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FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"R"
Rabbath or Rabbath-Ammon

    Afterwards called Philadelphia, the capital of the Ammonites, was situated in the mountains of Galaad, near the source of the Arnon, beyond the Jordan.

    It was famous even in the time of Moses (Deut. 3:13). When David declared war against the Ammonites, his general, Joab, laid siege to Rabbath- Ammon, where Urias lost his life by a secret order of his prince; when the city was reduced to its last extremity, David himself went thither, that he might have the honor of taking it.

    From this time it became subject to the king of Juda; but the kings of Israel, subsequently, became masters of it, with the tribes beyond the Jordan.

    It is now called Amman, and is currently the capital of Islamic nation: Jordan.

Rabbi, (literally my master);
    — A title of respect or of office given to Jewish doctors or expounders of the law. In modern Jewish usage the term is strictly applied only to those who are authorized by ordination to:

      > decide legal and ritualistic questions,

      > to perform certain designated functions, as to receive proselytes, etc.;

      > but it is given by courtesy to other distinguished Jewish scholars.

    By persons, not Hebrew, it is often applied to any one ministering to a Jewish congregation, to distinguish him from a Christian minister.

Rabanus Maurus (786-856);
    — Prelate, born at Mayence. The most distinquished German scholar of his epoch. He was a monk of the Abbey of Fulda, and Alcuin's most noted pupil. He was the chief teacher in his monastery, and his school became so celebrated that pupils from all quarters flocked to Fulda.

    Rabanus was afterwards raised to the see of Mayence which he adorned by his virtues as he had adorned Fulda by his learning. His principal work De Institutione Clericorum, written for the instruction of his own scholars and their pupils, exercised a great and beneficial influence upon all the cloister schools in the Frankish Empire.

    His work De Universe is a sort of universal encyclopaedia of the arts and sciences then known.

Rab-mag or Reb-magi.
    — A general officer of Nabuchodonosor's army, at the taking of Jerusalem (Jer. xxxix. 3). It means probably chief of the magi, a dignitary who had accompanied the king of Babylon in his campaign.

    Rab-saces (the chief butler or cup- bearer). — An officer sent by Sennach- erib, king of Assyria, to summon Ezechias to surrender. He delivered his message in a most insolent and oppressive manner. The history is told in IV. Ki. xix. 17, etc. ; II Par. xxxii. 9; etc.

    Rab-saris. — An officer sent with Rab- saces and Tharthan, to summon Ezechias (IV, Ki. xviii. 17; Jer. xxxix. 3). It sig- nifies the chief of the eunuchs.

    Rabulas (St.). — Bishop of Edessa, Syria ; lived about the beginning of the fifth century. Was a zealous opponent of the Nestorian heresy. He closed the Per- sian school which favored Nestorianism.

    Raca (Syr. ivorthless; naught). — A transliterated word occurring in Matt. v. 22, common among the Jews in Christ's time as an expression of contempt.

    Rachel. — Second daughter of Laban. Watering her flock at a well, near the city of Haran, she met her cousin Jacob, and hastened to show him her father's house. Jacob remained fourteen years in the service of Laban in order to have Rachel for his wife. She became the mother of Joseph and Benjamin.

    Radbertus Paschasius. — Abbot of Cor- vey, died in 865. Has left, besides Bibli- cal commentaries, a c onypr eh e n si ve treatise, On the Body and Blood of Our Lord, in which he sets forth, with great precision, but in terms not then in vogue among theologians, the belief of the uni- versal Church regarding the Blessed Sac- rament.

    Rages. — City of ancient Media, in the neighborhood of Ecbatana. Here lived Gabelus to whom younger Tobias went to

    claim the six talents which Gabelus owed to his father. The actual Razi or Rei.

    Rahab. — A woman of Jericho, who con- cealed the spies sent by Josue, and thereby merited to be saved, with her whole household, during the general massacre of the inhabitants of Jericho.

    Rama (Hebr. mountain). — Ancient city of Palestine, in the tribe of Benjamin, between Gabaa and Bethel. The actual Er- Ram; 200 inhabitants.

    Ramathaim-Sophim. — Ancient city of Palestine, near Rama, on the south side. The actual village Neby-Samouil (Prophet Samuel). Important ruins.

    Raphael. — One of the seven archangels who, according to the Bible, are before the throne of God. Raphael was the pro- tector and guide of Tobias and advised him to marry Sara. F. Sept. 12th.

    Raphia. — City of Palestine on the fron- tier of Syria and Egypt. Victory of Ptol- emy IV. Philopator, over Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, in the year 217 b. c. The actual Refali.

    Raphidim. — Ancient place of Arabia Petraea, situated near Mount Horeb. Here the Israelites camped during their Exo- dus ; here Moses received the visit of Jethro, his father-in-law, and here he caused water to come forth, in a miracu- lous manner, by striking the rock with his rod. Here, also, Josue defeated the Amel- ekites.

    Rappe (Amadeus) (1797-1877). — Amer- ican prelate; was born in the diocese of Arras,France; died at St. Alban's, Vermont. After his ordination he came to America and joined the Diocese of Cincinnati about 1840. After having labored for many years at Toledo and attending to all the Catholics in the Valley of the Maumee, he was appointed the first bishop of Cleveland in 1847. Trained as a hard working missionary, he labored to give his flock more priests and churches, establish- ing a theological seminary at an early date. Bishop Rappe had built up the dio- cese, and might have expected in his de- clining years to enjoy a happy old age amid the clergy and people whom he had guided as a faithful pastor for twenty years; but this was not to be. An un- grateful opposition sprang up, calumny assailed even the venerable bishop, who

    Raskolniks

    599

    Rationalism

    with a broken heart resigned his see Aug. 22d, 1870, and retired to tlie diocese of his good friend, Bishop de Goesbriand, of Bur- lington, Vermont. There he resumed his old missionary life, laboring assiduously among the people, giving missions and re- treats, and earnestly advocating the cause of temperance. He died piously at St. Alban's, Vermont, Sept. 9th, 1877. His remains were conveyed to and interred in Cleveland with all the honor due to his life and services.

    Raskolniks. — Among the various sects of the Russian State Church, the most numerous are the so-called Raskolniks {Separatists), or, as they style themselves, Starowierzi (that is. Men of the Old Faith). The origin of this sect, the mem- bers of which are again subdivided into various parties, falls in the year 1660. The occasion of it was the revision of the translations of the Bible and liturgical books undertaken by the Patriarch Nikon.

    Rationalism. — A system, which, like deism and naturalism, acknowledges in religion, only what reason, left to itself, can discover. The Rationalists place rea- son above faith and pretend that philosophy can, without it, arrive at the term of human destiny, that is, at beatitude. According to them, the supernatural order does not exist at all, or is impossible, or at least belief in it is not obligatory and com- manded. The absolute independence, the complete emancipation of reason, is their supreme principle. In our time they even endeavor to abolish religion in order to substitute for it philosophy, in both the intellectual and religious direction of humanity. Powerless to found their sys- tem upon any rational principle, they con- tinually appeal to big words of science and reason ! They would like, if it were possible, to make mankind retrograde to paganism. St. Thomas refuted this system long ago. On the question whether man, by purely natural means, can arrive at his supreme destiny, that is, to know God in His essence and thus arrive at beatitude, the holy Doctor answers: "This is im- possible, for knowledge can have place only in so far as the object known is in the subject which knows it; now only a divine intelligence is capable of knowing the Being which subsists by itself, and which is its own Being ; therefore, this knowledge is above the natural faculties of every

    created spirit, because there is no creature^ which is, in itself, its own being; God, however, can unite Himself with man through grace and thus render Himself ac- cessible according to the words of St. Paul : ' The grace of God is eternal life.'" In facts of truth and virtue, we can say, ac- cording to experience, that reason could never found anything stable. We do not mean to say, thereby, that reason is com- pletely powerless to discover truths of the natural order; but we are not afraid to maintain, after St. Thomas, that it is im- possible for the greatest number, without the help of faith, to discover all the truths, even in the natural order, unaided by supernatural light. Reason can never be certain in its investigations, although be- fore its view takes place all the great prob- lems that interest humanity the most. Is man in a pure state of nature? Has God. spoken? Has He founded a religious society? Is man created for a supernatural end? We can defy rationalism to give a satisfactory solution to any of these ques- tions, or even to prove that, after having drawn man out of nothing, after having endowed him with an excellent nature, God could not reserve the right to elevate him suddenly, or progressively, to a supe- rior order. We know that the scope of reason is very limited, that never here below can it succeed in grasping the ade- quate truth, and that, on the contrary, in all the great philosophical or religious questions, it can onl}' lose itself in error. The history of philosophy proves into what aberrations human reason, if left to itself, is capable of falling: for more than three thousand years it has done nothing but republish the same errors. Strange destiny, indeed, that human reason is con- demned to turn perpetually in the same circle of errors.

    Rationalism is of English origin, and was first called deism. This doctrine hav- ing spread in Germany in the eighteenth century, the German methodic mind trans- formed it into a scientific system, under the name of rationalism. Founding itself upon the negative principle of Kantian knowledge, it denied, not only positive re- ligion, but also natural religion itself. The small number of Protestant theologians who remained outside the movement ad- hered to the Bible and entered a way which brought them close to the Catholic Church. Voltaire and the Encyclopaedists in France, were the most ardent propa-

    Ratisbonne

    600

    Recollects

    gators of rationalism, which speedily de- generated into materialism.

    We may say that the system of rational- ism is a consequence of Protestantism and a natural fruit of private interpretation of Holy Scripture. Like heresy, indeed, it pretends to erect into dogmas its own conceptions. The philosophy of the eight- eenth century had denied the dogma of both the natural and the supernatural. However, everything had not been de- stroyed ; there still remained the history of mankind, which testifies in favor of a primitive and traditional truth, containing the germs of the great dogmas which Christianity came to fix in the Church for- ever. Rationalism introduced free inquiry upon this reserved ground, just as Protest- antism had done in the field of the Scrip- tures. In our days, rationalism has arrived at its most extreme consequences ; by deny- ing all supersensible truth, it goes so far as to undermine the basis of the constituent principles of social order; in its last evolu- tions, it necessarily dissolves itself into pantheism and atheism: there is no God, reason is God; no immortality of the soul, and hence no morals. By the fruits we know the tree. What has rationalism made of Christian society in this century of its power? It has caused division in the minds; hatred in the hearts; intellectual, moral, and social anarchy. Behold the fruits of rationalism! See Reason and Faith.

    Ratisbonne (Alphonse Maria) (1812- 188^). — Brother of the following, born at Strasburg, died in Jerusalem. Abjured the Jewish religion in 1842, at Rome; made his novitiate at the Jesuits, then entered the Society of Priests of Our Lady of Sion.

    Ratisbonne (Maria Theodor) (1802- 1884). — Lawyer, then religious. Born at Strasburg, died in Paris. Of Jewish origin, he became a Catholic in 1826, received holy orders, then became missionary apos- tolic, founder and general superior of the Congregation of Our Lady of Sion, in Paris (1842).

    Ratramus. — Monk of Cor\'ey, theolo- gian, died about 870. One of the most learned men of his time.

    Ravignan (Gustave Xavier Lacroix de) (1795-1858). — Jesuit and celebrated preacher, born at Bayonne, died in Paris. In 1837 he became preacher of Notre-Dame of Paris, where he achieved great success.

    His oratorial action was beautiful, because it was true. He held his position for nearly ten years, when ill-health compelled him to retire to his convent.

    Raymond of Pennaforte. See Order OF Mercy.

    Realism. See Nominalism.

    Reason and Faith. — How far can we understand the supernatural truths or mys- teries which we believe on the authority of God and the Church ? Rationalists and Agnostics of all times have held that no understanding of things is possible beyond the sphere of natural reason. Abelard and some theologians of the thirteenth century, and in modern times Giinther and Frohschammer, were of the opinion that nothing is beyond the grasp of human reason, and, consequently, that supernat- ural truths can be demonstrated by reason, and that faith can be replaced by knowl- edge. Other theologians allow the coex- istence of faith with knowledge, pretending that reason adds a new certitude to faith. Against these errors the Vatican Council teaches that some understanding of mys- teries is possible, and it lays dov.n its conditions and rules: "When Reason, enlightened by faith, maketh diligent, pious, and sober inquiry, she attaineth, by God's gift, most fruitful knowledge of mysteries, both from the analogy of things naturally known and from the relation of mysteries with one another and with the end of man." Then the Council sets forth that this understanding is less clear and less perfect than our understanding of things natural. "Still she (Reason) is never rendered fit to perceive them in the same way as the truths which are her own proper object. For the divine mysteries, by their very nature, so far surpass the created intellect that, even when conveyed by revelation and received by faith, they remain covered by the veil of faith and, as it were, hidden by a cloud, as long as in this mortal life we are absent from the Lord, for we walk by faith and not by sight" (Sess. iii.. Chap. 4).

    Recollects. — A branch of the Francis- can Order, founded in 1500, by the blessed John Guadalupe. Its members are re- quired to observe the original rigor of the institute. Recollects came to Cincinnati, Ohio, more than fifty years ago and now have several houses in the United States. See Franciscans.

    Rector

    60 1

    Redeemer

    Rector (pastor who has cura antmarum, "the care of souls")- — In accordance with the general law of the Church, and the proposals made by the Holy See by the S. Congregation de Propaganda Fide, in the Conferences held at Rome in 1883, the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, or- dains that in every diocese, the bishop shall, with the advice of his consultors, select certain missions, all of which have been thus far missions atnovibiles, and make them missions inamovibiles, in such num- ber, that at least one rector of every ten will be in future irremovable. However, the Council advises the bishops not to ex- ceed this number, except for good reasons, within the first twenty years after the promulgation of its decrees. It is, how- ever, the general impression that such missions inamovibiles are not canonical parishes, properly speaking, except in some parts of California.

    As can be seen from the above, up to the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, all our rectors were amovibiles. Since the aforesaid Council decreed that, in future one rector out of every ten should be irre- movable, we have at present, in the United States, two kinds of rectors, removable and irremovable. Our rectors, who are removable, are appointed in the manner laid down by the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (n. 126). As to our irre- movable rectors, the Third Plenary Coun- cil of Baltimore enacts: i. The creation of irremovable missions and the appoint- ment of irremovable rectors must take place within three years from the promul- gation of the council, that is from Jan. 6th, 1886. 2. The bishop can appoint the irremovable rectors, for the first time, without the concursus, though not without the advice of his consultors; after that only by concursus, and that on pain of nullity of the appointment. See Con- cursus.

    Irremovable rectors can be dismissed from their parishes only for crimes which are very grave : expressly stated in law and upon a regular — i. e., formal or solemn — canonical trial. The offenses for which irremovable rectors are ipso jure (by the very fact) deprived of their parishes or missions are chiefly : Heresy; falsification of apostolic letters; assassination; killing or striking a cardinal or bishop ; procur- ing abortion; sodomy; simony; duelling, even when death does not ensue; visurpa- tion of the property of any Church or

    locus pius (pious place) ; alienating Church property, except in cases permitted by law, if he, having been improperly promoted to sacred orders, presumes to exercise the orders thus received; for omitting to re- ceive orders within a year.

    The offenses to which dismissal from the parish is annexed only after the sentence of the judge are : Neglect to wear a becom- ing clerical dress ; drunkenness ; gambling ; murder; perjury; theft, and the like. Also insordescentia in censuris, concu- binage and simple fornication. For other offenses, see Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (III. No. 37).

    Redeemer and Redemption. — We shall understand what is meant by a redeemer if we think of the times when men were not uncommonly kidnapped by pirates and car- ried away into slavery. For many centuries the infidels who held the southern shores of the Mediterranean sea, made frequent inroads on the neighboring coasts, and led away as captives many of the Christian inhabitants who fell into their hands. This was the fate of St. Vincent of Paul in the year 1605. It was obviously a great act of kindness, when Christians bought back these unfortunates from their masters, and restored them to liberty, thus saving them from misery and from danger of apostasy. More than one religious order charged themselves with this work, and the breth- ren would often themselves offer to take the place of some miserable captive for whom they could find no other ransom. To redeem, then, was to buy back; to pay a ransom to the master of a slave, and this whether the slavery had any pretense of lawful origin or was wholly and utterly lawless. It is in this sense that Christ is our Redeemer, for when we were slaves of Satan, He gave Himself a redemption for all (I. Tim. ii. 6), buying us with a great price (I. Cor. vi. 20), — His own Precious Blood and Life.

    After sin had been committed, a redeemer had to be found. This Redeemer was the one, Who, being the Word of God, has created and knew how to operate in Himself a new creation. But He had to unite to the nature of the Word, Son of God, the nature of man, that is, the In- carnation was the obligatory prelu -e of redemption. The fact of the redemption consists, therefore, in this : that Jesus Christ, innocent and without sin, took upon Himself the sin, the fault, the chas-

    Redemptorists

    602

    Religion

    tisement or expiation. By the sin of one, says the Apostle (Rom. v. 18) the sentence of condemnation involved all mankind ; so, also, by the justice of One; the justifica- tion of life extended itself over all men.

    Redemptorists. See Liguori.

    Reformation {Causes and Effects of). See Protestantism.

    Regalia (in ecclesiastical history, the power of the sovereign in ecclesiastical affairs). — In monarchical countries, where the papal authority is recognized by the State, the regalia are usually defined by a concordat with the Holy See; in other monarchical countries it takes the form of the royal supremacy. In mediaeval times, the regalia involved the right of enjoyment of the revenues of vacant bishoprics, and of presentation to all ecclesiastical bene- fices or positions above the ordinary paro- chial cures during the vacancy of a see. These rights were exercised by the Nor- man and Plantagenet kings of England, and by the French kings from the eleventh century onward with constantl}^ widening application and increased insistence till the time of Louis XIV. See Ixvestiturk.

    Regeneration. — The spiritual birth which we receive in baptism. This second birth renders us children of God. See Baptism.

    Regina Cceli (Latin words which sig- nify Sijicen of Heaven). — An anthem in honor of the Blessed Virgin beginning with these words, and after each of whose four clauses the Alleluia is repeated. It is said at the end of the offices of the Brevi- ary during the Easter season. Pope Bene- dict XIV., confirming April 20th, 1742, the indulgences granted to the recitation of the Angelus, ordered that the Regina Call with its verses and prayers, be said standing, instead of kneeling during Easter time.

    Reifenstuel (Anaclet). — Franciscan of the eighteenth century. He wrote a work on Canon Law {Jus Can. Univers.), Venice, 1704. Its order, clearness, and method are excellent, and it has passed through many editions.

    Relics (Lat. reliquicB, remains). — Relics is the ecclesiastical term for the remains of a saint after his death, either of the en- tire body, or a part of the body. Just as we venerate and pray to the saints, so also we pay respect to material objects which

    had some special connection with them. To rob a royal sepulchre, and burn the bones, would be an act redounding to the dishonor of the object of the outrage; this would be a case of relative civil disrespect; in like manner, to decorate the tomb of a martyr would be relative veneration. We see here the nature of all honor paid to relics, and we find abundant authority for paying such honor. That thing which God is pleased to use as the instrument of a miracle certainly deserves honor, and this honor may well redound to a saint on whose account the miracle was worked. We read in Scripture that the bones of the Prophet Eliseus were used as the means of restoring a dead man to life (IV. Ki. xiii. 21 ; Ecclus. xlviii. 14), and garments that had touched the body of St. Paul gained the power of healing sicknesses (Acts xix. 12). Nothing that has ever been said by Catholic writers, concerning the virtue that resides in relics of the saints, attributes more to them than is ascribed by Holy Scripture. The Church has never made a declaration concerning the genuine- ness of any alleged relic and we, therefore, can have no certaint}' on this point. But we are justified in paying honor whenever we have a reasonable probability that the object is what we suppose it to be. See Saints.

    Religion and Virtue of Religion. — By

    religion we understand the ensemble of doctrines and practices which constitutes the relation of man with the divine power. Religion exists in the world as a means of salvation proposed to all men. It does not operate in the individual without the free concurrence of the will, that is, it must first be the object of a humble acceptation of the mind, and secondly, through obedi- ence, it must lead us to the realization of the precepts or commandments. The tendency and disposition of a heart that consecrates itself to God to serv'e Him interiorly by prayer and submission, and exteriorly by acts of adoration and by all that belongs to the observance of His wor- ship and law, is what we call the \-irtue of religion. This virtue can be defined thus: a general habit which comprises, imme- diately, the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity, and in a less intimate manner, or only mediately, all the moral virtues. Public worship is one of the most powerful means to excite and to maintain the virtue of religion in the soul.

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    Christian Religion. — All nations have had a religion, and at all times they recog- nized that religion is necessary for men individually, and not less necessary for men united in society. In accepting this idea as the starting point, the philosophers of the eighteenth century discussed at length the natural religion, the only one they wished to admit. This natural re- ligion, which never historically existed, they composed according to their own liking by a choice of beliefs at which, ac- cording to them, reason alone can arrive; in reality, they were themselves the in- ventors thereof, as well as the disciples. The religion of nature expresses quite a different idea from the philosophical con- ception of natural religion. The religion of nature is that which, under various symbols, deifies nature or the forces of na- ture, without elevating itself to God, who is the author thereof. Only one religion is historical and goes back in its annals to the beginning of the world. It gave to the first men the promise of a Redeemer; of the anointed of the Lord, or His Christ. It exhibited in the Patriarchs figures of this Christ, and renewed to the Patriarchs, to reanimate their faith and hope, the an- cient pfomise. The prophetic ministry developed this promise, by furnishing the most minute details about the life, birth, and death of the Christ, that was going to come. The time of the law, that is, of the Mosaic institution, will confer upon one people both the character and mission of permanent witness amidst mankind. The history of this people will have a sense which no other history presents; it will converge entirely toward the one fact of the Messias. When, finally, Jesus Christ has come. He will teach all truth. He unites all men in the same love of God and of our neighbor. He performs striking miracles, and the miracle will continue in all the ages of the Church to convince the rebellious minds. His enemies will put Him to death, and in this death He tri- umphs. The Apostles and the preachers of the Gospel will have no more powerful means to carry the victory than the spilling of their blood. The Church will be perse- cuted at all times, but the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. Finally, entire civilization will be marked with the seal of Christ, and if the nations call themselves no longer the Christendom, as in the Middle Ages, the civilization of which they are proud will have no

    other name than that of Christian Civiliza- tion.

    Religion and History. — Civilization throughout the length and breadth of its history, furnishes us no phenomena so wide- spread and so far reaching in its conse- quences as religion. The faint light that breaks on us from the early dawn of civil- , ization, shows that human knowledge and morality originated in religion, that reli- gion is the spring from which the first songs of soul-thrilling poetry were drawn, and that religious worship was the parent of the firstborn of art. In Iranian and Indian documents, in Egyptian hieroglyphics, and in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Chalde- ans, religion everywhere asserts its claim to be considered the chief and most influential factor in the life of families and of nations. The history of religion is the history of man. It is the groundwork and the key to the right understanding of all history. Our knowledge of antiquity has advanced by leaps and bounds ; yet it oflfers no ex- planation of the fact of religion, but merely bears witness to its existence in the remot- est ages. Both civilized and uncivilized races tell the same tale. If ancient writers had asserted that belief in a God was uni- versal, and that there existed no people so savage and lawless but that they worshiped some God, the statement might have been set down as a hasty or superficial general- ization, due to their comparatively narrow knowledge of ethnography. Even the Fathers and the learned men of the Middle Ages knew but little of the inhabitants of the various parts of the world. Now, how- ever, circumstances are altered. The dis- covery of two continents and of numberless islands, and the exploration of the "Dark Continent," have widened to an unfore- seen extent the circle of human knowledge. And yet all modern discoveries in ethnog- raphy and anthropology do but confirm the ancient truth. No nation has yet been discovered wholly devoid of religion !

    Writers of the Darwinian School, such as Sir John Lubbock and Haeckel, have had the hardihood to assert that there are men in Southern Asia and Eastern Africa wandering about in droves, living on the fruits of the earth, unacquainted with fire, using stone weapons and implements, and spending most of their time in climbing trees, like apes of the higher class. But'' even such staunch Darwinians as Hellwald and Caspari allow that this contention smacks more of romance than of history.

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    The alleged tribe is a creation of fancy without definite abode. It was a favorite dodge of Bayle and the skeptical school to justify atheism by pointing to the existence of tribes with no religion. Of course there have been explorers who have in all sincerity written in this sense. Living- stone asserts that no trace of religion was to be found among the inhabitants of Bechuanaland ; Samuel Baker, Dalton, and Lichtenstein say the same of South- African and American tribes; Messenger Bradley makes a like statement about an Australian tribe. Sir John Lubbock ap- peals to the testimony of Catholic and Protestant missionaries. In like manner, the Abbe Lesserteur, professor of theology at the Seminary of Foreign Missions, maintains that the knowledge of God is not universal. In support of his thesis, he cites the Missions CathoUques of 1881, in which Father Berengier says that the Ar- aconians of Bengal have no idea of the ex- istence of a Supreme Being; but they believe that brooks and trees are peopled by mysterious spirits. Moreover, he quotes Mgr. Bourdon, Vicar Apostolic of Burmah, as saying that Kachyens have not the least notion of an eternal, almighty, and infinite God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, who will reward the good and punish the wicked. In the same cate- gory he places the Amamites, who believe in higher orders of spirits, for the most part wicked and terrible ; but he insists that this belief cannot be described as a knowledge of God.

    In saying so much, however, Lesserteur has made his meaning clear. If, for the knowledge of God, he requires " the idea of a supreme being who created heaven and earth, and is the sovereign Lord of all things," this exalted conception will not easily be discovered among savages. But it is hardly fair to test the faith of low savages by our enlightened ideas about God. Nor, should it be forgotten that the conduct of a savage, from which alone his belief can be gathered, is often resers-ed and difficult to understand. For this rea- son we must observe caution in receiving the depositions even of travelers and mis- sionaries. Long years of patient observa- tion, thorough knowledge of the country, and familiar and confidential intercourse with the natives are the only security against error. In the presence of white men, savages are often reticent, being afraid to mention the names of their gods.

    In this way many contradictory statements may be explained. A little while ago the Zulus were accredited with having no re- ligious ideas of any kind. Now, mission- aries are often puzzled by their subtile questions. They believe in an invisible God, dwelling in the heavens, who created all things, and guides the destiny of man. BoskofT has refuted Sir John Lubbock in detail; Quatrefages has done a similar service to the stories of missionaries ; Tyler, Peschel, and Max Miiller have defended the same thesis with success. In the last in- stant the pivot on which the whole dispute turns is the question as to how much is es- sential to the idea of religion. Sir John Lubbock himself admits that it will be dif- ficult to find any savages without religion, if magic, in large or small quantities, is al- lowed to do duty for religion. He grants that religion is common to all men if reli- gion is made to include a mere dread and consciousness of beings more powerful than ourselves. But he thereby concedes in principle the universality of religion.

    Even superstition and magic, however debased and degraded, are an evidence of faith and of religion. Sacrifice and prayer are constituent elements of both, though the one be repulsive and the other mean- ingless and mechanical. Both magic and superstition have for their object union with a superior being ; both are an ac- knowledgment of man's dependence on a superior power; both point to the need of reconciliation with the powers above. In- separably linked with these rites is belief in immortality. Whatever construction we put upon this belief, it is invariably as- sociated with religion, and shows itself in the belief that man is destined to lead a happy life in the world to come, in the company of invisible spirits and the ances- tors who have gone before. Hence the worship of the dead, which is so common among savages that it forms the center round which their religious ceremonial re- volves. Formerly, it was said that the negro races stood alone in denying the im- mortality of the soul ; however, also they believe in it. The various funeral customs that prevail in Africa and the South Sea Islands are, indeed, a disgrace to humanity ; but they ser\'e to show that these tribes believe that there is a life beyond the grave. The African religions have, there- fore, long ceased to be classed as fetichism pure and simple. In the obscure creeds of the black races, we can now find distinct

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    traces of serpent worship; the duty of reverencing ancestors is strongly incul- cated; a gloomy, morose belief in a future life pei-vades them, yea — through the chinks there dimly shines the recollection, never wholly extinguished, of a supreme God, who is equally the Father of white men and of black men. Then, too, the inhabitants of the islands dotted over the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Malays, Papuans, and Polynesians, have some no- tion of sacrifice and prayer, some idea of a Divine Being, and they are buoyed up by hope in a life to come that will never end. And archaeology enables us to discover the footprints of funeral rites, even in prehis- toric times.

    No people exists in whom the idea of morality has not taken root. Ethics had long been the hinge on which popular philosophy turned. Socrates limited phi- losophy to ethics. Morality postulates faith, and it is at once a proof and a product of faith. The laws of man are founded on the commandments of God, and, in point of time, religious notions are prior to the distinction between good and evil. The moral law is enthroned on a higher pedes- tal. This is indeed denied by some anthro- pologists of note, like Taylor and Weitz ; but here again it is a question of defining terms. Morality is often made to consist wholly of the most trivial outward observ- ances ; nevertheless, it is founded on the dis- tinction between good and evil, as between man and a power above him. With moral- ity were frequently bound up the dread of punishment and the desire to be purified and redeemed. Thus, religion became an engine of education and a means of amel- iorating the condition of mankind.

    The picture drawn of the moral life of savages is indeed dark and full of horrors. But were civilized races any better in the earlier ages ? Does not the idea of religion rise to the surface of the surging floods? May it not regain that influence for good which it once had ? Cannibalism originally existed everywhere. It overran Europe and Asia, devastating the fair provinces of Italy and France, England and Germany. In the opinion of many savants, it can be traced in the religion of the Old Testa- ment. It was flourishing in America when Columbus landed. It is still a power in Africa, Asia, and Australia. At the pres- ent, five and a quarter millions of men are its slaves. At times men may have been instigated to it by hunger, or craving for

    human flesh, or by the desire to kill an enemy out of revenge, and thus make his bravery their own ; but its motive is super- stitious and religious. Men make their gods as cruel as themselves, and strive to propitiate them with human sacrifices. The Mexicans offered up to their god a heart " in order to renew the youth of the natural forces that sway the universe " ; and they took the heart out of the noblest of living beings — man. The same idea finds expression in the savage cruelties perpe- trated in the human sacrifices of the Aztecs, — cruelties that spread to an alarming ex- tent among other races and cities. The men themselves partook of the sacrificial meal. Religion looms behind the ghastly human sacrifices that take place at funerals. As suicide among Hindoos has a religious motive, so the variety of views about this life, a life in the world to come, accounts for all such revolting barbarities in family and tribal life. An explanation of many of them must be sought in that love which endures beyond the grave.

    Religions {Approximate State of the Differettt). — The population of the globe being 1,300,000,000, the religions are stated to ofTer the following proportions: i. Christians, 335,000,000; 2. Jews, 5,000,000; 3. Mohammedans, 160,000,000; 4. Budhists and Brahmans, 600,000,000; 5. Pagans and Fetichists, 200,000,000. The Christians may be subdivided thus : Catholics, 270,- 000,000; Protestants, 89,000,000; Schis- matics, 76,000,000. Of the 335,000,000 Christians, it is counted that 169,000,000 are in Europe, 58,000,000 in America, and the remainder in other countries of the world. It is claimed that there are in Europe 3,500,000 Jews and 71,000,000 Mo- hammedans ; Asia, it is claimed, contains 50,000,000 Mohammedans and Africa the remainder. The Buddhists and Brahmans are almost all in Asia. According to the latest accounts. Catholicity is gaining ground in all parts of the world, especially in America and Africa, on account of the increase of the population and through the strong impulse impressed upon the mis- sions by the Holy See.

    Remigius (St.) (437-533). — Archbishop of Rheims and apostle of the Franks. Born at Cerny, France, of a noble family; died at Rheims. Clovis, king of the Franks, was baptized by St. Remigius on Christmas day, in 496. On this occasion, the saint addressing Clovis, and referring

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    to the idols of pagan and to the symbols of Christian worship, said: "Humble thy- self, proud Sicambrian ; burn now what thou didst formerly adore, and adore now what thou didst formerly burn." Three thousand Prankish nobles and a great number of Frankish ladies followed the example of Clovis, and were at once baptized by the attending bishops and clergy. According to a legend of a more recent date, the press of the people was so great at the ceremony of the anointing and coronation of Clovis, that the attendant who bore the chrism could not make his way to Bishop Remigius, who officiated on this occasion. The interruption, however, was short; for a white dove descending from heaven supplied the sacred oil, and, after the prince had been anointed and crowned, he was saluted as the newly arisen Constantine. F. Oct. ist. See Clovis and Clotilda.

    Remonstrants. — Arminians; name ap- plied to them from a document consisting of five articles expressing the points of divergence of the Dutch Arminians from strict Calvinism, presented to the states of Holland and West-Friesland in 1610.

    Renan (Joseph Ernest) (1823-1892). — Orientalist, historian, and essayist, born at Treguier, in Brittany. In 1842 he en- tered the Seminary of St. Sulpice, but three years later gave up the idea of be- coming a priest. His first important work, Az'erroes et I' Ar'erroisme, appeared in 1852. He was professor of Hebrew in the Institute of France 1861-1862, and was reap- pointed in 1870. His V^ie de Jesus (1863), which gave rise to much discussion, was afterwards expanded into Histoire des Origines du Christianisme. He also pub- lished Le yudaisme (1883), and numerous other works. All his books are on the Index.

    Reprobation. — Reprobation is an act or decree by which God excludes from the kingdom of heaven and condemns to the pains of hell, the sinners who die in final impenitence. It is the contrary of predes- tination. This decree, although infallible like the divine prescience, imposes upon those, who are the object thereof, no neces- sity to sin. It even supposes the liberty, or the voluntary and really f^ee abuse of grace, which God refuses to nobody. The one who is damned is not damned because there exists a decree of reprobation ; for

    this decree exists only because the sinner whom it concerns damns himself, by will- ingly and freely persevering in his sin until the end. It is of faith that after this life there is a hell for the wicked. Also, it is of faith that the pains of hell are eter- nal. The symbol of St. Athanasius, which is received in the universal Church, ends thus: "Those who shall have done good, will enter eternal life ; but those who shall have done evil, will enter eternal fire. Such is the faith ; whoever does not faith- fully and firmly adhere to it cannot be saved." The Catholic dogma concerning the eternity of the pains of hell is founded upon Scripture and tradition ; on the uni- versal and constant belief of the Church, in accord with the belief of the ancient nations, even of the Gentiles. Will you say that we cannot reconcile this dogma with the goodness of God.? But "who art thou, O man, to contest with God.? (O homo, tu quis es, qui respondeas Deo ?) Who shall dare to say to Thee, O Lord, why didst Thou do this? Or who will dare to rise against Thy judgment.? Who will appear before Thee to take up the de- fense of unjust men.?" It does not belong to us to criticise God's judgments. He is wonderful in His saints through His good- ness ; He is not less wonderful by His jus- tice in the damned. The sinner who is condemned to eternal torment, can only blame himself; he can blame God only in so far as He could not hinder his damna- tion. But it is not thus : God rejects and condemns after this life the impenitent sinners only because these sinners rejected and condemned themselves, while they were upon earth. Free to do the good and the evil, instead of doing the good, they preferred death to life, the pains of hell to the enjoyments of heaven, the sojourn of Satan to the kingdom of God. They are, therefore, unfortunate because they have wished it; and they will be this eternally, because, in spite of the admonitions and threats of the Lord, they have followed, with free will, the way that leads to eter- nal perdition. This shows that the eternity of hell is no more contrary to divine jus- tice than to divine goodness.

    We distinguish two pains of hell: the pain of damnation and the pain ot the senses. The first consists in the privation of the intuitive vision, or in the loss of heaven, and in the regret of having lost it. The second consists in the pain caused by fire. This double chastisement is aggra-

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    vated by despair ; the damned cannot en- tertain any liope of ever seeing an end of his torments. The pains of hell are ex- pressed by a worm that never dies and by a fire which is never extinguished, and with which our divine Saviour threatens the sinner. We understand by this gnaw- ing worm the inner pains, the remorses and the regrets of the damned. The damned will be tormented through the envy which they shall have toward the saints ; they shall condemn their aberra- tions, and shall have a bitter pain for be- ing deprived of the glory and happiness of the just. The second pain of hell is the pain of fire: ii^nt's non extinguitur. But is it the same with the fire as with the gnaw- ing worm? Is this fire a material or an inner fire, a fire which, by acting directly on the soul, acts indirectly on the body? This is a question about which there exists no decision of the Church. It is of faith that the damned shall be eternally deprived of the happiness of heaven, and that they shall be eternally tormented in hell; but it is not of faith that the fire which makes them suffer is a material fire. However, the opinion which is for the reality or ma- terialitj of fire is so general among Catho- lics, that we do not believe we are permitted to teach the contrary. But it is important to remark that, according to both opinions, hell is a place of torment. " The opinion, according to which the fire of hell is only metaphorical, does not exclude the pain of the senses, consisting in a vehement afflic- tion of the body, although not caused by fire." Those who shall be condemned to eternal fire will all be punished, and they shall be this eternally, more or less se- verely, according as they have been more or less guilty.

    Rescripts. — By rescripts are meant those letters by which the Roman Pontiff replies to persons who either ask for some favor or report on some particular affair, or request directions for a transient object or private individual.

    Reservation of Cases. See Cases.

    Residence ( Duty of). — Parish priests, both removable and irremovable, are bound at least jure ecrlesiastico, and that sub g-ravi, to reside in their parishes. We say, at least, etc., for whether they are ob- ligated also jure diviMo is a disputed ques- tion. Assistant priests are not bound by the law of residence, though they should

    not be absent without the permission of the pastor or bishop. For certain causes, rec- tors may, at times, be absent from their parishes, as, for instance, on account of ill- health or the need of recreation. How- ever, besides a legitimate cause, the permission of the bishop, in writing, is necessary, and that even for an absence of one week. The duty of residence, which is particularly urgent during contagious diseases, comprises not only the obligation of physically dwelling in the parish, but also that of laboring for its good. Hence, a pastor cannot leave all the parochial duties in the hands of his assistants, but must per- sonally, unless lawfully hindered, perform some, especially, of the more important ones, such as preaching and administering the sacraments. He may, however, re- quire his assistants to attend to the more arduous duties, such as sick calls at night, attending to out-missions. As a rule, pas- tors should reside within the limits of their parishes, nay, in the parochial house, if there be one.

    Resignation. — By resignation is meant the act by which an ecclesiastic, of his own free will, gives up his office or benefice into the hands of the bishop or superior, with the consent of the proper ecclesias- tical superior. We say the resignation must be voluntary; that is, not extorted by fear, violence, deceit, or cunning; forced resignations are rescindable. Also, the res- ignation must be wholly exempt from simoniacal stipulation, that is, from bar- gains or contracts to give or to receive money or any other temporal considera- tion for the resignation. Finally, the res- ignation must be accepted by the proper ecclesiastical superior; otherwise it is in- valid and of no effect, and the resigner may be compelled to reassume his office.

    Responsory. See Gradual.

    Restitution (action by which we restore or return). — He who has unjustly appro- priated his neighbor's goods, or wilfully damaged his property, is obliged to make restitution. For, if the momentary incon- venience which we cause to our neighbor from theft or damnification is sinful, much more is the continued loss; and this loss or inconvenience remains until restitution is made. He who, knowingly and unjustly, appropriates the goods of another is obliged to make restitution, not only of the object appropriated, but also of the gain he has

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    derived from it, and for the loss incurred by the owner. He who, without the own- er's knowledge or consent, has brought into his possession the property of another must, as soon as he has discovered that it belongs to another, restore the object it- self and the profit derived from it, or the amount which he has realized or saved by its use. In this case, however, he is not obliged to repair the loss incurred by the owner, since he only is bound in conscience to repair damages, who in conscience has committed injustice, and not he who has acted in good faith. One who has inflicted damage in good faith, however, may be justly condemned to make reparation by civil law, which takes cognizance of facts, not of intentions. Unjustly appropriated goods are to be restored either to the owner himself or to his heirs. He who, knowingly and wilfully, appropriated an- other's goods is bound to devote^tirtih to public or pious uses, in case the owner cannot be found ; for no one is allowed to reap benefit from injustice; and unjustly appropriated goods can never become ownerless, but become, in default of private ownership, public property.

    The duty of restitution devolves, in the first instance, upon him who actually pos- sesses the ill-gotten object, or upon him who inflicted the unjust damage. If the thief, or the author of the damage, fails to make restitution, the duty devolves upon those who co-operated, and, in the first place, upon him who co-operated by com- mand ; in the second place, on him who ex- ecuted the command ; in the third place, on the others who co-operated positively; and in the fourth place, on those who co-oper- ated negatively. In this order the latter party is always obliged to make restitution or reparation if the preceding parties have failed to do so.

    Resurrection. — It is a fundamental point of the Christian religion that the day will come when the true bodies of all the dead shall rise in their integrity. Nothing less than this is meant by the article of the Apostles' Creed, " the resur- rection of the body." The same is ex- pressed in the Athanasian Creed, and is clearly a part of Catholic faith. This truth is plainly taught by St. Paul (I. Cor. XV.), where he argues that as Christ rose in the body, so must all men rise, for the Head and the members must be con- formed. The Apostle assumes the same

    doctrine in other places (II. Cor. iv. 14; Rom. viil. 11); and he made no secret of the matter whether preaching to Jews (Acts xxiii. 6) or to heathen (Acts xvii. 32). The other Apostles taught the same (Acts iv.). The explicit statement on the matter contained in the ancient creeds, dispenses us from the necessity of bringing quotations to prove the doc- trine of the Fathers.

    Christ Himself spoke on the subject (John V. 28, 29), instructing the Jews that the hour was coming wherein all that are in the graves should hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that had done good should come forth unto the resurrection of life, but they that had done evil, unto the resurrection of Judgment. Reference to the monuments shows that this pass- age refers to the resurrection of the body, and it is important as proving that the same reunion awaits the just and the un- just alike. It seems plain that all will rise at the same instant (I. Cor. xv. 52; Dan. xii. 2).

    That the body that shall rise is the same as that which died, follows from the idea of "rising again"; if a new body were created and formed by the soul, no one would say that this man had risen again ; some other phrase must be sought to express what had happened, and since no case of such an occurrence is known to us, no such phrase is in use. Moreover, the resurrection of Christ is nothing but an anticipation in point of time of that which awaits all men, as St. Paul clearly teaches (I. Cor. xv. 20) ; and we know that He rose with the same body with which He died (Luke xxiv. 39). That which is in the tomb is to come forth when the resurrection day arrives, as we learn from the discourse of Christ quoted a few lines back; and that which is in the tomb is the body that died. The truth is expressly defined by the Fourth Council of La teran, where it is declared: "That all the dead shall rise again with their bodies which they now have."

    The doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh has been vehemently attacked in all ages of the Church ; some of the earliest heretics found in it an insurmountable difficulty in the way of their tenet of the essentially evil nature of matter, and the rationalizing spirit of modern times prompts men to ask the question : how this can be.? and to find for an answer, — to reject the revealed truth. We need not

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    consider the earlier form of objection; to the latter form, we reply by avowing that we do not know how God's purpose will be worked out, any more than we know how He makes the seed that is sown in the ground grow into a tree (I. Cor. xv. 35-38) ; this is the answer given by St. Paul to the question raised by the Rationalists of his day. The difficulty sometimes urged, that particles which belonged to one man at his death may become part of the body of an- other man and be his when he dies, is spe- cious but shallow. He that urges it, assumes that he knows far more about the constitu- tion of matter, dead and living, and con- cerning what constitutes identity, than has as yet been revealed to the researches of chemists, biologists, and metaphysicians; and we must remember that the providence of God is over all His works, and will se- cure the carrying out of His ends.

    Retreat has a specific meaning in the terminology of the Church, denoting a time of repairing to temporary retirement from the work of active life for the sake of prayer, meditation, and spiritual exer- cises.

    Reuch (Francis Henry). -r-Theologian, born at Brilon, Westphalia, in 1825. A professor of the Catholic Faculty of Bonn, he refused to acknowledge the decisions of the Vatican Council on the Infallibility of the Pope, and then became one of the heads of the " Old Catholics." Wrote Die Bibel und Natur, a work translated into English.

    Reuchlin (John) (1455-1522). — Human- ist, born at Phorzheim, died at Stuttgart. In 1473, he went to study in Paris, which city he left in 1475 to go to Basle, where he gave public lessons in Greek. Then he went to study law at Orleans. Returning to Germany, he went to Rome in 1482, as secretary of the Duke of Wiirtemberg; on his return he became president of the "Ligue of Suabia," and labored on a He- brew grammar and dictionary which caused him to make interpretations of the Bible that were victoriously combated by the Universities of Paris, Louvain, and May- ence.

    Revelation (action to reveal). — In the theological sense, revelation is the divine manifestation, made by God to man. Con- sidered as a divine act, it is the funda- mental condition of all positive religion, and considered as an historical fact, it

    39

    falls, like other facts, in the domain of history and is subject to empiricism. Hence the new science : the philosophy of revelation. The questions with which it occupies itself treats first : on the possi- bility of revelation and on its necessity. The possibility may be looked upon: (1) either from the part of God (2) or from the part of man. The philosophers have advanced the most diverse judgments on the necessity of revelation and the need we have thereof. Some have acknowledged the absolute need of a progressive revela- tion; the majority have admitted only a relative necessity, not leaving the original state of man. The Rationalists completely deny both the necessity and the need of a revelation for man, and do not wish to ad- mit the revelation of the first conceptions of religion, but regard them as the testi- mony of reason itself, and besides pretend that man can and must of himself tend and arrive at the final possession of all truth and of all good. We might argue from the very principles of philosophy itself to prove the possibility of revelation ; for, admitting that there are truths of the supernatural order, God can perfectly pro- pose to the reason of man truths of this order. God, being infinite, no one can deny that there are supernatural truths, truths which the finite being can never know as long as God is not pleased to man- ifest them to him. It has been well said, "Man is on all sides limited by the incom- prehensible." "Man infinitely surpasses man," says Paschal. And how is it possi- ble to believe that God, the infinite, the omniscient, could not propose mysteries to our feeble reason ! By His title of Crea- tor, God preserves over the creature a su- preme authority; man is no more inde- pendent toward Him than the vessel of clay toward the potter, who can make of it what he pleases, a vessel of honor or of ignominy. Man, therefore, is not free to refuse the gifts of God. " He who be- lieves and will be baptized, will be saved," says the Sacred Book, "and he who will not believe shall be condemned." There- fore, we are not free to adhere or not to adhere to the truths of the Gospel, for the order is formal, the dominion is supreme, and the right imprescriptible.

    Moreover, man is endowed with a reason apt to receive the object of these truths ; he has what we call potentia obe- dientialis, that is, he may receive the intel- lectual concourse of God, and as God is

    Revelation, Primitive

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    Revelation, Primitive

    pure essence, fotentta elevans, when He raises man to a superior order of truths, He ennobles thereby the human intelli- gence ; hence man does not renounce, as the Rationalists pretend, his title as man when he admits and believes in supernat- ural truths. To reject a priori the truths, in saying for instance : I do not admit them, because I do not understand them, is acting like a blind man who would not believe in tlie beauties of nature because he does not see them.

    It is easy to reject a priori the possi- bility of the divine revelation of super- natural truths; it is easy to proclaim the absolute autonomy of reason in their re- gard; but to justify one's assertion, be- hold the difficulty. Rationalism makes tabula rasa with all that has preceded ; with the glorious prescription of a Chris- tianity of eighteen centuries during which has been proclaimed the union of faith and reason ; it is not an isolated thinker who has said that we must believe all the truths revealed by God. The successive generations tell us this ; all the greatest minds of which mankind boasts, proclaim this. Moreover, Christianity bears such manifest characters of divine intervention in both its diffusion and preservation, that we must say with right that it is a divine revelation in its origin, as it is a work of God in its immortal duration.

    Since, even for the truths of the natural order it is necessary for God to intervene, — there is question here of a moral neces- sity, — with much more reason is his inter- vention necessary for the truths of the supernatural order. Undoubtedly, reason may establish with certainty the truths of the natural order as, for instance, the ex- istence of God, the spirituality of the soul, the liberty of man ; but we say that it is impossible, for various causes, for the great mass of mankind, to arrive individu- ally and practically at the knowledge of these truths. History of philosophy comes to our support to corroborate this proposi- tion. History' of the human reason, before Christianity enlightened it is, in fact, only a long and deplorable account of monstrous errors and of incredible absurdities. Did Cicero not say, " that one could not quote a single absurd opinion which has not some philosopher for author or patron "? Now, when these great minds, assisted by primi- tive revelation and even by the Mosaic revelation, of which they certainly must have had some knowledge, could neverthe-

    less fall into the most shameful aberrations, what might not take place with ordinary minds? Therefore, it is a truth which re- mains attested by theology, philosophy, experience, and history, " that human rea- son is not so independent that God cannot impose His truths upon it " ; we see thereby how tlie anathema of the Vatican Council, against any one daring to maintain the contrary, is justified.

    Revelation, Primitive. — Primitive reve- lation is that which was made to the first Patriarchs from Adam until the written law. It is found related in the first chap- ters of Genesis, where we can see the his- tory of the fall of man, his condemnation, and the promise of a Redeemer. By way of induction we draw the consequence that God, in the conversation He had with Adam, must have revealed to him : i. The existence of one, personal, almighty, just, and merciful God; 2. The unity of the world as the creation of the Most High; 3. The substantial difference of the crea- tures. Holy Scripture seems to indicate that there have been several successive revelations in the race of Seth, later on in that of Noe, and in Abraham and his pos- terity.

    All the sciences, to which they appealed in the eighteenth century, in order to undermine Christianity, concur to-day to prpve the primitive revelation. Geology finds everywhere numerous traces of a deluge and of a creation, relatively recent, of the living beings upon the globe, and by facts it proves that the earth must have been really, in the beginning, such as it is described in Genesis ; physiology and philology have come to establish in a peremptory manner the unity of the human race, and history, according to the measure it makes new discoveries, confirms more and more all the accounts of the Bible.

    It is an unquestionable fact that we find traces of revelation in all the ancient religions : the pagans refer to the Deity, not only their religious science, but also their political constitutions, their laws and institutions. How could they have imagined a similar origin, if they had not, really and primitively, received from God the principles of this science and these institutions.? Do we not perceive in the different theogonies, and, in particular, in the incarnations of Wishnu, a shadow of the Incarnation of the Son of God?

    Revolution

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    RiCCI '

    Revolution {The French'). — The great French Revolution was brought on : By the mania for freedom that followed the American war for independence ; by the moral corruption of the higher classes ; by royal absolutism, financial embarrassment, and oppressive taxation ; by the irreligion and skepticism which, disseminated by the philosophers, had permeated all classes and destroyed the influence of the Church. That France which inaugurated the revo- lution was not Catholic but infidel ; Catho- lic France became a victim of the Revolution. The irreligious press exer- cised an enormous influence; more than 2,500 pamphlets attacking despotism, the nobles, and the clergy, were printed ; 30,- 000 copies of Abb^ Siey^s's What is the Third Estate f were cast abroad. After the first scenes of violence had been in- augurated, all Catholic Church property was placed at the disposal of the nation ; that of Protestants was unmolested. All the religious orders were suppressed and the so-called "Civil Constitution of the Clergy " was adopted in 1790. The latter completely subverted the constitution of the Church; it vested the people, includ- ing the Jews, with the right to appoint the priests. Protestants were unmolested in the administration of ecclesiastical af- fairs. In 1791 a demand was made that the clergy should take the oath of the civil constitution. Four bishops and many of the clergy complied ; 127 bishops and 50,000 priests refused to comply with this demand. These were banished and ill- treated ; many were put to death ; sacris- tans, mechanics, etc., were installed as state priests. The Catholics oflFered re- sistance. Supplied with papal faculties, the faithful priests performed their func- tions in private, holding divine service in caves, forests, etc. The revolution of 1792 brought death. Among the victims in Paris were 400 priests and several bish- ops ; inhuman atrocities were perpetrated ; faithful priests, who did not take to flight, died as martyrs. After the execution of the king, the Reign of Terror was in- augurated, which crushed Christianity and established the worship of reason. Forty-four thousand Revolutionary com- mittees were appointed, and as many guillotines were set up to clear France of every trace of Christianity and royalty. Under the sentence of these committees were guillotined 1,135 priests, 350 nuns, 2,000 of the nobility, besides thousands of

    the lower classes. To these must be added 32,000 killed at Nantes, and 31,000 at Lyons. In the Vendee alone, where so gallant a stand was made in behalf of religion and order, 900,000 were killed, among them 15,000 women and 22,000 children. More than two millions are said to have perished by the wars and massa- cres of the Revolution.

    With resistless fury the Revolution poured like a torrent beyond the limits of France. General Napoleon made the French masters of Northern Italy; ere long the Pope was threatened in his do- minions. It was in vain that Pius VI. pleaded his neutrality. He was forced to purchase peace by cessions of territory and exorbitant contributions in money and works of art. Nor was this all; when the Pope refused the recognition of the "Civil Constitution," Rome was taken and pro- claimed a Republic in 1798. The Pope himself was taken prisoner and carried to France, where he died at Valence in 1799. Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul, finding it impossible to govern a people destitute of religion, resolved, with the sentiments of the great majority of the nation, to restore the Catholic worship in France. Accordingly, on July 15th, 1801, he concluded a Concordat, whereby the Catholic religion, the practice of which had been proscribed since 1790, was re- established in France and recognized again as the Religion of the State.

    Rhodes. — A noted island in the .^gean sea, 13 miles from the coast of Asia Minor, which St. Paul visited (Acts xxi. i) on re- turning from his third missionary tour. It was then flourishing; was held in the Mid- dle Ages by the Knights of St. John, but captured by the Turks, who still hold it.

    Rhodon. — Ecclesiastical writer of the second century. Disciple and successor of Tatian in the Roman Catechetical School under Pope Soter. Wrote several works against heretics, particularly against the Marcionites.

    Ricci (Lawrence) (1703-1775). — Gen- eral of the Jesuits, born at Florence, died in Rome. He made, it is said, the firm answer to those that invited him to moder- ate the statutes of St. Ignatius : " Sint ut sunt, aut non sint." At the suppression of the Society of Jesus, in 1773, he was im- prisoned in the Castle Sant Angelo. In a Memoire he victoriously refuted the ene- mies of his order.

    RiCCI

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    Rogation Days

    Ricci (Matthew) (1552-1610). — Jesuit missionary, born at Macerata, died at Pekin, He published, in Chinese, several religious and moral works.

    Ricci (SciPio) (1741-1810). — Bishop of Pistoja. Arose in 1781 against the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. In 1786, he adopted the four famous articl,es of the As- sembly of the French Clergy of 1682. He was compelled to renounce the episcopate in 1790; despised by his clergy, he was im- prisoned, in 1799, in a Dominican convent.

    Richard of St. Victor. — Theologian and excellent ascetic author, born in Scot- land, died at St. Victor de Paris, in 1173. Works, published at Rouen (1650), 2 vols, in folio.

    Richelieu (Armaxd du Plessis de) ( 1585-1642). — Born at the Castle of Richelieu, died at Paris. Cardinal and celebrated French statesman. He was educated for the Church ; became bishop of Lucon in 1607, and secretary of State in 1616; cardinal in 1622, and was the principal minister of Louis XHI. (1624-1642). The chief events in his ad- ministration were the destruction of the political power of the Huguenots by the siege and capture of La Rochelle (1627- 1628) ; the war in Italy against Spain (1629-1630) ; the defeat of the partisans of Maria de Medici in 1630; the defeat of the conspiracy of Montmorency and Gaston of Orleans in 1632; the co-operation of France with Sweden in the Thirty Years' War; the founding of the French Acad- emy in 1635 ; and the suppression of the Cinq-Mars insurrection in 1642. His literary remains include religious works, dramas, memoirs, correspondence, and State papers.

    Rimini {Council of). — Held in 395. With the view of uniting the conflicting parties among the Arians and forcing their creed upon the Catholic Church, Canstan- tius caused the convocation of the two separate synods : one at Rimini for the Western, and the other at Seleucia for the Eastern, bishops. In both councils the Arians triumphed by means of violence. Pope Liberius had no part in these synods and promptly annulled their acts.

    Ring {Episcopal). — The episcopal ring is the sign of the spiritual alliance that ex- ists between the bishop and his Church. It is like the seal of their contract. Among

    the ancients, as well as among moderns, a seal was put to contracts, so as to confirm and authenticate them. Hence the custom that still exists of giving a ring in the celebration of marriage. The episcopal ring is not only a sign of the alliance of the bishop with his Church, but also a mark of the authority of the Holy Ghost, in virtue of which the bishop has the right to distribute employments. He wears it on the forefinger of the right hand, accord- ing to the custom of the Hebrews, because this is the finger that indicates silence. The bishop is thus reminded of the invio- lable secrecy of mysteries, and the perfect discretion with which he should announce them, lest he should throw pearls to swine.

    Ring^ ( Fisherman' s,annulus piscator is ). — A signet ring worn by the Pope bear- ing the design of St. Peter, fishing, and is used for stamping the papal briefs.

    Ritual. See Liturgy.

    Robert of Abrissel. See Fontevr ai lt.

    Robert of Molesme. See Cistercians.

    Roboam. — King of Juda (962-946 b. c). Son and successor of Solomon; hardly proclaimed king, he rendered himself odi- ous by his hard-heartedness and injustices. Ten tribes revolted against him, chose for king, Jeroboam, and formed the kingdom of Israel, of which Sichem, then Samaria) became the capital. Two tribes, that of Juda, the most peopled of all, and that of Benjamin, remained faithful to Roboam, and formed the kingdom of Juda, whose center was always Jerusalem. Roboam tolerated idolatry, and God punished him on account of his prevarications. He had for successor Abia, his son.

    Rochet. See Surplice.

    Rogation Days. — The observance of •' Rogation Days," — Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. — owes its origin to a variety of calamities that befell the city oi Vienne in Dauphine. For more than half a century, not a year, not even a season, passed without Dauphine and Savoy being afflicted with some new evils. So many misfortunes had reduced these provinces to a state of extreme desolation. Mamer- tus. Bishop of Vienne (and who is hon- ored as a saint), in the liveliness of his faith and charity, offered up praj'ers and tears to appease the wrath of God. He

    Romans

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    Rosary

    was heard; stopping a conflagration which devoured his cathedral, on Easter night (469), he made a vow to institute the ** Ro- gations." The Rogations are litanies, or supplications, which consist in solemn procession, accompanied with public fast and prayer. With the general consent of the clergy and people, the three days pre- ceding Ascension Day (Thursday) were chosen for the fulfillment of this vow. This example was soon followed every- where. A decree of the First Council of Orleans, in 544, established the Rogations in Gaul, and from there the practice was introduced into Spain and other countries.

    Romans {Epistle to the). — The Epistle or Letter of St. Paul to the Romans, was written from Corinth, where this Apostle stopped, in the year 58, the twenty-fourth year of his apostolate. The principal end of this Epistle is to prove that the faith in Jesus Christ was not granted to the con- verted Jews on account of their fidelity to the Mosaic law, nor to the Gentiles for having become Christians in considera- tion of their obedience to the natural law, but to both through a purely gratuitous grace.

    Romanus (St. ) . — Pope ; brother of Pope Martin II. Successor of St. Stephen in the month of August 897. Died the same year.

    Romuald (St.). See Camaldolitks.

    Ronge (John) (1813-1889). — An apos- tate priest, who became the founder of a sect in Germany, which, notwithstanding the thorough Protestant and radical prin- ciples it professed, called itself " German Catholic," also the "Christian Catholic Apostolic Church." Rorige, who was hailed by the Liberal and Protestant fac- tions of Germany as another Luther, re- jected all but two sacraments. The remnant of this sect, which was largely composed of Protestants, snbsequently joined the na- tional Protestant Church of Prussia, and has since ceased to exist as a distinct de- nomination. Ronge died impenitent.

    Rosary. — The method by which Cath- olics most generally manifest a particular devotion toward the Blessed Virgin, is the holy Rosary; a religious exercise consist- ing chiefly of the prayer most acceptable to the Mother of God. It is related that the Blessed Virgin herself made known the Rosary to St. Dominic in the thirteenth

    century, since which time it has been gen- erally accepted and honored by the Church, The Rosary was also in prominence in the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to Berna- dette at Lourdes, in the year 1858. Many indulgences have been attached to the reciting of it, provided that the Rosary used is blessed for the person who possesses it, and has the indulgences attached to it by a Dominican, or other priest, who has the authority to communicate them.

    The Rosary is composed of fifteen mys- teries ; all, with the exception of the last two, expressly spoken of in Scripture, and referring to the fundamental truths and principal mysteries of our religion. It is divided into fifteen decades ; the mysteries being arranged in three sets of five each, corresponding to the three great divisions of our Lord's life : His infancy and youth; His Passion and death; and His Resurrec- tion and glory. The words of the Rosary are nearly all inspired, being made up of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the Doxology : Glory be to the Father, etc.

    To say the Rosary, we make the sign of the Cross in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Many- then recite the Creed, and three Hail Marys in honor of the Most Holy Trinity; afterwards, the Lord's Prayer is said at the beginning of each mystery, followed by ten Hail Marys recited during or after medita- tion upon them. At the end of every decade we repeat : * ' Glory be to the Father, etc."

    In the joyful mysteries, the Annuncia- tion teaches us humility and abnegation of self; the Visitation, charity toward our neighbor; the Nativity, detachment from the luxuries and vanity of this world ; the Presentation, purity and the spirit of obe- dience ; the Finding in the Temple, a desire to know God and serve Him. In the sor- rowful mysteries, the Agony and Prayer in the garden of olives, teach us prayer and resignation to the will of God ; the Scourging, practice of physical mortifica- tion, and patience in bodily sufferings; the Crowning with Thorns, humbling of our pride, and indifference for worldly praise; the Carrying of the Cross, cour- age, fortitude, and endurance in bearing all the trials of life; the Crucifixion, self- sacrifice, prayer for the conversion of sin- ners, the perseverance of the just, and help and consolation to souls in purgatory. In the glorious mysteries, the Resurrection

    ROSATI

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    Rubrics

    teaches us to have faith and hope and love, and to arise from sin with a firm purpose of leading a better life; the Ascension, hope and desire of Heaven, and love for heavenly things ; the descent of the Holy Ghost, the love of God above all things, and advance in grace by the practice of Christian virtues; the Assumption, devo- tion to the Blessed Virgin, and to live in readiness for death ; the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, perseverance in good, and the hope of eternal happiness, where the Mother of God reigns. Queen of Heaven. See Confraternity of the Rosary.

    Rosati (Joseph) (1789-1843). — Ameri- can prelate ; was born at Sora, Italy, died at Rome. After his studies he entered the novitiate of the Priests of the Mission at Rome, and made his theological course at Monte Citorio. Came to America in 1816, began his labors by a mission at Vincennes, and then proceeded to St. Louis. First bishop of St. Louis in 1827. Having gone to Rome to make his report to Pope Gregory XVI., he died in the -eternal city. Dr. Rosati did much to give Catholicity order and life in Mis- souri.

    Roscelin (John). — Scholastic philoso- pher, born at Compiegne, France, died after 1121. He was the first who taught Nominalism, was condemned, in 1092, by the Council of Soissons and obliged to take refuge in England. St. Anselm ■combated him. At his return into France, he taught at the Collegial of St. Mary's de Loches ; became the accuser of Ab^lard, ibefore William, Bishop of Paris, and died canon of St. Martin of Tours.

    Rose (St.) of Lima (1586-1617). — Vir- gin, religious of the Third Order of St. Dominic, born and died at Lima, Peru, South America. Patron saint of her na- tive city, and the first saint of South America. She was canonized in the year 1671. F. Aug. 30th.

    Rosicrucians. — So called from the name of a German Rosenkreuz, born in 1388, and who had joined this society. Rosi- crucians was the name applied to a certain society or cabal which took rise in Ger- many. Although it had its origin in 1422, it was little known until 1537. Those who were admitted to it, and who were called " Brothers of the Rosenkreuz," swore fidelity, promised the secret, wrote bj enigmas, and obliged themselves to

    keep the laws of the society the object of which was to restore all the sciences, and, especially medicine which, according to them, was ignored and poorly practiced. They boasted to be in possession of won- derful secrets, of which the least was the philosopher's stone, and pretended that the ancient philosophers of Egypt, the Chaldeans, the wise men of Persia, and the Gymnosophists of India, had only taught what they themselves were teach- ing.

    Rosmini-Serbati (T/ie 'AbbS Gregoire) (1797-1855). — Philosopher, born at Ro- veredo, Tyrol, died at Milan. Parish priest and dean of the Church of Mount Calvary, at Domo d' Ossola (province of Novara) , where he founded, in 1828, the Institute of Charity and the Order of the Sisters of Providence. Minister of public instruction at Rome, in 1848, he followed Pope Pius IX. to Gaeta. Two of his works having been condemned by the Con- gregation of the Index, the author hastened to submit himself. Forty propositions extracted from his works (mostly post- humous works) have been condemned by the Holy See, March 7th, 1888.

    Rota. — Jurisdiction of Rome, composed of twelve ecclesiastical doctors called "Au- ditors of the Rota." The tribunal of the Rota is so called, because the prelates when holding a session form a circle, or because all the most important affairs revolve around it. It was instituted by Pope John XXII. Of the twelve prelates that com- pose it, one must be a German, another a Frenchman, and two others Spaniards; the remaining eight are Italians, of whom three must be Romans, one of the province of Bologna, one of Ferrara, one of Milan, one of Venice, and one of Tuscany. They take knowledge by appeal of all the pro- cesses of the ecclesiastical state, such as beneficial and patrimonial matters. They do notcloseasuitby one and the same judg- ment ; they give so many sentences, ap- pealed decisions, as the suit contains points contested ; and when these sen- tences are rendered the cause can yet be revised by the Pope.

    Rubrics. — In the law books of the an- cient Romans, the titles and inscriptions were marked in red with a kind of mineral called rubrica, and hence the word rubrics applied at first to the titles or inscriptions, and in the end to signify the laws thero-

    RUFINUS

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    Ryan

    selves. The liturgical books, which regu- lated the solemn offices of the Church, were marked in the same way, and as in the course of time they came to be almost the only books so marked, the word rubrics came to signify almost exclusively the laws contained in these books. See Liturgy.

    Rufinus (Tyrannius or Toranus) (345- 410). — Latin ecclesiastical writer, born at Concordia, Venetia, died in Sicily. Fel- low-disciple of St. Jerome at Aquileia, went to the East in 372, founded a monas- tery upon the Mount of Olives (377). He had some theological dispute with St. Jerome, in regard to Origen, returned to Italy in 407, and then retired into Sicily. Has left Historia eretnitica, seu Vita Patrum; Historia eccl. libri duo; Apologia ad Anastasium; etc.

    Rule of Faith. See Faith.

    Rupertus (St.). See Bavaria.

    Russian Church. — The Russian Church agrees with the orthodox Greek Church, both in doctrine and liturgy; in adminis- tration, however, she is distinct, being governed, not by a patriarch, but by the "Holy Synod" of St. Petersburg. The custom of receiving the metropolitans from Constantinople, on which she had been made dependent, could not but result in drawing also the Church of Russia into the schism of the Greeks, although the separation from Rome did not take place till half a century later. Thus, in the be- ginning of the twelfth century, Niceph- orus, sent from Constantinople as patriarch of Kiev, then the principal see of the Russian Church, avowed himself a schis- matic. Prince Alexander of Moscow, in- deed, returned to the communion and died in the faith of the Catholic Church, in 1262 ; but under his successors the separa- tion from Rome was rendered complete. Repeated attempts at reunion were made by the Roman Pontiflfs, chiefly by Alexan- der HI., Innocent III., and lastly by the Council of Florence. The bishops of Northern Russia, and the dukes of Moscow steadily opposed the union, while the met- ropolitan of Kiev and his eight suffragans accepted it, and remained in communion with Rome till 1520, when they also fell

    into the schism. All subsequent attempts of the Popes to unite the Russian Church with the Latin Church proved fruitless. After the conquest of the Greek Empire by the Turks in 1453, the Czars of Moscow took occasion to free the Russian Church from all foreign dependence, and subject the ecclesiastical power to their own. This was accomplished, in 1589, by the erection of the patriarchate of Moscow. Under Peter the Great, the entire subjection of the ecclesiastical to the imperial power was completed. After suppressing the patriarchate, it was replaced by the " Holy Synod," which is dependent entirely upon the Czar.

    Ruth. — A Moabite woman who mar- ried one of the sons of Noemi. Having become a widow, she followed her mother- in-law to Bethlehem and married Booz, a wealthy husbandman of that city and kinsman of her first husband, and by whom she became the mother of Obed, one of the ancestors of David.

    Ruthenian Catholics. Rites.

    See {Oriental)

    Ryan (Patrick John). — An American prelate; born in Cloneyharp, Ireland, Feb. 2oth, 183 1 ; educated at Thurles and Dublin ; prepared for the American mis- sion at Carlow College ; was ordained deacon in 1B53, and the same year re- moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he completed his ecclesiastical studies in Carondelet Seminary ; was ordained priest in 1854; vicar-general and coadjutor to Archbishop Kenrick, of St. Louis, with the title of Bishop of Tricomia. In the latter position almost the entire govern- ment of the diocese rested upon him, ow- ing to the great age of Archbishop Kenrick. His administration was marked by energy and success, and in 1884 he was nominated and received the pallium as archbishop of Philadelphia. Bishop Ryan was elected in 1883, to represent the interests of the Roman Catholics of the United States, and in 1884 made the open- ing address at the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore. He went to Rome in 1887 in the interest of a Catholic university at Washington. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,