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INDEX OF ALL ENTRIES

|A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X-Y|Z|

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Letter "A"

Baal, also "Bel"

    Signifies lord, and was the name of an idol, god of the Phoeni- cians and Chanaanites, which is very commonly mentioned along with Ashtaroth, or Astarte.

    The word Baal, in the Hebrew Bible, when employed without further addition, denotes an idol of the Phonicians, and particularly of the Tyrians, whose worship was also introduced, with great solemnities, among the Hebrews, and especially at Samaria, along with that of Astarte ( Judg. vi. 25; IV. Ki. x. 18).

    In the plural, Baalim, the word signifies images or statues of Baal.

    Of the extent to which the worship of this idol was practiced among the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, we have an evidence in the proper names of persons; as, among the former, Ethbaal, Jerub-baal; and among the latter, Hannibal, Asdrubal, etc.

    Also the name Baal is often joined to the name of a city where Baal is adored: Baal-Bek, Baal-Hazor, Baal-Pharasim, etc. ; with the name of another false deity, like Baal-Phegor, Baal-Berith, that is "lord of the covenant," Beel-Zebuth.

    **This practice was picked up millennia later by the Romans with Caesar Worship, by name cities after Caesar, making Caesar part of the city name:

    >> Caesar-ria

    >> caesaria-Philippi, etc.

    Among the Babylonians, the same idol was worshiped under the name of Bel, which is only another form of the word Baal.

Baalah
    or Cariath-Yarim. — City of Palestine, in the tribe of Juda, where they deposited the Ark of Covenant brought back from the country of the Philistines.

Baanites.
    — Heretics of the ninth century. They were followers of Baanes, a Paulician, and who founded a separate sect of the Manicheans.

Babel.
    — Same as Babylon (which see).

Babylon.
    — In ancient geography, the capital of Babylonia, situated on the Euphrates. Its original foundation is referred, in the Bible, to the attempt of the descendants of Noe to build "a city and a tower," on account of which their language was confounded, and they were scattered by the interposition of God Himself (Gen. xi.).

    Hence the name Babel, that is, confusion. Babylon is now a mass of ruins, but once, according to Herodotus, it included within its walls 200 square miles. It is named 250 times in the Bible. Babylon rose to great glory under Nabuchodonosor.

    Thither the Jews were carried into captivity. Cyrus captured it (Dan. v.), as did also, later, Alexander the Great, who died there. Its overthrow was frequently foretold (Is. xiii, 4-22; Jer. XXV. 12; Hab. i. 5-10).

Babylonian Captivity. See Captivity.
    Bacon or Baconthorp (John). — English monk and theologian, born at Baconthorp, in the province of Norfolk, England, died at London about 1346. Provincial of the Carmelities. They surnamed him the " Resolute Doctor " on account of the great facility with which he answered the proposed questions. H e is the author of a Commentary on the Master of Sentences.

Bacon (Roger).
    — Born at or near Ilches- ter, Somersetshire, about 1214; died, prob- ably at Oxford, in 1294. A celebrated English philosopher. He was educated at Oxford and Paris, and joined the Francis- can Order. In 1227 he was sent by his su- periors to Paris, where he was kept in close confinement for several years. About 1265 he was invited by Pope Clement IV. to write a general treatise on the sciences, in answer to which he composed his chief work, the Ofus Majus.

    In 1278 his writings were condemned as heretical by a Council of his Order, in consequence of which he was again placed in confinement. He was set at liberty in 1292. Besides the Opus Majus, his most notable works are Opus Minus, Opus Tertium, and Compendium Philosophies.

    Baden ( Worship in). See Germany.

    Baius (Michael) (1513-1689). — Doctor and professor of theology at Louvain. Misinterpreting the doctrine of St. Augus- tine, he advanced new opinions on original justice, grace, and freedom of will. His lectures on these subjects excited much opposition among his academic colleagues, especially among the Franciscans. The principal errors couched in the doctrine of Baius are, that original justice is an in- tegral part of human nature, and not a free gift of Guod; that fallen man, being utterly depraved in his nature, is incapable of do- ing good ; that all actions of man in the

    natural order are sinful ; and that divine grace constrains man to be and to do good. In 1567 Pope Pius V. condemned seventy- six propositions, representing the teaching of Baius, as erroneous and heretical, which sentence Gregory XIII. renewed in 1579. Baius submitted to the papal decision. His tenets, which are hardly distinguish- able from those of Calvin, took root and passed from his disciples to Jansenism in the next century. See Jansenism.

    Balaam. — Prophet or diviner of the city of Pethora,on the Euphrates. Balak, king of Moab, having seen the hosts of Israel, and fearing they would attack his country, sent for Balaam to come and curse them. His messengers having declared their errand, Balaam, during the night, con- sulted God, who forbade his going. Balak afterward sent others, whom Balaam finally accompanied, contrary to the will of God, who sent an angel to stop him on the way. Here occurred the miracle of Balaam's ass. But instead of cursing he blessed the children of Israel. See Num. xxii. Balaam and Balak were killed in the year 1461 b. c.

    Baldachin. — A canopy of various kinds : I. A portable decorative covering, borne in ceremonial processions, as a sign of rank or dignity; particularly, the dais-like canopy carried over the Pope, which is supported on eight poles and carried by distinguished personages. — 2. A portable canopy borne over the Blessed Eucharist, carried processionally, as on the feast of Corpus Christi. — 3. A stationary covering, of baudekin, silk, or other rich material, stretched above the seat of a dignitary. — 4. A fixed canopy, often of metal or stone, above the isolated high altar, in many churches, especially in Italy and the East. From its center, according to the old ritual, usually hung by a chain the vessel containing the Sacred Host; but this usage has been superseded.

    Ballerini (-Anthony) (1803-1881). — Ital- ian theologian, born at Bologna, entered the Society of Jesus in 1826, and was suc- cessively professor of philosophy at Feren- tino, of Church History at Rome and at Fermo. He occupied the chair of moral theology at the Gregorian University of Rome when he died. He published the Compendium Theologies Moralis, of R. P. Gury, and Tractatus de Justitia et Jure ; Tractatus de Actibus Humanis ; Sylloge

    Ballerini

    84

    Baltimore

    Monumentorutn adMysterium Conceptionis Immaculate Virginis Deifarce; yuris Offlcium Episcoforum in ferendo suffragio pro Infallibilitate, Romani Pontificis, etc.

    Ballerini (Jerome) (1720-1770). — Priest ax»d theologian, brother of the following, born at Verona. His knowledge of eccle- siastical history was very extensive. He was the fellow-laborer of his brother in his various works, and he himself pub- lished a complete edition of the Works of Cardinal Noris, with notes and disserta- tions.

    Ballerini (Peter) (1698-1764). — Italian theologian and canonist, born at Verona; priest and savant, published an excellent edition of the works of St. Leo the Great; of the Theological Summa, of St. Anthony, and of Raymond of Pennafort. More- over, we have from him a small treatise entitled : *' Methods of Studying, Drawn from tbe Works of St. Augustine" (1724), a work which became one of the causes of the quarrel of Probabilism.

    Balmes (Jaime Luciano). — Born at Vich, in Catalonia, 1810; died there, 1848. A Spanish publicist and philosophical writer. He founded a journal '*// Pensa- miento de la Nacion," to defend religion and monarchy. But Balmes especially owes his great fame to his Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe, a work translated into English. Other works of his in English are : Fundamental Philos- ophy ; The Foundations of Religion Ex- plained ; Letters to a Skeptic, on Religion.

    Balsam. — An oily, aromatic, resinous substance, exuding spontaneously from trees of the genus Balsamodendron. The balsam from the tree of the species opo- balsamum was anciently plentiful in Judea, and particularly in Galaad, hence called the "Balsam of Galaad" (Jer. xlvi. 11). It was considered very valuable as a cure for external wounds. In oiSr days, it is collected chiefly in Arabia, between Mecca and Medina. Its odor is exquisitely fra- grant and pungent. It is very costly, and it is still in the highest esteem among the Turks and other Oriental nations, both as a medicine and as a cosmetic. The bal- sam used in the Catholic Church in the confection of chrism is, by the rubrics, that of Syria or Mecca; but from difficulty in obtaining this, concessions have been made

    by the Popes for the use of balsam of Brazil, Tolu, Peru, etc.

    Balthasar. — Son of the last Chaldean king of Babylon, Nebu-Nehid or Nabon- idus. Intrenched by his father in Babylon, when besieged by Cyrus, he trusted in the strength of the place, and spent the time in debaucheries. The Bible relates (Dan. V.) that at a great festival he profaned the sacred vessels of the temple of Jerusalem. The same night Cyrus took Babylon and put an end to the Chaldean empire, which had lasted 200 years.

    Baltimore Councils. — Three plenary councils were held in the city of Balti- more, Maryland. The First was held in 1852. Thirty-two archbishops and bishops took part in its deliberations. The decrees of this Council related chiefly to ecclesi- astical discipline, the school question, and other important matters, and proposed the creation of eight new sees. Bishop Fr. P. Kenrick, Archbishop of Baltimore, pre- sided over the First Plenary Council. — The Second took place in 1866. It had been convened by Archbishop Spalding, as Apostolic Delegate, and was attended by seven archbishops and thirty-eight bishops. One of the decrees of the Coun- cil recommended to the Holy See the erection of fifteen new episcopal sees. — The Third took place in the year 1884. No such gathering had been witnessed in the history of the American Church. Among its attendants were fourteen arch- bishops, sixty bishops, five visiting bishops from Canada and Japan, one prefect apos- tolic, and seven mitred abbots. The ap- pointed task of the Council was to promote uniformity of discipline, and provide for the exigencies and a closer organization of the Church of America.

    Baltimore (Lord), or Sir Cecil Calvert (1613-1676). — An English Catholic noble- man, known as Lord Baltimore. Having obtained from Charles I. a charter for the settlement of Maryland, in 1634, sent out his brother, Leonard Calvert, and two hundred English emigrants, chiefly Cath- olics, to establish a colony in his new pos- session. The new settlement, to which the name of St. Mary's was given, began with Catholics and Protestants living to- gether in peace, neither interfering with the religious rights of the other. Thus "religious liberty," says Bancroft, "ob- tained a home, its only home in the wide

    Banner

    85

    Baptism

    world, in the humble village which bore the name of St. Mary's." To insure the continuance of peace and mutual confi- dence among the colonists, the Assembly of Maryland, at the instance of Lord Balti- more, in 1649, passed the famous Act con- cerning Relisrion, which provided that no person believing in Jesus Christ should be molested in respect to their religion, or the exercise thereof, or be compelled to adopt the belief of any other religion, against their consent.

    Banner. See Standard.

    Banns of Marriage. — Proclamations which are solemnly made in the Church, in order to make known an intended mar- riage, so that those who know of any im- pediment, may state it to the proper authorities. Banns were made a part of ecclesiastical legislation by the Fourth Council of the Lateran, in 1215, whose decrees were confirmed by the Council of Trent. In the Catholic Church the cele- bration of marriage, without previous proc- lamation of the banns, is, unless by special dispensation, gravely illicit, but not invalid. The proclamations of the banns are made by the parish priest of the con- tracting parties, on three consecutive Sun- days at high Mass.

    Baptism. — Baptism is the first of the sacraments, because without it we can re- ceive no other sacrament ; and if we were to participate in any other sacrament, it would be void ; and we, knowingly and wil- fully unbaptized, would commit a sacrilege. God might accord persons so acting sancti- fying grace, but it would not be conferred through the bestowal of the sacrament.

    The word "baptism" is a Greek word which signifies ablution or immersion. This was the manner of baptizing in the primitive Church, symbolizing puri- fication, and expressive of the spiritual effect of this sacrament. Although St. John baptized, his baptism was but the figure of the real baptism, — the sign of heartfelt penitence, in preparation for re- ceiving the grace of the remission of sins; but it neither contained nor conferred that grace.

    According to some theologians, our Lord instituted the sacrament of baptism on receiving from St. John the figurative baptism. In the opinion of others, it was after the resurrection of our Saviour, when He said to His Apostles: "Teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the

    Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost" (Matt, xxviii. 19).

    In the sacrament of baptism, instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ, He eflF^ces the stain of original sin, and communicates to our souls the supernatural life of sanctify- ing or habitual grace, rendering us Chris- tians, children of God, members of His Church, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. Baptism imprints an ineffaceable character on the soul, as St. Paul explains by saying : " Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption" (Eph. iv. 30). In adults, having the necessary dispositions, the grace conferred by the sacrament of bap- tism effaces actual sin as well as original sin, and remits the temporal punishment due to sin. St. Paul aflSrms this in ex- horting sinners to contrition and baptism, in these words: "Be penitent, therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out" (Acts. iii. 19). " Do penance and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins ; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost " (Acts ii. 38). To those who sin after baptism, but who do not die in mortal sin, there remains expiation of purgation in this world, or of purgatory in the next, for there is " no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus, who walk not according to the flesh " (Rom. viii. i). Those who die undefiled by any kind of sin, are numbered among the just, and immediately enter heaven. By baptism we are made Christians, for those who " have been baptized in Christ have put on Christ " (Gal. iii. 27). We are " chil- dren of God by faith in Jesus Christ " (Gal. iii. 26) ; and members of His Church, having entered by baptism, that great re- ligious society established by our Lord, and being designated in Scripture as " Be- lieving " (i Cor. vii. 14). We are inheri- tors of the kingdom of heaven, " for the Spirit Himself giveth testimony to our spirit, that we are the sons of God. And if sons, heirs also; heirs indeed of God, and joint heirs of Christ; yet so, if we suffer with Him" (Rom. viii. 17). Al- though baptism blots out the stain of sin, it does not absolve us from the temporal consequences of original sin, but leaves us ever subject to suffering, ignorance, con- cupiscence, and death. This is in order to prove our virtue and steadfastness toward God, to afford us opportunities of expiat- ing our own faults by resistance to tempta-

    Baptism

    86

    Baptism

    tion, and by patience and forbearance, thereby giving us occasion for increasing sanctifying grace in our souls, and of gaining new merits wherewith to add to our heavenly glory and happiness.

    In cases of necessity, when ecclesiastical administration of the sacrament of bap- tism cannot be procured, any person of either sex, of any age or religion, may baptize. Indeed, it is obligatory to bap- tize, when an unbaptized child or adult is in danger of death, and no priest is at hand ; but otherwise it is not permissible under pain of sin. In any case, the cere- monies must, as soon as convenient, be supplied by a priest, and the baptism itself must be renewed, conditionally, if there be any doubt as to its having been validly administered.

    To baptize validly, water must be poured on the forehead, while the person baptiz- ing says at the same time, with the in- tention of carrying out the precept of the Church : " I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." In conferring this sacra- ment, great care should be taken, while pronouncing these words, that the water should be poured on the forehead three times, forming the sign of the cross at each pouring — to bring more clearly to mind the sacrifice of our Saviour, the source of baptismal grace, and the Holy Trinity. If there be any doubt as to whether the person has been already baptized, and dangerous illness does not afiFord time to make proper inquiries, the baptism must be made "conditional," by the person who administers it, saying: "If thou art not baptized, I baptize thee," etc. In the same manner, if there be doubt as to whether the person be still alive, the words should be in a conditional form : *' If thou art living, I baptize thee," etc.

    Baptism is absolutely necessary for sal- vation, for our Lord said : "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John iii. 5). "He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved ; but he that believeth not shall be condemned " (Mark xvi. 16).

    But when the baptism of water cannot possibly be effected, it may be supplied by the baptism of desire: "For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved" (Rom. x. 13). This, however, neither gives the character of the true baptism, nor the right of participating in

    the other sacraments of the Church ; and will remit temporal punishment due to sin only when the desire and devotion are sufficiently ardent. The baptism of de- sire is the perfect love of God, with the strong resolve of obedience to all that God has commanded, including the desire of baptism. But after Aie passing away of the circumstances that have called forth the desire, baptism must voluntarily be sought for on the first available oppor- tunity, and be administered according to the rites of the Church ; otherwise, by the clear evidence of the desire having ceased to exist, a grievous sin is committed.

    The baptism of water may also be sup- plied by the baptism of blood, or martyr- dom ; which, properly speaking, is death endured in the name of our Lord, to pre- serve faith, chastity, or some other Chris- tian virtue. This baptism of blood, in which man manifests the greatest proof of love for the Creator, remits all punish- ment due to sin, as in ordinary baptism. This is distinctly so explained in the sense of the words of Christ: "He that shall lose his life for my sake, shall save it " (Luke ix. 24). But if the martyrdom is a torture that does not result in death, bap- tism of water must be administered as soon as procurable, as in the case of bap- tism of desire, to ratify and increase the gifts received.

    No avoidable delay is admissible in the baptism of a child ; and parents are greatly and sometimes grievously at fault in thus exposing a soul to exclusion from heaven, for it is written : " There shall not enter into it anything defiled" (Apoc. xxi. 27). It is, therefore, according to faith, that every child, though of itself sinless, so far as actual sin is concerned, is deprived, if dying unbaptized, of the sight of God and glory of heaven. In the opinion of some theologians, they are taken to the place called Limbo, where the souls of the just went, who died before our Saviour's com- ing on earth. It is evident, that by the justice of God, these children enjoy a greater degree of happiness, though how far their exclusion from heaven is realized by them, to the tempering of that happi- ness, is unknown. Probably not at all.

    For the baptism of children who have not attained the age of reason, or of adults who have always been deprived of that faculty, or who have lost the use of it be- fore being baptized, any disposition for the reception of the sacrament is neces-

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    sarily dispensed with, because they are in- capable of judging for themselves on such matters, and consequently cannot oppose the grace of God working in the sacra- ment. For the baptism of adults in pos- session of reason, their full consent is indispensable to its validity. They should also have sufficient knowledge of the prin- cipal truths of religion, and adequate con- victions of faith, hope, love of God, and sincere repentance of sin, at least from the motive of attrition. With consent, but without the necessary dispositions, bap- tism would be valid, but would not efface the stain of original and actual sin, nor give sanctifying grace to the soul until such time as the requisite knowledge and fitting dispositions should drive away all obstacles to the full reception of sanctifying grace.

    The promises, solemn, sacred, and irrev- ocable, exacted by the Church from the catechumen, or from the godfather or god- mother in the name of the infant to be baptized, are the renouncing of Satan, his pomps and his works. That is to say, the embracing the law of our Saviour, and de- claring adherence henceforth to God and His holy will; and the rejecting the vani- ties of the world, over-indulgence in out- ward show, and flattering deceptions of pride, which can be of little avail in this life, and are compromising to the interests of our eternal happiness. Further, the repudiation of the wicked and false maxims of the world, including all that selfish love of luxuries and all those worldly dis- positions so totally opposed to the doc- trines and examples of our Lord. It is important for parents or godparents to ex- plain to children, as soon as they are ca- pable of understanding them, the value and consequences of the promises that have been made in their name, the grace that has been accorded to them by God, the privileges with which they have been en- dowed in having been made members of the Holy Catholic Church, and the neces- sity of their remembering in whose ser- vice they are to pass their lives. They should teach children to celebrate worthily the anniversary of that day on which they re- ceived the life of sanctifying grace through the sacrament of baptism; instructing them to ask pardon, with all sincerity of heart, for sins meanwhile committed, and to renew, with ardent fervor, the solemn pledges given in baptism, praying for the help of divine grace in carrying out their resolutions.

    For the solemn administration of the sacrament of baptism, the godfather or godmother may, if necessary, be repre- sented by someone else, who, however, contracts none of the obligations of the godparents. The Church exacts that every child to be baptized should have a sponsor to act in its name in making the required promises, and to see to the due carrying out of the same by the child who receives this sacrament. Godparents must at least have attained the age of dis- cretion, and be in full possession of the use of reason. They must be Catholics, be- cause the Church admits none but her followers to assume this position. They must be of good faith and morals, and adequately versed in the knowledge of our holy religion, that their teaching may be pure, and their instruction sufficient for those intrusted to their spiritual direction. Of course, neither the father nor the mother of the child to be baptized can act as sponsor. According to the laws of the Church, the godparent contracts a spirit- ual affinity with the child, which prevents the sponsor's marriage with the child or with its mother or father, in case of the death of either. This spiritual alliance, however, is only formed in the solemn ad- ministration of the sacrament of baptism, and not in connection with ceremonies of the Church performed for a baptism that has already been conferred without the ceremonies prescribed.

    The duty of godparents is to love their godchildren in a spiritual manner, to teach them, or have them taught, in de- fault of their natural parents, the prin- ciples of the Christian faith, and to remind them of the serious and sacred promises and obligations contracted on their behalf before Holy Church. The duty of god- children is to respect and to love, in a spiritual manner, their godparents, and to receive, with gentleness and grateful recognition, their good counsel and char- itable corrections.

    The custom of giving the children to be baptized one or several names of saints of the Old or New Testaments, in order that they may be especially protected by them, is very ancient, especially in several Churches of the West. The ritual makes it an obligation upon the priest not to impose upon the children profane bap- tismal names, or such as have a ridicu- lous meaning, or are contrary to decency. See Catechumenate,

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    Baptism

    Baptism {Ceretnonies of). — The person to be baptized waits at the entrance of the Church, to indicate that until he has thrown off the yoke of sin, and submitted to Christ and His authority, he is unworthy to enter, because baptism is the portal to God's grace, to the kingdom of heaven, and to the communion of saints. The person to be baptized receives a saint's name ; that by this name he may be enrolled, through baptism, among the number of Christians whom St. Paul calls saints ; that he may have a patron and intercessor, and that the saint whose name he bears may be his model and example, according to which he may order his own life. The priest breathes in the face of the one to be bap- tized, in imitation of Christ who breathed on His Apostles when He gave them the Holy Ghost (John xx. 22). The priest im- poses his hand upon the head of the person to be baptized, to signify that he is now the property of God and is under His protec- tion. The numerous exorcisms signify that the evil spirit, which, previous to baptism, holds the unbaptized in bondage, is now commanded in the name of God to depart that a dwelling place may be prepared for the Holy Ghost. The one to be baptized is often signed with the sign of the cross, to signify that through the power of Christ's merits and of His death on the Cross, baptism washes away original sin ; that he is henceforth to be a follower of Christ the Crucified, and as such must fight valiantly under the banner of the Cross against the enemies of salvation, and must follow Christ on the way of the Cross, even unto death. The salt which is put into his mouth, is an emblem of Christian wisdom and of preservation from the corruption of sin. Then the ears and nostrils are touched with spittle, to sig- nify that as Christ put spittle on the eyes of the man born blind, thus restoring his sight, so by baptism the spiritual blind- ness of the soul is removed, and the mind receives light to behold heavenly wisdom. The priest asks the question: "Dost thou renounce the devil, and all his works, and all his pomps.'"' — in order that the Chris- tian may know that his vocation requires him to renounce and combat the devil, his works, suggestions, and pomps. The per- son is anointed on the shoulders and breast with holy oil, in order to strengthen him to fight bravely for Christ. As the combatants of old anointed themselves with oil before they entered the arena, so is

    he anointed on the breast, that he may gain courage and force, bravely to com- bat the world, the flesh, and the devil ; and on the shoulder that he may be strong to bear constantly and untiringly the yoke of Christ's commands, and pursue the toil- some course of life in unwavering fidelity to God and His holy law. The Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed are said at baptism, in order that, when the child is a grown person an acknowledgment of faith may by this means be made in the face of the Church. When children are baptized, these prayers are said by the sponsors who are thus admonished to see that their godchildren are well instructed in these as in all other Christian truths. The priest expressly asks the person if he will be baptized, because as man, through Adam, of his own free will obeyed the devil, so now when he would be received among the number of Christ's children, he must, to obtain salvation, of his own free will obey the precepts of God. Water is poured three times upon the head, in token that man after this thrice-repeated ablution rises from the death of sin, as Christ, after His three days' burial, rose from the dead (Rom. vi. 4, 5). In early times the candidate for baptism was immersed three times in the water. For divers reasons this custom has been abolished. The per- son is anointed on the head with chrism, because this anointing is, so to speak, the crown of the young Christian. As in the Old Law the kings were anointed (I. Ki. X. r), as Jesus is the anointed One, and as the Apostle St. Peter calls the Christians a chosen race, a kingly priesthood, a holy people (L Pet. ii. 9), so the baptized by means of this unction is embodied in Christ, the anointed One, and participates in His priesthood and kingly dignity. The white robe represents the glory to which by baptism we are born again; the purity and beauty with which the soul, having been washed from sin in the sacra- ment of baptism, is adorned, and the inno- cence which the baptized should preser\\\\\'e through his whole life. The lighted can- dle placed in his hand, is an emblem of the Christian doctrine which preserves the baptized from error, ignorance, and sin, illumines his understanding, and leads him safel}' in the way of virtue ; it repre- sents the flame of love for God and our neighbor which the baptized should hence- forth continually carry, like the five pru- dent virgins (Matt. xxv. 13) on the path to

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    meet the Lord, that when his life is ended he may be admitted to the eternal wedding feast. It signifies also the light of good example which he should keep ever burn- ing.

    Baptistery (a place for baptizing.) — The baptisteries, in the first centuries of the Church, were usually buildings of a cir- cular form, apart from the Church, and sometimes so spacious that large assem- blies might be held in them. The faith of our forefathers was attentive to every- thing that could add to the embellishment of these places, in which the great mystery of regeneration was accomplished. The purest gold and the most exquisite marble shone on all sides. But nothing can give us a better idea of the magnificence of early baptisteries, than the description of that of St. John Lateran, at Rome, built by the Emperor Constantine. It was a magnificent square hall, with walls of marble and porphyry. In the center was to be seen a basin of porphyry, adorned with silver, in which the baptismal waters were preserved ; from the middle of the basin rose a column of porphyry, sup- porting a golden vase of fifty pounds weight, which contained the holy chrism for the unctions of the newly baptized. On one side of the basin were steps to de- scend into it. At the two extremities were silver statues, one of our Lord, the other of St. John the Baptist, each weighing a hundred and seventy pounds. Around the sides of the basin were seven large silver hearts, emblems of souls that pant after the salutary fountains; each of them weighed eighty pounds and jetted water into the basin. In the center of every baptistery was the font. (See Font.)

    Baptistines (religious). — The hermits of St. John the Baptist, or Baptistines, were founded by Mary Antonia, called later Mary Battista Solimani, born at Al- baro, near Genoa, in 1688. In 1730, at Moneglia, Battista commenced with some virgins a congregation of very austere life ; established at Genoa in 1736 a similar society, and in 1742 went to Rome, where Pope Benedict XIV. approved the rules which she had drawn up (January, 1744). Having returned to Genoa and occupied with the foundation of a new convent, Mary received, with twelve companions, the habit from the hands of the archbishop and became the first Abbess of the Institute. She died in the odor of sanctity April 8th,

    1758. These religious make a novitiate of eighteen months, observe a rigorous fast, never use any fiesh-meat, and say the office in choir during the night. There was also a community of male members called Baptistines, which was suppressed during the French Revolution.

    Baptists. — Members of a Protestant de- nomination. The Baptists appeared in history at the beginning of the seventeenth century. They condemned baptism by sprinkling as an innovation. They baptize by immersion, and administer the sacra- ment only to adults. They reject the communion with the Christians of other Churches, who, according to them, are not Christians, because the baptism they re- ceived before they were grown up is null and void. The religious affairs are treated in assemblies, where all the Faithful, men and women, have a deliberative voice. In the United States the Baptists owe their origin to Roger Williams, and his settle- ment at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1639. To Mark Lucar, an immigrant in 1644 from England, is attributed the introduc- tion of immersion as the characteristic rite of this denomination. He was a " Par- ticular Baptist," as those religionists were called who held to the high Calvinistic doctrine of an atonement particularly for the elect. It is from these "Particular Baptists" that the many different denomi- nations of Baptists developed, brief men- tion of which is made below. The first division took place in 1652, in Providence, when Chad Brown established a congrega- tion of "General Baptists"; the term "General" implying adherence to the doctrine of a general atonement for the sins of mankind. These General Baptists were largely tinctured with Arminianism, if not wholly adherent to that body of theology. " Freewill Baptists," who are Arminian in theology and open commu- nists in practice; and " German Baptists," popularly called " Dunkers " (see this subject), "Old School Baptists," sometimes called "Anti-Mission" or " Hard-Shell Baptists," from their extreme Calvinism, which leads them to oppose all active measures for the conversion of the world (a sect numbering 40,000) ; " Seventh-Day Baptists " who keep the seventh day instead of the first, as the Sabbath; "Sixth-Prin- ciple Baptists," so called from the six principles which constitute their creed ; "Disciples of Christ," also called "Chris-

    Barac

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    tians" or " Campbellites." See Disci- ples, WiNEBRENNARIANS, WlNEBREN-

    NER, Christians, or the Christian Connection, an American sect of Unita- rian Baptists which arose about the begin- ning of the present century. The Baptists of the world numbered, in 1895, 4,447,074, and had 46,520 Churches, and 32,447 min- isters. The greatest number of Baptists are in North America, where they enu- merate : 41,227 Churches, 28,475 ministers, and 3,856,584 members. See Anabaptists.

    Barac. — Fourth Judge of Israel (1396- 1356 B.C.); with the help of the prophetess Debbora, he delivered the Hebrews from the bijndage of the Chanaanites, in attack- ing and routing the army of King Jabin, which was under the command of his general, Sisara.

    Barabbas. — A Jew condemned for theft, murder, and revolt, who was preferred to Jesus Christ when Pilate proposed to the people to deliver a prisoner at the occasion of the feast of the Pasch.

    Baraga (Frederick). — Austrian Cath- olic missionary (1797-1868). Bishop of Marquette, Michigan, in 1853. He com- piled a Grammar and a Dictionary oi the Chippewa language (Detroit, 1849 and 1853) ; and wrote a History of the Indians of North America.

    Barbara (St.). — Virgin and martyr of the third century ; daughter of Dioscorus, ardent defender of paganism, who, being unable to make his daughter abandon the faith in Jesus Chrjst, became himself her executioner, by beheading her, at Nico- media, about 240. F. Dec. 4th.

    Bar-Cochebas (Aram, son of the star) . — A Hebrew whose real name was Simeon from the town of Coziba. The heroic leader of the Jewish insurrection against the Romans (122-135 a.d.). He was be- lieved by many Jews to be the Messias, was proclaimed king, and maintained his cause against Hadrian for two years, but was overthrown amid the slaughter of over half a million Jews, and the destruc- tion of 985 villages and 50 fortresses. Jeru- salem was destroyed and yElia Capitolina founded on its ruins. After this failure his name was interpreted " son of lies."

    Bardesanes. — Syrian philosopher, born about A. D. 154; we find him at Edessa in 174. He was a man of great learning. A convert from Valentinian Gnosticism,

    he soon relapsed into Gnostic heresies, and became himself the founder of a num- erous sect. He and his son Harmonius were noted composers of beautiful hymns. He is said to have held the following Gnostic theories: "Satan cannot be said to have derived his origin from God," and " Our body being the prison of the soul, can never rise again." He held that Christ was clothed with a celestial and im- material body, and that He taught man to subdue the sensual passions, and enjoined fasting, abstinence, and contemplation, as a means of shaking ofJ the fetters of evil matter ; that thus freed from grosser bonds, the body might return to heaven after the death of the flesh, as an ethereal substance, etc. The poetic beauty of his hymns drew to his side so many followers, and so great was their influence among the people that, in the fourth century, Ephrem of Syria was obliged to compose others of an or- thodox nature to counteract it.

    Barnabas (St.). — Follower of Christ and one of the seventy-two disciples. Qf his apostolic labors, beyond what is con- tained in the Acts of the Apostles, nothing certain is known. He accompanied St. Paul on his first missionary journey to Cyprus and Asia Minor (45-48.) In the year 53, Barnabas and Paul proposed another missionary expedition, Barnabas wished to take with him his nephew John, surnamed Mark, to which Paul objected. The two Apostles thereupon parted, and Barnabas taking Mark with him, sailed to Cyprus, his native land. Here the Acts say nothing further about him. His life is reported to have been ended by martyr- dom, between 55 and 57. A letter which Origen calls " Catholic Epistle," has been handed down under the name of St. Barna- bas, and to him it is ascribed by the most eminent Christian writers of the first centuries. F. June nth.

    Barnabites. — Religious of the Clerks Regular of St. Paul. This Congregation was founded at Milan, about the beginning of the sixteenth century, by St. Zaccaria, priest of Cremona (died 1539), together with two priests of Milan. By a bull of Feb. iSth, 1533, Pope Clement VII. author- ized them to follow particular rules. Their constitutions were approved, Nov. 7th, 1579, by Gregory XIII. The Barnabites were austere preachers of penance, who, at the same time, took charge of semina- ries for the priesthood.

    Baronius

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    Bartolomites

    Baronius(C^SAR)(i538-i6o7). — Ecclesi- astical historian, born at Sora, Campania; died at Rome. Pope Clement VIII. named him pronotary apostolic, cardinal, and librarian in the Vatican. He rendered great services by his Church History, h\\\\\\\\xX.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'i, chief work is his A finales Ecclesiastici a Christo Natum ad Annum (1198), which appeared in Rome in 12 volumes, from 1588 to 1593. It is a reply to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries, a history of the Church written in an intensely Protestant and hostile spirit.

    Barsabas (Joseph) (surnamed "the Just"). — Disciple of Christ, was presented together with Matthias to replace Judas Iscariot; the lot designated Matthias. We do not know any particulars either of his life or death.

    Barsabas. — Surname of Jude, a disciple of Christ, who was chosen to accompany Paul and Barnabas to Antioch.

    Barsanians. — Heretics of the sixth cen- tury. Their doctrine was a mixture of the errors of the Guianites and Theodosians. They celebrated the Eucharist by dipping the iinger into fine wheaten flour, and then putting it into the mouth. Their name was derived from their bishop, Barsanes, whose consecration was hotly contested.

    Bartholomew's Day {or Massacre of St.). — In order to cement the peace of St. Ger- main-en-Laye (1569), which put an end to the third civil war in France, a marriage was concluded between the young king of Navarre (Henry IV.) and Margaret, the sister of Charles IX. The Huguenot chiefs who had gone to Paris to assist at the wedding, availed themselves of the oc- casion, and on August 23d, concerted a plan for murdering the whole royal family and proclaiming Henry of Navarre king of France. To anticipate the bloody and traitorous designs of the conspirators, Catherine de Medici, who was as unscru- pulous as she was adroit in the management of affairs, persuaded her son, the king, to command the horrible Massacre of St. Bartholomew. Coligny and his chief coun- selors were slain. The populace joined in the work of blood, and not only Paris, but several of the provincial towns that suf- fered most from the Huguenots, now took a fearful reckoning. When the tidings of the tragic event reached the Papal court, Gregory XIII., the then reigning Pontiff, congratulated King Charles IX., on his

    escape from the plot against his life, and a service was held in thanksgiving for the preservation of the royal family, because the deed had been represented to the Pope, as to the other sovereigns, as a necessary act of self-defense against the machina- tions of Coligny and the Huguenots. But when he afterwards learned the true state of affairs, Gregory expressed his horror at the deed, even with tears. All Europe ab- horred the terrible slaughter, the German Lutherans excepted, who regarded the massaacre as a just punishment of God upon the Huguenots. The number of victims in the cruel massacre cannot be ascertained with accuracy ; but it has been much ex- aggerated by hostile writers. The most reliable account, corroborated by docu- mentary evidences, estimates the number, for all France, at less than two thousand. According to an old record of Paris, the gravediggers of that city at the time buried eleven hundred bodies. Foxe, the martyrologist, in his Acts and Monuments, commonly known as the Book of Martyrs, gives the names of 786 who perished in the inhuman slaughter. This bloody tragedy was but a political scheme, and had noth- ing whatever to do with religious interests.

    Bartholomew (St.). — One of the twelve Apostles. He is generally supposed to be identical with Nathanael ; carried the Gos- pel into India, i. e., Arabia Felix or modern Yemen. A century later, traces of Christianity were found in those coun- tries by Pantaenus of Alexandria, who also discovered a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in Hebrew which had been left there by St. Bartholomew. Armenian writers in- form us that he afterwards traversed Persia, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Asia Minor. Thence he passed into Greater Armenia, and there, after making numer- ous conversions, suffered a cruel martyr- dom at Albanopolis. By order of King Astyages, whose predecessor and brother, Polymius, had been converted by him, the Apostle was flayed alive and beheaded. F. Aug. 24th.

    Bartholomites. — i. Members of the com- munity of Basilian monks of the Armenian rite who took refuge in the West and were assigned the Church of St. Bartholomew, in Genoa, in 1307. The community was finally suppressed in 1650. — 2. Members of a congregation of secular priests following a rule drawn up by Bartholomew Holz- hauser (died, 1658) in Germany in 1640.

    Baruch

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    They spread into Hungary, Poland, and Spain, but, under this name, became ex- tinct in the eighth century.

    Baruch. — One of the twelve minor Prophets, offspring of a noble family of the tribe of Juda, disciple and secretary of Jeremias, whose prophecies he wrote and read to the people, and whom he fol- lowed into Egypt. After the death of his master, he rejoined the Jews, captive at Babylon, to make known to them prophe- cies which he himself had composed, and, according to tradition, died there in the twelfth year of the captivity. The Book of Baruch, inserted in the canon of the Scriptures, exists no longer in Hebrew, hence the reason why the Jews do not ac- knowledge it as canonical. We have two Syriac versions thereof, but the Greek text appears to be more ancient. In the first centuries of the Church, several Fathers and Doctors understood and quoted the prophecies of Baruch under the name of Jeremias.

    Baruli. — Heretics of the twelfth cen- tury, who maintained that Christ had assumed a chimerical body, and that souls were created before the creation of the world, and all committed sin together after the creation. The^ only renewed the opinions of the Origenists.

    Basan or Batanea. — Country of ancient Palestine of Perea, that is, beyond the Jordan, situated in the half tribe of Ma- nasses. It was bounded on the east by the mountains of Galaad, north by Mount Hermon, south by the brook Jabok, west by the Jordan. It contained several forti- fied cities and passed as one of the most fruitful countries of the world.

    Baselian Manuscript. — The name given to two Greek manuscripts of the New Tes- tament. One is a nearly complete Qopy of the Gospels written at Constantinople, in uncical characters, about the eighth century, and lacking only Luke iii. 4-15; xxiv. 47-53. The other is a copy of the whole Testament, excepting the Apoca- lypse, and is written in the cursive charac- ters of the tenth century. These valuable manuscripts are preserved in the library at Basel; hence their name.

    Basil of Ancyra.-i- A native of Ancyra, and bishop of that city (336-360). One of the leaders of the Semi-Arians. He was de- posed in 360 by the Council of Constanti-

    nople, and exiled to Illyricum, where he probably died.

    Basil the Great (St.). — Archbishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia ; was born at Csesarea, about the year 330. Two of his brothers, Gregory and Peter, became bish- ops, the former of Nyssa, the latter of Se- baste, and are also honored by the Church as saints. Basil studied with great success at Athens, where he became intimate with Gregory Nazianzen. The two friends vied with each other both in learning and in the practice of virtue. " We know but two streets in the city," said Gregory, " the one leading to the Church and the other leading to the schools." They remained at Athens four or five years, where they also made the acquaintance of Julian, who- afterwards earned the evil name of apos- tate. Having received baptism in 357, Basil visited the monastic institutions of Syria and Egypt, and founded several monasteries in Pontus and Cappadocia. He became father of monasticism in the East. The Basilians are to this day the principal religious order in the Oriental Church. In 364, Basil was ordained priest by Bishop Eusebius, successor of Dianius, and, on the death of that prelate, was chosen Bishop of Csesarea, in 370. He was an instrument in the hand of God for beating back the Arian and Macedonian heresies in the East. His energy and zeal, learning and eloquence, and the ex- ceeding austerity and holiness of his life, have gained for him the reputation of one of the greatest bishops of the Church, and his character and works have earned for him the surname "Great." Basil died in 379. His works are of a theological or an ascetical and ethical character, and em- brace also sermons and commentaries. See Migne, Pat. Gr. XXIX-XXXII. The liturgy ascribed to St. Basil is still used in the Eastern Church, both by Catholics and schismatics. F. Jan. 14th.

    Basil the Heretic. See Bogomiles.

    Basilians. — Monks and nuns following the Rule of St. Basil the Great. This saint exercised so great an influence on monastic life in the East that the monks there were usually called after him, Basil- ians. Besides giving them a new rule, he founded a cloister in the neighborhood of Neo-Caesarea, which formed at once a bul- wark against the Arian heresy, and an

    Basilica

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    Basle

    asylum for the persecuted during the so- cial disturbances of that age. This cloister served as a pattern for many others, which were now usually built within easy dis- tances of some city. The monks took part in the controversies on the faith, and were frecfuently driven to fanatical excesses by the advice of ambitious leaders. More- over, they sometimes lived together in parties of two and three, and, recognizing no superior, soon lost all traces of the monastic spirit and discipline. These were called Sarabites and Gyrovagi, or lazy, worthless fellows, who, by their con- stant quarreling, their vain pretensions and excesses — the last frequently alter- nating with their fasts — lost all dignity and became disreputable. The Basilians comprise nearly all the Greek and Orien- tal monasteries, and are found in com- munion with Rome in Sicily, and in the Grseco-Ruthenian and Armenian rites. There are several Basilian monasteries in Canada and in the United States.

    Basilica. — The ancient basilica was a court of commerce or justice. Many of these halls were appropriated for Christian churches and new churches were built upon a similar plan, whence basilica be- came a usual name for a church. Major Basilica, Minor Basilica are honorary titles to which are attached certain canon- ical privileges. There are Major Basilicas only in Rome ; these are the five principal churches of St. John Lateran, St. Peter of the Vatican, St. Paul without the Walls, San Croce of Jerusalem, and St. Lawrence without the Walls. They are also called Patriarchal Churches, because they answer to the five great patriarchates of the Cath- olic Church. St. Mary Major and St. Sebastian on the Appenine road, are ranked among the number of Major Basil- icas. The title of Minor Basilicas is granted, in Rome and outside of Rome, to other churches famous on account of their antiquity or the devotion which the faithful have toward them. In Rome there are six of these: St. Mary de Travestevere, St. Lawrence in Damaso, St. Mary's in Cos- medin, St. Peter in Chains, St. Mary in Monte Sancto, and the Church of the Twelve Apostles. The Roman States con- tain some Minor Basilicas. In France there are three Minor Basilicas : The Church of Notre Dame in Paris, the Cathedral of Valence, and Our Lady of Lourdes. See Church (Building).

    Basilidians. — So called from their founder Basilides. He was a citizen of Alexandria, and Syrian by birth. He taught in Alexandria betweeen the years 125 and 130, and his sect existed as late as the fourth century. Basilides and his son Isidore, based their doctrines on the pre- tended prophecies of certain Oriental prophets and boasted of a secret tradition which they claimed to have from the Apostle Matthias, and a certain Glaucias, the interpreter of St. Peter. Jesus was to Basilides not the Redeemer; he was dis- tinguished from other men only in degree. The Redeemer was the highest ^Eon, who was sent down from the Supreme God and united himself with the man Jesus at His baptism in the Jordan, but left Him again in His passion. The Basilidians were grossly immoral.

    Basle or Basel ( Council of) (1431-1442). — The object of this Council was to complete the work commenced by the Council of Pisa and continued by the Council of Constance. The Council of Basle was convoked by Pope Martin V. ; but he died the day before the opening. Eugenius IV., his successor, confirmed the convocation of the Council of Basle, as well as the appointment of Cardinal Julian Cesarini, as papal Legate and president of the assembly. The Coun- cil opened under John of Polemar and John of Ragusa, delegates of Cardinal Cesarini, who was at the time engaged in endeavoring to effect a reconciliation with the Hussites. But very few prelates were in attendance. On his arrival in Basle, Cesarini sent a messenger to Rome, to ac- quaint the Pope with the state of affairs. In the meantime, the prelates at Basle, con- sisting only of three bishops and fourteen abbots, held their first public session ; they declared their assembly a lawfully convened Council whose object was defined to be : I. The extirpation of heresy. 2. The es- tablishment of peace among Christian princes. 3. The reformation of the Church in its head and members. The small at- tendance of bishops at Basle, but especially the proposals for a reunion made by the Greeks, who, however, desired the Coun- cil to meet in some Italian city, induced the Pope to dissolve the Council and con- voke a new one to open at Bologna, eigh- teen months later. The cardinal legate obeyed, and declined to take his seat as president of the Council then in session. But the bishops at Basle vehemently op-

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    posed the removal of the Council. They continued their sessions and proceeded to act, at first, independently of the Pope, and, soon after, against his authority and person. A serious conflict between the Pope and the Fathers at Basle now ensued. In its second session, which was attended by only fourteen bishops, they renewed the decrees of the Council of Constance, proclaiming the superiority of an Ecu- menical Council over the Pope. In its subsequent sessions, the recalcitrant con- venticle commanded the Pope to withdraw his Bull of dissolution; cited him and his cardinals to appear at Basle, and threatened him with further action, if they, in three months, did not obey the summons. Fi- nally, in the tenth session, the Fathers of Basle, who, in the interval, had increased to the number of five cardinals and forty- one prelates, proceeded to declare Eugenius contumacious ! Eugenius sent four legates to Basle with authority to negotiate with the assembled Fathers, on the continuance of the Council. But his legates were ill received, and his overtures rejected as un- satisfactory. The refractory prelates, in the eleventh session, went so far as to menace the Pope with suspension and dep- osition, for refusing to recognize the ar- rogant pretensions of their conventicle. Pope Eugenius, revoking his Bull of dis- solution, consented to acknowledge the assembly of Basle as a lawfully convened Council, under the express condition, however, that his legates would be admit- ted to preside at its sessions, and that all decrees derogatory to his person and the prerogatives of the Holy See, would be repealed. From the period (Feb. 5th, 1434, to May 7th, 1437), all sessions, from the sixteenth to the twenty-fifth, were held under the presidency of the papal legates. A number of decrees w-as passed by the Council, which apply to the extinction of heresy, the establishment of peace among Christian rulers, and the reformation of the faithful. These are the only Acts of the Council that are recognized as truly synodical, and that were approved by the Holy See. Still, before long, the Council again engaged in a contest against the Pope. Returning to their former schism, the Fathers renewed the declaration of the supremacy of a General Council over the Pope. This caused Eugenius to once more dissolve the Council of Basle, and to transfer its sessions to Ferrara, Sept., 1437. The cardinals, excepting L'Alle-

    mand, and nearly all the prelates of rank, in obedience to the Pope's mandate, re- paired to Ferrara. The malcontents, ex- asperated by the general defection from their conventicle to the Council of Fer- rara, now proceeded to revolutionary ex- tremes. The following propositions were defined by them as articles of faith: i. That a General Council is superior to the Pope. 2. That the Pope cannot dissol\\\\\\\\-e, or transfer, or adjourn a General Council. 3. That whoever denies these articles is a heretic. They, furthermore, excommuni- cated the Council of Ferrara, and cited its members to appear before the Basle tribu- nal ; finally in their thirty-fourth session, which was attended by only seven bishops, they presumed to depose Eugenius, in whose stead they thrust forward Amadeus of Savoy. The antipope took the name of Felix V. After playing his miserable part for ten years, Felix abdicated, and his party put an end to the schism by recog- nizing the Pontificate of Nicholas V. Fe- lix, who is the last antipope recorded in history, died in 1451.

    Bassians. — Disciples of Bassus, heretic of the second century, who, supporting himself on the word of our Saviour: "I am the Alpha and the Omega,^' pretended that the perfection of all things consists in the letters of the alphabet.

    Bath or Ephah. — A Hebrew measure, containing seven gallons, two quarts, liquid measure, or three pecks, one quart, one pint, dry measure.

    Bautain (Louise Eugene Marie). — French Catholic philosopher (1795-1867). Was professor of philosophy at Strasburg. He denied that human reason could attain to certainty on religion and religious truths. He did not place the source of certainty in the ^'■sensiis communis,'''' as De Lamennais had done, but considered divine revelation to be the sole ground of re- liance ; and the trustworthiness of this, he thought, could not be proved by reason. Pope Gregory XVI. condemned this doc- trine, and Bautain, together with his disci- ples, submitted to the judgment of the Church.

    Bavaria( C//r/j/;fl»/7v in). — The Baioarii, or Bavarians, in Northern Rhsetia, were chiefly converted to Christianity by the Frankish bishops, St. Rupertus and St, Emmeramnus. St. Rupertus, who was bishop of Worms, baptized the Duke

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    Theodon of Ratisbon, restored the Bishop- ric of Salzburg, and founded the Monas- tery of St. Peter near that city, and another for women under the direction of his niece, Ehrentrudis. He died in the year 620. About the same time St. Emmer- amnus, a bishop of Aquitaine, appeared in Bavaria, and for three years zealously preached the Gospel. Falsely accused of a great crime, he was ruthlessly slain by Lambert, Theodon's son, in 654. The work of these holy men was continued by another Frankish missionary, St. Corbin- ianus. He founded the Bishopric of Freising and died as its first bishop, in 730. In the North of Bavaria, the country now known as Franconia, the Gospel was first preached by St. Kilian. See Kilian.

    Bavaria ( Worship in). — In the year 1885 the population of Bavaria was 5,284,798. The division in regard to worship was as as follows : Catholics, 3,748,253; Protes- tants, 1,477,952; other Christians, 5,017; Jews, 53,526; those professing no religion, 30. Hence per 1,000 inhabitants there were 709 Catholics and 280 Protestants. See Germany.

    Bayley (James Roosevelt). — A Roman Catholic prelate ; born in New York city, Aug. 23d, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, Oct. 3d, 1877. He graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, in 1835. After a year's study of medicine he turned his attention to theology, and was, in 1840, established as rector in Harlem. Becom- ing dissatisfied with Episcopal doctrines, he resigned his charge, went to Europe, and in 1844 was ordained a priest of the Catholic Church. He was made vice- president and then president of St. John's College, Fordham ; was pastor of a Church on Staten Island ; private secretary to Bishop Hughes; and in 1S53 was created first Bishop of Newark. In 1872 he was made Archbishop of Baltimore, which placed him at the head of the hierarchy in the United States. Archbishop Bayley was a philanthropic man, an untiring worker, and the author of historical works relating to the Catholic Church.

    Bdellium. — Generally supposed to be a gum from a tree common in Arabia and the East. But this substance, whatever it is, is mentioned with gold and gems; while a gum is certainly not so remarkable an object of nature as to deserve this classi- fication, or that the production of it should

    confer on Havilah a peculiar celebrity. Hence the opinion of the Jewish writers is not to be contemned, namely , that pearls are here to be understood, of which great quan- tities are found on the shores of the Per- sian Gulf and in India, and which might not, inaptly, be compared to manna, as in Num. xi. 7.

    Beads. See Rosary.

    Beatific Vision. See Vision.

    Beatification. — Act by which the Pope, after the death of an individual, declares that he is numbered among the blessed. Beatification differs from canonization in this, that in beatification, the Pope does not act as judge, who decides about the state of the one who is beatified, but grants only to certain persons the privilege to honor with a form of religious worship the one who is beatified, without incurring the punishments pronounced against those who render a superstitious worship. In can- onization, the Pope speaks as judge, and as we say, he pronounces " ex cathedra " the state of the one whom he canonizes. Beatification has been introduced since the time when it was judged proper to allow a longer interval of time to elapse before the canonization of the saints. Beatifica- tion is regarded as the preliminary step to canonization. It is a provisory permis- sion to render public veneration to the blessed, granted to a diocese, a city, or a religious order. Pope Urban VIII. for- bade the rendering of any veneration to any person who has not been beatified, whether the person may have died in the odor of sanctity, or wrought miracles during life or after death. The same Pope prescribes that every biographer, who makes use of the terms blessed, saint, or martyr, in speaking of a person that has not yet been beatified, ought to declare, that he does this, only to acknowledge the innocence of his life and the excellence of his virtues, without any prejudice to the authority of the Church, the only sovereign judge about these questions.

    Beatitudes (The Eijrht).—]esus behold- ing the multitude, spoke to them from a certain mount, and this discourse has been called " The Sermon on the Mount." In this sermon of our Lord was contained "The Eight Beatitudes," which are as fol- lows: — "Blessed are the poor in spirit [i. e., those who have the spirit of poverty, the sincere and Christian detachment

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    Bede, The Venerable

    from the goods of this world], for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." — "Blessed are the meek [who try to avoid all quar- rels], for they shall possess the land [heaven]." — "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." Christ, according to the Gospel of St. John (xvi. 20), has expressed the same thought in these terms: "Amen, Amen, I say to you, that you shall lament and weep, but the world shall rejoice ; and you shall be made sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy, [in a better world]." — " Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice [who are deprived of justice, who are robbed of their rights here be- low], for they shall have their fill [they will obtain a glorious reparation in the land of heaven].'' — " Blessed are the merci- ful [towards their neighbor], for they shall obtain mercy [by God]." — "Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God." — " Blessed are the peacemakers [who avoid quarrels, discord, and seek to main- tain, and to restore union among men], for they shall be called the children of God [who is the God of peace] "(Rom. xvi. 20). St. John has said in the same sense : "The Father has given us love for one another, in order that we may be called children of God and that we be this in reality." — "Blessed are those that suffer persecution for justice sake [who are persecuted be- cause they do not wish to betray their duty, nor do anything that is contrary to justice and honesty], for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. v. i-io).

    Beaton (Cardinal) (1494-1546) . — Scotch prelate and statesman. During the minority of James V., he was sent to negotiate an alliance with Francis I. against Charles V. and Henry VIII. On his re- turn, he became keeper of the seals. In 1533 he was charged to ask for James V. the hand of Magdelen, daughter of Francis I. ; but this princess having died, Beaton asked for his master the hand of Mary of Lorraine, widow of the Duke of Longue- ville. He succeeded, and the marriage took place in 1538. — Francis I. gave him the bishopric of Mirepoix, and at the same time asked for him the cardinal's hat, which Paul III. gave to him the same year. — In 1539, he succeeded his uncle James as archbishop of St. Andrews. De- voted to a national politic, and dreading for his country the example and influence of England, from the double point of view

    of religion and patriotism, he employed all his strength to keep James V. away from Henry VIII., and succeeded in pre- venting a projected interview between the two kings. A war followed, and James V. was killed in the battle of Solway (1542). Beaton produced a will which gave to him the title and power as regent during the minority of Mary Stuart. The nobility declared this document as apocryphal, and appointed as regent the Duke of Arran. Beaton was arrested and thrown into prison ; but soon left this, and, in accord with Mary of Lorraine, he appointed, in- stead of the Duke of Arran, the Count of Lennox, who left the whole power to the Cardinal (1543). His line of conduct was clearly Scotch. Convinced that England was the enemy, he energetically combated this country with all the power of his political ambition and religious influence. Perhaps, in his pursuit, he committed ex- cesses, but it is impossible to doubt the sincerity of his intentions and the grandeur of his views. His conduct and memory have been sharply attacked by English writers who cannot pardon him his pa- triotism and faith. It is certain that the Cardinal pursued the Protestants and used against them violent means which the legislation furnished to him, and which the customs of the time tolerated. He tried, at the same time, to reform the dis- cipline and morals of his clergy. Beaton became a victim of the hatred of Protes- tants and of the adherents of the English alliance. Surprised in his castle of St. Andrews, he fell under the strokes of as- sassins, who were never punished.

    Bee. — A ruined abbey at Bec-Helloin, near Brionne, France. Bee may be con- sidered the origin of universities, which soon began to be established in every country, after the model of that renowned institution. Many eminent scholars issued from this school, among whom were Pope Alexander II. ; the learned Guitmund, Archbishop Averse; Ives, Bishop of Char- jtres, the restorer of Canon Law in France; and the celebrated St. Anselm.

    Becket (Thomas A). See Thomas A Becket.

    Bede, The Venerable. — Anglo-Saxon monk, historian, and theologian. Bede, who from his superior learning and ad- mirable virtues received the appellation of "Venerable," was born about the year 673.

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    He was educated by the monks of Jarrow and Weremouth, his first instructor being Benedict Biscop himself. The proficiency of Bede in all branches of learning was considerable, and the diversity, as well as the extent of his reading, remarkable. His ardent and comprehensive mind em- braced every science which was then studied. In his own catalogue of books, which he composed, we find commentaries on most of the books of the Scripture, treatises on physics, geography, astronomy, and all the sciences of the period, lives of saints, and sermons. But his Ecclesiastical History of the Anglo-Saxons, in five books, from the landing of Julius Caesar to the year 731, is the most celebrated of his works. Venerable Bede died in 735.

    Beelphegor, Baalphegor, Baal-Peor. —

    Syrian god, adored especially by the Am- monites and Madianites, was the same as Priapus according to Origen ; as Saturnus, according to St. John Chrysostom, Theod- oret, Apollinaris and Suidas. But it would appear that Dom Calmet has shown that it was the same god as Adonis or Horus, adored by the Egyptians. "Phegor or Peor," he says, "is the same as Or or Horus, by cutting off from this word the article Pe, which signifies nothing. Horus is the same as Adonis or Osiris." The Israelites, in the desert of Sin, permitted themselves to be dragged into the worship of Phegor and committed lewd actions with the daughters of Moab (Num. xxv. 3-3), and the Psalmist adds that they par- took in the sacrifices for the dead. Now we know that the feasts of Adonis were celebrated as funeral feasts, and that they abandoned themselves to all kinds of de- baucheries.

    Beelsamen and Baal-Samen. — Assyrian deity, adored also at Carthage. It is be- lieved that it was the sun,' king of heaven, or the personification of heaven itself, the King-Heaven, the Uranus of the Greeks. At Carthage, they made a goddess thereof, identical with Minerva.

    Beelzebub. — Deity of the Philistines; ^'the prince of the devils " (Matt. xii. 24, etc.). The Jews seem to have applied this appellation to Satan, as being the author of all the pollutions and the abominations of idol worship.

    Beghards or Spiritualists, also called " Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit." A sect of mediaeval heretics. They spread

    7

    in the thirteenth century, chiefly through France, Italy, and Germany. Owing to their professional character as beggars, they were called Beghards. They de- nied the difference between good and evil works and maintained that the soul, which is a portion of the divine sub- stance, could not be stained by sensual excesses. Thus they committed acts of the coarsest licentiousness and in their wanderings they were accompanied by women called " Sisters." Hence the name "Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit."

    Beguines. — An association founded about 1 180 for pious widows and single women desirous of consecrating their lives to God. They did not take any vows and had no convents proper, but dwelt in small houses within the same enclosure, with the church or chapel in the center (to which the name of Beguinage was given), and devoted themselves to works of piety and mercy. The institution was approved by Urban VIII. Beguine communities still exist in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Similar institutions existed for laymen who were called " Beghards."

    Bel. See Baal.

    Belgium {Christianity in). — St. Aman- dus of Aquitaine, after a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was consecrated mission- ary bishop, preached the Gospel with much success in modern Belgium. The principal scene of his missionary labors was the neighborhood of Antwerp and Ghent. About the year 646, he was ap- pointed to the Episcopate of Mastricht, and there devoted himself with unceasing energy to the work of evangelizing the surrounding tribes. He died about the year 661. St. Omer, or Audomar, contem- poraneously labored with him in the same country. After thirty years of missionary labors, which converted the heathen tribes of Morinia from their idolatries, St. Omer died about 667. St. Livinus, an Irish bishop, is called the Apostle of Brabant. He suffered martyrdom about the year 656. The work of these apostolic men was continued by St. Elipandus, Bishop of Noyon, and the bishops St. Lambertus and Hubertus of Mastricht.

    Belgium ( Worship in). — In Belgium the religious hierarchy is represented by one Catholic archbishop, residing at Malines, the metropolis, and by five bishops of the same religion at Bruges* Gand, Liege,

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    Namur, and Tournay. The population is, in fact, almost entirely Catholic, both Flemish and Wallonish. They estimate the number of Protestants to be about 15,000, and that of the Jews 3,000. The lat- ter reside especially at Antwerp, and are of German nationality. Both the Protestant and Israelitish worship are ac- knowledged by the State. The majority of the Protestants are subject to a synod which has its seat at Brussels, and its members assemble once a year. The cen- tral synagogue at Brussels has branches of minor importance at Liege, Antwerp, Gand, Arlon, and Namur.

    Bellarmin (Robert). — Italian cardinal and theologian. Archbishop of Capua, born at Montepulciano (Tuscany), in 1542, and entered the Society of Jesus in 1560. Extremely severe toward himself, an enemy to all indulgence, and an indefati- gable worker, he left behind him writings so numerous and valuable that no better evidence of the holiness and self-sacrifice of his life could be required. He was a successful preacher, but was especially distinguished for the ability with which he taught the various branches of theology. In 1602 he was appointed Archbishop of Capua, and died Sept. 17th, 1621. The principal works of Bellarmin are : Dis- puttones de controversis Chrisiiance jidei Arttcults, libri, IV; De Scripforibus ec- clesiasticis (a sort of patrology or bio- grapical sketches of ecclesiastical writers) ; De Ascensione Mentis in Deujn per Scalas rerum Creatarutn, and De Gemitu Coltimbce, seu de bono Lacrymarum, etc.

    Bells. — Bells were known to the He- brews, Egyptians, and Romans. But the employment of bells in churches to an- nounce the hours of office does not go back beyond the reign of Constantine the Great. During the heathen persecution it was of course impossible to call the faith- ful by any signal which would have at- tracted public notice. After Constantine's time, monastic communities used to sig- nify the hour of prayer by blowing a trumpet, or by rapping with a hammer at the cells of the monks. The use of bells was spread only in the time of St. Paul- inus. Bishop of Nola (409-431). The cus- tom of blessing bells goes back to the year 750. The bishop or his delegate first blesses salt and water, then he washes the bell within and without; makes seven unctions in the form of a cross on the bell

    outside, and four inside. For the outside unctions he uses " Oleum Catecfiumenorum," and for those inside " Holy Chrism." Then the bishop names the saint under whose invocation the bell is blessed. After this the censer-bearer places under the bell a censer filled with incense, a passage of the Gospel is sung and the celebrant ends the ceremony in making the sign of the Cross over the bell.

    Belphegor. See Beelphegor.

    Benedict (name of 14 Popes). — Benedict I. — Surnamed Bonosus; Pope, Roman by origin (574-578). Successor of John III., after a vacancy in the Holy See which had lasted ten months. In his Pontificate the Longobards extended their conquests in Italy and threatened Rome. Benedict II. — Priest of Rome, succeeded, in 684, Leo II. in the Chair of St. Peter. He occupied it only 10 months and 12 days, but with so much zeal and virtue that he was admitted among the number of saints. Benedict III. (855-858). — Roman priest. His elec- tion was opposed by the ambassadors of Emperor Louis II., who supported the pretensions of the antipope Anastasius. But the constancy of both clergy and laity obliged the imperial messengers to recog- nize the lawful Pontiff. Benedict III. is praised for his meekness and forbearance toward his adversaries. He beautified many churches, and reopened the English college in Rome. Benedict I V^. — Roman by birth, successor of John IX. (900-903). He crowned Louis, King of Provence, em- peror, in 901. Benedict V. — Roman by birth,successor of John XII. (964-965). He was elected by the Romans, in opposition to Leo VIII., the choice of the Emperor Otto I. The emperor reduced Rome, and secured the person of Benedict, who was kept till his death in confinement under the charge of Bishop Adaldag at Hamburg. Benedict VI. — Roman by birth, succes- sor of John XIII. (972-974). He was dethroned, imprisoned in the Castle St. Angelo, and finally strangled. Benedict VII. — Roman by birth, successor of Domnus II. (975-983). He 'excommuni- cated Cardinal Franco, the antipope, and governed the Church with vigor and great prudence. Benedict VIII. — Bishop of Porto, successor of Sergius IV. (1012-1024). Proved a most worthy Pontiff, who spared neither weariness nor exertion to restore to his high office the prestige it had lost. An antipope, named Gregory, set up by

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    the opposite faction, forced Benedict to leave Rome. He was restored to his See by the Emperor St. Henry H. of Germany, who with his wife, the sainted Cundigunda, received from him the imperial crown in 1014, The indefatigable Pontiff labored strenuously for Church reform, and held several councils, the decrees of which the emperor confirmed as laws of the empire. Benedict IX. (1033-1044). — He obtained his elevation to the Papacy by simony, when a youth of eighteen. During the eleven years of his reign, under the protec- tion of the emperor, and supported by the power of his family, this youth harassed the people by his capricious tyranny, and disgraced the Apostolic See by the wanton conduct of his life. The Romans, disgusted with his disorders, expelled him, but he was restored by Emperor Conrad. In 1044, he was driven away a second time, when an antipope, styled Sylvester HI., was intruded on the throne for three months. To free the Holy See from the degradation to which it had sunk in con- sequence of the bribery and tyranny of the nobles, Gratian, a distinguished and re- spected Roman archpriest, by offering a large subsidy in money, induced Benedict to resign and withdraw to private life. Gratian was then himself canonicallyelected Pope, under the name of Gregory VI. Benedict X. — Bishop of Velletri, placed in the Holy See by a faction at the death of Stephen IX. (1058). He resigned ten months afterwards, and the Romans elected Nicholas II. By several authors he is regarded as an antipope. Benedict XI. {^Nicholas Boccasini). — Italian by birth (1303-1304). He annulled the Bulls of Boni- face VIII. against Philip the Fair of France. Benedict XII. — Cistercian monk, succes- sor of John XXII. (1334-1342). He was an eminent canonist and theologian, and a severe reformer. He meditated the res- toration of the Holy See to Rome, but was resisted in this effort by the cardinals. Benedict XIII. — Successor of Innocent XIII. (1724-1730). A Dominican; accepted with reluctance the papal dignity; held a provincial council in the Lateran (1725), which enacted wise laws for the suppres- sion of abuses and the reformation of morals, and terminated the dispute con- cerning the "Spiritual Monarchy of Sic- ily." But he was rudely treated by the Catholic courts, on account of inserting an historical fact in the office of St. Gregorv VII. Benedict XI V. — Successor

    of Clement XII. (1740-1758). One of the most learned Popes that ever filled the Papal Chair, yielded in the extreme to- ward civil rulers, and thus succeeded in preserving friendly relations with most of them. However, he gained little by the great concessions he made. He saw the be- ginning of the warfare against the Society of Jesus.

    Benedict Biscop (628-690). — An English ecclesiastic, founder of two celebrated monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow. He made several journeys to Rome, and each time brought back a valuable col- lection of books, as well as a large supply of relics and images for his monasteries. His memory has been transmitted to posterity by his disciple. Venerable Bede, in his Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth. England, and even Europe, owes much to the zeal of Benedict Biscop ; for the civi- lization of the eighth century may be said to have rested on the monasteries he founded, which produced Bede, and through him the School of York, Alcuin, and the Carolingian School, on which the culture and learning of the Middle Ages were based. In 690, he also brought bells from Italy, and was the first person who introduced into England constructors of stone edifices, as well as makers of glass windows.

    Benedict of Aniane ( St. ). — Born in Languedoc about 750; died 821, A re- former of monastic discipline. Encour- aged by Louis the Mild, he conceived and carried out the idea of restoring among his monks the severity of the ancient discipline. They soon became models of order and piety for other monasteries, and contributed much to the revival of letters. But owing to the disturbances arising from the strife of contending factions within the Frankish empire, the reforms of Benedict did not exert any permanent influence. F. Feb. 12th.

    Benedict (St.) and the Benedictines. —

    Founder of monachism in the West. Benedict, born in 480 at Nursia in Umbria, of noble parents, at the age of fourteen withdrew into the wilds of Subiaco, in the Apennines. Here he lived for three years in a deep and almost inaccessible cavern. His reputation for sanctity and his mira- cles soon gathered a number of disciples around him, for whom he erected two monasteries. In 529, he retired with a

    Benediction

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    few monks to Monte Cassino, where, on the site of an ancient temple of Apollo, he founded a monastery, which became the glorious monastic center of the West. Sev- eral other monasteries were also founded by St. Benedict ; among these, one for women, which he placed under the direction of his sister St. Scholastica. St. Benedict, who is called the patriarch of the Western monks, died in 543. F. Mch. 21st.— The Rule of St. Benedict,which very appropriately has been called a " Summary of the Christian Relig- ion," is a masterpiece of enlightened wis- dom and prudence. Its precepts are few and simple. In seventy-three chapters, it con- tains a collection of regulations intended to train men in retirement from the world, and in the acquisition of Christain per- fection, through the practice of the evan- gelical counsels. In it we find the duties and observances of the monastic life clearly defined. The evils, arising from the cus- tom of monks continually passing from one convent to another, are prevented by the "vow of stability," binding each member to remain constantly in the same community. The Benedictine Rule grad- ually superseded all other rules in the West, as, for example, the Irish Rule of St. Columban, that of St. Martin in France, and those of Sts. Fructuosus, Csesarius, and Isidore in Spain. In the ninth cen- tury, it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne, and later on, it was received in all the Cathedral monasteries of England. The order founded by St. Benedict spread rapidly and widely. It was established in Sicily by St, Placidus, in Gaul by St. Maurus, both disciples of St. Benedict ; in Britain by St. Augustine, and in Germany by St. Boniface. No other religious order can claim to have accomplished so much for the conversion and civilization of the world. The monks planted Christianity in Eng- land, Friesland, and Germany; and the Scandinavian North received with the true faith its first monasteries as well. For centuries the Benedictines were the prin- cipal teachers of youth in all branches of sciences and art. The oldest establish- ment of Benedictines in the United States is that of St. Vincent's Abbey at Latrobe, in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, founded by a colony of monks from Bava- ria, in 1846. It was raised to the dignity of an Abbey in 1855. The Abbey of St. Meinrad, Indiana, which was founded in 1853, *s a filiation of the celebrated Bene-

    dictine abbey at Einsiedlen, in Switzer- land. The first convent of Benedictine nuns in the United States was established at St. Mary's, Pennsylvania, in 1853.

    Benediction (from the Lat. benedicere, to speak well). — Signifies a solemn invoca- tion of the divine blessing upon men or things. The ceremony in its simplest form may be considered almost coeval with the earliest expression of religious feeling. We know from Holy Writ that the Jewish patriarchs, before they died, invoked the blessing of God on their children ; but at a later period the priests were commanded to implore the divine blessing upon the people. Christ sanctioned the custom, which was consequently grafted into the primitive Church, where it gradually de- veloped itself in different forms. See Blessing.

    Benefice {Ecclesiastical). — A Church office endowed with a revenue for its proper fulfillment. We have no such bene- fices in the United States.

    Benignus (St.). — Apostle of Bourgogne and martyr. He was a native of Smyrna, and disciple of St. Polycarpus, who or- dained him priest and sent him into Gaul, under the reign of Marcus Aurelius. His mission was confirmed by Pope St. Anicet. Benignus evangelized Autun, Langres, and Dijon, the latter of which he selected as the center of his apostolic labors. Ar- rested by the soldiers of Terentius, gov- ernor of the province, in a village near Epagny, nearly eight miles from Dijon, he was put to death by order of Marcus Aure- lius, about the year 178. The Cathedral church of Dijon bears the name of St. Benignus, and was built in his honor. F. Nov. ist.

    Benjamin (Hebr. son of the right hand) — The youngest son of Jacob, he was called Benoni {son of my sorrow), by his mother, Rachel, who died in giving him birth; but this was changed into Benjamin by Jacob. The Benjamites occupied a terri- tory about 26 miles long and 12 miles wide, between Ephraim (on the north) and Juda, containing Jerusalem and Jeri- cho. The Benjamites became famous for their skill in using the sling. During the period of the Judges they were nearly all slain by the army of the other tribes, on account of an outrage committed against a Levite of Ephraim. Only 600 Benjamites were spared and repeopled the

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    country. After the death of Saul, who was a Benjamite, the tribe of Benjamin remained faithful to his son Isboseth, until the definitive installation of David. Dur- ing the schism of the tribes, that of Benja- min remained united with the tribe of Juda.

    Berengarius {Heresy of). — Up to the tenth century, the Real Presence had not really been called into question. Beren- garius of Tours, was the first who im- pugned the Presence of our Lord in the Holy Eucharist and the doctrine of Tran- substantiation, and thus anticipated the Sacramentarians of a later age. He was born about A. d. iooo, and was made Arch- deacon of Angers, and appointed Scholas- ticus, or Master, of the Cathedral school of Tours, Berengarius held that Christ was only spiritually present in the sacred ele- ments, which in every respect remained unchanged, and that a certain efficacy was imparted to them by the faith of the com- municant. The matter having been re- ferred to Rome, his errors were condemned by Pope Leo IX. in the councils, which were held at Rome and Vercelli, in 1050. Berengarius was excommunicated until he would recant. In 1054, a synod was held at Tours by the cardinal-deacon, Hilde- brand, and there Berengarius made and signed a confession of faith, acknowl- edging that " bread and wine after the consecration are the Flesh and Blood of Christ." As he continued, however, to teach his heresy, he was, in 1059, cited to appear at Rome, by Pope Nicholas II., and there, before a council of 113 bishops, Berengarius made a new re- cantation, and signed a new confession of faith, affirming that " the bread and wine placed on the altar, are, after the conse- cration, not only the Sacrament, but also the true Body and Blood of our Lord." Nevertheless, the fraudulent heretic, hav- ing returned to France, relapsed into the condemned errors, and spoke detractingly of the Pope, and of the Roman See, which he called the '* See of Satan." Pope Alex- ander II. in vain exhorted him no longer to scandalize the Church. Cardinal Hilde- brand, who in the meantime had ascended the papal throne as Gregory VII., sum- moned Berengarius once more to Rome, and, in the councils held in 1078 and 1079, obliged him to confess that he had till then erred on the mystery of the Eucharist, and to declare under oath, that the " Bread of

    the altar is, after consecration, the true Body of Christ, the same which was born of the Virgin, and was offered on the Cross, and is now seated at the right hand of the Father in heaven." But the obstinate heretic continued to teach as be- fore, and accused Gregory VII. of incon- sistency and partiality. He made the last recantation at the Council of Bordeaux, in 1080, after which he became silent. He is said to have died in communion with the Church, in 1088.

    Bernard (St.) (surnamed the "Last Father of the Church ").— Born in the Castle Fontaines, near Dijon, France, in 1091, of an old patrician family ; he entered, in his twenty-second year, with some thirty of his kinsmen and friends, the Order of Citeaux, of which he is sometimes regarded as the second founder. After two years, the abbot, St. Stephen Harding, an Englishman, sent Bernard to found a new abbey at Clairvaux, which soon rose to great celebrity. He was consecrated abbot by William of Champeaux, the great dia- lectician and teacher of Abelard. The fame and influence of Bernard spread rapidly. " He united in himself," as the learned Hurter well observes, "the qualities of the most perfect contemplative monk with those of the most profound politician. . . . His judgment decides who is the rightful successor of St. Peter ; and he it is who shields the Church from new dangers engendered by rash teaching. Popes follow his counsels like humble monks. He is proffered and refuses bishop- rics and archbishoprics ; but, wherever he appears, greater honors are shown to him than to the bishops and archbishops of the most famous sees." Bernard died in 1153. The works which St. Bernard has left be- hind him are as various as they are numer- ous, and consist of sermons, epistles, and moral treatises. His letters, which num- ber no less than 404, record many historical facts, interspersed with sage reflections and salutary advice. Of his sermons he de- livered 86 on the Book of Canticles to his monks. His most famous work is his treatise De Consider atione, addressed to Eugenius III., who had been his pupil, in which he states, without disguise, what are the duties of the chief pastor, and urges the necessity of reforms. He ac- quired the appellation of the " Mellifluous Doctor" and, on account of the value of his writings, he was numbered among the

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    Doctors of the Church, by Pius VIII. F. Aug. 20th.

    Bernardin (St.) of Siena (1380-1444). — Franciscan reh'gious. Famous preacher of penance; he preached in nearly all the cities of Italy, and the effect which his sermons everywhere produced, is said to have been overwhelming. He was sur- named the "Trumpet of Heaven," the " Evangelical Preacher." F. May 20th.

    Bernardines. — Religious of the Order of St. Benedict, reformed by St. Bernard. See Cistercians.

    Bernice. — Eldest daughter of king Herod Agrippa I., and sister to the younger Agrippa (Acts nscv. 13, 23). She was first married to her uncle Herod, king of Chal- cis ; and after his death, in order to avoid the merited suspicion of incest with her brother Agrippa, she became the wife of Polemon, king of Cilicia. This connec- tion being soon dissolved, she returned to her brother, and afterwards became mis- tress of Vespasian and Titus.

    Beryl. — The name of a precious stone, of a sea-green color, found principally in India (Apoc. xxi. 20).

    Beryllians. — Members of a sect founded, in the third century, by Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra in Arabia. This heresiarch de- nied that there was in Jesus Christ a per- sonal divine essence, and maintained that there was in Him no other divinity than that of the Father.

    Besor. — River of Judea, which watered the territory of the tribe of Simeon, to Oued - Cheria. Watered Gerara (Oum- D/erar), and emptied into the Mediterra- nean south of Gaza.

    Bessarion (John or Basil). — Born at Trebizond, in 1403; died at Ravenna, 1472. A Greek scholar and a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, notable as a patron of learn- ing and a collector of manuscripts. He entered the Order of St. Basil in 1423 ; studied under the Platonic scholar George Gemistus Pletho; became Archbishop of Nice in 1437 ; accompanied John Palaeolo- gus to Italy, in 1438, to assist in effecting a union between the Greek and Latin Churches; supported the Roman Church at the Councils of Ferrara and Florence, whereby he gained the favor of Pope Eu- genius by whom he was made cardinal in 1439, and successively invested with the

    Archbishopric of Siponto and the bishop- rics of Sabina and Tusculum ; and received the title of Patriarch of Constantinople ( 1463). He wrote AdversusCalumniatorem Platonis, libr. IV.; Responsio ad quatuor argument a Afaximi Planudis de proces- sione Spiritus Sancti ex solo Pat re; Epis- tola catholica sive generalis ad omnes, qui sedi Patriarchal!' Constantinopolitance sub- sunt, etc.

    Bethany (Hebr. house of grace). — A place about forty minutes' ride from Jeru- salem, on the road to Jericho, southeast of the Mount of Olives. It is often men- tioned in the New Testament as the home of Lazarus, Martha and Mary, and of Si- mon the Leper. It is identified with the modern El-Azariyeh, a village of forty huts, inhabited by Mohammedans exclu- sively.

    Beth- Arab (Hebr. house of passage). — Locality of Palestine, where the Israelites crossed the Jordan, under the leadership of Josue. In sight of this place, situated on the right shore of the Jordan, in the tribe of Juda, St. John was baptizing.

    Bethel (Hebr. house of God). — A town (originally named Luza) in Palestine, twelve miles north of Jerusalem, the rest- ing-place of the Ark, and later, a seat of idolatrous worship ; the modern Beitin.

    Beth- Heron (Hebr. place of the hollow). — Two villages of Palestine, about twelve miles northwest of Jerusalem. At the pass between them Josue defeated the kings of the Amorites. It was also a scene of a vic- tory of Judas Machabeus in the second century b. c.

    Bethlehem (Hebr. house of bread). — A town in Palestine, six miles south of Jeru- salem; the modern Beit-Lahm. It was the birth-place of David, and, according to St. Matthew, St. Luke, and St. John, of Christ. The Convent of the Nativity at Bethlehem is a complex body of structures distributed between the Greek and Latin creeds, and grouped around the church is a basilica of five naves, with apse and apsidal transepts, built by the Empress Helena and the Emperor Constantine. There are four long ranges of monotho- litic Corinthian columns 19 feet high, above which rise the walls of the nave, with round arched windows. The choir is richly ornamented with illustrations of the Greek rite; beneath it is the tortuous

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    Grotto of the Nativity. The church meas- ures 86 by 136 feet. The population of Bethlehem is about 5,000.

    Bethlehemites. — i. Old religious order whose only known monastery was founded about the year 1257 at Cambridge, Eng- land. The religious wore a habit similar to the Dominicans, and on the breast a red star to remind them of the star that ap- peared to the .Magi. — 2. A religious order founded in Guatemala, in 1653. Extended to Mexico a few years later, and ulti- mately to other parts of Spanish-America. The members lived according to the mon- astic rules of the Augustinians.

    Bethphage (Hebr. house of unripe figs). — A village in Palestine, situated on the Mount of Olives eastwards from Jerusalem and near Bethany. The exact site is in dispute. " The traditional site is above Bethany, halfway between that village and the top of the mount." — William Smith. At Bethphage Jesus mounted an ass in order to make His triumphant entry into Jerusalem.

    Bethsaida (Hebr. fishing-place). — The name of two cities in Palestine: i. Beth- saida of Galilee was situated in Galilee, on the western shore of the lake Gennesa- reth, a little south of Capharnaum, and was the birthplace of the Apostles Philip, Andrew, and Peter. — 2. The other Beth- saida lay in Gaulonitis, on the eastern site of the same lake, and near the place where the Jordan enters it. This town was en- larged by Philip, tetrarch of that region (Luke iii. i), and called Julias in honor of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. Near by Jesus wrought the miracle of the multi- plication of the five loaves of bread and two fishes (Luke ix. 10-17).

    Bethsan (Hebr. house of rest) — More generally known by the name of Scythop- olis, was situated on the west of the Jor- dan, at the southern extremity of the great plain of Esdrselon, on the high ground between that plain and the valley of the Jordan. The place is now called Bysan. The bodies of Saul and Jonathan, killed in the battle of Gelboe, were hung on the wall of Bethsan by the Philistines; but the inhabitants of Jabes Galaad removed the remains during the night and buried them in the wood of Jabes (L Ki. xxxi. 10).

    Bethsur. — Town of Palestine, in the tribe of Juda, twelve miles south of Jerusa-

    lem, fortified by Roboam. Besieged by Lysias, regent of the kingdom of Syria, it was delivered by Judas Machabeus who routed the Syrians (L Mach. vi. 6).

    Bethulia. — City of Palestine, in the tribe of Zabulon, famous through the siege of Holofernes, who was killed by Judith. Some authors believe that the existent small town of Saour, situated about 17 miles north of Naplouse, near the plain of Esdrselon, arose on the site of the ancient Bethulia.

    Baza (Theodore). — One of the princi- pal chiefs of the so-called reformers (1519- 1605). Born in Burgundy; died at Geneva. In 1548 he fled to Geneva, where he ab- jured his Catholic faith and became the successor of Calvin in this city on the lat- ter's death in 1564.

    Bible (from the Gr. biblion, biblios, a letter or paper). — The Sacred Books of the Jews and Christians. St. Paul has di- vided the Bible into the Old and New Covenant, because it sets forth the cove- nant which God made with the Jews, when He constituted them His chosen people, and afterwards with the Jews and Gentiles when Christ redeemed the world. This Covenant of St. Paul is translated Tcsta- mentum in the Latin Vulgate, and Testa- ment in English. In the reading of the Old Testament, the early Christians gener- ally used the Septuagint (see this subject) version, which was considered divinely in- spired. This version was held in high veneration, even by the Jews until the Christians quoted it against them, when the Rabbins affected to condemn it. Three new Greek versions were produced, which were intended to supersede the Septuagint. The first by Aquila, a Jewish proselyte of Sinope in Pontus, under Hadrian; a sec- ond by Symmachus, an Ebionite of Eph- esus, under Severus ; and a third by Theodotion, another Ebionite, who lived in the reign of Commodus. These ver- sions Origen republished in his famous Hexapla, which contained, besides the original Hebrew, the same in Greek text, and the Septuagint. Of the Hexaplarian Septuagint, a new edition, published by Pamphylus and Eusebius, was adopted in the Churches of Palestine. Other edi- tions of the Septuagint appeared, one by Lucian of Antioch, and another by He- sychius, an Egyptian bishop ; the former being used in the Churches of Asia

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    Minor and Constantinople, the latter in those of Egypt. One of the oldest and most important renditions of the Bible, the Syriac version, called the Peshito or "Simple," appeared, probably at Edessa, about the middle of the second century; some refer it even to the time of St- Jude, the Apostle. The Peshito, which was made from the original text, that is, the Old Testament from the Hebrew, and the New from the Greek, was held in high re- pute by all the Christians of Syria. Latin versions are known to have existed in the earliest ages of Christianity. Of these the most famous was the ancient Vulgate, also called Italic, although it is believed to have been made in Africa. It was made, if not in the age of the Apostles, at least in the second centur}-, and was translated from the Greek copy (Septua- gint) of the Old Testament and from Greek copies of books of the Old Testament not found in the Septuagint, as well as from the Greek copies of the books of the New Testament. This version was used in the Latin Churches till the sixth century, when it was superseded by the New Vulgate of St. Jerome. See Canon of the Scrip- tures.

    Believing the Sacred Scriptures to be di- vinely inspired writings, the Church, at all times, recommended their perusal and study to the people. In no instance did the Church ever prohibit the reading of the Bible in the original text, or in authentic versions; neither did she ever forbid translations to be made into the language of any country. But when the heresies of the Waldenses and Albigenses arose, there was danger from corrupt translations. These heretics appealed to the Bible, in justification of their assaults upon civil and ecclesiastical authority, and insisted that the people should judge the Church by their own interpretation of the Scriptures. These evils elicited restrictions from the Councils of Toulouse (1239) and Tarragona (1234) with regard to vernacular versions. "The lawless political principles of WyclifTe," says Blunt, "and the still more lawless ones of his followers, created a strong prej- udice against vernacular translations of the Scriptures, on the part of the rulers of England, both in Church and State. The Bible was quoted in support of rebellion and of the wildest heresy." {Reform of the. Church of England, vol. I. p. 504.) That the Bible was scarce, or its reading neglected, is historically imtrue. "There

    has been much wild and foolish writing," the same author observes, "about the scarcity of the Bible in the age preceding the Reformation. It has been taken for granted that Holy Scripture was almost a sealed book to clergy and laity, until it was printed in English by Tyndale and Cover- dale, and that the only real source of knowledge respecting it, before them, was the translation made by WyclifTe. The facts are that the clergy and monks were daily reading large portions of the Bible, and had them stored up in their memory, by constant recitation; that they made very free use of Holy Scripture in preach- ing, so that even a modern Bible reader is astonished at the number of quotations and references contained in mediaeval sermons ; that countless copies of the Bible were written out by the surprising industry of cloistered scribes; that many glosses or commentaries were written which are still seen to be full of pious and wise thoughts ; and that all laymen who could read were, as a rule, provided with their Gospels, their Psalter, or other de- votional portions of the Bible. . . . The clergy studied the word of God, and made it known to the laity ; and those few among the laity who could read had abundant opportunity of reading the Bible either in Latin or in English, up to the Reformed period." {Ibid. p. 501.)

    It has been asserted by Protestants that WyclifTe's and Luther's translations of the Scriptures first made them accessible to the laity. This is not true. For it is a well ascertained fact, that long before the Reformation of Luther, the people of almost every country in Europe had the Bible already translated into their own vernacular tongues. In most nations there was not only one, but there were even many different versions. We begin with Germanv, the theatre of the Reformation. The Germans had no less than five dif- ferent translations of the Scriptures into their own language, of which three were previous to that of Luther in 1530, and two were contemporary with or immedi- ately subsequent to it. The oldest was that made by Ulphilas, Bishop of the Maeso-Goths (now Wallachians), as early as the middle of the fourth century. This version seems to have been used for sev- eral centuries by many of the older Gothic and Germanic Christians. The second version was that ascribed to Charlemagne (beginning of the ninth century) — proba-

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    bly because it was made by some erudite translator under his direction. It was translated into the old German, or Teu- tonic dialect. Besides, there was a very- old rhythmical paraphrase of the four Gos- pels, much used in Germany from the time of the first Emperor Louis (814-840). The third German version was a translation from the Latin Vulgate by some person unknown, an edition of which was printed as early as the year 1466. Two copies of this edition are still preserved in the sena- torial library at Leipsic. Before the ap- pearance of the German Bible of Luther, the version last named had been published in Germany at least sixteen times: once at Strasburg, five times at Nuremberg, and ten times at Augsburg. Add to these the three editions of Wittenberg, mentioned by Seckendorf (published in 1470, 1483, and 1490), and not included in this esti- mate, and we ascertain that the Bible had already been reprinted in the German lan- guage no less than twenty times before Luther's translation appeared. In 1534, John Dietemberg published his new German translation from the Latin Vulgate at May- ence, under the auspices of the Archbishop and Elector, Albert. It passed through up- wards of twenty editions in the course of one hundred years, four of which appeared at Mayence, and seventeen at Cologne. Though somewhat unpolished in style it was generally esteemed as a faithful trans- lation. In 1537, another Catholic version appeared under the supervision of Doctors Emser and Eck, the two learned champions of Catholicity against Luther. This ver- sion likewise passed through many edi- tions. The facts already stated clearly prove how utterly unfounded is the state- ment, that before the Reformation "the Bible was an unknown book ! "

    Other Catholic countries were not be- hind Germany in the sincere desire to translate the Scriptures into the vernacu- lar tongues, and to circulate them among the people. In fact there is not a country in Europe in which the Bible had not been repeatedly translated and published long before the Reformation. In Italy, there were two versions anterior to that of Lu- ther: that by the Dominican, Jacobus a Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, which version, according to the testimony of Sixtus Senensis, was completed as early as 1290 (see Bibliotheca sacra, torn. I. p. 397) ; and that by Nicholas Malermi, a Camal- dolese monk, which was first printed sim-

    ultaneously at Rome and Venice, in the year 1471, and which passed through as many as thirteen different editions before the year 1525. This translation was after- wards reprinted eight times before the year 1567, with the express permission of Santa Uflizio, or Holy Office, at Rome. Almost simultaneously with that of Luther, there likewise appeared two Italian trans- lations of the Bible: that by Antonio Bruccioli, in 1532, which in twenty years passed through ten editions ; and that of Santes Marmochino, which was succes- sively printed in 1538, 1546, and 1547. The oldest French version of the Bible was that by Des Moulins, whose Bibly Historyal — almost a complete transla- tion of the Bible — appeared, according to Usher, about the year 1478. A new edition of it, corrected by Rely, Bishop of Angers, was published in 1487, and was successively reprinted sixteen different times before the year 1546, four of these editions apypearing at Lyons and twelve at Paris. Le Fevre published a new French translation, which passed through many editions. A revision of this version was made by the divines at Louvain, in 1550, and was subsequently reprinted in France and Flanders thirty-nine times before the year 1700. According to Mariana, the great Spanish historian, the Scriptures were translated into Castilian by order of Alphonso the Wise (1252-1282). The whole Bible was translated into the Valen- cian dialect of the Spanish, in the year 1405, by Boniface Ferrer, brother of St. Vincent Ferrer. This version was printed in 1478, and reprinted in 1515, -with the formal consent of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1512, the Epistles and Gospels were translated into Spanish by Ambrosio de Montesma. This work was republished at Antwerp in 1544, at Barcelona in 1601 and 1608, and at Madrid in 1603 and 1644. In England, besides the translation made by the Venerable Bede in the eighth century and that of the Psalms ascribed to Alfred the Great, in the ninth century, there was also another translation of the whole Bible into the English of that early period, which was completed about the year 1290— long before the version of WycliflFe in the fifteenth century. In the year 706, Ad- helm, first Bishop of Salisbury, according to the testimony of the Protestant bibli- cist Horn, translated the Psalter into Saxon. At his persuasion, Egbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne, also translated the four

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    Gospels. In the fourteenth century, a new English version of the whole Bible was made by John Trevisa. In the year 905, Elfric, Archbishop of Canterbury, translated into English the Pentateuch, Josue, Job, Judges, Ruth, part of the books of Kings, Esther, and the Machabees.

    The Bible was translated into Flemish, as Usher admits, by Jacobus Merland, before the year 1210. This version was printed at Cologne in 1475, and it passed through seven new editions before the ap- pearance of Luther's Bible in 1530. The Antwerp edition was published eight times in the short space of seventeen years. Within thirty years there were also pub- lished, at Antwerp alone, no less than ten editions of the New Testament translated by Cornelius Kendrick in 1524. In the course of the seventeenth century, there also appeared in Flanders several new Catholic versions by De Witt, Laemput, Schum, and others. All these were re- peatedly republished. A Slavonic version of the Bible was published at Cracow in the beginning of the sixteenth century. As early as the fourteenth century the Bi- ble had been translated into the Swedish, by the direction of St. Bridget. Accord- ing to the testimony of Jonas Arnagrimus, a disciple of the distinguished Tycho Brahe, a translation of the Bible was made in Iceland as early as 1297. A Bohemian Bible appeared at Prague in 1488, and passed through three other different edi- tions ; at Cutna in 1498, and at Venice in 1506 and 1511.

    Finally, to complete this hasty summary of bibliographical facts, we may state, as an evidence of the solicitude of Rome for the dissemination of the Bible, that many editions of Syriac and Arabic Bibles have been printed at Rome and Venice for the use of the Oriental Churches in commun- ion with the Holy See. A translation of the Bible into Ethiopic was published at Rome, as early as 1548. The famous convent of Armenian monks, called Mech- itarists, at Venice, has more recently pub- lished exquisitely beautiful versions of the Bible translated into Armenian.

    The bishops at present recommend the German version of AUioli. which is very faithfully rendered word for word from the Latin Vulgate, and is furnished with very fine explanatory notes. It appeared in 1830. So, too, in French there are many Catholic versions, dating as far back as 1294.; but the latest and best is that

    published with excellent notes in 1861, by the Abbe Glaire, who has faithfullj' ren- dered the text of the Latin Vulgate. In Italy, of all the Catholic versions, the one that holds the highest place was translated literally from the Vulgate, in 1779, by Anthony Martini, Archbishop of Florence, who has also added valuable notes. The Spanish Catholics have a favorite version on the same plan, by Don Felipe de San Miguel, published in 1793, and the Portu- guese possess one by Antonio Pereira, which appeared in 1781 ; while the Belgian or Dutch Catholics have the version of Nicholas Van Winghe, printed in Louvain as early as 1548. In short, there is no Catholic country without its native ver- sion of the Scriptures, approved and circulated by episcopal authority. In the sweet and expressive language of Ireland there is a Catholic Bible, as old as 1347, which emanated, it is supposed, from the pen of Richard Fitz-Ralph, Archbishop of Armagh. Dr. McHale, the late Arch- bishop of Tuam, was actually engaged in correcting the old Irish translation ac- cording to the Latin Vulgate; but fail- ing health prevented the completion of the undertaking. English-speaking Cath- olics use the Douay Bible. It is an Eng- lish translation, made in the English Col- lege at Rheims, France, about 15S2, and taken directly from the Vulgate; but as the Old Testament part was not published until 1610, in the English College at Douay, the whole was given the name Douav Bible. Dr. Challoner, Catholic Bishop of London, revised it in 1750, and the Catholic hierarchy of Ireland soon circulated it among their flocks. The Catholic bishops of America adopted it in 1810, and Scriv- ener, the learned Protestant editor, in his supplement to the Authorized Protestant Version, says the "Douay translation is highly commendable for its scrupulous accuracy."

    Bible (Canon of the). See Canox of THE Scriptures.

    Bible (Geneva or Breeches). — This work is the joint production of Gilby, Witting- ham, probably John Knox, and other prom- inent divines of the Puritan stamp, who, when the Catholic Qiieen Mary ascended the throne of England, fled to the more congenial atmosphere of their Calvinistic center, in Switzerland. It is saturated with Swiss Protestantism, and derives its most familiar name from the rendering it

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    gives of Genesis (iii. 7) to this effect: " Then the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked, and they sewed fig-tree leaves together, and made themselves breeches.''^

    Bible {King '^atnes's). — Version of the Bible authorized by the Church of Eng- land. When King James I. (1603-1625) as- cended the throne of England, an address was presented to his majesty by the clergy of Lincoln diocese, with the request to re- vise the English versions of the Bible. In consequence of this, and other representa- tions, the king ordered fifty-four of the most eminent divines from Oxford and Cambridge to produce a new version of the Hebrew and Greek Testaments. Four years were devoted to the task, and the outcome was the present Authorized Prot- estant Version, which received the royal sanction in 1605. It is the version ap- pointed by the Crown to be used in all the Churches belonging to English commun- ion, so that no Anglican clergyman can use any other in public worship. This " Authorized Version," after a long inter- val of over 260 years, was lately revised by a learned company, under the presidency of Dr. Ellicot, Protestant Bishop of Glouces- ter and Bristol. These distinguished schol- ars devoted ten years to their arduous work, and some of their corrections are in har- mony with the Catholic Vulgate.

    Biblia Pauperum (Bible of the Poor). — Collection of the principal passages of the Bible, engraved on wood, before the in- vention of printing, for the instruction and use of the people. This work, which dates from the fourteenth century, is one of the first monuments of xylography. The text has been drawn up by Bona- ventura. General of the Franciscans, in 1260. A fac-simile has been published by J. Russel Smith, in 1859.

    Bible Societies. — Protestant associations established to propagate the Bible among all the peoples and in all the languages. The first regular Bible Society was consti- tuted at London, England, in 1804. Pope Leo. XII., in his Encyclical of May 3d, 1824, condemned the Bible Societies. The same was done by Pope Pius VIII., May 29th, 1S29; by Gregory XVI., May 8th, 1844; and by Pius IX., Nov. 9th, 1846.

    The annual report of the British and Foreign Bible Society for the year ending March 31st, 1895, showed a total issue for

    that year by the Society of 3,837,222 copies of the Holy Scriptures. The great in- crease of the work of the British and Foreign Bible Society during the last few years may be seen by the following tabular statement of its total issues by decades : —

    Total issues to March 31, 1820 2,843,291

    For ten years to March 31, 1830 3,710.507

    For ten years to March 31, 1840 51768,673

    For ten years to March 31, 1850 10,787,778

    For ten years to March 31, :86o 14,417,778

    For ten years to March 31, 1870 21,868,843

    For ten years to March 31, 1880 28,771,748

    For ten years to March 31, 1890 35,760,627

    For March 31, 1890, to January i, 1895 19,467,184

    Grand total from organi-) ~

    zation to January i, 1895 I '43.390.429

    The receipts for the year ending March 31st, 1895, aggregated $1,166,815; total ex- penditure for the year, $1,074,850. The American Bible Society issued during the year ending March 31st, 1896, an aggregate number of 1,750,283 copies, — an increase over the preceding year of 169,155. Its total issues from 1816, the date of its or- ganization, to March 31st, 1896, aggregated 61,705,841. The cash receipts for the year aggregated $437,223. The number of is- sues of the two Societies (British and Foreign and American Bible Societies) during 1895 aggregated 5,418,350 copies, an average of about 17,366 copies of the Scriptures for every working day of the year. The grand total of issues to Jan. ist, 1896, circulated by all the societies, was 256,647,008.

    The British and Foreign Bible Society reported, March 31st, 1890, a list of 3,279 auxiliary and branch Bible societies. The American Bible Society at the same date reported a list of 2,034, aggregating a total of 5,313 auxiliary and branch societies which are connected with those two parent societies.

    Bigamist and Bigamy. — The term ap- plied to a person who has committed the crime of bigamy, that is, who has more than one wife or husband at the same time. In Canon Law a bigamist is defined as one who has married two wives successively, or who, having been married but once, has married a widow. In both cases such a one cannot hold a bishopric without dispensa- tion. This point of discipline is founded upon what St. Paul says in his Epistle to Titus, (Tit. i. 6). " Husband of one wife." Hence it was that bigamists were not ad- mitted to sacred orders : either because big- amy was real, for having married two wives ;

    BiNATION

    io8

    Bishop

    or because it was interpretative, for having married a widow or daughter, who had been corrupted before her marriage. Even those were declared as bigamists who had made a vow of celibacy before their marriage ; and the Church observed such a great rigor in regard to bigamists, that Pope Leo I. never wished a bishop of Mauri- tanea to ordain them. Father Doucin, in his History of Nestor ianism, says that Irenaeus being a bigamist, because he had been married twice, had been elected Bishop of Tyre against the canons. St. Jerome, Gennadius, and the Greeks re- garded as bigamists only those who had married two wives successively, after they had received baptism ; but St. Ambrose, St.Innocent, and St.Augustine regarded — • with the Latin Church — as bigamists those who had married two wives, even when they had married the first before being baptized (see Father Thomassin). St. Epiphanius says {Hcer. 59, n. 4), that the Church strictly observes the rule not to ordain bigamists, although they had mar- ried the second wife only after the death of the first. In the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries, bigamists were excluded, both in the East and West, from the epis- copate, priesthood, and deaconate; they could receive inferior orders with the dispensation of their bishop, according to several theologians and canonists, who quote in their favor St. Thomas; but Father Thomassin says that the interpret- ing cardinals of the Council of Trent, and Sixtus IV., have declared that, even in this case, one must have recourse to the Pope. See Matrimony.

    Bination. — By bination we understand a priest saying two Masses on the same day. Formerly priests were allowed to cele- brate several times a day. But at present this is prohibited, except on Christmas and in the case of necessity. Cases of necessity are held to be when either an entire congregation, or a large portion of a congregation, is debarred from hearing Mass on Sunday and holydays, unless the pastor says two Masses on the same day. Hence : i. A pastor who has two parishes at so great a distance from each other that the people residing in one of the places cannot conveniently go to the other place for Mass, can say two Masses a day, one in each parish. 2. A pastor can say two Masses a day in the same church, if a considerable number, v. g., thirty, would otherwise be

    deprived of Mass on Sundays and holydays, V. ff., because the church is too small to hold the entire congregation at the same time. 3. We say on Sundays and holy- days; that is, the necessity for saying two Masses can occur only on those days on which the faithful are bound to hear Mass, — but not on week-days, nor on Holy Thurs- day or Good Friday. The permission of the bishop, as a rule, is required for the . bination even in the above circumstances. On Christmas every priest is allowed to say three Masses without the permission of the bishop.

    Biretta. — Originally, any small cap worn as distinctive of a trade or profes- sion ; afterwards, a scholastic cap, or such as was worn indoors by members of the learned professions ; and at present in the Catholic Church the ecclesiastical cap. This last is square, and has three, and sometimes four, ridges or projections on top, crossing it at equal angles, frequently having a tuft or tassel where the ridges meet in the middle. For priests and the lo-wer orders of the clergy its color is black, and for bishops who are resident at Rome, though else- where they commonly wear one of violet, corresponding with the color of the cas- sock; for cardinals it is red. It seems to have been introduced in the offices of the Church, when the amice ceased to be worn over the head in proceeding to and from the altar at Mass.

    Birgit (St.). See Bright.

    Bishop. — The word bishop, etymolog- ically, means overseer, and priest means elder. The Greek originals of both words {episcopos, presbyteros) are of frequent occurrence in the New Testament, and do not seem to be always used with precision ; the verbal distinction was not fixed. But in the second and following centuries, we find that the distinction between bishops and priests is no less marked than that be- tween priests and deacons. Bishops have always been regarded as the chief pastors, and as superior to the priests in authority and jurisdiction, as well as in order. This distinction between the episcopate and the simple priesthood, with the superiority of bishops, which is clearly pointed out in the Sacred Scriptures (I. Tim. v. 19; Tit. i. 5; Phil. iv. 3; Col. iv. 17), was uniformly taught by the early Fathers. St. Clement of Rome writes: "The Apostles, foresee- ing that contentions would arise regarding

    Bishop

    109

    Bishops

    the dignity of the episcopacy, appointed bishops, instructing them to appoint others, that when they should die, other approved men would succeed them in their ministry." Nothing can be plainer than the language of St. Ignatius the Martyr, who ventures to say, that in the Church the bishop presides in the place of God, and the priests represent the College of the Apostles (Ad Magnes, n. 6), and this saint's epistles are full of similar expressions. The Presbyterians find no answer to this argument, except to call in question the genuineness of the let- ters. St. Irenseus and St. Cyprian affirm the same truth. That this gradation of dignity and authority had existed in the first ages, appears from the fact that the early Fathers, in their controversies with heretics, often appealed to the catalogue of bishops, which existed in nearly all the principal churches, and had come down unbroken from the days of the Apostles. Nor have the early heretics ever denied the apostolic appointment of bishops, or their superiority over priests. If, in the New Testament, the words "bishop" and "presbyter" are sometimes indifferently applied to the same person, it does not follow, that there existed no distinction between the episcopacy and the priesthood. St. John, though an Apostle, calls himself an ancient, i.e., a presbyter (II. John i.); and thus also with the bishops of the sec- ond and third centuries, whose right to exercise authority over priests was cer- tainly never called into question at that period. The same ecclesiastics, indeed, passed often for bishops and priests; yet as to the power or dignity, a distinc- tion was always recognized between the two, even from the very beginning of the Church. See Clergy and Laity.

    Bishop {Auxiliary). — Auxiliary bishop is a titular bishop appointed by the Holy See to assist an ordinary bishop, not in the exercise of his jurisdiction, but merely of the episcopal order, v.g:, to give confirma- tion. He is called first, titular bishop {epis- copus titularis, efiscopus in partibus infi- delium) ; for he is consecrated with the title of some diocese in the hands of the infidels ; and, secondly, appointed by the Holy See. At present titular bishops are appointed only: i. When they are really needed. 2. Where it is customary to have them. 3. On condition that a proper sal- ary be assigned to them. The reasons for which they are usually appointed are : i.

    Where a bishop does not reside in his see. 2. Or cannot perform the episcopal func- tions of order on account of old. age, in- firmity, or the great extent of his diocese. Auxiliary bishops are not bound to make the visit ad limia. Their office lapses as soon as the bishop whom they assist dies or in some other way relinquishes his see. They exist at present chiefly in Prussia, Austria, Spain, etc. The Pope makes use of titular bishops in the discharge of his apostolic duties.

    Bishop {Suffragan). See Suffragan.

    Bishops {Appointment of in the United States).— Frior to the "Third Plenary Council of Baltimore," held in 1884, the candidates for a vacant diocese were pre- sented to the 6\\\\\\\\ C. de Prof. Fide by the bishops of the province to which the vacant diocese belonged. The priests of the vacant diocese had no share or voice in this presentation or nomination. The " Third Plenary Council of Balti- more " amended this mode of appoint- ment and made the following enactments, which now form the law in this country : I. When a diocese falls vacant, whether by the death, resignation, transfer, or re- moval of the bishop, and when, in conse- quence, three candidates are to be chosen, the consultors and the irremovable rectors of the vacant diocese shall be called to- gether, V. ff., thirty days after the vacancy occurs. It will be the right and duty of these consultors and rectors, thus properly assembled, to select three candidates for the vacant see. The candidates thus chosen shall be submitted to the bishops of the province, whose right it will be to approve or disapprove of them. 2. The meeting of the consultors and irremovable rectors is called and presided over by the metropolitan of the province to which the vacant diocese belongs ; or, if the metro- politan be lawfully hindered, then the meeting may be presided over by one of the suffragan bishops of the same province, to be deputed for this purpose by the metro- politan. Where there is question of choos- ing three candidates for a metropolitan see which is vacant, the meeting of the con- sultors and irremovable rectors of the vacant metropolitan see is called and pre- sided over by the senior suffragan bishop, or, if he be hindered, by another bishop to be deputed by him. 3. Before they cast their votes, the aforesaid consultors and rectors shall swear that they are not in-

    Bishop's Coadjutor

    I lO

    Blasius

    duced to cast their votes for a candidate because of unworthy motives, such as that of expecting favors or rewards. They shall vote by secret ballot. This vote is merely consultive, /. e., it is simply equiva- lent to a recommendation that one of the candidates be appointed to the vacant see. 4. The president of the meeting shall cause two authentic copies of the min- utes of the meeting containing an ac- curate list of the candidates chosen, to be drawn up and signed by the secretary. He shall forward one copy directly to the S. C. de Prop. Fide, the second to the other bishops of the province. A third copy may also be drawn up and kept in the dioc- esan archives, as is done in England. 5. Thereupon, on a day fixed beforehand, V. g-., ten days after the above meeting of consultors and rectors, the bishops of the province shall meet and openly discuss among themselves the merits of the candi- dates selected by the consultors and rec- tors, or of others to be selected by them- selves. Afterwards they make up their list of three candidates to be sent to Rome. From this it will be seen that the bishops have a right to approve or disapprove of the candidates chosen by the clergy. But if they disapprove of them, they are bound to give the reason upon which they base their disapproval to the 5. C de Prop. Fide. 6. In everything else the bishops shall observe the instruction of the 5'. C. de Prop. Fide dated Jan. 21st, 1861, and given in the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 106, 107. In other words, the bishops shall state in writing the qual- ifications and merits of the various candi- dates, according to the questions given in the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 107. The minutes of the meeting of the bishops shall then be sent to the 5. C. de Prop. Fide by the archbishop, or senior bishop of the province. 7. When there is question of appointing a coadjutor- bishop, with the right of succession, the rules laid down above under Nos. i, 3, 4, 5 and 6 shall be strictly adhered to. Rule 2 will, however, be changed thus: The meeting of the consultors and irre- movable rectors will be presided over, not by the archbishop of the province, or his deputy, but by the archbishop or bishop for whom the coadjutor is to be chosen; or, where he is hindered, by the vicar-general, or other priest, deputed by him. Moreover, in this case, the bishop for whom the coadjutor is to be named

    can, if he desires, suggest or point out the names of the candidates who would be most acceptable to him for the coad- jutorship. 8. When there is question of electing a bishop for a diocese newly erected, the rules given above under Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 6 shall be observed. However, Rule 1 shall be changed thus : When there is question of proposing to the Holy See the names of candidates for the new diocese, the consultors of the diocese, or dioceses, from which the new see has been formed, and the irremovable rectors of the newly erected diocese, shall be called together, and it will be their right and duty to select three candidates for the new bishopric. This rule is based on the fact that a newly erected see will, of course, have no consultors until after the first bishop, having been confirmed, ap- points them. Hence, the consultors of the old diocese properly take the place of the future consultors of the new diocese, for the purpose of naming the first bishop.

    Bishop's Coadjutor. See Coadjutor Bishop.

    Bithynia ( TJie Faith in). See Ethiopia.

    Black Friars. See Dominicans.

    Blanc (Anthony). — Catholic prelate; Archbishop of New Orleans ; born in Surry, France, Oct. nth, 1792. He left his native country in 1817, a year after his ordina- tion to the priesthood, and came to the United States ; was created Bishop of New Orleans in 1835; archbishop in 1850. He founded a theological seminary, introduced several religious orders into his diocese, and was instrumental in founding many educational institutions and orphan asy- lums. He died at New Orleans, June 20th, i860.

    Blanchet (Francis Norbert) (1795- 1883). — American prelate; was born in the parish of St. Pierre, Canada; died in Ore- gon. Ordained priest in 1819, he came to the United States in 1838 to labor among the Canadians who had settled in Oregon. Bishop of Oregon in 1S45 ; Archbishop of Oregon in 1846.

    Blasius (St.). — Martyr; was Bishop of Sebaste, in Cappadocia, when Licinius be- gan a bloody persecution of the Christians. Blasius left the town and concealed him- self in an unknown chasm in the rocks; but his abode was discovered by Agricola, the governor, while out hunting. The

    Blasphemy

    III

    BOGOMILES

    saint was conveyed to Sebaste ; and as he steadfastly refused to deny Christ, and to worship the heathen gods, he was put to death in 316. The wool-combers claim him as their patron saint, for the singular reason that he was tortured, among other instruments, with a wool-comb. The prac- tice of invoking St. Blasius in cases of sore- throat is said to have originated in the circumstance that, when imprisoned, he saved the only son of a rich widow from being choked by a fish-bone.

    Blasphemy. — An offense against God and religion, by denying the Almighty, His being and providence, or by contumelious reproaches of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; also all profane scofBng at the Holy Scriptures, or exposing them to ridicule and contempt.

    Blessing. See Sacramentals.

    Blood-Avenger. — Among the Hebrews, a wilful murderer forfeited his own life, and it was the duty of the next of kin to inflict the penalty, since the crime was committed against God as well as society, and no ransom could be allowed (Num. XXXV. 31-33). But cities of refuge were provided for the accidental homicide, who could flee thither and have his case de- termined by the assembl}'- (Num. xxxv. 12, 24), when, if guilty, he was surrendered ; but if not, was required to remain there till the death of the existing high-priest.

    Blood {Congregation of the Most Pre- cious). See Precious Blood.

    Blue La^ws. — A code of laws passed by Puritans for the regulation of religious and personal conduct in the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, in the seven- teenth century. Among the Blue Laws of Connecticut we find one enacting that "no priest shall abide in this dominion; he shall be banished, and suffer death on his return. Priests may be seized by any- one without a warrant." They also em- braced the following provisions: "No one shall travel, cook, make beds, sweep house, cut hair, shave, on the Sabbath day. No woman shall kiss her child, and no husband shall kiss his wife, or wife her husband, on the Lord's day. No one shall read common Prayer, keep Christmas or Saints' days, make mince pies, dance, play cards, or play on any instrument of music, except the drum, trumpet, and jews' harp." See Archbishop Spalding's Miscellanea.

    Bockhold (John). See Anabaptists.

    Boehme (James). See Rosecruciani.

    Boethius. — Senator and philosopher, called "the last of the Romans," was born between the years 470 and 480. He was one of the most accomplished scholars of his age. He was consul from the year 508 to 510, and enjoyed the friendship of King Theodoric. His strict honesty and advo- cacy of the cause of the innocent and weak, had made him many enemies by whom he was accused of plotting with the Byzantine emperor to free Rome from the Ostro- gothic rule. He was imprisoned by order of King Theodoric, and ultimately exe- cuted, in 524 or 525, in the fiftieth year of his age. A magnificent mausoleum, with an epitaph by Pope Sylvester H., was erected to the memory of Boethius by the Emperor Otto HL The works of Boethius are chiefly philosophical, containing trans- lations with notes of the works of Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek philosophers. His principal literary relic. Consolation of Philosophy in five books, Boethius com- posed in prison at Pavia, shortly before his execution. It is a dialogue between the author and philosophy, showing the incon- stancy and insufficiency of earthly happi- ness, and that true happiness is to be sought in God alone. Its tone is elevated, its style eloquent and pure, but the fact that the name of Christ or of the Christian religion is not even once mentioned in the work, has led many to question the author's belief in Christianity. The sev- eral theological tracts written against the Arian, Nestorian, and Eutychian heresies, which are attributed to our author, are by many regarded as not genuine.

    Bogomiles. — Heretics of the twelfth century. Had for founder one Basil, a Bulgarian monk. Their tenets resembled very much those of the ancient Manicheans. They believed that God had two sons, Satanael, the seducer and chief of the fallen angels, and creator of the material world ; and Christ, whom He sent into this world to destroy the power of Satanael. They rejected the Old Testament and part of the New, abhorred the Holy Eucharist, con- demned the invocation of the saints and the use of images and churches, repudiated marriage, and would not recognize any liturgy, except the Lord's Prayer. They were detected at their impious work in the Greek Empire, during the reign of Alexius

    Bohemian Brethren

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    Boniface

    Comnenus, by whom Basil was condemned to the flames, in 1119. From the East, the New-Manicheans flocked into Western Europe, where they appeared under a va- riety of names, such as Bulgarians, Pur- itans, Paterines, Good Men, and, above all, Catharists. See Albigensks.

    Bohemian Brethren. — Heretics of the fifteenth century. They sprang from the Utraquists in Bohemia and Moravia. Their first head was Michael Bradacz, Utraquist parish priest at Zamberg. The members of this sect, who wished to re- store the Church to its ancient simplicity, rejected Transubstantiation and some other dogmas. The sect spread throughout Germany, principally, however, in Saxony. At a later period its adherents made com- mon cause with the Protestants.

    Boleyn (Annk) (1507-1536). — Queen of England ; the second wife of Henry VIII. of England, — whom she married on or about Jan. 25th, 1533, — and mother of Queen Eliza- beth. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond. She was condemned to death on a charge of adultery and incest, and decapitated. See Henry VIII.

    Bollandists. See Acts of the Saints.

    Bolsena {Mass of). See Mass of Bol-

    SEXA.

    Bona (Giovanni) Cardinal. — Born at Mondovi, Piedmont, Oct. 12, 1609; died at Rome, Oct. 28, 1674. General of the Or- der of the Feullants (1651), cardinal in 1669; he failed to be elected Pope at the death of Clement XI. and then it was said that Pafa Bona had been Pa fa Bonus. He was distinguished for piety and learn- ing. His principal works are De rebus liturgicis, a work full of learned inquiries about the rites, prayers, and ceremonies of Mass; Manductio ad Cxlunt; Hor- logium asceticum ; De Principiis vitce Christiance, which work has been com- pared to the Imitation of Christ; Psallen- tis ecclesicB hartnonia; De sacra Psalmo- dia.

    Bonaventure (St.). — Surnamed "Doctor Seraphicus " ; Franciscan, distinguished for his learning and piety. He was born in 1 22 1, at Bagnarea, in Tuscany, and was educated at the University of Paris, where, as early as 1253, he obtained a professor- ship of theology, and at the age of thirty- five years he became the general of his

    order, the internal disorders and conten- tions of which he brought under due reg- ulation. Pope Clement IV. wished to make him Archbishop of York, but de- sisted at the request of Bonaventure; on the other hand, Gregory X., in 1273, com- pelled him to accept the bishopric of Al- bano. In the year following Bonaven- ture attended the Ecumenical Council of Lyons, and died while it was in session, July 15th, 1 274. Bonaventure acquired great fame by his mystical writings. But both his philosophical and scholastico-theologi- cal works, of which the principal ones are the Breviloquium, and the Certiloquium, are highly esteemed, although their author does not on these subjects reach the level of St. Thomas. As a mystic, however, he surpasses him.

    Boniface (name of 9 Popes). — Boniface J. — Successor of Zosimus I. (418-422). Was for a time opposed by the Antipope Eulalius till the latter was banished by the Emperor Honorius. He was an unswerv- ing supporter of orthodoxy and a strenuous defender of the prerogatives of the Holy See. Boniface II. — Successor of Felix IV. (530-532). His election was disputed by one Dioscorus; but the Church was saved from schism by the death of the antipope a few weeks afterwards. At a Synod held in Rome, Boniface appointed his own successor in the person of the Deacon Vigilius, but annulled the act in a subsequent Council. Boniface III. — Successor of Sabinianus (607). Died ten months after his election. Obtained from the Emperor Phocas (602-610), a decree acknowledging the Roman Church the " Head of all the Churches," and forbid- ding the bishops of Constantinople to usurp the title of " Universal Patriarch." The assertion that from this epoch dates the Papal Supremacy is too absurd to need refutation. Boniface I V. — Successor of the foregoing (608-615). Obtained the grant of the famous Pantheon, which he dedicated to divine worship under the in- vocation of the Blessed Virgin and all the holy martyrs. Boniface V. — Successor of Deusdedit (619-625). He evinced great zeal, especially for the Anglo-Saxon Church. Boniface VI. — Elected Pope after Formosus, by a popular faction, died or was driven away 14 days afterwards, in 896. He had been previously deposed from the priesthood, and some writers re- gard him as an antipope. Boniface VII. —

    Boniface

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    Boniface

    Cardinal-deacon Franco. They rank him among the antipopes. Irregularly elected, on August 20th, 974, while Benedict VI. was yet alive, he was accused of having taken part in the assassination of this Pontiff. A creature of the Cescentians, when Otto II. drew near to the city of Rome, the pseudo-Pope fled to Constanti- nople. Returned to Rome in 985, threw John XIV. into the castle Michael Angelo, where he caused him to be killed. But in the month of December following, he died quite suddenly, and his corpse, pierced with a lance, was left on the public place in front of the statue of Constantine; finally, some priests buried his remains. Boniface VIII. — Successor of Celestine V. (1294-1303). He was of a noble family in Anagni. The Pontificate of this truly great, but much calumniated. Pope oc- curred when the political aflfairs of Eu- rope were extremely complicated. The policy of Boniface was to establish peace among the States of Europe and unite them in a great crusade for the recovery of the Holy Land. He issued, Feb. 25th, 1296, the Bull Clericis laicos, which was directed against Philip the Fair, of France, who had imposed taxes on the French clergy, and which forbade the clergy of any country to pay tribute to the secular government without the papal permission ; but was forced by an enactment of Philip, which stopped the exportation of money from France, to concede that the French clergy might render voluntary contribu- tions. He opened at Rome, Oct. 30th, 1302, a synod in which he promulgated, Nov. i8th, 1302, the Bull Unam Sanctam. This Bull, after explaining the relations between Church and State, between the Spiritual and Temporal power, affirms that the temporal power is, of its na- ture, subordinate to the ecclesiastical, as earthly are to heavenly things, and defines the obligation, which is incumbent on rulers as well as their subjects, of sub- mitting in spiritual matters to the author- ity of the vicar of Christ. " We declare to every creature, we afiirm, define, and pro- nounce, that it is altogether necessary for salvation to be subject to the Roman Pontiff." No more is taught in this docu- ment, as of faith, than what all Catholics in every age have held, namely, that sub- jection to the Bishop of Rome in matters of salvation is a necessary duty. He was made prisoner at Anagni, Sept. 7th, 1303, by Nogaret, vice-Chancellor to Philip, and

    Sciarra Colonna ; and, although released by the inhabitants of Anagni, he died at Rome of a violent fever. Boniface IX. — Successor of Urban VI. (1389-1404). A pious and mild Pontiff, but too indulgent to his relatives, re-established the papal authority at Rome, restored the cardinals deposed in the preceding reign, and has- tened to make terms with the royal family of Naples. He recognized young Ladis- laus, son of Charles III., as the legitimate king, and energetically supported him against Louis of Anjou, who was com- pelled to withdraw to France.

    Boniface (St.). — Surnamed " Apostle of Germany." Was born of noble parents in Wessex, at Crediton, 680. At an early age he developed a strong predilection for the monastic profession and was educated in the monastery of Adescanceaster. His name was then Winfrid. At the age of thirty he was ordained priest, and being eminent among his brethren for learning and ability, had the prospect of future greatness before him. Having heard of* the spiritual conquests of St. Willibrord and other missionaries, he desired to con- tribute, like them, to the progress and diffusion of Christianity. His longings turned particularly to the old country, the fatherland of the Anglo-Saxons. In 716, Winfrid, accompanied by three other mis- sionaries, sailed from the port of London to the coast of Friesland. But his attempt was singularly inopportune. Ratbod, King of the Frisians, was then at war with Charles Martel. The missionaries fled; the churches and monasteries in Friesland, which had been founded by the Franks, were demolished, and paganism recovered the ascendancy. This state of affairs com- pelled Winfrid to return to England, hav- ing accomplished nothing. Two years later, Winfrid was again permitted to pur- sue his apostolic labors. Fortified with a commendatory letter from his ordinary, he went to Rome and there obtained from Pope Gregory II., an apostolic mission to all Northern Germany. He began his apostolic career in Thuringia, in 719, which had been Christianized in part by the dis- ciples of St. Columbanus ; but the clergy, as well as the people, were demoralized. He instructed the people and reformed the clergy. His missionary efforts, however, in this direction were interrupted by the tidings of the death of Ratbod, and the subsequent success of the Franks. He

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    repaired at once to Friesland, and offering his services to Willibrord, then Archbishop of Utrecht, labored three years under the direction of that apostolic prelate. In 722, declining to become the coadjutor and suc- cessor of Willibrord, Winfrid returned to Thuringia, and thence went to Hesse, where he made many converts. Being in- formed of the conquests of our Saint, Pope Gregory II. summoned him to Rome, consecrating him regionary bishop, and sent him back with honor to his converts, in 723. On that occasion our Saint also assumed the name " Boniface," by which he is known in history. Returning to Germany, he resumed his mission among the Hessians and Thuringians. With his own hands, and in the presence of an assemblage of heathens, he felled the Sacred Oak of Thor, at Geismar, and of its wood built a chapel which he dedi- cated to St. Peter. As the number of conversions daily increased, zealous as- sistants from England joined Boniface. Pope Gregory III. sent Boniface the pal- lium (732), made him vicar apostolic with full power to consecrate bishops and erect dioceses, and appointed him superior, not only of German, but also of Gallic prelates. In 738 Boniface made his third and last pilgrimage to Rome. Returning with in- creased powers, he proceeded to settle the ecclesiastical divisions of Germany. The next object of the apostolic archbishop was to insure a permanent supply of mission- aries. With this view he erected several monasteries. The most famous among these was that of Fulda. Between the years 742 and 746, Boniface held several synods, at which he reformed abuses and established excellent rules for the govern- ment of the churches in Germany. In 747, Pope Zacharias appointed Boniface Archbishop of Mentz and Primate of Ger- many. By order of the same Pope, the Saint, in 752, crowned Pepin the Short, king of the Franks. For more than thirty years, Boniface had devoted himself to the salvation of Germany. Having completed his greal task, he resigned his archiepisco- pal see to his disciple Lullus, in order to undertake the conversion of the Frisians. He had already converted several thou- sands of this nation, when the great Apostle of Germany terminated his holy and useful life by a glorious martyrdom. He was attacked and slain, together with his companions, by a band of pagan Frisi- ans, in 755. The remains of the illustrious

    martyr were deposited in the monastery of Fulda. F. June 5th.

    Bonosians. — Macedonian heretics about the end of the fourth century, who had for founder Bonosus, Bishop of Sardica. He maintained that Mary did not always re- main a Virgin. He was suspended and his error condemned in the Council of Capua, in 389, and finally excommunicated by the Macedonian bishops.

    Book of Common Discipline. — The lit- urgy of the Church of Scotland. In 1562, the Book of Common Discipline, com- monly termed "Knox's Liturgy," was partially- introduced in place of the Book of Common Prayer, and in 1564 its use was authoritatively ordained in all the churches in Scotland. This liturgy was taken from the order or liturgy used by the English Church at Geneva.

    Book of Common Prayer. — The service- book of the Church of England, or a sim- ilar book authorized by the other branches of the Anglican Church, It is popularly known as the Prayer Book. It was nearly all taken from mediaeval liturgical books. English was substituted for Latin, and a uniform use was established for the whole Church of England. The first Book of Common Prayer was issued in 1549; and revisions were made in 1552, 1559, and 1662.

    Borborites. — A nickname for certain Ophite Gnostics, and also in general for one who holds or is supposed to hold filthy and immoral doctrines ; in modern times, espe- cially applied to a branch of the Men- nonites.

    Borromeo (St. Charles) (1538-1584). — An Italian Cardinal, archbishop of Milan, born at Arona, near Lago Maggiore; died at Milan. Noted as an ecclesiastical re- former and philanthropist. He was a model bishop and his life is full of ex- amples to all Christians. Especially did he show his courage and great trust in God by staying in Milan during the fearful plague of 1576. He founded the "Col- legium Helveticum " for the education of priests to labor in Switzerland, and to prevent the introduction of Protestantism from that quarter.

    Borromeo Union, founded in Coblenz, 1844, for the circulation of Roman Cath- olic literature ; up to 1890, numbered over 50,000 members and had distributed more than $3,000,000 worth of books.

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    Bossuet(jAcquEsBKNiGNE)(i627-i7o4). — A French prelate, and celebrated pulpit orator, historian, and theological writer; was born at Dijon ; died at Paris. He was preceptor to the Dauphin in 1670-81, and became Bishop of Meaux in 1681. His chief works are Exposition of the Catholic Doctrine; Discourseon Universal History ; History of the Variations of the Protes- tant Churches,

    Bourdaloue (Louis) (1632-1704). — A famous French theologian and preacher, born at Alencon; died at Paris. He was a member of the order of the Jesuits, pro- fessor of rhetoric, philosophy, and the- ology in the Jesuit College of Bourges, court preacher (1670), and one of the most illustrious pulpit orators of his time. His sermons have been published in 16 volumes (1707), in 17 volumes (1822-26).

    Bourignists. — Members of a sect founded by Antoinette Bourignon (1616-1680), a religious enthusiast who assumed the Au- gustinian habit, and traveled in France, Holland, England, and Scotland. She maintained that Christianity does not con- sist in faith and practice, but in the inward feeling and supernatural impulse.

    Bradwardine (Thomas). — Born at Hart- field, Sussex, England, about 1290; died at Lambeth, England, in 1349. A celebrated English prelate, theologian, and mathema- tician, surnamed "Doctor Profundus." Chancellor of the University of Oxford and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1349. His works include De Causa Dei, De ^uadra- tura Circuli, Geometria Speculativa, Ars Meniorativa, etc.

    Brahmanism. — Doctrine of the Brah- mans. The word Brahmanism does not in- dicate a formal religion with certain fixed dogmas, but asystem of beliefs and practices superseding other and older forms. It com- prises a kind of slow evolution among the many religious systems of India, from pantheistic, anthropomorphous, and poly- theistic, up to a sacerdotal and hierarchical form. The first phasis of Hindoo religion is shown to us in a body of writings called Veda {science) or Sruti {revelation). These writings are subdivided into four col- lections : Riff- Veda, Sama - Veda, Tayur- Veda, and Atharva -Veda. To each of these parts is attached a series of Brahma- nas, i. e., rites and ceremonies, then a second class of writings, the Aranyakas,

    and, finally, a series of speculative and philosophical writings, called Upanishads.

    Of this whole body the Rig-Veda is evidently the most ancient. It appears to be composed of hymns, whose origin goes back to the first migrations of the Aryians in India, and in this Rig-Veda the first eight books, are anterior to the ninth. The religious views set forth in the Rig-Veda are purely pantheistic, consisting of the adoration of the great phenomena of nature, conceived as endowed with a soul, whose power is greatly superior to that of man, and which is not unmindful of praise. This personification of the elements is hardly sensible. We have here the first phasis of polytheism, without having yet a well-arranged pantheon and deities with definite attributes. For the Vedic wor- shiper, the different departments of nature are so mingled together that we are con- tinually in the presence of confusion and repetitions, and the author of the hymns, in his adoration for the power which he implores, constantly forgets that there are other powers existing. The word devas, the brilliant, by which the Vedas designate the gods, proves that it is the phenom- enon of light which most lively struck the primitive Aryian. Also this is the name of the personification of the atmo- sphere, Indra, which is so often repeated in the Rig- Veda hymns, and which plays the greatest role in the allegorical ac- counts, the solar myths, figuring the rising and setting of the sun, its wrestling with the clouds and night. Besides all this, the deities were divided into gods of the air, water, and earth, without that each of these elements was ruled by a special deity. Gradually the deities which were not ab- solutely distinct became commingled into one body, and, as some among them were supposed to exercise important creative and cosmic functions, there was formed a god the creator of the other gods, and of all things. This god was called Prajapati {king of creatures) or Visvakarman {the creator of all things) . At the same time, concluding from the spirit which animates men on a universal spirit spread in whole matter, they succeeded in reconciling this pantheistic idea with the preceding mono- theistic one, and made of Prapati the prin- cipal creative god of Brahma.

    This evolution of the Vedic theology took place in the tenth century b. c, while the preceding phasis dates since the thirteenth century B.C. About the same

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    epoch — on account of the necessity of sep- arating the Aryan conquerors from the conquered black tribes and by reason of the formation of a sacerdotal class, in- terested in separating itself from the rest of the people — the division, self-eflFected, of the Hindoo people into four classes or castes took place : the Brahmans, the Kchattryas {warriors), the Vaicyas {la- borers), and the Soudras {slaves). After many and long struggles, which the great epic poem Mahabharata relates, finally the Brahmans overcome the warriors, and consolidated their power by a vigorous theocratic legislation, of which the laws of Manu are a recent reproduction. All the Vedic writings are declared to be of divine origin. The respective rights and conditions of the four castes were codified ; all the acts of the Hindoo families became subject to a rigorous ceremonial, of which no rite could be performed without the service of a priest. The three superior castes were united and separated from the Soudras by a particular ceremony ; the in- vesture of the sacred cord, which was of distinct material for each class, composed of priests, warriors, and husbandmen, out- side of which was only the caste of Parias, required a solemn religious rite. The teaching of the law is reserved to the priests, who were to explain it to the war- riors and husbandmen only. Regarding the Soudras, it was forbidden even to teach them the manner of expiating their sins. Marriage between the different castes was prohibited. This strict distinction of caste, which appears shocking to us, was, however, a necessary outcome of a belief of a universal world-god in Brahma. In fact, the Brahmanic priest who considers the entire human race as an emanation of the same force, conceives their different forms as a kind of gradation in which the divine spirit manifests itself more and more clearly. Every relapse of an elevated being towards a lower one, must therefore be avoided. Every being being a spirit, and every spirit being immortal, each being possesses a spiritual family, or Manes, as well as a human family. The pantheistic monotheism of the period of composition of the Brahmana, was hardly a period of transition. The ancient poly- theistic notion of the gods of the air, earth, and water continued to exist. Gradually the number of these deities became defi- nite. Thirty-three were enumerated, eleven in each of the three kingdoms, or elements,

    being presided over by Agni {the fire) for the earth, Indra {the atmosphere) for the air, and Sour y a {the sun) for the kingdom of the cloudy heaven. This attempt at clas- sification, which dates from the end of the Vedic epoch, was united to the cosmogonic conceptions which the laws of Manu de- veloped about the period of the institu- tion of castes and the supremacy of the Brahmans. The laws of Manu teach that in the beginning spirit alone existed, un- perceptible, indivisible, yet floating, as it were, throughout space. The primal spirit, by contemplating itself, created the nature, and deposited in this creation a golden egg, from which came forth Brahma, the aboriginal god of all things. To this purely philosophic doctrine, which probably affected the common people very little, is joined, in order to form the Brahmanic pantheon, the influence of the popular worship of the deities especially adored in such a region and by such a people. From all these religious elements and different deities, the Vedic gods, local, national, and purely speculative gods, the Brahmans constituted a great pantheon. Siva or Mahadeva — the great god — and Vishnu seem to have been wor- shiped by the people in the time of Ramayana. From these two deities which were evidently evolved by the union of a great number of local gods, and from Brahma, was formed the superior Triade, Brahma being the Creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer. To each of these male energies or powers was associated a female energy. Vach or Sarasvati {science), was the wife of Brahma; Sai or Lakschmi {the beauty), that of Vishnu; and Parvati {death), that of Siva. The latter god transformed him- self into a phallic and genetic deity, while the distinctive functions were assigned to his wife, surnamed Kali { the black ), Durya {the terrible). It is said that Vishnu, in his quality of benevolent deity, appeared ten times on earth in different incarnations, or avataras, in order to be useful to men. To unite this supreme Triade with the Vedic gods, it was taught that the deities had become created like men, by an emanation of the spirit of Brahma, that they live in a material heaven — the air — and tend towards per- fection.

    Indria governed the region of the Orient ; Agni the Southeast; Sourya the South- west ; Tama had the South ; Varuna,

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    god of the sea, the West; Vayu {the -^vind), controlled the Northwest; Kiibera {zvealfli), the North; Soma {drunkenness), the Northeast. Besides these many gods, Hindoo mythology knew genii, Gandhar- vas ; nymphs, Apsaras. Varada serves as a messenger of the gods to men. Kam- adeva or Ananga is the god of love. Gatteka, the god with the head of an ele- phant, presides over wisdom ; Skanda leads the heavenly armies, and the six Krittikas resemble the Greek pleiades.

    The moral precepts of Brahmanism are very simple in theory. The sovereign good is the perfect knowledge of the di- vine essence. This knowledge can be at- tained only by close, intense, meditation, which, in its turn, is possible only by the mortification of the senses and all sensual instincts, gained by a life of religious as- ceticism. Those who, being thus detached from their bodies, have entered into com- munion with the divinity, escape, in dying, all corporal or material life, and enter im- mediately into the Great All. The others enter into one of the forms of life, inferior or elevated, according to the degree of victory they have gained over themselves. These moral and theological doctrines were regulated into coherent systems by the different schools of philosophy which succeeded each other in India, as Chris- tian metaphysics and ethics were elabor- ated by the Scholastics. The school of the Vedantas, the most orthodox, was led to deny matter, the creation of which it was unable to explain. The school Sankhia affirmed the eternity of matter, and united indissolubly to it a spiritual principle, similar to the god of Spinoza. Finally, comes Buddhism, whose doctrine is ex- plained elsewhere. It drove out, during the centuries of our era, Brahmanism from the greater part of India. But later Brah- manism again became victorious, although considerably altered and weakened from the struggle. Owing to the distances of the provinces from each other, as also to the permanency of the common classes for particular devotions and superstitious beliefs, Brahmanism has resolved itself into a number of sects. The worship of Siva, of Vishnu, and of Parvati, has re- placed the ancient religious unity. The priests have adopted the Buddhist custom of being united into religious communities. The four original castes are each subdi- vided into eighteen new ones. To-day the precepts concerning the life of the

    Brahmans and the several ethical doctrines are no longer followed, except by a small number of ascetics. The great majority of the people contents itself with quite a material worship offered to some particu- lar idol. Divine worship is even now given to irrational animals, as is shown by the honors given, in many parts of India, to the cow.

    Bread {Liturgical). — The matter, as it is called, of the sacrifice of the Mass, is composed of wheaten bread and wine of the grape. The Latin Church, in imi- tation of our Divine Saviour, employs un- leavened bread in the celebration of the Blessed Eucharist; a practice which is mentioned by Alcuin, in a letter written in the year 798. However, whether the bread employed at the sacrifice of the Mass be leavened or unleavened is a cir- cumstance of pure discipline, which does not touch the essence of the Eucharist. The Maronites and Armenians also em- ploy unleavened bread ; while the Greeks and other Oriental Churches, orthodox and schismatical, use leavened bread.

    Breads of Proposition. See Altar of Show Breads.

    Brebeuf (Jean de). — A noted French Jesuit missionary among the Huron In- dians in Canada; born at Bayeux, France, March 25th, 1593; killed by the Hurons March i6th, 1649. He translated the Cat- echism into the Huron language.

    Brendan (St.). — Born atTralee, County Kerry, Ireland, in 484; died in 577. An Irish monk, a contemporary of St. Brendan of Birr, and called " Son of Finnloga," or St. Brendan of Clonfert, to distinguish him from the latter. After completing his studies at Tuam he set forth on the ex- pedition known as the "Navigation of St. Brendan." According to the legendary account of his travels, he embarked with a company of followers to seek the terres- trial paradise, which was supposed to exist in an Island of the Atlantic. Various mir- acles are related of the voyage, but they are always connected with the great island where the monks are said to have landed. The legend was current in the time of Columbus and long after, and many con- nected St. Brendan's island with the newly discovered America. F. May i6th.

    Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit (also called "Spiritualists"). — Fanatics

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    Bridget

    who spread, in the thirteenth century, chiefly through France, Italy, and Ger- many. Owing to their professional char- acter as beggars, they were also called Beghards and Beguines. See these sub- jects.

    Brethren {Apostolic). See Apostolians.

    Brethren of Our Lord. — Those persons whom the Gospel calls " Brethren of Jesus Christ," were not His brethren, properly speaking, but His first cousins. These personages are in the number of four, of which the most famous is James, not a son of Mary the Mother of Jesus, and consequently no brother of Jesus, but a son of Mary, the wife of Cleophas, who was a sister of the Blessed Virgin. The simple careful reading of the Gospel is sufficient to do away with this difficulty. What gave rise to this misunderstanding is that our word brother had, in Hebrew, besides the meaning which it still has among us, another broader signification, and which indicated the kinship to all the degrees, such as those of cousin, uncle, nephew, etc. Thus Lot, who was only a nephew of Abraham, is called his brother by the sacred writer (Gen. xiv. 14-16). So also Laban calls Jacob his brother, who was really only his nephew (Gen. xxxi. 15); Tobias calls Sara his sister, although she was only a distant relative of his (Tob. viii. 9).

    Brethren {Plymouth). See Plymouth.

    Breviary. — The breviary is a formulary of prayers and sacred reading which priests recite and read daily. Formerly the psalms, hymns, orations, and spiritual selections, which all priests and religious were obliged to recite were of consider- able length. Pope St. Gregory VII. abridged this "office," for those of his pontifical court who were under the obli- gation of saying it. This abridgment soon became of common use throughout the Church, under the name of " Roman Breviary." According to some authors, it takes its name from the fact of its form- ing, as it were, a summary of religion, a compendium of Christian teaching. Ac- cording to Benedict XIV., breviary signi- fies a short, brief order of the divine office. It was also called ^^OJficium divinum, opus ad agenda Dei,'' because its recitation is a sacred work which has God for its object. *' Pensujn servitutis," because it is a debt, a duty to be paid to God by those who are

    in a special manner consecrated to Him. " Cursus," because it should be said, in its different parts, according to the hours of the day. " HorcB Canonicce," either be- cause the sacred canons ordain its recita- tion or because it obliges the regular Can- ons in particular. '■' Synaxis" or '■' Col- lecta," because in monasteries it is recited in common.

    The breviary contains the divine office, or the formal prayers which the Church puts into the mouths of her priests and religious. It is composed of seven parts, called canonical hours, viz.: Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Ves- pers, and Compline. The part called Mat- ins, which are said towards the break of day, is also called Nocttirn or Vigils, because formerly it was chanted during the night. Lauds are said after Matins. The custom to-day is to recite these parts on the eve of the feast or feria to which they belong. There are yet certain religious orders which recite them during the night, beginning at 2 A. M. Prime is said at sunrise ; Terce, at the third hour, or 9 a. m. ; Sext, at the sixth hour, or noon; None, at the ninth hour, or three o'clock in the afternoon. The gen- eral custom to-day is to recite these " little hours," as they are called, in the morning. Vespers followed by Compline form the evening prayers. This division of the di- vine office is not an obligatory one. The Church has made these divisions in order to imitate David, who sang the praises of God seven times a day. A reform being found necessary, the Council of Trent made it the object of a special decree. The breviary was restored to its primitive purity, and thus first edited by Pope Pius v., and then by Urban VIII., who pre- scribed the new edition for the entire Church. However, the Churches of the Oriental rite, as also the dioceses of Milan, Italy, and Toledo, in Spain, were exempted by the papal rescript from the use of this edition. In the United States the Roman Breviary is obligatory.

    Brethren {United). See Moravians.

    Brethren ( White). — Visionaries who ap- peared in Prussia in the fourteenth century and who pretended to have particular revelations to go and deliver the Holy Land from the hands of the infidels ; they wore a white cloak with a cross of St. An- drew thereon.

    Bridget (St.). — Virgin and patron saint of Ireland, born in 453, died in 523. Found-

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    ress and abbess of several nunneries, the first and most celebrated of which was that erected at Kildare Feb. ist, 490. F. Feb. ist. According to an ancient Irish account of her life, she was born at Fo- chart (now Faugher) and was the daugh- ter of Dubhthach, by his bondmaid Brotsech or Broiceseach. She obtained her freedom through the intervention of the king of Leinster, who was impressed by her piety.

    Bridgittines (Religious). — So called from St. Bridget of Sweden, by whom they were founded. St. Bridget was born about the year 1302, of the royal family of Swe- den. The state of marriage which she embraced by the advice of her parents, did not cause her to lose her fervor for the pious exercises she had shown from her tenderest years. After having be- come a widow (1343), she consecrated her- self entirely to works of charity and to exercises of piety and founded the Monas- tery of Wadstena (1344), on the shores of Lake Vettern. The order was con- firmed, under the title of "Order of the Saviour," by Urban V., in 1370. The re- ligious followed the Rule of St. Augustine and the particular constitutions which their holy foundress is said to have re- ceived by divine revelation.

    Brief {AfosioHc). — A letter of the Pope or of the great-penitentiary concerning brief, minor, and concise affairs, without preface or preamble. The briefs which are sent through the Datary's and Secre- tary's offices are generally written upon ordinary paper, but sometimes on parch- ment, sealed with red wax and stamped with the Fisherman's ring. The diflFer- ence between a brief and a bull consists in the fact that the latter is more ample, that it is always written on parchment and sealed with lead or green wax. The Brief is subscribed by the Secretary and not by the Pope. At its heading it con- tains the name of the Pope separately, and following this, ^'' Dilecto filio salutem et apostolicain benedictionem" etc. {To our beloved son salutation and apostolic bless- ing) ; then without any preamble, it simply explains what the Pope says or grants. Pope Alexander VI. considerably ampli- fied the matter of briefs, and it was this Pope who instituted the College of Secre- taries. Formerly briefs treated only of ju- dicial affairs; to-day they are employed

    in the granting of favors, dispensations, etc. See Bull.

    Brothers ( Congregations of) . — Reli- gious communities whose number is con- siderable : I. Most prominent among them is the Congregation of the Broth- ers of the Christian Schools, founded in 1684 by Blessed John de la Salle and con- firmed in 1725 by Benedict XIII. This congregation has to-day over 1,400 houses with 13,000 brothers, not counting the novices and aspirants, and is in charge of 2,500 schools. In France there are 1,100 houses, in Belgium 53, in Spain 42, in Eng- land and Ireland 14, in Austria and Ger- many 13, in Italy 22, in the Levante 27, in the extreme Orient 10, in Madagascar and the Island of St. Maurice, 5. Their mother house is in Paris, where the Superior Gen- eral resides.

    In the United States the Brothers of the Christian Schools have four provinces : Baltimore, with 220 brothers; New York, with 446; St. Louis, with 206; San Fran- cisco, with 106.

    2. The second largest congregation of brothers is that of the Marists or Brothers of Mary. Their mother house is in Saint Genis-Laval in the Diocese of Lyon. It is one of the few congregations of the kind that have priests among their members. Founded by the Ven. Abbe Chaminade in the beginning of the present century, it has grown rapidly, so that it now has 6,500 members, 740 houses, 14 novitiates, and 23 juvenates, so called, distributed as follows : 7 in Belgium, i in Denmark, 21 in Spain, 7 in England, i in Italy, 2 in Switzerland, 3 in Turkey, 16 in Canada, 2 in Brazil, 4 in the United States, 13 in Colombia, 7 in Africa, 10 in Asia, 8 in Australia, 9 in New Zealand, 7 in New Caledonia, 3 in Central Oceanica, and the others in France. The American provincial mother house is in Dayton, Ohio.

    3. The Congregation of the Marianists also has its seat in Paris. Its members wear lay garb and are distributed not only over France (in 30 dioceses), but likewise in other European countries, America, Japan, and Oceanica.

    4. A flourishing congregation is that of the Brothers of Christian Instruction (called Petits-frires), which sprang from the union of two different societies, that of the Abbe Deshayes and that of the Abbe J. M. R. de Lamennais, Vicar Capitular, in 1819, and was canonically approved by

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    Brothers

    Leo XIII., on March 13th, 1891. It has 380 houses with some 2,000 members, in- structing nearly 100,000 children, in France, Canada, Havti, Senegal, Marti- nique, etc. They have rules similar to those of the Brothers de La Salle.

    5. The Brothers of the Holy Ghost, or of St. Gabriel, date back their foundation to the year 1705. Their spiritual father was the Blessed Maria Grignon de Montfort. The congregation did not grow strong till after the storms of the Revolution. Re- suscitated by the Abbe Deshayes in 1835, it now has schools in 23 dioceses of France, in Canada, Egypt, and Italy. The mother house is at St. Laurent-sur-Sevre in France. It also has priests among its members.

    6. The Congregation of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart, of Puy, established in 1821, has its main seat in Paradis, France, and houses in 20 French dioceses, as well as in North America and Algiers. They are credited with 140 members in the United States.

    7. In the Diocese of Puy there is the small Congregation of St. Francis Regis, called the Brothers of Agriculture, with their mother house at La Roche-Arnaud. This society was founded by P. de Bussy, S. J., in 1850; has 7 houses and 60 mem- bers employed in the training of orphans, especially in agricultural pursuits.

    8. The Clerics of St. Viateur, established by the Abbe Querbes at Lyons, conduct schools, assist the clergy in giving reli- gious instruction, direct church choirs, etc. Their mother house is in Paris. The members are* scattered over 24 French dio- ceses. Mother house at Vourles in the Diocese of Lyon.

    The first house in the United States was opened in 1865 by Vy. Rev. P. Beaudoin and Brothers A. Martel and J. B. Bernard, at Bourbonnais, Illinois. It grew into the pres- ent St. Viateur's College. In 1882 the first and so far only American province was erected, with headquarters at Bourbonnais. The number of priests in this province is 11, that of Brothers, 34, according to Hoff- mann's Directory for 1899.

    9. In Nancy there is a congregation called the Brothers of Christian Doctrine, of Lorraine, dating back to the year 1822, and having the Bishop of Nancy for its Supe- rior-General. It has branches in 9 French dioceses.

    10. Thejosephites (or Fathers and Broth- ers of the Holy Cross) were founded in

    182 1 by the Abbe Dujarrie in the Diocese of Le Mans, France. They have some 40 institutions in France and Africa, in which they devote special attention to manual training, and several industrial schools and orphanages in North America.

    11. The Brothers of St. Vincent de Paul have their mother house in Paris. We have no data regarding their development and work.

    12. The Brothers of St. Joseph, foimded in Oullins, France, by the Abbe Rey, de- vote their attention to neglected boys, and such as have been in houses of refuge,, striving, with much success, to bring them up as good Christians, able to make their living as fai-mers or mechanics.

    13. The Brothers of the Christian Schools of Mercy, founded in 1842 by the Abbe Delamarre, later Archbishop of Auch, have their mother house at Montebourg, in the Diocese of Coutances. They direct between 40 and 50 schools in three French dioceses.

    14. The School Brothers of the Holy Family, approved in 1874, have their mother house at Belley, France. Their founder was P. Gabriel Taborin. They work in 13 French dioceses and, we are told, also in America, though we are quite sure not in the United States. They are very popular among the French clergy as sacristans and organists.

    15. The School Brothers of Christian Doctrine of Matzenheim in Lower Alsace were founded in 1845 by Eugene Mertian. There are about a hundred of them. It seems they are connected with the Nancy Brothers of the same name.

    16. The School Brothers of St. Anthony were canonically approved in 1823. Their mother house is in Paris.

    17. The School Brothers of Ireland, founded in Waterford, A. D., 1802, by E. Rice, after the model of the Congregation of Blessed de la Salle, have their mother house in Dublin and branches in various parts of Ireland, England, Australia, and East India.

    18. The Josephites of St. Fuscien, estab- lished in 1756 by Bishop de Chabons in Amiens, conduct primary schools in sev- eral French dioceses and act as organists and sextons.

    19. The Congregation of the Sons of St. Joseph in the Diocese of Gand was estab- lished A. D. 1817, at Grammont, in Flanders, by Canon van Crombugghe. It consists of priests and brothers, the former teach- ing the higher, the latter the elementary.

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    branches. In 1880 this congregation had 168 members. The mother house is at Grammont.

    20. The Indian Brothers of St. Joseph are recruited from among^ the natives of East India for the instruction of the young and the training of tefichers for them.

    21. The Society of the Brothers of St. Joseph of Klein-Zimmern (Diocese of May- ence) were founded in 1864 by the great Bishop Ketteler. So far as we are aware, this congregation has no branches outside the Diocese of Mayence.

    22. The Brothers of the Cross of Jesus originated in the Diocese of Belley, France, in 1832. The novitiate is at Menestruel. They are in charge of about fifty odd schools and hospitals in the Dioceses of Grenoble, Lyon, and Saint-Claude. This order also has a branch for females.

    23. The Brothers of the Christian Schools of the Holy Infant Jesus were founded in the seventeenth century by P. Nicholas Barre. They devote themselves to the in- struction of the yoimg, especially poor children. They have a house in Paris, and are spread over eight provinces of France. There is also a branch for females of this congregation.

    24. The Congregation of the Brothers of the Holy Cross is likewise of French foundation, dating from the year 1856. It consists of priests and lay brothers ; they are especially active in the United States (Notre Dame University, etc.) and the British colonies.

    25. The School Brothers of Tilburg {Freres de Charite de Notre Dame, Mere de mtsericorde), founded in 1844 by J. Zwysen later Archbishop of Utrecht. They have ten houses with about 300 mem- bers, and among these about twenty priests.

    26. The Xaverian Brothers, founded in 1839 at Bruges, Belgium, have their mother house there. The novitiate of the American province is at Baltimore, Mary- land. There are 159 of these Brothers in the United States, instructing 5,729 pupils in colleges, high schools, academies, in- dustrial and parochial schools.

    27. The Brothers of Our Lady of Lourdes, who conduct a college at South Park, Washington, and a protectory for homeless boys in Pittsburg, having 16 mem- bers in all in this country, and have their mother house in Oostacker, Belgium.

    28. The Brothers of Charity of St. Vin- cent de Paul, who conduct the House of the Angel Guardian in Boston, are quite a

    modern institution, having only recently received the Roman approbation.

    29. In the Archdiocese of New York and the Diocese of Brooklyn there are 88 Franciscan Brothers, in charge of 6 acade- mies, I college, and 11 schools. HofTmann's Directory tells us they were founded in 1858 by brothers from Mt. Bellew, County Galway, Ireland.*

    Brothers of Charity. See JohnofCtod.

    Brothers of the Common Life. — An In- stitute of Clerks, established at Deventer, by Gerhard Groot (died in 1384). It spread rapidly in the Netherlands and Germany, and produced a number of distinguished men, among them Thomas a Kempis. They made no vows, and devoted them- selves to preaching and instructing the youth. There existed a branch for females of this order.

    Brown (Robert) (1549-1630). — A Puri- tan, known as the founder of the " Brown- ists." In 1561, while at Cambridge, was cited to appear before Archbishop Parker for heterodoxy, and before he died he was imprisoned thirty-two times. In 1580, he accepted a ministry at Norwich, and later went to Holland. In 1585, he returned to England and was excommunicated. See Puritans.

    BroTvnson (Orestes August). — Ameri- can writer, born at Stockbridge, Vermont, Sept. i6th, 1803. Agitated, from his child- hood, by religious questions, his opinions, in these matters, varied a good deal. He was a Presbyterian in 1822, then a Universalist and Deist in 1825 ; three years later, he united himself with the " Workingmen's Party," and became a passionate admirer of the contemporary French philosophers. Then he published, in the " Christian Ex- aminer," a series of very keen articles; it was the prelude of the little volume which appeared in 1836 under the title. New Views on Christianity, the Society of the Church. In 1837 there is a new change ; he entered the " Society for Christian Union and Progress for Christianity," and delivered very re- markable lectures. The year following, he published a romance : Charles Elivood or The Infidel Converted, which contains the history of his philosophical and religious ideas. Finally, in 1844, convinced, un-

    *See "The Review," St. lyOuis, Missouri, Sept. 15th, 1899.

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    doubtedly, of the impotency of man to build his own beHefs, he entered the bosom of the Catholic Church. From that time, until his death he defended the Church in his " Review," which he published under the name of " Brownson's Quarterly Re- view," with the vigor and sincerity that characterized him. He died a Catholic, in Detroit, Michigan, April 17th, 1876.

    Bruno (Giordano) (1548-1600). — Born at Nola, near Naples, entered, at the age of fifteen years, the novitiate of the Domini- cans. Accused of heresy before the Roman Inquisition, he threw, it is said, his accuser into the Tiber, discarded the habit of his Order and fled (1576). After having erred in Italy, France, England, and Germany, he landed in Venice, where his religious opinions again brought him into trouble. The Roman Inquisition claimed him, and, after a few years' imprisonment, he was condemned to degradation and to be burned alive on account of obstinate heresy. Bruno received little sympathy among his contemporaries, and, in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the scholars who occupied them- selves with researches concerning his char- acter, or his works, were unanimous in re- garding him with disfavor. In our days, on the contrary, he is praised for his knowl- edge of mathematics and astronomy; in philosophy, it is stated, he opened new ave- nues, and, as to his death, it was that of a martyr, immolating himself for the tri- umph of liberty of thought. Certainly no great sagacity is required to discover the motives of this sudden enthusiasm. The enemies of the Church feel that they have to change, from time to time, their mode of warfare ; when they have shouted them- selves hoarse against the pretended respon- sibility in the Massacre of St. Bartholo- mew, they agitate the phantom of the Inquisition ; after having exhausted the subject of Galileo, they resurrect Giordano Bruno. This time, however, their choice is a somewhat unfortunate one. The un- bounded eulogies heaped upon an apostate monk have provoked the critical inquiry of his doctrines, and Bruno has not gained anything thereby. In his philosophy, Bruno adopted the pantheistic hypothesis ; but this was known and refuted a long time before him. In astronomy he ex- pressed some new and correct ideas; but he did not master this science sufficiently to enable him to speak correctly of the

    sideral world. Bailh' regards him as a rash innovator, misled by his imagination.

    Bruno (St.). See Carthusians.

    Bruys (Peter). See Petrobrusians.

    Buchanites. — A sect of fanatics which sprang up in the west of Scotland in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Its foundress was Elspeth Buchan, born in 173S, the daughter of John Simpson, a way- side innkeeper near Banff. Separating from her husband, she began to preach, and in 1783, in conjunction with the Rev. Hugh White, founded the sect which bore her name. She claimed to be the woman mentioned in the first six verses of the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse. Ex- pelled from the town by the magistrates in 1784, they established themselves near Thornhill with a few followers. The poet Burns, in a letter (August, 1784) speaks of their idleness and immorality. Mrs. Buchan died in May, 1791 ; the last sur- vivor of her sect died in 1848.

    Buddhism (from Buddha, seventh cen- tury B.C., name of the reformer). — A philosophical and religious doctrine; founded in India. Buddhism is rather a reformation of Brahmanism than an orig- inal, independent system. It admits of no distinction of Caste in religious matters, and insists on an ascetic life of contempla- tion. Buddhism, banished from India, after an existence of a thousand years, propagated itself in Thibet, Tartary, China, and Japan. It would appear that this doctrine played in the history of Asia something of the role of Christianity in Europe, by effecting a reform or rather a total overthrow of former paganism.

    History. — We must distinguish in Buddhism the doctrine which Buddha himself expounded from that taught by his disciples. The primitive doctrine of Buddha is found best elucidated in the "Treatise on the Four Truths." This small manual teaches: i. That pain is an effect of existence, which is itself an illu- sion, a thing void and unsubstantial. 2. That pain is produced in life by the con- tinued desire of living and by the joy thereof. 3. That pain ceases when life ends, or on the cessation of the joy of liv- ing. 4. That to end pain it is necessary to cease taking pleasure in living. The cause of life, says Buddha, is evil, which can be expiated only by suffering. The one who walks in the way of renunciation will avoid

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    sin and its punishments, will discern the motives of existence and of pain, will be delivered from all future existence, and will merge his individuality into annihilation. The Nirvana, or the state of non-being or of blissful repose is self-produced. The one who attains the Nirvana is freed from existence and from the necessity of being reborn. Brahmanism admitted Metempsy- chosis. Buddhism lays down rules to attain this annihilation, or perfect moral inertia. In the first place it is necessary that the Buddhist gives up all impure desires and all desires of vengeance or of any kind of evil. He finally must give up all doubt, all heresy, and every kind of wickedness. "Let my disciple," says Buddha, "pour out, as it were, his good will over all be- ings." Then will he have attained the last stage of perfection. He will be free from ignorance, passion, and sin. Freed from the laws of material existence, know- ing all things by their causes, he will pass from this life into absolute and eternal annihilation, the Nirvana, or negation of all life, where exists neither soul nor God. In fact, the cosmogony and philosophy of primitive Buddhism, are essentially mate- rialistic. Without occupying itself with material things, it affirms that all things are subject to the laws of cause and eflfect, to change, death, decline, and regeneration. The world, as well as everything that sur- rounds it, must be destroyed periodically by fire, air, or water, and must always be reconstituted by the sum of sin (desire to live) of its inhabitants. The number of the latter will never increase, except when one escapes to life in attaining the Nir- vana.

    The 24 heavens and the 8 hells which surround the earth and which are inhabited by mystic beings are equally subject to the la'ws of decline, death, and regeneration. (For the Buddhists the human soul is nothing but a vital force which perishes with the body.) An old person is regen- erated into a new being only in the sense that his body is substituted for the soul, and represents in the world the desire to live which the soul manifested, sinning thereby. The Karma, the desire to live, does not pass as an immaterial and per- manent substance from the one to the other, but the Karma of the one succeeds the Karma of the other as two identical phe- nomena, peculiar to every being. The holy Buddhist must not trouble the pure inertia of his soul, by desiring eternal hap-

    piness after life. When he speaks of the Nirvana as the Christian books speak of heaven, he does so by the Oriental custom of exaggeration. Eugene Burnouf has clearly proved that the Nirvana of Budd- hism is nothing else but absolute annihila- tion.

    This void and desolate system of reli- gion, in spite of the nobility of its chari- table precepts, would not have obtained more disciples than the philosophy of the Sankhyas to which it approaches, if Bud- dha had not joined to his theological teach- ing social doctrines which rendered it dear to the people. He boldly attacked the Brahmans and openly separated himself from them, denounced the inanity of their ceremonial .regarding their prescriptions of living, ridiculed their pantheon peo- pled by an infinity of gods, but over and above all, he pleased the people by denying the Brahmanic priesthood, who pretended to be the only ones called to salvation. To this must be added his effective contempt for any distinction of caste, a distinction absolutely insisted on by Brahmanism and under which India groaned. He preached as a mendicant monk, sought to do good among the outcasts of society, the poor, the unfortunate, the unclean, and hurled against the pharisaism of the Brahmans anathemas which recall to mind the de- nunciations of Christ.

    From the third century b. c. Buddhism was spread throughout all India, This was mainly eflFected through the monastic and preaching method, by the Sangha, or order of mendicant monks. The opinion which Cakyamuni held of life, necessarily led him to a life of asceticism, to which h» ob- ligated his disciples. He recommended to them to free themselves from all family relations, from all riches and power, and to leave the world. However, these rules did not originally imply the creation of a sacerdotal class. For the Sramana {those who contain it) or Bikschou (the mendi- cants), as they called them, had no power of regeneration, confirmation or absolution. To enter their society, it was sufficient for the monk to shave himself and to observe their manner of living, the rule of which is expounded in the Patimohhha, which dates from 250 b.c. The monks should eat only between the rising of the sun and noon time. They should beg their nourish- ment in going from house to house without saying a word, abstain from all flesh-meats and even filter the water for fear of swal-

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    lowing some animalcule Thev should travel from place to place during the fair season, and retire during the season of rains into the house of the community. Their costume, which they never should lay off, was composed of three yellow gar- ments. All sexual relations were forbid- den to them, as well as theft and murder. They could possess only eight objects : the three garments, a cincture, a bowl, a razor, a needle, and a filter. But the community could receive as a gift landed property, houses, and books. As to the laymen, Buddha recommends to them the observ- ance of the ordinary moral precepts, never to exterminate life, and to prepare as much as possible for a sinless regeneration.

    The disciples of Buddha assembled in councils, immediately after the death of their chief; one hundred years afterwards, at Naisali, and again in 250 b.c, at Patna, under the Buddhist Emperor Asoka. The latter ordered the drawing up of the sacred books, containing the teaching of Buddha. These books, the most of which were un- known until then, reproduce exactly the doctrine of the master. The history of Buddhism in India is little known. In 400 A. D., the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hian found it flourishing very generally in that coun- try. The pilgrim Hiouen-Tsang pointed out its decay. In the eighth and ninth cen- turies the Hindoo kings, probably irritated at the wealth and corruption of the monks, organized a great persecution and entirely destroyed the sect in the whole peninsula. Buddhism was introduced at Ceylon in the third century, A. D., by the son of Emperor Asoka. From here, in the fifth century, it passed into Burmah, then, in the seventh century, into Siam. From Kaschmir it was introduced into China in 68 A. D. and from there into Thibet. Mr. de Schagin- weit estimates the number of disciples of this religion at 341 millions, or one-fourth of humanity. Recent calculations seem to reduce this figure. Buddhism, at pre- sent, little resembles the doctrine taught by Gautama, its real founder. From the time of the first century after his death, divergences of doctrine manifested them- selves. In the second Council of Buddhism, it is said that the assembly decided that " all that is not contrary to reason must be considered as belonging to the teaching of Cakyamouni." Later on it was ad- mitted that Buddha had adapted his teach- ing to the capacity of his hearers, and since that time the different sects of

    Buddhism sought to interpret the real meaning of the doctrines of their master. The principal sects are : i. The Hina- f'anists, or "School of the small Council," which holds as sufficient for salvation a moral life, united with reflections on the causes and inanity of life. 2. The Mahaj- anists, or "School of the large Council," which appeared in the second century b.c. This School pretended that the chief du- ties were asceticism and meditation, which, according to them, give to man super- natural powers. 3. The Mystic Schools, Kala Tchaktra, or " Schools of the Wheel of Time," which arose in Central Asia and spread throughout India, being dissemi- nated by the teaching of the Cachmir, who asserted that neither meditation nor virtue is sufficient for salvation, holding that man needs the aid of supernatural beings to shield- him from demons. This aid is obtained by the use of certain for- mulas, amulets, and ceremonies. This sect, which developed itself in the ninth century a. d., offers a striking analogy to Gnosticism. This school, which eventually prevailed over all the others, includes in its system the whole Brahmanic pantheon. It flattered the people by its belief in magic and by its worship of the dead ; instituted a ritual, a number of prayers and conjura- tions, a hierarchy of priests endowed with mystic powers, all of which have continued to exist in Mongolia and Thibet. In the latter countries Buddhism has taken the name of Lamaism, and has become, in fact, a religion greatly different from the doctrine — half-philosophical, half-ethical — preached by Gautama. The essence of this religion consists in a slight modifica- tion, introduced into the doctrine of Bud- dha, concerning the perfect life. The latter recommended his disciples to attain perfection by meditation and the practice of virtue, diminishing the joy of desiring to live, and to reach Nirvana by annihila- tion of self. The new egoistical doctrine requires that its best disciples, in order to save the world from iniquity, must trans- form themselves into Buddhists, or into be- ings capable of becoming Buddhists. The primitive books of Buddhism do not treat of precepts necessary to attain this perfec- tion, while the new form of religion is ex- pounded in nine books, two of which have been translated and published, the Lalita Visiara, bj' M. Foucaux, and Saddharma Pundarika, by M. E. Burnouf. The most ancient of these dates from the second

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    century A. i>. The chief apostles of this new doctrine called themselves Nagasena and Vasumitra.

    To explain the wonderful power of the Buddhists it was asserted that they were the emanation of spiritual Buddhas, of Dhyani Buddhas. From these emanations the new school founded a Trinity and from this Trinity were reproduced several other Buddhas. But in the Trinity formed by Gautama, Amithaha (wisdom) and Ana- lokitesvara {^conquering love) remained dominant. Asanga, a monk of the sixth century, was the first to corrupt this doc- trine by attaching to it magical practices and joining to the Buddhic Triades the bloody gods of India. About the seventh century, king Srong Tsang Gampa intro- duced this corrupted form of Buddhism into Thibet, assisted by his minister, Thumi Sambhota, worshiped since in this country as the incarnation of Amithaha, and by his two wives, the queens Bribsun and Wen-Ching, whose worship still exists in the monasteries of Thibet, under the name of " Glorious mothers, incarnations of the wife of Siva." Moreover, the Mon- golians and the Siberians adopted the worship of a holy and miraculous virgin, whom the sacred images of these peoples often represent with a child in her arms. Owing to the continual additions which the Lamaic pantheon received, this reli- gion threatened to be dissolved into a vague Gnosticism, when it was consoli- dated by a powerful, sacerdotal, and tem- poral hierarchy. Kublai-Khan, nephew of Genghis-Khan, founder of the Mongolian empire, gave to the chief of the convent Cakya, the title of sovereign tributary of Thibet, chief of the Buddhist religion and suzerain of all the other abbots. This event took place in the year 1006. Not- withstanding a sort of schism which took place in 1390, at the instigation of the monk Tsongkapa, whose reforms were directed particularly against the dissolute and luxu- rious life of the monks, and whose follow- ers henceforth distinguished themselves by a yellow bonnet from the red bonnet of their adversaries, the power of the abbots of Cakya at Lhassa only increased the more. Since the fifteenth century, Dalai Lama,chiefoftheYellow-Bonnets, Abbot of Gedun Dubpa, near Lhassa, and Pantschen Lama, chief of the Red-Bonnets, Abbot of the Convent of Kraschis Jumpo, were ac- knowledged by the emperors of China as sovereigns of Thibet. Gradually the fol-

    lowers of Dalai Lama increased in power and influence over their rivals, the follow- ers of Pantschen Lama.

    The spiritual power of Lama extends over Bhutan, Sikkim, Mongolia, the country of the Kalmuks and Burets, and the Buddhist convents of Pekin. This Lama is believed to be immortal and is considered as the earthly incarnation of Buddha. At his corporal death, his spirit passes into a new depository.

    The third class of ecclesiastical function- aries is formed by the Chubilchanes. Then come the conventual authorities, the abbots {Khanpo), the monks, ordained priests {Gelong), the new monks {Gethul), and the lay brothers {Boudi). The secu- lar clergy is composed of Tchoidsche (scribes), and of Rabdschamfas (doctors) . All these ecclesiastics live in monasteries and are bound to celibacy. There exist also nunneries, governed by abbesses, in whom the saints are incarnated. The con- vents are very rich. These ecclesiastics are intercessors, astrologers, exorcists, and physicians. They copy and print books, make religious images, and sell relics. They have the privilege of transmitting and cul- tivating both divine and human science. The temples are quadrangular, pointing toward the four cardinal directions and are divided into a vestibule, nave and iconostasis or sanctuary. Besides these places of worship there are chapels, sacred pyramids, columns upon which prayers are engraved, prayer mills, and sacred trees. The religious wear and say the rosary. Their ceremonies end by distributing leavened bread among the faithful. They also use blessed water. The ceremonies must be celebrated every day by the eccle- siastics, and they have recourse to them to assure the repose of the dead. In one word, the Lamaic worship and institu- tions resemble so much the Catholic cere- monial, that the first missionaries held them as a diabolical imitation of their re- ligion.

    Bugenhagen (John). — Protestant minis- ter, born at Wollin (Pomerania) in 1485, died at Wittembergin 1558. At first, priest and adversary of Luther, he became his follower and one of his missionaries, taught theology at Wittemberg, and made him- self known by his oratorical talent, which contributed a good deal towards the pro- gress of the Reformation in a great part of Germany, Denmark and Norway.

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    BulL — The Bull is a papal decision on im- portant matters, rendered in a most solemn manner. They are written on parchment, in Gothic letters' and sealed with a leaden seal, and most carefully guarded in the Chancellor's office. When the object of the Bull is to proclaim graces granted, the bands are of silk ; when the object is to pro- nounce decisions of justice, the bands are of hemp. The following are the distinc- tions drawn between the great and small Bulls : the great Bulls are given for affairs which decree permanent rules of a general character; they contain the words: "yl

    Bullarium. — Collection of several papal Bulls. The Great Roman Bullarium is divided into three parts: i. Until Urban VIII., /. €., until the year 1623 (Rome 1634). 2. From Urban VIII. to Clement XIII., or from 1623 to 1758 (Luxemburg, Geneva, 1747 to 1758, eleven volumes). 3. From Clement XIII. to Gregory XVI., or from 1758 to 1831 (Rome 1837-1843, eight vol- umes). Under the supervision of Cardinal San Felice, Archbishop of Naples, they actually print at Naples a new edition of the Bullarium Diplomatum et Privile- giorum.

    Burgundians {Conversion of the). — The Burgundians, whose original territory lay on the shores of the Baltic Sea, penetrated into Gaul in the beginning of the fifth century, and, settling between the Alps, Saone, and the Rhone, established the Burgundian kingdom, of which Lyons was the capital. At that time they were still pagans, but soon afterwards embraced the Catholic faith. The priest Orosius, in 417, commended the mildness and modesty of these Burgundians, who treated their sub- jects of Gaul as their Christian brethren. In 450 they were found professing Arian- ism,' which was probably owing to their Arian neighbors, the Visigoths. However, Arianism was not generally adopted by the Burgundians. King Sigismund returned to the Catholic Church in the year 516,

    and Arianism entirely disappeared from among the Burgundians, after their king- dom had passed under the dominion of the Franks, in 534.

    Burial {Christian). — The early Chris- tians, when sick or in danger of death, following the precept of St. James, called in the priests of the Church, who strength- ened and sustained them with the holy sacrament of Extreme Unction in the last and trying conflict of the soul. The mortal remains of men were no longer burned, as was the custom among the pagans. The Christians, following the Jewish practice of funeral service, placed the body in the earth, accompanying the ceremony with prayer and singing of hymns, taken from the sacred liturgy, deeming this the most fitting way of paying the last tribute of re- spect to the earthly remains of man which had been the temple and dwelling place of the Holy Ghost, and which was to rise again immortal and impassible. See Cemetery.

    Ecclesiastical burial must be denied in the following instances. 1. To pagans, Jews, and infidels. 2. To apostates. 3. To notorious heretics and schismatics. 4. To those publicly excommunicated and interdicted. 5. To those who committed suicide, if " before dying, they did not manifest any repentance." Those, how- ever, who committed suicide while in- sane, or deranged in mind, can be buried b}- the Church. 6. To those killed in a duel. 7. To public and notorious sinners who die in final impenitence. 8. To those who died in the act of some grievous crime. 9. Finally to those who refused the sacraments when at the point of death. See Cremation.

    Bursa (Latin word which means apurse, a bag). — Specifically, a receptacle for the corporal and chalice cover. It is square and flat, made of cardboard, covered gen- erally with the same material as the chasuble ; is open on one side only, and placed over the chalice veil when the sacred vessels are carried to and from the altar. The bursa was introduced in the fourteenth century.

    Busenbaum (Hermann). — German Jes- uit and theologian, born in 1600 at Noth- elen, Westphalia, died in 1668. He wrote Medulla Theologi(E moralis, which work is an abstract from various authors (Munster, 1645). It passed through more than 50

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    editions. Lacroix, Collendall, and St. Liguori, made additions and commentaries thereon.

    Butler (Alban) (1711-1773). — Born at Appletree, Northampton, England ; died at St. Omer, France. An English Catho- lic hagiographer. Yie wrote Lives of the Saints (1745, 5 vols.),

    Byrne (Andrew). — Roman Catholic prelate ; born in Navan, Ireland, in 1802 ; died at Little Rock, Arkansas, 1862. He was educated at the college of his native town, and came to America in 1820 with

    Bishop England, who visited Ireland for the purpose of securing Catholic mission- aries for the work in America. Byrne was ordained in 1827, and assigned to duty in North and South Carolina. In 1830 he was appointed to pastoral work in New York city, and in 1844 was made the first bishop of the Diocese of Little Rock. He made three visits to Ireland, on the last two of which he secured the services of priests and sisters of mercy to assist in his work. Through his efforts the Catholic schools and churches increased in num- bers, and their prosperity was greatly pro- moted.

    Baader

      (Franz Xavervon)(i765-i84I). — Born at Munich. A German scholar, appointed honorary professor of philosophy and speculative theology at the University of Munich in 1826; chiefly known from his philosophical writings. He devoted himself at first to the study of medicine and the natural sciences, held the position of superintendent of mines in Munich (1797) and published various scientific and technical works. Catholic and profound thinker, Baader had the misfortune to fall into the errors of mystics, such as J. Bochum, Paracelsus, Van Helmont, and St. Martin. He imagined a democratic Catholicism, enfranchised from the su- premacy of the Pope and governed in a parliamentary manner by councils. He believed in having found his ideal in the Greek Church, which he maintained to be superior to the Roman Church. However, Baader died a Catholic, at Mimich. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

        Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

        They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

        Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

        Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

        These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

      FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,