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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)


Gabaa. — Ancient Levitical town of Pal- estine in the tribe of Benjamin, six miles north of Jerusalem. Country of Saul ; de- stroyed during the war with the Benja- mites, to revenge the Levite Ephraim. In its neighborhood, David defeated the Phi- listines. Gabaa is identified with the modern Gib.

Gabaon. — In the old Testament, six miles northwest of Jerusalem. The Gaba- onites succeeded by stratagem in making a treaty with the Israelites under Josue. The latter defeated them, together with five Chanaanite princes, who came to besiege

them three days afterwards. It was in this battle, that Josue commanded the sun to stand still in order to extend the daylight on the combat (Jos. ix.).

Gabbatha signifies an elevated place, and was the name of a place in Pilate's palace, whence he pronounced sentence against our Saviour. In Greek it is called the pavement. It was properly a tribunal with a checkered marble pavement, or a pave- ment of mosaic work.

Gabriel. — Archangel sent to the Prophet Daniel to explain his visions and to com- municate to him the prophecy of the sev-




enty weeks. Also to Zacharias, to announce to him the future birth of John the Baptist ; six months afterwards, he was sent to Naza- reth to announce to the Blessed Virgin Mary the birth of Jesus Christ.

Gabrielites. — Members of a sect of Ana- baptists founded in Pomerania in 1530 by one Gabriel Scherling. They refused to bear arms and to take oaths, and preached perfect social and religious equality.

Gad. — I. A son of the Patriarch Jacob, by Zelpha, servantmaid of Lia. 2. One of the twelve tribes of Israel, occupying the region east of the Jordan, north of Ruben and south of Manasse. 3. A He- brew prophet and chronicler at the court of David.

Gadara. — In the Old Testament, a city of the Decapolis in Syria, situated about seven miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, probably the capital of Peraea : the modern village of Um Keis. It was rebuilt by Pompey. Here are remains of a large Roman theatre, not excavated in a hill, but entirely built up of masonry on vaulted substructions and in good preservation ; there is a smaller theatre on the same site.

Gage (Thomas) (1597-1655). — Irish apostate; was born in Limerick, Ireland; died in Kingston, Jamaica. He was edu- cated for the priesthood in the Order of the Dominicans in Spain. He went to Mexico with a party of friars, and was placed in charge of a wealthy parish, where he devoted himself to getting riches rather than to his ministry. When he had accumu- lated a large fortune, he deserted his people, and after a roundabout journey through Central America, sailed from Costa Rica for England. There he re- nounced Catholicity and wrote an account of his adventures in Mexico and a descrip- tion of the Spanish possessions, under the title English- American Description of the West Indies (1648).

Gajus. See Cajus.

Galaad or Mount Galaad. — In biblical geography, a part of Palestine, east of the Jordan, lying between the Hieromax on the north, and the Arnon on the south. In an extended sense, it included Basan. Its chief cities were: Jabes-Galaad and Ramoth- Galaad.

Galatia. — In ancient geography, a divi- sion of Asia Minor lying between Bithynia

and Paphlagonia on the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west : formerly a part of Phrygia. It was conquered and settled by a confederation of Gallic tribes in the third century b. c, and was made a Roman province in 25 b. c. Theodosius sub- divided it into Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda. The Epistle to the Galatians, which was addressed to them from Ephesus by St. Paul, about the year 55, combats the pretension of Judeo-Christians who wished to add to Christianity circumci- sion, and the ceremonies of the Mosaic Law.

Galileans. — i . Name which was given to the first Christians, because Christ and His parents came from Galilee. 2. Name of Jewish sectarians who, under the leader- ship of Judas of Galilee, arose against the Romans on account of a general census prescribed by Augustus in order to im- pose a tax upon all his subjects of the em- pire.

Galilee, in the Roman period, was the most northern division of Palestine. It was bounded by Phoenicia and Cceie-Syria on the north, the Jordan valley on the east, Samaria on the south, and the Mediter- ranean and Phoenicia on the west. It com- prised Upper Galilee (in the north) and Lower Galilee (in the south), and corre- sponded to the ancient territories of Aser, Nephtali, Zabulon, and part of Issachar. It now belongs to Turkey.

Galileo {Galilei) (1564-1642). — Italian astronomer, mathematician, and scientist. It was during the Pontificate of Urban VIII. that the memorable and often falsely described trial of Galileo occurred, in the courts of the Inquisition. The enemies of the Church, forget only too often, that the system advocated by Galileo had been ad- vanced, without censure, by the learned Cardinal of Cusa nearly two hundred years before; that it had been expressly main- tained, with the encouragement of the Ro- man Pontiffs, by Copernicus, fully ninety years before the Congregation of the In- dex pronounced sentence against the Flor- entine astronomer. They forgot too, that Protestants were the first who vigorously opposed the Copernican system on the ground of Scripture. *' Even such a great man as Bacon," says Macaulay, "rejected with sJorn, the theory of Galileo." "Had," says Kenrick, "Galileo confined




himself, as he was repeatedly warned, to scientific demonstrations, without med- dling with Scripture, and proposed his system as probable, rather than as indubi- table, he would have excited no opposi- tion." It is rather unfair and ridiculous to call the Church an enemy of science because she forbids writers to adduce the Scripture in support of their views. No corporal punishment was inflicted in the case of Galileo ; and no dungeon was opened to receive him. On the contrary, his disobedience and contempt were vis- ited only with a slight penance — to say once a week, for three years, the seven penitential psalms — and he was put under some restraint — not in a prison — first with the Archbishop of Siena, his per- sonal friend, and afterwards in his own villa, near Florence. The decree of the Index against Galileo proves nothing against Papal Infallibility. In the case of Galileo, the Holy See condemned as heret- ical and opposed to Scripture, an astro- nomical doctrine which is now universally accepted. On this much debated question, it may safely be said, that no man can prove that the note of heresy was attached by the Pope himself to the physical doc- trine. The proof of this would require it to be shown that the Pope acted person- ally, for the gift of Infallibility cannot be delegated to any other person; that he acted with the intention of exercising his supreme apostolic authority to teach the Church ; and, lastly and most especially, that the purpose of the decree was to con- demn the doctrine and not merely to pro- hibit the books containing it. A doctrinal utterance is not proved to be ex-cathedra by its occurrence among the motives for a disciplinary decree; and this appears to have been the case with the decree against Galileo, which therefore does not conflict with our doctrine. The action of the Holy See on this matter may be defended on higher ground than what is here taken ; but what has been said suffices to show that nothing was done in the case that is inconsistent with the doctrine of Papal Infallibility.

Gall (St.).— Disciple of St. Columban, Native of Ireland ; was the chief assistant of St. Columban in his missionary labors; well educated and eloquent, and able to preach in the German as well as in the Latin language. He laid the foundations of the celebrated Monastery of St. Gall, in

Switzerland. Refused the Bishopric of Constance, which the Duke Gunzo pressed upon his acceptance. He also refused the prayer of a deputation of Irish monks from Luxeuil, who, in the year 625, on the death of Eustace, requested him to become abbot of that great monastery; because, as he said, he was a stranger to them, and if he accepted their offer, he should be obliged to forsake the Alemanni, who were as yet pagans, or only partially converted. He continued to preach the Gospel to the in- habitants of the country about the monas- tery of St. Gall, and at the time of his death, which occurred at Arbon, Oct. i6th, 646, when he was in the ninety-fifth year of his age, the entire country of the Alemanni had become a Christian prov- ince. F. Oct. i6th.

Gallandius (Andrew) (1709-1779). — Theologian and oratorian; born at Venice. He is justly famed for his Bibliotheca ve- terum Patrum antiquorumque scriptortim ecclesiasticorum (Venice, 1765-81, 14 vols, fol.), noted for the accuracy of its texts and the excellence of its dissertations.

Gallicanism. — One of the various forms of opposition to the Papacy was Gallican- ism, which restricted the authority of the Holy See and infringed upon the rights of the Church. The so called Galilean Lib- erties authorized the king to convene French synods and confirm their decrees as well as to enforce the decrees of the Council of Constance which declared the superiority of the Council to the Pope ; they affirmed that the use of the apostolic power is to be restricted by the canons ; that, in matters of faith, the supreme Pon- tiff has the chief part to perform, but that his judgment is not irreversible ('• irre- formabile") unless the Church has formally ratified it by her consent. To further his arbitrary rule, Louis XIV. (1643-1715) made use of these anti-ecclesiastical ten- dencies in his controversy with the Pope and would have precipitated a schism, had not Bossuet opportunely intervened. The latter drew up the celebrated Dec- laration of the French clergy in the Four Articles, which in after years. Napoleon I. endeavored to enforce by law and which were finally condemned by the Ecumenical Council of the Vatican (1870).

Gallican Liberties. See Gallicanism.

Gallitzin (Dkmetrius). — Son of Prince Demetrius Gallitzin, was born at The




Hague Dec. 22d, 1770; died at Loretto, Pennsylvania, May 6th, 1840. At the age of tvventy-two years, he came to America in order to instruct himself in his travels and to prepare himself to fulfill a brilliant charge in the world. Providence awaited him here to embrace quite a different career. He became a Catholic and resolved to em- brace the ecclesiastical state. He was ad- mitted into the Seminary of Baltimore and ordained priest March loth, 1793. He was sent to exercise the sacred ministry to Con- ewago, from whence he visited a large dis- trict, and here he fixed his residence in 1799. At first there was in this place only a small number of Catholic families, but soon a number of congregations arose. The Abbe prince of Gallitzin devoted him- self entirely to his flock. His charity, the simplicity of his zeal, his perseverance among great privations, gained for him the people's esteem and confidence. From Conewago, where there were many Ger- mans, he went to exercise his ministry at Taney Town. He left this place with a great number of his parishioners to form a settlement at Fort Cumberland, in another county. He became their adviser and guide for both their spiritual and temporal welfare, built a church and provided for the needs of his flock. A pension which he received from his family served to assist his colonists. Amidst these apostolic la- bors and after having even published some writings of controversy, he died near Lo- retto, Pennsylvania.

Gamala. — A city in Galilee, opposite Tiberias, on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. It stood on a hill which was com- pared to the back of a camel, from which possibly its name is derived (Hebr. gamal camel). It was fortified and formed one of the centers of insurrection during the war of Judea with Rome. It is identified with the modern Qual'at el-Hocn.

Gamaliel. — There are several Gamaliels mentioned in the Talmud as descendants of Hillel, who held the dignity as president of the Sanhedrin and of patriarch (nasi) of the Jewish community in Palestine after the fall of Jerusalem. Gamaliel " the elder" was the grandson of Hillel. It is believed that he was a secret disciple of Jesus Christ. The laws emanating from him breathe a mild and liberal spirit. He dissuaded the Jews from taking strict measures against the Apostles (Acts v. 34), and is described as '* a doctor of the law,

respected by all the people." He was a teacher of the apostle St. Paul. Another Gamaliel, grandson of the preceding, presi- dent of the Sanhedrin (80-180 a. d.), was the first to assume the title of patriarch.

Gardiner (Stephen ). — An English prelate and statesman. Born between 1483 and 1495, Gardiner became secretary of state under Henry VIII. In 1531, he was appointed Bishop of Winchester. In the case of Henry VIII. 's disastrous divorce from Queen Catharine, he warmly espoused his master's cause, and acted a prominent part, both as ambassador to the Holy See, and as the king's advocate in the legatine court before- Cardinals Wolsey and Com- peggio. He also accepted the royal supremacy, which he defended in his well- known treatise : On True Obedience. But on becoming fully aware of the evil he had so greatly aided, he devoted his whole energies to make atonement for his error. He offered the most determined resistance to Cranmer's innovations, for which he was deprived of his see and held in close confinement during the reign of Edward VI. In his memorable sermon, which he preached at St. Paul's Cross in the presence of King Philip and the notables of the realm, he lamented his former conduct, and exhorted all who had fallen with him, to return with him to the " one fold" of the "one shepherd." His death, which occurred in November, 1555, was a subject of deep regret to Queen Mary, who lost in him her most faithful minister.

Garizim. — In Scriptural geography, a mountain of Samaria, Palestine, 2,848 feet high, situated opposite Mount Hebal, 27 miles north of Jerusalem. The modern Naplouse. The Samaritans erected on its summit a temple, to oppose that of Jeru- salem. Still to-day the inhabitants of Na- plouse come, three times a year, to cele- brate upon Garizim the feasts of the Pasch, Pentecost and Tabernacles. It is believed that the ruins on its summit are those of a church founded by the Emperor Zeno, and which Justinian had surrounded with a strong wall. M. de Saulcy considers them the ruins of the ancient Samaritan tem- ple, founded by Sanaballat, under the reign of Alexander the Great, and dedicated later on, under Antiochus Epiphanes, to the Hellenic Jupiter.

Garnet (Henry) (1555-1606). — Jesuit, born at Nottingham, professor of mathe-




matics and of Hebrew. Provincial of his society in England. Wrongfully accused of having knowledge of the Gunpo-wder Plot, he was hung and quartered.

Gaza. — A town and important trading place in Syria, situated near the Mediter- ranean. It was one of the five cities of the Philistines. It was taken by Josue and given to the tribe of Juda. An episcopal see was established quite early at Gaza, and Philemon passes for having been its first bishop.

Gedeon. — A celebrated judge and leader of Israel, who obtained a miraculous vic- tory over the Madianites and freed his nation from their yoke. His history is contained in Judges (vi.-viii.).

Gehenna. — The valley of Hinnom, or of the children of Hinnom, situated south of Jerusalem ; also, called Hill of the Tombs, of the Field of Blood, or of Evil Counsel. The name of the valley occurs first in the description of the boundaries of Juda and Benjamin (Jos. xviii. 16). In the times of Achaz and Manasses children were offered here to Moloch, in consequence of which the valley was called Topheth (abomina- tion) and was polluted by Josias (IV. Ki. xxiii. 10). In later times it became the prototype of the place of punishment, and was considered as the mouth of hell. In this sense it is used in the Talmud and in the New Testament.

Gehon. — One of the four rivers in Eden (Gen. ii), variously identified with the Oxus, Araxes, an arm of the Euphrates, Tigris system, etc.

Gelasius (name of two Popes). — Gela- sius I. Pope from 492 to 496. Was a man of rare piety and great experience. He held a Council of seventy bishops at Rome in 496 which determined : i. The Canon of the Sacred Scriptures of both the Old and New Testaments. 2. The number of Ecumenical Councils, which was set at four — Nice, Ephesus, Constantinople, and Chalcedon; and 3. A list of the Fathers and their books which could be lawfully read, as also a catalogue of forbidden and apocryphal books. To abolish the lasciv- ious feast of the Lupercalia, Gelasius in- troduced in its stead the festival of the Purification. He also revised the Canon of the Mass and enjoined communion un- der both kinds in opposition to the Manic- heans, who condemned the use of wine in

the holy sacrifice. The Sacramentary which bears his name is by some ascribed to Leo I. the Great. — Gelasius II. Pope from II 18 to 1 1 19. He had to combat against an antipope, set up by Henry V. — the excommunicated Archbishop of Bur- dinus of Braga, as Gregory VIII. Gelasius excommunicated both the emperor and his antipope. Being unable to maintain himself in Rome, he sought refuge in France, where, after holding a synod at Vienne, he died in the monastery of Clu- ney.

Gelboe. — A mountain range in the ter- ritory of Issachar, 1,717 feet high, which bounds the lower plain of Galilee on the east, running from southeast to northwest. Here Saul and his three sons fell in a bat- tle against the Philistines. The present name of the mountain is Jebel Faku'a, but its old name survives in the village Jelbon, on the southern part of the range.

General. — In the Catholic Church, the supreme head, under the Pope, of the ag- gregated communities throughout Chris- tendom belonging to a religious order.

Generatianism. — Opinion according to which the soul transmits itself through generation. Tertullian, admitting the ma- teriality of the soul, was the first who exposed this idea, which has been com- bated by all the Fathers of the Church. See Crkationism.

Genesareth ( Sea of, also called Lahe or Sea of Tiberias). — A lake in Palestine, traversed by the Jordan ; the modern Bahr Tabariyeh. Its length is about 13 miles; its greatest breadth 6% miles ; its surface 680 feet below that of the Mediterranean. Its shores were thickly peopled in the time of Christ, and are associated with many events in the New Testament his- tory.

Genesis. — The opening book of the Pentateuch, derives its Greek name from the subject of which it treats. This is the creation {Genesis) of the world, and with it the history of man till the death of Joseph in Egypt. Into this narrative, ex- tending over a period of 2,369 years, is woven an account of all that God did to keep alive in the hearts of men the reve- lation He communicated to Adam and the patriarchs.

Gennadius. — Priest of Marseilles, eccle- siastical writer about the end of the fifth




century. He seemed to have favored Semi- Pellagianism.

Gennadius (George Scholarius). — Patriarch of Constantinople, born in that city about 1400; died in 1464. First judge of the palace and secretary of John VII. He accompanied this emperor to the Councils of Ferrara and Florence (1439), where they occupied themselves with the reunion ot the Greek and Roman Churches; was in turn adherent and adversary of a reconciliation, became patriarch after the taking of Constantinople by Mohammed II. (1453) and resigned in 1458.

Gentiles. — This name is derived from the Hebrew Goim, which signifies the na- tions that have received neither the faith nor the law of the Lord. Thus the Jews understood by Gentiles all those who were not of their religion. In St. Paul, ordi- narily, the Gentiles are comprised under the name of Greeks ; yudceus et Grcecus mark the Jews and the Gentiles. St. Luke, in the Acts, expresses himself in the same manner.

Gentilis ( Valentine ) ( 1520 -1566 ) . — Heretic, born at Cosenza, Italy; died at Bern, Switzerland. Disciple of Socinus, expelled from his country, he led a vaga- bond life. After having with difficulty escaped the fiery death, destined for him by the Geneva Reformers, Gentilis was beheaded as an Antitrinitarian at Bern.

Genuflectentes. — In the early Church a class of Catechumens who were allowed to remain and join in prayers offered es- pecially for them after the audiences were dismissed by the priest or bishop.

Genuflection. — Act of religious worship, which consists in bending the knee or knees. The custom of kneeling in prayer is very ancient among the Christians. They always prayed kneeling, except on Sunday and the time from Easter until Pentecost, they prayed erect, in order to honor the resurrection of our Saviour.

George ( St. ) ( 280-303 ) . — Born at Diospolis or Lydda of Palestine. Tribune in the guard of Diocletian, he suffered martyrdom at Nicomedia. His veneration is much spread in the Orient and in Russia. The saint is generally repre- sented, clad in armor, and riding a white horse, charging the dragon (the devil) and transfixing him with his spear as he turns to flee. F. April 23d.

Gerah. — A Jewish coin worth about two


Gerara. — An ancient town or place of the Philistines in the time of Abraham and Isaac. It lay not far from Gaza, in the south of Juda ; but is not mentioned in later history (Gen. xx. i ; xxvi. i, 6, 17).

Gerard {SegarelU). See Apostolians.

Gerasa. — A city of Decapolis, Palestine, 26 miles northeast of Jerusalem. It con- tains many antiquities, and is identified with the modern Djersash.

Gerbert. See Sylvester II.

German Catholics. — Sectarians in Ger- many, about the beginning of the present century, who were founded by John Ronge, an apostate priest. Nothwith- standing the thorough Protestant and radi- cal principles they professed, they called themselves the "German Catholics," also the "Christian Catholic and Apostolic Church." Ronge, who was hailed by the Liberal and Protestant factions of Ger- many as another Luther, rejected all but two sacraments. The remnant of this sect, which was largely composed of Protes- tants, subsequently joined the national Protestant Church of Germany. Ronge died impenitent in 1887.

Germanus. — Patriarch of Constantino- ple (715). Deposed (730) on account of his resistance to the iconoclastic measui-es of the Emperor Leo. Died in 740.

Germanus (St.). — Born at Autun in 406. Bishop of Paris in 555. A staunch de- fender of the Church against the Mero- vingian despots. F. May 28th.

Germanus (St.) (380-448). — Governor of Auxerre, his native city, under Hono- rius. He became bishop in 418. Died at Ravenna whither he had gone to ask Val- entinian II. to forgive the Amoricans who had rebelled against him. F. July 31st.

Germany {Christianity in). See Boni- face (St.).

Germany ( Worship in). — The dominat- ing religion in Germany is Protestantism (62.5 per cent.). The Catholics form 36 per cent. In Southern Germany, the num- ber of Catholics is double that of Protes- tants ; in the North, on the contrary, the proportion is 2^ Protestants to one Cath- olic. The sect of Old Catholics which




they represented for a time as having the importance of a new Church is of little importance (less than 50,000). It is more a political party than a religious sect. Ac- cording to the statistics of 1875, the divi- sion made by the State of the different worships is as follows : —

Gessur. — A small district east of the Jordan, and northeast of Basan, allotted to Manasses. David married a daughter of its king (II. Ki. iii. 3), and thither Ab- salom fled after the murder of Amnon. It is supposed to be a part of the rocky region now known as El Lejah.





Wurtemberg ,.






Other States































Other Christians

59,400 4,889

6,541 4,167




91 4,968 3.198






5,. 360












4,674 904






8,942 19+



Gerson (Jkaj? Charlikr dk) (1363- 1429). — Born at Gerson, Ardennes; died at Lyons. A noted theologian. He was chancellor of the University of Paris, and was prominent in the Councils of Pisa and Constance, striving for the unity of the Church and for ecclesiastical reforms. In 1419, he went to Lyons where he died. A great number of critics attribute to him the Imitation of Christ.

Gertrude (St.) (1264-1334).— Religious of the Order of St. Benedict, born at Eisle- ben. Saxony. Sister of St. Mechtilda. She wrote, in Latin, a book entitled: Revelations, in which she relates her com- munications with God.

Gervase or Gervaise. — Bom about 1 150 ; died early in the thirteenth century. An English monk and chronicler ; he wrote a history of the archbishopric of Canter- bury to the accession of Hubert; a chroni- cle of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II., and Richard I. ; a Maffa Mundi, showing the episcopal sees, monasteries, etc., in each county of England, etc.

Gervasius and Protasius (Sts.). — Born very probably at Ravenna. Were mar- tyred under Nero. Twin sons of St. Vi- talius, consular personage, and of St. Valeria.

Geth. — City of ancient Palestine, in the tribe of Dan, on the Mediterranean sea, conquered by David. Country of Goliath.

Gethsemani (Hebr. oil press). — In New Testament history, a garden or orchard, east of Jerusalem, near the brook Cedron.

Ghost {Gifts of the Holy).— The Holy Ghost is in a peculiar manner the Giver of Grace, and the work of sanctificati^on of men is appropriated to him. But besides habitual grace, and the virtues, there are certain supernatural habits, which are called "Gifts of the Holy Ghost," and which are given to man to dispose him to receive influence from God, leading him on to his salvation. These are commonly reckoned as being the seven gifts enumer- ated by Isaias (x. 2, 3) of which wisdom, understanding, counsel, and knowledge be- long the intellect, while fortitude, piety,and the fear of God belong to the will of man.

Ghost {Holy). See Trinity.

Gibbons (James). — Born at Baltimore, Maryland, July 23d, 1834. An American Catholic prelate. He was ordained priest at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, in 1861, became assistant priest at St. Patrick's Church, Baltimore, Maryland. A few months later he became pastor of St. Bridget's Church, and then was transferred




to the cathedral, and appointed chancellor of the archdiocese. In 1868 he was made vicar apostolic of North Carolina, with the rank and title of bishop, and in 1872 was assigned to the see of Richmond, Virginia. In 1877 he became Archbishop of Baltimore and cardinal in 1886, being the second American to receive this dignity. He was present at the Vatican Council (1870-71), and presided as apostolic legate over the Council of Baltimore (1884). He wrote Faith of our Fathers (New York, 1874 — enormous sale) ; Our Christian Heritage (Baltimore, Maryland, 1889) ; The Ambas- sador of Christ {Ibid. 1897).

Gihon. See Gehon.

Gilbert. — Bishop of Limerick in the twelfth century. At the recommendation of St. Anselm, he was appointed papal legate for Ireland. With the consent of Pope Paschal II., Gilbert, in mi, con- vened a national synod at Aengus-Grove, which was attended by Moelmurry, Arch- bishop of Cashel, fifty bishops, three hundred priests, and about three thousand persons of the clerical and religious orders. By this council, wise rules were framed regulating the life and manners of the clergy and people, and abolishing certain abuses regarding matrimony.

Gilbert de la Poree ( 1070-r 154) . — Scho- lastic theologian and philosopher, born at Poitiers. Bishop of that city. Gilbert was an extreme Realist, fell into the error of Tritheism, asserting a real distinction between the Divine Essence, or Being, and God, and the three Divine Persons, whom he considered as numerically distinct units. This error was censured, at the instance of St. Bernard, in a synod held at Rheims, in 1 148, at which Pope Eugenius III. was present in person. Gilbert submitted to the judgment of the Church, and was al- lowed to return to his diocese.

Gilbertines. — Religious, so called from their founder, St. Gilbert, parish priest of Springham, England. They embraced canons-regular and nuns, the former fol- lowing the Rule of St. Augustine, the latter that of St. Benedict. The order, which spread rapidly through England, was ap- proved by Pope Eugenius III.

Gilmour (Richard) (1824-1891). — American prelate ; was born in Glasgow, Scotland; died in Florida. His parents were stanch Covenanters. When he was

only four years of age his parents emigrated to Canada, and finally settled in Pennsyl- vania. When young Gilmour was about nineteen he, one Sunday, entered a Catholic church some five miles from his home, and was so struck by the sermon and by the devotion of the people that he began to read, and, corresponding to the grace of God, became a Catholic. Entered Mount St. Mary's Seminary, and was ordained priest for the Diocese of Cincinnati, August 30th, 1852. He was first appointed to mis- sions in southern Ohio, laboring for five years to give every mission a church and a school. No one took a more active part toward advancing Catholic education. Be- sides his labors in building schools, he compiled School Recreations, a collection of songs and hymns, a Bible History, and a series of Readers. On the resignation of Bishop Rappe, he was elected to the see of Cleveland, and was consecrated on the 14th of April, 1872. From his entrance into his diocese, Bishop Gilmour advanced Catho- lic interests with all the activity and energy of his nature. Catholic education was made paramount, and, to defend the inter- ests and principles of the Church, he founded The Catholic Universe. Died on the 13th of April, 1891.

Gioberti ( Vincknzo ) ( 1802-1852 ) . — Statesman, philosopher, and writer, born at Turin. Received holy orders. Taught theology at the University of Turin. Was banished in 1833 on account of his repub- lican opinions; called back in 1848, he be- came minister of foreign affairs, then ambassador to Paris. Catholic and Guelph, he dreamed about uniting philosophy with religion, and making Italy one State, of which the Pope should be the head, and the king of Sardinia the Pope's protector. His dangerous writings (condemned by the Index) have contributed a good deal to the present deplorable situation of the Holy See.

Girdle. — A cord passed around the waist with which the priest or other cleric binds his alb. In more modern times the girdle has been generally made like a cord with tassels at the end ; anciently, it was flat; and, whilst it had the appearance, was indiscriminately denominated by the terms of belt or zone, as well as girdle. It was formerly made of various colored silks, not unfrequently interwoven with gold and decorated with embroidery, and sometimes studded with precious stones. In several

Gloria in Excelsis



passages of Holy Scripture mention is made of the girdle (Is. xi. 5; Ephes. vi. 14; Luke xii. 35). The girdle, therefore, is very appropriately made a portion of the ceremonial attire belonging to the sanctu- ary, and is eloquently emblematical of that chastity and unsullied purity with which both priest and people should anxiously endeavor to array themselves before they dare to pass the threshold of a temple sacred to the Lord of spotless holiness. The zone or girdle with which the priest girds himself around the waist, over the alb, is noticed in all the Greek and Oriental liturgies.

Gloria in Excelsis (Latin words : "Glory be to God in the highest"). — This has been denominated the Angelic hymn, because it commences with words chanted by angelic voices in the midnight air, at the birth of our Divine Redeemer, which was an- nounced to the shepherds by an angel zoned in light, with whom " there was a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God, and saying: "Glory be to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men of good will" (Luke x^-ii. 13). This canti- cle, as the Fathers of the Fourth Council of Toledo (633) observed, consists of the strain sung by the multitude of the heav- enly army, and of pious aspirations com- posed by the pastors of the Church. The Greeks call it the greater Doxology. Its author is unknown, but it is found nearly, though not quite, in its present form in the Apostolic Constitutions. It was intro- duced into the Mass by the Roman Church, first of all on Christmas day, when it was sung at the first Mass in Greek, and at the second in Latin. After- wards, the bishops said it on Sundays and festivals, priests only on Easter Sunday; this restricted use was maintained until the tenth century. The " Gloria in Ex- celcis " is now said in all Masses except those of the Sunday in Advent and from Septuagesima to Palm Sunday inclusive, and of all the feriae not including the Paschal time. It is not said in votive Masses, except in those of the Angels, and of the Blessed Virgin on Saturday. Being a canticle of gladness, it is also omitted in Masses for the dead.

Gloria Patri (Latin words : "Glory be to the Father"). — The minor doxology, or short hymn of Glory. The first part of it : " Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost," is presumed to

have been framed by the Apostles. The second portion: " As it was in the begin- ning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen," is ascribed to the Council of Nice (325), and was appended by the Nicene Fathers as a contradiction to the doctrines of Arius, who maintained that the Son was not in the beginning, nor equal to the Father.

Gnosticism (from gnosis, superior kno-wl- edge). — The name Gnostics was given to a variety of sects in the early days of the Church, each claiming a superior knowl- edge of Christianity and things divine. In their attempt to reconcile Christian dogma with human reason, the Gnostics blended with the faith of Christ many obscure and fantastic theories derived from pagan philosophies and the various religious systems of the Orient. Hence, Gnosti- cism is viewed as a fusion of Christian ideas with Hellenic philosophy, chiefly that of Plato and Philo, and of Oriental theosophy. Moehler traces its origin to an intense and exaggerated Christian zeal, seeking some practical solutions of the problem of sin and evil. The underlying principles of all Gnostic systems were " Dualism," or the theory which accepts two original princi- ples, the one good, the other evil; and the " Emanation " theory, or development of the two principles into a series of beings of their nature and kind. The questions which Gnosticism undertook to answer re- garded the origin of the visible world, of matter and evil ; the union of the spiritual and material, or mind and matter; the re- lations between Christianity, Judaism, and paganism. The chief Gnostic ideas may be summed up as follows : They taught that eternal matter is the origin and seat of evil, and necessarily antagonistic to God; that a spirit, called Demiurge cre- ated the world out of matter; the "yEon Christ," who had no material body, re- deemed man by communicating to him a more perfect knowledge. These innova- tors distorted passages of Holy Scripture upon which they based their doctrines; they also claimed to have received private revelations. Gnosticism was a return to paganism. In its practical bearings it re- vealed a false asceticism. While some of its followers were given to repulsive as- ceticism, others practiced every manner of debauchery. There existed more than thirty systems of Gnosticism, chief amongst them being those of Simon Magus, Valen-



Golden Bull

tinus, Saturninus, Basilides, Marcion, and Carpocrates. St. John in his Gospel and St. Irenaeus in his work against heresies, were the principal adversaries of the Gnostics.

Goch ( John van ). — Heretic. A native of the Netherlands of the fifteenth century. He asserted that Christianity had been adulterated by error, a defect which it was his mission to correct. He rejected tra- dition and religious vows, and was the first to advance the erroneous doctrine of justi- fication by faith alone. He died in 1475.

God ( name given to the Creator of heaven and earth). — We know by the Sacred Scriptures that God manifested himself to Adam and Eve, to Moses and the Prophets, as recounted, with other his- torical proofs, in many books of the Old Testament. These writings were not only recognized as authentic by the Evangelists, who continually quoted them, but by our Lord Himself. His references are repeated by the Apostles, and His birth, life, and death were predicted therein. Faith in God is inherent in humanity, springing from nature and reason. It makes us feel the necessity of believing that there must be a Divinity, — who has formed the heavens, the world, and all therein con- tained; for the effect cannot exist without the cause, and it is demonstrable that the world has not always existed. The har- mony, order, and wonders of nature, and of the human race, refute any theory of spontaneous generation, and proclaim the existence of a primary and omnipotent Being, who, as the necessary and inde- pendent cause of all things, possesses in- finite power and perfection, and is therefore God. He, by His own might and Divinity, is, and was, and ever will be, God through all eternity, and from Him emanates all that is good, and beautiful, and true. God is a spirit, pure, immutable, and entirely distinct from anything material, " and they that adore Him, must adore Him in spirit and in truth " (John iv. 24) . We have faith in God through our own conscience, giving us the moral sense to realize duty and guilt, — to distinguish right from wrong, and to acknowledge the just recompense or chastisement our actions deserve. It is a natural law, engraven in our hearts by the hand of God, — coming as a whisper from the soul, — leading mankind to admit that there is a sensible difference between vice and virtue, wrong and right. The soul of man, spiritual and immortal as it

is, has the faculty of spiritual intelligence as well as of feeling, elevating the whole being above all other living creatures, whose principle of life does not lift them so high. And as we can conceive it, so do we possess an unconquerable desire for perpetual happiness, that we cannot find in this transitory life, — a desire that teaches us there is a God from whom every blessing flows, and toward whom our most holy aspirations tend. Faith in God is manifest in all nations and in all ages, for no country is without religion. " Cast your eyes over the face of the earth, you may there find cities without ramparts, without education, without magistrature ; people without fixed habitation, without property, without money ; but you will nowhere find a city where the knowledge of God does not exist." (Plutarchus.) For Attributes of God, see Trinity.

Godfrey of Bouillion. See Crusades.

Godparents are those persons who, ac- cording to the practice of the Church, assist at the solemn administration of baptism to make profession of the Chris- tian faith in the name of the baptized. They are also called " sponsors," and are in no way ministers of the sacrament. They are mentioned by the Fathers under the various names of sponsores, fideijus- sores, susceptores, or offerentes. Concern- ing these, St. Thomas observes that, just as in carnal birth the nurse receives the child and takes care of it, and later on a teacher has charge of it, so in baptism, which is a spiritual birth, the service of similar persons are required for the newly made Christian. See Baptism.

Goethe (John Wolfgang) (1749-1832). — German poet, born at Frankfort-on-the Main, died at Weimar. The writings of Goethe, who labored to cultivate among his contemporaries a taste for pagan liter- ature and a love of the classic creations of the Greek mind, contributed powerfully to extinguish the spirit of reviving faith. All the faculties of his splendid genius were concentrated on the one task of put- ting nature in the place of God. He de- tested both religion and politics, because, he said, their influence was fatal to art.

Gog. See Magog.

Golden BuU. — A Bull so called from the gold case in which the seal attached to it was inclosed. The imperial edict, known

Golden Calf



in German history under this title, was is- sued by Emperor Charles IV., mainly for the purpose of settling the law of imperial elections. In Hungarian history, there is a constitutional edict called by the same name.

Golden Calf. — An image of a bullock cast in gold by the Israelites at the foot of Mount Sinai ; destroyed by Moses, but similar ones were set up in later times by King Jeroboam at Bethel and Dan, where they became favorite objects of worship. Calf worship was frequently rebuked by Osee (viii. 5, 6; x. 5; xii. 2).

Golden Number for any year, is the number of that year in the Metomic Cycle ; and as this cycle embraces nineteen years, the Golden Numbers range from one to nineteen. Since the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, the point from which the Golden Numbers are reckoned is i B. C, as in that year the new moon fell on the first of January; and as by Melon's law the new moon falls on the same day (first of January) every nineteenth year from that time, we obtain the following rule for finding the Golden Number for any par- ticular year : Add one to the number of years and divide by nineteen ; the quo- tient gives the number of cycles, and the remainder gives the Golden Number for that year; and if there be no remainder, then nineteen is the Golden Number, and tliat year is the last of the cycle. The Golden Number is used for determining the epact, and the time for holding Easter.

Golden Rose. — An ornament blessed by the Pope every year on the fourth Sunday of Lent, and sent occasionally to Catholic sovereigns, celebrated Churches, great generals, and illustrious Catholic cities or republics.

Golgotha. — See Calvary.

Goliath. — In Biblical history a giant of Gath, the champion of the Philistines, slain in single combat by David (I. Kings xvii).

Gomarists. — See Arminians.

Good Friday. — See Friday.

Gorden (George) (1751-1793)- — Bom at London. An English agitator, third duke of Gorden. He entered parliament in 1774. In 1779 he became president of the "Protestant Association," formed for

the purpose of securing the repeal oi the Bill of Toleration, passed in 1778, remov- ing the Catholic disabilities. In June, 1780, he headed a large and excited mob, and dreadful riots ensued, in the course of which many Catholic chapels and private dwellings were destroyed.

Gortonians or Nothingarians. — Protes- tant sect, the founder of which was a cer- tain Samuel Gorton ; born at Gorton, England, about 1600; died in Rhode Is- land, 1677. He was for a time employed by a linen draper of London, but in 1636 sought religious freedom in Boston, Massa- chusetts. Becoming involved in disputes, he removed to Plymouth ; was accused of heresy and expelled from the colony ; went with a few followers to Aquidneck (now Newport), Rhode Island, and was there publicly whipped for treating magistrates with contempt. He then settled at Paw- tuxet, Rhode Island, but again became involved in disputes with the colonists, and in 1642 removed to Shawomet (now War- wick), Rhode Island, where he purchased land of the Indians. His claim to the property was contested ; he and his ten followers were taken to Boston, tried as heretics, and sentenced to imprisonment and hard labor ; but the sentence was after- wards commuted to banishment. Gorton then went to England, procured an order giving him possession of the lands of Shawomet, returned there, and subse- quently became -a preacher and magistrate of much consideration. His sect survived him for nearly one hundred years. They were known as *'Gortonians," and termed "Nothingarians," because they refused all set forms in religious worship and had no ministry.

Gospel. — The word gospel (Anglo- Saxon, god, good, and spell, history, or tidings) answers to the Greek word evan- gelion, good tidings, whence comes the Latin er'angelium, with the derived words in use among us, as evangelist, evangelical, etc. It properly signifies the good message itself, and it is only by a secondary usage that it is applied to the -n'ritten histories of the Saviour's life, as being the embodiment of this message. The titles prefixed to these Gospels from the beginning: "The Gospel according to St. Matthew," "The Gospel according to St. Mark," etc., indi- cate that the written record is not itself the Gospel, but rather an account of the Gospel according to these different writers.




Christ Himself is the author of the Gospel. It existed and was received by many thou- sands before a line of it was put upon record on the written page.

A first proof in favor of the authenticity of the Gospels is furnished by the titles or inscriprtions which they carry : Gospel ac- cording to St. Matthew, according to St. Mark, according to St. Luke, according to St. John. Since the middle of the second century, Tertullian, Irenseus, and Clement of Alexandria, give them these titles, and it is proven that this formula: according, followed by the proper noun, serves for the designation of the author, according to the Greek custom. Besides, a whole series of direct testimonies, going back to the most remote antiquity, and comprising the apos- tolic Fathers, attest to the same authen- ticity. St. Ignatius, disciple of St. John, declares Christ really present in the Gos- pel ; he makes mention of the prophetic, evangelic, and apostolic Scriptures; he makes a comparison between the law of Moses and the Gospels, etc. St. Polycarp, another disciple of the well-beloved Apostle, exhorts us not to judge others, if we do not wish to be judged, to pardon, in order to obtain pardon; he makes use of the words of the Sermon on the Mount ; he tells us to watch and to pray, to escape temptation, and he borrows words from the history of the Passion. Whence it fol- lows, that if the authenticity of the authors is established, the authenticity of the facts and of the words is this by so much the more. Tatian, a disciple of Justin, wrote a Harmony of the Four Gospels. St. Theophilus of Antioch, composed a Com- mentary on the Four Gospels. St. Ire- naeus, disciple of St. Polycarp, who was a friend of St. John, names the authors of the four Gospels and expresses him- self at length on the composition of these sacred books. Origen, who scrutinized, read, criticised all that had relation to the Gospels, the versions, and the manu- scripts, explains their chronology, genesis, and form. The first heretics and pagans have acknowledged that our Gospels are due to the authors whose name they carry. Also the Gnostics, Valentinus, Basilides, and Heracleon name the Evangelists, in combating them.

Besides the four Gospels received unani- mously by all the Churches, there ap- peared a great number of others, which never enjoyed a legal and canonical au- thority. However, it is certain, because

they agree in their great outlines with the evangelical accounts, that they confirm and quite presuppose the four canonical Gospels. The apocryphal gospels had the following titles : gospels according to the Hebrews; according to the Nazarenes; ac- cording to the twelve Apostles ; according to the Egyptians, which appears to have been composed by the Christians living in Egypt, before St. Luke had written his own ; gospel of the birth of the Blessed Virgin, in Greek and in Latin, attributed to St. James the Less; gospel of the child- hood of the Saviour, or of St. Thomas, written in Arabic, etc.

St. Matthew, surnamed Levi, is the author of the first Gospel, which, accord- ing to Eusebius, he drew up for the Jews, when, having preached for a long time in Palestine, he was ready to go and an- nounce the good news in other countries, probably in Arabia. According to St. Jerome, this Gospel was especially des- tined for the Jews converted to Chris- tianity. It was written in the vulgar language of Palestine. The translator of the Hebrew original is unknown. The occasion of the Gospel of St. Mark, co- laborer of St. Peter, was drawn up accord- ing to the request which the Faithful made to him in order to put down in writing the teachings which the Apostle had given them at Rome. Also, the account of the Evangelist appears to be a summary. It was written in Greek, and composed at Rome for the Christians living in Rome. St. Luke wrote the third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. Determined through other attempts of the same kind, he con- ceived the idea of relating the history of our Lord, with the view to give a worthy warranty of faith to what had been ac- complished by Jesus as well as by His Apostles. With this intention, he col- lected information from eyewitnesses, and from the preachers of the Gospel them- selves, and he reported what he learned from the beginning to the day he wrote. The en- tire work was probably completed between the years 59 and 69, and in Rome he finished it. The language is Greek. The three first Gospels are called synoptics ; they agree in the choice of facts which they relate, but leave aside a vast field, from which St. John could draw abun- dantly, almost without touching the syn- optic authorship. St. John wrote his Gospel at Ephesus. He must have known the other Gospels, which he completed.




but at the same time he was faithful to his mission in combating the heresies which multiplied around him. He describes the public life of Jesus in Judea, principally at Jerusalem during the festival period, whilst the synoptics relate, with preference, what took place in Galilee, by adding to their account the history of the Passion. In his accounts, the fourth Evangelist did not loose sight of the end which he had in view to present an abridgment of the dogmas on the person of Christ.

Gospel {The) in Liturgy. — The reading of a passage of the Gospel during Mass certainly goes back to the first ages of Christianity. The readers were charged with this ; to-day the deacons do it. In the time of Sozomenus, in certain Churches, only the priest or the bishop made this sol- emn reading to the people. The deacon asks the blessing from the celebrant before he sings the Gospel, and incenses the Book. The Faithful trace the sign of the cross on the forehead, mouth, and breast. The celebrant kisses the Gospel after hav- ing read it or after the deacon has sung it, and in the latter case he is also incensed.

Goths. — The Goths, whose ancient home seems to have been Scandinavia, about the beginning of the third century, settled on the shores of the Black sea and in the vicinity of the Danube. They were divided into Ostrogoths and Visigoths, or Eastern and Western Goths. In the latter half of the third century, they began to in- vade the neighboring provinces, extending their incursions over Illyria, Greece, Thracia, and bejond the Hellespont into Asia Minor. The Goths were the first of the Germanic nations who received the light of faith, probably from Christian captives. A Gothic bishop, named Theo- philus, attended the Council of Nice. St. Cyril of Jerusalem, in 347, mentions the Goths among the Christians who had bishops, priests, monks, and holy virgins. Driven from their new homes on the Euxine by the Huns in 376, the Goths re- ceived from Emperor Valens, ample terri- tories in Thracia and Mcesia, where they were induced, mainly by the efforts of their bishop, Ulfilas, to become Arians. They continued to remain Arians until after their victory over Valens at Adriano- ple, in 378. Most of them, however, were Semi-Arians, as was also Ulfilas, who was consecrated bishop of his nation at Con- stantinople, between the years 341 and

348. Ulfilas rendered himself famous by inventing the Gothic characters of the alphabet, and by translating the Bible into the Gothic language, the greater part of this work being still extant. He died an Arian, in 388. The Visigoths, under Alaric, invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410; but unable to maintain themselves in Italy, they founded a new kingdom, which subsequently extended over the greater part of Gaul and Spain. With few excep- tions, the Visigoths were tolerant of the faith of others.

Gottschalk. See Lucidus. ,

Grace. — Grace, in general, is a gift which God grants to man through divine beneficence, whether we consider it in connection with this life or the life to come. To merit this gift of God, man can do nothing. The nature of grace, which is the principle of justification, the manner it operates on the soul, its relations with free will are to us so many mysteries. "It is so difficult," says St. Augustine, "to discern the truth where there is ques- tion of man's freedom and God's grace; that, when we defend grace, it seems that we deny free will."

As certain schools of theology were not sufficiently careful in avoiding this obsta- cle, they fell into grievous errors. For in- stance, the Pelagians, the Semi-Pelagians, and the Socinians, under pretext of de- fending man's free will, denied the neces- sity of grace; while the Predestinarians of the fifth and ninth centuries, whose errors were renewed in a more or less complete manner by WycliflFe, Luther, Calvin, Bajus, Jansenius, and Qiiesnel, in wishing to exalt the operations and power of grace, have denied man's liberty. In order to avoid these two extremes, we must follow in everything the teaching of the Church, which is guided by Scripture and tradition.

Grace comes to us from God only, but since the fall of Adam, it is granted to man only on account of the merits, actual or foreseen, of Jesus Christ, who offered Himself to God the Father as a victim of propitiation for all mankind.

Habitual grace is distinguished from actual grace. The first, also called sancti- fying grace, is a quality which, residing in our soul in a fixed and permanent man- ner, purifies it from sin, renders it pleasing to God, and worthy of the happiness of heaven. This grace remains in the soul




until it is lost by mortal sin. Actual grace is both exterior and interior. Exterior actual grace consists in the preaching of the Gospel, in exhortations, counsels, and examples which influence us for good. Interior grace, in so far as it is actual, is the act itself by which God interiorly en- lightens our understanding and strengthens our will in order to do good or avoid evil, in view of our eternal salvation. This grace is called grace of the understanding or grace of the will, according as it en- lightens our mind with a supernatural light, or gives to our will the power to do good. This same grace is also called pre- venient, concomitant, or subsequent grace, according to the manner in which it in- fluences us to know the good and desire it, or accompanies or assists us in order that we may continue to wish for the good and effect it. Finally, actual grace is di- vided into sufficient and efficacious grace. It is called sufficient grace because it gives sufficient strength to perform the good or avoid the evil, although the actual result may not be forthcoming. Efficacious grace is that which is followed by its effects, that is, it effects what God requires from us. Hence the difference between these two forms of grace as to their effects, con- sists in this, that one may resist the first, while the second indicates non-resistance, although it certainly can be resisted.

It is of faith that without interior grace we can do absolutely nothing to effect our salvation. Grace is absolutely necessary for the beginning as for the fulfilling of our salvation. Grace is also essentially gratui- tous, otherwise it would be no grace. How- ever, when we say grace is essentially gratuitous, we do not mean to assert that grace is never the reward for a proper use of grace previously granted. Hence the maxim that God does not refuse grace to the one who does what he can, can only signify that God does not refuse a second grace to the one who has done all that was required of him with the help of the first grace. It is also of faith that all the ac- tionswhich precede justification are not evil actions. Not only are the good actions of the sinner not criminal in the eyes of God, not only can they be naturally good, but can be good supernaturally. Faith, the fear of divine justice, hope in the mercy of God, abhorrence of sin, the desire of bap- tism, are certainly dispositions of a super- natural goodness, because they are the effect of grace ; however, they precede sanc-

tifying grace and perfect charity. They only prepare us for justification, and hence we can perform acts of a supernatural or- der without sanctifying grace. However, these acts are not meritorious, properly speaking, for salvation. Negative infidel- ity, which never was enlightened by evan- gelical revelation, is not criminal. It would indeed be of the heresy of Pelagius, to as- sert that a pagan can, without the help of grace, observe the natural law in a super- natural manner and useful for salvation ; such is far from Catholic belief. The Cath- olic Church, with St. Paul, does not ex- clude Gentiles from grace. The saint makes use of the word grace only in op- position to the law which was unknown to the Gentiles. Man could, even without actual grace, do some good in the moral and natural order. He could of his own strength, resist certain temptations and love God as the author of nature, with a weak and imperfect love. He may even go further. Provided one acknowledges that our intellect, although obscured by the sin of Adam, is not extinguished, and that our free will has been weakened by the same sin, without being lost or annihilated, it matters little to know what man can do of himself and of his own strength in the purely moral and natural order, because this order does not exist and because we distinguish it in thought only from the supernatural order or state in which man had been originally placed by his Creator and since restored thereto by Jesus Christ. The Gentiles, also, had, in virtue of the merits of the Redeemer, the necessary graces for salvation.

With ordinary grace, the just can avoid all mortal sin, although final perseverance is a special gift of God. The just can also with the aid of special and powerful grace, yet not having the nature of a special privi- lege, preserve themselves from all deliber- ate venial sins, at least for a time, but to so continue to the end of his life, would re- quire a special privilege or gift.

The Predestinarians admit efficacious grace, but deny that man is free under its influence; and entirely reject sufficient grace. It is of faith that the free will of man was not destroyed by the sin of Adam ; that it exists and subsists even under the influence of sufficient grace, that in the present state man is really free, that he has liberty of choice ; free, ex- empt, not only from all restraint and coercion, but from all simple, absolute or




relative necessity, from all propension, impulse, determination, and invincible delectation ; and that he can, at will, obey or resist grace, give or refuse his co- operation. It is of faith that there is in the present state, which is called the state of fallen nature, a really sufficient grace, that is, grace with which we can do good, even under circumstances where we are obliged to fulfill a precept, overcome a temptation, avoid this or that sin, although we do not the good. Sufficient grace is not useless, for it is a gift of God ; it is one of the supernatural helps with which we are enabled to do good. When one does evil it is not to grace or its author that we can affix the responsibility of the act, but to the will which abused God's gifts, by refusing to co-operate with grace. Grace is the total, efficient or co-operating cause of all that is done to obtain salvation. Grace precedes us without us, that is, without our doings. But although it oper- ates in us, it does not, however, operate without us; it operates with us, with our will, which it precedes by its movements, and being thus assisted by grace, gives itself freely to its action. Every time we do a good work, say the Fathers of the Second Council of Orange, God operates in us and with us in order that we may operate ourselves. Man is free to cor- respond or to resist grace ; and this liberty is a true liberty, a liberty of choice, which does not consist solely in the exemption of constraint or coercion, but in the freedom from all necessity, absolute or relative. There are efficacious graces which enable the invariable performance of good, al- though done quite freely, and on the other hand, there are graces which are not followed by their effects, not being co- operated with.

God wills the salvation of all men, with a true, real, and sincere will ; therefore. He gives to all the necessary means for salvation. God commands all men to ob- serve His law, therefore, all men can ob- serve it, and this they do only by the aid of His grace; therefore, He grants His grace to all men. The observation of God's commandments is possible to the just and the grace necessary and sufficient to ob- serve them will never be wanting to them. Grace is granted not only to the just, but also to the faithful in general, even to those who have committed the most grievous crimes and who lived in sin for many years. The Jews had, under the Old Law, suffi-

cient graces to observe the commandments of God. So also does God grant to the pagans and heretics the graces necessary for salvation, because He wishes that all men should be saved and arrive at the knowledge of truth.

Gradual. — After the Epistle at Mass, in order to unite prayer with instruction, part of one of the Psalms is recited; this is called the Responsory, because it answers to the Epistle, or more commonly the Gradual, from the custom which anciently prevailed chanting it whilst the deacon descended the steps (Latin gradus) of the ambo, in which the Gospel used to be read. The versicles composing the Gradual were chanted alternately and by many voices, which responded one to another. The Gradual is always used at Mass, except in Paschal time, from Low Sunday to the octave of Pentecost.

Gradual Psalms are called the fifteen Psalms (1 19-133), which were chanted by the Jews on the steps of the Temple. The Church chants them, especially during the time of Lent.

Grammont (Order of). — The Order of Grammont, so called from Grand Mont, near Limoge, in France, whence it took its origin, was founded by St. Stephen of Ti- gerno, in Auvergne. It received the appro- bation of Pope Gregory VII. Stephen, who died in 1124, adopted for his order the Benedictine Rule; he enjoined more- over the absolute observance of poverty, forbidding the community to receive or hold any estates or possessions whatever. Stephen of Lisiac, the fourth prior, framed for the order a new rule, which was ap- proved by Clement III., in 1188. In 1317, Pope John XXII. reformed the rule and raised Grammont to the rank of an abbey, which then had under it thirty-nine prio- ries.

Gratian. — Canonist. Lived from the eleventh to the twelfth century. Born at Chiusi, Italy. Benedictine monk and pro- fessor of Canon I.^w at Bologna. In 1151, he published his famous Manual, entitled Concordant i a discordantium Canonum, but which is commonly known as the Decretutn Gratiani. The work is divided into three parts, treating respectively of ecclesiastical persons, ecclesiastical judi- cature, and the Liturgy of the Church. Gratian's collection, though never receiv- ing the formal approbation of the Holy




See, acquired great authority in the Schools, and superseded all other collec- tions in the West. It lacked, however, what was required in the progress of eccle- siastical judicature.

Greece ( The Church in) and The Ionian Islands. — In Greece, the State's religion is the Greek-Schismatic Christianity. Until 1852, the government acknowledged the su- premacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople. A strong religious agitation, directed by a monk under the name Christophoros Pa- poulaki, decided the government to adopt a law fixing the organization and attribu- tions of a holy synod, instituted Aug. 9th, 1852, sitting at Athens and directing the Greek archbishops and bishops. There are twelve archbishoprics and thirteen bishop- rics. There are also in Greece two Roman Catholic archbishoprics and seven bishop- rics. Population : Orthodox Greeks 1,902,- 800 ; Roman Catholics 14,677 ; Israelites 5,722; Mohammedans 24,165. Census of

Greek Schism. See Schism.

Greenland ( Discovery and Evangeliza- tion of). See Iceland.

Gregorian and Ambrosian Chants (the name given to certain choral melodies). — St. Ambrose and St. Gregory rendered great service to Church music by the in- troduction of what are known as the Am- brosian and Gregorian Chants. The latter, composed of notes of equal duration {cantus Jirmus, Romanus), is, in many re- spects, very similar to our present choral chant. The Ambrosian chant, with notes of unequal duration, has more the charac- ter of a recitative. The Gregorian chant, so dignified and solemn, was taught and brought to perfection in a school founded by the excellent Pope from whom it de- rives its name, whence it gradually spread throughout the whole Church. The eccle- siastical chant departed in some instances from the simple majesty of its original character, became more artistic, and on this account, less heavenly and more pro- fane ; and the Fathers of the Church were not slow to censure this corruption of the old and honored Church song. Finally, the organ, which seemed an earthly echo of the angelic choirs in heaven, added its full, rich, and inspiring notes to the beau- tiful simplicity of the Gregorian chant. See Music.

Gregorian Calendar. — See Calendar.

Gregory (name of sixteen Popes.) — i. Gregory I. (St.) — surnamed the Great. Born at Rome in 540. The Pontificate of this Pope (590-604) presents one of the most imposing features in the history of the Church. He adopted the title ^^ servus servorum," which his successors have re- tained. Though a member of a wealthy family, Gregory, following the call of God, exchanged his costly vesture for the habit of St. Benedict, and relinquished his pal- ace for a cloister, in which he lived with some monks, until Pope Pelagius sent him as Apocrisiarius to Constantinople, — a position he occupied for six years, after which he became abbot of his monastery, from which the voice of the clergy and of the people, alike, called him forth to oc- cupy the Chair of St. Peter. As Pope, he was incessantly active in promoting the conversion of the heathen and the welfare of the oppressed people of Italy. He la- bored for the strict observance of the laws of the Church, for the celebration of re- ligious services in a worthy manner; and, notwithstanding the delicacy of his health and his manifold occupations, he found time to conduct personally the instruction in choral chant, of which he is the author, and to leave to posterity valuable writings, in which the classic literature, the pro- foundly religious sensitiveness, the learn- ing and the practical sense of their author is beautifully depicted. The principal work of Gregory is his Expositio in fob, or Libri 35 Moralium, a moral theology. Gregory II. — Successor of the foregoing (715-731). He was a man of rare virtue and equally renowned for learning and ad- ministrative ability. The endeavors of the Iconoclast Leo III. were resisted by Greg- ory with all the force of his apostolic authority. He rebuilt the ruined walls of Rome and restored the Monastery of Monte Cassino, which, one hundred and forty years before, had been destroyed by the Lombards. Gregory III. — Pope from 731 to 741. With equal vigor, like his pred- ecessor, he defended the Catholic faith against the heresy of the Iconoclasts, which heresy he solemnly condemned in a Roman Council (732). Under his Pontificate oc- curred the great victory of Charles Martel over the Saracens, near Poitiers, in the year 732. Gregory IV. — Pope from 827 to 844. He attempted to adjust the quarrel between the three rebellious sons of




Louis le Debonnaire of France and their father, with the resuh that he offended both parties, and also the French bishops. Gregory V. — Pope from 996 to 999. He was the first German Pope. By him, Otho III. was crowned emperor. He was ex- pelled in 997, by the Roman senator, Crescentius, who procured the elevation of the antipope, John XVI. He was re- stored the next year on the appearance of Otho, in Italy, with an army. Pope Gregory labored zealously for the refor- mation of ecclesiastical life ; but his work of usefulness was cut short by premature death. Gregory VI. — Gratian, a distin- guished and respected archpriest. Pope from 1044 to 1046. He had as rival claim- ants to the Papal dignity Benedict IX. and Sj'lvester III. In order to restore peace, Gregory, in the Council of Sutri (1046), disclaiming most solemnly all selfish mo- tives in assuming the Pontificate, abdi- cated of his own free will. Accompanied by his disciple, Hildebrand, he went into exile to Germany, where he died in 1048. Gregory VII. (St.) — Pope from 1073 to lO^S- The condition of the Church at the time of Gregory's election to the Papacy was most deplorable. The bishops, by reason of the fiefs obtained from the emperors, became the emperors' strongest allies against the kings. For this reason, the latter sought to fill the vacant bishop- rics with men, on whose political fidelity they could depend, rather than select men whose vocation and capacity would enable them to govern the Church in the spirit of Christianity. At first, the temporal princes exercised an undue influence upon the election of a bishop ; later, they made arbitrary appointments; still later, they bestowed upon the prelates the insignia of their office, the ring and the crosier. This was called the Right of Investiture. Thus unworthy men, stained with simony and concubinage, were forced upon the Church. As long as this arbitrary rule was exercised, no hope for reform could be entertained. Hence Gregory com- menced his great work with the restora- tion of the liberties of the Church and the reformation of the clergy. Gregory, as Cardinal Hildebrand, had held responsi- ble positions under five Popes. After the death of Alexander II. he was, by the unanimous voice of the clergy and people, called to the Papal throne. No one knew better than he, what a gigantic struggle he would be obliged to undertake to free

the Church from the evils that beset her. He had as early as 1073 addressed a letter of remonstrance to Henry IV. (1056- 1106), the dissolute king of Germany, advising him to amend his life. At the first Lenten Synod (1074), Gregory restored the ancient laws of the Church, forbidding the clergy to hold benefices, to practice simony or to live in concubinage. He forbade the peo- ple to assist at the ser\'ices of such clerics, thereby making the people the executors of ecclesiastical law. The guilty clergy ofTered the most determined opposition. Bishops, who undertook to force the de- crees were assaulted and threatened with death. Gregory excommunicated the counselors of the King, who had been guilty of simony, and he also forbade in- vestiture by laymen. These measures were necessary to put an end to the crying abuses of ecclesiastical discipline. The majority of the bishops appointed by Henry had been associates in his shameful deeds. Bishoprics were sold to the highest bidders, and the buyers sold the lower of- fices. By reason of his victories over the Saxons, Henry grew arrogant and refused to listen to the representations of the Pope. He treated the laws of the Church with contempt, deposed bishops and bestowed upon his concubines the precious stones stolen from the churches. He assembled the venial bishops at Worms for the pur- pose of deposing the Pope. The sentence of deposition was announced to the Pope by Henry, in a letter addressed to " The False Monk Hildebrand." Gregory now resolved upon severe measures. At the Lenten Synod (1076), sentence of excom- munication was pronounced upon the king. By this decision the king was deposed, but according to the Germanic law, declared incompetent to govern. Even the friends of Henry abandoned him now. Gregory solicitous for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the king made efforts to effect a reconciliation. He prevailed upon the princes, then assembled at Tribur (1076), not to elect a new king. Seeing that he could conciliate the Pope more readily than the princes, Henry, clad in a peniten- tial garb, went in winter to Canossa ( 1077), where the Pope was then staying and prayed to be absolved from the ban of ex- communication. After a three days' pen- ance, absolution was given him. The scene at Canossa has often been repre- sented as an act of cruel severity. It is




true, the winter was exceptionally cold. Henry and his companions stood in the open air for three days, but during the night they retired into the inn, where food and drink were given them ; they were at- tired in the garb of penitents worn over other clothing. There is no dishonor in doing penance by one's own free will, Henry was not then emperor, and was not forced by the Pope, but he prevailed upon the Pope to reinstate him and thus pre- vented the princes from electing another emperor. That the Pope ordered Henry, as an ordeal, to receive the Holy Eucharist, is a fable. Soon after Henry disregarded his promises and united with the ene- mies of the Pope. Thereupon, the princes declared him deposed and elected Rudolph, Duke of Suabia. The Pope again excommunicated him, but Henry disregarded the act of the Pope, appointed an antipope, besieged Rome five times, and amongst other depredations set fire to St. Peter's. Gregory, having been freed, went with Robert Guiscard, Duke of Nor- mandy, to Salermo, where he died 1085. His last words were: " I loved justice and hated iniquity; therefore I die in exile." Gregory's character was truly great. He was noble and magnanimous and gentle, though inflexible when bent on doing good. John von Mueller says of him : "Gregory had the courage of a hero, the prudence of a senator, the zeal of a prophet." Henry IV. died in 1106 with- out having been reconciled to the Church. Gregory VIII. — {Albert of Mora). Born atBenevento; successor of Urban HI. Pope from Oct. 2ist to Dec. i6th, 1187. Greg- ory IX. — Pope from 1227 to 1241. After vainly urging the German sovereign, Frederick H. to start on his long delayed crusade, finally pronounced sentence of excommunication against him, in 1227. As Frederick persisted in his obstinacy, and committed new crimes, Gregory, in a synod held at Rome, renewed his excom- munication, and laid the places, at which he sojourned, under interdict. Frederick, while yet under excommunication, at last entered upon the Sixth Crusade. In 1230, peace was concluded at San Germano be- tween the emperor and the Pope. But the perfidious prince broke his agreement; he incited the Romans to rebellion against the Pope, illtreated and banished faithful bishops, hindered appointments for vacant sees, and allowed, and even employed, Saracens to destroy Christian churches.

These violations, as well as his many cruel- ties against the Lombards, in 1239 drew upon Frederick, who was, besides, accused of heresy and unbelief, a new sentence of excommunication. Now the animosity of Frederick against the Pope knew no bounds. In the hope of obtaining peace, Gregory summoned a General Council to meet at Rome, in 1241. But Frederick, by a gross outrage, hindered its assembling. He had the Genoise fleet, conveying the prelates to Rome, intercepted through his son Enzio, and in defiance of all interna- tional law, condemned three cardinals, and more than a hundred bishops and dele- gates to imprisonment. Gregory did not long survive the news of this terrible outrage ; he died of a broken heart, at the age of one hundred years. Gregory ^.(St.) — Pope from 1272 to 1276. No sooner had he ascended the Apostolic Chair than he summoned the Fourteenth Ecumenical Council, which met at Lyons, in 1274. The declared objects of the Council were: succor to the Holy Land, the reconcilia- tion of the Greek Church, and reforma- tion of morals. The Council opened with great solemnity, the Pope himself officiat- ing. For the succor of the Holy Land, a tenth of all ecclesiastical revenues was voted for six years. In the fourth ses- sion, the reunion of the Greek Church with the Latin was solemnized; and the Council, besides, passed thirty-two canons regulating the discipline of the Church, and providing for the reformation of morals. Also a new constitution providing for the speedy and concordant election of a Roman PontifT received the approbation of the Council. Gregory XI. — Pope from 1370 to 1378. To him belongs the merit of having put an end to the " Babylonian Captivity " of the Popedom in Avignon. To avert, in the event of his death, the dan- ger of an interregnum or schism, Gregory, by a special Bull, empowered the sixteen cardinals, who had accompanied him to Rome, to elect at once a successor by sim- ple majority, without holding a conclave, or awaiting the arrival of the cardinals then at Avignon. Gregory XII. — Pope from ■ 1406 to 1415. Was a man of sterling virtue, and sincerely desirous of peace. His first act was a letter to the antipope Benedict XIII., in which he expressed his willing- ness to resign, if the Avignon claimant would do the same. The Council of Pisa, in 1409, pretending to be the lawful repre- sentative of the Universal Church, with

Gregory Nazianzen


Gregory Nazianzen

power to judge and depose the rival Popes, it declared that all Christians ought to re- nounce all obedience to both claimants. It proceeded to depose them as contuma- cious and schismatical, and declared the Holy See to be vacant; lastly, it ordained the holding of a conclave, from which came forth Cardinal Philargi as Alexander V. Now the Church, to her great dismay, instead of two, had three claimants to the Papacy. Alexander,with only a Pontificate of ten months, was succeeded by Cardinal Balthasar Cossa, as John XXIII. In the Council of Constance, in 1414, as a means of restoring the union of the Church, Car- dinal Filastre proposed the simultaneous abdication of the three claimants, and the election of a universally acknowledged Pope. Being the only rightful Pope, Greg- ory, in the fourteenth session of the Coun- cil of Constance, proffered his unreserved resignation of the Papacy; and by doing so, he put an end to the schism. To reward his magnanimity, the synod appointed him to the bishopric of Porto and Legate Apos- tolic of Ancona. He died in the odor of sanctity, in 1417. See Council of Con- STANCK. Gregory XIII. — Pope from 1572 to 1585. He directed his attention chiefly to the promotion of ecclesias- tical science. He published a new edi- tion of Canon Law and corrected the Julian Calendar. His love for Catholic education prompted him to found six col- leges at Rome, among them being the Irish and German colleges, and the college for the youth of Rome, usually called the Roman College. He also established nun- ciatures at Luzern, Vienna, and Cologne. Gregory XIV. — Pope in 1590. Reigned only a few months. Gregory XV. — Pope from 1621 to 1623. This Pope founded the famous " Z>« Propaganda Fide." He also gave to papal elections the rules and forms — by "Scrutiny," "Compro- mise, and Quasi-Inspiration " — which have ever since been in force. Gregory XVI. — Pope from 1831 to 1846. A mem- ber of the Order of the Camaldolites. Ascended the Papal throne at a most critical time. With undaunted courage and confidence he combated, during his whole Pontificate, the revolutionary ideas and tendencies that were widespread throughout the States of the Church. Gregory introduced judicial reforms as well as reforms in the administration, tax- ation, etc. He held the revolutionary ele- ments in restraint by severity, rather than

by concessions. His efforts in behalf of the Church were unceasing; science and art found in him an ardent promoter. He warned the faithful against the errors con- tained in the system of Hermes, Bautain, and Abbe De Lamennais. He protested against the violation of the rights of the bishops, by the king of Prussia ; protected Clement Augustus, the venerable Arch- bishop of Cologne ; and Dunin, Archbishop of Gnesen and Posen, who had been vio- lently thrust from their sees by the Prussian government (1838). Gregory also con- demned in severe terms the slave trade (1839). He erected new bishoprics and extended the influence of the Propaganda. With apostolic zeal, he reproached the Emperor Nicholas I., of Russia, for the tyrannical persecution of the Catholics. In the midst of the approach of a revolu- tionary storm Gregory died, beloved by all Catholics, hated and despised by the Revolutionists.

Gregory Nazianzen (St.). — Bishop of Nazianzum, in Cappadocia. Was born at Nazianzum, about the year 329. His father, Gregory, who before his conver- sion, had belonged to the Hypistarians (a mongrel sect, partly Jew and partly pagan), became Bishop of Nazianzum, and, with his mother, Nonna, is honored by the Church as a saint. On his return from Athens to Nazianzum, Gregory was bap- tized, and for some years lived in seclusion as a hermit, in company with St. Basil. He was ordained priest in 361, though, in his extreme humility, he was quite reluc- tant to accept that dignity; and he hence- forth assisted in the government of his father's diocese. About the year 372, he was consecrated by St. Basil, Bishop of Sasima, but he was never able to occupy that see. In 381, Gregory was chosen Bishop of Constantinople by the Second General Council, yet, on account of the opposition against him, he resigned this see and retired to Nazianzum, where he died about the year 389. His writings contain: i. Forty-five orations which, properly speaking, are dogmatical treatises on the Holy Trinity. Of these, the most famous are his five theological orations on the Divinity of the Son and the Holy Ghost against the Eunomians and Mace- donians, which acquired for their author the name of " Theologian." 2. Two hun- dred and forty-two letters, which are highly interesting, and are distinguished

Gregory of Nyssa



for their clearness and brevity. F. May 9th.

Gregory of Nyssa (St.). — Father of the Greek Church, a younger brother of St. Basil, was born at Sebaste in 331. He was married, but, after the death of his wife, was induced by Basil, and their common friend, Gregory Nazianzen, to dedicate his talents to the sacred ministry. In 371, Gregory was made Bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia. He was deposed by the Arians and exiled under Valens, but upon the death of that emperor he was restored to his see by the Emperor Gratian. He was deputed in 379, by the Council of An- tioch, to visit the churches of Jerusalem and Arabia. In the Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, Gregory held an important place, and the high reputa- tion of his learning procured for him the title of " Pater Patrutn." - He died about the year 395. His works, which are very numerous, contain the most complete ex- position of Christian dogma given by any of the Greek Fathers. See Migne, Pat. ^r. XLIV.-XLVI. F.March 9th.

Gregory of Tours (St.) — Bishop and historian. Was born of a noble family at Clermont, in the Province of Auvergne, in 539. Members of his father's and mother's families had held high offices in both Church and State. His educa- tion was directed by his uncle, St. Gall, Bishop of Clermont, and by Avitus, at first archdeacon, afterwards Bishop of Auvergne. In 573, he was chosen Bishop of Tours, and as such, he displayed great zeal and courage in vindicating the rights of the Church and the oppressed, against the Merovingian kings. He died on Nov. 17th in the year 594. Has left several val- uable historical writings. His principal work, the Ecclesiastical History of the Franks, procured him the name of " Father of French History." His other works are four books On the Miracles of St. Martin, two books On the Glory of Martyrs, and one book On the Glory of Confessors.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (St.) — Father of the Church ; from his extraordinary miracles surnamed Thaumaturgus {-wonder- worker). He was born in Neo-Csesarea in Pontus about 270, and was educated as a pagan until he came to Csesarea, Palestine, where he and his brother Athenodorus were converted to the faith by Origen. He passed five years in the school of Ori-

gen and three at Alexandria, during the persecution of Maximian. By Phsedimus, the Metropolitan of Pontus, Gregory was made bishop of his native city, which then numbered only seventeen Christians ; but at his^ death, in 270, only seventeen pagans remained. The works of Gregory contain A Panegyrical Oration on Origen, a Symbolum or Exposition of the Faith, especially on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, a paraphrase on the Book of Ec- clesiastes and a Canonical Epistle, con- taining the penances to be enjoined on penitents. F. Nov. 17th.

Gregory the Illuminator (St.). — Apostle of the Armenians. Was born about 257 at Valarshabad, in the province of Ararat, Armenia; was educated at Csesarea, Cap- padocia. In 302, he baptized King Tiri- dates, and, with the aid of Greek priests, propagated the faith throughout the whole country of Armenia. Having been con- secrated bishop by Leontius, Archbishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia, and constituted Metropolitan of Armenia, he ordained a great number of bishops (it is said about 400) for the converted nation. He left the Church of Armenia in a flourishing condi- tion when he died, in 332. F. Oct. ist.

Grey Nuns. See Sisters of Charity.

Grosseteste (Robert). — Died in 1253. Bishop of Lincoln, England, in 1235. With unremitting zeal he made exertions for a general renovation of his vast diocese. He fearlessly condemned every abuse, and manfully resisted every interference of the nobility and the Crown, in ecclesiastical affairs. The visitation of the churches and monasteries of his see, though hampered by the opposition of the clergy and the monks, and by the disfavor shown to him at court, he resolutely and canonically per- formed. Grosseteste was a voluminous writer, and long exerted a great influence upon English thought and literature.

Grotius (Hugo) (1583-1645). — Born at Delft, Netherlands ; died at Rostock, Ger- many. A celebrated Dutch jurist, theolo- gian, statesman, and poet, the founder of science of international law. He was made pensionary of Rotterdam in 1613 ; as a Remonstrant leader was condemned to life imprisonment at Loevestein in 1619; es- caped in 1621 ; and was Sjvedish ambassa- dor to France (1635-1645). He published De jure belli et pads ; De veritate re-




ligionis Christiance ; annotations on the Old and the New Testament, etc.

Gualbert (John). See Valombrosa.

Guardian Angel. See Angel.

Gunpcwder Plot. — Under the reign of James I., of England (1603-1625), the great body of the English Catholics, though sadly dashed in their hopes, submitted without opposition to the new inflictions, after so many others they had endured, and patiently awaited the designs of providence. But a few reckless and misguided men, driven to desperation by the tyrannous treatment of their Catholic brethren and the treacher- ous conduct of James, formed the wicked plot of destroying, by one blow, the authors of the persecution. They conceived the atrocious design called "Gunpowder Plot," the execution of which they fixed on the opening of parliament, in November, 1605. The conspirators acted entirely on their own blinded judgment, and their attempts to obtain ecclesiastical approval of the mad scheme had utterly failed. Nor did they receive any encouragement from the Cath- olic party; indeed. Lord Monteagle, a Catholic peer, to whom the plot was re- vealed, at once forwarded the information to the king. The conspirators were appre- hended and executed. Among those who were executed, wrongfully accused of the gunpowder treason, were several Jesuits, who had no knowledge whatever of its ex- istence, or like Father Garnet, who refused to violate the seal of confession.

GUntherianism. — Doctrine of Anthony Gunther, German Catholic philosopher and theologian born at Lindenau, Bohemia (1783-1863). Ordained priest in 1820, he lived at Vienna, occupying himself with sciences and belles-lettres, then became vice-director of the Faculty of Philosophy of Vienna. His writings were condemned by Pope Pius IX., June 15th, i860. Among other errors, Gunther maintained that the soul is not the real and immediate form of the body.

Gustavus Vasa (1496-1560). — King of Sweden. He favored Protestantism from political and mercenary motives. First by artifice and misrepresentation, and afterwards by open violence the wily

monarch succeeded in procuring the tri- umph of Lutheranism over Catholicism. Those of the clergy who offered resistance were made to feel the wrath of the tyrant. The Dominicans were banished from the country, while Archbishop Knut of Up- sala and Bishop Jacobson of Westeroes were put to death, in 1527. Intimidated by the royal despot, the Diet of Westeroes, in 1527, enacted that the pure word of God, as taught by Luther, should be preached in all the churches of the king- dom, and sanctioned the confiscation of the property of monasteries. The king was made supreme in matters ecclesiastical, and the nobles were authorized to take back all the property which their ances- tors, as far back as the year 1453, had be- stowed on the Church. Sweden was thus severed from Catholic unity and the king acted henceforth as head of the Swedish Church.

Guyon (Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte) (1648-1717). — A French woman of extraordinary piety and purity of life. Her Quietist ideas she gave to the world in a number of mystical treatises, of which the following are the principal ones : " A Short and Easy Method of Prayer," " Spiritual Torrents," and " Mystical Sense of the Canticles." Her writings, giving great offense, were examined and condemned by a commission of bishops which met at Issy, in 1695, ^"^ o^ which the celebrated Fenelon and Bossuet were members. The commission drew up thirty- four articles concerning the sound maxims of a spiritual life — Articles of Issy — which Madame Guyon humbly subscribed. She died a very edifying death. In the condemnation of the writings of Madame Guyon, Fenelon had acquiesced ; but as she made a formal submission to the Church, he vindicated her character. See Fene- lon.

Gyrovagi. — Vagabond monks who roamed about from monastery to monas- tery, in black robes and with unshorn hair, stopping at each place as long as they could enjoy hospitality, but rather leaving the monastery than conform to its rules. They caused at one time considerable scan- dal and not a little trouble, and were con- demned by the Synod of Trullo (691), when regulating monastic discipline. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

    Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

    They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

    Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

    Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

    These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.