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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"L"

Laban.
    Biblical Patriarch, son of Bathuel, lived at Haran, Mesopotamia, in the eighteenth century b. c. He gave successively two daughters, Lia and Rachel, in marriage to his nephew Jacob, under condition to serve him during fourteen years.

Labadie (John) (1610-1674).
    — Heretic, born at Bourg, near Bordeaux. At first Jesuit and preacher, he permitted himself to be led astray through foolish and mysterious ideas and embraced Calvinism ; pastor of a Protestant church at Montauban during eight years. Expelled for preaching suspicious doctrines and leading a licentious life, he fled to Geneva and finally to Middleburg. Condemned by the Synod of Dordrecht as a heretic, he retired with a small circle of friends or followers to Altona.

    The doctrine of Labadie was a mixture of the principles of the Anabaptists, Calvinists, Pietists, and Hermites. The sect disap- peared about the middle of the eighteenth century.

Labarum.
    — A Roman military standard upon which Constantine the Great caused to be put a cross and the monogram of Christ. By the later Roman emperors the Labarum was adopted as the imperial standard.

    The biographer of Constantine the Great has left an accurate description of the celebrated standard called the Labarum.

    Eusebius tells us that this imperial banner was fashioned in the following manner:

      Near the top of the shaft of a lance sheathed in plates of gold was affixed a small transverse rod forming the figure of a cross.

      From this crossbar was suspended a small square of purple stuff of the finest texture, embroidered with gold thread and precious stones.

      Above this banner arose the sacred monogram of Christ, composed of two letters, the Greek X or chi intersecting P or ro, and encircled with a wreath or chaplet of gold profusely gemmed with precious stones.

      Just below the monogram of Christ it became the custom, a little later, to insert the effigy of the reigning emperor, and of his son and consort.

      Fifty men, the most conspicuous among the imperial guards for their valor and their piety, were selected and embodied into a particular band,

      to whom was confided the distinguished office of carrying and defending the Labarum, which was borne by them singly in turns before the emperor whenever they went to battle.

      Banners partially resembling the imperial model, but of somewhat smaller dimensions, and wrought of less costly materials, were distributed through the whole army to be the future ensigns of the Roman cohorts.

      Figures of those standards frequently occurred upon the coins of the empire in the time of Constantine and his immediate Successors.

Labre (Benedict Joseph, St.) (sur- named the "Beggar"; 1748-1783).

    — He was born at Amettes, France; died in Rome. He was a brilliant light, by his evangelical poverty, which he practised in the highest degree, living wretchedly from alms. As a pilgrim he visited the most celebrated sanctuaries, and was beat- ified by Pope Pius IX. in i860, and canon- ized by Leo XIII. in 1898. F. April i6th.

    Lachis. — One of the capitals of the Chanaanites, conquered by Josue, situated on an elevation between Gaza and Eleu- theropolis. It seems to have J)een an im- portant frontier fortress in the direction of Egypt. It was conquered by Sennach- erib during his invasion of Juda in 701 B. c. It was again taken, after a long re- sistance, by Nabuchodonosor. After the return from the captivity it was restored. It is now represented by the stone heaps of Tel-el-Hesy.

    Lacordaire (Jean Baptiste Henri) (1802-1862). — Famous French pulpit ora- tor, educated in the Lyceum of Dijon; abandoned the bar for the Church ; was or- dained priest, 1827; became joint editor with Lamennais of "L'Avenir," but, on its condemnation by the Pope, in 1832, sub- mitted to the Church ; was preacher at Notre Dame in Paris and attained a great reputation. In 1840, he joined the Do- minican order and in i860, he was elected to the French Academy. A complete edi- tion of Lacordaire's works was published in six volumes, in 1858.

    Lactantius. — Christian writer. He was born, probably in Italy, of heathen parents, about the middle of the third century. He attained to great eminence as a teacher of rhetoric. Having in the meantime em- braced Christianity, Constantine called

    Lacticinia

    400

    Lamentations

    him to become the preceptor of his eldest son Crispus. Lactantius has been held in high esteem as well for the subject-matter of his writings, as especially for the ele- gance and purity of his style, which pro- cured for him the title of the "Christian Cicero." He died about the year 330. His chief works were his Institutiones Divince in seven books, written in defense of Christianity, and De Mortibus Persecu- toruvi. The latter work is a history of the persecutors of the Church from the time of Nero down to his own day, in which the author dwells with special emphasis on the exemplary punishments with which all the emperors, who persecuted the Christians, were visited by an avenging Providence.

    Lacticinia. — Dishes prepared from milk and eggs, which, in early times were for- bidden; later, in the Latin Church, to some extent permitted as food on fast days. Recent papal dispensations have made its use in the Church lawful, in some coun- tries, on fast days.

    Lstare Sunday. — The fourth Sunday in Lent ; so called from the first word in the antiphon of the Introit : "Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and gather together all ye who love her," etc.

    Lainez (James) (1512-1565). — Second general of the " Society of Jesus" ; born at Almancaris, Castile; died in Rome. As- sisted St. Ignatius in drawing up the stat- utes of the famous association and suc- ceeded him as general in 1558. He assisted at the Council of Trent, and defended there the authority and prerogatives of the Ro- man Pontiff.

    Laity. See Clergy.

    Lamaism. — A corrupted form of Budd- hism prevailing in Tibet and Mongolia, which combines the ethical and metaphys- ical ideas of Buddhism with an organized hierarchy under two semi-political sov- ereign pontiffs, an elaborate ritual, and the worship of a host of deities and saints.

    Lamech. — i. Descendant of Cain. He took unto him two wives, Ada, who bore to him Jabel and Jubal ; and Sella, by whom he had Tubalcain and Noema. 2. Son of Mathusala and father of Noe. He lived from 4090 to 3313 B. c.

    Lamennais (Hughes-F^licite Robert de) (1782-1854). — French philosopher and political writer, born at St. Malo; died

    at Paris. Was ordained priest in 1816, and, in order to defend the Catholic religion against the oppressions of the government and the attacks of modern un- belief, the Abbd Lamennias, Gerbet, La- cordaire, and Count Montalembert came forward and founded the periodical called " L'Avenir " ( The Future) and the motto " God and Freedom," in 1830. An ardent advocate of the complete independence of the Church, and a determined enemy of all State interference in spiritual affairs, he pushed his principles to their last con- sequences, maintaining that the clergy should decline to accept any salary from the government, and that the Church, once more reduced to her condition of poverty in the primitive ages, would no longer place her trust in anything save in the power of Him, who alone is her true Head. To these questions of disci- pline he soon joined others of a strictly devotional character, concerning which he held wholly erroneous views, as, for ex- ample, that the subjective ground and reality of certitude are not in the individ- ual reason and general acceptance {scnsus communis) of mankind. The views of de Lamennais on the complete severance of Church and State and on the sensiis com- munis were condemned by Gregory XVI. in an encyclical letter of August 15th, 1832. All the bishops of France prohib- ited the reading of " L'Avenir " in their dioceses, and the publication of the jour- nal was in consequence suspended. M. de Lamennais retracted, but the Pope sus- pected his sincerity, and his fears were justified when, some time later, Les Pa- roles d^un Croyant and Le Livre du Peu- ple, both written with fervid eloquence and extraordinary brilliancy, made their appearance. With a strange confusion of the most elementary ideas, the author ad- vocated the murder of kings, the assump- tion of the clergy of the leadership in popular insurrections, and the adoption of the Cross as the universal standard of na- tions in revolt, and appealed to the Gospel as a sanction for his wild vagaries. Being no longer able to simulate the character of a priest, the Abb^ de Lamennais at length threw off all disguise, and was regarded by all as a democrat and Jacobin of the most extreme school. Abb^ de Lamen- nais never became again reconciled with the Church.

    Lamentations. See Jeremias.

    Lance

    407

    Language

    Lance {The Sacred). — The lance with ■which they opened the side of our Saviour while hanging on the Cross. Its point is broken off. Andrew of Crete assures us that it was buried with the Cross. The fear of the Christians before the Saracens, caused them to bring it to Antioch, where it was secretly buried. In 109S, they re- covered the same, and several miracles took place on this occasion. It was re- turned to Jerusalem and from there, shortly afterwards was taken to Constanti- nople. The Emperor Bauduin II. sent its point to the republic of Venice, in pay- ment of a sum of money the Venetians had loaned him. St. Louis, king of France, obtained the relic by paying to the Vene- tians the debt of Bauduin and he deposited it in the Sainte Chapelle of Paris. The rest of the lance remained at Constantinople, and, in 1492, the Sultan Bajazet sent it to Pope Innocent VIII., in a very costly cas- ket, telling him that the point of the lance was in possession of the king of France.

    Lando. — Pope. Roman by origin, elected on Dec. 4th, 914, died April 24th, 915-

    Lanfranc (1005-10S9). — Archbishop of Canterbury, born at Pavia. Entered the Order of St. Dominic at the Abbey of Bee. After three j^ears of retirement there, the knowledge of his place of re- treat spread abroad, and he was soon sur- rounded by a multitude of scholars, among whom were Anselm, his successor (1093), the famous theologian, and another Anselm, who became Pope Alexander II. (1061). He was made abbot of Caen, in Normandy, in 1062. On the deposition of Stigand, Lanfranc was, by command of both the Pope and the king (William I.), compelled to accept the now vacant see of Canterbury (1070). Soon after he went to Rome for the pallium. Pope Alexander II., his former pupil, received the re- nowned master with the greatest honors. Returning, Lanfranc worked energetically to remedy the evils which then afflicted the Church of England, and King William ably seconded the noble exertions of the primate. He had obtained the full confi- dence of William, who left to him the ad- ministration of the kingdom during his voyage into Normandy ; at the moment of his death, he charged him to crown his son William II. called the Red, or Rufus. The name of Lanfranc is found in several martyrologies with the title of Saint or

    Blessed. He had upheld the Eucharistic dogma against the heresy of Berengarius.

    Langton (Stephen). — Cardinal, states- man, and poet, born at Slindon, Sussex, died in 1228. Cardinal in 1206, Arch- bishop of Canterbury in 1207. Was elected archbishop of Canterbury (as a compro- mise between the superior Reginald, chosen by the monks, and John de Grey, supported by the king), and consecrated by the Pope, June 17th, 1207, but pre- vented by the king (in a long struggle with the Pope) from admission to his see until 1213. On April 17th, 1222, he opened a Church council at Osney, the decrees of which (the Constitutions of Stephen Lavtr- ton) are the earliest provincial canons itill recognized as binding in the English eccle- siastical courts. He was a voluminous writer, and from among his works we quote a Hexcemeron and a commentary on parts of the Old Testament.

    Language (employment which man makes of sounds and articulations of the voice, to express his thoughts and senti- ments). — God having created man, in the state of perfect man, in a natural order, created him with all the faculties essen- tially connected with this order. We may ask : Was artificial language, particularly formed by the word, revealed by God, or was it invented by man? Some claim that language was revealed. " Man," they say, " thinks of his word before formulating his thought." The thought and the word are two simultaneous facts which react one upon another. Others maintain that lan- guage is the work of man : the first mani- festation of reason, in man, was naturally the language by imitation, by onomatopoeia, and by analogy, he first imitated nature in making use of his organs. Later on, turn- ing his thoughts inwardly, man distin- guished himself from his surroundings and gave to the faculties and operations of the mind denominations analogous to those which he had already given to exterior ob- jects which first struck the sense of hear- ing and sight. Founding ourselves upon the authority of Holy Scripture, we see that God spoke to man in the Garden of Eden. God, says Ecclesiastes, has given to man intelligence and language. St. Augustine says that God did reveal to man not only the faculty of language, but also its use. The ancient philosophers did not even question this. They had the idea that language was the most beautiful of God's presents. This was the opinion of Plato, Euripides, and of Cicero. The Greek philosophers made use of the same word logos to express both reason and language; for the brute, thev reserved the word alogos, that is, a being without lan- guage and without reason. Man has, there- fore, been created speaking as he has been created thinking. We can say this espe- cially of man elevated to a supernatural or- der. We could also appeal, in favor of this opinion, to the argument that languages are more perfect the farther back we go to their origin. Could man, assisted by his sole natural forces, invent language.? Again, here some are affirmative, others negative. Some admit the possibility of this invention. In order to reconcile the two opinions, might we not attribute a part of man's language to the divine action and a part to man's labor.? These two causes, indeed, must have contributed to the formation of language. Undoubtedly, man has been created with his intellectual faculties and also to communicate his thoughts to his equals, and, consequently, God provided him with the means of at- taining this end ; but a language has value only by the use which we make thereof with conscience and full liberty. The part of man's reason in the formation of lan- guage is not only to perfect it, but consists especially in appropriating it, to make it his own. It is asserted that the thought does not exist without the word ; it would be truer to say that, without the thought, the word would be an idle sound. Primi- tively, thanks to the divine gift, man thinks and speaks: " He thinks his word and ex- presses his thought." By his thought he appropriates the word, the logos of the Greeks, the verbuni of the Latins. He only needs to make use of this wonderful instrument, to perfect it either in modify- ing it, according to the circumstances of time, place, or climate. It is thus that we can reconcile the opposed theories.

    Laodicea. — An ancient city in Phrygia, Asia Minor, in the valley of Lycus, an auxiliary river of the Maeander, 50 miles north of Aradus. It was one of the most northern of the Phoenician cities and its original name was Ramantha. In the Apocalypse, it is one of the Churches to which an epistle is addressed. A Church Council was held in Laodicea (393), which condemned the celebration of the Agapae, or Love-feasts.

    Lapsi. — In the early Church, those who, having professed Christianity, denied the faith in times of persecution or fell into some other kind of sin, such as offering sacrifice or incense to idols, etc. On pro- fession of contrition they were allowed to hope for restoration to the Church, but, before being again admitted to communion, had to pass a long probation, and submit to special penances, sometimes lasting till the approach of death.

    La Salle (Jean Baptiste ). See Brothers of the Christian Schools.

    Las Casas ( Bartholomew ) ( 1474- 1566). — Famous prelate, born at Seville. A member of the Dominican order, who proved himself the warmest friend of the oppressed Indian and the champion of his liberty. Las Casas accompanied Colum- bus on his third voyage in 1498 ; he is said to have been the first priest ordained in the New World. " The whole of his future life," says Irving, " a space exceeding sixty years, was devoted to vindicating the cause and endeavoring to meliorate the suffer- ings of the natives. As a missionary he traversed the wilderness of the New World in various directions, seeking to convert and civilize them ; as a protector and champion he made several voyages to Spain, vindicated their wrongs before courts and monarchs, wrote volumes in their behalf, and exhibited a zeal and con- stancy, and integrity worthy of an apostle." Las Casas was made bishop of Chiapa in Mexico. Seeing all his efforts in behalf of the distressed Indians thwarted by the avarice and malice of men, he retired to his monastery at Madrid, where he died at the great age of ninety-two.

    Lateran (7'//^).^A palace in the eastern part of Rome. The present edifice dates from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centur- ies. The palace was originally named Later- anus, from the Roman family Lateranus to which, until the time of Nero, it belonged. Nero put the last owner, Plautius Latera- nus, to death, and appropriated the palace. It was given by Constantine (who also built a church in its precincts) to the Bishop of Rome, Pope Melchiades, and was inhabited by his successors until 1308, — the period when the Popes removed to Avignon. Eleven Church councils were held in the Lateran Palace (649, 864, 1105, 1112, 1116, 1123, 1139, 1167, 1179, 1215, and 1515). Those of 1123, 1139, 1179, and 1215,

    Latimer

    409

    Latin Language

    were the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth Ecumenical Councils.

    Latimer (Hughes) (1472-1555). — Rene- gate prelate ; one of the first Protestants of the Anglican Church, born atThurcaston, Leicester county, England. At first a very zealous Catholic priest, he combated by his writings Lutheranism ; then en- snared by the preaching of his friend Thomas Ridley and by the reading of the works of Luther, he became a fanatical Protestant. He nevertheless kept posses- sion of the bishopric of Worcester, which had been bestowed upon him on account of his zeal in defending the Apostolic and Roman Faith. Having refused to accept the bill of the " Six Articles," and accused of having used offensive language against Henry VHT., he was confined in the Tower (1541). The ascension of Edward VL to the throne delivered him from prison (1547), but under Mary Tudor he wasagain arrested, judged and condemned, together with his friend Ridley, to be burned alive (April, 1554). He was exe- cuted at Oxford, Oct. i6th, 1555. His Ser- mons, which the Anglicans esteem very highly, were published in 1570 and often reprinted, especially at London (1815, 2 vols. in-8).

    Latin Language {Use of the). — Though the Church has never pretended that it was necessary to celebrate the Liturgy in a language not understood by the people, she has never considered it as imperatively requisite that her service should be per- formed in a vulgar tongue, or that the language which she speaks in her public service should follow the changes and variations incidental to the vernacular idioms of those several nations which com- pose her household. In this respect the spouse of Christ has imitated the example furnished to her by the Synagogue. From the commencement of the Jewish dispensa- tion, up to the conquest of Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor, genuine Hebrew was the only tongue familiar to the Israelites. Holy Scripture was recited and the service of the Temple was performed in the lan- guage common to the people. Even after their seventy years of captivity, when the Jews had forgotten their ancient Hebrew, and adopted the Syriac, or Chaldaic, as their ordinary language, on their return to Jerusalem, no change was made in the language of the sanctuary, a practice scru- pulously observed to the present day

    among the Jews. Had there been any blame attached to the custom of praying in a strange or unknown tongue, Christ would have undoubtedly enumerated it among the other accusations which He so unhesitatingly advanced against the Scribes and Pharisees. He, Himself, prayed in a language which they did not understand : "JS//, Eli, Lama sabacthani," He ejacu- lated, as he yielded up the spirit; and the people mistaking the pure Hebrew word Eli, for the name of one of the Prophets, said: "This man calleth Elias" (Matt, xxvii. 46-47).

    The Catholic Church has been induced by several powerful reasons to celebrate the holy sacrifice of the Mass in the Latin language throughout almost all the nations of Europe. From the time of the Apostles, Latin has been invariably employed at the altar throughout the western parts of Christendom, though their inhabitants very frequently did not understand that language. Hence the Catholic Church, through an aversion to innovations, care- fully continues to celebrate her Liturgy in that same tongue which apostolic men and saints have used for a similar purpose dur- ing more than eighteen centuries. A uni- formity in public worship is thus more securely preserved, since a Christian, in whatever country he may chance to be, will encounter no inconvenience with re- gard to his attendance at Church; for he still beholds the service performed in every place according to the selfsame rite, and in precisely the same language, to which he has been accustomed from his early childhood. The Church could not cele- brate her Liturgy in each of the several languages common to those respective na- tions that dwell within her widely extended pale. The Englishman, for instance, would find himself a stranger at the cele- bration of the Church's offices in more than one spot even within the United States. Finally, the Church adheres to the Latin language in her divine services, in order to avoid those changes to which all living languages are perpetually ex- posed ; for she perceives the danger of altering the expressions of her Liturgy at every change and variation in language.

    But while using the Latin language does not this prevent the people from fol- lowing the service intelligently, and indeed from knowing what is going on? Not at all. For those who are able to read can easily find the same meaning of the words

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    the priest is saying, by means of the trans- lations put in the common prayer books; and those who cannot read may have the translations read to them.

    From the days of the Apostles, the Lit- urgy of the Mass has been celebrated in Greek and in Latin, in Syriac and in Cop- tic. Since the fourth century it has also been solemnized in Ethiopic and Armenian. The language of these Liturgies was never changed, although the people for whom they were originally drawn up, and among whom they still continue to be celebrated, have entirely transformed their ancient language, and are perfectly incapable of understanding it at the present time in its original form. Hence, it follows, as a consequence, that the Latin Church acts, only, in the spirit of all the ancient Churches from the days of the Apostles, since, like them, she refuses to exchange her ancient for a modern language.

    Latitudinarians. — In Church history, a name applied by contemporaries to a school of theologians within the English Church in the latter half of the seventeenth century, analogous to what is known to- day as the Broad Church party. They strove to unite the dissenters with the Church by insisting only on those doc- trines which were held by both and requir- ing merely submission to, not acceptance of, the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church.

    Latria. See Worship.

    Latrocinium. See Ephesus.

    Lauds. See Breviary.

    Laura. — An alley, lane, later a cloister, hermitage, monastery. In early monach- ism, an aggregation of separate cells under the control of a superior, the inmates meeting on Saturday and Sunday of each week for a common meal in the refectory, and for common worship in the chapel, on other days dwelling apart from one another, every one in his cell engaged in some light manual occupation.

    Lavabo is that part of the Mass where the celebrant washes his fingers on the Epistle side, while reciting several verses of the Psalm, I.avabo inter innocentes manus meas. In the Ambrosian rite, the priest washed his hands in silence, but the Psalm now recited accompanied the washing in the liturgies of St. Chrysos- tom and St. Basil.

    Lavigerie (Charles Martial Alle- mand). — A French prelate; born Oct. 31st, 1825, at Bayonne. He studied theol- ogy at the Seminary of St. Sulpice, and was ordained priest in 1849; made bishop of Nancy, in 1863 ; in 1867, archbishop of Algiers, where he came into conflict with the government by trying to establish charitable institutions among the Arabs. The contest went so far, that the Emperor Napoleon III., wrote him a personal letter, advising him to leave temporal matters to the government and confine his attention to the spiritual wants of his flock. The archbishop, however, continued his work. In 1882 he was made cardinal, and two years later became archbishop of Tunis and primate of Africa. Lavigerie won particular attention by his vigorous oppo- sition to the African slave trade. He died in Algiers, Nov. 26th, 1892.

    Law. — Laws are the exterior and re- mote rule of human actions. A law is a just precept ; an unjust law is no lawat all, it is but an abuse of power, an act of tyranny. Human laws which are not in agreement with natural law are not true laws. In case of doubt whether the law is just or not, whether the thing ordained is legiti- mate or not, the law is to be observed, as in all such cases the presumption is in favor of the power which commands. We must not regard as unjust the laws which seem to permit certain customs little com- formable, or even contrary to rules of Christian morals. To tolerate an abuse is not to uphold it or approve it. The civil laws cannot forbid everything which the natural law forbids. It is necessary that a law should be stable and permanent ; that is, a law should continue as long as the state of things, which has given occa- sion for the existence of the law, continues. All laws should emanate from the superior powers or persons that have the right to govern and command. This power and right, as well in the temporal order as in the spiritual, comes from God, to Whom belongs all absolute power and dominion. To those in such authority God has com- municated His authority, more or less, ac- cording to the rank which they occupy. In order that a law should have binding force, it must be promulgated publicly. It is a matter of dispute among canonists and other authorities whether the essence or complete matter of the law should be published. As long as a law is not pub-

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    lished it has no more force than a matter merely vinder consideration.

    We distinguish between divine and hu- man laws. Divine laws are either natural or positive according as they emanate nec- essarily or freely from the Creator. Among the positive laws are those called Mosaic, after the great lawgiver, Moses, who received them from God ; the others are called Christian or Evangelical laws, being given and promulgated by Jesus Christ. Human laws are either ecclesias- tical or civil ; the first relate to the spirit- ual, the latter to the temporal order. *' The natural law is," as St. Thomas says, " only an impression in us of the divine light, a partaking of the eternal in a rea- sonable being." The natural law is en- graved in the hearts of all men, the characters of which we must read ; and to do this rightly is not always an easy mat- ter on account of human passion, preju- dice, and the force of inveterate habits, which tend to blur the divine characters. It is possible, therefore, for man to be ig- norant of some points of the natural law.

    The first and fundamental truths are within the comprehension of all men, they are met with everywhere.

    As to the remote consequences, these we can certainly be ignorant of, and this ignorance, when invincible, excuses us from sin. The natural law being founded upon the inborn constitution of man can- not vary more than can human nature. We can, therefore, in no case obtain a dis- pensation from this natural law. We must distinguish in the Mosaic law, the moral part from the ceremonial part, which regulated all that concerned the di- vine worship, and the civil and judicial part which related to the policy of the Jews. The moral part was the natural, positive law, the substance of which is contained in the Decalogue. The law of Moses, apart from the Decalogue, was only expedient for the time being and was abrogated by the Evangelical law, while the natural law is always in force, not be- cause of its solemn promulgation by Moses, but because it is eternal, and was confirmed by Christ in the New Law, or dispensation. In the Christian law as in the Mosaic law we must, likewise, distin- guish between the laws of positive precept and those of counsel, between the laws concerning dogma, morals, and worship. We have in the New Law the Evangelical counsels of poverty and celibacy addressed

    to those whom God calls to a higher state of perfection. The Mosaic dispensation was intended for the Jewish people only and only for a determinate period. On the other hand, the Christian dispensation or law is for all time and for all peoples. It should make, as it were, of all nations one people, one family. This is why our Saviour established neither civil nor polit- ical laws. Men can be good Christians and at the same time good citizens, no matter what the form of government may be under which they live. The Christian law has become obligatory only by reason of its having been promulgated by the Apostles and their successors. As long as a law has not been promulgated, it has no binding force. Nobody is obliged to believe what he does not know; nobody can know the Gospel or its laws if it has not been announced to him. Those who have never heard of the law of Christ are precisely in the same condition as the Gentiles were before the coming of Christ. Their rule of conduct and of morals is based on the principles of the natural law, and on some traditions, more or less ob- scure, which have been preserved among them from the primitive revelation.

    As the principles of the natural law can- not be dispensed with, neither can the positive law of Christ, which depends for its force on the will of God. The Church, under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, has the mission of interpreting the Command- ments of her divine Founder, but, notwith- standing the scope and extent of her prerogatives, she cannot derogate from them in any point.

    Among the ecclesiastical laws, we dis- tinguish between the written laws and the laws introduced by custom, or the unwrit- ten laws ; between general laws, common to the whole Church, and particular laws, for a province or diocese. It is of faith that the Church can establish laws, which may not be violated without sin. The Pope, being Bishop of the universal Church may promulgate laws obligatory on all Christians. Bishops may make laws for their respective dioceses. Yet the power of all bishops is in this matter sub- ordinate to the Holy See from which they receive their jurisdiction. Ecumenical councils, convened and approved by the Pope, acting in the name of the entire Church, can make laws which bind in conscience all Catholics without distinc- tion of class. When the councils are par-

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    ticular, national, or provincial, their enact- ments or laws bind only those under their jurisdiction. Again these decrees must be invested with the approbation of the Holy See, or approved by the Sacred Con- gregation of Cardinals, interpreters of the Council of Trent. For irrespective of what concerns metropolitans, bishops, either of themselves or individually or gathered in assembly, have no jurisdiction over foreign dioceses.

    Lawrence or Laurentius Justinianus

    (St.) (1380-1465). — First patriarch of Venice, born in that city. General of the Canons-Regular of the Congregation of St. George, Bishop of Venice (1433), patri- arch (.1451). Built at Venice ten churches and several monasteries. F, Sept. 5th.

    Lawrence (St.). — Deacon and martyr, born near Huesca, Spain. He was the chief among the seven deacons of the Roman Church. In the year 258 Pope Sixtus was led out to die, and St. Law- rence stood by, weeping that he could not share his fate. The holy Pope comforted him with the words : " Do not weep, my son; in three days you will follow me." This prophecy came true. The prefect of the city knew the rich offerings which the Christians put into the hands of the clergy, and he demanded the treasures of the Ro- man Church from Lawrence their guardian. The saint promised, at the end of three days, to show him riches exceeding all the wealth of the empire, and set about col- lecting the poor, the infirm, and the reli- gious who lived by the alms of the Faithful. He then bade the prefect " see the treas- ures of the Church." Christ, whom Lawrence had served in his poor, gave him strength in the conflict which ensued. Roasted over a slow fire, he made sport of his pains. '* I am done enough," he said, " eat, if you will." His remains were buried in the Catacombs of Campo Verano. Constantine built over his tomb a basilica, which is one of the five patriarchal churches and one of the seven principal stations, (St. Lawrence Extra muros.) F. Aug. 1 0th.

    Lawrence (St.) O'Toole (1125-1180). — The scion of a princely family, Lawrence in his youth had been held in captivity as a hostage, by Dermot M'Murrough, king of Leinster. At the age of twenty-five he was chosen abbot of Glendaloch, and on the death of Archbishop Gregory, in 1162,

    was promoted to the metropolitan see of Dublin. He was consecrated by Gelasius, successor of St. Malachy in the primatial see of Armagh. His first care was to re- form the manners of the clergy and to furnish his Church with worthy ministers. He was so rigid in enforcing ecclesias- tical discipline, that, though he had the necessary faculties himself, he frequently obliged grievous sinners to journey to Rome for absolution. In 1179, the saint, with some other Irish prelates, attended the Third General Council of Lateran. On his return to Ireland, he at once com- menced to discharge his legatine power, by making wholesome regulations and introducing much needed reforms. After a glorious and most useful episcopate of eighteen years, St. Lawrence O'Toole, who was styled, as St. Bernard tells us, " the Father of his country," died in the year 1 180. He was canonized in 1225, by Honorius III. F. Nov. 14th.

    Lazarists or Priests of the Mission. — The Lazarists owe their foundation to St. Vincent de Paul. He was born of humble but pious parents, in the village of Pouy, at the foot of the Pyrenees, in 1576. In his youth he tended his father's flocks, but his parents, judging correctly, that one of such excellent parts, both of intellect and heart, was fitted by nature for some higher calling, sent him, in 1588, to a Franciscan convent to be educated. Here he felt him- self called to the priesthood ; went to per- fect his studies at the University of Tou- louse, where he was ordained prieet in 1600. In the course of a voyage from Marseilles to Narbonne, in 1605, he and his companions fell into the hands of some Barbary corsairs, who sold him into slavery at Tunis. Here he passed successively under the proprietorship of three masters, the third of whom, a Savoyard renegade, he brought back to the Church, and having re- turned to France, went thence to Rome, and prevailed upon his former master to join the " Brothers of Charity " in that city. He en- tered the Oratory, lately established by the Abbe de Berulle, on whose recom- mendation he became successively cur^ of Clichy, near Paris, and tutor of the family of Count de Condi. While in this position, Vincent conceived the design of starting what are known as the ' Missions of France." Out of these grew forth the foundation of the "Daughters of Charity'' or " Grey Sisters," to whom he gave a rule

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    of life, and charged them with the care of Hospitals (1618). But the project which he had long had in his mind, of forming a soci- ety of " Priests of the Mission," who, with the consent of the bishop of the diocese and of the pastor of the parish, would preach the Gospel to the peasants of the country, was, in the year 1624, carried into effect. In 1632, Pope Urban VIII. ap- proved the object of the congregation, and instructed Vincent to draw up a rule for its guidance. The society of " Priests of the Mission," which had been established at the so-called Priory of St. Lazarus in Paris (whence the name Lazarists), was soon widely extended. Besides their mis- sion labors, they took complete charge, in many instances, of ecclesiastical semina- ries. St. Vincent himself continued to give missions, was constantly engaged in founding hospitals, religious associations, and held conferences in the houses of the missions. He died Sept. 27th, 1660, and was canonized by Clement XII. in 1737. F. July 19th.

    The "Priests of the Mission" came to the United States in 1815, and have now several houses in this country and Canada.

    Lazarus. — Brother of Martha and Mary, dwelt with his sisters at Bethania, near Jerusalem ; and our Saviour sometimes lodged with them, when He visited that city. While He was beyond the Jordan with His Apostles, Lazarus fell sick and died. Jesus came to Bethania immediately, and raised him to life again. It is claimed that afterwards he became bishop of Mar- seilles and suffered martyrdom after an apostolate of thirty years. His relics are venerated at Autun, France, in the Church of St. Lazare. F. July 29th.

    League {Holy). — When, in 1535, the Protestant States of Germany renewed their alliance against the Catholics for a period of ten years, known as the " League of Smalkald," this caused the Catholic princes, in 1538, to unite in a confedera- tion, known as the " Holy League," for the maintenance of the Catholic religion.

    Leander (St.) (540-600 or 601). — Arch- bishop of Seville, born at Carthagena. Brother of St. Fulgentius, of St. Isidore, and of St. Florentina. Monk at Seville, archbishop of this city in 597, friend of Pope Gregory the Great, who dedicated to him his Cotnmentaries on Job; successfully combated Arianism and presided over the

    third National Council of Toledo (589). The Mozambic Liturgy is attributed to him.

    Lectionary. — One of the service books of the mediaeval Church, so called because it contained the Epistles and Gospels of the Roman missal, and sometimes, all the lessons of the various services in use in the Roman Church, in which case it was called the Plenarium. Its compilation was at- tributed to St. Jerome; and it appears certain that it belongs in substance, al- though not in form or details, to that age. The collection was revised and remodeled in the eighth century.

    Lector {reader). — The term designates one who has received the second Minor Order. The following words, addressed to the candidate by the bishop, explain the duties attached to this office : " It is necessary for the reader to read for him who preaches, to sing the lessons, to bless the bread and all the new fruits. Endeavor, therefore, to announce distinctly and clearly the words of God, namely, the holy lessons, etc." In presenting to the candi- date the book from which he is to read, which he touches with his right hand, the bishop says: " Receive this book, and be reader of the word of God, destined, if you faithfully and usefully fulfill your office, to have part with those who from the begin- ning have acquitted themselves well in the ministry of the divine word."

    Ledochovrski (Mieczyslaw Halka, Count de). — A Polish cardinal; was born at Gorki, in Russia, Oct. 29, 1822. He began his theological studies under the Lazarists in the College of St. John, War- saw, and at the age of 18 received the ecclesiastical tonsure from the bishop of Sandomir. After some studies at Vienna he proceeded to Rome, where he joined the " Academia Ecclesiastica" ; became domestic prelate and prothonotary apos- tolic; and also went as auditor of the nunciature to Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro, and Santiago de Chile. He was named arch- bishop of Thebes, in partibus infidelium, on his appointment in i86r to the nunciature of Brussels, where he remained four years. In January, 1866, he was translated to the archbishopric of Gnesen and Posen, with the title of primate of Poland. In conse- quence of his resistance to the so-called May Laws enacted in Prussia, he was, in 1874, cast into prison, and, while there, was proclaimed a cardinal by the Pope, in

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    a secret consistory held in Rome in 1875. He was released from captivity in 1876, and went to Rome. Here he was made Prefect of the Propaganda in 1892, which office he continues to hold to the present day.

    Legate. — The name of the ambassador or representative, whether temporary or permanent, sent by the Pope to a particu- lar Church. Three classes of legates are distinguished : first, Legati a latere {le- gates dispatched from the side) of the Pon- tiff, who are commonly cardinals ; second, Legati missi, also called "apostolic nun- cios," and including a lower grade called "internuncios" ; third, Legati nati {legates born), whose office is not personal, but is attached by ancient institution or usage to the see or ecclesiastical dignity w^hich they hold.

    On Jan. 24th, 1893, the American Lega- tion was established, and Monseigneur Satolli being appointed delegate apostolic, from the office and dignity thus received, acquired ordinary jurisdiction over the bishops, clergy, and Catholic p>eople of the United States in all spiritual affairs.

    Legio Fulminatrix ( Thundering Le- gion). — In the Roman army, there were a great many Christian soldiers. When Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180) was waging war in Pannonia against the Quadi and Marcomanni (174), his army, unable to obtain water to drink, was threatened with imminent death. Then the Chris- tians went down on their knees, and ad- dressed fervent prayers to God. Suddenly the sky became clouded, and a plentiful rain fell on the side of the Romans. The Barbarians thought the moment favorable for an attack ; but the heavens taking up arms in support of the Romans, sent such a fearful volley of hail and thunder upon them, that their battalions were over- powered ; this prodigy gave the victory to the Romans. The Christian troops, who had obtained this favor from heaven, were named the "Thundering Legion"; because both the Romans and Barbarians looked upon this event as miraculous. The em- peror himself wrote of the matter to the senate. To perpetuate the memory of this prodigy, it was represented in bas-relief on the Antonine column, erected in the center of Rome and is still existing.

    Legion (Theban). — Thus called be- cause levied in the Thebaid, the district

    around Thebes, Egypt ; was taken to Italy by Maximian (286-305), to be used against the Bagandae, who had risen in revolt. The whole army, having received a com- mand to offer sacrifice to the gods for the success of their expedition, the Thebean Legion, composed of Christians, refused to take part in such a sacrilegious cere- mony. Enraged at this re'sistance, Max- imian commanded the Legion to be decimated. The soldiers, on whom the lot fell, were put to death. The rest of the Legion continued immovable. The first decimation was followed by a second, which produced no new effect. Then Maximian surrounded the Legion with his army and caused them all to be slaughtered. The place where they were martyred took the name of St. Maurice, after their gallant leader, and the Abbey of St. Maurice, to this day, bears witness to the constancy of this brave band of martyrs.

    Leibnitz (Gottfried Wilhelm von) Baron (1646-1716). — Born at Leipsic ; died at Hanover. A celebrated German philosopher. His father was professor of law at Leipsic. He entered the University there in 1661 ; devoting himself to the study of jurisprudence and philosophy; studied mathematics at Jena in 1663; re- turned to Leipsic ; and in 1666 took the degree of doctor of law at Altdorf. To escape the scepticism of Locke, Leibnitz tried to reconcile all the philosophical sys- tems; and, from their fusion, he founded a system of eclecticism. His whole system of doctrine may be divided into three great divisions: Monadology; Law of Continuity and Pre-established Harmony. We may add his Theodicy, which is the crown of the system. His method, being based upon the principle of the mathe- matical infinite, is false, because it is too exclusive. Its principles may be reduced to two : the principle of contradiction and the principle of sufficient law. The first is the spring of mathematics and of the essential: the second is the basis of moral and of the contingent. In wishing to ex- clude experience as the means of certitude, he falls into idealism; in fact, he who wishes to prove too much, proves nothing; the first principles escape demonstration. Monadology. — Every being is a simple or composed monad, which we can classify thus: monads without perception (inert bodies); monads with perception (soul); the latter class may be divided again into

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    monads with obscure conscience (souls of animals) ; with a conscience clear through their perceptions (reasonable souls or spirits). Pre-established Harmony. — In creating both body and soul, God estab- lished, in the constitution of these two substances, all they need in order to develop themselves; both of these sub- stances are in "accord" or correspondence ; God joined both body and soul, which had between each other this correspondence, this pre-established harmony anterior to their union : they therefore correspond just like two clocks regulated according to the same time. But what, then, becomes of liberty? This system makes of man a pure machine and, consequently, leads to fatalism. In fact everything being certain and determined beforehand, the soul would be merely a spiritual automaton. Theodicy. — Here also, Leibnitz shows himself too absolute. He exaggerates the doctrine of St. Augustine and of St. Thomas Aquinas about optimism. According to him, God, being infinite in all His perfec- tions, had to create the best world pos- sible. As his days were drawing to a close, Leibnitz gave a sublime and almost Catholic exposition of the majestic truths of Christianity, but to little purpose, as his influence on Protestant divines was in- appreciable. He was a Catholic after his own way ; he acknowledged the infallibility of the Catholic Church and refused to ac- cept the Council of Trent, and in fact remained Lutheran.

    Lent. (Lent derives its name from the Saxon word lenctcn — lengthening days, or springtime — for it was the spring fast; just as we are indebted to the Saxon word faesten — to restrain — for the word '• fast.") Anciently in the Latin Church, Lent lasted only thirty-six days, and commenced only on the Sunday of the sixth week before Easter, which they called Quadragesima Sunday. In the eleventh century, to more closely imitate the fast of forty days which Jesus Christ suflfered in the desert, some added four days before Qiiadragesima Sun- day, and this custom was followed in the West; for, by deducting the six Sundays which are no fast days, there remain ex- actly forty days of fast, in imitation of our Savior. From this rule we have to except the Church of Milan, which commences Lent only on Quadragesima Sunday.

    Lent was instituted by the Apostles. St. Jerome, in his Epistle to Marcella, and to

    St. Leo, in the sixth sermon De Quadra- gesima, expressly mentions it, and the Rule of St. Augustine (Ep. 118 ad Janu- arium et Lib. IV. de baft. cap. 24) has reference to this subject. All that we find generally established in the entire Church, without seeing its institution in any coun- cil, must pass as an establishment made by the Apostles. Now such is the case with the fast of Lent. We do not find its in- stitution in any council; on the contrary, the First Council of Nice, can. 5, that of Laodicea, can. 14, etc., the Sixth Ecumeni- cal Council, can. 29, and in the West, the First Council of Orleans, r««. 11, the Fourth of the same city, can. 2, that of Agde, can. 8, that of Auxerre, can. 3, the Eighth of Toledo, can. 9, the Second of Prague, can. 9, speak of Lent as of a gen- eral and very ancient subject, as well as all the Greek and Latin Fathers. Tertullian, who lived about the end of the second cen- tury and at the beginning of the third, in his book De jejuniis, cap. 2 and 13, seems to indicate that there was not only a law for the fast before Easter, but that it was regarded, by even those who passed as enemies of fasting, as an apostolic institu- tion, and, moreover, as an apostolic in- stitution fcmnded upon the Gospel and upon the words of Jesus Christ in St. Matthew, ix. 15, in St. Mark, ii. 19, in St. Luke,^v. 34. St. Ignatius clearly speaks of Lent in his letter Ad Phi/ippenses. Finally, it appears, by the Apostolic Constitutions V, c. xviii, that the Christians since the beginning of the Church have fasted through obligation during the time that preceded Easter. The fast lasted until the hour of Vespers, that is, until evening. Tertullian also speaks of this in his Treatise on Fast, and St. Irenaeus in Eu^ebius, T.ib. V, c. 24, St. Basil, Orat. 2, de Jejun., St. Ambrose, Serm. 34, Socrates, Lib. V, c. 21, Cassian, Collat. 21, c. 27, St. Leo, Serm. 4 De Quadragesima, etc. Socrates and Sozomenus tell us, the first. Lib. V, c. 22, the other. Lib. VII, c. 19, that the fast of Lent lasted six weeks before Easter in Illyria, in Greece, at Alexandria, in whole Egypt, in Africa and Palestine ; but that at Constantinople, and in all its neighbor- ing provinces, until Phoenicia, they com- menced Lent seven weeks before Easter, but that of these six or seven weeks some fasted only every other day, or only five daj's during the week.

    The ancient Latin monks kept three Lents : the great Lent before Easter, the

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    other before Christmas, which they called the Fast of St. Martin, and the other the Fast of St. John the Baptist, after Pente- cost, all three of forty days. The Greeks observed four others besides that of Easter, namely: that of the Apostles, of the As- sumption, of Christmas, and of the Trans- figuration; but they reduced them to seven days each. The Jacobites have a fifth fast, which they call the Fast of the Penance of Ninive. The Chaldaics and Nestorians do the same. The Maronites have six, by ad- ding that of the Exaltation of the Cross. The forty days' period, as commemorative of our Lord's forty days' fast, or of the similar perfunctory fasts of Moses and Elias, commences with Ash Wednesday, between which day and Easter Sunday (omitting the Sundays, on which the fast is not observed), forty clear days intervene. The rigor of the ancient observance, which excluded all flesh and even the so-called " white meats," is now much relaxed; but the principle of permitting but one meal, with a slight refection or collation, is widely retained. The precept of fast obliges all those who have their twenty-first year completed, if no other cause dispenses them from fast. In Spain, during the Crusades and the wars with the Moors, a practice arose of permitting in certain cases, the substitution of a contribution to the holy war, for the observance of Lenten ab- stinence; and although the object has long since ceased, the composition is still permitted, under the same title of the " Crusada."

    Leo (name of thirteen Popes). — Leo I. (St.) — Pope from 440 to 461. On account of his eminent learning, sanctity, and great achievements, is called the *' Great." It was this great Pontiff who, by his con- fidence in God and noble and courageous conduct, in 452, saved Rome from being pillaged by the Huns under Attila "the Scourge of God," and again, in 455, he saved the city from destruction by the awe which he inspired in the fierce Gen- seric, king of the Vandals. Rejecting the false Council of Ephesus ("Robber Synod"), Leo, in 451, summoned the General Coun- cil of Chalcedon, over which he presided by his legates and in which his Dogmatic Epistle was accepted as the expression of true Catholic Faith. He strongly main- tained Papal supremacy against arrogant and aspiring bishops, and was zealous everywhere for the interests of the faith and

    Church discipline. Leo II. (St.) — Pope from 682 to 683. Translated, from the Greek into Latin, the acts of the Sixth General Council, in which the heresy of the Monothelites had been condemned. Leo II. established a second metropolitan see at York, Canterbury still holding the chief place in the Anglo-Saxon Church, as in the days of St. Augustine. Leo III . (St.) — Pope from 795 to 816. Immediately after his election he wrote to Charlemagne, re- questing him to continue his protection over the Roman See and State. At his re- quest, Charlemagne, in the year 800, went to Rome to quell a rebellion in which the Pope came near losing his life. He crowned Charlemagne and proclaimed him emperor, amid the joyful acclamations of the people, in 800. Leo IV. (St.) — Pope from 847 to 855. The eight years of his Pontificate were employed, chiefly, in arming and de- fending the Roman State against the Sar- acens, over whom he gained a complete victory. He encompassed the Vatican hill with walls and towers, and founded what has been called after him the " Leonine City." In 850, he crowned Louis II., son of Lothaire, emperor, and anointed as king the young Alfred of England, afterwards surnamed the Great. In 850 and 853, he held synods at Rome, at which canons were enacted enforcing ecclesiastical discipline. Leo V. — Pope in 903. Successor of Bene- dict IV. Imprisoned by Christophorus; he died of grief two months after his coronation. Leo VI. — Pope from 928 to 929. Successor of John VI. Reigned only six or seven months and fifteen days. Leo VII. — Pope from 936 to 939. Successor of John XI. He reformed the monastic discipline. Leo VIII. — Pope from 963 to 965. Elected, after the deposition of John XII., by the authority of the Emperor Otho. Benedict V., canonically elected to succeed John XII. and exiled by Otho (964), acquiesced to his own deposition. Leo IX. (St.) — Pope from 1048 to 1054. With his accession to the Papal throne, began the dawn of better and brighter days for the Papacy. He resumed and carried on, with untiring zeal, the great work of reformation begun by Clement II. His Pon- tificate was one continued journey, under- taken for the purpose of everywhere enforcing ecclesiastical reforms. He held numerous councils and presided over them in person. Several laws were enacted for the extirpation of the then prevailing vices of simony and clerical in-

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    Leo

    continence. He was defeated and cap- tured by the Normans at Astagnum, near Civitella, June i8th, 1053. The conquerors, beholding in their captive the Vicar of Christ, knelt before him, asked his blessing, and then set him at liberty. Leo X. — Pope from 1513 to 1521. Born at Flor- ence, second son of Lorenzo de Medici. An ardent admirer of classic literature and a magnanimous patron of the arts and sciences, he was at the same time a great Pontiff, who was sincerely devoted to the interests of the Church. His Pontificate, one of the most brilliant in the history of the Church, was greatly embarrassed by the treachery of the Italian princes, the re- ligious revolution in Germany, and by the rivalries between Charles V., of Spain, Francis I., of France, and Henry VHL, of England. This explains why the charac- ter of this Pope has been judged with so much prejudice and inconsistency. His reign was long and gratefully remembered by the Romans, as an era of happiness and prosperity. Leo XL — Pope in 1535. Died twenty-six days after his coronation. Leo XII. — Pope from 1823 to 1829. Gave his chief attention to restoring re- ligion and learning in Rome and to avert- ing the evils by which the Church was then more particularly threatened, espe- cially by religious indiflferentism and se- cret societies, particularly Freemasonry. Ze

    27

    was sent to the Roman College. Here, as at Viterbo, he soon became the admiration of his professors and fellow-students. At the age of twenty years he received the ti- tle of doctor. Shortly after this he en- tered the Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and continued there his brilliant course of studies in preparing himself for sacred orders. Distinguished among all by Gregory XVI., the young Pecci was named, at the age of 26, a Referendary to the Signature. On Dec. 23d, 1837, he was ordained priest, and shortly after- wards the Pope intrusted to him the im- portant and delicate mission as delegate of the province of Benevent. Mgr. Pecci was then 28 years old. The young prel- ate displayed a remarkable skill and an unconquerable energy in the administra- tion of the province. In a short time it was cleared of the robbers who infested it and perfect order was restored. Gregory XVI. rewarded Mgr. Pecci by intrust- ing to him, successfully, the govern- ment of the most important provinces of Spoleto and Perugia. Such was the wisdom and prudence of the Pon- tifical delegate, that in the last named city, whose population is more than 20,000, the prisons under his administration re- mained empty. Desirous of utilizing the rare talents of the delegate of Perugia in a more elevated post, Gregory XVI. recalled him in 1843, preconized him archbishop of Damietta in partibus injidelium, and sent him as nuncio to Brussels. King Leo- pold, who knew well how to judge men, did not delay to accord to the young apos- tolic nuncio the highest and most sincere esteem. The Belgian Catholics equally appreciated him, and have preserved the best remembrance of the three years of his nunciature. In 1846, his health beginning to fail, he had to ask to be recalled. Leo- pold, the king of the Belgians, took leave of him with great regret. He conferred on him, before his departure, the great cordon of his order, and handed to him a sealed letter recommending him for the purple to Pope Gregory XVI. On the re- quest of a deputation of Perugia, the Pope intrusted to him the government of this diocese in the consistory of Jan. 19th, 1846, and created him at the same time cardinal in petto. Unfortunately, Gregory XVI. died before he could fulfill his desire to confer on him publicly the insignia of cardinal. It was only seven years later, on Dec. 19th, 1853, that Pius IX. caused him to enter

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    the Sacred College. Enthusiastically ap- plauded by the Perugian population, which had not forgotten the wisdom of his political administration, Mgr. Pecci, during the 22 years he remained at Peru- gia, labored without relaxation for the well-being of his diocese, and for the de- velopment of the higher education of the clergy. To this end he founded and equipped the Theological Academy of St. Thomas. The Pastoral Letters which he published during his episcopate are most remarkable, those especially wherein he treats of civilization, and which were the prelude of his immortal encyclical letters in which the entire world to-day finds light and salvation. In the Vatican Council, Cardinal Pecci was remarkable for the certainty and depth of theological knowl- edge. But it was only after the death of Cardinal Antonelli, whose influence had kept him away from Rome for such a long time, that Cardinal Pecci was named Cam- erlingo of the Holy Roman Church, re- placing Cardinal De Angelis (Sept. 21st, 1877). The dignity of Camerlingo — one of the first of the Sacred College — con- fers extensive rights and powers upon the cardinal who is invested with it, at the death of the Pope, during the vacancy of the Holy See, and for the preparation of the Conclave.

    When Pius IX. died, Cardinal Pecci knew how to display in this delicate charge exceptional qualities of prudence, wisdom, energy, and experience. The unequivocal testimonies and approvals which Pius IX. and Gregory XVI. had given him, seemed to designate him beforehand, as the choice among his venerable colleagues. Indeed, on Feb. 20th, 1878, after 36 hours of Con- clave, he was elected Pope, on the third ballot, by 44 votes out of 61, and took the name of Leo XIII. Saluted since then as a light from heaven, *' Lumen in Ccelo " the august Pontiff has spread over all the world the illumination of Christian doc- trine. Since the beginning of his Pontifi- cate, he denounced, in his celebrated en- cyclical of Dec. 28th, 1878, the dangers of Socialism, which is the enemy of human governments, no less than of the Church of God, and points out in Catholic doctrine the most efficacious remedy against the subversive theories of the Nihilists and Socialists. His eye continually open to all the wants and dangers of the Church and of society, his care extends to all, pointing out philosophical errors as they

    arise and condemning wicked attempts against the family and civil society. Ac- cording to him, reason has entered on a false direction, and modern thought is de- caying. Behold his wonderful encyclical on the restoration of philosophical studies according to the doctrine of St. Thomas (Eterni Patris, Aug. 4th, 1879). Domes- tic society being threatened by divorce, he addresses to the world the encyclical on Christian marriage, wherein he explains and expounds the real doctrine concerning this great sacrament (Arcanum, ¥eh. loth, i88»). Meanwhile, he treats of the origin of power and authority and of the great advantages which the Catholic Church offers to princes and peoples (Diuturnum, June 29th, 1881). Later he deals a terrible blow to that enemy of Church and State, Freemasonry, and indicates to Catholics the means of protecting themselves against this sect and how to combat it. Finally, in order to come to the aid of civil society, a prey to revolutionary evil, he publishes his famous encyclical " Immortali Dei" (Nov. ist, 18S5), on the Christian Consti- tution of the States — a master- work and a magnificent synthesis of Catholic teaching on this important matter. Other Pontif- ical documents, too numerous to mention here, have for their object the promotion of the veneration of the saints and to recommend to the piety of the Faithful the Third Order of St. Francis, and es- pecially the devotion to our Lady of the Rosary. We can truly assert that the great wisdom of Leo. XIII., his enlightened zeal, and the providential aim of his glori- ous Pontificate are all summed up in his encyclical letters, imperishable monuments of the solicitude of the supreme pastor of Church.

    But it is especially by diplomatic means that Leo XIII. seems to have undertaken to inaugurate with the different States of Europe a policy of peace and reconcilia- tion. His encyclical against Socialism be- came the starting point of a very marked approachment between the court of Rome and the governments which are threatened by the attacks of Nihilists and other revo- lutionary organizations. After having obtained, in the congress of Berlin, com- plete liberty for the Catholic religion in the East, Leo XIII. made proposals to Prince Bismarck, with the object of se- curing the religious pacification of Ger- manj', and, after . difficult negotiations which lasted several years, had the conso-

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    lation to behold his efforts crowned with success (1887). The meeting in the Vati- can of the Pope and new emperor of Ger- many, William II., did not appear to have had any serious result. The negotiations with Russia, without removing the griev- ous differences between the Czar and the Holy See, obtained, however, some con- cessions regarding the exercise of religious worship (1883). These negotiations were resumed, in 1S88, through the intermedi- ary of Mgr. Galimberti and Prince Lo- banoff, ambassador to Vienna. In spite of the anti-Catholic spirit of the govern- ment of France, Leo XIII. has always exhibited toward that unfortunate country great interest and kindness. In Belgium he exercised his wise authority and in- fluence with regard to the question of religious education. Chosen as umpire between Spain and Germany, concerning their dispute over the Carolines, he ren- dered a judgment satisfactory to both nations. This happy result greatly tended to enhance the authority of the Pontifical prisoner of the Vatican. Even Protestant England felt the benign influence of Leo XIII., and semi-official negotiations took place with the view of restoring diplomatic relations between the Vatican and the court of St. James.

    In regard to the political troubles and sufferings of the Irish people, Leo has ever shown toward this unhappy country a father's heart, and exercised a salutary in- fluence and wise discretion regarding many delicate questions which agitated the minds of his ever faithful Irish children. The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, the happy issue of the discussion of the question of the Knights of Labor, the abo- lition of slavery in Brazil (1888), are so many facts due to the initiative and pru- dent hand of Leo XIII. Catholic influence made itself known and felt throughout the extreme East, causing successful negotia- tions between China and the Vatican. Finally, on the occasion of his sacerdotal jubilee (1888), the Holy Father beheld with happiness testimonies of respect- ful love and sympathy shown to him by all foreign courts, and a countless number of Faithful winding their way toward St. Peter's to assist at the Jubilee Mass (Jan. 1st, 1888). At the same time magnificent presents, objects of art, Pontifical orna- ments, sacred vessels, were offered to him by sovereigns, princes, countries, and by the Catholics of every diocese. Special

    visits of embassies and numerous pilgrim- ages completed this spontaneous outburst of the nations toward the one who is God's representative upon earth. This respect and love toward the supreme Pon- tiff continues to show itself until the pres- ent day.

    As a temporal sovereign, Leo XIII. has never ceased to proclaim the rights of the Church and to protest against the spolia- tion of the patrimony of St. Peter. Up- held by divine protection, encouraged by the unanimous adhesion of the Sacred Col- lege, of the entire episcopate, of the whole Catholic people, the great Pontiff, in spite of his conciliatory spirit, rejects all com- binations toward establishing a modus Vivendi with the Italian government, as long as it refuses the restoration of his sovereign rights, prerogatives, and com- plete independence.

    Leviticus. — This name of the third book of the Pentateuch, had its origin in the ordinances relating to the Levites, to which it is chiefly devoted. The sacri- fices to be offered were either bloody, and were figures of the sacrifice of Christ upon the Cross, or unbloody, and were a type of the sacrifice of the Mass. The religious feasts of the Jews were the Pasch, in memory of their deliverance from Egypt; and the Pentecost, seven weeks after the Pasch, to celebrate the promulgation of the Law on Mount Sinai. There was also the annual feast of the Tabernacles, to commemorate their long wandering in the desert, and the feast of Expiation, when the priests offered sacri- fices for their own sins, and the sins of the people. At the head of the ministry, charged with this public worship came the high-priest, — Aaron being the first to fill this office. His sons were the first priests, and the Levites took care of the taberna- cle as well as of the sacred vessels, etc.

    Lia. — Eldest daughter of Laban and the wife of Jacob, mother of Ruben, Sim- eon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, Zabulon, and Dina. She was buried with Abraham, Isaac, and Sara in the land of Chanaan.

    Libanon. — A long chain of limestone mountains, on the northern border of Pal- estine. It consists of two principal ridges, the easterly ridge being called Anti- Libanon by the Greeks. The western ridge, or proper Libanon, runs nearly par- allel to the coast of the Mediterranean;

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    the eastern, or Anti-Libanon, runs first east, but soon inclines in like manner to the north. Between these two ridges is a long valley called Coele-Syria, or Hollow Syria, the valley of Libanon. At present, it opens toward the north. The eleva- tion of Libanon is so great, that it is cov- ered in many places with perpetual snow; whence in all probability it derives its name. It is composed of four inclosures of mountains, which rise one above the other. The first is very rich in grain and fruits ; the second is barren, abounding in thorns, rocks, and flint ; the third, though higher than this, enjoys a perpetual spring, the trees being always green, and the orchards filled with fruit. It is so agreea- ble and fertile, that some have called it a terrestrial paradise. The fourth is so high that it is always covered with snow. The Libanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, Druses, and Maronite Christians.

    Libellatici. — Name given to those Chris- tians, who, during the persecution, escaped death by buying testimonials showing that they had sacrificed to the idols. The Church readmitted these cowardly Chris- tians, but only after long penances.

    Liberius (St.). — Pope, born at Rome; successor of Julius I., in 352. Upheld Athanasius against the Arians and was ex- iled to Berea by Constantius. He returned to Rome in 358. It has been asserted, and for a long time admitted, even by Catholic writers, that Pope Liberius obtained his recall from exile by condemning St. Ath- anasius, and subscribing to one of the three creeds of Sirmium. Now, first of all, it is certain that Liberius did not sign the first or second Sirmium creed, and secondly, it. is highly improbable that he signed the third. For: i. Liberius was exiled after the Council of Milan, /. e., toward the close of the year 355. After an exile of over two years, he returned to Rome in the year 358. Now, contemporary historians, such as Sul- picius Severus, Socrates, and Theodoret, without mentioning any condition or terms, ascribe the return of Liberius simply to the urgent entreaties of the Roman ladies, who presented themselves in a body to Con- stantius on his visit to Rome, and to the seditions of the Romans, which forced the emperor to recall the illustrious exile. 2. Rufinus, after seeing Bishop Fortunatian of Aquileja, who was said to have induced Liberius to sign the formula in question, writes: "Liberius, Bishop of Rome, re-

    turned to his See during the lifetime of Constantius; but whether his permission was given him because he consented to subscribe to the Arian formula, or because the emperor thought he would conciliate the Roman people by this act of clemency, I have not been able to ascertain." 3. The Roman people were hostile to the Arians and would not endure Felix the antipope, who, though professing the Nicene Creed, communicated with the sectaries ; he was on that account deserted, and afterwards expelled by them from Rome. But on the return of Liberius the Roman people went forth to meet him and gave him a triumphal entry into the city. Now, the Roman peo- ple would not have given him such a re- ception, had he fallen in faith. 4. Nor could Liberius, had he fallen, have estab- lished himself and reassumed his attitude as defender of the Nicene faith without a public recantation. Of such a recantation, however, nothing is known, nor that Libe- rius afterwards communicated with the Arians. On the contrary, he condemned the Arians as before, repudiated the Coun- cil of Rimini, and, when fifty-nine Semi- Arian bishops applied (a. d. 365) to be admitted into communion with the Roman Church, Liberius received them on condi- tion of their accepting the Nicene symbol and the " Homoosion " which, in his letter to them, he called " the bulwark of the orthodox faith against Arian heresy."

    Of the writings and passages in which mention is made of the alleged fall of Liberius, some are evidently not genu- ine; others are interpolated, i. Thus, the four letters which are ascribed to our Pope bear intrinsic evidence of another author- ship and of their forgery. That the Arians did not shrink from forging documents, is a well-known fact in the history of Atha- nasius. 2. The two passages of St. Atha- nasius in his Apology against the Arians and History of the A rtans, which refer to this imputation, are manifestly interpo- lated, since the two works were written at a period prior the supposed fall of Liberius. 3. The fragments of St. Hilary which are cited against Liberius, on account of the intrinsic contradictions which they contain, are evidently spurious. The account given of the charge by writers who were almost contemporaries of Liberius, leaves no doubt that it was a fiction of the Arians, which was believed also on popular rumor by St. Jerome, who heard the calumny from the Arians in Palestine. Besides,

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    the passages of St. Jerome referring to our question, if not interpolated as they seem to be, are founded on the forged letters of Liberius and the spurious fragments of Hilary. But, be this as it may, even if we admit the fall of Liberius, no argument can be derived therefrom against Papal Infallibility. His yielding, if so, to open violence, was at the most but a personal weakness and does not prove that the Pope fell by heresy, since he gave no doctrinal definition, nor imposed a heresy upon the Church. One admitted requirement for an Ex Cathedra definition was wanting, i.e., freedom. His defense of orthodoxy, as well before as after his banishment, is unquestionable.

    Liberties {GalUcan). See Gallican-

    ISM.

    Libertines. — A sect of fanatical Panthe- ists, that sprang up in the Calvinistic establishment. They first appeared in Flanders, in 1547, and thence spread into Holland, France, and Switzerland, where they gave Calvin much annoyance. They taught that God was the sole operating cause in man, the immediate author of all human actions, denied the distinction of good and evil, and held that those who have once received the Spirit of God, are allowed to indulge, without restraint, their appetites and passions, and that, therefore, for them, even adultery was no sin.

    Life. See Animism.

    Lights at Divine Service. — The use of lights in the service of the Jewish Temple is a fact too well authenticated to require any proof . (Cf. Exod. xxv. 31-40; xxvii. 20") Among the vessels which Solomon made for the house of the Lord were " the golden candlesticks, five on the right hand and five on the left" (IH. Ki. vii. 49). But without referring to the ceremonial of the Jewish Temple, we have an authority for the employment of lights in the func- tions of religion presented to us in the first chapter of the Apocalypse. Here St. John particularly mentions the golden can- dlesticks which he beheld in his prophetic vision. By commentators on the Sacred Scripture it is generally supposed that the Evangelist adopted the imagery with which he represents his mystic revelations from the ceremonial observed in his day by the Church for ofJering up the Mass or Eucharistic sacrifice of the Lamb of God, Christ Jesus. That the use of iights was

    adopted by the Church, especially at the celebration of the sacred mysteries, as early as the time of the Apostles, may likewise, with much probability, be in- ferred from that passage in their Acts which records the preaching and the mir- acles of St. Paul at Troas (Acts xx. 7, 8). The custom of employing lights, in the earlier ages of the Church, during the cel- ebration of the Eucharist and other reli- gious offices, is authenticated by those venerable records of primitive discipline which are usually denominated Apostolic Canons. In several of these ordinances mention is made of these offerings of oil which were intended for nourishing the lamps employed in the assemblies of the Faithful; and the third of these canons expressly prohibits that anything should be offered at the altar during the holy ob- lation, except oil for the lights and in- cense. Also, some of the Fathers attest in favor of the use of lights in the sanc- tuary. St. Athanasius, writing in 341, complains feelingly against the Arians, whose impiety was such that they afiforded access to the Church to the heathen, who pilfered the oil and burned before their idols the very tapers that had been the of- ferings of the Faithful {Epist. encyclical). St. Augustine, in one of his discourses {De Tempore, Sermo 215), thus exhorts his auditors : " Let those who are able present either wax tapers or oil which may supply the lamps." Also St. Jerome defended the lights, used during the cele- bration of the Eucharist, against Vigilan- tius, and they are noticed by St. Paulinus and Prudentius {De S. Felice Natalitium carmen, iii.). That lights were anciently, as now, employed at the celebration of the sacred mysteries and at other portions of the public service may be gathered, not only from the ritual constitutions of the Church, but from a variety of incidental circumstances. The person to be initiated into the Order of Acolyte was admonished, that among his future offices would be to take care of the lights of the church. St. Isidore says that the acolytes are denomi- nated in Latin ceroferarii {taper bearers'), from their carrying wax lights, not only when the Gospel is read, but whenever sacrifice is to be offered up {Orig. lib. VII. c. xii.). The use of lights at Mass is not peculiar to the Latin Church, but in all Churches of the East. A section of the Protestant denomination still preserves this ancient rite in its public service, for

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    the Lutherans, like the Catholics, have wax tapers burning at their celebration of the Lord's Supper; the same is done by the Episcopalians. The lights at Mass have a mystic signification. The Church in her primitive days, to manifest her lively faith and joyfulness, adopted this emblem of lights. She still continues to retain their use. While these wax tapers proclaim our exultation for the actual presence of our Blessed Redeemer, they typify the light and glory of the Gospel diflFused throughout the earth by that Orient from on high, Christ Jesus.

    Liguori (Maria Alphonse of, St.) ( 1696- 1787 ). — Prelate and theologian. Alphonse was born at Naples, of a noble family, and, after having made a success- ful course of law studies, and practiced at the bar with distinction, threw up the pro- fession in disgust, and began the study of theology, was ordained priest in 1722, and two years later entered the "Society of Mis- sionaries of the Propaganda " at Naples. As a priest he devoted himself mainly to preaching and the direction of souls, and in the course of a mission, given in the neighborhood of Amalfi, in which he took an active part, was pained to learn that the country people there and else- where had their spiritual wants but indif- ferently cared for. Grieved at the sight of so much spiritual poverty among peo- ple so destitute of this world's goods, he took comfort in the thought that he would one day found a congregation whose mem- bers would supply them with religious in- struction, and give themselves up wholly to their service. Authorized by Pope Clement XII., he founded, in the year 1732, the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, composed of secular priests, -who were willing to spend their lives in instructing the people and training the young. Their Rule was published June 2ist, 1742, and their founder intrusted with the supreme direction of the order, under the name superior-general. The order was approved by Benedict XIV. in 1749. In the year 1762, while engaged in his apostolic labors, Alphonse of Liguori was appointed bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti, in the kingdom of Naples, where he displayed all the virtues of a Pontiff wholly devoted to the welfare of his flock. Though a laborious and model bishop, he never ceased to take the liveliest interest in bis congregation, to which he returned in

    the year 1775, after resigning his see, from the responsibilities of which he shrank. He was far advanced in age and broken in health, and after spending a few more years among his spiritual children, he died at Nocera, Aug. ist, 1787. His numerous writings have been a guide and comfort to many souls in these latter days and have given him rank among the great teachers of the Church. He was solemnly canonized by Gregory XVI., on the feast of Pentecost, 1839, and declared a Doctor of the Church by Pius IX., March 23d, 1871. F. Aug. ist.

    Limbo. — From the Latin limbus, {fringe) the outskirts of hell, where the just, who died before Christ, were de- tained till our Lord's resurrection.

    Limbo Puerorum. — A place where those children are detained who die without bap- tism and who cannot enter heaven on ac- count of original sin. It is of faith that these children are deprived of the beatific vision, but it is almost generally admitted by theologians that they enjoy a natural happiness and suffer no pain of the senses.

    Litany. — A word, the specific meaning of which has varied considerably at differ- ent times, but which means in general, a solemn act of supplication addressed with the object of averting the divine anger, and especially on occasions of public calamity. Through all the varieties of form which litanies have assumed, one characteristic has always been maintained, viz., that the prayer alternates between the priest or other minister, who announces the object of each petition, and the con- gregation, who reply in a common suppli- catory form, the most usual of which were the well-known " Kyrie eleison," " Ora fro nobis." In public offices, use can be made only of those litanies that are found in the liturgical books. To introduce or add another litany thereto, an approbation of the Congregation of Rites would be nec- essary. They may, however, be printed in books of piety, after having been approved by the Ordinary. We call the Greater {litanice majores) the procession which takes place on the day of St. Mark, April 25th, and Lesser {litanice minores) those which take place on the three Rogation days. The first were instituted by Pope Leo the Great; the second by St. Ma- mertus, bishop of Vienne, in the year 474.

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    Liturgy in general, signifies a form of prayer and ceremonial established by ecclesiastical authority, to be used in the public services of the Church, but is es- pecially applied to the service used in the celebration and administration of the Eucharist. To veil the sacred mysteries from the gaze of vulgar ignorance and Gentile profanations, or in Scriptural language, not to "cast pearls before the swine," the Discipline of the Secret, which is of Apostolic origin, enacted that the Faithful in general should conceal the Creed, the Sacraments, and the holy sac- rifice of the Mass, from all knowledge of the uninitiated ; and the members of the priesthood in particular, were directed to convey the substance and formularies of the Liturgy by word of mouth to one another; and though required to learn and retain them by memory with the most scrupulous precision, were prohibited from committing them to writing. During the early portion of the fifth century, Nestorius attempted to engraft upon the Liturgy his errors concerning the Incarnation. To counteract this artifice, and to preclude the possibility of any future heresiarch propa- gating his novelties by disseminating them through the prayers and invocations of the public ritual, and for other weighty rea- sons, the Church resolved to vary from her ancient discipline and ordained that all the liturgies should be committed to writ- ing. Hence it was that St. Basil and St. Chrysostom, Popes St. Gelasius and St. Gregory the Great, St. Ambrose, and other learned and pious prelates of the Greek and Latin Churches, adapted the public service to the discipline of the period, and the wants of such portions of the fold of Christ as were more immedi- ately intrusted to their spiritual solicitude, in some passages retrenched, in others augmented, the prayers and ceremonies of the liturgies; and without adulterating in the slightest manner the substance or the doctrine of those Apostolic monuments, gave them a new, and in many instances, a more appropriate form. Hence it was that those liturgies, which, up to the period of their renovation, had been denominated by the names of those Apostles who origi- nally framed them, exchanged their ancient for a modern appellation, and were called after the venerable prelates by whom they had been remodeled.

    The Abbe Renaudot made public, in the year 1716, a numerous collection of Orien-

    tal Liturgies, accompanied by notes, and a useful introduction — the whole com- prised in 2 vols. Anterior to the learned Frenchman's labors in studying the antiq- uities of the Eastern Church, that pious and highly accomplished scholar, Cardinal Thomasius, had bestowed a similar atten- tion on several liturgies belonging to the West, and printed, in 1680, the ancient Sac- ramentaries of the Church of Rome, in that metropolis of Christianity. It was from this work of the Roman cardinal that Dom Mabillon extracted, in 1685, the Gal- ilean Liturgy, which he had attentively collated with a manuscript of the sixth cen- tury, and with two other very ancient manu- scripts. In 1640, Dom Menard, well known through his pursuits in ecclesiastical antiq- uites, published the Sacramcntary of St. Gregory, to which he attached some lumi- nous annotations. The Mozarabic Missal had already been printed, through the pious care of Cardinal Ximenes, in 1500. Pere le Brun collected all those liturgies, to which he added some others, which his precursors in this curious investigation had not been able to procure; he compared them all with one another, and with those modern ones drawn up by the Protestants; so that at present, nothing is wanting to assist the scholar in his decisions concern- ing these venerable and most ancient monu- ments of genuine Christianity.

    The principal liturgical books are: The Breviary, the Missal, the Ritual, the Pon- tifical, the Ceremonial of the Bishops, and the Martyrology. The bishops have the right and duty to watch over all the litur- gical books printed in their respective dio- ceses. See Oriental Rites.

    Livinus (St.). *See Belgium.

    Llorente (Don Juan Antonio) (175&- 1823). — A Spanish historian. He was a priest, and from 1789 to 1801, secretary of the Spanish Inquisition. But he was sub- sequently deprived of his office and sent to do penance in a convent for breach of con- fidence; it being discovered that he had divulged to some philosophers the secrets which he was sworn to keep. On the in- vasion of the French, he attached himself to the interests of Joseph Bonaparte, who placed at his service the archives of the Inquisition, many of which he burned — a fact which betrays an apprehension that their examination would expose his mis- statements. His history of the tribunal of the Inquisition, although confessedly

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    composed from authentic documents, is a most malignant misrepresentation of its spirit and proceedings. It betrays a deadly hatred against the Catholic Church, the Pope, the religious orders, and the clergy generally, and a deep sympathy with the deistic clubs. His works are on the Index.

    Logothete. — An accountant. Each of the officers which certain bishops had ap- pointed to keep an exact account of the ac- tions of the martyrs.

    Lollards. See Wycliffites.

    Lombard (Peter). — Born at Novara, Italy, about iioo; died at Paris in 1164. Among the numerous scholars of Ab^lard, Peter Lombard acquired the highest dis- tinction in the theological schools of Europe. He lectured at Paris with much success until 1159, when he was chosen bishop of that city. His famous Four Books of Sentences, from which he is de- nominated the " Master of Sentences," became the favorite manual of the theo- logical schools during the Middle Ages, and the text for innumerable commen- taries. The first book treats of God and the Trinity; the second of the Creation, and rational creatures ; the third of the redemption, of virtues and vices, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost; the fourth of the sacraments and of the last things.

    Lord's Prayer. — A prayer or model of prayer given by our Saviour to His disci- ples (Matt. vi. 9-1^). See Prayer (The Lord's).

    Lord's Supper {The), is one of the sac- raments of the Christian religion. It is so called from its being instituted at supper by Jesus Christ, whom His disciples styled the Lord or Master. It is also called Eucharist and Communion.

    Loreto. — A city of the province of An- cona, in the kingdom of Italy, containing about 5,300 inhabitants, chiefly noticeable as the site of the celebrated sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, called the Santa Casa {fioly house). The Santa Casa is re- ported to be the house, or a portion of the house, in which the Blessed Virgin lived at Nazareth, which was the scene of the An- nunciation of the Nativity, and the resi- dence of our Lord with his Blessed mother and St. Joseph ; and which, after the Holy Land had been finally abandoned to the infidels on the failure of the Crusades, is believed to have been miraculously trans-

    ported, first. May 10, 1291, to Fiume in Dalmatia, and thence, Dec. loth, 1294, to Recanati, whence it was finally transferred to its present site. Its name (Lat. Domus Lauretana), is derived from Laureta, the lady to whom the site belonged. Although numerous pilgrims resort to this sanctuary, and although indulgencies have been at- tached by Popes Julius II., Sixtus V., and Innocent XII., to the pilgrimages, and to the prayers oflFered at the shrine, yet, the truth of the legend is no part of Catholic belief, and Catholics hold themselves free to examine critically its truth, and to ad- mit or to reject it according to the rules of historical evidence. The church of the Santa Casa stands near the center of the town, in a piazza which possesses other architectural attractions. The great cen- tral door of the church is surmounted by a splendid bronze statue of the Madonna; and in the interior are three magnificent bronze doors filled with bas-reliefs, repre- senting the principal events of Scriptural and ecclesiastical history. The celeljrated holy house stands within. It is a small brick house Avith one door and one window, originally of rude material and construc- tion, but now, from the devotion of succes- sive generations, a marvel of art and cost- liness. It is entirely incased in white marble, exquisitely sculptured after designs- of the most eminent artists. The holy house having been at all times an object of devout veneration, its treasury of votive ofTerings is one of the richest in the west- ern world.

    Lot. — In the Old Testament history',, the son of Aran, and nephew of Abraham, ancestor of Ammon and Moab. Lot fol- lowed his uncle Abraham into Chanaan, then into Egypt ; separated himself from him at Bethel, after their return into Judea, t» settle at Sodom. When God wished to destroy Sodom, he admonished Lot to move away with his family, forbidding him to look back, and to stop in the neighboring country. They fled to Segor. but his wife, moved by curiosity, in spite of the warning, looked back, and was changed into a pillar of salt.

    Louis (St. ). See Crusadks.

    Louis Bertrand (St.) (1526- 1581). — Spanish Dominican, born at Valencia. Mis- sionary in America and in Spain, canonized by Alexander VIII. (1690). He is the pa- tron saint of New Granada. F. Oct. loth.

    Louis of Gonzagua

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    Louis of Gonzagua (St.) (1568-1591). — Jesuit, born at Castiglione, Lombardy, died in Rome. Son of Ferdinand of Gon- zagua, Marquis of Castiglione, prince of the Holy Empire, was page at the court of Philip II. He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits (1587), at Rome; died of a slow fever, contracted in taking care of those fallen by the pest. He was canonized by Benedict XIII., in 1726. He is the patron saint of youth. In 1858, Pope Pius IX. made a present to the " Society of Jesus " of a writing of St. Louis of Gonzagua ; it is a treatise on scholastic theology. F. June 2ist.

    Lourdes. — A city of France, in the Upper Pyrenees, and which is well known as a famous pilgrimage. The origin of the latter is as follows: On Feb. nth, 1858, Bernardette Soubirous, fourteen years old, accompanied by her sister Mary and a child of their neighbor, were gathering dry wood on the left shore of the river Gave. Having come to the rocks of Mas- sabielle, Bernardette perceived the grotto of the rock shining with an extraordinary brightness, and, in the grotto, a Lady of ravishing beauty, dressed in white with a blue cincture around her waist, barefoot, crowned with golden roses, and with a smile on her lips, stretched forth her hands toward the child. On her left arm was suspended a rosary of exceedingly white pearls. Bernardette drawing the at- tention of her companions to the appari- tion, they declared they saw nothing. After this first apparition, the beautiful Lad}' appeared seventeen times in broad daylight and before large crowds of people. Nobody, except Bernardette, beheld or heard anything; hut the transfiguration of the girl clearly proved the presence of something supernatural. During one of the apparitions of this superhuman being, Bernardette was urged to pray for the sinners and to go and tell her parish priest that he should build a chapel in that very place, to serve as a place of pilgrimage for the whole world. The apparition, to prove its reality, caused a spring to rise on the verj- spot where it stood. Finally, the mys- terious being revealed itself, saying : " I am the Immaculate Conception." The Bishop of Tharbes. Monseigneur Lawrence, after a delay of six months, appointed a com- mission to inquire more particularly into the alleged facts of the apparitions and healings, attributed to the water of

    the grotto. The commission, composed of the best theologians of the diocese, and as- sisted by learned physicians, established a dozen cases where a supernatural healing had certainly taken place. After more than three years of inquiries and prayers, Bishop Lawrence, Jan. 18th, 1862, pro- claimed that it was the "Immaculate Vir- gin Mary that had appeared eighteen times in the grotto of Massabielle," authorized in his diocese the veneration of " Our Lady of Lourdes," and announced the building of the chapel requested by the Mother of God.

    Lo'w Sunday. — The first Sunday after Easter, so called because it emphasizes the contract between the great Easter solem- nity and the Sunday which ends the oc- tave. The name given to it in the Missal is " Dominica in Albis," because then the newly baptized wore their white robes for the last time.

    Lucia (St.). — Virgin and martyr, born at Syracuse, Sicily, where she was be- headed in the year 303. Of a noble and Christian family, she made a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Agatha at Catanea, ob- tained the healing of her mother Euty- chia, consecrated her virginity to the Lord, and, accused of being a Christian, she was beheaded. F. Dec. 13th.

    Lucian. — Pagan philosopher, was born at Samosata (120-180). In his satire he derides alike heathen mythology and Christianity. His mockery of the gods and of everything supernatural procured for him the name of " Blasphemer." His principal work against the Christians en- titled, De Morte Pereffrini, is more of an overt derision than an attempted refuta- tion of Christian practices and doctrines. He represents the Christians as good natured, but silly, and ridicules their for- titude in suffering, their great charity toward one another, their contempt for death and their hope in a future reward ; thus giving, contrary to his intention, a glorious testimony of the grandeur of the Christian religion, the heroism and charity of its followers.

    Lucianus (St.). — Priest and martyr, born at Samosata about the year 235, put to death in 312. Priest and professor of theology at Antioch, acquired a great reputation on account of his knowledge and eloquence, and suffered martyrdom at Nicomedia, in the persecution of Gale-

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    rius Maximinus. We owe to him a beau- tiful apology in favor of the Christian religion, called the Profession of Faith of St. Luciantis, a Greek edition of the Bible, which St. Jerome praises very highly. F. "^an. 7th.

    Lucidus and Gottschalk. — Lucidus was a Gallic priest of the fifth century, and was the first that started the controversy on predestination. His errors were re- vived by Gottschalk, a wandering monk of the monastery of Orbais, in France, and a disciple of the learned Rabanus Maurus. Gottschalk blasphemously asserted that God predestinates to good as well as to evil, and foreordains some — the elect — to eternal life, and others — the reprobate — to eternal death. As the elect cannot help being saved, neither can the reprobate help being damned. For these latter, he maintained, the sacraments are but empty forms and ceremonies. Christ, he said, died only for the elect, who alone are the object of His merciful redemption. This heresy was condemned in the Councils of Mentz, in 848, and of Quiercy, in 849, pre- sided over by Rabanus Maurus and Hinc- mar of Rheims. Gottschalk was himself committed to the charge of the latter who sentenced him to corporal punishment and confinement in a monastery. He died in 869.

    Luciferians. — Followers of Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari (died about 370). The Luciferians were vehement upholders of the Nicene faith, and separated themselves from their fellow Catholics, on the ground that the latter showed undue leniency to those who had been received back into the Church after forsaking Arianism.

    Lucius (name of three Popes). — Lucius I. (St.) — Pope from 253 to 254. Successor of St. Cornelius, was exiled by Gallus, then permitted to return to his Church, was beheaded for the faith by order of Valerian. Lucius II. — Pope from 1144 to 1145. Successor of Celestine IL Was mortally wounded by the blow of a stone, cast by one of the adherents of Arnold of Brescia. Lucius III. — Pope from 1181 to 1185. Successor of Alexander IIL Held the Council of Verona, which the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa likewise attended, and published edicts against the Cathari and Waldenses.

    Ludmilla (St.) (873-927). — Martyr; patroness of Bohemia, born in Bavaria.

    Daughter of the count and lord of Mel- nick. Wife of Duke Boriwoy, first Chris- tian Duke of Bohemia, was instructed in religion as well as he, by St. Cyril and St. Methodius, apostles of the Slavs. Was treacherously murdered by her heathen daughter-in-law, Dahomira. F. Sept. i6th.

    Lugo (John de) (1583-1660). — Spanish Jesuit and cardinal, born at Madrid. Pro- fessor of theology at Rome. His theolog- ical Works form 7 volumes, in folio (1751). Reprinted in our time.

    Luitprand. — Bishop of Cremona, lived about the middle of the tenth century. He was the author of several historical works containing a frightful picture of the de- pravity of the age. But the truthfulness of his statements is very much shaken by the looseness of his own life and his courtly servility. Being a courtier of Otho I. and a violent adherent of the Ger- many party, he was bitterly hostile to the Italian party, and all the Popes who favored it. Luitprand died in 972.

    Luke (St.). — One of the four Evangel- ists, and a disciple of St. Paul, whom he joined at Troas in the year 53. He was a native of Antioch in Syria, a physician by profession, and a painter of no mean skill. St. Luke shared the travels and trials of St. Paul, and attended him, also, in his second imprisonment. He afterwards, re- turned to Macedonia and Achaja, and died a martyr at Patrae', at the age of seventy- four. Luke is the author of the third Gospel and of the Acts of the Apostles. He wrote both works in Greek; his Gospel was written some time after the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark.

    Lust denotes an irregular and depraved desire for impure pleasures. To keep our- selves free from this vice, we should avoid bad companionship, because " evil com- munications corrupt good manners " (L Cor. XV. 33) ; and we make enemies to our- selves if we frequent society that may lead to our own destruction, or allow others un- der our protection to come in contact with such pernicious influences. We should shun entertainments that are dangerous and blameworthy, such as immodest plays and dances. We should be careful what we read, and be on our guard again!?t im- moral principles, and contemn that appeal which is not within the strict limits of decorum.

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    Luther (Martin) (1483-1546). — Martin Luther was the son of a poor miner, and was born at Eisleben. He was brought up under pious, but harsh and rough disci- pline. The elementary schools, as well as the higher educational institutions, at that time, were very numerous in Germany. At the age of fourteen, Martin was sent to the school of the Franciscans at Magde- burg, and, a year after to Eisenach, to at- tend the Latin School. His gifts were remarkable from the beginning, but his parents were very poor. Following the custom of the time, he sang before the houses of the rich, to make a living. In 1501, he entered the University of Erfurt, where he was graduated, in 1505. Master of Arts, he opened a course of lectures on Aristotle. The sudden death, caused by lightning, of a friend, led Luther to enter the Augustinian convent at Erfurt, against the express will of his father, who had des- tined him for the profession of law. After going through the customary discipline, he made his solemn vows and received priestly ordination, in 1507. In compliance with the wish of his superiors, he specially applied himself to Biblical studies. On the recommendation of Dr. John Staupitz, the Augustinian provincial, Frederick the Wise elector of Saxony, appointed Luther, in 1508, professor of Dialectics and Ethics in the new University of Wittenberg. In 15 10, Luther visited Rome in the interest of his order. Coming in view of the eternal city, he fell on his knees and exclaimed : " Hail Rome, holy city, thrice sanctified by the blood of the martyrs ! " With great devo- tion he knelt at its holy shrines ; yet, with a silly pietism, he "almost regretted that his parents were not dead, so that he might release their souls from purgatory, by say- ing masses ! " His fond attachment and adhesion, which he then had to the Vicar of Christ, he afterwards described in these fierce words : " I was ready to slay every- one who should in the least refuse obedi- ence to the Pope." Even these two instances of ignorant zeal betrayed in the monk an abnormally unbalanced brain, which plainly foreboded the after development of his phenomenally morbid character. In 1512, he took the degree of Doctor of Theology, and began his lectures on the Psalms and the Pauline Epistles.

    Luther was of an ardent and impulsive temperament. Naturally stubborn, he held tenaciously to preconceived opinions, and would not brook contradiction. His mind

    seems never to have enjoyed perfect rest, but was given to great scrupulosity; nor were his convictions wholly clear on cer- tain doctrinal questions. But the means he used to obtain peace only aggravated the evil. He was presumptuous, neglect- ful of the duties of his state, and lacking obedience to the rules of his order. Though morally bound to recite the divine office daily, he would, at times, not touch his Breviary for weeks. Then he would atone for his neglect by cruelly chastising his body, the mortifications prescribed in his community not satisfying his ardor. To him might well apply the old monastic saying: " Everything beyond obedience is suspicious in a monk." Even at his early age, Luther had departed from the doc- trine of the Church, on justification; he regarded good works as wholly worthless and faith alone as sufficient for salvation. This doctrine ruled the University of Wit- tenberg and soon began to spread through- out Germany.

    About this time. Pope Leo X. pro- claimed an indulgence for those who, besides performing the prescribed works of penance and piety, would contribute to the completion of St. Peter's Basilica, in Rome. Albert, cardinal, and Archbishop of Mentz and Magdeburg, were charged with the promulgation of the papal grant in Germany, and John Tetzel, a pious and learned Dominican, was one of the preach- ers appointed by Albert, to publish the indulgence among the people. The preach- ing of the indulgence by the Dominicans, it is said, at once excited the jealousy and opposition of the Augustinians, and cer- tainly that of Luther in particular, for he raised a bold protest in the famous Ninety- five Theses which he affixed to the door of the castle church at Wittenberg, on the eve of All Saints (Oct. 31st, 1517). The publication of indulgences were not new in Germany, nor was, as has been asserted, the one proclaimed by Leo X. an uncondi- tional pardon for past sins or an unqualified remission of their temporal punishment, much less a license for future sins. The instructions of Archbishop Albert to the preachers, and those of Tetzel to pastors and confessors, made the gaining of the in- dulgence expressly dependent on the usual conditions, namely, true repentance with the humble confession of sins, and the per- formance of certain works of piety, besides almsgiving. True it is, that the personal appearance of some preachers and their

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    manner of offering the indulgence was the cause of much complaint. But it was not the abuses which Luther attacked in his Theses, but the doctrine of indulgences itself, which was directly opposed to his views on justification. The funda- mental principle expressed in his proposi- tion on that point was that " God alone, independently of human exertion, is all in all in the affair of man^s salvationP There were various replies to Luther, one of the ablest being the One Hundred and Sixty Counter- Theses by Tetzel.

    This impious initiative of Luther was applauded by men of various suspected parties, especially by the Humanists, in their itching for the most dangerous nov- elties and in their sad decadence of faith. Within two months, his Theses were spread through the Press, now, for the first time, employed in a popular agitation through- out Europe. Many, even well-disposed men, approved of the course Luther had taken, believing that he attacked only cer- tain disorders. Imagining his cause to be the cause of God, Luther would hear of no submission to the Church ; on the con- trary, he insisted that the Church should embrace his new Gospel, " on justification by faith alone," which he pretended to have received directly from God ! In his proud arrogance he even went so far as to declare : " I will have my doctrine judged by nobody — not even by angels ; he who does not receive my doctrine, cannot be saved ! " Instead of calmly answering the arguments of his adversaries, he spewed out, both in speaking and in writing, the vilest ephithets and basest calumnies against all those who did not agree with him. His opponents were " knaves, dolts, dogs, pigs, asses, infernal blasphemers," and worse. Yet during all this time, Luther affected to believe himself in per- fect accord and concert with the Holy See ! In a most humble letter to Pope Leo X., he averred entire submission to the Head of the Church, and that it was the abuses only he had been assailing. '•Most Holy Father," he writes, " I cast myself at your feet with all that I have and am ; give life, or take it ; call, recall, ap- prove, reprove; your voice is that of Christ, who presides and speaks in 3'ou." The efforts of the Pope to compromise the difficulty in Germany, through Cardinal Cajetan, and afterwards, through a special envoy, unhappily failed. Luther would listen to no remonstrance, and appealed

    from the Pope ill informed to the Pope to be better instructed. Miltiz, who seemed to side with Luther, threw the whole blame on Tetzel, who, taking the repri- mand so much to heart, died shortly after (1519), as is said of grief. In November, 1518, Leo X. issued a Bull explaining the doctrine of the Church on indulgences, and threatening such as should gainsay it, with excommunication. To forestall such a measure, Luther had previously appealed from the Pope to a general council.

    The disputation between Martin Luther and Dr. Eck ser\-ed to widen the existing breach, but it had also the good effect of making more clear the positions of the contending parties and of strengthening in the Catholic faith Duke George and the University and inhabitants of Leipzig. The defeat which he sustained at Leip- zig, had driven Luther to uncontrollable fury. He did not fare any better in the disputation between John Emser and Melanchthon, the former siding with Eck, the latter with the Wittenberg "Reformer." Luther found a strong and zealous colaborer in Philip Melanch- thon. More moderate and prudent than Luther, he was invaluable to the latter, by his talents and writings. In 1521, he wrote in defense of his master the Oration for Luther, and Protestant Against the Decision of the Paris Uniz'ersity. Luther encouraged by the applause of the Huss- ites and Humanists, who greeted him as the "greatest theologian of the age," and as "a second Paul and Augustine," and backed by the German nobles, cast off all disguise, to complete his separation from the Church. His constant endeavor now was to destroy all authority in order to establish his own on its ruins. Between the years 1520 and 1522 he launched forth pamphlet after pamphlet, in which he poured out his deadly hatred against Rome and the Holy See, now rabidly blasphem- ing the most sacred things and the holiest doctrines, which previously he had but sparingly denounced. He called upon the emperor to overthrow the power of the Pope, to confiscate the possessions of the Church, and to abolish ecclesiastical feasts and holy days and Masses for the dead. " It would be no wonder," the raving monk exclaimed, " if God should rain down from heaven sulphu;- and hellish fire upon Rome and plunge it into the abyss, as He did with Sodom and Gomor- rah." At last Pope Leo X. on June i5th^

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    1520, issued a Bull condemning forty-one propositions extracted from the writings of Luther, and excommunicating him, un- less he would retract within sixty days. Luther replied to the papal sentence by his pamphlet "Against the Execrable Bull of Antichrist," and renewed his appeal from the Pope, as from an "unjust judge, an obdurate, erring schismatic and heretic, condemned as such by the Bible," to a general council, and he impetuously urged the emperor and the princes to resist, what he called, the unchristian conduct of the Pope. " Whosoever shall follow the Pope," he said, "him do I, Martin Lu- ther, deliver to divine judgment." On Dec. loth, 1520, he publicly burned the Pope's Bull, together with the Canon Law, at Wittenberg, exclaiming: "As thou hast disturbed the Lord's Holy One, may the eternal fire disturb and consume thee." On the following day, addressing the students, he said : " It is now full time that the Pope himself were burned. My meaning is that the Papal Chair, its false teachings, and its abominations should be given to the flames."

    Upon the death of Maximilian I., his grandson, Charles, the young king of Spain, succeeded him in the empire as Charles V. (1519-1556). The new emperor, yielding to the wishes of the States that favored Luther, summoned him before the German Diet, which was to meet at Worms in 1521. Asked whether he was willing to retract the errors contained in the twenty-five books published under his name, he boldly refused to do so, unless *' convicted of error by the Scripture and plain reason." All eflforts to reclaim him proving unavailing, Luther was ordered to leave Worms and put under the ban of the empire. On his way to Wittenberg, he was, according to a previous arrangement, seized and taken to Wartburg, near Eisen- ach, where he remained nearly a year, liv- ing as a knight under the name of " Master George." During this time, he wrote his pamphlets " On the Abuse of Masses," "On Monastic Vows," and "Against the Idol of Halle " (the Archbishop of Mentz). It was at Wartburg, which he called his "Patmos" that Luther commenced his translation of the Bible into German. Luther leaving Wartburg continued to spurn all authority, spiritual and temporal, and to vent his anger against the Head of the Church, and against all that dared to disagree with himself. He called the Pope

    a heretic and apostate, a blasphemer of God and traitor of Christ's Church, and incessantly inveigled against him as " the man of sin," " the minister of Satan," and even the "very Antichrist." Luther's teach- ing of absolute human equality and of total disregard of all authority, soon bore its evil fruits among the masses. Inflamed by the fiery appeals of the " Reformer," and incited by fanatical harangues of itinerant preachers, the peasants, in 1525, under the leadership of Thomas Miinzer, rose in open rebellion against their lords, plundered and burned churches and convents, stormed the castles of the nobles, and committed every species of outrage and atrocity. When Luther saw things turn against the advant- age of the princes, he at once preached against the deluded peasants whom his doc- trines had misled, and, in his pamphlet "Against the Rapacious and Murderous Peasants," urged the princes to kill them "without mercy, like mad dogs," and de- clared that none could die in a manner more pleasing to God than fighting against "these children of the devil." His cruel advice was followed, and it is estimated that a hundred thousand lives were destroyed in the "Peasant War." Luther celebrated the funeral of the slain peasants, by secretly marrying on June 13th, 1525, Catharine Bora, a Cistercian nun, who, together with eight other nuns, had, at his instance, been carried ofif from their convent, by a citizen of Torgau, named Bernard Koppe.

    It was chiefly through the influence of the temporal rulers that Luther sought to propogate his " Gospel." And, indeed, his "Gospel" readily found powerful patrons among the German princes and nobles, who perceived in it a much desired means of enlarging their domains and filling their depleted treasuries, by seizing on Church property.

    Luther's religious system, if such it can be called, is a sort of pantheistic mysti- cism. He taught: 1. An all-ruling and absolute divine necessity. God is the author of man's actions, whether good or bad. Man is born without a trace of free- dom, which is incompatible with divine foreknowledge. 2. In consequence of original sin, human nature is radically corrupt. Man is wholly unable to do any good by himself, and only fit to sin. 3. Faith, alone, works justification; and man is saved only by confidently believing that God will pardon his sins. 4. The sacra- ments which Luther reduced to two —

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    430

    Lystra

    baptism and the Lord's Supper — are not means of grace, but only pledges of the divine promises for the forgiveness of our sins, and the grace they impart, conse- quently, depend solely on the faith of the recipient. 5. There is a universal priest- hood. Every Christian may assume that office. There is no need of a hierarchy and of priests, consequently there is no visible Church. 6. There are no merito- rious works. Prayers, fasts, mortifications, religious vows, and other good works of any kind avail the soul nothing to its sal- vation. 7. In matters of religion, every man is his own judge; and every Christian has the right not only to read, but also to interpret for himself the Bible which is the only source of faith.

    Luther died at Eisleben, Feb. i8th, 1546, shortly after delivering a violent sermon against the Jews and after drinking and jesting with his friends the night before, on the speedy downfall of the Papac}-.

    In the United States the Lutheran Church at present consists of four general independent organizations. Each of these is governed by a general representative body, named respectively the General Synod, the General Council, the United Synod of the South, and the Synodical Conference (Missouri Lutherans). These general bodies consist of both clerical and lay delegates elected by the district syn- ods of which they are composed. There are fourteen independent Lutheran syn- ods in the United States. The growth of the various Lutheran bodies has been in 1895 : 9,915 congregations, with an ag- gregate membership of 1,387,764. They maintain 25 theological seminaries, hav- ing, in 1895, i>307 students; and 33 col- leges, with an aggregate of 4,470 students. They sustain 39 orphan asylums, 7 old people's homes, 10 hospitals, and a number of other special eleemosynary institutions.

    Lydia. — A woman of Thyatira, a seller of purple, who dwelt in the city of Phil- ippi in Macedonia, and was converted by St. Paul's preaching (Acts xvi. 14,40).

    Lying. — A lie is that which is written, spoken, or insinuated, by word or act, with the intention to deceive ; whether, by asserting a thing as true, we believe to be false, or affirming as false what we be- lieve to be true. For the malice of lying consists, principally, in the intention we have to deceive our neighbor, not only by hiding the truth, but by leading him into

    an error. There is the jocose lie, told for merriment; the officious lie, told for our own or another person's excuse or de- fense; and the pernicious lie, told for the injury of one's neighbor. Falsehoods told for some necessary utility to ourselves or others, in no way harming any one, are not grievous, though, strictly speaking, all lying is forbidden, and "the custom thereof is not good " (Ecclus. vii. 14). For we never know when it may lead us, or others, into serious offense, and it is com- pletely opposed to God, who is truth it- self, and who has given us the faculty of expressing our thoughts for the end of our salvation. "A thief is better than a man who is always lying : but both of them shall inherit destruction. The manners of lying men are without honor; and their confusion is with them without ceasing" (Ecclus. XX. 27, 28). Lying is pernicious when we have the direct intention or run the evident risk of harming our neighbor; it may therefore be mortal sin, for " the mouth that belieth, killeth the soul " (Wisd. i. II).

    Lyons {Councils of). — Lyons, a city of southern France, in which two general councils were held. The first, or Thirteenth General Council, was convoked by Inno- cent IV. in 1245. The chief questions submitted to the Council for discussion affected: i. The relations of the Greek Church to the Latin. 2. The condition of the Holy Land. 3. The invasion of Hun- gary by the Tartars. 4. The distressful situation of the Latin empire of Constanti- nople. 5. The persecution of the Church by the Emperor Frederick II. of Germany.

    The second Council of Lyons, or the Fourteenth General Council was sum- moned by Gregory X. in 1274. The de- clared objects of the Council were: Succor to the Holy Land, the reconciliation of the Greek Church, and the reformation of morals. In regard to the first point, one- tenth of all ecclesiastical revenues was voted for six years. As to the second, in the fourth session the reunion of the Greek Church with the Latin was solemnized. The Creed was chanted in both Greek and Latin, and the words, "who proceeded from the Father and the Son," were re- peated three times.

    Lystra. — A city of Lycaonia (a region of Asia Minor), and the native place of Timothy. It is now called Latik (Acts xvi. i). FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,

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CAMBRIDGE BIBLE DICTIONARY

THE COMPREHENSIVE VERSION,

LETTER-A

By Cambridge Theological Seminary,

From the Inspired, Inerrant View of God's Word!

Combining the best Bible Dictionaries of Yester-year,
When "GOD'S TRUTH was NOT POLITICALLY CORRECT!"

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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

Edited, Supplemented, Amplified

By NewtonStein;

Cambridge Theological Seminary™

(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"A"