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FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"A"
Habacuk. — The eight of the twelve minor prophets ; lived in the sixth century B. c. He foretold the captivity of the Jews and the fall of the Assyrian empire.

Hadrian. See Adrian.

Hail Mary. See Ave Maria.

Hales {Alexander of). See Alex- ander.

Halo. See Aureola.

Haman. See Aman.

Hamilton (Patrick) (1504-1528). — Protestant protomartyr. A Scottish re- former, son of Sir Patrick Hamilton. In 1525, the Scottish parliament enacted laws prohibiting the preaching of new doctrines and the importation of heretical books. Hamilton having adopted and advocated the doctrines of the Reformation, was the first that suffered death for heresy under these laws.

Haran. — A city in Mesopotamia, situ- ated on the Bellas (Belich ancient Bili- chus), a small affluent of the Euphrates, 30 miles southeast from Edessa. In the Old Testament it is mentioned in connec- tion with the patriarch Abraham, who dwelt there with his father Thare, and Ezechiel (xxvii. 23) speaks of it as a considerable trading center. It is often mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions. In the fourth century, it was the seat of a bishop. At present it is a small village inhabited by a few Arab families.

Hardouin (Jean) (1646-1729). — Jesuit; classical scholar, numismatist, and chro- nologist ; was born at Quimper, France ; died at Paris. In spite of his vast knowl- edge, he fell into strange errors. He maintained in the " Prolegomena ad cen- suram veteruni Scriptorum," the paradox that, with a few exceptions, all the works ascribed to classical antiquity had been forged by monks of the thirteenth century, under the direction of a certain Severus Archontius. He also attacked the genu- ineness of ancient coins and of all Church Councils before that of Trent. He also wrote Chronologia Veteris Testamenti, etc.

Harmonies of the Gospels. — Numerous attempts have been made to construct

Harmonies of the four Gospels. One plan is to form out of the whole, in what is sup- posed to be the true chronological order, a continuous narrative embracing all the matter of the four, but without repetitions of the same or similar works. Another plan is to exhibit in chronological order, the entire text of the four Gospels arranged in parallel columns, so far as two or more of them cover the same ground. The idea is very imposing, but the realization of it is beset with formidable, if not insurmount- able difficulties. It is certain that the Evangelists do not always follow the exact order of time, and it is sometimes impos- sible to decide between the different ar- rangements of events in their records. In the four narratives of the events connected with the resurrection, for instance,all Har- monists find themselves baffled. Experi- ence shows that the most profitable way of studying the evangelical narrative is to take each Gospel as a whole, but with continual reference to the parallel parts of the other Gospels, so far as they can be ascertained.

Harmonists. — Members of a religious community, of communistic character, or- ganized by George Rapp (1770-1847), a German of Wiirtemberg. Disturbed by the authorities, they removed in 1803 to Butler county, Pennsylvania, and formed a settlement which they called Harmony. In 1815 they removed to New Harmony, Indiana, but returned to Penn- sylvania ten years later, and formed the township of Economy, a few miles fVom Pittsburg, where they own thirty-five hundred acres of land and carry on impor- tant manufactures. They hold all property in common, do not marry, lead blameless lives, and believe in an early second com- ing of Christ. They make hardly any proselytes and the community is not more than two hundred and fifty strong (1890). Their very valuable estate will finally be- come the property of the last survivor.

Haydn (Francis Joseph) (1732-1809). — Austrian composer, born at Rohrau, ^ died at Vienna. Son of a wheelwright who was, at the same time, sacristan and organist; he showed from his childhood remarkable dispositions for music. At the age of thirteen years, he wrote a Mass

Heart

328

Heaven

which he showed to his teacher, Reuter. The latter laughed at him, and told him to learn first to write before composing. Sent away on account of his " frolics," Haj'dn found an asylum at a poor wig- maker named Keller, gave some lessons, played the violin in churches, and finally, through the protection of Metastate, en- tered as a domestic of a certain Porpora. After miany other vicissitudes, he repre- sented a comic opera, entitled The Lame Devil (1756). Having become chapel- master of Count Murtzin, he wrote (1759) his first symphony, whose hearing charmed Count Esterhazy in such a manner that he took Haydn in his service, where he lived until sixty-two years old, then retired into a suburb of Vienna, Gumpendorf, and here he peacefully ended his days. Through gratitude he had married the daughter of Keller. In 1791 and in 1793, Haydn went to London, where they overwhelmed him with honors. His works comprise four oratorios: Tobias (1782); The Seven Words of Christ (1785) ; The Creation {1798); The Seasons (1801); 163 pieces for the string barytone; 24 operas; 125 sym- phonies, etc ; in all about 800 compositions.

Heart {Feast of the Sacred). — hitcr many devout souls had venerated the Sa- cred Heart of Jesus, with sincere devotion, in the solitude of quiet life, our divine Saviour willed that His heart's infinite love should be recognized by all men, and be en- kindled in cold hearts by a new fire of love. For this end He made use of a feeble, ob- scure instrument, that all the world might know, that the devotion of His loving heart, previously almost entirely unknown, was" His own work. This instrument, dis- regarded by the world, was one who shone before God in all the radiance of the most sublime virtues, the nun Margaret Ala- coque, of the Order of the Visitation of Mary, at Paray, in Burgundy. In the year 1675, whilst she was one day in prayer be- fore the Blessed Sacrament, our Lord ap- peared to her, and pointing to His heart which He showed to her, surrounded with flames, surmounted by the Cross, enriched with a crown of thorns, and pierced with a gaping wound, He said to her: "Behold this heart which has loved mankind so much, and which receives only ingratitude and coldness in return for its love. My de- sire is that you should make reparation to My heart for this ingratitude, and induce others also to make reparation. " Our Lord

then designated the Friday after the Octave of Corpus Christi as the special day for this duty. In several subsequent appari- tions our divine Lord repeated this injunc- tion.and made the most unbounded promises in favor of all who would apply themselves to this office of reparation of His Sacred Heart. Margaret obeyed, but found every- where the greatest opposition, even from her sisters in religion, until finally she suc- ceeded in inflaming them with the same love of His Sacred Heart. This devotion soon spread from the convent throughout the adjoining dioceses, where confraterni- ties in honor of the Sacred Heart of Jesus arose, and Pope Clement XIII., after caus- ing the strictest investigation to be made, commanded the Festival of the Sacred Heart of Jesus to be observed throughout the Catholic Church, on the first Friday after the Octave of Corpus Christi. See Heart of Mary.

Heart of Mary {Immaculate). — Title of a church festival and of several confra- ternities. This devotion rests upon the same principles as those which are the foundation of the Catholic devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Catholics worship the Sacred Heart of Jesus because it is united to the Person of the Word, just as they venerate and honor Ihe heart of Mary because united to the person of the Blessed Virgin. The physical heart of each sym- bolizes charity and the inner life, while the charity and virtues of Marj' are in- finitely inferior to those of her divine Son. The devotion to the Immaculate Heart was first propagated by John Eudes, founder of a congregation of priests which was named after him. They were called Eudists. Pius IX. extended the feast in 1855, and it is celebrated on the Sunday after the Octave of the Assumption.

Heaven is the kingdom far "above all heavens " (Ephes. iv. 10), where our happi- ness is complete and eternal, in the con- templation of God by the beatific vision, the ever enduring union with our Saviour, and the joy which results therefrom : thus completing our heavenly happiness in this triple recompense of the three theological virtues, of which the one that is everlast- ing in heaven is charity. Faith, which we possess on earth, is the steadfast belief of beholding God, cannot have place in paradise, when there we see what we have here believed without seeing. Likewise the hope we experience in this world.

Heber

329

Heiss

that causes us to await with patience and confidence the realization of our Redeem- er's promises, disappears, when we possess that for which we have hoped. Charity alone remains, to become more and more perfect, and more like the charity of Him who is ever merciful, and ever great in His love for all mankind. See Vision (Beatific) .

Heber. — Grandson of Sem. In Gen. xiv. 13, the name Hebrew is applied to Abraham. The same name is repeatedly given to the people of Israel (Gen. xliii. 32 ; Exod. i. 15; I. Ki. xiii. 3, 7, etc.). The opinion which derives this appellation from Heber, grandson of Sem, has been con- tested without good reasons. We know that the name Israel was imposed upon Jacob by the angel with whom he had been wrestling; the descendants of Abra- ham and Jacob also received this name, whilst keeping that of Hebrew. Later on, after the schism of the ten tribes, the name Jew was given to the members of the kingdom of Juda.

Hebre-ws {Epistle to the). — In his letter to the Hebrews, St. Paul, making use of the authority of the Old Testament, de- scribes under the most sublime traits the divinity of Jesus Christ, His quality as Mediator and Redeemer, His eternal priest- hood, the superiority of the New Covenant over the Old, and the intimate relation of both.

Hebron. — A city in Palestine, situated on a hill among the mountains of Juda, about twenty miles south of Jerusalem. It is one of the oldest existing Biblical towns. According to Num. xiii. 22, it was built seven years before Zoan (/. e., Tanis, the capital of Lower Egypt), and Josephus says that in his day it was 2,300 years old. Its former name was Cariath Arbe (Jos. xiv. 15). It was the burial place of Abraham and of Sara, his wife, of Isaac and of Rebecca, of Jacob and of Lia. Afterwards it became an important city in the territory of Juda. David resided here the first seven years of his reign. Later it was taken possession of by the Idumeans, from whom Judas Mach- abeus captured it (I. Mach. v. 65) . At pres- ent it has about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom 500 are Jews, the rest are Moham- medans. As the city of Abraham it is called by Mohammedans Al-Halil (" City of the Friend of God"). Upon the tradi- tional site of the burial place of the patri-

archs, Machpelah, a magnificent mosque is erected, accessible only to Mohammedans. Dean Stanley and Major Conder have ex- amined the mosque, and described the sup- posed cave of Abraham's burial place.

Hacker (Isaac Thomas) . — An American clergyman, founder of the Paulists ; born in New York City, Dec. 18th, 1819. In 1843, he joined the Brook Farm Com- munity, near Boston, where for nine months he baked the bread eaten by the members. In 1845 he became a Roman Catholic ; went to Germany to study for the priesthood, joined the Redemptorist Fathers in Belgium in 1847, and was or- dained priest in London in 1849 by Car- dinal Wiseman. After being released from connection with the Redemptorists, he founded, in 1858, the new congregation of the missionary priests of St. Paul (The Paulist Fathers) in New York City. .Its members take no vows, and any priest can leave the order when he chooses. Hecker established The Catholic World, a monthly periodical, in 1865 ; wrote the Questions of the Soul; Aspirations of Nature, and a pamphlet on Martin Luther (1883). Died in New York City, Dec. 22d, 1888. Father Elliot, a mer^ber of the Paulists, wrote Hecker's biography, which was much criticized, and even censured by the Holy See in 1898.

Hefele (Karl Joseph von) (1809-1893). — German Catholic prelate; Bishop of Rottenburg in 1869, and Church historian. He was appointed to the chair of ecclesias- tical history and Christian archaeology at Tubingen in 1840. His chief work is. History of Church Councils (1855-1874).

Hegesippus. — A Jew converted to Chris- tianity; died in Rome about 181. He is called the first Church historian. Desirous of learning the doctrines handed down by the Apostles, he made a journey from Jerusalem to Rome,visiting many Churches on the way. The result of his inquiries and collections was his Five Books of Ecclesiastical Events, of which nothing remains but the paragraphs quoted by Eu- sebius.

Heiss (Michael) (1818-1890). — Ameri- can prelate; born at Phahldorf, Bavaria, died at Milwaukee. He went through a theo- logical course in the University of Munich, entered the ecclesiastical seminary at Eichstadt, and was ordained in 1840. Came

Helena

330

Henoticon

to the United States in 1843, and was ap- pointed to the church of the Mother of God in Covington, Kentucky. On the appointment of Dr. H^nni as bishop of Mil- waukee, Rev. M. Heiss accompanied him as acting secretary, and did mission work as far as fifty miles north of the city. Bishop of La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 1868; coadjutor to Archbishop Henni in 1880. As theologian Dr. Heiss took an active part in the councils of St. Louis and the Second Plenary Coun- cil of Baltimore. He attended the Vatican Council in 1869-70, and was appointed by Pope Pius IX. a member of one of the four great commissions. On the death (1881) of Archbishop Henni he became second archbishop of Milwaukee. Among his published works are the Four Gospels, and a Latin treatise on matrimony.

Helena (St.). — The mother of Constan- tine the Great. She was, according to some authorities, the daughter of an inn- keeper at Drepanum, Bithynia; according to others, a British or Caledonian prin- cess. She became the wife of Constantius Chlorus, who, on his elevation to the dignity of Caesar in 292, divorced her in order to marry Theodora, the step- daughter of the Augustus Maximianus Hercules. Subsequently on the elevation to the purple, Constantine, her son by Constantius, she received the title of Au- gusta, and was treated with marked dis- tinction. About 325 she made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where she built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and that of the Nativity, at Bethlehem. Died about 330. F. Aug. 18th.

Heli. — A Hebrew judge and high-priest. He failed to punish the sins of his two sons, Ophni and Phinees, and the destruc- tion of his house ensued. At the news of the defeat of the Israelites by the Philis- tines, in which his sons were killed and the Ark of the Covenant taken, he fell back- ward from his seat and broke his neck. He judged Israel forty years and was ninety-eight years old when he died.

Hell is a place of anguish and torment, where those who have voluntarily and finally defied God suffer the everlasting punishment of their sins, proportioned in its violence to their deserts. It consists of absolute and eternal separation from God, enchained in darkness, as ♦' the angels who kept not their principality " (Jude i. 6) ; where the fire of remorse for having vol-

untarily merited damnation, and of despair for this incomparable and unending an- guish, is unextinguishable ; "where the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched" (Mark ix. 47). If sinners die with determined will for evil, they freely place themselves beyond recall of good, and in ceaseless degradation and torture. See Reprobatio:^ and Devil.

Hellenists. — Jews who had lost their ex- clusive spirit by constant intercourse with the Gentiles, and who habitually spoke Greek and read the Scriptures in Greek. They are not to be confounded with the Hellenes, who were native Greeks alike in religion and language.

Helvidius. — Heresiarch of the fourth century, disciple of Auxentius, Bishop of Milan, He pretended that Mary had, after the birth of Jesus Christ, several children with St. Joseph, and declared that the state of marriage is as meritorious as that of vir- ginity. St. Jerome refuted him,

Hemerobaptists. — Members of an old Jewish sect which used daily ceremonial ablutions, or of an early Christian sect which believed in daily baptism ; little is known of either.

Henni (John Martin) (1805-1881). — American prelate ; was born in Ober- saxen, in the Swiss canton of the Gris- sons ; died at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After studying at St. Gall and Luzern he pro- ceeded to Rome to complete his theological studies. Moved by the appeal of Bishop Fenwick, Bishop of Cincinnati, he came to America in 1829. He took charge of the Ger- mans in Cincinnati, and also taught philos- ophy in the Athenaeum. His next field of labor was in Northern Ohio, extending from Canton to Lake Erie. Returning to Cincinnati, he established in 1837 the '■^ Wahrheits Freund," the first German Catholic paper in the United States. Was appointed bishop of Milwaukee in 1844. In the very year of his arrival to Mil- waukee he opened a little theological seminary under the direction of Rev. Mr. Heiss, gradually preparing to place it on a solid basis. In 1855, he laid the corner stone of the Salesianum. In 1875, the Holy See created him an archbishop.

Henoch. See Enoch.

Henoticon. — An edict which Zeno, Emperor of the East, published in 482, in

Henricians

331

Hergenrother

order to restore unity of belief in the Church and to reunite the Catholics with the Eutychians.

Henricians. — Sectarians of the twelfth century; followers of a certain Henry the Deacon, an apostate monk of Cluny. The Henricians rejected all kinds of wor- ship and did not even suffer singing in their Churches. For more particulars see Petrobusians.

Henry IV. See Gregory VII.

Henry VIII. — King of England (1509- 1547). Having defended the Catholic doc- trine against Luther, he received from the Pope the title, " Defender of the Faith." A short time afterwards he wished to marry Anne Boleyn. In order to be free to do so, he pretended that his marriage with Catharine of Aragon, the widow of his brother, was invalid. His court chap- lain, Thomas Cranmer, who was married and a Lutheran in disguise, assisted in preparing England for apostasy. Having been promoted by the king to the see of Canterbury, and taken the oath of alle- giance to the Pope, though actually himself a Protestant, he, for the sake of appear- ance, begged leave to examine the validity of Henry's marriage. Soon after he pro- nounced the marriage with Catharine in- valid and the one with Anne Boleyn to be lawful. Pope Clement VIL, though threatened with the apostasy of the king- dom, condemned the decision of Cran- mer. This action resulted in the complete separation of the king from the Church. In 1534, Henry compelled all the clergy and officers, under the pain of high treason, to take the oath of supremacy. In order to confiscate their property, Henry suppressed 3,219 ecclesiastical in- stitutions, " To please God and for the glory of the kingdom." The profits of this spoliation which amounted to $25,- 000,000, were spent in debauchery in the short space of ten years. Magnificent churches, libraries and works of art were demolished ; the tomb of Alfred the Great, was desecrated ; all valuables were confis- cated by the greedy commissioners. In the meantime, the want and misery of the poor were greatly increased; the king's tyranny was directed against all who re- mained true to the Catholic faith. Chan- cellor Thomas More and Archbishop John Fisher, died as martyrs. A prize of 50,000 ducats was offered for the head of Cardi-

nal Pole. The cardinal being in safety on the continent, the king's anger knew no bounds. By a royal mandate, the mother and two relatives of the cardinal were put to death. Even Cromwell, his pliable and servile tool, was executed. Henry was married six times. Two of his wives were, by his order, put to death. During his reign, he ordered the execution of two queens, twelve dukes and earls, 164 noble- men, two cardinals, two archbishops, eighteen bishops, more than 500 abbots and monks, and over 70,000 commoners. Henry adhered to the main points of the Catholic doctrine and even punished the violation of the vow of celibacy. See An- glicanism.

Heracleon. — Heresiarch of the second century. Fragments of his commentaries on the Gospels of St. John and of St. Luke are found in the writings of Origen.

Heresy (Gr. haircsis). — The word heresy denotes a choice, a selection, and, in its application to religious belief, it is used to designate the act of choosing for one's self, and maintaining opinions con- trary to the authorized teachings of the religious community to which one's obe- dience is due, as the heterodox opinions thus adopted, and the party which may have adopted them. In the Acts of the Apostles (v. 17; XV. 5; xxiv. 5; xxviii. 22), the word seems to be used for a sect or party, abstracting from the consideration of its character whether good or bad ; but in the Epistles and by the early Christian writers it is almost invariably used in a bad sense, which is the sense uniformly ac- cepted in all subsequent theological litera- ture. The notion of heresy, as understood by theological writers involves two ideas ; first, the deliberate and voluntary rejection of some doctrine proposed by the supreme authority established in any Church as necessary to be believed ; and, secondly, a contumacious persistence in such rejection, with the knowledge that the belief of the doctrine is required of all the members of that particular religious community. Catholic writers regarding the authority of their own Church as supreme and final, apply the name of heresy to any formal denial of a doctrine proposed by the Catholic Church as necessary to be be- lieved.

Hergenrother (Joseph) (1824-1890) — Bavarian cardinal; born at Wiirzburg;

Herman

332

Hermes

died in Rome. Professor of Canon Law and Church history in the University of Munich, in 1855. In 1868, he went to Rome as one of the committees to prepare for the Vatican Council, and he was from the beginning a zealous defender of Papal Infallibility. Pius IX. made him one of his domestic prelates and Leo XIII. a cardinal (1879) and prefect of the apostolic archives. Of his numerous publications may be mentioned PJiofius, Patriarch of Constantinople, His Life, Writings, and the Greek Schism; Manual of Universal Church History; Catholic Church and Christian State. All these works are in German, but the latter is translated into English.

Herman (surnamed " Contractus," that is, the Paralytic) (1013-1054). — German chronicler, offspring of the family of the Counts of Vehringen. Benedictine, and Abbot of Reichenau, where he died. He was one of the most learned men of his time.

Hermas. — A book belonging to the earliest days of Christianity, and most re- markable for its matter, form, and com- prehensiveness, has come down to us under the name of The Shepherd (Pastor). The author calls himself Hermas, and tells us that, when still young, he was sold as a slave to a certain Rhode, and afterwards set free by her. He mariied, and amassed a considerable fortune, partly by dishonest trade, and led with his own family a life of little edification. In punishment of his sins he lost all his possessions, except one field, and had to suffer many hardships, which, however, brought about a moral reform of himself and family. He lived in Rome at the time of Pope Clement, and probably held the office of a lector in the Church. Whether he is the same Hermas to whom St. Paul sent greeting in his Epistle to the Romans (xvi. 14), or whether he is a brother of Pope Pius I. (140-155), is still a much disputed question. In favor of the former opinion may be adduced, not only the testimony of early Christian writers, such as Origen, Irenaeus, Euse- bius and others, but also the circumstance that the writer represents himself ( Vis. II, iv.) as a contemporary of Clement of Rome, and that the book was recognized in the Eastern Church as the work of a disciple of the Apostles, and consequently consid- ered to possess Apostolic authority, like the Epistles of Clement and Barnabas. Against this ancient, and for a long time

generally prevailing opinion, various ob- jections have been urged in modern times, the chief one being the so-called Muratorian fragment, which is a catalogue enumera- ting the books that are to be consid- ered as canonical or uncanonical, dating from the end of the second century. Here it is quite definitely stated that Hermas, a brother of Pope Pius I., was the author of The Shepherd. We are thus confronted with two directly contradictory opinions, both apparentl}^ well attested. Dr. Nirschl and others have sought to reconcile them by making the older Hermas the real author of the work in Greek, and the younger the translator of it into Latin. A third opinion maintains that it is the work of an entirely unknown person, and written soon after the time of the Emperor Trajan. The work is written in the apocalyptic style, and furnishes precepts and instruc- tions as the way of becoming a Christian, and how to live a truly Christian life. It contains five visions, twelve command- ments, and ten similitudes. In the first four visions, the Church appears to Her- mas under the figure of a matron, and teaches him ; but in the fifth vision, which forms the transition to the commandments and similitudes, as well as throughout the latter, his informant is an angel of pen- ance, appearing in the garb of a shepherd, whence the name of the whole book. The commandments treat of faith in one God, of simplicity, innocence, charity, truthful- ness, lying, the duties of husband and wife, justice, patience, discernment of spirits and their inspirations, and struggle against concupiscence. The similitudes are a series of telling images, illustrating various Christian truths and precepts.

Hermeneutic or Exegesis is the gram- matical and historical interpretation of the Bible. It is authentic, if it is given by the author himself; doctrinal or traditional, if it is furnished by others ; rational, if it is based upon the proceedings of reason ; revealed, if the interpretation presents itself as coming from God. The Catholic exegesis supports itself upon the decrees of the Councils, the dogmatic decisions of the Popes, and the writings of the Holy Fathers. The Protestant interpretation is individual and has no religious value. See Interpretation.

Hermes (George) (1775-1831). — Ger- man theologian, born at Dreyerwalde, Westphalia. Professor of theology at

Hermias

333

Herrnhuters

Munster and at Bonn (1819). He fell into the error of rationalism respecting certain dogmas. For instance, he maintained that human reason could attain to certainty on religious and moral truths or that the dogmas could be proved by reason alone, that this was an article of faith, and that besides, the Church has not the right to re- quire belief. He was censured by the Church and his disciples, the " Hermes- ians," were excluded from the Catholic Universities.

Hermias. — Heresiarch who lived in Galatia in the second century. He taught that God is a corporal being, that matter is eternal, like God, that the human souls are not created by God, but by angels, that they are composed of fire and air, that the evil is derived sometimes from God and sometimes from matter. He rejected the baptism of water and admitted only a baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost without describing how this was done.

Hermias The Philosopher. — Christian writer of the second or of the third cen- tury. He left a polemical work entitled Irrisio gentilium philosophorum, in which he ridicules the pagan philosophers by ex- ' posing their errors and contradictions, but without seriously refuting them. The work was written in the second century ; according to some, in the third. In forci- ble and sarcastic language he deals with the doctrines of heathen philosophers on God, the world, and the soul, pointing out their glaring contradictions, but failing at times to grasp or exhibit the pagan doc- trines in their systematic connection.

Hermits. See Monasticism.

Hermogenes. — Heresiarch, born in Africa, in the second century. He made the attempt to reconcile the doctrine of the pagan philosophers with those of Chris- tianity and maintained that the world would never come to an end, that matter was coeternal with God, who only put it into operation. He was refuted by Ter- tullian.

Hermon( The Great) (Djebel eck-Cheikk, chief of the mountains) — Mountain of Pal- estine ; the highest of the mountain chain of Anti-Libanon and which formerly served toward the north as frontier of Palestine. Height 8,400 feet. On its sum- mit considerable ruins can be seen and here very probably, they primitively

adored the god Baal. This mountain is covered with snow a great part of the year.

Herod. — Name of several members of a large family of Idumean origin, of whom several reigned over Judea. Herod the Great. — Founder of the dynasty of An- tipater, procurator of Judea. He was named governor of Galilee (b. c. 47), then of Coelo-Syria, and in 41 ethnarch of Judea. Driven away by Antigonus, he fled to Rome, where he obtained a decree from the senate naming him king of Judea, to the exclusion of the Asmonean line (b. c. 40), a dignity which was confirmed upon him after the battle of Actium. He killed Aristobolus, the last male descendant of the Asmoneans, put to death his wife Mariamne, on account of jealousy, and the two sons he had from her. The massacre of the children of Bethlehem crowned this series of crimes. Under his cruel and am- bitious reign, Idumea and Trachonitis were added to his kingdom ; he rebuilt Samaria and called it Sebaste, created on the coast the great port of Caesarea, sur- rounded Jerusalem with fortifications, and commenced to repair the great Temple of this city. Herod-Antifas. — Son of Herod by Malthace, one of the two wives of the tyrant; received, by the will of his father, which Augustus confirmed, the tetrarchy of Galilee and of Persia, whilst Judea was reserved to Archelaus. He repudiated his first wife in order to marry Herodiada, wife of his half-brother Herod-Philip. He beheaded St. John the Baptist, and it was before him Jesus Christ was sent by Pon- tius Pilate. Through the intrigues of Herod-Agrippa (38), he was robbed of his States, exiled with his wife to Lyons and then to Spain, where he died. Herod- Philip. — Son of Herod the Great and Mariamne, half-brother of the preceding, first husband of Herodiada. The Evangel- ists repeatedly mention him under the name of Philip. Herod-Agrippa. — See Agrippa.

Herodians. — Jewish sectarians who had acknowledged Herod the Great as the Messias. Their chief was a certain Men- ahen, of the sect of the Saducees.

Herrnhuters. — Heretics. The sect of the Herrnhuters includes three different troops or modifications : The Lutheran, Calvinistic, and Moravian, and adnjits Christians of all denominations without

Hesychasts

334 Hierarchy of the Church

compelling them to renounce their pe- culiar tenets. In 1741, Zinzendorf, who had himself been ordained a bishop of his sect, by a pretended Moravian bishop, came to America and founded a colony of Herrnhuters at Bethlehem, in Pennsyl- vania. This sect, however, is not very numerous in this country, and even less so in Europe. These sectaries have always been distinguished by a spirit of pride, which has been the fruitful source of fresh divisions.

Hesychasts. — Members of the Eastern Church in the twelfth century, in the monasteries of Mount Athos, who aimed to attain, by the practice of contemplation and asceticism, entire tranquillity and serenity of mind (hence their name) and hence supernatural insight and divine light, with knowledge of the Deity. See Raskolniks.

Hesychius (St). — Lived probably in the fifth century. Egyptian bishop, mar- tyred at Alexandria. He published an edition of the New Testament, and revised the edition of the Septuagint. — Hesy- chius of Jerusalem, Greek ecclesiastical writer, born at Constantinople, about 435. — Hesychius of Miletus, Asia Minor, lived at the beginning of the sixth century. Surnamed the " Illustrious " ; a Greek historical writer.

Hetheans. — Chanaanite people of the mountains of Hebron, comprised in the tribe of Juda.

Hexaemeron. — Name of the works made by various authors on the first chapters of Genesis and the first six days of creation.

Hieracites. — Heretics and followers of Hierax (285-375), an Egyptian ascetic; taught Gnostic and Montanistic errors. He also rejected marriage, denied the re- surrection, and believed that children who died before attaining knowledge, did not enter heaven.

Hierarchy. — A body of persons organized in ranks and orders for the exercise of rule over sacred things ; hence an organized body of ecclesiastics intrusted with the government of the Church. The Council of Trent declares that the divinely insti- tuted Hierarchy in the Church consists of bishops, priests, and ministers. Since deacons are the highest order in the Hier- archy after bishops and priests, it follows that, according to the Council, the order

of deacons is of divine institution; but the Council does not tell us whether the same can be said of subdeacons and others.

Hierarchy of the Church throughout the World. — Pope Leo XIII., elected February 2oth, crowned March 3d, 1878.

SUMMARY OF CATHOLIC SEES.

(Gerarchia Catlolica, 18^.) The Sacred College of Cardinals:

Suburban sees 6

Titular Churches 53

Diaconies 16

75 The Patriarchal Sees:

I^tin Rite S

Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Lisbon, East Indies, West Indies, Venice.

Oriental Rites 6

Antioch of the Melchite Rite, Antioch of the Maronite Rite, Antioch of the Syriac Rite, Cilicia of the Arme- nian Rite, Babylon of the Chal- daic Rite.

A rchhishoprics: Latin Rite :

Immediately subject to the Holy See. 19

With Ecclesiastical Provinces 155

Oriental Rites:

With Ecclesiastical Provinces :

Armenian Rite i

Greek-Roumenian Rite i

Greek-Ruthenian Rite i

Subject to Patriarchates :

Armenian Rite i

Greek-Melchite Rite 3

Syriac Rite 3

Syro^haldaic Rite .,. a

Syro-Marooite Rite 6

192 Bishoprics: Latin Rite :

Immediately subject to the Holy See. 83

Suffragan Sees in Ecclesiastical Prov- inces 637

Oriental Rites:

Immediately subject to the Holy See:

Greek-Ruthenian Rite 3

Suffragan Sees in Ecclesiastical Prov- inces:

Greek-Roumenian Rite 3

Greek-Ruthenian Rite 6

Subject to Patriarchates:

Armenian Rite 16

Coptic Rite 2

Greek-Melchite Rite 8

Syriac Rite 5

Syro-Chaldaic Rite 9

Syro-Maronite Rite 2

773 Sedes "Nullius Dioceseos":

Archabbey i

Abbeys la

Archpresbjrteiy 1

Priory I

Prelattires 2

17 Grand Totai. of Catholic Sbbs 1071

Hierarchy of the Church 335

Latin Rite

In the following tables the sees are given by countries, added up from the special enumeration of sees on pp. 34, etc., of Gerarchia Cattolica for 1898: —

LATIN RITE

Countries

Europe

Austria-Hungary

Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Belgium

Bulgaria

France

German Empire

Luxemburg

England

Ireland

Scotland

Colonies

Greece

Italy and Islands

Monaco

Montenegro

Holland

Portugal

Roumania

Russia

Russian Poland

North America

Newfoundland

St. Pierre Island (French) .

Canada

Mexico

United States

Total

South America

Argentine Republic

Bolivia

Brazil

Chili

Columbia

Ecuador

Guyana

Patagonia (North)

Patagonia (South)

Paraguay

Peru

Uruguay

Venezuela

Total

8->

27

42 2

5

67 H

24 4

4

156

22 69

109

7

2

5

61

ostn

Ej3

So 5 V

Hierarchy of the Church 336 Latin and Oriental Rites

Countries

8

el

■c

n

<

B

1

5

ate -5 .Si.

■•33

h

01

3

3

•a

00

■|

Q

1

«

V

'C S

>

<:

n

u

S

Or

Central America West Ind es

I

3

I

7

4

2

I

2

I

Republics Suffragan

of Central America

to Bordeaux (France)

il

Tot£

I

4

13

I

3

Oceania

Australia .

5

I

I

13 3

4

I

■ ■

4

II

I

2

New Zealand

Islands . . .

Total

7

20

I

IS

3

Total in -

f Europe

3

3

I

I

95

ID

2

27

4

10

7

408 27 10

109

13 61 20

17

I

I

82

I

2

16 I

I

2

4

I

I

10

56

27

6

3

4

15

4

10 20

3

2

3

Asia

Africa

North America

Central America

South America

Oceania

Total

8

155

648

19

85

18

8

121

42

Total of Archbishoprics imtnediateVy subject to the Holy See 19

Total of Archbishoprics with ecclesiastical provinces 155

Total of Bishoprics immediately subject to the Holy See 85

Total of Bishoprics in ecclesiastical provinces 648

The difference between these totals and those given on page 471 of Gerarchia Cattolica is to be ex- plained that some of the dioceses were united with others and not properly mentioned.

ORIENTAL RITES

Europe Armenian Rite

I

3

3

2

6

I

14 8

5

9

2

I

2

I

I

I

3

6

2

2

3

I

Greek Rite * .

Greek-Roumanian Rite

Greek- Ruthenian Rite

Greek-Bulgarian Rite +

Asia Armenian Rite

Greek-Melchite Rite

Syriac Rite

Syro-Chaldaic Rite

Syro-Maronite Rite

Syro-Malabric Rite X

Africa Armenian Rite

Coptic Rite

I

6

Copts of Ethiopia and Abyssinia TP

Total

IS

42

3

9

2

6

f

* The Catholics of the Greek Rite are dependent on the Apostolic Delegates at Athens and Constantinople.

t The Catholics of the Greek-Bulgarian Rite are under the jurisdiction of two Bishops as Admin- istrators, with residences in Tracia and Macedonia.

\\ The Catholics of the Syro-Malabric Rite are under the jurisdiction of three Vicars Apostolic of the .same Rite, with residences in Trichoor, Changanacchery, and Ernaculam.

\\ The Catholics of the Ethiopic and Abys.sinian Rite ( in Central Africa ) are under the iurisdic- tion of a Vicar Apostolic of the Xatin Rite, who resides in Abyssinia.

HiEROCLES

337

Hilary of Poitiers

Hierocles. — Governor of Bithynia, and later on of Egypt, in the fourth century. He openly defended the superiority of the pretender ApoUonius of Tyana over Christ ; caused Christian matrons and virgins to be exposed in brothels; wrote a work entitled Address to the Christians from a Friend of Truth, in which he repeated all the slanders of Celsus and Porphyrins against the Christians. Of the work of Hierocles, which has been lost, Eusebius made an am- ple refutation.

Hieronymites. — Members of a religious order founded in Spain. They were monks of an order of canons regular, founded in 1373, in honor of St. Jerome. Their most famous community has been that of St. Lawrence. These religious at first lived as hermits, but afterwards embraced a ceno- bitic life, following a rule collected from the writings of St. Jerome.

Hieronymus (St.). See Jerome.

High-Priest. — The chief of the Jewish priesthood. His dignity was hereditary in the line of Eleazar, the son of Aaron ; and many more restrictions were attached to it than belonged to the ordinary office of a priest. His functions consisted principally in the general administration of the sanctu- ary and all that belonged to the sacred serv- ice. He, alone, was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement, and to consult the Urim and Thummim. No less was his costume of surpassing splendor and costliness, comprising more numerous vestments than those of the ordinary priests. This brilliant costume, however, was laid aside by the high-priest when, on the Day of Atonement, he went to perform the most awful service in the Holy of Holies. A simple garb of white linen — the funeral dress of the Jews in later times — was all he wore on that occasion.

Hilarion (St.) (288-371). — Founder of the monastic life in Palestine, born at Tabathe, near Gaza, became a Christian at Alexandria, and visited St. Anthony in the Thebaid. Returning into his country in 307, he divided all his goods among the poor and retired into the frightful solitude of Majuma, where numerous disciples placed themselves under his direction, founded numerous monasteries in Pales- tine and in Syria, left his solitude and re- tired to the island of Cyprus, in order to escape celebrity. F. Oct. 25th.

Hilary. — Pope from 461 to 467. Suc- cessor of St. Leo, born in Sardinia. De- fender of Bishop Flavian against the Eutychians in the Second Council of Ephesus, in 449.

Hilary of Aries (St.). — Hilary, born about 401, in Gaul, received an education befitting his distinguished birth, and made great progress in all branches of human knowledge, particularly in rhetoric and philosophy. After spending most of his youth in worldly pursuits, he resolved, after a hard struggle, to follow the advice of a relative (afterwards Bishop Honoratus of Aries), and enter the religious state. He sold his goods and distributed the pro- ceeds among the poorer monasteries, and then, leaving the land of his birth, repaired to the isle of Lerins, where as a monk, he was soon distinguished for his love of prayer, and self-denial. When Honoratus became bishop of Aries, Hilary, yielding to his constant entreaties, followed him thither. However, he soon returned to his beloved solitude, but on the death of Honoratus he was elected to the vacant see. As bishop, he lived with all the strictness of a monk; his charity toward the poor was extraordinary, and in preach- ing, his zeal was almost excessive. He founded a seminary for the training of his clergy, held numerous synods, and put in force most excellent disciplinary enact- ments. Ever ready to encourage those aspiring to perfection, he founded new monasteries and frequently visited the va- rious monastic institutes. For his extant writings, see Migne, Pat. Lat, L. 1214— 1292. F. May 5th.

Hilary of Poitiers (St). — Hilary, the scion of a noble family of Poitiers, was born between 320 and 325. He received his scientific education in his native town and in Bordeaux, where he more espe- cially applied himself to the study of rhet- oric. The more he saw of the profligate life of his fellow-citizens, the more his no- ble soul was filled with disgust and longed after the knowledge of truth. The pe- rusal of Holy Scripture freed him from all the doubts which heathen philosophy had raised in his mind, and together with his wife and daughter he embraced Christian- ity in 350. On account of his holy life, both the clergy and people demanded his elevation to the bishopric of Poitiers, and he was consecrated shortly before 355. Thenceforth he led a life of continency.

HiLLEL

338 Holiness of the Church

devoting himself entirely to his episcopal duties. His uncompromising opposition to Arianism, favored by the Emperor Con- stantius, caused him to be banished by that prince to Phrygia. But as his influ- ence here seemed to be still more dreaded by the Arians, he was allowed, in 359, to return to his bishopric, where he con- tinued, by word and writing, and espe- cially by means of synods, to combat Arianism with such success, that he caused the Galilean bishops completely to re- nounce it. True, he was not able to gain over Auxentius, Bishop of Milan, which city was the stronghold of Arianism, but he forced him to be more cautious. The latter years of his life were spent in quie- tude, occupied with exegetical labors. He died at Poitiers, Jan. 13th, 366. His works are contained in Migne, Pat. Lat. IX, X. F. Jan. 14th.

Hillel, surnamed the Ancient. — Born in Babylonia, a descendant of the family of David. President of the Sanhedrin (30B.C.- 9 A. D.), appointed by Herod I. He lived in poor circumstances, ^nd went to Jerusalem to studythe law under Shemaiyah, becoming there, the organizer of Jewish life and the founder of Talmudic Judaism. By his in- terpretation of the seven dialectical rules for the interpretation of the law, he gave its study a rational basis. He also enacted many reforms which aflfected the whole social fabric of his time. He was the first of the presidents of the Sanhedrin to be honored with the title nasi (^prince, pa- triarch), and the patriarchate remained thenceforth hereditary in his family until its extinction. See Talmud.

Hincmar of Laon. — Bishop of Laon, nephew of the following, died in 880. He was deposed by the Council of Douzi in 871, for excesses committed in the govern- ment of his Church. His own uncle had become his accuser. Two years afterwards he was blinded.

Hincmar of Rheims (806-882). — States- man and theologian. Monk of St. Denis, Abbot of St. Germain de Compiegne, named Archbishop of Rheims in 845 to re- place Ebbo, with whom he had vehement wrestlings. He played a conspicuous part in the theological movement of his time, notably in the predestinarian controversy, in which he supported Paschasius Rad- bertus. He also enjoyed considerable influence over Charles the Bald, presided

over the Council of Quierzi wherein Gottschalk was condemned, and upheld the emperor against the Pope.

Hippolytus. — A Roman presbyter, who flourished in the first half of the third century, was a pupil of St. Irenaeus and the head of a learned school at Rome. He was a valiant champion of orthodoxy against the Patripassians, but afterwards fell into the opposite heresy, maintaining the inferiority of the Son to the Father. He became the bitter opponent of Popes Zephyrinus and Calixtus, and, when the latter ascended the Papal Chair, he figured as an antipope. He was, however, recon- ciled with the Church, and died a martyr about 235 under Maximin. As a writer, Hippolytus was, after Origen, perhaps the most prominent of his age. His writings comprised exegetical, historical, doctrinal, and controversial treatises. His great work entitled Philosophumena, or Refuta- tion of all Heresies, in ten books, which was discovered in a monastery at Mount Athos in 1842, has thrown light on many important questions relating to the early Church. In it, however, the author basely misrepresents the character of Pope Calix- tus and his predecessor, Zephyrinus. His other works extant are On Antichrist; Against the Noetian Heresy; Address to the yews; On Gifts; etc.

Hiram. — King of Tyre about 1000 b. c, a contemporary with David and Solomon, with whom he entertained amicable re- lations, assisted at the building of the Temple at Jerusalem by furnishing ma- terials and artisans, and entered with Solomon into a commercial alliance. The tomb of Hiram is shown on a hillside east of Tyre.

Holiness. — A title of the Pope. He is addressed as •' Your Holiness," " His Holiness," ^^Beatissime Pater,^' etc. The insignia of the Pope are the straight cro- sier; the pallium, which he wears con- stantly, and the tiara, or triple cyown.

Holiness of the Church. — One of the

four distinctive marks of the true Church of Christ. We maintain that the Catholic Church is holy, because it teaches a holy doctrine, and offers to all means of holi- ness. It surpasses and eclipses every sect by the efficacy of its doctrine and worship, and by its laws for the sanctification of souls. The reality of such holiness is manifest in many of its members by match-

Holland

339

Holy Week

less external effects, such as are evinced through holy teaching, holy acts and mir- acles. For instance, there have been mar- tyrs of all ages, both sexes, all conditions, all nationalities, who have suffered will- ingly for the love of God, giving proof of the sanctity of the Church. The apostle or missionary who voluntarily quits his country and sacrifices all his earthly well- being, even his very life, for the conquest of souls for Christ, is a living proof of the holiness of the Church to which he belongs. Virtues of charity, patience, chastity, or alienation from the world, carried to a de- gree of heroism, prove that holiness exists in that Church, whereof those who practice these virtues are members. Real mir- acles can only be performed by divine power, and consequently it is to the saints, and to no others, that God accords the privilege of working them unceasingly in the true Church ; and this is an undeniable demonstration of its holiness.

Holland {Church in). See Nether- lands.

Holy Coat. See Coat.

Holy Family. — The name given in the language of art, to every representation of the infant Saviour and his attendants. In the early part of the Middle Ages, when the object in view was to excite devotion, the Virgin and Child were usually the only persons represented. At a later period St. Joseph, St. Elizabeth, St. Anna (the mother of the Blessed Virgin), and St. John the Baptist were included. Some of the old German painters have added the Twelve Apostles as children and play- fellows of the infant Christ, as well as their mothers, as stated in the legends. The Italian school, with its fine feeling for composition, was the first to recog- nize of how many figures the group must consist, if the interest is to remain undi- vided, and be concentrated on the figures of the Child Jesus, the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph.

Holy Fire. — In the Catholic Church, a light kindled at Easter in remembrance — according to the Missal — of Christ as the great corner stone, and hailed by kneeling ecclesiastics with the words " Light of Christ " (Z«we« Christi). This ceremony takes place on Holy Saturday.

Holy Ghost. See Trinity.

Holy Ghost {Orders of Me). — Three orders called by this name were instituted by the Catholic Church (1178, 1588, and 1700). The latter, a society of missionary priests, is still alive. Its general mother- house is at Paris. A branch thereof exists at Cornwells, Bucks county, Pennsylvania.

Holy Office {Sanctum Officium). — A term applied to the spiritual court of the Congregation of Inquisition.

Holy Orders. See Orders.

Holy Places, Holy Sepulchre. — The

name Holy Places of Jerusalem more strictly designates the group of sacred places of which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the center, and which are supposed to comprise the sites of the chief events of Our Lord's passion, death, and burial: Ge;thsemane, the Supper- room, the Church of the Ascension, the Tomb of the Blessed Virgin, etc.

Holy Water. See Water.

Holy Week. — Holy Week, at the end of Lent, begins with a Sunday, which, in both the Greek and Latin Churches, they designate under the name of Palm Sunday. On this day Mass is preceded with a pro- cession, in which the Faithful hold palm branches, previously blessed, in their hands, in commemoration of the Triumph- ant Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, six days before His death. This rite, as so many other ceremonies of the same kind, was at first peculiar to Jerusalem. It is described in the Peregrination of Silvius ; Cyril of Scythopolis, writer of the sixth century also mentions it. It was introduced into the West only about the eighth century. The ancient Latin liturgical books do not mention it at all. Amalarius, of Metz, speaks thereof, but in terms which do not indicate that the custom was universal. However, St. Isidore, without explicitly mentioning the procession, speaks of the dies Palmarum, of the custom of carrying on that day branches in the church and of singing " Hosanna."

Holy Thursday, which in the cycle of the movable feasts, reminds of the anni- versary of the institution of the Eucharist, could not fail to be a day of liturgical re- union. In Africa, the Eucharist was cele- brated, as something unusual, after the repast in the evening, with the view of a greater conformity with the circumstances of the Last Supper.

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On Holy Friday, consecrated to the re- membrance of the passion and death of the Saviour, they celebrated nowhere the eucharistic liturgy. The service of this day, according to the Roman rite, has pre- served to us, in its first part, the exact type of the ancient non-liturgical reunions. It became complicated, about the seventh and eighth centuries, with the two ceremonies of the adoration of the Cross and of the Mass of the Presanctified. The first is de- rived from Jerusalem, where it was prac- ticed since the fourth century. In the holy city, the wood of the Cross was sol- emnly presented on this day to the Faith- ful, who could approach and kiss it.

Almost all the ancient Roman liturgical books speak of the adoration of the Cross as forming a part of the religious ser\'ice on Good Friday, but they diflFer a good deal in the manner they combine it with the other ceremonies. The chants exe- cuted at present, during the adoration of the Cross, have certainly a very ancient touch. The "Mass of the Presanctified" is hardly pointed out in the ancient Roman books. It was nothing else but the commun- ion, isolated from the eucharistic liturgy properly speaking. The details of the cere- mony are found only in the books from the eighth to the ninth century ; but it must be much more ancient. In the time when the non-liturgical synaxes were of frequent use, it must have been the same with the "Mass of the Presanctified." In the Greek Church, it is celebrated every day during Lent, except on Saturday and Sunday; in the Latin Church, only on Good Friday. At Rome this ceremony was very simple. They brought on the altar the box (casfa) containing the rem- nant of the consecrated bread ; recited the Pater with its short preface and embolism {Libera nos) ; then they put a fragment of the consecrated bread into a chalice filled with unconsecrated wine, and everybody communicated with the consecrated bread from the casfa and the sanctified wine as described. We may believe that, when the Faithful administered holy communion to themselves at home, as it was frequently the case during the times of persecution for the solitaries in the desert, and, in general, for persons living very far from a church, they followed a ceremony analo- gous to this.

On Holy Saturday, there is no special reunion. The ceremonies of the Paschal vigil were already, about the eighth cen-

tury, transferred to the afternoon of Satur- day ; at present, it is celebrated in the morning. Outside the rites that have reference to the baptismal initiation, this solemn vigil offers some particularities: the blessing of the new fire; that of the Paschal candle; and finally the Mass, in which we find preserved certain archaic traits. They arrived to these rites by a quite natural symbolism. The death of Christ, followed by His resurrection, found an ex- pressive image in the fire, the Paschal can- dle, and thflamp.whichisput out andlighted again. We know, still in our day, of the im- portance of the ceremony- of the new fire in the Paschal rite of the Greek Church, at Jerusalem. However, in the East, this cere- mony is peculiar to the holy city; it does not figure in the common Byzantine ritual. In the West, the legend of St. Patrick supposes that, at least since the sixth cen- tury, the Irish were in the habit to light great fires at the beginning of the Paschal night. From the correspondence of St. Boniface with Pope Zacharias, it goes forth that these fires were lighted, not with other fires, but with fire from flints ; they were really new fires. This custom appears to be a peculiarity of British or Irish origin, brought on the continent of Europe by the missionaries of the eighth century. The ancient Merovingian books have no trace thereof. Neither did they know it at Rome. However, they obser\'ed there a rite of analogous sense. On Holy Thurs- da}', at the time of the consecration of the chrism, they gathered from all the lamps of the Lateran basilica a quantity of oil sufficient to fill three large vases which were deposited in a corner of the church. The oil burned therein by means of wicks, until the Paschal vigil. From these large lamps they lighted the candles and other lights which served, during Easter night, to lighten the ceremony of baptism. It is still a foreign custom at Rome to solemnly bless the Paschal candle and, in general, the light of the church, at the beginning of the Paschal vigil. It is useless to say that this custom has the most intimate re- lation with that to preserve as a spark from the old fire or to solemnly produce from it a new fire. At Rome, where the blessing of the Paschal candle was not in use, the large lamps prepared on Holy Thursday ser\'ed on Holy Friday and Saturday to light the two candles which they carried, on these days, in procession before the Pope, instead of the seven can-

Homily

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dies which generally preceded him. Out- side of Rome, that is, in Upper Italy, Gaul and Spain, the blessing of the Paschal candle was in use quite early. Perhaps it was the same in Africa : St. Augustine (Civ. Dei, XV. xxii.) quotes verses which he had composed in laudem quadam cerei. It is not certain that this Latis Cerei was not composed by some deacon of Milan or of a neighboring Church. This ceremony was so popular that the Popes, without adopting it for their own Church, were ob- liged to permit it for those Churches of the suburbicarian diocese. The Liber pontifi- calis establishes this concession, from the middle of the sixth century, and it is attrib uted to Pope Zosimus. We meet with the Paschal candle at Ravenna, in the time of St. Gregory the Great and at Naples, in the eighth century. Even in Lower Italy, the blessing of the Paschal candle has left the most imposing traces in the liturgical paleography.

The formula of blessing, there where it was in use, was pronounced, not by the bishop, nor by a priest, but by the arch- deacon, who for this effect ascended the ambo, near which the candle to be blessed was placed. First he announced in a kind of invitatory, the beginning of the great feast; then assuming a tone and style of the most solemn prayer, the eucharistic prayer, he called down the divine blessing upon this luminous column which is going to illuminate the mysteries of the Christian Pasch, as formerly a fiery column guided in the desert the exodus of the children of Israel. Then he poetically celebrated its different elements, the papyrus which formed the wick, the virgin oil and the beeswax, which formed its matter. The formula now in use is the Extiltet. See this Subject. After these ceremonies came the long series of lessons, chants and prayers, then the blessing of the baptismal font, the administration of baptism and confirmation, and finally the Mass. For more particulars, see Thursday, Friday, Saturday.

Homily (Gr. homilia, converse) primi- tively signifies a discourse held with one or more individuals ; but in ecclesiastical use it means a discourse held in the Church, and addressed by the bishop or priest to the congregation. These discourses employed for this purpose were of the most simple character ; but with the exception of one as- cribed to Hippolytus, we have no sample of

this form of composition earlier than the Homilies of Origen, in the third century. Taking these as a type, the early Christian homily may be described as a popular ex- position of a portion of Scripture, accom- panied by moral reflections and exhorta- tions. The Schools of Alexandria and Antioch appear to have been the great centers of this class of sacred literature ; and in the early century we find the names of Hippolytus, Metrodorus, Clement of Alexandria, Dionysius, and Gregory Thau- maturgus, as principally distinguished. But it was in the following centuries that the homily received its full development in the hands of the Oriental Fathers : Athana- sius, the two Gregories of Nyssa and of Nazianzum, Basil, the two Cyrils of Jerusa- lem and of Alexandria, and above all Chrysostom; and in the West: Ambrose, Augustine, Peter Chrysologus, Leo and Gregory the Great. The name " homily" is very frequently used as a synonym for sermon. See Sermon.

Homoosion {of the same substance) Ho- moiousion {of a similar substance) and Heteroosion {of another substance), denote the three different standpoints in the great Christological controversy of the fourth century. The first was employed by the orthodox Athanasius, the second by the great middle party, the Semi-Arians, and the third by the heretic Arius, when defin- ing the relations between the first and the second Person in the Most Holy Trinity.

Honoratus (St.). — Born probably at Toul, France; died in 429. Converted with his brother Venantius, both distrib- uted their goods to the poor, and embarked at Marseilles for the Orient. Venantius having died in Greece, Honoratus returned to Gaul, founded, on the island of Lerins, about 410, a famous monastery of which he became Abbot, and was named Archbishop of Aries in 426. His Life was written by St. Hilary. F. Jan. i6th.

Honorius I. — Pope from 625 to 638. Successor of Boniface IV, He sent into England St. Birnus, who baptized the king of Wessex Kynegil and gave the pallium to the Archbishop of Canterbury, exhorted the Irish to follow the Roman custom for the date of celebrating Easter. He built at Rome, magnificent aqueducts and con- structed or ornamented a great number of churches. The Ecumenical Council of Constantinople (see below), in 65o con-

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demned his memory as having impru- dently favored the error of the Monothe- lites. Honorius II. — Antipope, Bishop of Parma, elected Pope in 1061 at Basle, by the lords of Germany and Italy, who declared the election of Alexander II . as illegitimate. He was deposed by the Council of Mantua and died in neglect. Honorius II. — Pope from 1124 to 1130. Successor of Calixtus II. He was elected by a number of cardinals, while others gave the title to Theobald, cardinal-priest of St. Athana- sius, who took the name of Celestine III. To avoid a schism, they both renounced their dignity, and the election of Ho- norius was confirmed by a new vote. He confirmed the Order of the Templars at the Synod of Troyes in 1128. Hono- rius III. — Pope from 1216 to 1227. The primary object of his Pontificate was the organization of a Crusade for the relief of Palestine. He confirmed the Order of the Dominicans in 1216 and that of the Fran- ciscans in 1223. Honorius IV. — Pope from 1285 to 1287. Successor of Martin IV. He confirmed the Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine and that of the Carmelites.

Honorius I. {Condemnation of). — Pope Honorius was anathematized as a heretic by the Fourth General Council of Constanti- nople (680). Not as a heretic in the proper sense of the word, but as having negligently permitted the spread of heresy of the Mon- othelites, and so being involved in the same condemnation as the actual heretics. Hon- orius wrote a letter to Sergius, the Monothe- lite patriarch of Constantinople, in which, as the event proved, he did not make a suf- ficiently firm protest against the heresy ; but it cannot be shown that the letter it- self contained heresy; and even were it otherwise, the letter was a purely private document, and neither in form nor in substance or in mode of issue, showed any trace of being for the instruction of the universal Church. See Monothelitks.

Hontheim (Nicholas von). See Fk-

BRONIANISM.

Hope is a supernatural virtue, by which we trust with entire confidence, that God will give us possession of the eternal life of happiness with Him, and the means of obtaining it, promised to us through the merits of our Saviour, by God who is truth itself. The principle is represented by the word '* supernatural," significant

of hope being a direct gift from God, a filial confidence in divine Providence amidst all the events of life. " Possession of the eternal life of happiness with Him, and the means of obtaining it," denotes the double object of our hope ; and " prom- ised through the merits of our Saviour, by God who is truth itself," gives the mo- tive ; expressing the infallibility of God's pledges, without which we cannot obtain salvation. We must, therefore, live " unto the hope of life everlasting, which God, who lieth not, hath promised before the times of the world " (Tit. i. 2).

Hor, — Mount of Arabia Petraea, on the confines of Idumsea, between the Dead Sea and the gulf of Akabah. A grotto can be seen there which, they claim, contains the tomb of Aaron.

Horeb. See Sinai.

Horebites. See Hussites.

Hormisdas. — Pope from 514 to 523. A quiet reign was alloted to his Pontificate; he effected the restoration of ecclesiastical peace with Constantinople, and was on friendly terms with the imperial court at that palace.

Hosanna. — A Hebrew word taken from Ps. cxviii. (Vulg. cxvii.) 25: "O Lord, we beseech Thee, save now; save, we pray." A joyous chant.

Hosius (257-358). — Bishop of Cordova in 296, merited the title of confessor through the firmness which he showed during the persecution of Diocletian and Maximian. Constantine sent him to Alex- andria, where he assembled a Council with a view of composing the difficulties of the Meletians, Arians, and followers of Colluthus (319). He presided over the first Council of Nice (325) and that of Sardica (347). The supposed fall of Ho- sius is untrue, since it is plainly rejected by such authorities as Sulpitius Severus and St. Augustine. St. Athanasius assures us that Hosius, broken down by old age and vanquished by tortures, gave way for a moment and communicated with the Arians, but without subscribing against him or the orthodox faith. Renewing the condemnation of the Arian heresy, the venerable prelate died in exile, or accord- ing to another account, in Spain.

Hospital (from Lat. hospes, guest). — Hospital is an asylum open to the needy

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and often where wealth enriches itself at the expense of misery. A house estab- lished to receive and treat gratuitously the needy sick. The first hospitals date from the end of the second century, and served especially for travelers. The first foundation of a hospital for sick persons is attributed to a Roman lady, Fabiola. Constantine the Great, St. John Chrysostom, and St. Basil encouraged the creation of hospitals and gave to these establishments their first regulations. By the impulse of bishops numerous hospitals were created, directed by priests and nourished by alms as well as by a portion of the revenues and rents belonging to the clergy and monastic orders. In the eighth century, Rome counted five hospitals. A magnificent hos- pital was erected by the Arabs at Cordova. The Hospital St. Christopher, now the "Hotel-Dieu" at Paris, dates from the beginning of the ninth century. The spreading of leprosy in Europe imported by the crusades, increased extraordinarily the number of these institutes. The Coun- cil of Trent ordained that the administra- tion of hospitals should be intrusted to laymen of good reputation. In our time, hospitals are generally directed by reli- gious ; this is especially the case in regard to their management in the United States.

Hospitalers. See Knights.

Host (from Lat. hosfia, victim. The consecrated bread of the Eucharist). — The unleavened bread destined to be conse- crated, the Body and the Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and His reception in holy communion. The custom to form the Eucharistic host flat and circular, may be traced back to the remotest periods of Christian antiquity. The Greeks prepare their hosts (altar bread) occasionally square as well as circular, for which the following mystic reason is furnished. The circular is allusive to the divinity which the bread and wine receive when they are transubstantiated ; the square expresses that, by the sacrifice of Christ upon the Cross, salvation is imparted to the four quarters of the earth.

Hours {Canonical). — The canonical hours are vocal prayers, which are to be recited every day, at the appointed time, by the persons obliged to say the divine office. We call them "hours," because they should be recited at certain hours of the day or night, according to the custom

of the places. We call them *' canonical,'* because they have been instituted by the canons and ought to be recited by ecclesi- astical persons who lead a canonical or regular life. All the clerics in sacred or- ders, although not beneficiaries, are obliged under pain of mortal sin, to the recitation of the canonical hours, even outside the choir. This custom is founded upon both the Eastern and Western Churches as well as upon the words of the twenty-first ses- sion of the Council of Basle : "^uoscttmque beneficiatos in sacris constitutos quum ad horas canonicas tencanfur, admonet syn- odus," etc. The suspended, excommuni- cated, deposed, or degraded clerics are not discharged from this obligation, because nobody is permitted to draw advantage from his perversity. See Breviary.

Hubert (St.). — St. Hubert's early life is so obscured by popular traditions that we have no authentic account of his actions. He is said to have been passionately ad- dicted to hunting, and was entirely taken up in worldly pursuits. One thing is cer- tain : that he is the patron saint of hunters. Moved by divine grace, he resolved to re- nounce the world. His extraordinary fer- vor, and the great progress which he made in virtue and learning, strongly recom- mended him to St. Lambert, Bishop of Maestricht, who ordained him priest, and intrusted to him the principal share in the administration of his dioceSe. That holy prelate being barbarously murdered in 621, St. Hubert was unanimously chosen his successor. With incredible zeal he pene- trated into the most remote and barbarous places of the Ardennes, and abolished the worship of idols; and as he performed the office of the Apostles, God bestowed on him a like gift of miracles. He died on the 30th of May, in 727.

Hughes (John) (1797-1864). — American prelate; was born at Annalogan, County Tyrone, Ireland ; died in New York. Emi- grating with his family to America in 1817, he applied for entrance to Mount St. Mary's Seminary in order to receive the theological instruction to fit him for the priesthood. After having been or- dained priest in 1826, he was stationed at Bedford, but was soon removed to Phila- delphia, where his abilities were displayed at St. Joseph's and St. Mary's. In 1837, he was selected as coadjutor to Dr. Du Bois, became Bishop of New York in 1842, and archbishop in 1850. He broke the power

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of the trustees in his diocese ; restored the credit of the Catholic Congregations, gave a new impulse to the erection of churches, and founded St. John's College at Fordham. In 1858, he laid the corner stone of St. Pat- rick's Cathedral. When the civil war broke out, he gave his earnest support to the national government, and went to Europe on a diplomatic mission with a view to counteract the feeling unfavorable to the United States, which envoys of the seced- ing States had excited in more than one European cabinet. No man ever exercised greater influence in the Catholic Church in the United States than Archbishop Hughes.

Hugh of St. Victor. — Canon of the Abbey of St. Victor of Paris, born near Ypers about 1090, died in 1140. Surnamed the "Second St. Augustine" ; wrote in Latin several works: Commentaries on Holy Scripture; Summa of the Sentences; Treatise on the Sacrament; Explanation of the Rule of St. Augustine; De Sapientia Christi; and Chronicle, extending until 1 128. The best edition of his works is that of Rouen (1648, 3 vols.), reprinted in Migne, Pat. Lat. CLXXV-CLXXVII.

Huguenots. — Name applied to the Prot- estants in France. According to Theodore Beza, there was not one Huguenot in France in 153;^, while in 1539 there were as many as 400,000. The French King Fran- cis I. (1515-1547) entered into compact with foreign Protestants, while in his own country he persecuted the new sect with great force. The Huguenots soon formed a political party and on the plea of religion instigated several civil wars. They were protected by the Bourbon princes who op- posed the king. Having obtained approval of their plans from their theologians the Huguenots formed the conspiracy of Am- boise (1560), against the king, but this, as well as two subsequent conspiracies, ended in failure. With the hope of satisfying these heretics, an Edict of Toleration was issued in 1562, but the Huguenots did not seek toleration; their object was the total annihilation of the Catholic Church, for which they had the explicit approbation of their preachers who decreed the penalty of death against the "Papists." Churches were pulled down, priests were mutilated and put to death. The Massacre of Vassy, in which sixty Huguenots were killed, was the signal for an open war. The Huguenots headed by the prince of Condd, took up arms,

sought assistance from the German Prot- estants, and surrendered Havre de Grace to England. Duke Francis de Guise, the eminent Catholic general was assassinated by a Huguenot. Notwithstanding their three defeats, the Huguenots, by the peace of St. Germain-en-Laye in 1570, obtained not only freedom of worship, but also ac- cess to all political offices. They soon acquired influence at the court and excluded the Catholics and even the queen-mother from the affairs of the government. En- raged at this effrontery, the queen-mother took revenge in the massacre of St. Bar- tholomew. See Bartholomew.

Humanists. — Classical studies, though never neglected during the mediaeval times, received a great impulse during the fifteenth century. This was occasioned by the negotiations made for the union of the Greek and Latin Churches by the Greek refugees, who came west after the conquest of Constantinople. The study of pagan authors, or classical studies, was called " Humanities," its promoters were named " Humanists." These exercised a healthful influence on science and litera- ture, supplanting the awkward language of the later scholastics by a classical Latin. But far greater was their influence for evil, which resulted in a frantic and ridicu- lous preference for classical expression. Christ was called : Minerva a yovis cafite orta; in an overrating of pagan philosophy, Plato and Aristotle were placed on the same level with the Bible ; in bitter strife with scholasticism, it produced a false en- thusiasm for pagan ideas, contempt for the Church, indiflPerentism, and frivolity. Many Humanists ridiculed priests and monks, and by their lascivious writings, undermined religion and morality. Ulrich sung in classical Latin, the consequences of his immorality. We distinguish two periods of Humanism: The ancient and Christian without losing sight of the high value of scholasticism, and the latter a new pagan Humanism, whose advocates used their talents and linguistic acquirements against religion and the Church; they were men of dubious character, servile flatterers and beggars, or shameless calum- niators. This form of Humanism soon gained preponderance.

Humiliati (religious). — The Humiliati were at first an association of laymen, es- tablished for purposes of religion in the twelfth century. Innocent III., in 1200,

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approved them as a religious order under the rule of St. Benedict. A plot formed by some of its members against the life of St. Charles Borromeo caused Pope Pius V. to suppress them in 1571.

Huss and Hussites. — From England the heresy of Wycliflfe was, about the beginning of the fifteenth century, transplanted into Bohemia, where John Huss (1369-1415) became its chief propagator. Huss him- self, and at that time professor in the Uni- versity of Prague, translated Wycliffe's writings into Bohemian. In 1408, the Uni- versity condemned the works of Wycliffe and their reading was prohibited by the Archbishop Sbinkc of Prague. Huss hav- ing become rector of the University, he now preached boldly and without reserve the doctrines of Wycliffe — doctrines sub- versive of all order, ecclesiastical and civil. Having obtained a Bull from Alexander V. for the suppression of the Wycliffe doc- trines, Sbinko ordered two hundred vol- umes of the English heresiarch to be burnt, then suspended and, finally, excom- municated Huss. The sentence was con- firmed by John XXHI., and the city of Prague was placed under the interdict so long as Huss should be allowed to remain there. But to this Huss paid no regard; he appealed from the Pope to a General Council, and continued to preach and pour forth his coarse and loose invectives against the Papacy, the hierarchy, and the clergy. The infection of the errors of Huss soon spread throughout Bohemia, and was propogated by Jerome of Prague throughout Poland and Moravia. The Council of Constance having meanwhile assembled, Huss, who had appealed to a General Council was prevailed upon to appear before that assembly by the Em- peror Sigismond. Huss had three public hearings before the Council. Thirty articles extracted chiefly from his " Treatise on the Church," were condemned. In this work the heresiarch asserts: i. The one holy and universal Church consists wholly of the predestined. None but the el^ct can belong to the Church of Christ. 2. Peter never was the head of the holy Catholic Church. The Papacy owes its origin to imperial favor and authority. 3. A priest though excommunicated, provided he be- lieves the sentence unjust, ought to con- tinue to preach and exercise his functions, in spite of ecclesiastical prohibition. 4. The claim of the Church to the obedience

of her members is a pure invention of priests and contrary to Holy Scripture. 5. No ruler, spiritual or temporal, has any power and jurisdiction, if he be in mortal sin. Huss admitted to the day of his death many Catholic doctrines which Wycliffe had rejected, such as the Real Presence, the Sacrifice of the Mass, and some others. The Council called upon Huss to retract his errors. His former friends earnestly besought him to make at least a modified disavowal of his errors. But his indomi- table obstinacy frustrated every well-meant endeavor. At length the Council solemnly declared him an obstinate heretic, degraded him from the priesthood, and transferred him to the civil authorities. In accordance with the penalty of civil law which made heresy punishable with death, Huss was burnt at the stake, July 6th, 1415. His friend, Jerome of Prague, met with a simi- lar fate the following year.

The news of the death of Huss incited his followers in Bohemia and Moravia to a furious religious war. Ufraquism, or Communion under both kinds, became their distinctive characteristic, and the chalice was adopted by them as the symbol of their cause. In 1419, they rose in arms against the imperial government. Terrible excesses were committed by the Hussites ; during a war which lasted thirteen years, they indiscriminately murdered priests and monks and laid a great number of churches and convents in ashes and many cities waste. All Bohemia was soon in the hands of the rebels. After the death of John Ziska, their leader, in 1424, the Hussites became divided into four conflicting parties — the " Taborites," the "Orphans," the "Horeb- ites," and the " Calixtines," After much negotiation the Synod of Basle succeeded in reconciling the more moderate Calix- tines. By the "Compact of Prague," in 1433, the Synod conceded to them Com- munion under both kinds, besides several reforms on certain points of discipline. The Taborites and Orphans, however, re- jected the Compact and continued their incendiary course till 1434, when they suf- fered a crushing defeat near Prague. By the treaty of Iglau, in 1436, the greater number of them returned to the unity of the Church. The united Hussites went under the name of "Utraquists," while the Catholics who adhered to the old discipline of the Church, were called '* Subunists," or communicants under one kind. Never- theless, a great number of the Hussites

Hyacinth

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continued in their separation from the Church until the preaching of the eloquent St. John Capistran (between 145 1 and 1453) effected a general reconciliation. Only a small remnant of extreme Hussites per- sisted secretly in their schism, and formed the sect known under the name of " Bo- hemian "and "Moravian Brethren."

Hyacinth (St.) ( i 183-1257). — Polish Dominican, apostle of northern Europe, born in the Castle of Sasse (Siberia), died at Cracow. Received at Rome the reli- gious habit from the hand of St. Dominic, who appointed him superior of the mission established in Poland, founded a monastery of Dominicans at Cracow (1217) and sev- eral others in the principal cities of Poland. He made numerous conversions all over northern Europe and preached the Gospel to the Tartary. F. Aug. i6th.

Hyacinth (Charles Loysox) (known under the name of '* Pere Hyacinth"). — Ex-religious of the Carmelite Order, born at Orleans in 1827. Ordained priest in the Seminary of St. Sulpice (1849), pro- fessor in the great seminaries of Avignon and Nantes, priest attached to the parish of St. Sulpice at Paris, entered at the Carmelites at Lyons about the year i860. Celebrated preacher, he appeared in the pulpit of Notre Dame, at Paris, in 1865, and obtained as orator a real success. His conferences on independent morals (1866) and on the family (1867) commenced to trouble the Catholics. Called to Rome in 1869, Hyacinth, on his return to Paris, in the month of June of the same year, lec- tured before the " International League of Peace," comparing the Catholic, Protes- tant, and Jewish religions, and considered them as the three great religions of the civilized nations. On Sept. 20th, 1869, Hyacinth left his Order. Having been excommunicated, he left for the United States. At his return into France, a few months afterwards, he went to reside at Rome, then in London and finally went to Munich (1871), to assist at the Congress of the "Old Catholics," assembled by the ex-canon Dollinger. Having completely broken with the Roman Church, he mar- ried at London, in 1872, a certain widow Merriman ; then he became pastor of the liberal Catholics at Geneva. Here dissen- sions, which soon broke out, forced him to leave. He came to Paris and asked permission from the government (1875) to hold conferences, which was granted to

him (1877) under condition to conform himself to the regulations for private as- semblies. He finally opened the so-called " Galilean Church " in a building formerly used as a cafe-concert (1879). Financial difficulties forced him to abandon this locality. After different fruitless attempts to find another place and troubles with one of his vicars, the ex-abbe Bichery, Hyacinth made himself an object of ridicule more every day, and at present nobody hardly takes any notice of him.

Hyacintha (St.) (1585-1640). — Italian religious of the Order of St. Clare, daughter of Mariscotti, Count of Vignanello, born near Viterbo. Founded, under the name of Oblates of Mary, two congregations, for the relief of old people and infirm, shame- ful poor and prisoners. F. Jan. 3d.

Hyginus (St.). — Pope from 137 to 141. Successor of St. Telesphorus, he combated the heresies of Valentinus and Cerdo, or- dained that there should be only one god- father and one godmother at baptism ; he received the crown of martyrdom under the Emperor Antoninus. F. Jan. nth.

Hylozoism. — Philosophical system which attributes to matter a primitive and inherent life.

Hymeneus. — Probably a citizen of Ephesus, converted by some of the earlier discourses of St. Paul. He afterwards fell into heresy which denied the resurrection of the body and said it was already ac- complished (II. Tim. ii. 17, 18).

Hymn (canticle in honor of the Deity). — The hymn, as we understand it from the religious point of view, existed in Greece (chants of the mysteries of Eleusis) and at Rome (chants of the Salian priests). But this kind of literature was little cultivated, and the first real authors of all hymnology are the Jews ; the Psalms of the Bible con- stitute the models, and the first examples of our liturgical chants. The custom to celebrate the praises of the Lord by music and poetry passed directly from the Israel- ites to the first Christians. It is thus that Jesus and the Apostles chanted a canticle after the institution of the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, that St. James and St. Paul recommended to the Christian com- munities to sing Psalms. The Christian Churches of Bithynia possessed hymns to the praise of the Saviour, which the Faith- ful chanted in antiphons. St. Ignatius

Hyperdulia

347

Hypnotism

received in a dream the order to introduce the singing of hymns in the Church of Antioch, from whence this rite was spread. We have from this epoch several Greek hymns, one from St. Clement, King of the Saints, another which is the prototype of the Gloria in Excelsis. In the fourth cen- tury, Ephrem of Syria composed a great number of the hymns which we possess. At the same time Methodius, Bishop of Tyre (died, 311) ; Synesius, Bishop of Ptolemais; and Gregory of Ndzianzum wrote hymns mostly in the anacreontic rhythm, which was still employed by Sophronius, Bishop of Jerusalem, in the fourth century. But from the end of the preceding century, Anatolius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Romanus, the hymnographer, wrote in Greek religious chants which had noth- ing common any more with the classic prosody and presented the first attempts of modulated hymns which are still in use in the schismatic Church of the East. Among the hymnographers who have developed this free form of the religious chant in the Church of the East, we can quote Leo the Philosopher, Constantine Porphyrogene- tus, Cosmas, John Damascene, Theodore, and Joseph. In the Church of the West, the custom of singing hymns appears to have been introduced in the fourth cen- tury only, in imitation of the Eastern Church, by St. Hilary of Poitiers, and St. Ambrose of Milan. The first would be the author of the hymn Hymnum dicat turba Fratrum . The second composed sev- eral, for instance, the TV Deum laudamus, which the Benedictine monks recasted about the end of the sixth century, and ap- propriated for the liturgical service. It was this Ambrosian ritual, to which Spain op- posed the Mozarabic ritual fixed in the sev- enth century byLeander and Isidore. The Council of Toledo, in 633, approved the use of these rituals in the Churches. Among the hymnographers of this primitive epoch, we must quote Pope Damasus and Pru- dentius. In the fifth and sixth centuries, there was Pope Gelasius; the priest Sedu- lius; Eunodius, Bishop of Pavia; then to- ward the close of the sixth century, Pope Gregory the Great and the poet Venantius Fortunatus of whom we can quote the Vcxilla Regis. Most of these chants were written in iambic meters. But begin- ning with the sixth century, a great modi- fication took place in this kind of literature. They commenced to consult, for the forma- tion of the verses, no longer the quantity

of words, but their tonic accent, and to give the strophe more harmony, they had recourse to the assonance of the final syl- lables of the verses and to the rhyme." We find traces of the new system in most of the Breviaries of the various national Churches since the beginning of the Mid- dle Ages and one quotes, among their au- thors, the Venerable Bede and Paul the Deacon, the first of which composed the famous hymn Attetide homo; Paulinus, Pa- triarch of Aquileia; Theodulphus, Bishop of Orleans, to whom we owe the Gloria, Laus et Honor Tibi sit, chanted on Palm Sunday. Finally, Fulbert, Bishop Char- tres (died, 1028), author of the Chorus novte Hierusalem, which is perhaps the most remarkable production of this epoch, together with the Veni Creator Spirit us which is anterior and due, perhaps, to Charles the Bald, and the Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis Gratia, which is very probably from Notker. The latter is the first author of Sequences or Proses, which were admit- ted in the Eucharistic service, between the reading of the Epistle and that of the Gos- pel. We can quote among these composi- tions the Vent sancte Spiritus, whose author is uncertain, and the hymns of Adam of St. Victor. The most famous among these Sequences is the Dies Irce, composed by Thomas of Celano, and the Stabat Mater dolorosa, due to Jacobonus or Jacobus de Benedictis. These two hymns have served as text to the masters of music until our days. St. Thomas of Aquin wrote hymns on the occasion of the institution of Corpus Christi by Urban IV. (1261) and St. Bernard of Clairvaux is the author of several canticles, breathing great fervor.

Hyperdulia. See Worship.

Hypnotism. — An abnormal mental con- dition characterized by insensibility to most impressions of sense, with excessive sensibility to some impressions, and an ap- pearance of total unconsciousness; espe- cially, that variety of this condition which is artificially induced, usually by concen- trating the attention of the subject upon some object of vision, as a bright bit of glass, or upon the operator, who generally aids in producing the result by making a few slight passes with his hands. When in this condition, the mental action and the volition of the subject are to a large extent under the control of the operator. Whether and how far hypnotism is a lawful practice ? Some grave theologians have

Hypostasis condemned hypnotism absolutely, chiefly on account of abuses which they deemed inseparable from it ; but other standard authorities teach that hypnotism may not be universally condemned as evil in itself, although it is unquestionably dangerous. This latter opinion seems to be the more common one.

Hypostasis. — It is an article of Catholic faith that there is in God one sole sub- stance or nature and three Hypostases or Persons. This word formerly caused lively discussions among the Greeks, and afterwards among the Greeks and Latins. In the language of some Greek Fathers, hypostasis appears to be the same thing as substance ; according to this meaning it was a heresy to say that Jesus Christ was a different hypostasis from that of the Father; but all the Greeks did not under- stand it that way. On their part, the Latins, who held that hypostasis signifies substance or essence, were scandalized, be- lieving that the Greeks admitted in God

three substances or three natures, like the Tritheists. In a synod of Alexandria, over which St. Athanasius presided about the year 362, each party explained itself, and thus they came to an understanding; it can be seen that under different terms they rendered precisely the same idea. However, at first not all the minds were quieted, because about the year 376, St. Jerome, passing through the Orient, when requested to teach like the Greeks three hypostases in the Most Holy Trinity, con- sulted Pope Damasus about what he should do and in what manner he ought to express himself.

Hyssop. — A plant which is often men- tioned in Scripture (Ex. xii. 22; Hebr. ix. 19), the twigs of which were used for sprinkling in the ceremony of purification. It is supposed by some to have been the caper bush, Capparis spinosa, and by others a plant or several plants growing in Palestine and allied with the European hyssop. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

    Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

    They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

    Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

    Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

    These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,