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Ibirians (Conversion of the)
    The Iberians, at the foot of the Caucasus, were won to the faith by a Christian slave, named Nunia. She cured the queen of an illness by her prayers, and by this means lent a powerful impulse to the conversion of the whole nation.

    The king, named Miraeus, is said to have requested Constantine the Great to send him Christian missionaries. From Iberia the Gospel was carried to the Albanians, and in the sixth century, also to the Lazi (Colchians) and the Abasgi. Tzathus, the chief of the Lazi, was baptized at Constantinople in the year 522.

    St. Maximus and St. Stephen in the seventh century labored successfully among these nations.


    — Bishop of Edessa (436), died about 457. Accused of defending the doctrines of Theodore of Mopsuestia, he was condemned by the Council of Ephesus (449) and deposed, then restored to his see by the Council of Chalcedon (451).

    — Iceland, which was discovered by the Norwegians in 861, is indebted to King Olaf I. of Norway, for the introduction of Christianity. In the year 1000, the Christian religion was universally received in Iceland by a popular assembly.

    In 1056, Adalbert, Archbishop of Bremen, by order of the Pope, consecrated Isleif first bishop of Skalholt; he died in the odor of sanctity, in to8o. Benedictine and Augustinian monks founded monasteries in Iceland, and a second bishopric was founded in Hoolum, in 1107.

    By tyrannical means, Catholicism was destroyed in Iceland. Protestantism was established against the known and clearly expressed wishes of the people, by the Norwegians. John Areson, Bishop of Hoolum, who opposed the introduction of Lutheranism with all his might, was put to death, and the disaffection of the Icelanders was overcome by the force of arms.

    The Icelanders, under Eric the Red, discovered Greenland in 982, and planted a colony there, comprising two cities, with sixteen churches and two monasteries.

    In 1055, Adalbert of Bremen, consecrated Albert first bishop of Greenland, who established his see at Gardar. From Greenland, Christianity is said to have been propagated to America. About the year l001, Leif, son of Eric the Red, discovered Helluland, Markland, and Vinland, which are supposed to be modern Labrador, Nova Scotia, and New England.

    Most of the Northmen in America were converted by the missionaries whom Leif led with him from Norway, where he himself had been induced by King Olaf I. to embrace the faith. Of these missionaries, the most celebrated was Eric, who was consecrated first American Bishop at Lund, in Den- mark, by Archbishop Adzer, in 1121.

    Icelandic historians ascribe the first discovery and evangelization of their island, as well as of the North American coast lands, to the Irish, the latter country being named by them" Irland it Mikla," or Greater Ireland.

    — A large and opulent city of Asia Minor, now called Konieh. In the time of St. Paul, it probably belonged to Pisidia (Acts xiv. i). A Church Synod was held in this city in the year 230.

    (The act of breaking or destroying images).— The Emperor Leo III., the Isaurian (718-741), desirous either to further the conversion of the Jews and Mohammedans or to interfere with the laws of the Church, forbade the veneration of images. In 726 he published an edict enacting the immediate removal of all pictures of saints, and of all statues and crucifixes from churches and public places.

    In vain did the whole Christian world rise up against the imperial mandate. This war against images was pursued by Leo's son, Constantine V. Copronymus (741- 775), and Leo IV. (775-780).

    Many costly libraries, monasteries, and sacred vessels were demolished, and churches were robbed of their treasures of art {Icono- clasm). Bishops and monks defended the veneration of images and in consequence were abused, persecuted, or murdered (730- 780).

    More than 300 bishops, creatures of the emperor, and too cowardly to oppose the despotic ruler, assented to his peremp- tory edicts. The greater number of the monks remained faithful. St. John Da- mascene was the chief defender of the doctrines of the Church. The Empress Irene favored the veneration of images, which put an end to the warfare (780). See Images.

    — In Greek churches a solid high screen, usually of wood, reaching at least halfway and often nearly or quite to the ceiling, andseparating the bema.

    chapel of prothesis, and diaconicon from the rest of the church. Its name is derived from its being always ornamented with icons {images) of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin and other saints.

    Idioms {Communication of ) (Interchange of attributes between the God Christ and the Man Christ.) — The divine and human predicates properly belong to the subject connoted by the terms " Christ " and "Word Incarnate"; yet, according to a general rule of logic, they may be con- nected with any other term demonstrating or supposing the same subject, though this ether term does not "formally" represent the subject as bearer of the predicate used ; V. g-., of the Man Christ we predicate di- vine attributes, although " formally as man" He is not entitled to them. Vice versa, of the God Christ we predicate pas- sibility, etc., though as God He is impas- sible. We have thus a transfer of predicates or attributes from one nature to the other, and an exchange of properties, technically known as "Communication of Idioms." The exchange of Idioms in Holy Scripture is the strongest proof for the unity of Per- son in Christ, and the most prominent manifestation of its wonderful character. The law, however, by which in our speech we interchange the predicates, is not pe- culiar to Christ; it is a general law of logic, which finds its application in the human compound and in many others, but nowhere so perfectly as in Christ.

    Idolatry. — By idolatry is meant the in- ward adoration and the outward worship bestowed on some created being, or some passion preferred to God " which is the service of idols" (I. Cor, iii. 5), and distinctly prohibited by God by the First Commandment. Idolatry appears to have been common among all ancient nations, except the Jews. It was most developed among the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It exists still more or less in all the non- Christian countries. See Paganism.

    Idumea. — The name given by the Greeks to the land of Edom, which extended originally, from the Dead Sea to the Elan- itic gulf of the Red Sea. Afterwards it extended more into the south of Juda, to- ward Hebron. The Idumeans were de- scendants of Esau. Saul attacked them and subdued them (I. Ki. xiv. 27; II. Ki; viii. 13).




    Ignatius (St.). — Little is known of the life of St. Ignatius, who was also called Theophorus. All we know is, that he was a disciple of St. John the Evangelist, that he occupied the episcopal chair at Antioch (70-107) for thirty-seven years, as succes- sor of St. Peter and Evodius ; that during the persecution of Domitian, he encour- aged and strengthened by prayer, fasting, and teaching the flock, intrusted to him; and that he suffered martyrdom for Christ, according to his own ardent desire, in the Roman ampitheatre on Dec. 20th, between 107 and 117, probably 107. We have seven Epistles of St. Ignatius, written on his painful journey to Rome. These Epistles are veritable jewels of ancient Christian literature ; they are full of unction, and every page bears witness to the episcopal fortitude, faithfulness, pastoral solicitude, and the invincible faith of the great martyr. See MiGNE, Pat. gr. V, 10-996. F. Feb. ist.

    Ignatius (St.) (798-877). — Patriarch of Constantinople, in 846. Son of Emperor Michael I., was persecuted, dispossessed of his see by the heresiarch Photius (857) and reinstated by a decree of Pope Nicho- las I. in 867. F. Oct. 23d.

    Ignatius of Loyola (St.). See Jesuits.

    Ignorantines (Fr. Freres Ignorantins). — A religious congregation of men of the Catholic Church, associated for the gratui- tous instruction of poor children in sacred as well as secular learning. It was founded in France, in the early part of the eigh- teenth century (1724), by the Abb6 de la Salle, and has gradually been introduced almost all over the world. See Brothers.

    I. H. S. — These three letters are some- times used as an abbreviation of the Holy Name of Jesus, or symbol of it ; they are sometimes ignorantly explained as if they stood for the Latin words, 'fesus, Hominum Salvator, which means yestts, Saviour of Men; but, in fact, they are of Greek origin, for in the Greek alphabet, the character H has the same sound as the Latin E. The letters I. H. S., therefore, are the first three letters of the Holy Name.

    Ildefonsus (St.) (606-667). — Ecclesias- tical writer, born at Toledo of a noble family. Disciple of St. Isidore; archbishop of his native city in 6*57, the most popular of the saints of Spain. He has left a great number of works, such as : De ferpetua

    Virginitate sanctcB Marice; Liber de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, etc. F. Jan. 23d.

    Illuminati {enlightened). — Illuminati they formerly called the neophytes or newly baptized, because in baptizing them they put a lighted candle into their hand; a symbol of the faith and grace which they received in baptism.

    Illuminati {Sect «?/^^e).— This sect owed its origin to Adam Weishaupt(i 748-1 830), professor of Canon Law at the University of Ingolstadt, Bavaria. Weishaupt tried to withdraw the studying youth from the influence of the Jesuits, overthrow the latter, then, to combat both positive reli- gion and monarchy. In 1776, he founded the secret society of the Illuminati, obliged its members to be strictly obedient to its chiefs, to labor to procure to it new adher- ents, and to address to him frequent reports. Following Freemasonry, he established secret grades and preparatory degrees. The Illuminated {enlightened, in- structed), in the measure he became priest, sage, regent, and king, learned that the evilsof humanity are derived from religion and the power of the mighty, but that providence has procured to him the means to get out of his degradation : these means are the secret schools of wisdom ; no longer any princes, nor acts of violence; reason will become the only code of hu- manity, and men, after having abolished all the social distinctions, will lead quite a patriarchal life without priests and without kings. Such was, they maintained, the hidden sense of the doctrine of the great Master of Nazareth, the mystery revealed to his friends and indicated to others by simple comparisons. The dogmas of the Fall, regeneration, and grace only signify that man lost his primitive liberty and purity through intrigues and passions, and fell into a state of barbarity; that he was reduced to the imperfect condition in which we behold him now through the prifests, statesmen, and legislators, but that he will leave it by the force of his enlightened reason, regain conscience and the free use of his inborn liberty, and will be trans- formed into the kingdom of grace. The flaming star and the letter G symbolize light and grace ; those penetrated with this light and grace are the enlightened {illuminated). In a few years this secret society gained thousands of followers and counted among its number several influen- tial personages, who elevated their asso-


    351 Immortality of the Soul

    dates to the highest charges of both Church and State. The designs of the lUuminati, which were hostile both to the Church and the State, some time after were discovered, when their order was suppressed and Weishaupt banished by the Elector.

    Illyricum. — Orie of the four great pre- fectures into which the later Roman Em- pire was divided. It comprised the Dioceses of Macedonia and Dacia, and cor- responded generally to Greece, Crete, Macedonia, Albania, and Servia. St. Paul preached there (Rom. xv. 19) and Titus visited the country (II. Tim. iv. 10).

    Images. — The use of images in the house of God is authorized by Scripture. Moses was commanded to place the im- ages of two cherubim upon the Ark (Ex. XXV. and xxvi.), and Solomon " carved all the walls of the Temple round about with divers figures and carvings " (III. Ki. vi. 29). The primitive Christians were studi- ous to represent a variety of subjects se- lected from Holy Scripture, or allusive to their religion, upon the walls of those subterranean oratories to which they were accustomed to resort in times of persecu- tion. These paintings still remain visible at the present day, and it is demonstrated that some of them are the productions of the second century. These ancient paint- ings triumphantly refute the assertions of Protestants that no pictures or images were allowed in the churches for the first three centuries; and that they were first introduced by Paulinus and his contem- poraries, privately and by degrees, in the latter end of the fourth century. It cannot be denied that the image of Jesus Christ suspended from the Cross must awaken in our minds the most aflfecting remem- brance of Him "who had loved us so, as to deliver Himself up for us " (Gal. ii. 20). As long as the religious sentiments created by this image keep possession of the mind we are naturally prompted to manifest, by some exterior token, the ardor of that grateful piety with which the heart is glowing; and while we humble ourselves in presence of the image, we express our love and testify our submission toward its glorious and heavenly origin. We Catho- lics adorn our altars and our churches with the pictures and images of Christ and His sainted servants, and preserve them with decent and pious respect, not only through a reverence for their illustrious

    prototypes, but that the sight of them may recall to our remembrance their heroic virtues which made their lives so cele- brated, and quicken us, if not to emulate, at least to follow their example at a hum- ble distance, by some faint imitation of their holiness. Not only can sculpture and painting furnish the knowledge, and exhibit the detailed account of every fact recorded in the Old and New Testaments, to the man who cannot read, but not un- frequently the eye, by their assistance, convey to the imagination a more impres- sive and accurate idea than could be im- printed by a perusal of the passage itself in which it is registered, or by listening attentively to a disquisition on the subject from some learned commentator. This is particularly applicable with regard to the Crucifix. To the custom of having pic- tures and images in our churches, they have raised objections, and adduced a pre- cept in the Decalogue in support of their hostility. The commandment, however, does not prohibit the making of images; for, if it really did, God would have been the first to violate His own injunctions by directing Moses to make and set up the figures of the cherubim ; but what it for- bids is the making of idols, that is, of images to be adored and served as gods. Such a caution was necessary for the He- brew people, surrounded as they were by nations that followed the most ridiculous idolatry. See Veneration of Saints.

    Images ( Controversy on ) . See Icono-


    Immaculate Conception {Feast of the) (of the Blessed Virgin Mary, celebrated on the 8th of December). — By the Im- maculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we understand that the Blessed Virgin, from the first moment when her soul was united to her body, was pre- served from original sin and exempted from every stain, by a Divine privilege, in view of the future merits of Jesus Christ. See Mary.

    Immortality of the Soul. — Viewed his- torically, the belief in the immortality of the soul has been interwoven everywhere and at every time with the history of the human race. It is a most prominent fea- ture in the records of the most ancient re- ligions of antiquity, but under three dis- tinctive forms : I. One is the simple idea of the survival of the soul after the death

    Immortality of the Soul 352 Immortality of the Soul

    of the body, without, however, any de- termined moral state being assigned to it. 2. Another is similar to that taught by Christianity: after death judgment takes place, and the lot of the deceased, accord- ing to the life spent in this world, is settled for good or for evil. 3. And a third form is that of metempsychosis, or the return of souls to actual life, either as men or animals, while their new condition is al- lotted to them in view of their former lives on earth. Relatively, however, this doctrine, it is admitted, is of recent origin.

    In this century, the graves of ancient Chaldea have been made to bear witness to the belief in the immortality of the soul, as held b}' the ancient Assyrians. The ex- plorations of Mr. L. Loftus and others in those ancient lands have shown with what superstitious care the dead were treated in view of their passage to another world. In their coffins or tombs they put provisions, lamps, arms, etc. "The same practice," writes Mr. Loftus, " is, I believe, con- tinued among the Arabs, who conceive that these articles are necessary to give the spirit strength on its long journey." In ancient Egypt, belief in the soul's immor- tality was a fundamental doctrine of religion. A clear proof of this is found in the Book of the Dead, as old, it is said, as the Egyptian nation itself. It consists of prayers, which the dead were expected to recite, in order to secure for themselves a favorable judgment. For this end to re- fresh their memories, a copy of the book, more or less perfect, was laid in the tomb with each mummy. The book also de- scribes how man after death will be con- ducted by the god Horus before the tribunal of Osiris to receive judgment. There he will have to plead his cause be- fore forty-two judges on forty-two different species of sin. This belief in immortality was brought before the eye on all sides in Egypt. It was written on papyrus, and was carved, under some sensible form, on walls, on tombs, and on public monuments. It was also the belief of ancient India, of China, of Greece, and pagan Rome.

    From the early beginning, the Hebrew race steadily adhered to the doctrine of the immortality of the soul as a first prin- ciple. For them, as a people, it required no proof, as being a truth which could not be gainsaid ; moreover, it underlay all He- brew tradition, and was assumed by the Doctors of the Law as an undeniable pos-

    tulate. The Hebrews knew that death was

    a punishment for sin, and not the complete annihilation of man. This, their firm be- lief, they manifested in various ways. In his obituaries of the patriarchs, Moses ends his narrative with these significant words, "and he was gathered to his people," words which Rationalists interpret as mean- ing that the patriarchs were buried in the tombs or among the graves of their fathers. This interpretation, at first sight plausible enough, is, however, contrary to the facts of the Mosaic narrative. Abraham was buried in Hebron, while his father, Thare, died at Haran in Syria, and Abraham's ancestors died and were buried in Chaldea. Jacob died in Egypt, and months elapsed before his body was buried in Mambre, in the land of Chanaan, and yet Moses writes of his death : " and he was gathered to his people." Aaron died on Mount Horeb and was buried there, away from every Israelite; Moses himself died on Mount Nebo, but the place of his burial was not known, and still both Aaron and Moses are said to have been gathered to their people. These and many other such texts clearly prove that for the Hebrew mind the afore- said phrase meant that the soul of the lately deceased friends lived beyond the grave, in the company of the souls of other deceased acquaintances.

    This meaning is determined still more minutely by the fact that in the ancient Hebrew Scriptures a place was designated in which the souls of the departed dwelt. In Hebrew it was called scheol, the Latin infernus, and the English hell. In the books of the Old Testament, written before the captivit}- of Babylon, the word, it has been calculated, occurs 65 times; in the Pentateuch alone, it occurs seven times. The Septuagint version of the Scriptures translates the word scheol by the Greek hades, the place which the Greeks assigned for the dwelling of the souls of the dead ; only twice does the Septuagint translate the word danatos, death. Scheol is, indeed, a general term, — not designating especially the abode of the just or that of the unjust. Hence, even in the Apostles' Creed, we say of Christ that " He descended into hell," that is, into limbo, where the souls of the just under the Old Testament were de- tained. When Jacob, according to the false report given to him, imagined that his son Joseph had been devoured by a wild beast, he exclaimed : " I will go down to my son into hell (scheol) mourning." Not cer-




    tainly into the hell of the wicked, since he and his son were just men. And on the other hand, it is written of Core and Abiron, who with their followers, rebelled against Moses, " that the earth broke asunder under their feet, and opening her mouth, devoured them with their tents and all their substance" (Num. xvi. 31-32) — clearly the hell of the damned. But the Hebrew faith in the different states of the just and unj ust in another world and the rewards that are there assigned to them is given at length in the fifth chapter of the Book of Wisdom. In other books of the Old Testament, such as the Books of Kings, Job, the Psalter of King David, Ecclesiasticus, the Prophecy of Isaias, allusions are often made to the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, not of purpose, as it were, a matter of contro- versy, but incidentally, and, as it were, to unquestioned convictions that spring up naturally from a common, settled, national belief. Indeed, so popular and so absorb- ing, even for the Hebrew mind, was the doctrine of immortality, that some persons, in spite of all prohibitions, grossly exag- gerated it and fell into superstition. The Israelites believed not only in the survival of the souls of the dead, but some among them by superstitious rites, evoked and consulted them, and even made offerings to them, as if they were adorable. The practice is expressly mentioned and con- demned in the Book of Deuteronomy; it is also spoken of in the Book of Leviticus, in t^e Books of Kings, in the Prophecy of Isaias. Sinful, undoubtedly, as it was in itself, as being a superstition, the prac- tice points directly to the faith in the soul's immortality ; it was, indeed, a corruption of that faith, but even by its extravagance it speaks to us of the vividness with which men then believed in the future existence of souls.

    The books from which we have just quoted, antedate the Babylonian captivity, but, again those that follow that date bear also the most ample testimony to the He- brew belief in the immortality of the soul. In them, all through the ages, the same voice, in grave, strong undertones, seems continually to repeat: " It is, therefore, a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sin." Considered in time and place, the testimony given, as we have seen, was uni- versal ; belief in a future undying life, seemed to be taken as a postulate of reason, and to live forever in the unseen world was 33

    held to be the natural development of hu- man life on earth. Consequently, since this doctrine has been universally held by the human race, it must be inevitably true.

    Immunities. — In ecclesiastical usage, the exemption of certain sacred places and ec- clesiastical personages from secular bur- dens and functions, and from acts regarded as repugnant to their sanctity. This im- munity is of three kinds : i. Local, giving to the sacred place the character of a ref- uge or asylum to any one fleeing to its protection. 2. Real, exempting the prop- erty of the Church and clergy from secular jurisdiction and taxation. 3. Personal, ex- empting the clergy themselves from the civil duties incumbent on other citizens and from lay jurisdiction. These ecclesi- astical immunities, once very numerous, are now very much restricted.

    Impanation. — In theology, the doctrine, held by Lutherans, that the body and blood of Christ are locally included in the bread and wine after consecration. It differs from transubstanfiation, or the doctrine that the bread and wine are actually changed by the consecration into the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

    Impediments of Matrimony. See Mat- rimony.

    Imposition of Hands. — Ceremony much in use among the Hebrews and Christians on several occasions. The Jews imposed the hands upon those for whom they prayed; upon the judges and magistrates in establishing them; upon the priests and sacred ministers in ordaining them, offer- ing them to the Lord. They also imposed hands upon the victims which they pre- sented at the tabernacle for sin. The wit- nesses imposed hands upon the head of the person accused ; Jesus Christ imposed hands upon the children they presented to Him, and He blessed them. The Apostles gave the Holy Ghost to the baptized by imposing their hands, and the Church im- poses hands upon those she ordains to the priesthood.

    Improperia. — Verses which the Church sings on Good Friday and which contain the reproaches which our divine Saviour addressed to the Jews.

    Imputation is one of the most common technical expressions in Christian the- ology. It is meant to denote the trans- ference of guilt or of merit, of punishment

    Incarnate Word


    In Coena Domini

    or reward. The doctrine of the imputa- tion of sin, for example, is the doctrine which inculcates that all mankind are sharers in the fact and consequences of Adam's fall from innocence; and the cor- relative doctrine of the imputation of Christ's righteousness is that which incul- cates that the merit or righteousness of Christ is transferred to those who believe in Him, or, in other words, that they become sharers in His merit or righteous- ness. The race, one "with Adam, the be- liever, one -with Christ, are the ideas that are really true in the phrases *' imputation of sin" and "imputation of righteous- ness." The logic of theology has evolved many more applications of the phrases, but these applications are rather the refine- ments of theological pedantry than the expression of true spiritual relations.

    Incarnate Word {Ladies of the'). — A congregation of nuns founded in 1625 for instruction, but afterwards assumed the care of hospitals. Eight of their houses still remain in Texas.

    Incarnation {Mystery of the). — By the mystery of the Incarnation we understand that Jesus Christ, the second Person of the Trinity, took a body and soul like ours. The Incarnation, of course, is a mystery we cannot fathom, still we know that it was the Son, the second Person of the Trinity, who became Man for the Redemp- tion of the world — not the Father nor the Holy Ghost; notwithstanding that the three Persons of the Trinity are but one God. " For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to Himself, not im- puting to them their sins ; and He hath placed in us the word of reconciliation (II. Cor. V. 19). It is evident that God became incarnate for several principal reasons, namely: To make Himself visible to us ; to manifest His love and goodness toward us; to enable us to yield perfect adoration, praise, and obedience ; to atone for our sins; and to obtain the salvation of man by meriting for us sanctifying grace on earth, and eternal glory in heaven. See Jesus Christ.

    Incense (Lat. thus, incensum, an aro- matic material, which exhales perfume during combustion). — By the command of God, the use of incense was very frequent in the service of the Jewish temple and it was thus that Moses received particular injunction from God to employ incense in

    the service of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxx. 34- 37; Lev. xvi. 12, 13; III. Ki. vii. 50). The primitive Christians imitated the example of the Jews and adopted the use of incense at the celebration of the Liturgy. By the third of the apostolic canons we find it enacted that, among the very few things which might be offered at the altar while the Eucharistic sacrifice was celebrated were oil for the lights, and incense. The use of incense in all the Oriental Churches is perpetual and almost daily, nor do any of them ever celebrate their Liturgy with- out it, unless compelled by necessity. The Coptic as well as the Eastern Christians observe the same ceremonial as the Latin Church in incensing the altar, the sacred vessels, and ecclesiastical personages. The most ancient of the three Greek liturgies, that of St. James, commences with burning incense, which the celebrant puts into the thurible after he has approached the altar. Immediately afterwards he incenses the Eucharistic bread, the smaller veil with which he covers the chalice, and the larger one which he spreads over the disc and chalice. He then incenses all the altar around, as well as those who are assisting here, meanwhile all reciting a prayer as the officiating priest passes. Among the munificent and truly imperial donations of Constantine the Great to the Churches of Rome, the liber fontificalis mentions two thuribles formed of the purest gold, pre- sented by that emperor to the Lateran Basilica, and a third, likewise of the purest gold and ornamented with a profusion of gems and precious stones, given by him to the baptistery of the same Church.

    Incense is the most appropriate symbol of prayer. In fact, it would be impossible to select any symbol better calculated to signify to us what our prayers should be. The incense cannot ascend on high unless it be first enkindled ; so our prayers, which are in reality the desires of the heart, can- not mount before the throne of heaven, unless that heart be glowing with the fire of God's holy love. Nothing arises of the incense but what is of a grateful odor ; we should, therefore, ask of God, that He would prepare our hearts in a manner that such petitions may be breathed from them as have a holy fragrance; we should ex- claim with the Psalmist: " Let my prayer, O Lord, be directed as incense in Thy sight" (Ps. cxl. 2).

    In Coena Domini. See Ccena Domini.

    Index LiBRORUM Prohibitorum 355


    Index Librorum Prohibitorum. Censure of Books.


    India and China {Christianity in). See Missions.

    India and China {Worship in). — The most of the Hindoos profess Brahmanism, and count about 187,937,450 followers. In Ladakh, Nepaul, Boutan, and in some parts of Assam and Ceylon, Buddhism counts 3,418,875 Faithful. Islamism (50,- 121,585) is professed in the provinces of Delhi, Oude, Sindhi, Malabar, Malwah, the Laquedives, and Maldives. The religion of the Sikhs or of Manak is followed in Pendjab by 1,853,385 natives. India counts 12,000 Jews, 83,250 Parsis or Guebres; 952,058 seem to profess no religion, and 6,426,127 natives simply adore nature. The Christians number 1,862,634, of which 953>058 are Roman Catholics; 20,135 Episcopalians; 373,747 Anglicans; 29,577 Lutherans ; 107,886 Protestants, I n d e - pendents, etc. ; some Nestorians, Ana- baptists, etc. — Bishoprics, Vicariates, Prefectures, Apostolic. Archbishopic of Goa, with suffragan bishoprics of Cochin, San-Thome of Meliapour, Macao, Ma- lacca; Vicariates: Agrah, West Bengal, East Bengal, Bombay (missions north and south), Visagap^tam, Koimbatour, Co- lombo, Hayderabad, Jafnapatam, Madras, Madura, Mangalore, Maissur, Patnah, Pondichery, Quilon, Sardhana, Verapolly. Prefecture Apostolic of central Bengal.

    In Farther India, or Indo-China, com- prising the kingdoms of Burmah, Siam, and Annam, Catholicity has been making steady progress, in spite of the hostility of the natives toward foreigners and the re- ligion of Christ. The missions of the two first-named kingdoms have between 60,000 and 70,000 Christians under the care of six vicars apostolic, and 120 missioners. In the empire of Annam there were about 400,000 Christians in 1820. This promis- ing mission has been the scene of cruel persecutions within the last sixty years. In our own day, under the provocation of the French invasion (1882-1885), Christian blood has flown in torrents. Hundreds of churches and religious institutions have been destroyed and thousands of Catholics have been massacred. But in spite of in- cessant persecutions, the missions of An- nam, which include nine vicariates, may be said to flourish exceedingly. They count some 710,000 Catholics, over 500,000

    in Tong-King, 108,500 in Cochin-China, and about 20,000 in Cambodia.

    In China great efforts have been made within the last fifty years to reconstruct the missions which heathen fanaticism had destroyed. The work of evangelization was much retarded by the official hostility to foreigners and by the persecutions which the "Taiping Rebels," the sworn enemies of everything Christian, raised against the Church. In 1870, a popular outbreak occurred which resulted in the massacre of two Lazarists and forty-six Sisters of Charity. Nevertheless the Church of China is growing every year, especially since 1858, when France and England compelled the Chinese govern- ment to grant the Christians the free exer- cise of their religion. At the present day there are in China Proper over half a million Catholics, governed by 36 bishops and two prefects apostolic, while the de- pendencies of the Chinese Empire — Thi- bet, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Corea — count some 55,000 Christians in charge of six vicars apostolic.

    Indians in America. See Missions.

    Indulgence (The name Indulgence is derived from a Latin word meaning par- don). — An indulgence is an act of mercy exercised by the Church apart from the sacrament of penance, by which we may gain partial or plenary remission, through the merits of our Saviour, of the temporal punishment remaining due for sin; the guilt and eternal punishment having been already remitted in absolution. Through an indulgence is gained the canceling of temporal punishment due for sin, equiva- lent, as some hold, though mistakingly, to that canonical or public penance inflicted on sinners according to the ancient disci- pline of the Church. A partial indulgence, in like manner, is supposed by some to forgive a limited portion of the temporal punishment, represented by a certain num- ber of days or years equal to the chastise- ment enforced by the Church in the early ages of Christianity, which would have lasted that space of time. Such views have been condemned, or are now ex- ploded. A plenary indulgence is not the entire remission of the penalty tnat would have been imposed at the time of canonical penances, but a remission of all penalty due on account of sin, to the end of time.

    It is an article of faith that the Church has power to grant indulgences by au-




    thority of our Lord, who gave that right to His Apostles when He said: "Amen, I say to you, whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven ; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven. Again I say to you, that if two of you shall con- sent upon earth, concerning anything whatsoever they shall ask, it shall be done to them by My Father who is in heaven " (Matt, x^'iii. 18, 19). The use of this power may be seen in Scripture where St. Paul absolved the sinner, whom he had before excommunicated, on his doing penance, saying: "To him that is such a one, this rebuke is sufficient, that is given by many : So that contrariwise, you shall rather pardon and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one be swallowed up with over-much sorrow. For which cause I beseech you, that you would confirm your charity towards him. . . . And to whom you have pardoned anj'thing, I also. For what I have pardoned, if I have par- doned anything, for your sakes have I done it in the person of Christ " (H. Cor. ii. 6-8, 10).

    Bishops may in their respective diocese accord a partial indulgence of forty days, or of one vear, on the day a new church is consecrated ; but the plenary power of granting indulgences pertains exclusively to the Pope.

    The virtue of indulgence outflows from the infinite merits of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the abundant merits of the ever Blessed and Immaculate Virgin ; as also from the merits of the saints, whose merits, being superfluous in their own of- fering of the satisfaction due to divine justice, have remained in the spiritual and common treasury of the Church. Indul- gences remit not either the guilt or the eternal punishment of sin, and a most wicked calumny it is to assert that they are a permission to commit sin. They re- mit, under given conditions, a part or the whole of the temporary punishment due to sin. They apply directly to those who gain them, and are rendered profitable to those to whom they are made over. They can be applied to the dead, yet benefit them only by the way of suffrage.

    To gain an indulgence we must not only have the intention to do so, either actually at the moment, or virtually by reason of an intention previously fixed upon, but we must be in a state of grace at least when carrying out the ultimate condition to

    which the indulgence is attached, and fullv discharge all the other conditions pre- scribed. To gain a plenary indulgence it is further necessary to be exempt from delib- erate affection even of venial sin. It is not out of place to remark, in reference to plenary indulgences, that communion when prescribed may be received in any Church whatsoever, provided that a contrary ordi- nance be not otherwise attached. No pray- ers of ordinary obligation can serve for the gaining of an indulgence, unless such be declared permissible in the edict connected therewith. As no indulgence can be ob- tained when there is sin unforgiven in the soul, it follows that the desire to obtain an indulgence for ourselves or others is a most powerful incentive to repentance. It should be added that the Council of Trent pro- nounces anathema against those who assert that indulgences are useless, or who deny that the power to grant them abides in the Church.

    Indulgences are in no way compulsory, but we should regard the gaining of them as tantamount to the amassing of untold wealth — a fortune that dies not with us, but is of inestimable value in the future. We, who have such a natural repugnance for all suffering in this world, should un- questionably strain every effort to mitigate or perhaps exempt ourselves from those immeasurably more intense sufferings in the life to come. Of greater merit it un- doubtedly is to gain indulgences for the dead than for ourselves, because charity is most pleasing to God, in whose sight we acquire higher favor by self-abnegation in the heroic act of offering all our deeds of satisfaction and the suffrages, that may be applied to us after death, to the Blessed Virgin, that she may, at will, distribute and bestow such favors on souls in purga- torv. This offering, or donation, called " The Heroic Act," accords us certain very great privileges applicable to the dead, and does not prevent priests from offering the holy sacrifice of the Mass for other inten- tions, nor the laity from praying for whom they will, or from gaining other merit by other and further acts of virtue.

    Indulgence ( yubilee) . — The indulgence of the Jubilee is a plenary indulgence to which are added several extraordinary privileges, i. It is given to the universal Church, while other plenary indulgences are only for portions of the flock of Jesus Christ. 2. Approved confessors have the




    power of absolving from all censures and reserved cases ; and of commuting vows, as well as the works prescribed for gaining the Jubilee, to those who cannot accom- plish them. These works are usually seven in number : procession, visiting of churches, prayer in churches, confession, communion, fasting, and almsgiving.

    During the Jubilee all the ordinary in- dulgences are suspended, the following and a few others are usually excepted : in- dulgences granted for the hour of death ; those which are attached to the recital of the Angelus, to the pious action of accom- panying the Blessed Sacrament to the sick, to altars privileged for the departed ; and those which are granted directly in favor of the souls in purgatory.

    The Jubilee, properly so called, or the Great Jubilee, is that which returns every twenty-five years, and the year in which it occurs is called the " Holy Year." The word Jubilee means dismissal or remission. Among the Jews, it was the name of every fiftieth year. On the return of this happy year, all prisoners and slaves were restored to liberty, inheritances received were given back to their former masters, debts were annulled, and the land remained unculti- vated. It was a year of pardon and rest (Lev. XXV.; Num. x.). Now, the Jubilee of the Old Law was only a figure of that of the New. The Jubilee of Christianity forgives the spiritual debts with which sinners are laden ; it sets free the prisoners and slaves of the devil ; it enables us to re- cover possession of the spiritual goods which we have lost by sin.

    Indulgences (,Sale of). — It is true that the Catholic Church formerly imposed canonical penances for certain sins ; it is also true that she has shortened the dura- tion and changed the nature of these canon- ical penances by granting, on certain conditions, what is called an indulgence either in consideration of the person of the penitent, or for the furtherance of the pub- lic good. Thus in the time of the Cru- sades, the Popes granted the remission of the temporal punishment due to sins which were already pardoned by the worthy reception of the sacrament of pen- ance, to those who would take part in the expedition for the rescue of the Holy Land. By complying with the conditions, the Crusaders gained the indulgence. Thus again in the fifteenth century, indul- gences were often granted to those who

    gave alms toward the building or endow- ment of hospitals and churches. This was a means frequently and usefully em- ployed by ecclesiastical authority in order to excite its children to the practice of almsgiving. Hence it happened that un- der the Pontificates of Alexander VI., Julius II., and Leo X., indulgences were quite frequently granted. This is what Protestants have not ceased to call " Sale of Indulgences," These accusations were especially brought forth on the occasion of the indulgence granted by Leo X., in the year 1567. We will not inquire here whether the end Leo X. had in view, which was to procure revenues to enable him to complete the great Basilica of St. Peter, perfectly justified the publication of a general indulgence. It is sufficient for us to remark that those who contributed, did so to the erecting of a temple destined for general usefulness and which would forever be the glory of Christian genius. Neither does criticism attack the Bull it- self, for this was drawn up and published according to the ordinary form, nor its ob- ject, but the manner in which the pre- scriptions of the indulgence were applied and observed. Here we must admit real abuses and of a nature to throw discredit on indulgences in general. The effective execution of the Bull of Indulgence de- manded preachers and intermediaries, in order to draw from it those resources which were expected, and to transmit the same to Rome. The Roman chancery, not being able to find among the secular clergy collectors zealous enough, was obliged to use other intermediaries, and transferred to them the power to publish and distribute the indulgences. In Ger- many this right was bought by Albert, Bishop of Mayance, then given by the lat- ter to the banker Fugger of Augsburg. This was certainly a specimen of business transaction, of gain and barter, the result of which inevitably served to discredit re- ligion and to seriously diminish the amount of alms intended by the donors for Rome. Moreover, many of those who preached and published the indulgences used very many improper methods and shifts which gave to their work rather the character of an every day market-sale transaction than an assembly of the Faith- ful bent on fulfilling a pious work. The many accusations against Tetzel are un- doubtedly false. Even the Protestant writer, Leidemann, has conclusively proved




    him to be innocent of the charges heaped on him by his enemies and prejudiced his- torians. Tetzel was undoubtedly a good theologian and an honest man. He made mistakes, and lacked prudence in the per- formance of his duties. *' Had Leo X.," says Cardinal Palaviceni, *' surrounded himself with more and better theologians and followed their advice, he certainly would have acted with more precaution and avoided many mistakes which fol- lowed the promulgation and dispensation of the general indulgences."

    Indult. — An indult is an exceptional favor granted by the Sovereign Pontiff to a state, community, or individuals. A familiar instance is that of the Lenten in- dult, by which the Pope authorizes the bishops, according to the circumstances of different countries, to dispense more or less with the rigor of the canons as to the Lenten fast. In former times, indults chiefly related to the patronage of church dignities and benefices.

    Infallibility of the Church and Pope. —

    The Church is infallible, that is to say, she can neither err nor deceive in matters of faith and morals. In fact : i. Jesus Christ has said : " Go, teach all nations ; . . . and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world." When our Saviour, who is truth itself, is always with his Church, how could she teach any error? 2. Jesus Christ again has said, in speaking to St. Peter: "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I shall build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her." But if the Church could err or deceive the Faithful in her teaching, the gates of hell would prevail against her. 3. St. Paul calls the Church the pillar and column of truth. But would she be the pillar and column of truth, if she ever could teach any error.'' The promise of infallibility has been made by Jesus Christ, to the Church and in the Church, first to Peter, and in his person to all his legitimate successors, whence it follows that if the sovereign PontiflF, if from the height of his Pontifical Chair he condemns an error or proclaims a truth, all the pastors, as well as the simple Faith- ful, are bound to submit themselves, with- out fear of being led into any error. How, indeed, could he teach error, to whom it has been said in the person of blessed Peter : " I have prayed for thee in order that thy faith fail not." Again to the one

    to whom it has been said: " Confirm thy brethren."

    The seat of infallibility rests in the Cath- olic bishops in communion with the see of Rome, whether dispersed or united in a general council. The Church is infallible in her work of teaching, and the work of teaching belongs to the governing body of the Church, the Hierarchy. From this it follows that the governed, the Church as learners will never, as a whole, fall from the faith, for this would imply the failure of the teachers in their work. Hence, these teachers, the bishops, are the proper seat of infallibility, but not the whole of them, for history and experience prove that not only do individuals among them make shipwreck of the faith, but at times a large part of the clergy of entire provinces have lapsed, as happened in the days of the Donatist schism, in southern France in the twelfth century, and in various parts of northern Europe at the time of the Refor- mation. History further shows that simple priests, whether charged with the care of parishes or not, have never been con- sidered as ranking with bishops as judges of the faith ; and the doctrine according to which they have in virtue of their ordina- tion a right to judge, is condemned as at least erroneous by Pope Pius VI.

    Thus the gift of infallibility belongs to the divinely appointed official witnesses. It pertains in reality to the apostolic office, and consequently to those with whom the apostolic office and power rests. Now, in- dividual bishops have not full apostolic power; their jurisdiction is limited to their diocese; and, again, that jurisdiction, including the power to teach and testify, is received from an Apostle, and may be taken away by him, and against his will there is no appeal. A bishop, in order to make even his limited jurisdiction truly apostolic, requires missio apostolica. This holds good for all times. Without such connection with an Apostle, no bishop can be reputed in the apostolic succession, and his testimony is of no value whatever. This being so, it clearly follows first, that the testimony of individual bishops in union with him who alone is an Apostle (real successor) is not infallible, because it is not the testimony of the full apostolic power; secondly, that the testimony of all the bishops in union with the Apostolic See is and must be infallible ; thirdly, that the testimony of him who is a true suc- cessor of an Apostle is by itself infallible.




    The first two propositions have always been explicitly taught by the Church, the latter only since the Vatican Council. Thus the subject of infallibility is both the Pope as successor of St. Peter by him- self, and the Pope and bishops considered as one body, because the subject in the last analysis is the apostolic office and power. As to the infallibility of the Pope, in the acts of the Vatican Council, held in 1870 (Sess. iv. cap. 4), we find the following: " The Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when in the exer- of his office of pastor and teacher of all Christians, he, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority defines that a doctrine on faith and morals is to be held by the whole Church, by the assistance of God promised to him in the person of blessed Peter, has that infallibility with which it was the will of our Divine Redeemer that His Church should be furnished in defin- ing a doctrine on faith or morals, and that therefore these definitions of the Roman Pontiff, of themselves and not through the consent of the Church, are irreforma- ble." See Art., Pope and Prerogatives OF THE Pope.

    Infidels. — By infidels we understand those to whom the Catholic religion has never been proposed in such a manner as to bring home to their minds the fact that they cannot prudently decline to embrace it. These are negative infidels, and are to be distinguished from men to whom the truth has been proposed but who have refused it, or having embraced it, have afterwards re- nounced it. These latter are positive in- fidels. See Atheism.

    Infralapsarians. — Sectarians professing that God has destined to damnation, after the fall of Adam, a certain number of men.

    Inneity. — Innate ideas, ideas which are naturally in the mind. Amidst the di- vergence of opinions about the famous question on the origin of ideas, there exists one capital point, namely, that the under- standing possesses an apart order of notions or ideas irreducible to experience and im- agination; first notions or ideas, which Descartes has called innate ideas. Plato had already taught that God contains in Himself the idea of the essential qualities that constitute the species; after this type the individuals were formed. He adds that these same types form an inherent part of man's thought before all

    intellectual development. Be it as it may as to the latter opinion, it is certain that there exist in our mind first ideas whose origin we can attribute neither to the inner nor to the outward senses, whence it fol- lows that we are obliged to admit in the intellect an apart faculty, called reason. It is certain again that the idea of the in- finite, in particular, exists in us, before all intellectual development, an idea which is the basis, the starting point of all others. Reason itself cannot give us this idea, because it is contained in none of the ideas we have from observation. Man, it is true, in presence of the finite, seems to remem- ber the infinite; but he does not take knowledge thereof. By admitting as an in- nate idea, the idea of the infinite, we are far from admitting the system, or rather the hypothesis of Plato, admitted for a long while in philosophy on account of an in- sufficient psychological analysis. The er- ror of Plato was derived because he did not know how to distinguish the idea of the in- finite ; because he could not explain the idea of relationship, and conceive how we can conclude from the particularon the general, he drew the conclusion that man contained at his birth all the ideas in the germ ; but the idea of the infinite is sufficient to ex- plain all these difficulties. At the bottom, there is only one innate idea for him who considers that the idea of the infinite, pro- ducing the accounts of experience, is suf- ficient to raise the edifice of all our knowl- edge. When St. Thomas, after Aristotle, says that the intellect is a kind of tabula rasa (blank tablet) upon which nothing is written, he understands thereby that the species (innate ideas) are not in act or real- ity in the intellect, but he admits that they are therein in power ; whence it follows that the sensible things are not the completecause of our knowledge. St. Augustine teaches that in the present state, the soul knows all things, in the eternal reasons as in their causes. " We can," says St. Thomas, " know one thing in another in two ways : I. Objectively: thus we see in a looking- glass the things the images of which it reflects ; in this sens6 the soul cannot see everything, in this life, in the eternal reasons. 2. In the principle itself of this knowledge : thus we say, to behold in the sun the things which its light makes known to us ; in this sense it is true to say that the human soul knows all in the eternal reasons." (St. Thomas, Prima primae, ^uaest. 84, 5, c.) According to this dis-




    tinction of St. Thomas, might we not reconcile the various systems since Demo- critus, who did not distinguish the under- standing from the senses : nihil est in in- tellectu quod non frius in sensu, until Malebranche, who maintained that we see all things in God. Why would it be ab- surd to believe that God placed in the soul some traces of the first ideas.? Man being naturally inclined to adoration, might this not be a necessary and absolute relation between the Creator and the spiritual being which is the breath of His mouth.? We may conclude that there is an innate idea, the idea of the infinite, and which is God Himself eternally subsisting, " In whom," says St. Paul, "we have the being, move- ment, and life."

    Innocent (name of thirteen Popes). — In- nocent I. (St.) — Pope from 402 to 417. He warmly espoused the cause of St. John Chrysostom, who had been unjustly de- posed and exiled. To save Rome from be- ing sacked, he urged Emperor Honorius to treat for peace with Alaric. Innocent con- demned the heresy of Pelagius. Innocent II. — Pope from 1130 to 1143. He had to combat against the antipope Peter de Leone, son of a recently converted Jewish family, ■whose wealth commanded great influence in Rome. He was crowned with the title of Anacletus II. The Romans, who had been gained over by a lavish distribution of money, declared in favor of the anti- pope. Innocent was obliged to flee into France. He returned to Rome in 1136 and crowned Lothaire emperor of Germany, in the Lateran Basilica. To repair the evils and disorders caused by the late schism. Innocent (1139), convened the Second Lat- eran Synod, or Tenth General Council, which was attended by a thousand bishops, countless abbots, and ecclesiastical digni- taries. The Council passed thirty canons, renewing, for the most part, the censures of former synods against simony, clerical incontinence, and lay investiture. Besides, it condemned the errors of Peter Bruis and Arnold of Brescia, deposed all those who had been raised to ecclesiastical dig- nities by the antipope, and excommunicated Roger of Sicily, who still refused submis- sion to Innocent. Innocent III. — Pope from 1 198 to 1216. Of the illustrious fam- ily of Conti, he was endowed with extraor- dinary gifts and talents. His first thoughts, as Pope, were directed to the reformation of the papal court; he established great

    simplicity, reformed the administration of finances and gave public audiences to all. During the Fourth Crusade, he founded the Latin empire at Constantinople (1204- 1261) ; he protected the indissolubility and sanctity of marriage in France, and pro- cured the victory of Tolosa in Spain (1212), by means of which the power of the Saracens was destroyed. Innocent exercised his pa- pal authority also in England, Portugal, Aragon, Norway, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Toward the close of his life. Innocent con- voked the Twelfth Ecumenical (Fourth Lateran) Council, in 1215. The Council decided to organize a new Crusade. It also passed several important laws of dis- cipline, such as the obligation of annual confession and Easter communion, etc. The Pontificate of Innocent III. is the most illustrious in history. Innocent IV. — Pope from 1243 to 1254. He inherited from his predecessors a feud with the Em- peror Frederick II., who had been excom- municated by Gregory IX. in 1230. After the death of Frederick in 1250, and of his son, the Emperor Conrad IV. in 1254, the struggle was continued with Manfred, the uncle and guardian of Conrad's son, Con- radin of Sicily, who inflicted a decisive de- feat on the papal troops five days before Innocent's death. Innocent V. — Pope from Jan. 20th to June 22d, 1276. His early death hindered Michael Paleologus to ratify the reunion of the two Churches agreed upon in the Council of Lyons. Innocent VI. — Pope from 1352 to 1362. His first act was to rescind a statute, or compact, of the Conclave, which the cardinals had separately agreed upon. By this compact, which would have raised the Sacred College to an independ- ent, dominant, and autocratic body, the future Pope would bind himself not to in- crease the number of cardinals, nor nomi- nate for, nor depose from, the higher offices of the Roman Church or the papal States, without the consent of two-thirds of the College. He kept his court at Avignon. Innocent VII. — Pope from 1404 to 1406. He was opposed by the antipope Benedict XIII., who resided at Avignon. Innocent VIII. — Pope from 1484 to 1492. The elec- tion of this PontiflF was a disgrace to the Sacred College, and a scandal to the Church. After a loose life in youth he was married. On the death of his wife, he entered the ecclesiastical state, in which his conduct, as well as his ability, won general esteem, and secured his promotion




    to the episcopate under Paul III., to the cardinalate under Sixtus IV., and finally to the government of the universal Church. His successful efforts in effecting a recon- ciliation between the rival houses of the Or- sini and Colonnas, and restoring order in the papal dominions, procured Innocent the title of " Father of the Country." On Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, after their conquest of Granada, in 1492, he conferred the title of *' Catholic Majesty." But much needed reforms were neglected, and crying abuses at the papal court were allowed to continue. To fill his depleted treas- ury. Innocent VIII. increased the number of curialistic offices, which were conferred for high sums. For keeping in custody Prince Dshem, the brother and rival of Sultan Bajazet II. of Constantinople, the latter paid the Pope annually forty thousand ducats. Innocent IX. — Pope from Oct. 30th to Dec. 30th, 1591. During his short Pontificate of two months he oc- cupied himself to lighten the misery of the people by lowering the taxes and creat- ing a treasury for the poor. Innocent X. — Pope from 1644 to 1655. His Pontificate deserves to be numbered among the most fortunate; but its reputation has suffered somewhat from the undue influence which his sister-in-law. Donna Olympia Malda- china, was allowed to exercise over the ad- ministration of ecclesiastical affairs. The charges against his morals on that account are the fabrications of bigotry. His apolo- gist is the Protestant Ranke, who says of him : " In his earlier career, as nuncio and as cardinal. Innocent had shown himself in- dustrious, blameless, and upright, and this reputation he still maintained." He con- demned the Treaty of Westphalia in 165 1, and the Jansenist heresy in 1653. Inno- cent XI. — Pope from 1676 to 1689. Was a man of austere morals and distinguished for his eminent talents and virtues. He applied himself with much zeal to revive ecclesiastical discipline and displayed un- common courage in defending the rights of the Church and the prerogatives of the Holy See. He had scarcely ascended the Papal Chair, when he became involved in warm controversy with the haughty Louis XIV., of France. He annulled the "Dec- laration of the Galilean Clergy," severely censured the bishops who had taken part in drawing up this Declaration, and refused canonical confirmation to such as advocated the so-called "Gallican Liberties." Inno- cent XII. — Pope from 1691 to 1700. He

    succeeded in terminating the great contest with France, which had arisen from the famous "Declaration of the Gallican Lib- erties" of 1682. It was by this Pope that tlie book of the famous Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray, entitled Maxims of the Saints was condemned. Infiocent XIII. — Pope from 172 1 to 1724. He invested Charles VI. with the kingdom of Naples, upheld the claims of James III. to the throne of England, and maintained the Bull Unigen- itus against the pretensions of seven French bishops who asked for its abolition.

    Innocents {Feast of the Holy). — One of the Christmas festivals, held in the West- ern Church on Dec. 28th, and in the Eastern on the 29th. It is intended to commemorate the massacre of the children "from two years old and under" (Matt, ii. 16) at Bethlehem. The concurrence of the East and the West in celebrating the festival is an evidence of its antiquity.

    Inquisition ( The) called also Holy Of- fice, a tribunal in the Catholic Church for the discovery and repression of heresy, unbelief, and other offenses against reli- gion. From the very first establishment of Christianity as the religion of the Ro- man empire, laws, more or less severe, existed, as in most of the ancient religions, for the repression and punishment of dis- sent from the national creed; and the Emperors Theodosius and Justinian ap- pointed officials called "inquisitors," whose special duty it was to discover, and prosecute before the civil tribunals, offenses of this class. The ecclesiastical cogniz- ance of heresy, and its punishment by spiritual censures, belonged to the bishop or the episcopal synod ; but no especial machinery for the purpose was devised until the spread, in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, of certain sects reputed dangerous alike to the State and the Church — the Cathari, Waldenses,and Al- bigenses — excited the alarm of the civil as well as of the ecclesiastical authorities. In the public mind, at that time, heresy was regarded as a crime against the State, no less than against the Church. An ex- traordinary commission was sent by Pope Innocent III. into the South of France to aid the local authorities in checking the spread of the Albigensian heresy. The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) earnestly impressed, both on bishops and magis- trates, the necessity of increased vigilance against heresy; and a council held at Tou-




    louse directed that in each parish the priest and two or three laymen of good repute should b2 appointed to examine and report to the bishop all such offenses discovered within the district. So far, however, there was no permanent court distinct from those of the bishops; but under Innocent IV., in 1248, a special tribunal for the purpose was instituted, the chief direction of which was vested in the then recently established Dominican Order. The Inquisition thus constituted became a general, instead of, as previously, a local tribunal ; and it was introduced in succession into Italy, Spain, Germany, and the South provinces of France.

    In Spain, the secret aim of the Inquisi- tion established by Ferdinand and Isabella (1481), was to curb the power of the no- bility, but its avowed office was to ferret out the disguised Jews and Mohammedans, who secretly assailed Christianity. Many of these had been ordained priests and bishops. In the year 1497, about 1,000 Franciscan monks, unwilling to yield to ecclesiastical reforms, became Mohamme- dans. The Spanish Inquisition was also directed against immorality, murder, usury, etc. The king appointed the grand Inquisitor, the counselors, and officers. He issued the statutes. In his name the penalties were decreed. Popes and bish- ops were often obliged to reprimand the Inquisitors, who, besides their immediate aim, sought also to increase the power of the monarchy and lessen the independence of the clergy and the nobility. Later on, the king made use of the Inquisition against disagreeable bishops and nobles who could not be summoned before the ordinary tribunals. Even the Pope expe- rienced much difficulty in rescuing Cardi- nal Bartholomew Caranza, Primate of Spain, from the hands of the Inquisitors. The Holy See frequently exercised its full influence and power against the Inquisi- tion. Leo X. excommunicated all the Inquisitors of Toledo. Ranke, Guizot, and other historians maintained that the Spanish Inquisition was a purely local in- stitution. Its most zealous advocates were certainly men who, like Pombal, had made themselves odious to the Church and fos- tered the absolutism of the crown. The number of victims has been greatly exag- gerated. Nearly 99 per cent, of those who went to the Auto da fe, performed merely an ecclesiastical penance. They wore the Sanbenito or blessed penitential garb dur-

    ing the absolution. See Toleration ( Religious) .

    Inspiration. — We call inspiration a su- pernatural help by which God gives to an author the will to write, in suggesting to him at least the foundation and substance what to write. We must not confound inspiration with assistance, which is, really, a supernatural help, but which suggests nothing to the author, and limits itself to preserve him from falling into any error. This notion of inspiration well understood, we profess that all the parts of Holy Scrip- ture, without exception, have been in- spired, for this is a dogma of faith expressly taught by the Church. " The Roman Church," says the Council of Florence, " confesses the sole and same God as author of both the Old and New Testa- ments, that is, of the law of the Prophets and Gospel, because the saints of both Testaments have spoken under the inspira- tion of the Holy Ghost ; she accepts and venerates their books" (Deer, in Jacobit). The Council of Trent (Sess. iv. Deer, de canon. Script.) made use of the same words and the Vactican Council (Const. Dei Filius, cap. 2) has confirmed this teaching in the following manner: "The Church holds as sacred and canonical, the books of both the Old and New Testaments, not only because they contain the reve- lation without error, but because writ- ten under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, they have God for their author and have been delivered as such to the Church itself." Further on, to point out the im- portance which the Church attaches to this dogma, the same Council strikes with anathema whoever rejects the divine in- spiration of the Scriptures.

    This dogma is founded upon both Holy Scripture itself and tradition, and is con- firmed by reason, r. Upon Holy Scripture. — St. Paul teaches us that every Scripture of the Old Testament was written by inspira- tion : *' Omnis Scriptura divinitus inspir- ata" (II.Tim. iii. 16). St. Peter says about the same thing (Cf. II. Pet. i. 21). In the Acts (i. 16), St. Peter quotes the Scripture which the Holy Ghost spoke by the mouth of David. In Hebrews (iv. 3-9), God is repeatedly treated as speaking by the Scriptures; and in Galatians (iii. 8), the gift of foresight is ascribed to the Scrip- tures ; surely not to the material Book, but to its Author, the all-foreseeing God. 2. Upon Tradition, — Among a multitude of




    Patristic passages, we maybe content with two : one derived from the East, the other from the West. St. Chrysostom (Horn. 2, in Gen. n. 2) says that God wishing to put an end to a temporary estrangement, has sent letters to His absent friends ; letters written by God and brought us by Moses. And St. Augustine sets forth God's au- thorship and the subordinate part played by the human writer in the following forcible manner : »' All that God wishes us to know concerning his doings and say- ings, He bade be written by man, as by His own hands " (Z>

    Reason Confirms This Dogma. — The truth of the facts reported in Scripture be- ing acknowledged, the inspiration of Scripture becomes itself such an incon- testable fact as all the others. Indeed, the law given by God Himself upon Mount Sinai, is a fact identical with the inspira- tion of that part of Holy Scripture. The mission of Moses, proved by his works, the latter themselves proved by so many testimonies ; the promise which God gives to him to put His -word upon his lips, to teach him -what to say, are facts identical with the inspiration of Moses. Each book of the Old Testament would offer similar proofs of its inspiration, or we would find it attested to in another book whose inspiration would be proven in the same manner as the inspiration of the Pentateuch. The descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles and first disciples of Jesus Christ, the gift of tongues they received, are facts identical with the in- spiration of the New Testament; for the inspiration of the author of a book proves the inspiration of the book, or rather is one and the same thing.

    Our doctrine is opposed to that which goes by the name of " Verbal Inspiration," according to which every word of Scrip- ture was as it was dictated by the Holy Ghost to the Prophets and Apostles, so that they acted as mere machines. The doctrine of verbal inspiration preserves the divine authorship to the full ; to a greater extent, in fact, than is needed. It is, therefore, unproved, and it is open to the grave objection that it fails to account for the varieties of style. In regard to style, the Books of Scripture exhibit the same variety as might be expected in purely human books; but if each word was dic-

    tated by the Holy Ghost, there is no way of accounting for these varieties, they would seem to have been introduced for no other purpose than that of misleading the reader. There are cases where there may be room for doubt whether a particu- lar turn of phrase was " intended " by the Holy Spirit — so far as this word can be used of God, to Whom all the results of His acts are known; in these cases it is the business of the critic to determine what teaching is contained in the passage ; the question is often very subtle, and should not be approached except by those who feel themselves to be well equipped with the full array of necessary qualifica- tions ; among which we put in the front rank, thorough grounding in the theology of the Church, long familiarity with the sacred text, and the disposition to be ready to accept the truth from another rather than devise a novel view. In some cases the author himself has pointed out that a true meaning is conveyed by what might otherwise have been judged to be a casual omission, a notable instance of which we find in Hebrews (vii. 3), where we read why it is that in Genesis (xiv. 18), when Melchisedech is mentioned, the names of his parents are not made known. See Interpretation.

    Installation, in Church law, means the ceremonial act or process by which a per- son presented and legally confirmed in a benefice is formally put into possession of his office, and by which he is fully em- powered, not alone to exercise its func- tions, but to enjoy its honors and emolu- ments.

    Intelligence. — Intellectual faculty. If a man understands what is told to him, re- tains what he has understood, and makes use of the knowledge he has retained, we say that this man is intelligent. Therefore, we can say that intelligence, this faculty of the soul, is a complex power, comprising three groups of powers : power of acquisi- tion, power of preservation, power of elaboration and of transformation. These three powers are so many manifestations of the soul, a study of the intelligence is only their study, i. Power of Acquisition. — We know ourselves through conscience, to which we owe a number of ideas, and even the most important ones (see Conscience, Inneity). As to the inner things, we know them through the perception of the different sensations. Conscience and an-




    terior perception are our only means of acquisition. 2. Po-wer of Preservation. — In order that we may be really able to say that we have acquired a knowledge, we must have preserved this knowledge, we must have been able to retain it, even re- cover it and this we can do through mem- ory. Is memory our only means of preser- vation ? Let us remark that a fact of the memory never presents itself in an isolate manner; one remembrance reminds of an- other; between our remembrances there exists a connection. According to what law is this connection, this association, formed ? Behold a question inseparable from the study of the memory. 3. Power of Elabora- tion. — Man has a tendency to form general ideas. Science, we know, is only an ensem- ble of these ideas, and man is capable of science. Man arrives at general ideas, either by induction or by deduction, and this through reasoning. To induct and to deduct, man is in need of language, which serves to put him in relation with his fellow- men and which thus is a means of acquisition and elaboration. Finally, man acquiring knowledge, preserving and elab- orating it, can, in making use of all the resources at his disposal, create a diflPerent world from the real world ; he can imag- ine and the imagination is only a power of elaboration or of transformation. From this explanation we must not conclude that intelligence is a threefold faculty composed of separate powers. The intel- ligence is, on the contrary, essentially one.

    Interdict. — An ecclesiastical sentence which forbids the right of Christian burial, the use of the sacraments, and the enjoy- ment of public worship, or the exercise of ecclesiastical functions. Interdicts may be general, as applied to a country or city ; or f articular, as applied to a Church or other locality ; they may be local, as applied to places ; personal, as applied to a person or some class of persons ; or mixed, as directed against both places and persons. General and local interdicts have rarely been pro- nounced since the Middle Ages.

    Interim. — A provisional arrangement for the settlement of religious differences be- tween Protestants and Catholics in Ger- many during the Reformation epoch, pending a definite settlement by a Church council. There were three interims: the Ratisbon Interim, promulgated by the Emperor Charles V. in i54i,but ineffective ; the Augsburg Interim, proclaimed also by

    Charles V. in 1548, but not carried out by many Protestants ; and the Leipsic Interim, carried through the Diet of Saxony in 1548 ; it met with strenuous opposition.

    Interpretation and Some Causes of the Difficulties Found in the Bible. — The Church teaches that Holy Scripture is a book inspired by God, that is, composed under the influence of the Holy Ghost, in such a manner that it emancipated from all error the one He thus empowered to be His interpreter to man. God did not dictate to the prophet the exact language which he should employ in the process of his general teaching, but left him the free use of his natural faculties, so that the pe- culiar character of each writer, his style, and manner, reveals itself in his work. Holy Scripture contains nothing but truth re- vealed for us. But the Holy Ghost did not impart in a supernatural manner to the human instruments of which He made use what they already knew through natural means, either by their personal experience or by the testimony of other men. He taught them by miraculous means only what they could not know by themselves, as, for instance, the secrets of the future. Moreover, it does not matter whether such or such a part of the Sacred Books has been directly revealed to its author or simply inspired. All that they contain is equally true and certain, for, as Catholic theologians teach, the divine inspiration guarded the sacred writer against all error, — not only against all dogmatic and moral — but also against all historical or scientific error.

    The Bible, therefore, has gone forth from the hands of God pure and spotless, worthy of its Author, and obliging human veneration and belief. However, Provi- dence did not judge it proper to fully pro- tect itagainst the lesser and inconsequential injuries of time, and has subjected it, in a limited measure, totheconditionsof human things. Providence has watched over the Sacred Book to preserve it intact as to its foundation, and that the sacred depositary of revelation may be transmitted without grave alterations to the remotest genera- tions, but has not deemed it necessary to perform continual miracles to shelter it from those slight errors and insignificant changes which insensibly enter into all the works of men. The rust of centuries has thus deposited its imprint upon some of the pages of our Sacred Scriptures, and we




    have no longer a text absolutely comform- able to the autographs of the sacred writers. Passing under the pen of thou- sands of transcribers, in an interval of time extending over from eighteen hundred to thirty-four hundred years, proper names have been disfigured, figures changed, words omitted, rarious passages shifted, obscured, or slightly altered. A compari- son with the most ancient texts and versions furnishes a clear proof of this. The actual Hebrew text, for instance, at- tributes to Lamech, father of Noe, 777 years (Gen. v. 31) ; the Samaritan text, 653; the Greek version of the Septuagint, 753. It is evident that two of these texts, if not all three of them, have been changed by the copyists. We read in the Paralipom- ena (II. Par. xvi. i) that Baasa, king of Israel made war on Juda in the 36th year of the reign of Asa. Baasa reigned only to the 26th year of Asa (III. Ki. xvi. 8). The Septuagint aggregates the difficulty by placing the war in the year 38 of Asa's reign. Not only is there a contradiction between the Greek and the Hebrew, but there is an evident fault in one of the two passages of the Hebrew text. Probably we ought to read 26 instead of 36 or 38. Our actual text (II. Ki. xxi. 8), attributes five children to Michol, daughter of Saul, and, nevertheless, we are formally told in an- other passage of the Second Book of Kings (vi 23), that Michol never had any chil- dren. Here we should read, no doubt, instead of her name, that of another daugh- ter of Saul, Merob, as is conveyed by the word heri in the version corrected by the Massorets, and as appears from what is said in the First Book of Kings (xviii. 19). In the time of St. Jerome there existed so many variances in the copies which circu- lated among the Faithful, that this Father wrote to Pope St. Damasus : " There are almost as many divergent copies as there are manuscripts."

    It is hard for those who have never had any experience in dealing with the manu- scripts of books to understand how diffi- cult, nay, almost impossible, it was in former times to preserve the text from all change. The books published in modern times are intrusted to the printer, the proof sheets are carefully revised by the author, and allowed to be printed only when the latter is satisfied with the correc- tions which he has indicated therein. The work is then issued, and no matter how multitudinous the number of copies, as a

    product of mechanical labor, they are all alike ; they vary neither by a word, nor by a letter, nor by a comma. And indeed this multitude of copies are as exactly alike as though they were the first original work of the author's pen.

    For the ancients, on the contrary, there were as many varying copies as there were reproductions of the same work. The author read his work to the copyists, — each copyist produced a codex; but, with different readings, errors necessarily una- voidable, were incorporated into the transcription of a large work. All writers of books know how often the printers, by some remissness in their manual occupa- tion, alter the meaning by mistaking one word for another, by omissions, additions, and other inaccuracies resulting from lack of attention. The librarii of ancient times were not more perfect than the typographical artisan of our day; but their shortcomings entailed more grievous consequences, because the authors could not correct all the copies which were made of their books. They apprehended the grave results of this technical inac- curacy, which they could foresee only too plainly, and they abjured the scribes, with the most earnest solicitations, not to neglect to compare their copy with the original manuscript. " I conjure thee," wrote St. Irenseus, at the end of his book against the Valentinians, " I conjure thee, whoever thou mayest be that transcribest this book, by Our Lord Jesus Christ and by His glorious coming, when He will come to judge the living and the dead, to realize what thou hast written, and care- fully correct it after the copy from which thou hast transcribed it. I pray thee also to transcribe this conjuration and put it at the end of thy copy " (See Eusebius, Church History, vol. XX.)

    Hence we need not be astonished that, from the first centuries, both the Greek and Latin Fathers complained so often about the corruption of the manuscripts of the Bible.

    This is, however, not the only source of embarrassment for the defender of the Bible. Even had the text been preserved to us in its original integrity, and entirely free from any technical changes, it would still present other and graver difficulties, as, for instance, those of interpretation God, in communicating with man, had to make use of the language of man. Now, all human language is imperfect. It is




    composed of words, and these words are signs, the invariably incomplete pictures of the realities and ideas they attempt to portray. Words show us only one side of the realities ; they can never succeed in giving us the complete description of the object or idea in all its phases. In this re- spect, also, the Semitic languages are still more imperfect than the Arian languages. They have not been developed, elaborated, polished, modified, and brought to the de- gree of perfection which the idioms of the son of Japhet have attained. The Hebrew vocabulary is very limited. Very often there is only a single word to express many diverse ideas. Thus the Israelite was often obliged to have recourse to the periphrase, and, as a result of this circumlocution, it was frequently impossible for him to ex- press his thought with a rigorous exacti- tude.

    In keeping with the vocabulary, the He- brew syntax is also of a primitive simplic- ity. The particles which conjoin the grammatical sections of the discourse are very rare. The phrases join themselves without any articulation and co-ordination of the various parts. There is no punc- tuation. The thoughts are marked out and dissected, and the phrases used in ex- pressing them juxtaposed rather than joined and united.

    What still further increases the obscu- rity, is that the Old Testament was written in a language which ceased to be spoken many centuries ago. It is only too true, Hebrew is for us a " dead language." Languages are, so to speak, illustrations and representations of the peoples who used them. They abound in allusions to their customs; habits, modes of thought, and manner of living. If, therefore, in- quiry be directed toward a nation which has disappeared from the arena of the world for an extended period of time, and whose customs were different from those with which we are familiar by our personal experience or practice, it is a matter of great difficulty for us to form an exact idea of them. If we are hindered at every step, even when reading the ancient authors of the same race as ourselves, although they composed their works in a language from which our own is derived, and although they lived on the same soil, possessed in- stitutions and customs analogous to those with which we are familiar and which we have in great part inherited, how much greater must be the difficulty encountered.

    if the ancient writers whose works we would peruse not only wrote in a language whose genus is difTerent from ours, but who had also a totally difTerent method of mental conception and habits of thought ; who led a life so far removed trom ours, both in point of time and conditions of ex- istence, and who must have employed their words and expressions in a sense very dis- similar from what is familiar to us in their present usage. A judge in Israel had noth- ing in common with the judges of our civil or criminal courts, and the Temple of Jeru- salem did not resemble our Christian tem- ples. How many readers of the Bible are there, however, that take into account these essential differences !

    Besides the words of an equivocal or ambiguous meaning, there are those of an unknown meaning. We might say that the term " dead " applies with even greater descriptive force to the Hebrew language than to the so-called classic languages, for we have a far more limited number of mon- uments of the Hebrew language than of the Greek and Latin, and, consequently, less means of understanding it. All that has survived of Hebrew literature is con- tained in one small volume. In this vol- ume a great number of expressions occur but once, and, consequently, their meaning is uncertain. This is the case, sometimes in the most important passages. Particu- larly in the prophecies do we meet with those rare and unique words, whose mean- ing is only partly made known to us by the ancient versions or through comparison with other Semitic idioms. But these ver- sions do not always agree one with the other, and the congeneric idioms do not elucidate all the obscurities. Therefore, a vast field remains open for hypotheses, un- certainties, discussions, and the arbitrary assumptions of infidels and skeptics.

    These are some of the many causes which make it hard to understand the books written by the Hebrews. The man- ner of Oriental composition also aggra- vates the difficulty. No Hebrew Aristotle schooled these writers in the rules of poetry, nor had they a Cicero to crystal- lize the laws of rhetoric. Their literary art, if such it may be called, is obscure and bears no resemblance to ours. They follow paths that are unknown to us and I wherein the Occidental reader oftentimes becomes bewildered. Devoid of a philo- I sophic tongue, restricted to the resources ) of a meager vocabulary, little accustomed




    to analysis and synthesis, they express their thought exactly as the thought pre- sents itself to their minds. They relate their facts as they remember them. They take small pains about the logic of events, nor do they seek to be particularly clear, placing each fact in its proper place and sequence, and diligently omitting nothing useful. This volume is a rich treasure house, filled with pearls and precious stones, but sadly lacking in precise order and methodical arrangement.

    To all these causes for obscurity and difficulty is added yet another one for the majority of Bible readers, namely: they are unacquainted with the original text, and can only derive their knowledge of it through a translation. Now, no matter how excellent any translation may be, it can never render the true meaning of the original work in its perfection. All the critics acknowledge the eminent merit of the version of the Septuagint, and espe- cially of our Vulgate; but all are also obliged to acknowledge that, in these ver- sions, certain passages are not rendered in an irreproachable manner. There is a considerable number of these faulty pas- sages in the Septuagint, but a smaller number in our Vulgate ; nevertheless, the latter is not free from these faulty renditions which often convey an opposite meaning from that which was; intended by the origi- nal. Fortunately, the original text provides the correction for the errors of transla- tions. But the original text for all the books of the Bible is not now extant; and where it is wanting, as for Tobias, Judith, and some others, it is sometimes impossi- ble to restore with any degree of certainty the primitive reading, and, consequently, to solve the difficulty.

    Independently of the difficulties of lan- guage and alterations of the text, there is another cause which besets with impedi- ments and obscurity the work of the Bible student, namely, our ignorance of an- tiquity. The events of Sacred History transpired in very remote epochs, in times and places little known to us. When the objects of our investigation are at a great distance from us, they appear to us as though enveloped in a fog, and become confused and indistinct. We cannot ab- ruptly seize the surroundings and distin- guish certain characteristics. Not only are we oblivious of many facts that are indispensable to an exact knowledge of persons and things, and the proper appre-

    ciation of their actions, but our political, social, and even religious organizations, our wants, relations, manner of living, and surroundings, in a word, our status as human beings, are so different that, in spite of all the efforts of our imagination, we are unable to reanimate those ancient societies, and see them as they were in reality. The lapse of thousands of years has transported us into a different atmos- phere. How many obscure, unintelligible points, which we judge too easily as in- credible, were natural and clear as day- light for the contemporaries of those past ages !

    Finally, a last and often most serious source of difficulty in properly under- standing the Bible, are the explanations which exegetists themselves have given thereof, and which have changed the meaning. The commentaries which these latter have written on Sacred Scripture are so numerous that they could well fill sev- eral large libraries. In this mass of books, in spite of the uprightness of the intentions of their authors, in spite of their perspi- cacity and their science, there is many an error and many a falsehood. Neverthe- less, through a convergence of dissimilar circumstances, we accept certain interpre- tations as well founded, and impute crime to the Bible when it is only the commen- tators who are at fault. Thus we reproach the Scripture with teaching, contrarily to astronomy, that the earth is immovable and that the sun turns round the earth. This is wrong; the sacred text does not teach this error. The ancient interpreters, it is true, thus understood the words of Josue to the sun : " Move not, O sun " (Jos. x. 12), but they were deceived. They mistook a popular expression for the ex- pression of a scientific dogma, and we can apply to them the words of St. Augustine : '■'■ Interpres erravtt" {Contra Faustum, xi. 5).

    Thus, ignorance of facts and surround- ings ; the unavoidable imperfection of trans- lations ; loss of the original text of several of the Sacred Books; peculiar character- istics of the Hebrew tongue; inherent im- potency of human language in general to render all the shades of thought and mean- ing and to reproduce a complete represen- tation of the facts ; the errors of the copyists, — result of their false reading, of their negligence or distractions, — and, finally, the errors of interpreters and com- mentators concur in producing the majority




    of the apparent or real difficulties in the study of Holy Scripture, and which give rise to numerous objections on the part of its enemies. See Faith {Rule of).

    Introit. — Words said in the Mass, when the priest begins the celebration of the holy sacrifice. As a rule it consists of an antiphon, a verse or verses, of a Psalm, and the Gloria Patri. Some Introits, called irregular, are taken from other parts of Scripture. This is the case with thirty-five of the one hundred and fifty-nine Introits in the Plan Missal, whilst seven others are by inspired writers. The introduction of the Introits is attributed by some, to Pope St. C destine, by others to St. Gregory the Great.

    Investiture in feudal and ecclesiastical history, means the act of giving corporal possession of a manor, office, or benefice, accompanied by a certain ceremonial, such as the delivery of a branch, a banner, or an instrument of office, more or less designed to signify the power or authority which it is supposed to convey. As to the contest about ecclesiastical investiture see Greg- ory VII.

    Ireland {Christianity in). See Pat- rick St.

    Ireland {Protestantism in). — Christian- ity was introduced into Ireland especially by St. Patrick (see Art. Patrick). Ire- land, at first independent, came gradually under the rule of England. The Protestant kings sought to subjugate and proselytize the whole island. The first seeds of the new heresy were planted by Henry VIII., who was declared by the so-called Irish parliament, the members of which were selected from the English colonists, sole and supreme ruler of the Irish Church. But the Irish as a nation oflFered a vigorous resistance to the introduction of Protes- tantism. During the reign of Elizabeth, a systematic and atrocious persecution was carried on against the Catholics in Ireland. Among those who suffered martyrdom were several bishops and archbishops. Every manner of violence was practiced under the form of law. In order utterly to destroy the Catholic faith, seminaries and colleges were closed by the government. Those who desired a liberal education were obliged to give up their faith or cross over to the Continent where seats of learning were founded for the Irish Church. Lqgs of property, exile, and slavery became the

    lot of Catholics. A wholesale robbery of property was inaugurated. Under Eliza- beth, 600,000 acres of land were confiscated ; under James I., 950,000; under Charles I., 1,200,000; under Cromwell, 5,000,000; under William III., 1,060,792. The Irish were barely permitted to remain on their former possessions as laborers and servants of their oppressors. But despite the con- fiscation, rack, and scaffold, priests and people remained loyal to the ancient faith. During the reign of James I., the Irish people hoped to obtain some degree of religious freedom, but their hope was frustrated, when the king in an act of in- demnity which he granted, excluded from its benefits "Papists and assassins." In 1605, Catholic services were prohibited and all priests ordered to leave the country under pain of death.

    These persecutions were continued with increased violence under Charles I. (1625- 1649). This prince, though married to a Catholic queen, listened to his evil advisers and continued the oppression of the Catho- lics. At last (1641) a formidable uprising took place throughout the whole island. Priests and people united in the defense of their religion. The conflict was maintained with great bitterness until 1643 when an armistice known as " The Cessation," was concluded, by the terms of which Catholics were promised the free exercise of their religion. Through fear of the Puritans, Charles I. did not dare grant the just de- mands of the Irish. Yet at the moment when the king was in dispute with the English parliament and threatened by his Scotch subjects, the Irish came generously for\\^'ard to relieve his necessities. But justice to Ireland was no part of the policy of the English government. After the death of Charles I., Cromwell landed in Ireland and immediately entered upon a career of the most violent persecution. Priests, citizens, soldiers, women, and children were put to the sword. Nearly all the lands belonging to Catholics were confiscated and divided among his soldiers. " To Hell or Connaught " was Cromwell's reply to the just demands of the Irish peo- ple. Twenty thousand persons were trans- ported to the West Indies and many thousand more to the American colonies. A prize of five poimds was set upon the head of a priest. But even this atrocious persecution could not suppress the religion of Ireland. The sufferings of the people continued under Charles II. James II.,




    an avowed Catholic, having ascended the throne of England (1685), granted freedom of worship as well as civil and political rights to the Catholics. But this happy change was of short duration, for James was driven from the throne by William, Prince of Orange, who, by the capitulation of Limerick (1690), became supreme ruler of the entire island. Catholics were prom- ised freedom of conscience and peaceful enjoyment of their possessions, but these conditions of the treaty were soon violated. William of Orange began a persecution which is absolutely without a parallel in the history of civilized nations. The fol- lowing penal laws were enacted by the Irish parliament: i. No Papist shall have the power to bequeath his property. If a son of a Catholic family turns Protestant, he shall become possessed of the whole property of his parents. 2. No Catholic shall be permitted to purchase landed property, he shall not hold in fee any property purchased or inherited. 3. Leases shall not be held for longer than thirty years and the tenant shall leave two-thirds of his income to the owner. 4. No Papist shall own a horse worth more than five pounds. Catholic education was proscribed under penalty of high treason. 5. The property of a child brought up in the Catholic religion on the Continent, shall be confiscated. 6. Papists shall be excluded from parliament and all offices of State. 7. Attendance at Catholic service was pro- hibited under pain of banishment. Priests were forbidden, under penalty of death, to solemnize marriages between Catholics and Protestants; a Protestant heiress who married a Catholic was punished by loss of her property; a woman who turned Protestant might separate herself from her husband. In 1697, an act was passed requiring all bishops to leave the country before May, 1698; their return rendered them liable to capital punishment; the priests were allowed to remain, but under the most oppressive supervision.

    During the reign of Queen Anne (1702- 1714), a new species of persecution was inaugurated, which reminds one of the Roman persecutions of the early Chris- tians. Parliament enacted a legislation that could not be equaled in cruelty. Sev- eral acts were passed utterly to root out the Catholic faith in Ireland. One of the acts declared guilty of high treason and subject to its penalty, any one who should "harbor, relieve, conceal, or entertain 24

    Catholic priests " ; another act was passed entitled, "A bill to prevent the further growth of Papacy," etc. These laws were directed against a people whose only crime was loyalty to the Catholic faith. The Irish were overburdened with taxes. They were compelled to pay tithes to the bishops and pastors of the Protestant High Church, and in addition contribute from their indigence to the support of their own priests who, at the peril of their lives, remained in their midst. Famine and starvation added to the horrors of the per- secution. To be a Catholic was a shame and a crime. The disgraceful laws re- mained in force until the war of Inde- pendence broke out in America (1775). Moved by fear, the English government granted some concessions. By an act of parliament of 1778, the Catholics were des- ignated " Roman Catholics " ; heretofore they had been styled "Papists" or "The common enemy " ; but it was only by the Bill of Emancipation (1829), that the penal laws were abolished.

    Ireland {^The Church in), in 1898. See next page.

    Ireland (John). — An American Catholic prelate; born in Kilkenny, Ireland, Sept. nth, 1838; emigrated to the United States when a child, and settled in Minnesota. On Dec. 21st, 1861, he was ordained at St. Paul, Minnesota. After serving as an army chaplain he became rector of the cathedral at St. Paul, and in 1875 was made coadju- tor bishop. He was a prominent member of the Vatican Council of 1870; engaged in the work of establishing colonies of Catholics in Minnesota and the Northwest; and was made archbishop of St. Paul in 1888.

    Irenaeus (St.). — Irenaeus, born between 130-140 at Smyrna, in Asia Minor, had, from his earliest youth, the happiness of being instructed by St. Polycarp and other apostolic men. His deep attachment to the Christian doctrine did not prevent him from studying the Greek poets and philos- ophers, especially Homer and Plato. With a view to missionary work, he journeyed to Gaul, where he was ordained priest by Photinus, Bishop of Lyons, who suffered martyrdom in the. persecution of Marcus Aurelius (178). Irenaeus was nominated to succeed him as bishop by Pope Eleutherius, to whom he had been sent on an ecclesias- tical mission. In this office he showed un-











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    76,328 68,302


    tiring zeal and energy for the good of the Churches in Gaul. Moreover, by means of his writings, in defense of the unity and purity of the faith, which was endangered by the Gnostics, he made his influence felt far beyond the limits of Gaul. Finally, he proved himself worthy of his name {Eiren- aios, the Peaceful) by effecting a happy compromise between the East and the West in the dispute concerning Easter, which had gone so far as to cause an open rupture between the two sections of the Church. In the great persecution under Septimius Severus, the shepherd suffered martyrdom with many of his flock (June 28th, 202). Of his writings, only fragments remain, with the exception of the work Against Heresies (Adversus Hcereses) in five books, which he wrote principally to refute the Gnostic heresies. The existing Latin ver- sion is very ancient and accurate and was

    used even by TertuUian. In this work the author discusses nearly all the Catholic dogmas; among others, Tradition, the Primacy of the Roman See, the Incarna- tion, the Holy Eucharist, the Sacrifice of the Mass, and the Resurrection. F. June 28th.

    Irene (752-803). — Empress of Con- stantinople, born at Athens. She married in 769 the imperial prince Leo, son of Constantine V. Copronymus, who suc- ceeded to his father in 775. Regent at the death of her husband, she stopped the Iconoclast persecution, then assembled, in 787, a Council at Nice, which restored the veneration of images.

    Irregularity in the Church, is an infrac- tion of the rules governing admission to the clerical office and discharge of its functions ; a canonical impediment to re-



    Isidore Mercator

    ception of orders, exercise of clerical functions, or advancement in the Church. Irregularities are classed as (i) Ex de- fectu, from defect of mind, body, birth, age, liberty, the sacrament (that is, of marriage, including previous bigamy, etc.), lenity (involved in previous military service, homicide, etc.), and reputation (from notorious crime, judicial sentence, etc.) ; and (2) Ex delicto, from reception of heretical baptism or ordination, heresy, murder, etc.

    Irvingites. — Members of a Protestant sect deriving its name from Edward Ir- ving (1792-1834), a minister of the Church of Scotland, who was settled in London in 1822, promulgated mystical doctrines, and was excommunicated in 1833. Irving was not the founder of the sect popularly called after him, but accepted and pro- moted the spread of the principles upon which, after his death, the sect was formed. Its proper name is the " Catholic Apostolic Church," and it has an elabo- rate organization derived from its twelve " apostles," the first body of whom was organized in 1835. It recognizes the or- ders of apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors or "angels," elders, deacons, etc. It lays especial stress on the early creeds, the Eucharist, prophecies, and gift of tongues. It has an extremely ritualistic service and an elaborate liturgy. The adherents are not numerous, and are found chiefly in Great Britain. There are some on the continent of Europe and in the United States.

    Isaac. — A Hebrew patriarch and pas- toral chief ; was the son of Abraham and Sara, and half-brother of Ismael. His birth happened when both his parents were advanced in age. The incidents of his life, as recorded in Genesis (xxi ; xxiv- xxviii ; xxxv, 27), are well known. He died at Hebron, aged 180 years, leaving two sons, Esau and Jacob.

    Isaac of Antioch. — Abbot of a monas- tery near Antioch; flourished in the mid- dle of the fifth century. He has written many works in Syriac: treatises against the Nestorians and Eutychians, and poems on the sack of Rome by Alaric (410), on the overthrow of Antioch by an earth- quake (459), etc.

    Isaac the Parthian. — Patriarch of Ar- menia, from 390 to 440, son of Nerses the Great, born at Constantinople. He trans-

    lated the Bible into the Armenian language and composed hymns which are still sung in the Armenian Church.

    Isaias {Wehx. salvation of Jehovah). — The first of the four great Jewish prophets. Died in the year 700 b. c. We have few details about his life. He must have been of the kingdom of Juda, because, in his prophecies, he has in view only this king- dom, and Jerusalem appears to have been the theatre of his prophetic activity. The Book of Isaias may be divided into two parts. The first occupies itself especially with the present and a near future, al- though sometimes the prophet casts a glance into the most remote future and foresees the time of the Messias. The second part occupies itself entirely with the Captivity of the Jews, the deliverance of the people, the restoration and glorifica- tion of the theocracy by the Messias ; these prophecies have as much importance for the future races as for his contemporaries.

    Isboseth. — Son and successor of Saul, reigned during seven years (1056-1049 B. c, while David reigned at Hebron), over the sole tribe of Juda, and perished, assassinated by two Benjamites.

    Isidore (St.) (570-636). — Theologian and chronicler; was born at Carthagena in Spain, of which city his father Severianus was prefect. He was a brother of Ful- gentius of Carthagena and of St. Leander of Seville, succeeding the later as bishop (600). He presided at the synods of Se- ville and Toledo, in 619 and 633. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1828. Isidore was undoubtedly the greatest man and most erudite scholar of his time. His most important work entitled Originum sive Ethymologiarum Libri XX, is a kind of encyclopaedia of the arts and sciences then known. His other works deserving mention are Chronicon, or history of the world, from the Creation to the year 626; a Chronicon, or history of the Visigoths, from A. D. 172 to 628; and a Book of Ec- clesiastical Writers, a continuation of a similar work composed by St. Jerome and Gennadius, to which he added the names of thirty-three other authors. The collec- tion of canons, formerly ascribed to him, is not his work. With St. Isidore closes the line of the Latin Fathers of the Church. F. April 4th.

    Isidore Mercator or Peccator. — Com- piler of the ninth century, whose real name

    Isidore of Alexandria



    is unknown and to whom was attributed,for a long time, a collection of canons and decretals, which contains a great number of apocryphal pieces.

    Isidore (St.) of Alexandria (318-404) Surnamed the "Hospitaller." — Born in Egypt, died at Constantinople. Monk of the Thebaid, to whom St. Athanasius, after having ordained him priest, intrusted the care of the poor and strangers in the city of Alexandria ; was a target for the persecution of the Arians. F. Jan. 15th.

    Isidore of Pelusium (St.).— Abbott, was born at Alexandria about 370. He appears to have been a lawyer before he conse- crated himself to the monastic life and the study of Holy Scripture. His profound knowledge and love of dogma, as well as his method of interpretation, together with other circumstances, would point to the fact that he was probably taught, among others, by St. John Chrysostom. In consideration of his excellent qualities, he was elected abbot of the monks who dwelt on a mountain near Pelusium, and whom he guided by word and example in the way of perfection. His strict asceticism, refined education, and profound erudition, earned for him a wide-spread reputation, not only among the clergy, but also among all classes of the laity. He used his great influence for the good of the Church, everywhere upholding the orthodox faith and giving salutary counsels. He admon- ished the Emperor Theodosius II. to main- tain order at the Council of Ephesus, warned Cyril of Alexandria against the proceedings of his crafty uncle, Theophi- lus, and addressed earnest remonstrances even to bishops, a proceeding by which he naturally made some enemies. At the Council of Ephesus, he occupied the posi- tion of a mediator between the two extreme parties. Having labored and suffered much for the faith, he died in 440, in the odor of sanctity. F. Feb. 4th.

    Of St. Isidore's writings there are ex- tant 2,012 epistles, in five books, generally brief, but written with grace, spirit, and unction, and containing excellent counsels and principles, grave admonitions, and rebukes, as well as information on dog- matical and exegetical subjects.

    Ismael. — The son of Abraham by Ha- gar, and the ancestor of the Ismaelites (1056-1049 B. c), from whom are descended the modern Arabs of the desert, or Bed-

    ouins. His history is contained in Gen- esis (xvL and xvii.).

    Islam. See Mohammedanism.

    Israel (Kingdom of). — One of the two kingdoms formed in Palestine in the time of Roboam, when this prince refused to lower the taxes imposed by his father. It comprised ten tribes : Aser, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasses, Nephtali, Ruben, Simeon, and Zabulon. TTiey placed at their head Jeroboam, who made Samaria his capital. In 718, Salmanasar, king of Assyria, took Samaria, and reduced its in- habitants into bondage. Thus ended the kingdom of Israel : it had lasted 244 years. For the kings of Israel, see Chronology.

    Issachar. — Fifth son of Jacob and Lia. The tribe of Issachar, whose father he be- came, settled between the tribe of Zabulon in the North, the half-tribe of Manasses in the West and South, and the Jordan in the East.

    Itala. — The name of the oldest Latin translation of the Bible. See Bible.

    Italy ( Worship in). — Almost the entire peninsula belongs to the Catholic worship : some valleys of the Alps, on the side of Pignerol (22,000 inhabitants), are Walden- ses and have a Church at Turin. Some Albanians of the United Greek rite live on the southern shores of the Adriatic; the number of Israelites is hardly 38,000 and that of Protestants 42,000. The Cath- olics number 29,843,407. The American Methodists have, since 1874, t^^o Churches in Rome. The Catholic worship counts 64 archbishops, 204 bishops, 120,000 mem- bers of the clergy, and 20,000 parishes. The Catholic religion is acknowledged as the religion of the State ; the other forms of religious worship are merely tolerated.

    Ite Missa Est. — Latin words which sig- nify. Go, leave is given to depart, and which the priest says at the end of Mass.

    Ithacius. — Bishop of Ossonoba, in Spain ; showed great zeal against the Priscillian- ists; but having abused his influence with the Emperor Maximus, who caused them to be condemned to death, he was blamed and several bishops separated themselves from his communion.

    Itinerary. — A form of prayer intended for the use of clerics when setting out on a journey.




    Ituraea. — In ancient geography, a dis- trict lying northeast of Palestine. Its loca- tion has not been precisely determined, but it was probably southwest of Damascus and southeast of Mount Hermon.

    Ivo (St.) (1040-1116). — Bishop of Chart- res in 1091. King Philip I. imprisoned him, because the saint punished him on

    account of his adulterous relations with Bertrade. When Philip was excommuni- cated, Ivo effected his absolution. In the Contest of Investitures, he sided with Rome, but courageously reproached the faults of the papal legates. His works, among which his Letters are of great in- terest, are found in Migne's Pat. Lat. CLVII-CLXI. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.