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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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By NewtonStein;

Cambridge Theological Seminary™

(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)


    — An oath is a solemn affirmation in which we invoke the name of God, tac- itly or explicitly, as witness to the truth of a statement. An oath is permissible in justice and in truth, when circumstances are of sufficient importance. An oath should be taken " in truth, and in judg- ment, and in justice" (Jer. iv. 2) : that is to say, aflSrming with adequate motive a thing of which we are morally certain or promising what we actually mean to per- form. Without these three conditions of integrity, namely, a solemn affirmation or promise, importance of matter, and equity of motive, an oath would unquestionably be disrespectful to God, and must there- fore be a mortal or venial sin, according to the gravity of the circumstances, or inten- tion and opinion of the person taking the oath.

Oates (Titus) (1619-1705).
    — English adventurer. Anglican minister, condemned as false witness, he went on the Continent, embraced Catholicity, and was expelled from the seminaries of Valladolid and of St. Omer. At his return to England, in 1678, he associated himself with two crim- inals, called Tong and Digbey, to accuse the English Catholics of conspiracy against the life of King Charles II., and of Prot- estants in general. In spite of the proofs of imposture, a great number of Catholics, among others Lord Stafford and some Jesuits, were put to death on his evidence, and he was granted a pension of either £600 or £900. He was convicted of per- jury at the instance of James II., in 1685, was heavily fined, and cast into prison. He was pardoned in 1689 on the accession of William III., and got a pension of £300.

    (name of a number of religious communities). — i. Oblates of St. Charles or "Volunteers," established by St. Charles Borromeo in 1578, are a congregation of secular priests. Their special aim was to give edification to the diocese, and to maintain the integrity of religion by the purity of their lives, by teaching, and by zealously discharging the duties committed to them by their bishop. These devoted ecclesiastics were much beloved by St. Charles, who was wont to call them his " children," and was never so happy as when among them. Strange to say, they do not seem to have been much appreciated elsewhere.

    2. Oblates of St. Francis of Rome. — A community of religious women, bound only by simple vows, established in Rome

    in 1433-

    3. Oblates of Italy. — An association of secular priests founded by some zealous ecclesiastics at Turin in 1816. They have the charge of the mission in Eastern Bur- mah.

    4. Oblates of Mary Immaculate. — A society of priests founded at Marseilles in 1815 by Charles Masenod, afterwards bishop of the diocese. The Bishop of Marseilles for the time being is their superior general. Their numbers have greatly increased, and they have been of inestimable service by placing themselves at the disposal of the bishops to be em- ployed on the missions in Canada, Brit- ish India, and the United States. These Oblates were introduced into the United States in 1848. There are not many in this country, but they have flourishing houses at Plattsburg, New York, and Rio Grande City and Brownsville, Texas.

    5. Oblate Sisters (Colored). — With the approval of Archbishop Whitfield, of Baltimore, this order of colored nuns was founded June 5th, 1829, by Father Joubert, a native of France, born in 1777, and who emigrated with his family to San Domingo in 1801. He came to Baltimore in 1804 and joined the Sulpicians that he might overcome a feeling of revenge occasioned by the murder of his parents by the ne- groes during the revolt in San Domingo. This pious Sulpician spent his fortune and the last years of his life in founding this community. On Oct. 2d, 1831, the Order was approved by Gregory XVI., who affiliated it to the Oblates of St. Francis of Rome. The first three members were natives of San Domingo. The object of the sisterhood is the spiritual and temporal welfare of the colored race. They en- deavor to promote this object especially by the education of colored children and the improvement of their morals. They fur- nish homes to orphans if their means allow. They also visit the sick, as far as rules and time permit. The St. Louis branch was established Oct. 12th, 1880, by the Rev. Father Panken, S. J., with the approval of the Most Rev. P. R. Kenrick, Archbishop of St. Louis.

    (the act of offering). — Specific- ally : I. The donation by the laity of bread and wine for the Eucharist, and of other gifts or contributions in money for the maintenance of divine worship and for the support of the clergy and the poor. In the early Church, the bread and wine were given by members of the congregation to the deacon before Mass, and offered by the priest on the altar; later this custom fell into disuse, and the other gifts were presented at or just before the Offertory. The Greek Church has a special prepara- tion of the elements in the office of Proth- esis before the liturgy. 2. The offering or presenting to God upon the altar of the unconsecrated bread and wine; the Offer- tory. 3. The solemn offering or presenta- tion in memorial before God of the conse- crated elements as sacramentally the body and blood of Christ. This is called the great oblation, a distinction from the lower oblation or Offertory.

    Occam or Ockam (William). — Scho- lastic theologian and Franciscan ; was born in the county of Surrey, England. Pupil and opponent of Duns Scotus, and the champion of the Fratricelli or Spiritualists. He defended, as an article of faith, that "Christ and His Apostles never possessed any property in common or individually." The proposition was condemned by Pope John XXn., and Occam refusing to sub- mit, fled to Germany, and there incited Louis the Bavarian against the Pope. See Fratricelli.

    Ochozias. — King of Israel died in 886 B. c. He had withdrawn himself from the Hebrew religion to adore the Phoenician and Syrian idols Baal and Astarte. He left the throne to his brother Joram.

    O'Connell (Daniel) (1775-1847). — Born near Cahirciveen, County Kerry, Ireland, died at Genoa, Italy. Famous poli- tician and orator, surnamed " The Great Agitator of Ireland." He was the leader of the agitation in favor of Catholic eman- cipation; fQunded the Catholic Associa- tion ; was elected to parliament in 1828 ; became the leader in the " Repeal " agita- tion 1841 ; promoted the mass meetings of 1842-1843 ; and was arrested 1843 and de- clared guilty of high treason. His sentence was reversed in 1844, but a division broke out among his own party : Young and Old

    Ireland. Having been in poor health for some time, he departed for Italy and died in Genoa.

    Octavarium. — A book which contains what is to be recited in the office of Oc- taves.

    Octave. — The eight days assigned for the celebration of a feast, during which is repeated every day a part of the office of the feast, as the hymns, antiphons, or verses, with one or several lessons referring to the subject. On the eighth day, the Octave properly speaking, the office is more solemn than that of the preceding days. Generally the most solemn feasts, like Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, the feast of the patron saint, are accompanied by an Octave.

    CEcolampadius (John) (1482-1531). — His true name was Hausschein. Protes- tant, born at Weinsberg, Franconia, died at Basle. Religious of St. Bridget, be- came Zwinglian, left Germany and settled at Basle. CEcolampadius was to Zwingli, what Melanchthon had been to Luther.

    CEcumenical Council means a general council, one whereby the entire Catholic Church is represented in contradistinction to those councils which only represent a province or diocese. See Councils.

    Offertory is the name given to that por- tion of the public liturgy of the Catholic Church with which the Eucharistic sers'ice, strictly so called, commences. It owes its name to the practice which was anciently observed in the Church by the Faithful, who, at this part of the Mass, presented their offering of bread and wine to be con- secrated at the holy sacrifice, a practice which began to fall into disuse in the elev- enth century, but was still kept up in some Churches on the greater festivals until the end of the last century. See Agap^.

    Office (///

    Og. — King of Basan, in Syria ; of gigan- tic stature; he was killed by Moses. It is claimed that his iron bed, nine cubits long, is preserved at Rabbath.

    Oils {Holv). — Holy oils or olive oil which the Church employs in the admin-




    istration of certain sacraments, for the or- dinations and consecrations. They are : I. Pure, without mixture, such as the oil of the Catechumens, for baptism ; the oil of the sick for extreme unction. 2. Mixed with balsam, a mixture which is called " holy chrism. " Holy chrism is employed as an efficacious symbol, like sacramental matter, in confirmation, in the ordination of priests, in the consecration of a new chalice, altar stone, a church ; in baptism, and besides, with the oil of Catechumens, in the consecration of baptismal fonts. The consecration of all the holy oils takes place, in the Latin Church, on Holy Thurs- day, during the celebration of the sacrifice of the Mass, by the bishop in presence of twelve priests, seven deacons, and seven subdeacons. The holy oils can be used only during one year; if there is any left they ought to be burned annually on Holy Saturday, at the beginning of the cere- monies, that is, at the blessing of the new fire. Each of these oils must be carefully kept in a special vessel and preserved against all accident. In the Greek Church also the priests consecrate the holy oils. In Spain, the bishop formerly required a certain tax for the holy oils. The Council of Prague, held in 572 (can. 4). forbade to receive anything. The use of holy oils is very ancient, and even of Apostolic insti- tution. See Chrism.

    Olaf (St.). — King of Upsal, Sweden, (1019-1033). With the aid of German and English missionaries, he solidly estab- lished Christianity and organized the Church in Norway. He fell in a battle against his heathen subjects, who had al- lied themselves with the Danes.

    Old Catholics. See Catholics.

    Olier (jAcquEs). See Sulpicians.

    Olives {Mount of). — A ridge containing several elevations, situated east of Jerusa- lem. It is often mentioned in Bible his- tory. Its highest summit is 361 feet above Jerusalem and 2,725 feet above the sea level.

    Olivetans. — Members of a religious or- der founded in 1313 by John Tolemei, a wealthy nobleman of Siena, in gratitude for having regained his eyesight in a mi- raculous manner. In company with a few companions, he settled in a solitary olive grove near Siena. They observed the Rule of St. Benedict, and were approved

    by Pope John XXII., in 1324, under the title of •' Congregation of Our Lady of Mount Olivet."

    Omer (St.). See Belgium.

    Omophorion. See Pallium.

    Onkelos. — Jewish rabbi of the first cen- tury a. d. Disciple of Gamaliel. Author of a Targum of the Old Testament; highly esteemed among the Jews. It is confined to the Books of Moses, and is so brief and simple that its genuineness is unquestioned.

    Ontology and Ontologism. — The word ontologism, according to its Greek ety- mology, signifies a discussion concerning existence ; and the word ontology has the same origin, but the meaning is quite dif- ferent. Ontology and ontologism are alike, in that they are concerned with ex- istence, or with existing things considered in a highly abstract manner, but the man- ners of consideration are not the same. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which discusses what there is that can be affirmed or denied concerning all things, whether actual or merely possible, as that they form a certain whole, finite or infinite, and so on ; and this discussion, in a rightly ordered arrangement, comes immediately after the two parts of Logic, and before the treatises on the soul, on the world, and on God, which deal with particular exist- ences, and constitute special metaphysics. Ontology is also called general metaphys- ics, or first principles. Some of the ques- tions discussed in ontology are among the deepest speculations of which the human mind is capable, and the student has abundant opportunities of falling into error; but the name is not used to denote any particular school of thought.

    The fundamental position of ontologism may be thus described : that God is seen by the mind directly and immediately; that God is the first object of all our knowledge, and that all else that we know is seen by us as a modification of this first knowledge. Among the precursors of on- tologism may be reckoned certain mystics, who have held that it is possible even in this life to attain by ascetic practices to a clear vision of God, such as is in truth reserved for the blessed in Heaven, who see God in the light of glory. Phases of this doctrine were condemned, at diflFerent times, especially at the Council of Vienna in 1311. The modern school may be said to have originated with Descartes, who




    died in 1650; the doctrine was precisely formulated by Malebranche (1715), a priest of the French Oratory; and among its followers may be mentioned Gioberti (1852), Rosmini (1855), and Ubaghs. It is no longer possible for a Catholic to up- hold the ontologistic theory in the fulness with which it has sometimes been pro- posed, for there are authoritative utter- ances of the Holy See, to be quoted immediately, which stand in the way ; but the tendency of the human mind which gave birth to this doctrine still remains, and will manifest itself in forms that must be discussed by the philosophers and theologians of the future, whose labors will winnow away whatever error there may be lurking among much that is true.

    A decree of the Congregation of the In- quisition, dated Sept. i8th, 1861, declared that seven propositions there set forth could not be safely taught. There is some controversy as to the precise force of this declaration, but this at least seems to be true, that no proposition which had been qualified in these terms has afterwards turned out to be the accepted doctrine of the Church ; there is, therefore, strong reason to believe that these seven proposi- tions are inadmissible. Some of them concern Universals, and belong to philos- ophy ; another has reference to God as the Creator; but there are three that bear im- mediately on our subject. They run as follows: I. The immediate knowledge of God, at least by way of habit, is essen- tial to the intellect of man, so that without it the intellect is unable to know anything ; for it is itself the light of the intellect. 2. That Being which we understand in all things, and without which we understand nothing, is 'the Being of God. 3. All other ideas are nothing but modifications of the idea by which God is understood as simply Being.

    Another decree of the Inquisition, dated Dec. 14th, 1887, passes a severe censure upon forty propositions, extracted from certain works purporting to be written by Rosmini, but published after his death. These propositions are reprobated, con- demned, and proscribed in the proper sense of the author, and the bishops of the Catholic world are earnestly warned not to allow them to be taught in their seminaries ; and this decree was approved and con- firmed by the Pope. All these proposi- tions show more or less tendency towards ontologism. It will be enough for our

    purpose to quote the first and the fifth : i. In the sphere of creation there is mani- fested immediately to the intellect of man something Divine in itself, that is to say, something that belongs to the Divine na- ture. 5. The being of which man has intuition must necessarily be something belonging to a being which is necessary and eternal, the Cause that creates, deter- mines, and limits all contingent beings : this is God.

    Ophir. — A country to which the vessels of Solomon traded. In the Old Testa- ment it is designated as a country, whence gold, silver, precious stones, ivory, sandal- wood, apes, and peacocks were brought. It was especially noted for its gold. The fleet of Solomon occupied three years in making the journey. It has been variously identified with India, Sumatra, the coast of Malabar, the east of Africa, and the southern or southeastern portion of Arabia on the Persian Gulf. The last identifica- tion has in its favor the statement in Gen- esis (x. 29), where Ophir is mentioned as the son of Jectan.

    Ophites. — Members of a Gnostic sect, of very early origin, especially prominent in the second century, and existing as late as the sixth century. Its members were so called because they held that the ser- pent by which Eve was tempted was the impersonation of divine wisdom, the great teacher, and civilizer of the human race. They were also called " Naassenes."

    Optatus (St.). — Bishop of Mileve in Numida, in the fourth century. Optatus, like St. Augustine, was a most strenuous opponent of the Donatists. Augustine calls him " a pastor of venerable memory and an ornament of the Church." Ful- gentius puts him on a level with St. Augus- tine and St. Ambrose, and the Church venerates him as a saint. The particular details of his life are unknown. About 370, St. Optatus wrote his famous work De Schismate Donatistarum, in seven books, against Parmenianus, who had be- come bishop of Carthage after the death of Donatus, and was endeavoring to spread abroad the erroneous doctrine of his pred- ecessor.

    Optimism. — System of philosophers who maintain that all that exists is the best possible. The Optimists not only main- tain that everything in the world is good but that everything is the best possible

    Opus Operatum



    {optimum), so that God, with all His power, could not do better than He did ; that each creature can be neither more perfect, nor more happy, than it is, in re- gard to the general order of the universe. This hypothesis has been imagined to solve the great question of the origin of evil, and to answer to the objections which Bayle made as to this subject. It has been most vehemently maintained by several English authors, by Jacquelot, Male- branche, and Leibnitz. However, we must not confound the optimism of the two lat- ter philosophers ; it differs on two heads : I. According to Malebranche, the creation was entirely free, therefore God could ab- stain from it; according to Leibnitz, on the contrary, since God did create. He did so because He had a preponderant reason, and consequently He was infallibly deter- mined to create. 2. According to the opinion of Malebranche, several worlds of an infinite perfection were equally possi- ble, and, consequently, the choice of the creation of ours was made freely; while, according to the opinion of Leibnitz, one sole world of an infinite perfection was possible, it follows that the choice and the creation of the present one, although done freely were however required by the attri- butes of God. The system of Malebranche, although seducing at first sight, is never- theless a formal error, for he robs God of His sovereign liberty, of His absolute inde- pendence, which supposes wrong notions of the divine attributes. Besides, it is founded on the abuse of several terms and on suppositions which it is impossible to prove; it is, moreover, contrary to Holy Scripture. Also does it attack the liberty of the human actions, in supposing that the moral order of the universe is linked with the physical order, or at least that the first is an infallible consequence of the second.

    Opus Operatum. — A famous phrase which is employed to express concisely the Catholic doctrine : The sacraments are said to work " by the work wrought " {ex of ere of era to). This is opposed to the doctrine that their effect comes about "by the work of the worker " {ex of ere oferantis).

    Orangemen. — i. Irish Protestants. The name was given about the end of the seven- teenth century by Roman Catholics to the Protestants of Ireland, on account of their

    support of the cause of William III. of England, Prince of Orange. 2. A secret politico-religious society, instituted in Ire- land in 1795. It was organized for the pur- pose of upholding the Protestant religion and ascendency, and of opposing " Ro- manism "and the Roman Catholic influ- ence in the government of the country. Orangemen are especially prominent in Ulster, Ireland, and local branches called " lodges " are found all over the British empire, as well as in many parts of the United States.

    Orarium. — Over the stole and around the neck, in the primitive Church, an oblong piece of linen was worn, called '* orarium," which sers-ed the purpose of a handker- chief, and was spread by women, in time of prayer, over the head and shoulders, falling around the body like a veil. The orarium worn by ecclesiastics was bordered with stripes of purple, and when, in the course of time, its dimensions were con- tracted, those ornaments were retained as marks of honor, while the plain linen por- tions were cut away in such a manner that it w^as reduced to a band which surrounded the neck and fell down below the knees on both sides of the body. The name of or- arium was afterwards changed for that of stole, by which term it is now known. See Stole.

    Orate Fratres. — Latin words which sig- nify: Pray, Brethren, and which, during Mass, the priest pronounces in turning to- ward the people, after having washed his fingers, and after having said the prayer, "Suscipe." This ceremony is referred to Pope Leo the Great.

    Oratorians. — Religious congregation, founded by St. Philip Neri, in Italy, which was approved by Pope Gregory XIII., in 1574. Its members were at first composed of ecclesiastics and laymen, who, however, took no distinctive vows. It was St. Philip's idea to found a congre- gation in which such as did not feel them- selves called to enter any of the established orders might enjoy all the benefits without assuming their obligations. Although the avowed aim of the congregation was the instruction of the people, its members from the very beginning gave themselves up to deep and serious study. Many of them became eminent in literature. St. Philip Neri was canonized byPopeGregorj XV., in 1622.




    Oratory. — A small chapel or place of prayer, not having the rights of services of a parish church. See Chapel.

    Oratory ( The) of Jesus. — Religious congregation established in France by Car- dinal de Berulle, in i6ii,for the purpose of reforming the clergy. Its members were of two classes : incorporated and associated, neither taking vows of any kind. The congregation was confirmed by Pope Paul v., in 1613.

    Ordeals. — During the Middle Ages, the Church had to wage war not only with the feudal strifes, but also with the ordeals, or so-called '* Judgments of God." The or- deals or trials were originally a Ger- man pagan practice, interwoven with their whole constitution and not wholly repre- hensible in themselves. The Church at first exerted her influence and authority to abolish such of the ordeals as could not be practiced without imminent danger to the life of the contestants, by substituting the oath in their stead wherever possible. The ceremony of taking the oath was sur- rounded with circumstances at once im- pressive and solemn. It was performed in the church and accompanied with religious rites; and the innocence of the person on trial was attested by seven sworn wit- nesses or " compurgators," taken from his immediate neighbors and bearing repu- tations of unimpeachable honesty.

Order {Holy).
    — Holy order is a sacrament which confers, with the grace, the power to consecrate the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, to administer the sacraments, to preach the Gospel, and to exer- cise the functions which have relation to divine worship. It is of faith that holy order or the ordination is a sacrament.

    This can be proved by Holy Scripture, by the constant tradition of the Church, by the teaching of the holy Fathers, by the decisions of the sovereign Pontiffs, and by the decrees of the councils, especially by the Council of Trent. This Council counts seven orders: the priesthood, which comprises the presbyterate and the episcopate which is the plenitude of the latter;

    the deaconate, the subdeaconate, and the orders of acolyte, exorcist, lector, and doorkeeper. The priesthood, deaconate, and subdeaconate are called major or sacred orders; the other four orders are called minor orders. Although specifically dis- tinct, these different orders constitute only one sacrament, because they all tend toward the priesthood, whose principal end is the offering of the sacrifice of the Mass, toward which they all concur according to the measure of power attributed to them. Tonsure is no order properly speaking, but a preparation for the orders.

    When we say that it is of faith that holy order is a sacrament, we do not pretend to say this of all the orders. It is more probable that we can regard as sacramental neither the subdeaconate nor the minor orders. The most of the Doctors regard the imposition of hands as the only sacramental matter of the deaconate, of the priesthood and episcopate ;

    and the prayer which accompanies this imposition, as the only sacramental form. Others add the presentation, which is made to the one who is ordained, of the instruments with which he is to exercise his functions, and the words of which the bishop makes use in presenting them.

    The principal effects of the sacrament of holy order are the grace and the character. It is of faith that this sacrament communicates to us the Holy Ghost, and imprints upon us an indelible character, which prohibits the reconference of this sacrament. Although this sacrament is principally for the good and advantage of the Church, it is certain that it produces in the soul of the one who receives it the sanctifying grace, 'gratiam sancftficationis,' says the Catechism of the Council of Trent.

    The bishops alone are the ordinary ministers of the sacrament of holy order. Such is the doctrine of the Council of Trent, founded upon the general and constant tradition of the Church, as well as upon the authority of Holy Scripture, where we see that no ordination was made except by the Apostles, of whom the bishops are the successors. They are even the necessary ministers of the deaconate, priesthood, and episcopate. The bishops alone can ordain the bishops, priests, and deacons.

    As to the subdeaconate, it is generally be- lieved that the sovereign Pontiff can delegate a simple priest to confer this order. It is the same, with greater reason, for the minor orders, and tonsure, which is no order properly speaking. Also the abbots have the right to confer tonsure, and the minor orders upon the regulars subject to their jurisdiction. But it is not less true to say that the bishop alone is the ordinary minister, even of the minor or- ders. Men alone can receive the sacra- ment of holy order ; women are absolutely

    incapable of all ordination ; a man can be validly ordained only after having received baptism, and even the ordination of a catechumen would be null and void. To be licitly admitted to ordination, the can- didate must have the use of reason and the vocation, he must be called by God ; the necessity of a divine vocation cannot be contested. The example of the high- priests of the Old Law, of the Apostles, of Jesus Christ Himself who entered into pos- session of priesthood only by the will of His Father; the doctrine of all the centu- ries of the Church, her constant discipline, and her attention in the choice of her min- isters, proves that it is not permitted to introduce ourselves into the ministry of the altars without the order of the Lord. The marks of a true vocation are : the in- clination, the purity of intention, holiness, the ecclesiastical spirit, science, and the call of the bishop joined with the consent of the Faithful. The Church has regu- lated what pertains to the age of those to be ordained, to the time and place of the ordinations, to the order that must be ob- served, and to the means assuring an honest living to the clerics. For the subdeacon- ate the candidate must be of the age of twenty-two years commenced or twenty- one years completed ; for the deaconate, twenty-three years commenced or twenty- two completed ; for the priesthood, twenty-five years commenced or twenty- four years completed. In regard to the episcopate, the canonical age is thirty years. Only the sovereign Pontiff can dispense from the age prescribed for the sacred orders. The holy orders must be conferred publicly at the time ordained by canon law, and in the cathedral church, in the presence of the canons (wherever there are any), or, if this cannot be done, in the principal church, whither the clergy of the place is invited. In the United States the bishops have faculties allowing them to confer holy orders in any^ church or chapel. Each candidate is to be ordained by his own bishop, or, if he is ordained by another bishop, the latter must have the permission of the ordinary to whom the candidate belongs. Otherwise, the bishop who ordained him will be suspended for one year from conferring holy orders, and the one who is ordained will also be sus- pended from the function of the orders, as long as his proper ordinary thinks fit. The different orders of which we have spoken namely: the priesthood, of which the

    episcopate is the plenitude; the deacon- ate, the subdeaconate, and the minor or- ders, the order in which they are given indicating the one superior to the others, in commencing with the episcopate, form what we call the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter, has the primacy (see this word), not only of honor and precedence, but also of authority and of jurisdiction over all the bishops. The bishops are also by di- vine right above simple priests, the priests above deacons, etc.

    Although there are plausible grounds for holding that "bishop" and "pres- byter " are synonymous terms in the New Testament, yet we have clear traces of a real distinction recognized between them in Apostolic times. St. James the Less was beyond doubt Bishop of Jerusalem, as is clear from the relations of St. Peter and St. Paul with him (Acts xii. 17; xv. I3sq. ; xxi. 18; Gal. i. 19), and from the belief universally existing as early as the middle of the second century. Moreover, St. Paul gives Titus (i. 5), power to or- dain presbyters; and to Timothy (I. Tim. V. 19) he lays down instructions regarding the judgment of presbyters. Hence both Timothy and Titus were superior in office to these presbyters. An argument may also be drawn from the Apocalypse (i.-iii.) where the "Angels of the Churches" are plainly those officials to whom the care of each of these Churches or dioceses has been entrusted ; in other words, they are the bishops of these dioceses.

    The Fathers in sub-Apostolic times insist on the distinction between the office of bishop and the office of presbyter. St. Polycarp, the disciple of St. John, writes as a bishop, and distinguishes himself from his presbyters. " I exhort you," says St. Ignatius (Ad Magnes., n. 6), " that ye study to do all things in a divine una- nimity — the bishop holding presidency in the place of God ; and the presbyters in the place of the Apostles ; and the deacons most dear to me entrusted with the service of Jesus Christ. . . . Be ye made one with the bishop, and with those who pre- side for a pattern and lesson of incorrup- tion." See also. Ad Trail., nn. 2, 3, 7; Ad Philad., n. 7; Ad Smyrn., n. 8; Ad Polycarp, n. 6. St. Irenaeus, speaking of Acts XX. lysq., says, " For as Miletus, having convoked the bishops and the pres- byters," etc., thereby showing that he does not recognize the two as synonymous.




    "The degrees in the Church on earth of bishops, presbyters, deacons, are, in my opinion, imitations of the angelic glory, and of that dispensation which is said in Scripture to await all who, walking in tlie steps of the Apostles, live in perfect right- eousness according to the Gospel " (Clem. Alex., Strom., lib. VI. n. 13). See also, Tertullian, De Baft., n. 17; Origen, De Oratione, n. 28; Horn, ii., iti Ntinier., n. I, and many other places; St. Hippolytus, De Char ism. We say nothing of later Fathers, for by the fourth century it is admitted as a settled maxim that bishops only could ordain ; and Epiphanius goes so far as to say of -^rius, the presbyterian, " His doctrines were, beyond all human conception, replete with madness," {Adv. HcBres., 75).

    Order ( Third) (name of the third branch in most of the religious orders). — The Third Order is an order under the same rule and form of life, in proportion to the two others previously instituted. The third orders were not originally religious orders, but pious association of secular and even married persons who conformed themselves, as much as their state of life permitted, to the object in view, to the spirit and rules of the religious order which associates and instructs them. However there are third orders whose members take solemn vows and who are really religious, such are the Third Order of Penitents of St. Francis, and that of the Religious of St. Dominic. Consequently, we must dis- tinguish between the third orders that are religious and those that are not. The latter are orders, that is, associations and congregations of persons united together by a certain mode of living, and certain rules and ceremonies practiced by those who belong to these orders, and approved by the sovereign Pontiffs. The Third Order of St. Francis has been especially recommended by Pope Leo XHI. This Pope considerably mitigated the rule, in 1883, and adapted it to the requirements of the times. This order has counted many crowned heads, saints, and servants of God among its members. Our holy Father Leo XIII. is, and his predecessor in the Chair of St. Peter was, a tertiary of the Order of St. Francis of Assisi.

    Orders {Anglican). — Anglican orders were declared "absolutely null and ut- terly void," on account of defect of form in the rite, and defect of intention in the

    minister, by the Bull ^'■Apostolicce Sedis," in 1898. "The Church," says Pope Leo XIII., " does not judge about the mind or inten- tion in so far as it is something by its na- ture internal ; but, in so far as it is manifested externally, she is bound to judge concerning it. When anyone has rightly and seriously made use of the due form and the matter requisite for affecting or conferring the sacrament, he is considered by the very fact to do what the Church does. On this principle rests the doc- trine that a sacrament is truly conferred by the ministry of one who is a heretic or unbaptized, provided the Catholic rite be employed. On the other hand, if the right be changed with the manifest intention of introducing'another rite not approved by the Church and of rejecting what the Church does, and what by the institution of Christ belongs to the nature of the sac- rament, then it is clear that not only is the necessary intention wanting to the sacrament, but that the intention is ad- verse to and destructive of the sacrament." " From the Anglican rite," Pope Leo XIII. continues, " has been deliberately removed whatever sets forth the dignity and office of the priesthood in the Catho- lic rite. That form consequently cannot be considered apt or sufficient for the sac- rament which omits what it ought essen- tially to signify. . . . As the sacrament of order, and the true sacerdotium of Christ were eliminated from the Anglican rite, and hence the sacerdotium is in no wise conferred truly and validly in the episcopal consecration of the same rite; for the like reason, therefore, the episco- pate can in no wise be truly and validly conferred by it; and this the more so be- cause among the first duties of the episco- pate is that of ordaining ministers for the holy Eucharist and sacrifice."

    Orders {Military). See Knights,

    Orders {Minor). — Minor orders is a term used to designate the order of Door- keeper {ostiarius), Reader {lector), Exor- cist, and Acolyte. (See these subjects.) The Roman Pontifical says: "Those who are to be promoted to minor orders shall have a good testimonial from their parish priest, and from the master of the school in which they were educated. The minor orders shall not be given but to such as understand the Latin language at least, observing the appointed inter- stices of time, unless their bishop shall




    think it expedient to act otherwise ; that so, they may be more accurately taught how great is the obligation of this their state of life, and may exercise themselves in each office, agreeably to the appoint- ment of the bishop, . . . and may thus ascend step by step, that so, with in- creasing age they may grow in worthiness of life and in learning, of which they will give proof especially by the example of their good conduct, by their assiduous service in the Church, greater reverence toward priests and the superior orders, and by a more frequent communion than here- tofore of the Body of Christ. And whereas from these orders is the entrance into the higher orders, and to the most sacred mysteries, no one shall be admitted there- unto, whom the promise of knowledge does not point out as worthy of the greater orders."

    Orders {Monastic or Religious). — The life of the solitaries of the East, in Egypt, quite early made room for the life in com- mon or cenobitic life, thanks to the Rule of St. Pachomius. But convents existed a long time in the Church before forming orders. The orders commenced in the tenth and eleventh centuries, through the association of convents that acknowledged : First, a mother-house, and secondly, an ab- bot of the mother-house as superior of the order. Monachism, which is the more general term, is often confounded with the religious orders, which are the more recent form. The convents and monks living in these convents have preserved literature and the sciences, have propagated the light of Christianity and repelled barbar- ity, they gave fruitfulness to the soil and raised mankind to a high degree of civ- ilization. The orders have continued their work, but with a new power, on account of the strength of association and of the special ends in view. The teaching orders act in society with the energy of a corpo- ration, and in like manner the orders which take care of the sick, those that vow them- selves to missions, and to the redemption of captives, all of which have united the pe- culiarity of object with the idea of group- ing or association of wills. The Rule of St. Benedict is the first that regulated the external relations of convents with the social surroundings in which they live, and from that time the religious orders have had a double tendency : First, the indi- vidual perfection of its members and, sec-

    ondly, the realization of a Christian society and civilization. See Convknts ; Monas-


    Ordinary. — One possessing immediate jurisdiction in his own right and not by special deputation. Specificalh', a bishop, archbishop, or other ecclesiastic or his deputy, in his capacity as an ex officio ec- clesiastical judge; also a bishop's deputy in other ecclesiastical matters formerly in- cluding the administration of estates.

    Ordination. See Order {Holy).

    Organ. — Adescription of this instrument cannot be excepted from us here. Numer- ous volumes would be insufficient for this ; we can say only a few words about its his- tory, its introduction into our churches, and its use in relation with the Liturgy. We know no more about the origin of the organ, than of the clock. Polydore Vergil said that already in his time (book IV, chap, viii.) it was certain that the ancients knew not only of the hydraulic organ, but also of the pneumatic organ, as can be seen from an epigram of the Emperor Julian. In the villa of Mattei, at Rome, a bas-relief can be seen which represents a cabinet of organs whose bellows are similar to those we use in kindling the fire and are put into action by a man behind the cabinet. The keyboard is touched by a woman. In the 88th Letter of St. Jerome, written to Dar- danus, he describes an organ which had twelve bellows and fifteen pipes, and the drawer (air-box) was made from two ele- phant skins. He adds that this organ made a thundering noise and could be heard a thousand steps away. He also said that there was one at Jerusalem which could be heard on the Mount of Olives. Muratori tells us that there were organs in Italy and France in the seventh century. About the tenth century, organs were found in Ger- many, especially in the monasteries ; but the form and mechanism thereof remained very imperfect for a long time. About this epoch all the wind instruments, and among others the organs, were permitted in the divine office. But about the fifteenth cen- tury organs were improved, especially by the monks, several of whom built organs. Then the Germans made great progress in the art of manufacturing organs.

    With the introduction of organs into the Churches in the course of the eleventh century, we cannot determine in what part of the offices its use was permitted. The



    Oriental Rites

    provincial Synod of Treves, in 1547, ex- pressly forbids the playing of organs during the Elevation and until the Ag-nus Dei. The Council of Rheims, in 1564, inter- dicted its use during the Gloria in excelsis, the Credo and the Sanctus. However, during this time, we cannot establish any- thing positive about the moments when the organ was played during divine office. The custom varies according to the dioceses, the diverse churches, etc. The most com- mon usage was to play the organ when processions returned to the choir, during the Kyrie, the Gloria in excelsis, the Sequentia, the Sanctus, the Agnus Dei, and when leaving the church.

    For some years the custom has been to play an accompaniment on the organ dur- ing the singing of the Preface and Pater Noster, but without good >eflFect. These two recitatives are so beautiful in them- selves as to require no ornament. The organ ought never to be played alone during the Credo. It must only accom- pany the words chanted by the choir or during a solo. It would be very unbecom- ing to replace this august profession of faith by the chords of a musical instru- ment.

    Ordo (Latin word signifying o^£/

    Origen (185-5253). — Theologian, born at Alexandria, died at Tyre. His father, Leonidas, being a man of great piety and culture, gave him an excellent education ; under his tuition and that of Pantsenus and Clement, Origen applied himself to the study of philosophy and theology. While a catechist, he attended the lectures of the Neo-Platonist Ammonius Saccas. His father having died a martyr in 202, when Origen was not yet eighteen years of age, he supported his mother, his brothers, and sisters by teaching. Soon after, Bishop Demetrius appointed him head of the Catechetical School, which, by the flight of Clement, was left without a teacher. His fame attracted a crowd of students, including several distinguished pagan philosophers and heretics, many of whom he converted to the faith. Of his pupils many suffered martyrdom. The number of his scholars having greatly in- creased, Origen relinquished part of his duties to his disciple, Heraclas, and de-

    voted himself to instructing the more advanced students. At the age of twenty- five, Origen applied himself to the study of Hebrew and then commenced his great Biblical work, the Hexapla. The munifi- cence of his wealthy friend Ambrose (whom he had converted from Gnosti- cism) furnished him with rare manu- scripts, with scribes and copyists, and enabled him to carry on his learned researches and publish a really marvelous number of works. St. Epiphanius de- clared that they exceeded 6,000. In 213 Origen visited Rome, and in 215 he went to Arabia to instruct a governor of that country. To his prodigious learning and labors, Origen united great austerity and sanctity of life. He was called the "Adamantine" and "Brazen-brained," both on account of his unwearied dili- gence and asceticism. Interpreting too literally the passage in Matthew (xix. 12) he secretly emasculated himself, though, afterwards, in his commentary on St. Matthew, he condemned so false an inter- pretation. This act, as well as his ordina- tion which he received at Caesarea, in 228, at the hands of his friends, the bishops Theoctistus of Caesarea and Alexander of Jerusalem, but without the consent of his ordinary, caused Demetrius to convene a synod, which, in 231, deposed and excom- municated Origen. The great scholar, therefore, withdrew to Caesarea of Pales- tine, where the most of his after life was spent and where he opened a second school, which became the center of a learned circle. It was at Caesarea, that Origen completed his most famous works, his commentaries and homilies, his Hexa- pla and the work against Celsus. Having suffered cruel treatment in the Decian per- secution, Origen died, in 252, at Tyre, where his grave was yet to be seen in the time of the Crusades. The writings of Origen were of many kinds, philosoph- ical, exegetical, polemical, and practical. Most of them are lost. His works that have come to us can be found in Migne { XI-XVII).

    Oriental Rites and Churches in Com- munion with the Holy See. — The Oriental Churches in communion with the Holy See, holding the same faith and the same principle of authority as the Latin Church, have their own special rites, discipline, and liturgical language. The various rites are the Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopic, and

    Oriental Rites


    Oriental Rites

    Abyssinian ; Greek, with Grseco-Rouma- nian, Grgeco-Ruthenian, Graeco-Bulga- rian, Grseco-Melchite subdivisions ; Syrian, with Syro-Chaldean, Syro-Maronite, Syro- Malabaric subdivisions. In the Western or Latin Church, the liturgy, or the word- form of the Mass, is that used by the Roman Church. To-day the only excep- tions are the Ambrosian liturgy, peculiar to the Cathedral of Milan, and the Moz- arabic, confined to the city of Toledo in Spain. In the East, to-day, the chief liturgies, or word-forms of the Mass, in general use are those prepared by St. John Chrysostom and by St. Basil the Great. These liturgies are used by both Catholics and Schismatics. Both these forms for saying Mass were originally written in Greek. Other Eastern liturgies are those ascribed to St. James the Apostle, afterwards modified by St. Cyril of Jeru- salem, and to Sf. Mark, formerly used throughout the patriarchate of Alexan- dria; but the latter is scarcely used at the present day, and the former only among the Syrians and Copts, with con- siderable changes. (See Liturgy.) There are, then, in general use, in the Catholic Church, four principal liturgies, or word- forms of the Mass. However, Mass is said in nine different languages, viz., in Latin, Greek, Syriac, Chaldaic, Slavonic, Wallachian, Armenian, Coptic, and Ethi- opic. These languages, as they appear in liturgy, are quite different from the same languages as spoken to-day.

    The Armenians in communication with the Holy See are allowed to use the Ar- menian language in their liturgy, and also to have special rites. Unlike all other Christians of the East save the Maronites, they use unleavened bread in the holy Eucharist, as do the Latins. The hereti- cal Armenians are Monophysites, /. e., believers in but one nature, the divine, in Jesus Christ. The Chaldaic Armenians are found in Armenia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, Georgia, Greece, Egypt, Italy, Austria, and Russia. They number about one hundred and fifty thousand, and are governed by a patriarch styled "Patriarch of Cilicia of the Ar- menians." He resides at Constantinople. Besides the patriarch, there are two arch- bishops and sixteen bishops. They have a college in Rome and a seminary at Begourmar, in Mount Libanon. On the island of San Lagaro, at Venice, they have a monastery which is famous all over the

    world for its printing-presses. Here most of the Armenian ecclesiastical books are printed.

    The Copts in communion with the Holy See were formerly governed by a vicar apostolic residing at Cairo, but in Novem- ber, 1895, Pope Leo XIII. constituted for them a regular hierarchy, with a patriarch styled *' Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts." Besides the patriarch they have two bishops. They number about 30,000. The heretical Copts, of whom there are 150,000, are Monophysites. The Copts use three different liturgies in the celebra- tion of Mass, those of St. Basil, St. Greg- ory and St. Cyril. They have as many as twelve liturgies, but these three are the chief ones now used. The Coptic or an- cient Egyptian language, is used in cele- brating their Church services, but the rubrics are given in Arabic.

    The Ethiopic or Abyssinian rite differs little from that of the Copts, either in discipline or church customs. The Catholic Abyssinians now number about 25,000. They are governed by a Latin vicar apostolic. The schismatic or hereti- cal Abyssinians, of whom there are 3,000,- 000, are Monophysites. The Church language is old Ethiopic, which is quite similar to the Hebrew.

    In Greek, Mass is said to-day by the Uniate or Melchite Catholics. They are to be found in Syria, Jerusalem, Russia, Greece, Italy, and in several other places in Europe. There are some also in Amer- ica. They are called Melchite, from malko, the Syriac for king, because they retained the faith and supported the Emperor Mar- cian against the Monophysite heretics at the time of the Council of- Chalcedon (A. D. 451). These Catholics are allowed by the Holy See to retain all their ancient rites, such as consecrating the holy Eucha- rist in leavened bread, giving communion in both kinds, saying the Creed without the " Filioque," and putting warm water into the chalice after consecration. The lower orders of the clergy are allowed to marry, and when promoted to subdeacon- ship, deaconship, and priesthood, they may retain their wives. But after receiving the higher orders they cannot marry. Bishops must all be single men. The Greek Cath- olics have three different liturgies for cele- brating Mass. The first, that of St. John Chrysostom, which is used ordinarily; the second, that of St. Basil, which is, used on all Sundays in Lent except Palm Sunday,

    Oriental Rites


    Oriental Rites

    on holy Thursday, on holy Saturday, the vigils of Christmas and Epiphany, and the feast of St. Basil, January ist. The third liturgy is called the *' Presanctified," and is used during Lent, except on Sundays. The Graeco-Melchite Catholics, of whom there are about 1,100,000, are governed by a patriarch, who is styled " Patriarch of Antioch of the Greek Melchites," but who lives in Damascus. They have, also, three archbishops and nine bishops.

    In the Slavonic language the Grceco- Bulgarians and the GrcEco-Rutlienians in communion with Rome celebrate Ma«s ac- cording to the Greek liturgies. The same liturgy and language are used, also, by the schismatic Church of Russia. TheGraeco- Bulgarian Catholics, in number about 33,- 000, have one archbishop administrator apostolic for the Bulgarians of Constanti- nople, and two bishops, one for Thrace, the other for Macedonia. A large number of Bulgarians follow the Roman instead of Greek rite.

    The GrcBco-Ruthenian Catholics are found chiefly in Galicia, Poland, and Hun- gary. They have one archbishop and eight bishops, governing about 4,000,000 adherents. Many Ruthenians use the Roman liturgy in the Slavonic tongue. The right to use the Slavonic language in celebrating Mass was accorded in the ninth century by Pope Adrain IL, when St. Methodius and St. Cyril converted the Slavs to the faith. Since the seventeenth century, when a great number of them came into the Church, the Wallachians.with the tacit consent of the Holy See, have been saying Mass in their native tongue, which, however, is the old classic language no longer in daily use. The liturgy is Greek.

    The Grceco-Roumanian Catholics which term includes the Wallachians, in a great national .synod held in 1700 at Fogaras, " freely and spontaneously, by the impulse of God," concluded a union with the Roman Catholic Church. On that day about 1,000,000 people were united to Rome. In 1854, Pope Pius IX., erected into an ecclesiastical province the United Roumanian Church, with an archbishop and three bishops. The United Catholics are chiefly in Transylvania and Hungary, and number about 1,500,000. They have two native seminaries, besides several places in the Greek College in Rome given them by Pius IX,

    The Syriac rite, like the Greek, has several subdivisions. These are Pure-


    Syrian, Syro-Chaldean, Syro-Maronite, and Syro-Malabaric. Syrian is the litur- gical language of those places where the liturgy of St. James is used in celebrating Mass. It is claimed to be the same lan- guage as that used by Christ and His Apostles. The Pure-Syrians have a pa- triarch who resides in Mardin, but is styled " Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrians." They have, also, three arch- bishops and six bishops. About 52,000 Catholics use the rite. They are rem- nants of the primitive Syrian Church, which never separated from the Holy See.

    The Syro-Chaldaic is a language pe- culiar to Babylonian Catholics, who are chiefly converts from Nestorianism, and dwell in Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Kur- distan. They have a patriarch entitled " Patriarch of Babylonia of the Chaldees," but who resides at Mosul and Bagdad. They have, also, two archbishops and ten bishops. About 50,000 Catholics belong to the Syro-Chaldaic rite. All the litur- gical books of these people are written in the Chaldaic, in that peculiar character known as the " Estrangelo" ; for the Chal- daic, it may be remarked, has 18 different alphabets.

    The Syro-Maronites use unleavened bread for confecting the holy Eucharist; and, like the rest of the Orientals com- municate the laity under both kinds, ex- cept that in administering communion to the sick only the form of bread is used. They use incense at low as well as at high Mass, and read the Gospel in Arabic after it has been read in Syriac, Arabic being the vulgar language in those countries where this rite prevails. Their secular clergy number about 1,000, and their regu- lar clergy, or monks, about 1,400. The monks are not married. The greater num- ber of Maronites are in Libanon, where their patriarch resides, though he is styled "Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites." Maronites are found, also, in Syria, Egypt, Tripoli, and Cyprus. Besides the patri- arch, they have six archbishops and three bishops. About 500,000 Catholics follow the Maronite rite. One peculiarity of their government is that the people elect the patriarch, who, however, must await the confirmation of the Pope before he is installed in office.

    The Syro-Malabaric rite had until lately no regular hierarchy, though the Catholics number about 300,000. They depended on two Latin vicars apostolic, one living in

    Original Sin



    Trichoor, the other in Cottayan. Their priests, however, used their own liturgy, not the Latin one. In 1896, Pope Leo XIIL gave them a hierarchy. Catholics of the rite are found chiefly in Malabar, on the west coast of India.

    The Oriental rites exist side by side, and not infrequently cover the same territory. In several instances bishops of different rites reside in the same city, both being in communion with Rome. The same may be said of the Latin and the Oriental rites, both mutually giving respect and avoiding interference. There is a movement at pres- ent for a reunion of other Churches with that of Rome; and the better to examine matters connected therewith, and promote this desirable object, a special " Congrega- tion or Commission for the Reunion of Dissident Churches" was established in Rome in 1895, by Pope Leo XIII.

    Original Sin. See Sin.

    Orosius (Paul). — Famous historian, born at Tarragon, Spain, about the end of the fourth century. Disciple of St. Augustine and of St. Jerome, displayed a great zeal against the Pelagians, whom he tried to have condemned in a synod at Jerusalem.

    Osee. — The first of the twelve minor prophets, lived in the eighth century b. c. at Samaria. He commenced his ministry under Roboam II., king of Israel and con- tinued the same under his successors, in the time when Jonathan, Achaz, and Eze- chias reigned over Juda. His prophecies chiefly regarded the kingdom of Israel. He reproached the Israelites for their crimes, idolatries, rebellions, and perju- ries, and at the same time, he announced the transportation of the Jews to Babylon, their return into Judea, the duration of the true worship, and the vocation of the Gentiles.

    Osee. — Last king of Israel (726-718 b. c. ), obtained the throne through the assassina- tion of Phacee. Salmanasar conquered him and led him away into captivity to Babylon, with all his people.

    Osiander (Andreas) (1498-1552). — Famous Protestant theologian, born near Nuremberg, was one of the first preachers of Luther's doctrines, assisted at the colloquium of Marburg and at the Diet of Augsburg. But he was not in accord with Luther in everything and claimed

    that Jesus Christ has been mediator in the quality of God only, and that man is not justified personally either by faith, or by grace, or by imputing the justice of Christ, as Luther and Calvin maintained, but through the essential justice of God, through the divine nature communicated to the justified man. All his works are on the Index.

    Ostiary (Lat. osttarius). — In the early Church, the doorkeeper or janitor of a church. The office of ostiary is the lowest of minor orders. It is as old as the third century in the Western Church, and as the fourth in the Eastern Church. In the primitive Church the duties of this office seem to have been discharged by deacons.

    The office of the ostiary is indicated by the words spoken by the bishop in his or- dination. "Dearest children (or child), who are about to receive the office of doorkeeper, observe what you must do in the house of God. It is the duty of the doorkeeper to strike the cymbal and ring the bell, to open the church and the sanctuary, and the book for him who preaches. Be on your guard therefore, lest through your negligence anything in the church be destroyed, open the house of God at certain hours, for the Faithful, and always close it to infidels." In pre- senting them the keys of the church, the symbol of their office, which they touch with their hand, the bishop says: "Con- duct yourselves as having to render an ac- count to God for those things which are kept under these keys."

    Os-wald (St.). — English prelate. Bishop of Worcester, died in 922. When quite young he joined the Benedictines and founded the monasteries of Westberg, Ramsay, and Worcester. Anxious to in- troduce a reform in his diocese, but una- ble to displace the corrupt clergy who occupied the old cathedral church, he built another at a short distance from it, which was served by the regular clergy, and where he himself said Mass. Many of the canons attached to the old cathe- dral, seeing themselves abandoned by the people, became monks, and after a time the church reverted to the bishop, who handed it over to the Benedictines.

    Otho (St.) — Bishop of Bamberg in 1 100. Appointed papal legate by Pope Calixtus II. Otho, in 1124, entered Pom-




    erania, where he was well received, and vast numbers were baptized in the cities of Camin, Julin, and Stettin. He returned to Bamberg, where he died in 1139.

    Othoniel. — The first of the Judges of Israel, died in the year 1065 b. c. Took from the Chanaanites the city of Kiryat-

    Sepher, defeated Chusai-Rischataim, king of Mesopotamia, who had oppressed the Israelites during eight years. This victory assured to Israel forty years of peace, dur- ing which he was the supreme head of the people.

    Ozias. See Azarias. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.