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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"P"

Pagans, Paganism;
    (idolatry, religion of the pagans) — Paganism, which instituted the religion of the Greeks and Romans, was nothing else but a corruption, and disfiguration of the primitive religion.

    St. Paul gives, as the starting point of paganism, the positive knowledge of the true God (Rom. i. 21), knowledge which became more and more darkened in the course of ages. "Of what antiquity," says Bossuet, could paganism boast, which could not read its annals without finding therein the origin, not only of its own history, but also of its gods."

    In fact, this knowledge of God becoming insensibly effaced, men turned their regard toward the object that struck them the most forcibly and offered to the objects their incense and prayers as to deities: the sun, the moon, fire, thunder, and lightning, were the first objects of their worship;

    Then the great men, the founders of empires and kingdoms, received divine honors in their turn.

    Finally, the error continually increasing, they ended by rendering worship to animals and plants ; so that, as Bossuet says, " everything was God, except God himself." Indeed, the pagans had completely disfigured the image of the Deity. They made gods for themselves, according to their caprice, as the god Priape, which an artisan made out of a piece of wood, intending originally, to make a table thereof: " olin truncus eram" (Hor. I. I, Sat. viii.).

    In all the religions of antiquity, says the Abba Gainet, we find some fragments of the primitive and revealed truth, disfigured, it is true, but whose origin we can easily recognize. All parts of the world contain precious fragments agreeing with the Bible ; until under the veil of fable, wherein certain facts are disfigured, others perfectly recognizable, we recover the idea of the Deity.

    However altered the religious idea might have been in paganism, we cannot help recognizing, that, through its develop-

Pacca (Bartholomew) (1752-1844).
    Prelate and statesman, born at Benevent, died in Rome. Archbishop of Damietta in 1785, and apostolic nuncio in Cologne, 1786; cardinal in 1801 ; prosecretary of State in 1808. Concurred energetically in the protestation of the Pope against the sacrilegious act which robbed him of his states and followed Pius VII. into France ; was confined at Fenestrella until 1813.

Paccanarists.
    — Name adopted by the Jesuits or "Fathers of the Faith," re- organized about the end of the eighteenth century by Paccanari, a Tyrolian priest.

Pachomius (St.)
    — The founder of Monasticism. A disciple of the holy hermit Palemon, was the first who drew up a rule for monks, and became the founder of the first monasteries. The pious recluses living under his direction went by the name of monks, that is, soli- taries, and their secluded habitations were denominated monasteries, or mansions of the solitaries.

    About the year 340, he founded a monastery on the island of Tabennae in the Nile, in which his monks lived under the same roof and after the same rule. His disciples becoming very numerous, he founded eight other monasteries — seven for men, and one, under the directioit of his sister, for women — all recognizing a common superior, called abbot or archimandrite.

    At his death, in 348, the order founded by him numbered 7,000 monks, and in the fifth century it counted as many as 50,000. The Rule of St. Pachomius was translated into Latin by St. Jerome.

    Pacianus (St.). — Bishop of Barcelona, died in 391. Father of the Church, famous through the power of his word, combated the error of the Novatians. His works are inserted in the Library of the Fathers. F. March 9th.

    ment shines a remainder of truths derived from the primitive knowledge of revela- tion. Undoubtedly these truths have been mingled with false and superstitious ideas ; however, a remainder of primitive truth was always contained in the coarse bark of error. Especially have the Fathers of the School of Alexandria recognized the reflec- tions of revelation in paganism and have attributed them to the universal action of the Word : '•'■Krat lux vera qucB illuininat omnem hominem " (John i. 9). We find in the sacred books of the Persians the his- tory of the original fall in terms almost identical with those of the Bible: "The first human pair was originally pure and subject to Ormudz, their creator; but Arhiman, jealous of their happiness, pre- sented himself to them under the form of an adder and offered fruits to them, and made himself to be adored by them ; since that time nature had become corrupt and all posterity was infected by it." The ancient Chaldeans believed, also, in a fallen man. Paganism appears to us under three prin- cipal forms : the lowest degree was fetich- ism, which consists in the simple senti- ment of a blind power upon which man depends, and which resides indistinctly in such or such an object of exterior nature ; a more elevated degree was polytheism, which places this blind power in the great phenomena of nature, which are, in fact, divinities themselves ; finally, the third form is pantheism, which deifies all nature. The historj' of paganism is mingled with the different nations that have practiced it. But since the light of Christianity has been shining upon the world, paganism has dis- appeared more and more, just like the stars at the approach of the sun.

    Painting (ancient use of) in Churches. — In those ages when printing was un- known, the pastors of the Church availed themselves of the arts to represent to the people, by means of fresco-painting, mosaic-work, and sculpture, executed on the walls of the churches, the Scripture history, and the truths of our holy religion. The reason was obvious: to the Faithful, these were instructive volumes, written in intelligible and self- speaking characters. But as their reli- gious instructors justly conceived that the guardians of the faith were the best ex- pounders of its mysteries, instead of per- mitting the artist to select and treat the subject according to his own imagination,

    they rather employed his pencil to inscribe in colors what they dictated to him ; and it is a well attested fact that, in the first twelve centuries of the Church, painters and those who wrought in mosaic, and artists in general, were, in the execution of their works, permitted to exercise their own liberty and invention no further than in the drawing of their pieces. The bishop or pastor of the edifice which was to be ornamented, not merely fixed upon the subjects, but invariably prescribed the pre- cise manner in which each one should be treated in all its several, and even its minutest parts. Nor did they permit themselves to be directed by their own caprice, while guiding the labors of the painter or the sculptor; but most reli- giously adhered to the traditions which had been handed down to them. We may, therefore, rest assured, that these ancient monuments are faithful and authentic records, not of the opinion of laymen and private individuals, but of the public doc- trine of the Church at the period when they were executed. See Art; Images.

    Palamites. — The followers of Gregorius Palamas, a monk of Mount Athos in the fourteenth centurj*. Simeon, abbot of a monastery at Constantinople in the elev- enth century, taught, that by fasting, prayer, and contemplation, with concen- tration of thought on the navel, the heart and spirit would be seen within, luminous with a visible light. This light was be- lieved to be uncreated, and the same which was seen at Christ's transfiguration, and is known accordingly as the " uncreated light of Mount Thabor." The doctrine was more carefully formulated and defended by Palamas, who taught that there exists a divine light, eternal and uncreated, which is not the substance or essence of the Deity, but God's activity or operation. The Palamites were favored by the Em- peror Joannes Cantacuzenus, and their doctrine was confirmed by a council at Constantinople in 1351. They were called by their opponents "Euchites " and " Mas- salians," also " Hesychasts " and " Umbili- cianians."

Palestine (ASSUMED - See Palestine-IN FACT!)
    — The country of the Hebrews, a territory in tlie southern part of Syria. Chief city, Jerusalem. The name is ocoasionally restricted to the coast re- gion of the Philistines, but is usually re- garded as indicating the region bounded by the Mediterranean on the west and the

Palestine, In fact:

    Great Mystery of Zionism & Palestine

    * What is Palestine? Zionism needs to know!

    * * What is the etymology & derivation of the Word?

    * * * What is the historical record of the Word Palestine?

    * * * * Archeological evidence verifying this written record?


    Zionism! Did you know, there was NEVER a Palestinian Nation, or any of the following:

    [1] LAND of Palestine

    [2] PEOPLE of Palestine

    [3] LANGUAGE of Palestine

    [4] CITY of Palestine

    [5] NATION of Palestine

    [6] RELIGION of Palestine

    [7] HISTORY of Palestine




    Zionism, please learn this CASCADE of ERRORS:

      [A] The etymology of the word 'Palestine' is an ERROR, made by a Roman Leader using Latin in the Second Century AD - in an attempt to degrade the JEWS by calling them the people of the "Land of the PHILISTINES" [implying they were rude, crude & barbarish]. Whoever wrote the 'Official Roman Report' obviously, did one of the following:

        1] Simply misspelled Philistine, making it Palestine!

        2] Failed to remember the word Philistine,and incorrectly recalled Palestine,

        3] Perhaps was reading 'poor handwriting' and miss-read Palestine for Philistine, and never knew any difference.

      [B] To the Romans, having the WHOLE WORLD for their Empire, neither the Jews nor the Philistines mattered much at all! (an area equal to a few small counties!)

      Philistines: Misspelled? Mispronounced? Both? Who knew? Who cared? Who Checked-Twice? NOT ROME!

      Furthermore, Zionism, the Romans didn't know the Hebrew word for Philistines was "IMMIGRANTS" - people who came into the land AFTER the Canaanites had been conquered & driven out, their very name showing they were NOT the original people of that described region: the Land of Canaan.

      [C] Thus throughout the Roman Empire for the rest of their history, the Land of the Jews was known by and referred to as the Land of "PALESTINE" by all that be in Rome. [meant to be Philistine]

      [D] About 200 years later when the Roman Catholic Scholar Jerome translated the Bible from Greek to the Roman Language of Latin, ALL HE KNEW for the Land of Israel was the "Land of Palestine"

      ** SO, he used this erroneous phrase in the Jewish Old Testament! * * *

      [E] Thus the 'AD Second Century' error got moved back in time hundreds of years, by being inserted into the Jewish Bible, in the Prophets.

      [F] It should be obvious to the "Quick Mind" as follows:

        [a] "IF" - there NEVER were Palestinian people, language, city, nation, religion, culture, or anything Palestinian - BECAUSE they never existed;

        [b] "THEN" - there could NOT POSSIBLY BE a word in the Hebrew Language for that which NEVER EXISTED - "PALESTINE" - and there is not! Verify for yourself by the Hebrew Lexicon of your choice: religious or secular, ancient or modern: all agree - NO PALESTINE!

      [G] Moving far ahead in time - after Jerome's AD 400 Latin-Vulgate Translation of the Bible had been the STANDARD BIBLE for 1000 years, EVERYONE then thought 'the Land of Israel' was "the Land of Palestine."

      [H] Obvious to scholars is the EXTREME LACK of due diligence given to the KING JAMES BIBLE - the personal project of 'King-James-who-believed-he-should-be-worshiped-as-a-god', and tried to get Laws in England MAKING people worship him, and bow in his presence!

      [I] Given his AUTHORITY OVER HIS TRANSLATION, seeking God's Truth was NOT A FACTOR! Therefore, when they translated the King James Version of the Bible, just to satisfy the EGO of the Mad King (who thought he was god!), they mistakenly translated'Philistine' as "Palestine" in Joel 3.4, and 'Palestina' in Exo 15.14, Isa 14.29, & 14.31.

      [J] Zionism, you can verify this to yourself by looking up the Words 'Palestine' & 'Palestina' from the references above, in the Hebrew Dictionary of Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.

        [a] The number in Strong's in 6429

        [b] Strong's Hebrew Dictionary definition is 'sojourners'. Others use 'immigrant'. Either way, the meaning is clear, that even the Philistines were not a long-established people in the Land of Canaan - MUCH LESS the Modern Arab Muslims who ERRONEOUSLY claim to be 'Palestinians'!

      [K] Obviously, very few on Earth know that there never were such people, nation, language, etc., or that the VERY WORD is not authentic: nothing more than an error, and just as obvious: very few care., as it doesn't matter much to anyone EXCEPT to the JEWS, who own the land; and the Immigrant Arabs, who WANT some of the land to be given to them: FOR FREE!

      [L] To make a long story short, the Modern Arabic Muslims living amongst the Jews in the ancient land of Canaan,do NOT speak a language that NEVER existed - Palestinian- but rather, speak the language they were born with: Arabic!

      [M] Yet the Modern Arabic Muslims INSIST they have a nearly 2000 year-old claim on the Jewish Land - going back to the Roman Scribal error when the word first came into being - BECAUSE they say they are the DESCENDANTS of the Ancient Owners of the land: the PALESTINIANS [who ACTUALLY NEVER existed!].

      [N] Conversely, the Jews have a valid, written record, as recorded in the most Ancient Version of the Bible - THE VERSION JESUS USED - the Septuagint: a TRUE, 2300 year-old-claim, given by God,and complete with boundaries, language, religion, capital city (Jerusalem), nation, government-with-a-Constitution, national Temple, and cultural issues like these, easily verified by history:

    [a] not eating Pork

    [b] not working one-day-in-seven

    [c] practicing circumcision

    [d] Law of Moses with basic principles of government!

    [e] Men not shaving, but wearing beards

    [f] Women were not to be soldiers: regardless!

    [g] and much, much more!


[O] Thus Israel has more than 100,000 pieces of evidence affirming their nearly 4,000 years of living in that Land of Canaan: from archeology, geographical record, historical record, written records in other nations, including the nations of Rome & Greek Historians!

[P] See if you can find ANYTHING about a people named the Palestinians, in ANYONE'S records of history! It HAS NOT happened, and it WILL NOT happen! WHY? Because there NEVER WAS such a people called the Palestine's - until Yassir Arafat!

[Q] However, Zionism, world leaders today do not know there never was a Palestinian People.

[R] The whole situation is somewhat like the European Explorers who came to America, thought they were in the land of India, and called the Cherokees, Shawnees, Massachusetts & Seminole Tribes "INDIANS".

[S] Surprisingly, all of these Tribes eventually accepted this term for themselves, in spite of the fact that they were not INDIANS, of the HINDU religion, practicing the CASTE-SYSTEM, etc.

[T] In these 500 years following the first explorers, modern, intelligent, highly educated Historians & Scholars of many kinds - "S-T-I-L-L" call them INDIANS - even though they NOW KNOW the "Rest of the story": they ARE NOT, NEVER HAVE BEEN & NEVER WILL BE: "INDIANS!"

BUT HOW DO WE EVER GET IGNORANCE CORRECTED, in this modern era: be it American Tribes who THINK they are Indians, or Arabic Muslims who THINK they are Palestinians?

[U] Likewise, these Ethnic Arabs - speaking Arabic Language and practicing Islamic Religion - LOUDLY CLAIM "PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY!" [IN FACT, that's why they named their renegade political government PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY!

[V] BECAUSE:

    * it is ONLY if they claim to be Palestinians,

    * and ONLY if they convince an UNTHINKING, UNSEARCHING &MISUNDERSTANDING world that there ACTUALLY WERE Palestinians who have dwelt there for millennia;

    * THEN, & ONLY THEN, do they have ANY AUTHORITY to CLAIM Zionism-JEWISH LAND AS THEIR OWN;

    * INSISTING that they have MORE RIGHT to be there than do the Jews, who date in UNBROKEN HISTORY to Abraham, Isaac & Jacob: 2000 BC!

[W] This is perhaps the greatest scribal, historical, geographical, archeological & ethnic 'Cascade of Errors' of the modern day!

[X] All that exceeds credulity MORE than this event, are all the US Government Agents of Ivy League Graduate Schools - including US PRESIDENTS -

    [I] Who believe this MODERN FABLE, completely, neither having - nor asking for - evidence;

    [II] Working constantly to FORCE the Zionism to GIVE UP HALF of their HOMELAND;

    [III] The land given them BY GOD, and RECORDED - not in the Courthouse of Jerusalem [as Abraham preceded Jerusalem by hundreds of years!] but RECORDED in the WORD OF GOD!

> [Y] PONDER! If our American Government - leaders of the Free World - can be this blind and dull of understanding about this situation, how many other situations do they also MISS-UNDERSTAND GREATLY?

[Z] "Z" is for ZIONISM! Long LIVE ZION! For Zion, out of thee has COME THE GOVERNOR: who IS Ruling My People from the Right-Hand-of-the-Father & will RULE, with a ROD-of-IRON, F-O-R-E-V-E-R! "JESUS is HIS NAME!"

Palestine, Yassir Arafat's, Of Palestinian Authority:

    Palestine was created in about 1964 when Yassir Arafat, who thought of himself as a general just because he pinned things to his shirt, declared the "Palestine" Liberation Organization.

    Prior to this, Palestinians were Jews. If you went to Israel in pre-1948 and asked a British officer (the British occupied the land back then) to show you a Palestinian, he would show you a Jew.

    The Arabs were referred to as....Arabs.

    The whole idea of "Palestine" came about in 135 CE, when a major Jewish revolt that had frustrated the Romans for a long time was put down. The emperor changed the name of the area from Judea to "Philistia" after the brutish, backward "Philistines" of the Bible, the Jews' ancient enemies).. . .

    . . . which was later misspelled from "Philistia" into "Palestina, in a Roman report and has been known that way ever after!

    To further muddle Jewish relation to the land, he combined Judea with the Syrian-Roman province and called the tract of land, "Syria-Palestina" He then attempted to expel all the Jews, yet some remained.

    Anyway, there never was a country called "Palestine".

    The whole "Palestine" name kind of stuck, and was just a name for a province in various entities, such as the Ummayad Caliphate, Turkish empire etc. The land was of little value, economically or religiously, to these Muslim occupying regimes, and hence, when Jews started returning in larger numbers back in the 1870's, they saw the land was severely neglected.

    Mark Twain visited Israel in the 1860's and wrote in his journals that apart from small communities of Jews and a few wandering Arabs, the land was deserted.

    So throughout the later half of the 1800's and up to 1948, the Jews came back and worked on the land, setting up farms, draining swamps, laying down roads, hospitals, banks, telephone wires etc.

    When the Arabs saw this, they started moving to Israel from neighboring Jordan and Syria in larger numbers. Then clamored for "independence", yet had never done anything themselves for it.

    In short, there never was a "Palestine", nor a "Palestinian Arab nation".

    It's all a historical perversion.


    Palestrina

    517

    Pallium

    desert on the east, and on the south by an indefinite line extending westward from the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. On the north it is regarded as bounded ( somewhat indefinitely ) by the region of PhcEnicia, Libanon, and Anti-Libanon. The ancient inhabitants of Palestine were the Chanaanites, who were conquered later, and more or less assimilated with the Israelites, under whom the country was portioned out in the tribal divisions of the children of Jacob. The divisions west of the Jordan in the time of Christ were Judea in the south, Samaria in the center, and Galilee in the north. The country, after being subject for a time to the Romans, passed under Mohammedan rule ; was held by the Christians tempora- rily during the Crusades; and since 1516- 1517 has been in the possession of the Turkish government. Area estimated 10,000-11,000 square miles. Population somewhat over 400,000.

    Palestrina (Giovanni Pierluigi da) (1524-1594). — Born at Palestrina, near Rome ; died at Rome. A celebrated Italian musician, surnamed " Princeps Musicae " {Prince of Music). He was chapel-master at the Lateran, Vatican, and Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. In accordance with resolutions of the Council of Trent, he composed three masses in 1565, setting the standard of ecclesiastical music. For this he was appointed by Pope Julius III. com- poser to the Pontifical choir. He is con- sidered the first composer who united art with the science of music, and his works, all sacred, except two volumes of madrigals, mark an important epoch in the annals of music. He left between 90 and 100 masses, hymns for the year, about 60 motets, and a number of lamentations, litanies, etc.

    Pall (Lat. falla, a cloak). — A small cloth of linen used to cover the chalice at Mass, and usually stiffened with cardboard. The pall must be of united linen cloth, at least as to the part which touches the chal- ice. . Before using, it must be blessed. This blessing is reserved to the bishop or to a priest having special faculties. The use of the pall appears to have been intro- duced into the Church only about the eleventh century, when the people ceased to communicate in great numbers and when the unleavened bread was reduced to the dimension of a piece of coin. Inno- cent III. reports that, in his time, they made use of two palls, called palla domina

    and falla corf oralis., the latter to cover the altar, and the former to cover the chalice. The ancient custom consisted in covering the chalice simply with the corporal : and this custom continued to exist in France until the twelfth century. The corporal and pall symbolize the linen cloth bought by Joseph of Arimathea to enfold the body of the Lord. See Corporal.

    Pall. — Name given to a piece of cloth which serves to cover the coffin of the dead or the catafalque. There is gener- ally a figure of the cross on it. The pall is black for married people; white for young and unmarried people.

    Palladius (St.). — Little is known of the early career of St. Palladius. He held the high office of deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Celestine, by whom he was consecrated bishop and sent to preach the Gospel " to the Scots," as the Irish were then called. In company with four other missionaries, St. Palladius, in the year 431, entered upon his mission in Ireland. His preaching, however, was not destined to bear much fruit or gather the Irish into the fold of Christ. Meeting with opposition from the Druids and local chiefs, he sailed away the following year to the north, and, landing in modern Scotland, became the apostle of the Picts. Here he preached with great zeal and formed in the Lowlands a considerable Church. After an apostolate of nearly twenty years, St. Palladius died in 450.

    Palladius of Galatia (368-430). — Bishop of Hellenopolis. He wrote a history of the monks and anchorets of both sexes living in his time.

    Pallavicini (Piktro Sforza) (1607- 1667) . — The celebrated historian of the Council of Trent, born and died at Rome ; after having been governor of several cities he joined the Jesuits; was charged by Innocent X. with important affairs. Cardinal in 1657.

    Pallium. — The name given by the Cath- olic Church to one of the ecclesiastical ornaments worn by the Pope, patriarchs and archbishops. The pallium is made of white wool obtained from the first fleece of two lambs which, each year, are blessed in the Church of St. Agnes, on that saint's feast day, and then entrusted to religious who take care of them until the shearing time. The palliums, having been blessed

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    by the Pope, are sent to metropolitans, as a symbol of ecclesiastical union. Worn about the shoulders, they symbolize the lost sheep which has been found and is now borne back on the shoulders of the good shepherd. The origin of the pallium is very ancient, but uncertain. Some authors believe that this vestment is nothing else than the cloak presented by the emperors of Constantinople to the Roman Pontiffs and patriarchs, as an emblem of their dig- nity. In the sixth century, the Popes, when they granted the pallium to bishops who were not subjects to the Greek em- pire, were in the habit of asking first the per- mission of the emperor. The latter, besides, claimed the right to grant it directly. In the seventh century, Maurus, archbishop of Ravenna, requested it from the Emperor Constans II., and obtained it. On the other hand, we see that most of the authors have regarded the pallium as a sacred vest- ment and the symbol of a holy thing. They considered it as a relic, as a sort of a cloak of St. Peter. Before sending it to the person appointed, they deposited the same, during one night, in the sanctuary of the confession, right on the tomb of the Apostle St. Peter. Hence the idea of a sort of transmission of power, like that which was symbolized by the cloak of Elias, bequeathed to his successor, Eliseus. Baronius quotes a Constitution of Pope St. Mark, which gives to the bishop of Ostia the right to wear the pallium when he fulfills the office devolved on him of con- secrating bishop the one elected to the dignity of sovereign Pontiff, if he is not this already. In the first centuries the pal- lium had probably a more ample form.

    Palm Sunday. — The last Sunday of Lent, is so called from the custom of blessing branches of the palm tree, or of other trees substituted in those countries in which palms cannot be procured, and of carrying the blessed branches in procession, in com- memoration of the triumphant entry of our Lord into Jerusalem. The date of this ceremony is uncertain, but though it has been in use in the East since the fifth cen- tury, there is no evident proof that it was established in the Western Church before the sixth century.

    Palmyra or Tadmor. — A city founded by Solomon in the desert of Syria, on the borders of Arabia Deserta, near the Euphrates. The Greeks called it Palmyra.

    Its situation was remote from human habi- tations, in the midst of a dreary wilder- ness; and it is probable that Solomon built it to facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Ara- bian desert. It is one day's journey from the Euphrates, two from Upper Syria, and six from Babylon. It submitted to the Romans about the year 130 a. d., and con- tinued in alliance with them during a period of 150 years. When the Saracens triumphed in the East, they acquired pos- session of this city, and restored its ancient name of Tadmor.

    Pamphylia. — A province of Asia Minor, having Cilica east, Lycia west, Pisidia north, and the Mediterranean south. It is opposite to Cyprus and the sea between the coast and the island is called the " Sea of Pamphylia." The chief city of Pam- phylia was Perga, where St. Paul and St. Barnabas preached (Acts xiii, 13).

    Pamphylus (St.). — Born in Berytus and a presbyter of Csesarea in Palestine. Wrote an Apology for Origen in six books, of which only a portion remains in a transla- tion by Rufinus. He was the founder of the celebrated library at Caesarea. To him also is ascribed the division of the Acts of the Apostles into chapters. He suffered martyrdom at Caesarea in 309.

    Pange Lingua. — One of the most re- markable hymns of the Roman Breviary, and like its kindred hymn, Lauda Sion, a most characteristic example as well of the mediaeval Latin versification as of that union of theology with asceticism which a large class of these hymns present. The Pange Lingua is a hymn in honor of the Eucharist, and belongs to the service of the festival of Corpus Christi. It is from the pen of the great angelic Doctor, Thomas Aquinas. See Hymns.

    Pantaenus (St.) (155-214). — Doctor of the Church and apostle of the Hindoos, born in Sicily. Stoic philosopher, was converted by one of the disciples of the Apostles and was appointed master of the Catechetical School at Alexandria, Egypt, by Bishop Julian, about the year 179. The school, which was originally intended solely for converts, was, under Pantasnus developed on a wider basis and open to all. Besides expounding the Sacred Scriptures, Pantaenus also lectured on

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    philosophy. His teachings were chiefly oral. He wrote valued commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, of which only a few scanty specimens remain.

    Pantheism (System of those who admit no other God but an infinite substance of which all the beings are modes). — System which teaches that God is only one and the same thing with the universality of beings. It manifests itself under two forms : i. God absorbing the universe : God in all (Spi- noza). 2. The universe absorbing God : all in God (Hegel). Origin. — Pantheism had representatives at all times. We find it in India among the Brahmans, the Veda, the code of Manu; in Greece with the Eleatic philosophers ; in Alexandria with Plotinus ; in the Middle Ages with Aver- roes and David of Dinand ; later on, in Holland with Spinoza; in Germany in the criticism of Kant, from which went forth the modern pantheism of Fichte, Schelling, Hegel ; in France, the Eclectism. Spinoza, starting with a badly understood idea of Descartes, admits only one substance and, outside of it, simple manifestations, the idea and the extent. Leibnitz, in his the- ory of monadology, touched lightly on pantheism, for, in the series of monads, we have to admit a last term, but, if this last term, this supreme monad, monas monadum, continues the series, this is pantheism. The adherents of Leibnitz, Wolff, and others, have escaped this consequence only in acknowledging that it is necessary to place the last term outside the series. Only under this condition is the dogma of creation maintained. Modern pantheists have taken a step backward : instead of the substance and its two modes, they have put the real and ideal, as the poles of the same Being of the great All which they also call the Absolute. We will not speak of the utopice of Saint-Simon de Fourier, and others, derived from the doctrines of Hegel, theories which never had any scien- tific claims. Division. — There are two theories of pantheism : r. Some admit one sole infinite substance, with modifications of a finite mode, a substance which mani- fests itself by means of immanent opera- tions. 2. Others admit an infinite substance which, by an exterior and passing act, draws, from itself, from the infinite beings, permanent operations, which manifest it by means of an indefinite progress. All the theories of pantheism are founded upon a false principle, in regard to sub-

    stance and the infinite. What is that sub- stance .? What reason have they to sacrifice to it the personal, intelligent, and free Being? And what becomes of our per- sonality, of our liberty in the midst of these shateeless ideas, which confound the universe with the divine essence, the Creator with the creature? Science, better enlightened, and supported upon reason and revelation, has done justice to the hypothesis, which constitutes the basis of pantheism. St. Thomas had already answered all these aberrations of the hu- man mind in refuting Averroism, that is, one of the most perfidious and most ac- credited forms of pantheism. Besides, he refutes the error of David of Dinand, which confounded (like our modern pan- theists) God with first matter; the holy Doctor remarks " that there is confusion in the terms, that if we can say that in God and in primitive matter, there are similar qualities, as, for instance, substance, it does not follow that it is one and the same thing, and that, if we cannot strictly say that God and primitive matter are different things, we can say, at least, that they are diverse." In the question following, St. Thomas, answering the first objection, says " that the things may be, all at once, similar and dissimilar to God ; similar be- cause they imitate Him; dissimilar because they are inferior to their cause, not only in degree, but also as to kind and spe- cies." One cannot establish more clearly the infinite distance which exists between God and the creature ! St. Thomas had, therefore, solved all the questions possible about substance. By his strict and inflex- ible logic, the great Doctor had overthrown the monster, that is, the great heresy. We can say, that by restoring the true concep- tion of a God essentially distinct from the creatures, he had raised Catholic reason to its highest power. Remarkable thing ! all those who wished to deviate from the doc- trine of St. Thomas have generally fallen into the pit. Modern heresies, Jansenism Qixietism, are, under appearances of a false mysticism, only a disguised panthe- ism. Revolution and radicalism, which have begotten Socialism and Nihilism and all the social heresies, are only the natural fruit of Pantheism. Now, if we have to judge the tree by its fruit. Pantheism is, therefore, the great plague of our time, the fatal and fecund error which the Vatican Council has justly struck with its anath- ema.

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    Pantheon (temple consecrated to all the gods) . — The Pantheon of Rome is a build- ing constructed under Augustus at the expense of Agrippa (26 b. c.)- Burned under Titus and Trajan, restored by Had- rian and Severus, then sacked by the Bar- barians, in 1610, Pope Boniface IV. turned it into a Christian Church, dedi- cated it to the Blessed Virgin and all the saints, whence its present name " Sancta Maria ad Martyres," or more commonly called " Santa Maria Rotunda," on account of its circular form. The interior diameter is 1423^ feet, and the height to the apex is the same. The lighting of the interior comes solely from an open circle, 28 feet in diameter, at the summit of the dome. Raphael, Annibali Caracci, and Victor Emmuel II., are buried in the Pantheon.

    Papa. See Popk.

    Papal States. — A name formerly given to a territory, or rather group of states, in Central Italv, once united under one sov- ereignty, with the Pope for its head. It was an expansive area, irregular in form, resembling the letter Z, the upper portion lying to the east of the Apennines, the lower to the west of that range, these two being connected by a third strip, which crossed the peninsula from east to west. The Papal states were bounded on the north by the Po, on the south by Naples, on the east by the Gulf of Venice and Naples, and on the west by Modena, Tus- cany, and the Tyrrhene sea. Detached portions, as Benevento and Pontecorvo, lay within the Neapolitan territory. Nearly all the territory was annexed to Italy in i860; and the remainder in 1870. See Pepin the Short and Charlemagne.

    Papebroch (Daniel) (1628-1714).— Jesuit and BoUandist, born at Antwerp. Labored at the Acta Sanctorum; drew up the months of March, April, May, and June; was condemned by the Spanish In- quisition for having questioned the founda- tion of the Carmelites by the Prophet Elias.

    Paphnutius (St.). — Monk and bishop of the Thebaid, born in Egypt, died about 350. Combated Arianism at Nice, in 325, and suffered martyrdom during the tenth persecution. F. Sept. nth.

    Paphos. — The name of two cities in Cyprus ; here is question of the maritime city on the western extremity of the isle.

    It had a tolerable harbor, and was the sta- tion of a Roman proconsul. About sixty stadia or nearly eight miles from the city was the celebrated temple of Venus, who was hence often called the " Paphian god- dess " (Acts xiii. 6, 13).

    Papias (St.). — Bishop of Hierapolis. He is often mentioned with distinction by Christian antiquity, and is said by St. Irenaeus to have been a disciple of St. John the E^•angelist and a friend of St. Polycarp. He was a man of great erudition and Bib- lical knowledge, and took special care to collect the oral traditions concerning the life and discourses of our Saviour. But he was rather deficient in critical judgment and method, often taking figurative expres- sions in the literal sense. This, of course, proved a fruitful source of other errors and mistaken ideas. Whether he ended his pious and zealous life by a martyr's death is uncertain. He is supposed to have lived between 80-160. Of the work which he composed between 130-150, un- der the name of Books of Explanation of the Lord's Sayings, and which was still in existence in the thirteenth century, there are but ten fragments preserved to us by Irenaeus, Eusebius, and others. They con- tain notices of his studies, researches into the miracles of his time, and observations on the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke, and on the four Maries mentioned in the Gospels.

    Parable, was originally the name given by the Greek rhetoricians to an illustration, avowedly introduced as such. In Hellen- istic and the New Greek Testament, it came to signify an independent, fictitious narrative, employed for the illustration of a moral rule or principle. This kind of il- lustration is of eastern origin ; and admira- ble examples are to be found in both the Old and New Testament, particularly in the discourses of our Lord.

    Parabolani. — In the early Church, in the third, fourth, and fifth centuries, a class of lay assistants to the clergy, whose special function was nursing the sick. The name is generally ascribed to the fact of their reckless bravery in nursing pa- tients suffering from infectious diseases.

    Paraclete. — Comforter, name given to the Holy Ghost.

    Paracleticon. — A liturgical book of the Greek Church, in which are found consol- ing discourses.

    Paradise

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    Paradise {Earthly). — In Holy Scrip- ture, the word paradise properly speaking signifies an orchard ; sometimes it means a grove. The Septuagint employed this term in speaking of the Garden of Eden. In the New Testament the word paradise means a place of delight, where the blessed enjoy eternal beatitude. (See Heaven.) The traditions which the Bi- ble has bequeathed to us, relative to the cradle of humanity, have been at all times the object of attacks by. the enemies of faith. We do not need to discuss here the objections made to the history of Eden in the name of rationalistic philosophy, which rejects both the possibility of the miracle and the idea of an original Fall.

    We will keep strictly to the Biblical point of view, to refute another objection conceived in the following terms: *'The Bible gives, on the situation of Eden, quite precise geographical indications. Now, when we attempt, according to these ac- counts, to fix the site of Paradise, we find ourselves faced with all kinds of "impossi- bilities; but if the Bible is deceived about the site of Eden it may also be deceived on its very existence."

    To show the little value of this objection let us inquire first about the indications contained in Genesis : '* A river went out of the place of pleasure to water paradise, which from thence is divided into four heads. The name of the one is Phison; that is it which compasseth all the land of Havilah, where gold groweth, and the gold of that land is very good; there also is found bdellium and the onyx ( soham ) stone. And the name of the second river is Gehon ; the same is it that compasseth all the land of Ethiopia ( Kusch ). And the name of the third river is Tigris ( Hidde- kel ) ; the same passeth along by Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates " ( Gen. ii. 10-14). Even if, after these indications, it should be impossible to-day to assign a place to the earthly paradise, even if sev- eral systems imagined in regard to this subject are clearly erroneous, as appears to be the case, for instance, the hypothesis which places Eden in India, it would not follow that the Biblical account is forged. We do not know the ancient geography well enough, especially that of so remote times, to have the right to be so assertive and to regard as false what we do not un- derstand. But, indeed, several hypotheses imagined as to the site of Eden are pos- sible, although more or less improbable,

    and it is sufficient that they are plausible for the refutation of the objections raised by the critics. Following is a concise re- view of these various systems : —

    I. Henry Rawlinson places Eden in Babylonia, and for this he relies upon in- digenous documents which call Babylonia Gan Duniyas {the inclosure of the God Duniyas), a name which resembles Gan- Eden (Garden of Eden) of Genesis. Raw- linson, being still more precise, indicates the city of Eridu as the site of paradise. Indeed, we find in Chaldean hymns, pas- sages like this: "In Eridu a dark pine grew, in an illustrious place it was planted; its fruit was of white crystal. . In Eridu fruitful abundance of its plenitude; its seat is the (central) place of the earth." In this theory there is no difficulty in identifying the Tigris and Euphrates, two well-known rivers water- ing the plain of Babylon. As to the Gehon, it is the yuha that waters Eridu. Finally, the Phison, it is the stream called Ugne. This hypothesis, which is a re- vival of that of the learned Huet, has hardly any probability in its favor, as can be seen by the following theory; but, rig- orously speaking, it is possible, and this is sufficient to show that the veracity of Genesis as to this point is scientifically unassailable.

    Z. Fr. Delitzsch also places the Eden in Babylonia, and he sees it in the center of Babylon, called very anciently Tintira {grove of life). How does the learned Orientalist arrive at this result? For him, the Tigris and Euphrates named by Genesis are the two rivers of this name which water Babylonia. As to the Gehon and Phison, to succeed in identifying them, Delitzsch at first tries to identify the two countries which they water, Kusch and Havilah. Kusch is the Sumerian-Elamitic power which, three thousand years before Christ, dominated in central Babylonia; its name was Kassi or Kaschi, hence the ancient name of the Chaldeans, Kasda. As to Havilah, whose name signifies sandy land, it is that portion of the Syrian desert which limits the Euphrates : indeed, we find in this place the products mentioned by Gen- esis. Thus Havilah is on the western shore of the Euphrates and Kusch is on the east- ern shore. Therefore, Eden can be only that plain which forms, so to say, a garden around Babylon. As to the Phison and Gehon, they are two of the canals surround- ing Babylon, and probably two of the most

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    important, the Pallacopas and the Schatt on the Nile. The latter canal was called in Sumerian, Ka-hanna; now the sign which expresses Ka may also be translated by Gu; therefore, we can read instead of Kahan, Guhan, a name which sufficiently approaches Gehon. As to the Phison, neither Pallacopas nor any other canal has ever carried a name that resembles that of Phison; but canal in the Sumerian lan- guage is called pisan, and it may be that the Babylonians did pre-eminently call the Pallacopas canal, pisan (Phison). Finally, the word Eden is derived from the Sume- rian edin, desert, which originally signified depression of ground.

    This theory might be true without giv- ing any one the right to conclude there- from, with its author, that the account of Genesis is only a myth of Babylonian origin. But, in fact, it seems, if not im- possible, at least very difficult to see in the Babylonian plain the Eden of Genesis: (i) When Genesis speaks of this plain, it calls it Sennaar and not Eden. (2) The indig- enous documents give to the Babylonian plain neither the name of Eden nor any other that approaches it. (3) We see (Gen. xi.) that mankind after the Deluge finds a plain in the land of Sennaar, where they establish themselves; this fact seems to indicate that the plain of Sennaar had been unknown to men until after the Deluge.

    (4) In the Bible, the Phison and Gehon are the two most important rivers ; in the theory of Delitzsch they hold only a sec- ondary place and consist of simple canals.

    (5) If the word Eden in the Sumerian language signifies plain, it is in the sense of a dry plain or plateau and not a fruitful plain.

    3. The most probable hypothesis is that which seeks the site of Eden at the sources of the Euphrates and Tigris, that is, in Armenia. Therefore, "the Phison is," says Vigouroux, " either the Phase of the ancients, which flows from east to west and empties into the Dead Sea, or the Kur, the Cyrus of the ancients, which takes its source in the neighborhood of Kars, not far from the western source of the Euphra- tes, and then empties into the Caspian sea, after having mingled its water with that of the Araxes. Havilah, which the Phison waters, is Colchis, the country of precious metals, whither the Argonauts went to seek the golden fleece. As to the Gehon, it is the Aras of to-day, the an- cient Araxes, called by the Arabs Djaichum

    (or Gehon) er Ras, which rises in the neighborhood of the eastern source of the Euphrates, and together with the Kur emp- ties into the Caspian sea. The land of Kusch through which it passes, according to Genesis, is the country of the Kosseans, Cassiotis.'' One can allege nothing against this hypothesis, defended especially by Calmet; be it as it may, it is sufficient that it will ably cut short all attacks on the veracity of Genesis. Besides, the best constructed theory as to the subject of the site of Eden will, probably, alwajs re- main a hypothesis. Since the creation of man, certain portions of the earth have been overthrown, either by the Deluge or by other revolutions, and undoubtedly it entered the designs of divine Providence that the earthly paradise should be com- prised among these destructions : first, God caused it to be guarded by Cherubim ; then He took care that His sentence was executed by a still more radical measure, namely, by rendering its site unrecogniza- ble. Henceforth, men should pass the places where formerly the Garden of Eden was situated, without being aware of do- ing so.

    The traditions of the earthly paradise have been preserved among many nations. Several of them locate the cradle of hu- manity among the high mountains of Central Asia, where the great Asiatic riv- ers have their sources. According to the Hindoos, the four or five great rivers rose toward the north of the sacred mountain, the Meru (Himalaya) or Pamir, to direct themselves toward different points of the world. The ancient Iranians placed it in the North, on Mount Hukairya, one of the peaks of the sacred mountain, Hara- Baerezaiti, also called Albordji, whose summits reached unto heaven, to the revivifying waters of Ardvi-Cure, which had their source in heaven itself, thus ob- taining the power to fructify the earth. The Chinese describe the cradle of man- kind thus: "It is a mountain situated in the middle of the central plateau of Asia, forming part of the mountainous re- gion of Kuen-Lun. In the midst of this mountain there is a garden where con- stantly a tender zephyr breathes and moves the leaves of the beautiful Tong. This delightful garden is situated close to the gates of heaven. The waters which furrow it proceed from a beautiful yellow source, called the source of immortality ; those who drink thereof will never die. It

    Paralipomena

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    branches off into four rivers flowing toward the north, west, south, and east. (Cf. Liicken, Uberlieferungen, Vol. I, p. 100.

    Paralipomena. — Name which the Sep- tuagint have given to the two Books fol- lowing those of Kings. They form a sort of supplement to the history of the Israel- ites, from almost the creation of the world to the return of the Israelites from the Babylonian captivity. St. Jerome assures us that these two Books contain very im- portant things for the explanation of Holy Scripture, that the tradition of Sacred Writ is contained therein, and that we find in them quite a number of questions fully solved in regard to the Gospel. Very probably the author of the Paralipomena was no other than Esdras.

    Parasceve. — Name given by the Jews to the day of Friday, the eve of the Sab- bath. Because it was not permitted to prepare anything to eat on the day of the Sabbath, they prepared their nourishment the evening before. St. John tells us that the Friday, the day on which Jesus Christ suffered death, was the Parasceve of the Pasch, and it can be seen, in the Gospels, that they hastened to take down from the Cross the body of Christ, because it was on the evening of the Parasceve, and the Sab- bath soon began. The Church has pre- served the name Parasceve in the Missal for Good Friday.

    Parents {Duties of Children toward Their). — Children must love, honor, and respect their parents, because they are the secondary authors of their existence, and the natural representatives of God's author- ity. To honor our parents we should re- spect them in our hearts, with a senti- ment of veneration; and in our manner and words, by the consideration and at- tention which it is our unquestionable duty to evince. We should love them with that instinct of affection, which shows itself spontaneously in all nature, however inferior to our own. How greatly, there- fore, ought we to cultivate this tenderness of feeling, and assiduously practice its dictates for the comfort and benefit of our parents. It is our duty to administer to their spiritual and temporal requirements; to help them in distress, or poverty; to attend them in illness ; to comfort them in affliction ; to see that they receive the con- solation and support of religion in their

    last moments ; to pray for the repose of their souls after death ; and to acquit our- selves with punctuality and exactness of the obligations with which they have charged us, either by writing or word of mouth. We are taught obedience to our parents by the example of submission our Saviour showed toward His sacred Mother and St. Joseph, when He was "subject to them" (Luke ii. 51), during His hidden life ; and by several passages in Scripture, among which is the clearly expressed in- junction of St. Paul: "Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is just" (Ephes. vi. i).

    Parents [Duties of, to Their Children). — Parents should love their children : " If a man have not care of his own, and espe- cially of those of his house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel " ( I. Tim. V. 8). Parents should love their children, not merely from natural motives, and for their own pleasure, but from a Christian point of view, and for the eternal salvation of the souls God has intrusted to their keeping ; children are created, not for them, but for Himself; and not for the purely natural satisfaction of their parents, but for the supernatural object and end of their own temporal existence. Parents fail in this duty of love for their children, by the absence of any of those duties we owe one to another in charity toward our neighbor; or by unjust antipathy to or special fondness for one among several, without a reasonable motive.

    The particular duties of parents, for the spiritual and corporal well-being of their children, are, that they should watch over their health ; preserving them from danger, moral and physical ; tending them in sick- ness ; and educating them as fully as their means permit, and position demands. They should give them religious instruction, teaching them, at an early age, the rules of morality, and the Commandments of God and of the Church, that, being responsible for them, they may not in after years have reason to reproach themselves for neglect of their duty toward their children. They should watch over them with vigilant care by studying their characters, and separa- ting them from people and things that might have an injurious or dangerous influence on them ; for " he that toucheth pitch, shall be defiled with it: and he that hath fellowship with the proud, shall put on pride" (Ecclus. xiii. i). They should

    Parish

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    correct them in all things detrimental to their souls or bodies, in their own interest as well as that of their children : " he that spareth the rod, hateth his son; but he that loveth him, correcteth him betimes " (Prov. xiii. 24) ; tempering, by gentleness and justice, the adequate chastisement. It is written by St. Paul : " Provoke not your children to anger; but bring them up in the discipline and correction of the Lord " (Ephes. vi. 4). Parents should afford their children good example in words and ac- tions, for from whom would a child naturally take the impress of good or evil, if not from those in nearest relationship and closest contact.? Example given in tender years remains almost indelible, more especially if evil example, because of the usually corrupt inclination of our nature. Parents should procure for their children, as far as they are able, a situation or occupation in life suitable to their tastes, dispositions, and capabilities ; di- recting, advising, and consulting with them on the selection, with every care and consideration; but not opposing them in the choice of a "vocation," when there is full reason for feeling convinced that they have found their calling in life. Such opposition would be unjust toward God, toward their children, and toward them- selves ; because we ought all to follow that way, which God has marked out to lead us to Himself, more especially when there is question of a person called in a special manner to His service. There must always be one occupation, for which we have more taste, and aptitude, and in V(hich are provided the particular graces necessary for the better fulfillment of our duties, and the leading of a worthy life. In resisting the will of God in such mat- ters, parents compromise the happiness of their children in this world and in the next, and assume, by so doing, an im- mense responsibility, involving their own temporal and eternal peace.

    Parish and Parish Priest. — Gerson chancellor of the Sorbonne, was the first who, in the beginning of the fifteenth cen- tury, maintained that parish priests were instituted by Christ Himself. This is er- roneous; for in the first three centuries of the Church there were no parishes or par- ish priests in any part of the world. There was, in fact, but one church in the princi- pal city of the diocese, that is, in the city where the bishop resided. To this church

    all the Faithful, not merely of the city it- self, but also of the neighboring villages, went on Sundays to assist at Mass and re- ceive the sacraments. To the absent, holy communion was brought by the deacons. When the Faithful became more numer- ous, other churches were indeed built, even in the episcopal city ; but services were performed there by priests from the cathedral, not by parish priests, that is, not by priests permanently appointed to exercise the cura animarum over determi- nate congregations. Hence, there was but one parish in each diocese, namely, the cathedral. The bishop was, so to speak, the parish priest of, and exercised the cura throughout, the whole diocese, either personally or assisted by his priests. It was only after the third cen- tury that parishes were established, and that, at first, in rural districts only, and later on, that is, after the year 1000, in cities. Hence, parish priests are merely of ecclesiastical, not of divine, institution. Nor is the contrary provable from Sacred Scripture. For the word presbyteri, as mentioned in the texts quoted by our opponents, does not necessarily refer to parish priests, since, in the first ages, bishops were also called presbyteri. See Bishops.

    Parker (Matthew) (1504-1575). — In- truded archbishop, born at Norwick. Chaplain of Queen Anne Boleyn and of Henry VIII.; banished by Mary Tudor and called back by Elizabeth, was raised by her to the episcopate and appointed to the see of Canterbury; persecuted both the Puritans and Catholics.

    Parsism. See Zoroastrianism.

    Parthia. — In ancient geography, a coun- try in western Asia, situated east of Media and south of Hyrcania. It was the nucleus of the Parthian empire. Jews from Par- thia were present at Jerusalem at the Pen- tecost (Acts ii. 9).

    Paschal (name of two Popes) . — Paschal I. — Pope from 817 to 824. Successor of Stephen IV. Crowned Lothaire emperor of the West in 823 ; established at Rome a house of refuge for the persecuted Greeks. Paschal II. — Pope from 1099 to 11 18. Successor of Urban II. Formerly Cardinal Rainer, and monk of Cluny. He, indeed, pursued the same policy as Gregory VII., but did not possess the same firmness of character and knowledge of the world. In

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    Passion Sunday

    the Lateran Synod of the year 1102, he re- newed the prohibition of lay investiture and the ban against Henry IV. of Ger- many. There were two antipopes by the name of Paschal : in 694 and 1168.

    Paschal Candle. See Candle.

    Paschal Precept. See Communion.

    Paschasius Radbertus. See R a d-

    BERTUS.

    Passionists. — A religious congregation of priests, the object of whose institute, in- dicated by their name, is to preach " Jesus Christ and Him crucified." The founder, St. Paul of the Cross, was born in 1694, near Genoa, obtained the sanction of his community by Pope Benedict XIV. in 1741, and died at the mother-house of the Society on the Coelian Hill at Rome in 1775. The cross appears everywhere as their emblem, and a large crucifix forms a part of their striking costume. For a time the congregation remained in ob- scurity; but in the first half of the nine- teenth century it rose into notice. In 1842 it secured a footing in England. The American province, begun in 1852, num- bers many houses. The Passionists were introduced into the United States by the Right Rev. Michael O'Connor, bishop of Pittsburg.

    Passion Play is the name given to the portrayal of Our Lord's Passion, and other Biblical events in the series of tableaux vivants. In the Middle Ages, before the invention of printing had placed Holy Scripture within the reach of the people, it was customary to present to their view the chief events of Our Lord's life in the- atrical representations. For instance, St. Francis of Assisi, obtained the Papal per- mission to construct a stable of brushwood and moss in the midst of a pine wood. In it he placed a real manger in which was laid an image of the divine Infant, while figures representing Mary and Joseph stood beside it. A real ox and an ass were tied to a stall outside the stable; inside an altar was erected, at which at midnight the Christmas Mass was solemnly celebrated, St. Francis, serving as deacon, to the great edification of the crowds who flocked from all parts around to witness the unwonted spectacle. From that time forth, the custom of making a crib in churches began to prevail. In the Middle Ages, pains were taken to make representations of this

    description as picturesque and true to na- ture as possible ; scenes from the life of Our Lord or other spiritual personages were represented on the stage in tableaux. The subject of these religious dramas or miracle-plays, as they were called, was generally adapted to the season of the ec- clesiastical year in which they were per- formed. At first they were enacted in the Church, the actors speaking in Latin ; later on they were given in the open air, and the vernacular was used. In the fourteenth century, these sacred dramas were custom- ary in almost every village in France and Germany, but owing to abuses having arisen, they were strictly prohibited by the Holy See. In 1633, they were, however, revived at Oberammergau, in Bavaria, in consequence of a vow made by the inhabi- tants to perform a passion play every ten years if they were delivered from a pes- tilence which was ravaging the village. This passion play as well as two others in the Tyrol, has acquired a world-wide re- nown. It is performed with wonderful skill by the peasants, and in a spirit of heartfelt piety and recollection. Expe- rience proves that far from being, as some allege, a profanation of holy things, the representation of the solemn scenes of Our Lord's sacred passion has the effect of impressing and touching the spectators, inspiring feelings of devotion, and elevat- ing the heart so that the actors are forgotten in the entrancing interest of the scenes en- acted. Besides, the gracious answer to the petition of the people of Oberammer- gau ought to silence the objector, for that cannot be reprehensible of which God manifests His approval in so signal a man- ner.

    Passion Sunday. — The Sunday before Palm Sunday, so called, because from this day the Church occupies herself exclusively with the contemplation of the Passion and Death of the Saviour. The pictures of Christ crucified are covered on this day in memory of His having hidden Himself from the Jews until His entrance into Jeru- salem, no longer showing Himself in pub- lic (John xi. 54)11 In the Mass, the Glory be to the Father, etc., is omitted, because in the person of Christ the holy Trinity was dishonored. The Psalm Judica is not said, because on this day the high priests held council about our Lord, for which reason in the name of the suffering Saviour uses these words at thfe Introit: "Judge

    Passover

    526

    Paten

    me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the nation that is not holy : deliver me from the unjust and deceitful man, for Thou art my God and my strength," etc.

    Passover. — An annual feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the escape of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the first-born of the Egyptians, " passed over" the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the blood of the Paschal Lamb. It w.as celebrated on the evening of the 14th day of Abib or Nisan, the first month of the sacred year. The name is also used, by extension, to include the seven days that followed (from the 15th to the 22d of Nisan), during which the Israel- ites were permitted to eat only unleavened bread ; and hence the Passover is also known as the " feast of unleavened bread." Every householder with his family ate on the first evening a lamb killed by the priest (Ex. xii.), which was served without break- ing the bones.

    Pastor. — A title pre-eminently belong- ing to the Roman Pontiff, who in the collect Pro Papa is described as pastor ecclesice. It is also given to bishops and priests, each of whom are to lead, feed, and gently rule, like a shepherd, the flock committed to them.

    Pastoral Letter. — A letter addressed either at certain stated times, or on the oc- currence of some notable occasion, by a pastor, but especially by a bishop to the clergy under his jurisdiction, to the laity of his flock, or to both. It is usual for bishops, besides their stated letters, to ad- dress to their clergy or people instructions suited to any particular emergency which may arise, and sometimes to take occasion, from the issuing of the stated pastoral let- ter, to offer instruction on some topic of importance which may engage public at- tention at the time, on some prevelent abuse or scandal, or some apprehended danger to faith or morals.

    Pastoral Staff (sometimes also, although not properly, called "crosier.") One of the insignia of the episcopal ofiice, some- times also borne by an abbot. — It is a tall staff of metal, or of wood ornamented with metal, having, at least in the Western Church, the head curved in the form of a shepherd's crook, as a symbol of the pas- toral office. It is difficult to determine the time at which the pastoral staff first came

    into use. The first distinct allusion to it is in St. Augustine's commentary on the 124th Psalm. Gregory of Tours, in the Life of St. Martin, mentions the pastoral staff of St. Severinus, who was bishop of Cologne toward the end of the fourth cen- tury. From an early time the pastoral staff was connected with the actual posses- sion of the jurisdiction which it symbolizes.

    Patara. — In ancient geography, a city of Lycia, Asia Minor, east of the mouth of Zanthus, and opposite Rhodes. Here St. Paul on his last visit to Jerusalem re- embarked (Acts xxi. I, 2) for Phoenicia. It is now in ruins, but retains its ancient name.

    Patarini. — Name given to the followers of the deacon Ariald of Milan, who, in the middle of the eleventh century, attacked the marriage of certain clergymen as a great scandal, and especially after the ar- rival there of Peter Damianus as papal legate caused a great commotion. The name is derived from Pataria (a rag- picker'), a quarter of Milan inhabited by the rag-pickers who there, as in other Italian cities, formed a guild of their own. Patarini were also styled members of a Waldensian sect of the twelfth century. Says itself again, in general, of the here- tics of this time, whom they mostly desig- nated under the name of Albigenses.

    Paten. — A circular plate of silver, gilt, or of gold, used from the earliest times to receive the Host consecrated at Mass. It is consecrated with chrism by the bishop. In the primitive ages the number of those who partook of the blessed sacrament every Sunday, together with the priest, was very great, and, in consequence, the paten or sacred disc, from which the sac- ramental bread used to be distributed, was so large in its dimensions that convenience required its removal from the altar as soon as the oblation had been made, and not brought back until the period arrived for giving the communion to the people. In- stead of depositing the paten upon the credence table which stands near the altar, the Roman ritual considered it more deco- rous and appropriate to consign it to the sub- deacon, who, by holding it in an elevated position, might thus announce to the as- sembly that the period for receiving the blessed sacrament would very soon ap- proach, and silently admonish them to pray with greater fervor.

    Pater Noster

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    Patrick

    Pater Noster {Our I^atker).— The first two words of the Latin translation of the Lord's Prayer. In the Latin Church, the " Our Father " is recited at low, and sung at high Mass ; in the Greek Church, it is recited or chanted by all the people. In many parts of Asia, the sacrifice of the Mass is offered up in ancient Syriac ; in Africa, especially in Egypt, in ancient Coptic, once the common, but both for many centuries past, dead languages. Though the Asiatic and African Chris- tians of the present day speak a dialect quite different from the ancient Syriac and Coptic, with which they are utterly unac- quainted, still, in joining in the public offices and liturgy of the Church, they recite the " Our Father," etc., in the obso- lete language, although they possess ver- nacular translations of this prayer into Arabic, which they use in their private devotions. See Prayer.

    Patmos. — An island of the Sporades, belonging to Turkey, situated in the yEgean sea about 20 miles southwest of Samos, the modern Patmo or Patino. Here a monastery bears the name of John the Divine, and a cave is pointed out where, according to a legend, the Apostle and Evangelist saw the visions of the Apocalypse.

    Patriarchs. — Patriarchs are bishops who preside not merely over one diocese or province, but over several provinces or districts. The dignity of patriarch dates back to the Apostles ; the name came into use only from the time of the Council of Chalcedon. Formerly the patriarchs had power chiefly: To consecrate metropoli- tans and give them the pallium, to assist and preside at patriarchal or national councils ; to receive appeals from the sen- tence of metropolitans. These rights may be summed up thus : the jurisdiction exer- cised by patriarchs over metropolitans was similar to that exercised in turn by the metropolitans over their suffragan bishops. The four great patriarchates of the East- ern Church, namely, of Alexandria, Anti- och, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, having fallen into schism and heresy, have become extinct. The Holy See, however, in order to preserve the memory of these patriarch- ates, still creates titular patriarchs of these sees, who reside in Rome ; they have only the title of patriarchs, but no jurisdiction, except, however, the Patriarch of Jerusa- lem, who was sent to his see by Pope Pius

    IX., and occupies it at present. Besides these, there are still in the Oriental Church several actual patriarchs in communion with the Holy See. Thus, the Chaldeans, Melchites, Syrians, and Armenians, who are united with the Catholic Church, have their patriarchs, to whom the Holy See usually grants faculties similar to those enjoyed by the patriarchs of old. The Roman Pontiff is the patriarch of the Western or Latin Church. Besides, there are in the Latin Church the patriarchs of Lisbon, Venice, and the West Indies; they are called " minor patriarchs," and have only the title, not the jurisdiction, of patriarchs. The patriarchate itself is not of divine but of ecclesiastical institution.

    Patriarchs {Ancient). — The patriarchs of the primitive world are those of the descendants of Adam (who also belong to the descendants of Seth), who preserved tradition and the word of God, as well as fidelity in the obedience to the divine law, while the descendants of Cain delivered themselves to their passions. The Cainites lived in the East of Eden, after having separated from the descendants of Seth. Holy Scripture names eight generations of patriarchs of the primitive world, to whom they add Seth and Adam. The ten patri- archs before the Deluge are therefore : Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Malaleel, Jared, Henoch, Mathusala, Lamech, and Noe. After the Deluge, the name of patriarch is also given to Sem, Arphaxad, Cainan, Sale, Heber, Phaleg, Reu, Sarug, Nachor, Thare, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The patriarchs until Noe lived to a very old age. All appears to attest that not only human life, but also that of vegetables and animal species, which existed in the ages of the primitive world, had a consid- erable duration, which was gradually re- duced. This general account is admitted by science.

    Patrick (St.). — Apostle and patron of Ireland. Up to the fifth century, Chris- tianity had made but little progress in Ireland. It is to St. Patrick alone, that the island owes its complete conversion. So blessed were his efforts, that in a short time, the people were fervent and faithful Christians. On the authority of our Saint's own confession and the traditions of the Scottish Church, Dr. Moran, now Cardinal archbishop of Sidney, has clearly shown that the Apostle of Ireland was born at Old-Kilpatrick, between Alcluaid, now

    Patrimony of St. Peter

    528

    Patrology

    called Dumbarton, and Glasgow, in Scot- land, about the year 387. Other accounts make him a native of Armorica, Gaul. He was the son of Calpurnius, of illustrious Celtic descent, and of Conchessa, who is said to have been a near relative, probably the sister of St. Martin of Tours. While yet in his boyhood, Patrick was led a cap- tive to Ireland, and there he was obliged to act as herdsman. Being by divine in- terposition freed from captivity, he re- solved to dedicate himself to the service of God. By divers visions God manifested to him that he was destined for the great work of converting Ireland. Day and night he was hunted by the pagan country, in which he had spent six years of servi- tude, and the character of whose people he so well understood. It was at the famous schools of St. Martin at Tours, and of Lerins, that our Saint prepared himself for the missionary career. At the solicita- tion of St. Germanus of Auxerre, his spiritual adviser, Patrick proceeded to Rome in company with the pious priest Segetius, who was instructed by Germanus to attest the virtues and excellence of our Saint. Patrick's baptismal name was Succath ; at the time of his ordination it was changed to Magonius ; but Pope Celestine I., to add dignity to the Saint's mission, conferred on him the Patrician order, which had been instituted by Con- stantine the Great, whence he was after- wards generally called "Patricius." Having received episcopal consecration, Patrick set out for Ireland, and, assisted by Aux- ilius, Iserninus and some others, com- menced the arduous task of a nation's con- version, with all the advantages of profound learning and piety, and of a personal knowledge of the people, their language and manners. Before the arrival of St. Patrick, the Irish were pagans, worshiping the sun and the stars; hills and mountains were the places of their religious services. His first convert was a chief named Dicho, who in proof of his sincerity built a church in Down. Thence our Saint proceeded to Tara, in the present county of Meath, where he preached on the eve of Easter before the Monarch Leaguaire, and bap- tized many of the Druids, lords, and court- iers. Patrick traveled over the whole island, visiting every province. Such was the fruit of his preaching that the conver- sions soon numbered by tens of thousands. In 445 St. Patrick founded the metropolitan see of Armagh, and thus laid the founda-

    tion of the primatial see of "All Ireland." In the year 450 St. Patrick held a synod to regulate the discipline of the Church which he had founded. His missionary success is without parallel in the history of the Church. In the course of about fifty years, a whole nation, including rulers and princes, men and women, was won over to Christianity without the shedding of a single drop of blood. Sees were founded in all parts of the island, bishops conse- crated, and priests ordained; churches were built and monasteries erected, which became famous seats of piety and learning, and nurseries of faith for other nations. During the latter part of his Apostolic life, St. Patrick composed the treatise known by the name of " St. Patrick's Con- fessions," in which with fervent gratitude he records the divine favors towards him- self and the nation to which he had been sent. He died March 17th, a. v., 493, in the monastery of Saul, the first of his foundations. F. March 17th.

    Patrimony of St. Peter. See Pkpin the

    Short ; Power ( Temporal).

    Patripassians. See Monarcians.

    Patrology (knowledge of the writings of the Doctors and Fathers of the Church). — We must not confound this science with the patristic science which also treats of the holy Fathers, but solely from the doc- trinal point of view. Patrology may be divided into two parts : it is general and special, i. The general part indicates by what signs we may indicate the holy Fa- thers, shows their authority in everything that concerns religion, and discusses the authenticity of their works ; establishes the means to understand them, presents, from the point of view of ancient language and philosophy, the difficulty of their in- terpretation, a difficulty which resides either in the matter or form, or in the cir- cumstances of time and place where they were written. 2. The special part treats of each Father in particular; it is subdi- vided into several sections : the Apostolic Fathers and the Apologists of the second and third centuries; the Fathers of the fourth century form a very important group whose task it was to combat the heresy of the Arians and Macedonians in regard to the Most Holy Trinity; about the end of the fourth century appears a new group, which occupied itself espe- cially with the interpretation of Holy

    Patron Saint

    529

    Paul

    Scripture. They are: St. Ephrem, St. Chrysostom, and St. Jerome. In the fifth century, it is St. Augustine, who alone combats the Donatists and Pelagians, and comes forth victorious. Then, when Nes- torius came to trouble the Church by at- tacking the sacred person of the Saviour Himself, the champions did not fail ; at their head, let us quote St. Cyril of Alex- andria. Finally, when the Church had to defend the two natures in Jesus Christ against Eutyches, the great Pope Leo I. upheld the Catholic doctrine and carried the victory. Although the Fathers were always held in high esteem, patrology is quite a new science. Only about the latter half of the last century, the first patrologies, properly speaking, appeared. In order to solve the numerous difficulties it comes across, patrology makes use of most of the other sciences : theology, linguistics, eth- nography, mythology, general history of the Church, and the biography of each Father. Finally, it concludes on the use which can be made of the Fathers, either from the dogmatic or moral point of view.

    Patron Saint (special guardian or pro- tector). — The saint to whom a church has been dedicated and who is looked upon by a country, city, congregation, confraternity, or community as its special protector. The institution of patron saints of churches, kingdoms, and prov- inces, is as old as the veneration of the saints. Since the most remote antiquity, the Church has chosen for special patrons of certain countries those saints who ex- ercised in certain localities a peculiar in- fluence, such as St. Polycarp, at Smyrna, St. Ignatius, at Antioch, St. Remigius, in France, etc.

    Paul (name of five Popes). — Paul I. — Pope from 757 to 767. Roman by birth, successor of Stephen II. He had to de- fend the Christians of the East against the persecutions of Emperor Constantine Copronymus. Paul II. — Pope from 1464 to 1471. He was a liberal patron of arts and letters, has been unjustly assailed, particularly by Platina, out of spite for abolishing the office of '* Abreviators " io the Papal chancery, among the clerks of which great abuses prevailed. He is cen- sured for his excessive prodigality, and for raising three of his nephews to the dignity of cardinals. Nepotism, however, was universally practiced in those days, and considered less odious than at pres-

    34

    ent. Paul II. showed himself a firm and watchful Pontiff. Paul III. — Pope from 1534 to 1549. Successor of Clemens VII. He convoked the Holy Ecumenical Coun- cil of Trent, which was opened Dec. 13th, 1545. Excommunicated Henry VIII. of England as abettor of a schism and of heresy, became the ally of Charles V. of Spain, and protected the Jesuits in their work of foreign missions to which they commenced to deliver themselves in the East. Paul IV. — Pope from 1555 to 1559. During his troubled Pontificate no attempt was made to reconvene the Coun- cil of Trent. Paul IV. earnestly sup- ported Queen Mary in her efforts to re- store the Catholic religion in England. Charles V. of Spain, having abdicated without consulting the Holy See, Paul refused to recognize the elevation of Ferdinand to the Empire. The Roman emperor, henceforth, not being crowned but merely "elected," had, from that time no other relations with the Holy See than those of other sovereigns. Paul V. — Pope from 1605 to 1621. He became in- volved in a dispute with the republic of Venice respecting the imprisonment of several ecclesiastics and the passing of laws which prohibited the founding of religious and charitable institutions, and the acquisition of landed property by the Church, without State approval. He excommunicated the Doge and laid Venice under an interdict. The dispute was set- tled to the advantage of the Church, through the mediation of the French king, in 1607. Paul introduced the "Forty Hours' Adoration" and com- pleted St. Peter's Church at Rome.

    Paul (St.). — Apostle of the Gentiles, born in the year 2 a. d., of Jewish parents of the tribe of Benjamin, at Tarsus in Cili- cia, a city which enjoyed Roman citizen- ship ; martyred at Rome in the year 67. Named Saul at his birth,' he was sent to Jerusalem to become a disciple of the famous Doctor Gamaliel. He was an his way to Damascus, when our Lord appeared to him. The violent enemy of the Chris- tians was converted (37) and baptized. He remained three days in solitude, then went to Jerusalem " to gee Peter." At Antioch he was ordained, and officially recognized as an Apostle of the Gospel. In company with Barnabas he set out on his first mis- sionary journey (45-48) to Cyprus, where he converted the proconsul, Sergius

    Paul

    530

    Paula

    Paulus; thence he passed to Asia Minor, spreading the Gospel and strengthening the Faithful in the faith of Christ. By prayer, fasting, and imposition of hands, he ordained bishops and priests to govern the new congregations, and then returned to Antioch. A great controversy had arisen in the Church of this city. The Jewish Christians contended that the Gen- tiles, who were admitted into the Church without circumcision, should be made sub- ject to the law of Moses. The difficulty was settled by the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem (50) in these words : " It hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us to lay no further burden upon you than these necessary things, that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication" (Acts xv. 28). In considera- tion of the Jewish Christians, Peter had up to this time, observed the Mosaic law; Paul reproved him, fearing that the pagan con- verts might be led astray if the Head of the Church continued to observe the law of circumcision. As to the matter itself, both Apostles were of one mind. In the year 52-55, St. Paul set out on his second missionary journey. It .extended to Asia Minor, Macedonia, Athens, Corinth, Ephe- sus, and Antioch. On his third missionary journey, which lasted from 55-58, St. Paul went to Asia Minor, remained a long time at Ephesus, then visited Corinth, Mace- donia, Miletus, Caesarea, and Jerusalem. Immediately upon his arrival at Jerusalem, the Jews attempted to put him to death (58), but the guard of the temple freed him. Having spent two years in prison at Caesarea (59-61), St. Paul appealed to Caesar, was sent to Rome, where he was again imprisoned for two years (61-63). Having recovered his freedom (64), he went to the far West (Spain), thence to Asia Minor, Macedonia, Crete, was again sent to prison and beheaded in Rome, June 29th. A. D. 67. E. June 29th. Feast of St. Paul's Conversion, Jan. 25th. We have fourteen canonical letters from St. Paul, which are addressed partly to one or sev- eral congregations, partly to certain per- sons (Timothy, Titus, Philemon).

    Paul (St.) (228-342). — First hermit and surnamed " the Father of Hermits"; was born at Thebes in Upper Egypt. During the Decian persecution he fled into the desert of the Thebaid, and lived there in a cave to the great age of one hundred and

    thirteen years, practicing austere penance and occupied in prayer and contemplation. His life was written by St. Jerome. F. Jan. 13th.

    Paul (St.). — Patriarch of Constantino- ple and martyr. Born at Thessalonica, elected bishop in 340. Repeatedly driven away by the Arians, restored by Pope St. Julius, then exiled by the Arian Emperor Constans to the Chersonesus, where he died a martyr. He was strangled by his enemies. F. June 7th.

    Paul of the Cross. See Passion ists.

    Paul of Samosata. See Paulianists.

    Paul (Vincent de). — One of the most eminent saints of the modern Catholic Church, was born in the year 1576. The indications of ability which he exhibited led to his being sent to school at Toulouse. He was admitted to priest's orders in 1600. He laid the foundation of what eventually grew into the great and influential Congre- gation of " Priests of the Missions." (See L^zarists.) Vincent's preaching was of the most simple kind, singularly affecting and impressive. He founded the order of the " Daughters of Charity" at Paris in 1634. The order is popularly known in this country by the title of " The Sisters of Charity," or "Grey Nuns," and its mem- bers have won for their order as well as themselves the admiration, esteem, and well-deserved praise of the whole nation, for their godlike ministration to the sick and aflflicted, during times of war and peace. St. Vincent died at the advanced age of eighty-five, at St. Lazare, Sept. 27th, 1660; and was canonized by Clement XII. in 1737. F. July 19th.

    Paula (St.) (347-404). — Roman lady, descended through her father Rogatus of Greek origin, from the famous Agamem- non, and through her mother Blesilla, from the Scipions and Gracii. Widow at the age of 31, the first in the Senate of the Ro- man Matrons, she abandoned her riches and country to devote herself to a penitent life. After a voyage into Palestine, she retired with her daughter Eustochia to Bethlehem, where she founded several monasteries under the direction of the great St. Jerome, and also an asylum for pilgrims, on the site of which arose the modern convent of the Franciscans. F. Jan. 26th.

    Paulianists

    531

    Pelagius

    Paulianists. — Heretics and followers of Paul of Samosata, the proud Bishop of An- tioch, about the year 360. He maintained that Christ, though begotten of the Holy Ghost and born of a virgin, was no more than a mere man in whom the divine Logos, the wisdom of God, dwelt not as a person but as a quality or power. Two Councils held at Antioch examined and condemned his teaching, but owing to various arts and subterfuges and by professing submission, the heresiarch managed to escape personal anathema until at last, in a third Council convened, in 269, in the same city, his guilt was unmasked, he was convicted of heresy and deposed as Bishop of Antioch. The ♦' Samosatians " or " Paulinianists," as his followers were called, continued as a dis- tinct sect down to the fourth century.

    Paulicians. — Members of a Manichean sect of the seventh century, founded by a certain Constantine of Samosata. Since the name Manichean had become odious, he gave to his followers the title of Pauli- cians about the year 681, under pretext that they followed only the doctrine of St. Paul. The Emperor Nicephorus protected them. They spread and extended their influence westward to Thrace and Bulgaria, and thence passed into Italy and southern France.

    Paulinus (St.) (353-431).— Born at Bor- deaux of a wealthy and ancient senatorial family. His acquaintance with Sts. Am- brose, Augustine, and Jerome, induced him to give up all his dignities and retire from the world. In 409, he became bishop of Nola in Campania. Many of the works of this distinguished Father are lost; there only remain, besides 30 poems, 50 letters written to friends, such as Sulpicius Sev- erus, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and other distinguished contemporaries. F. June

    22d.

    Paulinus (St.). — Bishop of Treves in 349, born at Poitou, France. Deposed by the Arians in 353, he was banished to Phrygia, where he died in 353.

    Paulinus (St.). — Patriarch of Acquileia, born at Strasburg about 726. Friend of Alcuin and one of the counsellors of Charle- magne. Contributed a good deal to the conversion of the Avares and combated the Nestorian heresy of Elipandus of Toledo, and Felix of Urgel. F. Jan. nth.

    Paulist Fathers. — An American Catho- lic missionary society, organized in New York city in 1858, and approved by Pope Pius IX. The society was originally, and for some years afterwards, composed ex- clusively of priests, who, like its founder, Father Isaac Thomas Hecker, were con- verts from Protestantism. They take no special vows, and can leave the order at will. They aim to adapt themselves to the usages and needs of American life. They are known collectively as the " Con- gregation of St. Paul the Apostle." See Hecker.

    Pax. See Kiss of Peace.

    Pax Vobis. — Latin words said by the bishop after the Gloria in excelsis. If the Gloria be not said, then the bishop's salu- tation is the same as the priest's : Dominus V obi scum.

    Pectoral Cross. — In the early ages of the Church, the Faithful, both men and women, wore a small cross pendant from the neck. To perpetuate this venerable usage as far as lay in her power, the Church wished that her Pontiffs should carry a cross on their breast, especially when celebrating the holy mysteries. This cross, set before the bishop, reminds him, both of God who died for him, and of the martyrs, who sealed with their blood the faith that he professes and teaches. The pectoral cross contains relics of mar- tyrs, as is shown by the prayer which the bishop says when he takes it.

    Pelagius (name of two Popes). — Pela- gius I. — Pope from 555 to 560. Roman by birth, took possession of the Holy See without waiting for his election. Com- menced the Church of St. Philip and of St. James, at Rome ; died without putting an end to the schism which his usurpation had caused. Pelagius II. — Pope from 578 to 590. Born at Rome, wrote to the bishops of Istria who did not adhere to the condemnation of the " Three Chap- ters."

    Pelagius and Pelagianism. — Pelagius, born in England, became a monk at Bangor, Wales. He came to Rome about the year 400 for the purpose of continuing his studies. Here he embraced the errors of Rufinus, concerning the exemption of hu- man nature from inborn and inherited cor- ruption. During the ten years of his stay at Rome, he occupied himself in writing

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    commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul, into which he introduced many heterodox opinions on original sin, free will, and grace. The fundamental error of Pelagius was the denial of original sin, and of the necessity of divine grace for man. He taught: I. Adam was created mortal, and would have died whether he had sinned or not. 2. Adam's sin injured only himself and not the human race. 3. Newborn in- fants are in the same condition in which Adam was before his fall. 4. The sin of Adam is not the cause of death, nor is the resurrection of the flesh the consequence of the resurrection of Christ. 5. The law of Moses is as good a means of salvation as the Gospel of Christ. 6. Even before the coming of Christ, there were impec- cable men, that is, men without sin. 7. Charity is no gift of God. 8. Prayer is not necessary to acquire the grace of conver- sion or of perseverance, because all this is in the power of free will. Condemned by Pope Zozimus and, after having taught the above errors in Italy, Africa, and Palestine, he spread them in his own country, which determined the bishops of Gaul to send St. Germain of Auxerre to Wales to refute them.

    Penance {Sacrament of). — Penance is a sacrament instituted by the infinite mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins committed after baptism, through contrition, confession, satisfaction, and absolution, wherein the pentinent is forgiven by God through the agency of His minister, the priest, acting on the authority of our Saviour. The forgive- ness of sin, by perfect contrition, was brought about before the coming of our Lord, much less easily and efTectually than by means of the sacrament of penance. Perfect contrition is, however, still suffi- cient for the remission of eternal punish- ment due to sin, whenever the sacrament of penance be not procurable and is ear- nestly desired.

    Our Lord instituted the sacrament of penance and gave to His Apostles, to their legitimate successors, and to those author- ized by them, power, in His name, to pardon sins or to retain them according to their judgment of the dispositions of the penitent. This he did when He said to his disciples : " Peace be unto you. As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you. . . . Whose sins you shall forgive, thej are forgiven them; and whose sins

    you shall retain, they aie retained " ( John XX. 23). The confession of sins alluded to by St. James, who says: *' Confess therefore your sins one to another" ( Jas. v. 16), — so often misun- derstood by Protestants, — concerns the sacrament of extreme unction, as may clearly be seen from the context, which expressly mentions the administration of that sacrament by " the priests of the Church " ( Jas. v. 14). These are naturally signified, in the previous quotation, as the authorized receivers of confession.

    By the remission of sins, sanctifying grace is communicated to the soul, whereof the act of absolution is the outward sign. This sacrament is therefore necessary for the salvation of those who have committed mortal sin after baptism, a truth defined by the Catholic Church to be an article of faith. The matter of this sacrament is commonly thought to consist in the con- trition, confession, and "satisfaction" of the penitent; and the form in the action and words of the priest in absolution. The words "penitence" and "penance" are derived from the Latin, and signify repent- ance and punishment. Penitence is a su- pernatural virtue ; its principle springing from divine grace, and its motive from sincere regret for having acted contrary to the will of God ; and it is a virtue abso- lutely necessary at all times for obtaining the pardon of mortal sin. Contrition, con- fession, and absolution are indispensable for the validity of the sacrament of pen- ance, for God cannot pardon sins that are not entirely repented of; and absolution given by the priest, in the name of our Saviour, depends on a full self-accusation on the part of the penitent.

    Contrition is a deep regret and detesta- tion of the sin perpetrated, with a firm purpose not to repeat the same, and a gen- eral resolve to correct the error of our ways. Thus, contrition includes two acts: heartfelt repentant grief, and a sincere resolution to avoid sinful habits in future. There are two kinds of contrition, the one called perfect contrition, and the other at- trition, or imperfect contrition; differing from each other by the motive inspiring them, and by the effects they produce. Perfect contrition has but one motive, consisting in love of God and a consequent horror of sin, as displeasing to God. This arises from absolute appreciation of His infinite goodness, the benefits received from Him, and the perfect love He has be-

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    stowed upon us through our Redeemer, Jesus Christ. By perfect contrition, which also includes the implicit desire for con- fession and absolution, as we have before stated, the stain of sin is eflfaced, and we re-enter a state of grace and reconciliation with God, even before receiving the sacra- ment of penance. Imperfect contrition, though prompted by supernatural mo- tives, is of an inferior quality, self largely entering into it in the fear of eternal pun- ishment, and a desire for everlasting hap- piness, but does not include a horror of venial sin. Imperfect contrition does not, of itself, reconcile us with God, but dis- poses us for the reception of forgiveness in the sacrament of penance. Though per- fect contrition is undoubtedly the more efficacious means of avoiding sin and gain- ing in grace, imperfect contrition suffices for the reception of the sacrament, pro- vided that it be free from willingness and desire to sin if the torments of hell and joys of heaven had no existence, and that it also includes a commencement, at least, of love for God.

    There are four qualities indispensable to contrition for sin. It must be internal, supernatural, sovereign, and universal. It must come from the heart in earnestness and sincerity of repentance; inspiring an act of will contrary to that which has in- duced sin, a detestation for any evil that may have separated us from God, and a firm purpose of amendment, not merely as spoken with the lips, but as coming from the inmost depths of the soul. It must be supernatural in its principle, through the help of divine grace, and supernatural in its motive ; the wish to please God and gain our eternal salvation, through love of our Creator, Benefactor, and Redeemer, and hopeful desire for pardon. It must be supreme ; that is, the love of God and ab- horrence of evil must predominate over all other feeling. Mortal sin, involving our greatest punishment here and greatest losses in eternity has the triple character of irreligion toward our Creator, ingrati- tude toward our Redeemer, and want of sorrow for such irreligion and ingratitude, so long as not effaced by sincere repent- ance. It must be universal for all mortal sins without exception, for there cannot be entire sincerity of contrition if we have sor- row for some grievous sins, and still main- tain affection for others just as grievous; nor can there be partial absolution, forgiv- ing one mortal sin and retaining another.

    Contrition of such a kind would be a prof- anation of the sacrament of penance. As venial sin is not incompatible with sancti- fying grace, it follows that some may be pardoned, while we have not contrition for others; but if we consciously withhold all sorrow for venial sins, absolution given for them alone would be invalid. Again, should we honestly think we have sufficient contrition without really possessing it, the absolution would be invalid. The firm de- termination and resolution of will which must accompany contritition is completely indispensable, being inseparable from true repentance. Otherwise confession would be useless, and furthermore a new sin would be committed by our insincerity of purpose in asking God's pardon for sins which we had no intention of trying to overcome, and would be liable to repeat upon the slightest provocation. We must not only have the strong desire to resist sin, but must carry out our resolution to conquer it by making a serious effort to correct deliberate venial sins, so frequently the forerunners of mortal sin; takingvigi- lant precautions against the gratification of our evil inclinations, and avoiding all occa- sions of temptation, to which we should probably yield. Hence, the penitent who neglects confession and communion, know- ing from experience that those sacraments are a necessary safeguard against his evil ways, has not the firm purpose needful in contrition. See Confession; Absolu- tion ; Satisfaction.

    Penance Books were works compiled for the instruction and guidance of the priests administering the sacrament of penance. They were in use among the British and Irish in the fifth century and in the Prank- ish kingdom at the time of St. Columban, in 615.

    Penitential Discipline. See Discipline.

    Penitential Psalms. — Seven Psalms of David, so called as being especially expres- sive of sorrow for sin, and accepted by Christian devotion as forms of prayer suit- able for the repentant sinner. These Psalms are: Ps. 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, and 143. These Psalms have been set apart from a very early period, and are referred to as such by Origen. They have a special place in the Roman Breviary, and more than one of the Popes attached an indul- gence to the recital of them. Pope Inno- cent III. ordered that they should be recited in Lent.

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    Penitentiary. — A term anciently applied to every priest that had the authorization from the bishop to hear confession. In our time, we call a penitentiary the one who, in cathedral churches, has received the power to absolve from reserved cases. The peni- tentiary or great penitentiary, is the eccle- siastic especially appointed by the bishop, to exercise that part of his episcopal power and to absolve the cases reserved to him. These functions are incompatible with those of the bishop's promoter or procura- tor, the penitentiary being a minister of mercy, the promoter being a minister of rigor and justice. The office of peniten- tiary is purely religious and no salary can be accepted for the fulfillment of its func- tions.

    Penitentiary's Court. — Office or tri- bunal in the court of Rome, in which are examined and delivered the bulls and secret dispensations that are considered as matters of conscience, for instance, dispensations from vows of perpetual chastity and of re- ligion, the absolution from censures, etc. This tribunal is of such a high antiquity, that we cannot fix its date of origin. If a penitent desires to obtain from the Pope a dispensation, or the absolution from some censure which regards the tribunal of the Penitentiary's Court, he may write or cause somebody else to write in whatever langviage it may be, to the Cardinal Grand Penitentiary of the Pope, by explaining to him the subject-matter about which he asks for dispensation, and by stating the reasons which he has for his request. To whomsoever a Brief of the Penitentiary's Court is addressed he cannot commit it to somebody else to execute ; but must execute it himself in the confessional, after having heard the confession of the penitent.

    Pentateuch (Authenticity of the). — The first book of the Old Testament is the Pentateuch. Of all the inspired writings, since Celsus and Julian the Apostate, this has been most often the target for the ene- mies of faith. In our time, they even go so far as to contest its rank ; they deny its authenticity, antiquity, and veracity. There is not one single chapter, almost not one single verse, against which they did not raise doubts or objections of all kinds. Hence we shall establish, first, its Mosaic origin; then we shall answer the objec- tions in detail, in order to justify this sacred Book against all the false accusa- tions of which it has been the object.

    The question of authenticity, that is, of the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch, is a capital question. It is, so to say, the ' foundation upon which rests the whole Biblical structure and consequently both the Jewish and Christian religions. If the history of the departure of the Israelites was written at the very period when this great event took place, and by the chief actor, then its testimony cannot be contro- verted, and bad faith alone can call into doubt the veracity of the facts of Exo- dus. If, on the contrary, it was drawn up several centuries afterwards, those who deny the inspiration of Holy Scripture can contest its authenticity and veracity in the name of criticism, and consider as myths the great events and miracles which brought about the deliverance of the He- brews from the Egyptian yoke. Moreover, they have the right to claim that the Pen- tateuch does not present the religious, intellectual, and moral state of the contem- poraries of Moses, but that of a later epoch, when civilization had progressed, when religion had become more perfect, and when legislation had more or less formed itself. In this case the Mosaic law might not be the fruit of revelation, but of the natural progress of the human mind. Thus the supernatural character of religion and of the Hebrew institutions would be greatly altered, or rather destroyed, and although the theologian may always be armed to defend the first books of the Old Testament in the name of faith, the critic is this no longer against infidelity which rejects, on the one hand, the decisions of the Church, and refuses, on the other, the authority of a history written a long time after the events it relates, and the testi- monies which it is impossible to check and verify. Thus, aside from the authority of the Church, the divine origin of the Jewish Law, the vocation of the chosen people, the primitive revelation, — in one word, all the great facts which are the basis of Christianity, — become suspicious and doubtful.

    The importance of the question of the antiquity of the Pentateuch explains to us the rage with which infidels continually re- turn to the attack on the traditional belief. They desire to overthrow this strong wall in order to enter the heart of the place, for they know very well that all their efforts against religion will be in vain as long as they have not destroyed the fortress which defends it. Under the appearance of a

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    literary question, the principle of religion is at stake. The question is not so much who is the author and what is the date of -the book, as how to destroy or defend the -existence of the supernatural and of reve- lation. The question of the origin of the Pentateuch has become the very question of revealed religion. In our time the de- bate on the Gospels and Epistles is put in the background, and critics occupy them- selves especially with the inquiry as to what epoch ascends the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in order to prove that the laws which they contain are not derived from Moses, but are the natural outgrowth of the develop- ment of the national life of Israel ; whence it would result that there is no Mosaic revelation.

    Therefore, we have to establish, in the first place, the authenticity of the Pen- tateuch, that is, that it was written in the time of the Exodus, as tradition, both the Jewish and Christian, has always believed and taught. Let us remark, however, that we do not need to maintain, and will not maintain, that the work of Moses has reached us in its absolute integrity, with- out any change, addition, alteration, or comment. More or less slight modifica- tions, made here and there, in the course of time, to this ancient history, either to complete it or to make it better under- stood, or to polish its language, do not prevent the whole from dating from the «poch of the departure from Egypt. The most severe critics unhesitatingly admit changes in regard to figures, places, and names, the addition of the account about the death of Moses at the end of Deuter- onomy, etc.

    Hence, we have to defend the authen- ticity of the Pentateuch only as to its sub- stance, without occupying ourselves with minor details which criticism might sus- picion of being interpolated or modified.

    The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch being thus understood, we shall establish it by callingattention, first, to the testimonies by which it is supported, and secondly, by exposing the arguments drawn from the study of its contents.

    I. Extrinsic Proofs of the Authen- ticity OF THE Pentateuch, i. Testi- monies of Christ and of His Apostles. — Christian tradition has always been unanimous in attributing to Moses the composition of the Pentateuch. The Fathers, Doctors, Catholic interpreters

    and commentators have never differed as to this point, and the Council of Trent has been the faithful echo of the belief of the Church in naming Moses, in the Canon of the Sci-iptures, as the author of the first five books of the Bible. The Church her- self has received this belief from the Syna- gogue. In fact it is certain that in the epoch of our Lord, the Jews attributed the Pentateuch to Moses. This is clearly established from the words of Jesus Christ reported in the Gospels, as well as from the numerous passages of the New Testa- ment and from the writings of Philo and Josephus.

    Our Saviour speaks of Moses in sixteen passages of the Gospel. In two of them, it is in regard to important events of Exo- dus (John iii. 14; vi. 32). In two other places, we have an allusion to the legislator of the Hebrews, and the terms employed in the second case are worthy of remark : " Is it not Moses that has given you the law?" (Matt, xxiii. 2 ; John vii. 19.) The Saviour speaks repeatedly of certain pre- scriptions of the Pentateuch (Matt, viii.4; Mark vii. 10; Luke xx. 37; John vii. 22, 23; etc.), so that we can hardly believe, as some critics pretend, that He simply ac- commodated Himself to the popular belief in attributing them to Moses; thus, when He says that Moses passed laws concerning leprosy (Lev. xiii., xiv.), obedience to parents (Ex. xx. 12), divorce (Deut. xxiv. 1-4; Mark x. 5). Speaking of the Old Testament in St. Mark and St. Luke, He repeatedly names "The Book of Moses," " Moses and the Prophets," "the law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms" (Mark xii. 26; Luke xvi. 29, 31; xxiv. 44). Finally, in St. John (v. 45-47), He appeals to the -writings of Moses, as giving testimony of His person, and He adds that if the Jews who hear Him really believe in Moses, they ought to believe also in Him, because Moses wrote of Him. His Apostles and disciples have expressed themselves in the same manner about the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch (Luke xvi. 20; xxiv. 27; Acts iii. 22; xv. 21; xxvi. 22; xxviii. 23; Rom. v. 13, 14; x. 5, 19; etc.).

    2. yewish Literature. — Philo tells us that Moses " wrote sacred volumes, of which one portion is historical and the other contains precepts and prohibitions." " He does not resemble," he adds, " the other writers, but wishes to show that God is the Greater of the Universe " {De

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    Vita Mosis, 1. 11). Josephus expressly at- tributes five books to Moses {Contra Apionetn, I. 8), and he remarks that they begin with the account of the creation of the world. The Talmud, that great col- lection of all the Jewish traditions, formally teaches that Moses wrote the Pentateuch. It goes even beyond the truth, saying that all its words were orally dictated to their author. Among the Rabbis there is only disagreement in regard to the last verses of Deuteronomy, some maintain the singu- lar opinion that Moses relates therein, by anticipation, his own death which God had revealed to him ; others believe, not without probability, that Josue completed with this account the history of the Jewish legislator.

    Be it as it may with regard to the latter point, the Talmudists, by attributing to Mo- ses the composition of the Pentateuch, were undoubtedly only echoing the belief of their fathers. The Samaritans, enemies of the Jews, do not express themselves any difJerent from them. The author of the Second Book of the Machabees, that of Ecclesiasticus, Paralipomenons, of the Third and Fourth Books of Kings, Esdras, Nehemias, all speak in the same manner of the book and law of Moses (II. Mach. vii. 6; Ecclus. xxiv. 33; II. Par. xxiii. 18; XXV. 4; xxxiv. 14; XXXV. 12; I. Esd. iii. 2; iv. 18; II. Esd. xiii. i ; III. Ki. ii. 3; IV. Ki. X. 31 ; etc.). Thus we may go back to the Book of Josue, written before the reign of Saul; "the book of the law" is repeatedly quoted therein (Jos. viii. 31; xxiii. 6).

    Hence the entire Hebrew literatura renders testimony of the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch. Both the historical and prophetic books which do not quote Moses in explicit terms do this at least in an in- direct manner by way of allusions and borrowings. The angel who appears at the beginning of the Book of Judges draws the discourses which he addresses to the Israelites from Exodus and Numbers (Jud. ii. 1-3; cf. Ex. xxiii. 22, 23; xxxiv. 12, 13, 15 ; Num. xxxiii. 55 ; Deut. vii. i, 5, 12) ; the unnamed prophet who reproaches the tribes of the North with infidelity repeats to them words from Exodus (Jud. vi. 8-10; cf. Ex. XX. 2, 3; xxiii. 24), and the message which Jephte sends to the Ammonites is only an abridgment of several chapters of Numbers (Jud. xi. 15-27; cf. Num. xx- xxii). All the. other writers of the Old Testament draw, more or less, from this

    abundant source of the Pentateuch. "The Jewish people with its entire history and literature, is like a living, indestructible, and unalterable papyrus, on which is writ- ten, as by the finger of God, the text of the Thorah. The history posterior to Moses presupposes the law of Sinai as the written law; the literature posterior to Moses, both ancient and modern, attests by its numerous voices the priority of the Thorah in its actual form. ... In one word, the historical, prophetical, didactic, and poetical books of Israel have their founda- tion and roots in the law of Moses" (Fr. Delitzsch, Die Genesis). Such a precise, constant, and universal tradition explains itself only through the existence of the Pentateuch from the beginning of the his- tory of Israel.

    Deuteronomy teaches in formal terms that "Moses wrote the law and gave it to the priests, children of Levi, who carried the Ark of the Covenant of Jehovah, and to all the ancients of Israel" (Deut. xxxi. 9; cf. xxxi. 24). Some extend the meaning of the word "law" to the whole Penta- teuch ; others restrain it to Deuteronomy, but, even in the latter interpretation, this passage furnishes a more or less indirect proof of the Mosaic origin of the four other books of the Pentateuch ; for the fifth, being only an abridgment of the fore- going, necessarily presupposes their exist- ence. Besides, Exodus speaks of " the book" in which the deliverer of Israel re- ceives the order to write the divine pre- scription to root out the Amalekites (Ex. xvii. 14). It is also said that Moses wrote the words of the law in "the Book of the Covenant," and that then he read it to the people (Ex. xxiv. 4, 7). The list of the en- campments of Israel which we read in Numbers (xxxiii. 2) is expressly attrib- uted to Moses.

    Independently of these explicit testimo- nies, we find in the Pentateuch a number of expressions and reflections which fix the date of its composition, because they prove that at the time when the author lived, the Israelites were not yet in the Promised Land. This is what we are going to estab- lish by the examination of the contents of the Pentateuch.

    II. Intrinsic Proofs OF THE Authen- ticity OF THE Pentateuch, i. How We can Determine -whether the Penta- teuch -was Written at the Time of the Exodus. — Before establishing the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch by the examina-

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    tion of its contents, it is well to call to mind a few principles which will permit us to understand more easily what is go- ing to follow, and to seize better the bear- ing and value of the argument which we are going to set forth.

    Every book, even the inspired, bears the stamp of the time and place where it has been written. Nobody can completely rid himself from the surroundings in which he lives ; everyone shares more or less the preoccupations, ideas, passions, and needs of those with whom he lives, and he leaves the imprint of these ideas and passions in what he writes and does. Thus he marks unconsciously the period of time in which he lived ; for each cen- tury has its particular wants, diflferent tastes, peculiar tendencies, which cling to the circumstances, events, and surround- ings. When, therefore, it is possible to know in a certain and sufficiently charac- terized manner the time in which Moses lived, then it will be easy to weigh the testimony of the tradition which attributes to him the composition of the Pentateuch, and to assure ourselves that it has not been deceived. Now fortunately, nothing is easier. Although each century is dis- tinguished by particular traits, there are some whose physiognomy is more ex- pressive ; so, also, among men, who never look so completely alike but that there are always some peculiar features that dis- tinguish them from one another. In the history of the world there are critical moments ; in the history of nations there are revolutions which stir up the passions most vehemently, like the Crusades or the French Revolution. By a concourse of events and circumstances, sometimes a capital fact presents itself which decides the future and fixes the destinies of a peo- ple for centuries, like the victory of the Americans in the War of Independence. In the midst of extraordinary crises, phe- nomena exhibit themselves which do not reappear in any other period of a people's history.

    Moses did flourish in an epoch of this kind. During his life, the Israelites left Egypt, where they had been slaves, com- menced to lead an independent life, and set out for the conquest of Palestine. This is the gravest and most important event in a nation's history, for it is its birth to po- litical life. When we find in the Penta- teuch a trace of the various movements which such a revolution provoked in the

    minds ; when we find therein the faithful picture of the Exodus, with all its circum- stances and eventualities, we have a right to maintain that the work was written in that very epoch. Then, it is certain, the Israelites found themselves in a situation which does not present itself any more in their history.

    There are works which show more than any other the stamp of their century ; they are those which we call writings " of cir- cumstance," because they have been drawn up, not with a speculative or purely historical view, but with a view to the pres- ent moment, to answer to an actual and urgent want, on the occasion, for instance, of a great public danger, such as the apol- ogies of St. Justin and of Tertullian in the midst of the fires of persecution. Com- positions of this kind necessarily carry a sensible trace and the seal, so to say, of the events which have provoked their publica- tion, and thus it is easier to fix their date. If the Pentateuch were written by Moses, it must, by the very force of things, be partly a writing "of circumstance," and easy to recognize as such.

    With these principles before our mind, we must read the Pentateuch and meditate upon it, in order to find out whether it dates from the time of the Exodus or from a later epoch. Moses is an Israelite by origin ; does the author of the Pentateuch speak like an Israelite? Moses was raised in Egypt, lived in that country and in the peninsula of Sinai ; do we recognize in the book attributed to him that he did live in Egypt and Sinai, that he was raised at the court of the Pharaos, that he has been in contact with Egyptian society? Moses de- cided his brethren to leave the Nile valley, where they were oppressed, to go and sacrifice to the true God on Mount=Horeb, and then undertake the conquest of the land of Chanaan ; does the author of the Pentateuch express himself like a con- temporary, a witness of these events ? Can we, in a word, recognize in him a man that has seen the facts Avhich he relates, and whose soul has felt the emotions which the Exodus must have produced upon the Israelites?

    Such are the questions which we have to propose, and which we shall try to solve. We shall commence to show, in exposing the plan of the Pentateuch, that this book is not a simple collection of more or less disconnected pieces, more or less fitted together, but that it forms a consecutive

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    and well co-ordinated ensemble. Then we shall inquire whether it is really the work of Moses, by examining the design its au- thor had in view, and in what manner he accomplished it. Finally, we shall see whether all that it contains is becoming to the epoch of the Exodus.

    2. Plan of the Pentateuch. — A certain number of critics have denied the unity of the Pentateuch in general and of Genesis in particular. To believe them, the five books, which tradition attributes to Moses, are only an undigested compilation of va- rious pieces, in which we find neither imitv of composition nor unity of mind: repetitions abound, duplications are fre- quent, the language and style reveal different hands in the different portions; moreover, there are flagrant contradic- tions in the account of the same facts. Further on, we shall answer these objec- tions in detail; let us now establish the unity of the Pentateuch in a general man- ner.

    According to the actual division of our Bibles, the Pentateuch is divided into five books, known under the names of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuter- onomy ; but this arrangement does not go back to its composition. In keeping ac- coimt of the matters treated therein and of the plan followed, we ought to divide it into three parts : the introduction, the body of the account, and the recapitula- tion or summary of the principal points of the Mosaic law. The end, not the sole but the principal end of the work, is to make known that law and the circum- stances in which it was given, was, at the time when Israel became a people. All refers to this fundamental idea. Genesis is a real introduction, a worthy frontis- piece to the legislation of Sinai ; it relates the genealogy or origin of God's people from the creation of the world until the es- tablishment of the family of Jacob in the land of Gessen, in Egypt. In the valley of the Nile Israel ceases to be a simple family to become a nation. Here its na- tional history commenced when its people were cruelly persecuted. The account of this persecution opens with the book of Exodus, and with it the body of the work, which comprises, besides Exodus, Leviti- cus, and Numbers. These three books form only one whole; one distinguishes them from one another by their principal end, namely the leaving of Egypt in the first, the levitical ceremonial in the sec-

    ond, and the counting of the people in the third, but all three treat of the same subject, /. e., the law of Moses, with the circumstances that preceded, accom- panied and followed its promulgation. Genesis tells us of the covenant which God made with the race of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers teach us in what this covenant consisted and under what conditions it was concluded.

    Deuteronomy is connected with the two preceding portions, but is nevertheless a third part quite distinct in its plan and form. It contains the discourses pro- nounced by Moses, shortly before his death, in the plains of Moab. The legis- lator of the Hebrews sums up therein the chief points of the law, which he gave to his people, in the name of the Lord, and he urges them to be always faithful to it. The generation which left Egypt with him has paid already its tribute to death in the desert; it is necessary to make known to the sons, who soon will go and conquer the Promised Land, the command- ments that had been imposed upon their fathers. As the most of the legal pre- scriptions had been enacted only when circumstances required it, they are now presented in the Book of Deuteronomy as a whole and in a more methodic manner. Undoubtedly, we could conceive the work without this epilogue : however, Deuter- onomy forms an integral part of the Penta- teuch, for the fourth book does not com- plete the history of Moses. It is the fifth that contains the general conclusion, that is, the account of the last days of the He- brew legislator, his canticle and the bless- ings which he pronounces upon Israel, and even the circumstances of his death, added by a foreign. hand (probably by Josue), as the natural complement of a work destined to make known all this great man had done for his people. There- fore, the Pentateuch was drawn up accord- ing to a preconceived and faithfully followed plan.

    3. Authenticity of Genesis Proved by the Author'' s Particular End in View: to Determine the Israelites to Leave Egyft and to Go and Conquer the Promised Land. — After having established the unity of the Pentateuch by the general end which its author had in view and by the plan he followed there remains for us to discover who this author was, by examining the particular end he pursued in his work.

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    Besides the religious end, of which we have just spoken, the one who wrote the Pentateuch had, moreover, a particular end, namely, to determine the Israelites to leave Egypt and to go and conquer the Promised Land. This can be easily proved.

    It is well to remark that this double end in view, corresponds exactly to the double mission of MoseSi This great man had for his first mission, what we may call a uni- versal, lasting mission, because it interested all times to come : namely to make known the true God and to establish upon solid bases the religion of his people by giving to it a body of institutions and laws. But besides this first mission, he had a tempo- ral and passing one, of a civil and political character. It consisted in drawing out the Israelites from Egypt and leading them into the land of Chanaan, in order that an independent and social life might assure the maintainance and preservation of their religious traditions.

    The first part of his mission has been common to him, in several respects, with all the writers of the Old Testament, whose aim it has been to preserve, develop or to revive the religious spirit in the hearts of "their people. Hence this alone cannot serve us to determine the date of the Penta- teuch. But it is not the same with the sec- ond part of the mission of Moses. There has been, in sacred history, only one single period, when one had to induce Israel to leave Egypt and to go and conquer the land of Chanaan. Therefore, if there ex- ists a book that was clearly written with this particular design, it follows that it was written in that epoch ; if this book is the Pentateuch, it follows that the Pentateuch was written in the time of Moses. Now this point, it seems to us, can be easily proved by the examination of this great literary and sacred monument. When we study it carefully, we remark indeed that many pages of the Pentateuch were written only for the men who lived in the time of the Exodus. While all that concerns reli- gion, worship, ceremonies, civil and social prescriptions, addresses itself to all the generations of Israel, there are many de- tails which address themselves principally, or even exclusively, to the generation which lived in the time of Moses. Not only does the author speak to that genera- tion, but there are many things which he only could speak to them.

    This second design of the author of the Pentateuch corresponds, therefore, exactly

    to the second part of the mission of Moses, charged to lead Israel into the land of Chanaan.

    To execute this great project, Moses was assured of God's protection ; but never- theless he had to lead the Israelites to their end by ways of persuasion. He could not forcibly cause them to leave Egypt, where bondage had degraded them and where they opposed to him the most insurmounta- ble of obstacles : inertness. He could not determine them, without acting strongly upon their minds and hearts, to go into a desert without resources, with their wives and children, and to undertake, without arms, without preparations, running all the risks, braving all the dangers, the con- quest of a strong and powerful country, whose inhabitants were warlike, and whose mountains were inaccessible. What could he do to triumph over so many obstacles? How could he arouse the energy and will of this enslaved people .^ By two powerful means : by awakening in their drowsy souls the strongest sentiments of human nature, both the religious sentiment and filial love, and by presenting to them the land of Chanaan as the most desirable country and the most deserving to be coveted.

    It was this that Moses did. To induce the Israelites to undertake the conquest of Palestine, he reminded them in every manner, on every occasion, that religion imposed it as a duty upon them to go and occupy the land whose possession God had promised to them and which He had engaged Himself by an oath to put it into their hands. He reminded them that their an- cestors had lived there, had bought goods there, and were buried there ; finally, he depicted to them the country under the most attractive colors. By dint of placing these things before their eyes, he succeeded in his design ; he made them leave Egypt, led them into the desert, determined them to march against Palestine and to attempt, in one word, an undertaking which, humanly speaking, was senseless and im- possible.

    a. Promise -which God Made to Give the Land of Chanaan to the Israelites, and the Obligation -which this. Promise Imposed upon Them. — The most profound senti- ment in the hearts of the children of Jacob was the religious sentiment. It was also especially to this sentiment that the author of the Pentateuch appealed. Con- tinually he tries to reanimate their confi-

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    dence in Jehova. ToKionvince them that they ought to leave Eyypt, he repeats to them almost upon every page, that God has given to them the land of Chanaan and that He has promised to make them mas- ters of the whole country ; that He had re- vealed to their ancestors that their pos- terity should dwell for a long time on the shores of the Nile, but that the day would come when, the measure of the iniquities of the Chanaanites being full, the children of Jacob would enter into possession of the land which He had given them (Gen. xv. 13, 14, etc.). That day has come; God will be faithful to His word, but under the condition that the Israelites shall not re- sist His will; hence all must depart, — they must set out right away and go and collect the inheritance of their fathers. If they refuse to do this, then they show themselves distrustful of God and disobey His orders. This is the predominant thought of the Pentateuch.

    To show that God is faithful to His promises, the sacred writer quotes facts that are most proper to convince the Israelites : The Lord protected Abraham in Egypt and in the country of the Philis- tines, Isaac at Gerara, Jacob in Mesopota"- mia, and Joseph in Egypt (Gen. xvii. 17; XX.; xxvi.; xxviii.— xxxiii. ; xxxix.-jcli.) ; therefore He will protect the sons as He pro- tected the fathers, provided that the sons imitate the obedience of the fathers. But in what must this obedience consist? To leave Egypt and go into the land of Cha- naan. The Israelites cannot doubt that God will be faithful to His promises. Well, then, He has promised to them to give them the land of Chanaan. Here is the most important point of which they are to be reminded, and it is the one upon which the author of Genesis insists the most.

    One of the ends which he has most man- ifestly in view is to point out clearly this promise of God, because it gives them the right of ownership over Palestine, and thus obliges them to establish themselves there. He returns continually to this point ; for him it is a capital point. God, who never fails in His promises, has given, he says, to the children of Jacob the coun- try which extends itself on both shores of the Jordan. He points out in detail all the circumstances under which the country was promised to the heirs of Abraham. He relates the history of this promise from the very beginning. Nothing is neglected, nothing is forgotten. The writer presents

    first Thare and his son Abraham, the an- cestors of his race, at Ur, in Chaldea. Thare emigrated with his family to Haran. Here God speaks to Abraham (then only Abram) and says to him : " Come into the lan'd which I shall show thee " (Gen. xii. i). Such is the prelude of the promise and of the explicit donation which God will make later on.

    Abram obeys the order of God and arrives in the heart of Palestine, at Sichem : " Then," says the sacred text, " the Cha- naanean lived in the country " (xii. 6). And he immediately adds : " Jehovah appeared to Abram and said to him : I will give this land to thy seed" (xii. 7). Here is the formal and express promise of the dona- tion. Henceforth the land of Chanaan is the Promised Land.

    In all the principal events of the life of the holy Patriarch, God repeats His promise, and the sacred author records with the greatest exactitude the renewal of the divine engagements. When Lot sepa- rates himself from his uncle to go and live at Sodom, God tells the Patriarch that the descendants of his nephew, /. e., the Moab- ites and Ammonites will have no right to Palestine (xiii. 14-17). Also, Abram does not delay to behave himself there as master, almost like a sovereign. He places himself at the head of the men of the country and defeats the enemies who had come to attack it (xiv.) ; later on, the native kings make an alliance with him, and beseech his benevolence for their posterity ( xxi. 22-24). When he has gained his victory over Chodorlahomor, king of Elam, God again appears to him and announces to him that he would have a son. After Abram had offered a sacrifice to the Lord, Jehovah made a covenant with him, saying: "To thy seed I will give this land, from thef river of Egypt even to the great river Euphrates" (xv.). At the moment of the institution of circum- cision the donation is repeated (xvii. 8). When he sends Eliezer to seek a wife for his son Isaac in Mesopotamia, the Patri- arch remembers the divine promise (xxiv. 7). In fact, God not only promised, but " He has sworn " to give Palestine to the posterity of Abraham, and as the Lord cannot violate His promises, and much less His oaths, Israel cannot doubt that it will enter into possession of the Promised Land,since the hour announced has arrived. The author of the Pentateuch insists on this divine oath, and uses the strongest ex-

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    pressions to show its full solemnity : " He raised his hand to swear," he says.

    However, an objection quite naturally presented itself here to the mind of the Hebrews. They had to tell Moses : God has given the Promised Land to Abra- ham, our father; we are his descend- ants and can claim it by right. But we are not the only heirs of Abraham ; Lot ought to be his heir also ; the Moabites and the Ammonites, the Ismaelites and the Arabs, the children of Cetura and of Esau are our brethren. Was the land of Chanaan not promised to them as well as to us, and will they not dispute the posses- sion thereof? To answer this objection, the author of Genesis does not limit him- self to recording the divine declarations ; but he establishes the fact that they have been made exclusively in favor of the chil- dren of Jacob, and that God has eliminated from the patriarchal succession all those of their brethren that descend from Abra- ham and Isaac by other children than their father Jacob. Hence to them, and to them alone, belongs Palestine.

    b. Filial Piety Makes it a Duty to the Israelites to Depart for the PromisedLand. — But the author of Genesis appeals not only to the religious sentiment, but also to filial piety. There is question of taking such an imporant resolution that he neg- lects no means at his disposal to arrive at his end. The Israelites must depart for Palestine because God has given it to them, and to them alone ; they also should go there because there lived and are buried the Patriarchs, their ancestors, and because there they have acquired property. The sacred writer minutely notes the labors and purchases they made in the land of Chanaan.

    An entire chapter is devoted to the ac- count of the acquisition, by Abraham, of the cave of Makpelah, near Hebron. It is rather the minutes of a contract of sale than a story properly speaking. Every- thing is enumerated, even the trees grow- ing in the field where the cave is situated (Gen. xxiii.). Each of the members of the patriarchal family who were successively buried in the grotto is indicated. The author sums up the life of Abraham with the remark: "Abraham was a sojourner in the land of Palestine many days" (xxi. 34), as if he wished to say to his descend- ants : Behold the land where your ances- tor lived and died ; will you refuse to go and take it ? Just as Moses mentions the

    purchase of the cave of Makpelah by Abraham, he also mentions the purchase and price " of a portion of a field," made by Jacob at Bene-Hemor, near Sichem (xxxiii. 19). The wells dug by the Pa- triarchs are enumerated in the account of their migration. Moses promises to his people, in Deuteronomy, that God will give them, when they shall have taken possession of the Promised Land, " cis- terns which they did not dig, vineyards and olive-groves which they did not plant" (Deut. vi. 11). Therefore, do not the children of the Patriarchs desire to re- cover the property of their fathers? Do they not desire to get possession of their tombs? Jacob did not wish to be buried in Egypt, but had requested that his re- mains should be transferred to Makpelah (Gen. xlix. 29-31; i. 12, 13).

    Why does the author of Genesis insist on relating in detail these facts? Why these repetitions? He cannot have done this without design. It is evident that the one who wrote Genesis had a particular in- terest in returning so often to the same subject. The more these repetitions ap- pear inexplicable in themselves, the more it is clear that they must have their ex- planation in the circumstances under which they were written. What justifies them is the effect they ought to produce on the readers contemporary with Moses. Well, then, we now may ask, in what epoch could an historian attach such a value to the remembrance that the land of Chanaan had been given to the Hebrews, and that their ancestors had their tombs there? At what period could he feel the need of re- peating so often to the children of Jacob that Palestine was their inheritage, and that God had guaranteed to them its pos- session with an oath, to the exclusion of all the other members of the family ? Was it in the time of the Kings, when the Chanaanites had been driven away from it for a long time, when the Ammonites and Moabites, the Arabs and Idumeans had settled for centuries irt the East and South of Palestine, and when they were them- selves peaceable possessors of both shores of the Jordan ? Was it in the epoch of the Captivity, when nobody disputed that they were the masters thereof? In one word, was it in a time posterior to the conquest of Palestine and in the epoch of Josue?

    No, undoubtedly. This language would have been incomprehensible in these epochs of the history of God's people;

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    then it would have had neither meaning nor bearing. No man pleads a cause when it is gained. He proves his titles of proprietorship only when he wishes to take possession, or to justify his right against those who contest it. He recalls the promises with so much insistence only when he wishes to execute them. There was only one epoch when a Hebrew writer could speak as the author of Genesis speaks. This epoch was the one in which Moses had to determine the children of Jacob to leave the land of Egypt, which they were to regret so often (Ex. xvi. 3; XA-ii. 3, etc.), and to induce them to un- dertake the difficult conquest of the land of Chanaan. It was not, we repeat it, an easy task to move a people to risk every- thing in order to capture a strong and powerful country. To make the people take this energetic resolution, he had, in awakening all their religious and patriotic sentiments, to reanimate their confidence and assure the victory to them. In order to obtain this result the sacred writer shows to the Israelites that the land of Chanaan is the Promised Land, proves that it belongs to them, that it is their property, that God solemnly engaged Himself by an oath to put them in pos- session of this country whither he had called their fathers, and that it depended only upon them to conquer it and to be- come its masters. At that time, all the details, all the repetitions, explain and justify themselves; the least fact has a real importance. It is no longer useless and meaningless to remind them that Abraham had acquired a cave at Hebron, that Isaac had dug wells near Bersabee, that Jacob had bought a field at Sichem, that he wished to be buried in Palestine. Each of these remembrances is proper to enkindle in the soul of the Israelites the desire to conquer what had belonged to their fathers, because the children like to enter into possession of the goods of their ancestors and attach a particular value to them. It is not less to the purpose to make them remember on every occasion that the remains of their ancestors are buried in this country, at Makpelah, be- cause all consider it a sacred duty to keep their family tombs ; and that the remains of Joseph are still in Egypt, waiting to be carried along into the Promised Land.

    Thus, as much as the language of Gen- esis is inexplicable and unintelligible at any other time except that of the Exodus,

    so much is it clear and natural at the mo- ment when there is question of undertak- ing the conquest of Palestine and of inducing the people of Israel to bear the fatigues and dangers of a war of invasion. Therefore, Genesis could have been writ- ten only in the epoch of the Exodus, in the time of Moses. Everything therein is calculated to excite the desire to enter into possession of the Promised Land ; all tends toward this capital and final end Moses had in view. Genesis, in spite of the universal and lasting interest which it has for all time to come, has been above all a writ- ing composed for a determinate time and people, and thus it bears its date, like a discourse addressed by a general of an army to his soldiers at the moment of their entering into a campaign.

    4. Authenticity of the Last Four Books of the Pentateuch Prot'ed by the End Their A uthor Had in View. — When Moses has decided the Israelites to leave Egypt, the first part of his mission is ful- filled, but all is not done. They must really leave the country of Gessen, and, after the accomplishment of this great step, there still remains another one to be made : the conquest of Palestine. The scope of the author of the last four books of the Pentateuch, supposing that they have been written by Moses, must there- fore be to induce the children of Jacob to complete the work commenced, to uphold their courage, to animate their confidence, in making them triumph over all difficul- ties. Moreover, he must prepare them» by giving them a religious and civil law, to become the people of Jehovah, God's people. A posterior writer, relating ac- complished facts, would have had neither the same preoccupations, nor the same accent, as a contemporary writer, and es- pecially Moses, the chief actor in this revolution upon which depended the whole future of the Hebrews.

    Hence we can recognize Moses in Ex- odus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteron- omj' by the same signs as in Genesis. He had to allege to the Hebrews the same mo- tives, by adding new ones as circumstances suggested ; he had to insist on the partic- ular marks of protection which the Lord was going to lavish upon them, in order to make them persevere in the determination which they had taken. The law must con- tain traces of the surroundings among which it was given and of the character of the one who gives it ; finally, the remem-

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    brance of Egypt must be always present to the mind of the writer. Let us inquire whether these are really the traits which distinguish the last books of the Pentateuch.

    These books contain two distinct things : accounts of events and of laws. Let us study them successively.

    a. General Character of the Last Four Books of the Pentateuch. — In the first place, the accounts are such that the liber- ator of the Hebrews must have written them; such as he alone could write them. In fact, to what can they be reduced.? To show the difficulties which Moses experi- ences in upholding the twelve tribes in the desert, in preventing them from returning to Egypt, and in determining them to go into the land of Chanaan. He tells us nothing about things we might have liked to know, for instance, what the Hebrews did in Egypt after the death of Joseph until the beginning of the persecution, but, on the contrary, episodes which interest only his contemporaries. Henceforth, we are far removed from listening to that calm tone, from that idyllic simplicity, and often also from that austere grandeur of the accounts of Genesis ! Now, there are frequently quarrels of the household, so to say, that are related to us. Every mur- mur of the people is recorded. That which is most wounding, most stinging in the language of the revolters, is reported as it can be done only by the one who has felt the full force of the blow. Israel is not represented to us in its beautiful aspects, as a later admirer of his ances- tors would have done in relating this epic period of their history; on the con- trary, it is depicted in the worst light. The beginnings of the Jewish nation are not embellished, like those, for instance, of the Latins in the Eneid. Such is not the character of the narrator of the Exo- dus. He appears to us as a man who had been intimately mingled with the scenes he describes, who had suffered all kinds of resistance, and who sufTers them still. He does not idealize the Israelites ; he pre- sents them, on the contrary, under the most repulsive colors, as a strong-headed people (Ex. xxxii. 9; xxxiii. 3,5, etc.), al- ways stubborn, and destitute of any noble sentiments. This memorable fact of the departure from Egypt and of the triumph of a people casting off a heavy yoke to con- quer liberty and independence; this birth of a nation to public life, which would have furnished to a posterior writer the occa-

    sion to exalt the heroism of the Israelites, — all these great events are not to the glo- rification of the Hebrews, but, on the con- trary, are to their condemnation and shame. The Israelites were freed from bondage in spite of themselves ; God Himself through Moses, had to break their chains by force; not one single fea- ture is to their honor. Now then ! to speak thus of the enfranchisement of the children of Jacob, to have seen them under this aspect and with such eyes, the chroni- cler must have been not merely a witness, but must also have been, so to say, a vic- tim of them ; he must have suffered from the ingratitude and revolt of the people to have depicted them with so much bitter- ness. This tableau is certainly conforma- ble to historic truth, but an historian who had not been associated with the events could never have described them in such a manner.

    Already, when Israel is shut up between the army of the Pharao and the Red Sea, it cries out: "Perhaps there were no graves in Egypt, therefore, thou hast brought us to die in the wilderness.?" (Ex. xiv. II.) What a bitterness in these words ! How offensive must they have been to Moses ! When the Egyptians are engulfed in the Red Sea and the first dan- ger is passed, a not less dreadful one arises : famine. They are now in the open desert ; the provisions they have brought with them have lasted fourteen days (xvi. i) ; at the end of this time they are ex- hausted. How can provisions be procured in this desolate and dry country.? The dis- content breaks out anew (xvi. 3) ; very of- ten will these murmurs be heard, and they are always reported in a similar manner.

    To uphold the people in the desert, Moses employs the means by which he had succeeded so well in Egypt. He tells them what God has done to deliver them from the yoke of their oppressors ; he composes religious and patriotic songs, and spreads his narratives among the mul- titude; his chants repeated in choir by young maidens are like a potent beverage that strengthens and exalts them. Be- sides, the second part of the Pentateuch is not drawn up like the first. We no longer find in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers the minutely followed plan, the learned weft which we notice in Genesis. No. These books, forming the body of the work, are composed in a disconnected manner, and by snatches, so to say, ac-

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    cording to the occasion and circum- stances. The plan and order have not been determined beforehand like for Genesis ; it is rather a journal than a book ; each great event and all the new laws are recorded in a somewhat desultory manner. It can be easily seen that the author notes the laws and facts as they present themselves. The people consulted Moses in all their em- barrassments. When the question was worth the while, the legislator wrote his decision in his journal in the order of its happening. Thus the law concerning the deposits (Lev. vi. 1-7) is found like a waif in the midst of the regulations concerning the sacrifices, of which there is mention before and after. A later writer would never have been guilty of such confusion, but here this disorder is like a certificate of origin. The author did not intend to furnish a refined and polished work, but a work that carried his prescriptions ac- cording to the wants and circumstances.

    b. defeated Remindings of the Divine Promises. — We have said that the author of the Pentateuch, to induce the Israelites to leave Egypt, represented to them in Genesis the land of Chanaan as the Prom- ised Land, given by the Lord to their fathers. The divine promise is often re- peated in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. When from the midst of the burning bush, God intrusted to Moses the mission to deliver His people oppressed by the Egyptians, it was that he should lead them into the land of Chanaan (Ex. iii. 8). The Lord has not forgotten "the covenant which he made with Abra- ham, Isaac, and Jacob" (ii. 24; cf. iii. 6, 15-17). and Moses must be in His hands the instrument by which He will realize His promises. The solemn moment has arrived, the hour is decisive, the people must leave Egypt to go and conquer the Promised Land. It was on the eve of the plagues which will cover Egypt with mourning. God, to induce the Israelites to take this great resolution, reminds them of his promises (Ex. vi. 2-8). When, later on in the desert of Sinai, God, irritated against the Israelites who had adored the golden calf, wishes to exter- minate them entirely, Moses obtains their pardon by reminding the Lord of His promise to the Patriarchs to put their posterity into possession of the land of Chanaan (Ex. xxxii. 13; xxxiii. i, etc.). In Leviticus God promises, as reward for the observance of His law, " the ownership

    of the land which He will give as an in- heritance " to Israel (Lev. xx. 24.). In the Book of Numbers, Palestine is always designated as the country which God gives to His people (Num. xiii. 3; xiv. 8, 9, 16, 23? 30, 31; XV. 2, etc.). In Deuteronomy, the promise and divine donation are con- tinually recalled to mind (Deut. viii. 7-10; see also, vi. 10-12).

    We would never finish were we to notice all the texts which recall the donation made to the Patriarchs and to their pos- terity of the land of Chanaan (see Deut. i. 8; vi. 3; vii. i; viii. 18; ix. 4, 5, 28, etc.). Thus, the same motives which are alleged in the first book of the Pentateuch to in- duce the children of Israel to march toward the conquest of the Promised Land, are equally alleged in the books fol- lowing, and this with a persistence that befits only the epoch when this great revolution took place in the political life of the Hebrews ; with a posterior writer, such a persistence would be inexplicable, as we have already had occasion to show.

    c. The Miraculous Accounts. — The cir- cumstances permit the sacred writer to make use of a new means to act upon the Israelites : the accounts of miracles. He does not relate them as simply past facts, proper to show the power and grandeur of God, as a posterior writer might have done, but he presents them as arguments suited to enable him to attain his end, which is to arouse the confidence of the Hebrews and to urge them onward. Now, since the children of Israel are on their route toward Palestine, he shows them that the Lord indeed keeps His promises, in spite of their indocility, little faith, and continual murmurs. This is also one of the principal objects of the last four books of the Pentateuch. The most of the events related therein, aside from the legislative portion, have no other end; the prodigies accomplished by Jeho- vah in favor of His people are succeeded by others, as so many marks of the con- stant protection and indefatigable vigilance of the Lord.

    This we remark from the beginning of Exodus, and especially in the history of the vocation of Moses, which is at once a miracle and. a divine revelation. What a wonderful development in that whole ac- count of the Lord's apparition to Moses in the burning bush! (Ex. iii. 6-ro. ) The promises which God had made formerly to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, He now

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    makes to their posterity; the engagements which he had contracted toward their fathers, He declares that he will execute in favor of the children ; the land which He had given to the Patriarchs, He will deliver into the hands of their heirs, and thus He will have freed them from the bondage of Egypt, which he had formerly foretold (Gen. XV. 13, 14) and which he now will cause to end.

    God confirms immediately by several miracles the mission of Moses, thus to in- spire the people with confidence (cf. Ex, iv. 1-9, 30, 31), as well as His messenger. The whole history of the plagues of Egypt is related in such a manner as to show to the Israelites that they can count on God as an all-powerful liberator, that He will fulfill what he has promised. The chapters v. to xiv. show this most evidently. The circumstantial details of the author's mis- sion, the persistence with which hedwells on the objections which he makes to the Lord, and the manner in which the Lord solves them (Ex. iii., iv.), all this indicates a contemporary account made, apparently, to be spread among the oppressed, in order to reanimate their hope and inflame their courage.

    The first interview of Moses with the Pharao only aggravates the situation of the Israelites subject to hard labor. Hence, great discouragement on their part. Here, as in the rest of the Pentateuch, the sacred author reports the complaints of his com- patriots in most expressive terms (Ex. v. 21). Moses himself is discouraged by this check. It needs nothing less than a new manifestation of Jehovah to reanimate his confidence. It was in spite of himself that he accepted the divine mission; he had alleged all kinds of motives to be excused from the charge of such a difficult enter- prise ; he shows to the Hebrews that he intermeddles with them only to obey. the orders of the Almighty. Then the Lord renews to him, and through him to His people, all the assurances which He has given before about the covenant which He has contracted with the Patriarchs. To these ancient obligations is now added that of freeing the Israelites from oppres- sion because He has heard their cries of complaint. Therefore, He affirms and re- peats that He will keep his double promise, /. e., to deliver them from the yoke of the Egyptians and put them into possession of the Promised Land (vi. 2-8). But they have become so embittered that they do

    35

    not wish to listen. Thus it became neces- sary for the Lord to save them in spite of themselves, and He has recourse to the scourges known as the ten Plagues of Egypt. The people refusing to depart, God forces in this manner the Pharao to drive them away. Each of these miraculous scourges is for the Israelites a new proof that God will keep His promise (vii. 4, 5; viii. 19-22; xi. 7), and they finally consent to set out when the Egyptians press them to leave. All these miracles are related, the sacred author tells us, to show that the children of the Patriarchs can count on the Lord's protection and power. And to point out more clfearly the divine protect- orate, the sacred writer dwells especially and at length on all that can contribute to raise the courage of the Hebrews. We have a striking example of this in the ac- count of the passage of the Red Sea. The historian describes this miracle in the most lively colors, because it is more than any other capable of inspiring the Israelites with full confidence in the success of their enterprise. God has thus far combated for them like a warrior (xv. 3) ; He has gained this so wonderful a victory; He has drowned the army of Pharao. Now, what He did at the beginning of the campaign. He will do until the end. Nothing is more expressive than the Canticle composed on this occasion, to give us the key to the whole Pentateuch and to show us that the author of the book is the very same as that of the Canticle. More than pnce had the people already expressed and should ap^ain express their fear of not being strong enough against the inhabitants of the Promised Land (Num. xiv. 3). Let them be without fear. The entire first part is devoted to showing that Jehovah, alone, will gain the battles against the enemies of the children of Jacob (Ex. xv. 1-2 1), and be their deliverer.

    The other miracles which the Lord mul- tiplies in the desert in favor of the Israelites are presented under the same aspect (Ex. xvi. 6, 7; xvii. ir-14; xxix. 40) as that of the passage of the Red Sea ; that is, th^y are related in a manner such as Moses alone could relate them. In the Book of Judges, the prodigies which God accomplished are described to us, on the contrary, not as having for their end to manifest to the Israelites the power of their God and the confidence they ought to have in Him, but as a punishment of the people, when un- faithful, or as a reward for their return to

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    God, when they became converted (Jud. ii. II ; iii. 7, 9, etc.). It is the same in the other books of the Old Testament. Why does the Pentateuch form an exception, if it is not because it was written before the race of Jacob, fleeing from Egypt, was established in the land of Chanaan?

    d. Form and OmissioMS of the Hebrew Legislation: Proof a of Its Mosaic Origin. — The first thing which the liberator of the Israelites had to do in the desert, to pre- pare his people for the mission they were called to fulfill in the Promised Land, was to give them a law that would render them fit for this design, and impress upon them the character which they should preserve through all ages. The Pentateuch tells us that Moses executed this, indeed.

    Under God's inspiration, he formulated difTerent ordinances. But since God makes use of contingent events to manifest His providence, the legislator whom He directs does not give to the Hebrews a systematic and theoretic code, cast, so to say, in one piece ; he regulates the affairs from day to dav, according as they occur. If we were to find in the Pentateuch a system of laws disposed with order and symmetry, we might harbor a suspicion as to its origin, and ask : Does such a legislation not prove a state of civilization different from that which Israel could have had in the desert.? But the legal prescriptions indicate con- ditions that existed at Sinai, and could only have been formulated there. One thing only is announced as a whole: the moral law, the expression of the eternal law, independent of all times and places, contained in what we call the Decalogue, and which Moses received from God on Mount Sinai. The Mosaic origin of these precepts is so evident that most of the Ra- tionalists raise no objection in accepting them.

    The law regulates, moreover, all that is essential in religious matters, the worship which we are obliged to render to God, the sacrifices and priesthood. All that is in- dependent of circumstances is foreseen and already obser\\\\-ed in the peninsula of Sinai. In the long leisures of the desert life, Moses writes the Levitical ritual. Every day they oflFer victims to the Lord, and soon all the cases which the ceremonial might present are exhibited in practice and have been solved. However, other details still escape to the legislator, and he determines them only when unforeseen circumstances furnish the occasion.

    We notice the same character in all the other legal prescriptions. That which is general and ordinary is regulated before- hand, but particular points are omitted. Only when circumstances draw the atten- tion of the legislator to an extraordinary case does he occupy himself with it. Thus, a surprising thing, the law contains no general rule about marriage and the trans- mission of inheritances. We are instructed only by way of allusion on the divorce, which is, however, such an important in- stitution. It is the same with the custom- ary and traditional laws of the East, according to which only the sons inherited from their father. Since the nomads have but little landed property, this custom of- fers no difficulty, and the legislator does not even mention it. He occupies himself with this important point only by accident and when the tribes have become proprie- tors of the soil, when litigious cases pre- sent themselves, and when they oblige him to make a decision.

    Thus the common law did not provide for the case where a father left only female posterity. This case presented itself one day to Moses and he had to pronounce himself (Num. xxvii. i-ii). The law which punishes the blasphemer with death is also declared on the occasion of the curses of a man whose father was an Egyptian and his mother an Israelitess (Lev. xxiv. 10-16; cf. Num. xv. 32-36). And what is still more remarkable, in this case, as in that of the Sabbath, the sanc- tion of the law is only made after the promulgation of the law itself (Lev. xxiv. 10-16 and Ex. xxii. 28; Num. xv. 32-36 and Ex. XX. 8).

    Not only the legal prescriptions are thus- regulated from day to day, as it became a people leading a nomadic life in Sinai, but, moreover, all that the law ordains in the Pentateuch is peculiar to the time of Moses. We even find regulations therein which couW not have their origin in Pales- tine and whose application was possible only to a people camping in the wilderness (Lev. iv. 12, 21 ; xiii. 46; xiv. 3, 8; xvi. 27, 28; 3ivii. 3; xxiv. 14, 23; Num. xv. 35, 36; xix. 3; etc.) and under the tent (Num. xix. 4), such as that regarding the scapegoat, and many others (Lev. iv. 12; xvi. 10; Num. xix. 2-10; Deut. xxiii. 12, 13). Nothing leads us to suppose that the peo- ple live in cities and houses; on the con- trary, everything proves that they are in the desert (Ex, xvi. 13; xxix. 14, etc.).

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    Pentateuch

    Only when they are on the plains of Moab, when the trans- Jordanic tribes have already their share of territory (Num. xxxii.), does Moses take measures for the division of the Promised Land, and occupy himself with cities which shall be given to the Levites, and the cities of refuge, but he does not designate an}' (Num. xxxiv., xxxv.). If the chapter which contains these last pre- scriptions had been written after the time of Moses, very probably the names of these cities would have been enumerated therein. Consequently, the Hebrew legislation, on account of the manner in which it was given, is not complete. The omissions therein are numerous, but are not less con- clusive than the positive prescriptions in favor of its Mosaic origin. This is a point to which we cannot draw enough atten- tion That which mostly occupied other legislators, that is, political organization, is wanting with Moses; he does not speak thereof. He found the patriarchal regimen already established, and he ' keeps it up; the idea of changing it, modifying it, or declaring his willingness to preserve it, does not even seem to enter his mind. While he minutely regulates everything that concerns the religious service and the reciprocal rights of each one, he keeps silent about the government and the political regimen of the twelve tribes whom he desires to become a people. How can we explain a similar silence? Simply be- cause no one, neither he nor others, was thinking about modifying the patriarchal organization received from Abraham and Jacob; it is sufficient in the desert; he does not look any further. The daily of- fering of the sacrifices often brings up new questions which must be regulated, and he regulates them in practice. The continual relations of men to one another will give rise to litigious, doubtful, and unforeseen cases, upon which he is also obliged to ex- press himself, and he does express himself. But the organization of the nomadic tribes is sufficient for the nomadic life they lead in the desert; they are contented. This organization will have inconveniences when the people shall be settled in the Promised Land; they will have no com- mon chief, will form a multitude of small and independent states, without cohesion, without unity, and consequently without power; the consequence will be that they are always at the mercy of all invaders, as is attested by the history of the Judges. Moses does not provide for any of these

    inconveniences; he regelates nothing; he is occupied only with the present. He foresees that the people must have a chief when marching to the conquest of Pales- tine, and he appoints Josue to replace him after his death. But as to who shall be at the head of Israel after Josue, he does not busy himself, and the Pentateuch does not contain a single word in regard to this subject.

    Is there any other epoch than that of Moses where one could forget, so to say, the government of Israel? No. Moses alone could be so indifferent (pardon the expression) about the political future of his people. For him, religion, moral and good civil order was all he wanted. Who- ever might have written after the reigns of Saul and David would certainly have alluded to the Judges of Israel, those celebrated heroes, who always held a con- spicuous place in the popular remembrance (I. Ki. xii. II ; Ps. Ixxxii. lo, 12; Is. ix. 4; X. 26; etc.). If the Hebrew code had been drawn up in the time of the Kings, cer- tainly the author could not have neglected to speak of the sovereign. We can defy all the enemies of the authenticity of the Pentateuch to furnish even a plausible ex- planation of the omission of royalty in the Hebrew legislation, if Moses is not the au- thor thereof.

    e. The Remembrance of Egypt is Still Alive in the Pentateuch. — In both the legislative part and in the historical ac- counts of the Pentateuch, we find quite a characteristic feature : the place which Egypt occupies therein. It appears all over, — sometimes in a direct manner, some- times by way of allusion ; and it is always presented in such a manner that the un- prejudiced reader can easily recognize that Moses alone could think so much of Egypt and mention it so often in his writings.

    The deliverance from the bondage of Egypt is recalled to mind at every moment as a very important event, as an event with which were associated those whom the writer addresses (Num. xxxii. 11 ; xxxiii. i; Deut. ix. ; xxix. 16; etc.). These are incontestable facts which nobody can deny who has read the Pentateuch. The new science of Egyptology has especially con- firmed this. All that is related of Egypt in the Pentateuch, of the sojourn of the Hebrews in that country, and of their ex- odus, is in perfect accord with the state of Egypt such as it appeared under the Rameses. Now this state was very differ-

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    Persecutions

    ent from what it was later on, for example, in the epoch of Solomon or in that of the Prophets. The Egypt of the Pentateuch is very different from that of the Prophets. In the former, one single state ; in the lat- ter, an empire parceled out into small principalities. In the former, complete silence about the kingdom of Ethiopia; in the latter, this kingdom appear. In all the details we discover the same exacti- tude, proving that the Pentateuch is much anterior to the Prophets. As to the Egyp- tian customs, we find them faithfully de- picted even to the smallest detail. To be so exact the author of the Pentateuch must necessarily have lived in Egypt; he must have lived with the people whose ex- odus he describes. This author can have been no other than Moses.

    Pentecost. — The name given to the feast among the Jews, held on the fiftieth day after the Passover, in celebration of the "ingathering," and in thanksgiving for the harvest. From the Jewish use, it was introduced into the Christian, and with special solemnity, as being the day of the descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles, and of the first solemn preaching of the Christian religion. From early times Pentecost has been regarded as one of the great festivals of the Christian year, and it was chosen as one of the times for the solemn administration of baptism. The English name of the festival, Whit- sunday', is derived from the white robes in which the newly baptized were clad. It is regarded as especially sacred to the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity, in whose honor the services of the day are directly addressed.

    Pepin the Short. — Died in 768. King of the Franks, son of Charles Martel. He became major-domo of Neustria on the death of his father in 741 ; his brother Karlmann becoming major-domo of Aus- trasia. The latter abdicated in his favor in 747, and with the Pope's sanction he as- sumed the title of king in 752. He assisted the Pope against Aistulf, king of the Lom- bards, who, in 752, took possession of Ravenna and its dependent provinces, and put an end to the Greek dominion in that part of Italy. He resolved to make him- self master, also, of Rome. Hereupon Pope Stephen III. applied to the Greek emperor for assistance, but being refused, he had recourse to Pepin, king of the

    Franks. Pepin first attempted peaceful negotiations with Aistulf; but these being refused, he, in two expeditions (754 and 756), compelled the Lombard to surrender the exarchate and all the cities which he had taken from the Roman Church. Pepin, by a solemn deed, placed on the tomb of St. Peter, together with the keys of the cities donated, or rather restored to the Roman See, the territory which his valor had recovered.

    Thus, the Pope became an independent and temporal sovereign. By the gift of Pepin, this large part of Italy, became the kingdom of the Bishop of Rome, and thus, was laid the foundation of what are called the Papal states. These states hav- ing been donated to the " Apostolic See," and being the property, the " Patrimony of St. Peter," belong not to any Pope as an individual, nor to any family or fac- tion, but to the entire Catholic Church. The protection of the Holy See, which the Byzantine emperors had so basely neglected, was transferred to the Frankish king, with the title of " Patrician of Rome," which conferred upon him a cer- tain ambunt of patronage and a voice in certain matters relating to the temporal weal of the Roman Church.

    Pepuzians. See Montanists.

    Pergamum. — A city of Mysia, Asia Minor, (Apoc. i. 11; ii. 12.) and the resi- dence of the Attalian princes. Here was collected by the king of this race a noble library of 200,000 volumes, which was afterwards transported to Egypt by Cleo- patra, and added to the library at Alex- andria. Hence the Latin ndivne pergamentutn for parchment. Pergamum was situated on the Caicus, 50 miles north of Smyrna, and was the birthplace of Galen.

    Perge. — A city in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. It was noted for the worship of Artemis (Acts xiii. 13, 14). This is not a maritime city, but situated on the river Cestus, at some distance from its mouth. It was one of the most considerable cities in Pamphylia ; and when that province was divided into two parts, this city became the metropolis of one part, and Side of the other.

    Persecutions. — History stigmatizes with the epithet *' persecutors," the Roman emperors who used violence against the Christians to force them to abjure their

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    Perseverance

    religion. Lactantius has left us a treatise on the death of the persecutors wherein he shows that all perished in a fatal manner, and as having been struck by Divine ven- geance. In Palestine there never occurred any general persecutions; some heads of the Christian community of Jerusalem, after the example of the divine Master, perished as victims of their faith for all, such as St. James the Less (35), St. James the Greater (62), and St. Stephen. In the cities of the Roman empire, where the Christians had colonies, there took place ten great persecutions. The first occurred under Nero, who accused the Christians of the burning of Rome, of which he, him- self, was the author, and who, under this pretext, delivered them, beginning with the year 64, to the most cruel torments. The second took place in the year 95, in the reign of Domitian, under pretext that the Jews gave to Jesus the title of king. In this persecution, a great number of the confessors of the Christian faith lost their life, especially in Asia Minor. The third took place under Trajan and on the denun- ciation of the proconsuls, among others, of Plinius the Younger, in Bithynia, who complained that the Christians did not bow before the imperial statues. The fourth (177) took place under Marcus Aurelius, who felt uneasy about the new Christian communities established in Gaul, Vienne, and Lyons ; about the year 165 the Chris- tians in Asia Minor had also to suffer a persecution, and in which perished the Bishop of Smyrna, St. Polycarp, and at the same time St. Justin, expiated at Rome the blame which he had thrown on the philosopher Crescens. The fifth took place under Septimus Severus who, in 202, forbade the Jews to embrace the Christian religion ; the sixth was the work of Maximus who made, in the year 235, restrictions to the edicts of Alexan- der Severus, who had granted to the Christians particular favors ; the Emperor Decius (249) inaugurated his reign with the seventh persecution, and the character of universality and the merciless cruelty which presided therein indicates clearly the intention of annihilating Christianity; the eighth persecution (257), under Vale- rian, was directed more especially against the priests who were put to death without mercy ; the violent end of the Emperor Aurelian put an end to the ninth persecu- tion, which he had ordered against the Christians in the year 275 ; finally, the

    tenth was decreed, in 303, by Diocletian. In a series of cruel edicts, this emperor declared his intention of obliterating the Christian name. Imperial edicts were everywhere published, ordering the churches to be destroyed, the Scriptures to be burned. Christians of rank to be de- graded, common people, if they remained faithful, to be reduced to slavery, and bishops and priests, especially, should have the choice between apostacy and a cruel death. This rigorous order was, in the year 304, extended by a fourth edict to the whole body of Christians. A countless multitude of Christians, in con- sequence of these edicts, obtained the crown of martyrdom.

    It is impossible to fix the exact number of Christian martyrs who died for the faith. Dodwell, an Anglican writer of the seven- teenth century, and Gibbon endeavored to prove that it was insignificant, but this opinion is not shared by unprejudiced writers. The computations of Bosio, who is justly styled the " Columbus of the Catacombs," and of other learned men have led to an estimate that at least five mil- lion Christians — men, women, and chil- dren — were put to death for the faith during the first three centuries of the Church. Some even believe the total number of Christians martyred during this period to be between nine and ten millions. Nor should this appear exag- gerated, especially when the millions of graves as well as the inscriptions found in the Catacombs about Rome, show that in the capital of the empire alone there must have been about two and a half millions of martyrs.

    Perseveranc e. — By perseverance is meant an unwavering fixity of the will, and the word is used in theology to signify the fixed will of a just man to retain the robe of grace with which he is clothed, and not cast it from him by committing griev- ous sin. The habit of this will constitutes the x'irtue of perseverance, a virtue which will show itself in a series, longer or shorter, of acts of resistance to tempta- tion ; this series being known as active perseverance, passive perseverance — not a very apt phrase — is employed to denote death in the state of grace; 'And final per- severance is the great gift enjoyed by those who have actively persevered till death came to them and they can be said to have had passive perseverance. There may

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    Persia

    be passive perseverance without active, as when an infant dies after baptism, or an adult the instant after his soul has received the grace of God. It is a defined doctrine of the Church that perse- verance is impossible for a just man with- out special aid from God, but that with this aid it is possible. Council of Trent, Sess. VI., can. 12. See Grace.

    Persia (in Hebrew Phars). — A vast re- gion in Asia, the southwestern province of which appears to have been the ancient Persia and is still called ** Pharsistan " or " Fars." The Persians, who became so fa- mous after Cyrus, the founder of their more extended monarchy, were anciently called Elamites; and later, in the time of the Romans, Parthians. The early history of the Persians, like that of most of the Oriental nations, is involved in doubt and perplexity. We have already suggested their descent from Sem, through his son Elam, after whom they were originally named. It is probable that they enjoyed their independence for several ages, with a monarchical succession of their own, until they were subdued by the Assyrians, and their country attached to a province to that empire. From this period, both sacred and profane writers distinguished the king- dom of the Medes from that of the Per- sians. It is not improbable that during this period, petty revolutions might have occasioned temporary disjunctions of Per- sia from Assyria, and that the Persian king was quickly again made sensible of his true allegiance. When Media became independent, under Dejoces and then Phraortes, Persia became also subject to its sway, as a tributary kingdom. Media having vanquished her great rival, Assyria, enjoyed a long interval of peace, during the reign of Astyages, son of Cyaxares. But his successor, Cyaxares the Second, united with the Persians against the Baby- lonians, and gave the command of the combined armies to Cyrus, who took the city of Babylon, killed Balthasar, and terminated that kingdom, in 538 B. c. Cyrus succeeded to the throne of Media and Persia, and completed the union be- tween those countries. He extended his dominion beyond the greatest limits of that of the kings of Assyria. It may be worthy of remark, previous to this union, Daniel speaks of the law of the Medes and Persians as being the same; the union was effected b. c. 536. The principal events re-

    lating to Scripture, which occurred dur- ing the reign of Cyrus, were the restor- ation of the Jews, the rebuilding of the city and temple, and the capture of Babylon.

    Persia {Christianity in). — The propaga- tion of Christianity in Persia took place at a very early date. Several bishoprics had already existed there in the first quarter of the fourth century. A Persian bishop at- tended the Council of Nice, in 325. The rapid progress of Christianity in this country irritated the Jews and heathen Magi, or priests, who spared no pains to arouse the suspicion of the Persian king. Sapor II. (309-381) against the Christians, whom they represented as the secret allies of the Romans and the enemies of their country. A frightful persecution ensued in 345, which lasted thirty-five years. Simeon, the aged bishop of Seleucia, to- gether with a hundred priests and deacons, was among the first put to death for the faith. Sozomenus states that the number of Christians who suffered during this persecution amounted to sixteen thousand, not including those of whom no particulars could be obtained. After the death of Sapor II., the Church in Persia enjoyed a respite during forty years. King Isdegerd I. (401-420) was particularly favorable to Christians, to whom he granted the free exercise of their religion. But when Bishop Abdas of Susa, by an act of indis- creet zeal, set fire to a pagan temple, the persecution was renewed, and it continued to rage with increased fury until the year 450. Abdas, with a number of Christians, was put to death. Every species of torture that inhumanity could devise was employed upon the confessors of the faith ; some were sawed to pieces or flayed alive; others were bound hand and foot and cast into pits to be devoured alive by rats and mice. It was not till the treaty of peace had been concluded with Theodosius II. (427), that King Bahram V. (420-438) became more mild towards the Christians; and this was mainly owing to Bishop Acacius of Amida, who, with the proceeds of Church property which he sold, ransomed seven thousand Persian prisoners of war, and restored them to their homes. Unhappily at this time Nestorianism entered the land, which at a later date fell a prey to Islamism and rooted out Christianity, with the ex- ception of a few scattered fragments here and there.

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    Peter in Rome

    Peschito (simfJii)'. — Syriac version of the Bible. It is taken literally from the Septuagint in the Old and from the Greek originals in the New Testament, and is marked thus: "This translation was fin- ished in the year of the Greeks, 389, by the hand of Achaeus, the Apostle." Ac- cording to this inscription St. Thaddaeus or Jude, who evangelized Syria, was the author of this translation, which certainly goes back to his time. Such is the tradi- tion of the Syrians themselves, and it is borne out by the arguments of Cardinal Wiseman in his HorcE Syriacte. The Apocalypse and four of the Epistles are wanting in it, because their canonical authority was not commonly known, or universally acknowledged at the time this version was made. A splendid edition of it was printed at Vienna, in 1555, with the assistance of a distinguished Maronite priest, who had visited Rome, with the ob- ject of presenting to the Chair of St. Peter, in the person of Julius III., the allegiance of the Maronite Christians.

    Pessimism. — Philosophical system which teaches that this world is the worst of all worlds possible; in opposition to Optimism, which see.

    Petavius (1583-1652). — Jesuit, antiquary, and chronologist, born at Orleans, died in Paris. Professor in difTerent houses of his Order. His work Opus de doctrina temporum (1627) was a work of criticism against Scaliger and Saumaise. We owe to him also: Uranologia; Rationarium temporum (1633-1634) ; Dogmata Theologia (1644-1650) ; De Ecclesia Christi.

    Peter (St.) {Petrus). — Prince of the Apostles, first Pope, and martyr, born about the year 10 b. c, at Bethsaida, Gali- lee, son of Jonas or Joan, hence he is called in the Gospel Bar-Jona {son of yonas), brother of St. Andrew, Apostle. His first name was Simon or Simeon. He was married, and had his home, wife and sister- in-law at Capharnaum, on the Lake Gen- esareth, where he practiced the trade of a fisherman. With his brother Andrew, he was actually engaged in that occupation on the sea of Galilee when our Lord called both to be his disciples, promising " to make them fishers of men." This invita- tion they accepted without hesitation. The early labors of St. Peter in Palestine are recorded in the first fifteen chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, written by St.

    Luke. Later on, the historian of the life and sufferings of the Apostles, became the companion of St. Paul. For this reason the subsequent labors of St. Peter are less known than those of St. Paul. Soon after receiving the centurion and his household into the Church, we find the prince of the Apostles presiding as bishop over a large congregation at Antioch, where the follow- ers of Christ were first called Christians. Later on, we see him as missionary travers- ing Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and other countries. In the beginning of the reign of Claudius, about the year 42, he arrived at Rome, where he established a Church and presided over it as bishop. In the im- perial city, St. Mark, a companion of St. Peter, wrote his Gospel. Peter approved it and sent Mark to Alexandria where he established a Christian Church and gov- erned it as bishop. Thus the Churches of Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, justly trace their origin to St. Peter and were honored as patriarchal sees.

    Peter {Epistles of St.). — We have two canonical Epistles from St. Peter. The first is addressed to the Faithful who are foreigners and dispersed in the provinces of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. The second addresses itself to the Faithful in general, whom it strength- ens in the expectation of the second com- ing of Jesus Christ.

    Peter (St.). — Patriarch of Alexandria and martyr under the reign of Galerus Maximian, in 310. We owe to him Peni- tential Canons, inserted in the Collection of the Councils by Labbe and in all the Collections of Canons; some fragments of homilies, etc., in the Library of the Fa- thers, by Gallandius, vol. IV. F. Nov. 26th.

    Peter Chrysologus (St.). See Chrys-

    OLOGUS.

    Peter de Bruys. See Petrobusians.

    Peter in Rome. — St. Peter labored in Rome previous to his last sojourn, which ended with his death. This fact is proved : I. By all the writers of Christian antiquity, Clement of Rome; Ignatius; Hegesippus, who sojourned in Rome till 156; Irenseus, Cyprian, Eusebius, Orosius, and Jerome; moreover, by the Liberian Catalogue of Popes, compiled about the year 360; by the patrocinium in the ancient martyrolo- gies, " Cathedra S. Petri, qua primum

    Peter Lombard

    552

    Peter the Hermit

    RomcE sedit." Suetonius, a pagan writer, points to the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius, because " at the insti- gation of a certain Chrestus " (Christ) they created continual disturbances. This fact proves that there existed in Rome a Christian community about the year 49. It is sometimes asserted that Peter and Paul founded the Church of Rome. As St. Paul, by his apostolic labors and mar- tyrdom, did much in spreading the Gospel of Christ in the imperial city, he may be said to be the second founder. That he was not the first who established a Chris- tian community in Rome is evident from his Epistle to the Romans, in which he ex- presses the hope to see the renowned Church of Rome. 2. By the sacred Scrip- tures. The first Epistle of Peter was written from a city which he called Bab- ylon. Ancient Babylon on the Euphrates cannot be meant, since there is no proof that either Peter or Paul ever labored there. Nay, according to Pliny and Strabo, this once famous city had at this time become " a great solitude." St. Peter did not extend his missionary labors so far, nor was there ever a Christian com- munity in that city. On the contrary, " Bab- ylon " j« a figurative expression for Rome. In this sense, it was understood by Papias, a disciple of the Apostles, as Eusebius ob- serves. There was a Christian community in Rome before the advent of^St. Paul. This is proved by St. Paul himself, for he " longed to see the Roman Church, whose faith is spoken of throughout the world." The Church of Rome was already in a flourishing condition about the year 57, when St. Paul wrote his Epistle and had not as yet visited it (Rom. i. 1-15; xv. 20-25). Who founded the Roman Church before Paul, if not Peter? No other Apostle has ever been mentioned as its founder. All ancient Church history designates Peter, alone, as the founder of the Roman Church, and this simultaneously with his sojourn in Rome, as established by tradition from the baptism of Cornelius to his imprisonment by Herod Agrippa (38-44). During all this time we have no historical record of Peter being eLsewhere. This is the unani- mous testimony of the ancient Church, and all pretended proofs to the contrary have no foundation in history. St. Peter, it is true, did not remain constantly in Rome. In the year 50, he presided at the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem ; then went to Corinth, Antioch, and other places.

    He suffered martyrdom in Rome together with St. Paul, June 29th, a. d. 67. He was crucified, as our Lord had foretold.

    There are four festivals of St. Peter: i. The feast of Peter and Paul, on June 29th. This commemorates the burial of St. Peter and St. Paul, and is mentioned in the Li- berian Catalogue. 2. Feast of the " Cathe- dra of Antioch," February 22d. This feast is also mentioned in the Liberian Cata- logue. 3. The feast of the "Cathedra of Rome," January iSth. 4. The feast of "St. Peter in Chains," August 1st.

    Peter Lombard. See Lombard.

    Peter Nolasco (St.). See Mercy {Or- der of ).

    Peter of Alcantara (St.). — Religious of the Order of St. Francis, born at Al- cantara, in 1499. Vicar and visitor general of this congregation, established the strict observance of the rule, was a model of penance, and one of the directors of St. Theresa. He died in the convent of Arenas, in 1562. F. Oct. 19th.

    Peter's Pence. — Formerly an annual tax of one penny for every house in Eng- land, collected in midsummer, and paid to the Holy See. It was extended to Ire- land under the Bull granted by Pope Adrian to Henry II. Nowadays, it is a voluntary contribution, given by the Faith- ful, for the maintenance of the sovereign Pontiff, and is taken up for him annually, under the direction of the bishop through- out the whole Catholic world.

    Peter the Hermit. — A pious and holy hermit of Amiens, in France. About the year 1093, ^^ undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The desolation of the holy places, the sufferings and despair of the Christians, and the pitiable complaints and entreaties of the Patriarch Simeon, filled his soul with indignation and com- passion. Returning from the Holy Land, the pious pilgrim presented himself to Pope Urban II., who warmly approved the idea of organizing a Crusade for the deliverance of Jerusalem, and charged Peter with the preaching of the holy war, which he did with wonderful effect. Wandering from land to land, Peter every- where repeated the tale of woe and suffer- ings, to which the Christians in the East were subjected. Most far-reaching was the agitation produced by the preaching of the eloquent hermit. Peter accompa-

    Peter the Venerable

    553

    Pharan

    nied the expedition under Godfrey; but, worn out by the delays and difficulties of the siege of Antioch, he was about to with- draw from the expedition, and was only retained by the influence of the other leaders, who foresaw the worst results from his departure. Accordingly, he had a share, although not marked by any sig- nal distinction, in the siege and capture of the Holy City in 1099; and the closing in- cident of his history was an address to the victorious army, delivered on the Mount of Olives. He returned to Europe, and founded a monastery at Huy, in the Dio- cese of Liege. In this monastery he died in 1115.

    Peter the Venerable (1093-1156). — Abbot of Cluny, born in the Auvergne. One of the most valiant defenders of faith and orthodoxy; he and his friend St. Bernard, upheld Pope Stephen 11. against the anti- pope Anacletus. He caused the Koran to be translated into Latin.

    Petrines. — The Judaic Christians, in the early Church, who after the example of our Lord and the Apostles continued to obsers'e the Mosaical ceremonies, soon separated into two distinct classes. The more moderate ones, called " Petrines," though following the Mosaic law, did not insist upon its observance as a condition of salvation. The rigid Judaists, on the contrary, held that the keeping of the law was obligatory to all, and were desirous of imposing it, also, on the Gentile Chris- tians. They would not acknowledge St. Paul, who opposed their influence so strongly, as an Apostle. These turbulent Judaists gave no little trouble at Antioch about the year 50, and later on at Corinth and in Galatia; their importunity causing the holding of the Council of Jerusalem.

    Petrobusians. — Heretics in the first half of the twelfth century. They owed their name to Peter de Bruys, a deposed priest, and Henry the Deacon, an apostate monk, of Cluny. By their fanatical preaching, they especially excited the populace in the South of France. Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny, who wrote against these heresiarchs, arraigns Peter de Bruys as rejecting: Infant baptism; the Real Pre.'^ence in the Holy Eucharist; the building and using of churches, since God might be worshiped in any place, even in stables; the worship of the holy Cross, which, he said, ought

    to be rather an object of horror than of veneration ; and prayers and oblations for the dead. His followers committed many atrocities, especially against priests and monks. "The people," writes Peter the Venerable, "are rebaptized, altars thrown down, crosses burnt, meat publicly eaten on the day of the Lord's Passion, priests illtreated, monks imprisoned or compelled to marry by violence or by torture." The Council of Toulouse in 11 19, invited the civil power to restrain the excesses of these fanatics. Peter de Bruys, while engaged, on Good Friday at St. Gilles, near Aries, in burning a pile of crucifixes, was seized by an excited multitude and cast into the flames which he had lighted.

    To the errors of Peter de Bruys, Henrythe Deacon, " the heir of his wickedness," as he was called by Peter the Venerable, added many more. His rude eloquence, and his ostensibly ascetic life gained him many followers, especially among the nobility. The " Henricians," as his adherents were called, committed many acts of violence against the clergy. At the request of Pope Eugenius III., St. Bernard and Peter the Venerable hastened to the assistance of the oppressed clergy, and succeeded in putting down the heresiarch and in restor- ing religion among the people. St. Bernard found, so he writes, " the churches without people, the people without priests, the priests without respect, the Christians without Christ, God's holy places profaned, the sacraments no longer held in honor, and the hoh' days without their solemni- ties." On the arrival of the saint, Henry took to flight, but was seized and delivered over to the papal legate. Cardinal Alberic. He is said to have died in prison.

    Phacee. — King of Israel, from 753 to 726 B.C. Defeated Achaz, king of Juda, con- quered by the Assyrian Theglath-Phalasar, he was put to death by Osee.

    Phaceia. — King of Israel, from 754 to 753 B. c. Son and successor of Manahem.

    Phaleg. — One of the Hebrew Patri- archs, father of Heber and son of Reu (Gen. X. 25; XXV. 11, 16).

    Pharan. — Capital of Arabia Petrsea, on the Red Sea, at the southern point of the peninsula of Sinai. The "Desert of Pharan" formed a part of Arabia Petraea, in the South of Palestine, whither Agar with- drew with her son Ismael.

    Pharao

    554

    Philippine Islands

    Pharao. — A title given to the Egyptian kings. Among those mentioned in Scrip- ture by this name are a contemporary of Abraham (Gen. xii. 15) ; the patron and friend of Joseph (Gen. xli. 1); the op- pressor of the Hebrews, Rameses IL (Ex. i. 11) ; the Pharao who reigned at the time of the Exodus, Menephthah (Ex. iii. 10); Pharao Nechao (IV. Ki. xxiii. 29); and Pharao Hophra, known as Apries or Hophra (Jer. xxv. 19).

    Pharisees (a Jewish sect during the time of our Saviour). — The Pharisees, whose name implies separation from the unholy, affected the greatest exactness in every religious observance, and attributed great authority to traditional precepts re- lating, principally, to external rites. They were the leading sect among the Jews, and had great influence with the common peo- ple.

    Pheresites. — Chanaanite tribe living, before the advent of the Hebrews, in the territory occupied by the tribe of Ephraim and half-tribe of Manasses.

    Philadelphia. — A city of Lydia, in Asia Minor, where was one of the seven Asiatic Churches (Apoc. iii. 7). Philadelphia was so called from Attains Philadelphus, king of Pergamum, by whom it was founded. It stood on a branch of Mount Tmolus, by the river Cogamus, about 28 miles east of Sardis. It suffered greatly by frecjuent earthquakes, and it was an- ciently a matter of surprise, that the city was not on this account abandoned. It is now a mean but considerable town of large extent, with a population of about 1,000 Greek Christians, who have a resi- dent bishop, and about twenty inferior clergy.

    Philastrius (St.). — Bishop of Brescia. Left a work On Heresies, containing a catalogue of 158 heresies. In it, however, the author incorrectly reckons among heresies, opinions that have never been declared heretical, and are, at most, only problematical. He died in 387.

    Philemon. — A rich citizen of Colossae, in Phrygia, to whom St. Paul wrote an Epistle, on occasion of sending back to him his runaway slave Onesimus, just converted by him in Rome. St. Paul sends him back with a tender appeal in his Epistle to Philemon, to receive back

    Onesimus into his service and treat him kindly.

    Philip (St.). — One of the twelve Apos- tles, born at Bethsaida, in Galilee. Is mentioned in the Gospel as the fourth called by our Lord to the Apostleship. He preached the faith in Scythia, and also in Phrygia, where he suffered mar- tyrdom by crucifixion at Hierapolis. Papias and Polycrates of Ephesus, who lived toward the close of the second cen- tury, tell us that Philip was married before being called by Christ, and had three daughters who were distinguished for their great sanctity. On this account, this Apostle is sometimes confounded with Philip the Deacon, also called the Evangelist (Acts xxi. 8, 9). F. May ist.

    Philip (St.). — One of the seven dea- cons, born at Caesarea in Palestine; died about 58; preached the Gospel in Samaria. The Greeks maintain that he became bishop of Tralliens. F. June 6th.

    Philippians (Epistle to the). — The Epis- tle to the Philippians, or inhabitants of Philippi, a city of Macedonia, . was ad- dressed to them by St. Paul about the year 62, when he was imprisoned for the first time. He congratulated the Philippians on account of their generosity, courage, and good works, and prays fervently that they may persevere in this holy course, so as to reach the state of perfection.

    Philippine Islands {Church in the). — In the Philippine islands, by far the greater part of the population is Catholic. There is a hierarchy composed of an archbishop and four suffragans, ruling over six million subjects. The progress among the non- Christian population, which is estimated about five hundred thousand, is very rapid.

    The following religious orders are represented in the Philippine Islands: Franciscans, 155 members ; Dominicans, 109; Augustinians, 228; Recolects, 233; Jesuits, 186; Capuchins, 16; Benedic- tines, 16; and the Congregation of St. Vincent of Paul, to which belong 675 natives. In Manila the Catholic Church supports four great seminaries. In this city, the Jesuits direct a special literary institute, the "Altenoe," which is fre- quented by 350 scholars. The education of Catholic girls is completely in the hands of Sisters.

    Philip the Fair

    555

    Philosophy

    Philip the Fair. See Boniface VIII.

    Philip the Tetrarch. — A son of Herod the Great, by his wife Cleopatra, who, in the division of Herod's kingdom, was made tetrarch of Batanea Trachonitis, and Auranitis. From him the city of Caesarea Philippi took its name.

    Philistines. — Inhabitants of a part of Palestine, before the conquest of that coun- try by the Hebrews. The Philistines were descendants of Chasluim, son of Mesraim, he himself a son of Cham. In the time of Abraham, the Philistines were already a powerful people in Palestine. Josue gave their country to the Hebrews and attacked them by order of the Lord ; however, un- der the Judges, under Saul, and at the be- ginning of the reign of David, they often oppressed the Israelites, and it was only after the latter prince had been anointed to reign over all Israel, that he reduced them under his empire. They remained subject to the kings of Juda until the reign of Joram, during which they made great rav- ages in his kingdom. Ozias repressed them and kept them in check. The Phil- istines again devastated the countries of Juda during the misfortunes of the reign of Achaz, but Ezechias subjugated them anew. Later on they became a prey to great calamities. The threats of the Prophets Isaias, Jeremias, Amos, and Sopho- nias, against the Philistines, were only too well fulfilled, for Assaraddon or Sargon, king of the Assyrians, besieged Azoth and took it through the arms of Thartan, his general.

    Philo the Jew. — Writer and philoso- pher, born at Alexandria, about the year 30 B. c, of a sacerdotal family. He deliv- ered himself to the study of Greek phi- losophy, Oriental doctrines, and Holy Scripture. Surnamed the "Jewish Plato," because his doctrine had for its foundation the Platonic system, corrected the Bible and the principles of the Jewish religion. He admitted two eternal principles, like Plato, the Idea-God and the Idea-Matter; he drew from the Oriental doctrine on emanation a sort of vague mysticism. God shines in all beings. All the qualities of the latter emanate from Him, who is the efficient cause of the sensible world and the personification of the ideal world. Chosen by his fellow-citizens to go to Rome and ask Caligula for the right of Roman citizenship in favor of his co-religionists,

    who formerly enjoyed this, his request was granted, and he died at an advanced age, about the year A. d. 40.

    Philosophy. — Philosophy properly speaking is: Love of wisdom, inquiry into truth, into the causes and effects of things, and the study of nature and morals. Cicero ' defines philosophy : The science both of di- vine and human things, as well as of their causes. At the beginning, philosophy, conformable to its etymology, had for its object the love of wisdom and science. For Socrates, both wisdom and science sum themselves up in the practical knowl- edge of self. Under his successors, the study of man remained the principal ob- ject of philosophy, but not the only one; its domain extended to all human knowl- edge. In the Middle Ages, the domain of faith was distinguished from that of reason. The first has for its object the revealed truths and is founded on the word of God. The second supports itself upon reason and ex- tends to all that can be known through nature. Philosophy also comprehends the ensemble of the purely human sciences ; but St. Thomas as well as Aristotle calls the attention of the philosopher to another object: sapientis est altissiinas causas ceiisiderare.

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- turies, the physical and , mathematical sciences showed a tendency to separate themselves from philosophy. Locke re- duced philosophy to a study of understand- ing; Condillac, to the problem of the origin of ideas ; Thomas Reid, to the ex- perimental knowledge of the soul ; others maintained that it should preserve its character of universality. Actual philoso- phy shows a tendency to pursue a double object: God, first cause and supreme end of every creature; the human soul, princi- pal object of philosophical studies, and which, at the same time, is the subject of all sciences. Indeed, its faculties are the instruments by means of which we acquire them. Each science has its particular philosophy and, consequently, its special object. The philosophy of religion seeks to penetrate the reason of the dogmas and their harmony; the philosophy of right inquires about the motives of the law; the philosophy of grammar renders an ac- count of the general rules to which languages are subject; the philosophy of physical and natural sciences endeavors to bring into harmony and unity all the cos-

    Philostratus

    556

    Phoenicia

    mogonic laws and to fathom the mystery of matter and life ; the philosophy of the beautiful arts goes back to the very princi- ple of the beautiful and seeks to determine its conditions.

    Divisions. — The ancients agreed to di- vide philosophy into three great parts: ethics, physics, and logic. The scholastics added metaphysics, both general and spe- cial. Actually it comprises psychology, logic, ethics, and the elements of meta- physics. This division flows naturally from the double object of philosophy: the soul and God. The study of the soul com- prehends a first speculative part : experi- mental psychology, whose special object is the general knowledge of the human spirit ; then two practical sciences, whose logical end is to direct our intelligence toward the true ; and the moral which traces the rule the will should follow to attain the good. The study of God or theodicy penetrates metaphysics whose natural crowning it is. The principal systems of philosophy can be reduced to five : Sensualism, which leads to Material- ism; Spiritualism, which leads to the negation of matter or to Idealism ; Scep- ticism, which leads to the suicide of intelli- gence ; Mysticism, and finally Eclecticism. The history of philosophy ma^' be divided into five epochs, ist Epoch : Whose repre- sentatives are Thales and Pythagoras ; Sensualism and Spiritualism, from which emanated all the other systems, during more than two centuries. The disputes begot the Sophists and Sceptics. 2d Epoch : Socrates reacted against Scepti- cism. In this new school Plato represents Spiritualism and Aristotle Sensualism. 3d Epoch : This took rise about the elev- enth century and continued until the sev- enteenth century under the influence of Catholic theology; this was the scholastic epoch. 4th Epoch (in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) : This was the epoch of experimental philosophy under the in- fluence of Descartes and Bacon. 5th Epoch : The Scotch school, which had its repre- sentatives in France, in Royer, Collar, Cousin, Jouffroy, and Darimon.

    Catholic philosophy may be divided into three epochs : during the first epoch Catho- lic philosophers occupied themselves in classifying and co-ordain the pre-existing elements, and having formed the tenor of Catholic belief from the standpoint of form and matter, two principles were fur- nished by the ancient philosophy which

    became the foundation of Catholic philos- ophy in the Middle Ages. Previous de- tailed studies fill up the second epoch (ninth and tenth centuries). In this epoch philosophers sought to fathom the great questions of reason and faith, of predesti- nation and free will, of realism and nom- inalism. In the third epoch they occupied themselves with systematizing the themes of Catholic science ; this was the beautiful period of Scholasticism. Its chief repre- sentatives were Anselm of Canterbury, and Hugh of St. Victor. The material of Scholasticism is essentially the same as that of the philosophy of the Fathers : the Christian world, that is, the world rein- stated through Christ, and all that has reference to it, with this difference, how- ever, that the Fathers had before them only single elements, the Scholastics had these elements realized.

    Philostratus. See Apolloxius of Ty-

    ANA.

    Phoenicia. — A name which, in its more ancient and extended sense, comprised a narrow strip of country extending nearly the whole length of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea, from Antioch to the borders of Egypt. But Phoenicia Proper was included between the cities of Laodi- cea in Syria, and Tyre, and comprised only the territories of Tyre and Sidon. Before Josue conquered Palestine, this country was possessed by the Chanaanites,sons of Cham, divided into eleven families, of which the most powerful was that of Chanaan, the founder of Sidon, and head of the Chanaan- ites, properly so called, whom the Greeks named " Phoenicians." These only pre- served their independence under Josue, and also under David, Solomon, and the succeeding kings ; but they were subdued by the kings of Assyria and Chaldea. Af- terwards, they successively submitted to the Persians, Greeks, and Romans. At this day, Phoenicia is in subjection to the Ottomans, and has not possessed any na- tional or native kings, or any independent form of government for more than 2,000 years. The name Phoenicia is not found in the books of Hebrew Scripture ; but only in the Machabees and the New Testament. The Hebrew always named it "Chanaan." St. Matthew calls the same person a •♦ Chanaanitish " woman (xv. 22), whom St. Mark calls a " Syro-Phoenician " (vii. 26), that is, a Phoenician of Syria, because Phoenicia was then a part of Syria.

    Photinus

    557

    Pilgrim

    Photinus. — Heretic, a native of Ancyra and Bishop of Sirmium. Lived in the fourth century. Reviving Sabellianism, he denied the plurality of Persons in the Trinity. Condemned at Antioch (344), at Milan (347), and by the first Synod of Sirmium, he was deposed. His condem- nation was confirmed by the Second Ecu- menical Council. Photinus died in 366.

    Photius. See Schism {Greek).

    Phrygia. — In ancient geography, an in- land province of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Galatia, on the €ast by Cappadocia, on the south by Lycia, Pisidia, and Isauria, and on the west by Mysia, Lydia, and Caria. L,ater, the Galatians settled in the northeast portion.

    Phul. — King of Assyria, lived in the eighth century b. c. Founded the second Assyrian empire after the fall of Sardana- palus ; upheld the usurper Manahem, in Israel.

    Phylacteries were small rolls of parch- ment, in which were written certain words of the law, and which were worn by the Jews upon their foreheads, and upon the wrist of the left arm. The custom was founded on mistaken interpretations of Ex. xiii. 9, "And it shall be as a sign in thy hand, and as a memorial before thy eyes," and verse 16, "And it shall be as a sign in thy hand, and as a thing hung between thy eyes for a remembrance.' ' The phylac- teries were inclosed in a piece of rough skin, forming a square, one side bearing the Hebrew letter skin, and this was tied to the forehead and worn at morning prayer. They were called "frontlets." Another kind consisted of two rolls of parchment, written in square letters with an ink made for the purpose. They were rolled to a point inclosed in a case of black calfskin and put on a square bit of the same leather, whence hung a tongue of the same, about a finger' s breadth and two feet long. These rolls were placed near the elbow of the left arm, and after the thong had made a small knot in the form of the letter yodk it was wound about the arm in a spiral line which ended at the top of the middle finger. Our Saviour re- proaches the ostentation of the Pharisees in making their phylacteries broad as a sign of their superior wisdom and piety (Matt, xxiii. 5).

    Piarists. — Members of a religious con- gregation, also called "Fathers of the

    Pious Schools." This order was founded at Rome by St. Joseph Calasanctius, about 1600. In addition to the three usual monastic vows, the Piarists devoted them- selves to the free instruction of youth'. They are found especially in the Austrian empire.

    Picpus ( CoHf^regation of) . — A mission- ary institute founded in Paris in the year 1805 by the Venerable Coudrin. The proper name is " Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary." They are called " Picpus " from the street in Paris in which their chief monastery is situated.

    Pietism. — A movement in the Lutheran Church, due to Philip James Spener, a Lutheran preacher, born in Alsace, in 1635. His followers were called "Pietists." Lamenting the absence of all warmth and piety in the Lutheran Church, which he censured as heartless and spiritless, and as " an outward corrupt body," he insti- tuted " associations of pious souls," for the special edification of, and for the cultiva- tion of evangelical morality among his fellow-religionists. These were the fa- mous collegia pietatis from which the name " Pietists " has been derived. Spener died in 1705.

    Pilate or Pontius Pilate, was the fifth Roman procurator in the province of Judea. He took charge of his office in A. D. 28, and held it for ten years. Pilate became odious both to the Jews and Sa- maritans for the severity and cruelty of his administration, and being accused by the latter before Vitellius, the governor of Syria, he was removed from his of- fice and sent to Rome to answer to their accusations before the emperor. Before his arrival, Tiberius was dead; and Pi- late is said to have been banished by Caligula to Vienne in Gaul, 'and there to have died by his own hand. It v/as before Pilate that Jesus was brought by the Jews for condemnation ; and although conscious of his innocence, which he did not scruple to declare publicly, yet probably wishing to gratifythe Jews, and perhaps fearing an accusation of disloyalty, he yielded to their clamor, and delivered Jesus to be crucified.

    Pilgrim and Pilgrimages (A pilgrim is one who visits, with religious intent, some place reputed to possess some special holiness). — The early Christians, like the Jews and the pagan Gentiles, regarded

    PiRKHEIMER

    558

    PiTRA

    certain places with special religious inter- est; above all, the Holy Land, and par- ticularly the scenes of the Passion of our Lord at Jerusalem. St. Jerome refers the practice of visiting Jerusalem to the dis- covery of the holy Cross by St. Helena. He himself was a zealous pilgrim ; and throughout the fourth, fifth, and sixth cen- turies, pilgrims habitually undertook the long and perilous journey to the Holy Land from almost every part of the West. Other sacred places, too, were held to be fit objects of the same visits of religious veneration. The tombs of the Apostles Peter and Paul, and of the martyrs of the Catacombs at Rome, are so described by St. Jerome {Commentary in Ezechiel). St. Basil speaks in the same terms of the tomb of the Forty Martyrs ; and the his- torian Theodoret tells of not only visiting such sanctuaries, but of hanging up, therein, as offerings, gold and silver orna- ments, and even models of hands, feet, eyes, etc., in commemoration of the (!ures of diseases supernaturally obtained as the fruit of these pious visits. The pilgrim- age, however, pre-eminently so called, was that to the Holy Land ; and even after Jerusalem had been occupied by the Sara- cens, the liberty of pilgrimage, on pay- ment of a tax, was formally secured by treaty. It was from the necessity of pro- tecting pilgrims from outrage, that the well-known military orders had their ori- gin. The Crusades may be regarded as a pilgrimage on a grand scale, the direct object being to secure for the Latin Chris- tians immunity of pilgrimage. On the other hand, the final abandonment of the Crusades led to a great extension of what may be called domestic pilgrimage, and drew into religious notice and veneration many shrines in Europe which, after the lapse of time, became celebrated places of pious resort. The chief places of pil- grimage in the West were: in Italy — Rome, Loretto, Genetsano, Assisi ; in Spain — Compostella, Guadaloupe, Mont- serrat; in France — Fourviere, Puy, St. Denis; in Germany — Getting, Zell, Co- logne, Trier. Einsiedlen ; in England — Walsingham, Canterbury, and many others of minor note. The costume of the pilgrim consisted of a black or gray gab- ardine, girt with a cincture, from which a shell and scrip were suspended ; a broad hat ornamented with scallop shells, and a long staff. In late years, however, pil- grims have resorted in large numbers, not

    only to the ancient sanctuaries of Notre Dame de la Garde, de Fourviere, Puy, etc., but also to La Salette, Lourdes, Paray-le-Monial, and Pontigny.

    Pirkheimer (Wilibald) (1470-1530). — Erudite, born at Eichstaedt, died at Nu- remberg. Deputy to the diets of Treves and Cologne (1511-1512). Joined the Catholic Church toward the close of his life, after having been one of the most active adherents of Luther.

    Pisa {Council o/). — The Council of Pisa (1409) was convened by the renegade cardinals of the antipopes Benedicts XIIL and Gregory XII. to remove the schism. It deposed both, and elected Alexander V. Thus a threefold schism arose, which ended only in 1417. The Council of Pisa is not numbered among the Ecumenical Councils.

    Piscina. — In liturgy a term applied to a walled-up cavity of a certain depth, cov- ered with a round or oval stone, which is pierced through the middle. There should be at least one piscina in each church as a receptacle for the water that has i^erved, either for baptism, or to cleanse the sacred vessels and linen. It is also used as a de- positary for the ashes of altar ornaments and linens, and other blessed things which should be burned when they can no longer be used. The piscina also serves the pur- pose of receiving holy water taken from the holy water-basin or font, and, in gen- eral, for all articles used in the sacred service of divine worship, in order that they ma}- not be exposed to profanation.

    Pistoja {Synod of). — An ecclesiastical synod held under the presidency of Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoja, in 1786. It passed a series of decrees that were diametrically opposed to the constitutions, as well as to the teachings, of the Church.

    Pistorius (Johx) (1544-1607). — His- torian and controversist, born at Nidda, Hesse, died at Freiburg. Counselor of Emperor Rudolph II. Joined the Catholic Church after having been one of the prin- cipal agitators of Reformation.

    Pitra (John Baptist) (1812-1889). — Cardinal, born at Champforueil, France, died at Rome. After entering the Bene- dictine order he lived at Solesmes, devot- ing himself to historical researches, but was sent in 1858 to Russia by Pope Pius IX. to study the Slavonic liturgy and entered the

    Pius

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    Pius

    service of the Propaganda after his return. In 1863 he was created cardinal, and in 1869 he became librarian of the Vatican Library. He published Spicilegium Solesmense ; yuris eccl. Grcecorum; etc.

    Pius ( name of nine Popes) . — Pius /. ( St. )

    — Pope from 140 to i54(?). Assisted by St. Justin the Philosopher, he combated the heresies of Valentinus and Marcion, who denied the resurrection of the body and condemned marriage. Pius II. (^neas Sylvius). — Pope from 1458 to 1464. Few men of more consummate ability ever sat in the Chair of St. Peter. The ruling ob- ject of his Pontificate was the organization of a universal league, embracing all Chris- tendom, against the Turks. He summoned an assembly of all Christian powers to be held at Mantua. At the same time, he undertook the conversion of the Sultan Mohammed H., to whom he addressed a long and elaborate epistle. But the efforts of the energetic Pontiff met with no encour- agement from the western nations. Not- withstanding this failure, Pius maintained his courage. He placed himself at the head of an army and set out for Ancona. Here death thwarted the designs which the magnanimous Pontiff had formed for the glory of Christendom. By a special Bull, Pius n. condemned appeals from the Pope to a future general council, and, by another, he formally withdrew what he had written in defense of the Council of Basle and the supremacy of general coun- cils. Pius III . — Pope in 1503. Died one month after his election. He had been the successor of Alexander VI. Pius IV.

    — Pope from 1559 to 1565. He again con- voked the Council of Trent, which was reopened at the seventeenth session, in January, 1562. With the twenty-fifth ses- sion, the Fathers of Trent concluded their labors. The decrees of the Council were signed by 205 prelates and confirmed by Pius IV., in his Bull, " Benedicfus Deus,^' Jan. 26th, 1564. Pius IV., also caused a Triden- tine Profession of Faith., containing a sum- mary of the Council's dogmatical decrees, to be published. In his Bull of approba- tion, Pius IV. made it the duty of bishops to introduce, without delay, and to exe- cute faithfully the reforms inaugurated by the Council of Trent, and established a congregation of cardinals, to which was assigned the special office of enforcing and interpreting the enactments of the Council of Trent. Pius V. (Cardinal

    Ghislieri). — Pope from 1566 to 1572. His Pontificate, though extending over a pe- riod of only six years, was most advanta- geous to the Church. With indefatigable zeal he labored in restoring the discipline and enforcing the canons of reformation promulgated at Trent. He obliged bishops to reside in their sees and enjoined the strictest seclusion of both monks and nuns. Pius VI. (Cardinal Braschi). — Pope from 1775 to 1799. A mild and affable Pontiff, but firm in purpose, applied him- self with zeal and energy to the work of reform in both Church and State. There seemed to be, under his Pontificate, a gen- eral disposition to diminish, if not to un- dermine, the papal authority, even in Catholic countries. The courts of Ma- drid, Naples, and Florence continued to encroach on the immunities of the Church, claiming rights which were in direct opposition to the prerogatives of the Holy See. The heart of the much harassed Pontiff was sorely aflSicted, espe- cially by the "reforms" of Emperor Joseph II. of Austria, whose arbitrary regulations, on purely ecclesiastical mat- ters, were at variance with the true inter- ests of religion. (See Josephism.) The victories of the French Revolutionary armies spread the ideas of the French Revolution in other countries. The young general. Napoleon Bonaparte, oppressed the Pope and demanded the revocation of all the briefs issued against France. The Pope refusing to accede to these demands. Napoleon extorted from him 30,000,000 francs and many treasures of art. In 1798 the French proclaimed Rome a republic, insulted the Pope, and snatched from his hand the ring of the fisherman. Pius sternly protested, in consequence of which he was carried as a prisoner to Siena, thence to Florence, thence to Valence in France, where he died. Pius. VII. — Pope from 1800 to 1823. Successor-to the foregoing Pope. He was elected at Ven- ice. He re-entered Rome amid the un- bounded enthusiasm of its inhabitants. Napoleon, seeing that the restoration of religion in France was necessary to the well-being of the State, entered into ne- gotiations with Pius VII. Through the influence of Consalvi, papal secretary of State, a Concordat was concluded (1801) by the terms of which the con- stitutional bishops were deposed and the faithful bishops asked to resign. Napoleon continued to act in his usual arbitrary man-

    Pius

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    ner and asked the Pope to crown him em- peror in Paris. Although Pius VII. acceded to this request (1804), Napoleon continued his tyranny over the Church. By his or- der, General Miolis entered Rome (1808), banished the cardinals and subjected the Pope to gross outrages. Pius VII. replied with a Bull of excommunication, 1809, which was ridiculed by Napoleon. The Pope was arrested by General Radet in the Quirinal at midnight and taken to Greno- ble, thence to Savona, where he was treated as a common criminal. Letters, books, and writing material were taken from him, yet he remained as firm in prison as on the throne. Before his departure for Moscow, Napoleon ordered the sick Pope to be ta- ken to Fontainebleau, where he received the last sacraments. Being defeated in his campaign, Napoleon again opened negotia- tions with the Pope, and by intrigue, obtained preliminary articles of a new con- cordat, which he promulgated as laws of the empire. Pius protested and recalled his concessions. Napoleon being defeated by the allied forces of Europe, the Pope recovered his liberty, and made his trium- phal entrj' into Rome. Having reinstated the Society of Jesus (1814) and reopened the institutions of learning, etc., he died in 1823, at the age of 81. His Pontificate is one of the most illustrious in history. Pius VIII. — Pope from March 31st, 1829, to Nov. 30th, 1830. Pius IX. (Mastai Ferretti). — Pope from 1846 to 1878. This Pontiff sought to conciliate the revolu- tionary party by a policy of mildness, but his endeavors to pacify met with base in- gratitude. Weighed down by sorrow and undeceived as to the intention of the revo- lutionists, Pius IX. quit the city oi Rome and made good his escape to Gaeta, Novem- ber, 24th, 1848. Rome was forthwith de- clared a republic by the Mazinists and the Garibaldines; revolution had conquered. Through the intervention of Catholic pow- ers the Pope returned to Rome, April 12th, 1850, and though deeply affected by the ingratitude of his subjects, again issued a proclamation of amnesty. The revolu- tionary movement which had taken a firm hold in Italy, found an ally in King Victor Emanuel of Sardinia, whose minister, Ca- vour, joined hands with Napoleon III., and drove Austria out of Italy (1859). The re- sult of this was that the Pope lost several provinces. The Pontifical army, under command of the gallant General Lamori- ciere, was defeated near Castle Fidardo

    and again at Ancona (i860). The Pope was now despoiled of four-fifths of his es- tates. An attack upon Rome by the Gari- baldines was repulsed by the papal army assisted by the French soldiers (1867). But Victor Emanuel completed the work of despoliation when, without any previous declaration of war, he took possession of Rome, Sept. 20th, 1870.

    Pope Pius IX. displayed wonderful en- ergy in ecclesiastical affairs which was felt throughout the whole world. He propo- gated the faith, increased the number of bishoprics and apostolic vicariates ; he re- stored the Catholic hierarchy of England and Holland and re-established the Latin patriarchates at Jerusalem. Up to the year 1876, he had erected 28 archbishoprics, 129 bishoprics, 31 apostolic vicariates. 14 apostolic prefectures, and 3 apostolic dele- gations. He revived the provincial and diocesan synods in several countries. He established new seminaries, principally for the missions of North and South America; he encouraged science and learning, es- pecially the study of ecclesiastical archae- ology; he appointed a great number of learned cardinals outside of Italy such as Wiseman, Cullen, McCloskey, Geissel, Othmar, Rauscher, Reisach, Franzelin, Gousset, etc. He condemned the leading errors of the age in the Encyclical " Sylla- bus of Errors," in 1864. He issued several decisions in dogmas, morals, and liturgy.

    Pius IX. assembled around his throne on four different occasions, a vast number of the bishops of the world, i. Dec. 8th, 1854, when, in the presence of two hundred bishops, he promulgated as an article of faith, the doctrine of the Immaculate Con- ception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 2. On Pentecost, 1862, he canonized the twenty- six Japanese martyrs (died 1597) in the presence of more than three hundred bishops. The assembled bishops unani- mously protested against the spoliation of the Patrimony of Peter. 3. June 29th, 1867, more than five hundred bishops and about ten thousand pilgrims met in Rome to celebrate the eighteenth centenary of the martyrdom of the princes of the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul. 4. Dec. 8th, 1869, he opened the twenty-f^rst Ecumenical ( I Vatican) Council (1869-1870), which was attended by 747 bishops, and July i8th, 1870, the Infallibility of the Pope in decid- ing matters of faith and morals, was dog- matically defined in the presence of 535 bishops. After the inroads of the Pied-

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    montese, the Pope adjourned the Council (Oct. 20th, 1870). On June i6th, 1871, Pius IX. had the happiness to celebrate, as the first among the successors of St. Peter, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his Pontificate. On June 3d, 1877, he cele- brated his golden jubilee as bishop. His illustrious reign came to a close on Feb. 7th, 1878. Few Popes ever possessed the love and veneration of Catholic people throughout the world as did Pius IX.

    Placet. — An expressed sanction ; permis- sion given by one in authority ; specifically, sanction granted to the promulgation and execution of an ecclesiastical ordinance, and particularly such sanction granted by a sovereign to papal bulls, briefs, and other edicts.

    Placidus (St.). — Benedictine monk, born at Rome, died in 539. He accom- panied St. Benedict to Monte Cassino, then became abbot of a monastery near Messina.

    Plagues of Egypt. — The plagues by which God, at the word of Moses, punished the obstinate refusal of the Pharao and his subjects, who did not wish to permit the Israelites to depart from Egypt. They were ten in number and are enumerated in Exodus (vii.-xi.). All these plagues had a supernatural character.

    Plain Chant. — The unisonous vocal music which has been used in the Church from the earliest centuries. Its origin is unknown, but it contains elements taken from the ancient Greek music, and po'ssi- bly from the ancient Temple music of the Hebrews. It is often called " Gregorian," from its most prominent early systematizer, or, in certain details, " Ambrosian." It rests upon the elaborate system of octave scales or modes. According to the prin- ciples and rules of these modes, numerous melodies have been composed or compiled, which have become established by tradition or authority as part of the liturgies of the Western and Eastern Churches. This body of melodies includes a great variety of material adapted not only to every part of the liturgy, but to the several seasons of the Christian year. Plain chant melodies are distinguished by the adherence to the mediaeval modes, by independence of rhythmical and metrical structure, and by a limited and austere use of harmony. Their effect is strikingly individual, digni- fied, and devotional. The style as such 36

    is obligatory in the services of the Catholic Church, and has been perpetuated by her with remarkable purity, in spite of its con- trasts with modern music in general. It has exerted a profound influence upon general musical development, dominating that element until nearly 1600, and furnish- ing innumerable hints and themes to all subsequent styles. The mediaeval theory of counterp.oint was a direct outgrowth of the melodic principle of plain chant. See Music.

    Platonism (philosophical system of Plato) (430-348 B.C.). — There have been men, although quite serious and learned, blind enough to compare Christianity to Platonism and Neo-Platonism, and even to hold that Catholic doctrines were derived from these systems : a pretension as ridic- ulous as it is false. The pure, positive, and sublime conceptions of the Fathers of the Church, whom they have been pleased to metamorphose into disciples of the Christian philosopher, conceptions which, in regard to religion in general, or to God and man in particular, infinitely surpass in elevation and correctness, the doubtful, incoherent, and contradictory affirmations of Plato and of the so-called school of Alexandria, the hearth of Neo-Platonism. Certainly, Plato has written wonderful lines about God, which the Fathers quoted with praise, and which we still read with a certain consolation, when comparing them with the errors of the human mind, during the miserable era of paganism. But at the same time, Plato greatly altered the idea of the Deity, by first admitting absolute, substantial, and independent ideas of God, then a necessary and eternal matter, and which thus escapes all Divine action. As to the dogma of the Trinity, it is in vain that these scholars pretend that Plato makes some allusion to it. Even the best meaning commentators, who are far from being in agreement on the essence and in- timate constitution of the Platonic Trinity, in the discussion of the texts alleged to allude to the conception of the Trinity, do not permit the Athenian philosopher to have been better instructed as to this point than other philosophers of antiquity. Did the Alexandrians, who endeavored to create a system of doctrine which they might op- pose to the Christion symbol, perhaps borrow something from the Fathers of the Church ? Is the theory of the divine at- tributes, such as we can deduct it from the

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    Enneades of Photinus and from the writ- ings of Proclus, more elevated, purer, and more complete than that which our holy Doctors have given? Is not that primor- dial unity, source, and term of all reality, too much like, in its eternal inertness, the chained Saturn of Greek mythology, or the Brahma of the Hindoos ? What is that Triade expressly imagined to make compe- tition to the Christian Trinity, and whose elements were never pointed out and unani- mously acknowledged. Alcinous, Eumenius, and Plotinus having furnished diverse in- dications ? Is it anything else but a repro- duction of the Oriental emanations, which necessarily implies either a plurality of unequal gods or a multiplicity of purely nominal forms of one and the same sub- stance? New Platonism, which was an improvement on the Old, did not even know how to copy Christianity. How, therefore, could the Old inspire and pre- pare the Christian sjmbol? Moreover, in matters of dogma, the Church teaches and does not discuss; she comes with her original richness, and does not borrow ; how, therefore, could she have begged or even accepted, to clothe her splendors with rags of a Platonism, proscribed by her?

    Pliny the Younger (62-113). — Born at Como, Italy. While governor of Bi- thynia and Pontus, Pliny asked the Em- peror Trajan as to the course of conduct he should pursue with regard to the Chris- tians, whom he found to be very numerous in his provinces and in whom he could dis- cover no grave crime except "a perverse and extravagant superstition." In his re- ply to Pliny, Trajan says: "The Chris- tians are not to be sought out; but if brought before you and convicted, they must be punished ; yet if anyone denies he is a Christian and proves his denial by acts, namely, by worshiping our gods, he, though in the past suspected of being a Christian, shall, nevertheless, be par- doned."

    Plotinus (205-270). — Neo-Platonic phi- losopher, born at Lykopolis in Egypt; died in Campania. He is praised for the severity of his life and his noble and blameless character. His treatisses were collected by his disciple Porphyrius and arranged in six Enneads, containing fifty- four books on various subjects. See Pla- tonism.

    Plymouth Brethren. — A Protestant sect which first attracted attention at Plymouth, England, in 1830, but has since extended over Great Britain, the United States, and among the Protestants of France, Switzer- land, Italy, etc. They recognize all as brethren who believe in Christ and the Holy Spirit as his vicar, but they have no formal creed, ecclesiastical organization, or official ministry, condemning these as the causes of sectarian divisions. They are also called "Darbyites," after Mr. Darby, originally a barrister, subsequently a clergyman of the Church of England, and thereafter an evangelist not connected with any Church, to whose efforts their origin and the diffusion of their principles are to be ascribed.

    Poland {Christianity in). — Christian- ity was carried into Poland from Bohemia. Duke Minceslas I., who was married to the Bohemian Princess Dombrawka, re- ceived baptism in the year 966, and his example was soon imitated by the greater number of his people. His successor, the powerful Duke Boleslas I. (992-1025), completed the Christianization of Poland by the erection of numerous churches and monasteries. He founded the archbishop- ric of Gnesen, with the suffragan sees of Kolberg, Cracow, and Breslau. His son Casimir I., greatly promoted Christianity throughout the kingdom. Boleslas II., a tyrannical prince, slew, in 1079, St. Stan- islaus, Bishop of Cracow, who had repri- manded him for his vicious conduct. For this atrocious act, Pope Gregory VII. ex- communicated him and he died in exile. See Germany; Austria.

    Pole (Reginald) (1500-1558). — Arch- bishop of Canterbury and cardinal, born in the Castle of Stoverton, in Stafford- shire; kinsman by his mother, of Henry VII. and Edward IV. After the death of Paul III., he refused the tiara, presided over the Council of Trent and, at his re- turn into England, which he had been forced to leave because he did not wish to flatter the passions of Henry VIII., he was named by Queen Mary, archbishop and president of the royal counsel. He left quite a number of works.

    Polycarp (St.) (70-166). — Bishop of Smyrna. He was the immediate contem- porary and friend of St. Ignatius, but noth- ing certain is known as to his origin, or the place of his birth. Irenaeus, his dis-

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    ciple, tells us that he was instructed by the Apostle St. John, and appointed by him bishop of Smyrna. About the middle of the second century he journeyed to Rome to consult with Pope Anicetus regarding the time of Easter. On this occasion he brought back to the Church many who had been led away by the Gnostics, Valen- tine and Marcion. It is recorded that on meeting Marcion in the streets of Rome, when the latter asked whether he knew him, he replied that he knew " the first- born of Satan." He was close on a hun- dred years old when he died the death of a martyr by the sword — having been miraculously preserved from death by fire — under Marcus Aurelius, about 166, or, according to others, about 155 or 156. Of his letters, which St. Polycarp, according to the testimony of St. Irenaeus, wrote to the neighboring Churches and to particu- lar persons, we possess only that to the Philippians, whose authenticity is vouched for by Irenaeus and Eusebius, and by the fact that it was publicly read in the Churches, and that its subject is quite in harmony with the doctrine of the Apostles and the circumstances of the time of the author.

    Polychronius. — Bishop of Apamea and brother of Theodore of Mopsuestia. Died about 430. He composed commentaries on Daniel, Ezechiel, and Job, of which only detached though important and valu- able fragments are preserved in the Ca- tenae. The Commentaries ascribed to him on the Proverbs, Canticle of Canticles, Jeremias, and Baruch, as well as the frag- ment on the Causes of the Obscurity of Holy Scriptures, cannot be from his pen, on account of the disparity of style. The genuine fragments, however, clearly show that Polychronius possessed a true exegetical spirit and instinct, that he held to the Scriptural inspiration, acknowl- edged the full canon of sacred books, favored the historical method of interpre- tation, and was profoundly versed in arch- aeology and profane history. He possessed all the talents of his brother without any of his faults, except perhaps that of slightly inclining to his rationalistic method. He and Theodoret of Cyrus, are considered the most illustrious inter- preters of the Antiochian School.

    Polygamy. See Marriage.

    Polyglot Bibles. — Bibles printed at least in three languages, whose texts are

    arranged in different columns. Some con- tain all the books of the Bible, others a part or only some books. The first are called general Polyglots, and the latter, particular Polyglots. The general Poly- glots are: i. That of Cardinal Ximenes, printed in 1515; it is also called "the Complutensian" or Alcala (6 vols, in fol.), in four languages: the Hebrew, the Chal- daic paraphrase of Onkelos on the Penta- teuch only, the Greek Version of the Septuagint, and the ancient Latin or Italic Version. 2. That published by Plan- tinus (1569-1572), by authority and at the cost of Philip II., king of Spain; also called royal Polyglot of Philip II., or Polyglot of Antwerp ; besides that con- tained already in the Complutensian, was added the Chaldaic paraphrases of the rest of the Scriptures ; for the New Testament, besides the Greek and Latin of the Bible of Alcala, there was added to this edition the ancient Syriac Version. 3. That of 1586 (2 vols, in fol.), containing the Hebrew, Greek, the Latin version of St. Jerome, and that of Santeo-Pagnini with the notes of the Vatable ; which caused it to be called the Bible of Vatable. 4. That of Elias Hutter, printed in 1599, at Nurem- berg, in six languages : Hebrew, Chaldaic, Greek, Latin, German, and Slavonic in some copies, French or Italian in others ; the same author has published also in 1600 the New Testament in twelve languages : Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Italian, French, Spanish, Latin, German, Bohemian, Eng- lish, Danish, and Polish. 5. That of Jay, printed in Paris, 1645 ; the Syriac and Arabic versions are therein accompanied by Latin interpretations, it contains, be- sides that of Philip II., the Samaritan text of the Pentateuch and the Samaritan ver- sion ; the New Testament contains, more than the Antwerp Polyglot, an Arabic and Latin translation. 6. That which was printed at London in 1657 (6 vols, in fol.), and which is called the Polyglot of Lon- don, Polyglot of England, and Polyglot or Bible of Walton, because Bryan Walton printed it. It is the most complete and the most convenient. There has been added to it a dictionary in seven languages, composed by Edmond Castle. Walton, being an Anglican, did not always express himself in a manner conformable to the pure doctrine ; hence the reason why this Bible was put on the Index. Among the particular Polyglots we quote: i. A Psal- ter in Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, and Chal-

    Polynesia

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    daic, with Latin translations and glosses by Augustino Giustiniani, Genoa (1516). 2. A Psalter in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Ethiopian; Cologne (1518), by John Pot- ken.

    Polynesia( Missions in) . See Australia.

    Polytheism. See Paganism.

    Pombal (MARquis de) (1699-1782).— Prime minister under Joseph I. of Portugal. Pombal, while Portuguese minister in Eng- land, had observed the docility of the An- glican clergy, and their submissiveness to the English government. No sooner had he obtained the reins of power, than he formed plans for a national Church in Portugal, separated from the Holy See. The means which Pombal adopted, were calumny and cruel persecution. He issued writings, grossly defaming the Society of Jesus, to be circulated among the people. They were accused of conspiracy against the State; of creating discontent among the Indians in Paraguay ; they were even denounced as the instigators of, or accom- plices in, an attempt upon the king's life. A royal edict of Sept. 3d, 1759, declared the Jesuits, traitors and assassins, and ban- ished them from Portugal, and from the Portuguese colonies, both East and West. At the death of the king (1777), Pombal lost his credit, the ministry fell, the prisons were opened, the processes revised and the judges decided the innocence of the con- demned. As he had been careful to pro- vide himself with documents wherein all his crimes were charged to the account of the king, whose executor he only pretended to have been, he was spared ; but assailed by thousands of accusations, he was com- pelled to leave Lisbon, and, banished far from the court (1781), went to die in exile.

    Pontianus (St.). — Pope from 230 to 235 ; martyr. Exiled by Alexander Seve- rus, upon the island of Tavolato, on the eastern coast of Sardinia, where he was put to death by order of Maximinus.

    Pontifical. — A book which contains the different orders of the ceremonies which the bishop should observe, particularly in conferring the sacraments of ordination, confirmation, and other sacred functions reserved to the bishop. The Roman Pon- tifical is attributed to the Popes Gelasius and Gregory VII.

    Pontus. — In ancient geography, the northeastern province of Asia Minor,

    bounded on the north by the Euxine sea, west by Galatia and Paphlagonia, south by Cappadocia and part of Armenia, and east by Colchis. It was originally governed by kings, and was in its most flourishing state under Mithridates the Great, who waged a long and celebrated war with the Romans, but was at length subdued by Pompey; after which Pontus became a providence of the Roman empire (Acts ii. 9; I. Pet. i. I).

    Poor Man of Lyons. See Waldknsbs.

    Pope (the head of the Roman Catholic Church). — The name Pope (Lat. Pa fa), " which means Father," says Fleury, " but in denoting a particular tenderness," was formerly given to all bishops. Among the Russians, the simple priest placed at the head of a parish is termed Pope, meaning father of the parish. However, this title was par excellence, the title of the sovereign Pontiff, residing in Rome, and since the time of Gregory VII., the Bishop of Rome alone has been called Pope. Witness how Crea expresses him- self on the essence or nature of the papal power in the Church, "It is a bishop, who, in quality, is nothing more than other bishops, since bishops are alike. The episcopacy does not suffer inferiority in any of its members, and the Bishop of Rome is no more a bishop than the bishop of an obscure city. But because the Bishop of Rome is the Vicar of Jesus Christ, he exercises a power which is not contained in the essential power of the episcopacy. Indeed, it is the essence of a vicar that he forms only one sole hierarchical person with the one whom he represents, without forming a distinct degree below him. This is so true in the propriety of the term vicar, that even in an inferior de- gree, we every day see the bishop of a particular Church, or diocese, giving to himself a vicar who represents him with the plentitude of his ordinary authority. The vicar of a bishop is taken from among the priests, but he exercises a power which is not contained in the priesthood, because this power is the authority itself which the bishop has over the priests as their chief. Hereby, the vicar forms with the bishop only one sole hierarchic person. Such is the singular dignity of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. He is in possession of the whole authority of Jesus Christ, over the Church and over the Episcopacy" {De viglise et de sa Constitution, p. 137).

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    The Pope, the visible head of the Church, Vicar of Jesus Christ, is the suc- cessor of St. Peter. He governs, teaches, commands observance of the canons, as- sembles councils and presides over them, institutes bishops, . creates cardinals, es- tablishes or suppresses religious orders, watches over the maintenance of dogma and discipline, approves or censures doc- trines, publishes bulls, briefs, encyclicals, upholds liturgy, grants major dispensa- tions, concedes indulgences, pronounces excommunication or withdraws it, in a word, he has the supreme and entire au- thority of government.

    The Pope wears a triple crown or tiara. He is chosen by the cardinals in conclave, and after being elected he is placed upon a seat and carried before the altar of St. Peter, and in that magnificent, historic cathedral, he is crowned. He choses a name under which he continues the series of Pontiffs. The history of the Papacy is blended with that of the Church, and forms the salient part thereof. Since the first centuries the various Churches ac- knowledged the papal authority, and have recourse to Rome in all their major causes. (See Primacy.) The first Popes underwent martyrdom in turn. Constan- tine the Great, transferring the seat of the empire to Constantinople, left in the West the Papacy in charge of great wealth, which gradually increased by the generosity of the emperor and his sub- jects. This action of Constantine, to- gether with the love and loyalty of the Faithful, gradually endowed the Papacy with a moral and even temporal power, and prepared it to exercise a supreme in- fluence over the world, which was becom- ing more universally Christianized. The Papacy under the successors of Constan- tine, had to contend with and overcome powerful heresies. Under the Greek em- pire it found itself confronted by all the cavils of the Grecian spirit, linked with the decline of a fast decaying society. It, on the other hand, made an alliance with Charlemagne, and its prestige increased. It penetrated the abodes and conquered with the Word of God, barbarous nations, forming them into civilized peoples, thus erecting the bulwarks of future Chris- tianity.

    Islamism became threatening, and the Papacy opposed to it the chivalrous valor of the Crusades. From the beginning, as it still continues, the Papacy was the pro-

    tector and patron of learning, and perpetu- ated scientific knowledge ; transmitting it to the coming ages. It gave energy to the religious orders, it spread the Chris- tian life and spirit among the clergy and the Faithful. A difficult trial awaited the Papacy, which for a time seemed to over- throw it, — the great "Schism of the West," yet in the end it came out victorious. The Reformation, so called, was a revolution that strove to draw away from the Papacy the disobedience of a great part of Europe. The modern spirit continued the work of the Reformation, affecting even the nations that remained faithful. France, the eldest daughter of the Church, felt its baneful effects. The great French Revolution put into practice, with fearful logic, what had been at first considered as simple theories. Finally, in our own days, Pius IX. was robbed and despoiled of all temporal power which had belonged, undisputed, to the Papacy for more than a thousand years. Then did the char- ity and loyalty of the Faithful again assert itself by voluntary contributions under the name of " Peter's Pence," by which the Papacy and its needs are sup- plied. The Papacy, as must be admitted, even by its enemies, nevertheless con- tinues to exist with a character of impos- ing grandeur, to which even now as of yore, the great mass of the enlightened world renders willing homage. Being created by God for an enduring, divine purpose, it remains, and shall remain, to the end of time a necessary institution, and hence the '■'■ Non Possumus," of Pius IX. to the Italian government is repeated by his successor, the inflexible, matchless Leo XIII., and shall continue to be repeated till justice shall be satisfied.

    Pope {Election of the). — The manner of electing the sovereign Pontiff has been different in different ages. At first, i. e., from the time of St. Peter to Pope St. Sylvester I., the right to elect the Roman Pontiff was vested in the Senate of the Church of the city of Rome. This Senate, which was instituted by St. Peter himself, was composed of twenty-four priests and deacons. After the Pontificate of Sylvester I. (died, 335), the entire Roman clergy and people were also admitted to the elec- tion of the Pontiff. From the time of Pope Simplicius (467) to that of Zachary (741), temporal rulers sought to establish the custom that no Pontiff should be

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    566

    Pope

    acknowledged as such without their con- firmation. Pope Nicholas II. was the first who gave the chief voice in the elec- tion of the Roman Pontiff to the cardinals, by ordaining that the election should be held by the cardinal bishops. Finally, Pope Alexander III., in 1178, reserved the right of electing the Pontiff exclusively to the cardinals ; he also enacted that the Pope could be validly elected by two-thirds of all the cardinals present without any re- gard to the absent members of the Sacred College. These enactments were con- firmed by Gregory X. (1274) and Clement V. (1310), and are in force at the present day.

    A vacancy occurs in the Apostolic See when the sovereign Pontiff resigns or dies. Immediately upon the death of a Pope the cardinals are to be convoked. All must be summoned, even those who are absent, ex- communicated, suspended, or interdicted ; also cardinals but recently created, though not yet invested with the insignia of the cardinalate. The cardinals present must ordinarily wait ten days for the arrival of those who are absent. If, however, the cardinals present, for just reasons, pro ceeded to elect the Pope before the lapse of ten days from the death of the late Pon- tiff, this election would nevertheless be valid. On the tenth, or, according to Phillips, on the eleventh day the cardinals enter the conclave in procession. (See CoKCLAVE.) Once having entered the conclave they cannot leave it until after the election of a new Pope. If any cardinal should leave the conclave on account of sickness or other cause, he cannot return again, even if he recovers, nor can he have a voice in the election. If, in the course of the election, a considerable number of cardinals should withdraw from the con- clave, refusing to participate in the elec- tion, the right of electing the Pontiff would devolve on the remaining cardinals, even though but two, nay, even in case but one, were left.

    The election at present must be held either by scrutiniutn or ballot, or by com- promise, or by quasi inspiration. Though any of these three modes can be made use of, the ballot is the one more usually adopted. The election fer scruttnium consists in this, that each of the voters casts his vote, as a rule, by ballot ; in the election of the sovereign Pontiff, the cardinals are ob- liged to vote by secret ballot. The candi- date who receives the votes of two-thirds

    of all the cardinals present in the conclave, is canonically elected Pope. Before the balloting, three cardinals {scrutatores) are chosen by lot to count the votes and an- nounce the result. The votes are cast in the following manner: Each cardinal writes the name of his candidate on the ballot or ticket of election, formulating his vote thus : " I choose for Supreme

    Pontiff, the Most Reverend ." This

    ticket is then folded, sealed, and deposited by the voter in a chalice placed on an altar for that purpose. The three scrutatores, meanwhile, stand by the chalice and super- intend the voting. When all the votes have been cast, the scrutatores at once begin to announce the votes in this man- ner: the first scrutator takes one of the votes out of the chalice, and simply looks at or ascertains the name of the candidate voted for; he then hands the vote or ticket to the second scrutator, who like- wise, having merely seen the name on it, passes it to the third scrutator, by whom the name is audibly announced to the cardinals. All the tickets are thus an- nounced one by one.

    When all the votes have been counted by the scrutatores, and it is found that the ballot is without result, no candidate hav- ing received the requisite two-thirds vote, the accessus must immediately begin. The accessus consists in this, that the cardinals, by balloting as before, go over to one of the candidates who has received at least one vote in the first ballot. In the accessus, as the word itself indicates, no cardinal can vote for or go over to the one for whom he voted in the first ballot; all, however, are obliged to vote, though they are free to go over to some candidate or to stand by their first choice. A cardinal who goes over to some candidate votes thus : ** I go

    over to ;"a cardinal who does not

    wish to change his vote ballots thus: "I go over to no one." When the accessus is over, the votes are again counted as before in the scrutiniutn, and if, even then, it is found that no candidate has received the necessary two-thirds vote, the cardinals must in their next meeting, unless they prefer to elect the Pope by compromise or by quasi inspiration, proceed to a second ballot and continue thus to ballot twice a day, — in the morning and afternoon, — un- til some candidate receives two-thirds of all the votes, and is thus canonically elected Pope. The person thus elected, even though not yet in sacred orders, becomes

    Pope

    567

    POPE

    immediately, upon the consenting to the election, the Vicar of Christ on earth. The new Pope, as a rule, lays aside his old and assumes a new name.

    Pope ( Temporal Power of the). See Power.

    Pope {Prerogatives of the) . — It is an incontestable fact that St. Peter went to Rome to preach the Gospel, that he fixed there his see and that he died there for the faith. (See Peter.) It is no less certain that, after the death of St. Peter, the See of Rome has been constantly and uninterruptedly occupied by a bishop, and that this bishop has always been regarded as the successor of St. Peter. Now, as Pope Pius VII. says, it is a Catholic dogma that Jesus Christ has founded His Church upon the solidity of the rock, and that, by a particular gift, He has chosen Peter, in preference to the other Apostles to be His vicar on earth, and the prince of the Apostolic Chair ; that by intrusting him, — and through him his successors in the course of time, — the care and the supreme power is delegated to feed the flock, to confirm his brethren, to bind and to loose throughout the whole uni- verse. This dogma was derived from Christ and has been transmitted to us by the belief and practice of the universal Church, by the testimony of the holy Fathers, and by the decrees of sovereign Pontiffs and councils, which decrees were promulgated against the errors of innova- tors.

    The Holy See is the center of Chris- tianity. "The ecclesiastical authority," says Bossuet, following Ca3sarius of Aries, " first established in the person of one, has spread itself only under the condition of always being able to be reduced to the principle of its unity, and that all those who may be obliged to exercise it shall keep themselves inseparably united to the same See." To be really united with the sovereign Pontiff, it is not enough to acknowledge that such or such reigning Pontiff is the successor of St. Peter; nor is it sufficient to say that we desire to live in communion with the Holy See ; we must, moreover, be subject to the decrees of the Apostolic See, conform ourselves in all things to the teaching of the Roman Church, the Mother and Mistress of all the Churches.

    It belongs chiefly to the Pope, to pro- nounce on questions in regard to faith.

    Although all bishops are judges of faith, nevertheless, their judgments are sub- ordinate to the authority of the Vicar of Christ, the successor of St. Peter, who has received from our Lord the command to feed both the lambs and the sheep, the little ones and mothers, and to confirm his brethren, that is, the Apostles and their successors, the bishops. There must al- ways be a Peter in the Church to confirm his brethren in the faith. This is the means to preserve that unity of sentiment and fact which our Blessed Saviour desired above all things else, and the authority of the supreme Pontiff is all the more nec- essary for the bishops, as their faith is not confirmed, as was that of the Apostles. (See Infallibility.)

    The Pope can make laws which are obli- gatory for the whole Church. He has re- ceived from Jesus Christ, in the person of Peter, prince of the Apostles, the keys of the kingdom of heaven, with the power to bind and to loose on earth, with the full and entire power to feed, direct, and gov- ern the universal Church. (Council of Florence.) Therefore, he can make laws obligatory on all Christians, since there is no government without legislative power. This universal power and authority of the Pope in regard to faith, morals, and disci- pline has been invariably recognized by all the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, in all ages.

    This supreme authority of the Holy See every bishop at his consecration acknowl- edges, promising under oath to receive with respect the holy decretals and consti- tutions which may emanate from the Pope. All the decrees of the Popes or of the gen- eral councils, as likewise all bulls and con- stitutions are obligatory in the spiritual state and bind in conscience, independently of the authorization of the temporal State. Were this otherwise, no one could be a Catholic or at least could not fulfill his duties as such if his obedience to the Holy See depended on the consent of the gov- ernment. And it would no longer be St. Peter who would be supreme head of the Church, but Caesar, thus compelling us to reverse the dictum of the Apostles, who said God should be obeyed rather than men.

    The institution of bishops and establish- ing of dioceses belongs to the sovereign Pontiff. The spiritual power of both Pope and bishops is derived from Jesus Christ; it is the Holy Ghost who has established

    Pope

    568

    Pope

    bishops to govern the Church of God. But to take part in the government of the Church, it is not sufficient to have received the episcopal character ; besides the power of orders, which is inherent in the sacra- ment of holy orders, a canonical jurisdic- tion is required for both forms, — exterior and interior. In regard to bishops, it is of faith, according to the Council of Trent, that those who have been instituted by the authority of the Roman Pontiff are true and legitimate bishops. According to the same Council, one of the principal duties of the Pope, whose solicitude extends it- self over the universal Church, is to give to each Church pastors really worthy and capable, under pain of being responsible for the loss of those who might perish through the negligence of unworthy pas- tors. It is a disputed question among theologians whether bishops canonically instituted, hold their power immediately from God, or from the Pope. However this may be, all Catholics, says Benedict XIV., agree that the jurisdiction of bishops is always subject to the Pope ; so that he can restrain, limit, and even take it away entirely, when there is a legitimate cause for so doing. As a consequence from all the facts which we have detailed, it follows that the Church is of monarchical form, under an elective monarch, the Pope. The Pope, says St. Thomas, has the plenitude of Pontifical power; he is in the Church what a king is in a kingdom, and the bish- ops are called to share a part of his care, as judges established in each city. Yet we are not to confound this monarchical form of the Church with absolutism. A monarchy, even in a political and social order, has laws and constitutions independ- ent of the monarch. The government of the Church being, as the Church itself, essentially one, perpetual, unchangeable, is necessarily always the same, that is, always and necessarily monarchic, and this it is by virtue of its constitution which is di\\\\-ine. The Pope cannot render it des- potic, or aristocratic, or democratic. It is always what it has been and will be such to the end of time.

    The power of the Pope extends itself in a certain manner over things temporal. No Pope, no Catholic theologian, has denied the real distinction between the temporal and spiritual power, nor their in- dependence in their o-«ti domain ; but the Church interferes in the acts of any gov- ernment when these acts are contrary to

    justice, morality, or religion ; she inter- feres in the quality of interpreter of divine law, the natural and positive laws having their source in the divine law, for it Is hers to care for the eternal salvation of her children and the maintenance of the supernatural order.

    The Popes have never pretended to pos- sess over kings and rulers temporal sway ; they used their spiritual sword only in defense of the outraged peoples who called upon them as the common father of all to protect them against the tyranny of des- pots. "It was a principle," says F^nelon, " among all Catholic nations, received and deeply engraved, that none but a Catholic prince or sovereign could possess power to govern. Moreover, it was a tacit under- standing between prince and people, that the latter would only obey the prince in so far as the prince or ruler would obey the laws of the Catholic Church. In virtue of this principle, all the nations believed that they were freed from their oath of fidelity, when, in despising this agreement, the prince turned himself against religion." However, for fear of being mistaken in their judgments, and wishing, besides, to prevent civil war and its misfortunes, the people had recourse to the Pope, the natu- ral interpreter of an oath which is an act of religion, and of the agreement on their part in as far as such agreements affected morals and consciences. "Thus," con- tinues the Bishop of Cambrai, " the Church did not, strictly speaking, depose or insti- tute lay princes ; she simply answered those who consulted her in regard to con- science, reason, and of the binding force of the agreement and oath." No one will admit that a prince can, with impunity use and abuse the goods and lives of his sub- jects. What will arbitrate the differences which may arise between people and rulers ? Force undoubtedly. But what have we not to fear from a prince or people when they rule only by the edge of the sword ?

    According to Gallicanism and some other expositors, a general council would be superior to the Pope. But how can we reconcile this proposition with the Gospel, which represents St. Peter as the founda- tion of the Church of Christ? It is not the building which supports the founda- tion, but the foundation which supports the building. How can we reconcile it, with the power of the keys, which have been given to St. Peter only, or with the command, which SL Peter received

    Popes

    569

    Popes

    from our Lord to feed both the lambs and the sheep, that is, the whole flock, to con- firm his brethren, that is the Apostles themselves, in the faith. According to the Second General Council of Lyons, the Pope " has a supreme primacy with the sovereignty, and plenitude of power over the whole Church. All the Churches are subject to him, and all bishops owe to him respect and obedience. The prerogatives of the Roman Church cannot be violated, either by general or particular Councils." The Council of Florence is not less expres- sive. It has defined that the Roman Pon- tiff has received from Jesus Christ, in the person of Peter, "a full power to feed, di- rect and govern the Universal Church." Finally, the Vatican Council has declared and defined the dogma of the personal In- fallibility of the Pope, in matters of faith and morals. For the Pope as legislator, see Law.

    Popes {Future), according to the proph- ecy of Malachias. — This prophecy has always been attributed to this saint, who was Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland (died 1 148). St. Bernard reports, as an eye- witness, several miracles and prophecies of St. Malachias. In 1590, Arnold of Wyon, a learned Benedictine, discovered the manuscript, ignored until then, of the prophecy concerning the succession of the Popes, since Celestine II., in 1143, un- til the end of the world. He entrusted his discovery to the Spanish Dominican and historian, Ciaconius (Alphonse Cha- con), author of the Lives and Acts of the Popes and Cardinals, written in Latin. The latter provided the work with notes. This work has often been reprinted. In 1873, the Abbd Cucherat, in a volume on this historic document, has reproduced the Latin text of Malachias, such as Ar- nold of Wyon had given it, in his Lignum VitcB. He added to it a French transla- tion, the name of the sovereign PontiflFs, and the epoch of their Pontificate. We must remark that the characteristic, at- tributed by the prophecy to each papal reign, does not always refer to the Pope himself, but often to an event, to a historic personage of the period ; thus one charac- teristic applies to Napoleon I., the aquila rapax of the prophecy in regard to Pius VII.

    We will quote only a part of the proph- ecy, that is, since the time of Napoleon I. : Aquila rapax (the ravishing eagle), who

    dominated Europe during the Pontificate of Pius VII. (1800-1823). — Canis et coluber (dog and serpent). Leo XII.(i823-i829). — Vir religiosus (religious man) . Pius VIII. ( 1 829-1 830). — De balneis £truriee{iromV\\\\ie baths of Etruria). Gregory XVI. (1831- 1846).— Crwxrfe cr?

    According to this prophecy there would be yet ten popes after Leo XIII., and then the end of the world would take place.

    Popes {List of). — According to Birk- haeuser's Church History, the List of Popes is as follows :

    DtTRATION OF

    Name. Pontificate :

    First Century St. Peter, Prince of the Apos- tles, who received the supreme Pontificate from Christ. He resided for a time at Antioch, and afterwards established his See at Rome, where he died a martyr with St. Paul, under

    Nero, June 29th, 67. ... 42 — 67

    St. Linus 67—78

    St. Cletus or Anacletus * 78 — 91

    St. Clement I 91 — 100

    Second Century

    St. Evaristus 100—109

    St. Alexander 1 109 — 1 19

    St. Sixtus I 119 — 127

    St. Telesphorus 127 — 139

    St. Hyginus 139 — 142

    St. Pius I 142 — 157

    * See Anacletus.

    Popes

    570

    Popes

    Duration of Name. Pontificate :

    St. Anicetus 157 — 168

    St. Soter 168—177

    St. Eleutherus 177—192

    St. Victor I 192—201

    Third Century

    St. Zephyrinus 202—218

    St. Calixtus I 218—222

    St Urban I 223—230

    St. Pontian 230—235

    St. Anterus 235—236

    St. Fabian 236—250

    St. Cornelius 251—252

    St. Lucius I 252—253

    St. Stephen 1 253—257

    St. Sixtus II 257— 25S

    St. Dionjsius 259 — 269

    St. Felix I 269—274

    St. Eutychianus 275—283

    St. Cajus 283—296

    St. Marcellinus 296 — 304

    Fourth Century

    St. Marcellus t 308 — 310

    St. Eusebius 310 — 311

    St. Melchiades 311 — 313

    St. Sylvester I 314—335

    St. Marcus 336 — 337

    St. Julius I 337—352

    Liberius. (Felix II. Anti- pope.) i 352—366

    St. Damasus 1 366 — 384

    St. Siricius 385—398

    St. Anastasius 1 398 — 402

    Fifth Century

    St. Innocent 1 402 — 417

    St. Zosimus 417—418

    St. Boniface I 418—422

    St. Celestine I 422 — ^432

    St. Sixtus III 432 — 440

    St. Leo I. (the Great) 440 — 461

    St. Hilary 461—468

    St. Simplicius 468—483

    St. Felix III 483—492

    St. Gelasius I 492 — 496

    St. Anastasius II 496 — 498

    Sixth Century

    St. Symmachus 498 — 514

    St. Hormisdas 514 — 523

    t Owing to the violent persecution then rag- ing, the Holy See remained vacant nearly four years 3,04 — 308.

    J Felix is put in the list of Popes by some, though he is generally held to be an intruder.

    Duration of Name. Pontificate :

    St. John 1 523 — 1525

    St. Felix IV 526—530

    Boniface II 530 — 532

    John II 532—535

    St. Agapetus 1 535— 53^

    St. Silverius 536 — 540

    Vigilius 540—555

    Pelagius I 555-5^0

    John III 560—573

    Benedict I 574 — 578

    Pelagius II 578 — 590

    St. Gregory I. (the Great) 590 — 604

    Seventh Century

    Sabinianus 604 — 605

    Boniface III 606

    St. Boniface IV 607 — 614

    St. Deusdedit 615 — 618

    Boniface V 619 — 625

    Honorius I . 625 — 638

    Severinus 639

    John IV 640 — 642

    Theodorus I 642 — 649

    St. Martin 1 649 — 655

    Eugenius 1 655 — 657

    St. Vitalian 657 — 672

    St. Adeodatus 672 — 676

    Donus 676 — 678

    St. Agatho 678—681

    St. Leo II 682—684

    St. Benedict II 684—686

    John V 686—687

    Conon 687

    St. Sergius I 687 — 701

    Eighth Century

    John VI 701 — 705

    John VII 705 — 707

    Sisinnius 708

    Constantine 70S — 715

    St. Gregory II 715— 73i

    St. Gregory III 731—741

    St. Zacharias 741 — 752

    Stephen II 752

    Stephen III 752—757

    St. Paul 1 757—767

    Stephen IV 768—772

    Adrian I 772—795

    Ninth Century

    St. Leo III 795—816

    Stephen V 816—817

    Paschal I 817—824

    Eugenius II 824—827

    Valentine 827

    Popes

    571

    POPES

    Duration of Name. Pontificate :

    Gregory IV 827 — 844

    Sergius II 844 — 847

    Leo IV 847—855

    Benedict III 855—858

    St. Nicholas I. (the Great) 858—867

    Adrian II 867—872

    John VIII 872—883

    MarinusI 882—884

    Adrian III 884—885

    Stephen VI 885—891

    Formosus 891 — 896

    Boniface VI 896

    Stephen VII 896— S97

    Romanus 897

    Theodorus II 897—898

    John IX 898—900

    Tenth Century

    Benedict IV 900 — 903

    Leo V 903

    Christophorus 903 — 904

    Sergius III 904 — 91 1

    Anastasius III 911 — 913

    Lando 913 — 914

    John X 914 — 928

    Leo VI 92S — 929

    Stephen VIII 929 — 931

    John XI 931—936

    Leo VII 936 — 939

    Stephen IX 939 — 943

    Marinus II 943 — 946

    Agapetus II 946 — 956

    John XII * 956 — 964

    Benedict V 964 — 965

    John XIII 965 — 972

    Benedict VI 972 — 974

    Benedict VII 975 — 983

    John XIV 983—985

    John XV 9S5— 996

    Gregory V 996 — 999

    Eleventh Century

    Sylvester II 999 — 1003

    John XVII t 1003

    John XVIII 1003 — 1009

    Sergius IV 1009 — 1012

    Benedict VIII 1012 — 1024

    John XIX 1024 — 1032

    Benedict IX 1033 — 1044

    Gregory VI. (abdicated) . . . .1044 — 1046

    Clement II 1046 — 1047

    Damasus II 1048

    * Leo VIII. and Benedict VI. were antipopes.

    tThis Pontiff took the name of John XVII. to prevent his acts being confounded with those of the antipope John XVI., in the time of Gregory V.

    Duration of Name. Pontificate :

    Leo IX 1049 — 1054

    Victor II 1054 — 1057

    Stephen X 1057 — 1058

    Nicholas II 1059 — 1061

    Alexander II 1061 — 1073

    St. Gregory VII 1073 — 1085

    Victor III 10S6— 1088

    Urban II 1088 — 1099

    Twelfth Century

    Paschal II

    Gelasius II. . . . Calixtus II. . . . Honorius II. . . Innocent II. . . Celestine II. . . Lucius II . . . . Eugenius III. . Anastasius IV. Adrian IV. . . . Alexander III. Lusius III. . . .

    Urban III

    Gregory VIII. Clement III. . . Celestine III. .

    .1099—

    .1118—

    .1119—

    . 1 1 24 —

    .1130—

    "43—

    "44—

    "45—

    "53—

    ■ "54—

    "59—

    .1181

    ."85- .1187 .1187— .1191—

    118 119 124 130

    143 144

    145 153 154 159 181

    185

    187

    191 198

    Thirteenth Century

    Innocent III 1198 — 12 16

    Honorius III 1216 — 1227

    Gregory IX 1227 — 1241

    Celestine IV * 1241

    Innocent IV 1243 — 1254

    Alexander IV 1254 — 1261

    Urban IV 1261 — 1264

    Clement IV + 1265— 1268

    Gregory X 1272 — 1276

    Innocent V 1276

    Adrian V 1276

    John XXI 1277

    Nicholas III 1277 — 1280

    Martin IV 1281— 1285

    Honorius IV 1285 — 1287

    Nicholas IV 1288 — 1292

    St. Celestine V. (abdicated). . . .1294

    Boniface VIII 1294 — 1303

    Fourteenth Century

    Benedict XI 1303 — 1304

    Clement V 1305 — 1314

    * After the death of this Pontiff followed an in- terregnum of nearly two years, caused by the hos- tile attitude of Emperor Frederick II. toward the Holy See.

    + After the death of Clement IV. there was a vacancy of nearly three years.

    PORPHYRIUS

    572

    PORPHYRIUS

    Duration of Name. Pontificate :

    John XXII 1316— 1334

    Benedict XII 1334 — 1342

    Clement VI 1342 — 1352

    Innocent VI 1352 — 1362

    Urban V 1362 — 1370

    Gregory XI 1370— 1378

    Urban VI* 1378— 1389

    Boniface IX 1389 — 1404

    Fifteenth Century

    Innocent VII 1404 — 1406

    Gregory XII t 1406 — 1415

    Martin V 1417 — 1431

    Eugenius IV 1431 — 1447

    Nicholas V 1447 — 1455

    Calixtus III 1455 — 1458

    Pius II 1458 — 1464

    Paul II 1464 — 1471

    Sixtus IV 1471 — 1484

    Innocent VIII , 1484 — 1492

    Alexander VI 1492 — 1503

    Sixteenth Century

    Pius III 1503

    Julius II 1503— 1513

    Leo X 1513 — 1521

    Adrian VI 1522 — 1523

    Clement VII 1523 — 1534

    Paul III 1534—1549

    Julius III 1550— 1555

    Marcellus II ^555

    Paul IV 1555— 1559

    Pius IV 1559— 1565

    St. Pius V 1566 — 1572

    Gregory XIII 1572— 1585

    Sixtus V 1585 — 1590

    Urban VII 1590

    Gregory XIV 1590— 1591

    Innocent IX 1591 — 1592

    Clement VIII 1592 — 1605

    Seventeenth Century

    Leo XI 1605

    Paul V 1605 — 1621

    Gregory XV 1621 — 1623

    Urban VIII 1623 — 1644

    Innocent X 1644 — 1655

    * Several discontented cardinals elected an anti- pope, Clement VIII. (1378 — 1394), who resided at Avignon. He was succeeded by Benedict XIII. (1394—1417)-

    t This Pontiff abdicated in 1415 in the Council of Constance. Alexander V., who was elected by the Council of Pisa, in 1409, and his successor John XIII., although generally classed as anti- popes, are found in many of the lists, even in those published at Rome.

    Duration op Name. Pontificate:

    Alexander VII 1655 — 1667

    Clement IX 1667—1669

    Clement X 1670 — 1676

    Innocent XI 1676 — 1689

    Alexander VIII 1689 — 1691

    Innocent XII 1691 — 1700

    Eighteenth Century

    Clement XI 1700— 1721

    Innocent XIII 1721 — 1724

    Benedict XIII 1724 — 1730

    Clement XII 1730 — 1740

    Benedict XIV 1740 — 1758

    Clement XIII 1758— 1769

    Clement XIV 1769 — 1774

    Pius VI 1775— 1799

    Nineteenth Century

    Pius VII 1800— 1823

    Leo XII 1823 — 1829

    Pius VIII 1829— 1830

    Gregory XVI 1830—1846

    Pius IX 1846— 1878

    Leo XIII 1878

    Porphyrius. — Neo - Platonic philoso- pher, born at Batanea or Tyre, died in Rome. He was a disciple of Plotinus and Origen. He had embraced Christianity and left it, it is claimed, on account of ill- treatment by some Christians of Caesarea. He wrote Fifteen Books against the Christians, an elaborate work, which the chief defenders of the faith, St. Methodius of Tyre, Apollinaris of Laodicea, Euse- bius of Caesarea, and others thought worthy of refutation. Both the work of Porphyrius and the refutations by these bishops are lost ; extant copies of the former were destroyed in 449, by order of Emperor Theodosius II. Porphyrius, the bitterest enemy of Christianity, denied the Messianic mission and the divinity of Christ, the resurrection of the body and eternal punishment, which he declared to be irreconcilable with Divine justice, and maintained that the prophecies contained in the Old Testament were written after the events. The miracles of the Apostles were attributed, by him, to arts of magic, and those occurring at the tombs of the martyrs, he declared to be the work of demons. Furthermore, he defended heathen mythology by endeavoring, through allegorical and physical interpre- tations, to reconcile its teachings with

    PORTIUNCULA

    573

    Possession

    reason and to prove that the answers of the oracles were in hartnony with sound philosophy. Porphyrins died in 304. His followers gave him the title of " Wonder- ful" and "Divine," declaring him to be equal to Plato. Miraculous acts, and a knowledge of future things, and also the inmost thoughts of men were ascribed to him.

    Portiuncula. — The Church of St. Mary's of the Angels, or Portiuncula, at Assisi, has always remained dear to the Order of St. Francis. Our Saint shared the labor of the workmen who repaired it when it was going to ruin, and here he was accustomed to retire and give himself up to prayer and religious contemplation. To this Church, the Holy See, in 1223, granted the indul- gence known as the "Indulgence of the Portiuncula," which, on being extended to all the Churches of the Order, gave rise to a special feast, celebrated on Aug. 2d. It was further granted to the Faithful, for all coming time, to gain these indulgences whenever {toties quoties) prepared to carry out the requisite conditions.

    Port Royal {Monastery of ). — Cister- cian Convent of nuns at Paris, the great center of the Jansenist movement. Its Abbess Angelique, the sister of Antoine Arnauld, the recognized head of the Jan- senist party in France, and the pupil of Saint Cyran, dissuaded the nuns from fre- quent communion, on the ground that a less frequent reception would increase their desire for the sacrament. The nuns of Port Royal refusing to subscribe to the Papal Formula, were interdicted and for- bidden to receive novices. Remaining ob- stinate, the deluded religious were all by royal order expelled, and their convent was utterly destroyed, in 1710.

    Portugal ( Worship in).— The Catholic religion is the religion of the State. Re- ligious teaching is given in seminaries, the expenses of which are covered by the product of the gifts of the Faithful, regu- lated by the " Bull of the Crusade," in other words, by the money which formerly had been devoted to the Crusade against the infidels. The State pays a salary only to the bishops of the continent and to the clergy of the islands. As to the curates, they are paid by special contributions of the communities, the casual and rents of the churches. The monastic orders were

    abolished in 1834 and the landed property of their churches sold by virtue of the law of April 4th, 1862, under the direction of the bishops. This was a return to the odious persecution of Pombal. Other re- ligions are tolerated. The Portuguese Church comprises four provinces: Arch- bishopric of Braga, with four suffragan sees ; patriarchate of Lisbon, with five suffragan sees ; archbishopric of Goa or Primacy of the East, with seven suffragan sees ; archbishopric of Evora, with two suffragan sees. The bishops are named by the king and instituted by the Pope.

    Possession {Diabolical) (a state by which an evil spirit, by God's permission, in- habits the body of a rational being). — Possession differs from obsession, in which the devil, while agitating and tormenting man, does not, however, enter his body as in possession. That there are in the world a certain number of malevolent spirits, whom we call devils, is a fact which has been acknowledged by all nations and peo- ples. Just as the consent of all men, ad- mitting miracles, proves, says Paschal, that there are real miracles, so also the consent of all mankind admitting posses- sions proves that there have been some real possessions. The reality of possession clearly goes forth from the account of the Evangelists. Holy Scripture admits the reality of possession and the Gospel teaches us that our divine Saviour cast out the devil from persons in whom he dwelled and tyrannized. The Church has always taught that the exorcists receive, and that she confers upon them, the power to cast out demons. In connection with this mat- ter, the Gospel tells us that devils were permitted to enter into a herd of swine ; this account is given by all the three Syn- optics (Matt, viii., Mark v., Luke vii.), and there seems to be no choice except to admit that we have a story of diabolical possession or an absolute fiction. The ac- count defies any other explanation. The recent studies undertaken on the fact called "suggestion" are based on the ac- count of the possibility to impose on some- body, for determined acts, a foreign will which permits the reapparition of the proper will, after the duration of the sug- gestion. Without confounding in the least one subject with another, we may re- mark that actual science thus admits the possibility of imposing upon the subject actions, jests, words, etc. (See Devil.)

    Post-Communion

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    Post-Communion and Communion. — In

    liturgy Communion is an antiphon said in Mass. It varies with each Sunday and festival, and is generally, though not always, a versicle extracted from the Psalms. It is thus denominated because anciently it used to be chanted while the people communicated. In the Apostolic Constitutions it is prescribed that the thirty-third Psalm shall be employed for the purpose. In his exposition of the liturgy used in his time in the ancient Church of Jerusalem, St. Cyril thus notices the chanting of the Communion: "After this you hear a voice singing with a sacred melody, inviting you to the communion of the holy mysteries, and saying : ' O taste, and see that the Lord is good '" (Catech. Myst. v. 20). This prayer received its name, " Post-Communion," from being recited just after the communion; and because it is an act of thanksgiving to God for the ineffable favor of having par- ticipated in the sacred mysteries. The form used in the ancient Church may be seen in the Apostolic Constitutions (Lib. viii. c. 13, 14).

    Postulant (Lat. /K/,sa/i.s, knocking). — A candidate ; one who applies for admission into a religious community, where he passes through a period of probation, or novitiate, during which the serious obli- gation of the life upon which he is about to enter is, as directed by the Rule, brought before his mind.

    Pothinus (St.). — First bishop of Lyons, and martyr, born probably at Smyrna. Disciple of St. Polycarp; sent by Pope Anicetus into Gaul (158), was the founder of the Church of Lyons, where he suffered martyrdom in 177, under Marcus Aurelius with St. Blandina and a great number of other Christians. F. June 2d.

    Power {Temporal and Spiritual). —

    Man, being composed of body and soul, the world is governed by two essentially distinct powers : the temporal and spirit- ual. The temporal power relates to our material interests and to the civil order. The spiritual power regulates what has reference to our salvation and to religion. The spiritual power belongs entirely to the pastors of the Church, as the temporal power belongs to the magistrates and rul- ers of civil society. Jesus Christ insti- tuted this distinction when he said : '* Give

    to Caesar what belongs to Caesar, and to God what belongs to God."

    But it is not with the Church as with po- litical society, where the temporal power of government is determined by the peo- ple, according to the times, places, and customs of the country. The Church, the dispenser of the divine word, of the mys- teries and gifts of God, could not fulfill her mission, if her organization and right to govern were to depend upon the ca- prices of men or the powers of the earth. In contradistinction with earthly rulers, whose power is regulated and limited by the constitution of each nation, the Church holds her authority and constitu- tion immediately from Jesus Christ — from God, and from Him derives her supreme power to legislate upon every- thing relating to religion and its proper exercise, such as the instituting of bish- ops, priests, and other ministers, adminis- tration of the sacraments, regulations of the divine worship, guarding of morals, and defining of dogmas. It is because her power comes immediately from God that she is independent of the temporal in all things appertaining to her domain of faith and morals. Likewise is the temporal power independent of the Church in mat- ters purely social and civil. Yet those who govern in the temporal order are just as amenable to her tribunal in regard to thf morality of their actions as the lowest ol her subjects. Although the two powers are essentially distinct, they should not be antagonistic, but on the contrary, should mutually assist each other and work to- gether for the common good of all — ren- dering to Caesar the things that are his, and to God what belongs to Him. All the Church requires is liberty of action, free- dom from galling and unjust restrictions. We know she comes from God; has His glory and the welfare of men for her end and aim, and hence can neither err in mat- ters of faith and morals, nor approve of evil. As a complete and perfect society, the Church can enact laws in the spiritual order which are obligatory on all her mem- bers, whether bishop or priest, or the sim- ple faithful, rulers, or their subjects. At all times and under all circumstances, the Church has exercised this legislative power. This legislative power belongs to the Pope primarily and in its fullness ; to the bishops, also, throughout their dioceses, restricted only by the general laws, decrees, and con- stitutions of the Church. The Apostles

    Pragmatic Sanction

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    Prayer

    were invested with this plenary power to bind and to loose; to forgive or retain; to punish or remit, and this power came down to their lawful successors in the nat- ural order of succession, just as did the power of preaching morals, administer- ing the sacraments, and of governing the flock of Christ. The two propositions of the Synod of Pistoja, in which it is affirmed that the spiritual power was given by God to the Church, or to the community of the Faithful to be afterwards communicated to the pastors, so that the Pope and the bishops have only a ministerial authority granted by the Christian people, have been condemned as heretical by the Bull 'M«c- torevt Fidei" in 1794. To the Church alone it belongs to pronounce in matters of doctrine and discipline. She extends her authority over all that which in its na- ture appertains to religion, divine worship, and salvation of souls. See Pope ( Tem- foral Potuer of the); Pope (^Prerogatives of the) .

    Pragmatic Sanction. — A term first ap- plied to certain decrees of the Byzantine emperors, regulating the interest of their subject provinces and towns; then the sys- tem of limitation set to the spiritual power of the Pope in European countries: as, for instance, the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, in 1438, which admitted certain decrees of the Council of Basle, others it modified. It adopted the decrees declar- ing a general council superior to the Pope, abolishing papal reserves and restricting appeals to Rome. Eugenius IV. and Pius II., his successor, openly declared them- selves against this pragmatic sanction, and demanded its abrogation. The Lateran Council (1512) formally condemned it, with the defense, under pain of excom- munication, to appeal to it and to make use thereof, in any case whatever. Leo X. finally abrogated it altogether.

    Prayer ( an act of religion whereby we address ourselves to God). — The first prayers of man were, undoubtedly, like his acts of thanksgiving, only a pouring out of his heart, aspirations of his soul toward God. These pious feelings and desires were not long in showing them- selves exteriorly; for in the first chapters of Genesis ( xii. 8) we find that man made his prayers and aspirations with a loud voice. The Mosaic law did not prescribe any particular prayers ; it regulated only the formulary of blessing which the priest

    should give to the people, and the actions of thanksgiving he should render to God when offering the first-fruits of the field. Nevertheless, we find the people on solemn and important occasions chanting canticles with musical accompaniment. The He- brews maintained an erect position while praying, and this custom was, and is yet observed in their synagogues ; it was also observed in the primitive Church, and is still observed by the Eastern Churches, although kneeling and prostrating are also observed. The ancient Hebrews, like the modern Jews, turned toward Jerusalem when praying. The custom of praying three times daily, in the morning, at noon, and again at night, seems to be of ancient custom, as we find it observed by David (Psalm 1. 18). It was customary even during the time of Christ to say prayers before and after meals. This pious act was performed by the father of the family, who blessed the food to be partaken of and returned thanks before leaving the table. We do not know precisely in what terms these prayers were made, but the formula given in the Talmuc^ is as follows : "Blessed art Thou, O Lord, our God, King of the world, who produceth the bread of the earth. Blessed art Thou who hast created the fruit of the wine." This same custom has been observed not only by the Jews, but even by the Turks and Arabs.

    Every devout thought on God, every good act of the will, is a prayer; acts of adoration, praises, thanksgiving, offering of ourself, holy thoughts, good resolu- tions, all these may be called, in a general sense, prayer. Holy Scripture furnishes us with numerous examples of all these kinds of prayer. But prayer strictly speak- ing is a petition made to God for some worthy object and which may serve to His glory and our salvation. Such is the definition given by St. John Damascene and by St. Thomas. Jesus Christ tells us we must always pray, and never become tired of praying. The forty days which He passed in the desert were spent in prayer and fasting ; it was thus He prepared Him- self to fulfill His divine mission. After having devoted the days to instructing and assisting the ignorant and afflicted, laboring for His Father's glory, working miracles to alleviate the sufferings of men. He would spend the night in prayer and contemplation. The Apostles followed the example of their divine Master, pray- ing and visiting the temple daily. Espe-

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    Prayer

    cially did they prepare themselves by fervent prayer for the coming of the Holy Ghost. The great Apostle of the Gentiles frequently enjoins this holy exercise on the Faithful, and we know how well they complied with his advice. The Church likewise has ever continued this pious action ; she instituted the canonical hours, and has always approved those religious orders whose members devote the greater part of the day and even the night to prayer.

    Infidels and other non-Christians deem prayer unnecessary, and even offensive to God. They say that if there be a God, He must know all our wants, and has no need of our petitions ; that such requests do but express doubts in His goodness and wis- dom, etc. To this objection we reply : God undoubtedly knows all things, is ac- quainted with our needs and is our Father; that when we pray directly to Him we do not deny these attributes, but we acknowl- edge His supreme dominion and our com- plete subjection and entire dependence on Him; that owing to our weakness and the force of temptations, we call on Him for that aid which He has promised to give to all who ask for it. A dutiful child does nothing foolish or contrary to right reason, nor does he demean his father when he asks that father for favors. The favors we ask from God are undoubtedly precious enough to us to deserve the asking. Nor is God required to work a miracle in order to preserve us from evil, or from evil ef- fects of nature. The universe, with its ac- tions, laws, and surroundings, is not a blind factor, following mere mechanical or physical rules, but is preserved and di- rected by the will and wisdom of the Al- mighty, the first great Cause upon whom all other causes depend. When God in His goodness suggests to us thoughts for our spiritual or temporal welfare, it is not that He wishes us to expect a miracle or some change of nature, though there are instances when even such may be asked for, but He desires to rule and govern us according to the ordinary laws which He observes in governing and directing all things, teaching us to avoid dangers, use remedies, and all proper precautions. These, with His blessing, which we seek in prayer, obtain all the ends of our desires and petitions. To acquire virtue and cor- rect our vices is undoubtedly our own work, the work of our will, but not of our will alone, because we are in need of a super-

    natural help, and because from the weak- ness of our will, we form habits of evil. Now, grace is the free gift of God, and it depends on Him to give us the more or less abundant help of His divine grace. He has promised such help and grace to prayer, and it depends on us to perform such prayer with alacrity and gratitude. For a heart which loves God, prayer is a sweet and consoling exercise ; it diverts us from the oppressive feeling of misfortune, re- animates us with hope and courage; it tranquilizes the spirit and calms the pas- sions ; it touches the sinner and sustains the just.

    Every prayer should be made in the name of the Lord Jesus. We read in Holy Scripture, that there is no salvation except in Jesus. That no other name has been given under heaven to man, by which he can be saved. We read also that there is only one God and only one mediator be- tween God and man, — namely, the Man Christ Jesus, and that, moreover, ifc is through Him that we have access to the Father. It is, therefore, not without rea- son that we offer all our prayers to God the Father through Jesus Christ. Besides, it is following the recommendation of the Saviour Himself that we pray in the name of Jesus Christ. He tells us distinctly that " Whatsoever you shall ask the Father in My name, that will I do" (John xiv. 13). And not only our petitions, but also our various acts of praise and of thanksgiving should be made in the name of our Saviour Jesus Christ, to God His Father. It is the same with regard to the prayers which we address to the saints ; for the Church teaches us through the Council of Trent, that the saints reigning with Christ have access to God and pray to Him only through Jesus Christ, His Son. Hence the reason why all the prayers of the Lit- urgy end with the words, " Through our Lord Jesus, Thy Son."

    Individual or private prayer is good, and agreeable to God, but public prayers are more efficacious, because as it is the whole Church that prays, they are more powerful and efficacious than the prayers of one, and even those w^ho pray with a certain lukewarmness partake of the prayers of the more ardent. Jesus Christ Himself has said : " Where there are two or three gathered in my name, I am in the midst of them " (Matt, xviii. 20). Hence with much more reason is He in the midst of the Church when she and her children are united.

    Prayer

    577

    Praxeans

    Prayer {The Lord's) (the prayer which our Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us). — Since the beginning of Chris- tianity, this prayer always formed an essen- tial part of the public worship. It is found in all the liturgies. It was recited as it is to-day, not only after the consecration of the Eucharist, but also in the administra- tion of baptism. It was for the newly baptized a privilege to be permitted to re- cite it in the assembly of the Faithful, and to call God "Our Father." The Cate- chumens were not taught it before they had received baptism. The Apos- tolic Constitutions, the Councils of Gi- rone, and the Fourth of Toledo, ordained that the " Our Father " should be recited three times daily in the divine office. Origen, Tertullian, and St. Cyprian have left us sublime eulogies on the Lord's Prayer, regarding it as the foundation and model of all prayers. Nonbelievers and other infidels have found fault with and criticized this beautiful prayer. They assert, without a shadow of proof or au- thority, that Christ is not its author; that it was in use before the coming of our Lord. Others have maintained that when we say, " Lead us not into temptation," we belittle God's sovereign goodness, be- cause we suppose Him to be capable of leading us into temptation, thus making Him the cause of evil. But in Scripture the word "tempt" often means to try, as if we were to say: "Do not place us on trial, nor the faithfulness, nor the virtue of the petitioner." Now, a person may be tried without his being necessarily lead into evil ; it means, then, that we ask God to help us in order that we may not fall or commit sin on account of the trials and dangers of this life.

    Prayer {Mental). — Mental prayer oV meditation is an elevation of our minds and souls to God, to render to Him our duties, to ask from Him the graces we stand in need of, and to increase our knowl- edge of His majesty and glory. Mental prayer is composed of three parts : the preparation, body of the subject or prayer, and the conclusion. There are two kinds of preparation : the remote and the proxi- mate. The remote preparation consists in the purity of heart, of mind and of in- tention. The proximate preparation con- sists of three things : the one who meditates should be more recollected than usual, should invoke the spiritual help of God, 37

    and present to himself well the subject of his meditation. The body of mental prayer consists of three things : the con- siderations, the affections, and the resolu- tions. The considerations are reasonings and reflections by which our mind is en- abled to take hold of the subject in order to elevate our soul to God, or to thoroughly convince ourselves of some truth of salva- tion, and to excite the will to embrace it. The affections are movements of the heart which carry us to God, inciting us to em- brace all that is pleasing to Him. The res- olutions are firm purposes to perform some action which we know God demands from us, or to avoid something which is contrary to God's glory and our salvation. The conclusion includes two things : To thank God for the graces which He has granted us in the meditation, and to ask pardon for the faults we have committed therein. Then a kind of spiritual bouquet is formed, which is composed of some partic- ularly good thought or some worthy affec- tions which have most potently touched us in our meditation, and in trying during the day to keep these good affections be- fore us. The meditation is terminated by placing its fruits under the protection of the Blessed Virgin.

    The saints and holy Doctors of the Church have ever spoken and written in the highest terms of mental prayer. They have insisted on its practice by all those who wish to attain perfection in the spiritual life. Knowing its great force and efficaciousness, they made use of it as frequently as their various avocations and daily duties permitted. Meditation was for them a school in which the Holy Ghost instructed them. The sovereign Pontiffs, especially Pope Benedict XIV., by his Bull: ^^ ^uemadmodum,'' of Dec. i6th, 1746, endeavored to incite among the Faithful a taste for the practice of this holy exercise, by granting many indul- gences to those who teach or learn the method of mental prayer, as well as to those who make use of it.

    Praxeans (from Praxeas, heretic of the second century, disciple of Montanus). — A native of Asia Minor, he was a distin- guished confessor in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius. About the year 192 he went to Rome to oppose the errors of Montanus, but at the same time dissem- inated his own heretical views regarding the Trinity. Having been compelled to

    Preacher

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    Predestination

    recant, Praxeas went to Africa, where he continued to preach his heresy. He is said to have afterwards retracted. The Praxeans believed that there was only one divine Person, the Father, and that this Father suffered on the cross.

    Preacher (the one who preaches, who announces in the pulpit the word of God, the truths of the Gospel). — The right to approve the preachers belongs to the bishop alone. The preachers, being by their ministry, the light of the world, the salt of the earth, the doctors of the people, the dispensers of the divine truths, the heralds and ambassadors of God Himself, they should partake in the qualities of the One whose functions they exercise, in His science, in His purity, in His holiness; they must have in view only His glory and the salvation of souls, uphold their preach- ing by an exemplary life and by the prac- tice of all virtues. Preaching is one of the necessary means of preserving the word of God in its purity. It is by preaching that the faith was established, that it has been preserved from generation to generation, that it will exist until the end of time, and hence comes that continual succession of preaching, the ministry of which Jesus Christ has intrusted to the bishops in the person of the Apostles. Preaching, there- fore, is the proper function of the bishops, and is so particularly attached to the epis- copate, that formerly, in several places, it was only the bishop who preached ; and in other localities, the priests preached only in the presence of the bishop, hence the custom of asking for the blessing of the bishop when present. The bishops, therefore, should fulfill this duty them- selves, and, when they cannot do so, they should see that it is fulfilled by capable persons. See ELoquENCK.

    Preaching Friars. See Dominicans.

    Preadamites (heretics according to whom Adam was not the first created man). — That Adam has been the first man and the father of the human race, is what Scripture teaches us in the most formal and positive manner. All the historians and all the Fathers of the Church unanimously agree to this ; the Church also condemned the Preadamites. It was in 1655 that Isaac La Peyrere published a work entitled The Preadamites, in which he maintained that the Jews (Adamites) really descended from Adam, but that the Gentiles existed long

    before him. At first, he found some fol- lowers in Holland, but this sect soon be- came extinct. Des Marets, professor of theology at Groeningen, published against him a work entitled, Refutatio Fabulce Prceadamiticce . The book of La Peyrere was burned at Paris, by the hangman, and, in 1656, the author abjured Calvinism, in which he had been born, retracted his er- rors in the presence of Pope Alexander VII. and wrote a book on this subject. He ac- knowledged that his system of Preadamites could not be defended because it was op- posed to all tradition.

    Precious Blood {Congregation of the Most). — Religious congregation founded by the Venerable Caspar Bufalo at Rome in 1814. Was introduced into the United States by Father Salesius Bruner, in 1844, and now possesses several houses in this country and two seminaries, one at Carth- agena, Ohio, and the other at Rohnerville, California.

    Preconization. — Action by which a cardinal, and sometimes the Pope, declares in full Consistory that such or such a per- son named to a bishopric by his sovereign has all the qualities required. The pre- conization of this bishop was made on such or such a day. — The nomination to archbishoprics and bishoprics, either proceeding from the sovereign or resulting from the canonical election, must be sub- mitted to the approbation of the sovereign Pontiff, to whom the canonical institution is reserved. Two inquiries ought to take place : the one in the territory of the State to which the elected belongs, called information ; the other at Rome, called *' definitive process." The report is made in the Consistory by a cardinal, and the Pope pronounces the preconization, ac- cording to the customary formula. Then a Bull is sent to the archbishop or bishop.

    Predestination (decree of God by which He has predetermined that certain persons will be saved). — According to St. Augus- tine, predestination is the preparation of grace; it is nothing more than God's prescience and the preparation of God's benefits, by which are certainl}- saved all those whom He saves. St. Thomas says that predestination is the manner by which God guides reasonable creatures to eternal life, the preparation of grace for the pres- ent life. According to this, we can con- sider predestination under a twofold

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    Pre-existence of Souls

    aspect : as grace without which we can do nothing as regards eternal life, and under the aspect of glory which is granted to those that have been faithful to grace.

    Although God gives to all men the graces necessary for salvation, it is like- wise a Catholic dogma that He does not give to all the same measure of grace ; that there are particular graces, graces of choice, which He grants rather to one than to another, and that He reserves, from all eternity, eternal life to those who shall have persevered until the end. In other words, we must admit on the part of God, the predestination of a certain num- ber of men to eternal life. " This belief," says St. Augustine, " has always been that of the Church of Jesus Christ." Such is, besides, the teaching of Holy Scripture. At the last Judgment our Lord will say, addressing the elect: "Come ye Blessed of my Father, possess the kingdom pre- pared for you from the foundation of the world" (Matt. xxv. 34). Those who are predestined to glory will infallibly be saved : the decree of predestination is as in- fallible as divine prescience. Thus the number of the predestined is fixed and un- changeable ; it will be neither increased nor diminished, because God's prescience cannot be deceived. Nevertheless those who work out their salvation do so freely; they always preserve their free will, and can resist grace if they so wish.

    It is of faith that predestination is gra- tuitous. Eternal life is a grace of God, the grace of graces, which supposes all other graces. Nevertheless, predestina- tion considered under the aspect of glory, also supposes the merits of the just. Eter- nal life is at once a grace of God, and the reward for good works done in the state of grace. It is a Catholic dogma that by the works of the justified man, or by the good works which he performs with God's grace and the merits of Jesus Christ, he himself really merits eternal life.

    Predestined (^Number of the). — God alone knows the number of the predes- tined. All conjectures on this point are void of foundation. But sometimes the question as to the relative number of the saved, as regards the number of the damned, presents itself. Will there be more saved than lost, or more lost than saved } In re- gard to this question which has been raised, says Benedict XIV., with more curiosity than utility, we can content ourselves in

    saying, first : That it is certain that all men will not be saved ; that, unfortunately, there is a very great number who willfully trans- gress the laws of God, who remain impen- itent, and who, consequently, incur eternal damnation. Second, that if only half of mankind be saved, and though among Catholics there should be but a few lost, yet we should work out our salvation with fear and trembling, lest we may be one of those lost ones. Even if we admit that the greater number of mankind will be lost, yet it does not follow that the greater num- ber of Catholics will perish ; especially is this true when we consider that more than half of the baptized children die before they lose their innocence.

    Predetermination. — Operation of God which causes men to act; which deter- mines them, or makes them to determine themselves in all good or evil actions. We also call this operation of God physical premotion or predeterminating decree of God. All Catholics are agreed that in order to do a good work, a meritorious and useful action for salvation, man needs the help of grace. Now grace is a super- natural light given to the understanding, and a motion which God imprints upon the will to render it capable of acting; nothing, therefore, hinders the defining of grace as a premotion or a predetermination, because it precedes and influences our ac- tions. But must this premotion or pre- determination be considered as really ph)-sical, and consequently, carry this name? The Thomists maintain this ; but other theologians are of a contrary opinion.

    Pre-existence of Souls. — This question of pre-existence has reference to the origin of the human soul, namely: whether the soul has existed anteriorly to the body. Relating to this question divided opinions have prevailed among the ancient philoso- phers. The doctrine of the pre-existence of the soul took its rise in the Platonic philosophy. Plato had posed the question : How does the science of ideas arise in us? And he answers: It can be derived neither from experience nor from the observation of the senses, for the world of the senses has nothing that corresponds, in an adequate manner, to the conception of the idea. The idea is something equal to itself, and the world of the senses offers, in general, something dissimilar ; it offers nothing that is in accord with itself; and nevertheless man is conscious of the idea in him-

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    Premonstratensians

    self; therefore, he must have had it be- fore all experience, he must have had it before all time ; that is, his knowledge of the idea is only a reminiscence. But this hypothesis supposes that we did al- ready exist (pre-exist) ; without this there would be no principles of the knowledge of ideas. Plato finds the cause of the introduction of souls in the sensible life, in the fall of the soul. This doctrine was propagated in the school of Alexan- dria; we find it in Philo, Plotinus, at the Essenians, the Marcionites, and the Basili- dians. The Gnostics made it one of their dogmas ; the beings, which they called *♦ eons " or emanations of the great Being, were nothing else than pre-existing souls, to whom earthly life was reserved only after a series of succeeding degenerations. Among the ecclesiastical authors, Origen has been accused of having favored this doctrine ; but the celebrated Huet has proved that this Father never did express himself about the origin of the soul, and that this doctrine may have been inserted, later on, in his writings. Even modern philosophy could not disembarrass itself from this old Platonic opinion, and we can discover it piercing through the theories of transformism and evolutionism. This doctrine was rejected by all the Fathers of the Church, and condemned in the Fifth General Council (2d of Constantinople). This opinion, indeed, is in contradiction with the dogma of creation, as well as with the dogma of the unity of mankind and that of the resurrection of the body; it is opposed to conscience or inner sense ; it is in contradiction with the Christian idea of man, who is the synthesis of nature and whose body is the legitimate and necessary organ of the soul. See Creationism.

    Preface, in liturgy, is the introductory part of the antiphon; the solemn Eucha- ristic thanksgiving and adscription of glory, introducing the canon of the Mass. It is an invitation to elevate our hearts to God and offer Him our thanksgiving for the stupendous work which He is about to ac- complish, through the ministry of His priest, by the words of consecration. That the Preface is very ancient is certain ; that it owes its introduction into liturgy to the Apostles is more than probable. The Greek Church has but one Preface in its liturgy. In the Gallican, Mozarabic, and older Roman liturgies there are proper

    prefaces for nearly every festival. In the Roman Church the number of prefaces was, about the end of the eleventh century, reduced to ten, namely : The Common Preface, probably the most ancient one we have, since it may be found in the Sacra- mentary of Pope St. Gelasius; and those of Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, Christmas, the Epiphany, the Apostles, the Holy Trinity, the Cross, and Lent. The Preface, recited on feasts of the Blessed Virgin, is attributed to Pope Urban II. ; if it be not the composition of that Pontiff, it at least received his approbation.

    Prefect Apostolic. See Vicars Apos- tolic.

    Prelates. — Here is mention of prelates inferior to bishops, that is, those who, though not clothed with the episcopal character or ordo, are, nevertheless, vested by the Holy See with greater or less epis- copal rights. There are three classes of these prelates : The lowest, the middle, and the highest, i. The lowest class consists of those who preside only over such per- sons, both lay and ecclesiastical, as are attached or belong to a certain church or monastery. General superiors of religious orders, provincials, and abbots immedi- ately subject to the Holy See, are prelates of this kind. Regular prelates of this class cannot hear or confer upon others, facul- ties to hear the confessions of seculars.

    2. The middle or second class is made up of those who exercise jurisdiction over the inhabitants, that is, over the clergy as well as laity, of a certain district or territory which is situated in and entirely sur- rounded by the diocese of another bishop. Hence they are named prcelati in diocesi.

    3. The highest or third class is composed of those who exercise jurisdiction in a dis- trict, that is, in one or several cities or places, which is altogether separate from and outside of any diocese whatever. They are consequently termed prcelati nullius, i. e., dioceseos. They have all the rights of ordinary bishops, save those which re- quire the exercise of the episcopal order.

    Premonstratensians. — Religious order of canons-regular founded in 11 19, by St. Norbert in the valley of Pr^montr^, near Laon, France. Norbert gave to his followers the white habit and the Rule of St. Benedict, with certain constitutions framed by himself, and enjoined on them study, the office of preaching, and the

    Presanctification

    581

    Prescience

    care of souls. The order which was ap- proved by Pope Honorius II., in 1126, ex- tended itself throughout Europe, and its labors were especially blessed in Germany and the northern kingdoms. There were at one time a thousand Premonstratensian abbeys. St. Norbert died archbishop of Magdeburg, in 1134.

    Presanctification (Mass of). — A Mass of presanctification is a Mass without con- secration, in which holy communion is re- ceived from the host that was consecrated on the preceding day or some days before. In the West, the Mass of presanctification takes place only on Good Friday ; but, among the Greeks, it is also said dur- ing Lent, except Saturday, Sunday, and on the day of Annunciation. The pure Roman rubrics do not permit the priest to consecrate for the communion of the Faithful, at a Mass for the dead ; but the Faithful presenting themselves for com- munion should receive the presanctified hosts, that is, the species in the tabernacle. Properly speaking, communion thus given should even precede or follow the Mass of the dead. But, in practice, Rome has granted the permission to distribute holy communion during the Mass of the dead.

    Presbyterians (followers of the errors and maxims of Calvin) . — It was under the reign of Queen Elizabeth that the Prot- estant heresy took a defective and peculiar form in England, whence it was called Anglicanism. But in Scotland, in the eyes of a certain number of zealots im- bued with the Calvinistic doctrines, An- glicanism and the Established Church appeared an imperfect form and, espe- cially, the retaining of the episcopate, was looked upon as an evident remnant of papacy which must be rooted out. The Presbyterians were repeatedly persecuted by the Established Church ; but more than once, they became persecutors in their turn. Having become a dominant political party, they glorified the principle of popu- lar sovereignty and hated the kings. They led Charles I. to the scaffold. The Pres- byterians pretend that the Church must be governed only by priests; that Scripture makes no difference between priests and bishops, and that the episcopate is not of divine institution.

    The Presbyterian Church is a most powerful body. It is pre-eminently strong in the United States and Canada. Alto- gether there are 89 sects, which hold more

    or less the Presbyterian system of doctrine and mode of government. Of these, 18 are found in North America. According to the reports made to the Alliance of Re- formed Churches holding the Presbyterian System, at its meeting in Glasgow in 1896, there are in the 89 branches of Presby- terianism 1,426 presbyteries, 31,925 con- gregations, 27,043 minivers, 130,083 ruling elders, 2,666 licentiates, 5,019 students preparing for the ministry, 4,795,216 com- municant members, 32,271 Sabbath schools, and 3,653,925 Sunday school officers, teach- ers and pupils. For the support of work at home, the contributions for 1895 were $31,521,150, and for foreign missions, $2,375,310. There are reported altogether in the United States and Canada 20,398 congregations, 15,535 ministers, 68,729 ruling elders, 1,259 licentiates, 3,296 stu- dents for preparation for the ministry, 2,170,517 communicant members, 18,480 Sunday schools, and 2,067,097 Sunday- school officers, teachers and pupils ; and for Church support $19,625,315 was con- tributed by the people.

    Presbytery. — This name formerly served to designate the college of priests and deacons living around the bishop for the purpose of assisting him in the govern- ment of the Church. St. Ignatius insists on the intimate bond that should exist between the presbytery and the bishop. The college remains a picture of the prim- itive presbyteries ; but the diocesan chap- ters gradually ceased to have such a great importance, when the vicar-generals ob- tained greater authority, by assuming, under the orders of the bishop, a notable part of the burden of the administration.

    Prescience (knowledge of what is going to happen ; certain and infallible knowl- edge which God has of the future). — One of the truths taught by revelation, is that God, from all eternity, has certainly known all that will take place within the duration of time. Although that which He foresees will infallibly take place. His prescience does not necessitate the events : i. Because His prescience is not the cause of the events. 2. Because God not only foresees all things, but also the manner in which they take place. God knows the order of the causes ; now, our will holds a rank in this order and is the cause of our actions ; thus, our will being free, God foresees that it will act freely.

    Presence

    582

    Primate

    Presence {Real). See Eucharist.

    Presentation. See Patronage.

    Presentation {Feast of the). — It was a religious custom among the Jews to make a vow pledging their children to God, even before their birth. The parents who had made such a vow, led the pledged child into the Temple, before it had at- tained the age of five years. They com- mitted the same into the hands of the priest who offered it to the Lord; then, if parents desired to redeem the child, they gave a certain sum of money, or some other alms; if they did not do this, the child re- mained in the Temple, and was occupied in serving the sacred ministers, making sacred ornaments, in a word, contributing toward all things concerning God's wor- ship. Now, tradition tells us that the Blessed Virgin Mary was vowed to God by her parents, St. Joachim and St. Anna, and led by them into the Temple of Jeru- salem, when she was only three years old. We do not know the name of the priest that received her, but some believe that it was Zacharias. This offering of the Blessed Virgin to the Lord, the Church commem- orates by the Feast of the Presentation. The Greeks have celebrated this feast since the twelfth century ; the Latins be- gan the practice somewhat later. It is celebrated on November 25th. See Puri- fication.

    Preston (Thomas Scott). — An Amer- ican Catholic clergyman; born in Hart- ford, Connecticut, July 23d, 1824. He was educated for the Protestant Episcopal min- istry; graduated at Trinity College, Hart- ford, in 1843; ordained minister in 1846, and engaged in pastoral service in various cities in New York, and was assistant rec- tor of St. Luke's Church, New York city. He was converted to the Catholic Church and ordained priest in 1850. He was ap- pointed chancellor of the diocese of New York in 1853, ^"'^ afterwards made rector of St. Anne's Church, New York. He published several works, including : Chris- tian Unity (1866); Reason and Revelation (1868); and Christ and the Church. He died in New York city, Nov. 4th, 1891.

    Priest (the one who exercises a min- istry and presides at the ceremonies of a religious worship). — We find the priest, as we find religious worship and sacred ceremonies, in all nations. Those of the Egyptians received from the State all that

    was necessary for their support and for the fulfillment of the sacrifices ; they enjoyed political power and considerable authority. In Ethiopia, priests appear to have been still more revered and more powerful; they elected the king, who was drawn from their ranks, and maintained over him the right of life and death. In Persia, the priests consecrated the king and formed a part of his counsel. In India, the Brah- mans were rather philosophers than priests, but, nevertheless, they represented a priest- hood independent of all command, of all authority, even of that of the king. The Greeks, from their heroic epoch, knew the priest ; but the chiefs of the people exer- cised, however, in this quality, a certain sacerdotal function. The union of public functions and of certain sacerdotal func- tions, also, prevailed with the Romans, although they had pontiffs and many strongly organized sacerdotal colleges. Moses did not permit any interference on the part of the depositaries of the civil power in the exercise of the sacred functions ; a special tribe was consecrated for the service of the altar. In our days, the priest not only has charge of the reli- gious worship and the fulfillment of its ceremonies, but also teaches religion and directs the conscience of the people. His role is, consequently, essentially distinct from that of the ancient priesthood. In the eyes of Catholics, the priest, ordained by the bishop, receives an indelible char- acter. It is the same with the priests of the Greek Church or of the Russian Church; in the Anglican Church, the dea- con, but not the priest, may renounce the order received. The office of the priest, says St. Thomas, consists in being the me- diator between God and the people; the mediator par excellence being Jesus Christ; the priest is His representative among men in the functions of mediator. See Bishop ; Order {Holy).

    Primate (prelate whose jurisdiction is above that of archbishops). — The name primate and that of the first see of Mother Church, which are given in the most an- cient documents, either to bishops, or to certain Churches of Gaul, did not formerly signify what we to-day understand by these names, and designated only theancientness of the ordination of the bishops and the antiquity of the Churches. Thus, accord- ing to the custom in Africa, we sometimes see the name of primate given to the bishop

    Prior

    583

    Probabilism

    of a small town. It is claimed that before Gregory VII., who was elected Pope in 1073, the Church in Gaul was entirely un- acquainted with the authority of any pri- mate, and that it was this Pope who granted the right of primacy to the archbishop of Lyons over the four provinces of Lyons.

    By primates now are meant those who are placed over several metropolitan sees. Primates formerly had the right to convene national councils and receive appeals from the sentence of metropolitans. These privi- leges have lapsed, and, where primates still exist, they merely retain the name or title, not the jurisdiction formerly attached to the primateship. Salanzo, however, ob- serves that even at the present day pri- matial jurisdiction is vested in the Primate of Hungary and in the archbishops of To- ledo and of Armagh. In the United States, the Archbishop of Baltimore, by virtue of the prerogatives of the place {prcerogativa loci), affixed to his see, occupies the first seat in all councils, meetings, and the like. This privilege, as is evident, is simply honorary, and not of jurisdiction, includ- ing no primatial rights whatever.

    Prior. — The ecclesiastic who governs a monastery as chief and first superior, with the same authority as an abbot. The head of a monastery of Dominicans is called a prior; that of a monastery of Benedictines is called an abbot.

    Priscillianists (sectarians of the fourth century). — The real founder of this sect was one Marc, an Egyptian Manichee, who came to Spain in 330. His first dis- ciples were Agape, a lady of distinction, and Elpidius, a rhetorician. The wealthy and learned Priscillian, another disciple of Marc, became the real leader of the sect to which he also gave his name. By his ascetic life and plausible eloquence, as well as by his great wealth and refined manners, Priscillian won many followers among the clergy; even two bishops, In- stantius and Salvianus, joined his party and also ordained him bishop of Avila. The first to resist this pernicious sect was Hyginus, Bishop of Cordova; but its principal opponents were the Bishops Idacius of Merida, and Ithacius of Os- sanoba. The Council of Saragossa, in 380, condemned the heresy and excom- municated Priscillian, while Ithacius caused the Emperor Gratian to publish an edict exiling Priscillian and his friends. But the exiles, who had vainly applied to

    Pope Damasus and St. Ambrose for help, succeeded in obtaining a revocation of the edict by bribery. Priscillian and Instan- tius were restored to their sees, and Itha- cius was compelled to flee from Spain. Another synod held at Bordeaux, in 384, renewed the condemnation of the heresy ; but Priscillian appealed to the Emperor Maximus, who had usurped the throne. The heresiarch and six of his companions were accordingly tried at Treves, before a secular court, and, notwithstanding his promise made to St. Martin, bishop of Tours, that the life of the heretics should be spared, Maximus sentenced them to be beheaded, in 385. This was the first in- stance of Christians being condemned to death for heresy. The doctrines held by the Priscillianists were a mixture of Manicheism and Gnosticism. They de- nied the Trinity of Persons and advocated Dualism and Docetism. They held the use of flesh-meat and marriage to be unlawful, but permitted sexual intercourse, on con- dition that generation should be pre- vented. They celebrated their orgies with great debauchery, and principally at night. This sect disappeared only about the end of the sixth century.

    Probabilism (doctrine of probability). — Probabilism teaches that it is permissible to follow a less probable opinion which favors liberty, without the concurrence of another opposed and more probable opin- ion which favors the law. We define as probable an opinion that agrees to a senti- ment which appears true, after having maturely and without prejudice considered it. If this consent is founded upon reasons drawn from the very nature of the thing, the opinion is intrinsically proba- ble. If it is founded upon motives, such as the testimony and authority of others, the opinion is extrinsically probable. The probable opinion is speculative or prac- tical ; the first limits itself to the simple theory; the second regards the morals and passes to the action. Concerning probabilism there are different systems which divide theologians into rigorists, mitigated probabilists, etc. Without at- tempting to discuss these systems, we limit ourselves to report the rules given by the best theologians : i. It is permitted to follow an intrinsically or extrinsically probable opinion, if, after mature exam- ination, no other opinion presents itself. The reason is that then we have moral

    Processions

    584

    Processions

    certainty of the goodness of our action, which is sufficient if it be exempt from sin. 2. It is not permitted to follow an opinion less probable in the con- course of a more probable opinion, that is, an opinion which has in its favor motives that are stronger, more numer- ous, more solid, and more capable of obtaining the assent of a prudent and wise man. 3. If there are two probable opinions, and if the one favors the law and the other liberty, we are obliged, accord- ing to a great number of theologians, to follow, in all cases, the one which favors the law and which is the surest. According to several other doctors, among whom we find St. Liguori, if two contradictory opinions are equally or about equally cer- tain, we can follow the less sure opinion. The reason which St. Liguori gives is that, in doubt, we are not bound to take the surest part, either because a doubtful law being founded only upon an opinion, is not sufficiently promulgated to be ob- ligatory, or because man remains in pos- session of liberty, whose exercise can be inconvenienced only by a clear and certain law. 4. In matters of faith and in the necessaries of necessity of means, as well if there be question about the validity of a sacrament, we must always, in the con- course of two equally probable opinions, follow the most sure opinion ; it is the same if there be question about the inter- est of our neighbor; the judges as for instance, the notaries, the physicians, must always, between two means, choose the one that appears to them more con- formable to the interests that are entrusted to them. The contrary opinion has been formally condemned by Pope Innocent X. in 1670. 5. We are permitted to follow a more probable opinion although less sure than the opposite opinion, the reason being that by following a more probable opinion we act prudently, because we are not in doubt, and we are morally certain of the goodness of our action. 6. The authority of a learned and pious man is not sufficient to render an opinion probable and sure in practice.

    Processions. — Public processions and supplications have always been in use in the Church, as a means of increasing piety, or in order to return thanks to God for blessings received, and to implore His mercy. As processions instituted by the Church contain great and divine myster-

    ies, and as they are in themselves a source of grace, the priests should instruct the people concerning their nature, and insist that they be performed with modesty and reverence. In Church processions the lay people should follow the clergy, and the women should walk behind the men. The cross should be carried at the head of the procession, and if such be the custom, a banner decorated with sacred images. Should the cross bear an image of the cru- cifix, the face of the image of Christ should face those who precede, and not those who follow it. Strictly speaking solemn Mass should be celebrated after the procession and not before. Among the processions instituted by the Church some are ordi- nary, because they occur every year on the same day. Such are the processions on the day of the Purification, on Palm Sun- day, St. Mark's day, the three Rogation days and on Corpus Christi. All these processions should be held according to the special rite prescribed for them in the Roman Ritual.

    Extraordinary processions are those which are commanded for occasions con- cerning the public welfare of the Church ; as for example, processions made in order to obtain rain, fair weather, the cessation of storms, of distress, of famine, of pesti- lence, of war, or of any kind of affliction, and in order to return thanks to God for blessings received. Those who take part in Church processions would do well to remember that, during our pilgrimage on this earth, we should have our eyes con- stantly fixed upon the image of Jesus Christ crucified, endeavoring to imitate His example and those of our patron saints, heartily imploring their protection and the mercy of God during the whole prog- ress of the procession. See Roman Rit- ual.

    Of all processions, the most celebrated is that of the Most H0I3' Sacrament on the feast of Corpus Christi (which see), instituted by Urban IV. We call it a triumphal procession, because in it our Redeemer, the King of Kings, the Lord of Lords, is carried triumphantly through the streets concealed in His adorable sac- rament, which He gives us as a pledge of our eternal triumph in heaven. The Churches, on this day, should be beautifully decorated and the walls of the streets through which the procession is to pass should be covered with tapestries, hang- ings, and sacred pictures. The street itself

    Proclamation

    585

    Profession

    might well be strewn witlf flowers and foliage of trees, and along the sidewalks evergreens might be placed. It is also a general custom, in connection with those processions, to raise triumphal arches across the streets, and to have one or more repositories or shrines from which bene- diction with the Blessed Sacrament is given during the procession.

    Proclamation. — Name given in some monastic orders to the accusation made by a monk against one of his fellow-monks, in full chapter, for a fault he saw him com- mitting.

    Proclus (St.). — Ecclesiastical writer of the fifth centur}'. He was a disciple of St. John Chrysostom, and afterwards be- came patriarch of Constantinople. He died in 447. There are extant of his writ- ings, several synodal letters and 25 homi- lies.

    Profanation of a Church or Cemetery.

    — A church is profaned or polluted : i. By voluntary, criminal, or injurious homicide committed within the interior of said church. 2. When considerable blood has been shed therein, caused by an act which undoubtedly assumes the aspect of mortal sin. A wound, of however grievous or serious a nature, is not sufficient to profane a church ; there must be an eflfusion of blood, though it is not necessary that this effusion take place in the church ; if the eflfusion occurs outside as an effect of the wound received inside, the church is to be considered profaned. 3. By a voluntary act of incontinency. It is the same with an act of incontinency as with voluntary homicide, or eflfusion of blood ; it must take place inside the church. 4. By the burial of an infidel or of a person excom- municated by name. The same causes or eflfects which profane a church, profane a cemetery. Thus the cemetery is profaned by a murder, by a considerable efTusion of blood, and by the burial of one excom- municated by name. This applies also to a heretic denounced by name as such, and who is thereby excommunicated. But it is important to remark that there is a prof- anation, whether of church or cemetery, only in so far as the act or fact which is the cause thereof is public and notorious. If adultery, or the sin of fornication, for ex- ample, has been committed secretly in the church or cemetery, there is no profanation while the sin remains secret, or is known

    only to a few. If, on the contrary, the sin becomes public, then the church or ceme- tery is to be regarded as profaned. The notoriety of the fact is sufficient. The prof- anation of the church involves also that of the cemetery if both are on the same ground without any separation between them. Yet the profanation of the cemetery does not aflfect the church ; neither does it affect the profanation of another cemetery contiguous to it, though there should exist a passageway between them. As soon as a church is profaned, the Blessed Sacrament should be removed ; only, however, if there be another church near by where it may be placed. Mass should not be celebrated in a profaned church until it is reconciled. If it has not already received the episcopal consecration, it may be reconciled by the bishop or by a priest appointed for the pur- pose. But if the church has been conse- crated by a bishop, a bishop must recon- secrate it, or by a priest delegated by the Pope according to the rite of the Roman Pontifical.

    Profession {Religious). — The religious state is a stable and permanent state, ap- proved by the Church, in which the Faith- ful engage themselves to live in common, and to strive after perfection, by the ob- servance of the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The approbation of the Church is necessary to form a religious order, and this approbation can only ema- nate from the sovereign Pontiff. A Congre- gation, whose rule has not been confirmed and sanctioned by the Holy See, is not a religious congregation properly speaking. Whoever belongs to a congregation, ap- proved by the Pope or a' bishop, must conform in everything to the constitutions and rules of the order or congregation.

    There are special privileges enjoyed by persons consecrated to God. The essence of the religious life consists in the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In order that a religious profession be valid and bind- ing on the one who makes it, the following conditions are necessary to be observed : I. That the subject, whether male or fe- male, has completed his or her sixteenth year. 2. He or she must have passed a full, uninterrupted year, at least, of probation, clothed in the habit of the order, and must have fulfilled during this time the exer- cises of the community. This probation is called the novitiate. 3. There must exist no impediment contrary to the statutes of

    Profession of Faith

    586

    Propaganda

    the order. 4. The subject must be free to dispose of himself. 5. The act of profes- sion must be entirely free; a substantial error or a grave and unjust fear would render it null and void. Every person de- sirous of leaving the religious state for good and sufficient causes, must lay these reasons before the superior and the ordi- nary of the place within five years count- ing from the day of profession. If the person fails to do this, reclamation is not admitted. There are particular precau- tions taken to assure the liberty of choice of the subject in communities of women. According to the Council of Trent, the mother superior may admit a member to the religious profession only after such person has been examined by the bishop or his delegate as regards her freedom of action and wishes, her knowledge of the rules and obligations of the religious state. The mother superior is obliged to notify the bishop a month before the con- templated profession; failing in this she may be punished by suspension from office. The person who is morally certain of a re- ligious vocation cannot remain in the world without endangering his salvation, because such a person acts contrary to the will of God. He or she is, therefore, under such conditions, obliged to embrace the religious state.

    It is the duty of parents to sanction the vocation of a child whom the Lord calls to a religious life. They should as far as possible make sure that the vocation is real ; but they have not the right to oppose it when they know the call comes from God. The child, who, after certain trials, and after having consulted a wise and en- lightened spiritual director, ought as a rule, to ask his parents' consent before embracing a religious state. If the par- ents, without just reasons, refuse their consent, the child can, especially when of age, follow its pious designs and retire into a religious house. But when a young person cannot, without great inconvenience to the parents, enter upon such a life, the step may be delayed until such obstacles are removed. Neither is it permitted to parents themselves to join any religious order before they have properly provided for their children, especially as regards their religious education. Nor may a bishop leave his see to become a religious without the permission of the Pope. In the United States a priest may not join a religious order without the permission of

    his bishop and the Propaganda. Such are the formal laws of the Church on this important question.

    Profession of Faith. See Crkkd.

    Promise (Divine). — The divine prom- ise is the announcement made to Adam of a Saviour who, born of a woman, will crush the head of the serpent, that is, will triumph over hell and evil, and will redeem the entire human race. This promise was renewed to the Patriarchs, especially to Abraham, and has been the foundation of the teaching of the Prophets until Jesus Christ. Under the new law, the ancient promise having received its fulfillment, we understand by promises ( in the plural ) the assurance given by Jesus Christ to His Church, that He will be with her until the end of time, and that her enemies will not prevail against her; we may also under- stand those that have reference to the rewards of eternal life.

    Propaganda or Propagation of the Faith. — A congregation established at Rome by Gregory XIII. and increased by Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. for the administration of affairs regarding the propagation of the faith, in infidel coun- tries. The Propaganda sends into infidel or heretical countries missionaries whom it distributes, according to the qualities of the subjects, and to the religious socie- ties to which they belong. It proposes to the Pope the bishops and apostolic vicars; it grants directly to the missionaries all the special powers, and dispensations re- quired; it answers all their doubts, gives them advice, traces for them certain rules, and fixes the limits for the different mis- sions in order to avoid confusion. Finally it is the ordinary judge of controversies which may arise among the missionaries, among the religious of the various orders, or among the missionaries and the native clergy, or among the religious who are on the mission and their superiors. The Propaganda has also jurisdiction over all the bishops in heretical and schismatical countries, like the United States and the Churches of the East. Urban VIII. founded a seminary subject to the Con- gregation of the Propaganda, destined to receive the future missionaries and to educate them. The printing institute of the Propaganda publishes, in all the lan- guages, works useful for the missions. Its library is one of the richest in books and

    Propaganda of Lyons

    587 Prophets and Prophecies

    precious manuscripts, gathered from all the countries visited by the missionaries. Every year, on the eve of Epiphany, the scholars of the different Roman colleges read or write, each in his mother tongue, a poem or a canticle in honor of the Epiph- any.

    Propaganda of Lyons. — A religious institution of French origin, founded at Lyons, in 1822, by a poor servant whose work it was " to assist by prayers and alms the Catholic missionaries who carry the faith and civilization among the infi- dels." The prayers prescribed are: Our Father, and Hail Mary, every day with the invocation : "St. Francis Xavier, pray for us." The alms consist in voluntary gifts, and in annual subscriptions. The sub- scription is one cent per week, or fifty-two cents per year. The center of the work, approved by Gregory XVI., in 1840, is at Lyons. The annual amount of alms is more that one million dollars. The work publishes, every two months, the "Annals of the Propagation of the Faith," and the "Catholic Mission s," an illustrated weekly.

    Prophets and Prophecies (The proph- ets were those men who, by divine in- spiration, foretold the future, or revealed truths hidden from man). — There were among the Hebrews two very distinct classes of these privileged men, whom Holy Scripture calls "Men of God," " angels," or " messengers of the Lord " : the nebiim or prophets properly speaking, and the roiin or hozim, that is, seers. The first class, having no other function but that of extraordinary messengers of God, devoted themselves entirely to directing the people in regard to religious aflfairs, especially, when the priests rendered themselves guilty in their sacred charac- ter, and when the people had been plunged into sin and idolatry. The latter were men to whom God had revealed Himself, without removing them from their ordinary state and condition of life. Without being charged with prophetical functions, they nevertheless prophesied ; they received visions and even the most important revelations. Thus, for in- stance, David and Solomon being kings, were favored with divine revelations ; but they remained in their respective places.

    The most ordinary way, in which God communicated Himself to the Prophets,

    was by inspiration, enlightening their mind, and exciting their will to publish what He made known to them interiorly. It is in this sense that we hold as Prophets all the authors of the canonical books of both the Old and New Testaments. Thus God also, through dreams and visions, held communication with the Prophets, as for instance, with Jacob and St. Peter; in a cloud, as with Abraham, Job, Moses, and again with the latter through an articulate voice in the burning bush and upon Mount Sinai, and with Samuel, while he slept in the Temple. In the Old Testament, we have the writings or books of sixteen Prophets, of whom four are called " Greater Prophets " because their prophe- cies are longer and more extensive ; twelve "Minor Prophets," because their prophe- cies are shorter than the ones first named. The four great Prophets are : Isaias, Jere- mias, Ezechiel, and Daniel. The twelve minor Prophets are : Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Micheas, Jonas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, and Mala- chias. We might also count Baruch as the seventeenth, but he is generally included with Jeremias. In the New Testament, the Apocalypse is regarded, and with right, as a prophecy of the different states of the Church and of later times. There has been, in both the Old and New Testa- ments, quite a number of other prophets, but they have left no writings, at least none that have come to us. Among the Jews, the Prophets form the second of the three classes from which have gone forth the twenty-four books which compose their canon. They are divided into : the first or anterior {rischonim) section, comprises : Josue, the Judges, the two books of Samuel, and the two books of Kings ; and the last or posterior {aharonim) section, comprises : Isaias, Jeremias (his prophecies only), Ezechiel, and the twelve minor Prophets. Daniel as well as the Lamentations and Prayer of Jeremias are ranked among the third class, that of the Hagiographa. Under Josue we find a kind of prophetic academy, where the children of the Prophets, i. e., their disciples, led a retired and austere life, devoting themselves to study and reading the law of God. There were such prophetic schools at Naioth of Ramatha under Saul ; David and Saul re- tired thither. We find them, also, under the Prophets Elias and Eliseus at Bethel and in the plain of Jericho. There was a great number of similar schools in the

    Prophets and Prophecies 588 Prophets and Prophecies

    kingdom of Israel. These schools con- tinued to exist until the captivity of Bab- ylon, and it even appears that the captives went to listen to the Prophets whenever they had occasion to do so.

    The existence of prophecies is a fact universally admitted by both Jewish and Christian traditions. However Rational- ists deny that there are any real prophe- cies, that is, supernatural manifestations made by God to man in order to reveal His will or the future. They acknowledge that there exist prophetical books in the Old Testament, and admit what they term " Prophetism," that is, the intervention in the history of Israel of extraordinary men of great intelligence and of great perspi- cacity, but refuse to see in them anything supernatural. They di\\\\ide the prophecies into two classes, the one authentic, the other unauthentic. The latter are too ex- plicit, too precise, too much beyond hu- man power to be explained naturally. According to Rationalists they were writ- ten after the events, something like the revelation of the future history of Rome, which Virgil makes ^neas recite in hell. As to those whose authenticity they ac- knowledge, they refer, according to them, either to near events, which the wisdom of the prophets permitted them to foresee and to announce, or they had for their ob- ject what is called the Messianic kingdom ^ and are the fruit of vague and poorly defined aspirations. We will now show the false- ness of these assumptions.

    Prophecy is possible. God certainly knows the future and He is free to reveal it as He pleases and to whom He pleases. Only an atheist can deny this truth, a truth admitted at all times and in all places. Prophecies exist in fact. Holy Scripture contains prophetic books, which foretell the future. Infidels, it is true, deny the authenticity of several of these books, or interpret them in an ordinary, natural manner, but they are forced to ad- mit that future events are announced. Acknowledging their avowals, and for the moment conceding to them all fair con- cessions, it is yet an easy matter to prove from the books whose authenticity they do not contest, the existence of real prophe- cies. I. The Prophet Micheas, for exam- ple, announces (iv. 8-10) the Babylonian Captivity some 150 years before the event, when there was no hostility between Babylon and Judea, and at a time when Babylon was not an independent state.

    How could the Prophet foresee, humanly speaking, that which he so explicitly fore- told } 2. All the Prophets, commencing with the most ancient, foretold the de- struction of Jerusalem, with its temple, and the captivity of the people. These momentously grave events they did not prophesy in a vague and ambiguous man- ner, but in a clear and precise tone. The most dreaded enemy of the children of Jacob at this time were the Assyrians. Yet the Prophet assures them that the Assyrians will not become God's avengers, nor will Israel be saved by Egypt, al- though to that power it looked for help, but God Himself will be its saviour, after its chastisements by the Chaldeans. All the Prophets were unanimous in affirming their predictions, which were literally ful- filled, just as they had been foretold. 3. When the empire of Nabuchodonosor had attained its highest degree of glory and power, its decay and ruin were fore- told in precise terms by Jeremias the Prophet : Babylon will be taken by the Medes and their allies, the Persians, en- tering the city over the dry bed of the Euphrates, during the night of feasting and drunken folly, and the Jews will be- hold the end of their captivity. How, and by what fact of |>erspicacity, could a Jew, living at Jerusalem, foresee events and point out such minute details, long before their actual occurrence, except by a Divine revelation.'' 4. The prophets have embraced, in their circle of pre- dictions, all the nations surrounding them, and in every instance what they foretold was fulfilled. They an- nounced the ruin of Ninive, of Babylon, of Tyre, of Memphis, of the Ammonites, Moabites, Philistines, and Idumeans; all these cities, with their peoples, have dis- appeared forever from the scene of this world. There is not a single city, not a people but whose fate has been that fore- told by the Prophets of Israel. Such a coincidence cannot be the effect of mere chance. It is most assuredly God's work. The ruins of these once famous cities are still to be seen, as silent, but eloquent wit- nesses of God's veracitj', and the divine inspirations of His Prophets. 5. Zacharias clearly describes the conquest of Alexander the Great (ix. 1-8). He foretold the con- quest of Hadrach, Damascus, and Emath, that the defenses of Tyre would be thrown into the sea and the city burned, that Gaza would lose her king, that Azot would be

    Prophets

    589

    Prophets

    peopled by a vile populace, and that in the midst of so much trouble and ruin, Jeru- salem should be at peace. All these prophecies were completely fulfilled during the expedition of Alexander. One of the fathers of modern rationalism, Eichorn, struck by the character of these prophecies, has found no other means to elude their force than that of having recourse to the most inadmissible hypothesis : that it was an historical narrative veiled under a pro- phetic form, thereby involuntarily con- fessing the exactitude and veracity of the predictions. 6. We could quote a multi- tude of other examples of the same kind,

    Prophets (Chronological Table of the).

    all of which were verified, but the above are sufficient. Yet, we may be pardoned, if we mention the Messianic prophecies. All these were incontestably anterior to the events which they so minutely de- scribed and foretold. Now, these prophe- cies announced the birth, life, death, and events of our Saviour, just as the preceding prophecies foretold other events. There is hardly a prominent fact of the Gospel in connection with our Saviour which was not exactly foretold. Hence, we may con- clude that the existence of prophecies is an historical fact, more plainly proven than many other historical events.

    First Period. — The Struggle against Assyria

    Approxi- mative Dates

    Kings Under Whom Thev Prophesied

    Countries About Which They Prophesied

    Abias

    Joel

    Jonas .... Amos . . . .

    Osee

    Micheas...

    Isaias

    Nahum. . .

    Habacuc. Sophonias

    Jeremias .

    Baruch . . . Ezechiel .

    Daniel... .

    Aggeus... Zacharias.

    Malachias

    989-884 878-838 825-784 809-784

    790-725

    758-710

    759-699 665

    Joram ( .?)

    Joas (.?)

    Jeroboam II

    Jeroboam II. and Ozias

    ! Jeroboam II., Ozias, Joatham, Achaz, and Ezechias. ') Joatham, Achaz, and \\\\ Ezechias.

    ! Ozias, Joatham, Achaz, Ezechias(and Manasses). (Manasses)

    Against Idumea. About Juda. About Ninive. Against Israel.

    About Israel.

    Against Juda and Israel.

    About all the nations known the Hebrews.

    by

    Against Ninive.

    Second Chaldean Period

    650-627 628-623

    625-after

    588

    583 595-573

    604-534

    (Manasses or Josias) ( ?) . Josias

    Josias, Joakim, Jechonias, Sedecias (in Egypt).

    Sedecias

    Jechonias; Captivity. . . .

    Jechonias, Nabuchodono- sor, Balthasar, Darius the Mede, Cyrus.

    Against the Chaldeans.

    Against Juda and the neighbor- ing nations.

    About Juda; against the neigh- boring nations. Egypt and Babylon.

    Exhortation to the captives of Babylon.

    Against Juda and the neighbor- ing nations ; restoration.

    The Great Empires.

    Third Period. — After the Captivity

    520 520

    433-423

    Darius, son of Hystaspes. Darius, son of Hystaspes,

    Artaxerxes Longiraanus.

    Promise to Juda.

    The beautiful arrival at Jerusa- lem.

    The goodness of God for His people.

    Prophets

    590

    Property

    Prophets i^False). — There is often ques- tion in Holy Scripture of False Prophets. The priests of Baal claimed to be prophets ; they deceived Achab by announcing to him nothing but prosperity. Micheas, prophet of the Lord, tells this king that God has sent a lying spirit in the mouth of all these prophets (III. Ki. xxii. 22, 23). God tells through Ezechias (xiv. 9): "When the prophet shall err, and speak a word : I the Lord have deceived that prophet." On account of these texts, the infidels ask whether God can deceive a prophet, whether He can send a lying spirit in his mouth, and what sign there is between a true and a false prophet? This objection is much more specious than solid. First, infidels themselves regard it as unworthy of God's holiness that He should deceive, and that He should engage Himself to do an evil action. In this, we are with them in perfect agreement. On the other hand, here, like in so many other passages of the Bible, the verbs which properly indi- cate an action, are also to be taken by me- tonymy in the sense of a simple permission. Thus the phrases : God has sent a lying spirit in the mouth of the prophets, and I have deceived this prophet, simply signify that God has permitted these prophets to deceive, as they intended to do. He freely permitting them to tell lies. Let us add that in Ezechiel itself (xiii. 6, 7), God complains that the false prophets dare to speak in His name, although He did not send them, and that He told them nothing. Hence, God had no part in the falsehoods they told. It- is in this manner, the phrases we have quoted, have been ex- plained not only by Theodoret, but also by Dathe, Storr, and Rosenmiiller. As to the sign by which we can distinguish be- tween a true and a false prophet, it is manifest and evident : the prophets of Achab were idolaters ; Micheas adored the true God and prophesied in His name.

    Prophets of Holland (heretical enthusi- asts of the seventeenth century). — Most of these sectaries applied themselves to the study of Greek and Hebrew; on the first Sunday of every month they assem- bled in a village, near Leyden, and there passed the day in reading Holy Scripture, formulating different questions, and dis- cussing the meaning of divers passages. They affected great uprightness and had a horror of war and arms ; in many things they followed the opinions of the Arminians.

    Property. — By property in general we understand whatever is possessed in such a way, that the owner may dispose of it, independently, as his own. The right of property, therefore, is the power to possess a thing in the manner described. The right of property implies, it is true, the right of free disposal ; yet the exercise of the latter may be in certain cases rendered unlawful by positive law or other condi- tions. A guardian, for instance, is a true possessor, but the law does not permit him to exercise the right of free disposal. Yet the right of free disposal does not, necessarily, imply the right of property. An administrator may dispose of the prop- erty over which he is placed ; yet he does not dispose of it as his own, but as the property of another ; nor does he dispose of it independently, but only in virtue of the power given him.

    God is the Lord of all things, because He has created all things. But man also, the image of God, can mold and modify things as he pleases; and thus he becomes their true lord in a limited sense, as God is their absolute Lord in virtue of creation. Occupation of an ownerless property is in itself a certain modification of that prop- erty, and thus may become the basis of private property. Therefore, although God has delivered irrational nature, not to individuals as such, but to mankind at large (Gen. i. 28, 29), yet it is by no means contrary to His design that the goods of this earth should be divided among indi- viduals, and, consequently, that private property should exist,

    God, on the contrary, intended private ownership as the rule; in other words, private ownership is in accordance with the design of Providence, being suited to the nature and conditions of man. The earth serves its purpose better for the necessities of man if distributed among in- dividuals, since private property is naturally more diligently cultivated than public. The distribution of property, moreover, ser\'es for the preservation of peace and order, which are more easily maintained when the right of private ownership is secured. It is evident that those griev- ances which in any case would arise from common ownership, would be heightened by the results of original sin, and, conse- quently, that fallen man is all the more constrained to have recourse to private property. The inconvenience of common ownership may, however, be more easily

    Property

    591

    Property

    avoided in small communities, particu- larly if their members bind themselves by a vow of poverty, than in larger aggrega- tions of men. Private ownership provides better for the dignity of the individual. It forces man to direct his attention to the future, to cultivate his plot of ground in order to insure a more abundant harvest for future needs. On the other hand, huge numbers of men would sink into the degra- dation of slavery if they were forced, not by their own determination, but by exter- nal compulsion, to labor and thus to provide for the needs of the future. It must, there- fore, be considered the exception, not the rule, if religious communities leave their temporal concerns in the hands of one, or of a few, in order that the entire body may with greater freedom devote themselves to religious or other higher pursuits. As long as the great masses of humanity are not disposed to devote themselves to mere spiritual pursuits, the care of private prop- erty will continue to form their God- given and congenial occupation.

    The fact that at all times and in all places, particularly after the human race had multiplied to some extent, a division of the earth was made, and thus private property established, is an evidence of the universal conviction that such a division, or private ownership, was necessary as a natural and suitable condition of human society; and was, consequently, one of the demands of human nature itself. Man, however, is not so much impelled by the natural law to the division of the property as he is, for instance, toward the love of his neighbor ; nor is common property so much forbidden by the natural law as are theft and murder. Common ownership of itself is not repugnant to human nature ; else it could never be permitted, even in religious communities. It is repugnant to human nature only in consequence of certain de- fects inherent in man, and only so long as the inconveniences arising from such human imperfections are not otherwise re- moved. The division of earthly goods, and the institution of private property, depend upon the free will of man, for the human race might absolutely exist without private property, and the earth could ab- solutely fulfill its purpose — serve for the nourishment and comfort of man — with- out a division of property. But free will is not always arbitrary ; on the contrary, man was by various important reasons, which at times constituted a moral neces-

    sity, constrained to have recourse to such a division of property. The universality of the institution of private property among the various civilized nations is an evidence that it rests upon certain conditions in- separable from human nature. Hence we frequently meet in the works of doctors and divines with the assertion that private ownership rests upon that universal right or law common to all nations called jus gentium, which, however, is not to be con- founded with international right, or the positive law of nations.

    Against the lawfulness or fitness of pri- vate ownership the objection is sometimes raised that it has been productive of enor- mous inequality and has brought the masses of humanity into poverty and misery. This objection, however, as far as it touches upon an existing evil, can be made only in those cases in which the authorities entrusted with the care of the common interests have neglected their duty to protect the weak against the vio- lence of the strong. That civil authority in matters regarding the acquisition of property possesses extensive rights is gen- erally conceded by philosophers and di- vines, and follows from the facts that the purpose of earthly goods is to facilitate the existence of man, and that the end of public authority is to maintain order and prevent oppression. Civil authority has, therefore, the right to enact laws for the general welfare, to prevent the exorbitant accumulation of private property, or the occupation and appropriation for private purposes of two extensive tracts of land. Hence, those economists are in error who assert that the State can remove the evils in question only on the condition that it become the sole possessor of the soil. The Mosaic law, as St. Thomas remarks, instituted the Jubilee Year as the means to prevent the formation of too large pri- vate estates, and the excessive accumula- tion of wealth in the hands of individuals, without making the State the sole owner of the land.

    The right of ownership is acknowledged by God Himself, in as much as He forbids theft as a violation of the rights of others. If private property were theft, as Com- munists assert, theft would not be a viola- tion of the right of our neighbor, but of the right of the State. But God does not forbid theft as a violation of the right of the State, but the right of our neighbor individually, as He forbids adultery, not

    Proselytes

    592

    Protestantism

    as a violation of the right of the State, but of the right of the individual ( Ex. xx. 17). In like manner, in the New Law the right of private ownership is acknowl- edged. Christ says to the young man in the Gospel: **Go, sell what thou hast, and give ft to the poor " ( Matt. xix. 21). The young man could not lawfully sell his possessions if they were not really his own. This follows also from the praise which Christ imparted to Zacheus, when the latter declared himself ready to give one-half of his possessions to the poor (Luke xix. 8, 9).

    The Church has in various ways declared the lawfulness of private property. In the early ages the followers of certain com- munistic doctrines, who called themselves "Apostolics," were numbered among the heretics. Besides, the Church condemned the doctrine of Wycliffe, who asserted that it was contrary to the Scriptures, that the clergy should possess property. If, there- fore, the possession of property is permit- ted to ecclesiastics, it is all the more lawful for the laity. See Socialism and Com- munism.

    Proselytes. — In the Jewish sense the Proselytes were f orei gners who had adopted the Jewish religion. There were two species of Proselytes : " Proselytes of the Gate " and " Proselytes of Justice." To the first class belonged those pagans who professed the monotheism of the Jews, adopted their moral code, abstained from flesh-meat offered to idols, and abandoned other pagan practices. This class was quite numerous. To the second belong those pagans, who submitted to circumcision and fully observed the law of Moses. These were comparatively few in number. There was still another and very numerous class, who, without the preliminary preparation of becoming proselytes of the gate, sought amid the general desolation of paganism, to quiet the voice of conscience, by prac- ticing the ceremonial of Judaism and ob- serving the festivals.

    Prosper (St.). — Ecclesiastical writer of the fifth century. The precise years of his birth and death is uncertain. Though but a layman, St. Prosper was an admirable and pious theologian. He had been led by the evils of his time to the practice of a devout life. A warm admirer of the great Bishop of Hippo, especially in his teach- ings on grace, he was the occasion of St. Augustine writing his two books on the

    Predestination of the Elect and The Gift of Perseverance, and he himself, both be- fore and after St. Augustine's death, took up the pen against the Pelagians and Semi- Pelagians. In 431 he traveled to Rome and complained to Pope Celestine, that certain misguided priests of Marseilles were teaching erroneous doctrines on the subject of grace. Hereupon the Pope wrote a letter of rebuke to the bishops of Gaul and commended in terms of praise the doctrine of St. Augustine. According to Gennadius, Prosper was afterwards sum- moned to Rome and became secretary to Pope Leo I. He died about 463 in the odor of sanctity.

    Protestantism {Causes and effects of). — By Protestantism we understand the belief of the Protestant Churches in all points wherein they differ from the faith of the Catholic Church. The name Protestant, first applied to the Lutherans who fro- tested at the Diet of Spire in 1529, came to be applied to Lutherans generally, and afterwards was extended to Calvinists and other opponents of the Catholic Church. The introduction and rapid spread of the new heresy may be ascribed to the follow- ing causes : I. Abuses and evils existing within the Church, such as the negligence, ignorance, and degeneracy of many priests and religious. Members of the nobility held the most important benefices. The spoliation of these was in many instances a just punishment on them. 2. General faultfinding with existing abuses was prev- alent. The discontented are naturally inclined to innovation. 3. The fascinating influence of the writings of several re- formers; the promises of the correction of abuses accompanied by "evangelical lib- erty," carried with them a weight of authority. The masses were not able to detect the contradictions between the doc- trines of the Church and the new heresy. To deceive the people, the reformers at first retained many Catholic usages, such as Confession, Church festivals. Mass, candles, sacred vestments, etc. 4. The new doctrines offered many advantages to sen- sual men. The humble and submissive faith was replaced by individual reason and private judgment; confession of sins, so irksome to human nature was abolished ; princes and nobles were commanded to seize and confiscate the estates of Churches and convents ; they were allowed to exer- cise supreme jurisdiction over ecclesias-

    Prothesis

    593

    Proverbs

    tical affairs. The peasants were captivated by the " liberty of the children of God," by means of which they hoped to shake off the yoke of authority and free them- selves from all burdens, tithes, etc. 5. The quarrel between the Humanists and School- men; the remaining influence of former heresies, such as the Waldenses, Hussites, added inflammable materials. 6. The per- sonal influence of the reformers, especially of Luther, whose popular writings and sermons found favor with the masses. Luther and his followers were unscrupu- lous in the choice of means to deceive the people. In the beginning of their career, they professed to preach only the true doctrine of the Church and to desire only the correction of abuses and the enforce- ment of discipline; later, however, they directed bitter and grotesque caricatures against Pope and clergy, misrepresented Catholic doctrine and asserted that Catho- lics paid divine honor to the saints, images, relics, etc. These prejudices are more or less entertained at the present day. 7. The political condition of Germany was an- other source of weakness. The bishops holding temporal power became odious to the people, and were often in dispute with cities and citizens. The latter, to gain political power, became promoters of the new religion. The French, jealous of the house of Austria, fanned the dissensions between the princes and the emperor, while the masses of the people entertained unfavorable sentiments toward the Apos- tolic See. 8. Finally, tyranny of Protes- tant princes in introducing the new religion and giving arbitrary rules of faith to their subjects, opened the way still further for the malcontents.

    The effects of the Reformation on reli- gion and society were the most deplorable. Bitter complaints were made by the re- formers themselves of increasing corrup- tion of morals. We find Luther admitting that there was a worse Sodom under "the Gospel" than under the Papacy. He owned that insubordination, arrogance, and licentiousness had become almost uni- versal and that he would never have begun to preach if he had foreseen the unhappy results. The Reformation everywhere be- came the fruitful source of political in- trigue and discord, of long and cruel civil wars. The evil seed it had sown every- where bore bloody' fruit. The religious strifes in Switzerland ; the revolts of ,the Huguenots in France, and of the Cal-

    38

    vinists in the Netherlands; the wars of the Peasants and Anabaptists in Germany; finally, the wars of the Protestant princes of Germany against the empire, were the natural results of the discord and hatred which the Reformers, by their revolution- ary teachings, had enkindled among the people of Europe. It was the Reformation that made England the scene of constantly recurring insurrections and civil wars from the "Pilgrimage of Grace" till the great rebellion, which brought Charles I. to the block. The Thirty Years' War, which converted Germany into a vast field of des- olation and horror, was the distinct legacy of Reformation.

    Prothesis. — Name given in the Greek Church to a small, portable altar, upon which is prepared all that is necessary for the celebration of the sacrifice of the Mass and which is placed on the main altar.

    Protocanonicals. See Deuterocanon-

    ICALS.

    Protomartyr. — Title bestowed upon St. Stephen, who is regarded as the first mar- tyr.

    Protonotaries. — Name bestowed on officers of the Roman court who have a degree of pre-eminence over the other notaries of the same court. The papal notaries date back to the first century. It is believed that Pope St. Clement insti- tuted seven of them. In the course of time, they drew up the history of the Popes, the verbal processes of canonization and beatification, and other acts. Pope Sixtus V. granted to them great privileges. There is a college of twelve Protonotaries called partakers, because they partake in the rights of the Chancery. They wear the violet, are ranked among the prel- ates, and precede all the nonconsecrated prelates. Their office consists in dispatch- ing in great causes the acts which the simple apostolic notaries dispatch in smaller ones, like the verbal processes of which the Pope takes knowledge. They assist at some Consistories and at the can- onization of saints. They can create doc- tors and apostolic notaries to practice outside the city of Rome.

    Proverbs. — Canonical book of the Old Testament, which contains short, pregnant sentences exhorting the reader to cultivate wisdom, that is, virtue, the truest wisdom, and avoid vice. Hence, St. Jerome says

    Providence

    594

    Psalms

    that Solomon wrote them for the instruc- tion of the young, just as he wrote Eccle- siastes for persons of mature age to impress upon them the vanity of all human things, and the Canticle of Canticles for the old to set before them a perfect model of chastity.

    Providence. — The Roman Catechism presents divine providence as a conse- quence of creation. The One who creates everything cannot abandon His work, or refuse to care for it. Hence the affirma- tion of Lactantius, that if God exists there is a providence : to deny providence would be to deny God. On the other hand, theologians teach that God has no limit as regards creation, or as they say ad extra. St. Thomas defines the action of providence as destined to attain its end in created things. Divine providence, understood in this sense, namely, the permanent action of God in favor of His creatures, is af- firmed in every page of Scripture. To deny this, is, according to Clement of Alexandria, to deny Christianity itself. The objections made by some philoso- phers do not tend to deny the preserving action of God exercising itself by general laws, which are in themselves but the manifestation of God's plan. But the dif- ficulty pointed out by some is the recon- ciliation of man's freedom with the action of divine providence. We must not un- derstand providence as substituting itself for man's free will, or as modifying the course of facts into which human liberty enters; if this were otherwise, man would be little less than a mere automaton. But philosophy itself acknowledges that the negation of providence is as impossible as the negation of human liberty. Provi- dence does not abolish the activity of the creature, but is not restrained to this. Democritus, Protagoras, and Epicurus who, in antiquity denied providence, were real atheists.

    Provincial. — Superior general of sev- eral houses of the same order, forming a province .

    Prudentius. — Christian poet. Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was born in 348 of a noble family at Saragossa, in Spain. After a childhood passed, as it seems, under a somewhat severe discipline {'■'■ cetas prima cretanttbns flevit sub ferulis^'), he de- voted himself to the study of rhetoric, and embraced the career of an advocate, which

    however, according to his own sorrowful avowal, he disgraced by sophistical decep- tions and shameful excesses. His talent and ability won for him the favor of the Emperor Theodosius, who twice gave him the post of governor and afterwards a high military position. It was at the very time when his fortunes were at their highest, that he experienced a fierce inward strug- gle between virtue and vice. In the 57th year of his age, he resigned his high ofli- ces, and going to Rome, visited many of the martyrs' tombs. On his return, he consecrated the rest of his life to the spe- cial service of God, and, in complete re- tirement, devoted himself to an ascetic life. He exercised his poetical talents for the promotion of God's glory and the de- fense of the Church. He probably died about the year 410. Prudentius holds the foremost place among early Christian poets, and has not unjustly been called the " Christian Virgil." The Church has par- tially adopted 14 of his hymns for her divine office.

    Psalms (sacred canticles composed by David or which are generally attributed to him). — The Psalms were, with the He- brews, long before the time of David, a poetic form of chants accompanied, gener- ally, by some musical instrument. David excelled in this poetic form of composition and held the first rank therein. He en- hanced the brilliancy of the religious cere- monies by associating with worship in- strumental and vocal music. He had imitators among whom were Asaph and Core. Solomon composed more than i,ooo- canticles, of which only two have been in- serted in the Psalter, which, in all proba- bility, does not contain, on the other hand, all the productions of David. Psalm 89- is attributed to Moses; the ancient rabbis attributed to him 10 others, whose authors are not given by name. In general, the Psalm is accompanied with an inscription which determines its attribution to such or such an author. According to the Alexandrine and Syriac versions, the Psalms from 146 to 148 were the work of the Prophets Aggeus and Zacharias. The contents of the Psalms of David are theo- logical, historical, religious and moral,, elegiac, penitential, and finally prophetic. The latter have quite a separate impor- tance in apologetics and, from the first centuries of the Christian Church, have been held in great esteem and valued as of

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    high authority. The Psahns in the original Hebrew are numbered differently from the Latin Vulgate, though the total (150) is the same in both. In the Hebrew the 9th Psalm is divided into two parts at verse 22, and the 113th Psalm at the 9th verse. The original has, therefore, two Psalms more than the Vulgate at this point; but in the ir4th Psalm the Hebrew drops one by join- ing the 114th with the 115th, and a second at the 146th Psalm, where the difTerence disappears.

    Psalter. See Psalms.

    Pulcheria(399-453) . — Famous empress of the East, born at Constantinople, daugh- ter of Arcadius and of Eudoxia, sister of Theodosius H., who created her Augusta in 414, and under whose name she gov- erned. Called to succeed him (449), she chose for spouse the Senator Marcian. She took a prominent part in the convo- cation of the Council of Ephesus which condemned the heresy of Nestorius (431). The Greek Church honors her as saint, on September loth.

    Punishment {Eternal). See Hell.

    Purcell (John Baptist) (1800-1883). — Archbishop ; born at Mallow, County Cork, Ireland; died in Brown County, Ohio. He emigrated to America in 1818, studied theology in Mount St. Mary's, Em- metsburg, Maryland, and in St. Sulpice, Paris, where he was ordained priest in 1826. In 1827, he was appointed professor in St. Mary's, and in 1828 president of the college. In 1833 he was consecrated bishop of Cincinnati and in 1850 arch- bishop. At the Council of the Vatican he spoke and voted against the dogma of in- fallibility but accepted it, when promul- gated. The growth of the Church in ■ Ohio was due to his energy, but his methods finally involved him in financial disaster. For many years he received the savings of his parishioners and spent them on Church buildings and charitable insti- tutions. Later on, when there was an at- tempt to draw the money, the state of affairs was discovered, and the result was a failure in 1879 ^^^ $4,000,000, after which he retired into a monastery, and a coad- jutor was appointed. The debt has never been paid, and is not likely to be. He pub- lished several works.

    Purgatory (place where the souls of those who die in the state of grace go to ex-

    piate the sins for which they have not done sufficient penance in this world). — We understand by purgatory, a state in which are retained for a certain time, the souls of the just who still have expiation to make after this life, either for the venial sins which have not been remitted, or for the mortal sins which, although remitted as to the offense and eternal punishment, have not been remitted as to the temporal pun- ishment, or at least as to the entire tem- poral punishment. Nothing soiled can enter the kingdom of heaven. It is, there- fore, necessary that the just who die with- out having sufficiently satisfied the justice of God, offer to Him this satisfaction, in order that they be admitted to the beatific vision. Such is and such has always been the belief of the Catholic Church. It is of faith, that the whole punishment of sin is not always remitted with the offense ; that the remainder of this punishment must be expiated, either in this world or in the next ; that there is a purgatory for the souls of the just who, when leaving this life, are not entirely purified ; and that these souls maybe assisted by the prayers and suffrages of the Church. This is what the Council of Trent decided against the Protestants ; a decision conformable to the preceding councils, to the doctrine of the holy Fathers, to tradition, to the belief and constant practices of the Church. Is pur- gatory rather a particular place than a state, or rather a state than a particular place ? Is the pain of purgatory a pain of fire, or simply a lively and bitter dolor for having offended God ? What is the rigor and duration of this pain.? These ques- tions are not comprised in the domain of Catholic dogma. They are questions con- cerning which there exists no decision, no judgment upon the part of the Church. According to the most common opinion of theologians, the torments of purgatory consist in the pain of fire, or at least in a pain analogous to that of fire. We will add that, according to St. Augustine and St. Thomas, whose views are often followed, the pain of purgatory surpasses every pain of this life.

    Purification. — The Purification of the Hebrews was the means employed for eradicating a legal impurity, that placed an obstacle on civil life, and even on family life, because the one who had contracted it ceased to be capable of communication with others. There were more cases of

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    legal impurity for the woman than for the man : she was impure during several days of each month, and impure in consequence of child-birth. She was not permitted to have any contact with her husband ; could not sit beside him, nor eat from the same vessel, and could speak to him only with averted face, and husband and wife could assist one another only in case of sickness. The shortest duration of impurity was for one day. The most usual purification con- sisted in a bath, or an ablution. Certain purifications required a sacrifice which, for the poor, consisted of two turtle-doves. Impurity was contracted by touchirjg an impure person, and also by touching a corpse. Objects such as vessels, clothing, etc., partook of the impurity and purifica- tion.

    Purification {Feast of the). — A feast ob- served in the Catholic Church on Febru- ary 2d, in commemoration of the purifica- tion of the Blessed Virgin Mary, according to the Jewish ceremonial, forty days after the birth of Christ. Also called Candle- mas (which see).

    Purim. — Festival which the Jews cele- brated in commemoration of the triumph of Esther over Aman.

    Puritans.^ A certain number of English Protestants who, under the reign of Mary, had passed to the Continent, returned un- der the reign of Elizabeth, bringing with them the most rigorous and intolerant doc- trines of Calvinism. Elizabeth persecuted them which served only to increase their intolerance. At first they were found with the Presbyterians of Scotland, whom John Knox evangelized during this time. They tecame, with them, an important political party. The Puritans refused to the Q^ueen the spiritual supremacy and the right to reform the Church. They rejected the lit-

    urgy, and all that recalled, as they s&td^ the papal abomination. They admitted only a part of the Scriptures, and con- demned Anglicanism, as well as Papism, to return to pure Christianity; hence their name '* Puritans."

    Puteoli, now Pozzuoli, a city in the Campania of Naples, on the northern side of the bay, eight miles northwest of that city. It was a Roman colony. Here St. Paul sojourned seven days (Actsxxviii. 13).

    Puseysm. — Anglican religious doctrine, founded by Dr. Pusey about 1833, ^^'^ whose object, like Methodism, was the re- newal of the Anglican Church, but by means of ecclesiastical science and erudi- tion, and by attaching English Protes- tantism much less to the Reformation of the sixteenth century than to the primitive Church. The Puseytes did not reject the Thirty-nine Articles of the confession of Anglican law ; but professed for Apostolic succession, for the tradition of the first six centuries, a respect which led them to adopt many points of Catholicity. Be- sides, they protested against the unwar- ranted interference of the civil power in the government of the Church, and against the supremacy granted to the sovereign in ecclesiastical matters. They tried to re- store Mass, the veneration of saints, espe- cially that of the Blessed Virgin, auricular confession, prayers for the dead, diverse forms of worship, and Dr. Newmann form- ally demanded, in a work published in 1841, the reconciliation of the Anglican Church with Rome. The result of the Puseyte movement was, logically, to make many of its followers embrace Catholicity entirely. This was in fact what took place in regard to Newmann, Manning, and thousands of others.

    Pyx. See Ciborium. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,