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FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"F"
Faber (Frederick William) (1814- 1863). — English Catholic theologian and writer; born atGalverley, Yorkshire, died at the Oratory, Brompton, London. He was educated at Oxford, where he became fellow of University College, 1837 ; in 1839 he was ordained minister of the Church of England ; in 1842 accepted the rectory of Elton, Huntingdonshire; but three years later he formally adjured Protestantism in order to become a Roman Catholic — a course he had meditated for many years. He established at Birmingham the com- munity properly named the " Brothers of the Will of God," but generally called the " Wilfridians," as he had taken the name of "Brother Wilfrid." In 1848, the en- tire community went over to the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, and from 1849 until his death he was at the head of the London branch. He was the author of many spir- itual works of great merit.

Faber (John), surnamed '• Hammer of the Heretics" (1470-1541). — German Dominican, born at Leutkirch, Suabia. Vigorously combated the doctrines of Luther and Zwingli. Confessor to Em- peror Ferdinand ; bishop of Vienna.

Fabian (St.). — Pope from 236 to 250. Was a contemporary of the Emperors Maximin, Gordian, Philip, and Decius. Under the latter's reign he suffered martyr- dom. He confirmed the deposition of Privatus, an African bishop, who had been condemned by a synod of ninety bishops at Lambesa in Numidia for many grievous faults. He assigned the seven districts of Rome to seven deacons with as many sub- deacons who were to assist the notaries in recording the acts of the martyrs. To Fabian, Origen addressed a letter in de- fense of his own orthodoxy. An ancient tradition ascribes to this Pope the found- ing of the seven Gallic Churches of Tou- louse, Aries, Tours, Paris, Narbonne, Clermont, and Limoges, to which he is

said to have sent respectively Satuminus, Trophimus, Gratianus, Dionysius, Paulus, Astremonius, and Martialis, as missionary bishops. F. Jan. 20th.

Facundus. — Heretic, died about 571. Bishop of Hermiane, in Africa; upheld with great zeal the so-called dispute of " The Three Chapters."

Faith. — A supernatural virtue by which we firmly believe all that God has revealed and all His Church proposes for our belief. Faith requires that we should believe in the existence of God as our Creator and Remunerator ; also in all the truths He has revealed and teaches us by the infallible authority of His Church. '♦ Without faith it is impossible to please God. For he that Cometh to God, must believe that He is, and is a rewarder to them that seek Him " (Hebr. xi. 6). The precept of faith, being an affirmative one, we should from time to time, display our faith in God ; but we are not called upon to show it continually, ex- cept when the occasion demands : As at the hour of death, and when it is necessary to manifest an exterior profession of faith in temptation, in the reception of a sacra- ment, and under all circumstances where silence would be interpreted as a denial (Matt. X. 32, 33).

Faith {Rule o/). — The rule of faith is determined by that which faith itself re- quires. Neither Scripture nor tradition is the sole rule of faith. In order to be the sole rule of faith, the Scripture should of itself be fit to secure in the Church the perpetual and unchangeable unity of the true faith, to solve with certainty the most important questions regarding our salva- tion, as for instance, the necessity and law- fulness of the baptism of infants, the validity of baptism conferred by heretics. But under what conditions can the under- standing of the Scriptures, and with it the truths of faith, remain unchanged, the

Faithful

295

Faithful

unity of faith be maintained, and the more important questions pertaining to salvation be solved from the Scriptures ? Only in the case that the meaning of Scripture, at least in its most important points, is so ob- vious that it may be understood by all in the same way. For, as we learn from daily experience, the opinions of men in all that does not compel assent by its evidence soon diverge. It is hardly necessary to prove that Scripture does not possess such evi- dence ; it is, on the contrary, very obscure, even in most important points of doctrine. In fact, heretics in every age have sought to prove their conflicting opinions from Scripture. Hence, it is impossible that Scripture alone should secure the perpe- tuity of the Christian religion, maintain unity of faith, and solve all the important problems of salvation. Therefore, it is im- possible that it should be the sole rule of faith.

The same applies to the tradition. The monuments of tradition are : The Church's liturgical books ; the acts of the martyrs ; inscriptions on tombs and monuments; Church history; the works of the Fathers and of ecclesiastical writers. Although we find many truths more clearly expressed in the monuments of tradition than in the Scriptures, yet they cannot of themselves give a satisfactory solution to all questions that may arise. Consequently, they are not calculated to solve those diflSculties which, if left unsolved, may undermine the truths of revelation, destroy the unity of faith, and endanger the salvation of many.

But experience furnishes the most evi- dent proof of the insufficiency of Scripture alone as a rule of faith. Since Protestant- ism set up the Scriptures as the sole cri- terion in matters of faith we perceive an ever-growing disunion; the truths of faith have been abandoned one by one, while no means was left to check the evil-proof suf- ficient that unless we recognize some other rule of faith than Scripture alone, neither the preservation of the deposit of faith, nor the unity of the faith itself, nor the security of salvation is possible.

The necessary attributes of a rule of faith are to be found only in the teaching office of the Catholic Church. From what we have said it follows that there must be another rule of faith different from Scrip- ture and tradition — an authority to direct us in the understanding of these sources of our faith. The attributes of a rule of faith must be determined by its object, which is

chiefly the preservation of the deposit of faith and of the unity of the Church. The Church and the faith are in most intimate connection with the salvation of man ; and, consequently, another object of the rule of faith is the securing of the salvation of the individual, i. A rule of faith must be visi- ble. Its object is to remove the difficulties which endanger the true faith and the Church's unity. But this is possible only in case, that, being consulted by doubting or contending parties, its voice may be heard. Besides, in every society, in addi- tion to the written law, there is a living, A'isible authority which applies the law in given cases and dispenses justice between litigant parties. Now, if the Church is a visible society, it must naturally have a visible authority to settle doubts and dis- putes in matters of faith. 2. A rule of faith must, as the supreme authority, be such as to compel submission to its decision, for it must be the means of maintaining unity. This cannot be done unless its verdict de- cides all questions and removes all doubts. A final decision, that renders further op- position unavailing, can be given only by such supreme authority as commands the unqualified submission of all. 3. A rule of faith must be infallible. An infallible authority, alone, can in all cases decide in matters of faith in such a way as not to en- danger the integrity of the deposit of faith ; an infallible authority, alone, can maintain unity of faith; for the obli- gation to believe exists only when one is morally certain that what is proposed to his belief is really of divine revela- tion. Only an infallible authority can give this assurance. 4. A rule of faith must be of divine institution. In matters of religion, we must consult, not man's pleasure, but God's ordination.

From what we have said, it clearly shows that the teaching authority of the Catholic Church possesses all these attributes. Though in many cases it might remain uncertain what is the teaching of the Church dispersed throughout the world — what the Church proposes as revealed truth in its ordinary preaching : yet, there are more ways than one of interrogating this authority, and when the importance of the matter demands, the Church has diverse means of giving a public and final decision in all cases.

Faithful. — Those who have faith in Jesus Christ. This name, in the early

Faldstool

296

Fathers of the Church

Church, was especially applied to the bap- tized laymen, distinguishing them from the Catechumens, who had not yet received this sacrament. See Christian.

Faldstool. — A movable folding chair in a church or cathedral, used by the bishop or. other prelate, when officiating in his own church at a distance from the throne, or in a church not under his jurisdiction.

False Decretals. See Canok Law.

Familists. — Sectarians called the " Family of Love," founded in Holland and England in the sixteenth century by Hans Niklas, or Nicholas, who was a disciple of David Jores, who taught mystical doc- trines based upon the theory that religion consists wholly in love independently of the form of faith. To them, Moses was the Prophet of hope, Christ the Prophet of faith, and Hans Nicholas the Prophet of love. The sect was prohibited by Queen Elizabeth in 1580, but existed till the mid- dle of the next century.

Fast Days. — Fast days are those on which the Church commands us to mor- tify the body by abstaining from flesh meat, or by taking but one full meal in the da}'. Those days on which, besides ab- stinence from meat, but one full meal is allowed, are called Fast Days of Obliga- tion; those days on which it is only re- quired to abstain from flesh meat, are called Days of Abstinence. See Absti- NENCK. The Church can institute fast days, because the Church of Christ, as mother of the Faithful, has the power to make all useful and necessary regulations for the salvation of their souls. In doing so she only follows the example of our Lord, her Head, for He fasted, and of the Apostles, who, even ordered the Chris- tians to abstain from blood and things strangled (Acts x\-. 29), in order not to prevent the conversion of the Jews, who, on account of the Old Law, abhorred the blood and meat of strangled animals. This prohibition was removed when this danger no longer existed. •* Fasting is no new invention, as many imagine," writes the Father of the Church, Basil the Great, " it is a precious treasure which our fore- fathers preser\-ed long before our daj'S, and have handed down to us." The Cath- olic Church, from the very beginning, has looked upon external fasting, only as a means of i>enance. Her object in institut- ing fast days, therefore, was and is, that

by fasting the Faithful should mortify their flesh and their evil desires, seek to pacify God, render satisfaction for their sins, practice obedience to the Church, their mother, and by practicing these vir- tues become more zealous and fer\ent in the ser\-ice of God. Innumerable texts of Scripture, as well as experience prove that fasting aids to this end. The Fathers of the Church praise very highly the useful- ness of fasting, and our Lord predicted that the Church, His spouse, would fast, when He, her Bridegroom, should be taken from her (Matt. ix. 15). The most important fast days are: All the week days of Lent ; the Fridays in Advent ; Vigils of All-Saints, Christmas, Whitsun- day, and the Assumption. If the festival, however, occurs on Monday, the vigil is kept on the Saturday before ; as Sunday is never a fast day.

Fathers {Apostolic). See Apostolic Fathers.

Fathers of the Christian Doctrine. — Religious congregation. The aim of this congregation, and the spirit with which it was animated, were in close sympathy with the spirit and aim of the Ursulines. Founded by Caesar de Bus, and approved by Clement VIII. in 1597, it subsequently coalesced with the Somaschans, thus form- ing an association of secular priests living under simple vows (1616). Owing, how- ever, to disputes between the two branches, relative to the observance of their respec- tive statutes ( 1647), Innocent X. commanded them to sever their connection with each other, and form distinct congregations ; and Alexander VII., by decree, ordered both to establish novitiates, and to intro- duce the three monastic vows. The " Fathers of the Christian Doctrine " con- tinued to dress as secular priests.

Fathers of the Church. — The Fathers of the Church are those Christian writers, who lived in the fourth and fifth centu- ries, and with learning and zeal expounded and defended the doctrines of Christianit}-. At no time was the literary activity of God's chosen servants more wonderful and productive, and never did they arise in greater numbers than during this period. The chief causes contributing to this ad- vancement of Christian learning and the development of Christian doctrine, were : I. The learned schools at Antioch, Alex- andria, Caesarea, Edessa, Nisibis, and

Faustinus

297

Feasts of the Church

Rhinocorura, in Egypt. 2. The contro- versies with pagan writers who continued to assail Christianity. 3. The great here- sies of Arius, Macedonius, Pelagius, Nes- torius, and Eutyches and the various controversies arising from these heresies. 4. The numerous councils which met in order to define, under the special guidance of the Holy Ghost, what was to be believed, and what was to be rejected as contrary to Christian truth. Against each of the numerous heresies germinating during this period, a glorious array of the Fathers of the Church came forward and waged a victorious battle. It was they, who at the councils, defined the Catholic doctrine, condemned the false teaching of heretics, laying bare and demolishing their sophist- ries with the most penetrating acuteness. In their divinely inspired writings, they have bequeathed to all nations and ages a rich treasure of solid and profound learn- ing, and most consoling doctrine, while at the same time the incomparable holiness of their lives has merited for them the honorable title of Fathers and Doctors of the Church. The most illustrious among the Fathers of the Church, that is to say, those who wrote most and whose doctrine is most generally authorized and followed, are four Greek and four Latin Fathers. To the first class belong: St. Athanasius, St. Bazil the Great, St. Gregory Nazian- zen, and St. John Chrysostom; to the second : St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Gregory the Great. To these are generally added : St. Leo the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Bonaven- ture, St. Hilary, St. Bernard, St. Alphonse Liguori, and St. Francis de Sales. See Doctors.

Faustinus. — Deacon, or priest of the fourth century. Wrote against the Arians and Macedonians, and upheld the antipope Urcinus against Pope Damasus.

Feasts of Fools and Asses was a ludi- crous profanity of those relics of Pagan Saturnalia, celebrated, in the Middle Ages, at Christmas and New Years, before the beginning of Lent and at Easter, in which ecclesiastics participated, thus lending the encouragement of their presence to dis- graceful parodies on the Holy Mysteries and the dignitaries of the Church, From the fact that in the "Feast of Fools" an inferior cleric was chosen bishop, it was sometimes called the "Subdeacon's Feast." The cleric thus chosen travestied the

pontifical functions ; but when incensed, instead of olibanum, an offensive and foul matter was used. The stalls of the canons were filled by others of the inferior clerics, who sang : "Deposuit potentes etexultavit humiles." At the close of these mock ceremonies, the choir was turned into a banqueting hall, and was the scene of un- seemly antics and disgraceful performances of all sorts.

The "Feast of Asses" is supposed to have been originally intended to commem- orate the Flight of Jesus into Egypt or His Entry into Jerusalem, and accordingly cel- ebrated about Christmas or Easter. An ass was clad in a surplice, and, when con- ducted into the Church, his entry was greeted with the singing of a ludicrous canticle, the refrain of which was: "Hez, Sire Asnes." A remark of J. P. Richteris here apposite : "It was precisely in the most religious period that the Feasts of Fools and Asses, the representation of the mysteries and mock sermons on Easter Sunday, were most in favor. There was no apprehension of religion suffering any detriment, being too far above anything like a travesty. The same rule holds here as in the case of the Socrates of Xenophon and Aristophanes — the former was not injured by the travesty of the latter. The very fact of a travesty proves the existence of something higher travestied ; a comedy presupposes a tragedy." (Propedeutics of .Esthetics.)

Feasts of the Church. — A commemora- tion of some mystery of religion or in honor of saints. The Church alone has the right to institute feasts. For to the Church, and to her alone, is intrusted all that bears upon the religious life, and, con- sequently, the celebration of religious fes- tivals. From the earliest ages the Church, made use of this right, as is manifest from the sermons of the Fathers on the various festivals. Nor could the Church lack that power, which, as Scripture testifies, the synagogue of the Jews possessed and exer- cised. The right of instituting feasts nat- urally implies also the right of abolishing existing ones. We distinguish two kinds of feasts : feasts of our Lord and feasts of the saints. By the institution of the feasts of our Lord, the Church intended, in the first place, to bring home to us the chief mysteries of our redemption, and so to instruct us on the chief contents of our re- ligion ; secondly, to awaken our gratitude

Feasts of the Jews

298

Felix I.

for the great benefit of the redemption ; and, finally, by pointing to the virtues of our Lord, and to.inspire the Faithful with a desire to imitate Him. The feasts of the saints were instituted, first, to honor God in His saints, by thanking Him for the graces conferred upon our glorious breth- ren ; moreover, to incite us to the imitation of their virtues ; and, finally, to invoke their intercession. The feasts of obligation are to be celebrated in the same manner as the Sundays ; for the end of the festivals is the same as that of the Sundays : the honor of God and the benefit of our souls, and, con- sequently, it should be obtained by the same means, or manner of celebration. The same may be concluded from the cus- tom of the Church, which at all times cele- brated the feasts of obligation in the same manner as the Lord's day; for the custom of the Church is itself a law. The feasts of obligation in the United States are six in number : Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, Christmas, Circumcision, Ascension of our Lord, Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and All Saints' day.

Feasts of the Jews. See Leviticus.

Febronianistn. — System of John Nich- olas von Hontheim, coadjutor- bishop of Treves. In 1763, writing under the name of Justinus Febronius, he published a book On the State of the Church and the Legit- imate Authority of the Roman Pontiff, in which he endeavored to show the Ger- mans by historical arguments that the Gal- ilean Articles were defensible, and that the Pope had no right to interfere in the local discipline and Church government of in- dividual dioceses, thus restricting the es- sential jurisdiction of the Holy See. He held that the Pope is in precisely the same relation to the bishops that the presiding officer is to the me'mbers of a parliament ; that the true constitution of the Church is not monarchical ; and that the Church and not Christ, invested the Bishop of Rome with the Primacy he enjoys. The Pope in- deed has authority, but not jurisdiction, over the Universal Church. Clement XIII. condemned the book of Febronius, and or- dered it suppressed by all the bishops of Germany. The author's archbishop be- sought him to retract the errors it con- tained, which he did in the year 1778.

Feehan (Patrick A.). — An American Catholic prelate, born at Killenaul, County Tipperary, Ireland, Aug. 29th, 1829. En-

tering Castle Knock College at the age of 16 years, he studied there for two years and then entered Maynooth College, where he studied philosophy and theology for five years, and where, upon his graduation, he was offered a professorship. Emigrating to America in 1852 he entered the Ecclesias- tical Seminary at Carondelet, where he was ordained priest November ist of that year He labored as priest and teacher for 12 years under Archbishop Kenrick of St. Louis, becoming professor of moral the- ology and Sacred Scripture in the Semi- nary of Carondelet. He became bishop of Nashville in 1865, and found that diocese almost completely demoralized and deeply in debt as a result of the war. Despite the great yellow fever epidemic that swept over the diocese at the very beginning of his incumbency, he rehabilitated and wonder- fully developed the see of Nashville, show- ing such remarkable ability as far surpassed even the expectations of those on whose recommendation he had been assigned to that diocese, and it was in recognition of this that he was appointed the first arch- bishop of Chicago, in 1880.

Felicissimus. — Deacon of the Church of Carthage. Ordained without the knowl- edge and against the will of St. Cyprian; placed himself at the head of those Chris- tians that had apostatized during persecu- tion and who wished to re-enter into community with the Church without pen- ance (250). The schism which arose as a consequence of this pretension spread quite rapidly.

Felix. — Heretic ; Bishop of Urgel, Spain, died in 815. He pretended that Jesus Christ, as man, was only the adoptive son of God. His heresy was condemned in the Council of Ratisbon (792) ; he abjured his errors, but soon fell back into them, was con- demned anew in the Councils of Frank- fort (794) and of Rome (799). Summoned by Charlemagne to Aix-la-Chapelle, he re- nounced his errors a second time, at least apparently and was committed to the cus- tody of Bishop Leitrad of Lyons.

Felix I. — Pope from 269 to 247. Of the acts of this Pope nothing is known with any certainty, except the part he took in the deposition of Paul of Samosata, from the see of Antioch. Felix, who is said to have confirmed the custom of saying Mass on the tombs of the martyrs, suflFered mar- tyrdom under Aurelian. Felix II, — Raised

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to the Papal Chair during the banishment of Liberius, by the Emperor Constantius who favored the Arians (355). After the re-establishment of Liberius he retired; several regard him as an antipope, others say that he became legitimate Pope at the death of Liberius (358) and that he suf- fered martyrdom. Felix III. or //. — Pope from 483 to 492. Under the Pontificate of this Pope began the Acacian schism, the author of which, Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was excommunicated by this Pontiff at the Roman Synod of 484. Felix IV. — Pope from 526 to 530. To this Pope are ascribed the twenty-five canons adopted by the Council of Orange, in 529, against the Semi-Pelagians.

Felix of Valois (1127-1212). — Born in Valois, France, founded, together with St. John of Matha, the Order of the Trinita- rians for the redemption of captives. See Trinitarians.

F6nelon ( Franqois dk Salignac de la Mothe) (1651-1715). — French divine and author, born at Perigord, received holy orders in 1675. In 1685, after the revoca- tion of the edict of Nantes, he was sent as missionary among the Protestants of Sain- tonge and Poitou. In 1689, he was ap- pointed by Louis XIV. preceptor of the king's son, the young Duke of Burgundy, and in 1694 was rewarded with the Abbey of St. Valery, succeeding in 1695 to the Archbishopric of Cambrai, He took an active part in the Quietistic controversy. In the condemnation of the writings of Madame Guyon, Fenelon acquiesced ; but as she made a formal submission to the Church, he vindicated her character. Moreover, in a work entitled Maxims of the Saints, Fenelon defended the Quiet- ist idea of "holy indifference as to eternal bliss or woe," springing from a pure and disinterested love of God. Fenelon was answered by many doctors of the Sorbonne and refuted by Bossuet, and his- book was condemned by Innocent XII. in 1699. Fenelon made a most edifying submission by publicly denouncing his own work.

Fenwick (Benedict Joseph). — An American Catholic prelate; born in St. Mary's County, Maryland, in September, 1782 ; educated at Georgetown College and in the Seminary of St. Sulpice, at Baltimore; ordained in 1808; stationed in New York city, where he founded the New York Literary Institute and began

the erection of St. Patrick's Cathedral from plans prepared by himself. In 1816 he was made vicar-general. The following year he was appointed president of George- town College ; in 1825 became bishop of Boston. In 1843 he founded the College of the Holy Cross at Worcester, Massa- chusetts, and placed it in charge of the Jesuits. His diocese extended over the whole of New England, and he left it with fifty churches, an orphan asylum, and many schools. He died at Boston, Aug. nth, 1846.

Fenwick (Edward D. ). — An American Catholic prelate; born in St. Mary's County, Maryland, in 1768; educated at the College of Bornheim, in Belgium, and after ordination became a professor in the college. He was driven from Belgium by the French Revolutionists, and returned to America. Having become a Dominican in Belgium, and being desirous of found- ing a province of the order, he went to Kentucky in 1806, where he bought a farm and built the convent of St. Rose of Lima. He resigned the office of provincial later, became a missionary in Ohio, and built the first church in Cincinnati in 1819. He was made bishop of Cincinnati in 1822. He died at Wooster, Qhio, Sept. 26th, 1832.

Feria. — A name applied to each day of the week with the exception of Saturday and Sunday. Monday is called 2d Feria, Tuesday 3d, Wednesday 4th, Thursday 5th, Friday 6th. The ordinary words are used for Sunday and Saturday. We dis- tinguish the Major Ferice, the Church's office of which prevails over any other, like Ash Wednesday, the three last days of Holy Week, the two days after Easter and Pentecost; the Minor Ferice, which do not exclude the office of a saint, but of which we make commemoration ; the Sim- fle FericB which exclude nothing.

Ferrara {Council of ). See Florence.

Festus Fortius. — Successor of Felix in the government of Judea, about 60-62. As Roman procurator in Palestine, he refused to put the Apostle St. Paul in the power of the Jews, and, after giving him a hear- ing in the presence of Herod Agrippa II., sent him to Rome in consequence of his appeal to Caesar.

Fetishism (the practice of worshiping a fetish ; that form of religious belief and

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practice in which fetishes are the object of worship). — Fetishes are any material ob- ject regparded with awe, as having myste- rious .powers residing in it or as being the representative or habitation of a deity to which worship may be paid, and from which natural aid is to be exi>eeted. A fetish may be an animal, as a cock, a serpent, a bear, etc., or an inanimate ob- ject, as a tree, a river, a stone, a tooth, a shell, etc. The worship of fetishes be- longs to a low and brutal stage or form of religion.

Feuillants. — Members of a religious order. Originally (1577) a branch of the Cistercians; since 1589 an independent monastic order. It derives its name from the Abbey Feuillant, eighteen miles from Toulouse, France. Its founder, Jean de la Barriere (1544-1600), became its first Abbot in 1574. The order came into favor on account of the strictness of its discipline. It still exists in France and Italy. There are also nuns of this order.

Final Perseverance. See Persever- ance.

Finding of the Cross. — See Cross.

Firmilian (St.). — Bishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia, died at Tarsus in 269. Up- held, in the Council of Iconium (231 ), the invalidity of baptism administered by heretics. Presided at the Council of Anti- och (264) against Paul of Samosata, and combated the schism of Novatian. F. Oct. 28th.

First Fruits. See Annates.

Fish. — The figure of a fish, as a Chris- tian hieroglyphic, is of very frequent re- currence on the monuments of primitive antiquity. The Greek term of Ichtus, which signifies a fish, is compwjsed of the initial letters of the sacred name and titles of our divine Redeemer, as written in the Greek language : lesous JCristos TeoH

Yios Zotet Jesus Christ the Son of God,

the Saviour. It was on account of that spiritual regeneration which man received as being born, as it were, again by water, and initiated into the faith of Jesus, and from the conviction that if they did not continue in that vivifying belief they would be spiritually dead and must infalli- bly lose their salvation, that the first Christians delighted to employ this sym- bol, and designate themselves by the enig- matical appellation of Pisciculi, or little fishes.

Fisher (John) (1459-1 535). — Bishop of Rochester, England ; was born at Bever- ley. Chancellor of the Universitv at Cambridge, Bishop of Rochester, and pre- ceptor of Henry VIII. Refused to ac- knowledge the king's marriage with Anne Boleyn as '* good and lawful," and for this offense he had to feel the full weight of the royal vengeance. He was arrested for misprision of treason, in that he had heard a woman named Elizabeth Barton, better known as the Holy Maid of Kent^ say that the king would survive his divorce from Catharine only seven months, and had failed to report the conversation. An oath was presented to him, affirming the legal- ity of the king's marriage with Anne, which he declined to take, and was in con- sequence committed to the Tower, April 26th, 1534. He was now close to seventy years of age, but neither his gray hairs nor his past ser^•ices could move the heart of the royal despot to mercy. He languished in prison for thirteen months, enduring privations the most severe, and cruelties of the most barbarous nature ; and when he again came forth it was only to appear be- fore a special commission appointed to try him at Westminster, on the charge of high treason, for having refused to take oath that the king was the " Supreme Head of the Church of England." After a hasty trial, he was declared guilty, and beheaded June 22d, 1535. In the preceding May he had been created cardinal by Pope Paul III., but, though he may have appreciated the kindness, he had now ceased to put any value on dignities, and declared that, "if the hat were at his feet, he would not stoop to take it up." His head was set up on London bridge, and his body, after lying naked all day at the place of execu- tion, was carried away by the guards, and laid in the churchyard of All- Hollows, Barking.

Fitzgerald (Edward) . — A Roman Cath- olic prelate; born in Limerick, in 1833. He emigrated to the United States in 1S49, and was educated at the Catholic schools — the College of Barrens, Missouri, and Emmittsburg Mount St. Mary's College. Upon his ordination to the priesthood in 1857, he was stationed at Columbus, Ohio, where he made his influence so felt that in 1867 he was chosen bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas. There he was active in inducing emigration and establishing variousChurch orders.

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Flagellants. — Fanatics of the thirteenth century. So called from the scourges {^fla gelid), with which they lashed their naked shoulders. They first appeared at Perugia, in 1260, and thence spread with rapidity over the rest of Italy, and into France, Germany, and Poland. A com- pany of a hundred and twenty Flagellants landed in London in the time of Edward III., but they found no sympathy among the English people. Large numbers of per- sons of every age, sex, and rank marched two by two in procession through the streets, and from city to city, publicly scourging themselves, or each other, till their naked backs streamed with blood — to appease, as they pretended, the divine wrath. They were wont to scourge them- selves twice a day, for thirty-three days, in honor of the thirty-three years which Christ lived upon earth. The secular magistrates, finding that the Church did not sanction the movement, began to prohibit the Fla- gellant processions. After the black death, which ravaged all Europe in the middle of the fourteenth century, they again ap- peared. In 1349 Clement VI. condemned their practices. But they refused submis- sion and gave way to many extravagances. As Gerson says, *' contempt of the priest- hood, rejection of sacraments, extortion, robbery, and all manner of vices marked their presence."

Flaget (Benedict Joseph). — A French American Catholic prelate; born in Con- tournat, France, Nov. 7th, 1763. He was ordained priest in 1788, and in 1792 came to the United States. He was at once sent as chaplain to Vincennes, Indi- ana, then a military post in the North- west. From 1795 to 1798 he was a professor at Georgetown College, and for the next three years was in Havana, as a tutor to the sons of a wealthy Cuban. From 1801 to 1808 he was engaged in duties at Georgetown College and in missionary la- bors ; in the latter year was appointed bishop of Bardstown, Kentucky, in charge of the district between the Missouri river and the Atlantic States, and the Great Lakes to the 35th parallel. During his life he erected numerous colleges and convents, some of which were built at his own expense. He was the recognized American counselor of the Pope, and was respected by all creeds and classes alike. He died in Nazareth, Kentucky, Feb. nth, 1850.

Flavian (St.) — Patriarch of Constanti- nople (447-449), who caused the condemna- tion of Eutyches. F. Feb. i8th.

Flavian (St.) — Patriarch of Antioch. Obtained from Theodosius pardon for his people, who had thrown down, during a revolt, the statue of the Empress Pris- cilla. Died in 404. F. Feb. 21st.

Flavian (St.) — Bishop of Antioch in 496. Died in exile at Patras (51S) for hav- ing refused to condemn the Council of Chalcedon. F. July 4th.

Flavius Josephus. See Josephus.

Fleury (Claude) (1640-1723). — French ecclesiastical writer, born at Paris. His most famous works are : Mosurs des Is- raelites, Moeurs des Chretiens and Grand Catechisme Historique.

Florence {Council of). — The desire to reform the Church induced Pope Eugene IV. to convoke a Council at Basle (see Basle). To facilitate the negotiations between the Greek and Latin Churches, the Council was first transferred to Fer- rara (1438). The plague breaking out at Ferrara, the Council was removed to Flo- rence (1439). Some prelates remained at Basle and continued the Ecumenical Council. They renewed the decrees which asserted that the council is superior to the Pope, and they elected an antipope. Only seven bishops were present. The real Council at Florence did very little in the matter of reform, but succeeded in reunit- ing the Greeks with Rome (1439). The Greeks accepted the Primacy of the Roman See, and in conformity with the belief of the Roman Church, they especially ac- knowledged that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. The decrees were signed by the Pope, the patriarchs, and the other Greek prelates, with the ex- ception of the Bishop of Ephesus, who positively refused to add his signature. The successful termination of the Council spread universal joy throughout the Cath- olic Church, but this, unfortunately, was not of long duration. When the Emperor Paleologus, who also had been present at the Council, and the Greek Fathers re- turned to Constantinople, they found the clergy and people strongly prejudiced against the reunion. They loaded with insults those who had signed the decrees. Hereupon many prelates retracted what they had done, and the schism was thus

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again revived in Constantinople. The Turks put an end to the controversy by taking the city (1453). The first sessions of the Council of Basle, in as far as they are recognized by the Pope and the Council of Florence, as the continuation of that of Basle, together, form the Seventeenth Ecumenical Council (1431-1439). See Basle.

Flotte (Peter). — French politician of the thirteenth century. Chancellor of Philip the Fair. Killed in the battle of Courtray (1302). He was sent to Rome for the canonization of St. Louis (1292); took part in the controversy of the king and Pope Boniface VIII., drew up the act of accusation against Bernard Saisset, Papal delegate at the French court, carried to the Pope the insqlting answer of Philip the Fair to the Bull Ausculta fili, and falsified this Bull in order to irritate France and to obtain the resolutions taken by the General States in 1302.

Flo^vers are used as an ornament for altars. The innocent and expressive custom to decorate Churches, especially altars, is derived from early Christianity. St. Augustine particularly mentions this custom as he notices the renunciation of Paganism for Christianity made by the expiring Martial, whose son-in-law, after praying with much fervor for his conver- sion at the foot of St. Stephen's altar, ap- proached as he was going away, and car- ried oflP from it some of the flowers that were placed there (r/e Civitate Dei, lib. xxii. cap. 8), and conveyed tl^pm to the couch of his dying relative. St. Jerome particularly panegyrized his friend Nepo- tian for his devotional assiduity in adorn- ing the walls of the church with a variety of flowers and the boughs of trees (Epist. Ix. ad Heliodorum) ; and St. Paulinus of Nola refers to the same practice as he de- scribes the manner of celebrating the an- nual festival of his patron saint, St. Felix, in the following verses : —

" Hymn praise to God, ye youths; discharge your vows; Strew flowers around; the threshold wreathe

with boughs : — Let hoary winter sigh like purple spring. And the young year his earliest garlands bring Before their season; thus shall nature pay A fitting homage to this hallow'd day." {De S. Felice Natalitium. carmen iii. v. 108, et seg.)

Font {Baptismal). — The vessel contain- ing the water wherewith the sacrament of baptism is administered. It was, as we

have seen (see Bapistkry), placed in earlier churches in a separate building, but it was later transferred into the church. The Western Church usually used a stone font, but it might be of any convenient material, and it was to be used for the baptism alone. The font in the Eastern Church is movable, of wood or metal, and is seldom if ever possessed of any beauty. The shape of it in the West was generally octagonal, though a fanciful mysticism oc- casionally gave it the form of a sepulchre or of a cross. The font in the baptistery was surrounded by a low wall, entered by steps, usually seven, three without, three within, excluding the top step.

The blessing of the baptismal font takes place once a year, namely on the eve of Easter. On that day the water destined for baptism is blessed, and the ceremonies observed and all the prayers which the priest recites have reference to the ancient customs of the baptism of the Catechumens on that day. See Baptism.

Fontevrault {Order of). — This order was founded by Robert of Abrissel, in 1094. Robert was a professor of theology at Paris, and coadjutor to the Bishop of Rennes; but divesting himself of these employments, he retired into the forest of Craon and built a monastery at La Roe. Urban II. confirmed his institution and, appointing him apostolic missionary, or- dered him to preach the First Crusade. In 1 100, Robert founded at Fontevrault, on the Vienne, two monasteries — one for men, the other for women — and gave their inmates the Rule of St. Augustine for their guide. He dedicated his order to the glory and honor of the Blessed Virgin ; and following the example of our Lord, who, when dying, committed St. John to the care of His Mother, he placed all his convents, including those of men, under the jurisdic- tion of the abbess of Fontevrault. The order was approved by Pope Paschal II. in 1 1 13, and soon spread over the continent of Europe. It numbered several thousand monks and nuns at the death of the founder, in 1117.

Formosus. — Pope from 885 to 891. He crowned the Emperor Arnulf, king of Germany. The successor of Formosus; Stephen VII., anathematized his memory, but John IX. restored it in 898.

Forty Hours' Devotion. — A devotion in honor of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ

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in the Holy Eucharist. The "Forty Hours' Prayer of Adoration," or more briefly, " the Forty Hours," is thus called, because, during eight-and-forty hours, the Blessed Sacrament is conspicuously ex- posed on the altar, that the Faithful may come and pray before it, and adore it. No pains are neglected to make this sacred rite as solemn and devout as possible. After a solemn Mass and procession, the Blessed Sacrament is enshrined and en- throned above the altar, and around it is arranged a firmament, as it were, of count- less lights, radiating from it, symbolic of the ever wakeful host of heaven, the spirits of restless life and unfading bright- ness, that keep watch around the seat of glory above ; and then the Faithful gather about the altar as about a throne, and adore in silence and in awe. During the time of Forty Hours, the eyes and hearts of those who enter the church should seek no object but the Blessed Sacrament, and for this reason the Mass on the second day should be said on an altar different from that of the exposition. For the same reason, the usual salutations are also omitted. It is proper to have a bench or kneeling desk placed near the railing in front of the altar, and to have one or more persons appointed to replace one another at the desk and remain there in adoration, as the representatives of the parish, while the sacrament is exposed.

The introduction of this devotion of Forty Hours is due, so far as can be as- certained, to Father Joseph, a capuchin of Miland (died 1556). In 1560, Pius VII. approved the Confraternity of Prayer to the Blessed Sacrament. In 1592, Clement VIII. introduced the public and perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament into the churches of Rome, and soon the devotion spread over the Catholic world.

Fossarians were certain officers in the Eastern Church, who had charge of the burial of the dead. See Burial.

France {Evangelization of). See Clovis; Burgundians.

France {Worship z'»).— The Catholic religion is professed by the great majority of the French ; but the State pays also a salary to Protestant and Jewish ministers. A minister of State is charged with the direction of the different worships, holds relations with the court of Rome, with the archbishops and bishops ; he watches

over the execution of the laws which as- sure liberty of conscience and protection to the different worships. Catholic France comprises 18 archbishoprics and 72 bish- oprics. The Protestants count from 4 to 5,000,000 members, mostly belonging to the Lutheran and Calvinistic Churches. The Jews number about 75,000.

Frances of Chantal (St.). See Visita- tion {Order of the).

Francis Borgia (St.), Duke of Candia and Captain-General of Catalonia. — Was one of the handsomest, richest, and most honored nobles in Spain, when, in 1539, there was laid upon him the sad duty of escorting the remains of his sovereign, Qiieen Isabella, to the royal burying place at Granada. The coffin had to be opened for him that he might verify the body be- fore it was placed in the tomb, and so foul a sight met his eyes that he vowed never to serve a sovereign who could suffer so base a change. He entered the Society of Jesus and soon his order chose him to be its head. He died in Rome, Oct. loth, 1572. F. Oct. loth.

Francis (St.) of Assisi (1182-1226). — Founder of the Order of the Franciscans, born at Assisi, Umbria. Ambitious for glory, he tried the profession of arms, then, touched by grace, he left his family, em- braced absolute poverty, and founded in 1208, the Order of Mendicants. St. Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IV. in 1228. F. Oct. 4th.

Francis of Paul (St.). See Minims.

Francis of Sales (St.) (1567-1622). — Bishop of Geneva and French writer, born in the Castle of Sales, near Annecy, France. Doctor in theology and law, lawyer at Chambery, he left the world in 1595, to enter sacred orders. His life was a model of virtue. In 1610, with the help of St. Frances of Chantal, he founded the order of the Visitation. His wonderful work, Intro- duction to the Devout Life passed through forty editions whilst the saint was still alive. Pope Pius IX., in 1877, declared St. Fran- cis of Sales a " Doctor of the Church." F. Jan. 29th.

Francis-Xavier (St.) (1506-1552). — Apostle of India and Japan. Was born of a noble family of Navarre, and was one of the first associates of St. Ignatius when founding his order. At the instance of

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King John III., of Portugal, Pope Paul III. appointed him apostolic missionary and nuncio for India. Francis landed at Goa, the capital of the Portuguese Indies. After working some time in that city, where his preaching wrought a great change, he visited the tribe of the Para- wians on the Fishery Coast. His preach- ing, supported by miracles, produced wonderful effects. He founded forty-five Churches along the coast. After a year's residence among the Parawians, Francis passed into other neighboring countries. In all of them he effected prodigious num- bers of conversions. In the year 1548, he had converted more than 200,000 pagans of India. Xavier's next mission was Japan. He landed at Kangoxima, in 1549. His preaching again was attended with mar- velous results. He converted several princes to Christianity and left the Church of Japan established on a firm footing. In 1552, St. Francis set out for China. But his apostolic course was run; he expired on the Island of Sancian, in the forty-sixth year of his age. He was canonized by Urban VIII. in 1623, with the glorious title of *' The Apostle of India and Japan." F. Dec. 2d.

Franciscans (religious of the Order of St. Francis). — The mendicant order of the Franciscans was based on the principles of absolute poverty and charity, with the object of the evangelical preaching. The members received the name of Minorites {Fratres minores). Their habit was an ashen-gray tunic, a cord for cincture, and sandals for shoes. Their rule was ap- proved in 1223 by Pope Honorius III. ; it imposed the three vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty in the strict sense of the word, for they should possess nothing of their own. They rendered themselves very popular by their piety, austerity, and the vigor of their eloquence. The order spread rapidly. Since the founding of the order they count eight thousand houses in thirty-three countries and about two hun- dred thousand members. A general guard- ian directed all the provinces, and the order was placed under the supervision of a cardinal protector. Devoted to the study of the sciences and especially to philosophy, the Franciscans were bright lights in the universities, and became rivals of the Do- minicans; the latter were Thomists, while the former were Scotists. Their order produced Alexander of Hales, and Roger

Bacon, as well as the Popes Nicholas IV., Alexander V., Sixtus IV., Sixtus V., and Clement XIV. ; a poet, Jacobonus of Todi, and St. Bonaventure. There were diverse branches under the names of Fathers of the Obser\'ance, Fathers of the Strict Observ- ance, also called Jaccolanti, Observantines, Recollects, Discalced, Reformed Conven- tuals, Capuchins, and Cordeliers. A general division divided the Franciscans into Cis- montanes who had seventy provinces, and Ultramontanes who had eighty-one prov- inces. Besides his order for men, St. Fran- cis of Assisi founded one also for women, commonly called " Poor Clares," after St. Clara of Assisi, who was the first of her sex to embrace this manner of life. In 1224, St. Francis gave a written rule to St. Clara and her community, which was ap- proved by Innocent IV. in 1246. Within a few years the order had spread in Italy, France, and Spain. In addition to these two orders, St. Francis founded the Third Order, for persons living in the world and desirous of sharing the privileges and graces of the religious state. St. Louis IX. of France, and St. Elizabeth of Hun- gary belonged to the Third Order. St. Francis, after receiving the sacred stigmata, or marks of our Lord's Passion, died in 1226.

There are many branches of the numer- ous family of the Franciscans in the United States. The "Recollects" who came to Cincinnati, Ohio, in the year 1844, seem to have been the first religious of that order that settled in this country, since the for- mation of the United States.

Frankfort (Council of). — The Council of Frankfort was convened by Charlemagne at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 794. It was attended by more than 300 bishops and condemned the heresy of the Adoptionists.

Fratricelli. — The common designation of a body of reformed Franciscans author- ized by Pope Celestine V. in 1294, under the name of Poor Hermits, who afterwards defied the authority of the Popes, rejected the sacraments, and held that Christian perfection consists in absolute poverty. In spite of persecution, they continued as a distinct sect until the fifteenth century.

Free Church of England. — A Protestant Episcopal organization, founded in 1844, and enrolled in chancery, in England, in 1863, "originated as a counteracting move- ment to the Oxford Tractarians." It is

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free from State control, and therefore claims the liberty of entering a parish where ritualistic practices prevail and establishing a liturgical service, on the basis of the evan- gelical party in the national church, with which its ritual is practically identical. It is governed by convocation and bishops consecrated, in the line of the Canterbury succession, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Cum- mins, who founded the Reformed Episco- pal Church of America in 1873, when he resigned his connection with the Protestant Episcopal Church, while claiming, on its own grounds, the indelibility of his orders.

Freemasons. See Secret Societies.

Freppel (Charles Emile) (1827-1891). — A French theologian and prelate. Was born at Obernai, France ; died in Paris. Entered the priesthood, and in 1870 be- came Bishop of Angers. He was returned to the chamber of deputies as a Legiti- mist in 1881 and re-elected in 1885. He wrote a criticism on Renan's Vie de yesus and several other works.

Friday {Good or Holy). — Good Friday is the day of God's mercy, because it is the day on which Jesus Christ, by an excess of love, incomprehensible to every created mind, suflfered the greatest torments, and expired ignominiously on the Cross, in order that we might be healed through His wounds, washed in His blood, and that in His death we might find the principle of our true life. We call this day Holy or Good Friday; it is also called Parasceve, which means a preparation, it being the day in which the Jews prepared for the celebration of the Sabbath. Our ancestors gave it the name of Adoration Friday, on account of the solemn worship of the Cross which takes place on that day. The Greeks call it the Pasch of Jesus Crucified, and the Sunday following it, they term the Pasch of Jesus Resurrected. In the office of Good Friday, everything inspires com- punction, and all the ceremonies and prayers tend to penetrate the soul with the most profound and salutary affliction. The bells are silent on this mournful day, the candles are extinguished, the altars are stripped of their ornaments ; over the main altar a simple cloth only is extended to symbolize the winding sheet which covered the dead body of the Saviour. At the commencement of the office the cele- brant and his assistants prostrate them- selves upon the floor, testifying by this 20

posture the bitterness in which the heart is plunged at the thought of the ignomini- ous death which Christ suffered in order to take away from us the yoke of the devil. On Good Friday the holy sacrifice of the Mass is not celebrated. Although it is a real living representation and continuation of the Sacrifice on the Cross, it can inspire us only with joy and fill us with consola- tion ; but these sentiments are incompatible with the mourning of the Church on ac- count of the death of Jesus Christ. Nevertheless the order and many cere- monies of the Mass are preserved therein; it is called the Mass of the Presanctified. This Mass was formerly observed on fast days by the Eastern Churches, during which the priest and faithful communi- cated by receiving the hosts which were consecrated the preceding day. The office of Good Friday commences with two les- sons taken from Holy Scripture, which are followed by the reading or chanting of the Passion, according to St. John. After this the celebrant offers solemn prayers for all the states and conditions of life, for the just as well as for the unjust, and even for heretics, schismatics, Jews, and pagans, because Jesus Christ died for all men, and wishes all men to be saved. The foregoing solemn prayers are followed by the adoration of the Cross. The Cross, covered with a veil, to signify that the mystery of the Cross had been hidden for a long time, is now solemnly uncovered. After having uncovered the Cross, the celebrant raises it and shows it to the peo- ple, with these words: ^' Ecce lignum cruets'''' (behold the -wood of the cross); the deacon and subdeacon sing with him : " /« quo salus mundi pependif'' {upon -which has rested the salvation of the -world), to which the choir replies: '■'■Venite adoremus," {Come let us adore). Then the cele- brant and ministers having taken off their vestments, prostrate themselves three times and adore the Cross. The people likewise do the same. After this the cele- brant goes in procession, without singing, to the Repository to take to the altar the sacred Host which had lain in the Reposi- tory from the preceding day. Arriving at the main altar, the priest proceeds with the Mass of the Presanctified, so called, because he consumes the sacred Host which had been consecrated the preceding day. According to the present discipline of the Church, neither clergy nor people may communicate on Good Friday; an

Fridolin

306

Gabriel

exception to this rule is made in favor of those in danger of death. See Holy Wekk.

Fridolin (St.). — The first apostle of the Alemanni; was a native of Ireland or Scotland. Labored as a missionary in Gaul, where he restored the congregation of St. Hilary at Poitiers, which had been corrupted by Arianism, and in Germany, where he founded a monastery at Seck- ingen, an island in the Rhine, near Basel. St. Fridolin lived in the sixth century. F. March 6th.

Friends. See Quakers.

Frisians {Conversion of the). — See WlLLIBRORD (St.).

Frumentius and Aedesius. See Abys- sinia.

Fulbertof Chartres (950-1028). — French prelate, born in the province of Poitou. He founded a famous school at Chartres, and was elected bishop of that place in 1007. One of the most learned men of his century ; his virtue was at the height of his science ; the kiygs of France and England had recourse to his counsels. He built the actual cathedral of Chartres. His let- ters are of great interest and are found in in Migne, Pat. Lat. CXH.

Fulgentius (St.). — Bishop of Ruspe, was born in 467 or 468, at Telepte, a town in North Africa, and carefully educated by his widowed mother Mariana. His no- ble character, as well as his knowledge

and administrative talent earned for him, though still young, the high position of procurator of his native city. A change came over him after reading St. Augus- tine's exposition of the 36th Psalm. He now resolved to renounce his vast posses- sions, and, in spite of his mother's tears, retired to a monastery to lead an ascetic life. Being driven away from his monas- tery by the Arians, at whose hands he suf- fered inhuman treatment, he wandered about foreign countries, but in 500 re- turned once more to his native city, where he built a new monastery, entered the priesthood, and soon after, in 508, in spite of his reluctance, was consecrated Bishop of Ruspe. This step involved direct op- position to King Thrasamund, who had prohibited any further appointments to the Catholic bishoprics, and in conse- quence, Fulgentius and sixty other bishops were banished to Sardinia, where he founded a monastery under the rule of St. Augustine. Twelve years later Thrasa- mund recalled him to Carthage, but exiled him once more in 520, at the instigation of the Arian bishops. The death of Thrasa- mund and the accession to the throne of Hilderic opened the way for the return of the banished bishops to their sees. Amidst the joyful acclamations of the people, Ful- gentius re-entered his episcopal city, and from that time forward lived peacefully, devoting himself with fidelity and zeal to the welfare of his flock. He died in 533. His writings, whose style is clear and con- cise, consists of treaties, letters, and ser- mons. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

    Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

    They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

    Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

    Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

    These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,