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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"E"
Eadmer or Edmur.

    — Benedictine monk and English writer of the twelfth century. Disciple, friend, then director, by order of Pope Urban II., of St. Anselm, Arch- bishop of Canterbury. Having been named Bishop of St. Andrew in Scotland, he soon renounced this dignity.

Easter
    (Hebrew, 'pascha' or Passover, meaning "passage"). — Solemn feast celebrated every year by the Jews in memory of their going out of Egypt; it was the first of the five feasts of the Hebrews, and lasted seven days, beginning with the 14th of the month of Nisan. This feast was called Pasck, because, on the night which preceded the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt, the exterminating angel put to death the first born of the Egyptians, but passed and spared the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the blood of the lamb immolated the evening before, and for this reason called

Paschal Lamb.
    The manner in which this feast should be celebrated can be seen in Exodus (xii). As to the Christian Pasch, it was instituted by our Saviour Jesus Christ, when, at the Last Supper He held with His disciples. He gave to them, under the form of bread and wine. His Body to eat and His Blood to drink. This feast which ought to be celebrated in all sincerity, innocence, and truth (prefigured by the Jewish feast of the unleavened bread) has been kept every year with great solemnity.

    In the first centuries of the Church, there was great diversity of opinions and practices in the celebration of Easter; but the Council of Nice, held in 325, decided that Easter should be celebrated on the Sunday following the fourteenth day of the moon of March. Those who opposed this decree were looked upon as heretics and called Quartodechnans, that is, followers of the fourteenth day.

Easter
    (Computation of). — The Paschal feast was fixed, among the Jews, by a lunar calendar of which the twelve months did not quite reach the duration of a solar year; the inter-calcucation of a complemental month was to be made from time to time, rather according to the state of the season at the end of the twelfth month than according to well established astronomical rules. Easter fell in the full moon, called the 14th of Nisan. But when did the first month or month of Nisan commence? At the end of the twelfth month, or at the end of the thirteenth supplementary month?

    The Jews were in agreement in regulating this question ; and, at the beginning, the Christians accepted their calculations. There were, however, many debates in regard to this subject, in the Church; first, because the Christians were divided about the question to-wit, until what point the new Easter should coincide, as rite and date, with the old one ; then because they were not agreed about the manner to fix the month and the week when the feast should be celebrated.

    Of these conflicts, the following are the most famous: i. The agitation which arose in the province of Asia, shortly after the middle of the second century, in regard to the subject of maintaining or abandoning the rite of the Paschal Lamb. 2. The conflict be- tween the entire group of the Churches of Asia and those of the other parts of the Empire, as to the day of the week they should end the Paschal fast. The Asiatics ended it on the 14th of Nisan, the others on the Sunday after the 14th of Nisan.

    This divergence maintained itself until about the end of the second century, then it degenerated into a public quarrel, which ended in a defeat of the ancient Asiatic custom. The Asiatic Churches adopted the common custom, the dominical cus- tom ; the adherents of local custom, the Quartodeci'mans, organized themselves into a separate sect, which continued to exist until the fifth century.

    3. The conflict between the computations of Antioch and of Alexandria, was solved by the Council of Nice in 325. At Antioch they celebrated the resurrection of Christ on the Sunday which followed the Jewish Pasch, without troubling themselves whether the Jews had correctly fixed the Pasch and the first month. At Alexandria, on the contrary, they reckoned the Paschal feast in a more direct manner and managed that it always fell after the equinox of spring time.

    The Alexandrians having gained their cause in the Council of Nice, the ancient custom of Antioch was no longer upheld except by small sects {Au- dians, Protopaschites) , and all the Eastern Churches conformed themselves to the Pas- chal computations proposed by the Bishop of Alexandria.

    4. The continually rising difficulties, in the fourth and fifth cen- turies, between the Alexandrian compu- tation and that of Rome. These difficul- ties had their origin in certain diversities of calculation and custom. The calcula- tion of the age of the moon, such as they practiced it at Rome, was founded upon imperfect cycles ; it was often at variance with that of Alexandria, founded upon the cycle of nineteen years. On the other hand, the Romans did not admit that the Sunday of Easter could fall, in the lunar month, before the i6th of this month, whilst at Alexandria they could celebrate Easter since the 15th. Finally, they be- lieved, at Rome, to possess a tradition according to which Easter could not be celebrated after the 21st of April.

    This limit was unknown at Alexandria, where they could celebrate Easter till the 25th of April. The conflicts raised as to these differences were mostly regulated in a friendly manner between the Pope and the Greek Church. They ended by disap- pearing when Rome adopted the Alex- andrine computation under the form given by Dionysius the Small (525).

    5. The divergence between the Paschal tables of Victorius of Aquitaine and Dionysius the Small. The first, drawn up at Rome in 457, was hardly ever used in this city; but it was adopted by the churches of Frankish Gaul, which upheld it until the Carolingian epoch. In difficult cases they found therein two solutions, two Paschal dates, that of the Alexandrians and that which resulted from the application of the ancient Roman rules. This duality caused many uncertainties.

    6. The quarrel in regard to the British computation in the British Isles. The British Churches and, consequently, the Irish Churches, had pre- served an old Paschal rule, in use at Rome about the beginning of the fourth century, according to which the Sunday of Easter could fall from the 14th to the 20th of Nisan. Rome having repeatedly modi- fied her computation since the time when the Britains had borrowed it from them, the Roman missionaries of the seventh century found themselves at variance with

ECCLESTON
    the native Churches as to the manner of reckoning the time of Easter. This differ- ence gave rise to great quarrels. On both sides they claimed to follow apostolic traditions and the Celtic clergy did not refuse to make use of apocryphal books expressly composed to uphold their na- tional custom.

Easter Communion.
    — The decisions of the Holy See, the provincial councils, the rituals, establish or suppose the obligation to communicate during Easter time, in the communicant's own parish, that is, parishes canonically erected. There are only a few such parishes in the United States. If a person belongs to such a par- ish, he cannot fully satisfy the precept of the Church, by communicating in a parish in which the recipient is a stranger, ex- cept he has the consent of the proper pas- tor, or of the bishop or of the sovereign Pontiff. However, although a parish may not be canonically erected, it is desirable that the Easter Communion should be received in the church of the parish to which we belong. The time appointed for the receiving of Easter communion, according to the general law of the Church, is from Palm Sunday to the first Sunday after Easter, inclusive. In the United States, however, the time appointed for Paschal communion, is the time between the first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sun- day

    Easter Confession. — All the Faithful who have attained a sufficient maturity to be capable of committing grievous sin are obliged to confess their sins at least once a year. According to custom, this precept is generally complied with during Easter time, as a preparation for holy com- munion, which is to be received within this space of time. The Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) decreed as follows: "All the Faithful of both sexes shall, as soon as they have attained the years of discretion, sincerely confess all their sins in secret, at least once a year, to a duly authorized priest, and devoutly receive the sacrament of the Eucharist, at least during Easter time. Otherwise they shall be debarred from entering the Church during life, and from Christian burial after death." See Confession.

    Ebionites. — Heretics in the early Church. The teaching of the Ebionites was an odd mixture of Christianity and

    Judaism. They accepted only the "Gos- pel of the Hebrews," adhered to the Mosaic law, and condemned the Apostle St. Paul as an apostate from the Law. They, in- deed, acknowledged Jesus Christ as the Messias, but denied His divinity. Con- cerning the birth of Christ they were di- vided. Some admitted His supernatural birth of a virgin; others held that Christ was only man and the son of Joseph and Mary.

    Ecce Homo {Behold the man) — The Latin rendering in the Vulgate of the Greek words by which (John xix. 5) Pilate presented Jesus to the people, and which afterwards became the technical term ap- plied to pictures of Christ as the suffering Saviour.

    Ecclesiarch. — In the Greek Church, a Church officer who has charge of the church and its contents and summons the Faithful to divine service. This function- ary lights the candles, and sees that all is done according to order. He corresponds somewhat to our sacristan.

    Ecclesiastes (moral book of the Old Testament). — An exhortation of Solomon addressed to the whole Church (Eklesia), and designed to demonstrate that in this world there is nothing abiding, true, or great, except to fear God and obey His commandments, so as to appear well before His judgment seat. Hence the oft-repeated exclamation : " Vanity of vanities and all is vanity. . . . Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is all man."

    Ecclesiasticus (moral book of the Old Testament). — It was written by " Jesus, the son of Sirach," who was a citizen of Jerusalem, in the third century b. c, and in the time of Simon, the high-priest. The sacred author was remarkable for his piety. Wisdom is declared to consist in the fear of God, and in order to assist in the cultivation of this heavenly virtue, rules adapted to all conditions of life are set forth in the fullest and most impressive manner.

    Eccleston (Samuel) (1801-1851). — American prelate; was born in Kent County, Maryland, of parents belonging to the Episcopal Church. Was ordained priest in 1825. President of St. Mary's College of Baltimore; and in 1834, coadjutor of Archbishop Whitfield of Baltimore, by whom he was consecrated on the 14th of

    ECK

    270

    Education

    September. In little more than a month after the archbishop's death, Eccleston suc- ceeded him as archbishop. When the revo- lutionary storms drove Pope Pius IX. from his sacred city, Archbishop Eccleston, in Januar}^ 1849, invited him to Baltimore to preside in the Seventh Provincial Council. It was the privilege of Archbishop Eccle- ston to preside in no less than five pro- vincial councils as metropolitan of the Church in the United States.

    Eck (John) (1486-1543). — German theo- logian and controversialist, born at Eck, Suabia, professor and vice-chancellor at the University of Ingolstadt. Indefati- gable adversary of Luther, as can be seen by his Sermons, his book On the Primacy, Letters, etc.

    Eclectics. — A name given to certain an- cient philosophers who selected from dif- ferent systems what they saw fit and combined it into a system of their own. Their example was followed by the Neo- platonists of Alexandria, whose chief ex- ponents were Plotinus, Porphyry, and Proclus.

    Ecthesis. — The name given to a letter issued by the Emperor Heraclius in 638 to pacify the troubles occasioned by the Eutychian heresy; but as it did not meet with general favor and was condemned by Pope John IV., it was withdrawn by the Emperor Constans II.

    Ecumenical. See Councils.

    Eden (Hebr. a garden). — The primitive home of our first parents (Gen. ii. 8), of uncertain or unknown locality ; probably in the highlands of Armenia, or in the val- ley of the Euphrates. See Paradise.

    Edessa. — A very ancient city of Meso- potamia. Christianity was early intro- duced into it, and the city contained a large number of monasteries. 'It was the seat of Ephraem Syrus and his school. Here the famous portrait of Christ is said to have been painted by St. Luke and sent by the Saviour Himself, with a letter, to Abgar, king of Edessa. Was preserved at Edessa, they claim, till it was brought, in 944, to Constantinople, and thence to Rome. Neither the picture nor the letter appears to have any historical foundation.

    Edmund (St.). — English prelate; born at Abington, England ; died in 1242. Pro- fessor in one of the colleges of Paris, and

    ordained priest; returned into England, preached the crusade by order of Pope Gregory IX., and was raised to the see of Canterbury. Edmund, of acknowledged piety and learning, manifested great zeal in remedying the many evils that were brooding over the Church in England. He urged King Henry III. to dismiss his foreign ministers, especially Peter des Roches. But the endeavors of the saint for reform met with much opposition. Finding his efforts without avail, he re- tired into France, where he died.

    Edom. See Esau.

    Edrai (Hebr. strong). — i. One of the two capitals of Basan, and afterwards in the limits of the lot of Manasses (Jos. xiii. 31). Its ruins cover a large space, and are now called Edhra. 2. A town of Nephtali, near Cades (Jos. xix. 37).

    Education. — Process of developing the physical, intellectual, and moral faculties and the result of this process. Moral education, the most important of all, con- sists in training not only the sensibility, the heart (as we commonly express it), but also the will. Its object is to elevate the soul by imparting to it the consciousness of its dignity and beauty. For this end, education points out to the soul its re- semblance to God, which has become the ideal of the Christian life. Instruction comes to the assistance of education. By in- struction, the true, the good, the beautiful become better known and are more cher- ished ; the more cherished, the more sought, and the soul elevates itself more and more toward this threefold form of the ideal, which finds its ineffable reali- zation in God. But science is not virtue. The most learned man is not always the best educated. A simple knowledge of correct limit, which knows how to discern between good and evil, may be joined with an energetic will never to violate the moral law. The mere oral teaching of the Catholic catechism has endowed daily laborers with a strong morality, although very illiterate otherwise; while, on the contrary, the encyclopedic instruction, which pervades at present the schools of the smallest town, void of all moral edu- cation, only prepares the way for the return to barbarism. The Catholic Church is, according to a famous word, the " School of Respect," because it prolongs the edu- cation of the will by its general teaching,

    Edward the Confessor

    271

    Elevation

    which emanates each week from the pul- pit, and by the intimate and constant di- rection which instructs each soul in the tribunal of Penance.

    Edward the Confessor (1004-1066). — Anglo-Saxon king. To promote religion and the general welfare of his people was the principal care of this saintly monarch. His virtues and kingly qualities earned him popular respect, and long did the English cherish a grateful remembrance of his peaceful and happy reign. One of the last acts of Edward was the erection of Westminster Abbey. The surname of " Confessor" he obtained from Alexander III., by whom he was canonized in 1161. F. Oct. 13th.

    Edward the Martyr (962-978). — King of the Anglo-Saxons. Succeeded in 975 to Edgar, his father, and was assassinated by order of Elfrida, his mother-in-law.

    Eglon (Hebr. calf). — A king of Moab who held Israel in bondage eighteen years, having Jericho for his seat of government. He was slain by Aod, and his people west of the Jordan were destroyed (Judg. iii. 12-30).

    Einsiedeln or Maria Einsiedeln. — City of Switzerland. Ancient Abbey of the Benedictines, founded in 946. Here is found a picture of the Blessed Virgin, which attracts every year, on September 14th, an immense number of pilgrims.

    Ela (Hebr. terebinth). — i. The valley in which David slew Goliath, now Wady Sunt, sixteen miles southwest from Jeru- salem. 2. The son and successor of Baasa, king of Israel, 926 b. c, who, after a reign of two years, was assassinated by Zambri, one of his officers (III. Ki. xvi. 6-10).

    Elam (Hebr. highland). — A region which took its name from a son of Sem, and corre- sponded to the Elymais of the Greek and Roman writers. It was a powerful mon- archy in Abraham's day, and long re- tained its own princes, but finally became a province of Babylonia and afterwards of Persia.

    Elath or Ailath. — An Edomite seaport, the modern Akiba, on the northern end of the Gulf of Akiha; an important place un- der Solomon (III. Ki. ix. 26-28) ; taken by the Assyrians (IV. Ki. xvi. 7-9).

    Eleazar. — Name of several Old Testa- ment personages : i. Third son of Aaron,

    and his successor in the dignity of high- priest. He entered the Promised Land with Josue and was buried at Gabaat. 2. Son of Aminadab. Guard of the sacred ark when the latter was returned by the Philistines. 3. Brother of Judas the Mach- abee and surnamed Aharon, Auran, or Avran. Was crushed in a battle against Antiochus Eupator by the fall of an ele- phant which he had disemboweled believ- ing it to be mounted by the king. 4. Old man of Jerusalem. Martyr under Anti- ochus Epiphanes. 5. High-priest, son of Onias I. and brother of Simon the Just. He sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus the seventy-two savants who made the version of the so-called Septuagint. 6. Son of the high-priest Ananias. Contributed towards the revolt which brought on the ruin of the Temple and of the Jewish nation.

    Eleutheropolis. — An ancient city of Palestine, twenty miles east-northeast of Gaza, having very extensive ruins with massive vaults. It is identified wrth the village of Beit-Jibrin.

    Eleutherus (St.). — Pope from 177 to 192. A Greek and deacon of Pope Anicetus. Under his Pontificate the sect of the Mon- tanists arose. F. Oct. 9th.

    Eleutherus (St.). — One of the compan- ions of the apostolate of St. Dionysius the Areopagite and of his martyrdom. F. Oct. 9th.

    Eleutherus (St.) (454-531). — Bishop of Tournai and martyr. Born at Tournai ; disciple of St. Medard ; was elevated to the episcopal see of his native city (486), which he regenerated almost entirely by the bap- tism of 11,000 pagans (Dec. 26th, 496). This beautiful day was consecrated by a solemn feast, which is still celebrated every year. F. Feb. 20th.

    Elevation. — That part of the Mass, when the priest raises, successively, the conse- crated host and chalice, in order that the Faithful may adore the body and blood of our Saviour. The elevation and adoration of the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the holy sacrifice of the Mass, are to be found in all the Oriental liturgies, whether Greek, Syriac, Egyptian, or Ethiopian, and are distinctly pointed out in the liturgies of St. James, St. Chrysostom, and St. Basil. Up to the eleventh century, the elevation did not take place until toward the end of the Canon of the Mass.

    Eliachim

    27^

    Elizabeth

    Eliachim or Joachim. — King of Juda (608-598 B. c). Son of Jopias, brother and successor of Joachaz. Placed on the throne by Nechao, King of Egypt, he gave himself up to impiety, and persecuted the prophet Jeremias. Dethroned by Nabuchodonosor, he was led away a pris- oner to Babylon, and put to death three months aftertvards.

    Elias. — Prophet of great celebrity and holiness. Born at Thesbe about 900 b. c. He was carried to heaven in a fierj- chariot, without having tasted death. His history, which is full of affecting incidents and verv interesting, is contained in HI. Ki. xvii.-xix. and IV. Ki. i. 2.

    Eligius (St.). — Apostle of the Frisians, inhabiting the northwestern coast of Ger- many (parts of Holland and Hanover). To their conversion and to the permanent establishment of Christianity, by the foundation of churches and monasteries, he devoted himself with unremitting en- ergy till his death, in 568.

    Elim (Hebr. trees). — The second station of Israel after crossing the Red Sea. It had twelve wells and seventy palm trees, and has been identified with Wady Charandel, forty miles southeast of Suez, where there are fountains, brooks, and palms.

    Elipandus. — Archbishop of Toledo, schismatic, died in 799, He declared Jesus Christ to be only the adoptive son of God, whence the name of the sect Adop- tianismy which did not survive its founder.

    Eliseus. — A celebrated prophet, the successor, and after a manner, the pupil of Elias. His history, which is full of in- terest, is contained in I. Ki. ii.-ix. and xiii. 14-21.

    Elishe (Elis^us). — Elishe, a disciple of St. Mesrop, was at one time secretary to St. Wardan, the commander of the Armenian army. Later on he retired into solitude, first to South Armenia, then to the shores of Lake Wan, in order to shun intercourse with men. Here he ended his days in 480. He wrote The History of Wardan and the Armenian War, in a patriotic and enthusiastic strain; also commentaries on Genesis, on the books of Josue and the Judges ; an explanation of the Pater Noster; canons on the treat- ment of enerffumens, also Words of Ad- monition to Hermits, in which he depicts the sufferings and persecutions of the

    Church and ardently exhorts the Armenian monks to a virtuous life. The authenticity of the homilies ascribed to him is doubt- ful, in view of the great difference of style. Elishe's works are distinguished by the purity and elevation of his language, and, from a theological point of view, afford excellent testimony to the doctrines of the Trinity, Incarnation, duality of natures in Christ, the divine institution of the Church, the Primacy of Peter, the Eucharist, and similar dogmas.

    Elizabeth (Qj:een) (1533-1603). — Daughter of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, was, after the execution of her mother, declared illegitimate and inca- pable of reigning, but Henry in his will re- stored to her her rights. During the reign of Mary Tudor, her sister, she was impli- cated in the conspiracy of Thomas Wyat and condemned to close confinement in the Tower. She was twenty years old when the death of Mary called her to the throne. Being endowed with an energetic dispo- sition for the management of affairs and great skill, she really possessed the quali- fications of a ruler ; but her character was otherwise cruel and tyrannical, her temper irritable, and she was possessed with an ambitious vanity and frivolous pretensions to beauty and talent. She surrounded herself with Protestant counselors and founded the Anglican Church by the Act of the Thirty-nine Articles (1562). She caused parliament to declare her queen by divine right, supreme governess of Church and State, and required, from the members of the clergy, an oath endorsing the spiritual supremacy of the crown. All the bishops, except the incumbent of Landaff, refused this oath ; they were arrested and fourteen were replaced by Protestants. The inferior clergy was less courageous. When Mary Stuart crossed the Solway, Elizabeth led her to the Castle of Bolton, Yorkshire, pretending to arbitrate between the Scottish queen and her subjects. After a most unjust trial finally condemned her to death (1587). She completely outlawed the Catholics and exposed them to a con- tinual risk of martyrdom. Communica- tion with Rome, and obedience to the Papal authority, were declared high trea- son. " Recusancy," and attendance at Catholic worship were visited with the severest penalties. In 1584, laws proscrib- ing the whole body of the Catholic clergy were rushed through parliament. All

    Elizabeth

    273

    Eloquence

    Jesuits and priests were commanded, on pain of high treason, to leave the country within forty days ; anyone harboring or concealing a priest was adjudged a felon and deserving of death. In 1593, laws were enacted which forbade Catholics to travel five miles from their homes; they were excluded from court parliament, and all offices of trust, and deprived of the right of franchise. Elizabeth, who had been the author of so much grief to others, was destined to close her life in sorrow and despair. She died March 23d, 1603.

    Elizabeth (St.). — A Jewish woman, of the family of Aaron, wife of Zacharias, mother of St. John the Baptist, died about the year 3 a. d. She saluted the mother of the Redeemer by the words which form a part of the " Hail Mary: " " Thou art blessed among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb." F. Nov. 5th.

    Elizabeth (St.) (Queen of Hungary). — She was a daughter of a king of Hungary, and niece of St. Hedwige. Betrothed in infancy to Louis Landgrave of Thuringia, she was reared with the greatest care at her father's court. Not content with re- ceiving numbers of the poor in her palace, and relieving all in distress, she built sev- eral hospitals, where she ministered to the sick, dressing the most repulsive sores with her own hands. Once, as she was carrying in the folds of her mantle some provisions for the poor, she met her husband return- ing from the chase. Astonished to see her bending under the weight of her bur- den, he opened the mantle which she kept folded closely together, and found in it nothing but beautiful red and white roses, although it was not the season for flowers. Bidding her pursue her way, he took one of the marvelous roses and kept it all his life. On her husband's death she was cruelly driven from her palace, and forced to wander through the streets with her little children, a victim of- hunger and cold ; but she welcomed all her sufferings, and continued to be the mother of the poor, converting many by her holy life. She died in 1231, at the age of twenty-four. F. Nov. 19th.

    Elizabeth (St.) (1271-1326; Q,ueen of Portugal). — She was a daughter of Pedro HL of Arragon, being named after her aunt, St. Elizabeth of Hungary. At twelve years of age she was given in marriage to Denis, king of Portugal, and from a holy

    18

    child became a saintly wife. Her husband caused her much sorrow, both by his un- founded jealousy and by his infidelity to her. Her patience, and the wonderful charity with which she even cherished the children of her rivals, completely won the king from his evil ways, and he became a devoted husband and a truly Christian king. She built many charitable institu- tions and religious houses, among others a convent of Poor Clares. After her hus- band's death, she wished to enter this order; but being dissuaded by her people, she took the habit of the Third Order of St. Francis, and spent the rest of her life in redoubled austerities and almsgiving. F. July 8th.

    Elkesaites. — The only Judaist-Gnos- tics, a branch of the Essenian Ebionites. A certain Elkai or Elkesai, who lived in the first century, is supposed to have been their founder. Their distinctive tenet was that the Spirit of God had become incar- nate repeatedly — first in Adam, then suc- cessively in Enoch, Noe, Abraham, etc., and lately in Christ. They maintained the necessity of a second baptism and ob- served the ceremonial law of the Jews, but rejected all sacrifice, as also portions of the Old and New Testaments. Their vagaries are embodied in the Clementine Homilies, so called from having been at- tributed to Pope Clementine I., from whom the Elkesaites traced their pretended secret revelation.

    Eloham. — Hebrew word which signifies any God, but mostly employed for the true God. The contents of the discourse makes its real meaning known in the- different passages where it is used in the Bible.

    Elohim (plural of the preceding word). — One of the names of God of frequent occurrence in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. Biblical critics are not agreed as to the reason for the use of the plural form : some regard it as a covert sugges- tion of the Trinity; others as 3 plural of excellence; others as an indication of an earlier polytheistic belief; still others, as an embodiment of the Hebrew faith, that the powers represented by the gods of the heathen, were all included in one Divine Person.

    Eloquence ( Sacred) . — Sapred eloquence comprises all the forms of preaching: the sermon, the homily, the conference, the funeral oration, the panegyric of saints,

    Emancipation

    274

    Emancipation

    and the religious conference. Sacred elo- quence, which did not enter the functions of the pagan priesthood, arose with the Apostles. Generally, in the first centuries, onl}- the bishops preached. Their dis- courses, ordinarily short, familiar allocu- tions like those of a father, aiming solely to explain the Scriptures to his children, are noble in their simplicitj-, apparently without art, division, or subtile reasoning, but always within the understanding of their audience. They have no verbosity, no exaggerated figures ; but are always clear and full of affectionate regard. When the sacred orator touches the heart, or per- suades the reason, it is especially by the grandeur of the truths he preaches, by the authority of his office and his pastoral holiness. The sermons of St. Augustine are the most simple of all his works, be- cause he preached in a small city, to mariners and tradesmen. On the contrary, St. Ambrose, St. Cyprian, St. Leo, — preach- ing in larger cities, — spoke with more pomp and ornament. St. Gregory of Naz- ianzum and St. Chrysostom are, among the Fathers of the Church, those who carried the art and genius of eloquence to the highest degree. St. Chrysostom is a model for preachers. St. Leo preached with such an unction and elegance that sometimes he attained the eloquence of a Cicero. During the disintegration of the Roman empire, the Christian pulpit was without an imposing voice for a long time. In vain did Charlemagne recommend the translation and composition of homilies ; uselessly did the Councils attempt to warm up the zeal of an ignorant clergy. In spite of all the efforts of Oddo of Cluny, of Odilon of Abdon, monk of St. Germain- des-Prds, the art of oratory regained its supremacy only toward the end of the eleventh century. The renaissance was a rapid one ; legions of preachers arose. Members of the secular clergy, religious, preachers of the Crusades, more or less inspired reformers and heresiarchs, im- passioned the assemblies. Preaching had an astonishing influence on the ignorant, replete with faith and enthusiasm. Both the vernacular and Latin did good ser\\-ice to the preacher, accordingly as he spoke to the people, to laymen, clerics, monks, religious, or scholars. The most celebrated preachers of the twelfth century were : Mauritius of Sully, St. Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, Raoul, Ardent, Isaac of fitoile, Adam of Perseigne; these men imbued

    preaching with as much elegance as au- thority. But their eloquence, generally embellished with rhetorical ornament, was deep and scholarly, and did not represent the popular preaching. In the thirteenth century, eloquence became more general. The sermons addressed to the Faithful were entirely delivered in the vernacular. The Latin was used only when clerics were ad- dressed. But evidences of decay appear in the middle of that centurj-. Popular ora- tors became dialecticians; mechanical compositions that replaced the natural effusions of inspiration, or, through an- other abuse, the familiarity of the sermons became trivial. For his text, the preacher took some popular song, or the Metamor- phoses of Ovid, and drew from them fan- tastic commentaries, or gave a rhythmic form to his discourse. There were, how- ever, praiseworthy exceptions. The degra- dation of sacred eloquence became complete in the fourteenth century. Among the mass of manuscripts left to us, we find nothing that approached real eloquence. We have to wait for the storms of the fif- teenth century to hear again the vibrant voice of the men of action. The political disasters of the reign of Charles VI. and the religious agitations in the West found an echo in the sermons of every preacher. The pulpit became a school of politics and controversy. Unfortunately, however, burlesque and triviality, which had invaded the province of oratory in the foregoing century, did not entirely disappear. The sermons of the preachers of the Middle Ages were also wanting in form, accuracy and precision. Most of the sermons of the sixteenth century, like those of the fifteenth, were replete with historical characteriza- tion, philosophical thoughts, poetic and fabulous quotations. The "great" Epami- nondas, the "divine" Plato, the "ingen- ious" Homer, appear almost on every page. Mythological allusions are all- per\\-ading. It was in the seventeenth century that Christian eloquence shone in its full glory. In that period, sacred elo- quence attained its acme of perfection when the powerful voices of a Bossuet, Bourdaloue, Massillon, and Flechier, were heard. The eighteenth century possessed no such orators. Our century has pro- duced some great preachers ; but we have no equals of Bossuet, Massillon, or Bour- daloue. See Sermon.

    Emancipation( CaMo/fV). SeeCATHOLic.

    Ember Days

    275

    Emperors and Kings

    Ember Days. — The ember days are the first Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of each of the four seasons of the year, set apart as fast days by the Catholic Church. According to the testimony of Pope Leo, they originated in the time of the Apostles, who were inspired by the Holy Ghost to dedicate each season of the year to God by a few days of penance ; or, as it were, to pay three days' interest, every three months, on the graces received from God. The Church always commanded the Faithful to fast at the beginning of each of the four seasons of the year, because it is at this time that she ordains the priests and other servants of the Church, which even the Apostles did with much prayer and fasting. Thus she desires that during the ember days Chris- tians should fervently ask of God by prayer, fasting, and other good works, for worthy pastors and servants, on whom depends the welfare of the whole Christian flock ; «he also desires that in the spring ember days we should ask God's blessing for the fer- tility of the earth ; in summer for the pres- ervation of the fruits of the field ; in autumn when the harvest is ripe, and in winter when it is sheltered, that we should offer to God, by fasting and prayer, a sacri- fice of thanks, petitioning Him to assist us, that we may not use His gifts for our soul's detriment, but refer all praise to Him, the fountain of all good, and assist our neighbor according to our means.

    Eminence. — A title given to cardinals by Urban VHI. Up to the period of his Pontificate, they had been styled most illustrious and most reverend.

    Emmaus (Hebr. Hot Springs'). — A vil- lage seven and one-half miles from Jerusa- lem, where our Lord revealed himself to two of His disciples on the afternoon of the day on which He rose from the dead. Its precise site is rnuch disputed, but at present the most probable view puts it at Kubeibeh, a little town about seven miles northwest of Jerusalem.

    Emmeran (St.). — Apostle of Bavaria. He had been formerly a chorepiscopus of Poitiers. Having started from his home, in the year 652, with the purpose of preaching the Gospel to the Avari, the heathen inhabitants of Pannonfa, he ar- rived, in the course of his journey, at Rat- isbon, where the Duke Theodo was then residing. The duke besought the mission- ary, instead of proceeding further, to

    undertake the labor of instructing the in- habitants of Bavaria, some of whom had but lately embraced the faith, while others still refused to give up the errors of heathenism. After three years of unceas- ing toil, the holy bishop resolved upon making a pilgrimage to Rome; but before setting out, he made an effort to reclaim Ota, the daughter of the duke, from a life of shame. These kind offices brought upon himself the anger of her in whose behalf they were rendered. Ota repre- sented to her brother, Landpert, that she had become pregnant by the bishop, and this information so incensed the young prince that he took a bloody vengeance upon the supposed author of his sister's shame. But, his innocence having been clearly established, his body was at once brought back to Ratisbon and placed in a monastery founded in his^onor and bear- ing his name. F. Sept. 22d.

    EMPERORS AND KINGS (Chrono- logical Table of).

    I. ROMAN EMPERORS.

    First Century.

    Augustus, died a. d 14

    Tiberius 14 — 37

    Caligula 37 — 41

    Claudius 41 — 54

    Nero 54 — 68

    Galba 68—69

    Otho and Vitellius 69

    Vespasian 69 — 79

    Titus 79 — 8i

    Domitian 81 — 96

    Nerva 96—98

    Second Century.

    Trajan 98—1 17

    Hadrian 117 — 138

    Antoninus Pius 138 — i6r

    Marcus Aurelius 161 — rSo

    Gommodus 180—192

    Pertinax 192 — 193

    Third Century,

    Septimius Severus 193 — 211

    Caracalla 211 — 217

    Macrinus 217 — 218

    Heliogabalus 218 — 222

    Alexander Severus 222 — 231;

    Maximin 235 — 238

    Gordian 238—244

    Philip 244 — 249

    Decius 249 — 251

    Emperors and Kings

    2'j6>

    Emperors and Kings

    Gallus 251 — 253

    Valerian ^ 253 — 260

    Gallienus 260 — 268

    Claudius II 268 — 270

    Aurelian 270 — 275

    Tacitus 275 — 276

    Probus 276 — 282

    Carus 282 — 284

    Fourth Century.

    t Diocletian 284 — 305

    ( Maximian 285 — 305

    iConstantius Chlorus 305 — 306

    Severus 305—307

    Galerius 305 — 311

    Maximin II 305 — 313

    iConstantine the Great 306 — 337

    Maxentius 306 — 312

    Licinius 307 — 324

    iConstantine II 337 — 340

    Constans 337— 350

    Constantius II 337 — 361

    Julian the Apostate 361 — 363

    Jovian 363—364

    \\ Valentinian 1 364 — 375

    \\ Valens 364—375

    ( Gratian 375—383

    \\ Valentinian II 375 — 392

    ' Theodosius I. (the Great) .... 379 — 395

    Fifth Century.

    Honorius 395 — ^423

    Valentinian III 423 — 455

    Avitus 455—456

    Majorian 457 — ^461

    Severus 461 — 467

    Anthemius 467 — 472

    Nepos 472—475

    Romulus Augustulus (last Ro- man emperor) 475 — 476

    Odoacer, King of Italy 476 — 493

    Sixth Century.

    Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, king

    of Italy .* 493 — 526

    Dominion of the Ostrogoths in Italy under the successors of

    Theodoric 526 — 553

    Italy, a province of the East- Roman Empire 553

    Dominion of the Lombards in

    Italy 568—774

    II. PRINCIPAL EMPERORS OF THE EAST-ROMAN EMPIRE.

    Arcadius 395 — ^408

    Theodosius II 408 — ^450

    Marcian 450 — 457

    ^^° ^ 457—474

    ^^"o 474-491

    Anastasius I 491 — 518

    Justin 1 518—527

    Justinian 1 527—565

    J"stin II 565-578

    Mauritius . 582 — 602

    Phocas 602 — 6io

    Heraclius 610 — 641

    Constans \\\\ 641—668

    Constantine IV. (Pogonatus) . . 668 — 685

    Justinian II 685 — 711

    Philipicus 711 — 713

    Anastasius II 713 — 716

    Leo III. (the Isaurian) 718 — 741

    Constantine V. (Copronymus) . 741 — 775

    Leo IV 775 — 780

    Constantine VI 780 — 797

    Empress Irene 797 — 802

    Michael 1 811 — 813

    Leo V. (the Armenian) 813 — 820

    Michael II. (Balbus) 820—829

    Theophilus 829 — 842

    Basil I. (the Macedonian) 867—886

    Leo VI. (the Philosopher) 886—911

    Constantine VII. (Porphyro-

    genitus) 911 — 959

    Isaac Comnenus 1057 — 1059

    Baldwin of Flanders (first Latin

    emperor) 1204 — 1206

    Michael VIII. (Palaeologus. The

    Greek empire restored) 1261 — 1282

    Constantine XI. (the last of the

    East-Roman emperors) 1448 — 1453

    III.

    EMPERORS AND KINGS OF GERMANY.

    Ninth Century.

    Charlemagne (Charles I. the

    Great)* 800— S14

    Louis I. (the Mild) 814 — 840

    Lothaire 1 840 — 855

    Louis II. (the German). ...:... 855 — 875

    Charles II. (the Bald) 875—877

    Charles III. (the Fat) 877—887

    Arnulf 896—899

    Tenth Century,

    Louis III. (the Child) 900 — 911

    Conrad 1 9" — 9^8

    Henry 1 919 — 936

    Otho I. (the Great) 936 — 973

    Otho II 973—983

    * The Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne included all Germany and France, the greater part of Italy, and Northern Spain.

    Emperors and Kings

    277

    Emperors and Kings

    Eleventh Century.

    Otho III 983—1003

    Henry II. (the Saint) 1002 — 1024

    Conrad II 1024 — 1039

    Henry III 1039 — 1056

    Henry IV 1056 — 1106

    Twelfth Century.

    Henry V 1106 — 1125

    Lothaire II 1125 — 1137

    Conrad III 1137 — 1152

    Frederick I. (Barbarossa) 1152 — 1190

    Henry VI 1 190— 1 197

    Thirteenth Century.

    Philip of Swabia* 1198 — 1208

    Otho IV 1198— 1215

    Frederick II 1215 — 1250

    Conrad IV 1250 — 1254

    Interregnum 1254 — 1273

    Rudolph of Hapsburg 1273 — ^291

    Adolph of Nassau 1292 — 1298

    Albert 1 1298 — 1308

    Fourteenth Century.

    Henry VII 1308— 1313

    { Louis of Bavaria 13 13 — 1347

    ( Frederick of Austria 1314 — 1330

    Charles IV 1347 — 1378

    Wenceslaus 1378 — 1400

    Fifteenth Century.

    Rupert 1400— 1410

    Sigismund 1410 — 1437

    Albert II 1438— 1439

    Frederick III 1439 — 1493

    Maximilian 1 1493 — i^ig

    Sixteenth Century.

    Charles V 1519 — 1556

    Ferdinand I 1556— 1564

    Maximilian II 1564 — 1576

    Rudolph II 1576 — 16x2

    Seventeenth Century.

    Matthias 1612 — 1619

    Ferdinand II 1619 — 1637

    Ferdinand III 1637 — 1657

    Leopold 1 1657 — 1705

    Eighteenth Century.

    Joseph 1 170S— 1711

    Charles VI 171 1 — 1740

    Maria Theresa and her consort

    Francis 1 1740— 1780

    * Philip and Otho were elected by rival parties.

    Joseph II 1780 — 1790

    Leopold II 1790 — 1792

    Francis II 1792 — 1806

    IV. EMPERORS OF AUSTRIA.

    Francis (II) 1 1806— 1835

    Ferdinand 1 1835 — 1848

    Francis Joseph 1 1848

    V. KINGS OF PRUSSIA.t

    Frederick 1 1701 — 1713

    Frederick William 1 1713 — 1740

    Frederick II 1740 — 1786

    Frederick William II 1786 — 1797

    Frederick William III 1797 — 1840

    Frederick William IV 1840— 1861

    William 1 1861— 1888

    Frederick III 1888

    William II 1888

    VI. KINGS OF FRANCE.

    Carlovingian Dynasty.

    Charles II. (the Bald) 843—877

    Louis II. (the Stammerer) 877 — 879

    Louis III 879—882

    Carloman 879 — 884

    Charles the Fat, of Germany . . 884—887

    Charles III. (the Simple) 893 — 923

    Louis IV. (d'Outre-mer) 936 — 954

    Lothaire 954 — 986

    Louis V. (the Idle) 986—987

    Capetian Dynasty.

    Hugh Capet 987 — 996

    Robert (the Pious) 996 — 1031

    Henry 1 1031 — 1060

    Philip 1 1060 — 1 108

    Louis VI. (the Fat) 1108 — 1137

    Louis VII 1137 — ii8o

    Philip II. Augustus 1 180 — 1223

    Louis VIII 1223 — 1226

    Louis IX. (St. Louis) 1226 — 1270

    PhiHp III. (the Bold) 1270— 1285

    Philip IV. (the Fair) 1285— 1314

    Louis X, , 1314 — 1316

    Philip V. (the Long) 13x6 — 1322

    Charles IV. (the Fair) 1322— 1328

    House of Valois.

    Philip VI. (of Valois) 1328— 1350

    John II. (the Good) 1350 — 1364

    t since 1871 hereditary emperors of the new German Empire.

    Emperors and Kings

    278

    Emperors and Kings

    Charles V. (the Wise) 1364 — 1380

    Charles VI 1380—1422

    Charles VII. (the Victorius) . . . 1422 — 1461

    Louis XI 1461 — 1483

    Charles VIII 1483— 1498

    Louis XII 1498 — 1515

    Francis 1 1515— 1547

    Henry II 1547—1559

    F>ancis II 1559 — 1560

    Charles IX 1560 — 1574

    Henrj III 1574—1589

    House of Bourbon.

    Henry IV 1589 — 1610

    Louis XIII 1610 — 1643

    Louis XIV 1643 — 1715

    Louis XV 1715 — 1774

    Louis XVI 1774 — 1792

    First republic 1792 — 1799

    The Consular government ^799 — 1804

    First empire under Napoleon 1. 1804 — 1814

    Louis XVII 1814 — 1824

    Charles X 1824— 1830

    Louis Philip 1830 — 1848

    Second republic 1848 — 1852

    Second empire under Napoleon

    III 1852—1870

    Third republic 1870

    VII.

    KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND.

    Saxons and Danes.

    Egbert, ist king of all England. 827 — 836

    Ethelwulf 837— 858

    Ethelbald 858— 860

    Ethelbert 860— 866

    Ethelred I , 866— 871

    Alfred (the Great) 871 — 901

    Edward (the Elder) 901 — 925

    Athelstan 925 — 940

    Edmund (the Elder) 940 — 946

    Edred 946— 955

    Edwy 955— 958

    Edgar 958— 975

    (St. Edward (the Martyr) 975 — 979

    Ethelred II 979 — 1016

    Edmund Ironside 1016

    Canute i4i7 — 1035

    Harold 1 1035 — 1040

    Hardicanute 1040 — 1042

    (St. Edward (the Confessor). . .1042 — 1066 Harold II 1066

    House of Normandy.

    William I. (the Conqueror). . . .1066 — 1087 William II. (the Red) 1087 — 1100

    Henry I noo— 1135

    Stephen 1135 — 1154

    House oS^ Plantagenet.

    Henry II. 1154— 1189

    Richard 1 1189—1199

    John (Lackland) 1 199 — 1216

    Henry III 1216—1272

    Edward 1 1272 — 1307

    Edward II 1307 — 1327

    Edward III 1327 — 1377

    Richard II 1377 — 1399

    House of Lancaster.

    Henry IV. of Lancaster 1399 — 1413

    Henry V 1413 — 1422

    Henry VI 1422 — 1461

    House of York.

    Edward IV. of York 1461— 1483

    Edward V 1483

    Richard III 1483— 1485

    House of Tudor.

    Henry VII., Tudor 1485 — 1509

    Henry VIII 1509 — 1547

    Edward VI 1547 — 1553

    Queen Mary I533— 1558

    Qiieen Elizabeth 1558 — 1603

    House of Stuart.

    James 1 1603 — 1625

    Charles 1 1625 — 1649

    The Commonwealth under

    Cromwell and his son 1649 — 1659

    Charles II 1660—1685

    James II.* 1685—1688

    William III. of Orange 1689^1702

    Queen Anne 1702 — 1714

    House of Hanover.

    George I. of Hanover 1714 — 1727

    George II 1727 — 1760

    George III 1760 — 1820

    George IV 1820 — 1830

    William IV 1830—1837

    Qiieen Victoria 1837

    * Stuart Family. James II. was married twice.

    ( Mary, wife of William m. , 1674. Hlsflrat wife, Anna Hyde, 167W Anne, afterwards queen ofEnK- ( land, ITU.

    IJainee (111.) Edward, known aa the Old Pretender, 1706. Hli wife Clementina, granddangh- ter of King John SobleskI of Poland. fCharlea Edward, known as th« /,« , »,.. J *i- rtij I Young Pretender, 1788. James an.) Edward, the Old J Henry IX. Duke of York, died • Pretender and hi. wife Clem--^ cardinal In 1807. With him the entlna of Poland. male line of the Stitarta became

    ( extinct.

    Empire

    279

    Emser

    VIII. PRINCIPAL RULERS OF SPAIN.

    Visigoths.

    Foundation of the Visigothic Monarchy by

    Wallia 415 — 419

    Theodorich 419 — 451

    Eurich 466 — 484

    Leovigild 569 — 586

    Reccared 1 586 — 601

    Roderich 709 — 711

    Moors.

    Moorish dominion established. 711 Caliphate of Cordova 756 — 1087

    Christian States.

    1. Kingdom of Asturias, found- ed by Pelagius 725 — 737

    Alfonso I. the Catholic 739 — 757

    Alfonso II. the Chaste 791 — 824

    2. Marca Hispanica, conquered

    by Charlemagne 778

    3. Kingdom of Navarre, founded about 860

    4. Kingdom of Leon, founded about 910

    5. Kingdom of Aragon, founded about 103s

    6. Kingdom of Castile, founded about 1037

    Castile and Aragon united 1479

    Conquest of Granada 1492

    Isabella of Castile died 1504

    Ferdinand V., the Catholic of Aragon, died 1516

    House of Hapsburg.

    Charles I., of Hapsburg (Charles

    V. as emperor) 1516 — 1556

    Philip II 1556— 1598

    Philip III 1598— 1621

    Philip IV 1621— 1665

    Charles II 1665 — 1700

    House of Bourbon.

    Philip V. of Bourbon 1701 — 1746

    Ferdinand VI 1746 — 1759

    Charles III 1759— 1788

    Charles IV 1788— 1808

    Joseph Bonaparte 1808 — 1813

    Ferdinand VII 1814 — 1833

    Regent Christina ; . . . 1833 — 1840

    Regent Espartero 1841 — 1843

    Isabella II 1843— 1868

    Regent Serrano 1869 — 1870

    Amadeus of Sardinia 1870 — 1873

    Republic 1873 — ^874

    Alfonso XII 1874—1885

    Regent Maria Christina of Aus- tria 1885

    Empire ( The Holy Roman). — See Char- lemagne.

    Empiricism. — Philosophical doctrine which allows nothing to be true but what is given by experience, and rejects all a priori knowledge. It sprung out of the system of Heraclitus, which Plato refuted. Its modern founder was Locke, who made experience comprehend both sensation and reflection. Condillac and other French writers pushed this to the extreme, reject- ing reflection. Hence has been developed what has justly been called the Sensualistic Philosophy, which is alike untrue and per- nicious. See Sensualism.

    Ems ( Congress of). — A Congress held in August, 1786, between the representatives of the Archbishops Emmeric Joseph of Mentz, Clemens Wenceslaus of Treves, and Maximilian Frederick of Cologne, which produced the so-called Ems Punc- tuation, in which certain restrictions were laid upon the power of the Pope in the dioceses, and especially the abolition of nuncio in Germany was demanded. The Isidorian decretals also were declared a forgery.

    Emser (Jerome) (1477-1527). — German Catholic theologian, born at Ulm. Emser, aulic chaplain and secretary to Duke George of Saxony, was an eminent scholar, well versed in the ancient and Oriental languages. He was present at the Leipzig discussion, between Eck and Luther, and from that time opposed, in union with Dr. Eck, the increasing influence of Luther, who on that account vilified him in his wonted vulgar style. In reply to Luther's abusive charges he published a series of pamphlets ; he also translated the work of Henry VIII. of England, against the Wit- tenberg " Reformer." Also, to counteract Luther's translation of the Bible, Emser assisted in publishing a new German ver- sion of the Scriptures, and exposed the sys- tematic corruption of the Scripture text by Luther, whose translation of the New Tes- tament he proved to contain no less than 1,400 errors and forgeries. Luther retali- ated with his usual coarse epithets, saying that " popish asses were not able to appre-

    Encratites

    280

    England

    ciate his labors," and calling Emser "a wild ass, a blockhead, a basilisk, and pupil of Satan."

    Encratites. — Heretics of the second cen- tury, who are said by Theodoret to have been followers of Tatian, a disciple of Jus- tin Martyr. Called thus, because they abstained from wine and meats and used only water for the Holy Eucharist.

    Encyclical. — A circular letter addressed by the Pope to all the bishops in com- munion with him, in which he condemns prevalent errors, and informs them of the attitude of the different peoples in their countries toward the Church. The letter also contains suggestions relating to educa- tional matters, and explanations of the difficulties with which the Church has to contend in particular countries, as well as the means that should be employed by Catholics to aid the Church toward the ful- fillment of her divine mission.

    Encyclion. — An edict of the Emperor Basilicus (475-477), in which he denounced the Dogmatic Epistle of Pope Leo I. and the Council of Chalcedon (451).

    Endor. — A city of Manasses, placed by Eusebius four miles south of Tabor, near Nain, on the way to Scythopolis. Here the pythoness lived whom Saul consulted (HI. Ki. xxviii. 7, etc.).

    Ener^mens. — Name given in the early Church to those who were held as being possessed. They were placed under the^ care of the Exorcist who, by the laying on of hands, had the power of expelling the evil spirit. See Possessioxs.

    Engadi (Hebr. spring of the goaf). — A place abounding in caverns, situated on the western shore of the Dead Sea, 26 miles southeast of Jerusalem : the modern Ain- Jidy. In the desert of Engadi David hid from Saul.

    Rngland (Bvangeh'zaiion of). — It can- not be ascertained, when or by whom Christianity was first preached in Britain. Some writers ascribe it to St. Peter, while Anglican writers (hoping to show that the introduction of Christianity into England was independent of the See of Rome!) claim that St. Paul, the Apostle, planted the Church in Britain. Both conjectures are totally unsupported by any proof. There is no evidence, whatsoever, to show that St. Paul ever preached in Britain.

    The testimonies of the early writers, — St. Clement, Eusebius, St. Jerome, and The- odoret, — who are quoted in support of the Anglican claim, are wholly ambiguous and unsatisfactory. It is certain, however, that there were Christians in Britain at a very early period. Tertullian and Origen refer to the early triumph of the Church among the tribes of Britain as a well- known fact. Of the Romans who, since the subjugation of the island under Clau- dius, came to Britain, and of the Britains who were induced to visit Rome, some, no doubt, were Christians or were made ac- quainted at Rome with the Christian religion. The two celebrated ladies who became Christians at Rome in the time of the Apostles, — Claudia, the wife of the senator Pudens, and Pomponia Graecina, the wife of Aulus Plautius, the first general who made any permanent conquest in the island, — are believed to have been Brit- ains. We are assured by English his- torians that Helena, the saintly mother of Constantine the Great, was also a native of Britain. About the year 182, at the re- quest of a British cTiieftain named Lucius, Pope Eleutherius sent Fugatius and Dami- anus to Britain, by whom Lucius and great numbers of the Britains were con- verted to the faith. A regular hierarchy had alread}' been established in Britain before the close of the third century; for three British bishops, Eborius of York, Restitutus of London, and Adelphius of Lincoln, attended the Council of Aries, 314. The persecution of Diocletian also reached the faithful of remote Britain, and St. Alban, who suffered, A. D. 303, is called the protomartyr of England. When the heresy of Pelagius, himself a British monk, began to disturb the faithful of Britain, Pope Celestine I. (429), sent St. Germanus of Auxerre (died in 448), and St. Lupus of Troyes (died in 479), to Britain to silence the heretics. Their mis- sion proved most successful in exterminat- ing Pelagianism.

    However, the honor of bringing the heathen Anglo-Saxons to the fold of Christ is due to Pope Gregory the Great, who, in 596, sent thirty-nine Benedictines under the guidance of the holy Abbot Augustine to undertake the conversion of the Anglo- Saxons in Britain. See Augustine.

    England (John) (1786-1842). — Ameri- can prelate; was born in Cork, Ireland; died at Charleston. Dr. England was one

    England

    281

    Ennodius

    of the greatest of American bishops. Was ordained in 1808 and soon after he was placed at the head of the St. Mary's Theo- logical Seminary at Cork. When the dio- cese of Charleston was established, Dr. England was selected for the mitre, and was consecrated on the 21st of September, 1820. The diocese committed to Dr. Eng- land's charge involved great exertion and labor, from which he never shrunk, but he was alive to the wants of the Church in the whole republic. He founded and con- ducted the "United States Catholic Mis- cellany." Dr. England's articles were read and copied in all parts of the country, producing incalculable good. The writ- ings of Bishop England form six volumes and are highly prized in the libraries of the clergy. A selection of the most re- markable writings of Bishop England, edited by Hugh P. McElrone, was pub- lished at Baltimore in 1884.

    England {Protestantism in). See An- glicanism, Henry VHI., and Eliza- beth.

    England {Statistics of the Church in) in

    Ennodius (Magnus Felix). -^ The de- scendant of a noble but impoverished fam- ily, was born in 473 at Aries (or, according to others at Milan). Died in 521. After the premature death of his parents, he was left to the care of his aunt at Milan, who provided for his education. He loved the study of rhetoric, but tried his talents es- pecially in poetry, and the least success in that line enraptured him beyond measure. His aunt, who seems to have destined him for the ecclesiastical state, committed him to a certain Servilius for instruction in the ecclesiastical disciplines. But she died be- fore Ennodius had reatthed his seventeenth year, and had it not been for an offer of marriage from a wealthy and pious lady, he would have been left in extreme poverty. His new fortune, however, led him on the dangerous path of pleasure and enjoyment, until a serious illness roused him from his worldly slumber. Having been restored to health by the intercession of St. Victor, he embraced the ecclesiastical state, and his devout wife assumed the religious veil. As a priest, he soon rose to high distinc- tion. In the year 494, he accompanied Epiphanius, his bishop, to Burgundy. In

    Dioceses

    Westminster (archdiocese).. .

    Birmingham

    Clifton

    Hexham and Newcastle

    Leeds ,

    Liverpool

    Middlesbrough

    Newport and Menevia

    Northampton

    Nottingham ,

    Plymouth

    Portsmouth

    Salford

    Shrewsbury

    Southwark

    Vicariate Apostolic of Wales

    Total

    112 69 62

    34

    20

    107

    23

    23 II 40 46

    47 61 12

    150 50

    278 162

    43 140 96 257 57 37 50 76

    52

    59

    191

    63

    175

    20

    390 231 105

    174 116

    364 79 60 61

    116 98

    106

    252 75

    325 70

    200,000

    45,000 41,400 9,990 25,000 11,000

    223,676

    15

    866

    i»756

    2,622

    As can be seen from the above, the number of Catholics is not always given. Apparently the total Catholic population in England is about 3,000,000.

    Enoch

    282

    Ephraim

    502, he was present with his successor, Maximus, at a synod in Rome, where he made such a splendid defense of the lawful Pope, Symmachus, against the accusations of the adherents of the antipope Lauren- tius, that the synod gave it its special ap- probation and ordered it to be preserved among its acts. After the death of Max- imus, in 511, Ennodius became Bishop Pavia. He stood in high favor with Pope Hormisdas, who sent him twice to Emperor Anastasius at Constantinople to heal the rupture caused by the Monophysite trou- bles. Though his mission at the time proved unsuccessful, and only a source of humiliation for him, he yet lived long enough to see, under the Emperor Justin, the restoration of peace to the Church.

    Enoch. — Son of Jared, the seventh patri- arch after Adam. Father of Mathusala. He is represented in the Sacred Books as one of the precursors of Christ.

    Eon or Eudo de Stella. — An uncouth rustic, who revolutionized Bretagne and Gascony, about the middle of the twelfth century. He also gave himself out as the Son of God, and as "he that should come to judge the quick and the dead." He as- sumed almost kingly power and was ac- companied by great numbers of followers, who perpetrated great outrages, plunder- ing churches and monasteries. He was finally seized and cast into prison, where he died shortly after.

    Epaphras (St.). — Bishop and martyr at Colossae, in Phrygia, in the first century. St. Paul calls him the companion of his fetters. His remains were deposited at Rome, in the Basilica of Sancta Maria Majore. F. July 22d.

    Eparchy. — The Greek name for a prov- ince in the Roman empire, and trans- planted over into the Church, it was the division ruled by a metropolitan.

    Ephesians {Epistle to the) . — It was dur- ing St. Paul's first imprisonment at Rome (62), that Epaphras, Bishop of Colossae, came to comfort the Apostle in his chains. The holy prelate, in the course of his visit, mentioned that some designing Jews con- trived to insinuate themselves among his flock, and attempted to weaken their faith by representing that it was necessary to observe the Mosaic ordinances, and that the great mystery of redemption had been effected not by Christ, but by angels. St.

    Paul suspected that the false teachers, who had done so much harm in Colossae, were sure to make their way to Ephesus,and he immediately set about his Epistle to the Ephesians. The beginning or doctrinal part of his Letter is devoted chiefly to re- demption, justification, predestination, and in the end or moral part, the Apostle dwells on the unit}-, charity, obedience, humility, and other virtues demanded by the profession of the Christian faith.

    Ephesus. — A celebrated city of Asia Minor, situated near the mouth of the Gayster, about forty miles south of Smyrna. It was chiefly celebrated for the worship and Temple of Diana ; the last named was accounted one of the seven wonders of the world. St. Paul visited Ephesus about the year 54 (Acts xviii. 19-21). The Apostle St. John passed the latter part of his life at Ephesus, and died there.

    Ephesus (Co««r/7.^ of). — i. The Third Ecumenical Council, called by Theodosius II., in connection with Valentinian III., held at Ephesus, under the direction of St. Cyril of Alexandria in 431. There were present over two hundred bishops. It con- demned the heresy of Nestorius ; defined " that Christ consists of one divine person, but of two distinct natures, one divine, the other human, not mixed and confounded, although intimately (hypostatically) united, so that He, true God and the Son of God by nature, was born according to the flesh of the Blessed Virgin, who con- sequently is truly the Mother of God ( Theotocos)." 2. The so-called " Robber Council," convoked by Theodosius, held at Ephesus under the presidency of Dios- corus of Alexandria in 449. Everything in this Council was carried on with open violence. Dioscorus, supported by the imperial officers and a band of fanatical monks, exercised the most arbitrary des- potism against the assembled prelates. Eutyches was absolved and restored ; his accusers were excommunicated and de- posed, and the doctrine of the two natures in Christ rejected.

    Ephod. — A sort of tunic worn by the high priest of the Jews. This garment was of fine linen, of a heliotrope or purple color, and richly embroidered.

    Ephraim. — i. City of Palestine, in the tribe of Benjamin, anciently called Ophra or Ophera; now called Thayebeh, north- east of and adjacent to Bethel. 2. Tribe

    Ephrem

    283

    Epiphany

    of Israel, issue of the second son of Joseph, whom Jacob adopted in giving to him the same rank as to his own sons.

    Ephrem (St.). — Father of the Church. Surnamed " The Syrian," or also " The Edessenian," probably on account of his • long sojourn in Edessa. Was born, accord- ing to his own account, of Christian par- ents, at Nisibis, about 306. As a youth, he appears to have been troubled by doubts and difficulties on divine Provi- dence. He received his education from the learned Bishop Jacob of Nisibis, whom he accompanied, at a later period, to the Council of Nice, and who also appointed him to teach Syriac in the schools he had founded. When Nisibis was repeatedly besieged by the Persian King Sapor II., Ephrem stood by his fellow citizens, help- ing them by wise counsels. But when the city surrendered to the Persians (363), he withdrew and repaired to Edessa, where, uniting the contemplative to the active life, he labored most successfully in com- bating heresies, preaching the Gospel, as- sisting the poor, in the study of Scripture, and the composition of many able and ex- cellent works. In 370 he visited Basil the Great at Caesarea, and journeyed to the monks of Egypt. As he preached a pan- egyric on St. Basil, who died January ist, 379, his own death must be placed at a later date. He was held in high esteem in the East on account of the holiness and austerity of his life, as well as because of his learning and good works, and was called " Pillar of the Church " and '' Syrorum Propketa. ' It is questionable whether he was a priest, because, in his last will, he calls himself a deacon. His numerous works, which fill six folios, may be divided into exegetical, dogmatical, moral, and as- cetical, all written in Syriac, but, at an early date, translated into Armenian, Ara- bic, Ethiopian, Greek, and later, though much too freely, into Latin. F. July 9th.

    Epicureans. — A school of philosophers in high repute in ancient times. They held that the atoms of nature existed from eternity and formed the world by chance, that the gods have no concern about the earth and there is no providence, that the soul dies with the body, and that man's chief good lies in pleasures properly regu- lated. Epicurus, their founder (341-270 B. c), was a moral man, they say, but his disciples deteriorated and became very corrupt. Their opinions and their life made

    them bitterly opposed to all religion, and especially to the serious and humble doc- trines of the Gospel (Acts xvii. 16-34).

    Epiphanius (St.) (310-403). — Arch- bishop of Salamis (Cyprus). Was born of Jewish parents, in a village of Palestine. After their death, owing to the influence of the monks, especially the Abbot Hilarion, he became a Christian, monk, priest, and abbot of a monastery founded by himself in his own native place. This he governed for the space of thirty years, universally venerated for his piety and learning. In 367 he was elevated to the Metropolitan See of Salamis in the island of Cyprus. In 382 he journeyed to Rome, for the purpose of putting an end to the schism at Antioch. His almost exaggerated zeal for the purity of the Christian doctrine, the extraordinary restlessness of his character, as well as a want of keen judgment and worldly ex- perience, led him sometimes into injudi- cious actions. He was the most determined opponent of the errors of Origen, and it was he who, by his proceedings against Bishop John of Jerusalem, an admirer of Origen, was the real cause of the Origen- istic controversy. Moreover, he listened to the intriguing Theophilus of Alexandria, and shared in his opposition against St. Chrysostom, a supposed favorer of Ori- genism, and was even ready to take part in a pretended council convened against him. Discovering however that he had been duped by Theophilus, he left Constanti- nople before the council assembled, and sailed for Cyprus, but was overtaken by death during the voyage. He left quite a number of works which can be found in Migne, Pat. gr. XLI.-XLIII. F. May 12th.

    Epiphanius (St.) (438-497). — Bishop of Pavia ; born in this city and successor of St. Crispin, his teacher, in 466. During the troubled period which followed the fall of the Roman Empire of the West, Epiph- anus became the political protector of his country. F. Jan. 21st.

    Epiphanius. — Surnamed the " Scholas- tic." Ecclesiastical writer of the sixth century. Abbot of Viviers and friend of Cassiodorous.

    Epiphany or Apparition of the Lord. —

    Festival celebrated on January 6th. This festival is set apart to solemnly commemo- rate the coming of the three wise men from the East, guided by a miraculous star which appeared to them, and directed them

    Episcopacy

    284

    ESDRAS

    to Bethlehem, where they found Christ in the stable ; here they honored and adored Him and offered gifts to Him.

    Episcopacy. See Bishop.

    Episcopals. See Anglicanism.

    Epistle (lesson drawn from the Holy Scripture). — The Jews commenced the public service of their Sabbath bj' reading from Moses and the Prophets. The first Christians followed their example, and during divine worship on Sunday read passages from the Old or New Testament. But as these extracts were more generally made from the Letters of St. Paul, the Doc- tor of the Gentiles, the scriptural lecture received the appellation of " the Epistle." The Epistle of each Sunday is taken from the Letters of St. Paul, or of the other Apostles, and not without a spiritual mean- ing; for in causing the writings of God's envoys to be recited previous to the read- ing of the Gospel, the Church appears to imitate the example of Jesus Christ, who deputed some of His disciples to go before Him into those quarters which He was about to honor with a visit. It is thought that the present distribution of Epistles and Gospels of the Sunday throughout the year was arranged by St. Jerome at the desire of Pope Damasus about the year 376. The number of the Epistles are : 14 addressed by St. Paul to particular Churches and to his disciples; 7 Catholic Epistles, so called, because the majority of them are addressed to all Christianity or to aggregations of Churches. See Canon of the Scrip- tures.

    Era. — See Chronology.

    Erasmus (Desiderius) (1464-1536). — A famous Dutch classical and philosophical scholar and satirist. He was the illegiti- mate son of Gerhard de Praet, and was left an orphan at the age of thirteen. He entered, in 1491, the ser\'ice of the Bishop of Cambray, under whose patronage he was enabled to study at the University of Paris, and was ordained priest in 1492. Erasmus was one of the most polished writers of his age. At first he sided with Luther, expecting that his move- ment would bring about the reform of certain abuses in the Church. Having been drawn into the controversy, he di- rected against the "Reformer" his book On Free Will. Luther replied in his pamphlet "On the Slave Will," attacking Erasmus with so much violence that the

    latter complained, saying that " in his old age he was compelled to contend against a savage beast and a furious wild boar." On Luther's marriage he wrote : " It was thought that Luther was the hero of the tragedy, but, for my part, I regard him as playing the chief part in a comedy, that has ended, like all comedies, in a marriage."

    Erasmus (St.) (also called St. Elmus). — Bishop of Antioch and martyr in Cam- pania, about 301, under Diocletian and Maximian. Patron saint of the mariners. F. June 2d.

    Erastians. — Followers of Thomas Eras- tus, born probably at Baden, Switzerland, died at Basle (1524-1583). The sect of the Erastians, in England, denied that the An- glican Church had the power to excommu- nicate.

    Erigena (John Scotus). — Great Irish scholar of the ninth century. The fame of his talents and learning caused Emperor Charles the Bald to invite him to his court and place him at the head of the Palatine School. He is said to have been master of the Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic languages. He was perfectly familiar with the writings and systems of the Greek philosophers, and with the works of the Fathers of the Church, both Greek and Latin. He became involved in the predestinarian controversy against Gott- schalk. His treatise on the Eucharist, now lost, excited much controversy in a later age ; and his principal work. De Divisione Natures was condemned by Pope Leo IX. in 1050. The wild theories advanced by Erigena, in this and other works, justly exposed their author to the censures of the Church. At what date Erigena died is not clearly ascertained.

    Esau (Hebr. hairy). — Twin brother of Jacob, to whom he sold his birthright for a dish of lentils. Father of the Idumeans.

    Esdraelon. — Plain near Nazareth. See Jezrael.

    Esdras {Books of). — Two canonical books of the Old Testament. In the first of these books it is related that Esdras, or Ezra, "the prince of the Synagogue," revised the Book of the Law and took care that its provisions should be observed. Mention is also made of King Cyrus break- ing up the Babylonian captivity by permit- ting the expatriated Jews to return to Jeru-

    ESSENES

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    Eucharist

    salem and rebuild their temple. This edict of Cyrus was not, however, acted upon until 458 B. c, in the reign of Assuerus, when Esdras led the emancipated Jews back to the land from which they had been exiled . Nehemias succeeded to Esdras, and how he expounded as well as enforced the law is told in the Second Book of Esdras by Nehemias himself.

    Essenes (a Jewish sect). — The Essenes were a society of piously disposed men, who had withdrawn themselves from the strife of theological and political parties to the western side of the Dead Sea, where they lived together, leading an ascetic life.

    Esther. — The Persian name of the queen, from whom one of the Old Testament books takes its name. She is represented in the book as the daughter of Abigail, cousin and adopted daughter of Mardochai, of the tribe of Benjamin. She was made queen in the place of Vasthi, by King As- suerus (Xerxes, 480-465 b.c), and in this position was able to protect her people from the hostile contrivances of Aman, in memory of which deliverance the feast of Purim is still celebrated. The author- ship of the Book of Esther is generally attributed to Mardochai, because in the ninth chapter it is stated that "Mardochai wrote all these things."

    Ethelbert (that is, the noble and valiant) (545-615) — King of Kent. Had married Bertha, the daughter of Caribert, king of the Franks of Paris. This princess, being a Christian, had been affianced to Ethel- bert only on condition that she should be permitted to observe the practices of her religion. She brought with her as spirit- ual adviser, from her native country, Luid- hard, a Christian bishop, who practiced the offices of his religion in an old Catholic church of the Roman times, situated near Canterbury, which had escaped destruction at the hands of the Barbarians. King Ethelbert, having taken a few days to de- liberate on the course to be pursued with regard to the missionaries, paid them a visit on the island where they had landed, and, having seated himself on an oak stump, listened to their address, and learned their intentions, informed them, that, as they were strangers to him, he could not at once give up the belief of his fathers and of his nation, but assured them that, since they evidently believed what they said, they should be hospitably enter-

    tained, and might go through his kingdom, preaching and converting whom they could. He also gave them the old Roman church at Dorovernum (Canterbury, Kent- ■war-btiry, that is the borough of the men of Kent). This church was dedicated to St. Martin, and thither Augustine and his monks repaired to celebrate Mass, chant the divine office, and perform other offices of the ministry. King Ethelbert, charmed by the holiness of their lives, and won by the purity of their doctrine, asked and ob- tained permission to enter the Church, and was baptized by St. Augustine on the feast of Pentecost (a. d. 597). The example of the king had a very salutary effect upon his countrymen, and on the following Christmas (597) ten thousand of them were received into the Church. King Ethelbert built for Melitus, Bishop of London, the Cathedral of St. Paul, and authorized the erection of a second bishopric in his king- dom of Kent, at the Roman city of Roch- ester, twenty miles west of Canterbury.

    Ethelwold (925-984). — Surnamed the " Father of Monks." Bishop of Winches- ter, and reformer of monastic orders in England. Was born at Winchester. Poet, grammarian, and theologian.

    Ethiopia. — In ancient geography, a coun- try south of Egypt, corresponding to the kingdom of Meroe, from the neighborhood of Khartoum northward to Egypt. In a more extended sense, it comprised Nubia, northern Abyssinia, Sennaar, and Kor- dofan. About the Christian era it was ruled by a female dynasty, the Candaces (Acts viii. 27).

    Ethnarch. — A ruler who, though not in- dependent, yet governed his people accord- ing to their national laws. The term was given to the Jewish ruler Simon (I. Mach. xiv. 47) and his son Hyrcanus. In II. Cor. xi. 32, the deputy of Aretas the king was called the "ethnarch," — in the English version " governor."

    Eucharist (one of the seven sacraments). — The sacrament of the holy Eucharist contains the true body, blood, and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the appear- ances of bread and wine. It is called the " Eucharist," because this word in the origi- nal Greek, means thanksgiving. It is called the sacred " Host," which word sig- nifies victim, because in it our Saviour is really renewing the sacrifice of Himself for us day by day. It is called the " Blessed

    Eucharist

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    Sacrament of the Altar," because the con- secration and mystery of Transubstantia- tion take place nowhere lawfully but on the consecrated stone of the altar; also be- cause the holy sacrament is kept in the tabernacle over the altar, that we may wor- ship our Redeemer under the veil or out- ward appearance of bread, just as He was adored, when on earth, in the form of man, though His divinity was hidden under the veil or appearance of humanity. The holy Eucharist is the central mystery of Cath- olic worship, towards which all the cere- monial service of the Church converges. It contains the essential principle of Chris- tianity and is the very soul of our religion. Our Saviour instituted the blessed sac- rament of the Eucharist as the great means of communicating grace to our souls in the closest union of Himself with us, through the miracle of Transubstantiation. On the eve of His passion. He "took bread, and blessed, and broke; and gave to His disciples and said : Take ye and eat : This is My Body. And taking the chalice, He gave thanks, and gave to them, saying: Drink ye all of this. For this is My Blood of the New Testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins " (Matt, xxvi. 26-28). In establishing the sacra- ment of the Eucharist, our Lord com- manded His Apostles to act in accordance with His words, and gave them power to do that which He Himself had done, by saying: "Do this for a commemoration of me" (Luke xxii. 19). Therefore, His meaning clearly was, that they. His Apos- tles and priests, were to give thanks, con- secrate, break, eat, and distribute to others in the same manner as He had done. It is quite certain that our Lord, knowing the inmost thoughts of His disciples, would not have allowed them to rest under a mis- understanding of His words or the power given them by Him ; and thus not only be misled themselves, but mislead all those who should follow their teaching. Both the belief of our Saviour's Apostles in His Real Presence, and their distinct grasp of the authority given them by Him are plainly demonstrated by St. Paul's words: " The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? and the bread, which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?" (I. Cor. x. 16). It is, conse- quently, an incontestable fact that this most holy sacrament contains the real Body and Blood of our Saviour, together

    with His soul and divinity, united insepa- rably to them. His words were absolute, and admit of no other interpretation than that given by His Apostles, which He .sanc- tioned them to retain, and was made more obvious by the fact that, in the language used in the New Testament, the word "this," employed by our Saviour in say- ing: "This is My Body," is neuter, and therefore could not have referred to the bread as merely bread, which word, in those tongues, is of the masculine gender. There is, accordingly, no reason whatever for doubting that our Lord intended us to un- derstand that the substance of bread and wine held in His sacred hands, on this memorable occasion was, by a miracle of His almighty power, really and truly changed into His precious Body and Blood. If the presence of our Saviour in the blessed sacrament were only figurative, and had been accepted only as such in the beginning, it is more than improbable that during so many ages, the true followers of Christ would have abandoned this simple belief for one so infinitely beyond our reasoning powers. It is, therefore, im- possible that our Lord should have taught His Apostles to regard His presence in the holy Eucharist as merely typical. It is also impossible that in past ages, when the faculties of the mind were as keen as they are now, the members of His true Church should have adopted the belief in the Real Presence of Christ, had His teaching, and the teaching of His Apostle? after Him, been of a presence figurative. Moreover, there has never been found any trace of a change in the belief of the Faith- ful, that He is really present in the sacra- ment of the most holy Eucharist; although it was, no doubt, easy for vast numbers, even w-ith good intentions, to read and ex- plain the Scriptures according to their own fancy, while authoritative and right- ful teaching is rejected for private inter- pretation.

    Before the institution of the holy Eucharist our Lord clearly announced its future establishment as a sacrament for the communication of grace, through His sacred body and blood by saying : " I am the bread of life. ... I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If any man eat of this bread he shall live for- ever; and the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world " (John vi. 48, 51, 52). He furthermore confirmed the true meaning of His words in the sense

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    already explained, by reiterating the real- ity of His presence in the sacrament of the holy Eucharist, in His answer to the Jews, who asked : " How can this man give us His flesh to eat? Then Jesus said to them : Amen, amen, I say unto you : except you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is meat indeed : and my blood is drink indeed " (John vi. 53-56). In all this, our Saviour's words were abso- lute in declaring His future real presence in the sacrament He was about to establish, and never once referred to the bread as a figurative representation of Himself, nor did He speak of it in the light of a spiritual presence, superinduced by faith alone. See Transubstantiation, Mass, Sacri- fice, and Communion.

    Eucherius (St.). — Bishop of Lyons was descended from an illustrious Lyonese family, and on account of his education and learning, was raised to senatorial rank. He was married and lived happily with his noble and pious wife Galla, and their two sons and daughters. Forsaking, how- ever, his high position, he traveled to the Thebaid, and, on his return, became, with his wife's consent, a monk at Lerins, where his two sons, Salonius and Veranius, had received their education. Simultaneously Galla and her daughters assumed the re- ligious veil. After a short time, seeking still greater facility for a contemplative life, Eucherius went to the neighboring and more lonesome isle of Lero (Ste. Mar- guerite). But the fame of his virtue became so widely extended that, about 434, much against his will, he was chosen Bishop of Lyons. During his episcopate he built many churches, founded various institu- tions and greatly encouraged the monastic life. In 441, he attended as metropolitan the Synod of Orange, and continued to labor assiduously for the good of the Church until his death, about 449. He was a man well versed in sacred learning, mighty in eloquence, and rich in good works. F. Nov. i6th.

    Euchites or Euphemites. — Heretics of the fourth century, so called from their habit of long prayer. Their chief char- acteristic was that they professed to give themselves entirely to prayer ; refusing to do any work, they obtained their living by

    begging. Hence they were also known as Messalians {praying people), and Adel- phians, from Adelphius their leader. Re- jecting all external worship, they laid great stress on continual prayer as the only means of expelling the demon, which every man had, as they said, inherited through original sin. These deluded spiritualists spread over Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.

    Euchology. — A liturgical book contain- ing the prayers and ceremonies of the Greek Church, and corresponding to the Catholic Ritual.

    Eudists. — Members of a religious con- gregation founded in France in 1643, by Jean Eudes, a priest of the Oratory, for educational and missionary purposes. Its official name is "The Congregation of Jesus and Mary." The order was sup- pressed in 1792, and revived in 1826.

    Eudo de Stella. See Eon.

    Eugenius (name of four Popes). — Eugenius I. — Pope from 654-657. Was elected with the consent of his predeces- sor, St. Martin, who had been exiled. Eugenius II. — Pope from 824 to 827, and successor of Paschal I. During the three years of his Pontificate, he had to exercise great prudence in the East where the Iconoclast heresy was being agitated, and to preserve from this error the West, especially France. Eugenius III. — Pope from 1145 to 1 153. Cistercian monk, Ber- nard of Pisa, and Abbot of St. Athanasius at Rome. Owing to the disturbed state of Rome, Eugenius III. was consecrated in the Monastery of Farfa, and took up his temporary abode at Viterbo. He excom- municated the Patrician Jordanes, and finally succeeded in re-establishing his authority at Rome. This Pope commis- sioned St. Bernard to preach the second Crusade. Eugenius IV. — Pope from 1431 to 1447. He commenced his Pontificate by a diflScult struggle with Colonna, nephew of his predecessor, Martin V., and he encouraged the continuation of the war against the Hussites. He con- firmed the convocation of the Council of Basle, as well as the appointment of Car- dinal Julian Cesarini, as papal Legate and president of the assembly. He also aroused Poland and Hungary against the Turks, in a war which ended with the dis- aster at Varna, in 1444.

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    Eulogise. — In the Greek Church, name given to the remainders of the Eucharistic bread and wine, which were distributed among the Faithful not yet admitted to communion.

    Eunomians. See Anomceans.

    Eunuch. — A castrated male, usually em- ployed to take charge of women's apart- ments. Sometimes it denotes merely a court officer, as the treasurer of Queen Candace (Acts viii. 27).

    Eusebius (St.). — Pope in 310. Native of Greece. He reconciled the heretics by the sole imposition of hands ; but showed himself more severe toward the Lapsi ( fallen) who had given up to State officers the Sacred Books and sacred vessels. This question divided the people and provoked revolts and bloodshed. Exiled, he died in Sicily in 311. F. Dec. i6th.

    Eusebius of Caesarea (265-340). — Writer and ecclesiastical historian. He was a dis- ciple of the learned priest and martyr St. Pamphylus of CsEsarea. About the year 314, he was made Bishop of Caesarea. He attended the Council of Nice, and, not without some hesitation, however, sub- scribed to the Nicene Creed. In the long Arian struggle, Eusebius sided with the opponents of the orthodox bishops, and on account of his equivocal attitude and views, with regard to the leading question of the day, the Divinity of Christ, he was justly suspected of heresy. However, his piety and zeal for the Church are highly praised. Eusebius is called "The Father of Ecclesi- astical History," and was one of the most learned prelates of his age. His Church History is one of his most important works.

    Eusebius of Nicomedia. — Greek heresi- arch ; died in 342. Bishop of Berytus, then of Nicomedia. He made the attempt to justify Arius in the Council of Nice. In a Council of Jerusalem he caused Arius to be received again into communion of the Church and was the declared adversary of St. Athanasius.

    Eusebius of Vercelli (St.) (315-370). — Born in Sardinia, Bishop of Vercelli. He zealously combated the heresy of Arius. F. Dec. 15th.

    Eustathiens. — Heretics of the fourth century. Followers of Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste. A hyper-ascetic sect, rejected

    matrimony, and ecclesiastical fasts, but fasted on Sundays and festivals. The Coun- cil of Gangres (between 360 and 380) passed twenty canons against them.

    Eusthatius of Antioch. — Bishop of An- tioch from 325. Distinguished himself, both during and after the Council of Nice, by his strenuous resistance against the Arian heresy, and had, on that account, in- curred the hatred of the Arians. Constan- tine banished him into Illyria, where he died, in 337.

    Eutyches and Eutychians. — Foremost among those who combated Nestorianism in Constantinople was one Eutyches, the head of a monastery in that city. Unfor- tunately, he had more zeal in opposing heresy than acuteness to appreciate tlie subtleties of the controversy; and the re- sult was that he misunderstood some ex- pressions used by St. Cyril of Alexandria, the guiding spirit of the Council of Ephesus. Eutyches maintained that he had the au- thority of this great Doctor for a view which in truth destroyed the reality of the Incarnation as thoroughly as did that to which it was opposed, for it represented the Human Nature as being so completely absorbed in the Divine Nature that it ceased to have a distinct existence. This heresy was condemned by the Fourth Ecu- menical Council, held at Chalcedon in 451, but the sect maintained itself under the name of the " Monophysites." See this subject.

    Eutychianus (St.). — Etruscan by birth. Pope from 275 to 285. SuflFered martyrdom under Numerian. F. Dec. 8th.

    Evagrius (surnamed "The Scholastic") (536-600). — Greek historian ; born in Syria. His Ecclesiastical History in six books con- tains the history of the Church from 431 to 594-

    Evangeliarium. — Book which contains the Gospels read or sung at each Mass, and which is said to have been composed by St. Jerome.

    Evangelical Alliance. — An association, founded in England in 1815, by High Churchmen and Dissenters, on the broad basis of their common principles of Chris- tianity, in order to check the progress of the Catholic Church in the kingdom. The meetings of these associations, which were also attended by French, German,

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    and other Protestants, clearly attest the internal distractions that disturbed Protes- tantism, together with the sentiments of its adherents toward the Catholic Church.

    Evangelical Association. — A Protestant denomination in the United States, com- monly, though erroneously, known as Ger- man Methodists, and sometimes as Al- brights. It was founded by Jacob Albright or Albrecht (1759-1808), a native of Potts- town, Pennsylvania, a tile-burner who, dis- satisfied with the lax morality of the neigh- boring German churches, began to preach in 1790, and in 1800 established a church and was elected pastor or bishop of the va- rious stations where he had made converts. The name Evangelical was adopted, and in 1816 the first annual conference was held. They accept the Bible as their only rule of faith, interpret it according to the teach- ing of Arminius, but deny the doctrine of original sin. Their church polity is simi- lar to that of the Methodists, including itinerant preachers.

    Evangelical Counsels, or Counsels of the Gospel, are three : Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience. They have been recommended by Christ in particular as means of perfec- tion. By voluntary poverty, the right of possession and free disposal of property is renounced. Perfect chastity, which volun- tarily renounces not only unlawful pleas- ures but even the married life, is recom- mended by our Lord in the following words : " There are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven. He that can take, let him take it" (Matt. xix. 12). Perfect o3e(//e»r(? under a spiritual superior has for its object the perfect regulation of such actions as of themselves are not prescribed and regu- lated by any law. By such obedience our will is not only preserved from transgres- sions and forced to the performance of many acts of self-sacrifice, but also, by the fact of being subjected to the will of God's representative on earth, it is wholly con- formed with the divine will.

    Evangelical Church. — The abbreviated name of the German United Evangelical Church, founded in Prussia in 1817 by a union of Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Germany. It is the largest of the Protestant Churches in Germany; is Pres- byterian in polity, and is partially sup- ported by the government, which ap- points the consistories or provincial boards. 19

    Evangelist {bringer of good tidings). — Author of one of the four Gospels : St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John.

    Eve. See Adam.

    Evil {Origin of). — The great question about the origin of evil depends on the principle of causality. God, says St. Thomas, moves all things, but not in the same manner. In the evil, as in all exist- ing things, we must consider two things: the substance and the form. God concurs in regard to evil, only relatively to the substance and not to the form or malitia mali, which is the work of the finite will. The pagans had also stated the question, and the answer approached that of Chris- tianity, in proportion to the development of the idea of a personal God. Zoroaster had admitted dualism, — onnuzd, the prin- ciple of the good, or thought; ahriman, principle of evil or matter. The Stoics based both good and evil on the will. In order to treat this question, we must dis- card, first, the two opposed systems : Optimism, which maintains that this world is the best possible, and Pessimism, which maintains that this world is the worst pos- sible. Optimism has counted numerous defenders, from the time of Socrates and Plato to Leibnitz. The latter says that " the metaphysical evil, properly speaking, is no evil, but only a lesser good, an imperfection which disappears by itself if we raise ourselves to a more general view; only moral and physical evils are possible. Neither metaphysical nor phys- ical evil can be imputed to God. As to the moral evil, God cannot concur to it; He cannot will it, but only permits it. Antecedently, God always wills the good, but consequently. He always wills the best." Although optimism is not opposed to Catholic doctrine, we cannot however admit it absolutely, on account of its con- -sequences. Pessimism was unknown to the ancients ; it was only in the nineteenth century that it appeared, first in Germany, then in France. Leopardi, Schopenhauer, and Hartmann are the chief representatives of this error, whose influence made itself felt in the poetries of Alfred de Vigny and in the philosophical dialogues of Renan. Leopardi places the metaphysical principle in the will, Schopenhauer in the con- sciousness ; his fundamental axiom is : "To live is to wish and to wish is to suffer." The first opposes to evil only a Stoic resig-

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    nation : silence and despair. The second tells us that we should work for the deliv- erance of the world, by the total annihila- tion of the beings. The Nihilists pledge themselves to draw the logical conse- quences from this doctrine. Truth is found between both extremes. The relative perfection of the world ought not to ex- clude the existence of evil, existence which is an undeniable fact. But how can we explain this mystery.? Maj- we not say that in the plan of Providence, evil is, in regard to us, a trial, an expiation, a rem- edy.?

    Evil-Merodach (Chaldaic, servant of the god Aferodach). — Son of Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, 561-559 b. c. He released the king of Juda, Joachim, from prison, after 37 years' confinement, and honored him above all the vassal kings and also protected the prophet Daniel. He was killed in a rebellion led by his sister's hus- band, Neriglissar (Nergalsharezer), who then seized the Babylonian crown. Ac- cording to Berosus, he rendered himself odious by his arbitrary and unwise rule.

    Evodius. — Latin theologian, born at Tagaste, Africa ; died about 430. Intimate friend of St. Augustine, and Bishop of Uzalis, near Utica. Was a zealous adver- sary of the Donatists and Pelagians.

    Evolution {Theory of). — The theory of evolution has been used as the designa- tion for the doctrine of Charles Darwin (died 1882), which pretends to explain the origin of all beings by successive evolu- tions or transformations. If we speak only theoretically and reason on possibilities and not on facts, it is certain — if we ex- cept the spontaneous generation of the first being, which is impossible — that God could have created the world according to the evolutionary system, that is. He could have created only one being capable of de- veloping itself gradually and of producing the different organisms of all actually ex- isting beings. But this is not the question. We are not concerned with what could have been, but what is in reality. Now the fact contradicts the doctrine of Darwin. He is unable to give any direct proof of the evolution of species ; he was obliged to acknowledge that there exist many breaks between the diflFerent species, and that the passage from one to another is by insensible degrees, a passage which grinds the sys- tem, but which has not been proved ; he

    affirms, then, as real, that which is only possible, although "« fosse ad actum non valet ronsecutioy Not only does Darwin- ism affirm more than it can prove, but it is in plain contradiction with the best authen- ticated facts. It affirms the variability of the specific types; now history and geol- ogy, on the contrary, prove their stability. In the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii, buried more than 1,800 years ago under lava from Mount Vesuvius, there has been found, in the house of a painter, a collection of shells, and, in the store of a fruit dealer, vases full of chestnuts, of olives, and nuts, all in a perfect state of preser^-ation. These shells and fruits are no wise different from the shells and fruits of to-day. Aristotle described, more than two thousand years ago, a great number of plants and animals. His descriptions answer exactly to the actual species, and show that, during the interval of time, these species have under- gone neither variation nor change. During this century, there have been discovered in the tombs of ancient Egypt, the seeds of different plants, and many species of em- balmed animals, that had lived long before the epoch of Aristotle, even as far back as the fourth dynasty. These seeds and ani- mals are the same as those of to-day. Geology permits us to go much further back in the past, far beyond the limits which history can reach, and its testimony is the same. Darwin has been obliged to ac- knowledge that the skeletons of animals have not been changed since the glacial period. According to Agassiz, the south- ern extremity of Florida has been formed by the accumulation of the corals of the tropical seas, and, if his calculations are correct, the formation of those coral reefs required no less a period than two hundred thousand years. Now, if we compare the zoophites which have formed the upper- most ledges of these reefs, with those which formed their lowest strata, we cannot verify any difference between them.

    The comparison of the flora of the gla- cial period with that of our era, leads to the same results. There has been dis- covered near Hohenhausen, in the canton of Zurich, in the midst of a peat marsh, quite a collection of the flora of those ages. These debris are imbedded in peat whose formation, according to certain geologists, must have taken place between the two glacial epochs. The yew tree, the wild pine, the larch, the birch, the maple, the nut tree, in its two kinds, have been recog-

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    nized as having existed in an age certainly anterior to ours. They have been com- pared with the same species as they now grow, and no difference has been found to exist between them. In a word history and natural sciences have proved the sta- bility and permanence of the species: Darwinists cannot cite one historical instance of the gradual transition of one species to another ; their system is there- fore in contradiction with facts. Nature is not " transformist," and Moses spoke the truth when he said that God had created plants and animals according to their kind.

    The great flaw in Darwin's system is that he takes what is accidental or relative in a species for what is substantial or abso- lute. Environment, heredity, natural selection, struggle for life, these serve to give variations to the species, but do not change substantially the original constit- uent type of the same.

    All known living beings^ animal and vegetable are divided into definite groups by the two following characteristics : the genetic and morphologic. Within the groups themselves the fecundity is unlim- ited, but, as passing from one group to an- other, it is not or is limited to certain generations.

    The members of each of these groups can undergo organic variations more or less considerable, but these modifications are as so many oscillations around a type in a state of stable equilibrium. These mor- fhologic variations tend of themselves to disappear, when it is only circumstances that lead to their growth. Each of these groups, commonly called a species and the morphologic oscillations, more or less es- tablished by inheritance and by the con- stancy of the circumstances which pro- duced them, constitute the different races of the same species. It has been calculated that there are more than five hundred thousand groups, distinguished by the characteristics of stability which we have just mentioned. This stability is absolute even in domestic species, the most plastic of all others. Now it has been always the same as far back in the past as our obser- vations can reach in history, in prehistoric times, in the geological ages. There are 500,000 facts in direct opposition to the change of species, the fundainental basis of the hypothesis of the transformists, •while they have not one to cite in their be- lief. See Man.

    Exaltation of the Cross. See Cross.

    Exarch. — An ecclesiastical dignitary in the early Church in the Orient. He pre- sided over one of the dioceses, comprising several provinces, formed in imitation of those made by Constantine in the State. The exarchs took rank after the patri- archs, and had quasi-patriarchal juris- diction over the metropolitans of their exarchates.

    Ex Cathedra (Latin words, literally, from the chair; hence, with authority, authoritatively). — In the Acts of the Coun- cil of the Vatican, held in 1870 (Sess. iv., cap. 4), we find the following: "The Roman Pontiflf when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in the exercise of his office of pastor and teacher of all Christians, he, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority defines that a doctrine on faith and morals is to be held by the whole Church, by the assistance of God promised to him in the person of blessed Peter, has that infalli- bility with which it was the will of our divine Redeemer that His Church should be furnished in defining a doctrine on faith and morals, and that therefore these defini- tions of the Roman Pontiflf, of themselves and not through the consent of the Church, are irreformable." See Cathedra.

    Excommunication is a spiritual punish- ment sometimes inflicted by the Church on one guilty of grave crimes, for the good of his soul or the vindication of the law. This censure deprives the person who has in- curred it of the use of the sacraments, of a share of public suffrages, and certain other spiritual privileges; and this deprivation endures until the censure is relaxed by competent authority. It may happen that it has been inflicted unjustly, for the hu- man judge who deals with the case is no way guaranteed against error; or it may be that the censure was just, but the cul- prit has repented of his sin, and been re- stored to the favor of God before he has procured the relaxation of the censure ; but even in these cases the censure produces its effects, as is declared in the Bull Uni- genitus (Prop. 91) ; and the good provi- dence of God can be trusted to hinder any real evil befalling him who incurs this un- deserved loss. Writers differ as to whether one who is under excommunication can be said to belong to the body of the Church. Excommunication is an act of the external court of the Church, dealing directly, not

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    with sin, but with crime. The full discus- sion of its nature and varieties belongs to Canon Law. It is to be oBser\\ed that though excommunication is not inflicted except in cases where grievous sin has been committed or is supposed to have been committed, vet it does not directly affect membership of the soul of the Church : nothing but real grievous sin takes away this privilege or destroys the hopes founded in it.

    In our time, excommunication is called major or minor excommunication. Ac- cording to the discipline of the Middle Ages, the Christians had to avoid all rela- tion with the excommunicated, under pain of personally incurring minor excommuni- cation; Pope Martin V. mitigated the law as to this point. Henceforth. Christians were obliged to avoid only those nomina- tively excommunicated and by public sentence of the judge. The Pope has the right of excommunication in the whole Church, and the bishop only in his diocese. The Bull Apostolicce sedis of Pius IX. (Oct. 1 2th, 1869) contains the latest disposi- tions in regard to excommunication. Ex- communication is necessary as the right to punish, without which there could be neither authority nor society. See Cex-

    SURK.

    Exeat (Lat. let him depart). — It means the permission in writing which a bishop gives to an ecclesiastic, to leave his diocese, to go and exercise his priestly functions in some other diocese. Priests in the United States cannot obtain their exeat unless they are to be received into another dio- cese, or have sufficient means for an honest self-support.

    Exegesis. See Hermenkutic.

    Exile. See Captivity.

    Exodus (Gr. exodos, a going out, a marching out; second canonical book of the Pentateuch). — The Book of Exodus is chiefly devoted to the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, about 143 years after the death of Joseph in that country. Its opening chapter is occupied with a de- tailed description of the hea^•y burden laid by their Egyptian taskmasters upon the Hebrews, in order to break down their spirit and diminish their number. Then follows an account of the birth of Moses, his education, and the events of his early life, marked by his fearless sympathy with

    his oppressed countrymen, whom, in the wonderful providence of God, he was raised up to deliver. This relief came when they had been in Egypt 215 years, for St. Paul says (Gal. iii. 17), that the solemn promulgation of the law happened 430 years after the covenant with Abraham, which took place about 215 years before Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt, so that the Israelites could have been in Egypt only 215 years. At the end of this period Moses and Aaron appeared for the last time before the Egyptian monarch with the Divine command to let " the chil- dren of Israel go out of his land." But Pharao again stubbornly refused, for "his heart was hardened," and God sent the tenth plague with all its terrible conse- quences. This awful calamity came at midnight, when the destroying angel went forth and " slew ever}- first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharao, who sat on his throne, unto the first-bom of the captive woman that was in prison, and all the first-born of cattle " (Ex. xii. 29). The groans of the dying in dead of night filled the living with horror and confusion: "And Pharao arose in the night, and all his serv'ants, and all Egypt; and there arose a great cry in Egypt : for there was not a house wherein there lay not one dead. And Pharao call- ing Moses and Aaron in the night said : Arise, and go forth from among my peo- ple, you and the children of Israel" (Ex. xii. 30, 31). Accordingly the children of Is- rael went out from bondage, 600,000 " men on foot" with Moses at their head. To prevent His people from straying in the wilderness God placed before them a mi- raculous column of cloud, which at night became a pillar of fire to light up their en- campment. The Egyptians pursuing the Israelites, the Lord directed them to march forward to the sea, when Moses waved his rod over the deep, and instantly the waters divided, leaving a drj- road all the way across to the opposite shore. The Egyp- tians tried to follow; but Moses "stretched forth his hand over the sea," and the heaped up flood rolled down, burying in its depth the whole Egyptian army. The Is- raelites journe>nng through the wilderness for about a month,their provisions gave out. But God rained down manna from heaven, which, when ground like corn, and made into cakes, became to them " a staflF of life " during their protracted wandering. At the foot of Mount Sinai, God gave

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    EZECHIEL

    them the Ten Commandments. The Lord also dictated to Moses a regulated series of laws, for the guidance of His people. The tribe of Levi was set apart for the sacred ministry, and a portable temple or taber- nacle was constructed according to a plan given to Moses on the mountain. All these important events make up the sub- ject of the Book of Exodus.

    Exorcism and Exorcists. — Exorcists are those clerics who have received the third minor order. They have the authority to exercise the power which Christ has given to the Church to cast out unclean spirits from persons that are possessed by the devil. Tertullian, the Council of Carthage in 255, and the most ancient monuments mention the exorcism employed in regard to the Catechumens. We need not be surprised that the Church grants power to her infe- rior ministers to cast out devils from the bodies of the possessed, who might disturb the quiet of her services. Simple laymen in the early days of the Church exercised that poAver. In our time, however, exorcisms are reserved to the priests, and even these cannot make use of their faculty, except by special permission of the bishop. The third minor order is conferred by the bishop in this manner : The bishop takes and pre- sents to the candidate the book in which the exorcisms are written, which he touches with his right hand, while the bishop says : "Take this and commit it to memory and have power to impose hands on persons possessed, be they baptized or catechu- mens." See Possessions.

    Extasy. — Rapturous transport of the spirit, suspension of the senses, caused by profound contemplation. Natural extasy is an alienation of the senses caused by catalepsy and consisting in the complete suspension of the sensations and volun- tary movements, and in the faculty which the members have to preserve the position one gives to them. Supernatural extasy is an elevation of the soul towards God with a separation of the outward senses which is caused by the grandeur of this elevation. The rapturous transport of St. Paul into the third heaven was a super- natural extasy.

    Extreme Unction is a sacrament in- stituted by our Lord Jesus Christ, for the spiritual comfort and bodily relief of the sick. This sacrament is called "Extreme Unction" because it is administered when

    persons are thought to be near the close of their existence in this world, that they may by it receive grace and strength for the conflict with death. This unction, made with olive oil, blessed by a bishop on Holy Thursday, is consecrated to the use of this sacrament, and is the outward sign productive of an inward and spiritual grace, thus constituting a true sacrament and ever held to be such by the Catholic Church (Markvi. 12, 13; James v. 14, 15). For the due reception of the sacrament of Extreme Unction, we must be in the state of grace, and accept it with sentiments of contrition for sin, and resignation to the will of God. Extreme Unction effaces venial sin, part or all the temporal punish- ment due to sin, and mortal sin sometimes, according to the disposition of the person anointed. It alleviates bodily sufferings, and gives back health to those whom God wills should continue to live (James v. 15). It renews our spiritual forces in the most decisive moment of our existence, giving us strength to fight against the enemy of our salvation; fortifying us against the terror of death, and against temptations to impatience, despair, and distrust; sooth- ing our troubles, and giving us courage to say with confidence and love, " Father, into Thy hands I commend My spirit."

    Ezechias. — King of Juda, after the death of Achaz, his father, from 725 to 696 or from 728 to 699 b. c. He reopened the temple and restored the Mosaic worship. He made war against Sennach- erib whom he forced to retreat. Healed by Isaias, he composed the chant of grati- tude known under the name of Canticle of Ezechias.

    Ezechiel. — Prophet ; son of Busi ; was carried captive to Babylon by Nabuchodo- nosor, with Joachim king of Juda. He began his prophetic ministry in the fifth year of his sojourn in Babylonia and con- tinued it until the twentj'-seventh. His book, which he appears to have drawn up or revised, during the latter years of his mission, comprises four parts. The first relates the consecration of the prophet. The second warns the Jews against foreign alliances and announces the ruin of Juda. The third contains threats against the Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Philis- tines, and Egyptians. In the fourth, Ezechiel foretells the events that will take place after the ruin of Jerusalem.

    EZNIK

    294

    Faith

    Eznik. — A disciple of St. Mesrop ; was sent to Edessa in 425, to translate the works of the Syriac Fathers into Armenian. After a short sojourn in that city he went to Constantinople, where he continued to occupy himself with translations till after

    the Council of Ephesus, when he returned to his home, taking with him the decrees of that Council together with a long coveted manuscript of the Bible. Some think he be- came Bishop of Bagrevand. The year of his death, as also of his birth, is unknown. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,