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LETTER-A

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When "GOD'S TRUTH was NOT POLITICALLY CORRECT!"

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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

Edited, Supplemented, Amplified

By NewtonStein;

Cambridge Theological Seminary™

(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"A"
Kaaba.
    See Mohammedanism.

Kabala.
    See Cabala.

Kant (Immanuel) (1724-1804).
    — German philosopher, born at Konigsberg. Was educated at the Collegium Fredericianum and the University of Konigsberg ; became professor of logic and metaphysics in the latter in 1770, and was made its rector in 1786. His great work is Criticism of Pure Reason (1770), in which all knowledge is based on experience, with the admission that ex- perience must inevitably conform itself to the subjective laws of the mind. His sec- ond work Criticism of Practical Reason appeared in 1788. This treats of morals; according to it, the ideas of God, human liberty, and immortality are postulates of practical reason. Finally, the third Crit- icism of the PoTver of Judgment, appeared in 1790. Kant destroyed the faith in the heart of many of his disciples.

Karaites.
    — A sect among the Jews which rejects the traditional law as it is fixed in the Talmud, and recognizes only the Penta- teuch or the five books of Moses as bind- ing. The name is derived from the Hebrew quara (to read) — i. e., adherents of the law that was written and read in opposition to the traditional law which, originally, was oral. The origin of the sect is ascribed to a certain Anan-ben- David, of Babylonia, in the eighth century A. d., who became leader of the anti-Talmudic movement from resentment at not being chosen exiliarch or head of the Jewish community. The controversy between the Karaites and Tal- mudists has been productive of an accurate and rational study of the Bible on both sides. The sect never made great headway. Small communities of it linger in Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Galicia (Austria), Lithuania, and the Crimea (Russia).

Keane (John Joskph).
    — An American prelate; born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, Ireland, Sept. 12th, 1839. The family removed to the United States in 1846. He was educated for the priesthood in Baltimore, at St. Mary's Seminary. After his ordination in 1866 he was assigned to St. Patrick's Church, Washington, District of Columbia, as assistant; in 1878 was appointed bishop of Richmond, and in 1886 rector of the Catholic University of America, at Washington. He was made archbishop of Ajasso, a titular see, in 1888, and from that time until October, 1896, when he was removed by a Papal decree, devoted himself to the upholding of the university.

    He was offered the choice of his field of labor, but preferred to retire to Rome, where he is one of the canons of St. John Lateran.

    Kempis (Thomas a). See A Kempis.

    Kenrick (Francis Patrick) (1796- 1863). — American prelate; was born in Dublin, Ireland, received a sound and pious education, and completed his studies at the College of the Propaganda at Rome, where he spent seven years. As professor of St. Thomas's Seminary, Bardstown, Kentucky, he trained many excellent priests, and, untiring in his labors, acted as professor in the college and discharged parochial duties. Bishop of Philadelphia in 1830, where he broke the power of the trustees, permitting only the exercise of functions recognized by the Church. He founded the theological seminary of St. Charles Borromeo, which has given Penn- sylvania so many excellent priests. In

    1851, Bishop Keprick was promoted to the see of Baltimore, and was soon after appointed apostolic delegate to pre- side at the Plenary Council, held in

    1852. The last work of this studious prel- ate was a revision of the Catholic Version of the Bible, which had been revised by Bishop Challoner, and had undergone so many changes at the hands of others as to be no longer creditable to the Catholic body or safe as a translation. He also wrote several controversial works, and in

    Kentigren

    403

    Knights

    Latin Theologia Moralis, Philadelphia, (1841-43, 3 vols.).

    Kentigren (St.). — Apostle of Strath- clyde ; born at Edinburgh ; died in 603. He was a disciple of St. Severianus ; evangel- ized Cumbria — the district between the Wall of Severus and the river Forth — and founded the see of Glasgow, where he died.

    Kilian (St.). — Irish bishop, martyred at Wiirzburg. He was the first to preach the Gospel in the north of Bavaria, the coun- try now known as Franconia. With two companions, Coloman a priest, and Totnan a deacon, Kilian left Ireland, his native country, in 686, and with the sanction of Pope Conon, established a mission at Wiirzburg. Duke Gozbert received him kindly and was converted, and his example was followed by a great number of his sub- jects. But St. Kilian fell a victim to the hatred of Geilana, whose marriage with Gozbert, brother of her former husband, he declared to be contrary to the law of God. He and his companions, in the ab- sence of the duke, were cruelly murdered, in 689. F. July 8th.

    Kings {Books of). — The four Books of Kings of the Old Testament bear this name because they comprise the actions of sev- eral kings of the Jews and the details of their reigns, from Heli and Samuel, to the destruction of the kingdom of Juda. In the Hebrew text, these four books were formerly only two, of which the first bore the name of Samuel, and the second that of Kings or Reigns. The Septuagint gave to all the four books the title of Books of Kings, and in this they were followed by the author of the Vulgate. The first Book, to the twenty-fifth chapter, is attributed to Samuel, and it is believed that the rest, to the end of the second chapter, is the work of the prophets Gad and Nathan. Written during the Babylonian captivity, or shortly before, according to the annals of several contemporary authors, the Books of Kings contain some details about the population left in Palestine.

    Kings and Emperors ( Chronological Ta- ble of). See Emperors.

    Kissing the Altar. — The priest, when saying Mass, kisses the altar, out of re- spect and affection toward that spot on which Jesus Christ is daily offered. He is directed to kiss that part of the altar under which are deposited relics of some

    martyr or other saint. In the earliest ages of the Church, the holy sacrifice of the Mass used to be offered on the tombs of martyrs ; hence arose the custom of in- closing a portion of their relics beneath the table of the altar.

    Kiss of Peace.— St. Peter (I. Peter v. 14) and St. Paul (Rom. xvi. 16, etc.) instruct the Faithful to "salute one another with a holy kiss." In solemn high Mass, the Kiss of Peace, with the words " Pax tecum," is given by the officiating priest to the dea- con, who answers, " Et cum spiritu tuo" \ and in the same manner it is passed from deacon to subdeacon, and successively to the rest of the clergy, as a sign of the charity that should unite the hearts of all Christians in communion with each other. In Masses for the dead, this Kiss of Peace is omitted.

    Knights. — The order of knighthood owes its origin to the warfare with un- believers. Its constitution combined the essential elements of the military and monastic life and prescribed as a fourth vow, warfare against unbelievers. The members of the order were divided into three classes : priests, for the care of the souls ; knights,for contest and defense of pil- grims ; serving-brothers, for the care of the sick pilgrims. The knights were governed by a grand master: i. The Knights of St. John the Baptist, or Hospitalers, were founded in 1048, for the care of the sick. They became a military order in 11 18, and wore a black mantle ornamented with a white cross. On the conquest of Palestine, by the Saracens, they were assigned a resi- dence in Rhodes (1310), and later in the island of Malta (1530). From this circum- stance they received the name of Knights of Malta. 2. The Soldiers of the Temple, or Templars, so called from their residence on the site of the Temple of Solomon, were founded by the French about the year 11 18. Their habit was a white mantle ornamented by a red cross. This order was abolished in 1312, at the instigation of King Philip IV. of France. The charges against the Order of Templars as such, were certainly un- founded ; most of the Templars were proven innocent. The true cause of their suppression was Philip's hatred, increased by the fact, that in his contest with Pope Boniface VIII., they had sided with the Pope against him. Another motive was, his greed to seize the vast possessions of the knights in France, contrary to the

    Know-Nothingism

    404

    Kyrie Eleison

    promise he had made, to hand the property over to the Knights of St. John. The grand master, John of Molay, and 54 knights, were burned alive in Paris (1314), protest- ing their innocence. 3. The order of the Teutonic Knights was established by the Germans during the siege of Acre (1190). Their habit was a black mantle orna- mented with a white cross. In 1226 these knights were assigned the duty of pro- tecting the Christians against the heathen Prussians, and by their zealous efforts they contributed largely to the conversion of this barbarous tribe. As to the influence of knighthood, the military orders inspired the nobility with sentiments of faith and honor. The conferring of arms on a knight was accompanied by religious cere- monies. What the Olympic and Isthmian games were to Greece of old, chivalry be- came to the Middle Ages. In the twelfth century the knights were animated by a spirit of religion. But later on, with wealth and luxury, corruption crept in, and religious ardor was superseded by rude- ness, brute force, and predatory combats.

    Know-Nothingism.— Name given, in the United States, to a "Native American Party," founded about 1842. During the fifty years following the Revolution, Catholics in the United States were gen- erally left unmolested in the practice of their religion. About this time, however, a violent agitation, amounting to persecu- tion, was commenced against the Church and its institutions. The "No Popery" cry resounded from the pulpits and the press throughout the land. Protestant associations were formed in every city of the Union, with the avowed object of pro- tecting the liberties of the country against alleged " machinations of the Jesuits and plots of the Pope." Maria Monk's Dis- closures, as the foul utterances of an abandoned woman were called, and other vile volumes, containing the most errant fictions that were ever palmed off upon society, were concocted by unscrupulous Protestant ministers to deceive and arouse the public against Catholicity and its pro- fessors. In 1844, the " Native American" party provoked a fearful riot in Philadel- phia, which lasted three days. Several Catholic churches, or houses of the Sis- ters of Charity, and a number of private dwellings belonging to Catholics were de- stroyed, besides many Catholics were killed. In 1854, Know-Nothing mobs de-

    stroyed Catholic churches at Manchester and Dorchester, New Hampshire ; at Bath, Maine; and at Newark, New Jersey; and, besides burning a number of houses, killed a large number of Irish and German Catholics, at Louisville.

    Knox (John). See Scotland.

    Koran. See Mohammedanism.

    Kultur-Kampf, is the name given to a contest against the Catholic Church in Prussia, inaugurated by Prince Bismarck, chancellor of Germany. The word itself signifies ivar of culture, or struggle for civilization, enlightenment. Dr. Falk, the minister of worship, was a special tool in Bismarck's hands to carry out the Kultur- Kampf. On July 8th, 1871, the Catholic department of ministry was abolished. Then followed the changing of those con- stitutional paragraphs which were favora- ble to the Church and the enactment of the so-called "May Laws" (1873), which in many respects violated the rights of the Church. Within the next three years fol- lowing, the May Laws were rendered more stringent. Heavy fines, imprisonment, exile, and deposition were used to enforce the observance of those laws among the clergy. For a time more than 1,000 par- ishes were thus orphaned. The Faithfml were without service and without the eccle- siastical means of grace. This state of affairs lasted for about fifteen years, when Bismarck, the chancellor, realized that his plan could not be carried out, and thus entered, in 1887, into negotiations with Pope Leo XIII. The most obnoxious of the May Laws, with the help of the Center Party, was gradually removed, but several of them are still in existence.

    Kyrie Eleison, Christe Eleison, etc. {Lord have mercy on us, Christ have mercy on us) , words used at the commence- ment of the Mass, Litany, etc. The formu- lary is always said in the Greek wording, but the intermediate Christe Eleison is unknown to the Eastern Church. By this petition we supplicate the mercies of Heaven in cries like those of the blind man of Jericho (Matt. xx. 30), with the perseverance of the Chanaanean mother (Ibid. XV. 22-27), and as humbly as the ten lepers (Luke xvii. 13). K'yrie Eleison, is said thrice, in honor of God the Father; Christe Eleison thrice in honor of God the Son; and Kyrie Eleison thrice, in honor of the Holy Ghost.



    FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,