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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"C"
Cab
    — A Hebrew measure for both dry and liquid substances. It was equal to two quarts, a half gallon.

Cabala {reception) ;
    . — The secret tradition of the Jews, the origin of which may be traced to pre-Christian times, but which grew up mainly after the beginning of the tenth century, and flourished for many generations. The Cabala was employed first in a mystic explanation of the Deity and cosmogony, and in the creation of hidden meanings for the sacred Hebrew writings, thus drawing into its province all the Hebrew law and theology. Later, Cabalists pretended, to find wonderful meanings even in the letters and forms of the sacred texts, and made for themselves elaborate rules of interpretation.

Cades (more fully Kadesh Barnea).
    A place on the southern boundary of the East Jordan territory, the modern Ain Ka- dish, in the country of the Azarime. It was the headquarters of the Israelites in their wanderings in the desert. Miriam, the sister of Moses, died here; the episode of the "waters of strife" took place here; and whence the spies were sent to explore Chanaan. — 2. The capital of the Hittites, on the Orontes, near Tel Nebi Mende. In the year 1380 b. c. Rameses II. of the 19th dynasty, gained there a decisive victory over the Hittites.

Caecilia (St.).
    — A Christian martyr. Died at Rome, 230. According to the leg- end, she was compelled, in spite of a vow of celibacy, to marry a young nobleman. Valerian. She succeeded in converting him to her views and also to Christianity, for which they suffered death.

    She is generally considered the patron saint of music, and is represented in art as sing- ing and playing on some musical instru- ment, or as listening to the music of an angel who has been drawn from heaven by her harmony. F. Nov. 22d. Through the care of Pope Urban I., the remains of St. Caecilia were first buried in the cemetery on the Appian Way, and then transferred to the Cemetery of St. Callistus. The palace which she had inhabited having been erected into a church. Pope Paschal I., in 821, rebuilt the ancient basilica, whose walls threatened to fall down, and transferred the remains of our saint into this Church. In 1599, her tomb having been opened, they established the com- plete integrity of her body, which can be seen in the same position until to-day. (Cf. Sainte Cecile et la Societi Romaine, by Dom Gueranger, Paris, 1878.)

Caelestius. See Ccelestius.

Caesar.
    — Originally the surname of the Julian family at Rome. After being dignified in the person of Julius Csesar, it became the usual appellation of those of the family who ascended the Roman throne. The last of these was Nero; but the name was still retained by his successors, as a species of title belonging to imperial dignity.

Caesarea
    (the name of two cities in Pal- estine). — I. Caesarea of Palestine, or sim- ply Caesarea, situated on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, between Joppa and

    Caesarius of Arles

    128

    Cajetan

    Tjre, It was anciently a small place, called the "Tower of Strato," but was re- built with great splendor, and strongly fortified by Herod the Great, and named Caesarea in honor of Augustus. It was in- habited chiefly by Greeks. This city was the capital of Judea during the reigns of Herod the Great and of Herod Agripp>a I., and was also the seat of the Roman power, while Judea was governed as a province of that empire. It is often mentioned in the New Testament. About the end of the second century it became the residence of a bishop, and possessed a Christian school in which Origen was teaching. The mod- ern Kaisariyeh is a desolate place of ruins. — 2. Csesarea Philippi, a town in northern Palestine, situated at the foot of Mount Hermon. The modern village is called Banias, formerly Paneas.

    Caesarius of Aries (St.). — Archbishop of Aries. Was born of pious parents, about 470, at Chalons-sur-Saone ; and studied for the priesthood at the Monastery of Lerins. As his health became enfeebled by the aus- terity of his life, the Abbot of Lerins sent him to Aries where, in 499 he was ordained priest by his relative, Bishop yEonius, whom he succeeded in 502. As bishop, he exercised a truly apostolic ministry by preaching, by attending to the sick and prisoners of war, by promoting the divine service, ecclesiastical discipline, and mon- astic observance. Owing to the false ac- cusation of some unscrupulous priests, among them his own secretary, Caesarius was, in 505, driven into exile by Alaric, King of the Visigoths ; but was recalled again as soon as the king became convinced of his innocence. Somewhat later he was likewise accused of disloyalty to Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, but he completely cleared himself of the charge. Pope Sym- machus took advantage of his presence at Rome to confer upon him the pallium. Caesarius held several synods in which many important disciplinary decrees were enacted. He presided over the Council of Orange (529), at which Semi-Pelagianism was condemned. He died in 542.

    Cahenslianism. — A term applied to an apparent agitation (since 1891) in the Catholic Church In the United States for the purpose of inducing the Pope to ap- point bishops and priests, for Catholics in the United States, as much as possible of their own nationality : so called from a memorial addressed to the Vatican in 1891

    by Herr Cahensly, president of the Society for Immigrants and other Europeans.

    Cain (Hebr. acquisition). — The firstborn of the human race and the first murderer. Presenting to God an offering of fruits, his sacrifice was rejected, while that of his brother Abel was accepted. Hence, through envy, he slew his brother and was ban- ished by God, and made a fugitive and a wanderer. Cain received from God a sign to protect him from the avenger of blood. He withdrew into the land of Nod, east of Eden, and built a city, which he called Enoch, after the name of one of his sons. (Gen. iv.)

    Cainan. — i. The fourth of the ten Pa- triarchs anterior to the Deluge. He was the son of Enos, father of Malaleel, died in the year 2769 b. c, at the age of 910 years. — 2. In the Septuagint (Gen. x. 24, and xxxi. 12), and in St. Luke (iii. 36), son of Arphaxad, consequently great-grandson of Noe, father of Sale. Several commenta- tors believe him interpolated, because his name is found neither in the Vulgate nor in the Hebrew text, which makes Sale a son of Arphaxad.

    Cainites. — A Gnostic sect, a branch of the Valentinians, in the second century; so called because they revered Cain, Cham, the Sodomites, and other persons branded in Holy Scripture. They despised Jesus as the Messias of the Psychites ; Judas Iscariot was to them the only true Apostle.

    Caiphas. See Annas.

    Caius or Gaius. — A disciple of St. Paul, received the Apostle into his house when he went to Corinth, and followed him to Ephesus. According to Origen, he after- wards became Bishop of Thessalonica. (I. Cor. i. 14.)

    Cains (St.). — Pope (283-296), born in Dalmatia ; was a near relative of Diocletian whose niece and wife he converted to the faith.

    Cajetan (Cardinal) (1469-1534). — Ital- ian Dominican born at Syracuse ; died in Rome. Cardinal in 1517. Professor of Holy Scripture and philosophy in the Sapiencia ; defended the Papal authority against the Council of Pisa ; wrote, among other works, a treatise on Indulgences; sent, as papal Legate to the Diet of Augs- burg, where he had three fruitless inter- views with Luther. He became Bishop of

    Cajus

    129

    Calixtus

    Gaeta (Cajeta, whence his surname) in 1519-

    Cajus. — A learned Roman priest of the third century. The time and place of his birth are unknown, was most probably a dis- ciple of St. Irenaeus, and lived at Rome under Pope Zephyrinus. He held a dis- putation with the Montanist leader Proclus, which he afterwards published in the form of a controversial dialogue.

    Calatrava ( Order of). — A religious and military order, founded in Castile, in 1158, for the protection and extension of the Christian cause in that kingdom. Mem- bership in the Order is now conferred as a reward of merit.

    Calderon de la Barca (Pedro) (1600- 1681). — A celebrated Spanish dramatist and poet. Was born at Malaga. After having borne arms as a gallant soldier, he became a priest and canon of Toledo. He sang in sweet and graceful numbers of the heroism of Christians and the unfading crown of glory they shall receive on wak- ing from " the dream of this life." Much of his fertile dramatic genius and glowing religious enthusiasm was expended in il- lustrating in his Autos Sacratnentales, or Corpus Ckristi, the mysteries of the Chris- tian religion. These dramatic productions, designed to be played in the open air on Corpus Christi Day and other feasts of the Church, were allegorical in character, be- ing based on Scriptural events, but com- bining, in their composition, references to incidents related in the history of the peo- ple or consecrated in their folklore.

    Caleb ( Hebr. the brave) . — Son of Jephone, of the tribe of Juda. He was one of those who were sent by Moses as spies into the land of Chanaan.

    Calendar {Ecclesiastical). — An arrange- ment of the civil year employed by the Church to designate the days set apart for particular religious celebration. As many feasts of the Church depend upon Easter, the date of which varies from year to year, either the calendar must vary every year or must contain simply the matter from which a true calendar can be computed for each year. In the Catholic Church, special circumstances in the history of each nation affect its liturgical calendar; hence every nation, and to some extent every re- ligious order, and even every ecclesiastical province, has its own calendar. See Ordo. 9

    Calendar (Gresforian). — The reformed Julian Calendar introduced by the Bull of Pope Gregory XIH., in February 1582, and adopted in England in September, 1752. By the " new style " of distributing and naming time the length of the year of the Gregorian Calendar is regulated by the Gregorian rule of intercalation, which is that every year whose number is the com- mon reckoning, since the birth of Christ, is not divisible by 4, as well as every year whose number is divisible by 100, but not by 400, shall have 365 days, and that all other years, namely, those whose numbers are divisible by 400, and those divisible by 4, and not by 100, shall have 366 days. The Gregorian year, or the mean length of the years of the Gregorian Calendar, is 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 12 seconds, and is too long by 26 seconds. The Gregorian rule has sometimes been stated as if the year 4000 and its multiples were to be common years : this, however, is not the rule enunciated by Pope Greg- ory. The Gregorian Calendar also regu- lates the time of Easter, upon which that of the other movable feasts of the Church depend. See Easter.

    California {Missions in). See Mis- sions.

    Calixtines. See Hussites.

    Calixtus (name of three Popes). — Calix- tus I. — Successor of Zephyrinus (218-222). Born a slave, he governed the Church under the reign of Heliogabalus. He con- demned the Antitrinitarian heresy of Sabcl- lius, as also the ditheistic doctrine of Hippolytus, who, falling into the opposite extreme, made the Son inferior to the Father. CalixtusII. — Successor of Gelasius II. (1119-1124). One of the first actsof Cal- ixtus was to convoke a Council at Rheims, which, after fruitless attempts on the part of the Pope to induce Emperor Henry V. of Germany to abandon his claims, solemnly excommunicated the emperor and his Anti- pope Gregory VII., and released the Ger- mans from the oath of allegiance until their sovereign should adopt better sentiments. At length, the charitable admonitions and prayers of Pope Calixtus prevailed on Henry to come to an agreement with the Holy See. The Concordat of Worms, or Calixtian Treaty, as it was called, was solemnly ratified by the First Council of Lateran, or Ninth Ecumenical Council, which Calixtus had convoked for that pur-

    Calmet

    130

    Calvin and Calvinism

    pose, in 1123. The same Council renewed, in twenty-three canons, the censures against simony and clerical marriages. Calixtus III. — Successor of Nicholas V. ( 1455-1458) . A Pontiff of remarkable firmness; em- ployed all his endeavors to unite all Chris- tendom in an expedition against advancing Mohammedanism. He himself raised and equipped an army to aid the Hungarians against the Turks ; and, to obtain the Di- vine assistance for the Christian warriors, he ordered the Lord's Prayer and the Angelic Salutation to be recited by the Faithful at noon; whence originated the "Angelus." To his efforts mainly is at- tributed the great victory of the Christians at Belgrade, in 1456.

    Calmet (Augustine) (1672-1757). — A noted French Benedictine scholar and bib- lical critic. He was the author of numer- ous works, including Commentary on all the Books of the Old Testament (1707-1716), and Historical, Critical and Chronological Dictionary of the Bible. These works are written in French.

    Calotte. — A plain skull-cap or coif of hair, skin, or other fabric, worn by some clergymen, to cover the tonsure when ex- posed to draft.

    Caloyers (monks of the Order of St. Basil). — The Caloyers lived particularly on Mount Athos and administered to nearly all the Churches of the East ; they occupy, to-day, only a few monasteries.

    Calumny and Slander. — Calumny is, cor- rectly speaking, a false and injurious charge against another, such as imputing to him habits that he does not possess, or sins which he has not committed. — Slander consists in spreading or exaggerating evil reports, unjustly tending to injure our neighbor's reputation ; detraction is the making known, without just cause, the faults of another's character. Slander and calumny are, therefore, the most pernicious of lies, because they falsely ruin another's good name; and unless excusable, from ignorance or inadvertence, and other ex- tenuating circumstances, are serious, and may be mortal sins.

    Calvary or Golgotha (Hebr. the place of a skull). — A little hill northwest of Jerusalem, and so called, it is supposed, from its skull-like form, or else because it was a place of execution. It formerly

    stood outside the walls of Jerusalem, and was the spot upon which our Saviour was crucified. Hadrian, having taken Jerusa- lem, entirely destroyed the city, and settled a Roman colony there, calling it "^lia Capitolina." The new city was not built exactly on the ruins of the old, but farther north ; so that Calvary became almost the center of the city of ^lia. Hadrian pro- faned the mount, and particularly the place where Jesus had been crucified and His body buried ; but the Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, erected over the spot a stately church, which still exists.

    Calvary (Daughters of). — Benedictine religious, founded at Poitiers by Antoi- nette of Orleans, of the House of Longue- ville. Pope Paul V. confirmed the order in 1617. The object of this institute is to honor the mystery of the Compassion of the Blessed Virgin with the dolors of Jesus Christ.

    Calvary {Priests of). — Religious Con- gregation founded near Paris, upon Mount Valerien, in 1634 by Hubert Charpentier (died, 1650). On Good Friday the mem- bers of this congregation made to the Calvary, which they had erected on the Mount, a pilgrimage which was inter- dicted in 1697. The Congregation, sup- pressed in 1791 and restored under Na- poleon I., soon disappeared. Under the Restoration the Jesuits established there a house and a cemetery which were de- stroyed in 1830.

    Calvin and Calvinism. — John Calvin (Chauvin) was born July loth, 1509, at Noyon, Picardy; died at Geneva, May 27th, 1564. Ha\\\\ing received the tonsure, he was early provided with an ecclesias- tical living, but he was never admitted to any of the holy orders. He studied philosophy and theology at Paris. At the request of 4ais father he went to study law at Bourges. There the influence of the Lutheran Volmar won him over to the heresy of the "Reformers." In 1533, he appeared at Paris, openly advocating the new teachings. Being obliged to leave France, he fled to Basle, where, in 1535, he published his principal work, The Institutions of the Christian Religion. In this work, Calvin, with much skill and learning, elaborates his religious system, which is based on the stern theory of pre

    Camaldolites

    131

    Camisards

    destination. At the instance of Farel, Cal- vin, in 1536, settled at Geneva, as preacher and professor of theology. Here he exer- cised a controlling influence, even in temporal aflfairs. He compelled the people to abjure the Papacy, abolished all Church festivals, and introduced rigid regulations of discipline. His arbitrary and despotic measures aroused a strong opposition against him, which resulted in his expul- sion from the town. He went to Stras- burg, where he married, and organized a congregation which adopted his tenets and discipline. His party at Geneva, having meanwhile gained the ascendancy, recalled him, in 1541, and from this time Calvin ruled Geneva with supreme command, exercising an absolute power in temporal as well as spiritual matters. He estab- lished a Consistory, or tribunal of morals, composed of twelve laymen and six minis- ters, whose office it was to take cognizance of all infractions of morality, including even dancing and similar amusements. Imprisonment and severe penalties were inflicted for slight offenses. Public wor- ship was organized with extreme simplic- ity, preaching and instruction forming the chief part thereof. Images and all sorts of decorations were excluded from the churches. The constitution of the Calvin- istic sect was rigidly Presbyterian. The distinguishing characteristic of Calvinism is the doctrine of absolute predestination. According to this doctrine, God ordains some to everlasting life, others to ever- lasting punishment. The decree of pre- destination, the consequence of Adam's fall, is eternal and immutable. The whole nature of fallen man is utterly corrupt, and devoid of all goodness; man has an uncon- querable tendency to do wrong. As man is acting under Divine impulse, which is irresistible, it follows that there can be no question of merits foreseen on account of which God predestines some to salvation, others to eternal damnation. With Luther, Calvin taught justification by faith alone, which, according to him, consisted not in man's real sanctification, but in the guilt of sin not being imputed to him. With Zwingle, he agreed in teaching that the Lord's Supper was a figure, only, of the Body and Blood of Christ. He denied Transubstantiation, but held that at the moment of communion, a divine power, emanating from the Body of Christ, which is now in heaven, is communicated, but only to those predestined to eternal life.

    Camaldolites. — Religious order founded at Camaldoli, near Arezzo in Tuscany, by St. Romuald in 1018. Its members observed the Benedictine Rule in its stricter form, were divided into cenobites, living in ordi- nary monasteries, and hermits, who passed their lives in lauras and recluses and who never quitted their cells. The Camaldo- lites wear white robes. Pope Alexander II., approved the order in 1072. St. Ro- muald died June 19th, 1027, at the age, some claim, of 120 years.

    Camerarius. — Name given to Chamber- lains of the Pope, of a cardinal, or any Ital- ian prelate. The Pope has two camerarii. One has charge of the alms and the other keeps watch over the silver plate, jewels, and reliquaries. These prelates wear a violet cassock with hanging sleeves, but without a cloak.

    Camerlengo. — The chamberlain of the Pope, having charge of the secular interests of the Papacy. He takes rank as one of the four chief officers of the Pope, the others being the cardinal-vicar, the cardi- nal-patron and the cardinal-penitentiary. The camerlengo is always chosen from the College of Cardinals, and is, therefore, usually called cardinal camerlengo. Dur- ing a vacancy in the Holy See he takes charge of all the temporalities and pre- sides over the apostolic chamber or palace.

    Cameronians. — Followers of Richard Cameron in Scotland, who refused to ac- cept the indulgence granted to the Presby- terian clergy in the persecuting times of Charles II., lest, by so doing, they should be understood to recognize his ecclesiasti- cal authority. They were known at first as "The Societies," but were afterwards or- ganized as the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, most of the members of which, in 1876, were merged into the Free Church.

    Camillians or Fathers of a Good Death.

    — Members of a religious order founded at Rome by St. Camillus of Lellis, priest of the Diocese of Theate, and approved by the Holy See, March 8th, 1585. These religious take care of the sick and wounded in hos- pitals and on the battlefield. St Camillus died July 14th, 1614, at the age of 65 years, and was canonized by Benedict XIV.

    Camisards. — Name given to the French Protestants in the Cevennes, who took up arms in defense of theii* civil and religious

    Campbellites

    132

    Candle

    liberties early in the eighteenth century; so called from the white blouses worn by the peasants who were the chief actors in the insurrection.

    Campbellites. — i. A Protestant denom- ination, otherwise known as the "Disciples of Christ," founded by the Rev. Alexander Campbell (who died in 1866). He came to America in 1809. The Campbellites were also called "New Lights." — 2. The fol- lowers of Rev. John McLeod Campbell, a minister of the Church of Scotland, who, when deposed, in 1831, for teaching the uni- versality of the atonement, founded a sep- arate sect.

    Campeggio (Lawrence) Cardinal. — The eldest of five sons, born at Bologna, Nov. 7, 1472, died in Rome, July 25, 1539. Professor at Padua; after the death of his wife he embraced the ecclesiastical state; was appointed by Julius IL Auditor of the Rota, Bishop of Feltri, and Nuncio of Ger- many. Leo X. created him cardinal and sent him into Germany to try to win back Luther; then into England to implore the assistance of that country against the Turks. In spite of his skill he failed in these two missions ; but Henry VHI. was so pleased with him that, in 1518, he gave him the Bishopric of Salisbury. Under Clem- ent Vn., he was sent as legate to the Diet of Nuremberg, but could not unite the German princes against Luther (1524). Sent back to England (1528), he was un- able to prevent the divorce of Henry VIIL from Catherine of Aragon. In spite of all his failures, he retained the favor of the Pope and continued to exercise a great in- fluence over him until the end of his life. Towards the close of his career, he was named Archbishop of Bologna.

    Cana. — A city of Galilee in which our Lord performed his first miracle, and be- longed to the tribe of Zabulon. It has been identified with Kefre-Kenna and with Kana-el-Jelil, both near Nazareth. At the present day it contains 300 schismatic Christians and as many Mohammedans. On the site where it is claimed our Sav- iour wrought his first miracle is pointed out the remnants of a Christian Church transformed into a mosque. In the actual Church, which belongs to schismatic Greeks, two large stone vases can be seen, which are, it is asserted, two of the six vases which contained the water that was changed into wine M. de Saulcy, who

    has carefully examined them, believes that they are at least contemporary with the time of our Saviour.

    Ccinada {Missions in). See Missions.

    Canada {Statistics of the Church in) in 1898. (See opposite page.)

    Candace. — Queen of Ethiopia of whom there is mention in the Acts of the Apos- tles (viii. 27), and who introduced Chris- tianity' among her people. She had been converted by her treasurer, the eunuch Judas, who, in a voyage which he made to Jerusalem, was converted by St. Philip.

    Candle {Paschal). — A candle blessed on the eve of Easter. That its origin is very ancient may be unhesitatingly asserted, when we remember that St. Jerome and St. Augustine respectively make mention of its usage. That, in Rome, in the fifth cen- tury, a candle was solemnly blessed upon the eve of Easter, and kept burning at Di- vine service during Paschal time, — or the period which elapses between the feasts of the resurrection and ascension, — is ascer- tained by a permission which, the Liber Pontificalis informs us, was conceded by Pope Zosimus (417-418), in favor of the several parish Churches throughout Rome, by which they were authorized to bless the Paschal candle, in imitation of the prac- tice then observed in the basilicas of that metropolis of Christianity. The Paschal candle is of unusual size, being, generally, many feet in height and several inches in diameter. It is regarded as an emblem of Christ. While it is unlighted, it is figura- tive of His death and repose in the tomb ; when lighted, it represents the splendor and glory of His resurrection. Before it is blessed, the officiating deacon inserts the five grains of incense, to signify that the sacred body of our Divine Redeemer was bound in linen cloths with spices, and thus consigned to the grave. The five in- cisions made to receive the grains of in- cense, which are so arranged as to form the figure of a cross, represent the five wounds that were inflicted on the bod}' of Christ at His crucifixion. See Exultet.

    Candle ( Triple^ . — In the service peculiar to Holy Saturday, or Easter eve, is in- cluded the ceremony of the lighting of the triple candle, the branches of which all arise from one stem. This stem is affixed to the top of what is denominated the reed. This three-branched candle is intended to

    Candlemas

    133

    Canisius

    Statistics of the Church in Canada in 1898. — General Summary

    Archdioceses and Dioceses.

    Halifax

    Antigonish . . .

    Charlottetown

    Chatham

    St. John

    Kingston

    Alexandria . . .

    Peterborough

    Montreal

    St. Hyacinth . .

    Sherbrooke . . .

    Valleyfield . . .

    Ottawa

    Pembroke ....

    Quebec

    Chicoutimi , . .

    Nicolet

    Rimouski ....

    Three Rivers.

    P. -A. St. Lau- rent

    St. Boniface . . .

    New Westmin- ster

    St. Albert

    A. Athabaska V.-Mackenzie

    V.-A. Saskatch-

    ewan

    Toronto

    Hamilton

    London

    Vancouver's Is- land

    Total

    24

    Clergy

    24

    241

    18

    3

    91 II

    35 6

    3

    50

    26

    28

    30

    4

    32

    16

    683

    40 80 45 52 49 40 16 29

    369

    184

    94 64 96

    25 424

    83 105 "3

    7

    44

    5

    6

    17 56 42

    S3

    2236

    51 87

    45 52 68

    45 16

    53 610 202

    94

    67 187

    36 459

    89

    105

    116

    86

    10 94

    31 34

    30

    60 69

    14

    2919

    3 a

    103

    96

    49 62 61 64

    23 162

    285

    "S 69

    58 no

    83

    245

    III

    58

    200

    44

    17 93

    90

    32

    51 85 81

    78 44

    2589

    13

    4

    272

    42

    12

    10

    28

    3

    87

    29

    22

    142

    742

    High Schools

    25

    17

    5

    6

    5

    96

    44 23 3

    14 II

    4

    19

    4

    19

    5

    32

    7

    3

    248

    *a

    4

    22 6

    4

    4

    10

    239

    50,000 73,000 55>ooo 55.000 58,000 37,000 18,000 40,000

    415,000

    119,000 65,000 56,125

    128,000 40,000

    320,000 57, 000

    79,369 84,500 60,568

    7,000 27,800

    28,000 15,000

    8,000

    8,200 65,000 50,000 60,000

    9,000

    2,088,562

    indicate a Trinity of persons in one God, or the light and glory of the Triune God beaming forth upon mankind through the person of our Redeemer Jesus Christ.

    Candlemas or the feast of the Purifica- tion of the Blessed Virgin is observed on the 2d of February. The Festival of Puri- fication, a festival common to the Latin and Greek Churches, is rendered peculiar by the blessing of wax tapers which are carried burning by those who form the procession which takes place afterwards. The symbolical meaning attributed to this ceremony is, that the faithful should, with the holy Simeon, recognize in the Infant Jesus the salvation which the Lord had

    prepared before the face of the people, — "A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of the people of Israel" (Luke ii. 31- 32) and be admonished by the burning tapers which they are carrying in their hands, that their faith must be fed and aug- mented by the exercise of good works, through which they are to become a light to shine before men (Matt. v. 14-16).

    Candles Used in Church. See Lights.

    Canisius (Peter), latinized from De Hand (1524-1597). — Born at Nimwegen, in the Netherlands, died at Freiburg, Switz- erland. Jesuit and the first provincial of his order in Germany. He founded the College of Freiburg. Was at once an apos-

    Canonical Hours

    134

    Canonization

    tie and theologian; distinguished himself in the Council of Trent; converted numer- ous heretics and composed highly esteemed works. Among others, a Larger and a Smaller Catechism, the former bearing the title Sumt/ia Doctrince Christiance ; and the latter, an abridgment of the former, published in 1561. It was not long before the Summa was translated into every liv- ing language.

    Canonical Hours. See Breviary.

    Canonist. — Doctor in canon law, or au- thor who has written on the laws of the Church. See Canon Law.

    Canonization. — A solemn declaration by which the Pope places in the catalogue of the saints, a person who has died in the odor of sanctity. Du Gauge informs us that, in the early Church, canonization was but a mandate of the Pope by which he com- manded that the names of those who were remarkable for their sanctity- should be in- serted in the Canon of the Mass. Father Mabillon, in the preface of the Acfa SS. Bened. (p. 88), remarks, very correctl}-, that the term canonization is not as ancient as the act which it signifies. The word was not in use before the thirteenth century, and we first meet the term in the letter of Udalric, Bishop of Constance, to Pope Calixtus II., referring to the canonization of Bishop Conrad. We also find the word used by Pope Alexander III., in the canon- ization of St. Edward, King of England, in 1 161 ; also in that of St. Thomas of Canter- bury in 1 173. Father Mabillon distin- guishes between a general and a particular canonization. The first is that which took place by a general council or by the Pope; the second, — that which was performed by a bishop, by a particular Church, or by a particular council. There are some in- stances of canonization, or of a kind of canonization, pronounced by abbots. Thus St. Viboradus, killed by the Bar- barians, May 2d, 925, — many miracles having been wrought on his tomb, — Abbot Engilbert, on the anniversary of his death, enrolled him among the saints, and, after having consulted his monks, composed an "Office" in his honor, and celebrated the Mass Commune Virginum. (See Mabillon, Prcef. et S(ec. I, n. 91.) Fleury adds that he did this by the authority of the bishop.

    The first saints which the Church hon- ored were the holy martyrs. She com- menced later on to canonize the confessors.

    The first authentic instance of a canoniza- tion by a Pope is that of St. Uldric or Udaric, Bishop of Augsburg ; this was per- formed by Pope John XV., June nth, 983, in the eighth year of his Pontificate. This canonization occurred twenty years after the saint's death. The final process is signed by the Pope, five bishops of the vicinage of Rome, nine priests, and three cardinal-deacons. Even in the solemn and formal act the word " canonization " is not used. The process is found in Baronius, in the collection of the Councils by Labbe {tom. IX, p. 741), and in the Propyl

    The ceremonies of canonization were not instituted at once, but were of gradual growth. The first and most ancient form of canonization consisted in the simple act of the Pope in declaring an individual worthy of public honor and ordering his feast to be celebrated on the anniversary

    Canon

    135

    Canon Law

    of his death. This declaration was ordi- narily made in a council, though it was sometimes pronounced by the Pope alone, as in the qase of St. Edward. Again, the declaration was made in a great assembly of Faithful, as in the case of the canoniza- tion of St. Francis of. Assisi. To render this ceremony still more imposing. Pope Honorius III., in 1225, added days of in- dulgences. Even a plenary indulgence could be gained, as in the instance of the canonization of St. Bennon in 1523, under Pope Adrian IV. An ancient ceremonial, which had succeeded the Roman Ordo, and which had been in use until Leo X. (1513-1521), under whose Pontificate, Mar- cellus. Archbishop of Corcyra, published the new Ceremonial, is the first book in which we find the ceremonies of canoniza- tion. These ceremonies had not been in- serted in the Roman Ordo, because at that time they were not performed in the Church during the celebration of the sacred mys- teries, but in the meeting place of the council. Thus, it is believed, that Alex- ander III. was the first who canonized St. Thomas of Canterbury during the cele- bration of the Mass. Baronius, in his Notes on the Martyrology, and after him Phce- baeus, remark that at the canonization of St. Rochus, performed in the Council of Constance in 1414, they bore for the first time the picture of the saint in pro- cession through the city; and Phcebseus believes that this was the origin of the banners of the canonized saint and of the procession made at the canonization. (See Bollandist, Propyl, ad Acta SS. Mali Dis- sert. XX, p. 171, etc., and the Preface on the Acta Sanct. Bened. scec. V. § vi.) A mode of canonizing the saints in use in the tenth and eleventh centuries was to erect, with the permission of the Holy See, an altar over their remains ; this was the case, for instance, in regard to St. Romuald, who died in 1027. The honors which the Church renders to canonized saints have been reduced to seven, i. The names of those saints are inscribed in the martyr- ologies and litanies. 2. They are invoked publicly. 3. Churches and altars are dedi- cated under their patronage. 4. The sac- rifice of the Mass is oflfered in their honor. 5. The day of their feast or the anniversary of their death is celebrated. 6. Their pic- tures are exhibited and are represented with an aureola. 7. Their relics are venerated. Beatification precedes definitive canoniz- ation. It is the duty of the Congregation

    of Rites to institute the process of canoni- zation. This takes place only after the examination and verification of facts and necessary petitions have been made by the diocesan authorities. Then are discussed four questions, or doubts ; the first three before the process of beatification and the resumption of proofs of new miracles, which latter must have occurred after the first process has been taken. The first question to be inquired into is : i. Whether the re- quired degree of heroic virtue is well at- tested. 2. Whether the required number of miracles (two at least) is adequately proved. 3. Whether it is expedient to proceed to the beatification, in view of the proceedings, proofs, and answer to the objections. 4. Whether the canonization should be proceeded with. When the deceased has left any written works, these are to be scrupulously and rigorously ex- amined, in order to ascertain whether they are in accordance with the rules and obli- gations of morality and truths of religion. See Beatification.

    Canon. For the meaning of this word, see Canon of the Scriptures.

    Canon Law (rules or laws relating to faith, morals, and discipline, enjoined on the members of the Catholic Church by its lawful ecclesiastical authority). — In the early ages, the Sacred Scriptures, tradition, and the disciplinary rules laid down by the Apostles, or by apostolic men, constituted the law of the Church in the East as well as in the West. Later on, however. Church synods formed numerous canons for the regulation of ecclesiastical discipline and the government of the particular churches. Thus, the Council of Nice, besides its dog- matic decrees, framed a number of canons, which, with those of subsequent councils, were translated into Latin and widely cir- culated in the West. The celebrated and very ancient collection referred to in the Council of Chalcedon (451) contained 66 canons, enacted respectively by the Coun- cils of Nice, Ancyra, Neo-Cssarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople. Up to this period, there existed various other collections of canons and papal decre- tals in the Latin Church. Of these, that of Dionysius Exiguus was most generally in use. The work is divided into two parts : the first part contains the canons of coun- cils ; the second the decretal epistles of the sovereign Pontiffs from Siricius to Anas- tasius II. This collection, though never

    Canon of the Mass

    136 Canon of the Scriptures

    expressly approved by the Holy See, at- tained great influence throughout the whole Church. Pope Adrian I. presented it, with some additions, to Charlemagne, in order that it might serve as the code of laws for the government of the Church in the Frankish empire. The collection wrongly attributed to St. Isidore of Seville contained, besides the canons and decretals of Dionysius, additions from the Fathers and Spanish councils. About the middle of the ninth century, a new and largely in- creased code of canons came into use ; first in the Frankish empire, and then in other countries. It appeared under the as- sumed name of Isidore Mercator, or Peca- tor, and is now generally known as the Pseudo-Isidorian Collection, or False De- cretals. This collection contains, besides questions of ecclesiastical l4w, also treat- ises on dogmatical and moral theology, liturgy, and penitential discipline. It is divided into three parts, of which the first contains the canons of the Apostles, and sixty decretals of the earlier Popes, from Clement I. to Melchiades. The second part contains a number of conciliar canons, beginning with the Council of Nice, and ending with the second Council of Seville (619), Many of these canons are unau- thentic. The third part is made up of the decretal letters of the Popes, from Sylves- ter I. to Gregory II. Of these, about forty were compiled by the author himself. The Pseudo-Isidorian Collection was regarded as genuine during the whole of the Middle Ages, that is, from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries ; no one thought of questioning the genuineness of the papal decretals which it contained. The first doubts as to their authenticity were raised about the year 1400 by Laurentius Valla, Canon of the Lateran. As early as 143 1, Nicholas of Cusa proved the forgery of the Donation of Constantine as well as the writings at- tributed to Popes St. Clement, St. Anas- tasius, and St. Melchiades. That the Isi- dorian Collection is a forgery, at least in part, there can be no doubt at present. The Pseudo-Decretals wrought, however, no material change in the discipline of the Church. So much is certain, that the Popes had nothing to do with the compila- tion ; and their authority derived no con- firmation, much less an increase of power, from the False Decretals.

    As to the jurisdiction of the ecclesias- tical tribunals extending over a variety of persons and causes, it became necessary to

    establish a uniform system for the regula- tion of their decisions. Hence Gratian, a Benedictine monk, and professor of canon law at Bologna, published, in 1151, his celebrated Manual, entitled Concordantia discordantinm Canonum, but which is now commonly known as Decretum Gratiani. This work is di^^ded into three parts, treating respectively of ecclesiastical per- sons, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and the Liturgy of the Church. Gratian's collec- tion of the canon laws, though never re- ceiving the formal approbation of the Holy See, acquired great authority in the schools, and superseded all other collections in the West. It fell short, however, of what was required, in the progress of ecclesiastical judicature. Hence, Pope Gregory IX. caused the Five Books of Decretals, which bear his name, to be published by St. Ray- mond of Pennafort, in 1233. These con- sist almost entirely of decretals, issued by the Popes, from the time of Gregory I. to that of Gregory IX. himself. Boniface VIII., in 1298, added a Sixth Book of De- cretals, containing papal constitutions, promulgated since the time of the Pontifi- cate of Gregory IX. New collections of papal constitutions were published by sub- sequent Pontiffs under the name of Clem- entintF, containing the decretals of Clem- ent V. and of Extrazagantes of John XII., which contain the constitutions of that PontiflF.

    Canon of the Mass. — The Canon begins with the words " Z'^ igitur," and closes with the ^^ Pater Noster." The whole is recited in an inaudible tone of voice by the celebrant of the Mass. It is called Canon, because as the meaning of the Greek word imports, this prayer has been laid down as the Rule, or Canon, which is to be rigidly followed by the priest who offers the holy sacrifice. The minutest variation from it can never be tolerated. The Canon of the Mass, according to the use of Rome, was certainly written before the middle of the fifth century, probably, as early as 416; prior to which time it had been handed down by oral tradition.

    Canon of the Scriptures. — The word canon, which is of Greek origin, means a rod or stick, with which lines were drawn, and quantities measured. The name of this instrument denoted the standard by which the quality of things was fixed, and in the middle of the fourteenth century it was employed to distinguish the collection

    Canons

    137

    Canons

    of the Old and New Testament Scriptures, accepted by the Church as the Word of God or inspired. The Scriptures were revered by the Jews as holy, as God's word, or as in- spired by God. For, according to Jewish tradition, they contained the deposit of the divine wisdom that God revealed to Moses and the Prophets, to the Psalmist, Solomon, and others. Our Lord and the Apostles found the Jewish Canon in existence, and used it to establish the mission of the Mes- sias, and the divine origin of Christianity. It was the Messianic prophecies that made the Old Testament so valuable in the New Law ; and as the need arose, the Apostles and their disciples composed the Scrip- tures of the New Testament. The two Testaments are placed side by side, and together constitute "Holy Scripture." Before Christ the Old Testament num- bered thirty Books as seen in the Septua- gint. In the first century after Christ, Jose- phus tells us the number had been reduced to twenty-two. Later on, at Babylon, the number had been fixed at twenty-four. This last enumeration is retained by the Jews to this day. The Christian Church adopted the Septuagint Canon, the text of which is used almost throughout the new Testament. But, in controversy with the Jews, the place of honor was assigned to the Hebrew Canon. Finally, according to the division in the Vulgate, the Old Testament comprised thirty-six books. The Church made decrees concerning the Canon of Scripture in a Roman synod under Pope Damasus (374), and in the synods of Hippo (393), and Carthage (397). The first general council to make the Canon universally obligatory, was the Council of Trent, which in its fourth session enumer- ated the following books in the Old Testa- ment : —

    The books of the New Testament were written at different times and in different places. Hence time was required to col- lect the books, and to complete the Canon. In the above-named early synods, the Church declared twenty-seven books of the New Testament canonical. The Council of Trent also declared twenty-seven books of the New Testament canonical, and its decision is final. The Council arranged the Canon of the New Testament imme- diately after that of the Old. It enumerates the following books : —

    The Gospel according to St. Matthew; the Gospel according to St. Mark; the Gospel according to St. Luke; and the Gospel according to St. John. The Acts of the Apostles written by the Evangelist, St. Luke. The fourteen Epistles of St. Paul : One to the Romans ; two to the Corinth- ians; one to the Galatians; one to the Ephesians; one to the Philippians; one to the Colossians; two to the Thessalonians ; two to Timothy; one to Titus; one to Philemon; one to the Hebrews; two of Peter, the Apostle. The three Epistles of St. John, the Apostle; the one Epistle of James ; the one of Jude, the Apostle ; and the Apocalypse of St. John, the Apostle.

    Canons (Catiedra/). ^DignitaTies who possess a prebend or revenue allotted to them for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate Church. Can- ons were formerly divided into three classes : regular, secular, and honorary. The regular canons lived in monasteries, and added the profession of the three evan- gelical vows to their other duties. Secular or lay canons did not live in monasteries, but were bound to keep the canonical hours. Honorary canons were not obliged to keep the canonical hours. Collectively,

    Genesis ^ « „• Exodus 1

    Tobias

    Osee

    Judith

    Joel

    Leviticus r'^S

    Esther

    Amos

    Numbers >^

    Job

    Abdias

    §•

    Deuteronomy J b

    Psalms (150)

    Jonas

    u

    Josue

    Proverbs

    Micheas

    u

    Judges

    Ecclesiastes

    Nahum

    a

    Ruth

    Canticle of Canticles

    Habacuc

    S

    1st Book of Kings

    Wisdom

    Sophonias

    u

    2d Book of Kings

    Ecclesiasticus

    Aggeus

    V

    3d Book of Kings

    Isaias

    Zacharias

    ^

    4th Book of Kings

    Jeremias (with Baruch)

    Malachias

    1st Book of Esdras

    Ezechiel

    1st Book of Machabees

    3d Book of Esdras (or

    Daniel

    2d Book of Machabees

    Nehemias)

    Canons

    138

    Captivity of the Jews

    with the dean at their head, the canons formed the Cathedral Chapter. We have no canons in the United States. See Con-

    SULTORS OF THE BiSHOP.

    Canons {Penitential). — The nature and duration of penances to be performed in the first and second centuries were deter- mined by the bishops after consulting their diocesan counselors ; in the more impor- tant cases, bishops also asked by letter {epistola canonica) the advice of their brother bishops. When crimes became more frequent, the Church became very severe, and established through her sacred canons proper regulations determining the nature and time of the penance to be im- posed. The collection of these regulations, which appointed the manner and duration of penances for different sins, was called Penitential Canons or simply ^^Peniten- iiale:'

    Canticle of Canticles. — Canonical book of the Old Testament. It is allegorically under the symbol of a chaste spouse, rep- resented as a shepherd, and his wife as the keeper of a vineyard, or the King's daugh- ter, that Solomon, who is believed to be the author, describes the love with which God cherishes the Synagogue, as well as the Christian Church of which the Syna- gogue was but the figure. The words of this Canticle of Canticles are applied as descriptive of the union of Christ with all the just members of His Church, and es- pecially with our Blessed Lady.

    Cantor. — An officer whose duty it is to lead the singing in a cathedral, or in a collegiate or parish church ; a precentor.

    Canus (Melchior). — Spanish theolo- gian, born at Tarancon, diocese of Toledo, 1509, died at Toledo, 1560. Dominican, professor at Alcala and Salamanca, 1546; sent to the Council of Trent under Paul III. Appointed Bishop of the Canaries in 1552, he did not take possession of his see. He was a friend of Philip II. ; Provincial of Castile, and had some trouble with the Jesuits. His theological works are : Lo- corum theologicorum, libri XII (Sala- manca, 1562, often reprinted) ; Prcelec- tiones de Poeniteniia; De Sacramentis. Complete works, Cologne (1605 and 1678), and Lyons (1674).

    Capharnaum. — In the time of Christ, an important place on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, about three miles dis-

    tant from where the Jordan falls into the sea. It was the scene of many incidents and actions in the life of Christ. It is iden- tified with the modern ruins of Tel Hum, by some with Khan Minyeh.

    Caphtor. — The name of a country in the Old Testament, mentioned as the starting point of the migrations of the Philistines, whence they are also called Caphtorim (Deut. ii. 23; Jer. xlvii. 4; Amos ix. 7). Formerly identified with Cappadocia or Cyprus, but considered by the majority of modern scholars as identical %vith Crete. This view is favored by many passages in which the Philistines are called Cretans (Cherethites) (Ez. xxv. 16; Soph. ii. 5; I. Ki. XXX. 14), and is supported by ancient writers who connected the Philistines with the island of Crete. In Gen. x. 14, the Caphtorim are enumerated among the descendants of the Egyptians (Mizraim), and it is therefore assumed that a portion of the Philistines emigrated from Crete by way of Egypt to Palestine.

    Capital Sins. See Sin.

    Capitularies. — The body of laws or stat- utes of a Chapter or of an ecclesiastical council. This name is also given to the laws, civil and ecclesiastical, made by Charlemagne and other princes in general councils and assemblies of the people. They are called Capitularies because they are divided into chapters or sections.

    Cappadocia. — An ancient province and kingdom of Asia Minor, now part of Asi- atic Turkey. Jews resident in this place were among St. Peter's hearers on the day of Pentecost, and Christians were among those addressed by him in his First Epistle.

    Captivity of the Jews. — The most fa- mous captivities in history are those of the Jews in Egypt under the Pharaos ; at Nin- ive under Salmanasar; and in Babylonia under Nabuchodonosor, in 606 B.C., who transported into Babylonia 18,000 Jews ; in :;99 B. c. a second and greater transporta- tion took place; in 588 b.c, Nabuchodono- sor destroyed Jerusalem, and led away into captivity the great mass of the people. The exile lasted until 535 b. c, when, after the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, the Jews were permitted to return to their country of Palestine. Thus, from 606 to 535 B. c, the Babylonian captivity lasted, exactly 70 years, as it had been foretold by the Prophet Isaias (lii. 28). See Jews.

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    Captivity of the Popes. — We thus char- acterize the period from 1305 to 1378, when seven Roman Pontiffs took up their resi- dence at Avignon, France ; also called the " Captivity of seventy years." These Popes were Clement V., 1305-1314; John XXII., 1314-1334; Benedict XII., 1334- 1342; Clement VI., 1342-1352; Innocent VI., 1352-1362 ; Urban v., 1362-1370; and Gregory XL, 1370-1378. All these Popes were natives of France.

    Capuchins. — A branch of the great Franciscan Order, instituted by Matteo di Bassi of Urbino, in 1528, and named from their long pointed capoch or cowl which is the distinguishing mark of their dress. Their special object is the strict observance of monastic poverty as prescribed in the Rule of St. Francis. They were to have no revenues, but to live by begging. In 1528, they obtained from Clement VII. permission to wear beards. The new Or- der spread rapidly and became very popu- lar. The Capuchins labored, with much success, in reclaiming to the true faith numberless Protestants in Germany, Savoy, and Switzerland. The Capuchins are most numerous in Austria. In the United States they have convents in the Dioceses of New York, Pittsburg, Green Bay, Milwaukee, etc. See Franciscans.

    Capuciati. — A short-lived, semi-politi- cal, and communistic sect, devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary, which appeared in Burgundy about 1182 ; so called from their hood or capoch.

    Carchemis. — The ancient capital of the Hittites. It was formerly identified with the Circessium of the Greeks and Romans, a fortified place near where the Chaboras empties into the Euphrates. Is now repre- sented by the ruins of Jerablus. In 605 B.C., the battle between Nabuchodonosor and Nechao of Egypt took place under its walls (Jer. xlvi. 12; 2 Par. xxxv. 20), in which the Egyptian was disastrously de- feated.

    Cardinals. — Members of the Sacred Col- lege; a body of ecclesiastics who rank in dignity next to the Pope and act as his counselors in the government of the Church. From early times the chief coun- selors and assistants of the Pope were, be- sides the regionary deacons and archpriests of the principal Churches at Rome, the bishops of adjacent sees. Thus in the proc- ess of time an ecclesiastical senate — the

    College of Cardinals — was formed, to ad- vise and assist the Pope in the government of the Church. As early as 769, seven cardinal-bishops were recorded. The title of cardinal, however, has been in use only since the seventh century. At first it was applied to all ecclesiastics permanently in charge of churches, particularly to those attached to .cathedrals. Pope Pius V., in 1567, ordained that it should henceforth be exclusively applied to the members of the Sacred College, or cardinals of the Roman Church. The cardinals are appointed by the Pope, and are divided into three classes, whose full titles are as follows : cardinal-bishops (6), cardinal-priests (50), and cardinal-deacons (14). A cardinal- priest may be a bishop or an archbishop, and a cardinal-deacon may be of any eccle- siastical grade below bishop. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutane, or cassock, a rochet, a short purple mantle, and a low- crowned, broad-brimmed red hat (not actually worn), with two cords depending from it, — one from either side — each hav- ing fifteen tassels. See Congregations OF Cardinals.

    Cardinal Virtues. See Virtues.

    Carmel. — i. A mountain ridge in Pales- tine which branches off from the mountains of Samaria, and stretches in a long line toward the Mediterranean sea. It fell with- in the lot of the tribe of Aser, and is fre- quently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was the scene of many of the deeds of the two great Prophets Elias and Eliseus. The mountain is formed of hard gray lime- stone with nodules and veins of flint; it abounds in caves, and is covered with rich vegetation. The highest part of the mountain, its northwestern end, rises 1,742 feet above the sea. Its grottoes were the abodes of Christian hermits from the early times of Christianity. In 1207 these her- mits were organized into the Order of Carmelites, and their monastery is situated 480 feet above the sea, where the mountain slopes down to a promontory in the direc- tion of the sea. — 2. A city in the mountains of Juda (Jos. XV. 55). The modern ruins of Kurmul are situated about seven miles below Hebron, in a slightly southeastern direction.

    Carmelites (religious order). — A crusader, Berthold of Calabria, is regarded as the founder of the Carmelite Order. With a few companions, he retired, in 1156,

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    to the Mount of Carmel, in Palestine, where they lived as hermits in separate cells. The increasing number of his followers made it necessary to build a monastery. The rule composed for the use of the order by Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, was approved by Pope Honorius III., Jan. 30, 1226. The conquest of Palestine by the Saracens, made it impossible for the Car- melites to live there in peace ; they passed into Europe and established themselves in various countries. In 1245, Innocent IV. confirmed them as a Mendicant Order under the title of " Order of Friars of our Lady of Mount Carmel." From their white cloak and scapular, they became popularly known as "White Friars." Under St. Simon Stock, an Englishman, its sixth general, the order was rapidly extended. To this saint is ascribed the introduction of the scapular. See this subject. In the United States there are convents of the order in the Dioceses of Leavenworth, Newark, Pittsburg, Baltimore, St. Louis, New Orleans, etc. The three convents last named follow the Rule of St. Theresa, who instituted the " Discalced Carmelites," or reformed branch of the order, consist- ing of both monks and nuns. The new institute was approved by Pope Gregory XIII., in 1580.

    Caroline Books. — Name given to four books composed by order of Charle- magne, to refute the Second Council of Nice. They contain 120 accusations against the Council of Nice. Pope Adrian I. had a Latin translation of the Seventh Council made, which he sent to Charle- magne. An unfortunate mistake of the translator was the cause of grave misunder- standing on the part of the Prankish bishops regarding the real doctrine of the Council. In their reply to the Pope, they severely censured and protested against the supposed errors of the Nicene Synod. Misled by this same faulty translation, the Great Western Council of Frankfort, in 794, in its second canon, repudiated the doctrine wrongly imputed to the Fathers of Nice, and charged Pope Adrian with having favored the Iconoclastic supersti- tion of the Greeks. A fuller refutation of the Seventh Council is given in the Caro- line Books. From this work, however, it is clear beyond doubt, that the Council of Frankfort never condemned the true doc- trine defined at Nice. What it did con- demn was the opinion falsely attributed to

    Bishop Constantine, in Cyprus, for which it held the Fathers of Nice responsible, T'iz.: that Latria, the homage of adoration, the same as that due to the Trinity, was to be given to images. Pope Adrian, to set right the erroneous apprehension of the Prankish bishops, forwarded to Charle- mange a dignified reply defending the Council of Nice, and explaining the true doctrine on the veneration of images.

    Carpocratians. — Egyptian Gnostics ; fol- lowers of Carpocrates, a native of Alex- andria who flourished under the reign of Hadrian. He taught the pre-existence of human souls, the community of property, the indifference of all moral actions and perfect abandonment to an antinomian or lawless life. His son Epiphanes, devel- oped the system of his father, introduced community of wives on the Ionian Isle of Cephalonia, where also a temple was dedi- cated to his honor.

    Carroll (John) (1735-1815). — American prelate; was born in Maryland. He was educated in France and was a member of the " Society of Jesus " until its suppression by Pope Clement XIV., when he returned to America. Pius VI., appointed him Pre- fect Apostolic, and five years later, in 1789, made him Bishop of Baltimore. On the breaking out of the Revolution, he, with his relative, the also illustrious Charles Car- roll of Carrollton, at once took sides with his own country. During the war he was ap- pointed one of four commissioners to visit Canada for the purpose of gaining over the Canadians to the American cause. To provide more effectually for the religious wants of his flock, Bishop Carroll, in 1791, convoked a diocesan synod. From the first, he directed his efforts toward the education of the young and the establish- ment of religious institutions. Under the impulse of his apostolic zeal arose colleges and convents. The number of Catholics having considerably increased in the large towns on the Atlantic coast, Pius VII., in 1808, raised Baltimore to metropolitan rank, and John Carroll became its first arch- bishop.

    Cartesianism. — Philosophical system pertaining to the French philosopher, Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Cartesius, sur- named "the father of modern philosophy," disdained, according to the example of the Humanists, Lutherans, and Jansenists, the Peripatetic philosophy, made doubt the

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    starting point and the first condition of all inquiry; repudiated skepticism, and estab- lished, as a fundamental proposition: "I think, therefore, I am." Animated with religious sentiments, Descartes wished to combat materialism and the abuses of empiricism by placing in the conscience the immutable point to which one must at- tach himself in case of doubt, and in the existence of God, the guarantee of the ob- jective truth of our knowledge. The sys- tem of Descartes was put on the Index at Rome until corrected (Nov. 20th, 1663).

    Carthage. — An ancient city and country in northern Africa situated on the Medi- terranean, a few miles east of modern Tunis. The modern Bizerta is located on its site. It was founded by Phoenicians in the mid- dle of the ninth century, b. c. It had two harbors, one naval and one mercantile, and was a commercial and colonizing center. Several Church councils were held in the city of Carthage.

    Carthagh (St.) (surnamed "the Early"). — Bishop of Ireland, died in 657. Founder of the Monastery of Kathenin, famous school of the seventh century, and of an- other in the province of Munster. He is looked upon as the first bishop of Lismore, where he founded a monastery, cathedral, and school.

    Carthusians (religious). — The founder of the Carthusian Order was St. Bruno of Cologne. With six companions, Bruno retired into the desert of Chartreuse, near Grenoble, France, and laid the foundation of his new Order. This was in 1086. Fol- lowing the Benedictine Rule, the Carthu- sians were famed for the severity of their discipline. They lead a contemplative life, and devote a portion of their time to manual labor. Bruno was summoned to Rome by Pope Urban II., who had been his pupil. After founding two new con- vents in Calabria, he died in iioi. Guigo, the first Prior of the Chartreuse, made a compilation of the customs and statutes observed by the Carthusians. — The Car- thusian nuns originated about 1230, and, with some modifications, follow the rules of the Carthusian monks.

    Casas. See Las Casas.

    Cassianus (John). — Priest and Abbot of Marseilles. Was born about 360, prob- ably in Gaul (or according to Gennadius, in Scythia), of wealthy and pious parents.

    He received his early education in a mon- astery at Bethlehem. In 390, he went with his friend German us to Egypt, and lived for seven years with the solitaries of the Nitrian desert. After a short visit to Beth- lehem, he returned to Egypt, and then set out for Constantinople. There he was ordained deacon by St. John Chrysostom, who, a second time condemned to exile, chose him to be the bearer of a letter to Pope Innocent I. The lamentable state of affairs in the Byzantine Church induced him to leave the East and withdraw into Southern Gaul, where he was ordained priest. In 415 he founded two monasteries at Marseilles, one for men and one for women, which served as models for similar institutions, and as places of refuge for in- nocence and learning. Cassianus died, rich in merit and ripe in years, about 435. His Institutions of the Monastic Life, and his Conferences of the Fathers, were written for the instruction of monks. In the thir- teenth " Conference," some Pelagian prin- ciples are unwittingly favored. By the request of the Roman deacon, afterwards Pope Leo the Great, he also wrote On the Incarnation of Christ in seven books, a work directed against Nestorius.

    Cassiodorus (477-570) . — Born at Scylla- cium, in Calabria. A distinguished states- man under Odoacer and Theodoric, filling, under various titles, the highest offices of the State. When seventy years of age, he retired to the Monastery of Viviers {mon- asterium Vivariense), which he had founded in Calabria. Here he spent the remainder of his days in religious and lit- erary pursuits. Under his direction his monks devoted themselves to the copying of the Sacred Scriptures and ancient manu- scripts of Christian and classical writers. He himself wrote numerous philosophical and theological works.

    Cassock. — A clerical garment reaching to the feet. It has an upright collar. That worn by priests is black, by the bishops purple, by the cardinals scarlet, and by the Pope white. The cassock is generally con- fined at the waist by a broad sash.

    Castelnau (Peter of). — Monk of Cit- eaux, legate of Pope Innocent III., who charged him to combat the heresy of the Albigenses. Having excommunicated Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, who re- fused to abandon the party of the heretics, he was assassinated in an inn on the shores

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    of the Rhone (1208), by two noblemen, followers of the Count. This crime be- came the signal for the crusade against the Albigenses.

    Casuistry. — Part of moral theology which treats of matters of conscience. We find traces of Casuistry in the acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St. Paul and in the Letters of St. Cyprian, who decided the diflferent cases that were submitted to him. The penitential canons emanated either from the councils or from important per- sons in the Church. These canonical rules and regulations determined the various penances which had to be undergone for violations of law, both of divine and ec- clesiastical origin. They were, in their application, abundant sources of casuistic decisions. The different degrees of pen- ances, being distinguished in time, one from another, made it necessary to estab- lish parallel classifications of faults. The rigorous discipline and severity of the early Church disappeared with the circum- stances that called them forth and made them necessary and applicable. This modification of ancient discipline distinctly made its appearance in the time of Pope Leo the Great. What had been preserved until then perished almost entirely in the ruin of the old world and its civilization by the invasion of the Barbarians. But just as soon as the Church arose again, she sought to strengthen the Christian life by new penitential canons.

    This was the work of the Casuist and moral theologian, who, having revived for a time, the ancient rigor of Church disciplinary laws, were obliged to modify this rule as the laws gradually fell into disuse. In time, indulgences, granted even in the early days of the Church, through the intercession and charity of the martyrs and confessors, became of more frequent and usual application. In place of the former severe canonical penances were substituted acts of charity, good works, such as the liberation or redemption of slaves, protection of pilgrims, donations toward the building of churches, schools, and convents, visiting the poor and afflicted, and supporting widows and or- phans. Casuistry endeavored to determine the particular merit of each of these good works, and their proportionate value in accordance with the degree of guilt in- curred by those whose reparation and penance seemed worthy of mitigation

    through the application of indulgences. It is thus that the various labors of the Casuists and others produced the Peniten- tial Books, which first appeared in the Greek Church. These works later on be- came even more numerous in the West.

    Casuistry received a new impetus and a more scientific development through the labors of the great collector of Decretals, Raymond of Pennafort, who, in the thir- teenth century, transformed the Penitential Books into a Casuistic Sum ma, and made, in a scholastic sense, a science of this department of moral theology. The vigor- ous impulse given to this work incited, in the two following centuries, an active em- ulation among the Casuists. These ques- tions and discussions, after having been for a long time in abeyance on account of the controversies of princes brought on by the Reformation, were taken up again, toward the end of the sixteenth century, by the new religious Order of the Jesuits and carried on with zeal. The Jesuits suc- ceeded in making of Casuistry one of the most fruitful branches of theological sci- ence. The practical system of the sons of St. Ignatius of Loyola induced them to cul- tivate in a special manner moral theology and Casuistry. The doctrine of probabil- ism gave rise to heated discussions. The Jesuits were fiercely attacked by Pascal, Nicole, and the whole tribe of Jansenists. This continued up to the middle of the last century, when the controversy seemed to be exhausted. It was taken up again and continued even to our day by several Prot- estant writers. The best work on this intri- cate question of Casuistry is Busembaum's Medulla Theologice,3.x\\\\d St. Liguori's The- ologia Moralis, who made Busembaum's book the basis of'this great work.

    Catabaptists. — Name of heretics, who, like the Socinians, denied original sin, and consequently rejected the sacrament of baptism, especially of children, and main- tained that it had only a power to excite faith.

    Catacombs. — Subterraneous chambers and passages, formed generally in rock which is soft and easily excavated, such as iu/a. Catacombs are to be found in almost every country where such stone exists, and in most cases, probably, originated in mere quarries, which afterwards were used either as places of sepulture for the dead or as hiding pfaces for the living. The most cele- brated catacombs in existence, and those

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    which are generally understood when cata- combs are spoken of, are those on the Via Appia, a short distance from Rome. To these dreary crypts it is believed that the early Christians were in the habit of repair- ing, in order to celebrate their new wor- ship in times of persecution ; and in them were buried many of the saints and martyrs of the primitive Church. They consist of long, narrow galleries, usually about eight feet high and five feet wide, which twist and turn in all directions, very much resembling mines. The graves were constructed by hollowing out a portion of the rock^ at the side of the gallery, large enough to contain the body. The entrance was then walled up with stone, on which usually the letters, D. M. {Deo Maximo) orX. P. (the first two let- ters of the Greek name of Christ) were in- scribed. Other inscriptions and marks, such as the cross, are also found. Though in later times devoted to the purposes of Christian interment exclusively, it is believed by some authorities that the Catacombs were, at an earlier period, used as burying places by pagans also. At irregular intervals, these galleries expand into wide and lofty vaulted chambers, in which the service of the Church no doubt was celebrated, and which still have the appearance of churches. It has been calculated that the Catacombs, found in every direction around the walls of Rome, numbered about forty in all, and that the united length of the passages is 300 leagues or 900 miles, and their walls lined with from five to six million tombs. When Rome was besieged by the Lombards in the eighth century, many Catacombs were destroyed ; and the Popes afterwards caused the remains of many of the saints and martyrs to be removed and buried in the churches. The discovery of the Catacombs bear important testimony both as to the practice and the belief of the early Chris- tians. They illustrate to us the belief of the early Church in the Primacy of St. Peter, the various orders of hierarchy, the sacrament of baptism, the forgiving of sins, the Blessed Eucharist, the veneration of the holy Mother of God, and of the saints, supplication for the departed, etc. Thus the Catacombs are lasting monu- ments, affording the most unmistakable evidence, that the Catholic Church of to- day is one in faith and dogma with the Church of the first century.

    Catafalque. — An oblong, bin-shaped erection used during the celebration of

    Masses for the dead, when the deceased has not been brought to the Church. It is suitably placed in a position near the altar, surrounded by lights, and draped in black.

    Cataphrygians. See Montakists.

    Catechism (instruction in the principles and mysteries of faith). — The Council of Trent recommended the use of Cate- chisms, and ordered that a special book should be published on the matter. Children, especially those who are pre- paring to receive their first communion, should be instructed in the Catechism of their parish or diocese. They may not, without special authorization, receive any other religious instruction. There must be a grave reason in order to obtain per- mission to have children instructed at home or in another parish. When chil- dren are attending a college or religious institution it is the duty of the chaplain to teach them the Catechism. Those schools which have no chaplain must conduct the pupils to the respective parishes to which they belong, or to the parish church of the institution. There are in most parishes three kinds of Catechisms : the first, called the elementary Catechism, in- tended for children between the ages of eight and 10 years ; the second, which is most important, is the preparatory Cate- chism, used by those about to make their first communion. To study this Catechism is obligatory on children between the ages of ID and 12 years, when after, at least one year's study, they are supposed to be suffi- ciently instructed to receive holy commun- ion. Parents are expected to be present at some of these instructions in order to learn what is necessary for their children's moral training, and the conditions which are required before their children are ad- mitted to holy communion. The Church requires great exactitude in this matter, and all nonattendance at such catechetical instruction must be accounted for. The third, or Catechism of Perseverance, is less obligatory; nevertheless, its study should be pursued for at least one year. In many parishes children are permitted to receive their first communion only on condition of their making a promise to attend Catechism classes for one year after they have made their first communion. In the study of Catechism, three years are generally employed in order to obtain a thorough religious training.

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    Catechism of the Council of Trent. — This Catechism, which is the most esteemed of all, was not composed by the Fathers of the Council, whose name it bears, but in obedience to their order. Father Alby, a Jesuit, assures us in the Life of Cardinal Sirlet, that this cardinal was the author of the Catechism of the Council of Trent. Anthony Fabrice of Liege, in a preface which he wrote for this Life, insinuates that Cardinal Sirlet is not the only one who composed the Catechism, but that he was assisted by several theologians. The author of a work printed in 1607 and again in 1647, entitled ^uestio theologica, etc., says that the principal theologians who edited the Catechism of the Council of Trent, were Leonard Marin, Archbishop of Lanciano, a Dominican, Gilles Fus- caratio. Bishop of Modena, and Francis Forerius, also a Dominican. When these theologians, with others named by the Pope, had composed the whole body of the Catechism, they selected tliree learned men to write it in pure, elegant Latin. These were Paul Manuce, Julius Poggianus, and Cornelius Amaltheus, — the latter a physi- cian by profession. Thus this famous Cate- chism is not only highly instructive as regards its subject-matter — religion — but it is also an agreeable book to read on ac- count of its beauty of style. This Cate- chism was printed by order of Pope St. Pius, and approved by a Brief of Gregory IIL in 1583. St. Charles Borromeo ap- proved of it in five synods, held at Milan.

    Catechumenate. — The state or condition of a catechumen, ». e., a person under in- struction to prepare him for baptism. In the apostolic age, as appears from the New Testament, baptism was administered at once to every one professing an earnest be- lief in Christianity, and a sincere sorrow for past sins. Since the second century, however, instruction preceded reception into the Church, and no one was admitted without previous probation. By prayer, imposition of hands, and the signing of the Cross, the neophyte was received among the Catechumens. Under this de- nomination all those were classed who were undergoing instruction previous to the re- ception of baptism.

    Since the fourth century, there were three orders of Catechumens: i. The " hearers " (audienfes), or those who were allowed to remain at the divine service till after the sermon, when they were dismissed

    as the Mass of the Faithful began with closed doors. 2. The "kneelers" {ffenu- flectentes), or those who remained after the sermon to participate in the prayers and receive the bishop's blessing. 3. The " ap- proved " or " elected " {compctentes, electi), who had passed through the regular course of instruction and training, and who at the next approaching festival (Easter, Pente- cost, and, among the Greeks, also Epiph- any), were admitted to baptism. The time of probation varied according to the charac- ter or the age of the individual; but the Council of Elvira (305) determined that it should commonly last two years. In the Apostolical Constitution three years are prescribed.

    Catena. — A methodized series of selec- tion from different authors to elucidate a doctrine or a system of doctrines; espe- cially such a set of quotations from the Church Fathers to assist in the studj' of Christian dogmas or biblical exegeses : as the Catena Aurea\\\\ii St. Thomas Aquinas.

    Catharine of Alexandria (St.). — Virgin and martyr about the year 312. Daughter of Cestus, governor of Alexandria and pagan. She was converted by a hermit. Christ appeared to her in a dream, and said to her, that He would select her for His spouse ; then He put a ring upon her finger which she found when she awoke. (Certain biographers and painters have applied this legend to St. Catharine of Siena). After this, Catharine, seized bj- a mystical love for Christ, ardently tried to gain followers to the Saviour. According to tradition, she even disputed with philos- ophers, her ancient teachers, whom she confounded by her wisdom. She suflFered martyrdom under Maximin Daja, whose love she repudiated. Placed on a wheel of knives and sharp iron hooks, she was de- livered by an angel ; but afterwards she was beheaded. Her remains were buried by angels on Mount Sinai, where, in the eighth century, they were found by the Christians. St. Catharine is the patron saint of schools and philosophers. F. Nov. 25th.

    Catherine of Siena (St.) . — Born at Siena March 25th, 1347, died at Rome April 30th, 1380. OfiFspring of an artisan family, she entered, in spite of her parents, the Domin- ican Order about 1364. Her spirit, elo- quence, austerity, zeal, ecstasies, and reve- lations, soon rendered her name famous. Catharine played an important political

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    role. In the war which the united Guelphs and Ghibellines made on Pope Gregory XI., she retained the cities of Arezzo, Lucca, and Siena in the Pope's party. After that she went to Avignon to see the sovereign Pontiff, reconciled him with the Florentines, and induced him to return to Rome. She was canonized by Pius II. in 1461. F. April 30th.

    Catharists. — Heretics, called thus from the Greek word kataros {pure), because they believed themselves purer than the rest of the Christians. The name was applied principally to the Apostatics, Mon- tanists, Patarini, Bulgari, and Albigenses.

    Cathedra. — The throne or seat of a bishop in the cathedral or episcopal Church of his diocese. Formerly the bishop's throne or cathedra was generally situated at the east end of the apse, behind the altar, and was often approached by a flight of steps ; but it is now almost univer- sally placed on one side of the choir, usu- ally the gospel side. That of St. Peter's at Rome is especially honored as reputed to have been the chair of St. Peter, and it is now enclosed in a bronze covering.

    Cathedral. — The principal church of a diocese, which is especially the church of the bishop ; so called from the fact that it contains the episcopal chair or cathedra. Many cathedrals, particularly the French and Italian, furnish the most magnifi- cent examples of the architecture of the Middle Ages. Those in England are the most interesting; though, unlike the con- tinental cathedrals, they were originally designed, almost without exception, not as metropolitan, but as monastic churches.

    Cathedral Schools. See Schools.

    Catholic. — The meaning of the word "Catholic" is of Greek origin, signifying throughout the -vhole, universal, and is used in this sense in various connections by both Greek and Latin pagan writers. The word is found in the same general sense in the earliest Christian writers. The Roman Catholic Church possesses universality of doctrine and communion in the world-wide area of its dissemination and in time. On the other hand, although Protestants may be found in divers parts of the world, they hold opinions heretical, and beliefs never universally identical ; nor have they Catho- licity of time, since they date only as far back as the sixteenth century. Our right

    to the title Catholic is amply demon- strated by the designation given in all ages to the Church of Christ, through its diffusion in universality of communion throughout the Christian world. Further, Protestantism not only varies in its teach- ing, but is not unfrequently so limited in range as to be confined to the particular nationality where, for the time being, it happens to find acceptance. The very name "Protestant," in its antagonism to the Catholic Church, is expressive of ab- sence of universality.

    Catholic Emancipation Act. — An Eng- lish statute of 1829 repealing former laws which imposed disabilities upon Roman Catholics, and allowing them (except priests) to sit in parliament, and to hold civil and military offices with certain ex- ceptions. This measure had reference especially to Ireland.

    Catholic Epistles. See Epistles.

    Catholicos. — i. In the later Roman Empire, a receiver-general or deputy- receiver in a civil diocese. — 2. In Oriental countries, a primate having under him metropolitans, but himself subject to a patriarch. — 3. The head of an independent or schismatic communion. The general force of the title seems to have been that of a superintendent-general of missions or of churches on and beyond the borders of the Roman Empire. It is also the title of the head of the Armenian Church, and has been used by the Jacobites, and for the Metropolitan of Ethiopia.

    Catholic (Roman ) Relief Act. — A series of English statutes removing the political disabilities of Roman Catholics: as (1829) permitting them to sit in parliament; en- abling their clergymen to perform mar- riages between Protestants and Catholics ; abolishing a certain oath as a qualification for Irish voters; repealing statutes against them; making all subjects eligible to the office of lord chancellor, etc.

    Catholics {German). See Ronge.

    Catholics {Number of). — The whole number of Catholics in the world has been variously estimated. Some claim there are 250,000,000; others, depending largely on statistics compiled from reports made to the Propaganda, place the number at about 235,000,000. The fact should not be overlooked, that in diocesan reports only

    ^

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    those who are known to be Catholics are counted, many thus remaining unenu- merated. This is especially true of such places as the United States, Canada, Aus- tralia, Asia, and Africa. Distributed in round numbers, in Europe there are 158,- 000,000; in South America, 33,000,000; in Mexico and Central America, 15,000,000; in the West Indies, 3,000,000; in the United States, 12,000,000; in Canada, 2,200,000; in Asia, 8,312,000; in Africa, 2,656,000; in Australia and adjacent is- lands, 700,000 ; making a total of 234,868,000 Catholics throughout the world. It seems unnecessary to state that all Catholics owe full civil allegiance to the governments of the countries wherein they dwell. It may be matter of interest to note that there are under the flags of republics, more Catho- lics than all other believers of any kind, also including those who profess no re- ligious belief. In the republics of Europe and Africa there is a total population of about 43,550,000, of which all but 4,456,000 are Catholics. The total population of all the republics of North and South America, estimating the United States at 63,000,000, is about 113,000,000, of which at least 61,500,000 are Catholics, 51,500,000 being non-Catholics, or about the proportion of 15 Catholics to 13 who are not Catholic. In the whole world there are under repub- lican forms of government, about loi ,000,000 Catholics to about 55,500,000 who are not Catholic. Under the various monarchical governments of Europe there are 119,000,- 000 Catholics, and, including Russia, 170,- 000,000 who are not Roman Catholics. See American Supplement to Encyclopcedia Britannica.

    Catholics {Old). — i. The name used by a small body of believers in Jansenism in Holland, with an archepiscopal see in Utrecht. They have continued since 1723 to recognize the authority of the Pope by sending him notice of each new election of a bishop, which he alwa^-s ignores. — 2. A party in the Roman Catholic Church, founded after the proclamation of, and in opposition to, the dogma of Papal Infalli- bility proclaimed by the Vatican Council in 1870. A schism with the Roman Cath- olic Church was not intended, but it resulted ; the leaders were excommunicated and new congregations formed. No bishop having joined the movement, the ordina- tion of a bishop was obtained from the Old Catholic Bishop of Deventer in Holland.

    Old Catholics have departed in several respects from their former ecclesiastical customs as Roman Catholics. Auricular confession and fasting are voluntary with them, and priests are allowed to marry. Mass is permitted to be said in the vernac- ular. They are found chiefly in Germany and in Switzerland, where they call them- selves "Christian Catholics."

    Cecilia. See Cecilia.

    Cedron. — A brook of Palestine that passes to the north and east of Jerusalem, and empties into the Dead Sea. Its source is north of Jerusalem. Its banks are lined with tombs, ancient and modern. It was crossed by David in his flight from Absa- lom and by our Lord on His way to Geth- semane.

    Celebrant. — One who celebrates; the priest who actually offers Mass, as distinc- tive from his assistants at the altar.

    Celebret (Latin word). — Testimonial let- ter delivered to a priest by his bishop or ordinary, testifying that there is no canon- ical impediment that hinders said priest from saying Mass, or discharging other ecclesiastical functions, in places where he is sojourning or passes through.

    Celestine (name of five Popes). — Celes- tine I. Successor of Boniface I. (422-432). Was zealous in suppressing Pelagianism ; confirmed the decrees of the General Coun- cil of Ephesus and the sentence of deposi- tion pronounced by that body against Nes- torious. This Pope sent St. Palladius and St. Patrick to convert the Scots and the Irish. Celestine II. — Pope from 11 43 to 1144. He removed the ecclesiastical censures from Louis VII. king of France, which he had incurred under Innocent II. Celestine III. — Successor of Clement III. (1191-1198). Crowned Henry VI. of Germany, but soon had grounds for complaint against him. Henry's tyranny and the oppressions of his officials exasperated all parties. Pope Cel- estine threatened to excommunicate him if he did not release Richard Cceur de Lion, of England, who, when returning from Pales- tine, had been barbarously seized, and who, in further violation of the law of nations, was imprisoned by the emperor. Celestine /F.— Pope from Sept. 20th to Oct. 3d in 1241. Died before he was consecrated. — Celestine V. (Peter Morrone, a pious re- cluse). Pope from July 5th to December 13th, in 1294. A stranger to the world

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    Ceubacy

    and its workings and intrigues, the holy Pontiff lacked knowledge of men and acquaintance with temporal matters. He transferred his residence to Naples, and thus came completely under the influence of Charles II., king of Sicily. He at once created twelve cardinals, seven of whom were French and three Neapolitans, and appointed the king's son, a youth of twenty- one years, Archbishop of Lyons. He lav- ished dignities and offices with a profuse hand, and inconsiderately bestowed bene- fices, sometimes giving the same benefice to three or four persons at once. The loud complaints of the confused state of affairs, which reached his ears, and the conscious- ness of his own unfitness for his exalted po- sition, induced the sainted Pontiff to ab- dicate, after having occupied the Papal Chair five months. Before taking this final step, Celestine re-enacted the Conclave Law of Gregory X., and issued a new con- stitution, declaring that the Pope might resign his dignity, and that the Sacred College was competent to receive such resignation.

    Celestinians {^Religious Congregation) . — This austere order, which adhered to the Rule of St. Benedict, was instituted, about 1254, by the holy hermit, Peter of Mor- rone, who afterwards became Pope Celes- tine V.

    Celibacy {Clerical). — At the beginning of the rite for the ordination of subdeacons, the bishop addresses a solemn warning to the candidates, to consider well how great is the burden which they offer to take upon themselves; he warns them that they are still free ; but that when once the Order has been received they will be free no longer, but will be perpetually bound to serve God in chastity; and the candidates, taking a step forward, signify that they un- derstand and accept the obligation.

    This obligation of chastity has from the earliest days been regarded in the Latin Church as belonging to the higher grades in the Hierarchy; and at present, it is at- tached to the Subdiaconate. No marriage can be validly contracted by a subdeacon ; nor can a married man lawfully receive the Order, unless his wife consents to perpetual separation from him, and herself vows per- petual chastity. The Order is a dire impedi- ment to marriage.

    This law insisting on chastity, is of hu- man institution, and it can be dispensed by authority of the Holy See. Such a dispen-

    sation, however, is very rarely granted. Celibacy seems to have been practiced by the higher clergy before it was enjoined by law ; it is suggested by the favor promised by Christ to such as leave wife for His sake (Matt. xix. 27, 29) ; and by the doctrine of St. Paul, that there is danger lest care for a wife call a man away from the service of God (I. Cor. vii. 32-33). In another pas- sage of the same Epistle ( ix. 5) , the Apostle claims for himself the privilege to carry about a woman, a sister, as well as the rest of the Apostles; and writing from Rome to the Philippians, he sends a message (Phil. iv. 3) to his "sincere companion"; and we read of the care of St. Peter's wife's mother (Luke iv. 38) at an early period of the ministry of our Lord. These are all the Scriptural passages which the opponents of clerical celibacy have been able to bring together in support of their views. It is scarcely worth while to deal with them, but we may remark that be- cause St. Peter had a mother-in-law at one time, it does not follow that he lived with his wife two years later ; it is hardly prob- able that St. Paul had a wife living in Philippi while he was at Rome; that if the word translated " companion " means "wife," then the epithet "sincere" must mean " genuine " or " lawful," — a true wife and not a concubine ; and, what seems to conclusively demonstrate that the " com- panion " was not a woman, but a man, is that the adjective "genuine" is in the masculine gender ; lastly, it is hardly likely that St. Paul would have furnished his op- ponents at Corinth (I. Cor. i. 12, etc.), with an effective argument against him, if he urged others to adopt a celibate life while he himself enjoyed the companionship of a wife. St. Jerome is doubtless right in believing that the "woman, a sister," was a Christian woman who accompanied St. Paul in his laborious journeys, and minis- tered to his wants, according to a practice approved by Jewish public opinion and adopted by Christ Himself (Matt, xxvii. 55, and St. Jerome on the passage; PP. Lat. xxvi. 214). When St. Paul requires (I. Tim. iii. 2) that a bishop should be the husband of one wife, the meaning is that no one is fit for the dignity who has taken a second wife after the death of the first.

    That celibacy was the practice of the clergy in the earliest times is proved by the absence of any indications to the con- trary. One of the earliest laws upon the subject is, perhaps, the thirty-third canon

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    of a Council held at Elvira in 305, which requires "bishops, priests, and deacons and all clerics" to abstain from their wives; and in the course of the same century we find the same law enforced in other places in the Church. It is therefore altogether false to saj, as some writers do, that cler- ical celibacy was a novelty introduced into England by St. Dunstan, and forced upon the whole Church by Pope St. Gregory VIII. It is true that the ravages of the Barbarians had led to great relaxation of discipline throughout Christendom, and that these saints incurred much odium through their zeal in restoring primitive discipline ; but the existing monuments of history prove that what they insisted on was nothing new.

    It is true that not all who have taken this solemn obligation upon themselves have been faithful in obser\\\\-ing it; but their frailty merely illustrates the weak- ness of human nature ; and in the most corrupt times the morality of the clergy has stood pre-eminent when contrasted with the practices of the laity.

    Cellites. See Alkxians.

    Celsus. — An eclectic philosopher, who flourished in the latter part of the second century. He was the first pagan who at- tempted to oppose the advancing Chris- tian faith with the arms of science. His work entitled. The Word of Truth is re- plete with vulgar and blasphemous asser- tions against Christ, His religion, and His followers. The strength of Celsus's argu- ments lies in shameless slanders and cowardly insults. He introduces a Jew in whose mouth he puts the \\\\-ilest calumnies against the person of Christ and his Apos- tles. Then, again, acting as arbitrator, he attacks both the Christian and Jewish religion. Christ Himself is represented as an impostor, justly crucified by the Jews for calling Himself God. His reputed birth of a virgin as well as His miracles, prophecies, and resurrection, are described as mere fictions. The charges which Cel- sus brings against the Christians are full of contradictions. The work of Celsus is not extant, but is sufficiently well known from the masterly refutation, in eight books, written by Origen about a century later.

    Cemetery (the word cemetery means a dormitory). — It was Christianity that first gave this name to the place where the de- ceased rest ; it is full of philosophy. In the

    eyes of the Catholic Church, death is only a sleep; hence the place in which they who have lived, repose, is called a dormitory. Sleep necessarily supposes an awakening. Henceforth it will be impossible to pro- nounce the name cemetery without ex- pressing the most consoling dogma for the good and the most terrible for the wicked, — the dogma of the Resurrection. From the beginning, the Church showed the greatest respect for the mortal remains of her children. See Burial. It has even been the desire of the Church that the dead .should be assembled in one place near her temple; that she might watch over bygone generations as the mother watches over the cradle of her sleeping child. The first temples of the Catholic Church were actually cemeteries ; the catacombs were nothing else. It was amid the dead that the living met to pray, and to offer up the sacred mysteries. Later on, when peace came, and it was lawful to build Christian temples, the Church hastened to conse- crate a place for the burial of her children. She wished that this place should be near her temple, in order to preserve the mem- ory of her cradle, and to teach men that a mother does not forget her children, even when they are no more. It is said that the custom of burying in or near churches has become dangerous in large cities. This supposition is more or less gratuitous. Until it is proved, it would be well to let us hold it as at least doubtful. We are so much the more authorized in doing this, as it tends to impeach the Catholic Church, and comes from persons whose levity, to say nothing else, is clear to a demonstra- tion. It would also be well to let us bear in mind that at Rome, burials take place in churches, and that, notwithstanding the heat of the climate, no inconveniences are found to arise therefrom. We will next inquire if a single instance can be cited from history, of an epidemic engendered by the practice of burying in cities. Be it as it may in cities, we maintain that in the country, where the air has free circulation and there is no danger, the established custom should not be changed. It is most proper that, before entering the temple of the Lord, the faithful should have an op- portunity of resting their eyes on some scene that will awaken in their minds a thought of the shortness of this life, a hope of a happier future, and tender recollec- tions of their departed relatives and friends. See Cremation.

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    Cenites. — A people who dwelt west of the Dead Sea, and extended themselves far into Arabia Petraea. Jethro, the father-in- law of Moses, was a Cenite. The lands of the Cenites were in Juda's lot.

    Cenobite (word formed from two Greek words, which signify life in common). — A religious who lives in community under a rule. In the eighteenth Con- ference of Cassian, the Abbot Piammon, speaks of three different orders of monks who were resident in Egypt: the "Ceno- bites," who lived in common; the "An- chorites," who, after having formed them- selves into communities, retired into soli- tude; and the "Sarabites," who were false monks and roamers. See Convents.

    Censer. — A vessel in which incense is burned. See Incense.

    Censure {Ecclesiastical). — The eccle- siastical censure, the usage of which goes back to the time of the Apostles, is a spiritual punishment, or infliction by which a Christian who is a contumacious sinner is deprived, in whole or in part, of the spiritual goods and benefits at the disposition of the Church. These are, principally, the sacraments, indulgences, spiritual jurisdiction, sacred functions, as- sisting at Mass, prayers, or public suffrages. But the sinner cannot be deprived of grace coming immediately from God. '

    There atre three classes of censure: ex- communication, suspension, and inter- dict. The censures are either incurred or made active by law, that is a jure, or by sen- tence or a particular ordinance, when the latter is called censura ab Jiomine. The first class of censures are explicitly laid down by the general laws of the Church, or made by particular laws of each diocese, or by gen- eral and particular ordinances, published by the bishop for the reformation of morals and the general good of the diocese. Those called a5 homine are promulgated or made effective by the superior or ecclesiastical judge against a particular individual. These latter censures are pronounced judicially in the form of a sentence or command on the part of the superior. The censures a jure are as permanent as the laws which evoked them ; consequently they exist after the death or demission of the legislator or executive; while the special ordinance, command, sentence, by which a censure becomes effective, passes away with the officer who issued the sentence or censure

    ab homine. Yet this does not mean that in a particular case where a censure ab homine was actually incurred it is taken away by the fact of the superior's death. Nothing but absolution from the censure can effect this. Again, censures are said to be incurred or pronounced latcB senten- , tiee ; or ferendce sententicB. The former are incurred ipso facto; that is, by the fact alone of the violation of the law. Cen- sures ferendce sententice are threatening, and are incurred when sentence is promul- gated by the superior. The terms in which the law is conceived and published, make known whether the sentence is latcB or ferendice sententice.

    The sovereign Pontiff, having plenary jurisdiction over the entire Church, has ple- nary power in the matter of promulgating censures. The bishop's authority extends only to his diocese. During the vacancy of the see, this power passes to the Cathedral chapter, or, in the absence of such, to the administrator, as in this country. The vicar-generals can inflict censures by virtue of delegated authority which they hold from the bishop. Finally, superiors of religious orders enjoy the right to punish with cen- sures those subject to their authority or jurisdiction. The metropolitan cannot in- flict censures on subjects of his suffragans, except in cases of appeal or when he vis- its the dioceses of his province. In order to incur censure there must be contumacy and this contumacy exists only as far as the delinquent has a positive knowledge of the punishment to which he is liable. When a suspension or an interdict is pronounced for a determinate time, at the expiration of this time the censure ceases, without the necessity of an absolution.

    The censure ab homine can be removed only by the officer who pronounced it, or by his superior, delegate, or successor. Among the censures a jure, some are re- served to the sovereign Pontiff, or to the bishop, while others are not. Every priest empowered to hear confession can absolve from unreserved censures. He also can absolve from all censures the penitent who is at the point of death.

    Censure of Books. — The right which ecclesiastical superiors have to remove every influence contrary to the unity and purity of faith and the life of the Church, implies also the right to censure writings concerning religion, morals, and the Church, if such writings be found con-

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    trary to good morals or to the teachings of the Church, or even against its liturgical and disciplinary laws. From the begin- ning of Christianity, the bishops of the Church exercised this right, founded on the command of the Apostle : " Keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding the profane novelties of words, and oppositions of knowledge so called " (I. Tim. vi. 20). When we read the his- tories of heresies and schisms, we find traces and examples of this kind of cen- sure. The Church redoubled her vigi- lance in this respect when the invention of printing multiplied the number and in- creased the circulation of books. Pope Alexander VI. required for the printing of books the authorization, or imprimatur, of the bishop. Leo X. in the tenth session of the Fifth Lateran Council (May 4th, 1515) renewed this rule of discipline. The holy Council of Trent forbids the print- ing, sale, and reading of books treating on religious matters, if such books have not obtained the ecclesiastical imprimatur. It likewise forbids the obtaining of any tax for the censure, or the receiving of any gift for the required ecclesiastical permis- sion or imprimatur to print or to sell books (Sess. iv. Dec. de edit, et usu Script.). Pope Pius V. (1566) instituted at Rome a supreme tribunal for such cen- sures, the "Congregation of the Index," and which Sixtus V. definitively organized. There is, therefore, from a religious point of view, an obligation on all writers, au- thors, and publishers of works treating on religious matters or on morals, to submit such works to the judgment of ecclesiasti- cal authority' and to abide by its decision. The same obligation extends to those whose duty it is to thoroughly examine all such works, and return them with ap- proval, or correction, or condemnation, as each case may require. This is to be done gratuitously.

    Central America (Missions in). See

    Missions.

    Centuries of Magdeburg. — A history of the Christian religion divided by cen- turies, of which each century forms a vol- ume. The object of the " centuries " was to combat the Roman Church, and espe- cially the Papal authority, in trying to show the accordance of Lutheran doc- trine with that of the primitive Church. This compilation is replete with errors, caused by the partisan spirit which di-

    rected the pen of the writers, and induced them to alter the facts and the texts, and also because of the inadequacy of their learning and criticism. Cardinal Baronius opposed to the Centuries his Ecclesiasti- cal Annals, which are a solid refutation thereof. See Annals.

    Centurion. — A Roman officer command- ing one hundred men (Matt. viii. 10).

    Cerdonians. — A Gnostic sect of the sec- ond century. It derived its name from Cerdo, a Syrian, who had come to Rome in the time of Pope Hyginus. Cerdo maintained that the God of the Old Law and the Prophets was not the Father of Jesus Christ. He was a teacher of Marcion and was associated with him at Rome in the publication of his peculiar ^^ews. See Marcion.

    Ceremonial or Ceremonies. — The cere- monial is a system of rites or ceremonies enjoined by law or established by custom in religious worship. If man were a disem- bodied spirit, like the angels, he might worship with his soul only; but he has superadded to his spirit a body characteris- tic of his mortal existence. As long, there- fore, as his spirit is the tenant of this earthly tabernacle, and animates a portion of the visible creation ; as long as his spirit receives the impress of its ideas, and ac- quires its impressions through the medium of the physical senses, and explains its own sensations by their instrumentality, so long must the use of some exterior ceremonial be necessary for man to exhibit a becom- ing religious reverence toward his Maker, who requires that all His creatures, both visible and invisible, should pay Him the homage of their adoration.

    So consonant is this with the sentiments of nature, that we discover her dictating to the human race in the earliest period of its existence, certain rites and ceremon- ies to be observed for the outward worship of Almighty God. Abel offered sacrifice ; Enoch invoked the name of the Lord ; and the patriarchs erected altars.

    God Himself was pleased to promulgate those ritual obser\\\\ances which were to be practiced by the Jews. Our divine Re- deemer, though He could have wrought His miracles with the same facility with which He called forth the world from noth- ing, by a single word, still, however, con- descended to employ certain ceremonies while He performed them. He mingled

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    spittle with the clay (John ix. 6) with which He restored sight to the man born blind ; He groaned in spirit and troubled Himself before He called forth Lazarus from the tomb (John xi. 33) ; He blessed and broke the bread before He converted it into His body and gave it to His dis- ciples to eat. The example which the Saviour has furnished was imitated by His disciples. We find St. Paul exhorting the Corinthians to "do all things according to order" in the Church (xiv. 40); and St. John, to impress upon our minds the grandeur of the heavenly Jerusalem, de- scribes in fervent language the splendor of the awful ritual of which he Avas a witness, as he saw in vision the throne of the Lamb in the celestial city ; and particularly noticed the four-and-twenty elders, with their harps and fragrance-breathing vials, full of the prayers of the saints, as pros- trate before the Lamb without spot, who was reclining upon the golden altar.

    Cerinthus. — Heresiarch of the first cen- tury. This heretic, coming from Alex- andria, resided at Ephesus while St. John the Apostle dwelt in that city. He denied the identity of Jesus with Christ, and main- tained that Jesus, " the son of Joseph and Mary," was but a mere man, who in baptism received the Holy Ghost, /.

    Cerularius (Michael). — Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059. Ceru- larius was an ambitious and turbulent man. He revived the Photian schism. At his instigation Leo of Achrida, Metropoli- tan of Bulgaria, circulated a document in which the following charges were brought against the Latins as grievances: i. The use of unleavened bread in the holy sacrifice. 2. Fasting on Saturdays in Lent. 3. The eating of blood and things strangled. 4. The omission of the "Alleluja " in Lent. Condemned by Pope Leo IX., excommun- icated by the papal legates, in 1054, he ex- communicated the Pope and tried to separate from Rome the patriarchs of An- tioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem. His

    pride and pretensions caused him, finally, to be exiled by the Emperor Isaac Comne- nus on the island of Proconesus, where he died in 1059.

    Cesarini (Julianus). — Roman prelate, created cardinal by Martin V. in 1426. Was sent to Poland, Hungary, and Bohe- mia, to preach the crusade ; then charged by Pope Eugenius IV. to combat the heresy of the Hussites. Opened and pre- sided at the Council of Basle, in 1431, transferred afterwards to Florence. He upheld, against the Greeks, the doctrine of the Roman Church.

    Cesena (Michael). See Fratricelli.

    Cetura. — Abraham's second wife (Gen. XXV. 1-2) ; is held by the Jews to be the same as Agar. We know nothing of her except as the mother of Zamran, Jecsan, Madan, Madian, Jesboc, and Sue. Abra- ham gave presents to these children and sent them to Arabia Deserta.

    Chair of St. Peter.— The See of Rome,

    or the office of the papacy ; so called from the fact that St. Peter was the first bishop of Rome. — St. Peter's Chair is also the name of two festivals, held on February 22d and January i8th, in commemoration of St. Peter founding the Episcopal sees of Antioch and of Rome.

    Chalcedon {Council of). — The Fourth Ecumenical Council held in this city, in 451, condemned Eutychianism and Mono- physitism. This council also conferred high privileges on the See of Constanti- nople, confirming and extending those given by the Second Ecumenical Council, and putting it nearly on an equality with the See of Rome.

    Chalice (Lat. calix, a cuf). — The cup used at Mass for the wine which is to be con- secrated. The chalices and sacred vessels used for offering up the Eucharistic sacri- fice were, in the early Church, not unfre- quently employed on great solemnities to ornament the sacred table, upon which they were arranged in rows, together with the Diptychs or carved ivory tablets (see Diptychs). Although the service to which these vessels were dedicated, and not the richness of the materials composing them formed the criterion of their value in the estimation of the pious Christian from his reverence toward the tremendous sacrifice — yet, wherever cir-

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    cumstances permitted, the most costly sub- stances were used in making them, and chalices, not only of glass, and of silver, but sometimes of crystal, onyx, sardonyx, and the purest gold, were appropriated to the altar service. Like the altar, they were anciently, as they are at present, con- secrated and anointed before being used in the ser^•ice of religion throughout the Church, whether Latin or Greek. At present the Rubrics require that the chalice be of gold or silver, or at least a silver cup which is gilt on the inside. It must be consecrated by the bishop with chrism, according to a form prescribed in the Pontifical. It may not be touched except by persons in holy orders. We know nothing about the chalice which our Lord used at the Last Supper.

    Challoner (Richard) (1691-1781). — Born at Lewess, Sussex ; died in London. Born of Protestant parents, he embraced the Catholic faith, received holy orders, and was made Bishop of Debra in 1740, and vicar apostolic of London in 1758. He was edu- cated at the English College at Douay, and was professor of philosophy there (1713— 1720), and vice-president and professor of theology (1720-1730), returning to London in the latter 3-ear. He published a large number of polemical and theological works, including The Rheims Ne-M Testament and the Douay B(ble, with Annotations (1749-1750). His version of the Douay Bible is substantially that which has since been used by English-speaking Catholics.

    Chanaan. — i. The fourth son of Sem (Gen. ix. 25flf; x. 6-15). — 2. More fre- quently " Land of Chanaan," interpreted to mean loivland, from the Semitic cana {to humble, subdue). It generally denotes the country west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean. As the name " lowland " would indicate, it origi- nally comprised only the strip of land, from ten to fifteen miles in breadth and one hundred and fifty miles in length, shut in between the Libanon and the Mediterra- nean, and extending from the Bay of An- tioch to the promontory of the Carmel, that is, southern Phoenicia. To this maritime plain of the Phoenicians and Philistines passages like Isa. xxiii. 11; Soph. ii. 5, re- fer. Later the name was extended to the whole west-Jordanic territory. Thus, also, in the Tel-el-Amarna tablets, which date back a century before the Exodus, Kinakk, or Chanaan, designates the district between

    the cities of Philistia and the country northward of Hebal (Byblos) . — 3. The non- Israelitish inhabitants of Palestine. The origin and affinity of the various tribes are still disputed.

    Chanaanites. See Chanaan.

    Chancel. — The enclosed space in a church, surrounding the altar, and railed off from the choir; the sanctuary. In small churches having no separate choir, the altar-rails (and, in some churches, the screen or lattice work) separate the chancel from the body of the church. In a wider sense, the word chancel and choir are some- times used to include both the sanctuary and the choir proper. In Greek churches the bema answers to the chancel or sanc- tuary, and the iconostasis (as the choir does not intervene between the sanctuary and nave) corresponds, in some measure, to both altar-rails and rood-screen, — to the former as separating the altar from the rest of the church, and to the latter, as constituting a marked boundary to the nave.

    Chancellor and Chancery. — Chancellor is an officer in charge of records. Under the Roman emperors, the chancellor stood at the latticed railing inclosing the judg- ment-seat, to keep back the crowd and to introduce such persons as were entitled to pass inside. The name chancellor seems, however, to have been introduced only about the year 850. From the custom of the Roman empire, the ecclesiastical court at Rome introduced the oifice. From the first ages the Roman Pontiffs had in their service some clerics who wrote and expe- dited letters in their name. St. Jerome tes- tifies that he thus assisted Pope Damasus. These clerics were not called chancellors, but were designated by the name of notaries, regionaries, and librarians. In the ninth century, however, the word chancellor was introduced. It was derived, as some claim, from the fact that the chancellor cancelled every letter with a line drawn through it; or, as others maintain, from the grate be- hind which he sat and gave audience. Each diocese, and frequently each of the great monastic houses, had its chancellor. The Council of Trent permits the bishop to receive a stipend for the expenses of the Chancery, or for the expedition of letters of ordination, dimissorials, dispensations, etc. Its rights are fixed by Canon Law. See Taxes.

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    Chancery {Roman) . — The Roman Chan- cery is the oldest tribunal of the Court of Rome. Through it are issued letters or acts relative to affairs discussed and ar- ranged in consistories, viz.: appointments of archbishops, bishops, abbots, and other dignitaries. It expedites, at the present time, only those Pontifical letters which are made out in the form of bulls. It is pre- sided over by the Cardinal of San Lorenzo in Damaso, who is assisted by a director of chancery and other subaltern officials. The cardinal-chancellor is called vice-cancel- larius, probably because the chancellor- ship is not properly a cardinal's office ; his jurisdiction lapses with the death of the Pope, when also the seal of the chancery is broken in the presence of the cardinals. The mode of procedure of this tribunal is regulated in strict accordance with the 72 regulce cancellarice.

    Chant. See Plain Chant; Music.

    Chapel. — A subordinate place of wor- ship. The right to grant the erection of chapels or oratories in private houses is re- served to the Pope. When this is done by the bishop, it is in virtue of a papal indult. The oratory must be surrounded by walls which separate it from the household in- terior, and from all domestic usages ; it must beinspected by the bishop, who assures him- self that all its accessories are becomingly and decently arranged. The bishop alone can grant permission to say Mass therein. Mass cannot be said in a private oratory or chapel on the days of Easter, Pentecost, Christmas, Ascension, Annunciation, As- sumption, the feasts of the Apostles Peter and Paul, the feast of Transfiguration, nor on the day of the patron saint of the parish.

    Chaplain. — Chaplains are priests at- tached to hospitals, prisons, and similar places for the purpose of exercising the sacred ministry. Their peculiar rights and duties are usually determined by the ordi- nary, according to the requirements of the institutions or places with which they are connected. There are various kinds of chaplains, namely: chaplains of nuns or convents ; of colleges or other similar insti- tutions ; of hospitals, asylums, protectories, prisons, and the like; of military com- panies, etc. Chaplains of nuns or sisters should be of mature age. Military chap- lains, in order to be able to administer the sacraments of penance. Holy Eucharist, and extreme unction to soldiers in garrison,

    stationary camps, or forts, must, as a rule, be approved by the bishop of the place where the quarters are situated, unless they have special faculties from the Holy See. Exempted nuns (or rather, their regular superiors) have the right to nominate their chaplains. As there are no exempted nuns in the United States, the chaplains of con- vents are all appointed by the bishop.

    Chapter (an assembly of canons or reli- gious). — In diocesan organizations, the chapter is a body of priests attached to a cathedral church for the celebration of the divine office, with the charge to assist the bishop in the government of his diocese when the see is occupied, or to supply his place during the vacancy, and in certain cases of impediment. Chapters can, at present, be established only by the Pope, and not by the bishop. This applies not merely to chapters of cathedrals, but also to those of collegiate churches. We have no cathedral chapters in the United States. See CoNSULTORS.

    Chapters {The Three).— ''Three Chap- ters " was a term applied to : i. The per- son and writings of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia. 2. The writings of Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus, in favor of Nestorius and against St. Cyril, as well as the Synod of Ephesus. 3. The Letter of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, to the Persian Bishop Maris. Emperor Justinian, with his usual eager- ness to engage in theological disquisitions, published, in 544, an edict, in which, under the name of the "Three Chapters," he condemned the works of the above named authors. The imperial edict usurped the form of a confession of faith, and trans- gressed on the exclusive prerogative of the Church to anathematize the expounders of erroneous doctrines. The authors of these writings had subscribed to a confes- sion of orthodox faith and rejected the er- rors which had been attributed to them ; the Council condemned neither their per- sons, nor their writings, the errors of which latter it, however, rejected. Hence the im- perial edict appeared as an attack on the Council of Chalcedon. The bishops of the East subscribed to the edict through fear of being deposed. Those of Illyricum, Spain, Gaul, and especially of Africa, vigorously resisted. Justinian proposed a Council at Constantinople, whither Pope Vigilius went himself. The latter, in a document, "■Judi- ca/i^w," condemned the "Three Chapters" under the saving clause, "without prejudice

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    to the Council of Chalcedon." Then it was agreed to withdraw both the edict and the yudicatum, and to allow full liberty to the future Council. But before the Council assembled, Justinian, in 551, issued a second edict against the "Three Chapters" ad- dressed to the whole Christian world, and the Pope drafted anew his own, in the Constitutum. Vigilius did not assist at the Council, was banished, and died in Sicilj. The decisions of the Council of Constantinople, however, were confirmed by Vigilius shortly before his death. His successor, Pope Pelagius, also confirmed its decrees, and, under Pope Sergius, in 619, the last dissidents in regard to this Coun- cil were in the West. The schism of Aquileja held out longest. It was not until 700, that the last of the schismatics re- turned to the unity of the Church.

    Charity. — A virtue which moves us to love God above all things, and to feel con- tented with what it has pleased Providence to bestow upon us. Also to love our neigh- bor as ourselves ; thereby wishing good to him as earnestly as to ourselves; and it diverts our ambition from earthly success toward the attainment of heavenly treas- ures.

    Charity (Sisters of). — A congregation which owes its origin to a confraternity founded at Chatillon-les-Dombes, France, under the title of "Servants of the Poor," by Louise de Marillac, widow of Antoine le Gras, secretary of the Queen. Trans- ferred to Paris in 1633. St. Vincent of Paul transformed it into a community, to which he gave a rule and constitutions which were approved in 1655 by the Car- dinal of Retz, Archbishop of Paris. They are also called "Gray Nuns" and "Sisters of St. Vincent of Paul." As a rule, they attend to the sick in hospitals and have charge of orphans. They have many houses in the United States and Canada. See Sisters.

    Charlemagne or Charles the Great. —

    King of the Franks and Emperor of the West, born in 742, died at Aachen in 814. He was the son of Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, at whose death in 768, he succeeded to the throne, conjointly with a brother, Karlmann. On the death of the latter, he became master of the entire government (771). Having become mas- ter of all the countries that had formed the empire of the West, he seems to have had

    a triple policy: r. To organize the Ger- manic tribes under his rule. 2. To es- tablish a close alliance between Church and State, " For I cannot believe," he said, "that those who are disobedient to the priests of God, can be loyal to the State." 3. To secure for his people the twofold benefit of a Christian civiliza- tion.

    Being desirous to continue the work of St. Boniface, he endeavored to propagate Christianity among the Saxons. The latter, a cruel and treacherous people, made frequent predatory inroads on the kingdom of the Franks. This, together with their refusal to embrace Christianity, led to a war which lasted for a period of thirty-three years. Their complete subju- gation being necessary to the security of the empire, Charlemagne cut down 45,000 of the insurgents near the river Aller. His forcing the Saxons to embrace Chris- tianity was a political measure disapproved by the Church and by his distinguished friend, Alcuin. His conduct toward the conquered Saxons was otherwise mild ; he left them their laws and liberties ; he de- manded no taxes from them, but merely tithes for the support of churches and schools. On Christmas Day (800) Pope Leo in. bestowed on Charlemagne the im- perial crown and saluted him " Emperor of the Romans." This act revived the em- pire of the West, which had been extinct since the time of Augustulus, 324 years be- fore. It was an ideal empire, one which imposed upon the emperor a twofold right and duty: i. To propagate and direct the Church. How well Charlemagne un- derstood his duty is manifest from the manner in which he inscribed his name: " Charles, king and most faithful protector of the Apostolic See in all things." 2. To es- tablish a universal Christian monarchy. As the Church creates spiritual unity among the nations, so should the em- peror establish temporal unity, not by subjugating princes and peoples, but by superior direction over the union of Christian states. For this reason the em- pire was, after 962, called the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. The rela- tion between Pope and emperor was that of mutual support and dependence. The Pope was subject to the emperor as the latter was the supreme temporal ruler; the emperor being a member of the Church was subject to the Pope, its head. Both exchanged oaths of fealty.

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    Chastity. — The virtue opposed to lust is chastity, which renders us circumspect in all that might tend to impurity, and induces us to abstain from what is immoral. Chas- tity is obligatory on all in a general sense, but it is a special duty for ecclesiastics and those in religious communities, who have, by their vow, bound themselves to an in- creased obligation of obedience to the sixth commandment. It is a virtue of ex- ceeding rarity when accorded as a peculiar privilege to the few who may be said to possess angelic chastity; for " incor- ruption bringeth near to God " ( Wis. vi. 20) . Man is under moral obligation to cultivate purity of thought and action by avoiding any occasion of defilement; fleeing from the world of dissipation, and devoting him- self to serious occupations; seeking help by prayer, mortification of the senses, and penance.

    Chasuble. — The sixth and last vestment which the priest, who is about to offer up the holy sacrifice of the Mass, puts on, is called the chasuble, from the Latin casula diminutive of casa. This upper garment consists of a broad flat back piece, and a narrower front piece, the two being con- nected over the shoulders only. The chas- uble is generally ornamented with a cross and flowers. It derives its origin from a species of cloak which, among the ancient Romans was caWedfcenula, and is supposed by many commentators on the Scriptures to be the same kind of mantle as that left by St. Paul at Troas with Carpus, and which he requested Timothy to bring with him to Rome (II. Tim. iv. 13). The pienula, which was substituted for the toga, was per- fectly circular in shape, with an aperture in the center of the garment to admit the head, and it enveloped the entire person of the wearer; and precisely similar was the chasuble worn by the priest at Mass during more than twelve hundred years. In the Greek Church this vestment still re- tains its ancient form of a large round mantle covering the whole figure, and is not unfrequently starred all over with a multi- tude of small crosses. Up to the sixth century the paenula was a civic habit, worn without discrimination by laymen and ecclesiastics. Its reservation for use within the sanctuary seems to have been formally adopted toward the close of the sixth cen- tury.

    Chateaubriand (FRANgois Augustk, Vi- COMTK de) (1769-1848). — French writer,

    born at St. Malo in the Bretagne ; was in- tended for the navy, studied for the Church and finally entered the army. He was in Paris during the early part of the Revolu- tion, but in 1791 sailed to America, where he wandered among the Indians. Return- ing the following year, he joined the first emigration and took refuge in London, re- maining there till 1800. His chief works are Atala and Rene (1802) ; Le Genie du Christianisme (1803), and Memoirs.

    Chatel (FRANCib) Abbe (1795-1857). — French schismatic priest, born at Gannat (Allier). Founder of a so-called "French Catholic Church." Successively vicar of the Cathedral of Moulins, curate of Mone- tay-sur-Loire, and chaplain of the army from 1823 to 1830. He wrote in the "/?

    Chemos. — Deity of the Ammonites and Moabites. St. Jerome {On Tsaias L. V.) tells us that there was an idol of this name upon Mount Nebo. The Moabites are called people of Chemos. It was to Chemos that Mesa offered his son (II. Ki. iii. 27), and in the inscription on the Moabite stone the same king attributes to Chemos his victories.

    Cherubim. — Supernatural beings who guarded the entrance to Paradise, after the Fall. Angels of the second choir of the first hierarchy. See Angels.

    Cheverus (John Louis Lefebvre) (1768-1836). — A French prelate; was born

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    at Mayenne, France; died at Bordeaux. Refusing the constitutional oath, he was cast into prison, but escaped in June, 1792, and reached England. He landed at Bos- ton in 1796, and, receiving facuhies from Bishop Carroll, set to work among the scattered Catholics in Maine. Became the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Bos- ton, Massachusetts, in 1808. Archbishop of Bordeaux (1827), and cardinal (1837).

    Chili {Missions in). See Missions.

    Chiliasm. See Millennium.

    China ( Christianity in). See India.

    Chodorlahomor. — King of Elam, who for twelve years made the five cities of the Plain his tributaries, and on their rebel- ling in the thirteenth year, went with four allied kings and overran the whole country south and east of the Jordan. Lot was among his captives, but was rescued by his uncle Abraham with his own depend- ents and neighbors (Gen. xiv). Chodor- lahomor's name is found on Chaldean bricks recently discovered.

    Choir. — That part of a church which is appropriated to the use of the singers. In churches built according to ancient archi- tecture (see Architecture) it is that part between the nave and the apse which is reser\'ed for canons, priests, monks, and choristers, during divine service. In cruci- form churches, the choir usually begins at the transepts and occupies the head of the cross, including the altar; but some- times, especially in monastic churches, it extends bej-ond the transepts, thus en- croaching upon the nave. In churches without transepts the choir is similarly placed. In mediaeval examples, especially after 1250, it was usually surrounded by an ornamental barrier or grating, and sep- arated from the nave by a rood-screen. See Chancel.

    Choir Bishops (also called rural bishops). — Ecclesiastical dignitaries in the early Church, some of whom had received epis- copal consecration, but the majority of whom remained simply priests. Although assistants, and subordinate to the bish- ops of cities, or sees, the choir bishops must not be confounded with suffragan bishops. The choir bishops could ordain readers, exorcists, and subdeacons ; but not deacons or priests, without the permission of the bishop of the city.

    Chosroes II. See Cross.

    Chrism. — A compound of oil and balsam consecrated by a bishop, and used for anointing with the sign of the cross at con- firmation, as well as in baptism, ordina- tion, consecration of altar-stones, chalices, churches, and in the blessing of baptismal water. The component parts of chrism — of olive oil and balsam — signify the two na- tures in Christ; the oil symbolizes the human nature, the balsam the divine na- ture.

    Christ. See Jesus Christ.

    Christian. — It was about the year 40 A. D. when the first Pagano-Christian com- munity was formed at Antioch on the Orontes, and it was also there, about the year 43, that the Faithful were first called Chris- tians. The Acts of the Apostles relate this fact (Acts xi. 26), and it is evident that the Christianoi meant nothing else than the disciples, the adherents of Christ. It is very probable that the name Christians was first used by the pagans, and very prob- ably by the Romans. They called the fol- lowers of Christ, Christiant, as they called the followers of Caesar, Casariani, those of Pompey, Pompeiani. It is not prob- able that the Christians themselves adopted this name, for they generally called them- selves Disciples, Brethren, the Saints, the Faithful ; besides the word Christianoi, at the beginning, was applied as an epithet of contempt, as can be seen from the texts (Acts xxvi. 28; I. Pet. ix. 14, 16). Neither were the Jews the authors of this name; for certainly they did not give to a race so odious to them a title of honor such as, "followers of the Messias," " Disciples of the Anointed or of the Christ." We know that they generally made use of such ex- pressions as Nazarenes, Galileans, or of other disrespectful terms.

    Christian Alliance. — A religious asso- ciation organized in 1887, with its head- quarters at 692 Eighth avenue. New York city. It was founded by Rev. A. B. Simp- son, who has been its president from the date of its organization. Its membership, as described b>- its founder, " consists of all professing Christians who subscribe to its principles and enroll their names." Its objects are stated to be " the wide diffusion of the Gospel in its fullness, the promo- tion of a deeper and higher Christian life, and the work of evangelization, especially among the neglected classes, by highway

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    missions and any other practical methods." At the end of 1895 the organization is said to have established 265 missions in China, India, Japan, Haiti, and Congo Free State. In New York city special work is done for fallen women by means of "The Door of Hope," a branch "home" opened by the Alliance.

    Christian Brothers. See Brothers.

    Christian Endeavor {The United So- ciety of) . — A Protestant association formed at Wiliston Church, Portland, Maine, in the year 1881, and which, in 1896, had in- creased to 44,596 societies, with a member- ship of 2,630,000 in the United States, Can- ada, Great Britain, and missionary lands. The purpose of the association is to pro- mote an earnest and useful Christian life on the part of each member, to increase mutual acquaintance between members, and to train young converts in the practi- cal duties of Christianity.

    Christianity (Christendom, the totality of the Christian nations). — The four Gos- pels, written according to St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John, give us the details of the divine mission of the Saviour from His birth to His passion, death, and resurrection. This is the basis of Chris- tianity, taught by the lessons and precepts of Christ, developed afterwards by His Apostles, and formulated in an abridgment in their Symbol or Apostles' Creed. But in 'ts source, Christianity goes further back; it is intimately connected with the divine facts related in the Old Testament. The Bible, in its entirety, is the exposition of the Christian religion, based upon the primitive revelation which followed the creation of man, and which Christ came to complete in fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies. Thus both Testaments unite in a grand and wonderful harmony. The religious needs and aspirations of the soul, and an unbiased, complete examination of facts and proofs, certainly lead to the re- ligion of Christ, to the divine faith which He came on earth to establish. This divine religion, expounded by Christianity, alone answers to the cries and needs of our nature, — a nature both corporal and spiritual ; this alone victoriously combats the principle of evil which is within us as an original stain; this alone can sanctify the individual, the family, and society ; this alone is the voice of truth and life ; finally, this alone, regu- lates with authority the duties, guides faith

    in its hesitations, hope in its waverings, charity in its works, and is the source of all good and of expiation, in view of eternal life.

    Let us read the Gospels, in order to ar- rive at the starting point of Christian preaching, at the foundation of Christian- ity. The Messias who was announced from the beginning of the world, and again and again foretold by the Prophets, has fulfilled His divine mission. In His "Sermon on the Mount," He has given us a summary of His sublime doctrine ; He has spread the good news, and transmitted to His Apos- tles the doctrine which should be taught by them to the whole world : ^^ Docete omnes genfes.'" He has established among them a chief, to whom He said : "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I shall build my Church." This chief will represent the unity and authority, and his successors will continue in possession of this deposit of unity and supreme authority until the end of time. The power to bind and to loose will be given to them. Jesus Christ dies upon the Cross : '■^consummatum est.'^ Tri- umphantly He comes forth from the grave, and appears to His disciples in order to confer on them His divine mission and confirm them in the truths thereof. Soon the effects of the Redemption make them- selves felt. The Jews who denied and crucified Him are no longer the chosen and privileged, the only repository heretofore of the faith revealed by God. The Old Law must give place to a new covenant of grace and love ; all nations and peoples, tribes and tongues are called to share in its benevolent effects. The Holy Ghost who descended in the Upper-Room upon the Apostles, loosened their tongues, and communicated to them the divine spirit. Two sermons of Peter at Jerusalem make eight thousand converts, who gladly con- fess the faith of Christ, and thus the first Church of Christians is founded. These new Faithful, in their fervor and zeal, de- posit their goods at the feet of the Apos- tles for equitable division among the Community.

    Soon, however, the Synagogue becomes suspicious and wrathful ; the Apostles are put into prison, scourged, and forbidden to preach. They answer that " they must obey God rather than man," and continue to preach Christ crucified. Seven deacons are chosen bj' the Apostles ; the first of these is Stephen, who became the first glorious mar- tyr. Paul, struck with blindness on his way

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    to Damascus, whither he was going to per- secute the Christians, beholds the scales fall from his eyes, and from a relentless per- secutor becomes the great Apostle of the Gentiles. Reunited with Peter in that Capi- tal which groans under the tyranny of a Nero, they together seal with their blood the faith of Christ. Rome will become the See of the universal Church. John teaches and labors in Asia Minor, Philip in Upper Asia, Andrew among the fierce Scythians. Thomas preaches among the Parthians, and even pushes his labors till he embraces the Indies, whither he is followed bj- Bartholomew ; Matthew labors in Ethiopia, and Simon in Persia. The pagan world is shaken, astonished, amazed, by the new doctrine which affirms only one God, a God made man in order to save man ; which proclaims men equal and brethren ; which preaches renouncement, mortifica- tion, fasts, devotedness, the despising of this world in order the better to win a celestial one. The wise and the powerful wrap themselves up in their pride and folly, but the poor, the humble, the miser- able, feel themselves carried along by these words of peace and love which show to them beyond their life of trials, a reward of eternal happiness. The pagans believe that they can smother the divine voice by torments and death. '* The Christians to the lions ! " and the wild beasts, fire, the most cruel torments, were employed in vain on these resigned victims. But, says Tertullian, " The blood of the martyrs be- came the seed of Christians." They hid in the Catacombs the mysteries of their precious worship; and here, too, they buried the victims of imperial barbarity. There are counted, during the first three centuries, ten general persecutions di- rected against the Christians (see Perse- cutions). However, the Christians were not enemies of the empire ; on the con- trary, obedience to all laws not contrary to morality or conscience was to them a re- ligious duty. But to the blinded and hardened pagans, liberty of conscience was revolt and disloyalty ; and paganism, with all its revolting rites and ceremonies, was an integral part of the constitution and of social life. Even the emperors, be- sotted voluptuous tyrants, were deified, and to kill Christians appeared to them a measure of public safety. But truth always ends in triumph, and the Chris- tian Church in the person of Constantine, after his victory over Maxentius, was

    triumphant, but she had not completed her work. She had to strengthen and ex- tend herself, to give herself, after three centuries of struggle, an organic constitu- tional form of government. She had, too, to prepare herself to enter upon a new, and though bloodless, yet more dangerous struggle, — the combat within her fold, against error and heresy. There had already commenced in the desert of The- biad that wonderful institution of Monas- ticism, based upon the spirit of penance and the desire to more closely approach heaven by means of contemplation, prayer, and the strict practice of ascetic virtues. St. Paul, St. Anthony, and St. Pachomius, were the first Apostles and models of this eremitic life — a mode of life soon to be re- placed by that of the cenobitic or com- munity life. The East became covered with monasteries to which St. Basil gave his Rule. When the monks passed into the West, following St. Athanasius, they strengthened and consolidated themselves by the aid of a new force. This auxiliary was the joining to prayer and contempla- tion of manual labor. Indefatigable in all kinds of labors, they soon became the pioneers of European civilization. " They cleared it in great part," says Guizot, *' in joining agriculture with preaching." This religious militia was one of the great- est forces of Christianity and a vigorous element of civilization. The monasteries became the nurseries of priests, asylums of study, centers of schools, and barriers against the inroads of Barbarians.

    In proportion as the Church established the hierarchy of patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, and pastors, to oversee and propa- gate her doctrine, she beheld rising around her errors which she was bound to com- bat and suppress. From the first century, at her very cradle, she had to confute and confound Simon, the Magician, Apollon- ius of Tj-ana and the Ebionites. The Gnos- tics and the Montanists appeared in the second century, and in the third and fourth the Manicheans and the Arians. The latter, though powerful and numerous, and having the support of several emperors, failed, in spite of craft, power, and numbers, to over- throw the Church. They, indeed, cor- rupted and won over a part of the Episcopate court prelates, and many of the Barbarians who had recently been converted from paganism. Then arose the Donatists, Pe- lagians, Nestorians, and Eutychians, all of whom, in various ways, denied some of the

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    Christian dogmas, and tried to destroy the purity, unity, and integrity of the Church. To all of these heresies and heresiarchs, the Church opposed her victorious cham- pions, — St. Justin, Athenagoras, Tertul- lian, and others. To these apologists was added the lofty and powerful eloquence of the early Fathers : St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, and St. Augustine. She affirmed and established her dogmas with incom- parable authority in the assemblies of her Ecumenical Councils, where all the bish- ops, supported by the authority of the Ro- man Pontiff, formulated their decisions and anathematized, in such a manner as to leave no subterfuge unexposed, nor its abettors unmasked.

    In the second century, Gaul had re- ceived Christianity through the teaching and labors of St. Pothinus, who was mar- tyred at Lyons under Marcus Aurelius, to- gether with a number of the Faithful. The Church of the Gauls flourished by the great learning, wisdom, and virtues of her bishops, when Clovis and his Franks came to bow their heads and received the faith from St. Remigius, at Rheims. The other Barbarians, who had been infected with Arianism were brought back to the true faith. Ireland, converted by St. Pat- rick, became a home and a center of Mon- astic zeal and all Christian virtues. From her famous Monastery of Bangor, St. Co- lumbanus and St. Gall went forth to evan- gelize the regions of the Vosges and of Hel- vetia. In 596, the Anglo-Saxons were con- verted by St. Augustine. In 690, twelve English monks, led by St. Willibrord, went to convert the Frieslanders, while another Irish monk, St. Killian, spread the faith in Franconia. In the year 716, St. Win- frid (or Boniface) went to destroy the idols and plant the faith in Thuringia, Saxony, and Bavaria, establishing, wher- ever he came, bishoprics, churches, and schools.

    The religious faith and spirit, so alive and active in the West, had grown cold in the East. Here a general relaxation of morals and the subtleties of heresies had produced woeful effects. On the other hand, Mohammed inflamed with fanati- cism the Arabian race, and with it marched to victory and made conquests which ex- tended from the shores of the Euphrates and Nile to the Pyrenees. From this point, his followers after penetrating Gaul, threat- ened Christian civilization with ruin. The

    sword of Charles Martel, fortunately, ar- rested their progress on the plains of Poi- tiers, in 732. It required eight centuries of heroic struggle on the part of the Chris- tians of Spain to drive forever from her soil the Moslem power. This power was eventually shaken in the Orient, and the Holy Sepulchre was restored to the Chris- tians.

    The benevolent action of Christianity had continued to exercise its influence and agencies upon the Western nations. Char- lemagne, in the eighth century, had by his power and example strengthened it in Germany, and introduced It into several provinces hitherto unenlightened by its beneficient rays. In the following century Denmark and Sweden received the faith through the preaching and labors of St. Ansgar. St. Cyril and St. Methodius ef- ected the conversion of the Slavs. The Nor- man Pirates brought into France by Rol- lin also bowed their necks under the sweet yoke of Christ.

    But schism and heresy were still very active in the East. In the eighth century, the Church was afflicted by the Iconoclast heresy, and still more by that of Photius, who effected the separation of the Eastern Churches from the center of authority — Rome. The Papacy had ever, and has still, to war for the cause of that divine faith, the integrity of which it must pro- tect and preserve. It triumphed in the twelfth century over the errors of the Waldenses and Albigenses, and again in the long and bitter quarrel concerning the right of Investiture. It finally forced the emperors of Germany to respect the rights and dignities of the priesthood. It also created for its work and defense mili- tant orders of monks : The Knights and Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem (1100); the Templars (11 18); the Teu- tonic Knights ( 1190) ; the Knights of Avis, in Spain and Portugal (1146); of Cala- trava (1158); of Alcantara (1213) ; and, finally, the Sword Bearers of Livonia (1202). On the other hand, the great mon- astic orders had received from St. Bene- dict of Monte Cassino, the famous Bene- dictine Rule, which became in time the basis of all conventual institutions. The great "Schism of the West" (1378-1449) arose to trouble the Church, and, by its sorrowful effects, lessened the prestige of the Papacy. Religious unity received an almost fatal blow. The spirit of revolt manifested itself in the heresies of Wycliffe,

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    Christianity in America

    of John Huss, and of Jerome of Prague. These heresiarchs, with their errors, pre- pared the way for the separation finally completed by Luther in Germany, Zwingli in Switzerland, Calvin in France, and Henry VIII. in England. The Councils of Basle and of Constance were powerless to heal the schisms which now divided Europe, and brought in their train bloody wars. By God's providence, a new re- ligious order, that of the Jesuits, sprung up, and soon became famous for its loyalty to the Holy See, giving to it stanch de- fenders, men remarkable for their learn- ing and sanctity. These men devoted themselves principally to the education of youth and to the defense of Christian dogmas. The Council of Trent (1545- 1563) assembled to fix the dogmas, regu- late the discipline, establish the infalli- bility of the Church, and correct the abuses with which they reproached her. The "Peace of Augsburg," in 1555, granted to the Protestants liberty of conscience, but yet division continued to remain among the Christian bodies. In pretending to bring back Christianity to its primitive purity, the Protestant Reformation had essentially altered its essence and shaken its very foundation. It introduced the ra- tionalistic element as a negation of author- ity, for where there is no authority, disorder and anarchy must inevitably prevail. While Catholicity remained firm and unchange- able. Protestantism became split into a multitude of sects, — Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, Moravians, Anglicans, Presby- terians, Puritans, Independents, Quakers, Methodists, Pietists, Unitarians, etc., hav- ing their common foundation in Rational- ism, under the cloak of liberty of conscience. To-day, the sovereign Pontiff has lost his temporal power, which protected and guaranteed his independence; neverthe- less, he remains all-powerful and absolute in his spiritual sway, and never was the matchless unity of Christ's mystical body — the Church — so great and true as to- day. The temporal powers still gladly make the successor of St. Peter the um- pire of their many disputes. He, and he alone, in undiminished power, is the living representative and vicegerent of Christ, who lives, reigns, and commands.

    Christianity in America. — The discov- ery of America (1492), by the pious Christopher Columbus, opened a new field for the missionary labors of the

    Church. Pope Alexander VI. commis- sioned Ferdinand the Catholic to have Christianity introduced into the New World. The first missionaries were Bene- dictines, Hieronymites, Franciscans, and Dominicans. Their labors were in great measure frustrated by the avarice and cruelties of the Spanish settlers, who com- pelled the natives to work as slaves. The missionaries stoutly denounced the en- slavement of the Indians as being a vio- lation of their natural rights and the laws of Christianity. At an early period, negroes were brought from Africa, to re- place the Indian slaves. After the death of Ferdinand, Cardinal Ximenes, regent of Spain, prohibited this practice. Bar- tholomew de Las Casas, a member of the Dominican order, wished, under cer- tain restrictions, to have the negroes who were slaves, employed in the labors of the colonies, instead of the weaker Indians. For this reason, he has been unjustly ac- cused of introducing the slave trade, whereas he was the true apostle of the Indians, the stanch defender of their per- sonal freedom. He crossed the Ocean sixteen times to defend their rights. (See Las Casas). The friends of slavery as- serting that the Indians were but irrational beasts and born to slavery. Pope Paul III., in a Bull issued in 1537, vindicated the liberty of the Indians and maintained that, as they belong to the human race, they are heirs to the rights of man. The decrees of the Bull were frequently re- newed by succeeding Popes. Their ex- ample was followed by the kings of Spain. The missionaries were the zealous apostles of peace and true friends of the persecuted natives. They compiled grammars, dic- tionaries, and other works in the native tongue of the aborigines, and thus won the most savage tribes to Christianity. Together with the other religious orders, the Jesuits labored in Peru, Chili, and Mexico. Bishoprics were established in the different parts of Spanish America, seminaries founded, and provincial and diocesan synods held to promote the cause of religion. The clergy and religious were animated with zeal for souls. St. Louis Bertrand labored in Columbia, St. Francis Solano in La Plata and Peru. St. Peter Claver became the apostle of the slaves. St. Rose of Lima is the first canonized saint of America. To the Catholic Church America owes her discovery and her civilization. See Missions.

    Christians

    i6i

    Chronology

    Christians or Christian Connection. —

    The name adopted by a religious denomi- nation in the United States, which origi- nated, in 1793, in a secession from the Methodists of Virginia and North Caro- lina, led by the Rev. J. Q'Kelley, and at first called "Republican Methodists." The name was changed that it might express their renunciation of all sectarianism. This sect must not be confounded with the "Christian Churches" or "Disciples of Christ." They are widely scattered throughout the United States, and in 1895 had 1,300 Churches, 1,380 ministers, and 9,500 communicants. Their principles create each congregation into an inde- pendent body and the Bible is their only rule of faith, which every person is at liberty to interpret for himself. Member- ship is obtained by a simple profession of belief in Christianity. As a rule they are antitrinitarians and immersionists.

    Christians {Chaldean). — The Chaldean Christians, or converted Nestorians, are to be found chiefly in Persia, Kurdistan, Mesopotamia, and Turkish Armenia. They are ruled by the " Chaldean Patri- arch of Babylonia," who resides at Mosul and Bagdad. He has under him two arch- bishops and ten bishops. In 1892, the Nes- torian patriarch Marchisnu, with the last remnants of his sect, sought union with the Holy See, thus putting an end to what was once known as the Nestorian schismatic Church. In Persia and the surrounding countries the Catholics of various rites number about 63,000. See Oriental Rites.

    Christians of St. Thomas. — Name given to the ancient Christians which the first Portuguese conquerors found spread around Calicut, and who pretended to be descend- ants of the people whom St. Thomas con- verted in his apostolate of the Indies. They are Nestorians of the Chaldean rite and belong to the Nestorian patriarchate of Babylonia.

    Christmas (Feast of the Nativity of our Lord). — The institution of this feast, which is celebrated on December 25th, is attrib- uted to Pope Telesphorus, in the year 138. Originally, Christmas Day was often con- founded with the feast of Epiphany. On the feast of Christmas Day, the Catholic priest is permitted to say three Masses, in commemoration of the temporal, spirit- ual, and eternal birth of Christ. When- II

    ever Christmas Day falls on Friday, it is permitted to eat flesh-meat.

    Christology. — That part of theology which treats of the person and work of Christ. Dogmatic theology is divided into Ontology and Christology.

    Christolytes. — Name given to heretics of the sixth century who pretended that Christ descended into hell with both body and soul, that He left both therein, and ascended into heaven only with His divinity.

    Christopher (St.). — A martyr of the third century. He is said to have lived in Syria, and to have been of prodigious stature and strength. As a penance for having been a servant of the devil, he de- voted himself to the task of carrying pil- grims across a river where there was no bridge. Christ went to the river one day, in the form of a child, and asked to be car- ried over, but his weight grew heavier and heavier till his bearer was nearly broken down in the midst of the stream. When they reached the shore, the child said, " Marvel not, for with Me thou hast borne all the sins of the world." Christopher is usually represented as bearing the infant Christ and leaning upon a great staflf. F. July 5th.

    Chrodegang (St.). — Bishop of Metz; was born in Brabant, in 712. Kinsman of Pepin the Short; became chancellor of Charles Martel, to which office was joined that of Bishop of Metz (742). He was a great statesman and ecclesiastic. We owe to him a famous rule concerning the can- ons of his cathedral. He died March 6th, 766.

    Chronicles. See Paralipomena.

    Chronology. — There is nescience so full of difficulties as that which treats of events lost in the night of ages. It strikes against uncertain periods, where it is fain to de- pend upon inference and conjecture. Where written documents are wanting, we are reduced to calculate the number of generations, to invoke astronomical ac- counts, the eclipses, and to examine mon- uments. A passage of Confucius which indicates thirty-five eclipses of the sun, has permitted us to calculate that the facts of which he speaks must have taken place between the years 720 to 481 b. c, but this is only one point in the space of ancient times. The first people of Italy,

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    Chronology

    Gaul, and Germany, had no chronology properly speaking. We find a limited ancient chronology, beginning with the tenth century b.c. Thanks to the discov- ery of the "Marbles of Paros," we have been enabled to recover the chief events of the annals of Greece, from the foundation of Athens, about 1558 b.c, until the year 200 of our era. The Roman chronology has been determined according to the "Consular Fathers" or "Capitoline Mar- bles," which were unearthed in the ancient Forum in 1547. For Egypt we have the "History of Manetho" in the extracts transmitted to us by Julius Africanus and Eusebius ; moreover, the hieroglyphics re- cently deciphered, the continual excava- tions and the discoveries made in the hypogene of the land of the Pharaos, have furnished new secrets to chronology. Finally, the Bible offers to chronology the most authentic and precise sources, and according to the accounts it furnishes has been established the era followed by all the Christian peoples.

    The first thing to obser\\\\-e in the chron- ological calculations, is the measure of time, the year which has served to estab- lish the calendar, either according to the solar month, or according to the lunations. It is requisite also to study the cycles •which are periods of time succeeding one another in determined intervals. Among the Romans, the cycle of indication was composed of fifty jrears or three lustres, but without connection with the astronom- ical movements. The word era desig- nates a memorable epoch which serves as a starting point for the calculation of the years, anterior and posterior to the event which it designates. History mentions at least twenty different eras, the best known of which are : the Era of the Olympiads, 776 B. c. ; the Era of the Foundation of Rome, 752 B.C.; the Julian Era, 45 b. c. ; the Era of Mohammed or Hegira, 622 a.d. ; finally the Christian Era or the Incarna- tion of Jesus Christ. The latter, to which is referred all the others, is based upon the text of the Bible, but since we have three principal ones (the Hebrew, the Samaritan, and the Greek of the Septuagint) notable divergences have resulted from it in regard to certain dates, so that from the creation of the world till the birth of Jesus Christ is counted, according to the Septuagint and Vulgate, 5228 years ; according to the Samaritan, 4293 years, and according to the Hebrew, 3992 years. A learned chro-

    nologist of the sixteenth century, Usserius, has modified these calculations and fixed the period before Christ at 4000 years. Then came the Benedictines of the eight- eenth century, who, in their learned work, Art to Verify the Dates, fixed the dura- tion of the world before Christ at 4963 years. Finally, in our time, a new system has been established by the Abb6 Chev- alier, who, by means of observations, en- deavors to bring into agreement the diflferent texts of our Sacred Books, and reconcile them with the accounts given by the most ancient authors, as well as with those that result from modern discoveries in Assyria and Egypt ; thus he attempts to fix the origin of the world in the year 5949 B- c.

    Chronology (Biblical). — We do not find in the Bible a complete chronology, nor a fixed era or epoch at which the numeration of the years commences, and in this sense we can say, repeating the words attributed to Silvestre de Sacy : " There is no Biblical chronology." But there are in the Scriptures some figures, dates, and chronological accounts, which may serve to form a system of Biblical chro- nology. It is the same with the Egyptian monuments, which only indicate the years of a reign, with the help of which the chronologists calculate the dates of Egyp- tian history. We have, therefore, as much right to speak of a Biblical chronology as of an Egyptian chronology.

    But the Bible does not contain an ordi- nary history : it is the work of God ; it has been written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. Hence we may ask whether the Biblical chronology is inspired and whether it forms a part of the divine revelation. Certainly, the sacred writers have written, under divine impulse, some dates, and fur- nished chronological accounts which were inspired by God, and consequently exact. These teachings which formed part of the di^^ne revelation, would constitute a re- vealed chronology, if it were certain that the inspired authors desired to point out the age of the world and the regular suc- cession of time and historic events in Israel, and that they have indicated all the neces- sary dates. Some, undoubtedly, had the design to fix chronologically the epoch of the events which they related ; but not all took this care, and the chronographers establish in their writings many breaks or simple chronological approximations.

    Chronology

    163

    Chronology

    The Bible contains, therefore, chronolog- ical accounts which are incomplete and insufficient to form a revealed and certain chronology. We might arrange them systematically, but the calculation result- ing therefrom would remain doubtful and faulty. It would not enforce the as- sent of any Catholic, who would always have the right to discuss and reject it. Moreover, all the figures of the Bible have not reached us in their primitive integrity, and the dates present themselves to us with such variations that criticism is unable to restore with any certainty the original text. This evident alteration of dates still further increases the uncertainty of chronological calculations. Further- more, the Catholic Church never had an official chronology. She has always per- mitted discussion of the numerical varia- tions of the sacred text, and liberty of reckoning the duration of the Biblical periods. We shall set forth briefly the re- sults obtained by the chronologists, pass- ing successively over the principal epochs of the Biblical history.

    I. Date of the Creation of the World. — The Bible does not fix the era of this supreme event; it narrates only that God created heaven and earth " in the beginning," without fixing precisely the epoch of this "beginning." It also describes the primordial condition of the terrestrial globe as a state of chaos, of confusion, and of disorder, during which dense darkness covered the surface of the chaotic elements (Gen. i. i, 2). It does not inform us as to the duration of this primeval period. Until the nineteenth century, critics generally did not dis- tinguish the date of the creation of the world from that of the creation of man, from which it was separated, they com- monly believed, only by six days of twenty-four hours. Previously, however, some more perspicuous writers, such as St. Justin, St. Gregory of Nazianz, Gen- nadius of Marseilles, and Petavius, had ad- mitted an indefinite period between the creation of primordial matter and its defin- itive organization. (Cf. Motais, Origine du Monde d'apres la Tradition, c. ii., pp. 17-42.) The present interpreters acknowl- edge almost unanimously that Moses is silent as to the space of time that elapsed between the primitive creation and the production of the light on the first geneti- cal day. Several even consider the days of creation as periods of an indeterminate

    duration (see Cosmogony), and all critics leave to the astronomers and geologists the task of determining the time neces- sary for the formation of the planetary bodies and the geological strata. Besides, science, no more than exegesis, possesses the means of estimating this time with precision and certainty. Reliable time gauges are wanting. However, geolo- gists, in accord with astronomers, allow centuries to the igneous state of the earth, and it is a fact demonstrated beyond question that its planetary phase goes back to a very ancient origin. The earthly stratifications, the configuration of the continents, the changes of the flora and fauna, have required centuries. The geologists who venture to fix by fig- ures the age of the world arrive at very dififerent conclusions. Their calculations, which start from diiTerent hypotheses, are based on the time necessary for the action of existing causes. But, while always iden- tical in their essence, the forces of nature must certainly have varied in their mode of action. Their intensity has been more or less powerful, and their associations, more or less complex, have deviated in a large measure from the combinations at present existing. Hence we can admit only with great reserve the numerical re- sults at which different scientists have claimed to arrive. Reputable geologists do not believe they exaggerate in estimat- ing at some millions of years the time necessary for the geological formations. According to this the figures might vary from I to 20, sometimes from i to 100, millions of years without any one of the extreme results meriting less confidence than another. Hence, it would not be un- reasonable to place between 20 and 100 millions of years as the duration of time involved in the sedimentry formations.

    II. Date of the Creation of Adam. — The Biblical times can be measured only from the appearance of man upon earth. However, the sacred text does not deter- mine chronologically the origin of man in a formal and precise manner. Nowhere is it said : Adam was created at such a date. This date is the result of the calculation of all the chronological references contained in the Old Testament. Now, with the same data and employing the same proc- esses, chronologists have arrived at very divergent figures. Alphonse des Vignolles has collected more than two hundred dif- ferent calculations, " of which the shortest

    Chronology

    164

    Chronology

    counts onlj 3,483 years from the creation of the world to Jesus Christ, and the long- est counts 6,984 years. This is a difference of thirty-five centuries." Ricoli has drawn up a table of seventy of these systems. Father Tournemine, at the end of his edi- tion of Menochius, gives the ninety-two most famous. The Art of Verifying- Dates notes one hundred and eight. The modern Jews place the creation in 3761 be- fore our era; Scaliger, in 3950; Petavius, in 3983; Usserius, in 4004; Clinton, in 4138; the new edition (1820) of the Art of Verifying Dates, in 4963; Hales, in 541 1 ; Jackson, in 5426 ; the Church of Alexandria, in 5504; the Church of Constantinople, in 5510; Vossius, in 6004; Panvinio, in 631 1 ; the Alphonsine tables, in 6984. These very different conclusions result from the fact that chronologists follow diverse accounts of the sacred text and combine after their own fashion the chronological data of the Bible. Further on we shall discuss the bases of these systems, and we shall have to deter- mine whether there is reason to increase, as many of our contemporaries believe, the age of man upon earth. Our discussion will not be hampered by any dogmatic de- cision. The Roman Church, which has chosen the Vulgate as the official edition of the Bible, has kept in the Martyrology, which forms a part of her liturgy, the date of 5199, drawn from the Septuagint, for the creation of man. The Fathers and the Catholic exegetists have differed on this subject, and nobody disputes the right of geologists, paleontologists, and chronolo- gists to search out scientifically the time that elapsed from the creation of man to the birth of Jesus Christ.

    Certain supporters of prehistoric arch- aeology have abused this liberty and as- signed a very remote antiquity to mankind. Abbe Hamard, a great authority on this subject, is of the opinion that neither ge- ology nor prehistoric archaeology obliges lis to fix the date of the creation of man many thousands of years earlier than is commonly thought. Yet we must ac- knowledge that, while rejecting the fan- tastic figures of some writers, Catholic scholars admit the appearance of man upon earth at a more remote date than that which results "from the highest Biblical chronol- ogy. M. de Lapparent, a noted French authority, believes that the origin of man is interglacial and that it goes back, as far as it can be expressed in figures, to thirty or thirty-two thousand years. Others be-

    lieve that man is of postglacial origin, and the Marquis de Nadaillac has repeat- edly attributed to the existence of man upon earth a duration from ten to twelve thousand years. Be this as it may, we shall have to examine further back, whether, in default of geology and paleontology, history obliges us to raise the date of the origin of man and to increase the duration of the existence of mankind upon the earth. We have also to determine in what Biblical epoch the chronological increase can and ought to be made.

    III. From Adam TO THE Deluge. — The time which elapsed in this interval is cal- culated according to the genealogy of the descendants of Adam in the line of Seth (Gen. v. 1-31). This genealogy comprises ten patriarchs and nine generations; it notes the age of the patriarch at the time of his paternity, the number of years he lived after the birth of his son, and the total duration of his life. By adding the ten figures of the age of the patriarchs to the birth of their sons, we easily obtain the duration of the period. This simple calculation gives, however, notably diver- gent sums, because it is computed from dif- ferent dates. We possess, indeed, three accounts of the Pentateuch ; the first is represented by the version of the Septua- gint, the second by the massoretic Hebrew text and the Vulgate of St. Jerome, and the third by the Hebrew text of the Samari- tans. The following table will enable us to judge at a glance the difference in the figures : —

    Age at the Birth OF THE Sons

    Names of the Patriarchs

    Adam

    Seth

    Enos

    Cainan

    Malaleel

    Jared

    Henoch

    Mathusala

    Lamech

    Noe

    From Noe to the Deluge,

    Total

    Greek

    230 205 190 170 165 163 J65 167 188 500 100

    2,242

    130 105 90 70 65 162 65 187 182

    500 100

    1,656

    Samar- itan

    130 105 90 70 65 62 65 67 53 500 100

    1.307

    We see here that the Hebrew and Sa- maritan computations are generally in

    Chronology

    165

    Chronology

    accord, and present with the Septuagint a divergence of one hundred years for the epoch of paternity of the several patriarchs, except for Noe, about whom the three texts are in accord. But there are among them differences of detaiL The Samaritan di- minishes by one hundred years the age of Jared at the birth of Henoch ; by 120 years, that of Methusala at the birth of Lamech, and by 129 years that of Lamech at the birth of Noe ; it differs, therefore, from the He- brew by 349 years and from the Septua- gint by 935 years. On the other hand, the manuscripts of the Septuagint present dif- ferences. We have adopted the figures of the Vaticanus; the Alexandrintcs has twenty years more, and this total coincides with the calculations of Julius Africanus. Josephus arrived at a total of 2,156. We are reduced to conjecture to explain the origin of these divergences. They are too numerous to make us believe that they are due to the carelessness or ignorance of the copyists. Undoubtedly, nothing is altered in the transcription of manuscripts so easily as figures. But if we had to attribute the established divergences solely to this ac- cidental cause, we could not account for the almost regular process of increase or subtraction of one hundred years. It is also necessary, it seems, to suspect, with St. Augustine (De Civ. Dei, xv. 13), a willful juggling with the figures, without our being able to say when, where, by whom, and how it was done. Whom shall we hold responsible, the Jews of Palestine or the Alexandrine Jews .? Was the process one of addition or subtraction.? All these hypotheses are admissible. Certain critics have supposed that the Jews of Palestine reduced the age of the first men. "One might say that the Israelite desired, by systematically abridging the duration of the succession of the patriarchs, to cut short the numberless genealogies, which were nothing else but cosmogonies, like that of Berosus and of Sanchoniathon, and thus to combat polytheism, of which they were a constant source." (Ph. Berger.) And F. Lenormant adds : "Perhaps it would be permissible to suppose that it was about the epoch of the Captivity that the Hebrews, just when they had knowledge of the fabulous periods, begotten by the spec- ulative imagination of the Chaldeans, begap to feel scruples about the figures of their own books, and, wishing to guard against the possible danger of an analogous tempta- tion, shortened their primitive chronology

    in order to prevent its indefinite extension like that of the Gentiles." Paul Pezron, thought that the Rabbi Akiba had dared to set hand on the divine Scriptures and had abridged the years in the Hebrew text. Other critics have made analogous suppo- sitions. Lenormant, who admits the willful shortening of the Hebrew account, also be- lieves in a systematic lengthening of the Septuagint. The authors of the Alexan- drine version revised the Hebrew text to put it in accord with the calculations of the Chaldeans, and increased by one hundred years the age of the patriarchs at the birth of their first son. St. Augustine {loc. cit.) recognized these intentional revisions ; but instead of making the Septuagint respon- sible, he attributes them to a later scribe, who is supposed to have introduced them intr. his copy of the Greek version of the Pentateuch. The Samaritan version might be no more exempt from willful alteration, and its chronology might be the result of an artificial combination. The shortening of the Hebrew text is clear, and its purpose is to square the dates thus obtained with the cycle of the sabbatic years. ( Lenormant, Les Oriffines.)

    We may admit that the figures of the three versions of the Pentateuch are not certain, and that its true version may never be known. But we cannot admit with Lenormant that the figures of duration of life of the antediluvian patriarchs are "cyclic numbers." We maintain their historical character which they had in the original text, and which they would still have if the text had come down to us in its entirety. Some critics have thought they found it in one of the three versions. Pezron followed the version of the Septua- gint. Father Hummelhauer regards it as certainly faulty, because it makes Mathu- sala survive the Deluge fourteen years. Its figures are less certain than those of the Hebrew text. The Samaritan version ap- pears preferable even to that of the Masso- rets. They differ only for Jared, Mathu- sala, and Lamech. Now, while the Hebrew dates the death of Mathusala only from the year of the Deluge, the Samaritan makes Jared and Lamech die in the same year. According to the opinion of Father Hummelhauer, the Hebrews re- vised the figures in regard to these two patriarchs in order not to confound them with the impious generation swallowed up by the waters. But we are also permitted to suppose that the Samaritans arranged

    Chronology

    1 66

    Chronology

    these figures in order to terminate the life of the three patriarchs in the last year of their chronological system. Mgr. Lamy favors the massoretic text, which represents the text received in Palestine and is proven to be not less ancient than the version of the Septuagint. One conclusion is forced upon every impartial reader, namely, that for this period the Biblical chronology is altogether uncertain. Critics even discuss, as we shall see very soon, the chronological meaning of the patriarchal genealogies, which they suppose to be incomplete.

    IV. From the Deluge to Abraham. — The duration of this period is measured by the genealogy of Sem, son of Noe (Gen. xi. 10-26), and is reckoned by the same method as the length of the pre- ceding period. Here, also, we possess three versions, which differ from one an- other and have not the same relation be- tween them as in the preceding. The following table sums up the data which serve for calculation : —

    of Alexandria, until the vocation of Abra- ham, 1250.

    The figures of the genealogy of Sem are still more corrupted than those of the gen- ealogy of Seth, and criticism is powerless to restore them to their pristine state. Ac- cording to Father Hummelhauer, the Sa- maritan text is less sure and less authentic at this point than previously, because it pre- sents only the total duration of the lives of the patriarchs of this line. The diflference of one hundred years in the age of the ances- tor at the birth of his son is the result of a subtraction or addition. The subtraction must have been wrought in the Hebrew text, it is said, in order that the postdi- luvian patriarchs, whose lives are dimin- ished, might not have begotten their sons at a more advanced age than the antedilu- vian patriarchs. The reason is futile, for the genealogical list of Sem may omit the first generation of this patriarch, to speak only of that of the ancestors of Abraham. One may maintain, for a stronger reason, that the figures of the Hebrew have been

    Names of the

    Age AT THE Birth OF Their Sons

    diminished. While this text gives to Na- chor only 29 years at the birth of Thare, both the Samaritan and Greek attribute to

    Patriarchs

    Greek

    Samar- itan

    He- brew

    him 79 years. Why this inferior number and not 129 years, if an addition of one hundred years had been made to the pre-

    Sem (after the Deluge) . . .

    2

    135 130 130 134 130 132 130 79 70

    75

    2

    35

    130 134 130 132 130

    79 70

    75

    2

    35

    30 34 30 32 30 29 70

    75

    ceding figures.? We can understand better the different reading in the hypothesis of a

    Cainan

    subtraction. If they have cut off a hundred years from the figures above one hundred.

    Sale

    Heber

    Phaleg

    this operation has been found impossible on the figure 79. The calculator re-

    Reu

    Sarug

    moved only fifty years and obtained the number of 29 years. The authenticity of Cainan in the Septuagint has been dis-

    Thare

    Abraham (until his voca-

    TOTAL

    1,147

    917

    367

    puted. The affirmative is supported on the presence of this personage in the gen-

    Thus the three texts a the years of Thare Samaritan, which in t was generally in accor follows it now only or age of Arphaxad. It Septuagint for six ge five have each one hun the Hebrew, and one, fifty years. The Gree ation more than the Cainan ; finally, its variations which have results. Eusebius cou until Thare, 945 years tioch, 1070 ; Julius Af r

    re in a< ind Al le pre( d with ice, na

    coinci neratic dred ye that of k coun two ot manusc

    prodi nts fro ; Thee Lcanus,

    ;cord jraham "eding

    the H tnely, i des w )ns, of ars mo

    Nacho ts one hers, 1 ripts ] iced di m the ■ philus

    993; c

    nly for . The period ebrew, or the th the which re than r, only gener- hat of jresent flferent )eluge of An- lement

    ealogy of Jesus, drawn up by Luke (iii. 36). Although the textual criticism of the Gospels is favorable to the insertion of Cainan in this genealogy by the Evangelist himself, several Catholic exegetists pre- sume that the name of Cainan was inter- polated quite early into the text of St. Luke by a copyist who desired to make the Evangelist agree with the Septuagint. However it may be as to this particular point, we are forced once more to the con- clusion that we are not certain of possess- ing the true figures written by Moses in Genesis, and that we cannot draw from them a sure chronology.

    While the commentators have always believed that Moses had the intention of

    Chronology

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    giving in the genealogies of Seth and of Sem a real chronology, which it is impos- sible to recover to-day, modern apologists have maintained that the author of Genesis had not the intention of furnishing the elements of a general chronology. The ancient chronologists were persuaded that there were no breaks in the chain of the patriarchal generations, and that the gene- alogical lists were continuous. Now, the Bible presents examples of intentional omissions and missing links in the gene- alogies. In order to have three series of fourteen names in the genealogy of Jesus, St. Matthew (i. 8) omits three kings — Ochozias, Joas, and Amasias — between Joram and Ozias. The list of the high- priests (I. Esdr. vii. i) is certainly short- ened, and to convince ourselves of this it is enough to compare it with I. Par. vi. i. Esdras himself (I. Esdr. vii. 1-5) shortened his own genealogy, and between Azarias, whom he calls son of Maraioth, and Marai- oth himself, he omits five members, Jo- hanan, Azarias, Achimaas, Achitob, and Amarias, named in I. Par. vi. 7-14.

    Now, in these fragmentary genealogies, the disjoined members are, however, re- united in the generative account, "he be- got," or by the name of "son." The consequence of this is that in the Bible, as might be proved by other examples, the verb "to beget" and the name "son" mark the relation between a grandfather and a remote descendant as naturally as between a father and his son. The use of the verb "to beget" in the genealogy of Sem is, therefore, not necessarily a proof of the continuity of the generations, and it permits the insertion of omitted mem- bers there as well as in the genealogy of Jesus in St. Matthew. It has been ob- jected, it is true, to this conclusion that the particular form of the patriarchal genealogies, in which the names are in- cluded in two or three series of numbers, excludes the idea of a lapse of continuity, and it appears contrary to the obvious and natural sense of the Mosaic account to translate Gen. xi. 10 by : " Sem, at the age of 100 years, begot a son from ivhom is descended Arfhaxad,^' when in verses 12 and 13 his very name designates Arphaxad himself. To this objection Father Brucker answers judiciously that in this interpreta- tion the same signification, perfectly deter- mined,is attributed to the name of Arphaxad in the whole context. The metonymy is not in the names, which always remain the

    names of distinct individuals; it is in the v&rh genuit, "he begot," which we must understand in the sense genuit mediate, " he begot mediately." Therefore, the genealogies may be discontinued and pass generations, even when the mention of a patriarch is accompanied by figures of years. Against the hypothesis of breaks Mgr. Granclaude has appealed to all tradi- tion. According to him, all the Fathers of the Church, in the quality of authorized interpreters of the Bible, and after them all the Catholic exegetists down to our days, have received the Biblical genealo- gies as the absolute rule of chronological calculations and have never supposed the least omission therein. Hence, there is here a common sentiment, which cannot be abandoned without rashness, unless it is clearly indefensible. This unanimous opinion of the Fathers does not exist, be- cause they have diflferently interpreted the figures of Genesis, and their view does not constitute a traditional teaching against which we may not be permitted to go. Therefore, we can without rashness main- tain that the Biblical genealogies are not continuous.

    Moreover, this lack of sequence in the genealogy of Sem, in itself possible and probable, must necessarily be admitted if we wish to put sacred history, from the Deluge to Abraham, in accord with pro- fane history. Compared with the antiq- uity of the ancient peoples, the chronol- ogy drawn from the Hebrew text is insufficient with its 367 years; the longer one of the Septuagint is certainly very restricted, if not too much so. We shall not insist on the great antiquity of the Chinese and Hindoos, for their traditions are certainly fabulous. Father Gaubil has commenced the dated history of the Chi- nese with the reign of the Emperor Yao, in the year 2357 before our era. Yet, in this epoch China had already been thickly inhabited and much advanced in civiliza- tion ; but the time necessary for the estab- lishment of the Celestial Empire is easily reconciled with the Septuagint. The con- nected history of the Hindoos goes back only to the fifteenth century before our era. Assyriologists generally admit that the first kings of Chaldea existed about thirty or even forty centuries before our era, that is, one thousand or even two thousand years before the epoch of Abraham. Al- though the chronological accounts fur- nished by Berosus may be in great part

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    fabulous, the high antiquity of Chaldean history is revealed to us by monuments recently brought to light. Assurbanipal (668-628) relates that in his conquest of Susiana, in 633, he brought back to Erech a picture of the goddess Nana that Kudur- Nakhundi had carried off 1,635 years be- fore, consequently 2,274 years before our era. A more ancient date is inscribed on a cylinder of Nabonidus, King of Babylon. While repairing the Temple of the Sun, at Sippara, this prince found, thirty-two feet under ground, the dedication composed by the first builder, Naram-Sin, son of Sargina, 3,200 years previously. Since Nabonidus reigned about 550 b. c.,his cal- culation carries back the reign of Naram- Sin to about the year 3800 b. c. The Del- uge, which was known to the Chaldeans and Babylonians, therefore goes back more than 4,000 years, for Naram-Sin had pre- decessors posterior to this cataclysm. (Cf. Lenormant, Histoire Ancienne de ihOrient.) The postdiluvian chronology of the Septuagint, which is the highest, is therefore insufficient. The same conclu- sion is deduced from the history of Egypt. Manetho, a Sebennytan priest of the third century before our era, attributed to Egypt an antiquity of 30,000 years before Alex- ander the Great. Passing by the mythic reigns, there still remain thirty historical dynasties, which begin with Menes and ■which fill a space of about 5,000 years. Now, the history of Manetho, beginning with the eighteenth dynasty, has been confirmed by the royal lists reproduced in the papyrus of Turin and the tables of Abydos, of Saqqarah, and of Karnak. Nevertheless, Egyptologists still disagree on the subject of the total duration of the Egyptian history, because they adopt dif- ferent starting points, and dispute about the continuity or the simultaneousness of the dynasties. If all have been successive, their history goes back 5,000 years ; if many have been contemporaneous or col- lateral, their history may be reduced to the limits of the chronology of the Septuagint. But it appears that if some have reigned simultaneously, the majority of them have succeeded one another, and the duration of their existence exceeds that of the fif- teen generations which the Bible places between the Deluge and Moses. Besides, were it absolutely impossible to determine in a precise manner the beginning of his- torical times in the valley of the Nile, it remains proven that the beginnings of this

    country are very ancient. From the period that it becomes known to us, Egypt ap- pears with a very advanced civilization, highly developed pol3-theistic religion, and every indication of an already lengthy exis- tence. Considering it only as it was in the time of Moses, "can we (without suppos- ing omissions in the genealogies of chapter xi. of Genesis) comprise within the space of fifteen generations the multiplication of mankind after the Deluge; the disper- sion of the peoples ; the forgetting of re- vealed or natural religion; the rise of polytheism and of idolatry; the coloniza- tion of Egypt; the formation of a civiliza- tion different from the Asiatic, wnth its language, its writing, and peculiar religion ; the differentiation of the races, white, black, colored ; the succession, generally from father to son, of more than one hun- dred kings known by their monuments to have governed the whole of Egypt, without taking into account a much larger number that reigned over that country, but of whom we have not yet discovered any monuments or inscriptions.?" (E. Pan- nier, JLa Chronologic des Temps Primi- tifs.)

    If profane history obliges us to lengthen the Biblical history, it is in the period which extends from the Deluge to Abraham that the increase should take place. To what extent this is necessary we cannot ex- actly tell. Some Egyptologists find them- selves only "somewhat inconvenienced" to make the history of Egypt coincide with the chronology of the Septuagint. Others require an increase of thousands of years. The exegetists cannot say between what links of the genealogy of Sem they should insert those that are missing. It cannot be between Noe and Sem, nor between Thare and Abraham, whose direct relations of paternity and filiation are expressly marked in Scripture ; it may be between other links of the genealogical chain, whose bonds are less close.

    V. From the Call of Abraham to THE Departure from Egypt. — The Bible expressh' marks the principal dates of this period. Abraham was 75 years old when he left Haran to go into the country of Chanaan (Gen. xii. 4). He was 100 years old when the birth of Isaac was announced to him (xN-ii. i, 17; xxi. 5). At the age of 40, Isaac married Rebecca, and 20 years afterAvards Esau and Jacob were born (xxv. 20, 26). Hence, 85 years had elapsed be- tween the arrival of Abraham in Palestine

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    and the birth of his grandsons. Jacob was 130 years old when he went to Egypt (xlvii. 9). His sons dwelt in this coun- try 430 years (Ex. xii. 40). All these fig- ures added give to this period a total of 645 years.

    The date of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt alone is contested. The version of the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pen- tateuch present (Ex. xii. 40) a notable dif- ference, which is confirmed by the Targums of the pseudo- Jonathan and of Jerusalem : "The time which the children of Israel and their fathers dwelt in Egypt and in the country of Chanaan was 430 years." This computation has, therefore, for its starting point the arrival of Abraham in Palestine. Now, as from this epoch until the coming of Jacob into Egypt 215 years elapsed, the sojourn of the Hebrews in the land of Gessen had also a duration of 215 years. Josephus reproduces this calcula- tion, and, according to Calmet,most of the commentators adopt this view and follow the reading of the Septuagint. But this reading was not found in all the ancient manuscripts of the Greek, version, for St. Theophilus {Ad Autolycnm) wrote that the Israelites sojourned 430 years in Egypt. St. Chrysostom, who proposes the period of 215 years (/« Genesim, Horn, xxxvii.), admits, however, elsewhere (/« Act. Afost. Horn, xvi.), that the Hebrews remained in the country of the Pharaos 400 years and more. The Talmud of Jerusalem, treatise on Meghilla, points out verse 40 of chapter xii. of Exodus as one of the thirteen pass- ages which the Septuagint has modified in its translation of the Pentateuch on account of King Ptolemy. Besides, the words, " and their fathers," . . . "and in the land of Chanaan," are hardly in agreement with the context, which speaks only of Egypt, and appear to be glosses added to the original text.

    The adherents of the shortest date con- firm their opinion by the testimony of St. Paul (Gal. iii. 17) and by the less extended genealogy of Moses. The Apostle, indeed speaks incidentally of the date of the pro- mulgation of the Law, made 430 years after the promise. But he does not fix precisely the starting point of these 430 years, and instead of putting it at the first promise of God to Abraham, on his entry into the land of Chanaan, we might refer it to the later promises repeated to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. As to the genealogy of Moses, we may properly consider it as one of those

    abridged genealogies of which we have spoken.

    The Hebrew text which gives a duration of 430 years, does not stand alone. It is re- produced in the Targum of Onkelos, the Peshito, the Latin Vulgate, the Arabic ver- sion of Saadias, and the Greek version of Venice. It is confirmed by other Biblical accounts. The time of the captivity of the Hebrews had been foretold by God to Abra- ham : "Know thou beforehand that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land not their own, and they shall bring them under bond- age and afflict them four hundred years." (Gen. XV. 13.) This prophecy recalled by St. Stephen (Act. vii. 6-7), is also found in the version of the Septuagint, as well as in the Hebrew text, and announces in round numbers, the length of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt. God adds (verse 16) that the posterity of Abraham shall return into Palestine in the fourth generation (He- brew : dor). The word dor signifies "period of the human life," and may be understood as the space of one century. Interpreters refer also to this prophecy the words of St. Paul in his discourse in the synagogue of Antioch of Pisidia (Act. xiii. 19-20). They adopt the reading of the Vulgate, which, from the critical pointof view, isthe best, and they understand the number of about if^o years in the 400 years of Genesis XV. 13, plus the 40 years of sojourn in the desert and the seven years of the conquest of Palestine by Josue. Achior, general of the Ammonites, reported later on to Holo- fernes that the Israelites had multiplied in Egypt during four hundred years to such an extent that they formed a numberless army (Judith v. 9). According to some interpreters, Ezechiel (iv. 5-6) foretold a second bondage of Egypt, the duration of which is estimated at 390, plus 40 days, that is 430 years, for the days designate years.

    To these exegetical proofs we may add in favor of the figure 430 an argument drawn from the history of Egypt. It is very probable that Joseph was led away into Egypt under the Shepherd Kings, and it is generally believed that it was under the Pharao Apapi II., whom Manetho calls Apophis. Now, between the reign of this king and that of Menephtah, under whom the exodus took place, " we must place the 150 years which at least, accord- ing to the Egyptologists, were necessary for the indigenous chiefs to destroy the domination of the Shepherds ; then the whole duration of the eighteenth dynasty

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    and of a portion of the nineteenth, that is, more than sixteen reigns, of which two (those of Thotmes III. and of Rameses II.) alone embraced 121 years." (J.Brucker, in The Controversy of Sept. 15th, 1886.) The duration of the sojourn of the He- brews in Egypt has been, therefore, really 430 years. Consequently, if, as Oppert be- lieves, the exodus took place in 1493 b. c, the entering of the Israelites into Egypt goes back to 1923, Jacob was born in 2053, and Abraham arrived in Palestine in 2138. But these figures are far from being certain.

    VI. From the Exodus to the Build- ing OF the Temple of Solomox. — All the Egyptologists, guided by the synchro- nism of the epochs and by the entirety of the facts, are agreed in placing the departure of the Hebrews under the nineteenth dy- nasty, but they are divided as to the name of the king under whom this great event took place. Some, like Maspero, say it was Seti II.; Lepsius, Rouge, and Chabas, fol- lowed by almost all the learned investiga- tors of France, England, and Germany, by Lenormant, Sayce, Brugsch, Ebers, etc., think it was Menephtah I. This divergence of opinions does not notably aflFect the date of the exodus. In fact, we cannot fix it ex- actly according to the chronology of the kings of Egypt, which is yet too uncertain. We have to determine it according to the Bible and the history of the kings of Juda and Israel. Oppert refers it to the month of April, 1493 B.C. The other chronologists deviate from him only by a few years.

    The intervi'al that separates the exodus from the building of the temple of Solo- mon is measured in precise figures (III. Ki. vi. i) ; it was 480 years according to the Hebrew text and 440 years according to the Septuagint. This date has been much discussed. Critics have contested its au- thenticity; they have-wished to make this a cyclic figure, because 480 is twelve times forty. Some chronologists found it too low and wished to raise it ; others regard it too high and wish to lower it. The former support their contention on the chro- nology of the Book of Judges. The dura- tion of each judicature is indicated by the sacred writer, and the total sum of the Biblical figures is 410 years. If we add the judicature of Heli, which was 40 years (I. Ki. iv. 18), and the interval from Heli to the fourth year of Solomon (an interval of 84 years) , we obtain the sum of 534 years. With the 65 years, which elapsed from the going out of Egypt until the death of Josue,

    by omitting the two unknown figures of the judicature of Samuel before the coming of Saul and from the time that separates Othoniel from Josue, we reach, at the low- est figure, a total of 599 years. It coin- cides close enough with the calculation of 592 years which Josephus counts from the going out of Egypt until the building of the temple. The commentators of the Acts, who in this book (xiii. 20) adopt the reading of the " text received," grant to the period of the Judges a duration of 450 years and reject the date of III. Ki. vi. i. In order to reconcile these apparently con- tradictory accounts, Danko has gratui- tously supposed that the author of the Book of Kings, writing in the theocratic sense, passed over in silence the years dur- ing which the Israelites had given them- selves up to idolatry and had been reduced to bondage. The only valid reconciliation is to admit that several judges were contem- poraneous. A careful study of the text, moreover, suggests this solution, although we can only conjecture which judges have lived contemporaneously. Some Egyptologists have pushed still further the hypothesis of the simultaneousness of the judicatures, and with the design of estab- lishing a perfect synchronism between sacred history and the history of Egypt, they have reduced from 300 or 350 years the period of the wanderings in the desert, of Josue, the Judges, and David. But Egyp- tian chronology beyond the twenty-second dynasty is not certain enough to weaken the account of the Book of Kings, which we uphold until there is proof to the contrary. If, therefore, the exodus took place in 1493, Solomon would have commenced the building of the Temple of the Lord in 1013 B. c. ; but the synchronisms of ancient history seem to establish that it was only some years later that Solomon undertook this great work.

    VII. From the Building of the Temple of Solomon Until its De- struction BY the Chaldeans. — The dates of this period have been carefully noted in the last Books of Kings. The author, who had consulted sources lost to- day, gives two royal lists, that of the kings of Israel and that of the kings of Juda. Their reconciliation is extremely difficult, and the difficulties arising are not yet solved. St. Jerome, who had noticed them, wrote to the priest Vitalis {Epist. lii. 5) that to stop at these questions was rather the affair of an idle man than that

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    of a busy student. On the throne of Juda, Roboam reigned 17 years (IH. Ki. xiv. 21 ; II. Par. xii. 13) ; Abias (III. Ki. xv. 2 ; II. Par. xiii. 2); Asa 41 (III. Ki. xv. 10; II. Par. xvi. 13) ; Josaphat 25 (III. Ki. xxii. 42 ; II. Par. xx. 31) ; Joram 8 (IV. Ki. viii. 17; II. Par. xxi. 20); Ochozias r (IV. Ki. viii. 26; II. Par. xxii. 2); Athalia 6 (IV. Ki. xi. 3; II. Par. xxii. 12); Joas 40 (IV. Ki. xii. i; II. Par. xxiv. i) ; Amasias 29 (IV. Ki. xiv. 2; II. Par. xxv. 1); Ozias 52 (IV. Ki. XV. 2; II. Par. xxvi. 3); Joatham iff (IV. Ki. XV. 33; II. Par. xxvii. i) ; Achaz 16 (IV. Ki. xvi. 2 ; II. Par. xxviii. i) ; Ezechias 29 (IV. Ki. xviii. 2; II. Par. xxix. i) ; Manasses 55 (IV. Ki. xxi. i ; II. Par. xxxiii. i) ; Amon 2 (IV. Ki, xxi. 19; II. Par. xxxiii. 21) ; Josias 31 (IV. Ki. xxii. I ; II. Par. xxxiv. i) ; Joachaz, 3 months (IV. Ki. xxiii. 31; II. Par. xxxvi. 2) ; Joakim, 11 years (IV. Ki. xxiii. 36; II. Par. xxxvi. 5); Jechonias, or Joa- chin, 3 months and 10 days (IV. Ki. xxiv. 8; II. Par. xxxvi. 9); Sedecias, 11 years (IV. Ki. xxiv. 18; II. Par. xxxvi. 11). In the kingdom of Israel, Jeroboam I. reigned 22 years (III. Ki. xiv. 20) ; Nadab 2 (t'bt'd. XV. 25) ; Baasa 24 (xv. 33) ; Ela 2 (xvi. 8) ; Zambri, 7 days (xvi. 15) ; Amri, 12 years (xvi. 23); Achab 22 (xvi. 29) ; Ochozias 2 (xxii. 52); Joram 12 (IV. Ki. iii. i); Jehu 28 (ibid. X. 36) ; Joachaz 17 (xiii. i) ; Joas 16 (xiii. 10) ; Jeroboam II. 41 (xiv. 23) ; Zacharias, 6 months (xv. 8) ; Phaceia 2 (xv. 23) ; Phacee 20 (xv. 27) ; Osee 9 (xvii. i). Several of these figures do not agree with other chronological data of the Books of Kings and of Paralipomena, but it does not enter into our design to discuss them here.

    A more general difficulty springs from the difference which the totals of these lists present in the period of their coinci- dence. In fact, if we add the figures from the first years of Roboam, when the sepa- ration of the two kingdoms commences, until the sixth year of Ezechias, during which Samaria was taken (IV. Ki. xviii. 10), we find for the kings of Juda a sum of 261 years, and for those of Israel only 240 years. Hence there is a disagreement between the two lists of about twenty years. Numerous theories of reconciliation have been sup- posed. Recent critics have diversely lengthened the reigns of Jeroboam II. and of Phacee; others have admitted associa- tions of kings on the throne of Juda. More generally it is believed that the succession was regular and constant on the throne of

    David, and critics have introduced into Israel two inter-reigns or periods of an- archy. The first, which lasted eleven years, is placed between the reign of Jeroboam 11. and that of his son Zacharias, who com- menced to reign only in the thirty- eighth year of Azarias or Ozias of Juda (IV. Ki. XV. 8). The second, of nine years, is sup- posed to have existed between Phacee and Osee. But the sacred text seems to state that these princes succeeded one another consecutively, and it is hardly probable that the throne of Israel remained unoccupied at two difTerent times during several years. These inter-reigns, which have no direct foundation in the Bible, are therefore hypotheses, invented by embarrassed chro- nologists, and they may be an indication that the ordinary chronology of the Jewish kings is too long.

    There has been discovered at Ninive an Assyrian chronological canon, which agrees with the Biblical figures only on condition of reducing about forty years the total period of the reigns of the kings of Juda. It is a list of personages called litnmu or eponyms, who gave their names to the year like the archons at Athens and the consuls at Rome. It commences in the reign of Binnirar II., in 893 b, c, and extends at least to 647. It therefore permits us to check the corresponding Biblical data. If the two chronologies are in perfect harmony for the taking of Samaria by the Assyrians in 721, there is manifest disagreement be- tween them on several points. The critics until now have been unable to agree on the reconciliation of the divergent figures. Some defend the Biblical chronology, others abandon it. As it is artificial, and as the disagreement of the figures of the existing text of the Bible is certainly the result of the faults of copyists in the trans- cription of the numbers, we may hold, " at least provisionally, that the persons whose names are found mentioned together in the cuneiform inscriptions and which cor- respond with the Biblical names have been contemporaries, whatever embarrassment may be experienced in reconciling the dates furnished by the Bible, on the one hand, and by the Assyrian monuments, on the other." (F. Vigouroux, La Bible et les Decouvertes Modernes.) Let us ex- amine the points of contact that create difficulty.

    According to the Biblical chronology generally received, Achab, king of Israel, died in the year 897 b. c. Now the As-

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    Syrian inscriptions record that he was de- feated with the confederate kings at Kar- kar, by the king of Ninive, Salmanasar II., in 854, that is, more than forty years after the date usualh' assigned to his death. The declaration of the cuneiform texts is clear and precise, while the calculations of the Biblical chronologists may be erroneous. Therefore we have to admit, it seems, that Achab and Salmanasar II. were contem- poraries.

    Ozias, king of Juda, reigned, it is asserted, from 809 to 758. Now, the inscriptions of Theglathphalasar II. chronicle him as be- ing at war with the latter king in the j-ear 742 or 740, sixteen or eighteen years after his death. Manahem, king of Israel, oc- cupied the throne from 770 to 759, and twenty-one years after the end of his reign in 738, the same Theglathphalasar enumer- ates him among his tributaries. To uphold the Biblical chronology Oppert believes that the Azriyahu of the inscriptions is not Azarias or Ozias, father of Joatham and grandfather of Achaz, but a usurper, the son of Tabeel, of whom Isaias speaks (vii. 6). As to Manahem, who paid tribute to Phul, he is distinct from Manahem II., tributary of Theglathphalasar. This ex- planation is inadmissible, and we have to acknowledge that Azarias, king of Juda, Manahem, king of Israel, and Theglath- phalasar, king of Ninive, whom it seems we have to identify with Phul (IV. Ki. xv. 19- 20; I. Par. V. 26), are contemporaneous.

    The Biblical and cuneiform documents are found in disagreement on another point. The fourth Book of Kings (x^•iii. 13) tells us that Sennacherib marched against the cities of Juda in the fourteenth year of the reign of Ezechias, that is, in 713, because the Jewish king had mounted the throne in 727. Now, according to the canon of the eponyms, Sennacherib became king in 705, and his expedition against Palestine took place in 701. The sickness of Ezechias and the embassy of Merodach-Baladan, king of Babylon, would have taken place only after the disaster of Sennacherib (IV. Ki. XX. I, 12). Now, Merodach-Baladan, would have reigned from 722 to 710. The best answer to this difficulty is to acknowledge that the Biblical account has disarranged the order of events. The sickness of Eze- chias really took place in the fourteenth year of his reign, because the king lived fifteen years after his recovery, and his reign lasted 29 years. The embassy of Merodach-Baladan is posterior to Ezechias

    and may be placed in 703 or 702, when Merodach-Baladan, a native of Lower Chaldea, after having been driven away from Babylon, had again taken possession of the throne of this city. The invasion of Sennacherib took place in 701. If the Fourth Book of Kings put these three facts in an inverted order, it is probably because its author adopted the unchrono- logical arrangement of the prophet Isaias (xxxvi.-xxxix.). The date (IV. Ki. xviii. 13) ought to be changed and put at the head of the account of the sickness of Ezechias.

    It was the empire of Babylon that over- threw the throne of Juda. Before entering on his reign, Nabuchodonosor made a campaign against Nechao, king of Egypt; Joakim, king of Juda, acknowledged him- self as his tributary. But he revolted and refused to pay the tribute. When Nabu- chodonosor arrived at Judea, Joakim was dead and replaced by his son Jechonias. At the end of a three months' reign the lat- ter was led away into captivity at Babylon. His uncle Sedecias was placed on the throne; he also revolted. Nabuzardan besieged Jerusalem, which, reduced by famine, capitulated in 599, after a long re- sistance. This date ends the period which we are studying.

    Thus it is seen that the chronology of the kings of Israel and of Juda is not so clear and certain as is commonly believed. It needs to be brought into agreement with the Assyrian chronology. Father Bru- nengo has made the attempt to do this, and he has set the beginning of the schism of the ten tribes in the year 930 b.c, in- stead of 976 B. c, the date ordinarily as- signed to it. Adopting this view, we will reproduce here the chronological list of the Jewish kings, adopted by Lenormant and Babelon : Saul, 1050-1012; David, 1012-973 ! Solomon, 973-932. In the king- dom of Israel: Jeroboam I., 932-911; Na- dab, 911-909; Baasa, 909-886; Ela, 886- 885; Zambri, 885; Amri, 885-873; Achab, 873-843; Ochozias, 843-842; Joram, 842- 830 ; Jehu, 830-802 ; Joachaz, 802-785 ; Joas, 785-769; Jeroboam II., 769-744; Zacharias, 744; Sellum, 744; Manahem, Phaceia, and Phacee, overthrown and restored one after another, 744-732; Osee, 732-724. Fall of the kingdom of Israel, in 721. In the kingdom of Juda : Roboam, 932-915 ; Abia, 915-912: Asa, 912-870; Josaphat, 870-836; Joram, 836-831 ; Ochozias, 831-830; Atha- lia, 830-823; Joas, 823-783; Amasias, 783-

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    764; Ozias, or Azarias, 764-739; Joatham, 739-735; Achaz, 735-729; Ezechias, 729- 688; Manasses, 688-645; Amon, 645-643; Josias, 643-612; Joacaz, 612; Joakim, 612- 600; Jechonias, or Joachin, 600-599; Sedecias, 599.

    VIII. From the Babylonian Captiv- ity Until the Birth of Jesus Christ. — For this period a first date is furnished by Jeremias (xxv. 11) ; but the commenta- tors are not in agreement as to the starting point of the duration of the seventy years' captivity. Some date it from the first de- portation, which took place in the fourth year of Joakim, in 606 (or 608), according to the ordinary calculations, and find sev- enty years until the edict which Cyrus pub- lished in 536 (or 538), giving to the Jews the right to rebuild the Temple of Jeru- salem (I. Esdr. i. i). Others take as first date the destruction of Jerusalem (II. Par. xxxvi. 21-23) , in 599, and as last the resump- tion of the building of the Temple, which took place in the second year of Darius, son of Hystaspes (Aggeus i. 1-14; I. Esdr. V. I), in 519.

    Be it as it may in regard to the com- mencement of the captivity of Babylon, as foretold by Jeremias, in the first year of Cyrus at Babylon, in 536, many captives returned into Judea, under the leadership of Zorobabel and of the high-priest Josue, and as soon as they had arrived they made the necessary preparations to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. But, on account of numerous obstacles, the building could be completed only in the sixth year of Darius, that is, in 516 (I. Esdr. vi. 15). In the sev- enth year of Artaxerxes, Esdras brought other captives back into Judea (I. Esdr. vii. 7). In the twentieth year of Arta- xerxes, Nehemias, cupbearer of this prince, obtained the permission to rebuild the walls and gates of Jerusalem (II. Esdr. ii. 1-8). The identity of this king is disputed. Most of the exegetists admit that Es- dras and Nehemias were able to gain, thir- teen years apart, the favor of the same king, whom they identify with Artaxerxes I., called Longo-Manus, who reigned from 464 to 424. Therefore, Esdras could have brought back his caravan in 457, and Ne- hemias could have restored the walls of Jerusalem in 444, and he would have re- mained in Palestine until 433, the thirty- second year of the reign (II. Esdr. v. 14). Saulcy and Kaulen hold that it was Arta- xerxes II., surnamed Mnemon. VanHoon- acker claims a distinction between the two

    kings. He believes that Nehemias returned to Judea the twentieth year of Artaxerxes I., but that Esdras, instead of having ef- fected his return thirteen years previously, revived the Jewish religion only fifty- nine years afterwards, under Artaxerxes Mnemon (404-358).

    From Nehemias, whose end is unknown, until the Machabees, there elapsed a period of 260 years about which we know very lit- tle and the chronology of which the Bible has not fixed. But the two Books of the Machabees date the events which they re- late after the era of the Seleucides. This era starts with the autumn of 312 B.C. It is easy, then, to determine the dates of the Books of the Machabees. Mathathias rose against Antiochus Epiphanes in the year 145 of the Seleucides, consequently in the year 167 b.c. ; he died in the year follow- ing (I. Mach. ii. 70). His son Judas was at the head of the revolt until his death in 161 (I. Mach. ix. 3, 18). Jonathas, brother of Judas, continued the struggle until 143. In the year 142, the first year of Simon, the Jewish nation became again independ- ent (I. Mach. xiii. 41-42). Simon, who died in 135, was succeeded by his son, John Hyrcanus (I. Mach. xvi.). For the remainder of the Jewish history the Bible notes no other date except the death of Herod the Great. In the interval, the princes or kings who governed Judea were John Hyrcanus I., 135-107; Aristo- bolus I., 107-106; Alexander Janneus, 106- 79; Hyrcanus II., 79-66; Aristobolus II., 66-63; Hyrcanus II., restored, 63-40; Herod I., 40-4 b. c.

    IX. Duration of the Life of Jesus. — The beginning of the Christian era was fixed, in the sixth century, by a monk, Dionysius the Small, as occurring in the year 754 of the foundation of Rome. Ac- cording to him, our Lord was born on December the 25th of the year of Rome 753. But he was mistaken in his calculations, and made the Christian era begin too late. The date of the birth of our Lord is con- troverted. What is certain is that Jesus Christ was born under Herod (Matt. ii. i), at the time when a census was taken, as ordered by Augustus (Luke ii. 1-5). The determination of these two facts of the evangelical account marks the precise epoch of the birth of Jesus. According to Josephus, Herod reigned thirty-seven years, if we count the years of his reign from the acknowledgement of his royalty by the Roman senate, and thirty-four, if

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    we calculate his effective reign beginning with his entry into Jerusalem. Now the senate declared Herod king of Palestine under the consulate of Domitius Calvinus and of Asinius Pollion, in the jear of Rome 714, or 40 b. c. Herod took Jeru- salem under the consulate of Vipsanius Agrippa and of Caninius Gallus, in the year of Rome 717, or 37 B.C. The last year of the reign of Herod was, therefore, in the year of Rome 750, or four years be- fore our era. According to the duration of the reigns of his sons and successors, we can conclude that Herod died before the 7th Nisan or the 2d of April of this year. If Jesus were bom on December the 25th, it could not have been later than on December the 25th, 749.

    Other dates will inform us whether the birth of Jesus goes back a few years earlier. St. Luke (ii. i) says that it took place when the first census of the Roman world was made, Quirinius (Vulgate: Cyrinus) being governor of Syria. Now, according to Josephus, Quirinius was sent into Syria, with the mission of taking the census of Jndea, the thirty-seventh year after the tattle of Actium, that is, about ten years after the death of Herod, when Archelaus was deposed from the throne and Jndea reunited with the empire. To 'reconcile these apparently contraditory accounts, all kinds of hypotheses have been imagined. Some have translated the text thus : " This census took place before the one that was made when Quirinius governed Judea." But Th. Mommsen has proved that an inscription found at Tivoli in 1764 could refer only to Publius Sulpicius Quirinius. Now, it affirms that he was twice legate to Syria. Hence it is no longer necessary to have recourse to an apparently forced interpretation. How- ever, the difficulty remains, for the first legation of Quirinius into Syria can have taken place only in the year of Rome 751, or, at the earliest, about the end of 750, consequently after the death of Herod. To solve this difficulty, it has been thought that the census of which St. Luke speaks had been commenced before the year of Rome 750, by the governor at that time, who might have been Sentins Satuminus, mentioned by Tertullian ( Contra Marcion, IT, 19) ; but, interrupted by the death of Herod, it could be completed only about 751, when Quirinius took possession of his province. Thus understood, the text of St. Luke would confirm the opinion which

    places the birth of the Saviour before the year of Rome 750. In fact, the edict of the general census of the empire must have been posterior to the universal pacifica- tion, marked by the closing of the temple of Janus, at Rome. This fact took place only in the middle of summer of the year 746, eight years before the present era. Hence the birth of Christ ought to be fixed on December the 25th of one of the three years 747, 748, or 749.

    Most of the chronologists select one of these three years and justify their prefer- ence by the relation which they establish between the birth of the Saviour and the other chronological accounts of the Gospel. Now, St. Luke further informs us (iii. i, 23) that St. John the Baptist commenced his mission in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, and that Jesus was about 30 years old when He received baptism from the hands of His precursor. But the years of Tiberius have been computed in two different ways. If we adopt the ordinary fashion of counting, the reign of Tiberius begins with the death of Augustus, which took place on Aug. 19th, in the year of Rome 767. The fif- teenth year of Tiberius runs, therefore, from Aug. 19th, 781, to Aug. 19th, 783, or 28-29 of our era. By cutting off exactly thirty years the birth of Jesus would fall in 751 ; but this date would not agree with the death of Herod, which took place in 750. Therefore, we must understand the words "about thirty years " in a broader sense, and, according to the opinion of Keppler, they may be said of a man who is more than twenty-five years old and less than thirty-five years. If we suppose Jesus bom in 747, He would have been from thirty- four to thirty-five years of age in the fif- teenth year of Tiberius; if He was bom only in 749, then He would have been from thirty-two to thirty-three years of age. Several chronologists have counted the fifteenth year of Tiberius not from the death of Augustus, but from the associa- tion of Tiberius to the tribunitial power, in the year of Rome 765 or 764. Thus it would fall in 779 or 778. Consequently, Jesus, had He been bom about 747, would have been at the time of His baptism about thirty-one years old.

    As to the duration of the public life of Jesus, it has been reduced to one year by some ancient writers for reasons having lit- tle foundation, and which St. Iraeneus has ably refuted. Eusebius extended it to three and one-half years. Some modem com-

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    mentators adopt this estimate bj- support- ing themselves upon the Paschs expressly mentioned by St. John, and understanding by this solemnity " the festival of the Jews," of which there is mention in John V. I. However, many give to the preach- ing of the Saviour only a duration of two and one-half years, and, with St. Irseneus and St. Jerome (/« /saiam, I. ix.), they acknowledge only three Paschs. The first soon followed the baptism (John ii. 13) ; the second was immediately preceded by the multiplication of the loaves of bread (vi. 4) ; the third was that of the Passion (xiii. j). If, therefore, our Lord were baptized in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, the first Pasch of His ministry took place in the year of Rome 782, the twenty-ninth of the present era, and the last, that of the Passion, in the year a. d. 31 or 32; of Rome, 784 or 785.

    Thus the date of the death of Jesus would almost be fixed to a year, and we could verify it by determining in which year the day of Jesus's death was found to be a Fri- day (Mark xv. 42; Luke xxiii. 54; John xix. 31). Unfortunately, this very simple question is rendered very complicated, be- cause there is question whether this Friday was the 14th or 15th Nisan. Now, on this point the chronologists and commentators are divided into two camps. If the Friday of the death of the Saviour was the 14th Nisan, we have to eliminate the year 32, during which the 14th Nisan commenced on Saturday evening, and to accept the year 33, during which this day fell, accord- ing to the Jewish method of counting, from Thursday evening to Friday evening. If we prefer the 15th Nisan, in order to re- strict the inquiry to the years 28 1034, this day of the first month happened to be a Friday only in the years 30, 31, and 34 of the popular era. We can see. then, by this short summary, that the dates and the duration of the life of Jesus Christ are un- certain. However, the labors of the learned have notably reduced the limits of uncertainty. The result seems to be that we must fix the time of the birth of the Saviour between the years of Rome 747 and 749, or 7 and 5 before the Christian era, and those of His death between the years 29 and 33 of our era. The duration of the life of Jesus will range between a minimum of thirty-three and a maximum of thirty-eight years.

    X. Chronology of the History of THE Apostles. — To fix this we have only

    some dates of the Acts of the Apostles and of the Epistles of St. Paul. The apostolic history commences with the ascension of Jesus, which took place forty days after His resurrection. Ten days later the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles (Act. ii. i). These facts occurred within the same year of the death of the Saviour; their date varies, therefore, according to that adopted for the latter event. The death of Herod Agrippa I., related in Acts xii. 19-23, determines the time of the mar- tyrdom of St. James and of the imprison- ment of St. Peter. According to Josephus, this king was then celebrating games in honor of the Emperor Claudius. This was in the year 44 of our era. It is not neces- sary, however, to say that the persecution of Herod Agrippa against the Christians took place in the same year as his death, and we may suppose with Patrizi and Fouard that there elapsed several years in the interval. These critics also place the death of St. James and the imprisonment of St. Peter in the j-ear 42.

    The first mission of Saul and Barnabas is posterior to the death of Herod Agrippa. Hence we have to fix it at the earliest about the end of the year 44. This date may serve as the starting point in the life of St. Paul. The Apostle of the Gentiles, before his voyagje to Jerusalem, had passed one year at Antioch (Act. xi. 26). If we keep account of his return to Tarsus and his three years in Arabia and Damascus (Act. ix. 30; Gal. i. 17, 21), we have to re- fer his conversion to five or six years previous. Other considerations confirm these conclusions, which are only approx- imate. Aretas, king of Arabia, reigned at Damascus when St. Paul had to leave this city (II. Cor. xi. 32). Now, it is gen- erally believed that this king re-took this city after the death of Tiberius, which oc- curred March i6th, in the year 37. On the other hand, the persecution of the Christians bv the Jews, in which Saul took part (Act. viii. 57), could have taken place only after the departure of Pilate.

    Another certain date is furnished to us by the relations of St. Paul with the pro- curator Felix. The Apostle was captive at Ca^sarea for two years, when Felix was re- placed by Portius Festus (Act. xxiv. 37). Now, Felix was recalled to Rome by Nero in the year 60 or 61. Before Festus, St. Paul appealed to Ciesar ; he traveled the whole winter and arrived in Rome in the spring of the year 61 or 62. He remained

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    a prisoner for two years (Act. xxviii. 30). Hence it was in 63 or 64 when the last events related in the Acts took place, and when this history probably was composed. Such is the extreme date of the inspired history of the Apostles. But the date of the departure of Felix assists us in deter- mining the chronological position of the anterior events. If St. Paul left Caesarea in 61, his captivity in this city had com- menced in 59. He had left Ephesus one year before (Act. xx, i; I. Cor. xvi. 8), and his sojourn in tliat city lasted nearly three years (Act. xix. 8, 10; xx. 31). After his second mission, which extended over one year at least, the Apostle stayed one year and six months at Corinth (Act. xviii. 11). Therefore, six years had elapsed before the Council of Jerusalem (Act. xv. 4-6), which thus convened in the year 52. If we count the fourteen years that pre- ceded the presence of St. Paul at this Council (Gal. ii. i), and the three years that separated his conversion from his first voyage to Jerusalem (Gal. i. 18), we would conclude in dating the conversion in the year 34. While estimating an in- terval of seventeen years to have elapsed between the Council of Jerusalem and the conversion of St. Paul, we can place this latter in 37, when we remember " that the Jews are in the habit of counting the unfinished and incomplete year as if it were a full one." (Fouard, Sf. Pierre, p. 527.) By counting thus, the first voyage of St. Paul to Jerusalem would have taken place in 39 and the second in 52. The dates of the composition of the Epistles and of the Apocalypse are matter for the domain of Biblical Introduction and do not belong to sacred chronology, strictly speaking.

    XI. Chronological Table of the Principal Biblical Events. — This table will give a summary of the present article and will present the principal dates of the Bible. All those dates that precede the taking of Samaria are more or less un- certain. We will indicate them, beginning with the call of Abraham, according to the chronology usually accepted ; although it is doubtful to the establishment of the monarch}-. Even in this epoch, there is reason to believe that it locates too early the reigns of the kings of Juda and of Israel before the taking of Samaria, which date is assured and incontestable: —

    Creation of the world and of man . . Dates unknown Deluge Date unknown

    B. c.

    Arrival of Abraham in Palestine 2138

    Birth of Isaac 2113

    Birth of Esau and Jacob 2053

    Descent of Jacob into Egj'pt 1923

    Exodus and the promulgation of the Decalogue 1493 Death of Aaron and of Moses. End of the

    sojourn in the desert 1453

    Conquest of the Promised Land by Josue. 1453-1446

    Death of Josue 1428

    Bondage under Chusan Rasathaim 1409-1401

    Othoniel and the peace which followed. . 1401-1361

    Bondage under the Moabites 1361-1343

    Aod and peace in the south of Palestine. . 1343-1263 Bondage of the north of Palestine. Debora

    and Barac 1323-1263

    Bondage under the Madianites 1263-1256

    Gedeon and peace 1256-1216

    Abimelech 1216-1213

    Thola 1213-1190

    Jair iigo-1168

    Heli and bondage under the Philistines (west

    of Palestine) 1168-1128

    Exploits of Samson 1148-1128

    Samuel until the battle of Masphath .... 1128-1108 Bondage under the Ammonites (east of the

    Jordan) 1168-1150

    Jephte 1150-1144

    Abesan 1144-1137

    Abialon 1 137-1 127

    Abdon 1127-1119

    Samuel from the battle of Masphath until

    Saul 1108-1095

    Saul 1095-1055

    David 1055-1015

    Solomon 1015- 975

    Building of the Temple loii

    Accession of Roboam and of Jeroboam 1 975

    Death of Roboam and accession of Abia 958

    Death of Abia and accession of Asa 955

    Nadab succeeds to Jeroboam 1 954

    Assassination of Nadab and accession of Baasa 953

    Ela succeeds Baasa 930

    Zambri reigns seven days 930

    Amri replaces him 930

    Accession of Achab gi8

    Accession of Josaphat in Juda 914

    Accession of Ochozias, son of Achab 897

    Accession of Joram, son of Achab S96

    Accession of Joram in Juda 889

    Accession of Ochozias 884

    Accession of Jehu 884

    Accession of Athalia 883

    Accession of Joas 877

    Accession of Joachaz, son of Jehu * 856

    Accession of Joas, son of Joachaz 840

    Accession of Amasias 838

    Accession of Jeroboam II 824

    Accession of Ozias, or Azarias 809

    Accession of Zacharias, son of Jeroboam II. . . 772

    Accession of Sellum 772

    Accession of Manahem 771

    Accession of Phaceia. his son 761

    Accession of Phacee 759

    Accession of Joatham 757

    Accession of .\\\\chaz 74'

    Accession of Osee 7*9

    Accession of Ezechias 726

    Taking of Samaria 7*1

    Accession of Manasses 697

    Accession of Amon 642

    Accession of Josias 640

    Accession of Joachaz 609

    Accession of Joakim 609

    First deportation to Babylon 606

    Accession of Jechonias or Joachin 598

    Chrysologus

    177

    Chrysostom

    B.C.

    Accession of Sedecias 598

    Taking of Jerusalem 587

    Edict of Cyrus to rebuild Jerusalem, and re- turn of Zorobabel 536

    Finishing of the second Temple 516

    Return of Esdras 457

    Return of Nehemias 445

    Definitive departure of Nehemias for the court 433

    Alexander visits Jerusalem 332

    Era of the Seleucides 312

    Antiochus Epiphanes takes Jeru-salem 170

    Insurrection of Mathathias 167

    His death and the accession of Judas Macha-

    beus 166

    Restoration of the Temple 164

    Death of Judas Machabeus 161

    Jonathas, high-priest 161- 143

    Simon, ethnarch and high-priest 143- 135

    Independence of the Jewish nation 142

    Death of Herod the Great and birth of Jesus. 4

    A. D.

    Deposition of Archelaus and Coponius, first

    procurator of Judea 6

    Jesus in the midst of the Doctors 8

    Marcus Ambivius, second procurator 9

    Annius Rufus, third procurator 12

    Death of Augustus Tiberius, emperor 14

    Valerius Gratus, fourth procurator 15

    Pontius Pilate, fifth procurator 26

    Beginning of the public life of Jesus 26

    Death of Jesus ; Ascension and Pentecost 29

    Death of Philip the tetrarch 33

    Conversion of St. Paul 34

    Removal of Pilate, who is replaced by Marcel-

    lus, sixth procurator 36

    Death of Tiberius and accession of Caligula. . 37 Herod Agrippa becomes tetrarch of Trachoni-

    dis 37

    Exile of Herod Antipas 39

    Herod Agrippa becomes tetrarch of Galilee

    and of Perea 39

    First voyage of St. Paul to Jerusalem 39

    Murder of Caligula and accession of Claudius 41

    Herod Agrippa is king of Judea 41

    Death of St. James and imprisonment of St.

    Peter 42

    Death of Herod Agrippa. Juda is placed un- der the direct domination of Rome ; Cus-

    pius Fadus, seventh procurator 44

    First mission of St. Paul 44

    Tiberius Alexander, eighth procurator 45

    Cumanus, ninth procurator 48

    Felix, tenth procurator 52

    Council of Jerusalem and second mission of

    St. Paul 52

    Herod Agrippa II. becomes tetrarch 53

    Accession of Nero 54

    Third mission of St. Paul 55

    St. Paul leaves Ephesus after a sojourn of

    three years 58

    Captivity of St. Paul at Csesarea 59

    Fortius Festus, eleventh procurator 60

    St. Paul leaves Csesarea for Rome 61

    Albinus, twelfth procurator 62

    St. Paul at Rome, and end of the account of

    the Acts 63

    Gessius Floras, thirteenth procurator 64

    Vespasian, imperial legate to Syria 67

    Martyrdom of St. Peter and of St. Paul at

    Rome 67

    Accession of Galba .68

    Accession of Otho, Vitellius, and of Vespasian 69

    Taking of Jerusalem by Titus 7°

    12

    Chrysologus (St. Peter) (406-450). — Peter, surnamed on account of his elo- quence Chrysologus, was born at Imola, and baptized by Bishop Cornelius, from whom he also received his ecclesiastical training and ordination to the deaconate. After studying the spirit of Asceticism in a monastery, he was consecrated Bishop of Ravenna by Pope Sixtus III., in 433. By his ever watchful solicitude, his untiring practice of prayer, and his constant fidelity to the duties of his office, he was a shining disciple of the Good Shepherd. His method of life was that of an ordinary priest, and he labored successfully in converting the pagans, as well as in combating the Manich- ean, Novatian, Pelagian, and Nestorian errors. By word and example he encour- aged the practice of Christian virtue, and in his sermons freely denounced prevailing vices, and exhorted the Faithful to avert, by works of penance, the divine chastise- ment. The Archmandrite Eutyches, who was trying to win supporters for his new heresy in the West, he entreated to submit to the authority of the Pope, "because through him St. Peter, who continues to sit in the Chair of Rome, makes known the true faith to the sincere inquirer." St. Chrysologus was on intimate terms with Pope Leo I. He died and was buried at Imola. F. Dec. 4th. St. Peter Chrysolo- gus left quite a number of works which can be found in Migne, Pat. lat. LII, 9-680.

    Chrysostom (St. John) (347-407). — The incomparable John of Constantinople, from his sanctity and eloquence called "Chrysos- tom" or "Golden-mouthed" was born at Antioch. After spending six years in monastic solitude, where he devoted him- self to prayer and the study of the Sacred Scriptures, he was baptized in 369. In 386, he became a priest and in 397 he was ad- vanced to the see of Constantinople. In his new post, John displayed a wonderful zeal and energy. Greatly loved as he was by the people, his bold denunciation of vice made him numerous enemies, espe- cially at court, who in 403, procured his banishment. Although almost instantly re- called, he was, at the instigation of the licentious Empress Eudoxia, again exiled the following year to Cucusus in Armenia. Three years after, a new decree banished John to Pityus, in Colchis, the farthest limits of the empire; but before reaching that place, he died at Comana in Pontus. F. Jan. 27th.

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    Church

    Of all the Greek Fathers, the writings of St. Chrysostum are the most voluminous. They consist of numerous commentaries and homilies on the Bible, of sermons, dog- matical and moral treatises, and of a mass of letters. His homilies and commentaries on the Bible alone fill nine volumes, and embrace nearly all the sacred books of both Testaments. Besides these, our saint com- posed a number of excellent sermons and homilies on Christian doctrine and Chris- tian virtues and duties. Most of his hom- ilies he preached at Antioch while yet a presbyter. Of his moral works, must be mentioned his incomparable treatise on the Priesthood in six books, which he com- posed to excuse himself to his friend Basil, for whom, by his flight, he had left open the way to episcopal dignity. With the exception of a few, his letters to the num- ber of 243, were written during his exile. Of these, two are addressed to Pope Inno- cent I. The Liturgy bearing the name of St. Chrysostom is used to this day through- out the East, by the Catholics and Schis- matics alike.

    Church. — The assembly of Christians in general, and, in a more restricted sense, every assembly or communion of persons united by the same Christian faith. Both the words and acts of Jesus prove that He wished to perpetuate His teaching in a doctrinal society or organized body, which is the Church. He speaks explicitly of this Church which will be founded upon the chief of the Apostles as the corner stone. He promises to him divine assistance which should continue till the end of the world. The Apostles show us how they understood the realization of the divine plan. With them the first Christian community unites itself at Jerusalem. They rule and direct this community, which constitutes the primitive Church. They receive the prize of the goods of the Faithful, judge their dif- ferences, and hear their complaints. They found the hierarchy by the imposition of hands, that is, through ordination ; punish by excommunication, instruct by their preaching and by letters. Finally, all an- tiquity proclaims the Bishop of Rome the successor of St. Peter and heir of his power. St. Clement of Rome, St. Igna- tius, St. Polycarp, immediate disciples of the Apostles, assume every^^•here in their letters the episcopal and sacerdotal author- ity and the submission of the Faithful to this power. Such a constitution existing

    in fact implies the institution of Christ and proves it historically. From that time, the Church appears to us as a per- fect society. It has its peculiar aim, which is the sanctification of souls, and also the means to realize this end, namely, the sacraments. It is an obligatory so- ciety for all men to whom it is sufficiently known, and it is in this sense that outside the Church there is no salvation. We dis- tinguish in the Church a threefold min- istry : the doctrinal ministry, or the word of God taught by the members of the hier- archy; the decision of controversies be- longing only to the successors of the Apostles, to the bishops and Pope; the sacerdotal ministry, or the application of the grace of the sacraments to the indi- viduals ; finally, the disciplinary or admin- istrative ministry, by which the exterior life of the members of the Church is di- rected so that the whole Church really represents the society or community founded by Christ, in the march to God. The Church, being, therefore, an exterior, visible, hierarchical, and doctrinal society, must be recognizable, and it will be this by means of marks, namely : unity, holiness, apostolicity, and catholicity. The Church is one, because we cannot speak of several churches without contradicting Christ, who speaks of only one flock, and of only one pastor. She is one, by one and the same Lord, Jesus Christ, by one and the same Gospel, by one and the same baptism, by one and the same Holy Ghost — who operates in the souls, — and by one and the same visible head, the Pope. The Church is holy by her vocation, by the means she offers to efface sin, by the heroic virtues which, in all centuries have been the at- tributes of many of her members, and which have been proved by the miracles wrought by their sanctity. The Church is catholic, because she is destined to become the universal religious society, and carries within herself all that is necessary to be- come universal; because, in fact, she is spread all over the world and is accessible in all regions to men of good will, who are anxious about their salvation. In such a manner, however, is she catholic that on ac- count of the liberty of each one in the order of salvation, the catholicity of the number may be changeable in the different coun- tries, — now superabundantly enlightened by the light of the Gospel, anon more or less abandoned by that same light whose lumin- ousness reveals itself in other places. The

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    179

    Church

    Church is apostoHc, not only because his- torically she dates back to the Apostles, but also because she perseveres in the spirit and essential form which she received from the Apostles, and because she is always the same, in the presence of the mutabil- ity of earthly things. The Church is a doctrinal society, because she is not only the guardian of a morality more perfect than that of philosophers, but the deposi- tary of truths or dogmas which she incul- cates into all generations. Christ has taught His divinity, and founded upon this dogma the mission of His Church. He has taught the prophetic relation of the Old Testament with the Gospel and with His person; the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity; the dogma of the responsibility for works ; of the resurrection of the dead and of the judgment ; the dogmas of grace, of human liberty, of redemption, and of man's communication with God through prayer. He has taught the existence of a Church, destined to pursue her work of sanctification, and, consequently, the in- defectibility of the Church, whose corol- lary is her infallibility. This infallibility is exercised in the progress of the centuries by the decision of controversies, remitted to the judgment of the pastors, and especially to the chief of the Apostles. Thus there exists in the Church an always living mag- istery, destined to guide and direct the Faithful. The Church had always a creed, or confession of faith, to which she at- tached herself.

    Church (Greek). See Schism.

    Church ( The, in the United States). — The first Catholic bishop in the United States was Most Reverend John Carroll of Baltimore, appointed in 1790. Under him, at that time, were 20 priests and 30,000 laity scattered throughout the thirteen states, but particularly in Maryland, Penn- sylvania, and the territory northwest of Ohio. Most of these were native born. Bishop Carroll's calculation fixes the num- ber at 44,000. In 1803, with the annexa- tion of Louisiana, 30,000 Catholics, born in that state, were added to the natural in- crease, so that in 1810 there were 90,000 native born and 30,000 foreign born Catho- lics. In 1830, the Catholics born in the United States had gained, by natural in- crease, 81,000, making 231,500 out of a total population of 361,000. In 1850 the Catho- lic population was about 1,876,470, of whom not more than 800,000 were of foreign

    birth. In 1S60 the Catholic population was 3,000,000, of whom at least 1,701,470 were natives, the natural increase by births over deaths being at least 625,000. In 1870 there were 4,685,000 Catholics, of whom 2,786,470 were born in the United States. The total foreign born population that year was 5,567,229, of whom 1,898,530 were Catholics. In 1880, out of 7,000,000 Cath- olics, 4,468,470 were native born. The foreign born Catholics were 2,531,530, out of a total foreign born population of 6,679,- 943, as reported by the census. In 1890 the Catholic population was certainly 10,- 000,000. Of these, over 6,750,000 were na- tives and 3,250,000 of foreign birth. These figures are substantiated, also, by a calcu- lation made according to the English tf bles of morality ; for, taking the number of Catholic births from the year 1800, and enumerating the survivors, there must have been, not including Indians and ne- groes, over 6,000,000 native born Catholics in 1890. In 1896 there were surely 12,000,- 000 Catholics in the United States, of whom no fewer than 8,250,000 were native born. From those figures it will be seen that the great body of Catholics in the United States is, and always has been, mostly native born and English speaking, and that those of American parentage far outnumber those born in America of for- eign parentage. Cf. Art. " Roman Cath- olic Church," by Cardinal Gibbons, in Supplement to Encyclofcedia Britannica. On the following pages will be found a General Summary of the Catholic Church, taken from Hoffmann's Catholic Directory of the year 1898. According to our Sum- mary, it is far from being complete, at least in regard to the number of Catholics in the United States.

    Church ( The) and Basilica as Place of Worship. (The name basilica is derived from the Lat. basilica, which means royal house. A royal palace, or public building where judgment was rendered, or where the merchants assembled for the consid- eration of affairs). — During the early times of Christianity, many basilicas were util- ized as churches, some of which retained the ancient name of these edifices after their transformation into places of wor- ship. Among the Romans, the basilica was a large building of an elongated form, divided inside by colonnades surmounted by galleries. The most famous and also the most ancient of Roman basilicas were

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    Church and Civilization

    182

    Church and Civilization

    that of Porcius Cato, which history re- cords as having been erected in the year 184 B. c. ; the Julian, Emilian, Ulpian ba- silicas, and, finally, that of Constantine, the latest in date and the most solid in struc- ture, for it was entirely arched, whereas the more ancient basilicas were merely roofed with ceilings. Aside from the pub- lic basilicas, the wealthy Roman patricians and the principal citizens of other Italian cities possessed private basilicas where the master of the house granted audience to his dependents and adjudicated their af- fairs.

    The edifices for worship of the Christian Church originated from the private basil- ica. When the Faithful left the Cata- combs, and were destitute of the means for, or could not as yet venture, in those pagan times the erection of public buildings con- secrated to their worship, they found in the basilicas of the converted patricians structures eminently fitted for their assem- blies, and which they reproduced, by slightly modifying them, in their first tem- ples. For this reason, the latter were also called basilicas, a name which was still employed in the Middie Ages and also in our days to designate either large churches, or churches venerated under various titles or enjoying certain liturgical privileges. The ancient basilicas were composed of three parts. See Architecture. Ma- jor Basilicas and Minor Basilicas are hon- orary titles to which correspond certain canonical privileges. There are Major Basilicas only in Rome ; these are the five principal churches: St. John Lateran, St. Peter of the Vatican, St. Paul Without the Walls, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, and St. Lawrence Without the Walls. They are also called patriarchal churches, because they correspond to the five great patriarchates of the Catholic Church. Santa Maria Majore and St. Sebastian, on the Apennine road, are also counted among the number of Major Basilicas. The title of Minor Basilicas is granted, in Rome and outside of Rome, to other churches famous for their antiquity or on account of the veneration the Faithful have toward them. In Rome, there are six Minor Ba- silicas : Santa Maria de Transtevere, St. Lawrence in Damaso, Santa Maria in Cos- medin, St. Peter in Chains, Santa Maria in Monte Santo, and the Church of the Twelve Apostles. The Roman States also contain some Minor Basilicas. In remem- brance of the coronation of Napoleon I.,

    Pius VII. raised, by a Bull of Feb. 28th, 1805, the Church of Notre Dame de Paris to the rank of a Minor Basilica. There are two other churches in France which share the honor of the metropolis of Paris : the cathedral of Valence, where there is pre- served the heart and bowels of Pius VI. who died in that city, and the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes.

    Church and Civilization.— Christianity in general, and the Catholic Church in particular, have been the most influential factors in civilizing the world. Modern civilization proves herself ungrateful toward the mother that bore her. No other religion has exercised such a mighty civilizing in- fluence as Christianity. Its chief influence lay in the direction of mind and will, that is to say, of intellectual and moral prog- ress, both of which, especially the latter, are most closely bound up with the great social problem.

    Neither the false religion of the heathen nor even the true, but imperfect religion of Israel, were able to regenerate the world. To heal the woes and miseries of mankind, a new covenant, a nobler religion, was needed. That religion is Christianity and the Spirit of God. It alone goes to the root of the evil. Embracing all people and classes without distinction, it brings re- demption from error, sin, and death. It sets before all, the life to come as their true end ; it views this life as a stepping stone to eternity, and earthly goods as a means for laying up treasures in heaven. It thus overcomes the base charms of sensual enjoyment, and plants in the hearts of men a new and indestructible principle of life — divine charity (Rom. v. 25). The Incarnation of the Son of God has changed the face of the earth ; the very name of its founder, Jesus (Saviour, Redeemer) suggests the deliverance of mankind from the bondage of sin, death, and the devil. By His example He has taught us in the most elevated way how to sacrifice our lives. He was meek and humble, and emptied Himself, took the form of a serv- ant. He called none of this world's goods His own, for He had not where to lay His head. And yet, He healed the sick, fed the hungry, and comforted the sorrowful. He spoke as one having authority, and His words struck a chord in the heart of suffering humanity. From sheer love of men. He chose to suffer, to be perse- cuted, and to endure a most cruel death.

    Church and Civilization

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    Church and Civilization

    Jew and Gentile united to strike Him down. But He who was thus sacrificed, in the simple words of the Apostle, was the Author of Life (Acts iii. 15), and the Cross became henceforth the tree of life to mankind. All eyes would now be turned to Calvary (John xix. 37) ; thither all hearts would be drawn (John xii. 32).

    The disciples and Faithful generally imi- tated the example of Jesus, and put in practice His teaching. They evinced their Christian charity by their good deeds in lending a helping hand to the unfor- tunate, and to those in bodily and spiritual distress. When the neglect of widows gave rise to dissatisfaction at Jerusalem, deacons were appointed for the special purpose of ministering to the poor (Acts vi. iff.). St. Paul, who maintained him- self by the work of his hands, ordered collections to be made in all the Churches he had founded for the poor in Jerusalem. He also urged the Faithful in the several Churches to esteem and support one an- other. And he rebuked the Corinthians for not keeping the Agape or love-feasts in common (L Cor. xi. 21-22). He admon- ishes the Romans to minister to the neces- sities of the saints, pursuing hospitality (Rom. xii. 13).

    The most wretched and abject class of the poor were the slaves, who swarmed not only in the East, but also among the Greeks and Romans, and even amongthe Germans. They were not accounted as men, but as implements, chattels, and beasts, destined from their birth to bear the yoke. Their physical and moral wretchedness clamored to heaven for vengeance. So hard was the condition of the slave that one year of slavery would suffice to thrust him into the rank of a veterator, that is, to cast him aside as a worn-out commodity. The least offense might entail loss of life or limb. He was subject to the most cruel outrages. Husbands were torn away from their wives, children from their parents. Where were they to look for comfort in their misery, or for strength to endure their sufferings.? Not in the religion of their masters. The hearts of men were closed against them. The asylums and sanctuaries erected for their benefit, hardly produced a noticeable mitigation of their lot. A master, like Pliny, who treated his slaves humanely, was a phenomenon. Those who treated them with every refine- ment of cruelty were far more numerous. Slaves were even thrown as food for fishes !

    Yet Christianity was able to deal with the inveterate canker that had been gnawing at the vitals of the social life of those times. It strove to elevate these unhappy beings, spiritually and morally, to temper their harsh lot, and gradually to abolish slavery as a blot on Christianity and a dis- grace to mankind. Nor was the manner in which Christianity accomplished this great social revolution less admirable. On the one hand, the Apostles exhorted slaves, for the love of God, and in the hope of an eternal reward, to bear their hard lot with patience, and to be faithful even to cruel and froward masters. On the other hand, they entreated and enjoined on masters, to consider their slaves as brethren in Christ, since all had been redeemed by the same precious blood of Jesus Christ. Only when society had been penetrated with the spirit of Christianity, could slavery as an insti- tution be wholly abolished without danger of a social upheaval. But it was owing to the Christian spirit that a great portion of mankind recovered their full human rights and dignity, and domestic life was estab- lished on a new basis. See Slavery.

    In the heathen world, sympathy with suffering and charity to the poor, were un- known. The attempts which it was con- strained to make toward alleviating the most frightful misery, were utterly inade- quate. The few attempts made in Greece and Rome to care for the poor cannot compare, either in comprehensiveness or in motive, with the works of Christian chacity. They were essentially for giving State support to citizens incapacitated from work, and for distributing free supplies of corn to the poor. In the reign of Nerva and Hadrian spasmodic efforts were made to establish schools for the education of foundlings. The collegia, or brotherhoods, were each supposed partly to care for their own poor. No one, in the vast Roman empire, dreamt of almshouses or hos- pitals.

    How different was the action of the Christian Church ! The care of the sick and poor, from religious motives, for God's sake, was a Christian work in which every Christian community was occupied. Widows and orphans, the poor and the sick, were tended and supported as re- deemed in Christ, and made conformable to Him in suffering. The pagans, who treated poverty with contempt, and closed their eyes to the wretchedness of their fellow-men, frequently flung in the teeth

    Church and Civilization 184 Church and Civilization

    of Christians the taunt that none but the outcasts and scum of society and credulous women were found to listen to their teach- ing. Tertullian goes so far as to say that there was hardly a rich man in the house of God. Consequently, poverty and dis- tress found a place of refuge in the Chris- tian Church. Besides receiving relief for the bodily wants, the unfortunate pariahs of society learned how to bear their wrongs patiently, for they felt that they were redeemed, elect, and brethren. How those blunted, deadened hearts must have beat with joy when they learned that even they were the object of that pre-eminently Christian virtue of brotherly love, and that God the Son had shed His blood even for them !

    According to the Canons of Hippolytus, the bishop has charge of the poor. The Apostolic Constitutions likewise enjoin on the bishop to care for the widows and orphans. He is to distribute the offerings of the Faithful, and he will have to render to God an account of his stewardship in this matter. The Synod of Orange, held in 511, decreed (c. i6) : " The bishop shall provide for the sick and poor, who are in- capacitated from work, %vith food and cloth- ing, as far as it is in his power." When it was a question of relieving the distress of the poor or of ransoming captives, not even the sacred vessels of the Church were spared. To provide a wider scope and application and greater efficiency in the works of mercy, the Christian bishops made early attempts at the organization of charity by establishing hospitals and alms- houses, as was done by St. Basil in Caesarea. The establishment of houses for the poor and for strangers was mentioned at the Synod of Chalcedon. The Synod of Tours (567) ordered every city to make provision for the poor. Pope Gregory the Great took active measures, both by his personal action and by his decrees, in pro- viding for the poor.

    The wider Christianity spread, and the more it penetrated with its spirit the masses and classes of men, the greater and more flourishing became the work of Christian charity. The rise of monas- teries marks a new epoch in this respect. They became the homes of the poor. For not only did a poor man never knock in vain at the monastery door, but the mon- asteries frequently maintained poorhouses, hospitals, and schools. In these works, Benedictines, Cistercians, and Premon-

    stratensians vied with one another. More- over, numerous guilds or brotherhoods were established, which devoted them- selves in a special manner to ministering to the sick and poor, v. g-., the Brothers of the Holy Ghost, the Brothers of St. An- thony, the Beguines, the Orders of Knights, etc. In our time, hundreds of religious institutions were established for the same purpose. Reformation, on the other hand, destroyed many of these houses, confis- cated the goods of the poor, and handed them over to the rich. The poor were de- prived of their asylums, and the unselfish exercise of Christian charity and brotherly devotion was rendered impossible.

    The position of woman and wife in an- cient times, was often very little better than that of female slaves, and in this respect non-Christian nations of to-day resemble pre-Christian heathen. The Church, how- ever, took the doctrine of Holy Scripture on the equality of woman and the sanctity of family and married life and erected it into a maxim : Una lex est de viris et feihinis. Marriage, invested with the sacramental blessing, has rights and duties, which are correlative. The object of marriage became mutual sanctification and the bringing of children to heaven — a duty shamefully neglected by Greeks and Romans. Mar- riage might not be dissolved. Fidelity and chastity were held in high honor. Even second marriage was looked upon as a spe- cies of incontinency. The detestable prac- tices of abortion and the exposure of infants were stringently condemned. The oldest Christian writings contain a prohibition against child-murder, either by procuring abortion or by infanticide. It also incul- cated on women their duties as Christian housewives. St. Chrysostom, for example, severely denounced the unworthy and cruel behavior of mistresses to their female slaves. The same saint has also recorded how high, as a rule. Christian women stood in the estimation of their heathen neigh- bors, by reason of their continency and chastity. The reverse of the picture is given in Rottiger's Sabina and Wiseman's Fabiola. The glimpse which they give into the home life of heathen women is by no means pleasant reading.

    The effects of this sanctification of family life on social and economic science cannot be appraised too highly. Both public and private life were ennobled. The social intercourse of men and women with one another could not but be governed by a

    Church and Civilization 185 Church and Civilization

    gentler and nobler spirit, as St. Jerome's letters to noble Roman ladies abundantly testify. This accession of dignity to the married state also healed the gaping wounds which lax morals had inflicted on the social fabric of Greece and Rome. Lasciviousness, adultery, and slavery, are largely responsi- ble for the devastation and depopulation of countries that were once flourishing. In this respect, too, the countries blighted by Islamism render conspicuous by contrast the blessings that Christianity has brought in its train.

    Christian Science has ever been unfold- ing her banner for fresh victories. How- ever much her fortunes may vary, her conquests are as assured as they are unde- niable. No matter how philosophers, especially modern ones, may have cast themselves adrift from Christian philoso- phy, they cannot wholly emancipate them- selves from its influence. Even they are indebted to Christianity for what they have. Consciously or unconsciously, they have drawn whatever of merit there is in them from the well-spring of Christianity. The very fact that the condition of modern philosophy grows hopeless in proportion to its abandonment of Christianity is a proof of it. Society is shaken to its very founda- tion because of the intellectual confusion of the age. Skepticism and infidelity have passed from the classes to the masses. What wonder, then, that the highest authority in Christendom has uttered the watch- word : "Go back to St. Thomas ! "

    The study of philosphy was likewise fa- vorable to the study of the classics. That the Fathers, especially the Greek Fathers, were well versed in them goes without say- ing. St. Chrysostom's style is, not with- out reason, called the Attic style of St. Paul. In the West, St. Jerome is a model classic. In the monasteries the ancient masterpieces were carefully preserved, copied, and studied. Had it not been for the monasteries, the rich literature of the ancients would have been lost in the stormy ages that followed. The Humanists, in- deed, revived classic studies, collated man- uscripts, and rendered them generally accessible. But who preser\'ed them but that Church which, for centuries, had been almost the exclusive gvtardian of science? The Popes, even in the days of Humanism, were among the most vigorous promoters of these studies. And the mon- asteries were as solicitous for education as for science. The Church established

    upper and lower schools. The most famous libraries, notably the Vatican, owe their origin and maintenance to the Church.

    Nowadays all scientific studies center in the Natural Sciences. The great strides made in theory and practice in modern times are due to them. Our present in- dustrial and commercial system is of their creation. And it is often maintained that this triumph of realism is a protest against ideal Christian science, and the religious life inculcated by Christianity. This con- tention seems to derive confirmation from the bent of these sciences, which is natural- istic and materialistic. The history of these natural sciences, from first to last, is represented as a series of skirmishes and conflicts, in which science vindicates the right of free inquiry against the Church and finally emerges from the conflict triumphant. No matter how much the changes are rung and the theme varied, the contention is untrue in the main, and exag- gerated in detail ; moreover, its ultimate consequence would be the rejection of all religion, and with it the downfall of civili- zation.

    The abuse which modern historians and scientists have heaped upon the Church, as if she were opposed to social and scientific progress, induced the Vatican Council to declare itself in the Chapter on Faith and Reason. It teaches: "Not only can faith and reason never be opposed to one another, but they are of mutual aid, one to the other. For right reason demon- strates the foundations of faith, and, en- lightened by its light, cultivates the science of things divine; while faith frees and guards reason from errors, and furnishes it with manifold knowledge So far, therefore, is the Church from opposing the cultivation of human arts and sciences, that it in many ways helps and promotes it. For the Church neither ignores nor despises the benefits to human life which result from the arts and sciences, but con- fesses that, as they came from God, the Lord of all science, so, if they be rightly used, they lead to God by the help of His grace. Nor does the Church forbid that each of these sciences, in its sphere, should make use of its own principles and its own methods; but, while recognizing this just liberty, it stands watchfully on guard lest science, setting itself against the divine teaching, or transgressing its own limits, should invade and disturb the domain of

    Church History

    Circumcision

    faith." Christianity, then, and the Church have no reason to fear the history of civilization and progress.

    Church History. — The history of the Christian religion and of the Church forms the most important part of the gen- eral history of mankind, and is intimately connected not only with the political his- tory of the world, but also with the history of philosophy, literature, and civilization. The sources and authorities of this history are extremely various, and their due ap- preciation often requires as much judgment as their exploration requires toil. Church history is either general, — embracing a view of the affairs of the Church in the whole world, from the beginning to the present day; or particular, — relating to some particular country, or time, or por- tion of the Church. By some authors Church history has been treated chiefly with regard to the outward affairs of the Church, and by others with reference to doctrine, morals, and the evidences of spiritual life; while still others have de- voted their attention chiefly to the forms of worship, the constitution of the Church, and other subjects generally comprehended under the name of ecclesiastical antiquities.

    Churching of Women. — In the Jewish law (Lev. xii.) women, for forty days after the birth of a boy, and for eighty days after the birth of a girl, were regarded as unclean, excluded from the temple and re- quired, at the expiration of such time, to bring a lamb as a holocaust, and a dove as a propitiatory sacrifice to the temple, and then be pronounced pure by the prayer of the priest. This law does not, it is true, ap- ply to Christian women, because the Church has abolished the Jewish ceremonies. But, the Church, nevertheless, permits them to remain absent from divine service for six weeks, or as long as circumstances conse- quent upon the birth of a child may require. This should be remembered by husbands, who should see that their wives have the necessary quiet and attendance which na- ture requires for their recovery after giving birth to a child. The Church desires that at the end of this time the mother, follow- ing the example of the Blessed Virgin Mary, should resort to the Church to ob- tain the blessing of the priest, and thank God for her delivery, offer the child to God, praying with the priest for the grace to train her offspring in sanctity and piety. This comprises the Churching of Women,

    which is a very old and praiseworthy cus- tom and should not be neglected. This practice was not instituted to prevent mothers from being harmed by the devil, by malicious persons, or by ghosts, and it would be not only a foolish fear, but an ab- surd superstition to be condemned, if one were to suppose that a woman were liable to harm if she should go abroad before she were churched.

    Ciborium. — A vessel used in Catholic Churches to hold the sacred Host; it is made of gold or silver, and generally ornamented with a cross. There anciently prevailed a custom of enclosing the Blessed Sacrament, reserved under the form of bread, for administration to the dying, in a vessel of gold or silver, made in the form of a tower or of a dove, which was sus- pended by a chain from the center of the altar-canopy or ciborium, beneath a small tent or tabernacle of silk or other rich ma- terial. In process of time this custom was changed in many churches, and the Blessed Sacrament, deposited in a pyx, was placed within a tabernacle erected on the altar, and which was accessible only to the priest who possessed the key to its miniature portal. In France the use of the suspended dove or pyx was retained in many churches until the middle of the eighteenth century ; and in the cathedral of Amiens and a" few other churches the custom was ad- hered to up to a quite recent date. The ancient practice of keeping the Blessed Eucharist reserved for the communion of the sick, and for the perpetual adoration of the people, in a pyx suspended above the altar was observed in Catholic England down to the fifteenth century, and in many churches until the schism.

    Cingulum. See Girdle.

    Circumcelliones (or " Hut-rovers " ). — A sect of fanatics which sprang up among the Donatists. In the name of religion they committed all kinds of excesses and depredations against the Catholics, pillag- ing and burning their houses, blinding and murdering their priests.

    Circumcision {Feast of). — Festival cele- brated on the 1st of January to remind us of the humility of our Lord in allowing Himself to be seemingly numbered among sinners, by submitting to the law of the Jews. Circumcision was a religious prac- tice among the Jews in the observance of which a distinctive mark was placed on

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    male children the eighth day after their birth, and on all adults who embraced their religion. It was established as a distinc- tive sign of the people of God, a sign of the covenant made by God with Abraham, and as the figure of baptism in the New Law. The feast of Circumcision is very ancient in the Church, as is proved by the homilies and sermons of the Fathers of the Church.

    Cistercians. — Religious order, founded by St. Robert of Molesme (died in mo). Robert left the monastery which he had founded at Molesme, and with twenty zeal- ous monks retired into the thick forest of Citeaux, where he formed a new order. Its statutes received the approbation of Calixtus II. in irig. The austerities prac- ticed at Citeaux seemed at first to threaten the community with extinction. The ac- cession of St. Bernard with thirty young men, mostly of noble birth, gave it new life. By the middle of the twelfth century, the number of abbeys had increased to five hundred ; a century later, to eighteen hundred. About the end of the eighteenth century, the Order counted 1,800 monas- teries for men and 1,400 for women. The Cistercians have abbeys in the United States at Gethsemane, in Kentucky, and near Dubuque, in Iowa.

    Clarendon ( Constitutions of). — A coun- cil of the kingdom summoned by Henry II. of England at Clarendon, in 1164. Six- teen ordinances, known as " The Consti- tutions of Clarendon," and purporting to declare the Ancient Customs of the realm, were submitted to the assembly as the " Laws of the Realm," for the settlement of the relation between Church and State, in matters of jurisdiction. These consti- tutions, by restraining the jurisdiction of the bishops and bringing the clergy under secular jurisdiction, by inhibiting canoni- cal censures, appeals to the Pope, and all intercourse with the Holy See, save with the royal permission, and by other odious provisions, tended to destroy all ecclesi- astical liberty, and to reduce the English clergy to perfect subjection to the Crown, even in spiritual matters.

    Clares {Poor). — Besides his order for men, St. Francis founded one also for wo- men, commonly called Poor Clares, after St. Clara of Assisi, who was the first of her sex to embrace this manner of life. In 1224, St Francis gave a written rule to St.

    Clara and her community, which was ap- proved by Innocent IV., in 1246. Within a few years the order had many houses in Italy, France, and Spain. The Poor Clares also have several houses in the United States. St. Clara died in 1253, and was canonized already in 1255. F. Aug. 12th.

    Claudius. — Iconoclast bishop of Turin, born in Spain, died in 839. Wrote an Apology against Theodomir, which was condemned by a council of Paris.

    Claudius Apollinaris (St.). — Bishop of Hierapolis, highly esteemed by his con- temporaries on account of his great knowl- edge and virtues, wrote an Apology to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, which was much praised by St. Jerome. He also wrote, as we learn from Eusebius, five books against the heathen, and two on truth against the Montanists. All these writings, however, with the exception of a few fragments, have been lost.

    Claver (Peter). See Peter Clavkr.

    Clemangis (Nicholas of). See Nich- olas.

    Clement. — Heretic ; a native of Scotland ; lived in the eighth century and was an epis- copus vagus. He was an adversary of St. Bonifice, apostle of Germany. He assailed some of the teachings and practices of the Church with great vigor and pretentious display, but with little, if any, real ability. He objected to the Judaico-theocratic con- stitution of the Church, denied that the canons of councils and the writings of the Fathers are a safe rule of faith, and, drift- ing still further from the true spirit of Catholic teaching, held erroneous opinions on some doctrines of the Church, such as predestination. He also held that, when Christ descended into the regions of the dead, He set free all those who had been confined in hell, whether believers, infidels, or idolaters. He advocated and practiced lax principles of morality, rejected celi- bacy, and continued to exercise episcopal functions, though living with a concubine, by whom he had two sons. He was con- demned to a life of confinement, by order of the Synod of Rome (745).

    Clement (name of fourteen Popes). — Clement I. — Pope from 91 to 100. A dis- ciple and third successor of St. Peter. He is supposed to be the same Clement men- tioned by St. Paul (Phil. iv. 3) as one of

    Clementinae

    Cleobians

    his fellow-laborers. By another account Clement was the immediate successor of St. Peter, St. Linus and St. Cletus being only the Apostle's vicars at Rome in his absence. St. Clement, in 96, wrote an Epistle to the Corinthians, "in the name of the Roman Church," which for a long time continued to be read in the ancient Churches. He suffered martyrdom under Trajan, Clement II. — Pope from 1046 to 1047. Formerly Suidger of Bamberg. Reigned only nine months. Clement III. — Pope from 1187 to 1191. Was elected at Pisa and entered Rome March 13th, 1188. He reconciled the Papacy with the Roman city, which had for fifty years disputed its authority. Clement IV. — Pope from 1265 to 1568. Clement V. — Pope from 1305 to 1314. Formerly Bertrand de Got, Arch- bishop of Bordeaux ; was elected through the influence of the French King, Philip the Fair. Notwithstanding the urgent in- vitations of the cardinals, he declined to live in Rome, had the ceremony of his coro- nation performed at Lyons, and fixed his residence at Avignon, He absolved Philip from all censures, allowed him an ecclesi- astical tithe for five years, and created nine French cardinals. He convoked the Fifth General Council, which opened at Vienne, in 131 2. In the same year he dissolved the Order of the Templars. Clement VI. — Pope from 1342 to 1352. He established the Jubilee for every fifty years, and pur- chased Avignon in 1342. During his Pontificate, Lola de Rienzi attempted to re-establish the republic at Rome. Clem- ent VII. — Pope from 1523 to 1534. He was the posthumous son of Julian de Medici, as- sassinated in the conjuration of the Pazzi. The legitimacy of his birth, contested at first, was acknowledged under Leo XL He entered into a league with France, England, Venetia, and other Italian States, against the emperor, Charles V., of Spain, and, being besieged in Rome by the imperial army under the Constable de Bourbon, was compelled to capitulate, Jan. 5th, 1527. He fled to Orvieto, but concluded a peace with Charles in 1529, and crowned him emperor, at Bologna, in 1530. He forbade (1534) the divorce of Henry VIII. of Eng- land from Catharine of Aragon. Clement VIII. {Aldobrandini). — Pope from 1592 to 1605, Called Baronius, Bellarmin, and other learned celebrities into the College of Cardinals, undertook the publication of the revised edition of the Vulgate, and appointed the so-called " Congregation de

    Auxiliis." Clement IX. {Rospigliosi). — Pope from 1667 to 1669. Negotiated the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668, restored diplomatic intercourse between Portugal and the Apostolic See, and assisted the Venetians against the Turks. Clement X. — Pope from 1670 to 1676. At the re- quest of France, he raised the Church of Qiiebec to a bishopric. Clement XI. — Pope from 1700 to 1721. A learned man, and an able prince of the Church ; had a difficult Pontificate. He was compelled to place the kingdom of Sicily under inter- dict, and published bulls directed against the Jansenists : '* Vincam Domini^^ (1705), and" Uniffenitus^' (1713). Clement XII. — Pope from 1730 to 1740. Restored the good understanding with Portugal; founded the Museum of Roman antiquities, and sent the learned Assemani into the East to buy manuscripts. This Pope, in 1738, pronounced excommunication on the Order of Freemasons. Clement XIII. — Pope from 1758 to 1769. Agitation against the Jesuits reached a high pitch of excite- ment under the Pontificate of this Pope. Yet he firmly refused to accede to the de- mands of Portugal and of the Bourbon courts for the suppression of the oraer. Clement XIII. conferred on the Empress Maria Theresa and her successors, the title of "Apostolic Majesty" {Rex apos- iolicus). Clement XIV. — Pope from 1769 to 1774. Had less firmness of character than his predecessor, Clement XIII. He created the brother of Pombal, minister of Portugal, cardinal ; abolished the prac- tice of annually reading the Bull "/« Ccena Domini,^' and suppressed the Order of the Jesuits.

    Clementinae, See Canon Law.

    Clement of Alexandria. — Was born at Athens and was a disciple of Pantaenus, through whose influence he embraced Christianity. When Pantaenus went as missionary to India, in 180, Clement, who in the meantime had been ordained priest, succeeded his master at the head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. The persecution under Severus, compelled him to withdraw, first to Cappadocia and after- wards to Jerusalem, where he is said to have opened another school. Little is known of the later years of his life. He died in 217.

    Cleobians. — Members of a Christian sect at Jerusalem in the apostolic times. Their

    Clergy

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    Cloister

    chief was a certain Cleobulus, or Clobius, Avho denied the authority of the prophets, God's almighty power, and the resurrec- tion. They attributed the creation of the world to an angel.

    Clergy and Laity.-:-The priesthood is described in the Sacred Scriptures as two- fold : internal and external. The former extends to all the Faithful, whom St. Peter calls a "holy priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ" (I. Pet. ii. 5). The external priesthood, however, does not extend to the great body of the Faithful, but is appropriated to a certain class of persons, who, by the imposition of hands and the solemn rite of ordination, "are set apart for the Gospel of God," and devoted to some particular office of the sacred min- istry. Hence appears the distinction in the Church between teacher and people, ruler and subjects, clergy and laity. Those ecclesiastics who filled the office of the priesthood were, as St. James says, called "Clergy," clerici, from klerus {lot or ker- itage), "either because they are chosen by lot to be the Lord's, or because the Lord is their lot or heritage." This distinction was clearly pointed out by our Lord, when, selecting His Apostles from the crowd. He ordained them and authorized them to teach all nations and rule His Church. The discrimination between the clergy and laity, therefore dates from the very begin- ning of the Church ; it was strongly marked even in the time of the Apostles, as appears from the Epistle to the Romans (i. i), and from the Acts (vi. and xiii.) where mention is made of the election of the seven deacons and the appointment of Paul and Barnabas, who by order of the Holy Spirit were set apart for the ministry of the Gospel. The same truth is manifest from the fact that the power of the priest- hood, ever since the time of the Apostles, is conferred in the Church by prayer and the imposition of hands. St. Clement of Rome, speaking of this distinction between the clergy and laity, says: "A bishop has a particular charge laid upon him, and the priest exercises functions special to his office ; the Levite has his own proper min- istry, but laymen are concerned only with the laws that pertain to their own order."

    Next to the bishops ranked the presby- ters or priests, who had the power to preach, to offer up the Holy Sacrifice, and to administer the sacraments (excepting

    ordination) to the Faithful. They were considered the bishop's vicars, or assistants, and constituted his advisory council (presbyter ium). After the priests came the deacons, who constantly accompanied the bishop, attended him when preaching, and assisted him at the altar and in the administration of the sacraments ; they also administered Holy Communion and baptism. To the deacons was committed the distribution of the goods of the Church. The office of .subdeacons, who are first mentioned by St. Cyprian, was to serve the deacons in their sacred ministrations. The inferior officers of the Church were the acolytes, lectors, exorcists, and ostia- ries, or porters (see these subjects). Pope Cornelius enumerates all these grades, or ranks of the hierarchy, in his Letter to Bishop Fabius of Antioch, stating " that there were at that time (250) in Rome 46 priests, 7 deacons, and as many sub- deacons, 42 acolytes, 52 exorcists, lectors, and ostiaries." To the deaconesses, who originated in the time of the Apostles (Rom. xvi. i; Tim. v. 9), was entrusted the instruction of females and the various offices in connection with their baptism. Aged widows were generally selected for this office. See Order {Holy).

    Clerks Regular. — Are in general, those ecclesiastics bound, by solemn profession, to the rules of religious orders, in con- tradistinction to secular ecclesiastics. In a more restricted sense, those ecclesiastics, leading a life in common, according to the example of the Clergy of St. Augustine. The discipline introduced into many Churches since the twelfth century, gave rise to Canons Regular. Since the six- teenth century, a great many congrega- tions of Clerks Regular have been founded : Theatines, Piarists, Lazarists, Mechitar- ists, etc. ; or quasi Clerks Regular (less austere in discipline and without particular vows) ; Oratorians, Bartholemites, etc.

    Cletus. — See Anacletus.

    Clinic Baptism, or baptism on a sick bed. In the early Church given only to those at the point of death, and hence were called clinici.

    Cloister (from the Lat. claustrum, an enclosing -wall). — Originally an archway encircling a monastic establishment, which was usually located in the center of the group of buildings. The purpose of the

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    Coat

    cloister was to afford a place in which the monks could take exercise and recreation. See MoNASTiciSM.

    Clovis and (St.) Clotilda.— St. Clotilda was born about 475, died at Tours, France, 545. Queen of the Franks, daughter of Chil- peric, king of the Burgundians. Her father, mother, and two brothers, were murdered by her uncle Gundebald, joint king of the Burgundians, by whom she was educated in the Christian faith. She mar- ried (493) Clovis I., king "of the Franks, whose conversion from heathenism was ac- complished chiefly through her instrumen- tality. Clovis, by reason of his great victory over the Alemanni at Zuelpich, near Bonn, in 496, was induced to embrace the Cath- olic faith. Within the same year, Clovis, true to the vow which he had made on the occasion, was instructed in the Christian religion by St. Vedastus of Toul, and baptized at Rheims on Christmas day, by St. Remigius. With him were baptized three thousand of his followers. Clovis died in 511.

    Cluny {Abbey of). — One of the most famous monasteries of the West, founded in 909 by William the Pious, Duke of Ac- quitaine, and by Bernon, its first abbot. St. Odon, successor of Bernon, establshed in his house a reform of the Benedictine insti- tute, which was soon adopted by nearly two hundred abbeys that affiliated themselves with Cluny. As a sign of vassalage, the superiors of the latter took the title of simple Priors. From the Abbey of Cluny, which, in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, acquired great celebrity, always flowed forth, as from a fountain, an eager desire for learning and literary pursuits. It was especially famous as a center of ecclesias- tical training. The Abbot Peter the Ven- erable, contemporary and friend of St. Bernard, was recognized by two thousand monasteries, all dependent on the Abbey of Cluny.

    Coadjutor Bishop. — Coadjutors are those ecclesiastical officers who are ap- pointed by the proper superior to assist bishops in the administration of the dio- cese. Coadjutors, therefore, must be dis- tinguished from auxiliary bishops. The latter assist bishops in the discharge of the functions of the episcopal order; the former in the exercise of the episcopal jurisdiction. By reason of their duties, coadjutors are divided into two classes, temporal and spiritual. The latter are ap-

    pointed to assist the bishop in the per- formance of his spiritual duties, whether of order or jurisdiction, and not unfre- quently also in the management of Church property. In order to be able to exercise ^'■pontificalia,''^ they are consecrated as titu- lar bishops ; the temporal coadjutors assist only in the administration of the tempor- alities of the diocese, and consequently need not be consecrated. Again, by reason of their tenure of office, they are divided into two classes, those who hold office tem- porarily, — until the bishop's death or re- covery, — and those who hold office perma- nently, that is, who are appointed with the right of succession at the death of the bishop. The right of appointing coadjutors, belongs solely to the Holy See. In certain exigencies, however, x'.^., if the diocese be at a great distance from the Holy See, a bishop, who, by reason of age or infirmity, is unable to discharge his duties, may himself, by virtue of papal authority, select a temporary coadjutor, with the advice and consent of his chapter; and, in case of the insanity of the bishop, the chapter itself, •' provided two-thirds of the canons consent, may appoint such a coadjutor ; but a report of the whole case should be sent to Rome as soon as possible. In the United States, when appointing coadjutors to bishops or archbishops, with the right of succession, the rules laid down for the appointment of a bishop must be observed. Where, however, a coadjutor bishop or archbishop is to be appointed who shall have the right of succession, it is sufficient for the bishop, who wishes the appointment of such a co- adjutor, to present to the Holy See the name and credentials of the ecclesiastic whom he wishes to have appointed.

    Coat {The Holy). — The world-famous relic in the cathedral of Treves, is the seamless coat of Christ, for which His executioners cast lots at the crucifixion (Matt, xxvii. 35). The Empress Helena, having obtained possession of it in the Holy Land, is said to have given it to the city of Treves, where she resided for a considerable time. In 1196, the coat was deposited in the main altar. It was exposed repeatedly for veneration in the sixteenth century. On account of the disastrous events of the time, it was carried to Augsburg, in 1794, but was brought back to Treves in 1810. A multitude of pilgrims, numbering over two hundred thousand, visited Treves to celebrate this joyful restoration. But the

    Codex

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    Color of Vestments

    most striking and successful exposition was that of 1844, when eleven bishops and more than a million of the laity flocked to Treves from all sides during the period that the holy coat was exhibited. Its last exhibition took place in i8qi.

    Codex. — A name applied to ancient man- uscripts, especially of the classics or of the Scriptures. Of the latter class the princi- pal are the " Codex Sinaiticus," discov- ered in 1844 and 1859 in the Monastery of Mount Sinai by Tischendorf, and the "Codex Vaticanus," both of the fourth century; the "Codex Alexandrinus" and the "Codex Ephraemi" of the fifth cen- tury.

    Ccele-Syria. See Syria.

    Ccena Domini (/«). — A celebrated papal Bull ; is the work of several Popes. Its first composition dates from the fourteenth century. Pope Urban VIII., in 1627, had it revised, since which time it has received no essential alteration. It contains a cata- logue of such crimes as subject the of- fender to excommunication. It especially condemns public heretics, schismatics, apostates, falsifiers of Pontifical writings, pirates, etc. ; those who appeal from the Pope to an ecumenical council, or from the spiritual to the secular courts; those who are robbers of Church property, or who plunder pilgrims ; those who assist the enemies of religion, especially the Turks, with implements of warfare ; those who levy unjust taxes, etc. Pope Pius V. (1566-1572), the original author of the Bull, decreed that it should be proclaimed every year through- out Christendom on Holy Thursday ; hence thename/w Ccena Domini. In i77oClement XIV. suspended the proclamation of this Bull and Pius IX. abolished many censures thereof.

    Ccenobites. See Monasticism.

    Collation. — i . Term for the gift of a bene- fice by a bishop, either as patron, or one which came to him by lapse. 2. Also for the spare meals on days of abstinence, con- sisting of bread or fruit, but no meat. 3. The readings from the lives or collations of the Fathers in a monastery before Com- pline.

    Collect. — Certain short prayers of com- prehensive brevity, collected together, and said in the Mass at different times. See Station.

    Colleges. See Missions.

    Collegiants. — Members of a sect founded near Leyden, Holland, in 1619, the soci- eties of which are called "colleges." The sect spread rapidly in the Netherlands, and is still maintained there and in Hanover. In doctrine and in practice the Collegiants resemble the Quakers, having no creed or organized ministry; but they believe in the necessity of baptism, which they admin- ister by immersion.

    Collegiate Churches, in England. One of those churches which, while not being a cathedral, nevertheless possess a college or chapter, consisting of a dean or provost and canons, attached to them. They date from the ninth century, when such foun- dations in large towns became frequent. They are under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which they are situated, and he exercises visitorial powers over them. Examples of such are West- minster Abbey and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. In the United States the term is applied to a collection of churches having their pastors in common, as the Dutch Collegiate Church of New York.

    Collydrians. — An Arabian sect of the fourth century. They worshiped the Blessed Virgin as a goddess, offering sac- rifice to her in the form of small cakes {colly dria).

    Color of Vestments. — In her vestments the Church employs five different colors. On the feasts of our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, of the angels, and of those saints who were not martyrs, she makes use of white, not only to signify the stain- less purity of the Lamb and of His Vir- gin Mother, but also to symbolize the "great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and tribes, and peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and in sight of the Lamb, clothed with white robes" (Apoc. vii. 9). On the feasts of Pentecost, of the Finding and the Exaltation of the Cross, of the Apostles and martyrs, she employs red, to signify those fiery tongues that alighted on the heads of the Apostles when the Holy Ghost rested visibly upon them and in reference to the effusion of blood by Christ and His followers. On some Sundays (when the office is of the day) the vestments are green. Purple is the color assigned for the peni- tential times of Advent and Lent, for the

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    Ember days, and for several vigils through- out the year; while black is reserved for the office of Good Friday and Masses for the dead. Rose color is used on Gaudet and Laetare Sundays; and on the fourth Sunday in Advent, when it falls on the 24th of December. Cloth of gold may be substituted for white. Yellow {color flavus) and heavenly blue {color ccBruleus) are ex- pressly forbidden (S. R. C. 16 Mart. 1833 in Veron).

    Columba or Columkil (St.). — Apostle of the Caledonians or Northern Picts. This remarkable man, who was a scion of the royal houses of Ireland, was born at Gar- tan, in the county of Donegal, Dec. 7th, 521, and was educated in the famous school of St. Finnian of Maghbile, who had himself studied at Rome. Before Columba had reached his twenty-fifth year he had founded a great number of monasteries in Ireland, the most cele- brated of which was that of Derry, in his own native province, which was long the seat of a great Catholic bishopric, and is now known under the modern name of Londonderry. He had received deacon's orders from St. Unnian, and in the year 550 was raised to the priesthood, but his humility was such that he would never consent to take upon him the episcopal office and dignity. In the year 563, when in the forty-second year of his age, Co- lumba set out from his native land, accom- panied by twelve companions, and, in one of those large osier boats, covered with hide, which the Celtic nations used for purposes of navigation, sailed to the north, and landed on the shores of the island of lona, or Hy, to which, in memory of the saint, the name of Hy-Columkil was after- wards given. He and his companions im- mediately set about building a monastery, which was of the rudest description, con- sisting only of a frame covered with the interlaced branches of trees. It was not till some years later that a more substan- tial edifice was erected, with much danger and labor, as the large oaks to be used in its construction were brought across the waters from the neighboring shores. Such was the beginning of the great monastic center whence issued those devoted heroes who carried the blessing of religion and civilization to Scotland and Great Britain. God deigned to give the divine sanction to the mission of Columba by granting him the grace of miracles. Purity of life and

    humility were his two distinguishing vir- tues. In the year 590, Columba returned to Ireland. In virtue of his privileges as founder of the Church in both Northern and Southern Scotland, he exercised eccle- siastical jurisdiction throughout both of these countries. After a long and labo- rious life, Columba died as he had lived. After journeying over the entire island and taking a tender farewell of the monks at work in the field, and praying in the cloister, he withdrew to his own cell, and, when the bell rang at midnight for matins, rose and preceded his brethren to the Church. Here he was found by his faithful children, prostrate before the altar, and in a dying condition. Raising his right hand, he blessed the community, and expired, June 9. 597- F. June 9th.

    Columbanus (St.). — Irish monk, born in 545 in the province of Leinster, died in 615. Well educated in literary pursuits, he wished to fly the temptations of the world and retired into the monastery of Bangor, then famous through the zeal of its monks. An inner voice moved him to leave his country. Accompanied by twelve companions, he came to Gaul, preaching on his route the Christian virtues. In Bourgogne, King Gontran induced him to settle in his country. He gave him the old Roman Castle of Annegray, and here Columbanus passed some years in the practice of austere penance. The number of his disciples increased continually. Gontran offered to him the ancient castle of Luxeuil, at the foot of the Vosges, which became the center of his order. After- wards he established a third community at Fontaines. Labor alternated with prayer in these pious asylums which the strong hand of Columbanus directed. Twentj' years he spent thus with his religious. His reputation and influence became very great. However, he had disagreements with the Gaulish episcopate, especially in regard to the feast of Easter, which he always wished to celebrate according to the Irish custom, — the fourteenth day of the moon, — even when the feast came on Sunday, instead of the custom of the Latin Church which celebrated it the Sunday after the fourteenth day. The favor which Columbanus enjoyed was followed by hatred and persecution. After the death of Gontran, he was banished from the country. He was led to Nantes, and put on board a boat bound for Ireland. But land-

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    ingon the shores of the Rhine, he preached the Gospel to the Alemanni in the neigh- borhood of the lake of Zurich, and to- gether with his companion Gall, con- verted many idolaters. Gall remained in Helvetia to continue his apostolate, while Columbanus went to Lombardy, where he founded the famous monastery of Bobbio. Finally, Columbanus retired to a cave on the shores of the Trebbia, there to devote himself to the austerities of penance. Here he died, leaving to his religious a stricter rule than that of St. Benedict. In ten chapters it prescribed perpetual silence, complete abstinence from flesh-meat, daily fast, labor, reading, prayer, poverty, humility, and chastity. The tenth chapter, entitled ^^Penitenitale,^' punished the infractions of the rule with 200 strokes of the whip, which was the maximum. F. Nov. 27th.

    Columbus (Christopher). — Born at or near Genoa, Italy, probably in 1446; died at Valladolid, Spain, May 20th or 21st, 1506. The discoverer of America. His parents were wool-combers. He was educated at Pavia, and after many years of seafaring life, settled at Lisbon in 1470 as a maker and seller of maps. Becoming convinced of the existence of land beyond the Atlantic, he vainly sought assistance from Portugal and England, but finally set sail from Palos with three ships under the auspices of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, and after two months of despair and mutiny on the part of the sailors, on October 12th, 1492, sighted Guanahani, or San Salvador, one of the Bahama islands. Sailing on, he discovered several of the West India islands, including Hispaniola (St. Dom- ingo), where he founded a colony. On his return he was received with honor at the courts of Portugal and Spain. He made several other voyages of discovery, but through the calumnies of his enemies was deprived of the government of Hispaniola and sent back to Spain in chains. He died in poverty at Valla- dolid.

    The providential discovery of America obtained for Columbus the title of Am- bassador of God. His mission, virtues, and the services which he rendered to the Church and the world, and other facts about which religious authority has not yet pronounced itself, have caused to be introduced at the court of Rome (as an

    13

    extraordinary and exceptional case) his process of Beatification.

    Commandments. — The Commandments of the Christian religion were taken from the Mosaic religion, with modifications made by the divine authority of our Lord Jesus Christ and of His Church. They are laws expressing the will of our Creator, and are imposed by Him on all men throughout the universe. They are the twofold fundamental precepts of God ; the development of the great law of Charity. They are obligatory, general, just, useful, permanent, legitimate, and promulgated for the well-being of our transitory exist- ence in this world with a view to our ulti- mate salvation. Therefore, the violation of one commandment may involve for- feiture of attainment of eternal happiness, for it is written, " Whosoever shall keep the whole law, but offend in one point, is become guilty of all " (James ii. 10). The Commandments of God are called the Decalogue, which is a word derived from the Greek, meaning ten words; they are also called the Tables of the Law, because God gave them to Moses on Mount Sinai, engraved on two tables of stone. The first three concern our duties toward God, and the seven others our duty toward our neighbor; and they were ratified by our Lord when He said, " On these two com- mandments dependeth the whole law and the prophets" (Matt. xxii. 40). All Chris- tians, having reached the age of reason, are required to know the words of the Deca- logue, and the meaning of the Command- ments, at least as to substance. Among other ecclesiastical lawsof various descrip- tions regarding hierarchical superiors, parish priests, religious orders, etc., cer- tain commandments have been constituted by the legislative power of the Church, through the divine authority of govern- ment and teaching established by our Lord Jesus Christ, when He said, '* Whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matt. xvi. 19; xviii. 18). These commandments are for the direction of all the members of the Church, and to help us in the better accomplishment of the Commandments of God and the maxims of the Gospel. For the Commandments of God and of the Church, see Decalogue.

    Commemoration in Liturgy. — The men- tion which the Church makes of a saint.

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    whose proper office cannot be celebrated, because there is a more important feast on that day. The commemoration consists of a Collect, Secret, and Post-Communion, at Mass, and in an Antiphon, verse, and oration, at Lauds and Vespers. We make also a commemoration of the octaves of the major feasts. By commemoration is also meant the remembrance in prayer of the living and the dead. In the Canon of the Mass before the Consecration, there is a commemoration for the living, and later on in the service another for the dead.

    Commodianus. — Christian poet of an un- certain period, probably of the third cen- tury, very possibly a native of Gaza, in Africa. Commodianus is the author of two important poems for the history of the Latin language and Latin meter. In- structiones adxersus Gentium Deos, pro Christiana disciflina, and Carmen Apolo- geticum adversus yud(Bos et Gentcs. The Instructions are contained in Migne's Patrology. The Apology (of 1,020 verses in 47 sections) was published for the first time in 1852, in the Spicilegium Solis- mense of Dom Pitra (vol. I).

    Communion {Eucharistic) (the receiv- ing of the Blessed Eucharist). — The re- ceiving of Communion is obligatory for all members of Christ's Church who have at- tained an age when they fully possess the requisite qualifications alluded to in the fourth commandment of the Church to '• re- ceive communion annually, at Easter or thereabouts." Wilful disregard of this commandment is a mortal sin. It was our Lord Himself who established communion as a means necessary for our salvation, when he said : " Except you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you " (John vi. 54). Communion is obligatory on mem- bers of the Church who have attained the age of twelve years, according to St. Al- phonsus ; though they may be admitted earlier, and as soon as they can " discern the body of our Lord," that is, are capable of understanding the importance and so- lemnity of the act, and of appreciating the requisite dispositions of respect and hu- mility with which all should approach the Blessed Sacrament. " Whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and the blood of the Lord " (I. Cor. xi. 27, 28, 29). Therefore, "let a man

    prove himself, and so let him eat of that bread."

    Our Lord Jesus Christ said : " Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you" (John vi. 54). Therefore, we can scarcely accomplish this divine precept unless by receiving holy Communion at least once a year; and, indeed, how can we expect to be received by our Saviour into the eternal happiness of heaven, if we give ourselves so little trouble to receive Him here on earth, and with Him, His promise and pledge of that everlasting life? The partaking of the holy commun- ion at Easter is an obligation inseparable from the commemoration of the institution of the most Blessed Sacrament by our Lord Jesus Christ; and to impress us with a vivid remembrance of our Saviour's passion and death, of which the Holy Eucharist is the perpetual and living memorial, accord- ing to Christ's own words as given to us by St. Paul : "As often as you shall eat this bread, and drink the chalice, you shall show the death of the Lord, until He come" (I. Cor. xi. 26). It is desirable, but not obligatory, that the Easter Com- munion should be received in the Church of the parish to which we belong, for, by doing this, we can ofTer good example, one to another; we strengthen the union that should exist between ourselves and the minister of Christ under whose super- vision we are placed, by public acknowl- edgment of his authority; and enable him to recognize those who have acquitted themselves of their duty, that he may strive to bring defaulters to repentance.

    As the Holy Eucharist is a sacrament of the living, the necessary dispositions for rightly receiving communion, consist in being in a state of grace, that is, con- scious of being entirely free from mortal sin. Otherwise we should commit a sac- rilege, and expose ourselves to severe spiritual and temporal physical punish- ments. For, according to the words of St. Paul : "Whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord, unworth- ily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord . . . For he that eateth and d r i n k e t h unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discern- ing the body of the Lord" (I. Cor. xi. 27, 29). Dispositions not strictly obligatory, but nevertheless most expedient, are the purifying of the soul from venial sins with a strong desire to avoid falling into temp-

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    tation, and the making serious effort to correct ourselves of faults displeasing to God, and to adorn our souls with holy thoughts, firm resolves of good, and the meritorious actions performed in the strength of faith, the confidence of hope, the generous love of charity, as well as other virtues springing from these three theological virtues. As to the requisite dis- positions of our bodies, it is absolutely essential that we should be fasting from midnight, scrupulously avoiding anything whatsoever to eat or drink, either by inten- tion or inadvertence ; leaving no possible chance of violating the precept, not to swallow any substance that has entered the mouth from without. Our outward behavior should be such as is suitable, and should be eminently consistent with reserve, propriety, modesty, and purity, both in our attire and deportment. We should approach the altar-rail with the utmost gravity of demeanor, receiving the Holy Host from the hand of the priest, without unnecessary contact with the lips or teeth, and retiring, without pre- cipitation, to quiet meditation, adoration, and other prayer, in which we should spend some length of time, say, a quarter of an hour. For what moment can be so pro- pititious for the supplications we have to make, and for offering grateful recognition of the favors we have received, as when we are, temporarily, the living tabernacle of our Lord Jesus Christ? We should ex- press to Him the worship and gratitude of our whole hearts, imploring aid for our own spiritual and temporal needs, for those of the living and the dead who share our prayers, and for all the Faithful of Holy Church ; making good resolutions for our future conduct, and asking help of grace in the accomplishment of our desires and resolves. It is furthermore well to keep, throughout the day, a devout remembrance of the inestimable favor received, and even a pious recollection of our First Com- munion.

    Communion {Liturgical). See Post- Communion.

    Communion of Saints. — By "Commun- ion of Saints" is understood the belief in the communication of spiritual goods be- tween the members of the Church here upon earth, those in purgatory, and those in heaven, all of whom form one body : " For the body also is not one member, but many. If the foot should say, because I am

    not the head, I am not of the body ; is it therefore not of the body?" (I. Cor. 14- 15.) " For as in one body we have many members, but all the members have not the same office; so we, being many, are one in Christ, and every one members, one of another" (Rom. xii. 4-5). See Saints.

    Communion under Both Kinds. — The

    disciplinary regulations of the Western Church at the present day forbid the Faithful to receive the Holy Eucharist under the form of wine, except in the case of the priest who is saying Mass. All the sects which arose out of the Protestant Reformation, allow all who share in their eucharistic rites to receive the cup, and even in the fifteenth century the obligation of receiving communion under both forms was urged by John Huss and his Bohemian followers. They received the name of Utraquists, from the Latin word uterque, signifying both. The point has, in fact, for nearly five centuries, been a test ques- tion between the Catholic Church and her heretical opponents.

    It is a curious fact that in the fifth century it was a badge of heresy in a lay- man to refuse to partake of the Eucharistic chalice. Some sects of the Manicheans held that wine was created by an evil being and not by God ; in consequence, they refused to taste it, and extended their ob- jection even to the Precious Blood under the form of wine. These heretics, never- theless, desired to be reputed as belonging to the Catholics, whose assemblies they fre- quented ; and St. Leo bade the Faithful to observe if there were any who habitually communicated under the form of bread alone. (Serm. 42.) This abstinence from the cup would betray the lurking Mani- chean. It seems clear from this anecdote, that in the days of St. Leo, the Faithful were at liberty to receive communion in their public assemblies, in the form of bread and wine, or with but one of those forms, as they preferred ; in earlier times communion under the form of bread alone was certainly held to be valid, for we read stories of the Sacred Host being carried to confessors of the faith in prison, which could not be done with the wine. After- wards, the mode of communicating con- tinued to be optional, but the superior convenience of receiving the sacred em- blem under the form of bread alone caused this mode to prevail exclusively, although not enjoined by any express law. This

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    practice prevailed in England as early as 616, and it was fully established through- out the West by the end of the twelfth century, although it was a custom long after, to give to each communicant an ablution of unconsecrated wine, to assist him in swallowing the Host. The fif- teenth century saw the rise of the Hussite heresy, which, among other things, taught that partaking under both emblems was a divine ordinance. In opposition to this error, the Council of Constance, in 1418, passed a decree establishing the present law. This was a disciplinary enactment. The doctrine that there is no divine com- mand for receiving communion under both sacred emblems, was declared to be of faith by the Council of Trent.

    Communism. See Property.

    Competentes. See Catechumenatb.

    Compline. See Breviary.

    Concanen (Richard Luke). — Ameri- can prelate; was a native of Ireland, died in Naples, Italy. Entered the Order of St. Dominic in the convent of the Holy Cross in Lorraine. Became distinguished for his learning and virtue, and after his ordination was Prior of the Irish Domin- icans in Lisbon and at Rome. At the re- quest of Bishop Carroll, he was appointed bishop for the newly erected see of New York, in 1808. The French, however, then had full sway in Italy, and all British subjects were liable to arrest. In vain did he try to obtain passage to America. The anxiety and difficulty brought on a danger- ous illness, and Bishop Concanen closed his edifying life in the great convent of St. Dominic in Naples.

    Conception {Immaculate). See Immac- ulate Conception.

    Conceptualism. — Philosophical system. The adherents (Conceptualists) of this system drew a distinction between objec- tive reality, intellectual conception, and the word expressing the idea formed by the mind. They held that as the intellect could not adequately comprehend all the component parts of an object, so neither could language adequately express them, and that the intellectual comprehension held a place midway between an object and the word by which it was designated. Abelard, it appears, was the author of Conceptualism.

    Conclave. See Pope (Election of the).

    ConcoTaitaince(Sacramental). — Doctrine of the Catholic Church, as established by the Council of Trent, that the Body and Blood of Christ are given either under the form of bread or under that of wine ; hence that Christ is received whole and entire when received under the species of bread alone or wine alone.

    Concordance (from the Lat. concordare, to agree). — .Denotes a collection of pas- sages which in some respects agree with one another. Such collections can, of course, be made from the works of any author. But the idea originated from the study of the Bible, and developed gradually with the increasing demands of that study. The very first work of the kind was the Concordantia S. yacobi, made in Latin upon the Vulgate by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, in 1244, and named after its place of preparation, the convent of St. Jacques, in Paris. There now exist complete Hebrew concordances to the Old Testament, Greek to the New Testament, and French, Ger- man, English, etc., to the respective trans- lations oif the whole Bible.

    Concordats. — A concordat is in the na- ture of a treaty between the sovereign Pon- tiff as supreme governor of the Catholic Church and the head of a State, whereby, in consideration of certain undertakings on the part of a civil ruler, the Pope expresses himself content to abstain from urging, for the present, certain rights to which he is entitled ; with the result, that all Catholics may, with a safe conscience, act in accord- ance with the concordat. The real effect of a concordat, according to the intention of the Pontiff, is often wider than the words ; and if any doubt arises concerning the binding effect of the Canon Law in any country, it must be solved by application to the bishop, who if he sees fit, will obtain instructions from Rome. It is a settled doctrine of Catholic canonists that the Pope never absolutely cedes purely spirit- ual powers. Thus, in the presentation to bishoprics, while a king might nominate or elect, the Pope always reserved to him- self the power of "canonical institution."

    Concupiscence. See Sin (Original).

    Concursus. — An examination into the qualifications of candidates for ecclesiasti- cal benefices with cure of souls. The Coun- cil of Trent, desirous that parishes should

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    be provided with worthy and competent pastors, ordained that appointments to par- ishes must be made by concursus or compet- itive examination. Hence, it ordained that when a parish becomes vacant, the bishops shall fix a day for the competitive examination. On the day appointed, all those whose names have been entered for examination shall be examined by the bishop or his vicar-general, and by at least three synodal examiners. The vacant parish can be conferred by the bishop only on one of those who have successfully passed the examination. If several have been approved or passed by the exami- nation, the bishop must confer the parish on the one who is the senior or most worthy among them. All appointments made contrary to these prescriptions, are irregular, and are, therefore, null and void.

    This is the general rule. However, there are exceptions, partly indicated by custom, and partly sanctioned by the Holy See. Thus, no concursus is required: 1. In the appointment of rectors or parish priests ad nutum amovibtles; for the Council of Trent speaks merely of beneficia curata which are perpetual, that is, those parishes which have irremovable rectors. 2. Nor in appointments to parishes whose rev- enues are so small as not to admit of the trouble of such examination. 3. Nor if there be danger of grievous quarrels and tumults resulting from the concursus. 4. Nor in the appointment of vicars of par- ishes united to monasteries, chapters, and the like. See Rector.

    Condignity, Congruity . — T h e o 1 og i ca 1

    terms, having reference to meritorious works. Theologians distinguish two kinds of merit pleasing to God, — merit, strictly so called {de condiffno), which rests upon the performance of the action ; and merit of a wider sense {de cong-ruo), which is not grounded on justice, but on a certain fitness. See Merit; Grace.

    Conferences. — Reunions of priests of a certain district, ordained by the bishop, who determines their programme, in order to preserve and increase in the clergy the necessary knowledge for the exercise of their ministry. It was only after the Coun- cil of Trent, that St. Charles Borromeo regulated the Conferences in their actual form. The Third Plenary Council of Balti- more also prescribes them for the clergy of the United States.

    Confession, as part of the sacrament of penance, is the self-accusation, made to a duly authorized priest, of all grievous sins committed after baptism, or since the last confession. Our Lord instituted Confession when He gave power to His Apostles to remit sin. The necessity of confession, being implicitly included in the words: "Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them ; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained" (John xx. 23). The priest, acting in God's name, can only judge from what the penitent makes known to him, whether a sinner is worthy or un- worthy of absolution, and can forgive or retain only those sins of which he is given full knowledge. Therefore, he cannot ful- fill his office, except through the means of the penitent's self-accusation in confession.

    In the Catholic Church, it has always been understood that our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, instituted Confession for the re- mission or retention of sins, through the instrumentality of His ministers. It is evident, that through so many ages, this practice, so naturally repugnant to human sensibilities, would not have been followed, had it not been certainly instituted by our Saviour, who, in His infinite goodness, gave us this means of healing the wounds of venial sin and of curing the more ma- lignant injury of mortal sin. Confession is, according to the regulations of the Church, strictly obligatory once a year, and before receiving any sacrament of "the living," when one has had the misfortune to commit a mortal sin. It is more in ac- cordance, however, with the spirit of the Church's teaching to confess any mortal sin without delay, that by so doing we neg- lect not an indispensable means of salvation and voluntarily risk death, while a crime, rendering us an enemy of God, is upon our conscience. "The beginning of the pride of man, is to fall from God " (Ecclus. x. 14), and confession humbles that pride which "is the beginning of all sins "(Ecclus. x. 15). Humility before God in the self-accusation of our sins to a minister of Christ's Church brings honor to the soul ; for an humble avowal of sin, and sincere repentance is always deserving of a sentiment of esteem for the penitent sinner. "Before destruc- tion, the heart of man is exalted ; and before he be glorified, it is humbled" (Prov. xviii. 12). Confession improves the character, redoubles our energy in the correction of our faults, and saves us from the shame of acknowledging our weakness by

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    Confirmation

    falling anew into the same sin ; and that we may persevere in a state of grace, and begin new life in peace with God and man. It comforts the heart, soothes the conscience, infuses new hope, and lightens the burdens of sin that weighed down our souls and rendered us more ready to yield to fresh temptations. The confessor instructs us in our ignorance; enlightens us in our doubts, scruples, or illusions; calms our remorse or desolation ; counsels us in temp- tation or apprehension of danger; encour- ages us to bear our trials with patience, and with willingness to incur sacrifices that insure our sanctification and eternal sal- vation.

    A sincere confession should be marked with completeness, humility, prudence, and simplicity. Confession is marked with completeness when the penitent confesses at least all grievous sins which he remem- bers, together with their number and the necessary circumstances. With humility, that is, the penitent ougTit to be humble in his exterior ; ought to appear at the con- fessional with plain and modest dress, kneeling as criminal and suppliant, with- out arms, without gloves, without gaudy finery. With prudence, that is, confession must be made in terms as respectful and pure as the subject admits of. With simplicity, that is, the penitent ought to declare his sins without exaggerating them, modifying or excusing them, but in plain language, unadulterated with purposeless and profuse phrases, and without the ob- scurity of meaning that often leads us, though not intentionally, to a misrepresen- tation of facts we desire to communicate, thereby deceiving the confessor in his judgment of us, whether favorable or un- favorable.

    A worthy confession must be especially marked with contrition. See Penance.

    Confession (the tomb of a martyr or con- fessor). — In the early Church if an altar was erected over the grave of a martyr or confes- sor, the name was extended also to the altar and to the subterranean chamber in which it stood. In later times, a basilica was some- times erected over the chamber ; the high altar was placed over the altar on the tomb below, and so this high altar also, and sub- sequently the entire building, was called Confession. Several of such Confessions may be seen in European countries, espe- cially in Rome, of which the most famous is that of St. Peter in the Vatican basilica.

    Confessional. — The place where the priest hears confessions. Originall}- this was an open chair, upon which the priest sat to hear the confession of the penitent who was kneeling before him. This cus- tom still exists in certain religious com- munities. In monasteries of women, there is often a special room in which to hear confession. This is so arranged that, while the confessor is sitting in the confessional of the church, the religious may make her confession to him from this room, a closely grated opening serving for the communi- cation of the word. The Monastery of Martorana, at Palermo, affords an example of this arrangement. It was only in the sixteenth century, that the custom was in- troduced, according to the ordinances of councils, of placing between the chair of the confessor and the penitent a grated sepa- ration, which became the origin of the actual confessional. Shortly the priest was sitting between a double partition, which generally was left open ; and later on this was covered by a movable veil. The most remarkable sculptured confessionals are found in Belgium.

    Confession of Augsburg. See Augs- burg.

    Confessor. — i. One who hears con- fessions; specifically an approved priest who has received jurisdiction from the bishop to hear confession and grant abso- lution; distinctively, as a title of office, a priest employed as a private spiritual di- rector, as of a king or other great person- age. Formerly, at European courts, the office of confessor was a very important one, giving its incumbent great privileges and influence, and often great power politically. — 2. One who makes a pro- fession of his faith in the Christian re- ligion; specifically, one who avows his religion in the face of danger, and adheres to it in spite of persecution and torture. It was formerly used as synonymous with martyr. Afterwards it was applied to those who, having been persecuted and tormented, were permitted to die in peace; and it was used also for such Christians as lived a good life and died with the repu- tation of sanctity, as Edward the Con- fessor.

    Confirmation. — A sacrament, instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ, which com- municates to us the plenitude of the gifts of the Holy Ghost, renders us perfect

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    Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ, and gives us strength to confess the faith, even at the peril of our lives. This sacra- ment was conferred upon the first converts to Christianity immediately after baptism, but it was always held to be a sacra- ment different from baptism. It is of faith that confirmatjon is a true sacrament, instituted by Jesus Christ. The Holy Scripture furnishes proofs of this doctrine, as can be seen from the Acts(viii. 14; xix. 5, etc.) where it is said that Peter and John were sent to Samaria, in order to communicate the Holy Ghost to those whom the deacon Philip had baptized, which they did by laying their hands upon them. St. Paul did the same for the dis- ciples at Ephesus. Thus was this sacra- ment administered by the Apostles by a sensible sign, which conferred the Holy Ghost, showing that it is an institution of Jesus Christ, who only could give to a sensible sign this power. It is, therefore, really a sacrament, and, as such, has been in constant use in the Church since the days of the Apostles. The Council of Trent declares: "If any one saith that the confirmation of those who have been baptized is an idle ceremony, and not a true and proper sacrament, let him be anathema" (Sess. vii., can. i. on Confirm.). According to the present discipline of the Western Church, the ordinary minister of the sacrament of confirmation is a bishop, but a simple priest may also act by special delegation from the Holy See. The matter involves the use of chrism, and also certain manual acts of the minister. This sacrament is not absolutely indispen- able for salvation, as a necessary means, for the person who receives confirmation is supposed to be already in the state of grace, but it is in some way necessary, from the very fact of its having been in- stituted by the Saviour as a means of sal- vation, and in adults the neglect to receive it, when opportunity is offered them, is sinful. Only persons who have been bap- tized can receive this sacrament. All baptized persons, even infants, may validly receive it, but, in our times, it is con- sidered proper to wait until children have attained the use of reason before admitting them to be confirmed. See Gifts of the Holy Ghost.

    Confiteor. — A form of prayer adopted in the ecclesiastical rite for the general and public confession of siMS, which we call

    simply Confiteor. It begins : " I confess to Almighty God, to Blessed Mary ever Virgin," etc. The first trace of our Con- fiteor is found in Egbert, Archbishop of York (735), who prescribed it as an instruc- tion for sacramental confession, and in Chrodogang, Bishop of Metz (743). The present form of the Confiteor came into general use during the thirteenth century. A Council of Ravenna (1314) mentions that a variety of forms were current, and imposed the present one.

    Confraternities or Associations {Re- ligious). — Religious associations are vol- untary societies formed among the Faithful, with the object of furthering their own salvation or the salvation of their fellow- men. They may be divided into confra- ternities or sodalities, and charitable societies. Confraternities are, as a rule, exclusively for purposes of devotion ; charitable societies are for the relief of the spiritual and temporal needs of others. Religious associations are in all spiritual matters subject to episcopal authority; in some countries the legislature exercises a certain control over them. The formation of religious associations has always been highly recommended by the Holy See, and large indulgences have been granted to them, because they are of great benefit both to the individual members and to the community in general.

    Our holy father, Leo XIII., in his en- cyclicals of 1884 and 1891, expressed high approval of religious associations, espe- cially of the Society of St. Vincent of Paul, and the guilds of artisans and workingmen. Pope Pius IX. says they are an army set in battle array, to combat the adversaries of faith, not with the clash of arms, but with the silent weapons of prayer. Con- fraternities maybe compared to Noe'sark, because persons living in the world seek in them a refuge from the rising tide of crime and corruption. The members of these confraternities, as a rule, lead a more de- vout and well-ordered life than the rest of the world. They are not as apt to neglect prayer, because their rule prescribes cer- tain prayers to be recited daily; they approach the sacraments more frequently, because days are marked for them on which a plenary indulgence can be gained ; they learn obedience because they submit to the decisions of their director. In a word, they tend to keep a high standard of faith and morals in the parish to which

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    they belong, and bj their good example lead others to the fulfillment of their duties as Christians. And if some members give scandal, the rules of the confraternity are not to blame, but the neglect of them ; and it must be remembered that cockle always grows among the wheat. There is also this advantage in such societies, that the rules enjoining the performance of certain good works, are not binding under pain of sin.

    The number of confraternities is very great. We can quote : Confraternity of the Child yesus. — Its object is to provide funds to enable missioners to receive and educate in a Christian manner heathen children who are abandoned by their par- ents. Society for the Propagation of the Faith. (See Propaganda of Lyons.) Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, also called Eucharistic League. — The ob- ject of this confraternity is to adore our Di- vine Saviour in the most Holy Sacrament of the altar. Each member pledges himself to spend an hour every week in adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Many indul- gences have been granted to this confrater- nity. Confraternity of the Sacred Heart of yesus. — Its object is to venerate and adore the Sacred Heart of Our Lord, and participate in the abundant graces He promises to those who practice this devo- tion. The members of this confraternity are required to recite an Our Father, Hail Mary, and the Creed daily, with the prayer : "O sweetest Heart of Jesus, I implore that I may ever love Thee more and more." They are, moreover, to approach the sac- raments every month, if possible on the first Sunday or Friday of the month; to keep the feast of the Sacred Heart (on the Friday or Sunday after the octave of Cor- pus Christi) with all solemnity, and to pray for the members of the association both living and dead. Many rich indulgences are attached to this confraternity; among others, an indulgence of sixty days is granted for every good work performed during the day. See Heart (Sacred). Confraternity of the Holy Rosary. — Its object is to promote the devotion of the Rosary. To form the "living rosary" fifteen individuals unite every month to ap- portion among themselves (generally by drawing lots) the fifteen decades of the Rosary ; each one recites the decade which falls to his share daily throughout the month. This confraternity is under the direction of the Dominicans. A plenary

    indulgence may be gained by the members on the third Sunday of every month, on Trinity Sunday, on the principal feasts of Our Lord and of His Blessed Mother. The recitation of the Rosary is also in- dulgenced in a special manner. The Con- fraternity of the Holy Rosary was estab- lished in the lifetime of St. Dominic ; the members are required to recite all the fif- teen decades of the Rosary every week, but not all on one and the self-same day. This confraternity is affiliated to the Dominican Order; its members share in the good works of the whole order, and are placed under the special protection of Our Ladv. A plenary indulgence is granted on the first Sunday of the month, on all feasts of Our Lady, on the three great festivals of the Church, and in the hour of death. (See Rosary.) Confraternity of the Holy Scapular of Mount Carmel. — Its object is to implore the protection and intercession of the Blessed Mother of God in all the per- ils of this life, in the hour of death, and in the flames of purgatory. ( See Scapular.) There are other Scapular Confraternities : that of the Holy Trinity, of the Seven Dolors, of the Immaculate Conception, and of the Passion. The five are often worn altogether. For each of these cer- tain prayers are prescribed to be repeated daily. Confraternity of the Bona Mors. — The object of this confraternity is to ob- tain for its members who are yet on earth the privilege of a happy death, and for the departed a sjjeedy release from the cleans- ing fires. The members of this confrater- nity are bound to have a Mass said once every month for the intention of their fel- low-members, that the one who is the next to die may have a happy death, and those who are already gone before may experi- ence a mitigation of the pains of purgatory. They are also exhorted to approach the sacraments frequently, to entertain a special devotion to the Immaculate Con- ception, to St. Joseph, the patron of a good death, and often to make acts of the theo- logical virtues and of contrition. This confraternity is very richly indulgenced. For every visit to a sick person, twenty years; for every visit to a Church, seven years, etc. All these indulgences are ap- plicable to the souls in purgatory, llie Apostleship of Prayer. — A league in union with the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The Apostleship of Prayer is not a confrater- nity or sodality, but a pious organization, whose object is to give an apostolic char-

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    acter and power to all our prayers, works, and sufferings. This object it attains by the union of its members with the unceas- ing pleading of the Sacred Heart in the sacrifice of the Mass ; and this union is effected by the morning offering, which constitutes the First Degree of the Apos- tleship of Prayer and the only essential duty of its members. The morning offer- ing is thus worded : " O Jesus, through the immaculate heart of Mary, I offer Thee the prayers, work, and suffering, of this day in union with the intentions of Thy Divine Heart in the holy Mass." Two things are necessary for membership: i. Registration of the candidate's name by a local director in an affiliated center. 2. A certificate of admission. Centers are affiliated by diplomas from the director general (a father of the Society of Jesus, residing at Toulouse, France) and trans- mitted to them by the diocesan directors, whom, with the license and in accordance with the nomination of the ordinary, he has appointed for that purpose. The Second Degree consists in the daily re- cital of one Our Father and ten Hail Marys for the monthly intention approved by the Holy Father ; and the Third Degree, in offering a communion of atonement to the Sacred Heart, once a week, or at least once a month on a day or days fixed by arrange- ment with a promotor of the Apostleship of Prayer. The organ of the association is called " The Messenger of the Sacred Heart," published by the authorized edi- tors in various countries under the direc- tion of the director general. There are thirty-seven distinct editions of the "Mes- senger." The members of the Apostleship of Prayer in the whole world number some twenty to thirty millions.

    For other confraternities and congrega- tions, see articles, Third Orders, Joseph (St.), Brothers, Sisters.

    Congregationalism. — Form of polity among certain Protestant denominations. They maintain the independence of each congregation and the competency to fulfill all the ecclesiastical acts. The creator of this system, was, it is claimed, John Rob- inson, who, in 1608, left England to be- come a Brownist pastor in Holland. He modified Brownism. His followers, at first called Independents, emigrated to America in 1620. The Congregationalists are very numerous in Great Britain, but more so in the United States.

    Congregations {Sacred). — The sacred congregations are committees to whom the sovereign Pontiff refers certain mat- ters that relate in a special manner to the Church. These congregations are six- teen in number, as follows: i. Congre- gation of the Holy Office. — This congrega- tion erected and constituted by Pope Paul in., in 1542, was approved and enriched with many privileges by his successors, Pius IV., Pius v., and Sixtus V. Its object was to combat heresy and false doctrines, and to restrain heretics from injuring religion and the Church. (Office : Palazzo della S. Uffizio.) 2. Congregation of the Consistorial. — This congregation was founded by Sixtus V., in 1588. Its office is to examine and discuss the questions which call for a formal pronouncement of the Pope at a private or public Consistory. It inquires, particularly, into the applica- tions for the erection of new churches, patriarchal, metropolitan, and cathedral ; regulates all about chapters, the number of canonicates, etc., and decides contro- versies arising therefrom. (Office: Pal- azzo della Cancelleria Afostolica.) 3. Congregation of the Apostolic Visitation. — This congregation was established to regulate the visits to the Churches and holy places in the city of Rome. (Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Afostolica.) 4. Coftgregation of Bishops and Regu- lars. — This congregation was founded by Gregory XIII., and appointed by Sixtus V. for the arrangement of the rights and privileges of bishops and of the regular orders established in the Church. Hence all classes of appeal against the bishop's decisions, whether by seculars or regulars, is referred to it. It is also entrusted with the revision and approbation of the rules of religious bodies. (Office: Palazzo della Cancelleria A postolica.) 5. Congregation of the Council. — This congregation was founded by Pius IV., for the purpose of promoting the observance of the Council of Trent. To this Pius V. added the in- terpretation of these decrees and the decision of all controversies arising from them. In 1587, the congregation was also commissioned by Pope Sixtus V. to revise the decrees of all provincial councils, and to see that all bishops paid their visits at the time required by the canons, and sub- mitted to the Holy See a report of their dioceses, ad limina apostolorum. Bene- dict XIV., however, appointed a special congregation in connection with the coun-

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    cil for the purpose of examining the decrees of national and provincial coun- cils, and a similar one was constituted by Pius IX., for the special purpose of attend- ing to the visits and reports of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops. (Office: Palazzo della Cancelleria Aposiolica.) 6. Congre- gation of Residence of Bishops. — Many laws exist, differing according to circum- stances, obliging bishops to reside in their diocese. Urban VIII. established this congregation for the purpose of seeing that these laws were obser^^ed. The rules to be followed by the congregation were laid down by Benedict XIV., and are now part of the Canon Law. (Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 7. Con- gregation of the State of Regulars. — Pope Pius IX. restricted the jurisdiction of the Congregation of Regular Discipline to Italy and the adjacent islands, and estab- lished the new Congregation of the State of Regulars to perform similar duties for countries outside of Italy. (Office : Pal- azzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 8. Congregation of Ecclesiastical Immunity. — Instituted by Urban VIII. to protect and defend lawful ecclesiastical immunities against the encroachments and attacks of civil magistrates and secular communities. Most of the cases submitted to this con- gregation for examination and judgment arose in the Papal States. Conflicts and controversies regarding concordats with other countries are now generally decided by the Cardinal Secretary of State, assisted by the members of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. This congregation is, by special disposition of his holiness the Pope, temporarily con- nected with the Congregation of the Council. ( Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 9. Congregation of the Propaganda. — This congregation was founded by Pope Gregory XV., in 1622. The Pope in his Constitution Inscrutabili conferred upon it the most ample powers for the propagation of the faith, and espe- cially for the superintendence of missions in countries where heretics or infidels had to be evangelized. For this purpose it could not only appoint and change the necessary ministers in the countries specially sub- mitted to its care, but also perform every- thing else it considered necessary or opportune for the advancement of religion in such districts and provinces. The juris- diction proper of the congregation ex- tends to all territories which are governed

    wore w?.s.?zo«««;, or as missionary countries, i. e., not by bishops constituted in the reg- ular hierarchy, but by prefects and vicars apostolic. Certain countries, even where the regular hierarchy is established, such as Ireland, England, Scotland, and the . United States, are likewise subject to the congregation, and transact almost all their business with the Roman Curia through it. Hence, applications for dis- pensations, etc., are addressed to this con- gregation through its secretary. The congregation has, moreover, a legislative and judicial power; and by authority con- ferred upon it by Gregory XV., and con- firmed by Urban VIII. and Innocent X., its decrees, signed by the secretary and confirmed by the prefect, have the force and authority of an Apostolic Constitution. All communications should be written in Latin, or, at least, in French or Italian, and addressed to the secretary as follows : "-<4 Sua Excellenza Revma. II Signor Segretario della Congregazione di Prop- aganda Fide: Rome." 10. Congregation of the Index. — This congregation was founded by Pope Pius V., and confirmed by Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., and Clement VIII. Its office is to examine books sub- mitted to its judgment by bishops or others, and to proscribe those it finds op- posed to faith and morals. An index or catalogue of wicked and dangerous books had been drawn up at the Council of Trent, and approved by Pope Pius IV. (Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 1 1 . Congregation of Rites. — This congregation was instituted by Sixtus V. for the pur- pose of promoting the observance of the sacred rites and ceremonies of the Church, and of restoring and reforming them when necessary. It was also charged with the process of the canonization of saints, and with the regulation of the days to be ob- served as feasts in the Church, and was also bound to see that all kings, princes, ambassadors, and other exalted personages, whether lay or clerical, were received with becoming dignity and honor at the papal Court. These are the duties which it still performs. (Office : Palazzo della Cancel- leria Apostolica.) 12. Congregation of the Ceremonial. — This congregation ar- ranges all the Pontifical ceremonies and decides questions of participation and precedence in them. (Office: Via Principe Umberto 0.) 13. Congregation of Regular Discipline. — This congregation was estab- lished by Innocent XII. to promote the

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    observance of discipline in monasteries and convents ; to regulate the time to be spent in novitiates, to grant licenses for the re- ception of postulants, and for their training and profession, etc. (Office: Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 14. Con- gregation of Indulgences and Sacred Relics. — Founded by Pope Clement IX. in 1669, for the purpose of solving all doubts and difficulties concerning indulgences and relics, correcting abuses relating thereto, forbidding apocryphal, false, or indiscreet indulgences, examining relics newly discovered, etc. General indul- gences obtained directly from the sov- ereign Pontiff are null and void, unless a copy of such concession be deposited with the secretary of this congregation.-^— Decretum Benedicti XIV., Jan. 28th, 1756. (Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Apos- tolica.) 15. Congregation of Examination of Bishops. — This congregation was estab- lished for the examination in Theology and Canon Law of Roman priests named for the Episcopate. (Office : Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.) 16. Congrega- tion of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. — Founded by Pius VII. in 1814, to assist the Cardinal Secretary of State in maintaining proper relations with foreign countries, especially in times of revolution and disturbance. All concor- dats and relations with foreign governments come under its supervision. (Office : Pal- azzo della Cancelleria Apostolica.)

    Congruity. See Condignity.

    Conon. — Pope from 686 to 687. Gave to St. Kilian, Bishop of Ireland, the mis- sion to preach the faith to the people of Germany.

    Consanguinity. See Marriage.

    Conscience. — Inner light, inner senti- ment by which man renders testimony to himself of the good and evil he does. Psychological conscience, or interior sense, is the power which the soul has to per- ceive its different states without inter- mediary. The testimony of conscience is the last recourse, the supreme criterion of truth, and to its intervention is due that the mind, placed in face of truth, affirms its evidence. The notion of conscience is identical with the notion of being, instan- taneous like the latter, and repugnant as much to the idea of posterity as to that of anteriority. Through conscience we dis- cover in us the existence of a distinct

    principle, if not independent from our body, a principle whose substantial entity resides for the present in its indissoluble union with the body to which it is united as its form, but which, at the destruction of the body, will survive and will exist, although in an incomplete mode, until the integral and definite reconstitution of the human compound. It is through con- science, enlightened by the rays of truth, that we appreciate precisely the facts that appertain to the soul in opposition to the facts that belong to the body. It is through conscience that we distribute these facts into groups and series, and that we attach these series and groups to three primordial powers or faculties : sen- sibility, intelligence, and will. Finally, it is through conscience that, desiring to characterize each of these faculties, we attribute to them sometimes a simple power of perception or reflection (pas- sivity), sometimes a power of spontaneous- ness and action (activity). Moral con- science is the conscience more especially defined by its role as supreme judge of the moral value of its acts. But this judge is not reduced to the sole mission of ap- preciating the nature of such or such an act and its degree of goodness or malice. It penetrates the most inner thought, and finding therein the unavoidable and abso- lute idea of law and duty, it seeks to ex- plain their nature and origin by a rigorous analysis of the more simple idea of good and evil. Hence, since the notion of good corresponds to a transcendent and absolute precept, and since the notion of evil is only that of the derogation of this precept, conscience renders to itself an account of the blame or praise in regard to the acts of the will which it finds reprehensible or praiseworthy. Language translates instan- taneously the testimony which conscience renders to itself, and humanity declares this testimony to be the expression of truth.

    Conscience {Liberty of). — Liberty of conscience constitutes a religio-confes- sional fact, which is founded partly on the psychological study of our faculties. It is attested to each one of us, within ourselves, as an absolutely unobjectionable fact. It is the cause of confessional merit or de- merit, as well as of the religio-confessional remorse, which is also a fact of conscience perceived by us, without a shadow of doubt, if we forsake the confession of faith

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    which our intelligence judged conform- able to truth. From the incontestable liberty of conscience must we logically conclude on the liberty of conscience? Liberty of conscience is an internal fact, and liberty of conscience is an external fact which refers to our belief exteriorally in the midst of society. Liberty of con- science can be looked upon as a political right, protected by constitutional guaran- tees. In its relations to the State, as well as to the Church, we have to consider it from an historical, theoretical, and legal point of view. St. Augustine claims for the Church the power of constraint, only in the ages when it had become the social power, absorbing in its unity humanity. He dates this power of constraint only from the day of the incontestable social arrival of the Church (Ep. 204, to Don- atus). He modifies his thesis, restrains or limits it every time the number of the " wicked " happens to increase, or when the contagion of evil invades the multi- tudes (Confr. Parmenion Ubr. IH. c. ii.). He acknowledges that the exterior con- straint, civilly efficacious, was granted by the religion of the emperors in a time when society became and remained Chris- tian. This neat and clear doctrine of St. Augustine has been entered into the public rights of the Christian societies. The United States of North America is the country where liberty of conscience has become most fully established as a political right. The Puritans, who first peopled New England, pushed the intolerance to the most extreme limits. After them, also, the Quakers became intolerant. But when the followers of the different and num- erous sects agreed to acknowledge the most extensive political liberty, the liberty of conscience was the result of political lib- erty. There was not, in the new terri- tories of Northern America, a Church that had become such a social power that it could absorb the State in its unity, as St. Augustine claims. Be this as it may, until quite recently, several countries were made to depend upon the acquisition and preservation of certain rights, either po- litical or social, and upon the acceptation of such or such a confession of faith. Even in the United States, Maryland maintained for a long time the exclusion of Jews, and in Europe, England granted the emancipation of the Catholics only after long struggles. In fact, whatever may be the affirmations of the right of

    conscience, we must always acknowledge

    in a society a certain number of truths, without which no society could exist. The negation of these truths, when it is public, becomes an attack against the existence of society, or at least an evident disturbance of the peace. Hence we can understand, in principle, that a confession of faith may be required as a condition for the full ex- ercise of the rights of citizens. A nihil- istic sect, for instance, may be excluded from it. And to speak in more general terms, we can understand that liberty of conscience, like political liberty, may, or even must, in modern society, suffer some restrictions.

    iConsecration. — i. The formula of words by which the bread and wine in the Mass are changed into Christ's body and blood. 2. The act of solemnly dedicating a person or thing to the ser^'ice of God. See Transubstaxtiatiox.

    Consecration of Churches. See Dedi- cation.

    Consistentes. — In the penitential system of the early Church, especially in the Eastern Church during the second half of the third and the whole of the fourth cen- turies, penitents occupying the fourth or highest penitential station. They were allowed to remain throughout the Euchar- istic service and take their station with the Faithful above the ambo, but not offer ob- lations or be admitted to communion. See Catechumen ATE.

    Consistory. — An ecclesiastical senate, consisting of the whole body of cardinals, which deliberates upon the affairs of the Church. It is presided over by the Pope, or by the dean of the College of Cardinals. The ordinary meetings of the Consistory are secret ; but public consistories are held from time to time, as occasion may re- quire, and are attended by other prelates than the cardinals ; in these public consis- tories the resolutions arrived at in secret session are announced to them.

    Consolamentum ( consolation ) . — Cere- mony of the Cathari, who rejected the holy sacraments, and the dogmas of the Church. Instead of baptism by water, they had what they called baptism of the Holy Ghost, or the Consolamentum, which, ac- cording to their doctrine, freed the receiver from all sin without any kind of contrition. Most of the Cathari put off the Consola-

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    mentum till their life drew to its close. In case the receiver fell back into sin, as, for example, ate meat, he must again have recourse to this consolation. To avert this danger, the " consoled " frequently had recourse to the *' Endura," a process by which, through starvation, bleeding, poison, or other means, they put an end to their lives.

    Constance {Council of). — The Council of Pisa had been unable to put an end to the great schism of the West in declaring Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII. deprived of the Pontificate, and naming Alexander v., who was succeeded by John XXIII. The latter, in accord with the Emperor- elect Sigismond, convoked the Council of Constance, which was opened Novem- her 5th, 1414. John XXIII. presided over the first two sessions, but the Council hav- ing requested his promise to abdicate the Pontificate, if the good of the Church re- quired this, he gave this promise, but then fled secretly. One of the cardinals assumed the presidency, and, in the fifth session, they proclaimed the famous decree : " That the General Council, once assembled, holds its authority immediately from Jesus Christ, and that, consequently, every per- son, even the Pope, is obliged to obey it, in that which concerns the extinction of the schism and the general reformation of the Church in its head and members." This decree was never approved by Pope Martin V., and is contrary to sound doc- trine. In the subsequent sessions, John XXIII. was deposed and submitted; Gregory XII. abdicated through his am- bassador; Benedict XIII. was not only deposed, but excommunicated, and in 1417 (41st session), Martin V. was elected. He confirmed the forty-fifth and last session, and all that the Council had decreed in matters of faith. This Council also con- demned as heretics Wycliflfe, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague.

    Constantine. — Pope from 708 to 715. A Syrian by birth.

    Constantine the Great. — Roman Em- peror (272-337). Son of Constantius Chlo- rus and of St. Helena. Was appointed Caesar at the death of his father in 306; and in 307 assumed the title of Augustus. In the spring of the year 312, Constantine, to- gether with Licinius, published a general edict of toleration, granting to every one the right to follow the religion of his

    choice, after which he marched into Italy against Maxentius, whom he defeated near Rome, the same year. Before this battle, according to tradition, the sign of the cross appeared in the heavens, with the inscription " /» hoc signo vtnces,'' which induced him to adopt the labarum as his standard. In 323 he became sole Augus- tus. After this he caused Christianity to be recognized by the State, convened the Council of Nice in 325, and in 330 inaugu- rated Constantinople as the capital of the Roman Empire. Constantine had many faults. He postponed his baptism till his last illness; was at times very passionate and meddled with the freedom of the Church. But he also possessed good qual- ities, — great energy, prudence, and noble aspirations. All in all, he was an illus- trious ruler and is justly styled " The Great. y See Donation of Constantine.

    Constantinople {Councils of). See Councils.

    Constitution {Civil) of the Clergy. — In

    order to un-Catholicize France, the so- called " Civil Constitution of the Clergy" was adopted by the National Assembly, July i2th, 1790. After the insurgents had, on August 24th, extorted the royal signa- ture to this measure, they demanded, on the motion of the Protestant, Barnave, on Jan. 4th, 1791, that the clergy should take the oath of the Civil Constitution. Very few of the clergy complied with this demand. On April 13th, Pope Pius VI. condemned the Civil Constitution. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy reduced the number of bish- oprics from 136 to 83, a bishopric for each department into which France was di- vided; it decreed that bishops should be elected by the clergy, and interdicted their appointment by the Pope; abolished re- ligious orders, and made the reception of a papal Bull or Brief, unauthorized by the government, a State offense. Only four bishops, and a very small minority of the priests, adhered to the new constitution. These were the " Jurors," or " Asser- mentes," while those refusing the oath were styled " Nonjurors," or •' Insermen- tes."

    Constitutions {Apostolic). — The laws carried under this name by the sovereign Pontiffs for the entire Church, or for a portion thereof, oblige before all accepta- tion, even the bishops, in matters of dis- cipline as well as in matters of faith.

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    However, upon points of discipline which interest neither the rites nor the ceremo- nies, nor the life of clerics, the bishop can suspend their execution, by referring to the Holy See and asking for dispensation, at least for a temporary one.

    The Constitutions are not the direct work of the Apostles, and have never figured in Holy Scripture. They are, how- ever, very ancient. The first six books treat of Holy Scripture, the conduct of bishops and priests, of widows, of orphans, the poor, and the solemnities of the Church. The seventh appears to be of posterior date, and the eighth seems to constitute another addition. After the middle of the fifth century, these different parts formed only one whole, and St. Epi- phanus speaks of the Apostolic Constitu- tions as forming only one work, such as we have received it.

    Consubstantial. — From the Latin cum and substantia {substance). A term used in speaking of the Persons of the Most Holy Trinity, to express that they are only one and the same substance. This term was adopted by the Council of Nice, in 325, in order to leave to the Arians no pretext for concealing their errors under equivocal terms ; hence they obliged them to make use of the word "consubstantial" in their profession of faith, and to sign the consubstantiality of the Word.

    Constitutum. — See Chapters ( The Three).

    Consubstantiation. — A term used by the Lutherans to express the manner of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Blessed Eucharist. Since Luther taught that the substance of the Body of Christ was present in the consecrated Host, to- gether with the substance of bread, the change was called consubstantiation, in- stead of transubstantiation, as taught by the Catholic Church.

    Consultors or Bishop's Council. — The

    "Third Plenary Council of Baltimore" ordains that each diocese shall have six, or at least four, consultors; that where this number can in no wise be had, there shall be at least two. As to the mode of their appointment, this Council enacts that one- half of the above number shall be ap- pointed solely by the bishop; the other half also by the bishop, though only on the nomination made by the entire clergy, in the manner laid down by the Council.

    The diocesan consultors thus properly ap- pointed hold their position for three years, after which they must either be reappointed or others chosen in their stead in the same manner as above prescribed. If, however, this term of three years expires during the time when the episcopal see is vacant, the consultors will remain in office until the accession of the new bishop, who will be bound to proceed within six months from the day of his consecration to the new ap- pointment of the consultors in the manner above stated. Finally, where, during the above term of three years, a consultor either dies, or resigns, or is removed, the bishop has the right and duty to appoint another one, though only with the advice of the other consultors. As will be seen, the mode of appointment of our diocesan consultors resembles somewhat that of canons of cathedral chapters. Diocesan consultors, during their term of office, can- not be removed, against their will, except for legitimate and just cause, and by the advice of the other consultors. Diocesan consultors are, like the cathedral chapters, the official and legal senate of the bishop in relation to the government of the diocese. They are to take the place of cathedral chapters until the latter can be properly established. Wherefore, the " Third Plenary Council " enacts that the bishop shall be bound to take the advice of his consultors in a number of cases ex- pressly stated by it. We say advice; for the council does not oblige the bishop to act with the consent of his consultors in any case whatsoever. The case where bishops are bound to proceed with the ad- ^^ce of their diocesan council are : cases that relate to the diocesan statutes, the division of parishes, the placing of missions in charge of religious, the appointment of the deputies for the seminary, of new con- sultors, and of synodal examiners, the alienation of ecclesiastical property, and the imposing of a new tax or assessment by the bishop.

    Contemplation (profound application of the mind to some object, especially purely intellectual objects). — The common char- acteristic of religious contemplation, like that of philosophical contemplation, con- sists in withdrawing the soul from external objects, to absorb it into the things of God. But for some, it is the final end, and for others, the highest degree, which the activ- ity of the mind can attain for the knowledge

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    things in their very essence. A life of contemplation is not a useless life, as some claim. The Fathers of the desert and all the Saints devoted themselves to a con- templative life, and were venerated through- out the Christian world for doing so. How- ever, Christian mystics do not behold in contemplation a fact which solely interests the soul. Fenelon sums up their doctrine as follows: "Contemplation is neither a rapturous transport, nor a lively impres- sion, nor an ecstatic suspension of all the faculties of the soul ; the state of passive contemplation is nothing else but an inner peace and an infinite suppleness, which permit us to be moved by the impressions of grace and to better feel the divine im- pulse."

    Contrition. See Penance.

    Convents (religious houses, monaster- ies). — Convents were established where- ever Christianity penetrated. The ascetic life sprung up in the Orient in the first centuries of the Church. The ascetics fled from the Roman corruption and the persecutions which afflicted the Church during the first three centuries. It was thus that the solitudes of Egypt and of the Thebaid became peopled by those hermits who were the first models of the cenobitic life. Among them figure St. Anthony, St. Paul, St. Pachomius, the two Am- monii, the two Macarii. The life in common soon prevailed over the solitary life. Ac- cording to St. Jerome, there were not less than 50,000 monks in the annual reunion of the congregation, which one single abbot grouped, until A. D. 500, under his direction. Prayer, reading of the Holy Scriptures, meditation, and manual labor occupied all their time ; each convent was a school of charity and of fruitful activity, which served as model in Asia for the foundations of St. Basil and of St. John Chrysostom. When the Arian persecution forced St. Athanasius toward the Thebaid, in the fourth century, he was the guest of the cenobites during six years. On his return to Rome in 340, he sowed there the seed of the religious life, which did not delay to bring forth fruit. The Life of St. An- thony., written by him, represented a model which they strove to imitate. The souls consecrated to God were confirmed in their heavenly detachment by the Treat- ise on Virginity, which St. Ambrose consecrated to them. He, at the same time, drew to God the troubled soul of St.

    Augustine. The latter, having become Bishop of Hippo, established a religious order on the African soil. The impulse, once given, never paused. The monasteries of Liguge and of Noirmoutiers, founded by St. Martin, arose in Gaul ; that of Lerins, by St. Honoratus ; that of St. Victor at Marseilles, by Cassian. These foundations, and many more which we cannot enumerate, had thus far neither unity nor common rule which could assure their future. St. Benedict appeared to accomplish this task. From Mount Cassino, where he founded the capital of the monastic world, went forth that famous Rule which embraced, under its yoke, all the religious orders of the West. Auxil- iaries of the secular clergy, the convents lent to the latter their eminent men and supported them in all their works ; they also furnished to the Papacy a militia always ready and devoted. Many convents of women were also houses of education for the youth, and the confidence of the fam- ilies was justified by the tender cares with which they surrounded their young daughters. This custom has maintained itself with success in the nunneries of the Sacred Heart, the Ursulines, the Sisters of Notre Dame, etc. See Monasticism.

    Conversion of St. Paul. — A festival of the Church, observed on the 25th of Janu- ary, in commemoration of the conversion of St. Paul the Apostle, as related in the ninth chapter of the Acts.

    Convulsionaries. — A class of Jansenists in France, who gained notoriety by falling into convulsions and by other extravagant actions, supposed to be accompanied by miraculous cures, in response to a supposed miraculous influence, emanating from the tomb of a pious Jansenist, Francois de Paris, in the cemetery of St. Medard near Paris, who died in 1727. They continued to exist for more than fifty years.

    Cope. — A Church vestment which re- sembles in its shape an ample cloak. It is open in the front, and is fastened over the breast by a morse, or stiflF band furnished with clasps. To the part which corresponds to the shoulders of the wearer is attached a piece of the same material, in form like the segment of a circle, and resembles a hood, which is usually adorned with lace. The prototype of our cope is easily discoverable among the garments of the ancient Ro- mans. Like the chasuble, it was a mantle

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    deriving its origin from the paenula, which it perfectly resembled, with this variation, that, while it encircled the entire person, the cope was open in front, and adapted to defend its wearer from the severities of the season, the variations of the weather, and from rain, by the addition of a cowl or hood. Necessity introduced this robe among the sacred vestments; and the Latin pluviale, or rain-cloak, the term by which it still continues to be designated, will immediately suggest its primitive use to every learned reader. Its appropriation as a sacerdotal garment may be referred to that epoch when the Popes were accus- tomed to assemble the people, during the penitential seasons of the year, at some particular Church, which had been pre- viously indicated for that purpose, and thence proceed with them, in solemn procession and on foot, to some one or other of the more celebrated basilicas of Rome, to hold what was called a station. To protect the person of the Pontiff from the rain that might overtake the procession on its way, the fluviale, or cope, was on such occasions assumed by him at the com- mencement of the ceremony. It has been employed at the altar ever since, and is worn by bishops and by priests on different occasions, but particularly at vespers.

    Copernicus ( 1473-1543) . — Born at Thorn, Prussia; died at Frauenburg, Prussia. The founder of modern astronomy. He entered the University of Cracow in 1491, studied law at Bologna (i49c;-i50o), was appointed canon of the chapter of Frauen- burg in 1497, lectured on astronomy at Rome in 1500. He published, in 1543, an exposition of his system of astronomy, — which has since received the name of the Copernican, — in a treatise entitled De Orbiutn coelestium Revolutionihus.

    Copiates or Gravediggers. — A class of persons who, in the early Church, were counted among the number of the clergy. They were charged with the burial of the dead, especially of the poor.

    Copts. — Egyptian Christians; the most of them follow the heretical doctrine of Eutyches and are also called Monophy- sites. The Schismatical Copts number about one hundred thousand, and the United Copts about five thousand ; accord- ing to another estimate they are put down to twelve thousand. Great efforts have been made in the last forty years to con-

    vert the Copto-Ethiopians, or Abyssinians, who are closely connected with the Egyp- tian Copts. The labors of the Catholic missionaries were attended with the best results in spite of almost incessant perse- cutions. Including the converted Gallas, there are in Abyssinia to-day over 30,000 Christians, living in communion with Rome. The Copts in communion with the Holy See formerly were governed by a vicar apostolic residing at Cairo, but in November, 1895, Pope Leo XIII. consti- tuted for them a regular hierarchy, with a patriarch styled '* Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts." Besides the patriarch they have two bishops and some forty priests, foreign and native. Educational institu- tions have been opened by the Capuchins.

    Coran. See Koran.

    Corban. — In Judaism, an offering of any sort to God, particularly in fulfillment of a vow. To the rules laid down in Leviticus (xxvii.) and in Numbers (xxx.) concerning vows, the rabbins added the rule, that a man might interdict himself by vow, not only from using for himself any particular object, for example food, but also from giving or receiving it. The thing thus interdicted was considered as corban. A person might thus release himself from any inconvenient obligation under plea of corban — a practice which Christ repre- hended, as annulling the spirit of the law.

    Cordeliers. — Name given in France to the regular Franciscan monks; so called from the girdle of knotted cord worn by the members of that order.

    Core. — A Levite who rebelled against Moses, with Dathan and Abiron, and who together with them was swallowed alive by a miraculous opening of the earth.

    Corinth. — In ancient geography the capital of Achaia, and situated on the isth- mus which separates the Peloponnesus from Attica. It was originally called Ephyre, and was noted in ancient times as a center of commerce, literature, and art.

    Corinthians {Efistles to the). — First Epistle: When St. Paul was at Ephesus, about A. D. 57, prosecuting his third Apos- tolic journey, he heard that an effort was being made by some among the Corinthian converts to divide the seamless robe of Christ by creating a dissentient element within the Catholic body on the pretense

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    of following favorite preachers. In order to show the magnitude of this evil he ex- plains the doctrine of the unity of the Church by the familiar illustration of the consummate harmony existing between the members of the human body. The antidote he offers against this tendency toward division is charity, which he eulo- gizes in brilliant language. Turning, then, to the luxurious habits of these Cor- inthians, the Apostle pronounces the sen- tence of excommunication on one who was living publicly in incest. This brought him to discuss the relative merits of vir- ginity and matrimony in answer to a re- quest forwarded to him by this people. He extols the excellence of marriage, but declares it to be inferior to the state of virginity. Lastly, to spur the Corinthians to their duty in these particulars, the Apostle sets forth the cheering doctrine of the resurrection of the body. Second Epistle: Toward the end of this same year, A. d. 57, St. Paul sent Titus to Cor- inth, in order to ascertain on the spot the effect produced by the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and thence to come on direct to Troas. Titus announced that the First Epistle to the Corinthians wrought a most marked change for the better on that people. This, he said, was the more con- soling, because certain jealous intruders did all they could to poison the mind of the Corinthian converts generally against the Epistle. To expose their fraud and malice the Second Epistle to the Corinth- ians was written, which opens with sen- timents of the tenderest charity toward the erring people. Then he turns to his labors in no spirit of vain boasting, but to defend the honor of Jesus Christ whose Apostle he thus fearlessly asserted himself to be. The false teachers who had been calumniating him, he denounced with ter- rible severity. And he concludes by ex- pressing a strong hope of seeing them very soon.

    Cornelius. — A Roman centurion, sta- tioned at Caesarea, whom St. Peter, in con- sequence of a special revelation, received into the communion of the Christian Church, directly by baptism without cir- cumcision (Acts X.).

    Cornelius (Pope, 251-252). — A learned Roman priest; his election was opposed by the ambitious presbyter, Novatian, who, yielding to the wicked counsels of Novatus, a turbulent priest from Carthage, became H

    the rival of Cornelius and the founder of a schismatical sect, called after him the "Novatians." Novatian was excommuni- cated by a council of sixty bishops held at Rome, and the three bishops who had or- dained him were deposed. In 252, Corne- lius was exiled by Emperor Gallus to Cen- tumcellae (Civitta-Veechia), where he died a martyr.

    Cornelius k Lapide (properly van der 5^ee») (1568-1637). — Great Biblical scholar ; was born at.Boehaff, near Liege, Bel- gium ; became a Jesuit. Professor of Holy Scripture at Louvain and afterwards at Rome, where he died. His learned and valuable commentaries cover the entire Bible, except Job and the Psalms. (Best ed- ition, Lyons, 1833, 11 vols. Partly trans- lated into English.)

    Corozain. — A city of Galilee, on the western shore of Lake Tiberiades, near Bethsaida. Christ preached often in this city and wrought many miracles therein.

    Corporal. — The corporal is a square piece of fine linen on which the Host is conse- crated. It is so called because it touches the Body of our Lord. It has been known by this appellation for more than ten cen- turies. In the Ambrosian rite, the corpo- ral is likened to the linen cloths in which the Body of our Saviour was shrouded in the sepulchre, and on unfolding it at the Offertory, the priest recites what is termed the "Oratio super sindonem." Anciently the chalice was also covered by the corpo- ral, a practice still retained by the Carthu- sians. The Greeks make use of a similar square piece of linen cloth, which they s|^read out as we do. The corporal must be blessed by a bishop, or by a priest hav- ing special faculties.

    Corpus Christi (Latin words which sig- nify Body of Christ). — The most impos- ing festival of the Catholic Church. Pope Urban IV., in his decree concerning it, gives the following explanation of the institution and grandeur of this festival : "Although we daily, in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass, renew the memory of this holy sacrament, we believe that we must, besides, solemnly commemorate it every year, to put the unbelievers to shame ; and because we have been informed that God has revealed to some pious persons that this festival should be celebrated in the whole Church, we direct that on the first Thursday after the octave of Pentecost,

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    the Faithful should assemble in the Church, and join with the priests in singing the word of God," etc. Hence this festival was in- stituted on account of the greatness of the divine mystery; the unbelief of those who denied the truth of this mystery, and the revelation made to some pious persons. This revelation was made to a nun at Liege, named Juliana, and to her devout friends, Eve and Isabella. Juliana, when praying, had frequently a vision in which she saw the bright moon, with one part of it somewhat dark ; at her request she received instructions from God that one of the grandest festivals was yet to be instituted : the festival of the most Blessed Sacrament of the Altar. In 1246, she re- lated this vision to Robert, Bishop of Liege, who, after having investigated the matter with the aid of several men of learning and devotion (among whom was Jacob Pantaleon, Archdeacon of Liege, afterwards Pope Urban IV.), made arrange- ments to introduce this festival in his diocese, but death prevented his intention being carried into efTect. After the bish- op's death the Cardinal Legate Hugh un- dertook to carry out his directions, and celebrated the festival for the first time in the year 1247, in the Church of St. Martin at Liege. Several bishops followed this example, and the festival was observed in many dioceses, before Urban IV., in 1264, finally ordered the celebration by the whole Church. This order was confirmed by Clement V. at the Council of Vienna in 131 1, and the Thursday after the octave of Pentecost appointed for its celebration. In 1317, Pope John XXII. instituted the solemn procession.

    Corrigan (Michael Augustine). — Catholic prelate; born at Newark, New Jersey, Aug. 13th, 1839. He was ordained to the priesthood at Rome in 1863. After filling for a few years the chair of dog- matic theology and Sacred Scripture at Seton Hall College, Orange, New Jersey, he became its president in 1868. In 1873 he was appointed by Pius IX. to the see of Newark, and in 1880 was made coadjutor to Cardinal McCloskey, Archbishop of New York, under the title of Archbishop of Petra, and on the death of the cardinal in 1885 he became metropolitan of the dio- cese of New York, recei\'ing the pallium shortly afterwards.

    Corrupticola. — Name of a sect of Eu- tjchian heretics whose chief was a cer-

    tain Severus, false patriarch of Antioch (55^)- Severus, having withdrawn to Al- exandria, maintained there that the Body of Christ was corruptible ; that the Fathers had acknowledged this ; and to deny this was denying the truth of the Passion of the Saviour. On the other hand, Julian of Halicarnassus, also a Eutychian refugee in Egypt, maintained that the Body of Christ had always been incorruptible ; to maintain that it was corruptible, he said, was to admit a distinction between Jesus Christ and the Word, and consequently two natures in Jesus Christ. The followers of Julian were also called PhtJiartolatrce, or Phantasiastes.

    Cosmas and Damianus (Sts.). — Broth- ers, born in Arabia, labored as Christian physicians, and exercised their art gratu- itously. Denounced as Christians, they suffered martyrdom at Eges, in Cilicia, under Diocletian, about the year 286. Their remains were brought to Rome, where a splendid church was dedicated to their memory, and where they are still venerated, September 27th. Patron saints of physicians and druggists.

    Cosmogony ( The Alosaic). — All the re- ligions and all the nations of antiquity have attempted to explain the origin of things. The various cosmogonic systems have common traits which seem to indi- cate a community of origin, perhaps even a primitive revelation; but the most of them have been disfigured in the course of the centuries through the addition of child- ish details, often in flagrant contradiction with the most incontestable accounts of modern science. A single one of these cos- mogonies, — that which figures at the head of our Sacred Books, — has escaped this general corruption in such a manner as to defy still to-day the attacks of infidel scientists. It does notenter into our plan to give here a detailed commentary thereon. To state this cosmogony, to point out briefly its superiority over all others, to say a word on the scientific cosmogony, and finally the accord of both — such is the end which we have proposed to ourselves in this article.

    I. The Mosaic Account of the Creation. — Since we could not discuss the Biblical cosmogony without knowing its text, we will give here the literal trans- lation according to the Hebrew, content- ing ourselves with grouping the works peculiar to each of the six days into so

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    many special paragraphs : "In the begin- ning God created heaven and earth. And the earth was unformed and empty; dark- ness was upon the face of the deep ; and the spirit of God moved over the waters."

    First Day. — "And God said: Be light made ! And light was made. And God saw the light that it was good, and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day and the darkness Night; and there was evening and morn- ing: one day."

    Second Day. — "And God said: Let there be a firmament made amidst the waters and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from those that were above the firmament, and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and morning were the second day."

    Third Day. — " And God said : Let the waters that are under the heaven be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear. And it was so done. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. And God said : Let the earth bring forth the green herbj bearing seed after its kind, and the tree yielding of the fruit which had in itself its seed after its kind. And God saw that it was good. And the earth brought forth the green herb, and such as yieldeth seed according to its kind and the tree that beareth fruit, having seed each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And the even- ing and morning were the third day."

    Fourth Day. — " And God said : Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to distinguish the day and the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years. And let them be lights in the firmament of heaven to give light upon earth. And it was so done. And God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and he made also the stars. And God placed them in the firmament of heaven to shine upon the earth. And to rule the day and the night and to distinguish the light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And the evening and morning were the fourth day."

    Fifth Day.— ''And God said : Let the waters bring forth a multitude of living animals and let the fowl fly over the earth |

    under the firmament of heaven. And God created the great marine monsters and every moving animal of which the waters are swarming, according to their kinds, and every winged fowl according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the waters of the sea, and let the birds be multiplied upon the earth. And the evening and morning were the fifth day."

    Sixth Day. — "And God said : Let the earth bring forth the living animal in its kind, cattle, the creeping being, and the beasts of the earth, according to their kinds. And it was so done. And God made the wild beast after its kind, and the cattle according to its kind, and everything that creepeth on the earth after its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God said : Let us make man to our image, ac- cording to our likeness ; and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and over the fowls of the air, and over the beasts, and over the whole earth, and over every creeping creature upon earth. And God created man to His own image; to the image of God He created him. He created them male and female. And God blessed them, saying : Increase and multi- ply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and all living creatures that move upon the earth. And God said : Behold, I have given you every herb bear- ing seed upon the earth, and all trees that have in themselves seed of their own kind ; this will serve you for nourishment. And to all beasts of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to all that move upon the earth and wherein there is life, all green herb will serve for nourishment. And it was so done. And God saw all the things that He had made, and they were very good. And the evening and morning were the sixth day." "These are," says the sacred writer in the second chapter of Genesis, "the generations of the heaven and the earth on the day when they were created."

    When there is pointed out in this won- derful drama the successive acts by which the intervention of the Creator reveals itself, nine of them present themselves in the following order: (i) Creation of mat- ter ; (3) Apparition of the light ; (3) For- mation of the firmament or of the atmos- phere by the separation of the condensed lower waters and of the waters remaining

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    in the state of vapors ; (4) Emersion of the continents ; (5) Appearance of the plants ; (6) Appearance of the sun, moon, and stars; (7) Creation of the aquatic animals and of the birds; (8) Appearance of the earthly animals ; (9) Creation of man. As can be seen, two distinct works are attrib- uted to the third and to the sixth days. The division of the works of creation into six days cannot be looked upon as arbitrary, and must have had some motive which it is undoubtedly not impossible to discover, that is, the religious institution of the week. As to the order of succession, it is not doubtful, and we shall see further on that, on the whole, it is in accord with the accounts of modem science.

    II. Superiority of the Mosaic Cos- mogony. — Although the cosmogony we have just presented has not escaped the attacks of infidelity, which has pretended to see in it nothing but nonsense and con- tradictions, the most of the Rationalists have acknowledged that it is immensely superior to all the other cosmogonies which antiquity has bequeathed to us. *' It contains not one word," says one of them (Dillman, Genesis (1875), p. 9), "which would appear unworthy of God's thought. From the time that the mystery of creation, which will always remain a mystery for man, was attempted to be sketched, in order to render it conceivable to human intelligence, it was impossible to trace a more magnificent and more worthy tableau. It is with perfect right that they draw from the creative account a proof in favor of its revealed character." ^A fa- mous naturalist, who has become, since the death of Darwin, the principal repre- sentative of the advanced evolutionary school, Haeckel, Professor in the University of Jena, grants the same praises to the Mo- saic history of the creation. He extols in particular " the simple and natural dispo- sition of the ideas exposed therein, which advantageously contrast with the confu- sion of the mythological cosmogonies of most of the ancient peoples. According to Genesis, the Lord God first formed the earth as an inorganic body. Then He separates the light from the darkness, then the waters from the firm earth. And lo, we have the earth habitable for organ- ized beings. Then God forms, in the first place, the plants ; later on, the ani- mals, and even among the latter He fash- ions first the inhabitants of the sea and of the air, and finally those of the firm earth.

    Finally, God creates the last of the organ- ized beings, man ; He creates him accord- ing to his image, in order to be the master of the earth." The illustrious naturalist goes so far as to discover the application of his evolutionary ideas to these suc- cessive and progressive creations. " Al- though," he says, " these great laws of organic evolution . . . may be regarded by Moses as the expression of the activitj' of a creator forming the world, we dis- cover therein, however, the beautiful idea of a progressive evolution, of a gradual differentiation of primitively simple matter. Therefore, we can pay to the grand idea contained in the cosmogony ... of the Jewish legislator a just and sincere tribute of admiration." f^Schopfungsge- schichte).

    In order to fully appreciate the superior- ity of the Mosaic cosmogony, it will not be useless to cast a rapid glance on the others. Aside from some features which seem to have been borrowed from it, or at least drawn from the same source, what exaggerations, what childishness and ex- travagances ! The Chaldean cosmogony, which in many respects approaches ours, shows us, according to Berosus, the su- preme god Bel, cutting into two parts his spouse, of which parts he makes both heaven and earth. Then we have him cutting off his own head, and the other gods modeling men out of the slime im- pregnated with the blood of the divine victim. The Phoenician traditions trans- mitted by Sanchoniaton, represent the primitive world in a state of chaos and wrapped in darkness ; but at the end of a certain number of centuries, they add, the Spirit and the chaos united to produce the world. In India, we have two cos- mogonies: that of Riga-Veda, and the more recent one of the code of Manu. The first, which is rather obscure, shows us still the Deity immolating itself to give birth to the world.

    The code of Manu shows us that the Lord, the supreme and eternal Being, " was self-existent, producing first the waters {nam), into which he deposited a seed." This seed became an egg, brilliant like gold, also sparkling like a star of a thousand rays, and in which the supreme Being himself was born under the form of Brahma, the ancestor of all the beings. *' Hence the name Narayana, the one who moves upon the waters," given to the new being. After having dwelled in this egg one

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    Brahmanic year .(that is, 3, 110,400,000,000 years like ours), the Lord divided this egg into two parts, of wliich he made heaven and earth, separated by the atmosphere, " the eight heavenly regions and the permanent reservoir for the waters." Then from his mouth, his arm, his thigh, and his foot, he drew forth the divierse castes, commencing with the Brahmans. His body, divided into two parts, tJecame half male and half female, and gave birth to a whole hierarchy of beings, in which the spirit loses itself. There are, according to Manu, ten eminent saints called maharchis; then the gnomes, the giants, the vampires, the nymphs, the Titans, etc. In the Egyptian cosmogony, still little known, we see the creator Phtah modeling man on a potter's wheel. Among the Persians we find the division into six epochs ; but these epochs have a duration which varies from forty-five to eighty days. They beheld successively appearing the heavens, the water, the earth, the trees, the animals, and man. There are seven heav- ens, each of which bears a special name. The bull was created before every other animal and lived alone ; but at its death its seed, transported into the lunar heaven, gave rise to the other animals. Man him- self drew his body from the right arm of the first bull. In his turn he lived alone, and at his death he was transformed into a tree, which, cut into two parts, gave birth to a man and a woman, the ancestors of all mankind. We omit numerous details void of all sense or too childish. In Japan, we find again the chaos of Genesis, chaos which gave rise to heaven and earth ; but the earth is represented as swimming upon the sea like a fish, and above it is shown a flower which becomes a divine spirit. The Occi- dental cosmogonies contain the same mix- ture of truth and error, of probability and of absurdities. Greece furnishes very little on the origin of the world and of man. On tlie contrary, we find in her cosmogony long and tedious details about the origin of the gods, who for the most owe their birth to a series of evolutions, the one more improbable than the other. However, at the beginning of mankind, Hesiod shows us the golden age, which might be an altered remembrance of the earthly para- dise. Among the Latins we find, as in the Bible, chaos — rudis indigestaque moles (Ovidius) — , at the beginning of the things. Then, all the elements are confounded — air, earth, and water. After this they separate themselves, and tlie continents

    appear. In the Germanic cosmogony we see an enormous mass of ice springing forth from the North Pole, which by melting gives rise to the chaos. From this chaos God caused to arise the cow Audumbla, which, in licking the ice to find some nour- ishment therein, forms from it the osseous frame of the giant Bur, father of Bor and grandfather of Odin. Then, from the primitive chaos there are formed nine spheres, which represent the entire universe and its inhabitants, — gods, men, giants, gnomes, etc.

    Incomplete as it may be, this short re- view is sufficient to give an idea of the extravagance of the pagan cosmogonies, and to show that they cannot enter into comparison with the simple, sublime, and rational cosmogony which figures at the head of our Sacred Books. "Compare the Biblical account with these fables," said Mgr. Meignan, " and you will admire how the former bears in all its parts the imprint of historic truth. The entire ac- count is sober, plain, clear, and comform- able to reason. Undoubtedly the history of Genesis breathes the highest poetry; it has magnificent traits, sublime words; but we discover therein neither any philo- sophical system, nor any poetic fancy, no obscure myth or childish fables. To this recital, so grand and so simple, we have to reduce all the exaggerations of the other cosmogonies."

    III. The Scientific Cosmogony. — Before passing to the critical study of the Biblical cosmogony, it is necessary to briefly notice what science teaches us on the same subject. The history of our globe may be divided into two plainly dis- tinct parts, the one anterior, the other posterior, to the appearance of life. The first, eminently conjectural, because it escapes the direct observation, is connected with the astronomical and physical sci- ences ; the second, more precise and better known, belongs to the domain of geology. Let us throw a rapid glance on both.

    I. Cosmic Era. — According to a theory generally admitted and which everything confirms, the earth and the other planets and satellites which form a part of the solar system, were primitively in the gaseous state, and in this state constituted an im- mense sphere, of a radius at least equal to the distance of the sun from Neptune, the most remote planet. This gaseous sphere, which they have called the primitive neb- ula, was endowed with a rotary move-

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    ment which by and by became accelerated as a result of the condensation. The cen- trifugal force developing itself in propor- tion, gaseous particles, perhaps even com- plete rings, detached themselves from the surface of the immense sphere, at its equa- torial part, and by concentrating them- selves gave rise to the planets, which themselves still gaseous, produced the satel- lites in the same manner. The nucleus of the nebula, not yet entirely condensed, is nothing else than the sun, whose mass is seven hundred times above that of all the planets united with their satellites. This hypothesis, to which Herschel and Laplace have, attached their names, rests upon numerous facts. It is observed, for in- stance, that the density of matter increases upon our planet from the surface to the center, and undoubtedly also from the most remote planets to the sun itself, which is probably still in a gaseous state. In the second place, the different phases through which our nebula must have passed are again found in our days in our solar system, or in the extraneous systems. The teles- cope here shows us nebulae which seem in the process of becoming condensed ; there, suns on the point of being extinguished in order to become planets; elsewhere, planets or satellites, like the moon, that have attained, it would seem, the extreme point of their transformations and be- come uninhabitable in default of atmos- phere- A last argument appealed to in confirmation of this system consists in the uniformity of the rotary and revolutionary movements of the planets and of their satellites, all of which, or nearly all, are direct, that is, executed from west to east. We say almost all, for it is believed to have been established within the last few years that the movements of the satellites of the two most remote planets, Uranus, and Neptune, are effected from east to w^est; but this exception, if it be real, does not, whatever may be said, run counter to the system attributed to Laplace. It is rather a quite natural consequence of the law of Kepler, who claims that the celestial bodies most remote from the star around which they gravitate have a swiftness the inverse of their distance. But here is not the place to insist on a question of such a technical nature. In spite of the criticisms to which it might have been exposed, the theory which beholds in the heavenly bodies so many fragments more or less con- densed of an ancient nebula is universally

    accepted by the learned world, and although it may not be susceptible of a direct demon- stration, and may be variously understood in the details, it is a very difficult thing to prove it lacking in a foundation of truth.

    But the matter of which the universe is composed could not pass abruptly from the gaseous into the solid state. In the interval there was a liquid or doughy state, which must have sers^ed as tran- sitional. The molecules drawn together through the effect of condensation, which itself resulted from the law of attraction, combined themselves in such a manner as to form solid bodies, and in combining themselves they must have produced heat and light. Nevertheless, the principal source of heat has been the condensation itself of the nebula, condensation which, by continuing before our eyes in the sun, makes of this central astral sphere the radiant heat-giver which sustains life upon our planet.

    Much smaller than the sun, the earth necessarily passed more quickly through the diverse phases through which it seems every heavenly body is called upon to pass. Like its satellite, the moon, which had become detached from its still gaseous mass, our globe needed only a relatively short time to transform itself from a simple nebula into a luminous sun, and from a sun into a cooled planet, capable of being inhabited. To the gaseous state, as we have said, succeeded the liquid state, and to the latter the solid state. In conse- quence of the perpetual radiation that was produced on its surface, the superficial layer became solidified first, so as to form a thin crust similar to that which covers the currents of lava after a volcanic eruption. Often broken at the beginning, on account of its thinness and of the violence of the internal fire, this crust ended by reconstituting, consolidating, and cooling itself, so as to permit vege- table and animal life to develop on its surface. Then commences the geological era, which we have to describe briefly.

    2. Geological Era. — This era has been divided into three long epochs, called Primary (or epoch of Transition), Sec- ondary, and Tertiary. Very often geolo- gists add a fourth epoch, of which the actual age is only the extension of the Tertiary, called the Quaternary epoch; but on account of its short duration, con- fusion, and absence of precise character- istics, the latter epoch cannot, by common

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    consent, enter into comparison with the foregoing ones. The characteristics of the geological epochs are as follows : The first has been the era of the vegetables; the second the era of the aquatic animals, especially of the reptiles ; the third the era of the terrestrial animals, and the fourth the human era. But without making here a course of geology, we shall enter some- what more into details.

    a. The Primary epoch is also called, as we have said, the Period of Transition, be- cause the grounds which represent it mark it as a passage between the rocks of fiery origin, which constitute the mass of the earthly crust, and the sedimentary rocks, deposited at the bottom of the waters and often enriched with fossil remains of plants and animals. It is divided into five periods, which correspond to the successive forma- tion of the Cambrtati, Siluriqn, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian strata. Life seems to have appeared upon earth at the beginning of the Cambrian period, under the form of the lowest beings, — annelides, polyps, graptolithes, etc., — belonging to the lowest steps of the animal ladder. It developed itself in the period following; but it is still represented only by beings of minute structure, mostly aquatic, the conti- nents having yet hardly made their appear- ance. The species which dominates in this humble fauna is a family of Crustacea called tribolites, on account of the three lobes that characterize them and* distinguish them from the other existing beings. However, in the upper part of the Silurian stratum fishes appear; but they are scarce and of slight dimensions. The Carbonif- erous period, which follows, is the most important of the primary school. On the recently emerged continents, thanks to the humidity, the still intense and uniform heat, and the carbonic acid abundantly spread over the impure atmosphere of the primitive era, there develops a luxuriant vegetation, whose debris, carried along by the waters into the estuaries and lakes, gave rise to immense deposits of coal, which foster modern industry. When, later on, it was represented by plants of a more ele- vated order, at no time in the history of the globe has it been so abundant. This won- derful vegetation continues, while becom- ing weaker, during that Permian period, which is, so to say, only a prolongation of the preceding, although it had its char- acteristics in certain moUusks which then made their appearance.

    b. Four times less extended than the Primary period, when we judge it by the thickness of the strata which are connected with it, the Secondary epoch, divided in its turn into three periods, Triassic, furas- sic, and Cretaceous, has been essentially that of reptiles, and especially of aquatic reptiles. Undoubtedly, the mollusks are always the most numerous in it, as, witness the ammonites and belemnites, which oc- cupy such a large place in the glass cases of our paleontological collections; but the cold-blooded vertebrae, the fishes and the reptiles, attract the attention still more on account of their strange forms or their im- posing proportions. The reptiles, especially, in this period, have dimensions which we no longer find in the existing fauna. Such are the ichthyosaurus, the megalosaurus, animals, more or less amphibious, of the Saurian family, which measured more than thirty feet in length. Others, like the pterodactylns and the ramphorhynchus, had the strange privilege of being provided with wings and with the power of flying, or at least of maintaining themselves in the air for some time. In that time also the birds make their appearance. We can rec- ognize them by the imprints which their feet have left on the strands of the period, and also by their bones, which, however, are very rare. As to the class of fishes, which we have seen making their appear- ance in the Primary epoch, it maintains and develops itself during the Secondary epoch, especially towards the end, during the de- posit of the cretaceous layers, without, how- ever, assuming extraordinary proportions.

    c. The Tertiary epoch, the third of the geological times, much resembles our own from the point of view of the fauna. It is par excellence the era of the earthly ani- mals. All the families of mammifera are represented therein, but none by more gigantic animals than that of the pachy- derms. Aside from the paleotherium and the acerotherium, which seemed to fore- cast our rhinoceros, and aside from the hipparion, whose transformation has made it the ancestor of the horse, we see the dinotherium and the mastodon, "the most imposing of the earthly mammifera which have lived upon our globe." (Albert Gaudry.) The dinotherium attained to fifteen feet in height. The mastodon, which hardly differed from the elephant except by its knobbed dentition, prevailed, however, over the latter through its still more colossal proportions.

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    d. Finally, in the superficial strata which represent the Quaternary epoch, or, if you wish, the beginnings of the actual era, we find the real elephant, the mammoth, and, aside from this, the predecessors of our actual species, the rhinoceros, the bear, the stag, the horse, etc., and finally man himself, our ancestor, whom we recognize bj-.the rude implements of stone which he fashioned, more than bj' his bones, which are almost always of a doubtful authen- ticity.

    Such are, in summary, the diverse mani- festations of life on the surface of the globe. In the primary times, there were neither mamraifera nor birds, but low mollusks, crustaceae (tribolites), some fishes, the first batrachians, and especially a luxuriant vegetation which gave us our immense layers of coal. Favored by a warm and cloudy atmosphere, which is not without analogy to that of our tropical regions, this vegetation ended in puri- fying the air, from which it removed the excess of carbonic acid, and perhaps the other impurities which until then un- doubtedly had been an obstacle to the direct action of the solar rays. Hence- forth, terrestrial air-breathing and pulmo- nary animals will be enabled to live upon the earth. They also make their appear- ance in the Secondary epoch, first under the form of more or less amphibious rep- tiles, for undoubtedly the continents are as yet little extended and the air has not acquired its definitive purity. Only toward the end of the Secondary period do the birds appear, whose energetic respiration requires an air rich in oxygen; and some of the lower mammifera. Thanks to these same conditions, the great terrestrial ani- mals arrive in their turn to animate nature, henceforth ready to receive man himself, the last arrival of the createa beings. This is the Tertiary epoch, of which the present era is, so to say, only the contin- uation.

    IV. Accord Between Science and THE Bible. — If we will now go back to the first chapter of Genesis, which we have^ given at the head of this article, we will find there, instead of an alleged dis- cord, a striking resemblance to the pre- ceding cosmogony. To convince ourselves of this, let us examine successively each of the Genetical days.

    Creation of Matter. — The creation of matter preceded every other intervention of the Deity in the production of the vis-

    ible world ; science requires this not less than logic. Science proves, indeed, that matter cannot be eternal. By teaching us that it took successive forms in an uninter- rupted progress from one to another, pass- ing from the simple and gaseous state into the composite and solid state, it shows it to us at the beginning in a state of the greatest simplicity. It is impossible to go back further than to the beginning of the evolutionary period. At this point of the past, w-hich, although extremely remote, cannot have been infinite, creation asserts itself. It is the moment when God launched the material atoms into space, subjecting them to laws which have formed of them our actual world. The ex- pressions of which the sacred writer makes use, seem to indicate that he had an idea about the state of matter as it went forth from the hand^s of the Creator conformable to that of contemporary science. The earth, he tells us, -was unformed and emfty (Gen. i. 2). "Invisible and without con- sistency," says the Septuagint. These words may be applied to the primitive nebula, whose elements were so rarefied that it was inferior in density, astronomers tell us, to the air that remains in the pneu- matic machine after the attempt at a vacuum.

    First Day. — It was marked by the ap- pearance of light. Thus it preceded the light of the sun by three days. This fact, far from being in contradiction with science, denotes, on the contrary, in the sacred writer an extraordinary intuition, which can hardly be explained without a special revelation. To speak of light be- fore pointing out the existence of the hearth which is to-day the only source thereof, must have appeared paradoxical in times of yore, and an ordinary writer would undoubtedly never have even dreamed of this. It needed the progress of modern science to verify the author of Genesis. We know now that the sun did not need to be the first hearth of light to enlighten the earth.

    Geology teaches us that long after life had appeared on the globe under the forms of vegetables and the lower animals, at least until the carboniferous period, our planet was surrounded by an opaque at- mosphere charged with carbonic acid, gaseous matters, and watery vapors, which an elevated temperature hindered from becoming entirely condensed. In conse- quence of these perpetual clouds, very favorable to vegetation when joined with

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    heat and dampness, the luminous rays emitted by the stars were intercepted, so to say, and the earth received only a diffusive light. It was only when the tem- perature had become somewhat lower, and when the wonderful vegetation of the car- boniferous times had absorbed the greater part of the carbon with which the atmos- phere was saturated, that the humble inhabitants of the earth could see the solar disk and the other stars. Hence it is not without reason that the sacred account postpones, until this date, posterior to the great vegetable manifestation of the third day, or of the carboniferous period, the appearance of the sun, moon, and stars. For, we must not forget, the sacred writer does not tell us that these heavenly bodies were created on this day. The word bara, which signifies to create in Hebrew, is used by him only in rare circumstances and always with a deliberate intention, for instance, for the first appearance of mat- ter. The word here used, asak, has evi- dently not the same force. It signifies at most to make, and we have no right to ex- aggerate or alter its meaning. Let us conclude from what precedes, on the one hand, that the sun was not the first hearth of light that illuminated the earth; on the other hand, that its disk became visible only quite late, undoubtedly long after it had already fulfilled its actual role, — a double reason why the sacred writer could, even had to, in spite of the sneers of the last century, mention its appearance long after that of the light.

    Second Day. — The first day, joining with it the period that preceded the appear- ance of light, must have been of immense duration. We can consider this epoch as extending from the very creation of the elements of matter until the time when the earthly crust commenced to form itself. Therefore, it comprises the whole time during which the earth remained in the gaseous state. As to the second dav, it ex- tended from the formation of the solid crust to the emersion or appearance of the continents, and will comprise not only the Azoic age of the geologists, but also at least the whole Cambrian period, the first of the geological eras ; for there is every rea- son to believe that the continents did not yet exist in this period. At least the ani- mal and vegetable kingdoms have not fur- nished us until now with any distinctly ter- restrial fossil that dates from these remote times. We can even, it seems, say the

    same of the first part of the Silurian period.

    Be this as it may, on the second day, the Bible tells us, the waters that were above separated themselves from those that were below. What does this mean, if not that the water, maintained until now in the vaporous state through the intense heat which radiated from the globe, and not yet solidified, then became partly condensed .'' All this is conformable to the accounts of science. At the same time that the earthly crust became thicker and cooler, the vapor- ous water evidently must have become condensed, and by condensing have formed round the globe a continuous liquid mass; for if there behereand there inequalities of the soil, such as are to be met with in the cooled volcanic lavas, there are asyet noele- vations or depressions which might merit the name of mountains. However, the tem- perature is still very high, because a part of the vapors remains yet a long time in the state of clouds high in the heavens. This is really the separation of the waters from the waters, of which the sacred writer speaks; it is the formation of the atmos- phere or of the firmament, to use the ex- pression consecrated by the Vulgate. However, the waters become cooler by and by and permit the development of life at the bottom of the seas under the most humble forms. This is the beginning of the Primary Epoch. If the Bible does not tell us anything of these first beings, it is because, buried in the depth of the waters, they have played in the history of the globe a role which may interest science, but not man, generally speaking.

    Third Day. — Until now the waters covered the entire face of the earth, still destitute of sensible life. But behold the mountains and plateaus rising and permit- ting life, until now relegated to the bottom of the seas, to develop itself upon the firm earth. The earthly crust has become thicker. In order to continue to rest on the liquid nucleus, which has diminished in volume, it bends itself, and these bendings form the mountains. This appearance of the continents inaugurates the third part of the creative work. Upon these freshly emerged lands develops, thanks to the dampness, heat, and atmosphere always saturated with carbon and watery vapors, the luxuriant vegetation which character- izes the carboniferous period. Here again everything is rational and conformable to the teachings of science. The dominant trait of the Primary epocli, like that of

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    the third genetical day^ is, after the for- mation of the continents, the development of the vegetation, which never in any other epoch attained a similar exuberance. If the sacred writer really intended to seize the characteristics of each of the days of the creation ; to note down in a few words that which would have especially struck every spectator who had assisted at the slow formation of the world, it would have been about the plants, and about the plants alone, he should have instructed us, after having pointed out the emersion of the first continents. Undoubtedly, it was not the vegetable life alone that existed in this period. Animals of an inferior order, mollusks, Crustacea, even some vertebrates of the class of fishes, lived concurrently ; but, buried at the bottom of the waters, these beings passed in some way unper- ceived in the midst of the abundant car- boniferous vegetation. Hence it is that some exegetists have wrongfully appealed to this silence of the inspired author in order to refuse to identify the carboniferous period with the third day of the creation. Their objection would, perhaps, have some value, if Moses attributed the appearance of the fishes to another period ; but he does not do this. He does not even mention them on the fifth day. The aquatic animals which he points out at this date are not fishes, but marine monsters and reptiles of whimsical and imposing forms, — a new proof that the inspired writer contents himself with pointing out at each epoch that which constitutes for the mass of men the striking and characteristic feature. Now, that which constitutes for everybody, even for the learned, the characteristic feature of the Primary epoch, is evidently its vegetation. In view of the mighty spectacle it presents, the humble fishes that were swimming in the seas of that period could be overlooked.

    Fourth Day. — The event referred to at this date by the sacred writer, namely, the appearance of the sun, moon, and stars, does not belong to the domain of geology and almost escapes scientific treatment altogether. However, it is conformable to the accounts of science. It is quite natural, indeed, that the air, purified through the abundant vegetation of the foregoing period, permitted the luminous rays emanating from the heavenly bodies to reach our planet for the first time. Hence it is no longer only a diffusive light which the earth receives; henceforth the

    sun, moon, and stars will be visible, at least at intervals. It is undoubtedly in this sense rather than, as we have said, in the sense of a real creation, that we must understand the sacred text. It would be contrary to the scientific probabilities that all the heavenly bodies should have been created at the same time and in this late period. Also, as we have seen before, Genesis does not speak here of a creation. The word bar a {to create)., which has thus far been employed only once, in regard to the first appearance of matter, will not be epiployed any more except in regard to animals and man ; which is also conform- able to the requirements of sound phi- losophy.

    The fourth genetical day could not have had such a considerable duration as the preceding ones. We can place it geo- logically only between the Carboniferous period and the Secondary epoch, the former of which clearly corresponds to the third Biblical Day, and the latter to the fifth. In fact, the single event to which it is devoted, the appearance of the astral bodies, must have been almost instanta- neous ; a rent produced in the thick clouds that veiled the heavens was sufficient to reveal to the earthly beings, yet of so in- ferior a type, the celestial wonders. How- ever, a considerable length of time must have elapsed before this spectacle, at first exceptional and very rare, was offered al- most constantly to the earth, and this time, which constitutes the fourth day, may be identified with the Permian period, the last of the Primary epoch. The carbonifer- ous vegetation which then continued, it is true, but with less exuberance, must have resulted in completing the purification of the atmosphere and preparing the way for the arrival of pulmonary-breathing ani- mals.

    Fifth Day. — The work of this day is a double one; it consists in the successive creation of the aquatic reptiles and of the birds. It is something remarkable that the Secondary period of geology presents to us the same animals in the same order. Since the Triassic period, which consti- tutes the first part thereof, we see appear- ing various reptiles of the class of the swimming saurians. However, the most monstrous of these reptiles, such as the ichthyosaurus, for instance, appear only later, in the Jurassic epoch. As to the birds, they have found but little of their re- mains or imprints, except in the Creta-

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    ceous layers, — that is, on the upper part of the secondary strata. It is true they are not very numerous therein, but they are no more so in the periods following. This comparative rarity is due undoubtedly to the tenderness of their bones, which could hardly resist the destructive action of time. It is due also, according to Pictet, to their specific weight, which being in- ferior to that of water, prevented them from becoming fossilized, as it caused them to float on the surface in* cases of inundation, and thus become a prey to the voracity of fishes and of other carnivorous animals. Besides it is well to remark that the Hebrew word of, employed here, and generally translated bird, is not, however, con- fined to this sense exclusively ; it also signi- fies ^jy/'w^^ creature and consequently may be applied to winged reptiles, such as the fterodactylus and the ramphorhynchus, as well as to birds, properly speaking.

    The same remark applies still more rig- orously to the fishes, whose creation it is customary to refer to the fifth day. In reality, there is no question of fishes at this date, but only of marine monsters and of animals which crawl in the water. More- over, the geological epoch called Second- ary is remarkable, not only for its fishes, but for its marine monsters and aquatic reptiles; so that they have called this period " the age of reptiles." But one fact to which sufficient attention has not until now been paid, is that these reptiles are all, or nearly all, aquatic. Of the various orders which compose this class, a single one only, that of the ophidians (serpents), has almost exclusively earthly habits ; be- sides, it is not represented in the Sec- ondary epoch, while the others are abound- ing in the strata of this age.

    It seems, then, that all the Secondary reptiles frequented the seas, lakes, or rivers : which is in conformity with the Biblical account, which makes the fifth day the era of the aquatic animals. Let us remark, however, that if they should succeed in establishing among these rep- tiles some land species, the veracity of the sacred writer would not suffer on this ac- count. It would always remain true that the marine monsters and the aquatic rep- tiles have constituted, before and contem- poraneous with the birds, the striking feature of the fifth day, and it would be poor grace for us to require from a writer, who devotes his pen to great outlines, to point out such very small exceptions.

    Sixth Day. — The sixth and last part of the creative work undoubtedly corresponds to the Tertiary epoch of the geologists. According to both the Bible and science, this epoch is preeminently the age of the earthly animals. Certainly among the mammifera, then so numerous, there ex- isted some species which, like our present cetacea, lived in the sea ; but, except the group of aquatic animals, which appeared in the preceding period, they are relatively scarce, especially when we consider the facility with which their remains ought to have been preserved at the bottom of the waters. That which dominates in the Tertiary fauna, are before all the pachy- derms and the ruminants. These have given to this period its peculiar physiog- nomy, and it was quite natural for a writer, who neglects the details and has no scientific pretensions, to concentrate his intention upon them. We will not take the trouble to enumerate them. To form an idea of their importance and of their variety, it is enough to glance at any geo- logical treatise.

    But a still more important work is at- tributed to the sixth day: Man is created. Here there is question of a real creation. The expression used is the word bara, which signifies to draw out from noth- ing; and which we have met only twice : first in regard to the appearance of mat- ter, and the second time at the creation of the first animal ; a double circumstance where sound reason, resting upon science, claims, indeed, the creative intervention of God.

    A little difficulty presents itself as to the subject of the identification of the sixth Genetical day with the Tertiary epoch. The Bible refers the creation of man to the sixth day, while geology shows us man only in the Quaternary epoch. We might answer that certain scientists have pretended to find in the Tertiary layers manifest proofs of the existence of our species ; but their opinion is to-day almost unanimously rejected, as we shall see in another place. It will be sufficient for us to remark, in answer to this objection, that the Quaternary epoch has been sepa- rated arbitrarily, and without sufficient reason, from the preceding period. It is so little distinct from it, and has such weak titles to be placed upon the same footing as the great geological epochs, that the English scientists have made of it a simple appendant of the Pliocene period,

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    the last of the Tertiary times, and for this reason have called it Postpliocene.

    The very remarkable accord which we find established between the Biblical cos- mogony and the teaching of science has struck, as we have said already, many learned investigators. The chronological sequel of the events is exactly the same in both, says Pfaff, in his Schopfungsge- schickte: ** The primitive chaos ; the earth covered first by the waters, afterwards emerging; the formation of the inorganic kingdom followed by the vegetable king- dom, then by the animal kingdom, which has for first representatives the animals liv- ing in the water, and after them the earthly animals ; man appearing the last of all : such is, indeed, the real succession of the beings ; such are, indeed, the diverse periods of the history of the creation, periods designated under the name of days." In face of a similar accord one is tempted to cry out with Ampere : ♦' Either Moses had a scientific knowledge as pro- found as that of our century, or he was inspired."

    The table below sums up what we have just said on the manner in which we un- derstand the identification of the two cos- mogonies, the scientific and Biblical : —

    received the name of concordistic system, or system of day-periods. The latter name is given to it because, in the days of Genesis, it beholds not ordinary days, but periods or epochs of indeterminate duration.

    That the day may be taken in this sense can hardly be questioned.' In English, this word is sometimes taken in the meta- phorical sense with an analogous meaning; but the Hebrew word row, which they have translated day, has a still broader mean- ing. We have a proof of this in the Bible itself, which often uses it in a figurative sense. (See especially Gen. ii. 4; Ex. x. 6; Lev, vii. 35; Num. vii. 10; Deut. ix. 24.) One may ask, besides, how the first three days could have been days of twenty-four hours. It, is in fact, the sun which regu- lates the duration of our ordinary days ; now, according to the common interpreta- tion, it did not yet exist at this time. But if the first days were not of twenty-four hours, why should those following be so }

    It is customary to appeal to tradition against the concordistic system. The Fathers and Doctors of the Church have always, they tell us, taken the word day of Genesis in its literal sense. We answer that there are numerous and imposing ex- ceptions to this rule. St. Augustine, St.

    AGREEMENT OF THE TWO COSMOGONIES

    Epochs

    1ST Scientific

    Periods

    2d Biblical

    Common Characters

    Cosmic .

    Secoxdary .

    Tertiary

    Quaternary .

    Id.

    Id. Cambrian

    sii-- }^^ghJr:;::::

    Devonian

    Carboniferous

    Permian

    Triassic )

    Jurassic >

    Cretaceous J

    Eocene

    Miocene

    Pliocene

    Postpliocene

    First day.

    Second day .

    Third day |

    Fourth day

    Fifth day }

    Sixth day I

    Creation of matter in the gaseous state. Appearance of light.

    Transformation of a part of the waterj' vapors that surround the whole earth ; formatiou of the at- mosphere.

    Emersion of the continents. Kingdom of plants.

    Appearance of the celestial bodies.

    Kingdom of marine monsters, aquatic reptiles, and birds.

    Kingdom of the earthly animals. Creation of man.

    V. Concordistic, Restitutionist, AND Idealistic Systems. — i. Concord- istic System. The opinion which sees in the first chapter of Genesis a page of his- tory and seeks to put it in accord with the scientific accounts, as we have just done, has

    Thomas, and many others are of this num- ber. We may add that if Christian tradi- tion is divided in this respect, pagan tradition is hardly so. The Phcenicians, the Persians, the Hindoos, the Chaldeans, the Etruscans, etc., believed in the division

    Cosmogony

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    Cosmogony

    of the creation into periods, and generally into six periods of long duration. Does this not tell us that we must understand in the same sense the equivocal word used by the author of Genesis? We may believe that Moses purposely employed a word which signified at once a day of twenty- four hours and a long period. In any case, it cannot be questioned that it was his pur- pose to make of this divine week the sym- bol and type of the ordinary week, which is really composed of days of twenty-four hours. Therefore, we can understand why he preferably employed a word which had a double meaning, even if he had at his disposition another more precise : which is more than doubtful. In view of all these reasons which we can only allude to, the exegetists are evidently free to see in the days of Genesis periods of long dura- tion.

    2. Restitutionist System. — The com- mentators who at the beginning of this century had to explain Genesis conform- ably to the teachings of the rising geology hesitated at first to attribute to the day a meaning diflferent from the literal sense to which they were accustomed. They pre- ferred to place outside the Biblical cosmog- ony, between the creation and the first day, the long series of the geological ages. According to them, after the millions of years required by science for the evolution of our planet and the formation of the earthly strata, a cataclysm should have taken place. All life should have been an- nihilated upon earth, and the Creator should have taken up again His work, this time in six days, each of twenty-four hours, conformably to the saying of the sacred writer. This theory which bears the name of Buckland, an Englishman, and is still called restitutionist or the theory of res- toration, is to-day almost totally aban- doned, for reasons which we can reduce to three: (i) It is difficult to form an idea of a cataclysm which would have overthrown the earth so as to annihilate both plants and animals, to cause the disappearance even of light, and to reduce our globe to the state expressed by the terra inanis et vacua of Moses. (2) It is repugnant to admit that God, who had employed num- berless ages in organizing the world a first time, had gone about the work a second time employing some days of only twenty- four hours, each. (3) Finally, geology nowhere and in no epoch presents traces of the supposed cataclysm. It even con-

    tradicts this hypothesis in the most formal manner ; for if it shows us modifications in both the fauna and flora of the geological times, these modifications are effected quite slowly. Nowhere is there an absolute interruption in the vegetable and animal life. Plants and animals always pass in part from one epoch to the following, thus showing that there has been no complete annihilation in the interval. Therefore, from both the scientific and rational point of view, the restitutionist system is inad- missible.

    3. Idealistic System. — There is another theory which counts a greater number of adherents; this is the idealistic system. It consists in denying the historical character of the genetical account of the creation. Moses had not, they tell us, the intention of relating scientifically the origin of the world. His object was to give to the He- brew people a religious instruction which taught them the existence of a God, Creator, and the duties which they had to fulfill toward God. Hence, they were truths of the philosophical and moral order which he wished to impress upon their mind. But he did not present them under the didactic form, which the people could hardly under- stand, and which is especially in opposition to the spirit of the Orientals ; he had re- course to a dramatic setting. Taking in turn what the Israelites had before their eyes, he represented God creating all this : heaven and earth, the green fields, the seeds man sows, the trees, the animals liv- ing in the water, upon earth, in the air, the sun which enlightens the day, the moon which shines during night, — finally, man himself. Then, as he had to establish a positive law, — the law of the Sabbatic rest, — he distributed into the six days' work of one week the works of the creation. It is very probable that it never entered his mind to ask how much time it needed for God to create the world. This question of mere curiosity did not interest him. What he aimed at, was to give to his people the only teaching that suited them, — a religious teaching.

    We do not adopt this system. Our pref- erences are for the concordistic system, and the best reason we can give for this consists in the wonderful exactitude which we have established from the scientific point of view in the Biblical account of the creation. By refusing to admit the his- torical character of this account, the ad- herents of idealism deprive themselves

    Councils

    222

    Councils

    willfully of a great argument in support of the inspiration of our Sacred Books ; for the accord to which they obstinately close their eyes does not appear to us to be an effect of chance. Is it not an astonishing fact that the only three genetical days which can be verified by geology, the third, fifth, and sixth, correspond exactly, as to the characteristics attributed to them, to the three great geological epochs? Also, who could have taught Moses that the world commenced with chaos ? that matter was in the beginning in such a state of rarity that it escaped, so to speak, the sight : inz'isibilis et incomfositaf that, later on, the water covered the whole surface of the globe? that the aquatic animals appeared upon earth in the same epoch as the " fowl " and preceded the terrestrial animals? finally, that the light preceded the appear- ance of the sun? Would the sacred writer have imagined the latter fact, if he had had no other guide but his reason ? The pretended contradictions alleged between the Biblical cosmogony and the scientific teaching have not the least reality. Who- ever adheres to the certain teachings of geology, and, on the other hand, knows the part which imagery and metaphor play in the Oriental languages, is forced to acknowledge the striking accord of the two cosmogonal systems. We repeat it : the Bible does not treat on scientific questions. This is true ; but does it follow from this that it can be deceived in regard to facts that touch upon science? Undoubtedly, no one would dare to maintain this. There- fore, let us conclude that if the division of the works of creation into six days or peri- ods may be considered as arbitrary, it pre- sents itself at least in the chronological order.

    Councils {Ecumenical). — The word ecu- menical means ivorld-ividcy and hence an Ecumenical Council is one gathered from the entire Church, and having authority over the whole. The word general is often used as synonymous with ecumeni- cal, but some writers make a distinction, employing general to signify a council which embraces the whole of the Greek- speaking or the Latin-speaking Church. We shall use the two words indifferently. A general council represents the whole body of the episcopate, and thus cannot fail in the faith. The assembly of a gen- eral council is never absolutely necessary, unless we except the possible case of an

    ex cathedra utterance being absolutely necessary in order to check some grave existing evil, while at the same time con- sultation with the assembled bishops of the whole Church is needed in order that the Pontiff may assure himself of the truth, and for securing the existence of the Church. For the papal authority is, absolutely speaking, sufficient to cope with all difficulties, whether they touch faith or morals, heresy or schism; the Pontiff can teach with infallible authority what men are bound to believe, and he can make such laws as the occasion may demand. No council can do more, for the free wills of men are not constrained. Occasions may, however, arise when the advance of some great evil cannot be effectually stayed by the authority of the Pope alone, and in these circumstances it is in a sense necessary for him to seek the moral support of the episcopate assem- bled in council ; but these occasions are not of frequent occurrence, and will prob- ably be less frequent as time goes on, and the exchange of sentiments more easily facilitated without actual meeting. The Church had existed for nearly three hundred years before the first General Council met at Nice, in 325 ; and more than that period elapsed between the close of the Council of Trent, in 1563, and the opening of the Council of the Vatican, in 1869. The right to con%'oke a General Council belongs to the Roman Pontiff alone, for he alone has jurisdiction over the whole Church, entitling him to call all the bishops to meet together. If a num- ber of bishops come together without the papal summons or consent, they do not constitute a General Council ; but their proceedings may subsequently attain to that authority, if they receive the ratifica- tion of the Holy See.

    The general councils, among which is not enumerated the one held by the Apos- tles at Jerusalem, are twenty in number.

    1. The First Council of Nice convened in 325. Three hundred and eighteen bishops were assembled at this Council and re- jected the heresy of Arius and fixed the date of the festival of Easter, correcting the error of the Quartodecimans. In several respects, the Council of Sardica (343) is considered a continuation of that of Nice.

    2. The Jirst Council of Constantinople, in 381, proclaimed the divinity of the Holy Ghost, against the Macedonians. There were 150 bishops present. 3. The Council

    Cowl

    223

    Cranmer

    of Ephesus, in 431, in which 200 bishops condemned the heresy of Nestorius. 4. The Council of Chalcedon, in 451, in which 630 bishops anathematized the error of Eutyches. 5. The Second Council of Con- stantinople, in 553, in which 165 bishops pronounced themselves against the Three Chapters. 6. The Third Council of Con- stantinople, in 681, which condemned, through the mouth of 189 bishops, the er- rors of the Monothelites. 7. The Second Council of Nice, in 787, convened to defend the veneration of images against the Icono- clasts. It comprised more than 350 bish- ops. 8. The Fourth Council of Cottstanti- nople, in 889, where more than 200 bishops put an end to the schism of Photius. How- ever, the schism was revived, and finally led to the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches. Consequently, it was the last General Council held in the East. 9. First Lateran Council, in 1123, in which 900 bishops decided on the abo- liton of the investitures of the crosier and ring. 10. Second Laterafi Council, in iiy), in which they condemned the schism of Peter de Bruys and the heresy of Arnold of Brescia. 11. Third Lateran Council, in 1 179, in which they condemned the Albi- genses and Waldenses. 12. Fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, in which they condemned the errors of the Abbe Joachim and the heresy of Amaury. 13. The First General Council of Lyons, in 1245, endeavored to eflPect a reunion between the Greek and Ro- man Churches, called the Christians to arms against the Saracens and the Mongolians and excommunicated Frederick II.,emperor of Germany. 14. The Second General Council of Lyons, in 1274, attempted a re- union with the Greek Church, proclaimed anew the dogma of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son. 15. The Council of Vienne, in 131 1, which abolished the Order of the Templars and condemned the Fratricelli, the Beghards and the Beguines. 16. T\\\\\\\\e Council of Con- stance, in 1414, was not legitimate at its commencement and only became so by the posterior convocation of Gregory XII. It restored the unity of the Church ; after which Pope Martin V., legitimately elected, confirmed the anterior decrees of the assembly against the doctrines of Wycliflfe and of John Huss. 17. The Council of Basle (1431-1442), which ceased to be legitimate when Pope Eu- genius IV. had transferred the assembly to Ferrara (1438), thence to Florence in 1439,

    where they concluded the reunion with the Greek Church. 18. Fifth Lateran

    Council, in 1512, is not generally acknowl- edged as ecumenical, but this is erroneous ; none of the conditions of legitimacy were wanting to it. The Galileans did not wish to acknowledge it, because it had pro- claimed the abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction. 19. The Council of Trent, con- vened m 1545, and after several interrup- tions, closed in 1563. It restored the ec- clesiastical discipline and condemned the doctrines of Luther, Zwingle, and Calvin. See Trent (C

    Vatican Council, which was opened under Pope Pius IX., Dec. 8th, 1869. There were present at this Council 769 bishops. The work actually completed during the first meeting of the Vatican Council con- sisted of two Dogmatic Constitutions. The first, '♦ On Catholic Faith," purposes to affirm and define the existence of a super- natural order as opposed to rationalism and naturalism. Its four chapters, affirm- ing the existence of two orders of truth, are on God, the Creator of all things; on Revelation; on Faith; and on Faith and Reason. To these were added eighteen canons proscribing the errors at variance with divine revelation and faith. The second Constitution — the "First on the Church of Christ," in three chapters, — treats of the institution, the perpetuity, and nature of the primacy of the Roman PontiflF; the fourth and last chapter de- fines the infallible teaching of the Pope in matters of faith and morals. On July 18th, the Fourth Public Session was held and the Constitution, Pastor y^ternus, consti- tuting the definition of Papal Infallibility was promulgated. On the same day that the Vatican Council defined the dogma of the Infallibility, Napoleon III. declared war against Prussia. The withdrawal of the French troops from Rome and the oc- cupation of that city by the Piedmontese king, Victor Emmanuel, caused the Pope (Oct. 2oth) to indefinitely suspend the sessions of the Council of the Vatican.

    CoTvl. — A hood attached to a gown or robe, so adjusted that it may be drawn over the head or worn upon the shoulders. A part of the dress adopted by monks, usually of black, gray, or brown color varying in length in different ages and ac- cording to the usages of different orders.

    Cranmer (Thomas) (1489-1556). — First Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury.

    Creation

    224

    Creationism

    Professor of theology at the University of Cambridge, he married there, against the rules, a first wife, became priest, chaplain of the family of Anne Boleyn, whom Henry VIII. had already resolved to marry, and composed a treatise to justify the divorce of the king. Rewarded by the gift of an abbey, he was afterwards sent to Rome to resume the negotiations with the Pope. Through double dealing he ob- tained the title of great Penitentiary. He then went to Germany, to recruit there among the principal heads of the Refor- mation, followers in favor of the project of the king's divorce. At Nuremberg he contracted a secret marriage with the niece of Osiander. On his return he received from Henry the see of Canterbury, and propagated in England the Lutheran doc- trine. Queen Mary imprisoned him in the tower. He was condemned for the crime of heresy, high treason, violation of his ecclesiastical oaths, and perished on the funeral pyre.

    Creation {making- sometking' out of notk-' ing) . — According to Scripture God brought forth the world out of nothing. '* In the beginning God created heaven and earth" (Gen. i. 1). The words immediately fol- lowing : "And the earth was void and empty," plainly exclude the use of all pre- existing matter, and show that creation, not formation, is to be understood. For if the earth had been merely formless, the foregoing words could not signify creation. Again, *' In the beginning was the Word. . . . All things were made by Him, and without Him was made nothing that was made" (John i. 1—2). If the Word made all things, there was no self-existent, uncreated matter. Therefore, the world was called into existence by Him, without the co-operation of any outside cause, not from pre-existing matter, but merely by the act of His will. The error of those who, adopting the opinions of pagan philosophers, believed in the pre-existence of uncreated primitive matter, and, there- fore, acknowledged in God only the Archi- tect, not the Creator of the world, was refuted even by the earliest Fathers of the Church (S. Iren. adv. hceres. II, c. 14, n, 4). They showed that the greatness of God is revealed by the very fact that, whereas man can only mold existing mat- ter, God produces matter itself. And, in fact, God's power would be limited if it required pre-existing matter for the pro-

    duction of things. Hence the Vatican Council {de fide, i. can. 5) declares: "If any one confess not that the world and all things which it contains, both spiritual and material, are, according to their whole substance, brought forth by God from nothing: let him be anathema." Although reason of itself could only with difficulty attain to a definite and clear idea of cre- ation properly so called, yet after revela- tion has once supplied this idea it easily recognizes that the world could not have originated otherwise than by creation, since any other kind of origin is im- possible. See Pantheism.

    The words, " In the beginning God cre- ated heaven and earth," refer to the be. ginning of time. The words of Christ are still more evident : "And now glorify Thou Me, O Father, with Thyself, with the glory which I had before the world was with Thee" (John xvii. 5). The world is not, like the Son of God, from all eternity. It was created in time, or rather at the beginning of actual time; for as there was no real succession of changes before the creation of the world, neither was there any actual time, since time is in- conceivable without real succession of changes (S. Aug. de civ. Dei, xi. 6). Also the Lateran Creed says that God "at the beginning of time created the spiritual and the material world." Biblical chro- nology, however, which begins with the creation of man, affords no sufficient data for determining the age of the world. For it is not certain whether the creation of the earth, as described in Genesis (i. i), was immediately followed by the first day's work, described in the following verses (3—5), or whether an inter^-al elapsed dur- ing which those changes may have taken place which are observable in the crust of our globe. Nor is it by any means cer- tain in what sense the six days are to be understood ; whether they are days of twenty-four hours or longer periods of time; or whether, perhaps, without any reference to time, they signify the work itself. In this latter case, Moses has only related how God gave the earth, which He had created, its present form, and the different orders of creatures their existence. See Cosmogony.

    Creationism. — Opinior of those who believe that God creates each soul at the moment of conception. Concreationism might be a better name, since Pre-exist-

    Creationism

    225

    Creationism

    entianism likewise implies a kind of cre- ation. Creationism has as its basis tlie independent, spiritual substantiality of the soul, from which it argues that the soul can be produced only by creation. Human generation, in so far as it must be dis- tinguished from creation, cannot produce anything simple. The system further af- firms that God gives existence to the soul at the very moment when it is to be united to the body produced by generation, be- cause it is primarily designed to form with that body one human nature. Creation- ism is neither more nor less than an ex- planation of the contents of two Catholic dogmas ; the spirituality of the soul and the unity of nature in man. The fact that Creationism has not always been uni- versally held in the Church, must be as- cribed to the difficulty of harmonizing it ^vith other dogmas, e. g-., the transmission of sin, and also with certain expressions of Holy Scripture, e. g., that God rested on the seventh day. We find it questioned only in those times and places in which the controversies on original sin against the Pelagians were carried on. Doubts began to arise in the West, in the time of St. Augustine; two centuries later, when the struggle with Pelagianism was at an end, we hear of them no more.

    Creationism solves the question of the origin of the human soul, but not that of the origin of human nature by generation, at least not completely. On the contrary, it introduces a new difficulty, inasmuch as the creation of the soul by God divides the production of man into two acts, and makes it more difficult to see how human generation is a reproduction and commu- nication of the whole nature, and especially of life, and how there is a relation of de- pendence between the souls of children and those of their parents. This difficulty, much insisted upon by the Generationists, can only be removed by maintaining, not indeed the production of one soul by an- other through emanation or creation, but a certain relation of causality whereby the souls of the parents are, in a certain sense, the principle of the souls of the children. Here, as in the coexistence of grace and free will, we have two principles combined for the production of one effect. In order to understand the combined action of God and of man in the production of the human soul, we must bear in mind that the crea- tion of the soul, although a true creation, is not the creation of a being complete in

    '5

    itself : on the contrary, its tendency is to produce that part of human nature which is destined to give form and life to the body and to constitute with it one human nature. But as this also applies to the creation of the first soul, which was not the product of generation, we must infer this other circumstance that the soul is created in an organic body because of the action of the human generative principle. So far we have two principles and two activities standing side by side and meet- ing in one common product, but we have not yet that unity of the principles, whereby not only a part, but even the whole of the product may be ascribed to each of them. Such a unity is established by the fact that each of the principles, although producing by its own power only part of the product, tends, nevertheless, to pro- duce the whole product as a -whole: the generative principle producing the organ- ism solely for the purpose of being ani- mated by the soul; the creative principle creating the soul merely for the purpose of animating the organism.

    The following considerations will help to illustrate the unity of the combined Di- vine and human actions. Each of the two actions requires the co-operation of the other in order to attain its end; they thus complete one another and are intrinsically co-ordained for common action. As man has received his procreative power and its direction from God, and exercises it with the Divine concurrence, in the act of generation he stands to God as a subordi- nate and dependent instrument ; not, how- ever, as a mere tool, because man's genera- tive power and tendency are natural to him, and are exercised spontaneously. Whence it appears that the common action begins with man, but is supported through- out and completed by God. The Divine co-operation might be called supernatural in so far as it is distinct from and superior to the Divine concurrence granted to all created causes ; but, strictly speaking, it is only natural, because it is exercised in ac- cordance with a law of nature. The pro- duction of the soul is due not to a miracu- lous interference with the course of nature, but to the natural Providence of God, carrying out the laws which He himself has framed for the regular course of nature.

    We can now easily understand: i. How the human generation is a true generation not only of the flesh but of man as a whole. 2. How a relation of causality exists be-

    Credence

    226

    Creed

    tween the progenitor and the soul of his offspring. 3. How the creation of the soul by God is not a creation in the same absolute sense as the original creation of things. 4. How the natural consequences of generation are safeguarded.

    Credence. — A small table placed against the wall of the sanctuary, near the Epistle side of the altar, on which are placed the cruets holding the wine and water to be used at Mass.

    Creed. — The Creed is an abridgment of the Christian doctrine, and is usually de- nominated the " Symbol of Faith." The word symbol means a sign to distinguish things. To the primitive Christians, the Symbol or Creed was what the watchword is to an army in the field, a sign by which a friend may be immediately discriminated from an enemy. As the Creed was the medium through which the true believers were recognized amidst heretics and Gen- tiles, it became customary to say : '*Z>rt siffnum" " Z>rt Sytnbolutn,^^ (.give the sign), (repeat the Symbol or Creed).

    There are six creeds : the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Constanti- nopolitan Creed, the Athanasian Creed, the Creed of Pius VI., and the Vatican Creed.

    I. Apostles' Creed. — That the Creed which is attributed to the Apostles and bears their name was in reality drawn up by them has been ably demonstrated. (See Noel Alexandre, Hist. Eccl.) This was the only Creed in use among the primi- tive Christians, and for the first three cen- turies was not committed to writing lest it should fall into the hands of unbelievers, but was handed down orally. With the exception of Tertullian, no author, before the reign of Constantine the Great, pre- sumed to note down this Creed. After that period, when the danger of being ridiculed by Jew or Gentile had passed away, it began to be penned, and first of all appeared in the works of St. Athanasius and of St. Basil.

    II. Nicene Creed. — In the fourth century, Arius, a priest of the Church of Alexandria, denied the divinity of the Word made flesh. To condemn the error of this heresiarch, the Church, in the year 325, convoked a General Council at Nicaea, a city of Bythinia. The assembled Fathers found it expedient to develop the meaning of the second article of the Apostles' Creed by a more copious explanation of its sense and doctrine. The exposition of the coun-

    cil was ingrafted on the Apostolic Symbol, which, along with the verbal addition, ac- quired a new denomination, and came to be entitled the Symbol of Nicaea, or Nicene Creed.

    III. CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CrEED. — A

    short time afterwards, Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople, impugned the divinity of the Holy Ghost. The Church was again obliged to call a General Council, which met at Constantinople in the year 381, and delivered to the Faithful the general belief upon this litigated article of faith. The explanation furnished by the council was appended to the Nicene Creed, and this second enlargement of the Symbol of the Apostles was called the Creed of Con- stantinople.

    IV. Athanasian Creed. — About this time a multitude of innovators attempted to pollute the pure stream of Apostolic doc- trine by commingling with it their errors concerning the essence and properties of Christ's humanity. There were in the Church many zealous pastors, who arose to guard the fountain stream of faith from such contaminations, and among them, the unknown author of that Creed which was immediately recognized as so ortho- dox and so beautiful, that it was commonly attributed to the most celebrated champion of the faith, St. Athanasius, and still passes under his name, though ascertained not to be his production.

    The Creed which is now repeated in Liturgy, is in reality the Creed, not of Nicaea, but of Constantinople. It was not until the decline of the eighth century, or the commencement of the ninth century, when the discipline of the Secret was abandoned, that the Creed began to be re- cited at Mass.

    The Creed is said every Sunday during the year, and on all those feasts which are in a manner indicated in it, such as the different festivals instituted in honor of Christ, of His Mother the Blessed Virgin, and of the Apostles and Doctors of the Church, by whose arduous labors and writings the doctrine contained in this Symbol of Christianity has been dissemi- nated through the world.

    V. Creed of Pius IV. — Like the last three Creeds, that of Pius IV. so denomi- nated from the Pope under whose Pontifi- cate it was framed, suggested by the exi- gencies of the period, and was drawn up to exhibit a summary of the genuine doctrines of Christ in an epoch when the

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    Cremation

    innovators of the sixteenth century were employing every expedient to decoy the Faithful into error. This Creed is also called the Tridentine Creed.

    VI. The Vatican Creed. — The Coun- cil of the Vatican, which met in 1869, de- fined certain points of doctrine especially the Infallibility of the Pope speaking ex cathedra, and in 1877 Pope Pius IX., following the example set by Pius IV., added to the Tridentine formula a clause expressing acceptance of the Vati- can definitions. This put the Creed into the shape in which it is in use at present, supporting the faith of Catholics who re- joice to be provided with a form of words which they can safely trust as expressing the truth which they hold.

    It should be carefully remembered that in these several successive creeds no new doctrines are promulgated, nor is any ad- dition made to the code of faith delivered to the Church by the Apostles' Creed, but these creeds merely unfold its doctrines and present an explanation of its several parts in a more precise and intelligible manner.

    Cremation (action of burning the re- mains of the dead). — Originally the custom of interring the dead in the ground was common to all nations, for the most ancient human remains that have been discovered bear no signs of having been subjected to fire. Vaults containing skele- tons have also been met with, closed by a slab of stone. We know that the Jews buried their dead ; Holy Scripture con- stantly speaks of the burial of kings and prophets. That his corpse should be left unburied was a chastisement threatened to the transgressor (Deut. xxviii. 26). Only during the time of pestilence were the Jews allowed to burn individual corpses (Amos vi. id). The Romans in earlier •times buried their dead. Cicero tells us that their graves were considered sacred, and the profanation pf a tomb was severely punished, even by the loss of a hand. Bodies were often deposited in sarcophagi, where they were reduced to dust. Pliny records that the Romans burned their dead only when they feared they might be out- raged by the enemy. In later times, when manners became corrupt, cremation was practiced among them. The custom of embalmmg the dead prevailed among the Egyptians. It is a noteworthy fact that all barbarous nations, who, in an uncivilized

    state, burned their dead, substituted the grave for the funeral pyre as soon as civi- lization shed its light in their land. Christianity did, in fact, abolish cremation. But in these days, when Christian faith is on the decrease, cremation is once more becoming the fashion. St. Augustine de- nounces the practice as horrible and bar- barous. It offends our Christian instincts. For we are taught to regard death as a sleep; the dead sleep in Christ (I. Cor. XV. 18), for they will rise again; they are laid to rest in peace, and the idea of the re- pose which they enjoy is connected with the churchyard, not with the crematorium. When we commit our dead to the kindly earth, we tacitly express our beliel that our body is like a seed, which is cast into the ground to germinate and spring up. " It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption" (I. Cor. xv. 42). As Chris- tians, we have a higher esteem for the soul, which partakes of the divine nature, and consequently for the body, which is the servant and tool of the soul. No true Christian can fail to shrink from the hor- rors of cremation; only those who are lost to all sense of the dignity of human nature, to all belief in the truths of re- ligion, can desire it for themselves. Let us remember that Christ, our great Ex- emplar, was laid in the tomb and rose again. For pagans such considerations naturally had no weight ; they disliked the sight of the sepulchre, the mound raised over the dead, because it reminded them of death, which would put an end to their earthly enjoyments. For the same reason in our own day infidels advocate cremation. Burial suggests to them too strongly the immortality of the soul, whereas cremation appears to promise the annihilation that they desire as their portion after death. Yet let no one imagine that the Christian dreads the destruction of the body by fire as an impediment to its future resurrection, for God can effect the reintegration of the body after it has been dissolved into gaseous elements. In the interest of jus- tice destruction of the body by fire is highly reprehensible, since, if a body is buried it can afterwards be inspected if this is necessary for the detection of crime, such as murder. By this means many a mur- derer has been brought to justice; after cremation this is impossible. Those, there- fore, who speak in favor of cremation befriend criminals, inasmuch as they aid in the removal of all traces of their crime.

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    Crib. — A representation of the manger at Bethlehem, ai.d exhibited in many churches throughout the world from Christmas to Epiphany. The effect is generally heightened by a figure in the crib of the Child Jesus, by figures of an- gels, of the shepherds, of the Magi, etc. As a subject of popular devotion it owes its origin to St. Francis of Assisi, in the early part of the thirteenth centurj'. In the Li- berian basilica, at Rome, is preserved the crib in which Christ was born. It was brought from Bethlehem in the seventh century.

    Crosier. See Staff.

    Cross. — A structure consisting essen- tially of an upright and a crosspiece, an- ciently used as a gibbet for execution by crucifixion, now, in various reduced repre- sentative forms, as symbolic of the Christian faith. There are four principal forms of the cross: i. The Latin cross, crux imissa or capitata (the form supposed to have been used in the crucifixion of Christ), in which the upright is longer than the transverse beam, and is crossed by it near the top. 2. The crux decussata (decussate cross), or St. Andrew's cross, made in the form of an X. 3. The crux comissa, or St. Anthony's cross, made in the form of a T. 4. The Greek cross, an upright crossed in the middle at right angles by a beam of the same length. The other forms are, for the most part, inventions for ecclesiastical, hierarchic, or similar objects.

    That the primitive Christians were ex- emplary in the reverence which they mani- fested towards the cross may be gathered from a variety of sources. According to Tertullian they were denominated by the pagans, *^ Cruets relt's^iosi," or, "devout to- wards the cross." Among the fragments of early Christian antiquities which are still preserved, we recognize splendid testi- monials of this respect. In the Christian cemeteries, scarcely one sepulchral monu- ment has been discovered, which does not bear the monogram of Christ, arranged in the form of a cross. The rings that have been found in these tombs display the same emblem, and the fresco paintings peroetu- ally exhibit the same holy sign. That it was customary with the primitive Chris- tians to wear about their persons crosses made of gold and silver, or of wood, is evi- dent from the incident which led to the martyrdom of St. Orestes, a soldier in the Roman legions during the reign of Diocle-

    tian. Orestes was distinguished in his cohort for his agility in every martial ex- ercise, and in particular for the precision with which he cast the disc. Once, as he was displaying his activity in presence of his commander Lysias, a cross which the Christian soldier wore around his neck by accident escaped from between the folds of his garment, where it lay concealed, and proclaimed the religion of Orestes, whose resolute refusal to sacrifice in honor of the gods, was crowned with martyrdom.

    Cross (Congregation of the Holy). — A religious order, founded in France imme- diately after the Revolution, and approved by the Holy See as an educational body. Was introduced into the United States in i8i4by Father Sorin (died in 1892). Besides the Mother House at Notre Dame, near South Bend, Indiana, it has more than twenty houses scattered throughout the United States. The most important edu- cational establishments of the order are the University of Notre Dame, near South Bend, Indiana, St. Mary's College, at Galveston, Texas, and the lately erected College in Washington, D. C, connected with the Catholic University.

    Cross {Daughters of the) (also called "Sisters of St. Andrew"). — A teaching and hospitaler congregation, founded in 1806 by Madame Elisabeth Richier des Ages, with the assistance of Abb6 Andrew Hubert Foiirnet, Vicar-general of Poitiers. Destined particularly for the gratuitous instruction of children, this congregation, whose Mother House is at Puye, near Poitiers, comprises to-day several thou- sands of religious, and has many provincial houses throughout France. 2. Daughters of the Cross. Young women living in community, whose occupation is to con- duct Christian schools and to instruct young girls. Their Institute was founded at Roye, in Picardy, in the year 1625.

    Cross (Finding of the). — St. Helena, having gone to Jerusalem, ordered the de- struction of a temple of Venus, built over the tomb of Christ. Then, upon excavat- ing to a great depth, the holy Sepulchre, and near it three crosses, also the nails which had pierced our Saviour's body, and the title which had been affixed to His cross, were found (326). The true Cross was recognized by the miracles which it wrought. St. Helena sent a part

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    of the Cross to Constantinople and left the other part at Jerusalem, where it was encased in a silver box and preserved in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which had been erected on the spot of the dis- covery (33s). The Church has consecrated this event by the institution of the feast of the " Finding of the Holy Cross," which is celebrated on May 3d. Chosroes H., king of Persia, having taken Jerusalem, carried off the relic (614), which was recap- tured fourteen years later, under Siroes, his son and successor, by the Emperor Heraclius (629). Both the Greek and the Latin Church still celebrate this victory, on September 14th, by the feast of the " Exaltation of the Cross."

    Cross {Sign of ihe). — By making the sign of the Cross, we express the con- viction that our hopes of a joyful resurrec- tion, and of the happiness of eternal life, are founded solely on the merits of Jesus Christ crucified. The custom of making the sign of the Cross dates from the earli- est times of Christianity. TertuUian, writ- ing about the year 202, observes: "At every step and movement, whenever we come in or go out, when we dress our- selves, or prepare to go abroad, at the bath, at table, when lights are brought in, on lying, or sitting down; whatever we be doing, we make the sign of the Cross upon our foreheads " {Liber de Corona Militis, c. iii.). St. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople (398-407), thus addressed his auditors : " Everywhere is the symbol of the Cross present to us. On this account we paint and sculpture it on our houses, our walls, and our windows, we trace it on our brows, and we studiously imprint it on our souls and minds" {Rcloga de veneranda Cruce). Similar testimonials are furnished by other Fathers. We make the sign of the Cross, because it was by the Cross that Christ became " our peace . . . and hath reconciled us to God in one body by the Cross, killing the en- mities in Himself, and coming He preached peace" (Ephes. ii. 14-17). We form the sign of the Cross by lifting our right hand to the forehead, and afterwards drawing, as it were, a line to the heart, and then an- other line crossing the former from the left to the right shoulder, at the same time pronouncing, in order to attach a meaning to the action, these words: " In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost"

    Cross ( Way of the). See Stations of THE Cross.

    Crucifix. — A cross, or a representation of a cross, with the crucified figure of Christ upon it. Crosses, with a repre- sentation of the crucified Christ, seem not to have been made previous to the ninth century. Upon those made for similar pur- poses before this date was painted or carved at the intersection of the arms of the cross, the Lamb, with or without a cross-flag, the sacred monogram, or some other emblem. The Crucifix, being the symbol of the Passion of the Saviour, was represented also by the figure of a lamb at the foot of the cross. On the top of the cross was sometimes attached a crown, to express the reward promised to the Faith- ful who suffer as Christ did. Also a stag could be seen at the foot of the cross, the stag being an enemy of the serpent, as Christ is an enemy of the devil. To these various symbols succeeded the picture of Jesus Christ on the Cross.

    Crusades. — Guided by the spirit of St. Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, many Christians visited the sacred places of Palestine. These pilgrims were sub- jected to severe hardships and trials, and especially was this the case under the rule of Seljuk, who, in the year 1072, abused and murdered the pilgrims, and ended by plundering the Holy City. The object of the Crusades was, therefore: i. To secure protection for the Christians. 2. To res- cue the sacred places and guard them against profanation and destruction. 3. To repel the Saracens, who threatened Chris- tian Europe. The idea of the Crusades originated with the Popes, who directed them, and furnished, from the revenues of the Church, the means necessary for their subsistence. They also granted remission of ecclesiastical penalties to all who en- gaged in the religious expeditions. The first Crusade (i 096-1099), was set on foot by Pope Urban H., at the Synod of Cler- mont, where the multitudes, whose en- thusiasm had already been aroused by Peter the Hermit, in one voice cried out : "God wills it." The army, headed by Godfrey de Bouillion, and other gallant princes, numbered from 300,000 to 600,000 men. On July 15th, 1099, they took Jerusalem and proclaimed Godfrey king. Six other Crusades were undertaken for the deliverance of the Holy Land. After the fall of Edessa, Louis VII. of France

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    and Conrad III. of Germany, moved by the soul-stirring words of St. Bernard of Clairs-aux, undertook the second Crusade (1147-1149). They made a vain attempt to take Damascus. The third Crusade (1189-1192), was brought about by the un- fortunate battle near Tiberias in 1187, in ■which 50,000 crusaders were either killed or imprisoned. Saladin conquered Jerusa- lem and seized the Holy Cross. The army, headed by Frederick I. {Babarossa), of Germany, Philip Augustus of France, Richard the Lion Hearted of England, and William of Sicily, took Acre and obtained freedom for the pilgrims. The fourth Cru- sade (1202-1204) was chiefly composed of the French nobility, and resulted in the founding of the Latin empire (1204-1261). In the year 1212, 40,000 children sallied forth to conquer the Holy Land. Many thousands perished by shipwreck, others were enslaved. The fifth Crusade (1228- 1229), under the leadership of Frederick II., emperor of Germany, etc., ended in disaster. The sixth Crusade (i 248-1 254) was undertaken by Louis IX. of France, who took Damietta, in Egypt. Soon af- terwards, Louis IX. was taken prisoner and compelled to leave the territory. Eigh- teen years later he engaged in another Crusade which ended in disaster. All the territory, including Acre, was lost to the Mohammedans.

    Although the Crusades did not fully at- tain their immediate object, — the entire re- covery and preservation of the Holy Land, — yet great and invaluable were the advan- tages to religion and society which they produced, i. The crusaders reawakened the faith, slumbering in many, and secured its triumph over the rising ration- alism of the age. These popular expedi- tions, undertaken in the name of religion and humanity, aroused, by the memories the}' recalled, the religious feeling of the Middle Ages. 2. They were not less prof- itable to society, not only by the encour- agement they afforded to science and art, and the impetus they imparted to com- merce, but also in re-establishing and pre- serving peace and concord among Christian nations. Contemporary writers tell us that the preaching of a crusade produced everywhere a marvelous change; dissen- sions were healed ; wars, with their horrors and crimes, were suddenly brought to an end ; strifes among petty princes and chieftains, who were ever quarreling among themselves, or with their sover-

    eigns, and whose restlessness had, until then, brought so many evils on the fairest portions of Europe, gradually disappeared, and other public disorders ceased. The crusades were of the greatest importance in preserving the safety of Europe. They were from their commencement virtually defensive wars, waged to repel Turkish aggression, and preserse the Catholic na- tions from the Mohammedan yoke. They preserved Europe for cfenturies from her hereditary foe. 4. Through the crusades the institution of chivalry attained its full development, as they gave occasion for the establishment of new orders which pre- sented a model of chivalry, and combined all the knightly virtues. 5. That the clergy derived an increase of power and wealth from the crusades, is historically untrue. On the contrary, the clergy, from the Pope down to the lowest ecclesiastic, contributed the greater part of the subsi- dies levied for the recovery and defense of the Holy Land. From those wars, the Popes sought no accession of power or aug- mentation of territory ; they cheerfully left to the crusaders the conquered country, with the spoils and honors of war. The crusades did not and could not add to the papal power; but the pre-eminence and in- fluence of the Pope, which result from his office arid dignity as head of Christendom, were mainly and essentially instrumental in setting on foot these vast movements of the European powers, for the reconquest of the Holy Land.

    Crypt. — A vault under an ecclesiastical building, as a cathedral, church, etc. , below the chief floor, commonly set apart for monumental purposes, and sometimes used as a chapel or a shrine. The first crypts were the subterranean places where the Christians concealed themselves to cele- brate their worship; in the Catacombs chapels divided into two parts for the sep- aration of the sexes and provided with arcosolia, tombs of martyrs serving as altars. The Roman churches were often raised over crypts, where they buried the clergy. The examples of crypts later than the twelfth century are rare.

    Crypto-Calvinist. — One who is secretly a Calvinist ; a term applied in the six- teenth century by orthodox Lutherans to the Philippists or Melanchthonians, fol- lowers of Philip Melanchthon. They were accused of secretly being Calvinists, be- cause they maintained the Calvinistic view

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    of the Eucharist, rejecting Luther's doc- trine of consubstantiation, as it was called by them.

    Cubit (a measure used among the an- cients). — A cubit was originally the dis- tance from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger, which is the fourth part of a well-proportioned man's stature. The Hebrew cubit, according to some, is twenty-one inches ; but others fix it at eighteen inches. The Talmudists obser\'e that the Hebrew cubit was larger, by one quarter, than the Roman.

    Culdees {Keledei) (Cel. Ceile De\\\\ Lat. Cultores Dei, that is, servants of God, or, according to another interpretation, men living in a community'). — Culdees are first mentioned in the history of Scotland after the middle of the ninth century. They were evidently secular canons, who served as chapters to cathedrals. The Culdees had the privilege of electing the bishop ; those of the metropolitan see of St. Andrew asserted the right that, with- out their consent, no bishop could be ap- pointed to any see in the country. By degrees the Culdees gave up community life and lived in separate dwellings; some even took wives. Hence, from the twelfth century, the Scottish bishops and mon- archs endeavored to reform them; in sev- eral instances the Culdees were replaced by regular canons coming from England. In Ireland, Culdees are for the first time mentioned at the beginning of the ninth century. They continued in the Church of Armagh down to the seventeenth century.

    Cullen (Paul). — Irish prelate, Arch- bishop of Dublin, born in that city in 1803. Studied theology in Italy, and became rector of the Irish College at Rome. In 1849 he received from Pius IX. the dignity of Archbishop of Armagh and the rank of IJrimate of Ireland and apostolic delegate. He suggested the idea of a Catholic Uni- versity at Dublin, and caused its realiz- ation. In 1862, his title, Apostolic Dele- gate, was prolonged for life. Cardinal in 1866, and commander of the Legion of Honor in 1876. Died in 1878.

    Cultus. See Worship.

    Cummian (St.). — An Irish monk; flour- ished in the first half of the seventh cen- tury ; was instrumental in procuring the adoption by the Irish of the Roman rule

    regarding the celebration of Easter. His well known paschal treatise (634), ad- dressed in the form of an epistle to Segienus, Abbot of Hy, gives us a lofty idea of the erudition of the author, as well as of the solid learning which Ireland could then give her priests. He also left a collection of penitential canons, entitled Liber de Poenitentiariitn Mensura. Cummian died, according to the Four Masters, in the year 661.

    Curate {gtiardian of souls) . — An assistant priest to a pastor or rector. Whenever, owing to the number of parishioners, one rector is not sufficient, the bishop not only can, but should, oblige the parish priest to associate with himself as many assist- ants as are required . Moreover, the bishop, and not the parish priest, is the judge whether or not, and how manj;, assistants are neces.sary. The bishop can assign as- sistant priests a proper salary, to be taken out of the revenues of the Church.

    Curia Romana. — By Curia Romana is meant, in a strict sense, only those officials whom the sovereign Pontiff regularly makes use of to assist him in the govern- ment of the universal Church ; in a broad sense, also those who aid the Pope in his capacity of Bishop of Rome, metropolitan, or primate. All these assistants are ap- pointed by the Pope. The persons com- posing the Court of Rome ( Curia Romano) are divided into three classes, designated respectively Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Prelates of the Holy Roman Church, and curiales in the strict sense of the term. The latter are composed of the various magistrates not in prelatical dig- nity, of advocates and procurators, solicit- ors and agents, of notaries and all ecclesi- astical officers who form the cortege of the Pope. These various ministers are either intra curiam, v. g., cardinals; or extra curiam, v. g., legates, nuncios, and similar officers. See Congregations.

    Cusa (Nicholas of). See Nicholas.

    Cush. — A name applied in Scripture to three countries: i. The Oriental Cush, nearGehon (Gen. ii. 13). 2. The southern parts of Arabia and the coasts of the Red Sea, where Nemrod originated and whence the wife of Moses came (Gen. x. 8 ; Num. xii. 12; II. Par. xxi. 16). 3. More com- monly Ethiopia proper and now called Abyssinia (Ps. Ixviii. 31; Is. xviii. i; Jer, xiii. 23).

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    Cuthbert (St.). — Bishop of Lindisfame, England, died in 687. Shepherd, then monk and prior of the Monastery of Mel- rose. Was a model of the evangelical virtues, and proved his zeal and charity during a plague which desolated all Eng- land. F. March 20th.

    Cutheans. — Inhabitants of Assyria ; were transported into Samaria by Salmanasar (IV. Ki. xvii. 24, etc.).

    Cycle {Easter). See Easter.

    CycTe {Dtonysian). — Method of reckon- ing time and dates, not as the Jews, from the creation, nor as the ancient Romans, from the foundation of their city, but from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world. The Roman abbot, Dionysius Exiguus, was the first who, in the sixth century, introduced this method of dating from the birth of Christ. According to this computation, which is now generally followed, the birth of our Lord occurred in the year of Rome 754. But it is gen- erally conceded that he places this bliss- ful event from four to seven years too late. Christ was born several months, at least, before the death of Herod the Great, which, according to Josephus Fiavius, oc- curred in April, 750 B. c. From other considerations it is more than probable that the Nativity took place in the year 747 or 748. See Chronology.

    Cyprian (St.). — Bishop of Carthage. Born in the beginning of the third cen- tury of a wealthy senatorial family; had been an esteemed and successful rhet- orician at Carthage, his native city. His high station, as well as his abilities, made him the pride of his pagan fellow citizens. He was converted to Christianity about the year 246, by Caecilius, a presbyter of Carthage, whose name he added hence- forth to his own ; soon after he was raised to the priesthood, and, on the death of Bishop Donatus in 24S, he was chosen to succeed that prelate. During the perse- cution under Decius in 250, Cyprian con- cealed himself; maintaining, however, from his place of concealment, a constant correspondence with his flock. After the fanatical frenzy had abated, he rettu-ned to Carthage, where, between the years 251 and 256, he held several councils to de- termine the validity of baptism adminis- tered by heretics and the manner to be observed in readmitting the schismatics and those who had apostatized in tiie time

    of persecution. Cyprian ended his noble episcopate by martyrdom under Valerian in 258. We have his Life written by Pontius, his deacon. St. Cyprian has left eighty -one letters and thirteen other works on various subjects. His letters exhibit an interesting picture of his time, and contain much valuable information regarding the usages, institutions, and doctrines of the early Church. Very important is his admirable treatise On the Unity of the Church, in which he gives a clear statement of the Church's organic unity, which he proves is founded on the Primacy of Peter. F. Sept. i6th.

    Cyprus. — The largest island in the Med- iterranean sea, situated between Cilicia and Syria, the inhabitants of which were plunged in all manner of luxury and de- bauchery. Their principal deity was the goddess Venus, who had a celebrated tem- ple at Paphos. Of the cities in the island, Paphos and Salamis are mentioned in the New Testament. The Apostles St. Paul and Barnabas landed here in 44 (Acts xiii. 4).

    Cyrene. — The chief city of Cyrenaica (now called Tripoli), or the Lybian Penta- polis. It was a Grecian city, but under Roman rule. Many Jews were settled there, and they had a synagogue at Jeru- salem, some of whose members (Acts vi. 9) took part against St. Stephen, but others became heralds of the Gospel (ix. 20). Simon, who helped to carry our Lord's Cross, was of this city.

    Cyriacus (St.) (596-606). — Patriarch of Constantinople. According to the example of his predecessor, John the Faster, he took the title of " Ecumenical Patriarch," and caused it to be confirmed in a Coucil- iabulum. in 599. Pope St. Gregory and Emperor Phocas were opposed to his pretensions; and even the emperor pro- hibited by a decree the bestowal of this title on other bishops than those of Rome. F. June 7th.

    Cyril (St.) of Alexandria (376-444). — Father of the Greek Church and Patriarch of Alexandria, in 412. He took an active part in his uncle's (Tlieophilus) opposition to St. John Chrysostom. He closed the Churches of the Novatians. The Jews having murdered a certain number of Christians, he expelled them from the city, and embroiled himself with the Governor Orestes. He contributed, also, to the con-

    Cyril FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,