr. See the pre- ceding words.] Antivenereal, abating the venereal appetite, or eflicacious against the venereal disease.

    ANTAFHRODIT'IC, n. A medicine which abates the venereal appetite, or is good, agauist the venereal disease.

    Coxe. Quinc}/.

    ANTAPOPLEC'TIC, a. Good against apo- plexy.

    ANTARCTIC, a. [Gr. ain, against, and apxros, the bear, a northern constellation.]

    Opposite to the northern or arctic pole ; rela- ting to the southern pole or to llie region near it, and applied especially to a lesser circle, distant from the pole 23° 28'. Thus we say the antarctic pole, antarctic circle, or antarctic region. Encyc.

    ANTA'RES, n. The nameofastai- of the first magnitude, called also the scorpion's heart. Its longitude is 60° 13' 14 " of Sag- ittarius ; and its latitude 4° 31' 2G" Soutli. Encyc.

    ANT.VRTHRIT IC, a. [Gr. aiu, against, and opSpiTij, gout.]

    Counteracting the gout.

    ANTARTHRIT'Ie, n. A remedy wliicb cures or alleviates the gout.

    .ANTASTHMAT'Ie, a. [Gr. aiu, agamst, ' aoSfia, asthma.]

    Opposing the asthma. ANTA^

    A.STHMAT'I€, n. A remedy for the asthma. AN'TE. A Latin preposition, the Gr. avfi, Sax. and Goth, and; much used in the composition of English words, especially in words from the Latin and Greek lan- guages. It signifies before in place, in front ; hence opposite, contrary ; and figu- ratively, before in time. The Latin antf is generally used in the sense of before, and

    A N T

    the Greek am, in that of opposite, or in the place of.

    AN'TE or AN'TA, n. A pilaster. In her- aldry, ante denotes that the pieces are let into one another, in the manner there ex- pressed, as by dove tails, rounds, swallow fails, &c. Encyc.

    AN'TEA€T, n. [_ante and act.] A preceduig

    ANTECEDA'NEOUS, a. [Infra.] Ante- cedent ; preceding in time. Oiven. \NTECE'DE, V. t. {ante and cedo, to go.

    See Cede.] To so before in time ; to precede. /ia'f

    ANTECE'DENCE, n. The act or state of going before in time ; precedence. In tronomy, an apparent motion of a planet towards the west, or contrary to the order of the signs. Encyc

    ANTECE'DENT, a. Going before m tmie prior ; anterior ; preceding ; as, an event antecedent to the deluge. ANTECE'DENT, n. That which goes be fore in tune ; hence in writings, that which precedes in place. In grammar, the noun to which a relative or other substitute re- fers ; as, Solomon was the pnnce, who] built the Temple. la logic, the first of two propositions in an enthymeme, or gument of two propositions; as, if the is fixed, the earth must move. Here the first and conditional proposition is the an- tecedent ; the second, the consequent. JVatts. Til mathematics, the first of two terras of a ratio, or that which is compared with the other. Encyc.

    ANTECE'DENTLY, adv. Previously ; at

    a time preceding. .VNTECES'SOR, n. [L. whence ancestor.

    See Antecede.] \. One who goes before ; a leader ; a princi- pal. It was formerly a title given to those who excelled in any science ; to professors of civil law ; and* in the Universities of France, the teachers of law talie the title in their theses. •i. One that possessed land before the pres- ent possessor. Brady. AN'TECHAMBER, n. {Ante, before, and


    A chamber or apartment before the chiel

    apartment to which it leads, and in whicl

    persons wait for audience. Dryden

    ANTECHAP'EL, n. The part of the chapel

    through which is the passage to the choir

    or body of it. WaHon.

    ANTE'CIAN, n. [Gr. ai-ft, opposite, and

    orxeu, to dwell ; L. antiEci.] Ih geography, the antecians are those inhab itants of the earth, under the same merid jan, and at the same distance from the equator, but, on opposite sides, one party north, the other soutli. They have the same hours of day and night, but difier- ent seasons; it being winter with one, when it is summer with the other. Encyc. ANTE€URS'OR, n. [L. ante, before, and cursor, a runner, from curro, to run. See Course.] One who runs before ; a forerunner. In tlie Roman armies, the antecursors were a body of horse detached to obtain intelli gence, get provisions, &c., for the main body. Encyc

    AN'TEDATE, n. [Infra.] Prior date ; a

    A N T

    AN'TEDATE, v. I. [L. ante, and datum, given. See Date.}

    1 To date before the true time ; thus, to antedate a deed or a bond is to express a date anterior to the true time of its execu- tion. „ ,

    3. To anticipate ; to take before the true time.

    And antedate the bliss above. ^ope.

    ANTEDILU'VIAL, ) , [L. ante, and dilu-

    ANTEDILU'VIAN, S vium, a flood. See Lave.] »T . , ■

    Before the flood, or deluge, in Noah s time ; existing, happening, or relating to what happened before the deluge,

    ANTEDILU'VIAN, n. One who lived be- fore the deluge. AN'TELOPE, n. [Qu. Gr. avti and rto^oj,

    resembling a deer.] In zoology, the gazelle ; a genus of ruminant quadrupeds, intermediate between the deer and goat. Their horns are solid and permanent, straight or curved; in some species annulated ; in others, suiTounded by a spiral ; and in others, smooth. They resemble the deer in the lightness and ele- gance of tlieir forms, and m their agility. They inhabit open plains or mountains, and some species in herds of two or three thousand. Their eyes are large, black, and of exquisite beauty and vivacity; and are therefore a favorite image with the eastern poets. Encyc. Cyc.

    ANTELU'CAN, a. [L. antelucanus, of ante,

    before, and lux, light.] Being before light ; a word apphed to as- semblies of christians, in ancient times of persecution, held before Ught in the morn- ing. ^ Encyc^ ANTEMERID'L\N, a. {ante, before, and

    meridian.] Being before noon ; pertaining to the lore

    noon. ANTEMET'I€, a. {avn, against, and emetic,

    from tfi£", to vomit.]

    Restraining or allaying vomiting. Qmncy.

    ANTEMET'ie,n. A medicine which checks

    vomiting. Quincij. Coxe.

    ANTEMUND'ANE, a. {ante, belore, and

    m,undus, the world.] Being before the

    creation of the world.

    ANTENI'CENE, a. {ante, before, and

    Mcene, from JVice.] Anterior to the first council of Nice

    fcmcene faith. ,^"Ti

    ANTEN'NiE, n.plu. [L. nji/enna, asail yard.] In zoology, the horns or feelers of insects,

    projecting from the head. ANT'ENUM'BER, n. A number that pre- cedes another. Bacon. ANTENUP'TIAL, a. [ante and nuptial] Being before marriage ; as, an antenuptial agreement ; antenuptial children. Kent. ANTEPAS€H'AL, a. Pertaining to the time before Easter. JVelson. AN'TEPAST, n. {ante, before, and pastum,

    A foretaste ; something taken before the

    proper time. ANTEPENULT', n. [L. ante, before, pene.

    ahnost, and ultimus, last.] The last syllable of a word, except two ; as

    syl in syllable. ANTEPENULT'IMATE, a. Pertaining tc

    the last syllable but two. ANTEPILEP'TI€, a. [a>rt, against, and


    iTttXyinrixoi, epileptic, from imfjiuSaiu, to

    Resisting or curing epilepsy. ANTEPILEP'Tl€, n. A remedy for the epilepsy. Encyc. Coxe.

    ANTEPOSP'TION, n. s as z. [L. ante, before.

    and position, from pono, to place.] In grammar, the placing of a word before another, which, by ordinary rules, ought to follow it. ANTEPREDI€'AMENT, n. {ante and pre- dicament.] A preliminary question in logic to illustrate the doctrine of predicaments and categor- ies ; a question which is to be first known. Encyc. ANTE'RIOR, a. [h.] Before in time or place ; prior ; antecedent ; preceding in time. 2. Before or in front in place. ANTERIOR' IT Y, n. The state of being anterior, preceding or in front ; a state ol being before in tune, or situation. AN'TEROOM, n. {ante and room.] A room liefore or in front of another. Darwin. AN'TES, n.plu. [L.] PiUars of large dmien- sions that support the front of a building. ANTESTAT'URE, n. [ante and stature.] In fortification, a small retrenchment or work formed of pahsades, or sacks of earth.

    Encyc. ANTESTOM'A€H, n. [ante and stomach.] A cavity which leads into the stomach, as the crop in birds. [M'ot in use.] Ray.

    ANTEVERT', v. t. [L anteverto.] To pre- vent. [J^ot in »J5C.] Hall. ANTEVIRGIL'IAN, a. [avti and Virgil] A term given to Tull's new husbandry, or method of horse hoeing. Encyc. ANTHELMIN'Tle, a. [

    XfA-wf, a worm.] Good against wonns. ANTHELMIN'Tle, n. A remedy for worms in the intestines. Encyc. Coxe.

    AN'THEM, n. [Gr. avti, against, and vfivog, a hymn, from vfiviu, to sing. See Hymn.} A hymn sung in aUernate parts ; but in mod- ern usage, a sacred tune or piece of music set to words, taken from the psahns or other parts of the scriptures, first intro- duced into church service in Elizabeth's reign. Encyc.^

    AN'THEM-WISE, adv. In the manner ot an anthem ; alternately. Bacon.

    AN'THEMIS, n. Camomile. Tate.

    AN'THER, n. [L. anthera, a flowery plant, from the Greek avSr^fo^, flowery, from a.v9oi, a flower.] In botany, the summit or top of the stamen, connected with the flower, and elevated by means of the filament or thread, within the corol. It contains the pollen, or fer- tilizing dust, which, when mature, is emit- ted for the impregnation of the stigma. It is called by Ray, the afex, and by Mal- i)i

    \N'THERAL, a. Pertaining to anthers.

    Asiat. Res. 4, 404. ANTHERIF'EROUS, a. [anther and fero, to bear.] Producing anthers. Barton, 162. ANTHESTE'RION, «. The sixth month of the Athenian year, consisting of 29 days, and answering to a part of November and a part of December. It is supposed to be so cafled from the Anthesteria, feasts in honor of Bacchus, celebrated m that




    inonth, and so called from or^oj, a flower ; garlands of flowers being oftered to Bac- chus at those feasts.

    ANTHOLOG'l€AL,o. Pertaining to anthol ogy.

    ANTHOL'OgY, n. [Gr. avOos, a flower, and ^oyof, a discourse, or tioyia, a collection.]

    1. A discourse on flowers.

    2. A collection of beautiful passages from authors ; a collection of poems or epi- grams. In the Greek church, a collection of devotional pieces. Encyc.

    AN'THONY'S FIRE. A popular name of| the erysipelas, supposed to have been so named from the saint in Italy, to whom those, who were affected, applied for a cure. Encyc.

    ANTHOPH' YLLITE, n. [Gr. 0^805, a flower, and fiiMMP, a leaf]

    A mineral in masses composed of interlaced plates, or crystalized in reed-shaped crys tals, which appear to be four sided prisms longitudinally streaked. The color is be- tween dark yellowish gray Eind olive brown ; the luster shining and pearly.

    Diet. JVat. Hut. Cleaveland.

    AN'THORISM, n. [Gr. avti, opposite, and ofne/Mf, definition.]

    In rhetoric, a description or definition 1 trary to that which is given by the advei'se party. Ash.

    ANTHRACITE, n. [Gr. (wSpol, a burning coal ; infra.']

    Slaty glance-coal, or columnar glance coal that species of coal wliich has a shining luster, approaching to metallic, and which burns without smoke, and with intense heat. It consists essentially of carbon

    AN'THRA€OLITE. [See Anthracite.]

    ANTHRAX, n. [Gr. ; supra.]

    A carbuncle ; a malignant ulcer, with intense burning. The ancients gave this name to a gem, and it is sometunes u.sed for lithan- thrax or pit-coal. Encyc.

    ANTHROP'OGLOT, n. [Gr. orSpurtof, man. and yXwffo, the tongue.]

    .^n animal which has a tongue resembling that of man, of which kind are parrots.


    ANTHROPOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. a^Spurto;, man, and ypa^ij, descrijition.]

    A description of man or the human race, or of the parts of the human body. Encyc.

    ANTHROP'OLITE, n. [Gr. oi'Spurto;, man, and ».ifloj, a stone.]

    A petrifaction of the human body, or skel- eton. Some naturalists have asserted that skeletons of the animal frame have been found petrified in old mines ; but the fact is not credited, and the existence of such petrifactions is denied. Encyc.

    Capt. Wilford informs us, that in digging a well near the Ganga, some persons found, at the depth of 90 feet, on an old bed ot that river, the bones of men and quadru- peds, supposed to be petrifactions.

    Asiat. Res. 8. 294.

    The skeleton of a man has been foimd in a limestone rock, of recent formation, in (iiiadaloupe. Ed. Encyc.

    Tlunian bones have also been found, by Prof IJuckland, in the open cave of Paviland, Glamorganshire. He considers them post- diluvian. Quart. Rev. v. 29. p. 148.

    ANTHROPOLOg'ICAL, a. Pertaining to

    anthropology; according to human man- ner of speaking. Kirwan

    ANTHROPOL'OtlST, n. One who de scribes, or is versed in the physical history of the human body.

    ANTHROPOL'OOY, n. [Gr. a^Spwrtoj, man, and Xoyo;, discourse.]

    1. A discourse upon human nature. Encyc.

    2. The doctrine of the structure of the hu man body ; the natural histoi-y or physiol- ogy of the human species.

    .3. The word denotes that manner of expres- sion by which the inspired writers attribute himian parts and passions to God. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOM'ANCY, n. [Gr. a^Spurtoj, man, and navctia, divination.]

    Divination by inspecting the entrail: liiuiian being. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOMORPH'ISM, n. The heresy of the anthropomorphites. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOMORPH'ITE, «. [Gr. rtof, man, and «op^, form.]

    One who believes a himian form in the ^iipiciiio IJcjug. A sect of ancient here- tiis nn- cnllcd (inthropomorphites. Encyc.

    ANTIIUOI'OMORPH'OUS, a. Belonging to that uliicli has the form of man ; hav ing tlie figure of resemblance to a man.

    Ash. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOP'ATHY, n. [avSpuno;, mkn and !

    The affections of man, or the application of human passions to the Supreme Being

    Owen. Encyc. Ash.

    ANTHROPOPH'AGl, n. plu. [Gr. a.9piorto?, man, and $oyu, to cat.]

    Maneaters ; cannibals ; men that eat human flesh. Johnson. Encyc.

    ANTHRGPOPH'AGOUS, o. Feeding on human flesli.

    ANTHROPOPHAGY, n. The eating of| human flesh, or the practice of eating it. Johnson. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOS'€OPY,ji. [Gr.

    The art of discovering or judging of a man's character, passions and inclinations from the lineaments of his body. Encyc.

    ANTHROPOS'OPHY, »». [Gr. avSp^no;, man, and oo(j)ta, wisdom.]

    Knowledge of the nature of man ; acquain- tance with man's structure and functions, comprehending anatomy and physiology Encyc.

    AXTHYPNOT'l€, a. corrupt orthography. [See Antihypnotic]

    ANTHYPO€HOND'RIAC. [See Antihy- pochondriac]

    ANTHYPOPH'ORA. [See Antihypophora.]

    ANTHYSTER'le. [See Antihysteric]

    AN'TI, [Gr. See Ante.] A preposition sig- nifying against, opposite, contrary, or m place of; used in many EngUsh words.

    ANTIAC'ID, a. Opposing or removing acidity. Often written antacid.

    ANTIAC'ID, n. An alkali ; a medicine proper to correct sourness, or acidity ; an absorbent, as chalk, magnesia, coral, sea- shells, hematite, steelfilings ; or an obtun- dent, as oil or fat ; or an inunutant, as lixivious salts, and soaps. Cyc.

    ANTIAMER'I€AN, a. Opposed to Amer- ica, or to the true interests or government of the United States ; opposed to the rev- olution in America. Marshall.

    ANTIARTHRIT'IC, a. [Sec Anlarlhritic] Good against the gout.

    ANTIARTHRIT'IC, n. A remedy for the gout.

    ANTIASTHMAT'IC, a. [See Antasthmatic] Good against asthma.

    ANTIASTHMAT'IC, n. A remedy for the asthma.

    ANTIBAC'CHIUS, n. [Gr. arri, and (3ax- A;«o{, a foot of one short and two long syl- lables.]

    In poetry, a foot of three syllables, the two first kmg and the last short, as ambire; opposed to the bacchius, in which the first syllable is short and the two last long. This foot is supposed to be so named from its use in hymns to Bacchus.

    Trumbull. Encyc. Gr. Lex.

    ANTIBASIL'ICAN, a. s as z. [Gr. avu, and Bauatxr;, a palace ; L. basilicus, royal, basilica, a hall of justice.]

    Opposed to rojal state and magnificence.

    Plowden, Brit. Empire.

    AN'TIC, a. [from Fr. antique ; L. antiquus ; It. antico ; a sense derived from the gro- tesque figures of antiques.] Odd ; fanci- ful ; as, antic tricks.

    AN'TIC, n. A buflbon or merry Andrew ; one that practices odd gesticulations.


    2. Odd appearance ; fanciful figures. Spenser.

    3. In architecture, sculpture and painting, such pieces as were made by the ancients ; usually written antique, and pronoimced anteek, but without any good reason.

    AN'TIC, V. t. To make antic. Shak.

    rVNTICACHEC'TIC, a. [Gr. wrt, and xa-x- exttj;, of an ill habit of body.]

    Curing or tending to cure an" ill habit of the

    constitution. Johnson.

    VNTICACHEC'TIC, 71. A medicine that

    tends to correct an ill habit of body. Coxe.

    ANTICAT'ARRHAL, a. [am, against, and xorappoo;, a catarrh.] Good against catarrh.

    ANTICAT'ARRHAL, n. A remedy for catarrh. Coxe.

    ANTICAUSOT'IC, a. [mu, against, and xm- 5o{, a burning fever.] Good against a burning fever.

    ANTICAUSOT'IC, n. A remedy for a burn- ing fever. Coxe.

    AN'TI-CHAMBER, n. Dr. Johnson prefers ante-chamber, whicli see. But ante and anti are the same word in different dia- lects ; and have the same radical signifi- cation. [See Ante.]

    .'VN'TI-CHRIST, n. [Gr. arri, against, and Christ.]

    A great adversary of Christ ; the man of sin ; described 1 John, ii. 18. 2 Thess. ii. Rev. ix. Protestants generally suppose this ad- versary to be the Papal power ; and some divines believe that, in a more general sense, the word extends to any persons who deny Christ or oppose the fundamen- tal doctrines of Christianity.

    Encyc. Brown. Buck.

    ANTICHRIS'TI.\N, a. "Pertaining to anti- christ ; opposite to or opposing 3ie chris- tian religion.

    ANTICHRIS'TIAN, n. A foUower of anti- christ ; one opposed to the christian reU- gion.

    ANTICHRIS'TIANISM, n. Opposition or contrariety to the cliristian reUgion.

    A N T

    ANTI€HRISTIAN'ITY, n. Opposition

    rontrarietv to eliristianity. ANTI€II'RONIS3I,?i. [Gr. avti, and xpov

    time.] Deviation fronx the true order of

    time. Selden.

    ANTICIPATE, V. t. [L. anllcipo, of ante,

    before, and capio, to take]

    1. To take or act, before another, so as to jirevent liim ; to take first possession.

    3. To take before the pro|)er time ; as, tlie advocate has anticipated that part of his argument.

    3. To foretaste or foresee ; to have a pre ous view or impression of something future; as, to anticipate the pleasm-es o" an eutertaunnent ; to anticipate tlie evil ofhfe.

    4. To prevent by crowduig in before ; t( prechide. Johnson

    [This sense is essentially included in the first.]

    ANTICIPATED, ;jp. Taken before; fore- tasted ; foreseen ; prechided ; prevented.

    ANTICIPATING, ;)p. Taking before : foretasting ; preckiiling ; preventing.

    ANTICIPA'TION, n. The act of taldngiip, placing, or considering something before the proper time, in natural order ; pre vention.

    2. Foretaste ; previous view or impression of what is to liappen afterward ; as, the unfi- cipalion of the joys of heaven.

    The happy anticipation of a renewed exis- tence in company with the spirits of the just. Thoilei/ 8. Previous notion ; preconceived opinion, produced in the mind, before the truth is known ; shght previous impression. 4. Tlie attack of a fever before the usual time. Core.

    .5. In music, the obtrusion of a chord upon a syncopated note, to wliich it forms a dis- cord. Busby. ANTIC IP ATOR, n. One who anticipates. ANTICIPATORY, a. Taking before the

    time. M(

    ANTl€Lr3IAX, n. [Gr. apti, opposite, and

    xXi/xa^, climax. See Climate.] A sentence in wliich the ideas fall or become less important and strildng at the close ; opposed to climax. For example Next comes Dalhousie, the great God of war, Lieutenant Col'nel to the Eail of Mar. AN'TI€LY, adv. In an antic manner; with odd postures and gesticidations; witli fan- ciful appearance. Shak. AN'Tl€MASK,orAN'TIMASK,Ji. Aiuask of antics. Bacon. B. Jonson. ANTI€ONSTITU'TIONAL, a. Opposed to or against the constitution. Bolingbroke. ANTICONSTITU'TIONALIST, n. One

    opposed to the constitution. ANTI€ONTA'(iIONIST, n. One w

    poses the doctrine of contagion. ANTI€ONTA'GlOUS, a. [wr.., and conta- gious.] Opposing or destroying contagion ANTI€ONVUL'SIVE, a. [avti, and convul- sive.] Good against convulsions. Floyer. AN'TI€0R, n. [anti, and Fr. caur, or L,

    cor, the heart.]

    Among farriers, an inflammation in a horse's

    throat, answering to the quinsy in man.


    ANTl€OSMET'l€, a. [anti and cosmetic

    See Cosmetic.^ Destructive or injurious

    to beauty.


    \NTI€OSMET'I€, n. Any preparation wliich injures beauty.

    AN'TICOt'RT, a. In opposition to the court. [JVot used.] Reresby.

    ANTleOURTIER, n. anticortyur. [auH and courtier.]

    One who opposes the court, or the measures of administration. Ash.

    ANTICREA'TOR, «. One that opposes the creator.

    ANTIDEJIOCRAT'le, \ Opposing

    ANTIDEHIO€RAT'ICAL, \ "■ democra- cy ; contrary to government by the people. Milford.

    \N'TIDOTAL, a. That has the quality of preventing the ill effects of poison, or of any thing noxious or mischievous.

    .'VN'TTIDOTE, n. [a^riSoro;, of ai-fi, against; and iiSu/ii, to give ; W. dodi, to give.]

    1. A medicuie to counteract the effects of poison, or of any tiling noxious taken into the stomacli

    2. Whatever tends to prevent mischievous effects, or to counteract the evil whicli something else miglit produce.

    ANTIDO'Tl€AL, a. Serving as an anti- dote.

    ANTIDO'TIeALLY, adv. By way of anti dote. Brown

    ANTIDYSENTER'I€, a. [Gr. a.ri, against and ^t'fffiTfpixo;, dysenteric] Good against the dvseiitery, or bloody flux. VNTIDYSENTER'I€, n. A remedy for dvsfiitorv. Coxe

    VNTIEMET'le, n. [Gr. avu, against, and tfiitixo;, emetic, from ifnu, to vomit.] Having the quality of allaying vomiting.

    A remedy to check or

    , op


    allay voiuitimr ANTIENNEAHE'DRAL, a. [Gr.

    posite, trvia, nine, and lijia, side.] In crystalography, having nuie faces on two

    opposite parts of the crystal. Cteaveland. ANTIENTHUSIAS'TI€, a. [anti and

    thusiastic] Ojjposing enthusiasm.

    Shaftsbtm/. AN'TIENTRY, n. [More

    cientry.] Cast of antiquity

    ancient. ANTIEPIS€'OPAL, a. Ad\

    pacy. ANTIEVANgEL'I€AL,

    orthodoxy, or



    ■ectly, that which is Gray rse to episco- K. Charles. Contrary to he genuine sense of the Milner. AN'TIFACE, n. Opposite face. Jonson. ANTIFANAT'le, n. An opposer of fanati- cism. Milton ANTIFE'BRILE, a. [avti, against, and fe- brile.] That has the quality of abating fever ; oppos- ing or tending to cure fever. ANTIFE'BRILE, n. A medicine that cures,

    abates, or tends to allay fever. ANTIFLAT'TERING, a. Opposite to flat- tery. Delany. ANTIGUG'LER, n. [anti and guggk.] A crooked tube of metal, so bent as to In introduced into the neck of a bottle, I'm drawing out the liquor, without disturhiiii: the sediment. Encyc ANTIHE€'TI€, a. [Gr. avti, against, and

    fxrixos, hectic] That has the quality of opposing or curiii: hectical disorders.

    A N T

    ANTIHEC'Tle, n. A medicine that is good in the cure of hectic disorders.

    Encyc. Coxe. ANTIHYPNOT'Ie, a. [Gr. avti, and vnpoj,

    leep.] Counteracting sleep ; tending to prevent

    AiN rill Vl'.\( >'l' \c,n. A medicine that pre- vent-; i

    \N'rillVl'()CllONDRIA€, a. [Gr. am, and vrtoxoibfiiaxos, liypochondriac]

    That counteracts or tends to cure hypoclion- driac affections, and depression of spirits.

    \NTIIIYPOCHOND'RIA€, n. A remedy for hypochondiiac affections and low

    ANTIHYPOPirORA, n. [Gr. avu, and

    vTfo^ofM, an inference.] In rhetoric, a figure which consists in refu- tuig an objection by the opposition of a contrary sentence.

    Smith. Johnson. Ash . ANTIHYSTERTC, a. [Gr.avn, and vsti^,


    Counteracting hysterics.

    ANTIHYSTER'Ie, n. A medicine that

    cures or counteracts hysterical affections.


    ANTILOG'ARITHM, n. [anti and loga-


    The complement of the logarithm of any tangent or secant, to 90 degrees.

    Bailey. ANTIL'OgY, n. [Gr. a> rt, against, and xoyof,

    speech.] A contradiction between any words or pas- sages in an author. \NTIMA(iIS'TRI€AL, a. Opposed to the office of magistrates. [JVot used.[ South. lOT{MiNri€AL,h-C-'-nd«>a,uW.]

    Counteracting or curing madness or frenzy. Beattie.

    AN'TIMASK, n. A lesser mask. Bacon.

    ANTIMETAB'OLE, n. antimetah'oly. [Gr. ai'ri, against, and turaSoXtj, mutation.]

    In rhetoric, a setting of two things in oppo- sition to each other ; as, an honorable ac- tion may be attended with labor, but the labor is soon past, and the honor is iimnor- tij. Encyc.

    ANTIMETATII'ESIS, n. [Gr. am, against, and fiiTaSioii, a transposition.]

    In rhetoric, an inversion of the parts or mem- bers of an antithesis ; as, " Compare the arrival of this governor, with the victory of that general." " Compare this peace with that war."

    Cicero in Verrem. Encyc.

    ANTIM'ETER, n. [Gr. am and fijrpo^,

    An optical instrument for measuring angles, with greater accuracy than can be done bv the usual quadrants or sextants. Ree.i.

    ANTIMET'RIeAL, a. Contrary to the rules of meter or verse. Bailey.

    ANTIMINISTE'RIAL, a. [anti and minis- terial.]

    Ojipnsed to the ministry, or administration of government.

    ANTIMINISTE'RIALIST, n. One thai opposes the ministry.

    ANTIMONAR€H'ICAL, a. [anti, against, and monarchical.]

    Opposed to monarchy ; that opposes a king- ly government. Addison.


    A N T

    A i\ T

    Ax\TIMONARCH'l€ALNESS, n. The quality of bniiig opposed to nioiiarcliy.

    ANTIMO'NIAL, a. [ivom antimony.]

    Pertaining to antimony ; relating to antimo nv, or partaking of its qualities.

    ANTIMO'NIAL, n. A preparation of anti niony ; a medicine in which antimony is a principal ingredient. Encyc

    ANTIMO'NIATE, n. A compomid or salt composed of antiinonic acid and a base.


    ANTIMO'NIATED, a. Partaking of anti- mony ; mi.\r

    ANT1M()'NI€, a. IVrtaining to antimony ; the antiinonic acid is a pcro.xyd of anti- mony. Henry,

    ANTIMO'NIOUS, a. Pertaining to antimo- ny. The aniimonious acid is a deutoxyd of antimony. Henry.

    AN'TIMONITE, n. A compound of anti- monious acid and a base. Henry.

    AN'TIMONY, Ji. [Fr. antimoine ; Low L. anlimonium ; It. antimonio ; Sp. id. This by some writers is supposed to be com- posed of anti and Fr. moine, monk, from the fact that certain monks were poison ed by it. This story, reported by Pure- tiere, is treated by Morin, as fabulous, and liy him it is said to be composed of G: ufti, against, and juoro;, alone, and s named because it is not found alone. The real trutli is not ascertained.]

    Primarily, a metallic ore consisting of sul pliur combined with a metal ; the sulphu ret of Antimony, the stibium of the Ro mans and the ri/«f»t, of the Greeks. It i: a blackish mineral, which stains the hands, hard, brittle, full of long, shining, needle- like strife. It is found in the mines of Bo- hemia, and Hungary; in France and Eng- land, and in America. This word is also used for the pure metal or regultis of anti- mony, a metal of a grayish or silvery white, very brittle, and of a plated or scaly tex- ture, and of moderate specific gravity. By exposure to air, its surface becomes tar- nished, but docs not rust. It is used as an ingredient in concave mirrors, giving them a liner te.xture. In bells, it renders the soimd more clear ; it renders tin more hard, white and sonorous, and gives to printing types more firmness and smooth- ness. It is also useful in promoting the fusion of metals, and especially in casting cannon balls. In its crude state, it is harm- Ii's.s to the human constitution ; but many of its preparations act violently as emetics and cathartics. It has also a pecuUar ef- tii-acy in promoting the secretions, partic- ularly as a sudorific.

    Chambers. Encyc. jYicholson.

    ANTIiMOR'ALIST, n. An opposer of mo- ralitv. Warhurton.

    ANTIMU'SI€AL, a. Opposed to music; having no ear for music. Amer. Review.

    ANTINEPHRITIC, a. {anti,Mui.nephHtic, which see.]

    f^'ounteracting diseases of the kidneys.


    ANTINEPHRITIC, n. A medicine that tends to remove diseases of the kidneys.

    ANTINO'MIAN, a. [Gr. avri, against, "and i'0/

    Apainst law ; pertaining to the Antinomians.

    ANTINO'MIAN, n. One of a sect who

    maintain, that, imder the gospel dispensa- tion, the law is of no use or obligation ; or who hold doctrines which supersede the necessity of good works and a virtu- ous life. This sect originated with John Agricola about the year 1538. Encyc.

    ANTINO'MIANISM, 71. The tenets of An- tinomians. Hall.

    AN'TINOMIST, n. One who pays no re- gard to the law, or to good works.


    AN'TINOMY, n. A contradiction between two laws, or between two parts of the same law. Baker.

    ANTIO'€HIAN, a. Pertaining to Antioehus, the founder of a sect of philosophers, co temporary with Cicero. This sect was t branch of the academics, though Antio elms was a stoic. He attempted to recon cilc the doctrines of the different schools, and was the last preceptor of the Platonic school. Enfield. Encyc.

    The Antiochian epoch was a method of com- puting time, from the proclamation of lib- erty granted to the city of Antioch, about the tune of the battle of Pharsalia.


    ANTIPA'PAL, a. Opposing popery.

    ANTIPAPIS'TIC, } Opposed to pope-

    ANTIPAPIS'TI€AL, <, "' ry or papacy.


    ANTIPAR'ALLEL, a. Running in a con- trary direction. Hammond.

    ANTIPARALYT'IC, a. [ain, and paralytic, which see.]

    Good against the palsy.

    ANTIPARALYT'IC," n. A remedy for the

    palsy. .NTIP


    Coxe. VNTIPATHET'ICAL, ^ "• [See .4nh>a%.]

    Having a natural coiurariety, or constitu- tional aversion to a thing.

    ANTIPATHET'I€ALNESS, n. The qual- ity or state of having an aversion or con- trariety to a tiling. Johnson.

    ANTIP'ATHY, n. [Gr. avtt, against, and «a9o{, feeUng.]

    Natural aversion ; instinctive contrariety or opposition in feeling ; an aversion felt a the iiresence, real or ideal, of a particulai object. This word literally denotes a nat- ural avereion, which may be of different degrees, and in some cases may excite ter- ror or horror at the presence of an object. Such is the aversion of animals for their natural enemies, as the antipathy of a mouse to a cat, or a weasel. Sometimes persons have an insuperable constitutional antipathy to certain kinds of food.

    The word is appUed also to aversion con- tracted by experience or habit ; as when a person has suffered an injury from some food, or from an animal, which before was not an object of hatred ; or when a par- ticular kind of food or medicine is taken into a sickly stomach, and which nauseates it ; the effect is antipathy, which is often of long continuance.

    Antipathy however is often affected, as when persons pretend a great aversion to things from false delicacy.

    2. In ethics, antipathy is hatred, aversion or repugnancy ; haired to persons ; aversion to persons or things ; repugnancy to ac-, tions. Of these hatred is most voluntary.; Aversion, and antipathy, in its true sense,

    il>l>riKl more on the constitution ; repujr- nancy may depend on reason or education. Encyc. Inveterate antipathies against particular na- tions, and passionate attachments to others, are to be avoided. Washington.

    3. In physics, a contrariety in the properties or affcctiojis of matter, as of oil and water, which will not mix.

    .•Vntipathy is regularly followed by to, some- times by against ; and is opposed to sym- pathy.

    ANTIPATRIOT'Ie, a. Not patriotic ; op- posing the interests of one's country.

    Jlntipalriotic prejudices. Johnson.

    ANTIPEDOBAP'TIST, n. [Gr. om, against, rtoi5, nai&oi, a child, and /iortriju, to bap- tize.]

    One who is opposed to the baptism of infants.


    \NTIPERISTAL'TIC, a. [See Peristaltic.]

    Opposed to peristaltic ; rctroverted, as in vomiting ; as, the antiperistaltic motion of the intestines. Cyc.

    ANTIPERIS'TASIS, ;i. [Gr. am, against, and rttpij-astf, a standing around.]

    The opposition of a contrary quality, by which the quality opposed acquires strength ; or the action by wliich a body attacked collects force by opposition ; or the intension of the activity of one quali- ty by the opposition of another. Thus quick-lime is set on fire, or sensible heat is excited in it, by mixture with water ; and cold ap])lied to the human body may in- crease its heat. Johnson. Dryden. Quincy.

    ANTIPERISTAT'IC, a. Pertaining to aii- tiperistasis. Ash.

    ANTIPESTILEN'TIAL, a. [aiiti ami pes- tilential, which see.]

    Counteracting contagion or infection ; hav- ing the quality of ojiposing or destroying pestilential diseases.

    ANTIPHLOgIS'TIAN, n. [anti and phlo- giston, which see.]

    \n opposer of the theory of phlogiston.

    ANTIPHLOGISTIC, a. Counteracting heat or inflaimnation ; tending to reduce arteri- al action ; opposed to the doctrine of phlo- giston. JSTichotson.

    ANTIPHLOgIS'TIC, n. Any medicme or diet which tends to reduce inflammation or the activity of the vital power.

    Hooper. Coxe.

    AN'TIPHON, n. [See Antiphony.]

    The chant or alternate singing in choirs of cathedrals.


    ANTIPHON'le, }a. [Sec Antiphony.]


    Pertauiing to antiphony or alternate singing. Encyc.

    ANTIPH'ONARY, n. [wu, contrary, and ^uvri, sound, voice.]

    A service book, in the catliolic church, con- taining all the iuvitatories, responsories, collects, and whatever is said or sung in tlie choir, except tlie lessons ; called also a responsary ; compiled by Gregory the Great. Encyc.

    ANTIPH'ONER, n. A book of anthems or tiphons. ^ Chaucer.

    .ANTIPH'ONY, n. [avu, contrary, and tuvij, oice.]

    1. The ansAver of one choir to another, when




    ail anthem or psalm is sung by two choirs aheniate singuig.

    2. A species of psahnody, wlien a coiigrega tioii is divided iiito two parts, and eacli sings the verses alternately. Encyc.

    3. The words given out at the beginning of a psahn, to which both the choirs are tt accommodate their singing. Encyc.

    4. A musical composition of several verses, extracted from different psahns. Encyc.

    ANTIPH'RASIS, n. [Gr. avu, against, and (j>pa«5, a form of speech.]

    The use of words in a sense opposite to their proper meaning ; as when a court of jus tice is called a court of vengeance.

    Johnson. «3s/i

    ANTIPHRAS'TI€, > „ Pertabiing to an-

    ANTIPHRAS'TI€AL, ^ '*• tiphrasis. Ash.

    ANTIP'ODAL, a. Pertaining to the anti podes ; having the feet directly opposite.

    AN'TIPODE, n. [Gr. avtc, opposite, and Tim;, rtoSos, foot.]

    One who Uves on the opposite side of the globe, and of course, whose feet are direct- ly opposite.

    ANTIPOrSON, n. s as :. An antidote for poison. Brown.

    AN'TIPOPE, n. [anti and j'opc]

    One who usurps the papal power, in opposi- tion to the pope. Addison.

    AN'TIPORT, n. An outward gate or door. Smith.

    ANTIPRELAT'I€AL, a. Adverse to pre- lacv. Motion.

    AN TIPRIEST, n. An opposer or enemy oi" priests. Walerland.

    ANTIPRIE'STCRAFT, n. Opposition to priestcraft. Bxirke.

    ANTIPRIN'CIPLE, n. An opposite princi- ])le. Spenser.

    ANTIPROPH'ET, n. An enemy or oppo- ser of prophets. Mede.

    ANTIP'TOSIS, n. [Gr. avti and rtfust;, case.]

    In grammar, the putting of one case for an- other. Johnson.

    ANTIPU'RITAJV, n. An opposer of puri- tans. Warton.

    ANTIQUARIAN, a. Pertaining to antiqua- ries, or to antiquit)'. As a noim, this is used for antiquary.

    ANTIQUA'RIANISM, n. Love of antiqui- ties. WarhuHon.

    AN'TIQUARY, n. [L. anliquarius.]

    One who studies into the history of ancient things, as statues, coins, medals, paintings, inscriptions, books and manuscripts, or searches for them, and explains their ori- gin and purport ; one versed in antiquity.

    AN'TIQUATE, v. t. [L. antiquo. See An- tiquary.]

    To m.ake old, or obsolete ; to make old in such a degree as to put out of use. Hence, when appUed to laws or customs, it amoiuits to make void or abrogate.

    Christianity might reasonably introduce new laws and antiquate or abrogate old ones.


    AN'TIQUATED, pp. Grown old ; obso- lete ; out of use ; having lost its bindinji force by non-observance ; as an antiquated law. AN'TIQUATEDNESS, n. The state of be

    iiig old or obsolete. ANTIQUA'TION, n. The state of being antiquated.

    ANTIQUE, a. antee'k. [Fr. from L. anil qmis, probably from ante.]

    1. Old ; ancient ; of genuine antiquity ; ii: this sense it usually refers to the flourish- ishing ages of Greece and Rome ; as an antique statue.

    2. Old, as it respects the present age, or a modern period of time ; of old fashion, as an antique robe.

    3. Odd ; wild ; fanciful ; more generally writ fen antic.

    ANTIQUE, n. antee'k. In general, any thing very old ; but in a more iunited sense, the remains of ancient artists, as busts, statues, paintings and vases, the works of Grecian and Roman antiqiuty.

    ANTlQUENESS, n. antee'kness. The qual- ity of being ancient ; an appearance of an- cient origin and workmansliip. Addison

    ANTIQ'UITY, n. [L. antiquitas.]

    1. Ancient times ; former ages ; times long since past ; a very indefinite term ; as, Cicero was the most eloquent orator of antiquity.

    2. The ancients ; the people of ancient times ; as, the fact is admitted by all an- tiquity.

    Meaning that mankind are inclined to verify the predictions of antiquity. T. Dawes.

    3. Ancientness ; great age ; the quality of being ancient ; as, a statue of remarkable antiquity ; a family of great antiquity.

    4. Old age ; a ludicrous sense used by Shak

    5. The remains of ancient times. Li this sense it is usually or always plm-al. An- tiquities comprehend all theremains of an- cient times ; all the moniunents, corns, inscriptions, edifices, liistory and frag- ments of literature, oiBces, habiUments, weapons, manners, ceremonies ; in short, whatever respects any of the ancient na- tions of the earth.

    ANTIREVOLU'TIONARY, a. [See Revo- lution.]

    Opposed to a revolution ; opposed to an en- tire change in the form of government.


    ANTIREVOLU'TIONIST, n. One who is ojiposed to a revolution in government.

    ANTISABBATA'RIAN, n. [anti and sab- bath.)

    One of a sect who oppose the observance of the Christian sabbath ; maintaining that the Jewish sabbath was only of ceremo- nial, not of moral obhgation, and was con- sequently abohshed by Christ. Encyc.

    ANTISA'BIAN, a. [See Sabiati.]

    Opposed or contrary to Sabianism, or the worship of the celestial orbs. Faher.

    ANTISACERDO'TAL, a. Adverse to priests. Waterland.

    ANTIS"CIAN, ANTIS"CIANS, n. [L. an- tiscii, of Gr. owfi, opposite, and exm, shadow.]

    In geography, the inhabitants of the earth, Uving on difl'erent sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon are cast in con- trary directions. Those who hve north of the equator are antiscians to those on the soutli, and vice versa ; the shadows on one side being cast towards the north ; those on the other, towards the south. Ena/c.

    ANTIS€ORBU'TI€, a. [anti and scorbutic, which see.]

    Coimteracting the scurn-.

    :ANTISC0RBU'TI€, n. A remedy for the

    I scurvy.

    ^i\TIS€RIP'TURISM, n. Opposition to the Holy Scriptures. Boyle.

    ANTISeRIPTURIST, n. One that detues revelation. Boyle.

    ANTISEP'TIC, a. [Gr. ovriand sijrtrof, pu-

    I trid, from oijTtui, to jjutrify.]

    Opposing or counteracting putrefaction.


    ANTISEP'TI€, n. A medicine which re- sists or corrects putrefaction, as acids, stimulants, saUne substances, astringents, &c. Enciic.

    ANTISO'CIAL, a. [See Social.}

    Averse to society ; that tends to interrupt or

    I destroy social intercourse.

    Pascalis, Med. Rep.

    ANTIS'PASIS, n. [Gr. cwn, against, and anau, to draw.]

    A revulsion of fluids, from one part of the body to another. Qiiincy.

    ANTISPASMODIC, a. [Gr. avu, against, and anaafios, from anau, to diaw.]

    Opposing spasm ; resisting convulsions ; a? anodynes. Coxe.

    ANTISPASMODIC, n. A remedy for spasm or convidsions, as opium, balsam of Peru, and the essential oils of vegetables. Coxe.

    ANTISPAS'TIC, a. [SeeAntispasis.]

    Causing a revulsion of fluids or humors.


    ANTISPLENET'IC, a. [See Spleen.]

    Good as a remedy in diseases of the spleen. Johnson.

    ANTIS'TASIS, n. [Gr. avu, opposite, and arams, station.]

    In oratory, the defense of an action from the consideration that if it had been omitted, something worse woidd have happened.


    ANTIS'TES, n. [L.]

    The chief priest or prelate. Milton.

    ANTIS'TROPHE, ) [Gr. avu, opposite.

    ANTIS'TROPIIY, ^ "" and fpo^jj, a turn- uig-]

    In g)-ammar, tlie changing of things mutually tiepending on each otlier ; reciprocal con- version ; as, the master of the servant, the servant of the master.

    2. Among the ancients, that part of a song or dance, before the altar, which was per- formed by turning from west to east, in opposition to the strophy. The ancient odes consisted of stanzas called strophies and antistrophies, to which was often ad- ded the epode. These were sung by a choir, which turned or changed places when they repeated the different parts of the ode. The epode was sung, as the cho- rus stood stUl. [See Ode.]

    IVesfs pre/, to his Pindar.

    ANTIS'TROPIION, n. A figure which re- peats a word often. Milton.

    ANTISTRUM AT'le, a. [anti and struma, a scrophulous swelluig.]

    Good against scrophulous disorders.

    Johnson. fViseman.

    ANTITH'ESIS, n. [Gr. avXiBwi, of o^r. and Stati, from tiStmi, to place.]

    In rhetoric, an opposition of' words or senti- ments ; contrast ; as, " When our vices leave us, we flatter ourselves we leave them." " The prodigal robs his heir, the miser robs himself." " Excess of ceremony

    A N V

    sliows want of breeding." " Liberty with laws, and government without oppression."

    2. Opposition of opinions ; controversy.


    ANTITHET'IC, } Pertaining to ariti-

    ANTITHET'I€AL, \ "■ iIjcsIs, or opposition of words and si-ntinients ; containing or abounding with antithesis.

    Enfielil. Encyc.

    ANTITRINITA'RIAN, n. [anti and trini- tnrian, whicli see.]

    One wlio denies the trinity or the existence of three persons in the Godhead. Ena/c.

    ANTITRINITA'RIAN, a. Opposing tlie trinity. .

    ANTITRINITA'RIANISM, n. A denial of the trinity.

    AN'TITYPE, n. [Gr. avtirvTtov, of Mtt, against, and Trrtoj, a type, or pattern.]

    A figure corresponding to another figure ; that of w)iich the type is the pattern or representation. Thus the paschal lanib ' scriptm-e, is the type, of which Christ is the antitype. An antitype then, is something which is formed according to a model or pattern, and bearing strong features of semblance to it.

    In the Greek litur^i, the sacramental bread and wine are called antitypes, that is, fig- ures, similitudes ; and llie Greek fathers used the word in a like sense. Encyc.

    ANTITYP'I€AL, a. Pertaining to an anti- type ; explaining the type. Johnson.

    ANTIVARIO'LOUS, a. [anti and variolous, which see.]

    Opposing the small pox. Med. Rep.

    ANTIVENE'REAL, a. [anti and venereal, which see.]

    Resisting venereal poison.

    ANT'LER, n. [From the root of ante, before; Fr. andouUler. See Jlnte.]

    A start or branch of a horn, especially of the horns of the cervine animals, as of the stag or moose. The branch next to the head called the brmo-antler, and tlie branch next above, the bes-antkr. Encyc

    ANT'LERED, a. Furnislied with antlers. Encyc

    ANTO'NIAN, a. Noting certain medicinal %vaters in Germany, at or near Tonstein, Encyc.

    ANTONOiMA'SIA, ? „ [Gr. avti, and oiofia,

    ANTONOM'ASY, S name.]

    The use of the name of some office, dignity, profession, science or trade, instead of the true name of the person ; as when his ma- jesty is used for a king, lordship for a noble- man. Thus instead of Aristotle, we say, the philosopher ; a grave man is called a Cato ; an eminent orator, a Cicero ; a wise man, a Solomon. In the latter examples, u proper name is used for an appellative ; the appUcation being sui)ported by a re- sembl.Tnce in cliaracter. Encyc.

    ANTOSl AN KKIAN, n. One of a sect" of rigid Lutliir:ni>, sDilenominated from their opposing the doctrines of O.siander. Thi sect deny that man is made just, but is only imputatively just, that is, pronoiuiced so.


    AN'VIL, n. [Sax. anfiU, mnfiU; D. aanbeeld; Old Eng. anvelt. The firet syllable seems to be the preposition on, from the Belgic dialect aan. The last syllable is from the verb build; in Germ. bUden, to form shape, and bild, an image or form, whicli

    Vol. I.


    Dutch is beeld. To build is to shape, to form, and anvil, that is, on build, is that on which things are shaped. The Latin ^. ord incus, ineudis, is formed by a like analogy from in and cudo, to hammer, or shape ; and the same ideas are connected in the Celtic ; W. eingion ; It. inneon, anvil, inneonam, to strike.]

    An iron block with a smooth face, on which smiths haimner and .shape their work Figuratively, any tiling on which blows are laid. Shak

    To be on tlie anvil, is to be in a state of dis cussion, formation or prejjaration ; as when a scheme or measure is forming, but not matured. This figure bears an analogy to that of discussion, a shaking or beating.

    ANXI'ETY, n. angzi'ety. [L. anxietas, from onrtus, solicitous; \.. ango. See Anger. . Concern or solicitude respecting some event, future or uncertain, whicli disturbs the mind, and keeps it in a state of painful uneasiness. It expresses more than unea siness or disturbance, and even more than trouble or solicitjuie. It usually springs from fear or serious apprehension of evil and involves a suspense respecting an event, and often, a perplexity of mind, tt know how to shape our conduct.

    2. In medical language, uneasiness ; unceas ing restlessness in sickness.

    ANX'IOUS, a. ank'shus. Greatly concerned or solicitous, respecting something future or unknown ; being in painful suspense ; applied to persons ; as, to be anrious for the issue of a battle.

    2. Full of soUcitude ; unquiet ; applied to things ; as anxious thoughts or labor.

    3. Very careful ; solicitous ; as, anxious to please ; anxious to commit no mistake.

    It is followed by for or about, before the

    object. ANXIOUSLY, adv. In an anxious manner

    solicitously ; with painful uncertainty

    carefully ; unquietly. ANX'IOUSNESS, n. The quality of being

    anxious ; great soUcitude. Johnson.

    AN'Y, a. en'ny. [Sax. anig, cenig ; D. eenig ;

    Ger. einig. This word is a compound of

    an, one, and ig, which, in the Teutonic

    dialects, is the ic of the Latins, mus-ic

    Any is unic-xxs, one-like.] \. One indefinitely.

    Nor knoweth any man the Father, save the

    Son. Math xi.

    If a soul shall sin against any of the com

    inandments. Lev. iv.

    2. Some ; an indefinite number, plurally ; for though the word is formed from one, it often refers to mamj. Are there any wit nesses present ? I'lie sense seems to be a small, uncertain number.

    3. Some ; an indefinite quantity ; a small portion.

    Who will show us any good ? Ps. iv.

    4. It is otlen used as a substitute, the person or thmg being understood.

    And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any. Mark xi.

    If any lack msdoui, let liim ask it of God James i. It is used in opposition to none. Have you

    any wheat to sell? I have none. ANY- WISE is sometimes used adverbially, but the two words may be separated, and used witli a preposition, in any wise. 11

    A P A

    AO'NIAN, a. [From Aonia, a part of I3a'( tia, in G:

    Pertaining to the

    nr to Aonia, in Bo' otia. The Aonian fount was Aganippe. at the foot of mount Helicon, not tar from Thebes, and sacred to the muses. Hence the muses were called Aonides. Dryden Virg. Eclogue. 10. 12. But in trutli. Aonia itself is formed from the Celtic aon. a spring or fountain, [the fabled son oi Neptune,] and thi.-i word g.ave name tiv Aonia. As tlie muses were fond of springs, the word was applied to the muses, and to mountains which were their favorite residence, as to Parnassus. Milton.

    A'ORIST, n. [Gr. oopij-oj, indefinite, of a priv. and opo5, limit.]

    The name of certain tenses in the grammar of the Greek language, which express time indeterminate, that is, either past, present or future.

    AORIST'le, a. Indefinite ; pertaining to an aorist, or indefinite tense.

    AORT'A, n. [Gr. aoptti, the great artery ; also an ark or chest.]

    The great artery, or trunk of the arterial system ; proceeding from the left ventricle of the heart, and giving origin to all the arteries, except the pulmonarj' arteries. It first rises, when it is called the ascending aorta ; then makes a great curve, when it gives off branches to the head, and upper extremities ; then proceeds downwards, called the descending aorta, when it gives off branches to the trunk ; and finally di- vides into the two iliacs, which supply the pelvis and lower extremities. Vyc. 'Parr.

    AORT'AL, o. Pertaining to the aorta, or great artery. Dancin.

    AOU'TA, n. The paper-mulberry tree in Otaheite, from whose bark is manufactur- ed a cloth worn by the inhabitants.


    APA'CE, adv. [a andpace.]

    With a quick pace ; quick ; fast ; speedily : with haste ; hastily ; applied to things iu motion or progression ; as, birds fly apace ; weeds grow apace.

    AP'AGOgE, I [Gr. from artoyu, to draw

    AP'AGOgY, I aside, of a/to, from, and

    oyw, to drive.]

    1. In logic, abduction ; a kind of argument, wherein the greater extreme is evidently contained in the medium, but tlie medium not so e\'idently in the lesser extreme, as not to require further proof. Thus, " All whom God absolves are free from sui ; but God absolves all who are in Christ ; there- fore all who are in Christ are free from sin." The first proposition is evident ; but the second may require further proof, as that God received full satisfaction for sin, by the suffering of Christ.

    2. In mathematics, a progress or passage from one proposition to another, when the first, having been demonstrated, is employed in proving others.

    3. In the Athenian law, the carrying a crimi- nal, taken in the fact, to a magistrate.


    APAGOg'I€AL, a. An apagogical demon- stration is an indirect way of proof, by showing the absurdity or impossibiUty of the contrarj'.

    APALACH'IAN, a. Pertaining to the Apa-

    A P E


    A P ir

    Jafhcs, a tribe of Indians, in the wc>tern part of Goorifia. Hence the word is ap- plied to lIU' inoiintaiiis in or near their country, ^vhiili arc in fact the southern extreniitv of ilic Alltj,'hanean ridges.

    APAN'THROI'V, n. [Gr. arto, fiom, and avdfUTioi, man.]

    An aversion to the company of men ; a love of solitude. i'lin/c.

    APARITIl'MESIS, n. [Or.] In rliHoric, enumeration.

    AP'ART, arfv. [aa.nApaH; Fr. apartt. See Part.]

    1. Separately ; at a distance ; in a si separation, as to place.

    Jesu3 departed thence into a desert place apart. Math. xiv.

    2. In a stateofdistinction,as to purpose, use or character.

    The Lord hatli set apart him that is godly fo himself. Ps. iv.

    3. Distinctly ; .separately ; as, consider the two propositions apart.

    4. Aside ; in exclusion of; as, apart from all regard to his morals, he is not qualified, in other respects, for the office he holds.

    AP^ARTMENT, )!. [Fr. apartement, or ap partement, of ab or a, from, and partir, to depart. See Part.]

    A room in a building ; a division in a house, separated from others by partitions; a place separated by inclosure.

    APATHET'Ie, o. Void of feeling ; free froin passion ; insensible. Harris

    AP'ATHY, n. [Gr. a priv. and rtoSoj, pas- sion.]

    Want of feeling ; an utter privation of pas- sion, or insensibility to pain ; applied either to the body or the mind. As applied to the mind, it is stoicism, a calmness of mind in capable of being rufRed by pleasure, pain or passion. In the first ages of the church, the christians adopted the term to express a contempt of earthly concerns.

    Quietism is apathy disguised under the ap- pearance of devotion. Encye

    AP'ATITE, n. [from Gr. arfafcuo, to deceive ; it having been often mistaken for oth

    V variety of phosphate of lime ; generally crystalized in low, flat, hexahedral prisms, sometimes even tabular. Its powder phos- phoresces on burning coals.

    The phosporite of Werner includes the mas- sive and earthy varieties of the phosphate, which are distinguished from tlie apatite, by their containing a small portion of flu- oric acid. Cleaoeland.

    APE, n. [D. aap ; Dan. abe ; Sax. Sw. and Ir. apa ; Ice. ape ; Germ, affe ; W. ab, or epa, so natned from the celerity of its motions.]

    1. A genus of quadrupeds, found in the tor- rid zone of both continents, of a great variety of species. In common i word extends to all the tribe of monkeys and baboons ; but in zoology, ape is limited to such of these animals as have no tails while those with short tails are called bab oons, and those with long ones, monkeys Tliese animals have four cutting teeth in each jaw, and two canine teeth, with ob- tuse grinders. The feet are formed like hands, with four fingers and a thumb, and flat nails. Apes are lively, full of frohc and chatter, generally untamable, thiev-

    ing and mischievous. They inhabit the forests, and hve on fruits, leaves and insects. Encyc.

    i. One who imitates servilely, ui allusion to the manners of the ape ; a silly fellow.

    APE, V. t. To imitate servilely ; to mimic, as an ape unitates human actions. Weak persons are always prone to ape foreigners.

    APE'AK, adv. [a and peak, a point. See Peak.]

    1. On the point ; in a posture to pierce. Joh7ison.

    2. In seameii's language, yterpentWculai: The anchor is apeak, when the cable is drawn so as to bring the ship directly over it.

    Mar. Diet.

    AP'ENNINE, a. [L. ape7minus ; ad and penninus, an epithet applied to a peak or ridge of the Alps. ikvy. Celtic pen or ben, the peak of a mountain, or in general, a mountain.]

    Pertainiiin to or designating a chain of moun- tains, which extend from the plains of Piedmont, round the gtdf of Genoa, to center of Italy, and thence south east to the extremity.

    AP'ENNINE, ) The monntauis above

    AP'ENNINES, S "■ described.

    APEP'SY, n. [Gr. a priv. and nttttu, to digest.]

    Defective digestion; indigestion. [LAtth ■used.] Coxe. Encyc.

    A'PER, n. One who apes. In zoology, the wild boar.

    APERIENT, a. [h. aperiens, aperio ; Sp. Port, abrir ; It. aprire ; Fr. ouvrir.]

    Opening ; that has tlie quality of opening ; deolistruent ; laxative.

    x\PE'R1EjVT, n. A medicine which pro- motes the circulation of the fluids, by re- moving obstructions ; a laxative ; a de- obstruent ; as, smallage, fennel, asparagus, parsley, and butcher's broom. Encyc,

    APER'ITIVE, a. Opening; deobstruent ; aperient. Harvey. Fotherby.

    APERT', a. [h. aptrtus.] Open ; evident ; undisguised. [JVot vsed.]

    APER'TION, n. The act of opening; the state of being opened ; an opening ; a gap, aperture, or passage. [Little used.}

    kViseman. Wollon.

    APERT'LY, adv. Openly. [Uitle used.] Bale.

    APERT'NESS, n. [L. apeiius.] Openness. [Rarely used.] Holder.

    APERT'OR, «. A muscle that raises the upper eye lid. Quincy.

    AP'ERTURE, n. The act of opening ; more generally, an opening ; a gap, cleft or chasm ; a passage perforated ; a hole through any solid substance.

    Holder. JVewton An opening of meaning ; explanation. [JVot used.] Tayl,

    .3. In geomttry, the space between two right lines, forming an angle. Encyi

    APET'ALOUS, a. [Gr. a neg. and netaxov, a flower-leaf or petal.]

    In botany, having no petals, or flower-leaves ; having no corol. Martyn

    APET'ALOUSNESS, n. A state of being without jjetals.

    A'PEX, J!, plu. apexes. [L.apex, \>U\. apices.]

    The tip, point or summit of any thing. I anlitjuiiy, the ca)) of a flamen or priest the crest of a hehnet. In grammar, the

    mark of a long syllable, in botany, thff anther of flowers, or tops of the stamens, like knobs. Martyn.

    APH'ANITE, n. [Gr. a priv. and fawu, to a|>]>ear.]

    In mineralogy, compact ainphibole in a par- ticular state. Diet, of JVat. Hist.

    APHE'LION, n. [Gr. arto, from, and rino;, sun.]

    That point of a planet's orbit which is most distant from the sun ; opjjosed to perihe- lion.

    APHERE'SIS, n. [Gr. ojto, from, and atptu, to take.]

    The taking of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. Thus by an aphe- resis, omMere is written, mitlere. Encyc.

    2. In the healing art, the removal of any thing noxious. In surgery, amputation.


    APHIDIV'OROUS, a. [of a;)Ws, the puce- ron or vine fretter, and loro, to eat.]

    Eating, devouring, or subsisting on the aphis, or plant-louse. Dancin.

    APHILAN'THROPY, n. [of a neg. and ^t,- Xoi'Spurtio, of ^aeu, to love, and aidfuno;.

    Want of love to mankind. In medicine, the first stage of melancholy, when soHtude is preferred to soeiet}'. Coxe.

    A'PHIS, n. In zoology, the puceron, vine fretter, or plant-louse ; a genus of insects, belonging to the order of hemipters. The aphis is furnished with an inflected beak, and with feelers longer than the thorax. In tlie same species, some individuals have four erect wings, and others are entirely without wings. The feet are of the ambu- latory kind, and the belly usually ends ia two horns, from which is ejected the sub- stance called honey-dew. The species are very numerous. Encyc.

    APHLOdlS'Tle, ct. [Gr. a priv. and t?-o- yifo;, inflammable.]

    Flaraeless ; as an aphlogistic lamp, in which a coil of wire is kept in a state of continued ignition by alcohol, witliout flame.


    APII'ONY, n. [Gr. a priv. and ijiu;nj, voice.J

    A loss of voice ; a palsy of the tongue j dumbness; catalepsy. Johnson. Coxe.

    APH'ORISM, n. [Gr. a^opts^os, determina- tion, distinction ; from a^opt^u, to sepa- rate.]

    A maxim ; a precept, or principle expressed in few words ; a detached sentence con- taining some important truth ; as, the aphorisms of Hippocrates, or of the civil law. Encyc.

    APHORISM'ER, n. A dealer in aphorisms. Milton.

    APHORISTIC, I In the form of an

    APHORIS'TI€AL, I °" aphorism ; in the form of short unconnected sentences ; as an aphoristic style.

    APH0RIS'TI€ALLY, adv. In the form or manner of aphorisms.

    APH'RITE, n. [Gr. 0^05, froth ; the schaum erde, or earth scum, of Werner ; the sil- very chalk of Kirwan.]

    A subvariety of carbonate of lime, occurring in small masses, solid or tender and friable. It is composed of lamels or scales, of a ])early luster. It is connected by insensi- ble shades with argentine.

    Jameson. Cleavdand.


    A P O

    A P O

    APII'RIZITE, n. A variety of black tour- malin. Phillips.

    APllRODIS'IAC, } [Gr. a^i^oii'n.o,, ve-

    APHRODISI'ACAL, i; "■ iiereal, A^pobitr,, Venus, from o^poj, froth.]

    Exciting venereal de-siro ; increasing the ap- petite for sexual connection.

    APIIRODIS'IA€, n. A provocative to ve- iiery. Encyc. Quincy.

    APU'RODiTE, n. [Gr. Afpo&it^.] A follovt-er of Venus. Cleaveland.

    APU'RODITE, } In zoology, a genus ofl

    APHRODI'TA, S "■ tlie order of MoUuscas, called also sea-movse. The body i,s oval, with many small protuberances or tenta- cles on each side, which serve as feet. The mouth is cj'hndrical, at one end of the body, with two bristly tentacles, and capa- ble of being retracted. Encyc.

    2. A name of Venus, so called from 6r. atpof, froth, from which the goddess was supposed to have been jiroduced. [See Venus.]

    APH'THONG, n. [Gr. arto, without, and 4i8oyyof, sound.]

    A letter or combination of letters, which, in the customai-y pronimciation of a word, have no sound. Focaloir, or Diet, of the Hibemo- Celtic Lanmiase.

    APIl'THOUS, a. [Gr. a$e«, ulcers in the mouth.]

    Pertaining to thrush ; of the nature of thrush or ulcerous affections of the mouth.


    APII'VLLOUS, a. [Gr. a neg. and ifvXKov. folium, a leaf.]

    In botany, destitute of leaves, as the rush, mushrooms, garlic, some sea- weeds, &,c. Milne.

    APIARY, n. [L. apiarium, of apis, a bee.]

    Tlie place where bees are kept ; a stand or shed for bees.

    A'PIASTER, n. [From apis, a bee.]

    The bird called a bee-cater, a species of rops. The apiaster has an iron colored back, and a belly of bluish green.


    A'l'ICES, A'PEXES. [See ^pei, and .Inther.]

    APIE'CE, adv. [a and piece.]

    To each; noting the share of each; as here is an orange apiece.

    A'PIS, n. In mythology, an ox, worshiped in ancient Egypt, or a di\ inity or idol in the figure of an ox.

    A'PIS, n. [L.] In zoolofcy, the bee, a genu; of insects, of the order of hymenopters. The mouth lias two jaws, and a proboscis infolded in a double sheath ; the wings are four, the two foremost covering the hinder ones when at rest. The females and working bees have a sting. Encyc.

    A PISH, a. [See Ape.] Having the quali- ties of an ajie ; inclined to imitate in a ser- vile manmr; licnce, foolish, foppish, af- li'ctcd, trilling, insigniticant ; as, an apish fellow ; apish manners.

    A'PISHLY, adv. In an apish manner ; with sei-vile imitation ; foppishly.

    A'PISHNESS, n. The quaUty of being apish ; mimicry ; foppery.

    APIT'PAT, With quick beating or palpita- tion ; a word formed from the sound, ;n< and pat, or from heat.

    APLANAT'IC, a. [Gr. a ucg. and .t?.araco,to wander.]

    An aplanatic telescope is one which entirely corrects the aberration of the rays of light. It is thus distinguished from the achromatic, whicli only partially corrects the alierra- tion. Ed. Encyc.

    APLO'ME, 71. [Gr. arCKoo;, simple.]

    A mineral closely allied to garnet. It is con- sidered by Jameson, as crystalized com- mon garnet. It is a rare mineral, found in dodecahedrons, with rhombic face.s, supposed to be derived from the cube, by one of the most simple laws of decrement, that of a single range of particles, parallel to all the edges of a cube.

    Haiiy. Cleaveland.

    APLUS'TER, I [L. from Gr. af7^;m; the

    APLUS'TRE, S "' summit of the poop of a ship.]

    .An ensign, or ornament carried by ancient ships. It was shaped Uke a plume of] feather.s, fastened on the neck of a goose or swan, and to this was attached a party- colored ribin, to indicate the course of the wind. Addison. Encyc.

    APO€'ALYPSE, n. apoc'alyps. [Gr. from a7toxa\v7fti^, to disclose ; orto and xiAvrtru. to cover.]

    Revelation ; discovery ; disclosure. The name of a book of the New Testament, containing many discoveries or predictions respecting the future state of Christianity written by St. John, in Patmos, near the close of the first century.

    APO€ALYP'Tl€, \ Containing

    APOCALYPTICAL, \ "" pertaining to revelation ; disclosing.

    APOCALYPTICALLY, adv. By revela tion ; in the mamier of disclosure.

    APOCOPATE, v.t. [^ee apocope.]

    To cut off, or drop the last letter or syllable of a word.

    APOCOPATED, pp. Shortened by the omission of the last letter or syllable.

    M. Stuart

    APOCOPATING, ppr. Cutting off, or omit- ting the last letter or syllable.

    APOCOPE, ? [Gr. anoxortrj, abscission,

    APOCOPY, ^ "■ of arto, -And xottTu to CM.]

    The cutting off, or omission of the last letter or svllable of a word ; as di for dii.

    APOC'RISARY, n. [Gr. from ortoxpKKj, an swer ; ajtoxptvofiac, to answer.]

    -Anciently a resident in an imperial city, in the name of a foreign church or bishop, answering to the modern nuncio. He was a proctor, in tlie emperor's court, to ne- gotiate, and transact business for liis con stituent. Encyc. Spelman

    APOCRUST'Ie a. [Gr. artoxpwrixa, from oTto and xpoDu, to drive froni.[

    Astringent ; repelling.

    APOCRUST'Ie, n. A medicine wliich con- stringes, and repels the humors ; a repel- lent, (^uincy. Coxe.

    APOCRYPHA, n. [Gr. from anoxfvTttw, xpvTtru, to conceal.]

    Literally such things as are not pubhshed ; but in an appropriate sense, books who& authors are not known ; whose autlienti city, as inspired writings, is not admitted, and which are therefore not considered a part of the sacred canon of the scripture. When the Jews published their sacred books, they called them canonical and di- vine ; such as they did not publish, were called apocryphal. The apocryphal books

    arc received by the Church as ca- nonical, l)ut not by Protestants. Encyc.

    APOCRYPHAL, a. Pertaining to the apoc- ryjiha ; not canonical ; of uncertain au- thority or credit ; false ; fictitious.

    Congreve. Hooker.

    APOC/RYPHALLY, adv. Uncertainly ; not indisputably.

    APOCRYPIIALNESS, n. Uncertainty, a^ to authenticity ; doubtfulness of credit, oi genuineness.

    AP'ODAL, a. [See Apode.]

    Without feet ; in zoology, destitute of ventral fins.

    AP'ODE, n. [Gr.apriv.andrtoi.s,«o«o5,fool.

    An animal that has no feet, applied to cer- tain fabulous fowls, wliich are said to have no legs, and also to some birds that have very short legs.

    In zoology, the apodes are an order of fishes, which have no ventral fins ; the first order in Linne's system. Encyc.

    APODICTIC, I [Gr. artoii^n, evi-

    APODICTICAL, S "■ dence, of o«o, and Ssixivni, to show.]

    Demonstrative ; evident beyond contradir tion ; clearly proving. [lAltle used.]

    Brovm. GlanvUk.

    APODICTICALLY, adv. So as to be evi dent beyond contradiction.

    APOD'OSIS, n. [Gr.] The appUcation or latter part of a similitude. Mede.

    AP'OciEE, n. [apogeon, apogeum ; Gr. o«o, from, and yij, the earth.]

    That point in the orbit of a planet, which is at the greatest distance from the earth. The ancients regarded the earth as fixed in the center of the system, and therefore assigned to the sun, with the planets, an apogee ; but the moderns, considering the sun as the center, use the terms perilielion and aphelion, to denote the least and greatest distance of the planets from that orb. The sun's apogee therefore is in strictness, the earth's aphelion. Apogee is properly appUcable to the moon.

    Encyc. Johnson.

    AP'OGON, n. A fish of the Mediterranean, the summit of whose head is elevated.

    AP'OGRAPH, n. [Gr. ortoypntw ; artaypa^^] An exemplar; a copy or transcript. Ash.

    APOLLINA'RIAN, a. [From Apollo.]

    The ApoUinarian games, in Roman antiquity, were celebrated in honor of Apollo ; insti- tuted A. R. 542. after the battle of CanniE. They were merely scenical, with exliibi- tions of music, dances and various moun- tebank tricks. Encyc.

    APOLLINA'RIANS, in Church history, a sect, deriving theirname (rom Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea, in the 4tli Century, who denied the proper humanity of Christ; maintaining that his body was endowed with a sensitive, and not with a rational soul ; and that the divine nature supplied the place of the intellectual principle in man. Encyc. Hooker.

    ApoUo-Belvidere, an ancient statue of the first class in excellence.

    APOL'LYON, )i. [Gr. ortoxxiw, destroying.]

    The destroyer; a name used Rev. ix. 11, for the angel of the bottomless pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon.

    APOLOGET'IC, I [Gr. aWoXoyfOfw,, to

    APOLOGET'ICAL, I "■ speak in defense of: o«o and ^»yo5, speech.]

    A P O

    A P O

    A P O

    Dcleiiding by worils or argunieiits ; excus- ing ; said or written in defense, or by way of apology; as an opo/og-ef ic essay. Boyle.

    APOLOgET'I€ALLY, adv. By way of apology or excuse.

    APOI.'OGIST, n. [See Apology.]

    One who makes an apology ; one who speaks or writes in defense of another.

    APOL'OgIZE, v. i. To make an apology ; to write or speak in favor of, or to make excuse for ; followed l)y for ; as, my cor- respondent apologized for not answering my letter.

    AP'OLOGUE, n. ap'olog. [Gr. ortoxoyoj, i long speech, a fable.]

    A moral fable ; a story or relation of ficti tious events, intended to convey usefid truths. An apologue differs from a para- ble in this; the parable is drawn from events which pass among mankind, and is therefore supported by probability ; an apologue may be founded on supposed actions of brutes or inanimate things, and therefore does not require to be supported by probability. Esop's fables are good examples of apologues. Encyc.

    APOL'OGY, n. [Gr. ajto-Koyca, of a?to and ^oj, discourse.]

    All excuse ; something said or written ui de- fense or extenuation of what appears to others wrong, or unjustifiable ; or of what may be liable to disapprobation. It may be an extenuation of what is not perfectly justifiable, or a vindication of what is or may be disai)proved, but wliich the apolo- gist deems to be right. A man makes iia apology for not fulfilhng an engage- ment, or for publishing a pamplilet. An apology then is a reason or reasons assign- ed for what is wrong or may appear to be wrong, and it may be either an extenua- tion or a justification of something that is or may be censured, by those who are not acquainted with the reasons.

    APONEURO'SIS, I [Gr. orto, from, and

    APONEU'ROSY, I "' vivpov, a nerve ; W. nerth ; Arm. nerz. See JVerve.]

    An expansion of a tendon in the manner of a membrane ; the tendinous expansion or fascia of muscles ; the tendon or tail of a muscle. Encyc. Coxe.

    APOPEMP'TIe, a. [Gr. arco, from, and rttfinu, to send.]

    Denoting a song or hymn among the an- cients, sung or addressed to a stranger, on his departure from a ])lace to his own country. It may be used as a noun for the hymn. Encyc.

    APOPH'ASIS, n. [Gr. orto, from, and *o(«5, form of speech.]

    In rhetoric, a waving or omission of what one, speaking ironically, would plainly insinu- ate ; as, " I will not mention another argu- ment, which, however, if I should, you could not refute." Smith. Johnson.

    APOPHLEGMAT'IC a. [Gr. arto, from, and t>.f7fia, phlegm.]

    Masticatory ; having the quahty of exciting discharges of phlegm from the mouth or nostrils.

    APOPHLEGMAT'IC, n. A masticatory; a medicine which excites discharges of phlegm from the mouth or nostrils. Coxe

    APOPHLEG'MATISM, n. An apophleg- inatic. JSacon.

    APOPHLEGMAT'IZANT, n. An apo- phlegmatic. Qiiincy- Coxe

    APOPHTHEGM, \ [Gr. arto, from, ant

    AP'OTHEM, S"' te^wa, vvord. It

    would be eligible to reduce this harsh word to apothem.]

    A remarkable saying ; a short, sententious, instructive remark, uttered on a particular occasion, or by a distinguished character ; as that of Cyrus, " He is unworthy to be a magistrate, who is not better than hi; subjects ;" or that of Cato, " Homines ni hil agendo, discunt male agere ;" men by doing notliing, soon learn to do mischief.

    APOPH'YgE, ( [Gr. o«o, from, and 4>vy^,

    APOPH'Y(iY, \ "■ flight.]

    1. In architecture, the part of a column, where it springs out of its base ; originally a ring or ferrel to bind the extremities of col umns, and keep them from sphtting ; af- terwards imitated in stone iiillars. It is sometimes called the spring of the column.


    2. A concave part or ruig of a coliunn, lying above or below the flat member, called by the French le conge d'en has, or dV» haut by the Itahans, cavo di basso, or di sopra also, il vivo di basso. Encyc.

    APOPH'YLLITE, n. [Gr. arto, from, and qivM.ov, a leaf; so called because of its ten- dency to exfoliate.]

    A mineral occurring in laminated masses or in regular prismatic crystals, having a strong and pecuhar pearly luster. Its structure is foliated, and when a fragment is forcibly rubbed against a hard body, it separates into thin lamens, like selenite. It exfohates also before the flame of a lamp. From its pecidiar luster, it is some- times called by the harsh name, ichthyoph- thalmite, fish-eye stone. Cteaveland.

    APOPH' YSIS, ^ [Gr. arto, from, and fven;,

    APOPH'YSY, $"• growth.]

    The projecthig soft end or protuberance of a bone ; a process of a bone.

    Quincy. Encyc. Coxe

    APOPLE€'TI€, ) [See apoplexy.]

    APOPLEC'Tl€AL, ^ Pertaining to or consisting in apoplexy, as an apoplectic fit ; or predisposed to apoplexy, as an apo- plectic habit of body.

    APOPLE€'TIC, n. A person affected by apoplexy. Knatchbull.

    AP'OPLEXED, a. Affected with apoplexy, Shak.

    AP'OPLEXY, )^.'[Gr. aMxyr^io., of orto, from, and rt>.)jmio, to strike.]

    \ sudden deprivation of all sense and vol- untary motion, occasioned by repletion or whatever interrupts the action of the nerves upon the muscles. Cidlcn.

    Dryden, for the sake of measure, uses apo plex, for apoplexy.

    AP'ORON, \ [See Jlpory.] A problem

    AP'ORIME, S "■ difiicult to be resolved.


    AP'ORY, I [Gr. artopio, from a.topo;,

    APO'RIA, \ ' inops coucilii, of a and rtopos, way or passage.]

    1. In rhetoric, a doubting or being at a loss where to begin, or what to say, on account of the variety of matter. Smith.

    2. In (/(£ medical art, febrile anxiety ; utiea siness ; restlessness, from obstructed per spiration, or the stoppage of any natura secretion. Coxe.

    [APOSIOPE'SIS, > . [Gr. ortoscurt,9

    APOSIO'PESY, I"- a«o, andauortocw.tobe silent.]

    Reticency or suppression ; as when a speak- er for some cause, as fear, sorrow, or an- ger, suddenly breaks off his discourse, be- fore it is ended ; or speaks of a tiling, when he makes a show as if he would say noth- ing on the subject ; or aggravates what he pretends to conceal, by uttering a part and leaving the remainder to be understood. Smith. Johnson. Encyc.

    APOS'TASY, n. [Gr. artoraa.5, a defection. ofa^i;r;tii, to depart, arte and irij/uc]

    1. All abandonment of what one has profes- sed ; a total desertion, or departure from one's faith or religion.

    2. The desertion from a party to which one has adhered.

    3. Among physicians, the throwing off of exfohated or fractured boue, or the various solution of disease. Coxe.

    4. An abscess. Encyc. APOS'TATE, n. [Gr. artoyor,;.]

    One who has forsaken the church, sect or profession to which he before adliered. In its original sense, apphed to one who has abandoned his rehgion ; but correctly applied also to one who abandons a po- litical or other party.

    APOS'TATE, a. False ; traitorous.


    APOSTAT'IeAL, a. After the manner of Sandys. To abandon one's profession or church ; to forsake principles or faith which one has professed ; or the party to which one has been attached.


    APOS'TATIZING, ppr. Abandonuig a chtirch, profession, sect or party.

    APOS'TEMATE, v. i. To form into an ab- scess ; to swell and fill with pus.

    APOSTEMA'TION, n. The formation of an aposteme ; the process of gathering into an abscess ; written corruptly impost- humation.

    APOSTEM'ATOUS, a. Pertaining to an abscess ; partaking of the nature of an aposteme. Journ. of Science.

    AP'OSTEME, n. [Gr. ano^^f^a, from cuftf^ftt, to go off, to recede ; arto and i.;riiu, to stand.]

    An abscess ; a swelling filled with purulent matter ; written also corruptly imposthume.

    A-POSTERIORI, [L. posterior, after.]

    Arguments a posteriori, are drawn from effects, consequences or facts ; in opposi- tion to reasoning a priori, or from causes previously known.

    APOS'TLE, n. apos'l. [L. apostolus ; Gr. ajtoc;o7^oc, from artoftXXu, to send away, of arto, and ;iX>M, to send ; G. stellen, to set.]

    \ person deputed to execute some important business ; but appropriately, a disciple of Christ commissioned to preach the gospel. Twelve persons were selected by Christ for this purpose ; and Judas, one of the number, proving an apostate, his place was supphed by Matthias. Acts i.

    The title of apostle is applied to Christ him- self, Heb. 3. In the primitive ages of the church, other ministers were called apos- tles, Rom. xvi ; a.s were persons sent to curry aluis from one church to anottier.

    A P O

    Philip, ii. Tliis title was also given to per- sons who first planted the Christian faith. Thus Dionysius of Corinth is called the apostle of France ; and the Jesuit Mission- aries are called apostles.

    Among the Jews, the title was given to ofK cers who were sent into distant provinces, as visitors or commissioners, to see the laws observed.

    Apostle, in the Greek liturgy, is a book con- taining the epistles of St. Paul, printed ni the order in which they are to be read ni churches, through the year. Encyc.

    APOS'TLE-SHIP, n. The office or dignity of an apostle.

    APOS'TOLATE, n. A mission ; the dignity or office of an apostle. Ancient writers use it for the office of a bishop ; but it now restricted to the dignity of the pope, whose see is called the Apostolic See.


    APOSTOLIC, I Pertamuig or re-

    APOSTOL'I€AL, ) lathig to the apos ties, as the apostolic age.

    2. According to the doctrines of the apos- tles ; delivered or taught by the apostles as apostolic faith or practice.

    Apostolic constitutions, a collection of regula tions attributed to the apostles, but gen erally supposed to be spurious. They appeared in the 4tli century ; are divided into eight books, and consist of rules and pi-ecepts relating to the duties of christ- ians, and particularly, to the ceremonies and discipline of the church.

    Apostolic Fathers, an appellation given to the christian writers of the first century.

    APOSTOL'I€ALLY, adv. In the manner of the apostles.

    APOSTOL'ICALNESS, n. The quality of being apostolical, or according to the doc trinesofthe apostles.

    APOSTOL'leS, n. Certain sects so called from their pretending to imitate the prac- tice of the apostles, abstaining from mar riage, from wine, flesh, pecuniary reward &c., and wandering about clotlied in white, with long beards, and bare heads. Sagarelli, the founder of one of these sects, was burnt at Parma ui 1300. Ency(

    APOSTROPHE, ( [Gr. a?to, from, and

    APOS'TROPHY, I "• ifio^, a turning.]

    In rhetoric, a diversion of speech ; a digre sive address ; a changing the course of a speech, and addressing a person who is dead or absent, as if present ; or a short address introduced into a discourse, direct ed to some person, diflerent from the par ty to which the main discourse is directed as when an advocate, in an argument to the jury, turns and addresses a few marks "to the court. Encyc. Smith.

    2. In grammar, the contraction of a word by the omission of a letter or letters, which omission is marked by a comma, as call'd for called. The comma used for this pur- pose niav also be called an apostrophe. APOS'TR'OPHIC, a. Pertaining to an apo: trophe; noting the contraction of a word Murray. APOS'TROPIIIZE, V. i. or /. To make apostrophe, or short detached address speaking ; to address by apostrophv. 2. V. t. To contract a word by omitting a letter or letters.


    3. To mark with a comma, ijidicating the omission of a letter.

    APOSTROPHIZED, pp. Addressed by way of digression ; contracted by the omission of a letter or letters ; marked by an apostropliy.

    APOSTROPHIZING, ppr. Addressing in a digression ; contracting or markmg by apostrophy.

    AP'OSTUME, Ti. An aposteme, which see.

    APOTAC'TITE, n. [Gr. anotaxro;, from artotatta, to renounce ; ano and faf ru, to ordain.]

    One of a sect of ancient christians, who, in imitation of the first believers, renounced all their effects and possessions. Encyc.

    APOTH'E€ARY, n. [L. and Gr. apotheca, a repository, from a,noii9rifi.i, to deposit or lay aside, or from Sijatij, a chest.] . One who practices pharmacy ; one who prepares drugs for medicinal uses, and keeps them for sale. In England, apothe caries are obliged to prepare medicines ac- cording to the formulas prescribed by the college of physicians, and are liable to have their shops visited by the censors of the college, who have ))ower to destroy medicines which are not good.

    2. In the middle ages, an apothecary was the keeper of any shop or warehouse ; and an officer appointed to take charge of a maga- zine. Encyc.

    A remarkable saying ; a short, instructive re- mark.

    APOTHEGMAT'IC ) „ In the manner

    APOTHEGMAT'leAL, i "' of an apothem. IVarton.

    APOTHEG'MATIST, n. A collector or maker of apothems. Pope.

    APOTHEG'MATIZE, v. t. To utter apo- thems or short instructive sentences.

    AP'OTHEME, n. [See Apothecary.^

    In Russia, an apothecary's shop, or a shop

    for tlie preparation and sale of medicines.


    APOTHE'OSIS, n. [Gr. artoSsujis, of arto, and 9f05, God.]

    Deification ; consecration ; the act of placing a prince or other distinguished person among the heathen deities. This honor was often bestowed on illustrious men in Rome, and followed by the erection of temples, and the institution of sacrifices to the new deity. Encyc.

    APOTH'ESIS, n. [Gr. <«to, and ri8^M','to put back.]

    1. The reduction of a dislocated bone. Coie.

    2. A place on the south side of the chancel in the primitive churches, furnished with shelves, for books, vestirients, &c. fVheler.

    APOT'OME, } rn .. . .

    APOT'OMY, < "• ^ o^notiiipu, to cut ott.J

    1. In mathematics, the difference between two incommensurable quantities. Cyc.

    2. In music, that portion of a tone major which remains after deducting from it an interval, less by a comma, than a semitone major. Busby.

    The difference between a greater and lesser semitone, expressed by the ratio 128 ; 125. The Greeks supposing the greater tone could not be divided into two

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    jual parts, called the diflorcncc, or.sniall- • part, npotomc ; the other, limma.

    Chambers. Encyc. APOTREP'SIS, n. [Gr. o«o, and rpiTtu, to

    turn.] The resolution of a sup])urating tumor.

    Coie. AP'OTROPY, »!. [Gr. axo, and tpi>tu, to

    turn.] In ancient poetry, a verse or hymn composed for averting the wrath of incensed denies. The deities invoked were called apotrop- eans. Encyc.

    AP'OZEM, n. [Gr. a^o, and ?f«, to boil.J A decoction, in which the medicinal sub- stances of plants are extracted by boiling. Encyc. Wiseman. APOZEM'ICAL, a. Like a decoction.

    Whitaker. APPA'IR, V. t. To impair. [jVot in use.] APPA'IR, V. i. To degenerate. [jVo< in use.l APPALL', V. t. [Yr.palir; L. palleo, to be- pale. See Pale.]

    1. To depress or discourage with fear; to impress with fear, in such a manner that the mind shrinks, or loses its firmness ; as, the sight appalled the stoutest heart.

    2. To reduce, allay or desti-oy ; as, to appall thirst. [Unusual.] Thomson.

    APPALL', V. i. To grow faint ; to be dis- mayed. Lidgaie.

    APPALL'ED, pp. Depressed or dishearten- ed with fear ; reduced.

    APPALL'ING, ppr. Depressing witlifear; educing.

    APPALL'MENT, n. Depression occasion- ed by fear ; discouragement.

    AP'PANAgE, n. [Fr. apanage, an estate assigned to a yoimger son for his mainte- nance ; an appendix, dependence, appur- tenance ; It. appannaggio, an appendage. If this word is from the panage, panagi- um of the middle ages, it is from panis, food, provision ; It. panaggio, provision. This is probably the true origin of the word.]

    1. Lands appropriated by a prince to the maintenance of his younger sons, as their patrimony ; but on condition of the fail- ure of male offspring, they were to revert to the donor or his heir. From the ap- panage it was customary for the sons to take their surnames. Spelman.

    2. Sustenance; means of nourishing. Wealth — the appanage of wit. Swift.

    \PP.-VR.\'TUS, n. plu. apparatuses. [L. from apparo, to prepare, oi' ad and paro.]

    1. Things provided as means to some end ; as the tools of an artisan ; the furniture of a house ; instruments of war. In more technical language, a complete set of in- struments or utensils, for performing any operation. Cavallo. EnofC.

    i. In surgery, the operation of cutting for the stone, of three kinds, the small, the great, and tlie high. Encyc. Coie.

    Apparatus is also used as the title of several books, in the form of catalogues, biblio- thecas, glossaries, dictionaries, &c.


    APPAREL, )!. [Fr. appareil, from parer, to dress or set off; Sp. aparejar ; L. paro, apparo, to prepare ; Arm. para ; Port, ap- arelho, Sp. aparejo, tackle, whence parrel

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    ill seamen's language ; Cli. Heb. x^3, bara ; Ar. {^j . Class Br. No. 8. 10. 19.]

    1. Clothing; vesture; garments; dress.

    2. External habiliments or decorations ; ap- pearance ; as, religion appears In the natu- ral apparel of simplicity.

    Glorious in apparel. Isa. Ixiii.

    3. The furniture of a ship, as sails, rigging; anchors, &c.

    APPAR'EL, V. t. To dress or clothe.

    They who are gorgeously appareled are in kings courts. Luke vii.

    2. To adorn with dress.

    She did apparel her apparel. S/iak

    3. To dress with external ornaments ; tc cover with something ornamental ; to cov- er, as with garments ; as, trees appareled with flowers ; or a garden with verdure.

    4. To furnish with external apparatus ; as .ships appareled for sea.

    APPARELED, pp. Dressed ; clothed ;

    covered as with dress ; furnished. APPAR'ELING, ppr. Dressing; clotliing;

    covering as with dress ; furnishing. APPA'RENCE, I Appearance. [ATot in APPA'RENCY, I "• use.]

    Chaucer. Gower. APPA'RENT, a. [See Appear.]

    1. That may be seen, or easily seen ; visible to the eye ; within sight or view.


    2. Obvious ; plain ; evident ; indubitable ; as, the wisdom of the creator is apparent in his works.

    3. Visible, in opposition to hid or secret ; as, a man's apparent conduct is good.

    4. Visible ; appearing to the eye ; seeming, ill distinction from true or i-eal, as the ap- parent motion or diameter of tlie sun.

    Heirs apparent are those whose rig-ht to an estate is indefeasible, if they survive the ancestor; in distinctidu t'viMw presump- tive heirs, who, if the aiicistur >liiiiilil ilir immediately, would inhtiit, Imt wIjosi' right is liable to be deli'atcd by lln' biith of other children. Blackstone.

    APPA'RENTLY, adv. Openly ; evidently ; as, the goodness of God is apparently man- ifest in his works of providence.

    2. Seemingly ; in appearance ; as, a man may be apparently friendly, yet malicious in heart.

    APPARP'TION, 71. [See Appear.]

    1. In a general sense, an appearance ; visi- bihty. [lAttle tised.] Milton.

    2. The tiling appearing ; a visible object ; a form. Milton. Shak.

    3. A ghost; a specter; a visible spirit. [This is now the usual sense of the word.]

    4. Mere appearance, opposed to reality.


    APPAR'ITOR, 71, [L. apparo, to prepare, or appareo, to attend.]

    Among the Romans, any officer who attend- ed magistrates and judges to execute their orders. In England, a messenger or otfi- cer who serves the process of a spiritual court, or a beadle in the university ' carries the mace. Encyc.

    APPA'Y, V. t. [Sj). and Port, apagar.]

    To satisfy. Obs. [See Pay.] Sidney.

    APPE'ACH, r.t. To accuse; to censure, or rf iiroach. Ob.t. [See Impeach.] Shall.

    APl'E'ACHlMENT, ;;. Accusation; char e.Yliibitcd. Obs. n'otton.

    APPEAL, v.i. [Fr.appeler; It. appellor Sp. apelar ; Port, appellar ; L. appello ; ad and pello, to drive or send ; Gr. fiaVKu. We do not see the sense of call in pello, but to drive or press out, is the radical sense of calling, naming. This word coincides in elements with L. bcdo, Eng. bawl, and peal. Class Bl.]

    1. To refer to a superior judge or court, for the decision of a cause depending, or the revision of a cause decided in a lower court.

    I appeal to Cesar. Acts sxi.

    2. To refer to another for the decision of a question controverted, or the counterac tion of testimony or facts ; as, I appeal to all mankind for the truth of what is al ledged.

    APPE'AL, I', t. To call or remove a cause from an inferior to a superior judge or court. This may be done after trial and judgment in the lower court ; or by S|iecial statute or agi-eement, a party may appe before trial, upon a fictitious issue and judgment. We say the cause was appeal ed before or after trial.

    iVPPE'AL, V. t. In criminal law, to charge with a crime; to accuse; to institute a criminal prosecution, for some hainous of- fense ; as, to appeal a person of felony. This process was anciently given to a private person to recover the weregild, or private pecuniary satisfaction for an inju- ry he had received by the murder of a re- lation, or by some personal injury.


    ;\PPE'AL, n. The removal of a cause or suit from an inferior to a superior tribu- nal, as from a common pleas court to a superior or supreme court. Also the right of appeal.

    9. An accusation ; a process Instituted by a private person against a man for some liainous crime by which he has been in- jured, as for murder, larciny, mayhem.


    3. A summons to answer to a charge. Dryden.

    4. A call upon a person ; a reference to an- other for proof or decision.

    In an oath, a person makes an appeal to the Deity for the truth of his declaration.

    5. Resort ; rccoin-se. Every milder method is to be tried, before a

    ition makes an appeal to arms. Kent.

    .\PPE'ALABLE, a. That may be appealed : that may be removed to a higher tribunal for decision ; as, the cause is appealable

    2. That may be accused or called to answer by ajipeal ; applied to persons ; as, a crimi- nal is appealable for manslaughter.

    APPE'ALANT, n. One who appeals. [JVot used.] Shak.

    APPE'ALED, pp. Removed to a higher court, as a cause ; prosecuted for a crime by a private person, as a criminal.

    APPE'ALER, n. One who appeals ; an ap pellor.

    .\PPE'ALING, ppr. Removing a cause to a higher tribunal ; prosecuting as a private person for an offense ; referring to anoth- er for a decision.

    APPE'AR, V. i. [L. appareo, of ad and pa reo, to appear, or be manifest ; It. appa- rirc ; Sp. parecer, aparecer ; Fr. apparoi apparoilre. Class Br.]

    1. To come or be insight; to be in view; t(? be visible.

    Tlie leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh Lev. xiii.

    And God said. Let the dry land appear Gen. i.

    2. To become visible to the eye, as a spirit, or to the apjirehension of the mind ; a sense frequent in scripture.

    The Laid appeared to Abram, and said. Gen. xii.

    The angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bush. Ex. iii.

    3. To stand in presence of, as parties or ad- j vocates before a court, or as persons to be 1 tried. The defendant, being called, did I not appear.

    I We must all appear before the judgment seat

    I of Christ. 2 Cor. v.

    J4. To be obvious ; to be known, as a subject

    j of observation or comprehension.

    t Let thy work appear to thy sei-vant. Ps. xc.

    1 It doth not yet appear what we shall be. 1

    I John iii.

    i5. To be clear or made clear by evidence ; as, this fact appears by ancient records.

    I But sin that it might appear sin. Rom. vii.

    '6. To seem, in opposition to reahty.

    They disfigure their faces, that they may ap-

    I pear to men to fast. Mat. vi.

    17. To be discovered, or laid open.

    I That thy shame may apj)ear. Jer. xiii.

    ,APPE'AR, n. Appearance. Obs.

    APPE'ARANCE, n. The act of coming in- to sight ; the act of becoming visible to the eye; as, his sudden appearance sur-

    I prised me.

    2. The thing seen ; a phenomenon ; as an appearance in the sky.

    3. Semblance ; apparent likeness.

    There was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire. Num. ix.

    4. External show ; semblance assumed, in opposition to reality or substance ; as, we are often deceived by appearances ; he has the appearance of virtue.

    For man looketh on the outward appearance . 1 Sam. xvi.

    5. Personal presence ; exhibition of the per- son ; as, he made his first appearance at court or on the stage.

    6. E.\hibition of the character ; introduction of a person to the public in a particular character, as a person makes his appear- ance in the world, as a historian, an artist, or an orator.

    7. Probability ; likelihood. Bacon. This sense is rather an hiference from the third or foin-th ; as probability is inferred from external semblance or show.

    8. Presence ; mien ; figure ; as presented by the person, dress or manners ; as, the lady made a noble appearance.

    0. A being present in court ; a defendant's filing common or special bail to a process.

    10. All a])parition. Addison.

    APPE'ARER, n. The person that appears. Brown.

    APPE'ARING, ppr. Coming in sight ; be- coming evident ; making an external show ; seemuig ; having the semblance.

    APPE'ARING, n. The act of becoming vis-

    I ible ; appearance.

    APPE'ASABLE, a. That may be appeas- ed, quieted, calmed, or pacified.

    APPE'ASABLENESS, n. The quahty of being appeasable.

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    APPE'ASE, V. t. s as z. [Fr. npaiser, of ad anil paix, peace ; L. pax. Sue Pence.]

    1. To make quiet ; to calm ; to reduce to i state of peace ; to still ; to pacify ; as, t( appease the tumult of tlie ocean, or of tin passions ; to appease hunger or thirst. [This word is of a general application to ev- ery thing in a disturbed, ruffled or agitated state.]

    AI'PK'ASED, pp. Quietfil ; cahneil ; still ed ; pacified.

    APPE'ASEMENT, n. The act of appeas ing ; the state of being in peace.

    APPE'ASER, n. One who appeases, or pacifies.

    APPE'ASIVE, a. Having the power to ap I)ease ; mitigating ; quieting.

    APPEL'LANT, n. [See Appeal.']

    1. One who appeals, or removes a cause from a lower to a higher tribunal.

    2. One who prosecutes another for a crime.

    3. One who challenges, or summons anoth- er to single combat.

    4. In church history, one who appeals from the Constitution Unigenitus to a general council. Blackstone. Encyc. Milton.

    APPEL'LATE, n. A person appealed, or prosecuted for a crime. [J^ot now used. See Appellee.] Ayltffe.

    APPEL'LATE, a. Pertaining to appeals ; having cognizance of appeals; as "appel- late '}ur\ediction." Const of the U. States. Appellate judges. Burke, Rev. in Prance.

    APPELLA'TION, n. [L. appellatio. Sec Appeal.]

    Name ; the word by which a thing is called and known. Spenser uses it for appeal.

    APPEL'LATIVE, a. Pertaining to a com- mon name ; noting the connnon name of

    APPEL'LATIVE, n. A common name in distinction from a proper name. A com- mon name or appellative stands for a whole class, genus or species of beings, or for universal ideas. Thus man is the name of the whole human race, and fowl of all winged animals. Tree is the name of all plants of a particular class ; plant and vegetable are names of things that grow out of the earth. A proper name, on the other hand, stands for a single thing, as, London, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston.

    APPEL'LATIVELY, adv. According to the manner of nouns appellative ; in a man- ner to express whole classes or species ; as, Hercules is sometimes used appellative- ly, that is, as a common name to signify a strong man. Johnson.

    APPEL'LATORY, a. Containing an appeal.

    APPELLEE', n. The defendant in an ap- peal.

    2. The person who is appealed, or prosec ted by a private man for a crime.


    APPELLOR', n. The person who institutes an appeal, or prosecutes another for i crime. Blackstone

    This word is rarely or never used for the plaintiff in appeal from a lower court, who is called the appellant. Appellee is opposed both to appellant and appellor.

    APPEND', V. t. [L. appendo, of ad and pen- deo, to hang.]

    1. To hang or attach to, as by a strmg, sc that the thing is suspended ; as, a sea appended to a record.

    2. To add, as an accessory to the principal ■ ing. Johnson

    APPEi\D'A6E, n. Something added to a princi])al or greater thing, though not ne- cessary to it, as a portico to a house. Modesty is the appendage of sobriety.


    APPEND'ANCE, / Something annexed.

    -VPPEND'ENCE, ( "• LYot tised.]

    Bp. Hall.

    APPEND'ANT, a. Hanging to ; annexed ; belonging to something ; attached ; a.«, i seal appendant to a pa|)er.

    2. In law, common appendant, is a right, be longing to the owners or occupiers of lanil, to put commonable beasts iqion the lord's waste, and upon the lands of other persons within the same manor. An ad- vowson appendant, is the right of patron- age or presentation, annexed to the pos- session of a manor. So also a commoi! of fishing may be appendant to a freehold Blackstone. Cowcl.

    APPEND'ANT, n. That which belongs t( another thing, as incidental or subordinate to it.

    APPEND'ED,»p. Annexed; attached.

    APPEND'ICATE, v. t. To append ; to ad.l to. Obs. Hale

    APPENDICA'TION, n. An appen.lage or adjunct. Obs. Hale

    APPEND'ICLE, n. A small appendage.

    APPEND'ING, n. That which is by right annexed. Spelman

    APPEND'IX, n. plu. appendixes, [L. The Latin plural is appendices. See Append.]

    1. Something appended or added.

    Normandy became an appendix to England. Hale.

    2. An adjunct, concomitant, or appendage.


    3. More generally, a supplement or short treatise added to a book.

    APPERCE'IVE, «. <. [Fr. apercevoir.] To comprehend. Obs. Cha\

    APPERCEP'TION, n. [ad a.nA perception.]

    Perception that reflects upon itself; con- sciousness. Leibnitz. Reid.

    APPER'IL, n. Peril ; danger. [.Yot in use.] Shak.

    APPERTA'IN, v.i. [Fr. apparienir ; It. appartenere ; L. ad and pertineo, to per- tain, otper and teneo, to hold. Pertineo is to reach to, to extend to, hence to belong. See Tenant.]

    To belong, whether by right, nature or ap- pointment.

    Give it to him to whom it appertaineth. Lev. vi.

    [See Pertain.]

    APPERTAINING,™. Belonging.

    A.PPERTA'INMENT, n. That which be- longs. ■ Shak.

    'VPPER'TENENCE,n. [fiee Appurtenance.]

    APPER'TINENT, a. Belonging ; now writ- ten appurtenant. Shak.

    APPER'TINENT, n. That which belongs to something else. 06s. Shak.

    [See Appurtenance.]

    AP'PETENCE, I [L. appetentia, appetens,

    AP'PETENCY, S from appeto, to desire of ad and peto, to ask, supplicate or seek Ch.B"3; Eth.

    L. invito, compound. Tlie primary sense is to sti-ain, to urge or press, or to advance. See Bid. Class Bd.]

    1. In a general sense, desire ; but especially,

    2. The ,li>|MrirM/n ''-l''n,i''!',',','/'.'riM,,lies to select ,-111.1 mil. ill.' -n.h |...rii..iis of matter

    as sorM- In >ii|i|Hirt ,111.1 II -ish them, or

    such partiilcs us are designed, through their agency, to carry on the animal or vegetable economy.

    These lactcals have mouth.s, and by animal selection or appetency, they absorb such part of the fluid a-s is agreeable to their palate.


    3. An inclination or propensity in animals to perform certain actions, as in the young to suck, in aquatic fowls to enter into wa- ter and to swim.

    4. According to Darwin, animal appetency is synonymous with irritabihty or bility ; as the appetency of tlie eye for light, of the paps to secrete milk, &(r.

    .5. Attraction, or the tendency in bodies to

    move toward each other and unite.

    Copernicus^ AP'PETENT, a. Desiring ; very desirous.

    Buck. APPETIBIL'ITY, n. The .^tiality of bemg

    desirable for gratification. AP'PETIBLE, a. [Low L. appetibilis, from

    appeto.] Desirable ; that may be the object

    of sensual desire. AP'PETITE, n. [L. appelitus, from appeto.

    See Appetence.]

    1. The natural desire of pleasure or good ; the desire of gratification, either of the body or of the mind. Appetites are pas- sions directed to general objects, as the appetite for fame, glory or riches ; in dis- tinction from passions directed to some particular objects, which retain their proper name, as the passion of love, envy or gratitude. Passion does not exist with- out an object ; natural appetites exist first, and are then directed to objects. Encyc.

    2. A desire of food or drink ; a painful sen- sation occasioned by hunger or thirst.

    3. Strong desire ; eagerness or longing.


    4. The thing desired.

    Power being the natural appetite of princes. Swift.

    Appetites are natural or artificial. Hun- ger and thirst are natural appetites ; the appetites for olives, tobacco, snuff, &c. are artificial.

    In old authors, appetite is followed by to, but regularly it should be followed by for before the object, as an appetite for pleasure.

    To be given to appetite, is to be voracious or gluttonous. Prov. xxiii. 2.

    APPETI'TION, n. [L. appetilio.] Desire. [Rarebj used.]

    AP'PE'flTIVE, a. That desires ; that has the quality of desiring gratification ; as ap- petitive power or faculty. Hale.

    AP'PIAN, a. Designating something that belongs to Appius, partictdarly a way from Rome through Capua to Brimdusiuni, now Brindisi, constructed by Appius Claudius, A. R. 44L It is more than 3.30 miles in length, formed of hard stone squared, and so wide as to admit two carriages abreast. Livy. Lemprierc,

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    APPLAUD', t).<. [L.applaudo; adanAplau do, to make a noise by clapping the hands Sp. aplaudir ; It. applaudire ; Fr. applau dir. This word is formed on the root of laus, laudo ; Eng. loud ; W. clod, praise, from Hod, what is forcibly uttered ; llodi, to readi out ; from llaiod, that shoots out. It coin- cides also with W. Woez, a shout, or out- cry ; bloeziaw, to shout ; blozest, applause, acclamation. Ir. blaodh, a shout ; btath, praise. These may all be of one family Class L d. See Loud.]

    1. To praise by clapping the hands, accla- mation, or other significant sign.

    2. To praise by words, actions or other means ; to express approbation of ; to commend ; used in a general sense. Pope.

    APPLAUD'ED,p/». Praised by acclamation, or other means ; commended.

    APPLAUD'ER, n. One who praises or com- mends.

    APPLAUDING, ppr. Praising by acclama- tion ; commending.

    APPLAUSE', n. s as z. [L. applausus.]

    A shout of approbation ; ai)probation and praise, expressed by clapping tlie hands, acclamation or huzzas; approbation ex- pressed. In antiquity, applause differed fi-om acdanialion ; applause was expressed by the hands, and acclamation by the voice. There were three species of ap- plause, the bombus, a confused din made by the hands or mouth ; the imbrices and festce, made by beating a sort of soundin" vessels in the theaters. Persons were ap- pointed for the purpose of applauding, and masters were emiiloyed to teach the art. The applauders were divided into choru,ses, and placed opposite to each other, like the choristers in a cathedral. Encyc.

    APPLAU'SIVE, a. Applauding ; containing applause. Jonson.

    AP'PLE, n. [Sax. appl, appil ; D. appel Ger. apfel ; Dan. (^ble ; Sw. aple ; W. aval Ir. abhal or ubhal ; Arm. aval ; Russ iabloko, or yabloko. This word primarily .signifies fruit in general, especially of round form. In Pers. tlie same word

    J>fl. J ], pronounced ubhul, signifies the fruit or berries of the savin or jimiper. Castle. In Welsh, it signifies not only the apple, but the plum and other fruits. Lhiiyd. Aval melynhir, a lemon ; aval euraid, an orange. Owen.]

    1. The fruit of the apple tree, [pyrus nialus,] from which cider is made.

    2. The (wple of the eye is the pupil. ,/}pple of love, or love apple, tlie tomato,

    or lycopei'sicuni, a species of Solanum. The stalk is herbaceous, with oval, pin nated leaves, and small yellow flowers The berry is smooth, soft, of a yellow or reddish color, of the size of a plum. It is used in soups and broths. Encyc.

    AP'PLE, V. t. To form like an apple.


    AP'PLE-GRAFT, n. A scion of the apple- tree engrafted.

    AP'PLE-HARVEST, n. The gathering of ajiples, or the time of gathering.

    AP'PLE-PIE, n. A pie made of apples stewed or baked, inclosed in paste, or cov ered with paste, as in England.

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    AP'PLE-SAUCE, n. A sauce made of stew- ed apples.

    AP'PLE-TART, n. A tart made of apples baked on paste.

    AP'PLE-TREE, n. A tree arranged by Linnc under the genus pyrus. Tlie fruit of this tree is indefinitely various. TJie crab ai>ple is supposed to be the original kind, from which all others have sprung. New va- rieties are springing annually froin the seeds.

    AP'PLE- WOMAN, n. A woman who sells apples and other fruit.

    AP'PLE-YARD, n. An orchard ; an inci- sure for apples.

    APPLI'ABLE, a. [See Apply.] That may be applied. This word is superseded by applicable.

    APPLI'ANCE, n. The act of applymg, or thing applied. Obs. Shak.

    APPLI€ABIL'ITY, n. [See Apply.] The quaUty of being applicable, or fit to be applied.

    AP'PLI€ABLE, a. That may be apphed, fit to be applied, as related to a thing ; that may have relation to something else ; as, this observation is applicable to the case under consideration. \P'PLI€ABLENESS, n. Fitness to be ap plied; the quahty of being applicable.

    AP'PLI€ABLY, adv. In such a manner that

    it may be applied.

    AP'PLicANT, n. One who applies; one who makes request ; a petitioner.

    The applicant for a cup of water declares

    himself to be the Messias. Plumtree.

    The court require the applicant to appear in

    person. Z. Swift

    AP'PLl€ATE,n. A right line drawn across a curve, so as to be bisected by the diam- eter ; an ordinate. Cyc.

    AP'PLI€ATE-ORDINATE. A right hne

    at right angles appUed to the axis of any

    conic section, and bounded by the curve.


    APPLI€A'TI0N, n. [L. applicatio. See

    1. The act of laying on ; as the application of emollients to a diseased limb,

    2. The tiling applied ; as, the pain was abated by the application.

    3. The act of making request or soliciting as, he made application to a court of clian- cery.

    4. The act of applymg as means ; the em ployment of means ; as, children may be governed by a suitable application of re- wards and punislunents. This is the first signification directed to moral objects.

    5. The act of fixing the mind ; intenseness oftliouiiht; cliisc study; attention; as, to injuri' till- licMJih by application to study.

    ' H;ul Ills iiiiiili

    /. Jay

    6. The act of directing or referring some- thing to a particular case, to discover oi illustrate the agreement or disagreement as, I make the remark and leave you to make the application.

    7. In theology, the act by which the merits of Christ are transferretl to man, for h tification.

    a In geometry, a division for applying one quantity to another, whose areas, but not figin-es, shall be tlie same ; or the transfer-

    A P P

    ring a given line into a circle or other figure, so that its ends shall be in the peri- meter of the figure. Encyc.

    9. In sermons, that part of the discourse, in which the principles before laid down and illustrated, are applied to practical uses.

    APPLICATIVE, a. That apphes.


    AP'PLIeATORY, a. That includes the act of applyins. Edwards^ Hist, of Redemption^

    AP'PLIeATORY, n. That which appUes. Taylor.

    APPLIED, pp. Put on; put to : directed: employed.

    APPLI'JEDLY, adv. In a manner which niav be applied. [Ao< in use.] Montagu.

    APPLI'ER, n. One that appUes.

    APPLI'MENT,n. Application. [J^otinuse.] Marslon.

    APPLY', V. t. [L. applico, of ad and plico, to fold or knit together ; Fr. avpliquer ; Sp. aplicar ; It. applicare ; W. plegy, to bend or fold ; Arm. plega, to fold or plait ; pleca, a fold ; Gr. rfKixu, to knit, or twist ; Sax. plegan, plegian, pleggan, to play, to bend to or apply, incumbere ; Dan. Jliig, a fold ; D. plooi, a fold ; ploojen, to plait ; Eng. ply, display, and employ. The word plegy, plico, is formed from the root of lay. Sax. lecgan. The sense then is to lay to ; and it is worthy of remark, that we use lay to in the precise sense of ply and apply. It is certain from the Welsh that the first consonant is a prefix.]

    1. To lay on ; to put one thing to another ; as, to apply the hand to the breast ; to apply medicaments to a diseased part of the body.

    2. To use or employ for a particular pur- 3se, or in a particular case ; as, to apply sum of money to the payment of a debt.

    3. To put, refer or use, as suitable or rela- tive to something ; as, to apply the testi- mony to the case.

    4. To fix the mind ; to engage and employ with attention ; as, apply thy heart to in- struction. Proverbs.

    5. To address or direct ; as, " Sacred vows applied to Pluto." Pope.

    G. To betake ; to give the chief part of time and attention ; as, to apply one's self to the study of botany. This is essentially the fourth sense.

    7. To make application ; to have recourse by request ; as, to apply one's self to a counsellor for advice. This is generally used intransitively ; as, to apply to a coun- sellor.

    8. To busy ; to keep at work ; to ply. Obs. Sidney. Spenser.

    [Superseded by ply, wliich see.]

    APPLY', V. i. To suit ; to agree ; to have some connection, agreement or analogy ; as, this argument applies well to the case.

    2. To make request ; to solicit ; to have re- course, with a view to gain something ; as, to apply to the president for an office ; I applied' to a friend for information.

    APPLY'ING, ppr. Laying on ; nialdng ap- plication.

    APPOINT', V. t. [Fr. appointer, to refer, to give an allowamr ; Hp. npimlar, to point or aim, to shai|irii, to faslcii as with points or nails: \{. nppnnldn, to fix, ap- point or sharpni. Sn- I'oinl.]

    1. To fix ; to settle ; to establish ; to make fast.

    A P P

    A P P

    A P P

    When he appointed the foundation') of tlic earth. Prov. viii. % To constitute, ordain, or fix by decree, order or decision.

    Let Pharaoh appoint officers over the land Gen. xli.

    He hath appoinied a day in which he will judge the world. Acts xvii. '!. To allot, assign or designate.

    Aaron and liis sons shall appoint every one| to his service. Num. iv.

    These cities were appointed for all the chil- dren of Israel. Josh. xx. 4. To purpose or resolve ; to fix the inten- tion.

    For so he had appointed. Actsxx. .1. To ordain, command or order.

    Thy servants are ready to do whatever my Lord the King shall appoint. 2 Sam. xv. G. To settle ; to fix, name or determine by agreement; as, tlicy appointed a time and place for the meeting. APPOINT' ABLE, a. That maybe appointed or constituted ; as, officers are nppoinlahU by the Executive. Federalist, Madison. APPOINT'ED, pp. Fixed ; set ; established : decreed ; ordained ; constituted ; allotted. 2. Furnished ; equipped with things neces- sary ; as, a ship or an army is well ap- pointed. APPOINTEE', 71. A person appointed, "The commission authorizes them to make appointments, and pay the appointees." Circular of Mass. Representatives, 1768; ) also, ffheaton's Reports. ^ "J. A foot soldier in the French army, who, for long service and bravery, receives more pay than other privates. JEncyc. Bailey. APPOINT'ER, Ji. Ono who ajjpoints. APPOINT'ING, ppr. Settmg ; fixing ; or- daining ; constituting ; assigning. APPOINT'MENT, ji. The act of" appoint- ing ; designation to office ; as, he erred by tlie appointment of unsuitable men. 9. Stipulation ; assignation ; the act of fixing by mutual agreement ; as, they made an appointment to meet at six o'clock, rt. Decree ; established order or constitution ; as, it is our duty to submit to the divine appointments. 4. Direction ; order; command.

    Wheat, salt, wine and oil, let it be givec according to tlie appointment of tlie priests, Ez. vi. ."). Equipment, furniture, as for a ship, or an army ; whatever is appointed lor use and management. 0. An allowance to a person ; a salary or pension, as to a pubhc officer.

    An appointment differs from wages, in being a special grant, or gratification, not iixed, whereas wages are fixed and ordi- nary. Encyc. 7. A devise or grant to a charitahle use.


    APPO'RTER, n. [Fr. apporfer ; h. porta.]

    A bniigeriii ; one that brings into the coun-

    trv. [JVot in use..] Hale.

    .\l>PO'RTION, V. t. [L. ad and portio, por

    tiun. See Portion and Part.] Til divide and assign in just proportion; to ilistribute among two or more, a just part cir share to each; as, to apportion undivided riixhts; to apportion time among various employments. APPO'RTIONED, pp. Divided ; set out assigned in suitable parts or shares.

    Vol. I.

    APPO'RTIONER, n. One that apportion;

    .APPO'RTIONING, ppr. Setting out in just proportions or shares.

    .M'PO'RTIONMENT, n. The act of appor tioinng ; a dividing into just proportions or shares ; a diviiUng and assigning to each jiroprietor liis just portion of an undivided right or property.

    Hamilton, Rep. Feb. M, 179.3.

    .XPPO'SE, I', t. s as 2. [Fr. apposer, to set to ; L. appono. See Jlpposile.] . To put questions ; to examuie. [See Pose.] Bacon.

    2. To apply. Harvey.

    APPO'SER, n. An examiner ; ono whose business is to put questions. In the En- glish Court of Exchequer there is an offi- cer called the Ibreign apposer. This is ordinarily pronounced Boser. Encyc.

    .•VP'POSITE, a. s as z. [L. appositus, set or put to, from appono, of ad and pono, U put or place.]

    Suitable ; fit ; very applicable ; well adapt ed ; followed by to ; as, this argument is verv apposite to the case.

    .\P'POSITELY, adv. Suitably ; fitly ; prop- erlv. Harvey.

    AP'POSITENESS, n. Fitness ; propriety suitableness. Hale

    ,\PPOSl"TION, n. The act of adding to addition ; a setting to. By the apposition of new matter. Arbuthnot

    2. In Grammar, the placing of two nouns, in the same case, without a connecting word between them ; as, I admire Cicero, t orator. In this ease, the second noun c plains or characterizes the first.

    •\PPRA'ISE, V. t. [Fr. appreder ; Sp. op ciar ; It. apprezzare, to set a value ; fi-om L. ad and pretium, price. See Price and Appreciate.]

    This word is written and often pronounced after the French and Italian manner. But

    generally it is pronounced more correctly apprize, directly from the D.prys Eng. price or prize. [See Appri:


    To set a value ; to estimate the worth, par- ticularly by persons appointed for the purpose.

    ,\PPRA'ISEMENT, n. The act of setting the value ; a valuation. [See Apprize ment.]

    APPRA'ISER, ?i. One who values; appro priately a person appointed and sworn to estimate and fix the value of goods and

    estate. [See Apprizer.] PPRE'CIABLE, a. ,

    APPRE'CIABLE, a. apprhhable. {See Ap- preciate.] . That may be appreciated ; valuable.


    3. That may be estimated ; capable of being duly estimated.

    APPRE'CIATE, r. f. appreshate. [Fr.ap precier, to set a value ; L. ad and pretium, value, price ; D. prys ; W. pris ; Ger. preis. See Pncf.]

    To value ; to set a price or value on ; to estimate ; as, we seldom sufficiently appre- ciate the advantages we enjoy.

    2. To raise the value of.

    Lest a sudden peace should appreciate the Dney. Sainsay.

    APPRE'CIATE, V. i. To rise in value ; to become of more value ; as, the coin of the country appreciates ; public securities ap- preciated, w-lien the debt was funded.


    APPRE'CIATED,p;j. Valued; prized; cs- tiniainl ; ;i(lv;iiic((| in value.

    .\Pl'Ki; y'\ wise, ppr. Setting a value on ; esiiin.-itiii;: ; n>u\'j. in value.

    APPRKCI.A TION, n. A setting a value on; a jiL'it valuation or estimate of merit, weight, or any moral consideration. lVa.Mngton's Inaug. Speech, Apr. .30, 1789.

    2. A risuig in value; increase of worth or

    value. Marshal, L. of Washington.

    Hamilton's Report. Feb. 13, 1793.

    APPREHEND', v. t. [L. apprehendo, of ad and prehendo, to take or seize ; Sax. hen- dan or lienlun.]

    1. To take or seize ; to take hold of. In this hteral sense, it is apj>lied chiefly to taking or arresting persons by legal process, or with a view to trial ; as to apprehend a thief.

    2. To take with the understanding, that is, to conceive in the mind ; to understand, without passing a judgment, or making an inference.

    I apprehend not why so many and various laws are given. Milton.

    3. To think ; to believe or be of opinion, but without positive certainty ; as, all this is true, but we apprehend it is not to the purpose.

    Notwithstanding this declaration, we do not apprehend that we are guilty of presumption.

    Encyc. Art. Metaphysics.

    4. To fear ; to entertain suspicion or fear of future evil ; as, we apprehend calamities from a feeble or wicked administration.

    VPPREHEND'ED, pp. Taken ; seized ; arrested; conceivecl; understood; feared.

    APPREHEND ER, «. One who takes; one who conceives in his mind ; one who fears.

    APPREHENDING, ppr. Seizing ; taking ; conceiving; understanding; fearing.

    APPREHEN'SIBLE, a. f hat may be ap- prehended or conceived.

    APPREHENSION, n. The act of taking or an-esting ; as, the felon, after his appre- hension, escaped.

    2. The mere contemplation of things with- out affirming, denying, or passing any judgment ; the operation of the mind in contemplating ideas, without comparing them with others, or referring them to ex- ternal objects ; simple intellection.

    If'atts. Glanville. Encyc. An inadequate or imperfect idea, as when the word is applied to our knowledge of God. Encyc.

    Opinion ; conception ; sentiments. In this sense, the word often denotes a beUef, founded on sufficient evidence to give pre- ponderation to the mind, but insuiScient to induce certainty.

    To be false, and to be thought false, is all one,

    in respect of men, who act not according to

    truth, but apprehension. South.

    In our apprehension, the facts prove the


    5. The faculty by which new ideas are con- ceived ; as, a man of dull apprehension.

    6. Fear ; suspicion ; the prospect of future evil, accompanied with imeasiness of mind.

    Claudius was in no small apprehension for his own life. Addison.

    APPREHEN'SIVE, a. Quick to under- stand : as, an apprehensive scholar.

    Holder. South.

    A P P

    A P P

    A P P

    2. Fearful ; in expectation of evil ; as, we were apprehensive of fatal consequences, [This IS the usual sense of the word.^

    3. Suspicious ; inclined to believe ; as, I am apprehensive he does not understand me

    4. Sensible; feeling; perceptive. [Rnrdy used.] Milton

    APPREHEN'SIVELY, adv. In an appre

    liensive manner. APPREHEN'SIVENESS, n. The quality

    of being apprehensive ; readiness to under

    stand; fearfulness. APPREN'TICE, n. [Fr. apprenti, an aj)

    prentice, from apprendre, to learn ; L. ap

    prehendo. See Apprehend.} \. One who is bound by covoiant to serve a

    mechanic, or other person, for a certain

    time, with a view to learn his art, mystery

    or occupation, in which his master is

    bound to instruct him. Apprentices are

    regularly bound by indentures.


    2. In old law books, a barrister ; a learner of law. Blackstone.

    APPREN'TICE, V. t. To bind to, or put under the care of a master, for the purpos( of instruction in the luiowledge of a trade or business.

    APPREN'TICEHOOD, n. Apprenticeship [J\rot used.] Skat

    APPRENTICESHIP, n. The term for which an apprentice is bound to serve hii master. This term in England is by stat nte seven years. In Paris, the term is five years ; after which, the person, before he is quaUfied to exercise the trade as a mas- ter, must serve five years as a journeyman during which tenn, he is called the com panion of his master, and the term is called his companionship. Enci/c.

    3. The service, state or condition of an ap- prentice ; a state in which a person is gain- ing instruction under a master.

    APPREN'TISAGE, n. Apprenticeship. [.Wot in use.] Bacon.

    APPREST', a. [ad and pressed.] In botany, pressed close ; lying near the stem ; or applying its upper sin-fuce to the stem, Maiiyn. Ed. Encyc APPRI'SE, v. t. s as z. [Fr. appris, partici- ple ot apprendre, to learn, or inform. See Jlpprehend.] To inform ; to give notice, verbal or written followed by of; as, we will apprise the general of an intended attack ; he ap- prised the connnander of what he had done. APPRI'SED,;);?. Informed; having notic(

    or knowledge communicated. APPRI'SING, ppr. Informing; communi

    eating notice to. APPRI'ZE, V. t. [This word is usually writ ten appraise, as if deduced from the Italian apprezzare. There is no other word, from which it can regularly be formed ; the French apprecier, being recognized in ap- preciate. But apprize, the word generally used, is regularly formed, with ad, from price, prize; D.prys; Ger.preis; W.^ri«;| or from the Fr. priser, to prize, and this is the more correct orthography.] To value ; to set a value, in pursuance ol authority. It is generally used for the act of valuing by men appointed for the pur- pose, inider direction of law, or by agree- ment of ])arties ; as, to apprize the goods

    and estate of a deceased person. The pri- vate act of valuing is ordinarily expressed bv prize.

    APPRI'ZED, pp. Valued ; having the worth fixed by authorized persons.

    APPRI'ZEMENT, n. Tlie act of setting a value under some authority or appoint- ment ; a valuation.

    Statutes of Conn. Blackstone.

    2. The rate at which a thing is valued ; the value fixed, or valuation ; as, he purchas- ed the article at the apprizement

    APPRI'ZER, n. A person appointed to rate, or set a value on articles. When appri; act under the authority of law, they must be sworn.

    APPRI'ZING, ppr. Ratuig ; setting a value under authority

    APPRI'ZING, n. The act of valuing under authority.

    APPROACH, V. i. [Fr. approcher, from proche, near. The Latin proximus con- tains the root, but the word, in the positive degree, is not found ui the Latin. It ' from a root in class Brg, signifying to drive, move, or press toward.]

    1. To come or go near, in place ; to draw near ; to advance nearer.

    Wherefore approached ye so nigh the city ? 2 Sam. xi

    2. To draw near in time. And so much the more as ye see the day ap

    proach. Heb. x.

    3. To draw near, in a figurative sense ; tf advance near to a point aimed at, in sci- ence, literature, government, morals, &c. to approximate ; as, he approaches to the character of the ablest statesman.

    4. To draw near in duty, as in prayer or worship.

    They take deliglit in approaching to God. Isaiali. APPROACH, V. f. To come near to ; Pope approaches Virgil in smoothness of] versification. This use of the word elhptical, to being omitted, so that the verb can hardly be said to be transitiv The old use of the word, as " approach the hand to the handle," is not legitimate,

    2. To have access carnally. Lev. xviii.

    3. In gardening, to ingraft a sprig or shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from the parent stock. Encyc.

    APPROACH, n. The act of drawing near a coming or advancing near ; as, he was apprised of the enemy's approach.

    2. Access ; as, the approach to kings. Bacon

    3. In fortification, not only the advances of an army are called approaches, but the works thrown up by the besiegers, to pro- tect them in their advances towards a fortress.

    APPROACHABLE, a. That may be ap

    proached ; accessible. APPROACHER, n. One who approaches

    or draws near APPROACHMENT, n. The act of coming [Little used.] Brown

    AP'PROBATE, a. [L. approbatus.] Appro- ved. Elyot.

    AP'PROBATE, V. t. [L. approbo, to approve, of ad and probo, to prove or approve probate is a modern word, but use in America. It differs from approve. denoting not only the act of the mind, bin

    an expression of the act. See Proof, Ap- prove and Prove.] To express api)robation of ; to manifest a liking, or degree of satisfaction ; to express approbation oflicially, as of one's fitness for a pubUc trust.

    Mr. Hutchinson approbated the choice.

    /. Eliot. APPROBATED, pp. Approved ; com- mended. APPROBATING, ppr. Expressing appro- bation of. APPROBATION, n. [L. approbatio. See Proof and Prove.]

    The act of approving ; a liking ; that state or disposition of the mind, in which we assent to the j)ropriety of a thing, with some degree of pleasure or satisfaction ; as, the laws of God require our approba- tion. 2. Attestation ; support ; that is, active ap- probation, or action, in favor of what is approved. Shak.

    The commendation of a book licensed or permitted to be published by authority, as was formerly the case in England. AP'PROBATiVE, a. Approving ; implying approbation. MUner.

    AP'PROBATORY, a. Containing approba- tion ; expressing approbation.

    Jlsh. Scoti. APPROMPT', for Pro)npt. [Mt used.]

    Bacon. APPROOF', n. Approval. [ATot used.]

    Shak. APPRO'PERATE, r. <. [h. appropero.] To

    hasten. [.\"ot used.] APPROPIN'QUATE, v. i. [L. appropinquo.]

    To draw near. [Mot tised.]

    APPROPINQUA'TION,n. A drawing nigh.

    [JVot used.[ HaU.

    APPROPINQUE, V. i. To approach. [JVW

    used.] Hudibras.

    APPRO'PRIABLE, a. [From appropriate.]

    That may be appropriated ; that may be set

    apart, "sequestered, or assigned exclusively

    to a particular use. Brown.

    APPROPRIATE, V. t. [Fr. approprier, of L.

    ad and proprius, private, pecuUar. See


    To set apart for, or assign to a particular use, in exclusion of all other uses ; as, a spot of ground is appropriated for a garden.

    2. To take to one's self in exclusion of oth- ers ; to claim or use as by an exclusive right.

    Let no man appropriate the use of a common benefit.

    3. To make peculiar ; as, to appropriate names to ideas. Locke.

    1. To sever an ecclesiastical benefice, and annex it to a spiritual corporation, sole or aggregate, being the patron of the living.

    Blackstone. APPRO'PRIATE, a. Belonging peculiarly ; peculiar ; set apart for a particular use or person ; as, rehgious worship is an appro- priate duty to the Creator.

    2. Most suitable, fit or proper ; as, to use appropriate words in pleading.

    APPROPRIATED, pp. Assigned to a par- ticular use ; claimed or used exclusively ; annexed to an ecclesiastical corporation.

    APPRO'PRI.\TENESS, n. PecuUar fit-

    A P P

    A P P


    iiess ; the quality of being appropriate, or pcriiliarlv suitiible. Med. Ii

    APPRO' PRIATING, ppr. Assigning to a particular person or use ; claiming or using exclusively ; severing to the perpetual use of an ecclesiastical corporation.

    APPROPRIA'TION, n. The act of seques- tering, or assigrung to a particular use or person, in exclusion of all others ; appli- cation to a special use or purpose ; as, of a piece of ground, for a park ; of a right, to one's self; or of words, to ideas.

    9. In law, the severing or sequestering of a benetiie to the perpetual use of a spiritual corjjoration, sole or aggregate, being the patron of the living. For this purpose must be obtained the king's license, the consent of the bishop and of the patron. When the appropriation is tlius made, the appropriator smd his successors become perpetual parsons of the church, and must sue and be sued in that name.

    Eng. Law. Blackstone.

    APPRO'PRIATOR, n. One who appro-

    of an appropriated benefice. " Blackstone.

    APPRO'PRIETARY, n. A lay possessor of the profits of a benefice. Spelman.

    APPRbV'ABLE, a. [See Approve.]

    That may be approved ; that merits appro- bation. Temple.

    APPROVAL, n. Approbation. [See Ap- prove.]

    APPRoV'ANCE, n. Approbation. [See Ap- prove.] Tliomson.

    .\PPR0VE', V. t. [Fr. approuver ; L. appro- bo ; of ad and probo, to prove or approve. See Approbate, Prove and Proof.]

    1. To Uke ; to be pleased with ; to admit tlie propriety of; as, we approve the measures of administration. This word may in- clude, with the assent of the mind to the propriety, a commendation to others.

    "J. To prove ; to show to be true ; to justify.

    WouWst thou approve thy constancy ? Jip-

    prove first thy wisdom. Milton.

    [This sense, though common a century or

    two ago, is now rare.]

    3. To experience ; to prove by trial. [JVbl tised. See Prove.] Shak.

    4. To make or show to be worthy of appro- bation ; to commend.

    Jesus, a man approved of God. Acts ii.

    This word seems to include the idea of

    Christ's real office, as the Messiah, and of]

    God's love and approbation of him in that

    _ character. Brown's Did.

    5. To like and sustain as right ; to commend.

    Yet their posterity approve their sayings.

    Ps. xlix.

    This word, when it signifies to be pleased, is often followed by of, in which use, it is intransitive ; as, I approve of the measure. But the tendency of modern usage is to omit of. " I approve the measure."

    6. To improve. Blackstone. APPROV'ED, pp. Liked ; commended :

    shown or proved to be worthy of appro- bation ; ha\-ing the approbation and sup- port of

    God. 2

    APPRoVE'MENT, n. Approbation ; liking.l Haytmrd.'

    2. In law, when a person indicted for felony! or treason, and arraigned, confesses the fact before plea pleaded, and appeals or] accuses his accomplices of the same crime, to obtain his p-ardon, this confession ami accusation are called approvement, and tin- person an approver. Blackslom.

    •3. Improvement of common lands, by in- closing and converting them to the uses of husbandry. Blackstone.^

    APPROVER, n. One who approves. For- merly one who proves or makes trial.

    'i. In laiv, one who confesses a crime and accuses another. [See Approvement.] Al- so, formerly, one who had the letting ofi the king's demain.s, in small manors. In] Stat. 1. Edw. 3. C. 8, sheriffs are called approvers. A baihff or steward of a manor. Encyc.

    APPRoV'ING, ppr. Liking ; commending ; giving or expressing approbation.

    APPRoV'ING, a. Yielding approbation ; us an approving conscience.

    APPROX'IMANT, a. Approaching. [.Vol used.] Bering.

    APPROXIMATE, a. [h. ad a.m\ prorimus, next. See Approach.]

    Nearest to; next; near to. [This icord is superseded by proximate.]

    APPROX'IMATE, v. t. To carry or ad- vance near ; to cause to approach.

    To approximate the inequality of riches to the level of nature.

    Burke. Aikin. Shenslone

    APPROX'IMATE, v. i. To come near; tc approach. Burke.

    APPROXIMATION, n. Approach ; a draw- ing, moving or advancing near. Hale.

    2. In arithmetic and algebra, a continual ap-| proach or coming nearer and nearer to &■ root or other quantity, without being able perhaps ever to arrive at it.

    Encyc. Johnson.

    3. In medicine, communication of disease by contact. Coxe-

    4. A mode of cure by transplanting a dis- ease into an animal or vegetable by im- mediate contact. Coxe-

    APPROX'IMATIVE, a. Approaching ; that approaches. Ed. Encyc.

    APPULSE, 7^. appuls'. [L. appulsus, of ad and pello, to drive.]

    1. The act of striking against; as, in all con- sonants there is an appulse of the organs.


    2. In astronomy, the approach of any planet to a conjunction with the sun, or a star.

    3. Arrival ; landing. Bryant. APPUL'SION, n. The act of striking against

    bv a moving body. APPUL'SIVE, a. Striking against ; driving

    towards ; as, the a/>/>«/*iDe influence of the!

    planets. Mtd. Rep.l

    APPUR'TENANCE, n. So written for ap-\

    peiienence. [Fr. appartenance. See Ap-'

    pertain.] That which belongs to sometliing else ; an

    adjimct ; an appendage. Appropriate-!

    ly, such buildings, rights and improve-l

    ments, as belong to land, are called the ap-\

    purtenances ; as small buildings are


    APPL'R'TENANT, a. Belonging to ; per-i

    taining to of right. '

    2. In law, common appurtenant is that which

    is annexed to land, and can be claimed

    only by prescription or immemorial usage,

    on a legal presumption of a special grant.


    \ PRICATE, v.i. [Uapricor.]

    I'l'ii lia-k in liu! sun. [Little used.] Ray.

    L\I'R1C ITV, n. Sunshine. [LUtle used.]'

    .V PR HOT, n. Old orthography, apricock. [W. bricyllen ; Arm. hrigesen ; Fr. abricot, whence the present orthography. Junius and Skinner alledge that the Itahans for- merly wrote the word bericoco, berricoccoti. At present they write it albicocca, and the Spaniards albaricoque, which indicate the word to be Ibrmed of albus and coccus, white berry ; Sp. albar, white. But apri- cot seems to be formed from the old or- thography.]

    A fruit belonging to the genus Prunus, of the plum kind, of an oval figure, and de- licious taste.

    A'PRIL,n. [L. aprUis; Fr. arnZ; Sp. ahril; Ir. abrail ; Corn. ebrU ; W. eiri«.]

    The fnnrth month of the year.

    V PRON, n. [h. aprun ; a or ag-, and Celtic bron, the breast.]

    1. A cloth or piece of leather worn on the forepart of the body, to keep the clothes clean, or defend them from injury.

    2. The fat skin covering the belly of a goose. Johnson.

    3. In gunnery, a flat piece of lead that cov- ers the vent of a cannon.

    4. In ships, a piece of curved timber, just above the foremost end of the keeL

    Mar. Diet.

    5. A platform, or flooring of plank, at the entrance of a dock, on which the dock gates are shut. Encyc.

    A'PRONED, a. Wearing an apron. Pope. A'PRON-MAN, n. A man who wears an

    apron ; a laboring man ; a mechanic. AP'ROPOS, adv. ap'ropo. [Fr. a and pro-

    pos, purpose.]

    1. Opportunely; seasonably. Jfarburton.

    2. By the way ; to the purpose ; a word used to introduce an incidental observa- tion, suited to the occasion, though not strictly belonging to the narration.

    AP'SIS, n. phi. apsides. [Gr. o+i;, comiec- tion, Iron o«tu, to connect.]

    1. Inastronomy, the apsides are the two points of a planet's orbit, wliich are at the great- est and least distance from the sim or earth ; the most distant point is the aphehon, or apogee ; the least distant, tlie perihelion or perigee. The line connect- ing these is called the line of the apsides.


    2. Apsis or absis is the arched roof of a house, room or oven; also the ring or compass of a wheel.

    3. In ecclesiastical writers, an irmer part of a church, where the altar was placed, and where the clergy sat, answering to the choir and standing opposite to the nave. Also, the bishop's seat or throne in an- cient churches ; called also eiedra and tri- bune. This same name was given to a reliquary or case in which the relics of saints were kept. Encyc.

    \PT, a. [L. aptus, from apto, to fit ; Gr. orfro, to tie ; Sax. ho'p.]

    1. Fit ; suitable ; as, he used very apt meta- phors.

    A a u

    A a u

    A R A

    'i. Having a tendency ; liable ; used of things;] as, wheat on moist laud is apt to blast or be winter-ldlled. |

    3. Inclined ; disposed customarily ; ustd q/i persons; as, men are too apt to slander oth- ers. I

    J. Ready; r)uick; used of the mental powers ;\ as, a pujiil apt to learn ; an apt wit.

    5. Qualified ; fit. [

    All the men of might, strong and apt for. war. 2Khigsxxiv.

    APT, I), t. To fit ; to suit or adapt. Obs. 1

    APT' ABLE, a. That may be adapted. [Xot\ used.] Shencood.\

    AP'TATE, )'. t. To make fit. [Xot jised.]



    Bailey.' riooi; a

    AFTER, in. [G

    AP'TERA. ^whig.j I

    An insect withuiit wings. The aptera, con-j .stitiiling tlie seventh order of insects in; Ijiniii 's" system, comprehend many gene- ra. But later zoologists have made a very, different distribution of tliese animals. I

    ,\P'TERAL, a. [Supra.] Destitute of wings.l

    APTITUDE, n. [otaptus, apt.] |

    J. A natural or acquired disposition for a particular piu-pose, or tendency to a par- ticidar action or effect ; as, oil has an ap- titude to burn ; men acquire an aptitude toi particular vices. i

    9. Fitness ; suitableness.

    8. Aptness ; readiness in learning ; docility.

    APT'LY, adv. In an apt or suitable man-: ner ; with just correspondence of parts 5 fillv ; properly ; justly ; pertinently.

    APT'NESS, n. Fitness; suitableness; asj the aptness of things to their end. I

    1. Disposhion of the mind; propensity; as,l the aptness of men to follow example. [

    3. Quickness of apprehension ; readiness in learning ; docility ; as, an aptness to learnl is more observable in some children than in others.

    4. Tendency, in things; as, the aptness of iron to rust.

    AP'TOTE, n. [Gr. a priv. and rtfuatj, case.]

    In grammar, a noiui which has no variation!

    of termination, or distinction of cases; ani

    indeclinable noun. |

    AP'YREXY, 71. [Gr. a priv. and rtupEOiio, to

    be feverish, from rtvp, fire.] The absence or intermission of fever. A.P'YROUS, a. [Gr. artupoj, a priv. and Tfiv,

    fire.] Incombustible, or that sustains a strong heat

    without alteration of form or properties. Apijrous bodies differ from those simply re- tractory. Refractory bodies cannot be fu- sed by heat, but may be altered. Encye. A'QUA, n. [L. aqua ; Sp. agua ; Port ag'oa ; It. acqua, water ; Arm. cagul, U water, or steep ; Goth, ahwa, water, which in Saxon is reduced to ea ; G. and D. ei, in eiland ; Fr. eatt ,• W. gwy or aw ; Ir. oig or oiche ; Amli. oge.] Water ; a word much used in pharmacy

    and the old chimistry. Aquafortis, in the old chimistry, is now call- ed nitric acid. Aqua marina, a name which jewelers give to

    the beryl, on account of its color Aqua regia, in the old rhunistry, is now call- ed nitro-muriatic acid. Aqua vita, brandy, or spirit of wine. AQUA'RIAN, n'. One of a sect of chris tians. iu the )irhmtive church, who consc

    crated water in the eucharisl instead of wine ; either under a pretense of absti- nence, or because it was unlawfiil to drink wine. Encyc.

    AQUA'RIUS, n. [L.] The water bearer ; a sign in the zodiac wliich the sun enters aliout the 21st of January ; so called from the rains which prevail at that season, in It- aly and the East. The stars in this constel- lation, according to Ptolemy, are 45 ; ac- cording to Tycho Brahe, 41 ; according to Ilevelius, 47 ; and according to Flamstead, 108.

    VQUATT€, a. [L. aquaticus. See Aqua.]

    Pertaining to water ; apphed to animals which live ui water, as fishes ; or to such as frequent it, as aquatic fowls ; applied to plants, it denotes such as grow in water. Aquatical is rarely used.

    AQUAT'Ie, n. A plant which grows in wa- ter, as the flag.

    AQ'UATILE, a. That iidiabits the water. [Rarely used.] Brown.

    AQUA'TINT'A, n. [aqua, water, and It. tiiita, dye. See Tincture.]

    .\. method of etchuig on copper, by wliich a beautiful eflect is produced, resembling a fine drawuig in water colors or Indian ink. This is performed with a powder of as- phalt and fine transparent rosin sifted on the plate, which is a httle greased ; the loose powder being shaken off, the plate is heated over a chafing dish ; and when cool, the light places on the plate are cov- ered with a hair pencil, dipped in tuqien- tine varnish mixed with ivory black. A rim is then raised with bees wax, and re- duced mtrous acid is poured on, and suf- fered to stand five minutes ; then poured oft', and the plate dried. This process with the pencil and the aqua fortis is to be repeated till the darkest shades are pro- duced. Encyc.

    AQ'UEDUeT, 71. [L. aqua, water, and duc- tus, a pipe or canal, from duco, to lead. See Duke.]

    A structure made for conveying water from one place to another over uneven ground ; either above or under the surface. It may be either a pipe or a channel. It may be constructed above ground of stone or wood ; carried through hills by piercing them, and over valleys, by a structure sup- ported by props or arches. Some have been formed with three conduits on the same hue, elevated one above another.


    rV'QUEOUS, a. Watery; partaking of the

    nature of water, or abounding with it.

    A'QUEOUSNESS, n. The quahty of being watery ; waterishness ; wateriness.

    AQ'UILA, 71. [L., whence aquilinus ; from the Oriental Spy, to be crooked. This fowl is probably named from its curving beak.] In ornithology, the eagle. Also, a nonhern constellation containing, according to the British catalogue, 71 stars. Encyc.

    AQ'UILINE, a. [L. aquilinus. See Aqu'

    la.] 1. Belonging to the eagle. '2. C'urving ; hooked ; prominent, like the

    lnak of an eagle. AQTILON, 71. [h.aqu!lo.] The norlh wind. Shak.

    AQUITA'NIAN, a. Pertaining to Aquita- nia, one of the great divisions of Gaul, which, according to Cesar, lay between the Garonne, the Pyrenees and the Ocean. In modern days, it has been called Gas- cony. The inhabitants, in Cesar's time, spoke a different dialect fi-om that of the proper Celts, between the Garonne and Seine. This dialect bore an affinity to the Basque, in Biscay, to which they were contiguous; and some remains of it still exist in the Gascon. Aquitania is the country of the Aqui; from the name of the people, with tan, a Celtic word, signify mg region or country. The Romans, either fi'om their general usage, or from not un- derstanding the Celtic tan, amiexed an- other termination signifying coinitry, ia, the Ir. ai or aoi, Heb. 'x ai, a settlement or habitation ; Gr. ata, land, comitry ; Hindu, eya, the same.

    Cesar, Com. Lib. i. 1. D'AnvUle.

    A. R. stand for a/i)io regni, the year of the king's reign ; as A. R. G. R. 20, in thf 20th year of the reign of kmg George.

    ARABESQUE,? .« o t.- ^

    ARABESK'Y, I "■ ^S^^ Arabian.]

    1. In the manner of the Arabians ; applied to ornaments consisting of imaginary fo- liage, stalks, plants, &c., in which there are no figures of animals. Encyc.

    2. The Arabic language. [JVot in ztse.] Guthrie^

    ARA'BIAN, a. [See the noun.] Pertauiing to Arabia.

    ARA'BIAN, n. [Arab denotes a wanderer, or a dweller in a desert.]

    A native of Arabia ; an Arab.

    AR'ABI€, a. Belonging to Arabia, or the language of its inhabitants.

    \R'ABI€, 71. The language of the Arabi- ans.

    ARAB'ICALLY, adv. In the Arabian man- ner.

    AR'ABISM, n. An Arabic idiom or pecul- iarity of language. Encyc. Stuart.

    AR'ABIST, n. One well versed in Arabic literature. Encyc.

    AR'ABLE, a. [L. aro, Gr. opoo, to plow ; Ir. araiyn.]

    Fit for plowing or tillage ; hence often ap- plied to land which has been plowed.

    AR'ABY, 71. Arabia. Milton.

    ARA€H'NOID, a. [Gr. apa;i:i'77, a spider, and f 1805, form ; Heb. jns, to weave, that is, to stretch, to draw out ; Eng. reach.]

    In anatomy, the arachnoid tunic, or arach- noid, is a seinitransparent thin membrane which is spread over the brain and pia- mater, and for the most part closely con- nected with the latter. The term has also been apphed to that capsule of the crysta- liue lens, which is a continuation of the hyaloid membrane. Cyc.

    ARA€H'N01D, n. A species of madrepore found fossil. Cyc.

    ARA€HO'SIAN, a. Designating a chain of mountains which divide Persia fi-om In- dia. As. Researches.

    ARAIGNEE'orARRA'IGN,7i. ardin. [Fr. a spider.]

    In fortification, the branch, return or gallery of a mine. Bailey.

    ARA'ISE, V. t. To raise. [Mt used.]

    A R D

    A R B


    ARAME'AN, a. Pertaining to Aram, a i

    of Sheni, or to the Clialdeans. VR'AMISM, n. An idiom of the Aramean or Chaldee language ; a Chaldaism.

    ARA'NEOUS, o. [L. aranea, a spider, or cobweb.]

    Resembling a cobweb.

    ARAU€A'NIAN, a. Pertaining to the Arau cauians, a tribe of aboriginals, inhabiting Arauco, in Chili. Molina.

    .VRBALIST, n. [From arcus, a bow, and balista, L., an engine to throw stones ; Gr. lia^u), to throw.]

    A cross-bow. This consists of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished with a string and a trigger ; and is bent with a piece of iron. It serves to throw bullets, darts, arrows, &.c. Encyc.

    ARBALISTER, n. A cross-bowman.

    Speed. ARBITER, n. [L.] A person appointed, or chosen by parties in controversy, to de- cide their differences. This is its sense in the civil law. In modern usage, arbitra- tor is the techjiical Avord.

    a. In a general sense, notv most common, a person who has the power of judg'ing and determining, without control ; one whose power of deciding and governing is not limited.

    3. One that commands the destiny, or holds the empire of a nation or slate. Mitford.

    'ARBITRABLE, a. Arbitrary ; depending on the will. Spelman.

    ARBITRAMENT, n. Will ; determuiation ; Milton.

    2. The award of arbitrators. Coivel. In this sense award is more generally used.

    ^ARBITRARILY, adv. By will only ; des- potically ; absolutely.

    'ARBITRARINESS, n. The quality of be- ing arbitrary ; despoticalness ; tyranny.


    ARBITRA'RIOUS, a. Arbitrary ; despotic. [J^/ot used.] Mirris. More.

    ARBITRA'RIOUSLY, adv. Arbitiarily. rjVo< used.] Glanville.

    ARBITRARY, a. [L. arbitrarius.]

    1. Depending on will or discretion ; not gov erned by any fixed rules ; as, an arbitrary decision ; an arbitrary punishment.

    .Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused to licentiousness.


    a. Despotic ; absolute in power ; having no external control ; as, an arbitrary prince or government.

    'ARBITRATE, v. i. [L. arbitror.]

    'J'o hear and decide, as arbitrators ; as, to choose men to arbitrate between us.

    'ARBITRATE, v. t. To decide; to deter- mine ; to judge of. MUton. Shak.

    ARBITRA'TION, 71. The heaiuig and de- termination of a cause between parties in controversy, by a person or persons cho- sen by the parties. This may be done by one person ; but it is usual to chuse two or three ; or for each party to chuse one, and these to name a third, who is called the umpire. Their determination is caUed an award.

    2. A hearing before arbitrators, though tliey make no award. [This is a common use of the icord in the United States.]

    'ARBITRATOR, n. A person cliosen by

    party, or by the parties who have a con- troversy, to determine their differences. The act of the parties in giving power to the arbitrators is called the submission, and this may be verbal or written. The person chosen as umpire, by two arbitrators, when the parties do not agree, is also cal- led an arbitrator.

    2. An arbiter, governor, or president. Milton.

    3. In a more extensive sense, an arbiter ; one who has the power of deciding or prescri- bing without control. Addison. Shak.

    ARBITRESS, n. A female arbiter. ARBOR, n. [The French express the sense

    by berceau, a cradle, an arbor, or bower ;

    Sp. emparrado, from parra, a vine raised

    on stakes, and nailed to a wall. Q.u. L.

    arbor, a tree, and the primary sense.]

    1. A frame of lattice work, covered witl vines, brandies of trees or other plants, for shade ; a bower.

    2. In botany, a tree, as distinguished from a shrub. The distinction which Linne makes, that a tree springs up with a bud on the stem, and a shrub not, is found not to hold universally ; and the tree, in pop- ular understanding, differs from tlie shrul: only in size. .4r6or forms the seventh family of vegetables in Linne's system, [See Tree.]

    3. In mechanics, the principal part of a ma- chine, sustaining the rest. Also the axit or spindle of a machme, as of a crane, ot win

    This in America is called the shaft. 'ARBORATOR, n. One who plants or who

    prunes trees. Evelyn.

    ARBO'REOUS, a. [L. arboreus, from arbor.] Belonging to a tree ; resembling a tree ; con- stituting a tree ; growing on trees, as

    moss is arboreous. ARBORES'CENCE, n. [L. arboresco, to

    grow to a tree.] The figure of a tree ; the resemblance of

    tree in minerals, or crystalizations or

    groups of crystals in that form. ARBORES'CENT, a. Resemhhug a tree ;

    having the figure of a tree; dendj-itical E^icyc. 2. From herbaceous becoming woody.

    Marty n. ARBORES'CENT STAR-FISH, ji. A spe

    cies of asterias, called also caput Medu-

    sce. [See Starfish.] 'ARBORET, n. [It. arboreto, from «r6or, a

    tree.] A small tree or shrub ; a place planted or

    overgrown with trees. Milton.

    'ARBORIST, n. One who makes trees his

    study, or who is versed in the knowledge

    of trees. Howell.

    ARBORIZATION, n. The appearance or

    figure of a tree or plant in minerals, or

    fossils. [See Herborization.] 'ARBORIZE, V. t. To form the appearajice

    of a tree or plant in minerals. 'ARBUSCLE, 71. [L. arbusculus, a little tree.] A dwarf tree, in size between a shrub and

    a tree. Bradley.

    ARBUSeULAR, a. Resembhng a shrub ;

    having the figure of small trees.

    Da Costa. ARBUST'IVE, a. [From arbustum.] Containing copses of trees or shrubs ; cover- ed with shrubs. Bartram.

    ARBUST'UM, 71. [L. See Arbor.] A copse of shrubs or trees ; an orchard.

    'ARBUTE, 71. [L. arbutus.] The strawberry tree.

    ARBU'TE.'VN, a. Pertaining to the straw- berry tree. Encyc. Evelyn.

    'ARC, n. [L. arcus, a bow, vault or arch ; arcuo, to bend ; Gr. af>xVt beginning, origin : apxu, to begin, to be the author or chief; Fr. arc, arche ; Sp. arco, a bow and an arch; Pori. id; ll. id; .\rm. goarec. The (Jrcek word has a different application, but is probably from the same root as arcus, from the sense of springing or stretching, shooting up, rising, which gives the sense of a vault, or bow, as well as of chief or head. Heb. jix, to weave; Syr. ; j to desire or long for ; Ar.

    _ \ to emit odor, to diffuse fragrance :

    and Ileb. i-y to desire, or long for, to as- cend; Eth. 0

    In geometry, any part of the circumference of a circle, or curved line, lying from one ])oint to another ; a segment, or part of a circle, not more than a semicircle.

    Encyc. Johnson.

    ARCA'DE, 71. [Fr. from arcus ; Sp. arcada.]

    A long or continued arch ; a walk arched above. Johnson.

    -■VReA'DIAN, ) Pertainuig to Arcadia, a

    ARCA'DI€, l"' mountainous district in the heart of the Peloponnesus.

    Trans, of Pausanias.

    ARCA'DICS, 71. The title of a book m Pau- sanias, which treats of Arcadia.

    Trans. B. 8.

    AR€A'NE, a. [L. arcanus.] Hidden, secret. [N'ot much %tsed.]

    Trans, of Pausanias.

    AR€A'NUM, 71. [L.] A secret ; generally used in the plural, arcana, secret things, mysteries.

    ARCBOUTANT, 71. [Fr. arc, and bcnit. See About, Abutment.] In building, an arched buttress. Encyc.

    ARCH, 71. [See Arc."] A segment or part of a circle. A concave or hollow struct- ure of stone or brick, supjiorted by its own curve. It may be constructed of wood, and supported by the mechanism of the work. This species of structure is much used in britlges. A vault is ])roperly a broad ai-ch. Encyc.

    !. The space between two piers of a bridge, when arched ; or any place covered with on arch.

    t. Any cur\'aturc, in form of an arch.

    4. The vault of heaven, or sky. Sliak.

    Triumphal arches are magnificent struc- tures at the entrance of cities, erected to adorn a triiunph and perpetuate the mem- ory of the event.

    ARCH, V. t. To cover with an arch ; to fonn with a curve ; as to arch a gate.

    ARCH, V. i. To make an arch or arches; as, to arch beneath the sand. Pope.




    ARCH', a. [It. arcare, to bend, to arch, to cheat, or deceive, from arco, L. arcus, a bow ; G. org, cunning, arch, bad ; D. arg, crafty, roguish ; Sw. Dan. arg, id. The Teutonic arg, appears to be allied to arch, and to be the Eiig. rogue. Tliis circum- stance, and tlie Arm. goarec, [see arc,] in- dicate that tlie radical letters in arc, arch, XV> are Rg. The radical sense of bend is, to strain.]

    Cunning ; sly ; shrewd ; waggish ; mischiev- ous for sport ; mirthful ; as we say in popular language, roguish ; as an arch

    '"ARCH, a. used also in composition. [Gr. apz°!, chief; Ir. arg, noble, famous.]

    Chief ; of the first class ; principal ; as, an arch deed. Shak.

    Shakspeare uses this word as a noun ; " IMy worthy arch and patrons ;" but the use ih not authorized.

    •ARCHAISM, n. [Gr. opzoto;, ancient, from <*POT, beginning.]

    An ancient or obsolete phrase or expression. H'atts.

    AR€lIAN'(iEL, n. An angel of the liigh- est order ; an angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestial hierarchy. Encyc.

    2. The name of several plants, as the dead- nettle, or lamium ; a species of melittis ; and the galeopsis or hedge-nettle.

    AR€HANgELT€, a. Belonging to archan-

    ARCHAPOS'TATE, n. A chief apostate.

    ARCHAPOS'TLE, n. The chief apostle.


    ARCirARCHITECT, n. The supreme ar- chitect. Sylvester.

    ARCHBE'ACON, n. The chief beacon, place of prospect or signal.

    ARCHBISH'OP, n. A chief bishop ; a church dignitary df the tirst class; a me- tropolitan bishop, who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops, in his province, and also exercises episcopal au- thority in his own diocese. Clarendon.

    ARCHBISH'OPRIe, n. [Archbishop and ric, or rick, territory or jurisdiction.]

    The jurisdiction or place of an archbishop ; the province over which an archbishop exercises authority. Clarendon

    ARCHBOTCH'ER, n. The chief botcher, or mender, ironically. Corbet.

    ARCHBUILD'ER, > Chief builder.

    ARCHBILD'ER \ "• Harmar.

    ARCHBUT'LER, n. A chief butler ; an of- ficer of the German empire, who presents the cup to the emperor, on solemti occa- sions. This office belongs to the king of Bohemia. Encyc.

    ARCHCHAMBERLAIN, n. A chief cham berlain ; an officer of the German empire whose office is similar to that of the great chamberlain in England. This office be longs to the elector of Brandenburg.


    ARCHCH ANCELLOR, n. A chief chan cellor ; an officer in the German empire, who presides over the secretaries of the court. Under the first races of French kings, when Germany and Italy belonged to them, three archchancellors were pointed ; and this institution gave rise to the three archchancellors now subsisting in Germany, who are the archbishops of| Mentz, of Cologne, and of Treves. Encyc.

    ARCHCH^ANTER, n. The chief chanter, or president of the chanters of a church.

    ARCH€HIM'I€, a. Of supreme chimical powers. Milton.

    ARCHCONSPIR'ATOR, n. Principal con- spirator. Maundrell.

    ARCH€OUNT', n. A chief count ; a title formerly given to the earl of Flanders, on account of his great riches and power,


    ARCH€RIT'Ie, M. A chief critic.

    lARCHDAP'IFER, 71. [Arch, chief, and L daplfer, a iood-bearer, from daps, meat 01 a feast, and /era, to carry.]

    An officer in the German empire, whose of fice is, at the coronation of the emperor, to carry the first dish of meat to table on liorscliack. Encyc.

    ARIMlDi: ACON, n. [See Deacon.]

    Ill KngUtnil, an ecclesiastical dignitary, Jiext in rank below a bishop, who has jurisdic tion either over a part or over the whole diocese. He is usually appointed by the bishop, and has an authority originally derived from the bishop, but now inde pendent of him. He has a court, the mosi inferior of ecclesiastical courts, for hear- ing ecclesiastical causes, and the punish- ment of offenders by spiritual censures.


    ARCHDE'A€ONRY, n. The office, juris diction or residence of an archdeacon. In England, evei^y tliocese is divided into archdeaconries, of which there are sixty and each archdeaconry into rural dean- eries, and each deanery into parishes.


    ARCHDE'A€ONSHIP, n. The office of an archdeacon.

    JARCIIDIVI'NE, n. A principal theologi;

    ARCHDRU'ID, n. [See Druid.] A chiefl druid, or pontiff of the ancient druids.

    Henry, Hist. Eng. Roivtand's Mona Antiqua.

    ARCHDU'€AL, a. [See Archduke.] P taining to an archduke.

    ARCHDUCH'ESS, n. [See Duchess.] AJ title given to the females of the house of Austria.

    ARCHDUCH'Y, n. The territory of an arch duke or archduchess. Ash.

    •VRCHDU'KE, [See Duke.] A title given to princes of the House of Austria; all the sons being archdukes, and the daughters archduchesses. Encyc.

    ARCHDUKEDOM, n. The territory or ju risdiction of an archduke or archduchess.

    VAJICHED, pp. Made with an arch or curve covered with an arch.

    ARCHEN'EMY.n. A principal enemy.


    ARCHE0L06'IeAL, o. Pertaining to a trea- tise on antiquity, or to the knowledge of ancient things.

    ARCHEOL'OgY, n. [Gr. ap;taio;, ancient^ and Xoyoj, discourse.]

    A discourse on antiquity ; learning or knowl edge which respects ancient times.

    Panoplist, Dec. 1808.

    'ARCHER, n. [Sp. archero ; It. arcih-o ; Fr. archer ; from arcus, a bow. See Arch anil Arc] A bowman ; one who uses a bow in battle ; one who is skilled in the use of the bow and arrow.

    ARCHERESS, n. A female archer.


    ARCHERY, n. The use of the bow and arrow ; the practice, art or skill of arch- ers ; the act of shooting with a bow and arrow.

    ARCHES-€OURT, in England, so called from the church of St. Mary le bow {de arcubus,) whose top is raised of stone pil- lars built archwise, where it was anciently held, is a court of appeal, in the ecclesias- tical pohty, the judge of which is called the dean of the arches. This court had jurisdiction over thirteen peculiar parishes in London, belonging to the archbishop of Canterbury ; but the office of dean of the arches being united with that of the arch- bishop's principal office, the dean now receives and determines appeals from the sentence of aU inferior courts within the province ; and from him lies an appeal to the king in chancery. This and all the principal spiritual courts are now held at Doctors' Commons. Blackstone.

    'ARCHETYPAL, a. Original ; constituting a model or pattern.

    ARCHETYPE, n. [Gr. apxitvrtov; ap;t'7, beginning, and tvxos, form.]

    1. The original pattern or model of a work ; or the model from which a thing is made ; as, a tree is the archetype or pattern of our idea of that tree. fVatts.

    2. Among minters, the standard weight, by which others are adjusted.

    Among Platonists, the archetypal world is the world as it existed in the idea of God, before the creation. Encyc.

    ARCHE'US, n. [Gr. apxvt beginning, or apxof, a chief; VV. erchi.]

    A term used by the ancient chimists, to de- note the internal efficient cause of all things ; the anuna mundi or plastic power of the old philosophers ; the power that presides over the animal economy, or the vis medicatrix ; the active principle of the material world. In medicine, good health, or ancient practice. Johnson. Encyc. Coxe.

    ARCHFEL'ON, n. [See Felon.] A chief felon. Milton.

    ARCHFIE'ND, n. [See Fiend.] A chief fiend or foe. Milton.

    ARCHFLAM'EN, n. A chief flmnen or priest Herbert.

    ARCHFLAT'TERER,n. [See Flatter.] A chiefflatterer. Bacon.

    ARCHFO'E, n. [See Foe.] A grand or chief enemy. Milton.

    ARCHFOl'ND'ER, n. A chief founder.


    ARCHGOV'ERNOR, n. The chief gov- ernor. Brewer.

    ARCHHER'ESY, n. [See Heresy.] The greatest heresy. Butler.

    ARCHHER'EtiC, n. A chief heretic.


    ARCHHI'EREY, n. [Gr. apxos, chief, and (fpo5, priest.] A chief priest in Russia.

    Tooke, i. 530.

    ARCHHYP'OCRITE, 71. A great or chief hypocrite. Fuller.

    ARCH'IATER, ji. [Gr. op;to5, chief, and Mif po5, physician.] Chief physician ; a word used in Russia. Tooke, i. 557.

    ARCH'ICAL, a. Chief: primary.


    ARCHIDIAC'ONAL, a. [See Deacon.]



    A R D

    Pertaining to an archdeacon ; as an archidi- aconal visitation.

    AR€HIEPI.S'€OPAL, a. [See Episcopal]

    Belonging to an arclihishop ; as, Canterbury is an archiepiscopal see. ff'eever.

    ARCHIL, n. A lichen, which grows on rocks, in the Canary and Cape de Verd islos, which yields a rich jiurple color, not durable, but very beautiful. It is bruised between stones, and moistened with strong spirit of urine mixed with quick lime. It first takes a purplish red color, and then turns to blue. In the first state it is called archil ; and in the second, lacmas or lit- mase, litmiis. Encyc.

    AR€llILO'€HIAN, a. Pertaining to Archil- oclius, the poet, who invented a verse of seven feet, the first four dactyls or spon- dees, the last three, trochees.

    -ARCHIMAGUS, ji. tSee Ma^cian.] The high priest of the Persian Magi, or wor- shipers of fii-e. Encyc.

    ARCHIMAND'RITE, n. [from mandrite, a Syriac word for monk.]

    In church history, a chief of the mandrites or monks, answering to abbot in Europe.

    Encyc. Tooke, Russ.

    'ARCHING, jti/jr. Forming an arch; cover- ing with an arch.

    ARCHING, a. Curving hke an arch.

    ARCHIPEL'AGO, n. [Authors are not agreed as to the origin of this word. Some suppose it to be compounded of apx°i, chief, and Wf^oyoj, sea ; others, of Atyoioj, and rttXayos, the Egean sea. See Gibbon, Mitford and Ed. Encyc]

    In a general sense, a sea interspersed with many isles ; but particularly the sea which separates Europe from Asia, otherwise called the Egean Sea. It contains the Grecian isles, called Cyclades and Spo- rades.

    'AR€HITE€T, n. [Gr. apx^s, chief, and ttxtuv, a workman. See Tech^ical.]

    1. A person skilled in the art of building ; one who under.stands architecture, or makes it his occupation- to form plans and designs of buildings, and superintend the artificers employed.

    2. A contriver ; a former or maker. Ray. ARCHITECT'IVE, a. Used in building;

    proper for building. Derham.

    AR€HITE€TON'IC, a. That has power or

    skill to build. Smcllie, Ch. 13.

    AReHITE€TON'I€S, n. The science of

    architecture. Jish.

    AK€HITE€T'RESS, n. A female architect.


    AR€HITE€T'URAL, a. Pertaining to the

    art of building ; that is according to the

    rules of architecture. Mason

    'AR€HITE€TURE, n. [L. architectura.]

    1. The art of building ; but in a more Um- ited and appropriate sense, the art ofj constructing houses, bridges and other buildings for the purposes of civil hfe.

    2. Frame or structure.

    The earth is a piece of divine architecture.


    Military architecture is the art of fortification.

    J^avnl architecture is the art of building ships.

    'ARCHITRAVE, 71. [Gr. apxoi, chief, and It

    trave, fi-om L. trabs, a beam.] In architecture, the lower division of ar

    entablature, or that part which rests mediately on the coliunn. It probably

    represents the beam which, in ancient buildings, extended from column to col- umn, to support the roof

    In chimney.s, the architrave is called the mantle piece ; and over doors and win- dows, the hyperthyrioii.

    Johnson. Encyc. Cyc.

    'ARCHIVAL, a. [See Archives.] Pertain- ing to archives or records ; contained in records. Tooke.

    ~AR€HIVAULT, ji. [arch, chief, and vault.]

    In building, the inner contour of an arch, or a band adorned with moldings, running over the faces of the arch-stones, and bearing upon the imposts. It has only a single face in the Tuscan order ; two faces crowned in the Doric and Ionic, and the same moldings, as the architrave, in the Corinthian and Composite. Encyc.

    'ARCHIVES, n.plu. [Gr. op;tecw ; Low L. archivum ; Fr. archives ; It. arcldvio.]

    The apartment in which records are kept ; also the records and papers which are preserved, as evidences of facts.

    'ARCHIVIST, n. [Fr. and It.] The keeper of archives or records. Encyc.

    'ARCHLIKE, a. Built Ukc an arch.


    'ARCHLUTE, ) „ ,., „..•/,„,„ i

    'ARCHILUTE, \ "• t^'' '"•"'"''"•I

    A large lute, a theorbo, the base-strings of which are doubled with an octave, and the higher strings with a unison. Busby

    'ARCHLY, adv. Shrewdly; wittily; jest-

    ingly. .RCHR

    ARCHMAGI'CIAN, ji. The chief magi cian. Spenser.

    ARCHMAR'SHAL, n. The grand marshal of the German empire ; a dignity belong- ing to the elector of Saxony.

    ARCHNESS, n. Cunning ; shrewdness ; waggishness.

    ARCHON, n. [Gr. apx^', a prince.]

    The archons in Greece were chief magis- trates chosen, after the death of Codrus, from the most illustrious famiUes, to si perintend civil and religious concern! They were nine in number ; the fii-st was properly the archon ; the second was called kiTig ; the third, polemarch, or general of the forces. The other six were called thesmothetce, or legislators. Encyc.

    'ARCHONSHIP, n. The office of an ar- chon ; or the term of his office. Mitford.

    ARCHON'TICS, n. In church history, a branch of the Valentinians, who held that the world was not created by God, but by angels, archontes.

    ARCHP'ASTOR, n. Chief pastor, the shep- herd and bishop of our souls. Barrow.

    ARCHPHILOS'OPHER, n. A chief phi- losopher. Hooker.

    ARCHPIL'LAR, 7!. The main pillar.


    ARCHPO'ET, n. The principal poet.

    ARCHPOLITI CIAN,»i. [See Policy.] An eminent or distinguished poUtician.


    ARCHPON'TIFF, n. [See Pontiff.] A su premc pontitl'or priest. Burke

    ARCHPRE'LATE, n. [See Prelate.] The chief prelate.

    ARCHPRES'BYTER, n. [See Presbyter.] A chief presbyter or priest. Encyc.

    ARCHPRES'BYTER V. v. The absolute

    dominion of presbyteiT, or the chief pres- •jy'ery. " Milton.

    ARCHPRIE'ST, n. [See Priest.] A chief priest. Encyc.

    ARCHPRI'MATE, 71. The chief primate ; an archbishop. MUton.

    ARCHPROPH'ET, ti. Chief prophet.


    ARCHPROT'ESTANT, n. A principal or distinguished proteslant.

    ARCIIPUB'LICAN, ,.. The distinguished publican. Hall.

    ARCHREB'EL, ti. The chief rebel.


    ARCHTRA'ITOR, n. A principal traitor.

    ARCHTREAS'URER, n. [See Treasure.^ The great treasurer of the German em- pire ; a dignity claimed by the elector of Hanover. Guthrie.

    ARCHTREAS'URERSniP,7i. The office of archtreasurer. Collins' Peerage.

    ARCHTY'RANT, n. A principal or great tyrant. Hall.

    ARCHVIL'LAIN, n. [See Villain.] A chief or great villain. Shak.

    ARCHVIL'LANY, n. Great villany.

    'ARCHWISE, adv. [arch and mse. See fVise.] In the form of an arch.

    ARCTA'TION, t [L. arrfus, tight.] Pre-

    ARC'TITUDE, ^ "-tematuralstraightness : constipation from inflammation. Corf.

    ARCTIC, a. [Gr. opxroj, a bear, and ii northern constellation so called. W. artb ; Ir. art, a bear.]

    Northern ; pertaining to the northern con- stellation, called the bear ; as, the arctic pole, circle, region or sea.

    The arctic circle is a lesser circle parallel to the equator, 23° 28' from the north pole. This, and the antarctic circle, are called the polar circles, and within these lie the frigid zones.

    ARCTU'RUS, 7!. [Gr. opxro}, a bear, and ovfia, tail.] A fixed star of the first mag- nitude, in the constellation of Bootes.


    'ARCUATE, a. [L. arcuatus. See Arc] Bent or curved in the form of a bow.

    Martyn. Bacon. Ray.

    ARCUA'TION, 77. The act of bending ; in- curvation ; the state of being bent ; cur- vity; crookedness; great convexity of the tliorax. Coxe.

    2. A method of raising trees by layers; that is, by bending branches to the ground, and covering the small shoots with earth, three inches deep upon the joints ; making a bason of earth to hold the water. When these have taken root, they are removed into a nursery. Chambers. Encyc.

    ARCUBALIST, 7?. [L. arcus, a bow, and balista, an engine for throwing stones.] A cross-bow. H'arton.

    .\RCUBALIS'TER, 7i. A cross-bowman; one who used the arbalist. Camden.

    'ARD, the termination of many Enghsh words, is the Ger. art, species, kind ; Sw. and Dan. art, mode, nature, genius, form ; Ger. arten, to take after, resemble ; Sw. arta, to form or fashion ; Ger. aiiig, of the nature of, also comely ; Dan. and Sw. artig, beautiful ; D. aarden, to take after, resemble; aardig, genteel, pretty, ingen- ious. We observe it in Goddard, a divine temper ; Giffard, a disposition to give, lib^


    erality ; Bernard, filial affcciion ; standard, drunkard, dotard, &c.

    ARDENCY, n. [L. ardens, from ardeo, to burn.]

    Warmth of passion or affection; ardor; ea- gerness ; as, the ardency of love or zeal.

    ARDENT, a. Hot ; burning ; that causes a sensation of burning ; as, ardent spirits, that is, distilled spirits ; an ardent fever.

    •2. Having the ap))earance or quality of fire; fierce ; as ardent eyes.

    ;'. Warm, applied to the passions and affec- tions ; passionate ; affectionate ; much en- gaged ; zealous ; as, ardent love or vows ; ardent zeal.

    ARDENTLY, adv. With warmth ; affec- tionately ; passionately.

    ■ARDENTNESS, n. Ardency.

    ■ARDOR, H. [L.] Heat, in a literal sense ; as, the ardor of the sun's rays.

    •i. Warmth, or heat, applied to the passions and affections ; eagerness ; !is, he pursues study with ardor; they fought with ardor.

    Milton uses the word for person or spirit, bright and effulgent, but by an unusual license. ARDUOUS, (J. [L. ardiius; Ir. ard, high; W. hardh ; Ir. airdh, high, highth.]

    I. High, lofty, ill a literal sense ; as, ardu ous'paths. Pope

    'i. Ditficult ; attended with great labor, like the ascending of acclivities ; as, an arduoui em])loyment, task, or enterprise.

    'ARDUOUSLY, adv. Li aii arduous man

    uer ; with laboiiousness. ARDUOUSNESS, n. Highth ; difficulty of execution.

    \RE. The plural of the substantive verb ; but a different word from be, am or was. It is from the Sw. vara, Dan. vcerer, to be, to exist ; « or «) being lost. We are ; ye or you are ; they are ; jiast tense plural tvere. It is usually pronounced ar.

    ,V-RE, ) The lowest note, except one.

    ALAMIRE, S ill Guido's scale of music.


    A'REA, n. [L. I suspect this to be con- tracted from Ch. NJ'IX, an area or bed ; Heb. njny ; fi'om a root which signifies to reach, stretch, lay or spread.]

    1. Any plain surface, as the floor of a room of a church or other building, or of tlie ground.

    2. "The space or site on which a building stands; or of any inclosure.

    3. Ill geometry, the superficial contents of any figure ; the surface included witliin any given lines ; as the area of a square or a triangle.

    4. Among physicians, baldness ; an empty space ; a bald space produced by alopecy also a name of the disease. Core. Parr.

    5. In mining, a compass of ore allotted to diggers. Coxe.

    AREA'D, ) . [Sax. aredan.'] To counsel AREE'D, \ "• ''■ to advise. Ohs. Spenser A'REAL, a. Pertaiiiuig to an area ; as areai

    interstices. Barton.

    AKEE'K, aiiu. In a reeking condition. [Set

    Reek.^ Smjl

    AREFA€'TION, n. [L. arefacio, to dry,

    from areo.] The act of drying ; the state of

    growing dry. Bacon

    AR'EFY, V. t. To dry or make dry.

    Bacon ARE'NA, n. [L. sand.] An open space ofl


    ground, strewed with sand, on which the gladiators, in ancient Rome, exhibited shows of fighting for the amusement of spectators. Hence, a place for pubhc ex- hibition. Mam's Rom. Ant. Ray.

    2. Among physicians, sand or gravel in the kidneys.

    ARENA'CEOUS, a. [from arena, sand.] Sandy ; having the properties of sand.


    2. Brittle ; as arenaceous limestone. Kinvan

    ARENA'TION,n. Among ;)A_i/sicians, a sand bath ; a sprinkhng of hot sand upon a dis- eased person. Core.

    .'VREN'DALITE, n. In mineralogy, another name of epidote, or pistacite ; epidote being the name given to it by Hauy, and pistacite by Werner. [See Epidote.]

    ARENDA'TOR, n. [Russ. arenda, a farm Q». Sp. arrendar, to rent.]

    In Livonia and other provinces of Russia, a farmer of the farms or rents ; one who contracts with the crown for the rents of the farms. He who rents an estate be- longing to the crown, is called Crotcn- arendator. Arende is a term used both for the estate let to farm, and the sum for which it is rented. Tooke's Russ. ii. 288.

    \RENILIT'I€, a. [arena, sand, and xiBof, a stone.]

    Pertaining to sand stone ; consisting of sand stone ; as arenilitic mountains. Kirwan

    ARENO'SE, \ Sandy ; fiUl of sand.

    AR'ENOUS, \ "• Johnson.

    AR'EOLE, \ [L.] The colored circle

    AREO'LA, \ "■ round tlie nipple, or round )ustulc. Encyc. Coxe.

    AREOM'ETER, n. [Gr. apatoj, rare, thin, and fiffpfw, to measure.]

    An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids. Fourcroy.

    AREOMET'RI€AL, a. Pertaining to an areometer.

    AREOM'ETRY, n. Tlie measuring or act of measuring tlie specific gravity of fluids.

    AREOPAGIT'Ie, a. Pertauiing to the Are- opagus. Mitford

    AREOP'AGITE, n. A member of the Are- opagus, which see. Acts xvii. 34.

    AREOPAGUS, n. [Gr. Ap,j{, 3Iars, and Ttayof, hill.]

    A sovereign tribunal at Athens, famous for the justice and impartiality of its decis ions. It was originally held on a hill ii the city ; but afterward removed to the Royal Portico, an open square, where the judges sat in the open air, inclosed by a cord. Their sessions were in the night, that they might not be diverted by object; of sight, or influenced by the presence and action of the speakers. By a law of So- lon, no person could be a member of tlii; tribunal, until he had been archon or chiel] magistrate. This court took cognizance of high crimes, impiety and immorality, and watched over the laws and the public treasury. Lempriere. Encyc. Pausa- } nias. Acts xvii. 10. ^

    AREOT'Ie, a. [Gr. apaiof, thin.] Attenu ating ; making thin, as in liquids ; rare

    AREOT'Ie, ?i. A medicine, which atteiiuatei the humors, dissolves viscidity, opens the pores, and increases perspiration ; an at- tenuaut. Quincy. Coxe.

    A R G

    [Gr. opEfiy, virtue, and


    >.oyo{, discourse.^

    That part of moral philosojihy which treats of virtue, its nature and "the means of attaining to it. [Little used.] Johnson.

    ARGAL, n. Unrefined or crude tartar, a substance adheiing to the sides of wine ca.sks. Johnson. Coxe.

    ARtiE'AN, a. Pertaining to Argo or the Ark. Faber.

    ARGENT, n. [L. argentum ; Gr. apyupof, sil- ver, from opyoj, white ; Ir. arg, white ; airgiod, silver, money ; Fr. argent, money ; Sans, rajatam, Q.U.]

    1. The white color in coats of arms, intended to represent silver, or purity, innocence, beauty, or gentleness. Encyc.

    2. a. Silvery ; of a pale white, Uke silver. Johnson. Encyc.

    3. a. Bright. Ask of yonder argent fields above. Pope,

    ARgENT'AL, a. Pertaining to silver ; con- sisting of silver ; containing silver ; com- bined with silver ; applied to the native amalgam of silver, as argental mercury. Cleaveland.

    >ARgENTATE, n. A combination of the argentic acid with another substance.

    ARtiENTA'TION, n. An overlaying with silver. Johnson.

    ARGENT-HORNED, a. Silver honied.

    ARGENT'Ie, a. Pertaining to silver ; tlie argentic acid is a saturated combination of silver and oxygen. This is yet hypothet- ical. Lavoisier.

    ARGENTIF'EROUS, a. [L. argentum, sil- ver, and fero, to produce.] Producing silver ; as argentiferous ore. Kirwan.

    ARGENTI'NA, ? InK/i%oZogT/, ageuus

    'ARGENTINE, ^ of fishes ot the order of abdominals.

    Argentina is also a name of the wild tansy, silver-weed. Encyc. Coxe.

    'ARGENTINE, a. Like silver; pertaining to silver, or sounding hke it. Johnson.

    'ARGENTINE, n. In mineralogy, a sub- species of carbonate of lime, nearly pure ; a mineral of a lamellated or slaty struc- ture ; its lamens usually curved or undu- lated ; its surface is shining, or of a pearly luster. It is found in primitive rocks, and frequently in metallic veins. Cleaveland.

    'ARGIL, n. A species of the Ardea, or genus of cranes.

    'ARGIL, 71. [L. argilla, white clay, from Gr. opyos, white.]

    Ill a general sense, clay, or potter's earth ; but in a technical sense, pure clay, or alu- mine. Fourcroy.

    AR(5ILLA;CE0US, a. [L.argillaceus.] Par- taking of the nature of clay ; clayey ; con- sisting of argil. Kirwan.

    ARgILLIF'EROUS, a. [L. argilla, clay, and fero, to produce.] Producing clay ; applied to such earths as abound with argil.


    ARGILLITE, n. Argillaceous shist or

    slate; clay-slate. Its usual color is bluish,

    greenish or blackish gray. Kirwan.

    ARGlLLIT'le, a. Pertaining to argilUte.

    AllGlLLO€AL'CITE, n. [of argilla, clay, and calx, calcaneus earth.]

    A species of calcarious earth, with a large ]iroportion of clay. Kirwan.

    ARGILLOMURITE, n. [of argilla, clay,


    A R I

    A R 1

    "Hnd muria, Iirlne or salt water ; magnesia being obtained from sea-salt.] A species of earth consisting of magnesia, mixed with silex, alumine and lime ; a variety of Magnesite.

    Kirwan. Cleaveland. ARgIL'LOUS, a. Consisting of clay ; clayey ; partaking of clay ; belonging to clay.

    Brown. "ARGIVE, a. Designating what belongs to Argos, the capital of Argohs in Greece, whose inhabitants were called Argivi. This name however is used by the poets for the Greeks in general. Paus. Trans. JAIIGO, n. The name of the ship which car- ried Jason and his fifty-four companions to Colchis, in quest of the golden fleece. ARGO-NAVIS, the ship Argo, is a constel- lation in the southern hemisphere, whose stars, in tlie British catalogue, are sixty- four. Encyc. 'ARGO'AN, a. Pertaining to the ship Argo. Faber. •ARGOL'l€, a. Belonging to Ai-golis, a ter- ritory or district of Peloponnese, between Arcadia and the Egean sea ; as the Ar- solic Gulf. D'Anmlk. ARGOL'ICS, Ji. The title of a chapter in Pausanias, which treats of Argolis.

    Trails. B. ii. 15. 'ARGONAUT, n. [of apyu, Jason's ship,

    and vavtrji, a sailor.] One of the persons who sailed to Colcliis witli Jason^ in the Argo, in quest of tl golden fleece.

    Cicero. Pliny. Sir W. Jones. ARGONAUT' A, n. [See Argonaut.] A genus of shell-fish, of the order of vermes testacea. The shell consists of one spiral involuted valve. There are several spe cies ; one of which is the Argo, with i subdentated carina, the famous nautilus, which, when it sails, extends two of its arms, spreading a membrane, which for a sail, and six other arms are thrown out, for rowing or steering.

    Encyc. Cuvier. ARGONAUT'I€, a. Pertaining to the Ar- gonauts, or to their voyage to Colchis ; as the Argonautic story. Sir W. Jones.

    ARGONAUT'I€S, n. A poem on the sub- ject of Jason's voyage, or the exi)edition of the Argonauts ; as, the Argonautics of Orpheus, of V. Flaccus, and of Apollo- nius Rhodius. Encyc.

    'ARGOSY, n. [Sp. argos, Jason's ship.] A lar^e merchantman ; a carrac. Shak.

    'ARGrUE, V. i. [L. arguo, to show, argue, accuse or convict ; Fr. arguer ; Sp. arguir ; It. arguire. The radical sense of arg-ue is to urge, drive, press, or struggle.]

    1. To reason ; to invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opin- ion or measure ; as, A argites m favor of a measure ; B argues against it.

    3. To dispute ; to reason with ; followed by leith ; as, you may argue loith your friend, a week, without convincing liim.

    'ARGUE, V. t. To debate or discuss ; to treat by reasoning ; as, the counsel argued the cause before the supreme court ; the cause was well argued.

    2. To prove or evince ; to manifest by infer- ence or deduction ; or to show reasons for ; as, the order visible in the universe argues I a divine cause.

    Vol I.

    3. To persuade by reasons ; as, to argue a man into a different opinion.

    4. Formerly, to accuse or charge with ; a Latin sense, now obsolete ; as, to argue one of profaneness. Dryden.

    'ARGUED, pp. Debated ; discussed ; evin- ced; accused.

    'ARGUER, n. One who argues; areasoner; a disputer ; a controvertist.

    ARGUING, ppr. Inventing and offeruig reasons; disputing; discussing ; cvijiciiig ; accusing.

    'ARGUING, n. Reasoning ; argumentation. What (lotli youi- arguing reprove .' .lob.

    'ARGUMENT, n. fL. argumentum.]

    1. A I

    offered for or against a proposi tion, opinion, or measure ; a reason offered in proof, to induce belief, or convince the mind; followed by for or against. 2. In logic, an inference drawn fi-om prenii ses, which are indisputable, or at least of| probable truth. Encyc.

    ■3. The subject of a discourse or writing.

    Milton. Shak

    4. An abstract or summary of a book, or the heads of the subjects.

    .5. A debate or discussion ; a series of reason ing ; as, an argument was had before the court, in which argument, all the reasons were urged.

    In nstronomy, an arch by which we seek another unknown arch, proportional to the first. Chambers.

    ARGUMENT'AL, a. Belonging to argu- ment ; consisting in argument. Pope.

    ARGUMENTATION, n. Reasoning ; the act of reasoning ; the act of inventing or forming reasons, making inductions, draw ing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion. The operation of in- ferring propositions, not known or admit- ted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true.

    Encyc. IVatts.

    ARGUMENT'ATIVE, a. Consisting of ar- gument ; contauiing a process of reason- ing ; as an argumentative chscourse.

    2. Showing reasons for ; as, the adaptation of things to their uses is argumentative of infinite wisdom in the Creator.

    ARGUMENT' ATIVELY, adv. In an argu- mentative manner. Taylor

    'ARGUS, n. A fabulous being of antiquity said to have had a hundred eyes, placed by Juno to guard lo. The origin of this being may perhaps be found ui the Teu- tonic word arg, crafty, cunning, of which the hundred eyes are symbohcal.

    ARGUS-SHELL, n. A species of porcelain- shell, beautifully variegated with spots, resembhng, in some measiu'e, a peacock's tail. Encyc.

    ARGUTE, a. [L. arguius.] Sharp ; slu-ill ; wittv. [Little used.]

    ARGU'TENESS, n. Acuteness ; wittiness. [Uttle used.] Dryden.

    A'RIAN, a. Pertaining to Arius, apreshyter of the church of Alexandria, in the fourth century ; or to his doctrines.

    A'RIAN, n. One who adheres to the doc- trines of Arius, who held Christ to be a created being, inferior to God the father in nature and dignity, though the first and noblest of all created beings ; and also that the Holy Spirit is not God, but crea- ted bv the power of the Son, Encyc.


    A RIANISM,?;. Thcdoctrinesofihc Ariaus. A'RIANIZE, V. i. To admit the tenets of the

    Arians. WoHhington.

    AR'ID, a. [L. aridus, diy, from areo, to be

    dry.] Dry ; exliau.sted of moisture ; parched with

    heat ; as an arid waste. Thomson.

    AR'IDAS, n. A kind of taffety, from the

    East Indies, made of thread, from certain

    lants .ARIDITY, .•VR'IDNESS,

    Encyc. Dryness ; a state of being without moisture.

    Arbuthnol. 2. A dry state of the body ; emaciation; thc- withering of a limb. Con.

    A'RIES, n. [L. from the Celtic. Ir. reithe. or receith ; Corn, urz, a ram ; W. hwn, a thrust, a ram.] The ram, a constellation of fixed stars, drawji on the globe, in the figure of a ram. It is the first of the twelve signs iu the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 21st of March. AR'IETATE, v. i. [L. ai-ieto, from aries.] To butt, as a ram. [jYot used.] Johnson. VRIETA'TION, n. The act of butting, as a ram. The act of battering with the aries or battering ram. Bacon.

    2. The act of striking or conflicting. [Rare- ly used.] Glanville. ARIET'TA, n. [It.] A short song ; an au-.

    or Uttle air. ARI'GHT, (irfj;. [a va\d right. Sax. gericht.) Rightly ; iu a right form ; without mistake

    or crime. AR'IL, } The exterior coat or covcr-

    ARIL'LUS, S ing of a seed, fixed to it at the base only, investing it wholly or par- tially, and falling off spontaneously ; by some writers called, from the Greek, Ca- lyptra. It is either succulent, or cartila- ginous ; colored, elastic, rough or knotted. Linne. Milne. Martyn. Smith. Havuig an exterior cov- ei-ing or aril, as coffee. Encyc. Eaton, AR'IMAN, - AR'IMA, AH'RIMAN,

    The evil genius or demon of the Persians : opposed to yezad, yezdan, ormozd, or hormizda, the good demon. The ancient magi held, that there are two deities or principles ; one the author of all good, eternally absorbed in light ; the other, the author of all evil, forever buried in dark- ness ; or the one represented by light ; the other by darkness. The latter answers to the loke of the Scandinavians, whose Celtic name, lock, signifies darkness. Ori- ginally, the Persians held these demons or jjrinciples to be equal, and from all eterni- ty ; but the moderns maintain that the evil principle is an inferior being. So the devil is called the prince of darkness.

    Encyc. Gibbon. As. Researches. ARIOLA'TION or ) [L. ariolus or hari- HARIOLA'TION, S oto, a sooth sayer.j \ soothsaying ; a foretelling. Brown.

    ARIO'SO, a. [It. from aria, air.] Light ; airy. //. Did.

    But according to Rousseau, applied to mu- sic, it denotes a kind of melody bordering on the majestic style of a capital air.

    Cyc. ARI'SE, t'. i. s as t. pret. arose: pji. arisen .-


    [Per. ahriman. Sans, art, a foe.]

    A R I

    proii. arize, aroze, arizn. [Sax. arisan ; D.l rjjzen ; Goth, reisan. It may be allied to Ar.

    I to be the head or chief ; Heb. Ch.

    Svr. Sam. Eth. U'iO head, origin.] (. To ascend, mount up or move to a higher

    ])lace ; as, vapors arise fi'om hinnid places. :,*. To emerge from below the horizon ; as,

    the sun or a star arises or rises. !}. To get out of bed ; to leave the place or

    .•^tate of rest ; or to leave a sitting or lying


    The king arose early and went to the den

    Dan. vi.

    4. To begin ; to spring up ; to originate.

    A persecution arose about Stephen. Acts xi

    5. To revive from death ; to leave the grave

    Many bodies of saints arose. Math, xxvii.

    Figuratively, to awake from a state of sin and stupidity ; to repent.

    Jlrise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee life. Eph,

    6. To begin to act ; to exert power ; to move from a state of inaction.

    Let God arise; let his enemies be scattered Ps. Ixviii.

    7. To appear, or become known ; to become visible, sensible or operative.

    To you shall the sun of righteousness arise Math, iv

    shall .


    Till the day

    2 Pet. i. 8. To be put in motion ; to swell or be agi

    tated ; as, the waves arose. 0. To be excited or provoked ; as, the wrath

    of the king shall arise.

    10. To emerge from poverty, depress! tlistress.

    By whom shall Jacob arise ? for he is small Amos vii.

    11. To appear in a particidar character enter upon an office.

    There arose a new kins who knew not Jo seph. Ex. i.

    12. To begin sedition, insurrection, or mu tiny ; as, the men arose, or rose upon their oflicers.

    13. To invade, assault or begin hostility ; fol- lowed by against.

    When he "arose against me, I caught him by the beard. 1 Sam. xvii.

    In this sense, the word against really be- longs to the verb, and is necessary to give it this meaning. [See Rise, another form of this verb, which has the nification, and is more generally used in popular language.] ARI'SING, ppr. Ascending; moving up- ward; originating or proceeding; getting up ; springin .\RIST'A,n. [

    pointed beard which issues from the husk,

    or scaly flower cup of the grasses, called

    the glume. Milne.

    ABISTAR'CHY, n. [Or. api/of, best, and

    apxv, I'ule.] A body of good men in power, or govern ment by excellent men. Harington

    ARlSTO€'RACY, n. [Gr. opifos, best, and

    xfiariio, to hold or govern.] \ form of government, in which the whole supreme power is vested in the principal persons of a state ; or in a few men distin- guished by their rank and opulence. When the supreme power is exercised by a small niuiiber, the government is called nil oligarchy. The latter word however


    is usually applied to a corrupted form of aristocracy.

    ARIST'0€RAT, n. One who favors an ar tocracy in principle or practice ; one w is a friend to an aristocratical form of government. Burke.

    ARlSTOeRAT'le, I Pertaining to

    ARISTOeRAT'I€AL, S aristocracy ;

    consisting in a government of nobles, or principal men ; as an aristocratic consti- tution.

    2. Partaking of aristocracy; as, an aristo- cratic measure ; aristocratic pride or man- ners.

    ARISTO€RAT'I€ALLY, adv. In an aris- tocratical manner.

    ARISTO€RAT'l€ALNESS, n. The quahty of being aristocratical.

    ARISTOTE'LIAN, a. Pertainmg to Aris- totle, a celebrated philosoplicr, who was born at Stagyra, in Macedon, about 38< years before Christ. The Aristotelian phi- iosophv is otherwise called peripatetic.

    ARISTOTE'LIAN, n. A follower of Aris totle, who was a disciple of Plato, and founded the sect of peripatetics. [See Peripatetic]

    ARISTOTE'LIANISM, n. Tlie philosophy or doctrines of Aristotle.

    ARISTOTEL'le, a. Pertaining to Aristotle or to his philosophy.

    AR'ITHMANCY, n. [Gr. (ipiS/cto,-, number, and fioivriM, divination.]

    Divination or the foretelling of future events by the use or observation of numbers.

    ARITH'METIe, n. [Gr. api«;ix(«, to num ber, af,Lefit]ri.xri, the art of numbering, from optS^of, number ; from pvS/iioj, number rhythm, order, agreement.]

    The science of numbers, or the art of com- putation. The various operations of arith- metic are performed by addition, subtrac- tion, multiplication and division.

    ARTT1IMET'I€, ) Pertaining to arith

    ARITiniETK AL, S metic ; according to thi- rules 111- iiifthod of arithmetic.

    ARITll^iF/r It ALLY, adv. According to tlie ruk's, jiriiiciples or method of arith-

    1. Port. It airg, airk ;

    ■ coft'er, sucli

    ARITHMETI CIAN, n. One skilled in

    arithmetic, or versed in the science of

    numbers. 'ARK, n. \Tr.arche; L. a

    area, a chest or coffer

    Sax. ere or erk ; G. arche ; D. arke ; Ch,


    1. A small close vessel, chest as that which was the repository of the tables of the covenant among the Jews. This was about three feet nine inches in length. The lid was the propitiatory, or mercy seat, over which were the cherubs. The vessel in which Moses was set afloat upon the Nile was an ark of bulrushes.

    2. The large floating vessel, in which N and his family were preserved, during the deluge.

    3. A depository. Arise, O Lord, into thy rest, thou and the ark

    of thy strength. Ps. cxxx

    4. A large boat used on American rivers, to transport produce to market.

    "ARKITE, ji. A term used by Biyant to de- note one of the persons who were prcsi


    ved in the ark ; or who, according to- pasan fables, belonged to the ark.

    ARKITE, a. Belonging to the ark.

    Bryant. Faber.

    ARKTJZITE, > A mineral, now called

    AR€TlZiTE, (, "■ Wernerite.

    ARM, n. [Sax. arm, earm ; D. G. Sw. Dan. arm ; L. arvms, an arm, a shoulder, a wing. In Russ. a shoulder is ramo, « hich may be the same word as the L. armu3. If so, this word Ivlongs to the root, Rm, coinciding with L. ramus, a branch, that is, a shoot, like the Celtic braich, L. bra- cliium. But if the L. arrnus is directly from the Gr. ap^toj, a joint, it would seem to be formed from Gr. opu, to fit.] The limb of the himian body, which ex- tends from the shoulder to the hand.

    2. The branch of a tree, or the slender part of a macliine, projecting from a trunk or axis. The limbs of animals are also sometimes called arms.

    3. A narrow inlet of water from the sea.

    I. Figuratively, power, might, strength ; as the secular arm. In this sense the word is often used in the scriptures.

    To whom is the arm of the Lord revealed. Isa. liii. ARM, V. t. [L. armo ; Fr. armer ; Sp. armar;

    It. armare ; from L. arma.] t. To furnish or equip with weapons of of- fense, or defense ; as, to arm the militia. 3. To cover with a plate, or with whatever will add strength, force, or security ; as, to arm the hilt of a sword. I. To furnish with means of defense; to pre- pare for resistance ; to fortify.

    Arm yourselves with the same mind. 1 Pet. iv. ARM, V. i. To provide with arms, weapons, or means of attack or resistance ; to take arms ; as, the nations arm for war.

    This verb is not really intransitive in this use, but recipi-ocal, the pronoun being omitted. The nations arm — for, the na- tions arm themselves. \RMA'DA, n. [Sp. from arma.] A fleet of armed ships ; a squadron. The term is usually applied to the Spanish fleet, called the Invincible Armada, consisting of 1.30 ships, intended to act against England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A. D. 1588. ARMADILLO, n. [Sp. ; so called from be- ing armed with a bony shell.] A quadruped peculiar to America, called also tatoo, and in zoology, the dasypus. This animal has neither fore-teeth, nor dog-teeth ; it is covered with a hard, bony shell,Tlivided into movable belts, except on the forehead, shoulders and haunches, where it is not movable. The belts are connected by a membrane, which ena- bles the animal to roll itself up like a hedge hog. These animals burrow in the earth, where they he during the day time, seldom going abroad except at night. They are of diflferent sizes ; the largest 3 feet in length, without the tail. They subsist chiefly on fruits and roots ; some- times on insects atid flesh. When attack- ed, they roll themselves into a ball, present- ing their armor on all sides to any assail- ant ; but they are inoftensive, and their flesh is esteemed good food. Encyc.




    ARMAMENT, n. [L. urmamenlu, utensils, tackle, from arma.]

    A body of forces equijjped for war ; used ol II land or naval force. It is more gene- rally used of a naval force, including ships, men and all tlie necessary furniture for war.

    ARMAMENT' ARY, n. An armory ; a maga- zine or arsenal. [Rareli/ used.l

    'ARMATURE, n. [L. arniatura.]

    1. Armor ; that which defends the body. It comprehends whatever is worn for defense of the body, and has been sometimes used for offensive weapons. Armature, like arms and arynor, is used also of the furniture of animals and vegetables, evidently intend ed for their protection ; as prickles, spines and horns.

    2. In ancient military art, an exercise pei formed with missive weapons, as darts, spears and arrows. Encyc.

    'ARMED, pp. Furnished with weapons of offense or defense ; furnished with the means of secui'ity; fortified, in a moral

    2. In heraldry, armed is when the beaks, talons, horns, or teeth of beasts and bu-ds of prey are of a difl'erent color from the rest of the body Chambers.

    3. Capped and cased, as the load stone ; that is, set in iron.

    An armed ship is one which is taken into the service of government for a particular oc- casion, and armed like a ship of war.

    ARME'NIA, a. Pertaining to Armenia, a country and formerly, a kingdom, in Asia, divided into Major and Minor. The great- er Armenia is now called Turcomania.

    ARME'NIAN, n. A native of Armenia, or the language of the country.

    Sir W. Jones.

    Armenian bole is a species of clay from Ar- menia, and found in other countries. But the term, being of uncertain signification, is rejected in modern mineralogy. [See Bole] Cronsledt. Kirwan.

    Armenian stone, a soft blue stone, consisting of calcarious earth or gypsum, with the oxyd of copper. It is too soft to give fire with steel, loses its color when heated, and does not admit of a polish.


    ARME-PUIS'SANT, a. [See Puissant.]

    Powerfid in arms. Weever.

    'ARMFUL, ji. As much as the arms can hold.

    'ARMGAUNT, a. Slender, as the arm. [J^ot in use.] Shak.

    'ARMHOLE, n. [arm and hole.] The cavi- ty under the shoulder, or the armpit.


    2. \ hole for the arm in a garment.

    ARMI6'EROUS, a. [L.armiger; armo and gero.]

    i jterally, bearing arms. But in present usage, armiger is a title of dignity next m degree to a knight. In times of chivalry, it sig- nified an attendant on a knight, or other person of rank, who bore his shield and rendered him other military services. So in antiquity, Abiniilech, Saul, &c. had their armor bearers. Jiidg. ix. 1 Sam. xvi. As had Hector and Achilles. Homer. This title, under the French princes, in England, was exchanged, in common usage, for esquire, Fr. ecuyer, a wnrd of similar import, from ecu, L. scutum.

    shield. Armiger is still retained with us, as u title of respect, being the Latin word equivalent to esquire, which see. Spelman. ARMILLARY, a. [L. armilla, a bracelet, from annus, the arm.]

    Resemblmg a bracelet, or ring ; consisting of rings or circles. It is chiefly applied to an artificial sphere, composed of a number of circles of the mundane sphere, put to- gether in tlieir natural order, to ;i—i-i in giving a just conception of the ron-niu tion of the heavens, and the motion?, oiiln celestial bodies. This artificial sjijiere re- volves upon its axis within a horizon, divi- ded into degrees, and movable every way upon a brass sirpporter. Encyc.

    'ARMING, ppr. Equipping with arms ; pro- viding with the means of defense or at- tack ; also, preparing for resistance in a moral sense.

    'ARMINGS, n. The same as leaist-clothes, hung about a ship's upper works.


    ARMIN'IAN, a. Pertaining to Arminius, or designating his principles.

    ARMIN'IAN, n. One of a sect or party of Cliristians, so called from Arminius, or HarmanscM, of Mollaml, who llourishe.l at the cLisc' of tl]o l(ilh coiituiv, and Ijroiji- IHUgof tlic 17tlr. Tli.'Ariiiiuianductriiic.-, are, 1. Conditional election and reproba- tion, in opposition to absolute predestina- tion. 2. Universal redemption, or that the atonement was made by Clu'lst for all mankind, though none but believers can be partakers of the benefit. 3. That man, in order to exercise true faith, must be re- generated and renewed by the operation of the Holy Spirit, which is the gift of God but tliat this grace is not irresistible and may be lost ; so that men may relapse from a state of grace and die in theirsins. Encyc.

    ARMIN'IANISM, (I. The pecuUar doctriiies or tenets of the Arminians.

    ARMIP'OTENCE, n. [arma and potentia. See Potency.]

    Power in arms. Johnson.

    ARMIP'OTENT, a. Powerful in arms mighty in battle. Dnjden.

    AR3IIS'ONOUS, a. [arma and sonus.' See Sound.]

    Sounding or rustling in arms. Johnson

    ARMISTICE, n. [L. arma and sisto, tc stand still, Gr. ifTj/ii ; Sp. armistido ; It. armistizio ; Fr. armistice.]

    A cessation of arms, for a short time, by ( vention ; a truce ; a temporary suspension of hostihties by agreement of the partie:

    ARMLESS, or." Without an arm ; destitute of weapons. Beaumont

    'ARMLET, n. [dim. of arm.] A little arm

    a piece of armor for the arm ; a bracelet.

    JDryden. Johnson.

    'ARMOR, n. [from arm.]

    1. Defensive arms ; any habit worn to protect the body in battle ; formerly called har ness. A complete armor formerly con- sisted of a casque or helmet, a gorget cuirass, gauntlets, tasses, brassets, cuisbes, and covers for the legs to which the spurs were fastened. Encyc.

    In English statutes, armor is used for the whole apparatus of war ; includmg ofl^en- sive as well as defensive arms. The statittes of armor

    of Westminster. Hence armor includes all instruments of war.

    Blackstone, B. iv. Cli. 7. B. i. Cli. 1.'!. Hen. Hist. Brit. B. iii. Ch. 1.

    2. In a spiritual sense, a good conscience, faith and Christian graces are called annor. Rom. xiii. Eph. viT 2 Cor. vi.

    Coat-armor is the escutcheon of a person or family, with its several charges and other fiMiiiture, as mantling, crest, supporters. 'ootto, &c. Encyc.

    AKMOR-BEARER, n. One who carries thi! armor of another.

    'ARMORER, n. A maker of armor or arms : a manufacturer of instruments of war. The armorer of a ship has the cliarge of the arms, to see that they are in a condi- tion fit for service.

    .\RMO'RIAL, a. Belonging to armor, or to the arms or escutcheon of a family ; as ensigns armorial. Blackstone.

    /VRMOR'l€, ) [Celtic ar, upon, and

    ARMOR'ICAN, J "" mor, the sea ; that u=. maritime.]

    Designating the northwestern part of France, formerly called Armorica, afterward Bre- tagne, or Britanny. This part of France is peopled by inhabitants who speak a dia- liil of ilic Celtic. It is usually supposed ihcir ancestors were refugees or colonists from Emrland.

    ARMOR'le, n. The language of the Armo- ricans ; one of the Celtic dialects which have remained to the present times.

    ARMOR'ICAN, n. A native of Armorica, or Bretagne.

    ARMORIST, n. One skilled in heraldry'.

    ARMORY, n. A place where arms, and m- Etruments of war are deposited for safe keeping.

    2. Arinor; defensive arms. Milton.

    '.i. Ensigns armorial. Spenser.

    4. The knowledge of coat-armor ; skill in heraldry. Encyc.

    'ARMPIT, n. [armand;?^*.] The hollow place or cavity under the shoulder. Moxon.

    'ARMS, n. plu. [L. arma ; Fr. arme ; Sp. it.arm^.]

    1. ^Veapons of offense, or armor for defense and protection of the body.

    2. War ; ho.stility.

    jirins and the man I sing. Dryden.

    To be in arms, to be in a state of hostil- ity, or in a military life.

    To arms is a phrase which denotes a ta- king arms for war or hostility ; particu- larly, a summoning to war.

    To take arms, is to arm for attack or de- fense.

    Bred to arms denotes that a person has been educated to the profession of a soldier.

    3. The ensigns armorial of a family ; con- sisting of figures and colors borne in shields, banners, &c., as marks of dignity and distinction, and descending from fa- ther to son.

    4. In law, arms are any tiling which a man takes in his hand in "anger, to strike or as- sault anotlier. Cowel. Blackstone.

    5. In botany, one of the seven species of ful- cra or props of plants, enumerated by Linne and others. The different sjiecies of arms or armor, are prickles, thorns, forks and stings, which seem intended to protect the plants from injiny by animals.

    Milne. Martyn,

    A R O

    A R R

    A R R

    Kre arms, are such as may be cliargeil with powder, as cannon, muskets, mortars, &c,

    A stand of arms consists of amusket, bayonet, cartridge-box and belt, with a sword. But for common soldiers a sword is not neces sary.

    Ill falconiy, arms are the legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot. Encyc.

    ARMS-END, n. At the end of the arms ; al a good distance ; a phrase taken from box- ers or wrestlers.

    'ARMY, n. [Fr. armee ; Ir. arbhar, or arm- har ; from the common root of arm, armo,

    1. A collection or body of men armed for war, and organized in companies, battal- lions, regiments, brigades and clivisions, under proper officers. In general, an ar- my in modern times consists of infantiy and cavalry, with artillery ; although the union of all is not essential to the consti tution of an army. Among savages, ar- mies are differently formed.

    2. A great number ; a vast nmltitude ; as an army of locusts or caterpillars. Joel ii. 25

    ■■ARNOLDIST, n. A disciple of Arnold of Brescia, who in the 12th century, preach- ed against the Romisli Clnnili, H.r wljicl he was banished ; but he wa, aliii u:ird permitted to return. ]!\ liisinr.irlmi;.., ai insurrection was excited, fuj- ulmli lie was condemned and executed. Encyc. ARNOT, 91. A name of the bunium, pig- nut or eartlmut.

    ARNOT'TO, n. The Anotta, which see. Also a tree so called.

    >ARNUTS, n. Tall oat grass.

    ARO'MA, I [Gr. apuua.] The quality of

    AR'OBIA, I "■ plants which constitutes theii fragrance, which is perceived by an agree able smell, or a warm spicy taste.

    AROMAT'l€, I Fragrant ; spicy

    AROMAT'ICAL, ^ "' strong-scented; odo- riferous ; having an agreeable odor,

    AROMAT'l€, n. A plant which yields a spicy, fragrant smell, or a warm pimgent taste ; as sage, summer savory, geranium sweet marjoram, &c. Mihie

    AR'OMATITE, n. A bituminous stone, ir smell and color reserabhng myrrh. Coxe

    AROMATIZA'TION, n. The act of hn- pregnating or scentuig with aroma, oi rendering aromatic.

    AR'OMATIZE, i;. t. To impregnate with aroma ; to infuse an aromatic odor ; to give a spicy scent or taste ; to perfume.


    AR'OMATIZED, pp. Impregnated with aroma ; rendered fragrant.

    AR'OMATIZER, n. That which commu- nicates an aromatic quality. Evelyn.

    AR'OMATIZING, ppr. Rendering spicy; impregnating with aroma.

    ARO'MATOUS, a. Containing aroma, or the principle of fragrance.

    AR'OPH, n. [A contraction ot aroma philos- ophoriim.]

    1. A name by which saffron is sometimes called.

    1. A chimical preparation of Paracelsus, formed by sublimation from equal quanti- ties of hematite and sal ammoniac. The word is also used by the same writer as synonymous with lithontriptic, a solvent ftir the stone. Encyc. Coxe.

    ARO'SE. The pastor preterite tense of the

    verb, to arise. AROUND', prep, [a and round. See Round.]i

    1. About; on all sides ; encircling; encom-| passing ; as, a lambent flame around h' brows. Dryden

    2. In a looser sense, from place to place random.

    AROUND', adv. In a circle ; on every side

    2. In a looser sense, at random ; without any fixed direction ; as, to travel around from town to town. [See Round.]

    AR6URA, n. [Gr.] A Grecian measure ofl fifty feet. Also, a square measure of hall] the plethron, a measure not ascertained The Egyptian aroura was the square of hundred feet or a hundred cubits.

    Encyc. Arbuth.

    AROUSE, V. t. arouz". [In Heb Xtn ; Ar.

    «3 J s» haratza, to stir, to excite. It often contracted into rouse. It may be allied to D. raazen ; G. hrausen, to ragt to stir, bluster ; Class Rs.]

    To excite into action, that which is at rest to stir, or put in motion or exertion, that which is languid ; as, to arouse one frou sleep ; to arouse the dormant faculties.

    AROUS'ED, pp. Excited into action ; put in motion.

    AROUS'ING, ppr. Putting in motion ; stir- ring ; exciting into action or exertion.

    AROW, adv. [a and roio.'] In a row ; suc- cessively. Sidney. Shak.

    AROYNT', adv. Be gone ; away. Obs.


    ARPEg'6IO, n. [From If. arpa, a harp.]

    The distinct sound of the notes of an instru- mental chord, accompanymg the voice.


    ARPENT, ?!. [Fr. arpcnt ; Norm, arpen. In Domesday, it is written arpennus, ar- pendtis, and arpent. Columella mentions that the arepennis was etiual to half the Roman juger. The word is supposed to be corrupted from arvifendium, or aripen- mwrn, the measuring of land with a cord Spelman. Lunier.]

    A portion of land m France, ordinarily con- taining one hundred square rods or perch es, each of 18 feet. But the arpent is dif- ferent in different parts of France. The arpent of Paris contains 900 square toises It is less than the English acre, by about one seventh. Spelman. Encyc. Cowel. Arthur Young.

    ARQUEBUSA'DE, n. A distilled liquor applied to a bruise. Chestetfeld.

    I. The shot of an arquebuse. Ash.

    ARQUEBUSE, ) [Fr. 6-om arquer, to

    H' ARQUEBUSE, I "' make crooked, and the Teutonic bus, a pii)e, a gun ; D. bus, a tube, pipe, gun ; Sw. bossa, a gun or non. Hence the word signifies a hook gun.]

    A hand gun ; a species of fire arms, anciently used, which was cocked with a wheel. It carried a ball that weighed nearly two ounces. A larger kind, used in fortresses, carried a ball of three ounces and a half Encyc.

    ARQUEBUSIE'R, n. A soldier armed with

    an arquebuse. AR'RACH, n. A plant. See Oirach. ARRACK', n. contracted into rack. A

    spirituous liquor imported from the East Indies. The name is said to signify, in the East, any spirituous liquor ; but that which usually bears this name is toddy, a liquor distilled from the juice of the cocoa- nut tree, procured by incision. Some per- sons alledge it to be a spirit distilled from rice or sugar, fermented with the juice of the cocoa-nut.

    AR'RAGONITE, n. [From MoUua in Ai-- ragon, Spain.]

    In mineralogy, a species of carbonate of lime, but not pure, and said to contain 3 or 4 per cent, of carbonate of strontian. It differs from pure carbonate of lime, in hardness, specific gravity, crystaline structure, &c. It is harder than calcarious spar, and exhibits several varieties of structure and form. It is ofi:en crystaU- zed, generally in hexahedral prisms or jtyramids. The massive varieties have usually a fibrous structure, exhibiting va- rious imitative forms, being sometunes coraloidal.

    Haiiy. Cleaveland. Stromeyer.

    ARRA'IGN, V. t. aira'ne. [Norm, arraner. arraisoner, and aresner, to put to answer, to arraign. The usual derivation of this word, from Sax. wregan, gewregan, to ac- cuse, is probably incorrect. It appears to be of Norman origin, and if s is radical, it coincides in origin with L. reus, contract- ed from the root of re*.]

    1. To call or set a prisoner at the bar of a court, to answer to the matter charged against him in an indictment or informa- tion. When called, the indictment is read to him, and he is put to plead, guilty or not guilty, and to elect by whom he will be tried. Blackstone.

    2. According to Law writers, to set in order ; to fit for trial ; as, to arraign a writ of novel disseisin. To arraign the assize, is to cause the tenant to be called to make the plaint, and set the cause in order, that the tenant may be brought to answer. Cowel.

    •3. To accuse ; to charge with faults. John- son. More correctly, to call before the har of reason, or taste ; to call in question; for faults, before any tribunal.

    They will not arraign you for want of knowl- edge. Dryden.

    ARRA'IGN, n. arra'ne. Arraignment ; as, clerk of the arraigns. Blackstone.

    ARRA'IGNED, pp. Called before a tribu- nal to answer, and elect triers ; accused ; called in qurstion.

    AURA KiNIXO, yo/w. Calling beforeacourt or ti-ihuiial ; arcusing.

    ARKA 1<;XM1;NT, n. i^oxm. arresnemeni, arraynement.]

    The act of arraigning ; the act of calling and setting a prisoner before a court to an- swer to an accusation, and to choose his triers.

    2. Accusation.

    3. A calling in question for faults. ARRA'IMENT, n. [See Array.] Clothes;

    garments. We now use raiment.

    ARRANGE, V. t. [Fr. arranger, of ad and ranger, to set m order ; Arm. renega, rang, rank, a row or line. See Rank.]

    1. To i)Ut in proper order ; to dispose the- parts of a whole in the manner intended, or best suited for the purpose ; as troops arranged for battle.

    A R R,

    A R R

    A R R

    3, To adjust ; to sijttln ; to put in oirlcr ; to prepare ; a popular ttse oj' the word of very eencril explication.

    ARRANGED, pp. Put in order ; disposed in the proper order ; adjusted.

    ARRANGEMENT, n. The act of putting in proper order ; the state of being put in or- der ; disposition in suitable form.

    9. Tiiat which is disposed in order ; system of parts disposed in due order.

    The interest of that portion of social ar- rangement is in the hands of all those who com- pose it. Burke.

    3. Preparatory measure; previous disposi- tion ; as, we have made arrangements for receiving company.

    4. Final settlement; adjustment by agree ment ; as, the parties have made an ar rangemtnt between themselves concerning their disputes ; a popular use of the word.

    3. Classification of facts relating to a sub- ject, in a regular, systematic order ; as the Linnean arrangement of plants.

    ARRANGER, n. One that puts in order.

    ARRANGING, ppr. Putting in due order or form ; adjusting.

    AR'RANT a. [I know not the origin of this word. It coincides in sense with tlic W. cam, notorious.]

    Notorious, in an ill sense ; infamous ; mere vile ; as an arrant rogue or coward.

    AR'RANTLY, adv. Notoriously, in an ill sense ; infamously ; impudently ; shamefully

    AR'RAS, n. [Said to be from Arras, tlie cap- ital of Arlois, in the French Netherlands, where this article is manufactured.]

    Tapestry ; hangings wove with figures.


    ARRA'Y, n. [Norm, araie, and arraer, arair, to array, settle, prepare ; ray, a robe and the array or pannel of tlie Jury ; Old Fr. arroi, a word contracted ; Ir. earradh. suit of annor, furniture, accouternients, wares ; It. arredo, furniture, implements, rigging ; arredare, to prepare or equip ; Arm revza, to put in order or arrange ; Sp. arreo, Port, arreio, arreyo, array, dress ; Port. rear, to dress. Class Rd., and allied to rod, radius, ray. The primary sense is make straight or right. See Dress.]

    1. Order ; disposition in regular lines ; as army in battle array. Hence a posture ofl defense.

    2. Dress ; garments disposed in order upon the person. Dryden.

    3. In law, the act of impanneling a jury ; or a jury impanneled ; that is, a jury set in order by the sheriff, or called man by man. Blackstone. Cowel.

    Commission of array, in English history, was a commission given by the prince to offi cers in every county, to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a condition for war. Blacksto

    ARRA'Y, V. i. To place or dispose in order, as troops for battle.

    2. To deck or dress ; to adorn with di-ess it is applied especially to dress of a splen- did kind.

    ^rray thyself with glory. Job, xl. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph with fine linen. Gen. xli-

    3. To set a jury in order for the trial of e cause ; that is, to call them man by man.

    Blackstone. Cowel

    4. To envelop.

    f judgm a judgn

    mg or stopping of a judgment after ver- dict, for causes assigned. Courts have power to judgment for intrinsic cau- ses appearing upon the face of the record ; aswhonlhi' (|i',|:ii:iiioii varies from the origjii.i! uni: u Inn ih- v ndict ditiers ma- terially lio],, il„- I.I.;,,!,,,:;.; or when the case laiil iii ili,> (l.vian.ii..M is not sufficient in point of law, to found an action upon. The motion for this purpose is called a motion in arrest of judgment. Blackstone.

    5. A mangy humor between the ham and pastern of the liiiid legs of a horse.


    \RRESTA'TION, n. The act of arresting ;

    In gelid caves with horrid glooms arrayed. I 9. Any seizure, or taking by power, phvsical T^-mnbull.n or moral. ■= .< j ' i j

    ARRA'YED, pp. Set in order, or in lines ; ;j. a stop, hindrance or restraint.

    arranged m order for attack or

    dressed; adorned by dress; impanneled, -- - -^-^ ^ •>. T - J

    as a jurv ; enveloped. ARRA'VER, n. One who arrays. In Ei glish history, an officer who had a commis- sion of array, to put soldiers of a coimty in a condition for military service.

    ARRA'YING, ppr. Setting in order; putting on splendid raiment ; impanneling.

    ARRE'AR, adv. [Fr. ari-iere, behind. In some of its uses it has the sense o( lower, inferior. [See Arriere-ban.] Sp. and Port. arriar, to lower sail ; Arm. rem; revr, or refr, the fundament ; W. rhevyr, id., from rhev, thick. Lunier deduces arrear and arriere froniL.arf and retro. But the deri- vation from the Celtic seems most proba- bly correct.]

    Beliind ; at the hinder part. Spenser. In this sense obsolete. But from this use, \\>- retain the word as a noun in the phrase, mi arrear, to signify behind in payment.

    ARRE'AR, n. That which is behind in pay- ment, or which remains unpaid, though due. It is generally used in the plural, as the arrears of rent, wages and taxes ; and supposes a part of the money already paid.

    ARRE'ARAgE, n. [arre r and the common French termination age.]

    Arrears ; any sum of money remauiing un paid, afler previous payment of a part. A person may be in arrear for the whole amount of a debt ; but arrears and arrear- age imply that a part has been paid.

    ARRE€T', I [L. arrccius, raised, erect,

    ARRE€T'ED, ^ "• from arrigo. See Reach.] Erect ; attentive ; as a person listening.


    ARRENTA'TION, n. [Sp. arrendar rent, or take by lease ; of ad and reddo, to return. See Rent.]

    In the forest laws of England, a licensing the ir of land in a forest, to inclose it with all ditch and low hedge, in considera- ofa yearly rent. Cowel.

    ARREPTI'TIOUS, o. [L. arreptus, of ad and rapio, to snatch. See Rapacious.]

    1. Snatched away.

    2. [ad and repo, to creep. See Creep.] CrepI in privily. Johnson. Bailey.

    ARREST', V. t. [Fr. arreter, for arrester Sp. arrestar ; It. arrestare ; L. resto, to stop ; W. araws, arosi, to stay, wait, dwell ; Eng. to rest. See Rest.]

    1. To obstruct ; to stop ; to check or hinder motion ; as, to arrest the current of a river ; to arrest the senses.

    2. To take, seize or apprehend by virtue of a warrant from authority ; as, to arrest one for debt or for a crime.

    3. To seize and fix ; as, to arrest the eyes or attention.

    The appearance of such a person in the world, and at such a period, ought to arrest the consideration of every tliinking mind.


    4. To hinder, or restrain ; as, to arrest the course of justice.

    ARREST', J!. The taking or apprehending of a person by virtue of a warrant froni authority. An arrest is made by seizing or touching the body.

    ARRl'.S T r.l), pp. Seized ; apprehended ;

    sici|i|nil ; l/indered; restrained. AHKKSTKR, > One who an-ests. In ARREST'OR, J "• Scots law, the ijerson at

    whose suit an arrest is made. ARRESTING, ppr. Seizing; staying ; hin- dering; restraining. ARREST'MENT, n. In Scots law, an ar- rest, or detention of a criminal, till he finds caution or surety, to stand trial. Also the order of a judge by which a debtor to the arrestor's debtor is prohibited to make payirient, till the debt due to the ar- rester is paid or secured. ARRET', 71. [Contracted from arrests, Fr.

    arrete, fixed.] The decision of a court, tribunal or council ; a decree published ; the edict of a sove- reign prmce. ARRET', v. t. To assign ; to allot. Obs.


    ARRI'DE, V. t. [L. arrideo.] To laugh at ;

    to please well. [JVotinuse.] B. Jonson.

    ARRIE'RE, n. The last body of an army ;

    now called rear, wliich see. Arriere-ban, or ban and arriere ban. This phrase is defined to be a general proclama- tion of the French kings, by which not only their immediate feudatories, but their vassals, were summoned to take the field for war. In this case, ariiere is the French word signifying those who are last or be- hind, and ban is proclamation. [See Ban.] .drriere-fee or fief. A fee or fief dependent on a superior fee, or a fee held of a feuda- tory. irriere vassal. The vassal of a vassal. ARRI'VAL, n. The coming to, or reaching a place, from a (hstance, whetlier by water, as in its original sense, or by land. 2. The attainment or gaining of any object,

    by effort, agreement, practice or study. ARRI'VANCE, n. Company commg. [J^Tot itsed.] Shak.

    2. Arrival ; a reachmg in progress. Obs.

    Brown. ARRI'VE, V. i. [Fr. arriver ; Ann. arrivont, arrivein ; It. arrivare ; Sp. Port, arribar ; of ad and Fr. rive, the shore or sloping bank of a river ; Sp. ribera ; L. ripa ; Sans. arivi. In Irish, airbhe is ribs. It appears that rib, rive and ripa are radicahy one word ; in like manner, casta, a rib, and coast are radically the same.] 1. Literally, to come to the shore, or baiik.

    A R R

    A R S


    Tlence to romc to or reach in progress by water, followed by at. We arrived at Havre de Grace, July 10, 1824. N. W. 2. To come to or reach by traveling on land ;

    as, the post arrives at 7 o'clock. 8. To reach a point by progressive motion ; to gain or compass by effort, practice, study, enquiry, reasoning or experiment ; as, to arrive at an unusual degree of excel- lence or wickedness ; to arrive at a con- elusion. 4. To happen or occur.

    He to whom this glorious death arrives.

    Waller. ARRI'VE, V. t. To reach. LVot in use.]

    .ShaJc. ARRI'VING, ppr. Coming to, or reaching by water or land ; gaining by research, ef- fort or study. ARRO'BA, n. [Arabic] A weight in Por- tugal of tliirty two pounds ; in Spain, of] twenty five pounds. Also a Spanish meas- ure of thirty two Spanish pints.

    Sp. Dictionary. AR'ROGANCE, n. [L. arrogantia, from ar- rogo, to claim ; of ad and rogo, to beg, oi desire ; Fr. arrogance ; Ann. roguerdez S]). Port, arrogancia; It. arroganza. See Arrogate.] The act or quaUty of taking much upon one self; that species of pride which consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity, esti niation or power, or which exalts th< worth or importance of the person to at undue degree ; proud contempt of others conceitedness ; presumption.

    I will cause the arrogance of the piouJ to cease. Is. xiii. 1 Sam. ii. Prov. viii. AR'ROGANCY, n. Arrogance. [This

    thograpktj is less usual.] AR'ROGANT, a. Assuming; making or having the disposition to make exorbitant claims of rank or estimation ; giving one's self an undue degree of importance ; haughty ; conceited ; applied to persons. 2. Containing arrogance ; marked with ar- rogance ; proceeding from undue claims or self importance ; applied to things ; as arrogant pretensions or behavior. AR'ROGANTLY, adv. In an arrogant manner ; with undue pride or self im portance. AR'ROGANTNESS, n. Arrogance. [Little


    AR'ROG ATE, v. t. [L. arrogo, ofad and rogo ,

    Fr. arroger ; Sp. Port, arrogar ; It. arro-

    gare. The primary sense of rogo, to ask

    is to reach or stretch.]

    To assume, demand or challenge more thai

    is proper ; to make imdue claims, from

    vanity or false pretensions to right or

    merit ; as, the Pope arrogated dominion

    over kings. I

    AR'ROGATED, pp. Claimed by undue


    AR'ROGATING, ppr. Challenging or

    claiming more power or respect than is

    just or reasonable.

    ARROGA'TION, n. The act of arrogating,!

    or making exorbitant claims ; the act oil

    taking more than one is justly entitled to.

    AR'ROGATIVE, a. Assuming or making

    undue claims and pretensions. More.]

    ARROND'ISMENT, n. [from Fr. arro7idir,\

    to make round; of ad and rond, round.] A circuit ; a district ; a division or portion of I

    territory, in France, for the exercise of a particular jurisdiction.

    ARRO'SION, n. s as :. [L. arrodo.] A gnawing.

    AR'ROW,»z. [Sax. arewa. Qu.ray, radius, a shoot.]

    A missive weapon of offense, straight, slender, pointed and barbed, to be shot with a bow.

    2. In scripture, the an-oios of God are the ap- prehensions of his wrath, which pierce and pain the conscience. Job vi. Ps. xxxviii. In a like figm-ative manner, arrows repre- sent the judgments of God, as thimder, hghtning, tempests and famine. 2 Sam. xxii. Ez. V. Ilab. iii. The word is used also for slanderous words and malicious purposes of evil men. Ps. xi. Prov. xxv. Jer. ix. Ps. Ixiv. Cruden. Brown.

    AR'ROW-GRASS, n. A plant or genus of plants ; the Triglochin. Muhlenberg.

    AR'ROW-HEAD, 71. The head of an arrow.

    Sagittaria ; a genus of aquatic plants, called from the resemblance of the leaves to the point of an arrow.

    AR' ROW-ROOT, n. The Maranta ; a genus of plants, natives of the Indies. The In- dians are said to employ the roots of the arundinacea, in extracting the virus of poi soned arrows ; w hence the name. There are several species. From the root of the arunflinnrert, or starch-plant, is obtamed tlir :inii^\ -i-.Kit iif the shops. Encyc.

    2. Thr >Ninli iiltlic maranta, or arrow-root, food.

    AR'KOVVV, a. Consisting of arrows.

    Milton !. Formed Uke an arrow. Cowper

    ARSE, n. cvrs. [Sax. earse ; D. aars ; G arsch ; Persic, arsit, or arst] The but- tocks or hind part of an animal.

    To hang an arse, is to lag beliind ; to be slug- gish, or tardy.

    'ARSE-SMART, n. The vulgar name of a species of polygonum, or knot-grass.

    'ARSENAL, n. [Sp. Port. It. Fr. Arm. i magazine or repository of stores ; in Ital ian and Spanish, a dock or dock-yard probably L. arx navalis, a naval citadel or repository.]

    A repository or magazine of arms and niili tary stores, whether for land or naval ser- vice.

    ARSE'NIA€ or ARSEN'ICAL ACID. Ar- senic combined with a greater jiroportion of oxygen, than in the arsenious acid. It is called arsenic acid by most authors.

    ARSE'NIATE, n. A neutral sah, formed by arsenical acid combined with any metal- lic, earthy or sahne base.

    Lavoisier. Fourcroy.

    ARSENIC, n. [Ar. Jiijj zirnakon ; Syr.

    ).:^.>.ji1 zarnika ; Gr. afntvixov; L nicum ; Sp. arsenico ; Fr. arsenic] Arsenic, as it is usually seen in the shops, is not a metal, but an oxyd, from which the metal may be easily obtained by mixing it with half its weight of black flux, and introducing the mixture into a Floreni flask, gradually raised to a red heat, in sand bath. A* brilUant metallic subhmate of pine arsenic collects in the upper po of the flask. Ai-senic is of h steel blue

    color, quite brittle, and the metal with aB its compounds, is a virulent poison, vul- garly called rats-bane. It forms alloys with most of the metals. Combined with sul- phur it forms orpiment or realgar, which are the yellow and red sulphurets of ar- senic. Orpiment is the true arsenicum of the ancients. Plin. 34, 18. Native orpi- ment appears in yellow, brilliant, and seemingly talcky masses of various sizes ■ realgar is red, of different shades, and of- ten crystalized in needles. Arsenic is also found as a mineralizer in cobalt, antimonj . copper, iron and silver ores. It is brought chiefly from the cobalt works in Saxony, where zaifer is made. Webster's Manual. Fourcroy. JSIicholson. Cyc. .•VRSEN'ICAL, a. Belonging to arsenic r

    consisting of or containing arsenic. ARSEN'I€ATE, v. t. To combine with

    arsenic. ARSEN'ICATED, a. Combined with ar- senic. ARSE'NIOUS, a. Pertaunng to, or con- taining arsenic. The arsenious acid, or white oxyd of arsenic, is a combination of arsenic with a less proportion of oxygen than in the arseniac acid. ARSENITE, n. A salt formed by the ar- senious acid, with a base. ARSHINE, n. A Russian measure of two feet, four inches and 242 decimals. This seems to be the Chinese arschin, of which four make three yards English.

    Toolce\i Russia. Encyc. ARSON, n. arsn. [Norm. Fr. arsine, arseun ;

    from L. ardeo, arsum, to burn.] In laiD, the malicious burning of a dwelling house or outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony. The defi- nition of this crime is varied by statutes in different countries and states. In Con- necticut, the burning not only of a dwell- ing house or contiguous building, but of a ship or other vessel, is declared to be ar- son, if human life is thereby destroyed or put to hazard. ART. The second person, indicative mode, present tense, of the substantive verb am ; but from were, Sw. vara, Dan. merer. ART, n. [L. ars, artis ; probably contracted from the root of W. cerz, Ir. ceard. The radical sense is strength, from stretching, straining, the primary sense of strength and power, and hence of skill. See an analogy in can.]

    1. The disposition or modification of things by human skill, to answer the purpose in- tended. In this sense art stands opposed to nature. Bacon. Encyc.

    2. A system of rules, serving to facihtate the performance of certain actions ; opposed to science, or to speculative principles ; as the art of building or engraving. Arts are divided into useful or mechanic, and liberal or polite. The mechanic arts are those in which the hands and body are more con- cerned than the mind ; as in making clothes, and utensils. These arts are called trades. The liberal or polite arts are those in which the mind or imagina- tion is chiefly concerned ; as poetry, music and painting.

    In America, literature and the elegant artx must s;row up side by side with the coarser plants of daily necessity. Irving.


    A R T

    A R 1'

    3. Skill, dexterity, or the power of perform ing certain actions, ac(iuire

    ARTEMIS'IA, n. Mug-wort, southern wood, and wormwood ; a genus of plants of numerous species. Of these, tlie uli sinthium or common wormwood is wel known.

    ARTE'RIAL, a. [See AHery.] Pertaining to an artery or the arteries ; as arteriui action.

    2. Contained in an artery ; as arterial blood.

    ARTERIOT'OMY, n. [Gr. apr^pwt, an ar- tery, and to/irj, a cutting,"

    Tlie opening of an artery by the lancet, for the purpose of letting blood

    •ARTERY, n. [Gr. oprjjpio, from aijp, air, and rijptco, to i)resen'e or contain ; so called frotn the opinion of the ancients, that the arteries contained or circulateil air. The term was also applied to the trachea oi winrl pipe, arteria aspera. In Ger. hijl- ader, air-vein, is the name for artery ; ii Dutch, slag-ader, stroke-vein ; in Swed puls-ader, pidse-vein ; Dan. jnds-aart pidse vein, that is, the beating vein.]

    A cylindrical vessel or tube, which convey; the blood from the heart to all parts of the body. There are two principal arteries the aorta, which rises from the left ventri- cle and ramifies through the whole body and the pulmonary artery, which conveys the blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, to undergo respiration. An artery is composed of three coats ; the outer con- sists of condensed cellular membrane, and is supplied with numerous blood vessels and nerves ; the middle coat consists o; circular fibers, generally supposed to bo muscular ; the inner coat, thin, smooth, and dense, confines the blood within its canal, and facihtates its motion.

    Parr. Cyc.

    •ARTFUL, a. [See Art.] Performed with art or skill. Dryden,

    2. Artificial, as opposed to natural.


    3. Cunning; practicing art, or stratagem: crafty ; as an artful boy. [ This is the most usual sense.]

    4. Proceeding from art or craft ; as an artful scheme.

    'ARTFULLY, adv. With art, or cunning

    skilfully ; dextrously. ARTFULNESS, n. Art;




    ARTHRIT'IC, I ^, Pertaining to the

    ARTHRIT'I€AL, ^ "• joints, or to the gout ; affecting the joints.

    ARTIIRIT'IS, n. [Gr. ap9piris, from ap9pov a joint. It seems to be of the same fam- ily as artus, a limb.]

    In a general sense, any jiainful disease of the joints ; but more particularly, the gout, an hereditary, intermitting disease, usually affecting the small joints; sometimes tlie stomach. Coie. Ouina/.

    ARTHRO'DIA, ?i. [from ap9pou, to frame or articulate.]

    1. A species of articulation, in wliich the head of one bone is received into the shallow socket of anotlier ; as the humerus and the scapula. Encyc.

    2. In natural history, a genus of imperfect

    cr^stnl', iniiMil in complex masses, and Ciniiliir I'm;; >irigle pyramids, with ven >Im.i-i .'111.! -I. M,|<-i- colunms. Encyr.

    'AR'I'lt. 'l\n> \\(jrd is by mistake used In

    sdiiir jMithois tor arclic. ARTICHOKE, .1. [Qu. the first syllable of Gr. opTvrixa. Fr. artichaut ; Arm. aiii- chauden ; Sp. alcachofa ; Port, alcachofra ; It. carciofo, carciofano, or carciofalo. The first syllable is probably the L. carduus, chard, thistle, corrupted. D. artichok ; G urlischoke ; Dan. artiskok.']

    A plant somewhat resembling a thi.stle, with a dilated, imbricated and prickly calyx. The head is large, rough and scaly, on an upright stalk. It is composed of nume- rous, oval scales, inclosing the florets, sit- ting on a broad receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is the eatable part of the plant. Encyc. Miller.

    The Jerusalem artichoke is a species of sun- flower or hehanthus.

    'ARTICLE, n. [L. artictdus, a joint, from artus ; Gr. opSpor.]

    1. A single clause in a contract, account, system of regulations, treaty, or other wri- ting ; a |)articular separate charge or item, in an account; a term, condition, or stip- ulation, in a contract. In short, adistmct part of a writing, instrument or discourse, consisting of two or more particulars ; as, articles of agreement ; an accoiuit con- sisting of many articles.

    2. A point of faith ; a doctrinal point or proposition in theology ; as the thirty-nine aiiicles.

    3. A distinct part.

    Upon each article of human duty. Paley.

    4. A particidar commodity, or substance ; as, an article of merchandize ; salt is a neces- sary article. In common usage, this word is appUed to almost every separate sub- .stance or material.

    The articles which compose the blood.


    5. A point of time. [.Vol in use.]


    G. In hotany, that part of a stalk or stem, which is between two joints. Milne.

    ". In grammar, an adjective used before uouns, to limit or define their appUcation ; as hie, ille, ipse, in Latin ; o, tj, to, in Greek ; the, this, that, in English ; le, la, les, in French ; il, la, to, in Italian. The pri- mary use of these adjectives was to convert an indeterminate name into a determinate one ; or to luuit the applica- tion of a common name, to a specific, known, or certain individual. But article being an unjiroper term to express the true signification, I make use of definitive, which see.

    ARTICLE, V. t. To draw up in distinct par- ticulars; as, to article the eiTors or folhesi of a man. Taylor ^

    2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of) articles. " He shall be articled againsti in the High Court of admiralty." Stat.' as. George III.

    3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipu- lation ; as, to article an apprentice to a me- chanic.

    ARTICLE, V. {. [supra.] To agree by arti- cles ; to stipulate. Donne.

    ^■VRTICLED, pp. Drawn up in particulars : accused or bound by articles.

    ARTK I I,\H,«. [L. articularis.]

    !■' ML 111'.' 1.1 tlie joints; as, the gout is an

    \l;ri( I I.VTE, a. [L.arhVu/a/us, jointed,

    Formed by jointing pr articuliition of tlio organs of speech j applied to sox'tid. An articulate sound is. nmde "by i?iosin;t -nOd • opening the organ.~i of speech. Thftj.iik'- ■ tion or closing of the organs forms a joint or articulation, u.s in the .syllables ab, ad, ap ; in passing from one articulation to an- other, the organs are, or may be opened, and a vowel is uttered, as in attune ; and the diflerent articulatioii.s with the inter- vening vocal sounds, fiiii wIku is called articulate sounds; s.iiin.l- .li-ru.. i. hc|)a- rate, and modified by :ini. ..r |i)int- ing. This articulation r.-n-iniit. -^ the j)rominent difference In tu. , n iIm hiiiiiiin voice and that of briiti--. ISnii. - nji. n ihe mouth and make vocjil >iiiiiiil.-, I.m have, either not at all, or very imiifcrlecllv, the power of articulation.

    2. Expressed in articles, or in separate par- ticulars. IJ^ot used.] Brown.

    3. Jointed ; (firmed with joints. Botany. ARTICULATE, v. t. To utter articulate

    sounds; to utter distinct syllables or words.

    2. To draw up or write in separate particu- lars. [JVot used.] Shak.

    3. To treat, stipulate or make terms. [.Vol used.] Shak.

    4. To joint. Smith. ARTICULATED, pp. Uttered distinctly in

    syllables or words.

    2. Jointed ; having joints, as a plant.

    ARTIC ULATELY, adv. With distinct ut- terance of syllables or words.

    2. Article by article ; in detail. Paley.

    ARTIC'ULATENESS, n. The quality of being articulate.

    ARTICULATING, ;>/)r. Uttering in distinct syllables or words.

    ARTICULATION, n. In anatomy, the join- ing or juncture of the bones. This is of three kinds : 1st, diaiihrosis, or a mova- ble connection, including enarthrosis, or the ball and socket joint ; anhrodia, which is the same, but more superficial ; gingly- inus, or hinge-Uke joint ; and trochoid, or the wheel and axle : 2d, synarthrosis, im- movable connection, as by suture, or junction by serrated margins ; harmony, or union by straight margins ; and goni- phosis, like a nail driven in a board, as the teeth m their sockets : 3d, symphysis, or union by means of another substance ; as synchondrosis, union by a cartilage ; syssarcosis, union by muscular fibres ; syimeurosis, union by a tendon ; syndes- mosis, union by hgaments ; and synostosis, union by a bony substance.

    ^uincy. Coxe.

    2. In botany, the connection oi the parts of a plant by joints; also the nodes or joints, as in cane and maize. Encyc.

    3. The forming of words ; a distinct utter- ance of syllables and words by the human voice, by means of closing and opening the organs.

    4. A consonant; a letter noting a jointing or closing of the organs.

    'ARTIFICE, n. [L. artificium, from ars, art,

    and facio, to make.] Stratagem ; an artful or ingenious device, in


    a good or bad sense. In a bad sense, it coiTes))onds with trick, or fraud.

    3. Art ; trade ; skill acquired by science practice. [Rarek/ used.]

    ARTIE'IJSBH.,.?.',. \L.arHfe.r, from ars, and faciq.]., . ' -

    1. An artisl; ; a, mechanic or manufacturer

    , pH^. wli/! ocGdgatitiu requires skill or iHovviedge ot' a particular kind ; as a sil- versmith, or Sadler.

    3. One who makes or contrives ; an inventor ; as an artificer of fraud or lies. Milton.

    3. A cunnmg, or artful fellow. [JVot used.] Ben Jonson.

    ARTIFI"CIAL, a. Made or contrived by art, or by human skill and labor, in oppo- sition to natural ; as artificial heat or Ught an artificial magnet.

    'J. Feigned; fictitious; no ural ; as artificial tears.

    3. Contrived with skill or

    4. Cultivated ; not indigenous ; not being of spontaneous growth ; as artificial grasses.


    AHifidal arguments, in rhetoi-ic, are argu- ments invented by the speaker, in distinc- tion from laws, authorities and the like, which are called inartificial arguments or proofs. Johnson.

    Artificial lines, on a sector or scale, are luies so contrived as to represent the logarith- mic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the hne of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions in trigonometry, navi- gation, &c.

    Artificial numbers, the same with logarithms Chambers. Encye

    ARTIFICIAL'ITY, n. The quaUty of being artificial; appearance of art.


    ARTIFI"CIALLY, adv. By art, or human skill and contrivance ; hence, with good contrivance ; with art or ingenuity.

    ARTIFI"CIALNESS, n. The quality of being artificial.

    ARTIL'LERY, n. This word has no plural. [Fr. artilkne ; It. artiglie7-ia ; Sp. artille- ria. In Fr. artilleur, artillier, is a matross ; Sp. arlillar, to mount cannon. In Arm- oric, artillery is adilhiry, and an artist is artilher. In Norm. Fr. artillery is written articlane. The Arinoric unites this word with art, aHist, inihcating that the primary sense is, instruments, things formed by art or rather prepared by art, preparations.]

    1. In a general sense, offensive weapons of war. Hence it was formerly used for bows and arrows.

    But in present usage, appropriately,

    3. Cannon ; great guns ; ordnance, inchuUng

    guns, mortars and grenades, with their

    furniture of carriages, balls, bombs and

    shot of all kinds.

    3. In a more extended sense, the word in- cludes i)owderj cartridges, matches, uten- sils, machines of all kinds, and horses that belong to a train of artillery.

    4. The men who manage cannon and mor- tars, including iiiatrosses, gunners, bomb- ardiers, c-aiinoiiins, or by whatever name they ai-r calli-il, with the officers, engineers and iHTsnns « lio supply the artillery witli implements and materials. Encyc.

    A R U

    ARTISAN, n. s as z. [ Fr. from L. ars. Sec

    Art.] An artist ; one skilled in any art, mystery or

    trade ; a handicrafls-man ; a mechanic

    a tradesman. 'ARTIST, n. [¥r. artiste; It. artisla;^-om

    L. ars. See AH.]

    1. One skilled m an art or trade ; one who is master or professor of a manual art ; good workman in any trade.

    2. A skilful man ; not a novice.

    In an academical sense, a proficient in the

    faculty of arts ; a philosopher. Encyc.

    4. One skilled in the fine arts ; as a painter

    scidptor, architect, &c. 'ARTLESS, a. Unskilful ; wanting art

    knowledge or skill. Dryden.

    2. Free from guile, art, craft or stratagem simple ; sincere ; unaffected ; undesign- ing ; as an aiiless mind.

    3. Contrived without skill or art ; as an art- less tale.

    ARTLESSLY, adv. Without art or skill;

    in an artless manner. 3. Without guile ; naturally ; sincerely ;

    Pope The quality of being simplicity ; sincerity ;

    n. [ofGr. apros, bread,

    affectedly, ARTLESSNESS, void of art or guil unaffectedness.

    AR'TOTYRITE, and Tupos, cheese.]

    One of a sect of heretics, in the primitive church, who celebrated the euchai'ist with bread and cheese, alledging that the first oblations of men were not only the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. They ad- mitted females to the priesthood and epis- copacv. Encyc.

    .4RTS-MAN, n. A learned man. Obs.


    ARUNDE'LIAN, a. Pertaining to Arundel, as Arundelian marbles. The Arimdelia marbles are ancient stones, containing chronological detail of the principal events of Greece, from Cecrops, who lived about 1582 years before Christ, to the archonship of Diognetus, before Christ 264. The en- graving was done in Pares, and the chro- nology is called the Parian Chronicle These stones are called Arundelian from the Earl of Arundel, who employed W liam Petty to procure relics of antiquity in the East, in 1624. These, with other osities, were purchased, and by the Earl's grandson presented to the University of Oxford. Their antiquity and even their authentioitv has been questioned. Ena/c.

    ARUNDINA'CEOUS, a. [L. arundo, a reed.]

    Pertaining to a reed ; resembhng the reed or cane

    ARUNDIN'EOUS, a. Abounding with reeds.

    ARU'RA, n. [Gr. apspo.] Literally, as au thors suppose, a ploweti field. According to Herodotus, and Suidas, the arura of Egypt, was a piece of ground fifty feet square. Others make it a square of 100 cubits ; others of 100 feet. The Grecian aroura was a square measure of half the plethron, [See Aronra.]

    Encyc. Herod. Euterpe. [L.] A soothsayer.


    writteji also haruspice.

    haruspex, a soothsayer, or



    [L. aruspex.

    diviner, who attemjKed to foretell events

    A S B

    by consulting the entrails of beasts slain iia sacrifice. Qu. Teut. or/; i/r/"; Eth. A4T arwe, cattle, and L. specio, to view.]

    A priest, in ancient Rome, whose business was to inspect the entrails of victhns, killed m sacrifice, and by them to foretel future events.

    ARUS'PICY, n. The act of prognosticating by inspection of the entrails of beasts, slain m sacrifice. Butler.

    AS, adv. nz. [Pers. \,^\ asa, like, similar, as ; Gr. uj. Qii. Fr. aussi. But more prob- ably the English word is contracted fi-oni als, G. and D. It corresponds in sense with the Persian.]

    1. Literally, Uke ; even; similar. " Ye shaH be as Gods, knowmg good and evil." " As far as we can see," that is, like far, equally far. Hence it may be explained by in like manner ; as, do as you are connnanded.

    2. It was formerly used where we now use that Obs.

    The relations are so unccrtiiin as they require a great deal of examination. Bacon.

    3. It was formerly used for as if. Obs. He lies, as he his bliss did know.

    Waller. V\''hile ; dm-ing ; at the same time. " He trembled as he spoke." But in most of its uses, it is resolvable into like, equal, even, or equally, in like manner. In some phra- ses, it must be considered a nomuiative word, or other words must be supplied. " Appoint to office such men as deserve pubUc confidence." This phrase may be elliptical for " such men as those who de- serve public confidence."

    As seems, in some cases, to imply the sense of ))ro])ortion. " In general, men are more happy, as they are less involved in pubhc concerns."

    ?, m a subsequent part of a sentence, an- swers to such ; give us such tilings as you please ; and in a preceding part of a sen- tence, has so to answer to it ; as with the people, so with the priest.

    AS, n. [L.] A Roman weight of 12 ouncesj answering to the libra or potmd. A Roman coin, origuially of a pound weight ; but reduced, after the first Punic war, to two ounces ; in the second Punic war, to one ounce ; and by the Papirian law, to half an ounce. It was originally stamped with the figure of a sheep, sow, or ox ; and afterwards with a Jamis, on one side, and on the reverse, a rostrum o^- prow of a ship.

    3. An integer ; a whole or single thing. Hence the English ace. Hence the Ro- mans used the word for the whole inher- itance ; haeres ex asse, an heir to the whole estate. Encyc.

    ASA, a corru])tion oflasar, an ancient name of a gum. [See Ooze.]

    ASA-DULCIS, the same as benzoin.

    ASA-FET'IDA, n. [Asa, gum, and L. fati- dus, fetid.]

    A fetid gum-resin, from the East Indies. It is the concrete juice of a large imibelhfer- ous plant, much used in Medicine, as ai» antispasmodic. Encyc.

    ASBES'TINE, a. [See Asbestus.]

    Pertaining to asbestus, or i)aitaking of it'? nature and qualities ; ineonibustible.

    A S C

    A S C

    A S C

    ASBES'TINITE, n. [See Jlshestus.] The actinolite or stralilstciii. Kirwan.

    Calciferous abestinite ; u variety of steatite.

    Kirwan. ASBES'TUS, } [Gr. aaSi^o,, inextiiiguisii- ASBES'TOS, <, "•alp|e;ofaneg.and


    A niiii(i:il, wliiclj lias frequently the appear- ance (if a \ ejjctahle .suhstaiieo. It isalways filjri)us, and its fihers sometimes aj)pear tc l)e prismatic crystals. They are some- times delicate, flexible, and elastic ; al other times, stiff and brittle. Its powder is soft to the touch; its colors are s shade of white, gray or green, passing brown, red or black, ft is incombustible, anil has been wrought into a soft, fl cloth, which was formerly used as a shroud for dead bodies. It has been al.-i factured into incombustible pajjer, and wicks for lamps.

    Kirwan. Encyc. Cleaveland.

    Ugniform asbeslus is a variety of a brown color, of asphntery fracture, and if broken across, presents an irregidar filamentous structure, like wood. Kirwan.

    ASCA'RIS, n. plu. ascar'ides. [Gr.]

    In zoology, a genus of intestinal worms. The body is cylindrical, and tapering at the ends. It includes two of the mc mon worms in the lumian intestines, the ascarides, and the lumbricoides.

    ASCEND', V. {. [L. ascendo, from scando, to mount or climb ; VV. e.igyn, to rise ; cyn first, chief It has the same elements as begin.]

    1. To move upwards ; to mount ; to go up to rise, wlietlier in an- or water, or upon a material object.

    2. To rise, in a figurative sense ; to proceed from an inferior to a superior degree, from mean to noble objects, from particulars tc generals, &c.

    3. To proceed from modern to ancient times to recur to former ages ; as, our inquiries ascend to the remotest antiquity.

    4. In a corresponding sense, to proceed in a line towards ancestors ; as, to ascend our first progenitors.

    5. To rise as a star ; to proceed or come above the horizon.

    C. In mmic, to rise in vocal utterance ; l)ass from any note to one more acute.

    ASCEND', V. t. To go or move upwards upon, as to ascend a hill or ladder; or to climb, as to ascend a tree.

    ASCEND' ABLE, a. That maybe ascended,

    ASCEND'ANT, n. Superiority or conmiaud- ing influence ; as, one man has the ascend- ant over another.

    'i. An ancestor, or one who precedes in ge- nealogy, or degrees of kindred ; ojjposed to descendant.

    3. Ilighth ; elevation. [Little used.]


    4. hi astrology, that degree of the echptic which rises above the horizon at the time of one's birth. That part of the echptic at any particular time above the horizon, supposed to have influence on a person's life and fortune. Johnson. Encyc.

    ASCEND'ANT, a. Superior ; predominant ;

    surpassing. •i. In astrologi), above the horizon. ASCEND'Ei), pij. or a. Risen ; mounted up;

    irone to heaven.

    Vol. I.

    ASCEND'ENCY, n. Power; governing oi controlling influence.

    Custom has an ascendency over the under- standing. Watts.

    ASCE.\D'ING, ppr. Rising; moving up- wards ; proceeding from the less to the griiater ; proceeding from modern to an- cient, from grave to more acute. A star is said to be ascending, when rising above the horizon, in any parallel of the equator. scending latitude is the latitude of a planet, when moving towards the North pole.

    Ascending node is that point of a planet's or- bit, wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed northward. It is also called the northern node.

    \.,1scending vessels, in .'cnatoniy, arc thos( whicli carrv the liluinl M|i\\aiil or tow;u-( tiio su|icrio"r parlsortliclMiilv.

    ASCEN'SION, n. [L. ascensi6.]

    1. The act of ascending; arising. It is fre- quently applied to the visible elevation of] our Savior to Heaven.

    2. The thing rismg, or ascending. [JVot authorized.]

    3. In astronomy, ascension is either right or obliijue. Right ascension of the sim or of a star, is that degree of the equinoctial, counted from the beginning of Aries, which rises with the sim or star, in a right sphere. Obliiiue ascension is an arch of the equator, intercepted between the first point of Aiies, and that point of the equa- tor which rises together with a star, in ar oblique sphere. Johnson.

    ASCENSION-DAY, n. A festival of some cliristian churches, held ten days or on the Thursday but one, before Whitsuntide, which is called Holy Thursday, in com- memoration of our Savior's ascension into heaven, after his resurrection.

    Ascensional difference is tlie difference be- tween the right and oblique ascension of the same point on the surface of the S|)here. Chambers.

    ASCEN'SIVE, a. Rising ; tending to rise, or causing to rise. Joum. of Science.

    ASCENT', n. [L. ascensus.]

    '. The act of rising ; motion upwards, whether in air, water or other fluid, nr on elevated objects ; rise ; a mountiiifj np- • wards; as the ascent of vapors from the earth.

    2. The way by which one ascends ; the means of ascending. Baron.

    3. An eminence, hill or high place. Mdison

    4. The degree of elevation of an object, or the angle it makes with a horizontal line as, a road has an ascent of fi^e degrees. Acclivity ; the rise of a hill ; as a steep

    ascent. ASCERTA'IN, v.t. [from the L. ad certum. to a certainty.] . To make certain ; to define or reduce to precision, by removing obscurity or ambi- giuty. The divine law ascertains the truth. Hooker. . To make certain, by trial, examination or experiment, so as to know what was be- fore imknown ; as, to ascertain the weight of a commodity, or Uie purity of a metal. 3. To make sure by previous measures.

    Tl>c ministry, in order to ascertain a majority in (he house of lords, jiersuaded the queen to create twelve new peers. Smollett


    4. To make certain or confident, followed hy a pronoun ; as, to a.'irertain j(.sof the good- ness of our work. [Vniisval.] Dryden.

    5. To fix ; to establish wiili certainty; to render invariable, an

    The mildness and precision of their laws as- certained the mle and measure of taxation.

    Gibbon. ASCERTA'INABLE, a. That may be made certain in fact, or certain to the mind ; that may be certainly known or reduced to a certainty. Kerr's Lavoisier.

    ASCERTA'INED, pp. Made certain ; de- fined ; established ; reduced to a certainty. ASCERTA'INER, n. The person who as- certains or makes certain. ASCERTA'IMXO, ppr. Making certain ; ; (--^iiiliii^liing ; reducing to a cer- : nliiainiiii.' certain knowledge. ASCi;i!'l A l.NiMENT, n. The act of ascer- tahiing ; a reducing to certainty ; certainty ; fi-'i:<''l rule. Suiff. Burke.

    ASCESSANCY, ) [See Acescency, Aces- ASCESSANT, J cent.] ASCET'IC, a. [Gr. aoxr;ro;, exercised, hard- ened ; from aaxtu, to exercise.] Retired tioni tlie world; rigid; severe ; aus- tere ; cmi)loyed in devotions and mortifi- cations. ASCET'I€, n. One who retires from the customary business of life, and devotes himself to tlie duties of piety and devotion ; a hermit ; a recluse. 2. The title of certain books, on devout ex- ercises ; as the ascetics of St. Basil. AS'CIAN, n. [L. ascii, from Gr. a prW.

    and BXM, a shadow.] A person, who, at certain times of the year, has no shadow at noon. Such are the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, at times, a vertical sun. Bailey.

    AS'CITANS, n. [Gr. oaxoj, a bag or bottle

    of skin.] .K sect or branch of Montanists, who appear- ed in the second century. They introdu- ced into their assemblies, certain bacchan- als, who danced around a bag or skin distended with air, in allusion to the bot- tles filled with new wine. Math ix. Encyc. AS'CITES, n. [Gr. affxoj, a bladder.] A dropsy or tense elastic swelling of the belly, with fluctuation, from a collection of "••Iter. CoTe. Quincy.

    AS( IT IC. i ^ Belonging to an ascites; ASCIT UAL, 5 ■ dropsical; hydropical. ASCITI TIOUS, a. [L.ascifus; Low L. ascititius ; trom ascisco, to take to or asso- ciate.] Additional ; added ; supplemental ; not inhe- rent or original.

    Homer has been reckoned an ascititious name. Pope.

    AS€LE'PIAD, Ji. In ancient poetry, a verse of four feet, the first of which is a .spondee, the second, a choriamb, and the last two, dactyls ; or of four feet and a cesura, the first, a spondee, the second, a dactyl, then the cesura, followed by two dactyls ; a.s, Maece | nas ata : vis | edite 1 regihus. Encyc. AS€RI'BABLE, a. [See Ascribe.] Thai

    may be ascribed or attributed. ASCRIBE, V. t. [L. ascribo, of ad and .scribo,

    to write.] 1. To attribute, impute, or set to, ; to assign, as effect to a cause ; as, losses are often to be ascribed to imprudence.

    A 8 11

    A S I


    •1. To uliribiito, n*i a quahty, or an appurte- nance ; to consider or alledge to belong ; as, to ascribe perfection to God, or imper- fection to man. Job xxxvi. Ps. 'Ixviii. 1 Sam. xviii.

    ASCRI'BED, ])p. Attributed or imputed; considered or alledged, as belonging.

    AS€RI'BING, 7);)r. Attributing; imputing; alledging to belong.

    ASCRIP'TION, n. The act of ascribing, imputing or atTirming to belong.

    \S€RIPTI"TIOUS, a. That is ascribed. This word is applied to villains under the feudal system, who are annexed to the freehold and transferable with it.

    Spelman. Lib. JViger Scaccarii.

    ASH, n. [Sax. ase ; Dan. ask ; Germ, esche ; D. essche ; Russ. yassen.]

    1. A well known tree, of which there are many species. There is no hermaphrodite calyx, or it is quadripartite ; and no corol, or it is tetrapetalous. There are two sta- mens ; one pistil ; one seed, contained in a membranous, lanceolate capsule, and tlie pistil of the female flower is lanceolate The leaves are pinnate, and the capsules grow in clusters. This wood is valuable, for fuel, as well as for timber ; and the tree, when it grows in an open field, often formp, with its branches, a beautiful oval figure and a thick shade.

    Encyc. Linne. MUlei

    2. The wood of the ash tree. ASH, a. Pertaining to or like the ash ; made

    of asli. ASHA'ME, V. t. To shame. [JVot tised.] ASHA'MED, «. [from Sax. gescamian or as- camian, to be ashamed, to blush, iron) scama, shame ; originally a participle. See Shame.] 1. Affected by shame ; abashed or confused by guilt or a conviction of some criminal action or indecorous conduct, or by the exposure of some gross errors or miscon- duct, which the person is conscious must be wrong, and which tends to impair his honor or reputation. It is followed by of. Thou shall remember thy ways, and be asha- med. Ex. xvi.

    Israel shall be ashamed of liis own counsel. Hosea x. 9. Confused by a consciousness of guilt or of inferiority ; by the mortification of pride by failure or disappointment.

    They shall be greatly ashamed, Ihat trust ii

    images. Isa. xlii.

    [This adjective always follows its noun.'}

    ASHA'MEDLY, adv. Bashfully. [J^ot used.]

    ASH-€OLORED, a. Of a color between

    brown and gray. Woodward.

    ASH'EN. a. [See Ash.] Pertaining to ash ;

    made of ash. ASH'ES, n. plu. without the singular num- ber. [Sax. asca ; Goth, azga ; D. asch ; G. asche ; Sw. aska ; Dan. aske ; Basque, aus- cxia.]

    1. The earthy particles of combustible sub- stances remaining after combustion ; as of wood or coal.

    2. The remains of the human body when burnt. Hence figuratively, a dead body or corpse.

    3. In scnpture, ashes is vised to denote vile ness, meanness, frailty, or liumiliation.

    I who am but dust and ashes. Gen. xviii.

    1 abhor myself and repent in dust and ashes. Job xlii. ASH'-FIRE, n. A low fire used in chunical

    operations. ASH'-HOLE, n. A repositoi^ for ashes ; the

    lower jiart of a furnace. ASH'LAJl, Ji. Common or free stones, as they come from the quarry, of difti;rent lengths, breadths and thicknesses.

    Johnson. ASH'LERING, n. Quartering for lathing to, in garrets, two or three feet high, per- pendicular to the floor, and reacliing to the under side of the rafters. Encyc.

    ASHO'RE, adv. [a, at or on, and shore. See

    Shore.] 1. On shore ; on the land adjacent to water ; to the shore ; as, bring the goods ashore. On land, opposed to aboard ; as, the cap- tain of the ship. remained asAorc. 3. On the ground ; as, the ship was driven

    ashore. ASHWEDNESDAY, n. The first day of Lent ; supposed to be so called from a cus- tom in the Romish Church of sprinkhng ashes, that day, on the heads of penitents, then admitted to penance. ASH'-WEED, n. A plant, the small wild angehca, gout-wort, goats-foot, or herb- gerard. Encyc,

    ASHY, a. Belonging to ashes ; ash-color- ed ; pale ; inchnuig to a whitish gray.

    Shak \SHY-PALE, a. Pale as ashes. Shak

    \'SIAN, a. [from J}sia, a name originally gwen to Asia Minor or some part of it ))erhaps fi-om the Asses, Ases or Osses, about Mount Taurus. Mallet, JVorth. Ant i. 60. Plin. 6. 17.] Pertaining to Asia. Dryden. Mitford.

    A'SIAR€H, n. [Asia and apxof, chief] A chief or pontiff of Asia ; one who had the sujjerintendence of the public games, Acts xix. Milner.

    ASIAT'I€, a. Belonging to Asia, a quarter of the globe whicli extends from the strait of Constantinople and the Arabian gulf, to the Pacific ocean on the east. It is proba ble, the name was originally appropriated to what is now Asia Miiior or rather a part of it. ASIAT'Ie, n. A native of Asia. ASIAT'ICISM, n. Imitation of the Asiatic manner. JVarton.

    ASI'DE, adv. [a and side. See Side. I. On or to one side ; out of a perpendicular

    straight direction. i. At a little distance from the main part or body.

    Thou shall set asUle that which is full. 2 Kings iv.

    3. From the body ; as, to jiut or lay aside a gai-ment. John xiii.

    4. From the company ; at a small distance or ui private ; as when speakers utter something by themselves, upon the stage.

    5. Separate from the person, mind or atten- tion ; in a state of abandonment.

    Let us lay aside every weight. Heb. xii.

    6. Out of the fine of rectitude or propriety, a moral view. They are all gone aside. Ps. xiv.

    7. In a state of separation to a particular use ; as, to set aside a thing for a future day.

    To set aside, in judicial proceedings, is to de

    feat the eflfect or operation of, by a subse- quent decision of a superior tribunal ; as. to set aside a verdict or a judgment.

    ASINE'GO, n. [Sp. asnico, a httle ass.] A foolish fellow. Mason.

    AS'ININE, rarely AS'INARY, a. [L. asi- nus ; W. asyn, the ass ; which see.]

    Belonging to the ass ; ha^^ng the quaUties of the ass.

    ASK, V. t. [Sax. ascian, acsian, or aiian ; D. eischen ; G. heischen ; Ir. ascaim ; Gr; allow. Qu. Eth. ^ ft tV t'^ pray or beseech. In former times, the EngUsh word was ])ronouneed ax, as in the royal style of as- senting to bills in Parliament. " Be it as it is axed." In Calmuc, asoc signifies to in- quire. The sense is to urge or press.]

    1. To request ; to seek to obtain by words ; to petition ; with of before the person to whom the request is made.

    Ask counsel of God. Judges xviii.

    2. To require, expect or claim. To whom men J^ave committed much, of him

    they wiU ask the more. Luke xii.

    3. To interrogate, or inquire ; to put a ques- tion, with a view to an answer.

    He is of age, ask him. John ix.

    4. To require, or make claim. Ask me never so much dowry. Gen. xxxiv.

    Dan. ii.

    5. To claim, require or demand, as the price or value of a commodity ; to set a price ; as, what price do you ask ?

    L To requiie, as physically necessarj'.

    The exigence of a stale asks a much longer time to conduct the design to maturity.

    Addison . This sense is nearly or entirely obsolete : ask being superseded by require and de- mand.

    7. To invite ; as, to ask guests to a wedding or entertainment ; ask my friend to step into the house.

    ASK, V. i. To request or petition, followed

    by for ; as, ask for bread ; or without for.

    Ask and it shall be given you. Mat. «i.

    2. To incpiire, or seek by request ; some- times followed by after.

    Wherefore dost thou ask after my name ? Gen. xxxii.

    This verb can hardly be considered as strictly intransitive, for some person or ob- ject is always understood.

    Ask is not equivalent to demand, claim, and require, at least, in modern usage ; much less, is it equivalent to beg and beseech. The first three words, demand, claim, re- quire, iiiqily a right or supposed right in the person asking, to the thuig requested ; and beseech imphes more urgency, than ask. Ask and request imply no right, but sup- pose the thing desired to be a favor. The French demander is correctly rendered by ask, rather than by demand.

    ASK\\NCE, ? , " [D. schuins, sloping.]

    ASK^ANT, I '^^- Sideways ; obhquely ; towards one corner of tlie eye. Dryden.

    ^ASKED, pp. Requested ; petitioned ; ques- tioned ; mterrogated.

    'ASKER, Ji. One who asks ; a petitioner ; an inquirer.

    2. A water newt. Johnson.

    ASKEW adv. [G.schief; Dan. ski(EV ; D. schccf, awry, crooked, oblique.]


    ^Vith a wry look ; aside ; askant ; sometimes indicating scorn, or contempt, or envy.

    Sptnser. ASKING, ppr. Requesting; petitioning;

    interrogating ; inquiring. 2. Silently expressing request or desire.

    Kxplain the asking eye. Pope.

    ASLA'KE, V. I. [Sax. nulacian. See Slack.] To remit ; to slacken. [.Vo/ in use.] Speiise; ASLA'NI, n. A silver coin worth from 115 to 120 aspers. Enn/c.

    ASL'ANT, a. or adv. [a and slant. See


    On one side ; obliquely ; not perpendicularly or with a right angle.

    The shaft drove through his neck aslant Dry den ASLEE'P, a. or adv. [a and sleep, or Sax, ge^lapan, to sleep.]

    1. Sleeping ; in a state of sleep ; at rest.

    Sisera was fast asleep. Judges iv.

    2. To a state of sleep ; as to fall asleep. -!?. Dead ; in a state of death.

    Concerning them who arc asleep, sonrow not. 1 Thess. iv.

    4. To death.

    For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue. 2 Pet. iii.

    ASLO'PE, a. or adv. [n and slope. See Slope.]

    With leaning or inclination ; obliquely ; wit declivity or descent, as a hill ; dechning from an upright direc-tion.

    Set theni not upright, but aslope. Bacon

    ASLUG', adv. In a sluggish manner. [JVot tised.] Fotherby.

    ASMONE'AN, a. Pertaining to Asmoneus, the father of Simon, and chief of the As moneans, a family that reigned over the Jews 126 years.

    ASMONE'AN, n. One of the family of As moneus.

    ASO'MATOUS, a. [Gr. a priv. and e^ixa, body.]

    Without a material body ; incorporeal. [JVot used.] Todd.

    ASP, } ji [L. aspis ; Gr. asrtis, a round

    ASP'I€, ^ ■ shield and an asp ; supposed to be from Ileb. and Ch. 30X,to gather in, or collect ; from the coil of this serpent, with his head elevated in the center, like the boss of a buckler.]

    A small poisonous serpent of Egypt and Libya, whose bite occasions inevitable death, but without pain. It is said that the celebrated Cleopatra, rather than be carried a captive to Rome by Augustus, suffered death by the bite of the asp ; but the fact has been questioned. Authors are not agreed, as to what species the asp of the ancients should be referred. Bruce thinks it the coluber cerastes, Liime.

    ASPAL'ATHUS, n. A plant.

    ASPAR'AgIN, n. White transparent crys- tals of a peculiar vegetable principle, which spontaneously form in asparagus juice evaporated to the consistence of "su-up. They are ui the form of rhom- boidal prisms. Ure

    ASPAR'AGUS, 7J. [L. and Gr. ; probably from 8rtopo9(ju, to tear, from its lacerated appearance, or from the root of ujtttpa, a spire, from its stem.]

    Sparagus ; sperage ; vulgarly, sparrow-grass a genus of plants. That which is cultiva ted in gardens, has an upright herbaceous


    stalk, bristly leaves, and equal stipuJas. The roots have a bitterish mucilaginous taste ; and the stalk is, in some degree, aperient and deobstruent, but not verj'efH- caciou.s. Encyc,

    "ASPECT, n. [L. aspectus, from asptcio, to look on, of arf and specio, to see or look.]

    1. Look ; view ; appearance to the eye or the mind ; as, to present an object or a subject in its true aspect, or under a double a.ipect. So we say, public afl'airs have favorable aspect.

    2. Countenance ; look, or particular appear- ance of the face ; as a mild or severe pect.

    3. View ; sight ; act of seeing. [This sense is now unusual.]

    4. Position or situation with regard to „._ I ing, or that position which enables one to I look in a particular direction ; as, a house I has a southern aspect, that is, a position I which faces or looks to the south.

    5. In astronomy, the situation of one planet with respect to another. The aspects are five; sextile, when the planets are 60° distant ; quartile, or quadrate, when their distance is 90°, or the quarter of a circle ; trine, when the distance is 120° ; opposi- tion, when the distance is 180°, or half a circle ; and conjunction, when they are in the same degree.

    ASPECT', V. t. To behold. [JVot used.]

    Temple. ASPECT' ABLE, a. That may be seen.

    [.Vol used.] Raleigh.

    ASPECT'ED, a. Having an aspect. [Xot

    tised.] B. Jonson

    ASPEC'TION, „. The act of viewing

    [A'ot used.] Brown

    ASP'EN or ASP, n. [D. esp; G. aspe, dspe ;

    Sax. (espe ; Sw. asp ; Dan. a;sp ; Qu. from

    the Ar.^^^ gashafa, to be agitated.]

    A species of the poplar, so called from thi trembUng of its leaves, which move with the sUghtest impulse of the air. Its leaves are roundish, smooth, and stand on long slender foot-stalks.

    .\SP'EN, a. Pertaining to the aspen, or re- sembling it ; made of aspen wood. Nor aspen leaves confess the gentlest breeze Gay

    AS'PER, a. [L. See Asperate.] Rough rugged. [Little used.] Bacon.

    AS'PER, n. [L. aspiro, to breathe.]

    In grammar, the Greek accent ' , unporting that the letter over which it is placed ought to be aspirated, or pronounced as if the letter h preceded it. Encyc.

    jAS'PER, n. A Turkish coin, of which three make a medine. Its value is about a cent and 12 decimals.

    IAS' PER ATE, V. t. [L. aspero, from asper, rough.]

    To make rough or uneven. Boyle.

    ASPER A'TION, n. A making rough.

    ASPERIFO'LIATE, a. [L. asper, rough, and folium, a leaf]

    Having rough leaves. Plants of this kind are, by some authors, classified according to this character. They constitute the foity-first order of Linne's fragments of a natural method. In the methods of Her- man, Boerhave, and Ray, tliis class con- sists of plants wliich "have four naked


    seeds. Their leaves stand alternately on the stalks, and the flower is monopetalous in five di> isir)ns. Encyc. Milne.

    ASPERIFO'LIOUS, a. Having leaves rough to the touch. [See the preceding word.]

    ASPER ITV, n. [L. asperitas, from asper. rough.]

    1. Roughness of surface ; unevenness : op- posed to smoothness. Boyle.

    2. Roughness of sound ; that quahty which grates the ear ; harshness of [ironunciation.

    Warton. .3. Roughness to the taste : sourness.

    4. Roughness or ruggedness of temper ; mo- roseness ; sourness ; crabbedness. Rogers.

    5. Sharpness. Berkeley. ASPEROUS,a. [L. asper, rough.] Rough;

    uneven. Boyle.

    ASPERSE, V. t. aspers'. [L. aspergo, asper-

    sus, of ad and spargo, to scatter ; Ar. ^ j

    to spUt, divide, scatter. See Class Brg.]

    1. To bespatter with foul reports or false and injurious charges ; to tarnish in point of reijutation, or good name ; to slander or calumniate ; as, to asperse a |)oet or his writings ; to asperse a character.

    2. To cast upon. Heywood. ASPERS ER, n. One that asperses, or vih-

    fies another.

    .\SPER'SION, n. A .'=prinkhng,as of water or dust, in a literal sense. Shak.

    2. The spreading of calumnious reports or charges, which tarnish reputation, like the bespattering of a body with foul water.

    Bp. Hall.

    ASPHALT', I [Gr.aataWo;.] Bitumen

    ASP1L\LT'UM, S Judaicum, Jew's pitch; a smooth, hard, brittle, black or brown substance, which breaks with a polish, melts easily when heated, and when pure, burns without leaving any ashes. It has little taste, and scarcely any smell, unless heated, when it emits a strong smell of pitch. It is found in a soft or liquid state on the surface of the Dead Sea, which, from this substance, is called Asphaltite, or the Asphaltic Lake. It is found also in the earth, in many parts of Asia, Europe and America. Formerly, it was used tor embalming dead bodies ; the sohd asphalt is still employed in Arabia, Egypt, and Persia, instead of pitch for ships ; and the fluid asphalt is used for varnishing, and for burning in lamps. A species found in Neufchatel is found excellent as a cement for walls and pavements ; very durable in an', and not penetrable by water. A com- position of asphalt, lamp black and oil is used for drawing black figures on dial- plates. Encyc. .\icholson.

    ASPHALT'IC, a. Pertaining to asphalt, or containing it ; bituminous. Milton.

    ASPHALT ITE, a. Pertaining to or con- taining asphalt. Bryant. Wilford.

    AS PHODEL, »i. [L. and Gr. See Theoph. Lib. 7. Phn. Lib. 21. 17. Perhaps it is from the root of spud ; Sw. spyd ; Ice. spioot, a spear, from the shape of its leaves.]

    King's-spear ; a genus of Uhaceous plants, cultivated for the beauty of their flow- ers. The ancients planted asphodels near graves, to supply the manes of the dead with nourishment. Encyc. Johnson.

    A 8 P



    , a hammer ; not malleable, A series of semimetallic fossils, fTisible bj

    ASPIIU'RELATES, n. [Gr. a priv. and

    s, ui fire, and in their purest state not niallea ble. Ill their native state, they are mixed with sulphur and other adventitious mat- ter, in the form of ore. Under this denom- ination are classed bismuth, antimony, co- balt, zink and quicksilver. Core. Encyc.

    ASPHYX'Y, n. [Gr. aafv^M, of a priv. and o^ulij, pulse.]

    A temporary suspension of the motion of] the heart and arteries ; swooning ; faint- ing. QidncT/. Coxe.

    ASP'I€, 7!. The asp, which see.

    2. A ])iece of ordnance carrying a twelve poimd shot.

    ASP'I€, n. A plant growing in France, a species of lavender, which it resembles in the blue color of its flowers, and in the iigure and green color of its leaves. It is called male-lavender, .spica nardi, and Pseudo-nardus. The oil of this plant used by painters, farriers and other art cers. It is very inflammable, of a wliite color and aromatic ; and it is almost the only dissolvent of sandarac.

    J\picholson. Fourcroy

    ASPI'RANT, n. [See Aspire.] One wlio aspires, breathes after, or seeks with eager- ness. Faher.

    AS'PIRATE, t'. t. ]L. aspiro, to breathe or blow ; Gr. osrtaipu, to palj)itate ; fromspiVo,

    and ijrtaipu ; Ar. j, i^o safara, to hiss, or

    make a hissing by blowing on a wind in- strument. See Spire, Spirit.]

    To pronounce with a breathing or full emis- sion of lireath. We aspirate the word.'; horse and house. Dryden.

    AS'PIRATE, V. i. To be uttered with a

    strong breathing ; as, the letter h aspirates.


    AS'PIRATE, n. A letter marked with an asper, or note of breathing ; a mark of as- piration, as the Greek accent ' .


    AS'PIRATE, a. Pronounced with a full breath. Holder.

    AS'PIRATED, pp. Uttered with a strong emission of breath.

    AS'PIRATING, ppr. Pronouncing with a full breath.

    ASPIRA'TION, n. The pronunciation of a letter with a full emission of breath.


    2. A breathing after ; an ardent wish or de- sire, chiefly of spiritual blessings. Jf'atts.

    3. The act of aspiring or of ardently desiring what is noble or spnitual.

    ASPI'RE, V. i. [L. aspiro, to breathe. See Aspirate.]

    1. To desire with eagerness ; to pant after an object, great, noble or spiritual ; follow ed by to or ajltr ; as to aspire to a cr6wn, or ujler unmortality.

    2. To aim at something elevated ; to rise or tower with desire.

    Aspiring to be Gods, if angels fell ; Aspiring to be angels, men rebel. Pope

    ASPI'RER, n. One who aspires ; one who aims to rise in power or consequence, t to accomplish some important object.


    ASPi'RING ppr. Desiring eagerly ; aiming at something noble, great, or spiritual.

    ASPI'RING, a. Ambitious : animated with an ardent desire of power, importance, or excellence.

    ASPIRING, n. Ambition ; eager desire of something great. Hammond.

    2. Points ; stops. [JVol used.] Herbert.

    ASPORTA'TION, n. [L asportatio, of abs and poHo, to carry ; W. porthi, to carry See Bear.]

    A cari'ying away. In laiv, the felonious re- moval of goods from the place where they were ileposited, is an asportation, and ad- judged to be theft, though the goods are not carried from the house or apartment. Blackstone

    ASQUINT', adv. [D. schuinte, a slope ; schuins, slopingly ; Sp. esqvina ; D. kant, a corner. See Askance, and Squint'

    To the corner or angle of the eye ; obliquely ; towards one side ; not in the straight line of vision ; as, to look asquint.

    2. Not with regard or due notice. Fox.

    'ASS, ?!. [W. asyn ; Ir. asan ; L. asinus ; Fr. line, for asne ; Arm. asen ; Sp. Port, asno ; It. asino. Qu. from Goth, auso, Gr. ovf, an ear.]

    1. A quadruped of the equine genus. This animal has long slouching ears, a short mane, and a tail covered with long hairs at the end. He is usually of an ash color, with a black bar across the shoulders. The tame or domestic ass is patient to stujiidity, and carries a heavy burden. He is slow,"but very sure footed, and for this reason very useful on rough steep hills.

    2. A dull, heavy, stupid fellow ; a dolt. ASS'AI, [Ital.] A term in music ; added to a

    word signifying slow, it denotes a little quicker ; and to a word signifying quick, it denotes a little slower. Bailey.

    ASSA'IL, V. t. [Fr. assaillir, from L. assilio, to leap or rush upon, of ad and salio, to leap, to rise.]

    To leap or fall upon by violence ; to assault ; to attack suddenly, as when one person falls upon another to beat him.

    2. To invade or attack, in a hostile manner, an army, or nation. Spenser.

    3. To attack with arguments, censure, abuse, or criticism, with a view to injure, bring into disre])ute, or overthrow.

    4. To attack, with a view to overcome, by motives ajjplied to the passions.

    Nov hide the encounter of assailing eyes.


    ASSA'ILABLE, a. That may be assailed, attacked or invaded.

    ASSA'ILANT, n. [Fr.] One who assails, attacks or assaults.

    ASSA'ILANT, a. Assaulting; attacking; invading with violence.

    ASSA'ILED, pp. Assaulted ; invaded ; at- tacked with violence.

    ASSA'ILER, n. One who assails.

    ASSA'ILING, ppr. Assaulting ; invading by force ; attacking with violence.

    ASSA'ILMENT, n. Attack. [LiUle used.] Johnson.

    ASSAPAN'I€, n. The flying squirrel ; an animal which flies a Uttle distance by ex- tending the skin between the fore and hind legs. [See Squirrel.] Trevoux.

    AS'SARON, n. The omer or homer, a H brew measure of five pints. Enci,

    ASSART', n. [Old Fr. assarter, to grub up.'

    In ancient laws, the offense of grubbing up trees, and thus destroying thickets or cov- erts of a forest. Spelman. Cowel.

    2. A tree plucked up by the roots ; also a piece of land cleared. Ash.

    ASSART', V. t. To grub up trees ; to com- mit an assart. Ashmole.



    hassa, to kill.]

    One who kills or attempts to kill, by sur- prise or secret assault. The circumstance of surprise or secresy seems essential to the signification of this word ; though it is sometimes used to denote one who takes any advantage, ui kiUing or attempting to murder ; as by attacking one when un- armed.

    ASSAS'SINATE, v. t. To kill or attempt to kill, by surprise or secret assault ; to mur- der by sudden violence. Assassin as a verb is not now used.

    2. To way lay ; to take by treachery.


    ASSAS'SINATE, n. A murder or murderer. [jVo< used.] B. Jonson.

    ASSAS'SINATED, pp. Murdered by sur- prise or secret assault.

    ASSAS'SINATING, ppr. Murdering by surprise or secret assault.

    ASSASSINA'TION, n. The act of kiUing or mm-dering, by surprise or secret as- sault ; murder by violence.

    ASSAS'SINATOR, n. An assassin, which see.

    ASSAS'SINOUS, a. Murderous. [JVot used.}

    ASSAS'SINS, n. In Syria, a tribe or clan called Ismaehans, Batauists or Bateniaiis. They originated in Persia about the year 1090; whence a colony migrated and set- tled on the mountains of Lebanon, and were remarkable for their assassinations. Their religion was a compound of magia- nism, Judaism, and Christianity. One ar- ticle of their creed was, that the Holy Spirit resided in their Chief, and that his orders proceeded fi-om God himself He was called Scheik, and is better known by the denomination of Old man of the mou7i- tain. This barbarous chieftain and his followers spread terror among nations far and near, for almost two centuries, when the tribe was subdued by Sultan Bibaris. Enaic.

    ASSA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. assatus.] A roasting. [J^'ot used.]

    ASSAULT', n. [Fr. assault, now assaut ; It. Port, assalto; Sp. asalto; from L. assulto, o{ ad and salto, to lea]), fonned on salio, or its root. See Assail. We have the same root in insidt and result.]

    1. An attack or violent onset, whether by an individual, a company, or an ai-my. An assault by private persons may be made with or without weapons. An assault by an army is a violent hostile attack ; and when made upon a fort or fortified place is called a storm, as opposed to sap or siege.

    2. All attack by hostile words or measures ; as, an assault upon the prerogatives of a pruice, or upon a constitution of govern-

    3. In Law, an

    ilawful setting upon one'; iipt or ofter to beat

    .'I other, without touching his person ; as by

    A S

    A S 8


    lifting the fist or a cane, in a threatenii _ iiiauiier. If the blow aimed takes effecf, it is a battery. Blackstone. Finch.

    ASSAULT', V. t. To attack or fall upon by violence, or with a hostile intention to assault a man, a house or town.

    2. To invade or fall on with force ; as, the cry of war assaults our ears.

    3. To attack by words, arguments or friendly measures, with a view to shake, impair or overthrow ; as, to assault a char aoter, the laws or the administration.

    ASSAULT' ABLE, a. That may be assault ed. IFUliams.

    ASS^iULT'ED, pp. Attacked with force, arms, violence, or hostile views.

    ASSAULT'ER, n. One who assaults, or vio- lently attacks.

    ASSaCLT'ING, ppr. Attacking with force, or with hostile measures.

    ASSA'Y, n. [Ft. essai; Sp. eiisayo; Port, en- saio ; It. saggio, an assay ; Fr. essayer, to try ; old Fr. essoyer, to endeavor. Kelham's Norm. Did. It. assaggiare, to try ; saggiare to try, essay ; Sp. etisayar, to try ; Sw.fbrst)- kia, to try ; Dan. forsiiger, to try, examine, endeavor. These words are all from the same root as seek, the radical sense of which is, to follow, to urge, press or strain Sax. secan, to seek ; L. sequor ; assequor, ti: follow, to examine ; D. zoeken ; G. sucheii ; Dan. sSger ; Ir. seichim ; It. seguire ; Sp. seguir, to follow. Assay and essay are radically one word ; but modem usage ha; a]>propriated assay to experiments in met allurgy, and essay to intellectual and bodily efforts. Class Sg. See Essay.]

    1. The trial of the goodness, purity, weight, value, &c. of metals or metallic substan- ces. Any operation or experiment for as- certaining the quantity of a precious metal in an ore or mineral. Analysis is a term of more comprehensive import, extending to an examination of the nature and quan- tities of all parts of the compound.

    Assaying is called the docimaslic art.

    8. In law, an examination of weights and

    measures by the standard. Coivet.

    3. Examination ; trial ; effort ; &-st entrance upon any business; attempt. In these senses, which are found in old authors, now rarely used. [See Essay.]

    4. Value ; great purity. Obs. Spenser ASSA'Y, V. t. To try or prove, by examina- tion or experiment, the quantity and pu- rity of metallic substances.

    2. To apply to the touchstone. Milton. ASSA'Y, V. i. To attempt, try or endeavor.

    He assayed to go. 1 Sam. xvii. [In this sense essay is now used.]

    ASSAY-BALANCE, n. A balance for thi trial of the weight and purity of metals.

    ASSA'Y ED, ;?^. Examined; tested; prov ed by experiment.

    ASSA'YER, n. One who examines metals to find tlieir quantity and purity. An offi- cer of the mint, whose business is to try the weight and purity of metals.

    ASSA'YING, ppr. Trying by some stand- ard ; examining by experiment, as metals

    cer appointed to try the weight and fine ness of tlie precious" metals. ASSECU'RANCE, w. Assurance. [M)t used.] Sheldon.

    ASSEeURA'TION, n. A^^.-^urance ; a mak- ing secure. [jYot used.] Bp. Hall.

    ASSEeU'RE, V. t. To secure. [jVo< used.] BuUokar

    ASSECU'TION, n. [L. assequor.] An ob- taining or acquiring. Ayliffe.

    ASSEM'BLAUE, n. [Fr. See Assemble.] A collection of individuals, or of particular things ; the state of being assembled.

    Locke. Thomsm

    2. Rarely, the act of assembling.

    ASSEftrBLANCE, ?i. Representation; an assembling. [.\'ol in use.] Shak. Spenser.

    ASSEM'BLE, v. i. [Fr. assembler; Sw samla ; Dan. samler ; D. zamelen ; Ger sammeln, to assemble. L. simul ; Dan sammen ; D. zamen, together.]

    To collect a number of individuals or par- ticulars into one place, or body ; to bring or call together ; to convene ; to congre

    ASSEM'BLE, v. i. To meet or come to

    gether ; to convene, as a number of indi

    viduals. ASSEM'BLED, pp. CoUected into a body

    congregated. ASSEMBLER, n. One who assembles. \SSr,;\I HLIXG, ppr. Comhig together

    ciillii-iiii;,' iiiici one place. V.'^Sll.M lilJ.\(;, li. A collection or meeting

    to-rl|„T. Ilcb. X.

    ASSEMBLY, n. [Sp. asamblea ; It. assem blea ; Fr. assemUee.]

    1. A company or collection of individuals, in the same place ; usually for the same pur pose.

    2. A congregation or religious society convc ned.

    •3. In some of the United States, the \cgis\atm-e, consisting of different houses or branches, whether in session or not. In some states, the popular branch or House of Represent atives is denominated an assembly. [Sci the constitutions of the several states.]

    4. A collection of persons for amusement; as a dancing assembly.

    5. A convocation, convention or council of ministers and riiling elders delegated from each presbytery ; as the General Assembly of Scotland or of the United States.


    G. In armies, the second beating of the drum

    before a march, when the soldiers strike

    their tents. Encyc.

    7. An assemblage. [.Vo/ in use.]

    ASSEM'BLY-ROOM, n. A room in which

    persons assemble. ASSENT', n. [L. assensus, from assentior, to assent, of a

    1. The act of the mind in admitting, or agreeing to, the truth of a proposition.

    Faith is the assent to any proposition, on the credit of the proposer. Locke.

    2. Consent ; agreement to a proposal, res- pecting some right or interest ; as, the bill Ijefore the house has the asseytt of a great majority of the members.

    The distinction between assent and consent,

    seems to be this: assent is the agreement to an abstract jtroposition. VVe os.tcni to a statement, but we do not consent to it. Consent is an agreement to some proposal or measure which affects the rights or in- terest of the consenter. We consent to a proposal of marriage. This distinction howe\er is not always observed. [See Consent.]

    3. AcronI ; agreement. 2 Chron. xviii.

    ASSENT', !'. 1. To admit as true ; to agree, yield or concede, or rather to cx|)ress an agreement of the mind to what is alledged, or proposed.

    The Jews also assented, saying these tilings are so. Acts xxiv.

    It is sometimes usnl for consent, or an agree- nient to .sdmcihiiiic affecting the rights or uitere-^t cif i|;c |,( r.son assentinff. But to asucnl In tlic inaniage of a daughter is less roncc I tli:iii lu nuiscnt.

    ASSENT \ llo.V. n. [L. assentatio, from assiiilui; 111 i-iiiii|ily.]

    Conipliuiicc with tiic opinion of another, from flattery or dissimulation. Chesterfield.

    ASSENTA'TOR, ,i. A flatterer.

    ASSENTATO'RILY, adv. With adulation. [JVot in use.] Bacon.

    ASSENT'ER, n. One who assents, agrees to, or admits.

    ASSENT'ING, ppr. Agreeing to, or admit- ting as true ; vielding to.

    ASSENT'INGLY, adv. In a manner to ex- press assent ; by agreement.

    ASSENT'MENT, a. Assent ; agreement. [Rarely used.] Broivn.

    ASSERT', V. t. [L. assero, assertum, to claim or challenge, to maintain or assert; ofarf and sero. The sense of sero is to sow, properly to throw or set. To assert is to throw or set firmly.]

    L To affirm positively ; to declare witli as- surance ; to aver. Milton.

    2. To maintain or defend by words or meas- ures ; to vindicate a claim or title to ; as, to assert our rights and liberties. Dryden.

    ASSERT'ED, pp. Affirmed positively; maintained ; vindicated.

    ASSERT'ING, ppr. Declaring with confi- dence ; maintaming ; defending.

    ASSER'TION, n. The act of asserting; the maintaining of a claim.

    2. Positive declaration or averment ; affirm- ation ; position advanced. Broum.

    ASSERT'IVE, a. Positive ; affirming con- fidentlv ; peremptory. GlanvUle.

    ASSERTIVELY, adv. Affirmatively.


    ASSERT OR, n. One who affirms positive- ly ; one who maintains or vindicates a claim ; an affirmer, supporter, or vindica- tor. Dryden.

    ASSERT'ORY, a. Affirming ; maintaining. Bp. Hall.

    ASSESS', V. i. [Fr. asseoir ; Norm, asser, asseoir, to settle, fix, ascertain, assess ; It. assestare, assettare ; L. assideo, ad and sedeo ; Eng. to «7, or set. See Set and Sit.] To set, fix or charge a certain sum upon one, as a tax ; as, to assess each citizen in due proportion.

    2. To value ; to fix the value of property, for the purpose of being taxed ; as by the law of the United States. Also, to value or fix the profits of business, for the pur- pose of taxation.




    ;J. To set, iix or ascertain ; as, it is tlio prov- ince of a jury to assess damages.

    ASSESS', n. Assessment. [JVot used.]

    ASSESS'ABLE, a. That may be assessed.

    ASSESS'ED, pp. Charged with a sum ; valued ; set ; fixed ; ascertaiued,

    ASSESSING, ppr. Cliarging with a sii vahiing ; fixing ; ascertaining.

    ASSES'SION, n. A sitting down by a per- son. [JVot used.]

    ASSES'SIONARY, a. Pertaining to assess- ors. Carew.

    ASSESS'MENT, n. A valuation of prop- erty or profits of business, for the purpose of taxation. An assessment is a valuation made by authorized persons according to their discretion, as opposed to a sum cer- tain or determined by law. It may be a direct charge of the tax to be paid ; or a valuation of the property of those who are to pay the tax, for the purpose of fixing the proportion which each man shall pay ; on which valuation the law imposes a spe- cific sum upon a given amount.

    Btackstone. Laws of the U. States.

    Q. A tax or specific sura charged on the per- son or property.

    .3. The act of assessing ; the act of deter- mining the amount of damages by a jury.

    ASSESS'OR, n. One appointed to assess the person or projjerty.

    2. An inferior otficer of justice, who sits to assist the judge. Encyc.

    3. One who sits by another, as next in dig- nity. Milton.

    ASSETS', n. plu. [Fr. assez, enough ; It. a^sai, enough, or many ; Ir. sath, suffi- ciency ; sasadh, satisfaction ; L. sat, satis, enough.]

    Goods or estate of a tleceased person, cient to pay the debts of tlie deceased. But the word sufficient, though expressing the original signification of assets, is not with us necessary to the definition. In present usage, assets are the money, goods or estate of a deceased person, subject by law to the payment of his debts and lega- cies. Assets are real or personal ; real assets are lands which descend to the heir, sub- ject to the fulfilment of the obligations of the ancestor ; personal assets are the money or goods of tiie deceased, or debts due to him, which come into the hands of the executor or administrator, or which he is bound to collect and convert into money. Blackstone.

    ASSEV'ER, I „ , [L. assevero, from

    ASSEVERATE, S ad, and

    mc sioear; Sax.swerian; Goth, sioaran, to swear, to aflSrm positively.]

    To affirm or aver positively, or with solemni- ty. Fotherby.

    ASSEVERA'TION, n. Positive affirmation or assertion ; solemn declaration. This word is not, generally, if ever, used for a declaration under an official oath, but for a declaration accompanied with solemnity. ASS-HEAD, n. [ass and head.] One dull, like the ass ; one slow of apj)rcliension : a blockhead.

    ASSIDE'ANS or CHASIDE'ANS. [Heb. IDD pious.]

    A sect of Jews who resorted to Mattathias to fight for tlie laws of their God and the liberties of their country. They were men

    of great zeal, and obsei-ved the traditions of the elders. From these sprung the Pharisees and Essenes. Encyc.

    AS'SIDENT, a. [L. assideo, assidens, of ad and sedeo, to sit.]

    issidenl signs, ui medicine, are such as usu ally attend a disease, but not always ; dis- tinguished {rom ■pathognomic signs, which are inseparable from it. Encyc.

    \SSID'UATE, a. Daily. [JVol in use.]

    K. Charles

    ASSIDU'ITY, )!. [h. ussiduitas. SeeAssid-

    1. Constant or close application to any busi- ness or enterprise ; dihgence. Addison.

    \ Attention ; attentiveness to persons. siduities, in the phn-al, are services i dered with zeal and constancy. ASSID'UOUS, a. [L. assiduus, from assideo, to sit close, ad and sedeo ; Eng. to sit ; Sax. sittan, settan.'i

    . Constant in application ; as a person as- siduous in his occupation.

    2. Attentive ; careful ; regular in attendance ; as an assiduous physician or nurse.

    3. Performed with constant dihgence or at- tention ; as assiduous labor.

    ASSID'UOUSLY, adv. DUigently; atten- tively ; with earnestness and care ; with regular attendance.

    .\SSID'UOUSNESS, n. Constant or dili- gent application.

    ASSIENT'O, n. [Sp. asiento, a seat, a con- tract or agreement ; L. assideo.]

    A contract or convention between the king

    of Spain and other powers, for furnishingj

    slaves for the Spanish domuiions in South,

    America. Treaty between G. B. and Spain}

    March 26, 1713. I

    ASSI'GN, V. t. assine. [Fr. assigner ; Sp. asignar ; Port, assinar ; It. assegnare ; L.I assigno, of ad and signo, to allot, to mark out ; Ir. sighin ; L. signum, a mark. The[ primary sense of sign is to send, or to set.]i

    1. To allot ; to appoint or grant by distribu-| tion or apportionment. i

    The priests had a portion assigned them. Gen. xlvii.

    9. To designate or appoint for a particular purpose.

    They assigned Bezer, a city of refuge. Josh


    3. To fix, specify or designate ; as an as-

    signed quantity. 4. To 1 "

    make or set over ; to transfer, sell or convey, by writing, as by indorsing a note or by any writing on a separate paper.

    5. Toalledgeor show in particular ; as, to assign a reason for one's conduct.

    6. In law, to show or set forth with particu larity ; as, to assign error in a writ ; to' as-ngn false judgment.

    ASSI'GN, n. A person to whom property or an interest is or may be transferred ; as, a deed to a man and "his heirs and assigns.

    ASSI'GNABLE, a. That may be allotted, appointed or assigned. That may be transferred by writing ; as an assignable note, or bill.

    3. That may be specified, shown with pre- cision, or designated; as an assignable. error.

    AS'SIGNAT, Jj. A public note or hill in' France ; paper currency. Burl

    ASSIGNA'TION, n. An appointment ■

    tune and place for meeting ; used chiefly of love-meetings.

    2. A making over by transfer of title. [See Assignment.]

    3. In Russia, a public note or bank bill ; pa- per currency. Tooke.

    ASSI'GNED,j9p. Appointed ; allotted ; made over ; shown or designated.

    ASSIGNEE', n. A person to whom an as- signment is made ; a person appointed or deputed to do some act, perform some business or enjoy some right, privilege or property ; as an assignee of a bankrupt. An assignee may be by special appoint- ment or deed, or be created by law ; a? an executor. Cowel.

    ASSi'GNER, n. One who assigns, or ap- points.

    ASSI'GNING, ppr. Allotting ; appointing • transferring ; showing specially.

    ASSI'GNMENT, n. An allotting, or an ap- pointment to a particular person or use.

    2. A transfer of title or interest by writing, as of a lease, bond, note, or bill of ex- change.

    3. The writmg by which an interest is trans- ferred.

    4. The appointment or designation of causes or actions in court, for trial on particular days.

    5. In law, the conveyance of the whole in- terest which a man has in an estate, usu- ally for life or years. It differs from a lease, which is the conveyance of a less term than the lessor has m the estate.

    Z. Siifiji.

    ASSIGNOR', n. An assigner ; a person who assigns or transfers an interest ; as the assignor of a bill of exchange.

    ASSIM'ILABLE, a. That may be assimi- lated.

    ASSIM'ILATE, v. t. [L. assimUo, of ad and similis, like. See Similar.]

    1. To bring to a lilieness ; to cause to resem- ble. Swifl.

    2. To convert into a like substance ; as, food is assimilated by conversion into animal substances, flesh, chyle, blood, &c.

    ASSIM'ILATE, v. i. To become similar.

    2. To be converted into a like substance.


    ASSIM'ILATED, pp. Brought to a like- ness ; changed into a like substance.

    ASSIM'ILATING, ppr. Causing to resem- ble ; converting into a like substance.

    ASSIMILA'TION, n. Tlic net of bringing a resemblance.

    2. The act or process by whicli bodies con- vert other bodies into their own nature and substance ; as, flame assimilates oil, and the food of animals is by assimilation converted into the substances which com- pose their bodies.

    Mineral assimilation is the property which substances possess, m the earth, of appro- priating and assimilating to themselves other substances with which they are in contact ; a property which seems to be the basis of the natural history of the earth.

    ,\SSII\IILATIVE, a. Having power of con- verting to a likeness, or to a like substance. HaJcewill.

    'VSSiai'ULATE, V. t. [L. assimido.] To feign. [JVot used. See Simulate.] i ASSIMULA'TION, n. A coimtcrfeiting. [.Wot used. Sec Simulation.]




    ASSIST', V. t. [L. assisto, of ad and sisto, I stand up ; Russ. sijii, to sit, or be placed ; Sp. asistir ; It. assistere ; Fr. assister. Lit- erally, to be present, or as we still say in English, to stand by.]

    To help ; to aid; to succor ; to give support to in some undertaking or effort, or in time of distress.

    ASSIST', V. i. To lend aid.

    ASSIST' ANCE.K. Help ; aid; furtherance ; succor ; a contribution of support in bodily strength or other means.

    ASSIST'ANT, a. Helping ; lending aid or support ; auxiliary. Hale.

    ASSIST'ANT, n. One who aids, or who contributes liis strength or other means to further the designs or welfare of another an auxiliary. Dnjden

    ASSISTED,/;;). Helped; aided.

    ASSIST'ER, n. One that lends aid.

    ASSIST'ING, ppr. Helping ; aiding ; sup porting with strength or means.

    ASSIST'LESS, a. Without aid or help.


    ASSI'ZE, \ [Fr. assises, and sometimes

    ASSI'ZES, S "• so written in English ; L, assideo, to sit by, of ad and sedeo, to sit ; Ir. ^asair, a session. See Jlssess.]

    1. Originally, an assembly of knights and oth- er substantial men, with a bailiff or justice, in a certain place and at a certain time, for public busines. The word was sometimes appUed to the general council, or fVittena- gemote, of England.

    Blackslone. Glanville.

    !J. A court in England, held in every county by special commission to one of tlie judg- es, who is called a justice of the assize, and empowered to take assizes, that is, th verdict of a jury, called the assize.

    3. A jury. In this sense the word was ap- plied to tlie grand assize, for the trial of property, and to the petty assize, for the trial of possession. In Scotland, the assize consists of fifteen men, selected from a greater number.

    4. A writ ; as an assize of novel disseisin, which is given to recover the possession of lands, tenements, rents, common, &c., of which the tenant has been lately dis- seised ; assize of mart d' ancestor, which lies against an abator, who enters upon land after the death of the tenant, and before the heir enters ; assize of darrein present- 7nent, which lies against a stranger whc presents a clerk to a benefice. Blackstone.

    5. A particular species of rents, estabhshed and not subject to be varied. Eng. Law.

    6. The time or place of holding the court of assize.

    7. In a more general sense, any court of jus- tice.

    8. A statute of regulation ; an ordinance regulating the weight, measure and price of articles sold in market ; and hence the word came to signify the weight, measure or price itself; as the assize of bread.

    Sjitlman. Cowel. Encyc. Blackstone.

    This word is, in a certain sense, now

    corrupted into size, which see.

    ASSI'ZE, V. t. To fix the weight, measure

    or price of commodities, by an ordinance

    or regulation of authority.

    ASSIZED,;;;). Regulated in weight, meas- ure or price, by an assize or ordinance.

    ASSI ZER, n. An officer who has the care or inspection of weights and measures.


    ASSI'ZOR, )i. In.S'coWanrf, ajuror. Bailey.

    'ASS-LIKE, a. Resembling an ass.


    ASSO'BER, V. I. rSee Sober.] To keep un- der. [JVot used.) Gower

    ASSOCIABIL'ITY, n. The quality of being capable of association ; the quality of suffering some change by sympathy, or of being affected by the affections of another part of the body. Darwin.

    ASSO'CIABLE, a. assoshable. [See ^sso date.] That may be joined to or asso ciated.

    2. In a medical sense, liable to be affected by sympathy, or to receive from other parts correspondent feelings and affec tions. " The stomach, the most associa ble of all the organs of the animal body." Med. Rep. Darwin

    ASSO'CIATE, V. I. assoshate. [Fr. associer L. associo, of ad and socio, to join.]

    1. To join in company, as a friend, compan ion, partner or confederate ; as, to associate others with us in business, or in an enter prise.

    It conveys the idea of intimate union.

    2. To unite in the same mass : as, particles of matter associated with other substances,

    ASSO'CIATE, t». i. To unite in company ; to keep company, implying mtimacy ; as. congenial minds are disposed to associate.

    2. To unite in action, or be affected by the action of a different part of the body.


    ASSO'CIATE, flf. Joined in interest or pur pose ; confederate. Milton.

    2. Joined in employment or office ; associate judge.

    ASSO'CIATE, n. A companion ; one frequently in company with another, im- plying intimacy or equality ; a mate ; e fellow.

    2. A partner in interest, as in business ; or a confederate in a league.

    3. A companion in a criminal transaction ; an accomplice.

    ASSO'CIATED, pp. United in company

    in interest ; joined. ASSO'CIATESHIP, »!. The state or office

    of an associate. Encyc. art. Reynolds.

    ASSO'CIATING, ppr. Uniting in company

    or in interest ; joining. ASSOCIA'TION, n. The act of associating;

    union ; connection of persons.

    2. Union of persons in a company ; a society formed for transacting or carrying on some business for mutual advantage ; a partnership. It is often appUed to a union of states or a confederacy.

    3. Union of things ; apposition, as of parti cles of matter.

    4. Union or connection of ideas. An asso- ciation of ideas is where two or more ideas constantly or naturally follow each other in the mind, so that one ahnost infallibly produces the otlier. Encyc.

    5. An exertion or change of some extreme part of the sensory residing in the muscles or organs of sense, in consequence of some antecedent or attendant fibrous contrac- tions. Darwin.

    0. In cccksiasticid affairs, a society of the clergy, consisling of a number of jmstors of neighboring churches, united for pro- moting I he interests of religion and the haiiiHpfiv oftlii- i-liuiclies.

    A^^^Of 1 A TloNAi., „. Pertaining loan .•i>>iiii:iii.iii of i-lci-j:vMien.

    AS.SO CIA ri\ E, «. 'Having the quality of as.-^ociatiiig, or of being affected by symjia- thy. Dnndn. Miller.

    ASSOIL', r. t. [Old Fr. from L. absolvo.] To .-

    Mcde. Taylor.

    ASSOIL', V. t. [Fr. souilhr.] To soil ; to stain. Obs.

    AS'SO\A.\CE, ». [Fr. from L. ad and .sunu, Id sound. See Sound.]

    Rcseiiililaiice of sounds. In rhetoric and po- etry, a rcscmblanre in sound or termina- tion, without making rhyme. Encyc.

    AS'SONANT, a. Having a resemblance of sounds. In Spanish poetry, assonant rhymes are those ui which a resemblance of sounds serves instead of a natural i-hyme ; as, ligera, tierra. Encyc.

    .ASSORT', V. t. [Fr. assortir ; It. assortlre ; of ad and sortir, sorlire, to sally forth, and in It. to draw lots. See Sort.]

    1. To separate and distribute into classes things of the like kind, nature or quality, or things which are suited to a like pur- pose. It is sometimes applied to persons as well as things.

    2. T.. n.p .M>li with all .sorts. Burke. ASHOl!'!', r. /. To agree; to be in accor-

    iliiiitr « nil ; t(i suit. Mitford.

    \."^S()K'I' i;i), pp. Distributed into .sorts,

    kinds or classes. 2. Furnished with an assortment, or with :i

    variety ; as a well assorted store. Burke. ASSORT'ING, ppr. Separating into sorts ;

    supplying with an assortment. ASSORT'MENT, n. The act of distributing

    into sorts, kinds or classes, or of selecting

    and suiting things.

    2. A mass or quantity distributed into kinds or sorts; or a number of things assorted.

    3. A number of things of the same kind, va- ried in size, color, quahty, price, form, or the like, to suit the market, the wants of people, or various purposes ; as an assorl- ment of thread, of .silks, of calicoes, &c.

    An assortmezif of paintings. W. Coxe.

    4. A variety of sorts or kinds adapted to va- rious wants, demands or purposes ; as an assortment of goods. Mercantile Usage.

    ASSOT', r. t. [See Sot.] To infatuate ; to besot. [JVot used.] Spenser.

    ASSUA'6E, V. t. [This word appears to be formed on the G. schwach ; D. zwak, weak ; or on D. zagt, sof\, gentle, quiet, which coincides with the Sax. steig, silence ; swigan, to be silent ; whence gesmgean, to be silent ; D. zwygen, id. In Sax. also, gesiincan, is to cease, fail, rest, be quiet. But the Dutch word for assuage is verzagt- en, to soflen.]

    To soften, in afgurative sense ; to allay, mit- igate, ease or lessen, as pain or grief; to appease or pacify, as passion or tumult. In strictness, it signifies raflier to moderate, than to quiet, tranquilize or reduce to per- fect peace or ease.

    ASSUA'GE, I', i. To abate or subside. The waters assuaged. Gen. viii.

    A .S S

    A S «


    iiiit 1 a)ipreliPiitl tlie snnse is, tlir; waters were .•hecked; llcb. yif.

    ASSV A.' tJHI), pp. Allayed; mitigated ; eased ; aj>])eased.

    ASSUA'GEMENT, n. Mitigation; abate- ment.

    ASSUA'GER, n. One who allays ; that which mitigates or abates.

    ASSUA'GlNGf, ppr. Allaying ; mitigating ; appeasing ; abating.

    ASSUA'SIVE, a, [from nsuvage.} Soften- ing; mitigating; tranquilizing. Pope.

    ASSUEFAC'TION, n. [L. assiufano.] The art of accustoming. [JVot used.] Brown.

    AS'SUETUDE, n. [L. assuetudo, from assu- e.tiis, p. of «.ssj(esco, to acctistom.] Custom; habit ; habitual use. Bacon.

    ASSU'ME, V. t. [L. assumo, of ad and sumo, to take.]

    1 . To lake or take upon one. It differs from

    receive, in not implying an offer to give.

    The God assvmed his native form again.


    •I. To take what is not just ; to take with arrogant claims ; to arrogate ; to seize unjustly ; as, to assume haughty airs assume unwarrantable powers.

    3. To take for granted, or without proof; to suppose as a fact ; as, to assume a principle in reasoning.

    4. To appropriate, or take to one's self; as, to assume the debts of another.

    5. To take what is fictitious ; to pretend to possess ; to take in appearance ; as, to as- sume the garb of humility.

    ASSUME, V. i. To be arrogant ; to clain more than is due.

    3. In law, to take upon one's self an obliga tion ; to undertake or promise ; as, A assu vied upon himself, and promised to pay.

    ASSU'MED,pjj. Taken; arrogated; takei without proof; pretended.

    ASSU'MER,?j. One who assumes ; unarro gant person.

    ASSU'MING, ppr. Taking ; arrogating taking for granted ; pretending.

    ASSU'MING, a. Taking or disposed to take upon one's self more than is just ; haughty arrogant.

    ASSU'MING, Ji. Presumption. Jonson

    ASSUMP'SIT, n. [Pret. tense of L. assumo.'

    1. In faiu, a promise or undertaking, founded on a consideration. This promise may be verbal or written. An assumpsit is express or implied ; express, when made in wordi or writiiii!' ; implieil, when in consequence -■ifsoiiir lull, lit III cimsideration accrniij to our |iiiM)ii liiiiii tlie acts of another, tl law prcftUiuts lliat person has promised to iriake compensation. In this case, the law, upon a principle of justice, implies or raises a promise, on which an action may be brought to recover the compensation. Thus if A contracts with B to build a iiouse for him, by miplication and intend ment of law, A promises to pay B for the same, without any express words to tl effect. 'J. An action founded on a promise. When this action is brought on a debt, it is called indelitalus assumpsit, which is an action on the case to recover damages for the non- payment of a debt. Blackstone. ASSUMPT', V. t. To take up ; to raise. [Bar- barous and not used.] Sheldon,

    ASSUMPT', n. That which is assumed.

    [Not used.] Chillingiooiih.

    ASSUMP'TiON, n. [L. assumptio.]

    The act of taking to one's self.


    2. The act of taking for granted, or suppo- sing a thing without proof; supposition.

    JVorris. This gives no sanction to the unwarrantable asstwiption that the soul sleeps from the period of death to the resurrection of the bodv-


    3. The thing supposed ; a postidate or propo- sition assumeil. In logic, the minor or second proposition In a categorical syllo- gism. Enc7jc.

    4. A consequence drawn from the pro])osi- tions of which an argument is composed.


    5. Undertaldng ; a taking upon one's self. Kent.

    C. In the Romish Church, the taking up a person into heaven, as the Virgin Mary. Also a festival in honor of the miraculous ascent of Mary, celebrated by the Romish and Greek churches. Encyc.

    7. Adojrtion. Warton

    ASSUMP'TIVE, a. That is or may be assu- med. In heraldry, assumptive arms are such as a person has a right, with the ap- probation of his sovereign, and of the her- alds, to assume, in consequence of ai exploit. Encyc.

    ASSU'RANCE, n. ashu'rance. [Fr. from assurer, of ad and sur, seivr, sure, certain Qu. the Rab. and Tahn. IB'X, to make firm, confirm, verify ; or is seur the G. zivar, fron the root of L. verus; or h.securus, contract ed.]

    1. The act of assuring, or of making a decla ration in terms that furnish ground of con fidence ; as, I trusted to his assurances ; or the act of furnishing any ground of full confidence.

    Whereof he hath given assurance to all men in that he hath raised him from the dead. Acts

    2. Firm persuasion ; full confidence or trust ; freedom from doubt ; certain expectation the utmost certainty.

    Let us draw near with a true heart, in full assurance of faith. Hcb. x.

    3. Firmness of mind ; undoubting stead ness ; intrepiditj'.

    Brave men meet danger with assurance.


    4. Excess of boldness; impudence; as, his ».«:,n„„r,

    5. Vvi • i!"M iV.iui ■■xcessivemodesty,timidity or ha-iiiiihir-s ; hiiidable confidence.

    Luin.,i.-.iliuii with the world will give them Ivnowledge and assurance. Locke.

    6. Insurance ; a contract to make good a loss. [See Insurance.]

    7. Any writing or legal evidence of the con- I vevance of property. Blackstone. 18. Conviction. Tillotson. 9. In theology, full confidence of one's inter- est in Christ, and of final salvation.

    ASSU'RE, V. t. ashu're. [Fr. assurer. Sec

    ./Issurance.] |I. To make certain ; to give confidence by I a promise, declaration, or other evidence ; I as, he assured me of his sincerity. 2. To confirm ; to make certain or seen And it shall be assured to hiin. Lev. : Is. To embolden ; to make confUlent.

    And hereby we shall assure our hearts before m. 1 John iii.

    4. To make secure, with o/ before the object secured ; as, let me be assured of your fidelity.

    5. To affiance ; to betroth. Obs. Shot.

    6. To insure ; to covenant to indemnify for loss. [See Insure.]

    ASSU'RED, pp. Made certain or confident ; made secure ; insured.

    ASSU'RED, a. Certain ; indubitable ; nor doubting ; bold to excess. Bacon. Shak.

    ASSU'REDLY, orfi). Certainly ; indubitably. Jlssuredly thy son Solomon shall reign. 1 Kings i.

    ASSU'REDNESS, n. The state of being assured ; certaintv ; full confidence.


    ASSU'RER, Ji. One who assures; one who insures against loss ; an insurer or under- writer.

    ASSUR'GENT, a. [L. assurgens, assurgo.]

    Rising upwards in an arch ; as an assurgenl. stem, in botany. Eaton.

    ASSU'RING, ]^r. Making sure or confi- dent ; eiving security ; confirming.

    ASSWA'GE. [See Assuage.]

    AS'TACITE, ? [Gr. ayaxo?, a craw-

    AS'TA€OLITE, S fish, and J-iflos, a stone.]

    Petrified or fossil crawfish, and other crusta- ceous animals ; called also caticrites, crab- ites, and gammarolites.

    AS'TEISM, n. [Gr. ac-fws, beautiful, polite.]

    In rhetoric, genteel irony ; a polite and ingen- ious maimer of deriding another. Encyc.

    AS'TER, n. [Gr. afjjp.] A genus of plants, with comjiound flowers, many of which are cultivated for their beauty, particularly the China Aster. The species are very

    ASTE'RIAS, } [Gr. ay^p, a star.] Stella

    AS'TER, ^ marina, sea-star, or star fish, a genus of the order of Molliiscas. It has a depressed body with a coriaceous coat ; is composed of five or more seg- ments ruimuig out from a central part, and furnished with numerous tentacles, with a mouth below, in the center. There are many species. Encyc.

    ASTE'RIATED, a. [Supra.] Radiated ; presenting diverging rays, like a star ; as asteriated sap)ihire. Cleaveland.

    ASTE'RIATITE, n. Petrified asterias.

    AS'TERISK, n. [Gr. a;eft.

    The figure of a star, thus,*, used in printing and writing as a reference to a passage or imtf in tiic margin, or to fill the space when a nan;e is omitted.

    AS'TERISM, JI. [Gr. ajspto^o;, a little star, from ayjjp, a star.]

    1. A constellation ; a sign in the zodiac. The figures of the twelve asterisms.

    As. Researches.

    2. An asterisk, or mark of reference. [This is less proper.]

    AS'TER ITE, or .star stone. [See Astrite.] ASTERN', adv. [a or at, and stem. See Stern.]

    1. In or at the hinder part of a ship ; or towards the hinder part, or backwards ; as, to go astern.

    2. Behind a ship, at any indefinite distance. Mar. Diet.

    AS'TEROID, n. [Gr. as-i:p, a star, and £i6o<,



    A uamc given by Ilerschel to the newly dis covered planets between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    ASTEROID'AL, a. Resembling a star ; or pertaining to the asteroids.

    Journ. of Sciei

    AS'TEROPODE, ) [Gr. ar^p, a star,

    ASTEROPO'DIUM, i "" and ?tovs, «o«of, a foot.]

    A kind of extraneous fossil, of the same sul stance with tlie astrite, to which it serve as the base. Encyc.

    ASTERT', V. t To startle. [J^ot in use.]


    ASTHEN'I€, a. asten'ic. [Gr. a priv. and aStuoi, strength.]

    Weak ; characterized by extreme debility


    ASTHENOL'OOY, n. [Gr. o priv., aSivos. strength, and J^yoj, discourse.]

    The doctrine of diseases arising from de- bility. Coxe.

    ASTriMA, n. ast'ma. [Gr. aaSfw.]

    A shortness of breath ; intermitting difficiUty of breathing, with cough, straitness and wheezing. Coxe.

    ASTHMAT'IC, a. Pertaining to asthma also affected by asthma ; as an asthmatic patient.

    ASTIPULATE for StipuMe. t [Mtt

    AST] PULATION for Stipulation. S use.

    ASTO'NE, ?„, [See .Astonish.] To terrify

    ASTO'NY, S"-'- or astonish. Obs. Chaucer.

    ASTO'NED, ) „ Astonished. Obs.

    ASTO'NIED, S PP- Spencer. MUton.

    ASTON'ISH, V. t. [Old Fr. estonner, now Manner ; L. attono, to astonish ; ad and tono. Sax. gestun, noise, and stunian, to stun : G. staunen ; Arm. eston, wonderfully. The primary sense is, to stop, to strike diunb, to fix. See Tone and Stun.]

    T(i stun or strike dumb with sudden fear, terror, surprise or wonder; to amaze; to confound with some sudden passion.

    I Daniel was astonished at the vision. Dan. viii.

    ASTON'ISHED, p;>. Amazed; confounded «ith fear, surprise, or admiration.

    \STON'ISHING,ppr. Amazing ; confound- iiii: with wonder or fear.

    AS rON'ISHING, a. Very wonderful ; of a nature to excite great admiration, or


    ASTONISHINGLY, adv. In a manner or ilei;ree to excite amazement.

    Bp. Fleetwood.

    NSTON'ISHINGNESS, n. The quality of exciting astonishment.

    \STON'ISHiHENT, n. Amazement; con- tusion of mind from fear, surprise or ad- luiiation, at an extraordinary or imex- peeted event.

    ASTOUND', V. t. To astonish ; to strike dimib with amazement. From Old Fr. estonner.

    ASTRAD'DLE, adv. [a and straddle. See


    AVitli tlie legs across a thing, or on different siiles ; as, to sit astraddle.

    AS TRAGAL, n. [Gr. ofpoyaTioj, a tiu-ning liiiiit, vertebra, spondylus.]

    I. Ill architecture, a httle round molding which surrounds the top or bottom of a cnkiran, in the form of a ring ; represent- ing a ring or band of iron, to prevent tlie splitting of the column. It is often cut

    Vol. I.

    into beads or berries, and is used in orna mented entablatures to separate the sev eral faces of the architrave. Encyc.

    2. In gunnery, a round molding on cannot lear the mouth. Encyc

    3. In anatomy, the buckle, ankle, or sling bone ; the upper bone of the foot support- ing tlie tibia. Coxe.

    4. In botany, the wood pea ; the milk vetch the liquorice vetch.

    AS'TRAL, a. [L. astrum ; Gr.a^tif, a star.]

    Belonging to tlie stars ; starry. Dryden.

    ASTRA'Y, adv. [a and stray. See Stray.]

    Out of the right way or proper place, both in a Uteral and figurative sense. In morals and religion, it signifies wandering from the path of rectitude, from duty and ha])- piness.

    Before I was afflicted, I went astray. Ps cxix.

    Cattle go astray when they leave their propei owners or inclosures. See Deut. xxii.

    ASTRE'A, n. [Gr. a;,,p, a star.]

    The goddess of justice. A name sometimes given to the sign virgo. The poets feign that justice quitted heaven, in the golder age, to reside on earth ; but becoming weary with the iniquities of men, she re- turned to heaven, and conunenced a con- stellation of stars. Enctjc

    ASTRICT', t). «. [L. astringo, astridus. See Jlstringc]

    To bind fast, or compress. [Aot much used.

    ASTRIeT', a. Compendious ; contracted. H'eeva

    ASTRI€T'ED, pp. Bound fast ; compressed with bandages.

    ASTRleT'ING, ppr. Buiding close ; com pressing ; contracting.

    ASTRIC'TION, n. The act of binding close compressing with ligatures.

    2. A contraction of parts by applications ; the stopping of hemorrhages. Coxe

    ASTRIeT'IVE, a. Bindmg ; cotiipressing

    A S T

    ASTRINg'ER, n. A falconer that keeps a

    I goss hawk. Shak.

    ASTRIN(i'ING,ppr. Compressing ; binding

    I fast ; contracting.

    AS'TRITE, 7!. [Gr. am, a star; Fr.

    I astroite.]

    An extraneous fossil, called also asteria and astroit. Astrites are stones in the form of small, short, angular, or sulcated columns, about an inch and a half long, and the third of an inch in diameter, composed of several regular joitits, wliich, when separated, resemble a radiated star. Encyc.

    ^strites are said to be detached articu-

    I lations of encrinites, a kind of marine

    I polypier.

    \STROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. ari;p, or orpoi, a star, and ypacjiu, to describe.]

    A description of the stars, or the science of

    I describing them.

    jAS'TROIT, n. Star-stone. [See Jlstritc]

    i2. A species of petrified madrepore often found in calcarious stones.

    ASTROLABE, «. [Gr., a star, and XoSsii', to take.]

    1. An instrument formerly used for taking the altitude of the sun or stars at sea.

    2. A stereograjihic projection of the sphere, either upon the plane of the equator, the eye being supposed to be in the pole of the world ; or upon the plane of the me- ridian, the eye being in the point of inter- section of tlie ec|uinoctial and the horizon.

    .3. Among the ancients, the same as the mod- ern armillary sphere. Encyc. ASTROLOGER, > [L. astrologus, of ASTROLO'6IAN, S ofpor, a star, and >^o{, discourse.]

    1 . One who professes to foretell futiu-e events by the aspects and situation of the stars. Astrologian is little used. fVotton.

    2. Formerly, one who understood the mo- tions of the planets, without predicting.

    ASTRl€T'ORY, a. Astrmgent ; biuduig; ipt to bind.

    ASTRIF'EROUS, a. [L.astrifer; astrum, a star, and fero, to bear.]

    Bearing or containing stars. [Little used.]

    ASTRIG'EROUS, a. (^Low L. astrigcr.]

    Bearing stars. [JVot used.]

    ASTRIN(JE, v.t. astrinj'. [L. astringo, o{ ad and stringo, to bind fast, to strain. See Strain.]

    To compress ; to bind together; to contract by pressing the parts together. Bacon.

    ASTRINg'ED, pp. Compressed ; straiten- ed , contracted.

    ASTRIN6'ENCY, n. The power of con- tracting the parts of tlie body ; that quality in medicines which binds, contracts or strengthens parts which' are relaxed ; as the astringency of acids or bitters.


    ASTRING'ENT, a. Binding; contracting; trengthening ; opposed to laxative.


    ASTRING'ENT, n. A medicine which binds or contracts tlie parts of the body to which it is apphed, restrains profuse discharges, coagulates animal fluids, condenses and strengtliens the sohds. Core.

    Modern practice inclines to the use of as- tringent, for internal applications, and styp- tic, for external.


    ASTR0L0G'I€, I Pertaining to as-

    ASTR0L0g'I€AL, ^ "• trology ; profess- ing or practicing astrology.

    ASTR0L06'ICALLY, adv. In the manner of astrology.

    ASTROL'OgIZE, v. i. To practice as- trology.

    ASTROL'OgY, n. [Supra.] A science which teaches to judge of the effects and influences of the stars, and to foretell fu- ture events, by their situation and different aspects. This science was formeriy in great request, as men ignorantly supposed the heavenly bodies to have a riding influ- ence over the physical and moral world ; but it is now universally exploded by true science and philosophy.

    ASTRON'OMER, n. One who is versed in astronomy ; one who has a knowledge of the laws of the heavenly orbs, or the prin- ciples by which their motions are regida- ted, with their various phenomena.

    ASTRONOMIC, I Pertaining to as-

    ASTRONOM ICAL, S tronomy.

    ASTRONOMICALLY, adv. In an astro- nomical manner ; by the principles of astronomy.

    ASTRON'OMIZE, v. i. To study astrono- Diy. [Litth used.] Broum.

    ASTRONOMY, n. [Gr. ojpov, a star, and fo^oj, a law or rule.]

    A S Y

    Tlie science which teaches the knowledge of the celestial bodies, their magnitudes, mo- tions, distances, periods of revolution, as- pects, eclipses, order, &c. This science depends on observations, made chiefly with instruments, and upon mathematical calculations.

    ASTROSCOPE, n. [Gr. ofpor, a star, and oxortfu, to view.]

    An astronomical instrument, composed of two cones, on whose surface the constella- tions, with their stars, are delineated, by means of which the stars may be easily known. Encyc.

    AS'TROSCOPY, n. [See Astroscope.] Ob- .servation of the stars.

    ASTRO-THEOL'OgY, n. [L. astmm, a star, and theologia, divinity.]

    Theology founded on the observation of the celestial bodies. Derhavi.

    ASTRUT', adv. [See Strut.] In a strutting

    ASTU'TE, a. [L. astutus, from astus, craft, subtilty ; Ir. aisde, aiste, ingenuity.]

    Shrewd; sharp; eagle-eyed; critically ex- amining or discerning. Sandys.

    ASUND'ER, adv. [Sax. asundrian,to divide. See Sunder.]

    Apart ; into parts ; separately ; in a divided state.

    The Lord hath cut asunder the cords of the wicked. Ps. cxxix.

    ASWOON', adv. In a swoon. Obs.


    ASY'LUM, »!. [L. from Gr. aauT-or, safe from spoil, a and av'Kri, spoil, (5i*o

    1. A sanctuary, or place ofrefuge, where crim- inals and debtors shelter themselves from justice, and from which they cannot be taken without sacrilege. Temples and altars were anciently asylums ; as were tombs, statues and monuments. The an- cient heathens allowed asylums for the protection of the vilest criminals ; and the Jews had their cities ofrefuge.

    'I. Any place of retreat and security.

    AlYMMKPmc^AL, \ «■ tSee Symmetry.]

    Not having symmetry. [Little used.] More.

    AS YM' JVIETR Y, n. [Gr. a priv. and au^/ttrpta, symmetry, of aw, with, and utrptu, measure.]

    The want of proportion between the parts of a thing. It is also used in mathematics for incommensurability, when between two quantities there is no common meas- ure. Johnson.

    AS'YMPTOTE, n. [Gr. a priv., aw, with, and rtrow, to fall; not meeting or coin ciding.]

    \ line which approaches nearer and nearer to some curve, but though infinitely ex- tended, would never meet it. This may be conceived as a tangent to a curve at an infinite distance. Chambers.

    ASYMPTOT'ICAL, a. Belonging to an asymptote. Asymptotical lines or curves are such as continually approach, when extended, but never meet.

    ASYN'DETON, n. [Gr. a priv. and awbiu, to bind together.]

    In grammar, a figure which omits the con- nective ; as, vent, vidi, vici. It stands op- posed tojpohjsyndeton, which is a multipli- Campbell.

    ■ connectives.


    AT, prep. [Sax. at ; Goth, at ; L. ad. At, ad and to, if not radically the same word, often coincide in signification. In W. at is to, and in Danish it is the sign of the infinitive mode ; in Amh. od, or ud, is to- wards. The word at is doubtless the ori- ental xnx, nflN, Ch. and Heb. to come, to approach. Hence it primarily denotes presence, meeting, iiearness, direction to- wards.]

    In general, at denotes nearness, or presence ; as at the ninth hour, at the house ; but it is less definite than in or on ; at the house, may be in or near the house. It denotes also towards, versus ; as, to aim an ai-row at a mark.

    From this original import are derived all the various uses of oJ. At the sight, is vnth, present, or coming the sight ; at this news, present the news, on or unth the approach or arrival of this news. At peace, at war, in a state of peace or war, peace or war existing, being present ; at ease, at play, at a loss, &.C. convey the like idea. At am furnished with arras, bearing arms, pi sent with arms ; at hand, within reach of the hand, and therefore near ; at my cost, with my cost ; at his suit, by or with his suit ; at this declaration, he rose from liis seat, that is, present, or coming this dec laration ; whence results the idea in con sequence of it. At his command, is either under his command, that is, literally, com iiig or being come his command, in the power of, or in consequence of it. He ' good at engraving, at husbandry ; that in performing that business. He deserv well at our hands, that is, from us. The peculiar phrases in which this word curs, with appropriate significations, are numerous. At first, at last, at least, at best, ai the worst, a

    At is sometimes used for to, or towards. noting progression or direction ; as, he auns at perfection ; he makes or run him, or points at him. In this phrase, he longs to be at him, at has its general sense of approaching, or present, or with, in con test or attack.

    AT'ABAL, 71. [Sp.] A kettle drum; a kind of tabor. Dryden.

    ATAC'AMITE, n. A muriate of copper.

    AT'AGAS, n. The red cock or niooi-ganic, Coxe.

    ATAMAS'€0, n. A species of lily of the genus Amaryllis.

    AT'ARAXY, n. [Gr. arapa;to5, of

    Calmness of mind ; a term used by the stoics and sceptics to denote a freedom from the emotions which proceed from vanity and self-conceit. Encyc.

    ATAX'Y, n. [Gr. a priv. and rolij, order.] Want of order ; disturbance ; irregularity in the functions of the body, or in the cri- ses and paroxysms of disease.

    Coxe. Encyc

    ATCHE, n. In Turkey, a small silver coin, value about six or seven mills. Encyc.

    ATE, the preterite of ea(, wliich see.

    A T H

    A'TE, n. a'ty. [Gr. att;, mischief; atau, to hint. Ate is a personification of evil, mis- chief or mahce.]

    In pagan mythology, the goddess of mischief, who was cast down from heaven by Jupi- ter. Pope's Horn. II.

    ATEL'LAN, a. Relating to the dramas at Atella in Italy. Shajlesbury.

    ATEL'LAN, n. A dramatic representation, satirical or Ucentious. Shajlesbury.

    A TEMP'O (ilUSTO. [It. ; L. in tempore jus-

    A direction in music, which signifies to sing • play in an eciual, true or just time.

    ATHANA'SIAN, a. Pertaining to Athana- sius, bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. The Athanasian creed is a for- mulary, confession or exposition of faith, supposed formerly to have been drawn up by Athanasius, but this opinion is now re- jected, and the composition is ascribed by some to Hilary, bishop of Aries. It is a summary of what was called the orthodox faith.

    ATH'ANOR, n. [Ar. and Heb. nun thanor, an oven or furnace.]

    A digesting furnace, formerly used in chimi- cal operations ; so constructed as to main- tain a uniform and durable heat. It is a ftirnace, with a lateral tower close on all sides, which is to be filled with fuel. As the fuel below is consumed, that in the tower falls down to supply its place.


    A'THEISM, n. The disbehefof the exist- ence of a God, or Supreme intelligent Be- ing.

    JitheUm is a teroclous system that leaves nothing above us to excite awe, nor around us. to awaken tenderness. Rob. Hall

    A'THEIST, n. [Gr. a9E0{,ofopriv. andStoj. God.]

    One who disbelieves the existence of a God. or Supreme intelligent Being.

    A'THEIST, a. Atheistical ; disbelieinng or denying the being of a Supreme God.

    ATHEIST'I€, I Pertauiing to athe-

    ATHEISTICAL, ^ "' ism.

    2. Disbeheving the existence of a God ; im- pious ; applied to persons; as, an atheistic writer.

    3. Implying or containing atheism; applied to things ; as, atheistic doctrines or opin- ions.

    rVTHEIST'ICALLY, adv. In an atheistic manner ; impiously.

    ATHEIST'I€ALNESS, n. The tiuaUty of lieing atheistical.

    A'THEIZE, V. i. To discourse as an athe- ist. [Not iised.] Cudworth.

    ATHEL, ADEL or ^THEL, noble, of illustrious birth ; Sax. add, athel ; G. adel ; --£ D.edel; Sw. adel ; Ban. adel ; Ar. yj\ athala, to be well rooted, to be of noble origin. Tliis word is found in many Sax- on names ; as in Atheling, a noble youth ; Ethelred, noble counsel ; Ethelard, noble genius ; Ethelbert, noble bright, eminently noble ; Ethehvald, noble government, or power ; Ethelward, noble defender.

    ATHE'NIAN, a. [from Athens.] Pertaining to Athens, the metropoUs of Attica in Greece.

    ATHE'NIAN, n. A native or inhabitant of Athens.

    A T L

    A T O

    A T O

    ATHEOLO'GIAN, n. One who is opposed to a theologian. Hayward.

    ATHEOL'OciY, n. Atheism. [JVot in use.] Swifl.

    A'THEOUS, a. Atheistic ; impious. [JVot vsfd.] Milton.

    ATII'KRINE, I A gemis of fishes of tlie

    ATIIKRI'NA, s"-Jib(lominal order. The fliaracters are, the upper jaw is rather flat, the rays of the gill membrane are six, and tlie side belt or Une shines like silver. There are four species ; the best known is the Hepsetus, very abundant in the Mediterranean, where it is caught in larfie quantities. Pennant. Ed. Encyc.

    ATU'tfaOME; ['■•[«'•. from a.,pa, pap.]

    An encysted tumor, without pain or discol- oration of the skin, containing matter like pap, intermixed with hard stony particles ; easily cured by incision. Encyc. Coxe.

    ATHERO'MATOUS, a. Pertaining to or resembling an atherome ; having the qual- ities of an atherome. Wiseman.

    ATHIRST', a. athursV. [a and thirst. See Thirst.]

    1. Thirsty ; wanting drink.

    y. Having a keen appetite or desire. He had a soul athirst for knowledge.

    Ch. Observer.

    ATHLETE, n. [See AtlUetic] A contend- er for victory. A. Smith's Theory.

    ATHLET'le, a. [Gr. aST>.rjT7js ; L. athleta, a wrestler ; fi-om arfixof, strife, contest.]

    1. Belonging te wrestling, boxing, running and other exercises and sports, which were practiced by the ancients, usually called the athletic games. Hence,

    'i. Strong ; lusty ; robust ; vigorous. An athletic body or constitution is one fitted for vigorous exertions.

    ATHWART', prep, [a and thwaH. See Thwart.]

    1. Across ; from side to side ; transverse ; as athwart the path.

    2. In marine language, across the line of a ship's course ; as, a fleet standing athwart our course.

    Athwart house, is the situation of a ship when she Ues across the stem of another, whether near, or at some distance.

    Athwart the fore foot, is a phrase applied to the flight of a cannon ball, across other ship's course, ahead, as a signal for her to bring to.

    Athwart ships, reaching across the sliip from side to side, or in that direction.

    Mar. Diet.

    .\THWART', adv. In a mamier to cross

    and perplex ; crossly ; wrong ; wrongfully.

    ATII.T', adv. [a and tilt. See TUt]

    1. Ill the manner of a tilter; in the posi

    tioii, or with the action of a man making

    a thrust ; as, to stand or run aiilt.

    3. Ill the manner of a cask tilted, or with one • III! raised.

    A'"' 1^1Y, n. [Gr. ofi/uio, a and tifi?;, honor.^

    In iiiident Greece, disgrace; exclusion from

    I 111. I' or magistracy, by some disquahfylng

    :i(l iir.lrrree. Mitford.

    ATLAN riAX. > Pertaining to the isle

    ATI. W'I'i; AN, ^ 'Atlantis, which the an

    ri. Ills all) ilge was sunk and overwhelm

    .il liy the ocean. Plato.

    'i. Pertaining to Atlas ; resembluig Atlas.

    ATLAN'TIC, a. [from Atlas or Atlantis.]

    Pertaining to that division of the ocean, which lies between Europe and Africa oi) the east and America on the west.

    ATLAN'TIC, n. The ocean, or that part of the ocean, which is between Europe and Africa on the east and America on the west.

    ATLAN'TI€A, > An isle mentioned by

    ATLAN'TIS, S tl'c ancients, situated west of Gades, or Cadiz, on the strait of Gibraltar. The poets mention two isles and call them Hespendes, western isles, and Ely sian fields. Authors are not agreed whether these isles were the Canaries, or some other isles, or the continent of Amer- ica. Homer. Horace.

    ATLAN'TIDES, n. A name given to the Pleiades or seven stars, which were feign- ed to be the daughters of Atlas, a king of Mauritania, or of his brother, Hesperus, who were translated to heaven. Encyc.

    ATLAN'TIS, n. A fictitious philosophical commonwealth of Lord Bacon, or the piece describing it ; composed in the man- ner of Morc's Utopia, and Campanella's City of the Sun. One part of the work is finished, in which the author has described a college, founded for the study of Nature, under the name of Solomon's House. The model of a commonwealth ivas never ex- ecuted. Encyc.

    AT' LAS, n. A collection of maps in a volume ; supposed to be so called from a picture of mount Atlas, supporting the heavens, prefixed to some collection.


    2. A large square folio, resembling a volume of maps.

    3. The supporters of a building.

    4. A silk sattin, or stuff", manufactured in the east, with admirable ingenuity, Atlasses are plain, striped, or flowered ; but they have not the fine gloss and luster of some French silks. Encyc.

    5. The first verteber of the neck. Coie. t). A term apphed to paper, as atlas fine.


    ATMOM'ETER, n. [Gr. atfios, vapor, and fiitfsfu, to measure.]

    An instrument to measure the quantity of exhalation from a humid surface in a giv- en time ; an evaporometer. lire.

    AT'MOSPHERE, n. [Gr. ar^oj, vapor, and B$oipa,a sphere.]

    The whole mass of fluid, consisting of air, aqueous and other vapors, surrounding the earth.

    ATMOSPHERIC ) Pertaining to the

    ATMOSPHERICAL, I "' atmosphere ; as atmospheric air or vapors.

    2. Dependent on the atmosphere.

    I am an atmospAeric creature. Pope.

    AT'OM, n. [Gr. a-roftoj ; h. atomus ; from a, not, and fifivu, to cut.]

    1. A particle of matter so minute as to ad- mit of no division. Atoms are conceived to be the first principles or component parts of all bodies. Quincy.

    2. The ultimate or smallest component part of a body. Chimistry.

    3. Any thing extremely small. Shak. ATOMIC, ) Pertaining to atoms ; con- ATOM'ICAL, \ °" sisting of atoms; extreme- ly minute.

    The atomical philosophy, said to be broach-

    ed by Moschus, before the Trojan war. and cultivated by Epicurus, teaches that atoms are endued with gravity and mo- tion, by which all things were formed, without the aid of a supreme intelligent Being.

    The atomic theory, in chimistry^ or the doc- trine of definite proportions, teaches that all chimical combinations take place be- tween the ultimate particles or atoms of bodies, and thaf these unite either atom with atom, or in proportions expressed by some simple multiple of the number of atoms. Dalton.

    AT'OMISM, n. The doctrine of atoms.

    AT'OMIST, n. One who ho