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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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By NewtonStein;

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"J"
Jabbok

    In Bible geography, a mountain stream of Galaad, Palestine, joining the Jordan about 25 miles north of the Dead Sea.

Jabesh-Galaad.
    — In Bible geography, an important town in Galaad, Palestine. Its situation has not been identified. Here Saul won a victory over the Ammonites.

Jabin.
    — 1. A king of Asor in Palestine; defeated by Josue, at the waters of Merom (Jos. xi. 1-3).

    2. A king of Asor, whose general, Sisara, was defeated by Barac (Jud. iv.). The accounts of these two kings and of their overthrow are very much alike, and probably relate to the same per- son and event.

Jachin.
    — i. The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. xlvi. 10). 2. A priest, head of the 2ist course, in the time of David. 3. A col- umn set up in the court of Solomon's temple. Its companion was named Boaz.

Jacob
    (Hebrew, surplanter, heel-holder). — Hebrew patriarch. Son of Isaac and Rebecca, and twin brother of Esau. Jacob, having taken advantage of his brother's weakness, and of his father's infirmity, to obtain his brother's birthright and the bless- ing of primogeniture, was compelled to flee into Mesopotamia, to avoid the consequences of his brother's wrath.

    During his journey the Lord appeared to him in a dream, promised him His protection, and declared His purpose relative to his descendants possessing the land of Chanaan, and the de- scent of the Messiah through him. His subsequent history and death, after residing for many years in Egypt, is given in Genesis (xxix.). The date of Jacob's immigration into Egypt is given by Brugsch as about the year 1730 b. c.

Jacobins
    — Name sometimes given to the black or Dominican friars ; so called from the Church of St. Jacque (Jacobus), in which they were first established in Paris.

Jacobites
    — Members of a Christian sect in Syria, Mesopotamia, etc., originally an offshoot of the Monophysites. The sect takes its name from Jacobus Bardanseus, a Syrian, consecrated bishop of Edessa about the year 541. The head of the Church is called Patriarch of Antioch. In 1442 the Jacobites of Syria were received into Catholic communion.

    Jacob's Well. — A well, near Sichem, where Jesus conversed with the Samaritan woman. It seems to be identical with the Bir Yakub, still existing near Nablus. An uninterrupted tradition, admitted by the Christians, Jews, Samaritans and Moham- medans, makes its origin go back to the patriarch whose name it has preserved, and which he dug near his dwelling-place, before his sons had slain the Sichemites. It is also called " Samaritan Well," because, on its curb which surrounded it, our Saviour was sitting, when He held, with the Samaritan woman, that wonderful con- versation related in St. John (iv. 5-12). Over this well they had formerly erected a church in the form of a cross ; to-day it is inclosed in a small vaulted crypt, an ancient chapel.

    Jahel. — A Jewess who killed Sisara, general of King Jabin, of Asor, by driving a nail into his head, while he was asleep.

    Jamblichus. — A Neoplatonic philoso- pher, died about 333 a. d. Disciple of Porphyrins; like his master, he applied the Neoplatonic philosophy in the support of paganism. Among his disciples was the Emperor Julian the Apostate.

    James the Elder. — One of the twelve Apostles, born at Bethsaida in Galilee. Brother of John the Evangelist, and son of Zebedee and Salome. James and John were originally fishermen, with Zebedee their father. They were witnesses of our Lord's transfiguration, and when certain Samaritans refused to receive Him, James - and John wished for fire from heaven to consume them. For this reason, it is thought, the name of Boanerges (sons o/ thunder), was afterwards given to them. After the ascension of our Lord, at which James was present, he appears to have re- mained at Jerusalem, and was put to death by Herod, about A. d. 42 or 44.

    James the Less. — One of the twelve Apostles, born at Cana. Cousin of our Lord and son of Alpheus and Mary, the sister of the Blessed Virgin. He was left alone to direct the Christian communities in Palestine, and particularly the Church of Jerusalem, which city he probably never left. On account of his eminent sanctity and austerity of life, he was called the "Just" and was held in universal esteem both by Jews and Christians. According to Josephus Flavius, James, with some other Christians, was stoned, by order of the high-priest Ananus, in 62 or 63; while Hegesippus tells us, that he was cast down from the pinnacle of the temple and struck dead with a fuller's club about the year 69. The Epistle of St. James, written about the year 59, principally combats the error of those who taught that faith without good works was sufficient, and vigorously pro- tests against the love of riches.

    Jansenius (Cornelius) and Jansenism. — Jansenius was born at Acquoy, Holland, ^" 1585 ; died in 1638. Professor at Louvain, then bishop of Ypres. Being averse to the theological views of the Jesuits, he concerted with his friend Hauranne, Abbot of St. Cyran, a new system of doctrine concerning the working of divine grace. He published his system in a book which, from St. Augustine, of whose doctrine, the work as he professed, attempted to give a faithful statement, is entitled Augustinus. The book is in three parts : the first con- tains a history of the Pelagian heresy; the second and third treat of grace, fallen nature, and the Semi-Pelagian errors. Pope Urban VIIL, in 1624, condemned

    the work as reviving the errors of Baius ; and Innocent X., in 1653, denounced, as heretical, five propositions, to which the errors of Jansenius were reduced. The Jansenists were willing to admit that the five condemned propositions were false, but they denied that the book of Jansenius contained them in the sense condemned, — a question of fact, on which, as they main- tained, the Church might err. Alexander Vn., however, in 1656, declared that the five propositions were contained in Augus- tinus, and were condemned in the sense in which the author used them. The per- nicious contest was now laid to rest for a long time ; till in the year 1702, " the Case of Conscience" invented by the Jansenists was brought forward. A new act of the Jansenistic drama began with the censure of the Moral Reflections of the orato- rian Pasquier Quesnel, who, under a very artful disguise, sought to disseminate the Galilean errors and those of the Jansenists. Pope Clement XL was not slow in adopt- ing repressive measures against the daring sectaries. In the celebrated Bull Unigeni- tus, of 1713, he condemed loi propositions from Quesnel's work as false, impious, and even heretical. The hearty acceptance of the last Bull was long the badge of a faith- ful son of the Church ; and at the present day, after the Vatican decree on Papal In- fallibility, no one can fail to receive it without obviously forfeiting the name of Catholic. The propositions of Jansenius, condemned by Pope Innocent X. were: " Man, created innocent and pure, like the angels, had then the original, natural, and essential grace ; sin troubled and ravaged his nature; but Christ came to restore him by a new grace {gratia medicina/is) , which has drawn him out of bondage. This grace which is efficacious, irresistible, always victorious, is, however, not given to all, for it is gratuitous, and those who have it not, fall under the stroke of perdition ; man is, therefore, dragged toward the good or evil by a force superior to his will. Many French Jansenists having fled to Holland, with the assistance of the Vicar Apostolic Peter Kodde. and Dominic Var- let, titular Bishop of Babylon, they formed an independent Church, with Utrecht as a center. The Jansenist Church of Holland continues to the present day. It numbers less than five thousand souls and is ruled by one archbishop and two bishops. In point of doctrine and discipline the Dutch Jansenists remain just where they were at

    Janssen

    375

    Jechonias

    the time of their separation from the Catholic Church. They protested, how- ever, against the definition of the Immacu- late Conception and Papal Infallibility.

    Janssen (John). — Catholic historian, born at Xanten (Westphalia) in 1846; died in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Dec. 21st, 1891. Doctor of philosophy in the University of Bonn (1851) ; professor of history in Frank- fort-on-the-Main ; ordained priest in i860. He became widely known by his GescJiichfe des Deutschen Volkes Seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (1876-88), a history of the German people from the close of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. This work is unquestionably one of the most important historical mon- uments of our time.

    Januarius (St.). — Patron of Naples, born in that city, died in 305. Bishop of Bene- vento, was martyred under Diocletian. His remains were brought to Naples, where the cathedral was dedicated to him. When- ever Naples is threatened by some ca- lamity, his relics are carried in solemn procession ; they repeatedly stopped the ravages of Vesuvius. In the same church is kept the head of this saint, as also a part of his blood contained in two very ancient phials. The blood is congealed, but when it is brought near the martyr's head it melts and flows like the blood of a living man. F. Sept. 19th.

    Japan {Christianity in). — Francis Xav- ier went to preach the Gospel in Japan. In 1582 the number of Christians already reached 200,000 and 200 churches were enumerated. In 1587 the missionaries were expelled, the converts were perse- cuted, and Japan closed to foreigners. However, in spite of all persecutions, twenty-five years later, the Christians numbered 750,000. In 1639, all Europeans, except the Dutch, were forbidden to enter Japan, even for trade, and then, only on condition of their trampling upon the Cross, to which the heretical Hollanders had readily acquiesced. Thousands of Japanese converts were put to death. In 1838, 4,000 Christians were drowned in the sea, and many others were subjected to the most horrible torments. The fright- ful persecutions of Christians in Japan rests chiefly with the Dutch Calvinists, who, out of commercial jealousy and ha- tred of the Catholic religion, accused the Catholic missionaries of a conspiracy with

    the Portuguese and Spaniards against the Japanese government. It was the Dutch, who in 1638, at the request of the Japanese government, bombarded Simabara, where 37,000 Christians who, to save themselves had taken refuge within its walls. Thus the intrigues and crimes of the Dutch Protestants assisted in ruining a once flourishing Church, and in securing the triumph of paganism. When Japan was opened to Europeans some years ago, the astounding fact was announced that, after more than two centuries of utter abandon- ment. Catholic Christians were still to be found in the interior of the empire, who, instructed by catechists only, had pre- served their faith under the most trying circumstances. To-day, there are two Vicariates Apostolic in Japan.

    Japhet. — Eldest son of Noe, brother of Sem and Cham, and father of the people of the North, that is, of the north of Asia and most of Europe (in general, of the so- called Indo-European race).

    Jason. — I. High-priest of theJews,brother of Onias, whom he robbed of the high- priesthood, by buying this dignity (175 B. c.) from King Antiochus Epiphanes; was sup- planted in the same manner two years later by his brother Menelaus. 2. yason of Cy- rene. — Jewish historian of the second century B. c. Wrote: History of the Per- secutions of the Kings of Syria against the fe-ws, a lost work, but the Second Book of the Machabees is an extant abridgment of Jason's work. 3. fason of Thessalonica. — Bishop of Tarsus in Cilicia, in the first century of the Christian era. Relative of St. Paul; saved the Apostle's life during an insurrection raised against St. Paul at Thessalonica. The Greeks celebrate his feast, April 28th.

    Javan. — Fourth son of Japhet and father of the lonians or Greeks. He had four sons : Elisa, Tharsis, Cethim, and Dodanim or Rhodanim, who peopled Elida, Cilicia, Macedonia, and the countries of Rhodes.

    Jebusites. — A Chanaanite nation which long withstood the Israelites. The strong- hold of the Jebusites was Jebus on Mount Zion, a part of the site of Jerusalem, of which they were dispossessed by David.

    Jechonias. — King of Juda, nephew of Josias and son of Joakim, king of Juda, who associated him to the throne at the age of eight years. After the death of his

    Jehovah

    376

    Jericho

    father (599) he reigned alone only three months and ten days : Nabuchodonosor, having taken Jerusalem, led him away cap- tive to Babylon. Jeremias says that he in- curred the indignation of the Lord through his crimes, and called him Barren, because none of his children reigned over Jeru- salem.

    Jehovah (Hebr./fl»» Wkoam)(F,x. iii. 14- 16). — The correct pronunciation is prob- ably Jat'eh, whence the abbreviation Jah. Its meaning is that God is the One Who is, purely and simply; Whose being is de- pendent on no earthly cause ; Who, there- fore, can neither be limited nor changed by anything, and Who, by reason of this mode of existence, is distinguished from all other beings, real or possible, especially from all pretended divinities. Hence it is in the strictest sense of the word a proper name, such as Moses asked for in order to make known to the people the character- istic name of the God (Elokim) of their fathers. As the name Jehovah was in xise before the time of Moses, the question arises as to the sense in which God said to Moses (Ex. vi. 3) that he appeared to Abraham,^ Isaac, and Jacob by the name of God Al- mighty {El Schadai). and did not reveal to them His name Jehovah. The best solution of the difficulty is, perhaps, that Jehovah was His most appropriate name, and that it was, as a matter of fact, adopted by Him to serve as a symbol and watchword of the public worship of the one God, whereas El Schadai expresses more accurately the relation of God to the families of the Patri- archs as their powerful protector.

    Jehu. — I. King bf Israel from 884 to 856 B.C. At first, officer in the army of Joram ; anointed king by order of the prophet Eliseus ; destroyed the whole family of the impious Achab. He, having allowed himself to be dragged into idolatry, was conquered by Hazael, king of Syria. He had for successor his son Joachaz. 2. Jehu. — Son of Hanani. A prophet of Juda, in the time of Josaphat (877-853 B.C.).

    Jephte. — A chieftain and judge of Israel, whose history is given in Judges (xi.-xii.). When he went to battle against the Am- monites, he vowed that whosoever should come forth first from his home to meet him on his return " in peace from the children of Ammon " should be oflFered as a burnt of- fering. The Ammonites were routed, and as Jephte returned, the first to come out to

    meet him, was his daughter and only child, whom he immolated. However, accord- ing to the most probable opinion, he only consecrated her to the Lord.

    Jeremias (650-590 b. c). — One of the four grreat Prophets of the Old Testament, born in the city of Anathoth, in the tribe of Benjamin. He commenced his predic- tions in the thirteenth year of the reign of Josias, king of Juda, and continued them luitil the commencement of the Babylon- ian capti^■ity. His threatening voice arose, in the name of the Lord, Who inspired him, against impiety, idolatry, corruption, and the iniquity of his race. His fatidical voice became importune; he was perse- cuted and repeatedly imprisoned; he dic- tated his prophecies to his disciple Baruch, charged him to read them to the people and to the great ; the commotion was such that Joakim ordered the book to be burned, but Jeremias dictated it a second time, and Baruch reproduced the text which they wished to destroy. Then took place all the misfortunes which the Prophet had foretold : the invasion of the kingdom by Nabuchodonosor and its con- sequences. Jeremias, who had been thrown into a den, is drawn forth from it by Mel- chias and, at the taking of the city, set at liberty by Nabuchodonosor, who leaves to him the choice either to remain at Jerusa- lem or to go to Babylon. He prefers to re- main in the midst of the ruins of his na- tion ; but after the murder of Godolias, governor of Jerusalem, he was dragged into Egypt with his disciple Baruch. It is believed that he was stoned at Taphnis. Jeremias composed Prophecies and Lam- entations. The Book of Prophecies, di- \Tded into 52 chapters, is interesting history from the political, religious, and moral point of view; it is a faithful pic- ture of the unfortunate times in which he lived. The Lamentations, four in num- ber, are followed by a prayer which forms the fifth. The Church sings these Lam- entations during Holy Week, applying them to the dolorous scenes of the Pas- sion.

    Jericho. — In the Old Testament his- tory, a city of Palestine, situated west of the Jordan and fourteen miles east-north- east of Jerusalem. It was destroyed by Josue and rebuilt by Achab; was the resi- dence of Herod the Great; was destroyed by Vespasian, rebuilt by Hadrian, and again destroyed by the Crusaders.

    Jeroboam

    377

    Jerusalem

    Jeroboam (name of two kings). — i. Jer- oboam I. — King of Israel (953-927 b. c). Minister of Solomon and disgraced by this prince, he organized a revolt of the ten northern tribes against Roboam, and founded the kingdom of Israel (III.Ki. xi.- XV.; II. Par. ix.-xiv.). i.Jeroboam II. — King of Israel (790-749 B.C.). Son and successor of Joas. He was the most prosperous of the kings of Israel (iv. Ki. xii.).

    Jerome (St.) (Lat. Hieronymus). — Born at Stridon in Dalmatia, in 340. St. Jerome is regarded as the most learned of the Latin Fathers. His youth was passed in Rome, whither he was sent to complete his studies under ^lius Donatus, a celebrated gram- marian. His thirst for knowledge caused him to visit foreign cities, among others Treves, where he transcribed, for his friend Rufinus, a commentary on the Psalms, and a treatise on Synods by St. Hilary. In com- pany with several friends, Jerome, in 372, set out for the East, traveling through Asia Minor to Antioch. Here, he at- tended the Biblical lectures of ApoUinaris, the future heresiarch. He afterwards withdrew into the Syrian desert of Chal- cis, where, for four years, he led a sol- itary life, learning at the same time from a converted Jew the rudiments of the He- brew language. While living in the des- ert, he wrote the life of St. Paul, the first hermit, and his dialogue against the Luci- ferian Schismatics. The Meletian schism caused him to return to Antioch, where he was ordained priest, in 379. In 381, Je- rome went to Constantinople, to study the Holy Scriptures under St. Gregory Nazian- zen, and thence returned to Rome. He was the intimate friend of Pope Damasus who appointed him his secretary. At the Pope's request, Jerome began his revision of the Old Latin, or Italic Version of the Bible. After the death of Damasus, he set out again for Palestine, where he founded and superintended several monasteries until his death, which occurred at Bethle- hem, in 420. He was buried amid the ruins of one of his monasteries, which had been destroyed by the partisans of Pela- gius. St. Jerome, who is called by the Church " the greatest Doctor raised up by the divine hand to interpret the Sacred Scriptures," was the author of the Latin translation of the Bible, known as the Vul- gate. Of all his writings, this is the most useful and the most widely known. His

    other works are found in Migne, Pat. Lat. XXII-XXX.

    Jerome of Prague. See Hussites.

    Jeronymites. See Hikronimites.

    Jerusalem. — The celebrated metropolis of Palestine, called by the Turks Koudsem- barich or Koudsderif, and by the Arabs El Khods (the Holy). It is situated near the center of the country, among the moun- tains, about 37 miles from the Mediter- ranean, and about 23 miles from the Jordan. It was on the border of the tribes of Benjamin and Juda, mostly within the limits of the former, but reckoned as be- longing to the latter, because conquered by it. The most ancient name of the city was Salem (Gen. xiv. 18; Ps. Ixxvi. 2) and it afterwards was called Jebus, as belong- ing to the Jebusites (Jud. xix. 10, 11). Be- ing a very strong position, it resisted many attempts of the Israelites to subdue it. The city was reduced by David (II. Ki. v. 6-9) after which it received its present name, and was also called the " city of David." Jerusalem, after its destruction by the Chaldeans, was rebuilt by the Jews on their return from captivity, about the year 536 B. c. They exerted themselves much in order to restore it to its former splendor, and Herod the Great afterwards expended vast sums in its embellishment. It was at last taken by Titus and totally destroyed, A. D. 72. Still, as the Jews continued to return thither, and manifested a rebellious spirit, the emperor Hadrian planted a Roman colony there in 134, and banished the Jews, prohibiting their return on pain of death. He changed the name of the city to ^lia Capitolina, and consecrated it to heathen deities, in order to defile it as much as possible ; and used his utmost ef- forts in order to obliterate all traces both of Judaism and Christianity. From this period the name ^lia became so common, that the name Jerusalem, was preserved only among the Jews and better informed Christians. In the time of Constantine, however, it resumed its ancient name, which it has retained to the present day. St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, built many churches in Judea and in Jeru- salem, about A. D. 326; and Julian the Apostate, who, after his father succeeded to the empire of his uncle Constantine, en- deavored to rebuild the temple ; but his design — and that of the Jews, whom he patronized — was frustrated in 363. Jeru-

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    salem to-day is under the Turkish do- minion " trodden down by the Gentiles." Population estimated at about 40,000.

    Jerusalem (Council of). — A counsel of the Apostles convened at Jerusalem in the. year 50 or 51, for the settlement of dis- putes that had arisen regarding the recog- nition of the Gentile Christians and the obligation of their obser\'ance of the Jew- ish ceremonial law. Its decrees are given in Acts (rv. 23-29).

    Jerusalem (Church of the New). See

    SWEDENBORGIANS.

    Jesuats. — Members of a religious community, so called from their custom of continually crying through the streets, " Praised be Jesus Christ ! " Were founded by John Colombino, a native of Siena, in the fourteenth century. He was so fasci- nated by the lives of the saints, particu- larly, that of St. Mary of Egypt, that he resigned the highest civil preferment the State could offer, to give himself wholh* to the service of the poor and the sick. Pope Urban V., in 1367, approved the new con- gregation as a community of lay brothers, classed among the Mendicant Orders, and ordered them to adopt the Rule of St. Augustine. In the beginning of the seven- teenth century, permission was given to the Jesuats to take priests' orders ; but the congregation was suppressed shortly after by Clement IX., because some of the houses of the wealthy ^^Padri delV acqua vite," as they were called, engaged in the business of distilling liquors and practic- ing pharmacy (1668).

    Jesuits. — Name given to the members of the religious order known as the " Soci- ety of Jesus." At the very time when Lu- ther and the other reformers bade defiance to the Holy See, divine Providence raised up an order which should support the Chair of St. Peter against the new heretics; and by example, preaching, and education, champion the cause of Catholic truth, and carry the light of the Gospel to the heathen of distant countries. This order was the noble and famous " Society of Jesus." St. Ignatius of Loyola, its founder, was born in 1491, of a noble Spanish family, and trained to the profession of arms. But, touched by divine grace, he gave up that profession to devote his life to the service of the Church. In instituting his order, the foundation of which was laid on the Feast of the Assumption (1534), Ignatius desired

    to create a spiritual militia which should be completely subject to the orders of the Vicar of Christ, and whose serv-ices should be ever ready to be employed by the Pope in whatever manner and whatever part of the world he should judge best. The rules laid down for the government of the so- ciety all tend to this end. A fourth vow, that of undertaking, at the bidding of the Pope, any mission in any part of the world, is added to the other three vows of pov- erty, chastity, and obedience, which latter they declare to be the duty of every mem- ber of the society. The " Society of Jesus " became the vanguard of the Church in her conflict with Protestantism. The progress of heresy in Germany was checked, and thousands were converted from their er- rors by the labors of the Jesuits. Austria, Bavaria, an Jewish nation. Joseph, having become the first

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    minister of the Pharaohs of Egypt, calls to him his father Jacob and his family to the number of seventy persons, and established them in the land of Gessen. There they increased in numbers to such an extent that the Pharaohs, becoming uneasy, sub- jected them to serfdom and to the most arduous labors. Then they ordered the death of all the male children, in order to retard the increase of the race. Moses be- ing preserved from the general slaughter of the infants, afterwards saved his people from bondage, led them to the Red Sea, and by a miracle which opened the waters to allow their passage, they passed dry- footed to the other side. The army of Pharaoh, in pursuit, also attempted the pas- sage, but the waters regaining their usual level, the whole Egyptian army was de- stroyed, while the Israelites entered the Arabian desert. Here they journeyed for forty years amidst sufferings and vicissi- tudes which their sins and infidelity drew upon them. God gave to Moses, on the top of Mount Sinai, His law, embraced in the Ten Commandments, which were en- graved upon tables of stone. Moses died about 1605 B. c, upon Mount Moria, with- out being permitted to enter the Promised Land. Josue succeeded him, and lead the people into Chanaan, conquering the idola- trous nations that dwelt there. The twelve tribes divided the land and founded their nation (1580 B. c). After Josue, the govern- ment was intrusted to Caleb and the Ancients. God afterwards raised Judges, whom He selected to govern these disobe- dient and often unfaithful tribes, and to fight against the neighboring nations, al- ways hostile to the invaders. The reign and authority of the Judges embraces four centuries, from 1554 to 1080 b. c. During this period the Israelites had to struggle against the Chanaanites, Madianites, Am- alekites, and Philistines. The chosen peo- ple experienced reverses and successes, according as they were faithful or unfaith- ful to the Lord. Finally, the Hebrews be- came tired of the intermittent domination of the Judges and clamored for a king. Saul was chosen and anointed, by the com- mand of God, their first king; but after successes against the Ammonites, he devi- ated from the path of right and \nrtue, and was rejected. David, chosen in his place, enlarged his kingdom through brilliant victories. Solomon, his son, extended the limits of his kingdom to the Euphrates, on the East, and the Red Sea, on the South.

    He constructed at great cost the Temple of Jerusalem. In spite of his wisdom, he com- mitted great faults and was punished by the division of his kingdom after his death. His son Roboam was only able to preserve the tribes of Juda and Benjamin, the other ten passed under the power of Jeroboam ; thus Juda and Israel formed tw-o distinct States. This lamentable separation was a cause of weakness for the Jewish nation, and continued wars between the two king- doms paved the way for their common destruction. Notwithstanding the threats and admonitions of the Prophets whom God sent, the people repeatedly fell into impiety and idolatry. The kings of Juda numbered 20, from Roboam (952) to Sed- ecias (562 b. c. ). Those of Israel numbered 19, from Jeroboam (962) to Osee (718 b. c). See Kingdom of Israel and of Juda.

    Osee the last king of Israel fell under the blows of Salmanasar, king of Assyria, who captured Samaria, Israel's capital, and led its inhabitants captive to Ninive. The kingdom of Juda lasted a century longer; it was invaded by Nabuchodonosor, king of Assj-ria, who twice captured Jerusalem under the reigns of Joakim and Sedecias. The city, with the temple was destroyed, and a great part of the people were led away captive into Babylon and there re- mained for a period of 70 years (606-536 B. c). Cyrus restored liberty to the Jews, permitting them, under Zorobabel, Esdras, and Nehemias to rebuild the Temple, prac- tice their religion and re-establish their nationality-. Divided into four provinces, the new State became a theocratic republic, under the direction of the high-priest as- sociated with the Sanhedrin. Alexander the Great extended his conquest to Jerusa- lem, where he was shown the prophecy of Daniel concerning him, by Jaddeus, the high-priest. After Alexander's death, Judea passed under the dominion of Lao- medon, who was deposed by Ptolemy Lagus {320) ; it was then occupied by Seleucus Nicator. Soon afterwards it be- came subject to the power of Egypt. The Seleucides recaptured it in 203 b. c, and one of their kings, Antiochus Epiphanes began a violent persecution of the Jews, profaned the temple and pillaged the coun- try. Mathathias called his countrymen to arms to throw off the hateful yoke; his sons Judas Machabeus, Jonathas, and Simon completed the work of deliverance and im- posed peace upon the kings of Syria. Their success assured the power in their family,

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    and one of them, Aristobolus, took the title of king, in 107 b.c. A rivalry which arose between Hircanus II. and Aristobo- lus II., brought on the interference of the Romans, and Pompey (63 b. c), reduced Judea to a Roman province. Antigonus, son of Aristobolus II., surnamed the As- monean, was the last king of his race ; he was dethroned by command of Antoninus and put to death in 37 b. c. The Romans gave the throne to Herod, the Idumean, under whom occurred the birth of Christ. Then the kingdom was divided into four tetrarchs: Judea, Galilee, Iturea, and Batanea, the governors of which were sub- ject to the orders of Rome. Pontius, one of these governors, took part with Herod Antipas, in the judgment which condemned the Saviour to death. The Jews repeatedly rebelled against the oppressive domination of the Romans. In 65 a. d., Vespasian be- gan the siege of Jerusalem, which was con- tinued by his son Titus. After an obstinate resistance, the city was taken, the Temple destroyed and most of the inhabitants sold as slaves. A last revolt in the reign of Hadrian, 135 a.d. resulted in the complete destruction of Jerusalem. More than 500,- 000 Jews were massacred and those who were spared were dispersed throughout the whole Roman empire. The Deicides naturally made their homes where they could. This indestructible race, passing through many and varied vicissitudes, no longer forming a nation, always consti- tuted a caste or separate body in the midst of other nations. After the destruction of Jerusalem, a portion of the Jews passed into Asia; the others passed into the East, and their lot, in general, was most miser- able. Despised by the Romans, hated by the Christians, the Jews were oppressed under Constantine, persecuted under Jus- tinian and Heraclius. The Visigoths pro- scribed and outlawed them in Spain ; but in the Mahommedan countries they were treated less severely ; they could devote themselves to commerce in the Caliphate of Bagdad, Cairo, and Cordova. Under the subjection of Spain, they distinguished themselves in arts and sciences. Animated by an implacable hatred against the Chris- tian name, accused and convicted of murder of Christian children, insolent, avaricious, the Jews became an object of public contempt, and were so cruelly treated that several Popes interfered in their behalf. Despite the persecutions waged against them, the Jews, through

    industry, commerce, and usury, accumu- lated vast riches, which added an incentive to the attacks of their enemies. In Eng- land, in 1255, they were compelled to pay a contribution of 5,000 marks of silver, and in 1290 were expelled from the land. In Germany, their persons were the property of the kings and princes, who could sell or give them as a pledge. Mathias Corvin banished them from Vienna. At Frank- fort they were isolated in a separate quar- ter — the Judengasse, which had its counterpart in the Ghetto of Rome. In Spain, Ferdinand the Catholic considered them a menace to the throne, and decreed that they must adopt Christianity or leave the kingdom. Poland in the eleventh century was thronged with a vast multi- tude of Jews. Here they obtained privi- leges and prospered by monopolizing both commerce and industry, but in the fifteenth century restrictive laws were passed against them and they were forced to en- gage in menial occupations. Admitted into Russia under Peter the Great, driven out under Elizabeth, recalled by Cathar- ine II., they remained in great numbers in the frontier provinces touching Germany and Austria, where they have devoted themselves, some to legitimate trade, others to smuggling and beggary. All efforts to interest them in agricultural pursuits were in vain. In France, where they were tolerated for a long time, public opinion caused them to be banished in 1306 and again in 1396. They returned later, and were permitted to settle in Bor- deaux and Bayonne. The French Revo- lution emancipated them, and the consti- tutional assembly in 1791, granted to them civil and political rights. Rising in time from their moral degradation, they became fitted to occupy official positions and en- tered into all the branches of public life. England, like France, made them eligible to parliament, but they have become famed as financiers rather than statesmen. Everywhere they exert a great influence in the affairs of the financial world; they have acquired immense riches, and the banking houses of the Rothschilds, to which more than one great power is enor- mously indebted, is the richest private institution in the world, as the Rothschilds are the richest individuals. The enormous wealth of the Jews threatens to become a great public danger, and therefore it is said that the ancient hostility against the Jews has not entirely disappeared. On the

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    contrary, it seems to revive; there is an anti-Semitic movement going on to-day in most of the European countries. France, that wealthy nation, whose credit is only upheld by Jewish money-kings, becomes more and more a prey to the rapacious Semitic spirit, and undoubtedly, the time will come when public opinion will bring the Jewish oppression in that country to an end, or to banishment of the Jews from French territory.

    Jethro. — A priest or chief of the Ma- dianites who inhabited the southern point of Sinai, the father of seven daughters, one of whom, Sephora^ was married to Moses. In Ex. ii. 18; Num. x. 29, the name is given as Raguel. Perhaps the latter was his personal name, and Jethro an honorary title, or the discrepancy of the names may be due to separate and in- dependent narratives. By the advice of Jethro, Moses appointed deputies to judge the people and to share the burden of gov- ernment with him (Ex. xviii.).

    Jezabel. — The wife of Achab, king of Israel, whom he married before his acces- sion, and by whom she became the mother of Athalia, queen of Juda, and of Achaz and Joram, kings of Israel. She was a Phoenician princess, daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians, and established the Phoenician worship at the court of Achab. She was put to death by order of Jehu, who caused her to be thrown from a window; her remains were trampled under foot by horses and devoured by dogs, according to the prophecy of Elias.

    Jezrael. — In Bible geography, a city in the plain of Jezrael, Palestine, situated near Mount Gelboe, 53 miles north of Jeru- salem. It was the capital of Israel under the dynasty of Achab. Famous by the punishment which God inflicted on Achab, because he had taken a vineyard from Na- both.

    Joab. — General and nephew of David. He commanded in the war against Isbo- seth, the son of Saul, as well as against the Gentiles. He treacherously slew Abner, Saul's former captain, after he had become reconciled with David, and dispatched David's rebellious son Absalom. He was killed by order of Solomon for conspiring with Adonias.

    Joachaz. — i. King of Israel from 856 to 839 B. c, son and successor of Jehu, sacri-

    ficed to the idols in Samaria, was conquered by Hazael, king of Syria, in punishment for his impiety, humbled himself before the Lord and, through his penance, saved the kingdom froln ruin. 2. Joachaz. — King of Juda, son of Jonas. He was, after a reign of three months and ten days, car- ried into the Babylonian captivity, with 10,000 of his subjects, by Nabuchodonosor.

    Joachim (St.). — Husband of St. Anne and father of the Blessed Virgin, of the tribe of Juda and the family of David. They still show his tomb in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of Notre Dame. A portion of his body is preserved at Co- logne. F. March 20th.

    Joachimites. See Joachim of Fiore.

    Joakim or Eliakim. — King of Juda from 609 to 598 B. c, eldest son of Josias, dethroned by his brother Joachaz, restored on the throne by Nechao; he delivered himself to impiety, persecuted Jeremias, was conquered and put to death by Na- buchodonosor II. With his reign the captivity of the Jews at Babylon begins.

    Joachim of Fiore (i 130-1202). — Writer and religious of the Order of Citeaux. Born at Celico, near Cosenza. Abbot of Fiore, Calabria. Composed prophecies. His disciples, called " Joachimites," were condemned as heretics. The most impor- tant feature of the doctrines of Joachim was the belief that the history of man will be covered by three reigns : the first, that of the Father, from the creation till the birth of Christ; the second, that of the Son, from the birth of Christ till 1260; and the third, that of the Holy Ghost, from 1260 onward. This last view was de- veloped by his adherents into the belief that a new gospel would supersede the revelation of the Old and New Testaments. These views had many supporters in the thirteenth century.

    Joan ( Fable of the Pofess). — The story that between the Pontificates of Leo IV. and Benedict III., the papal throne was occupied for more than two years by a woman Popess Joan, is now universally ad- mitted to be a fable by even Protestant writers. i. The interval, between the death of Leo IV., which took place July 17th, 855, and the accession of Benedict III., who was elected in the same month and consecrated September 29th of the same year, leaves no room for the imag-

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    inary reign of a popess, for which two years and a half are claimed. 2. Hincmar of Rheims, in a letter to Pope Nicholas I., observes that the messenger which he had sent to Leo IV., learned, on the way, the news of that Pontiff's death, and on his ar- rival at Rome found Benedict III. on the throne. 3. The story is not mentioned by any of the Latin or Greek writers from the ninth to the thirteenth century. It made its first appearance about the year 1240 or 1250 — nearly 400 years after its supposed date — being first mentioned in the Chronicle of Martinus Polonus and by Stephen of Bourbon, who died, the former in 1278, and the latter in 1261. 4. Photius, who searched for whatever might cast odium upon the Roman Church and the Popes, does not mention the fable. 5. As regards the statement of Anastasius the Librarian of the ninth century, and Mari- anus Scotus of the eleventh century, it is established beyond a doubt that the story was interpolated into their works, since some manuscripts and earlier copies of their writings do not contain it.

    Joan of Arc ( 1412-1431 ) ( Fr. Jeanne d'Arc), called "The Maid of Orleans," was born at Dom-Remy. The French na- tional heroine. She was the illiterate daughter of a peasant inn proprietor at Dom-Remy. At the time of her appear- ance in history, the English were masters of the whole of France, north of the Loire, and the queen mother, Isabella, supported the pretensions of her grand- son Henry VI. of England to the throne of France, in opposition to her son Charles VII. of France. According to a version of a prophecy by Merlin, which was cur- rent in her native province and with which she was undoubtedly familiar, France was to be overwhelmed with calamities, but was to be delivered by a virgin out of the forest of Dom-Remy. She imagined that she heard supernatural voices commanding her to liberate France, and eventually gained access to the court of Charles VII., who intrusted her with the command of an army. She raised the siege, which the English were maintaining at Orleans, May 8th, 1429, and gained the great vic- tory of Patay, June i8th, 1429, with the re- sult that Charles VII. was enabled, July 17th, 1429, to receive the consecrated oil at Rheims, where the kings of France were anciently accustomed to hold the coronation ceremonies. She was captured

    25

    May 24th, 1430, while defending Com- pi^gne against the Duke of Burgundy ; was sold by the duke to his allies, the English ; and was burned at the stake as a heretic at Rouen, May 31st, 1431. In our day the Church has taken steps to canonize Joan of Arc.

    Joas. — King of Juda 837-797 b. c. Son of Ochozias. He was the only prince of the royal house who escaped massacre on the usurpation of the throne by Athalia. He was proclaimed king by the high- priest Joiada, who overthrew Athalia, in 837. He put to death Zacharias, the son of Joiada, in anger at being rebuked for restoring the worship of Baal, and was murdered by his own servants during an invasion of the Syrians. Joas. — King of Israel (798-790 b.c). Son and suc- cessor of Joachaz. He expelled the Syri- ans from his kingdom, and defeated and captured Amasias, king of Juda, and plun- dered the temple of Jerusalem.

    Joatham or Joathan. — King of Juda, 748-742 B.C. Son and successor of Ozias, defeated the Ammonites and fortified Jerusalem.

    Job. — Biblical personage of whom we know very little. He was an Arabian, re- markable for a holy life. The fact of his riches, consisting in flocks and pasturage, and his acting as priest in his own family, places him, certainly, in the patriarchal times, though there are some who think he was a contemporary of Moses about 1520 B.C. God allow-ed Satan to afflict this devout man in order to test his virtue. This was begun by the destruction of every beast on Job's extensive plains, and the murder of the herdsmen, except two, who escaped to tell the sad tale to the unhappy owner. Soon after this calamity, Job was informed that his seven sons and three daughters, while together in a brother's house, were crushed to death by the falling in of the roof. But, though these misfor- tunes came rapidly upon him. Job did not complain (Job. i. 21). But the last suffer- ing sent to him by God was excruciating, for his whole body became a mass of fes- tering sores, so loathsome that his wife bade him "bless God and die" (ii. 9). Still he meekly observed : " If we have received good things at the hand of God why should we not receive evil.? " (ii. 10.) In this state he was visited by some friends who sat at his feet for seven days without uttering a

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    single word of sympathy. At last they broke this silence with bitter remarks, to the effect that sinners only are afflicted by such painful diseases. Job replied that God, no doubt, being infinitely good, dis- poses all things justly and wisely; but He sometimes allows the wicked in this life to prosper, and the good to be sorely tried for an end known to Himself. Notwith- standing this glorious profession of faith, Job ventured rashly to sound the divine secrets in connection with his oAvn case. God, from a whirlwind, reprehended his temerity. Job, seeing his error, humbled himself in dust and ashes, when God, after defending him from the cruel taunts of false friends, rewarded his patience and repentance, by restoring to him his former prosperous condition and raising up a new family to him. Job prophesied the coming of the Messias and the resurrection of the body (xix. 25, 26). The author of this book is supposed to be Job himself.

    Jocques (Isaac). — A French Jesuit mis- sionary to Canada; born at Orleans, Jan. loth, 1607; joined the Order of Jesuits in 1624; became a priest and was sent to the New World as missionary to the Hurons in 1636. He sailed up the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers into the Huron country, east of Lake Superior. After five years' missionary work he started to return to Quebec, was taken prisoner by the Mo- hawk Indians and tortured, but finally escaped to Albany, and returned to France by way of New York. He soon returned to Canada, negotiated a treaty between the French and Mohawks in 1646, and began a mission among the latter, but was killed as a sorcerer by them, Oct. i8th, 1646, in a part of the country which is now Mont- gomery county. New York. In 1884 a chapel was built on the spot, and steps have been taken toward his canonization. His Life was published by Felix Martin, in 1873.

    Joel. — The twelfth of the twelve minor Prophets. He lived under the reigns of Ezechias and Manasses. His prophecies compose three chapters in which he fore- tells the Babylonian capti\aty, the coming of the Messias and the Last Judgment.

    John (name of twenty-three Popes). — yohn I. — Pope from 523 to 526. At the re- quest of King Theodoric, he undertook a mission to Constantinople to obtain from the Emperor Justin I. religious liberty for

    the Arians and the restoration of their churches. Theodoric, displeased with the issue of the embassy, had the Pope cast into prison, where he died May 27th, 526. John II. — Pope from 532 to 535. He obtained from Alaric, king of the Goths, an edict which annulled all the Simonia- cal gifts and promises that might be made on the occasion of the election of the sovereign Pontiffs. yohn III. — Pope from 560 to 573. John IV. — Pope from 640 to 642. He condemned the Monothelitic formula of faith prepared by Sergius at the instance of the Emperor Heraclius. yohn V. — Pope from 685 to 686. He was a native of Antioch in Syria. jfolm VI. — Pope from 701 to 705. Scarcely had he ascended the Papal throne, when the usurper Tiberius HI. sent the Exarch Theophylactus to Rome to compel the ratification of some unjust measures. But the indignant people and military ral- lied together and would have laid vio- lent hands upon the exarch, had not the Pope interposed. John VII. — Pope from 705 to 707. Like his predecessor, John VI., he refused, when asked by the emperor, to approve the TruUan Council. John VIII.— "Pope from 872 to 882. A vigorous and indefatigable Pontiff, but his position was embarrassing in the extreme. During his whole pontificate, Rome was continually in danger of falling into the hands of the Saracens. Yet even more formidable to the Holy See than the Sara- cens were the petty Christian princes of Italy. He appealed for aid, first to Charles the Bald, king of France, and after the latter's death in 877, to his son, Louis of France. But the Carlovingian princes were unable or unwilling to grant the help and protection solicited by the Pope, who was obliged to purchase the safety of Rome by the payment of an annual tribute to the Saracens, yohn IX. -r- Pope from S98 to 900. Was an active and energetic Pope, who labored most zealously to heal the evils of his time. A Roman council held under him annulled the unprecedented judgment passed on Pope Formosus, and solemnly restored his memory. The orders which he had bestowed were confirmed, and reordination condemned. John X. — Pope from 914 to 928, He was a near rela- tive, according to some, the nephew of the elder Theodora, a Roman lady, famous on account of her beauty, disorders and crimes. Upon this fact the h'ing Luit- prand built up his grievous accusations

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    against that Pontiff, whom he charges with gross licentiousness. The conflicting statements of Luitprand are a sufficient proof of the falsehood of his allegations. By other contemporary writers, John X. is represented as a Pontiff of unimpeach- able conduct, whose reign was eminently useful to the Church. Pope John X. dis- played great activity and energy for the liberation of Italy from the Saracens, whom he utterly routed and freed the country from their power, in 916. He manifested a disposition to break the power of the Tuscan tyrants, and free the Papacy from its degrading dependency. But his noble endeavors were antici- pated by the party of Marozia. He was surprised in the Lateran palace by this daring woman ; his brother Peter was killed before his face, and the Pope himself thrown into prison, where shortly after he died, it is said, by violence. John XI. — Pope from 931 to 936. Son of Mar- ozia, who caused him to be elected, he being only twenty-five years old. The youthful pontiff was wholly dependent upon his mother, and, after her banishment from Rome, on his still younger step- brother, Alberic II., who, with the title of " Princeps Romse," reigned as absolute sovereign over Rome, and kept the Pope, his brother, in strict captivity during his lifetime. John XII. — Pope from 955 to 964. Was only eighteen years old when he assumed the Pontificate. This youthful Pontiff, whose training and conduct in no wise befitted him for his exalted office, was an unworthy occupant of the Papal Chair, upon which he brought disgrace by his dissolute life. But the Church, then in a most humiliating state of bondage, cannot be held responsible for the outrageous con- duct of this young profligate, who was not her choice, but who had intruded himself into the Pontificate by means of the tem- poral power which he inherited from his father, Alberic II. yohn XIII. — Pope from 965 to 972. The severity with which he maintained his sovereign rights against the nobility caused an insurrection against him ; he was seized and held in prison for ten months. Otho I. delivered him. The Pope crowned Otho II. emperor, yohn XIV. — Pope from 983 to 984. Cardinal Franco, antipope, with the aid of the Crescentians, dethroned the Pope, con- fined him in the Castle of St. Angelo, and there left him to die of hunger. John X V. — Pope from 985 to 996. Governed with

    great prudence and success, notwithstand- ing the many difficulties of his position. The tyranny of Crescentius II. obliged the Pope to leave Rome and to invite the young emperor-elect, Otho III., to his aid in 996. John X VI. — Antipope from 997 to 998. He was elevated to the Papacy by Crescen- tius, on the expulsion of Gregory V. in 997, but was imprisoned and blinded by the em- peror Otho III., in 998. John XVII. — Pope from June 9th to October 31st, 1003. John X VIII. — Pope from 1003 to 1009. John XIX. — Pope from 1024 to 1033. His reign of eight years was a laudable administration. In 1027 he conferred the imperial crown upon Conrad II., of Ger- many, with whom the Franconian dynasty ascended the German throne. John A'X. — Pope from 1276 to 1277. John XXI. (or XXII.). — Pope from 1316 to 1334. He made Avignon his residence, and was wholly subservient to the interests of the French court. He opposed the emperor Louis the Bavarian, whose imperial dig- nity he offered to Charles the Fair, of France. Louis, however, installed Nicho- las V. as antipope at Rome in 1328, but, on retiring from Italy, was unable to prevent Nicholas from falling into the hands of John. John XXIII. {Baltassare Cossa). — Pope from 1410 to 1415. He served as a Corsair in his youth ; afterwards studied at the University of Bologna ; was created cardinal in 1402; and in 1410 succeeded Alexander V. He was opposed by the antipopes Benedict XIII. and Gregory XII., along with whom he was deposed by the Council of Constance, in 1415.

    John {Knights of St.). See Knights.

    John Capistran (St.). (1385-1456). — Franciscan, disciple of St. Bernardin of Siena, born at Capistrano, Italy. He showed great zeal and power in preach- ing; he traversed Italy, Austria, Moravia, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, and part of Germany, everywhere preaching with wonderful success. He received the ab- juration of 11,000 Hussites. To his zeal and eloquence, principally, is ascribed the great victory, which, in 1456, the Chris- tians, under the gallant Hanniades, gained at Belgrade, over Mohammed II. F. Oct. 23d.

    John Chrysostom (St.). See Chrys-

    OSTOM.

    John Climacus. — John, who from his most celebrated work (A'/Z/wax-Ladder) is

    John Gualbert

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    surnamed " Climacus," but whose time and place of birth are unknown, was evidently endowed with splendid talents, by the careful use of which he soon began to acquire a rich store of knowledge. At the age of sixteen he renounced the honors of the world and entered the monastery of Mount Sinai. After the death of his teacher, Martyrius, he lived for forty years as an anchorite in a lonely cave at the foot of the mountain, spending his time in rigid penance, prayer, contemplation, the study of Holy Scripture, and the writ- ings of the Fathers. Having ever edified his brethren by willing submission to others, they made him, at the age of 70, their abbot, and venerated him almost as a second Moses. But after a few years, he resigned his dignity and chose as successor his brother George, a man of great ex- perience in the ways of spiritual life. He then returned to his solitary cell, in which he ended a long and holy life about the year 600. His works can be found in Migne, Pat. gr. LXXXVIH, 579-1248.

    John Gualbert. See Vallombrosa.

    John of Antioch (surnamed the "Scho- lastic"). — Patriarch of Constantinople from 564 to 578, author of a collection of ecclesiastical laws, which became the basis of Canon Law among the Greeks, and of the JVotnocanon, a collection of constitutions in regard to the Church, promulgated before and under Justinian.

    John of Damascus (St.). — " The last of the Fathers of the Church," was born in the decline of the seventh century at Da- mascus, from which city he received the surname "Damascene." By the Saracens he was called " Mansur," and on account of his eloquence was surnamed " Chrys- sorrhoas " (Goid-sf reaming). He received his education from a pious and learned monk named Cosmas, who was taken pris- oner and brought to Damascus. Like his father, he held a high office under the Ca- liphs. His zeal in defending the sacred images against the Iconoclasts, exposed him to the resentment and persecution of the Greek Emperor. On the suspicion of a treasonable correspondence, he was de- prived of his right hand, which, however, was miraculously restored by the Mother of God. He resigned his office, distrib- uted his wealth among the poor, and re- tired into the Laura of St. Sabas, where.

    after some time, he was ordained priest. He died about the year 754. John Damas- cene has left many works which, on account of their solid learning and great literary merit, have been held in high esteem in both the Latin and the Greek Churches. His collected works were edited by Le Quien, Paris (1712, 2 vols, fol.).

    John of God and Brothers of Charity. — The Brothers of Charity were founded in 1540 at Seville, in Spain, by the Portuguese, John of God. Born in 1495, John led a roving life until his forty-fifth year, when he was converted at Grenada by an impres- sive sermon of John Avila, and from thenceforth (1540) gave himself entirely to the service of the sick in the hospitals. The Archbishop of Grenada and the Bishop of Tuy, admiring his efforts to copy the broad charity and tender mercy of our Saviour, entered warmly into his plans, surnaming him "John of God." He died in 1550, poor in the wealth of this world, but rich in good works. His companions, who continued to carry on his work, bound themselves still more closely to each other by taking upon them the three monastic vows, with the additional obligation of gratuitously serving the sick in the hospi- tals. They received recognition as an c3r- der, under the name of the ** Brethren of St. John of God," in 1617, from Pope Paul v., and have since continued to render im- portant services within their sphere in every Catholic country. In the hospitals, to each of which only one priest was at- tached, they were as ready to serve non- Catholics as those of their own faith, their constitution obliging them to make no dis- tinction of faith, rank, or nation. Their founder was beatified in 1630, by Urban VIII., and canonized by Alexander VIII., in 1690. F. March 8th.

    John of Matha. See Trinitarians.

    John of Nepomucene (St.) (born between 1340-50). — Patron of Bohemia, born at Nepomuk, Bohemia. Having become priest, he refused three bishoprics and accepted only a canonicate of Prague. Refusing to reveal to King Wenceslaus the secret of confession of the Queen Joane, his wife, whose fidelity the king suspected, he was thrown into prison, then drowned in the Moldau, March 20th, 1393. He was canon- ized by Pope Benedict XIII. in 1729. F. May i6th.

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    John of the Cross (St.) (1542-1591). — Spanish Carmelite, born at Fontibera (Ancient Castile). He associated himself with St. Theresa for the reform of the Carmelites, founded at Manresa the first convent of the so-called Discalced Carmel- ites (1568), an institute approved by Pope Pius V. and confirmed by Gregory XIII. in 1580. Imprisoned at the instigation of the ancient Carmelites, he regained his liberty through St. Theresa. Died in the monastery of Ubeda, and was canonized in 1726, by Benedict XIII. F. Nov. 24th.

    John the Almoner (St.) (556-619). — Pa- triarch of Alexandria (608), born at Ama- thonte, on the island of Cyprus, surnamed " The Almoner," on account of his inex- haustible charity ; from him the Order of St. John of Jerusalem draws its name. F. Jan. 23d.

    John the Baptist (St.). — Precursor of the Messias, born six months before Jesus Christ, son of Zacharias and Elizabeth. Thirty years had elapsed from the birth of our Lord, when he appeared on the banks of the Jordan, preaching the baptism of penance for the remission of sins. He was the last representative of the Prophets of the old covenant; his work was to an- nounce the way for, and to prepare the advent of the promised Messias. Such was the fame and authority of John, whom the Lord Himself declared the "greatest of those born of women," that it led men to suspect that he himself might be the Messias. But John openly confessed that he was not the Christ, and announced the approach of " one mightier than himself, who would baptize with the Holy Ghost and with fire, and the latchet of whose shoes he was not worthy to loose " (Luke iii. 16). It was by the testimony of John that the divine mission of Jesus was authen- ticated, as, at the baptism of Jesus, the holy precursor received the miraculous token that Jesus was, indeed, the " anointed of God." John was at length put to death by order of Herod, at the instigation of Herodias, whose licentiousness he had the boldness to reprove. Feast of the Nativ- ity of St. John, June 24th ; of his Decolla- tion, August 29th.

    John the Evangelist (St.) (5-101 or 102). — Apostle and Evangelist. The youngest of the Apostles, son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of James the Elder, labored

    first in Judea and Samaria. Shortly after the feast of Pentecost, we find him in the temple with Peter curing the lame man ; and later on in Samaria, imposing hands on the new converts. He seems to have remained in Palestine, probably, until the death of the Blessed Virgin. He assisted at the Council of Jerusalem, after which he is reported to have preached the Chris- tain faith to the Parthians. About the year 58, he went to Asia Minor to assume the government of the churches founded in that country by St. Paul. He lived in Ephesus, where he made many disciples, among whom were Papias, Ignatius Mar- tyr and Polycarp. According to a widely spread tradition, the apostle St. John was brought to Rome under Domitian in the year 95, and cast into a caldron of boiling oil, whence he came forth unhurt. He wAs subsequently banished to the island of Patmos, in the Grecian archipelago, where, about the year 96, he wrote the Apocalypse. Returning to Ephesus, he wrote, at the re- quest of the Asiatic bishops, his Gospel, to oppose the errors of Cerinthus and Ebion, about the year 97. His three Epistles were written at a later period. John, who sur- vived all the other Apostles, died at a very advanced age. F. Dec. 27th.

    Jonas. — One of the twelve minor proph- ets. He appeared under the reigns of Joas and of Jeroboam II., kings of Israel, and, under the reigns of Ozias and Azarias, kings of Juda, and, consequently, more than 800 years before Christ. The Lord ordered him to foretell to the Ninivites the destruction of their city : but Jonas, being afraid of the dangers of such a mission, embarked for Tarsus, just in the opposite direction. Being overtaken by a storm, he was thrown overboard, but was miracu- lously preserved by being swallowed by a large fish. The fish afterwards cast him out upon the land. The word of the Lord a second time directed him to visit Ninive. He went thither and accomplished his mis- sion. The Ninivites, having done penance, God pardoned them.

    Jonathas or Jonathan. — Jewish warrior, son of Saul, died in 1055 b. c. Friend of David, whom he protected against his father; twice conqueror over the Philis- tines, he incurred the punishment of death, because, in pursuing the enemy, he had eaten before sunset, contrary to the order of Saul, but was saved by the people.

    JOPPE

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    Joppe or Jaffa. — A seaport of Palestine, situated on the Mediterranean. It is often mentioned in Biblical history. It was fre- quently taken and retaken by the Cru- saders ; was stormed by the French under Napoleon in 1799; was taken by Mehemet All in 1832 ; and was retaken by the Turks m 1840. It is the terminus of the Jaffa- Jerusalem Railway Population, about 23,- 000.

    Joram. — i. King of Israel, 896-S84 b.c. Son of Achab, brother and successor of Ochozias, conqueror of the Moabites and 01 Benhadad, king of Syria, thanks to the intercession of the prophet Eliseus ; sacri- ficed, nevertheless, to the idols, and was put to death by Jehu, who succeeded him. 2. Joram. — King of Juda, 893-886 B.C. Son and successor of Josaphat, spouse of Athalia, inaugurated his reign by murder- ing his brothers and the chief men of the State, beheld his kingdom ravaged by the Arabs and Philistines, and died of a fright- ful disease.

    Jordan. — The chief river of Palestine. It rises in Anti-Libanus, traverses Lake Merom and the Sea of Galilee, and flows into the Dead Sea 19 miles east of Jerusa- lem. Its length is about 120 miles.

    Josaphat. — King of Juda, 904-889 b.c. Son of Asa. A pious, wise, and enlightened prince, enlarged and fortified several cities of his kingdom ; won brilliant victories over the Ammonites, Moabites, and Arabs.

    Josaphat ( Valley of) (Hebr. Judg- ment of God). — Famous valley of Pales- tine situated between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, through which the Cedron flows. According to a prophecy of Joel (iii. 2) the last judgment will take place in this Biblical valley.

    Joseph. — The favorite son of Jacob and Rachel, and distinguished by the wonder- ful Providence of God, by which he was raised from prison to be a grand vizier of Egypt. His history is one of the most pathetic and interesting in the whole Bible, and is contained in Genesis (xxx. 22 ; xxxvii. and xxxix.). When the Israelites left Egypt, they took with them the bones of Joseph and buried them in Sichem.

    Joseph (St.). — Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, foster father of Jesus Christ, of the tribe of Juda and of the family of David ; a simple artisan, perhaps carpen- ter, was instructed by an angel concerning

    the mystery of the Incarnation. He ap- pears for the last time in the Gospel when he goes to seek with Mary the child Jesus in the midst of the doctors, at Jeru- salem. Very probably he was dead when Christ began to preach the Gospel. Pope Pius IX. established St. Joseph as patron saint of the universal Church. F. March 19th.

    Joseph (Congregations of St.). — There are several of these congregations: i. Priests of St. Joseph. — Congregation of secular priests, founded at Rome, in 1620, by Father Paul Motta. It was approved by Pope Innocent X., in 1649. 2. Mis- sionaries of the Congregation of St. Joseph. — Congregation founded at Lyons, in the seventeenth century, by Cretenet, a physician, with the view of evangelizing the neighboring countries of Lyons; they are sometimes called •' Cretenists." 3. Daughters of St. Joseph. — Religious community founded at Bordeaux, in 1638, by Marie Delpech, known under the name of Mile, de I'Estang, or Letan. The ob- ject of this congregation was to take care of orphans. 4. Religious Hospitalers of St. Joseph. — Religious congregation founded at La Fl^che, in 1612, by Mile, de La Ferre. Its members served in hos- pitals in a great number of cities of France. 5. Sisters of St. Joseph. — Con- gregation founded in the city of Puy in Velay, in 1650, by Henri de Maupas, bishop of this city, with the view of taking care of poor girls and widows. Its mem- bers had also charge of hospitals, houses of refuge, and orphan asylums. Later on they also served in the capacity of teachers in schools. An oflFshoot of the Sisters of St. Joseph was, in 1836, introduced into the Diocese of St. Louis by Bishop Rosati, These sisters have since been introduced into many other dioceses of the United States as well as Canada. 6. Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph. — The original name of the community of sisters estab- lished by Mrs. Seton at Emmittsburg, Maryland, in 1809. In 1850, with its de- pendencies, it assumed the habit and the vows of the French Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, of which the Em- mittsburg house and its dependencies now form a province. But the sisters of this order in the Diocese of New York, whose mother-house is at Mount St. Vincent on the Hudson, were, in 1846, made independ- ent of Emmittsburg.

    JOSEPHINUM

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    Josephinum. — Papal College at Colum- bus, Ohio, U. S. It is a free institute of learning, in which poor German-American youths are received as students without any expense on their part, if they have talents and vocations fitting them to be- come secular priests. The Josephinum was founded in 1888 by Rev. Joseph Jessing(died 1899) ^nd has been made a gift to the Holy See. Pope Leo XIII. raised the Josephinum to a Papal College in the year 1892. In the year 1896, the Josephinum had 125 students. Those priests who go forth from the Josephinum, understand both the German and English languages, and are destined to labor within the United States for the salvation of souls and for the exaltation and propogation of the Roman Catholic Church. The Josephinum receives its support from three sources: i. From a weekly journal, "Der Ohio Weisenfreund."

    2. From endowments for poor students. For such an endowment a capital of $S,ooo is required, and the interest of this capital permits a student to study, gratis, for all future time. At present the Josephinum possesses more than 50 such endowments.

    3. From other voluntary alms.

    Josephism. — Gallicanism in France aimed at the restriction of the rights of the Church and sought to transfer them to the civil power. Febronianism and Joseph- ism pursued a similar course in Germany. See Gallicanism and Febronianism. Joseph II. of Austria, misled by impious advisers, especially by the arrogant minis- ter Kaunitz, began a career of anti-ecclesi- astical innovations. He suppressed 600 monasteries, containing 30,000 members and destroyed magnificent works of science and art. The monarch issued ordinances regarding the celebration of divine wor- ship, prescribed the number of candles to be used at service, commanded the use of the German language in liturgy ; prohibited the celebration of more than one Mass at the same time, and a promulgation of in- dulgences without his permission ; he also placed heavy penalties on the devotion to the Sacred Heart and the Way of the Cross. On this account he was ridiculed by Fred- erick II. of Prussia as the " Brother Sac- ristan." The would-be reformer abolished several ecclesiastical impediments to mat- rimony, introduced freedom of the press, thereby causing, in Austria, an overflow of the obscene literature of foreign countries ; he suppressed the diocesan seminaries and

    replaced them by " General Seminaries," in which " enlightened " professors taught gross infidelity to the students of theology. The emperor's aim was to completely sepa- rate the Austrian Church from Rome. Unfortunately, many bishops lacked the courage and energy to resist these anti- ecclesiastical measures. Pope Pius VI. went in person to Vienna, but was coldly received by Joseph (1782). The deluded emperor lived long enough to see the fail- ure of his so-called reforms ; he died re- pentant.

    Joseph of Arimathea. — A member of the Jewish Sanhedrin or senate, who was secretly a disciple of Christ, and who, with Nicodemus, embalmed the body of Jesus after his crucifixion, and laid it in his own new sepulchre. It is claimed that he preached the Gospel in Great Britain.

    Josephus Flavius. — Born 37 a. d., died about 95. A celebrated Jewish historian. He was of an illustrious priestly descent, and related to the Machabean house. He gives the following testimony concerning Christ: "There was at one time a wise man whose name was Jesus, if, indeed, he may be properly called a man, for he wrought wonderful works, taught the truth to those who were willing to hear Him, and had among His followers a great number of Jews and Gentiles. This was the Christ. When, at the suggestion of our leading men, Pilate condemned Him to death on the Cross, those who loved Him from the beginning did not forsake Him and He appeared alive to them on the third day. All this, and much more, the Prophets foretold concerning Him ; and the Christians, who are named after Him, exist at this day." Antiquities of the Je-ws, xviii. 3, 3.

    Josias. — King of Juda, 641-610 b. c. Son of Amon. He was defeated and slain by Pharao Nechao at the battle of Mageddo in the valley of Esdrslon (IV. Ki. xxii.-xxiii. 30; II. Par. xxxiv.-xxxv.). He brought about important reforms, de- stroying all forms of idolatrous worship. It was under his reign that the high-priest Helcias found the Book of the Law.

    Josue (Hebr. -whose help is Tahveh). — The successor of Moses as leader of the Israelites. He was the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, and was one of the two spies who favorably reported Chanaan.

    Jovinian. — Heretical monk of the fourth century. He left Milan and the cloister to preach in Rome the doctrine to %vhich he has left his name. He denied the merit of fasting and good works in general, the distinction between mortal and venial sins, and maintained that a per- son baptized cannot lose sanctifying grace, and that there is but one grade of re- ward and one of punishment in the future world. He also opposed celibacy, main- taining that virginal life is no better than the married state in the sight of God, and denied that Mary remained a virgin, after she had given birth to Christ. Jovinian was excommunicated as a heretic by St. Ambrose and Pope Siricius, in 390.

    Jubilee {The Tear of). — A peculiar institution among the Jews (Lev. xxv.),by which, every fiftieth year, the land that in the interval had passed out of the posses- sion of those to whom it originally be- longed was restored to them, and all who had been reduced to poverty, and obliged to hire themselves out as servants, were released from their bondage; no less were all debts remitted.

    Jubilee or Jubilee Year. — An institu- tion of the Catholic Church, See Indul-

    GKNCBS.

    Juda. — One of the twelve tribes of an- cient Palestine, formed from the country

    of the Jebusites and Hetheans. It was the most powerful tribe of all. Its territory was bounded by Dan and Benjamin on the north, the Dead Sea and Idumsea on the east, Idumaea and Simeon on the south, and the Mediterranean (nominally) on the west. It was subdivided into the districts of the mountain or hill country, the wil- derness, the south, and the lowland.

    Juda {Kingdom of).— One. of the two Jewish States, formed after the schism of Jeroboam (962 B.C.); capital, Jerusalem. Comprising only the two tribes of Juda and Benjamin and only about the sixth part of Judea, it was more powerful and more peopled than the kingdom of Israel. For the kings of Judea, see Chronology.

    Judaea or Judea. — The name Judaea was applied in different ages either to the whole or a part of Palestine. In the time of David, the name Juda denoted that por- tion of the country which belonged to the tribes of Juda and Benjamin. After the secession of the ten tribes, the territory of the kingdom of Juda was called Judea, in- cluding the tracts belonging to Juda and Benjamin, and also part of that which ap- pertained to the tribes of Dan and Simeon. Hence it became a general name for the southern part of Palestine, while the north- ern part was called Galilee, and the mid- dle Samaria. After the Captivity, as most

    JUDAIZERS

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    of those who returned were of the king- dom of Juda, the name Juda or Judea was applied, generally, to the whole of Pales- tine. When the whole country fell into the power of the Romans, the former divi- sion into Galilee, Samaria, and Judea, seems to have again become current.

    Judaizers. — Members of a class of per- sons in the early Church, who, though converted from Judaism to Christianity, still insisted on obedience to the Mosaic law.

    Judas (the name of several persons in the Bible). — i. yudas, surnamed *' Is- cariot," from the place of his birth, a city of Juda or Benjamin. Being one of the twelve Apostles of our Lord, he meanly and wickedly betrayed the Saviour into the hands of the Pharisees, for the paltry bribe of thirty pieces of silver, or about fifteen dollars. His remorse was after- wards so great that he went and hanged himself in the field, Hacceldama. 2. yudas. — A Christian teacher, called also " Barsabas," sent from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas (Acts xv. 22 ; xxvii. 32). 3. yudas, surnamed the " Galilean," also called Josephus the Gaul- ont'te. He was born at Gamala, a city of Lower Gauloni , lying near the southeastern shore of the Lake of Tiberiades. In com- pany with one Sadoc, or Sadducus, he at- tempted to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was killed by Quirinus, or Cyrenius, at that time governor of Syria and Judea.

    Jude (St.). — One of the twelve Apos- tles. Also called "Thaddeus." Was the brother of James the Less and one of the " Brethren," or cousins of Jesus. His name occurs only once in the Gospel of St. John (xiv. 22). Nothing certain is known of the later history of this Apostle. Nicephorus tells us that after preaching in Judea, Gali- lee, Samaria, and Idumsea, Jude labored in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia. According to the Bollandists, he also preached the Gospel in Greater Armenia. The Armenians, at least, claim him and St. Bartholomew as their first Apostles. He is said to have suffered martyrdom in Phoenicia, either at Beyruth or Arad. General tradition regards this Apostle as the author of the Catholic Epistle of St. Jude in the New Testament.

    Judgment ( The Last). — It is the faith of the Church, declared in the Creeds, that

    in the last day, Christ will come again on earth to judge the whole race of mankind ; and some extend this judgment also to the angels, good and bad. The scene is de- scribed by Christ Himself (Matt. xxv. 31- 46), and the account raises no difficulty, except in connection with the Particular Judgment (which see). It has been thought that a new judgment is needless, when sentence has already been passed on each, and in part executed. It may be enough to reply that our insight is not keen enough to see the wisdom of all that God does ; but if speculation be permitted, we may say that there is a fitness in this solemn act which marks the close of the time of proba- tion for the race, just as the Particular Judgment closes the probation of each man. Men form a society, and as a society they should be judged, and it is well that all should be assembled to see and acknowl- edge the justice of God in His dealings, and the fullness with which He avenges those who have suffered tribulation for His sake. It is right, too, that the Sacred Hu- manity of Christ should receive due honor from all.

    Judgment {The Particular). — It is the ordinary belief of Catholics, expressed in the Roman and other Catechisms, that each human soul is judged by God imme- diately after its separation from the body, and this judgment is called particular, to distinguish it from the general judgment of all men, which will take place at the end of the world. The conviction of Catholics on this subject is so constant as to make the truth certain, although no ex- press definition has been put forward by the Church. The essential point in the doctrine of the Particular Judgment is that the separated soul, immediately after death, becomes aware whether God's grace is with it or whether it is in enmity with Him ; and that this is so, follows from the assured truth that the entry of the soul on its final state of reward or punishment is not delayed. In the light of this truth we are able to understand certain texts of Scripture which, taken by themselves, might admit of other explanations. Thus, it is easy before God in the day of death to reward every one according to his works (Ecclus. xi. 28) ; and it is appointed unto men once to die, and after this the judg- ment (Hebr. ix. 27); to understand this text of the Particular Judgment is far more natural than to interpolate an indefinitely

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    long time of unconsciousness or of inactive expectation. The Good Thief was with Christ in Paradise on the day of his death (Luke xxiii. 43) ; and Judas was in his own place while St. Peter was speaking (Acts i. 25) ; and these facts imply judgment to have been passed upon them.

    Judges {Book of). — This Book, which the Church acknowledges as authentic and canonical, is attributed to Phinees, Esdras, Ezechias, Samuel, or even to all the Judges, each of whom would have written the his- tory of his own judicature. However, the Book of Judges appears to be the work of one author, who lived after the Judges, and comprises the time between Josue and Samuel. It is not a consecutive chronicle. Moses had foretold the people that they would be happy in the Promised Land if they would be faithful to God and His law, but that they would become the slaves of foreign nations if they would allow themselves to be dragged into idolatry. Josue had renewed to them this prediction. The author of the Book of Judges intended to show to the Hebrews, by their own history, that this prophecy constantly ful- filled itself, and that they must not look anywhere else for their successes or re- verses. The Book ends with two episodes, attached to it so to speak. Namely, the history of the idol of Michas (Judges xvii.-xviii.), and that of the Levite whose wife was outraged by the Benjamites.

    Judges of Israel (Hebr. Shophetim) were the rulers, chiefs, leaders of Israel, from Josue to Saul. The office of the Hebrew Judge was for life, but the succession was not always constant. There were anarchies, or intervals, during which the common- wealth was without rulers. There were likewise long intervals of ser%'itude and oppression, under which the Hebrews groaned, and were without either Judges or governors. Although God alone regu- larly appointed the Judges, yet the people, on some occasions, chose that individual who appeared to them most proper to de- liver them from oppression ; and as it often happened that the oppressions which oc- casioned recourse to the election of a Judge were not felt all over Israel, the power of such Judge extended only over that pro- vince which he had delivered. The author- ity of the Judges was not inferior to that of kings; it extended to peace and war; they decided causes with absolute author- ity, but had no power to make new laws

    or to impose new burdens on the people. They were protectors of the laws, defenders of religion, and avengers of crimes, par- ticularly of idolatry; they were without pomp or splendor; and without guards, train or equipage, unless their own wealth might enable them to appear in the state corresponding to their dignity. The Book of Judges contains the annals of the times in which Israel was ruled by Judges. It is often referred to in the New Testa- ment and other parts of the Bible.

    Judicatutn. See Chapters ( Three) .

    Julian (surnamed the "Apostate"). — Son of Julius Constantius and nephew of Constantine the Great; was born in 331. He believed himself destined to reanimate dying paganisnr and restore it to its former power and glory. He was educated at Athens. In his early youth his mind had been corrupted by the artful flatteries of pagan philosophers. Never ha%nng been thoroughly familiar with the spirit of Christianity, he was uncertain in his belief. At one time, to please his cousin Constan- tine, he favored the Christian religion, at another the tenets of paganism. As su- preme ruler of the empire (361-363) he did all in his power to restore the ancient idola- try, and openly declared himself an advo- cate of paganism. The Christians were treated with contempt and ridicule. They were forbidden to have schools of their own. Yet paganism was on the decline. Julian having ordered the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem, the work was in- terrupted by divine intervention. Miracles by which the work was prevented are at- tested by the pagan historian, Arminianus Marcellinus (xxiii. 1-3). He was enraged by his failures. He died in a battle with the Persians at the age of thirty-two, cry- ing out when dying: "Thou hast con- quered, O Galilean! "

    Julianists. — A sect of Monophysites which held the body of Christ to be incor- ruptible : so called from Julian, Bishop of Halicarnassus, early in the sixth century.

    Julius (name of three Popes). — yulius I. — Pope from 337 to 352. Successor of Marcus. During the violent struggle with Arianism, Julius was the strenuous cham- pion of the Nicene faith, and the constant defender of St. Athanasius and other orthodox bishops oppressed by the here- tics. The bishops, whom the Eusebians had unjustly deposed, were reinstated by

    Julius Africanus

    399

    Jurisdiction

    Julius, by virtue of the prerogative of the Roman See. With the concurrence of the two emperors, Constans and Constantius, he, in 343, summoned the great Council of Sardica. Jtilius II. — Pope from 1503 to 1513. Was an energetic and valiant Pope. An enemy to nepotism, a liberal patron of arts and letters, and in heart and action a brave and valiant Christian soldier, such as the Roman See then needed. His high- est aim being the restoration of the Papal States, and the re-establishment of Italian unity, he directed all his efforts towards subduing the petty Italian tyrants, and freeing the Peninsula from foreign domi- nation. One of his first acts on coming to the Papal throne was to reduce the re- fractory nobility to submission, and eject Caesar Borgia from the Papal dominions. In 1508, he formed the League of Cam- brai against the Venetians, who held dif- ferent territories of the Church. Then he resolved to free Italy from the French rule. For this purpose he formed the Holy League against France, in 1511. The result was the expulsion of the French from Italy. Hereupon, Louis XII. of France, at the instance of his prel- ates and several discontented cardinals, presumed to assemble a general council against the Pope. To crush the schism in its beginning. Pope Julius laid France un- der interdict, excommunicated the prel- ates that had taken part in the council, and convoked, at Rome, the Eighteenth General, and Fifth Lateran, Council, in 1512, The Council defined the '* Au- thority of the Pope over all Councils," and condemned the opinion holding that the intellectual soul is mortal, or only one in all men, or that these propositions were true, at least philosophically. Julius III. — Pope from 1550 to 1555. Succes- sor of Paul III. This Pope reopened the Council of Trent on May ist, 155 1. The war which had broken out between the Protestant princes and the emperor caused the Pope, in April, 1552, to sus- pend the Council for two years.

    Julius Africanus. — Ecclesiastical writer of about the middle of the third centtiry. Died about the year 232. Was the author of a Chronography in five books, contain- ing a history of the world from the creation to the year 221 ; only disjointed parts of it are extant. We have from him also two letters, the one to Origea questioning the scriptural authority of the story of Susanna,

    and the other to Aristides on the genealo- gies of Matthew and Luke.

    Jurisdiction. — By virtue of the Primacy with which the Bishop of Rome is invested, a Primacy of divine institution, he, the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is supreme chief, mas- ter and sovereign of all bishops and of the Faithful at large. He promulgates laws which the entire Church must obey, insti- tutes bishoprics and permits bishops to be consecrated, assigns to them their respec- tive divisions of the Lord's flock and gov- erns with full authority both pastor and people. He convokes general councils, presides over them either directly or by Iws legates, confirms their decrees, and, finally, is supreme judge in matters of faith and morals. These various prerogatives and many others attached to the See of Rome may be reduced to two : Jurisdiction and Infallibility.

    By jurisdiction we understand the power which the Pope possesses to promulgate laws concerning the divine worship and the morals of the people. There are two kinds of jurisdiction: the spiritual and the temporal. We treat here of the spirit- ual jurisdiction only. This jurisdiction is nothing less than the power to make laws and pronounce judgments concerning reli- gion and morals, which judgments all the Faithful are bound to obey. Now, this power belongs to the Pope, in conse- quence of his Primacy. To convince our- selves of this, it is suflScient to consider the passages of Holy Scripture where Peter is invested with this Primacy (Matt. xvi. 16, 17). Peter is clothed with a universal jurisdiction, through the keys committed to him. The keys are given to him alone, hence Peter is in future, the only source of all jurisdiction ; and as all authority emanates from his power, no one has juris- diction, if not delegated by him. All the Fathers and councils have been of one voice in this regard.

    Peter has attached his universal jurisdic- tion, which he received from God Himself, to the See of Rome. Hence no man can give this jurisdiction to the Pope; he can receive it only from God by the fact of his elevation to the See of Rome. For we must be careful not to confound the succes- sion of the Roman Pontiffs in the episco- pacy of Peter with the succession in the Primacy of Peter. The first is of ecclesi- astical law, the second of divine law. Hence it follows, the choice of this or that

    Jus Primae Noctis

    400

    Justification

    person as bishop of Rome, depends on the Church, but the Church in placing this or that person in the See of Rome, does not communicate to him the Primacy ; she can- not make this proceed from her bosom. She presents only to God a subject upon whom He bestows the Primacy of Peter, according to His promise. Hence, as soon as the Pope is canonically elected, that is according to the established rules, and as soon as he has given his consent to his election, he has, without any other con- firmation, obtained authority over the uni- versal Church, even if he had previously been neither bishop, priest, deacon, nor subdeacon, but only a simple layman. From the time of his election he is em- powered with all the prerogatives of jurisdiction, as, for instance, to grant dis- pensations, canonize, promulgate censures, grant indulgences, institute bishops, create cardinals, and decide controversies in re- gard to faith and morals. See Popk and Infallibility.

    Jus Primae Noctis. — Latin term signi- fying, right of the first night. A pre- tended right of the landlords in the Middle Ages, who claimed the right of sleeping with one of their female serfs on her nuptial night. Such a right in no place nor in no period of the Middle Ages ever existed. It is nothing more than a pure invention, born of misunderstanding and malice. According to the German law the manors of the serf could be divided ; they inherited from both father and son. When the child of a serf had married in another place and thus acquired another domicile, or had moved into a city, then such a child lost all his rights on the landlord's possession, in case the latter died without children, or in the event of the entire fam- ily becoming extinct. The manors had become possessions of great value ; and the serfs, by feudal law, obtained the right, that if the second marrying brother or sister passed the first nuptial night in their own father's house, their firstborn child obtained the right to be an heir of the manor, consequently the heir of the uncle in case of death. This was the " right of the first night," because the married couple declared thereby that their descendants should be looked upon as serfs of the manor. "It is a sad thing," says Moeser, "that scoffers contorted one of the most noble and most expressive symbols into an immoral action so bestial."

    Just. — This word, taken in the theolog- ical sense, signifies not only a person who fulfills the duties of justice in regard to his neighbor and renders to each one what is due to him, but one who entirely satis- fies the law of God and fulfills all his obli- gations, in regard to God, his neighbor, or himself. This is what we call saintli- ness. But this justice is more or less sus- ceptible of degrees, and nobody possesses it in its full perfection. Theologians also call just the one who passes from a state of sin into a state of grace.

    Justice. — Justice, in its general accep- tation consists, in the terms of Holy Scripture, in the fulfillment of the duties incumbent on us toward our Creator and our neighbor. Under this aspect it com- prises : I. The virtue of religion, by which we render to God the. worship that is due to Him. 2. The filial piety, which im- poses on us the obligation to respect and love in a particular manner our parents, to whom after God, we owe all that we are. 3. The obedience, which makes us respect the authority of our masters, superiors, and those whom Divine Providence has placed over us, either in the spiritual or temporal order. 4. The obligation to re- spect the persons, the reputation and the goods of others. Justice, properly speak- ing, is a moral virtue which moves us to render to each one what belongs to him. If, as it happens quite frequently, the legal and distributive justice imposes the obligation of restitution, one cannot vio- late this obligation without violating at the same time commutative justice with which it is united, in virtue of the implicit compact which exists among all those who form a part of society. Thus, for exam- ple, the one who sins against legal justice by" refusing to pay the taxes necessary to support the State, sins thereby also against commutative justice ; he violates the com- pact by which every one desiring to form part of a society, engages himself im- plicitly to support its charges and ex- penses proportionately to the advantages which he derives from it. So also those who are appointed by the government to regulate the distribution of the public charges, violates both distributive justice and commutative justice, in imposing taxes beyond the power of the people.

    Justification. — Justification is a super- natural gift which makes man pass from the state of sin into the state of grace, and

    Justin

    401

    JUVENCUS

    renders him agreeable to God. There is question here only of adults. Now, accord- ing to the Council of Trent, the required dispositions, in order to obtain the grace of justificSition, are: Faith, by which man believes all that has been revealed, and in particular, that the sinner is justified by the grace and the merits of Jesus Christ; the fear of the divine justice; hope in the mercy of God; a more or less explicit act by which we commence to love God as the source of all justice; hatred and detesta- tion of sin, with the desire to receive the sacrament of baptism or penance, to lead a new life, and to obey the Commandments of God. Justification has for its final ob- ject the glory of God and of Jesus Christ, and eternal life. Its efficient cause is God Himself, in as far as He is merciful. The meritorious cause is our Lord Jesus Christ, God's only and well-beloved Son, who, when we were His enemies, by an effect of the extreme love with which He has loved us, has merited for us justification, and has made satisfaction for us to God the Father, through His most sacred Passion and death on the Cross. The instrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism, which is the sacrament of faith, without which no one can ever obtain justification.

    Finally, its unique formal cause is the justice of God, not the justice by which He is just Himself, but that by which He jus- tifies us in renewing us in the interior of our soul.

    And not only are we then represented as just, but truly we are called just; and we are this indeed when we receive the justice which the Holy Ghost distributes in the measure He desires to each, and according to the proper disposition and co-operation of each.

    Justification consists in the habitual or sanctifying grace, which is a gift inherent in our soul and permanent in its nature. It is of faith, that neither the sole imputa- tion of the justice of Jesus Christ, nor the sole remission of sins, to the exclusion of grace and charity inherent in the soul, is sufficient for justification. Justice and the state of grace are not inadmissible; the just one does not always persevere. It is of faith that the one who is justified can lose grace, as it is also of faith that justice or holiness is susceptible of increase. This is in perfect accord with the words of St. John: "Let the one who is just, justify himself more; let the one who is holy, sanctify himself more." Nobody, without

    26

    a special revelation, can be absolutely cer- tain of possessing sanctifying grace and of being of the number of the predestined.

    Justin (St.) (100-167). — Apologist, philosopher,and martyr, born of Greek par- ents at Flavia, Neapolis (ancient Sichem, now Nablus), in Samaria. He was brought up in paganism and studied successively under a Stoic, Peripatetic, and Pythago- rean, when he finally embraced the Pla- tonic philosophy, in which he fiattered himself he would find true wisdom. The objections raised by an aged Christian, or, as some say, by an angel under the appear- ance of an old man, regarding all pagan philosophy, led him to read the books of the Old Testament, especially the Prophets. This, as well as the heroism of the Chris- tian martyrs, induced him to embrace Christianity between 133 and 137. He continued to wear the philosopher's mantle after his conversion, and henceforth de- voted himself by word and writing to the defense of Christianity against the pagans, Jews, and heretics. His boldness in plead- ing the Christian cause, and especially his zeal in unmasking the hypocrisy of the cynic philosopher Crescens, is said by Eusebius to have caused his imprisonment and death. With six other Christians, Justin was beheaded at Rome in the year 167 under the prefect Rusticus. In his first Apology, which he addressed to An- toninus Pius in 139, Justin boldly advocated the cause of the basely misrepresented Christians, entreating the emperor to judge them not by their name, but by their ac- tions. His second Apology he addressed, about the year 162, to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, on account of one Ptolemy and two other Christians, whom the prefect Rusticus had put to death. The writer undertakes to prove the injustice of perse- cuting the Christians merely for their faith, predicting, at the same time, his own death as the recompense of his bold plea in support of Christianity. About 150, Justin published his famous Dialogue -with Tryphon, a learned Jew of Ephesus, or, according to some, of Corinth. The saint showed that, according to the Prophets, the Old Law was local and temporary, and was to be abrogated by the New, and that Jesus was the true Messias and the true God. F. June 6th.

    Juvencus. — Christian poet, whose full name in the older books is Gaius Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus, was descended from

    an illustrious Spanish family. Of his life and education we only know that he be- came a priest and was a contemporary of Hosius of Cordova, and that during the reign of Constantine (325-337), he devoted

    his poetical talent to the cause of the Chris- tain faith. In order to make the Christian doctrines more attractive to the intellectual class of pagans, he clothed them in the poetical garb of Virgil. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,