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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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By NewtonStein;

Cambridge Theological Seminary™

(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)


Saba. (Sheba)
    — Represented as a descendant of Jectan (Gen. x. 28), and of Abraham and Cetura (xxv. 2). The Sabeans were, according to Biblical and classical notices, the most important people of South Arabia.

    They settled in southwestern Arabia (Islamic Yemen, currently in civil unrest AD-2011) with the capital Mariba. The numerous inscriptions bear evidence of their culture. From this country there came a queen to test Solomon's wisdom (III. Ki. X. i).

    Arabic legends give her the name of Balkis, and assert that she bore a son to Solomon. It is from this son that the Ethiopians claim descent.

Sabaoth, Sabbaoth (Host of Armies)
    is one of those Hebrew words which were left untranslated in the earliest Latin version of the Holy Scriptures, called the Vetits Itala, and has been preserved in three places in the translation by St. Jerome.

    Sabbaoth is plural and signifies armies, used of Jehovah GOd as "LORD of Armies!"

    As the Roman Missal has always followed the ancient Italic version, it has consequently preserved the word Sabaoth, instead of adopting the Vulgate translation of it, 'exercitium', that is of armies.

Sabas (St.) (439-531).
    — Born near Caesarea, disciple of St. Enthimus ; attracted by his virtues a great number of brethren and founded seven monasteries in Palestine. Superior general of all the anchorites and of all the solitaries which were under the authority of the Patriarch of Jerusalem.

    He went to Constantinople and appeased the wrath of Justinian against the Christians of Palestine. F. Dec. 5th.

Sabatine Bull.
    — Papal Bull which contains the privileges of the scapular granted to Simon Stock, and which promises the release of a soul from purgatory on each Saturday. See Scapular.

    See Sunday.

    — Members of a sect founded in the fourth century, by Sabbathius, who taught that Easter should be celebrated on the fourteenth day of the moon of March.

Sabeans or Mandaeans (from manda, hnowledge gnosis).
    — A very ancient religious body, still found, though its members are few, in the southern part of Babylonia. The religion of the Sabeans is a kind of Gnosticism, retaining many Jewish and Parsee elements.

    They worship, as divine beings, a number of personifications, especially the attributes or names of God. They also adore the sun and stars, observe the law of Moses, particularly in regard to certain flesh meats, and regard baptism, the Eucharist, holy orders, and matrimony as sacraments.

    The dignity of bishop consists only in the superiority of command which such an ecclesiastic has over the priests ; both perpetuate the priesthood in their children, in their family, or in their nearest kindred.

    As to marriage, the priests, like the laymen, are permitted to have two wives. They honor, among the saints, only St. John the Baptist, and for this reason they are called Christians of St. John.

    Their doctrine on hell is about similar to that of the pagans, and like the Moslems, they acknowledge no other beatitude in heaven, but the enjoyment of carnal pleasures.

Sabellius and Sabellianism.

    — Sabellius,. a priest of Lybia, in the third century, who extending the Noetian doctrine (see Noetians) to the Holy Ghost, taught a Trinity, not of persons, but of manifestations or offices.

    He asserted the identity of the Father with the Son and the Holy Ghost, who were but three different operations or modes of manifestation of the one personal God.

    Sabellius taught chiefly at Rome where both he and his opponent, the presbyter Hippolytus, who, indeed, asserted the divinity and personality of the Son, but made Him subordinate to the Father {Ditheism), were excommunicated by Pope Calixtus I.

    Sabina (St.). — Widow of Umbria; of a noble family, martyr at Rome under Had- rian (119). A church built on the site of her execution, on mount Aventin, in 425, belongs to the Dominicans, and they ven- erate there the remains of St. Sabina and those of the virgin Serapia, who had con- verted her to the faith, and suffered martyr- dom like her. F. Aug. 29th.

    Sabinianus (St.). — Pope, born in Tus- cany. Successor of St. Gregory the Great, in 604, died in 606. Had for successor Boniface HI. It is claimed that he in- troduced the use of bells.

    — A coarsely woven hempen manufacture, formerly worn as an em- blem of grief or of penitential sorrow.

    (a sacrament is a visible sign of an invisible thing, instituted by God for the sanctification of souls).

    The sacraments signify something hidden, the invisible grace which they contain under the envelope of material and sensible things.

    The matter and form of a sacrament are the two parts which necessarily enter its composition, and form its substance. We give the name of matter to the things or exterior and sensible actions we make use of to confer a sacrament; and the name form is given to the words which the minister pronounces in applying the matter.

    Each sacrament has a matter and a form that are peculiar to it. All the sacraments being of divine institution, it is certain that the matter and form which compose the substance thereof have been determined by Jesus Christ.

    The sacrament being a whole, it is necessary that the parts which constitute it should be united. Contrary to the sacraments of the Old Law, which did not produce grace, and which only signified that it should be given to us in view of the merits of the Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, the sacraments of the New Law contain in themselves grace, and confer it upon those who receive them worthily.

    There are two sacraments which are instituted to confer the first sanctifying grace: these are baptism and penance. The other sacraments, five in number, namely, confirmation, the Eucharist, extreme unction, holy order, and matrimony, are established to confer the second sanctifying grace, that is, to increase in us the grace received in the sacraments of baptism or penance; they are necessary not only for rendering man just, but to render him more just.

    They are called sacraments of the living, because we can receive them with profit only in so far as we have already the life of grace. Besides sanctifying grace, each sacrament confers a grace that is peculiar to itself. Baptism, in giving us a new birth, a new life, gives us at the same time a particular grace to live conformably to the spirit of the Gospel. Confirmation develops in us spiritual life, and communicates to us the strength to combat the enemies of our salvation. It is the same with the other sacraments ; they all have a virtue that corresponds to the end for which they have been instituted.

    There are sacraments which the bishop alone can administer, either exclusively, like that of holy order, or ordinarily, like that of confirmation.

    The others can be conferred by simple priests, after having obtained the jurisdiction of the bishop. According to the more general opinion of theologians, the contracting parties them- selves are the ministers of the sacrament of marriage,

    and it is accepted in the Church that all men and women can ad- minister baptism, validly in every case, and licitly in case of necessity.

    Although faith and holiness, that is, the exemption from all mortal sin is greatly to be desired in the ministers of religion, howver a sacrament conferred by a sinner, a heretic, or even one of notorious impiety, is valid, if otherwise it is administered according to the rite of the Church, with the intention at least to do what the Church does.

    It depends neither on the faith nor on the piety of the minister, but on the merits of Jesus Christ, that the sacraments draw their power and efficaciousness.

    The sacraments are for men; but not all men are capable of partaking in all the sacraments.

    A woman is incapable of receiving the sacrament of holy orders; a child, before the use of reason, is incapable of the sacrament of penance ; a person in good health of extreme unction.

    Moreover, in regard to the Eucharist, though an infidel may receive it materially, he must have received baptism in order to be capable of receiving the other sacraments. But children can receive baptism, and, after baptism, confirmation and the Eucharist. It is of faith that the sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ are necessary for salvation, although they are not all necessary for each individual.

    There are two sacraments, baptism and penance, which are necessary as the means of salvation: baptism for all men, and penance for all those who, after baptism, have fallen into mortal sin.

    The five other sacraments are also necessary for salvation, but only of a necessity of precept, for they are not established to confer the first sanctifying grace. To receive validly a sacrament, it is necessary for adults to have the intention or the will to receive it.

    For children, we can baptize them and we need not wait for their consent ; the Church supplies this, according to the order established by Jesus Christ. An adult can receive a sacrament worthily and with fruit, only in so far as he receives it with the necessary dispositions. These dispositions vary according to the nature of the sacrament. For the sacraments of the dead, they consist in faith, hope, and sorrow of our sins, with a beginning of the love of God.

    If these sentiments are wanting, the baptism of an adult does not produce the grace, and the sacrament of penance is null and void, because it cannot subsist without attrition, which forms a part of sacramental matter.

    As to the sacraments of the living, we can generally receive them with fruit only if we are in the state of grace; they are instituted not to confer, but to increase sanctifying grace.

Sacrament ( Congregations of the Blessed).
    — There are several religious societies organized in honor of the blessed sacrament:

    1. A Reform of the Order of St. Dominic, established in 1636 by Father Antoine Lequien. The religious of this Reform practiced extraordinary austeri- ties ; they observed perpetual silence, slept on straw mattresses, often on a naked plank or on the ground, and generally subsisted on poorly seasoned herbs and roots. These religious devoted them- selves to preaching.

    2. Missionary Priests of the Blessed Sacrament. — A congrega- tion instituted in 1632 by the Abbe Chris- tophe d' Arthur de Sisgau, who became bishop of Bethleh,em. This institute had for its object the preaching and propaga- tion of the Gospel, and was approved, in 1647, by Pope Innocent X.

    3. Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament. — A religious con- gregation founded at Paris by Rev. R. P, Eymard, about the year i860.

    4. Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. — A religious congregation founded at Autun, France, in 1748 by the Abbe Agut with the object of caring for the infirm and sick and for the instruction of children.

    5. Religious Teachers and Hospitalers of the Blessed Sacrament. — A religious congregation founded at Romans (Drome), France, in 17 15 by the Abbe Vigne, with the object of instructing young girls. Later on the religious of this congregration, joined to their first vow the care of the sick in hos- pitals.

    6. Daughters of the Blessed Sacrament. — A religious congregation of women, whose principal object is the adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, day and night.

    Sacramentals. — Rites possessing some outward resemblance to the sacraments,

    and which, though not of divine institu- tion, are initiated or approved by the Church. The sacraments were instituted by our Lord, and communicate infallibly the supernatural gift of divine grace, if their efficacy be not hindered by any evil disposition in the soul ; whereas the sacra- mentals were instituted by the Church, and remit venial sins, not in themselves, but by reason of the pious dispositions they excite, namel}- : increased movements of fear and love of God, of detestation of sin, and other elevations of the heart to God. The principal sacramentals, enumer- ated by devout writers, are : The repeat- ing of the Lord's Prayer, or of the Confiteor, especially in conjunction with the priest at holy Mass ; the blessing given by the bishop or priest, more particularly at the altar; the Benediction given with the holy sacrament ; blessed bread ; the kiss of peace ; the pious use of various ob- jects blessed by the Church, such as holy water, the crucifix, etc. ; or good works ex- ecuted in the name of the Church, such as teaching the Catechism to the ignorant, contributing toward the propagation of the Gospel, etc. It should be fully under- stood that sacramentals do not remit venial sins by any power given them by God, over and above the good dispositions with which they are used ; but either by the suffrifges of the Church, or by the. effect of the devout prayers of those who use them, they draw down upon the soul the remis- sion of venial sin and of temporal punish- ment due for such sin. The sacramentals have a special efficacy from the blessing of prayer, through which, for example, when a person takes holy water, accompanying the outward act with the desire that God may cleanse the heart, the prayer of the Church becomes joined to his own.

    Sacramentarians ( name of a Protestant sect). — The name Sacramentarians was at first given only to such heretics as the Calvinists and Zwinglians, who denied the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the holy Eucharist, and who considered it merely as a sacred sign or sacrament which signified grace, but which did not give grace. Later on the term Sacramenta- rians was applied to all the heretics who combated the doctrine of the Church in regard to the sacraments.

    Sacramentary. — Name which was for- merly given to an ecclesiastical book which contained the prayers and the ceremonies

    practiced in the celebration of the Mass and the administration of the sacraments. It was at once a pontifical, a ritual, and a missal, in which, however, was not found «ither Introits, Graduals, Epistles, Gos- pels, Oflfertories, or Communions, contain- ing only the Collects or Orations, the Prefaces, the Canon, the Post-Commun- ions, the prayers and ceremonies of ordi- nation, and a number of blessings. It was what is called " Eucologium " in the Greek Church. Pope Gelasius I., who mounted the papal Chair in 492, was the first author of the Sacramentary ; St. Gregory the Great revised, corrected, and abridged it.

    Sacred Heart. See Heart.

    Sacrifice (action by which we oflfer cer- tain things to God with certain ceremonies, to render homage to His sovereign power). — In Genesis, the offering of sacrifice com- mences with the beginning of the world. Abel offers to God a sacrifice that is agree- ,^ble to Him.

    This sacrifice of Abel ap- pears to have been rather an offering than an expiation, and it is not impetratory, just as it is neither liturgical, nor the ful- filment of a precept. We do not remark any rite, and the oblation is spontaneous.

    It prevails over the sacrifice of Cain, not on account of its bloody form, but on ac- count of the purity of the heart of Abel. The Patriarchs offered bloody sacrifices of animals, but Abraham, whose faith should be tried, received the order to immolate his son Isaac. All the peoples of antiquity offered to the deity victims whose blood flowed in front of the altar. Several na- tions have immolated human victims; of this number were the ancient Gauls and Alemanni.

    The deities reputed to be most "fierce required the immolation of children. Moses carefully regulated all that con- cerned the sacrifices, the choice of the victims, the rites of immolation, the causes which obliged the Hebrews to have re- course to them either in the interest of the people or of individuals.

    The sacrifice for sin, the holocaust, the sacrifice of thanks- giving, or the peaceful offering, differed irom one another. The fundamental and dominant idea went beyond a symbolism attesting the dependence of man upon God ; the sacrifice is presented as a rite which contained a real efficaciousness, and the theologians make this efficaciousness of the ancient sacrifice proceed from a divine concession and from the connection

    with the sacrifice which, having wrought our redemption, continues to be offered for the salvation of souls. Before and after Jesus Christ, He alone remains the source of all justification, but since His coming into this world, the blood of vic- tims has ceased to water the earth, even among the nations not subject to the Gos- pel. We distinguish two kinds of sacri- fices : the inner and the outward sacrifice.

    The first is that by which our soul offers itself to God ; it takes place through faith, charity, prayer, and other acts of religion. The outward sacrifice consists in the offer- ing which we make to God of something sensible, of something that belongs to us; such as, for instance, the sacrifice of our body, which we offer to God in some man- ner by martyrdom, abstinence, and conti- nence.

    The word sacrifice is taken either in an extensive sense, for all kinds of good works which we perform to honor God, or in a more restrained sense, for the offering made to God of an outward or sensible thing immolated to His honor, f Therefore, we define sacrifice, properly speaking, as the oblation of a sensible thing which we immolate to God, to ac- knowledge His sovereign dominion over all things.

    Every sacrifice is an oblation, but not every oblation is a sacrifice, strictly speaking; for a true sacrifice, there must be an immolation, a destruction of the thing offered, or at least a consecration which changes its nature, state, or natural form. The Eucharistic sacrifice is desig- nated under different names by the ancient Doctors of the Church; but from very early times it has been universally called the sacrifice of the Mass.

    According to the belief of the Catholic Church, Mass is a sacrifice of the New Law by which the priest offers to God the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, under the form of bread and wine. Mass is a true sacrifice, instituted by Jesus Christ. About to consummate the bloody sacrifice upon the Cross, Christ commenced by offering His Body and His Blood, ordaining to His Apostles to renew it and to perpetuate it in commemoration of His death.

    It is a sacrifice which is of- fered to God. Sacrifice, by its nature, is an act of supreme worship, of latria wor- ship, which is due to God alone. Thus, when we say the Mass of a saint, we must not believe that we offer the sacrifice of the Mass to this saint, but we only make commemoration of the saint, whose pro- tection we implore, and to whom we pray

    to intercede for us. It is a sacrifice by which we offer the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ; it is Jesus Christ Himself, — whose Body is present under the symbol of bread and His Blood under the symbol of wine, — who is the victim in the host which we immolate in the sacrifice of the Mass.

    Finally, the Eucharistic sacrifice takes place through the hands of the priest ; but the principal minister of this sacrifice is Jesus Christ, who is at once the priest and the victim, offering Himself to God the Father through the ministry of His priests.

    Hence, it is in the name of Jesus Christ and with Him that the priest offers the sacrifice of the Mass; the same ministry which Jesus Christ visibly performed upon the Cross, He performs in an invisible manner upon the altar, and causes to be visibly performed by the priests, whom He has established in His Church.

    Sacrifices of the Old Law. — The sacri- fices in the Old Law were of many differ- ent kinds. There were the bloody and unbloody sacrifices, and the bloody sacri- fices were of three kinds: i. The Whole Burnt Offering or Holocaust. — In this sacrifice the whole of the victim was de- stroyed by fire in recognition of the sover- eign dominion of God over all His creatures, in acknowledgment of the guilt of the offerer, in gratitude for God's bless- ings, and as an expression of determination to spend his life to the honor of his Creator. This sacrifice was to be offered on the altar of holocausts. It was accompanied with an offering of flour, oil, and wine. The daily, national holocausts were two lambs : one offered about sunrise, the other at the decline of day, before the evening incense offering. A greater num- ber of holocausts for the nation were to be offered on the Sabbath and great festivals ; and private individuals might also, and sometimes were bound to offer whole burnt offerings to the Lord. 2. The Sin and Trespass Offerings. — These w'ere offered, as their names indicate, for great sins, sins of the whole nation, or for individual tres- passes. The victims offered and slain, and the ceremonials used in these sacrifices were in keeping with the nature of the sin which they were intended to expiate. 3. Peace Offerings. — This kind of sacrifice was prescribed for certain occasions. The peace offerings were offered by the whole nation, or by individuals in thanksgiving for blessings, or as a means to obtain grace.

    In the consecration of Aaron the high- priest, in the consecration of the altar of holocausts, and on other important occa- sions, we find that the three sacrifices were offered in succession : First, the sacrifice for sin to prepare access to God. Sec- ondly, the holocaust to acknowledge His sovereign dominion. Third, the peace of- fering to return thanks to God, to ask for continuous favor and to rejoice with Him.

    The unbloody sacrifices or offerings con- sisted of fine flour unbaked or made in cakes. This offering was salted and min- gled with oil, and frankincense was placed upon it. These offerings partook of the nature of other sacrifices, inasmuch as they were partially or wholly destroyed.

    The following remarks will enable the reader to understand more perfectly all this matter of sacrifices commanded by the Law of Moses: i. There were sacrifices of different kinds, and they were offered very frequently, both for the nation and for the individual, because they were im- perfect, insufficient in themselves to give due honor to God, but well apt to excite in the offerer sentiments of adoration, re- pentance, and thanksgiving. The fre- quency of those offerings seemed to suggest the idea, that men and God desired the blood of a victim of greater worth than the blood of goats and oxen. 2. When a sin offering was sacrificed for the people, the high-priest, or a private person, none of the offerers were permitted to eat of its flesh, for they might not rejoice at the banquet of God, who acknowledged them- selves guilty, by offering: to Him a sin of- fering. 3. It is acknowledged that private persons, when offering a victim for sin, confessed their transgression to the priest, and that he directed them to bring a vic- tim of greater or lesser value according to the nature of the transgression. For- mulas of general confessions were pre- scribed to be read by the high-priest in the case of sin offerings for the nation or for the priests. Confession of sin was fol- lowed by the imposition of the hands of the sinner on the head of the victim. The victim was next put to death, and its blood poured down around the altar of holocausts. It is natural to infer, that after participating in the sacrifice the de- vout Israelite must have returned home with a contrite heart, and a firm determi- nation to serve God. 4. Two ceremonies which were to be performed in the offer- ing of sacrifices were the touching of the




    horns of the altar with the blood of the victims, and the sprinkling of the same blood seven times toward the veils of the •' holy place " and of the " holy of holies." The children of Israel believed in, and sighed after a Redeemer. Theirs were the sentiments of Him who prayed, " Come to save us, Lord God of hosts." The sight of the altar stained with blood, and of the inner veil conceal- ing from view the holy of holies, the place of His glorious dwelling, were well calculated to remind them of the need they had of the Redeemer. And in truth, although reconciliation with God was obtainable by a proper offering of victims, this reconciliation was due to the disposi- tion of the offerer, and the future merits of Jesus Christ, and not to any intrinsic value of the victims. Hence, although many souls went before God after death in a state of justice, none of them were permitted to enter heaven, but they were detained in limbo until He came, one drop of whose blood could purge the world from all its sins. 5. The victim set apart for sacrifice was to be a male with- out blemish. If lame, blind, or in any manner disfigured or feeble, it should not be sacrificed to the Lord. The perfection of the victim was a warning to the oflferer, that his heart must be pure before his God. The victim once selected was con- sidered as a thing sacred, and might not be used for another purpose. It became, as it were, the property of God. 6. In the peaceful sacrifices, there was, we might say, a threefold communion or participa- tion with the victim. The part consumed on the altar by fire was the share of God who has no need of food offerings. The second part was that of the priest who was entitled to it, and the third was the part of the offerer. We readily imagine that great must have been the joy of the pious Israelite, who, after offering a holocaust to the great God who made all things, after confessing his sin and offering a victim for its expiation, now sat down reconciled with God, surrounded by his family in the court of the tabernacle, be- ing allowed to eat with the Levite, of the maats presented to God and accepted by Him.

    Sacrilege ( impious action by which we profane sacred things). — The Jews, like the Greeks and Romans, branded with the epithet "sacrilege" any action which con-

    tained an act of contempt directed toward God, His ministers, or sacred things. We see also, in the Second Book of Machabees, that Lysimacus committed many sacri- leges, and that, among others, he robbed the temple at Jerusalem of its golden ves- sels serving for divine worship. The sa- cred war, among the Greeks, originated from the sacrilege of the Phoceans against the temple of Apollo. Sacrilege is mostly committed through an exterior fact; but, for Catholic theologians, sacrilege is also committed through solely internal facts ; facts of conscience, as for instance, the receiving and profanation of a sacrament by a person in the state of mortal sin. We consider also a sacrilege the pro- fanation of places, or things such as a church, chapel, or cemetery consecrated or blessed by a bishop ; a relic, vestment, or Church ornament. See Profanation.

    Sacristan ( the one who takes care of the sacristy of a church ). — The sacristan prepares what is necessary for the litur- gical offices, fits the altars inside the church; he is, in one word, a servant. In religious orders, the sacristan, who is one of the religious, is called the warden, and he exercises a highly personal supervision over the sacristy, and the employees are placed under his direct orders. The sac- ristan of the Pope is a prelate; he gives conwnunion to the sovereign Pontiff, as viaticum in danger of death, and adminis- ters to him extreme unction. In the Conclave he ranks as the first Conclavist, and he daily says the Mass for the cardi- nals and administers the sacraments to them.

    Sacristy. — Room in a church where the sacred vessels and the ornaments of the church are locked up, and where the priests, deacons, and all those who serve at the altar dress for the divine service, while the bishop dresses in the santuary, at the foot of the altar. In the Middle Ages a special chapel served for the purpose of putting on the sacred vestments. For the divine offices, the Greeks dress in the sanctuary near a credence ; they have no sacristy. In the first centuries of the Church, the dwelling of the bishop and clergy not being separated from the church, the vessels, ornaments, and linen were kept in this dwelling.

    Sadducees. See Sadoc. Sadoc. — Chief of the sect of Sadducees, lived probably 248 b. c, if, as we are assured, he succeeded a certain Antigonus Sacchaeus, successor in the tradition of the doctrine of Simon the Just. The latter taught that, by an excess of spirituality, we must obey God without any view to per- sonal interest, and Sadoc concluded from this that there was, in fact, neither re- ward to hope for, nor punishment to fear in the other life. The disciples of Sadoc, or Sadducees, formed one of the four prin- cipal sects of the Jews. They denied the immortality of the soul, the punishment and reward of the other life, and the exist- ence of angels.

    They admitted no tradi- tions, and denied the destiny, as well as Providence. St. Epiphanius, and after him St. Augustine, says Dom Calmet, have maintained that the Sadducees denied the Holy Ghost, but neither Josephus nor the Evangelists accuse them of this error. It has also been imputed to them that they believed God to be corporal and not to ad- mit the prophecies.

    John Hyrcanus left the sect of the Pharisees to attach himself to that of Sadoc. Caiphas as well as Ananus the Younger, were Sadducees, but at present the Jews regard as heretics the few Sadducees found among them.

    Sainte Anne de Beaupre. — A village of Montomorency County. Canada, on the north shore of St. Lawrence, at the Ste. Anne, a left-hand affluent of the St. Law- rence. Many miraculous cures have been attributed to relics of Ste. Anne which are contained in the parish church ; the great feast day of the patron saint is on the 26th of July, when many pilgrimages are made to her shrine.

    Saints {Veneration of the). — All the reasonable creatures, angels or men, whom God has admitted to the participation of His eternal glory are called saints.

    The name saint {holy) is given to the sovereign Pontiff and all the Popes receive this ap- pellation on account of the veneration due to the high dignity of the holy Father in the Church. But by saint is understood more particularly those, whose virtues, practiced in the highest degree, have been attested by miracles, and on which account they were canonized. See Beatificatiox and Canonization.

    We honor the saints as the friends and servants of God, whom He has over- whelmed with his choicest gifts and most precious graces. That religious venera- tion may be paid to holy persons on ac- count of the extraordinary supernatural

    gifts accorded to them, we may conclude from certain facts of Holy Scripture. The sons of the Prophets, for instance, on per- ceiving that the supernatural power of Elias had passed to Eliseus, came to meet him and worshiped him (IV. Kings ii. 5). From the first centuries the angels and saints were honored in the Church. St Justin (Apel. I., n. 6) writes : " We honor Him (God the Father), and the Son, and the host of blessed spirits." Even before the time of St. Justin, the Church of Smyrna, in a letter on the martyrdom of St. Polycarp, declares: "We adore the Son of God ; but we honor His martyrs as the disciples and followers of our Lord, for the exquisite love of their king and master."

    The veneration of the saints is, on the one hand, the natural outcome of the wor- ship of God ; and, on the other hand, it contributes to the increase of divine wor- ship. For, if we honor God, we also honor His distinguished friends and servants; just as we love our neighbor if we love God Himself; and, contrary, if we honor the saints on account of their supernatural gifts, we honor also God Himself, the giver of those divine gifts. Nay, God Himself gives us the example: "If any man minister to Me, him will My Father honor" (John xii. 26). The veneration of the saints is also salutary for us, inasmuch as it incites us to the imitation of their ex- ample. Therefore the Church rightly professes that the " saints, who reign with Christ, are to be honored" (S>'m. Trid.).

    The invocation of the saints is useful and salutary. From the dogma of the Communion of Saints it follows that the blessed in hea^"en can, and actually do, pray for us and obtain for us the grace of God by their intercession. This is still more emphatically true of the saints ; for, owing to their more intimate union with God, as His special friends, they have a stricter title (as far as we can speak of right in this matter) to be heard ; and, owing to their greater love for us, they are more in- clined to use their intercession in our be- half. But they are more certain to intercede for us if we invoke their inter- cession; for, what is true of God Himself, who is the pattern of the saints, holds good also of the saints themselves ; as God, though of Himself, inclined to be- stow His favors, confers His gifts with more certainty and in greater abundance in answer to our prayers, so also the saints

    will more certainly intercede for us if we invoke them. That the saints are con- scious of our prayers may be easily under- stood from what we have said concerning our relation to good angels. See Angel. From time immemorial it has been cus- tomary in the Church to invoke the saints. In the Catacombs of Rome, particularly on the graves of the martyrs, may be found inscriptions like the following : " Pray for me," " Pray for thy brethren," etc. St. Augustine says, that while in the holy sacrifice of the Mass we commemo- rate other departed souls in order to pray for them, we invoke the martyrs that they may pray for us. (St. Augustine : In yoan. Tract. 84.) See Images; Relics; Mary {Prerogative of).

    Salem. — Ancient name of the lower part of Jerusalem (Gen. xiv. 18; Hebr. vii. 1-2), which later on, was applied to the whole city (Ps. LXXV. 3).

    Sales (St. Francis of). See Francis.

    Salesians. — Religious of an order founded in Italy by Dom Bosco, a priest (born, 1S15). They were called Salesians on account of the quite special devotion which Dom Bosco and his followers had toward St. Francis of Sales. The Salesian Society has for its object the education and instruction of the poor and abandoned youth.

    SaWe {The AbbS De La). See Brothers OF THE Christian Schools.

    Salmanasar. See Shalmaneser.

    Salome. — Wife of Zebedee, mother of St. James the Elder and of St. John the Evangelist. She accompanied our Saviour to Calvary, and was one of the holy women who came early on Sunday to the sepulchre of our Lord.

    Salomon. See Solomon.

    Salvation Army (an organization founded upon a quasi military pattern, for the re- vival of religion among the masses). — It was founded in England by the Methodist Evangelist William Booth about 1865, un- der the name of "Christian Mission." The present name and organization were adopted about 1878. It has extended to the continent of Europe, to India, Aus- tralia, and other British possessions; to the United States, South America, and else- where. Its work is carried on by means of processions, street singing, preaching, and

    the like, under the direction of officers, en- titled generals, majors, captains, etc. Both sexes participate in the services and direc- tion of the body on equal terms. It has no formulated creed, but the doctrines bear a general resemblance to those common to all Protestants and especially to theMethodists.

    Salvation (A^o) Outside the Church. — Ecclesiastical documents are not wanting in which this doctrine is embodied. The Fourth Council of the Lateran in its pro- fession of faith teaches as follows (chap. i. ) : " There is but one universal Church of the Faithful, and outside of it no one can be saved." The Waldenses, after their conversion, were required to profess faith in one Church, not an heretical Church, but in the Holy, Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, outside of which no one is saved. In like manner Eugenius IV., speaking in the name of the Roman Church, teaches that none outside the Catholic Church, whether heathen, Jews, heretics, or schismatics, shall have a share in everlasting life, but that they shall go into eternal fire unless converted before death. And the Council of Trent pre- supposes this universal belief. The de- cree on original sin begins with these words: "That our Catholic faith, with- out which it is impossible to please God, may be purified from errors, and pre- served intact and inviolate, . . . the Synod decrees, etc." This evidently im- plies the same doctrine of one saving Church as is contained in the Athanasian Symbol. The Catholic Church, it says again, instructed by Jesus Christ, our Lord, and His Apostles, and the Holy Spirit who leads her into all truth, teaches that she possesses and will always hold to the true doctrines of the Eucharist, and that therefore she forbids all Christians to think otherwise. The Roman Church is called by the Synod the mother and mistress of others. Pius IV. inserted the following words in the profession of faith : " I acknowledge the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church as the Mother and Mistress of all Churches." And it concludes with the words: "This true Catholic faith, without which no one can be saved, I promise to hold intact and entire until my last breath."

    Of modern theologians, we shall men- tion but two. Tournely considers that the phrase '■'■Extra Ecclesiam^' (outside the Church), etc., is one of those truths which

    are both incomprehensible and hard, be- cause it lays a ban on all heretics and schismatics. " But it is not on that ac- count less true ; for tradition, from first to last, teaches that there is no remis- sion of sins, no charity, no salvation, out- side the Church." Perrone lays down the following thesis : " For those who cul- pably depart this life in heresy, schism, or unbelief, there can be no salvation ; in other words extra ecclesiam nulla salus." And he begins to demonstrate it with the words : " This thesis, which makes all sectaries and unbelievers gnash their teeth, is clear, not only fromi Scripture and the constant sense of the Catholic Church, but also from reason. In fact, so clear is it Wiat he \*no fails to perceive its truth must be blino." (Tournely, p. 52 ; Perrone, I. 240.)

    The proposition, as the author has clearly shown, is old and Catholic, and is, in fact, only the logical conclusion of the doctrine of one visible Church of Christ on earth. As a matter of principle, therefore, Non- Catholics ought not to object to the con- clusion, but to the premises, which assert that Christ instituted and left in His place one only Church. The anger and fury with which the conclusion is assailed seems to be due to the fact that superficial minds consider it as synonymous with, or, at least, as necessarily implying the proposi- tion that, "All heretics and schismatics of any and every kind, will be damned." This, of course, is a monstrous proposi- tion, and entirely repugnant to Catholic principles and instinct. Such a conclusion could only be drawn, if it were stated that no one can or does belong in any way whatsoever to the Catholic Church, unless he be an actual, visible member. There is no such proposition in the whole range of Catholic theology. What the Catholic proposition does imply is that whoever is saved, will be saved only in so far as he is a member of the one Catholic Church on earth. To put the matter in what seems to us an easier form : granting, then, for argu- ment's sake, that there is but one visible Church, it clearly follows that it is the moral duty of every man to belong to it. His own salvation as well as the will of God, who founded the Church, imposes on him the moral obligation which, like every other moral duty, supposes knowledge and freewill. Now, a man is accountable only in so far as he knows the duty, and is free to fulfill it. But a man may, without any

    fault of his, be ignorant of it, or, what is still more common, may be mistaken about it, thinking that he is actually ful- filling it, when in reality he is not. To blame or punish such a one, would evi- dently be contrary to all moral principles. The man who can plead invincible igno- rance or inculpable error, is reputed as good as having fulfilled the duty. But the duty remains the same in all cases. Accord- ingly there may be heretics and schismatics, who are born in heresy and who believe bona fide that they are in the one Church of Christ, and must consequently be re- puted as satisfying as far as they are able the moral duty of belonging to the Cath- olic Church. But the duty of belonging to that Church remains ever the same. The Catholic principle, therefore, requires no modification whatever. It is simply and absolutely true. Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus. It is simply the self-assertion of the Church as the sole representative of Christ and His work on earth. The prin- ciple is directed against those who willingly and knowingly fall away from, or justify their separation from her.

    The Reformers adopted the very same principle. When they cut themselves off from the universal and Apostolic Church, they not only took with them the ground- work of their faith, that is the Holy Scrip- ture, but they also claimed to be a rival, infallible, and only true Church. Thus the Confessio condemns all heretics : Mani- cheans, Valentinians, Arians, Eunomians, Mohammedans, and such like; and also the followers of Paul of Samosata, old and new Pelagians, and others who figure in the Apology as scholastics, the Anabaptists, Donatists, Novatians, and others. What else can this mean, but that there is no salvation except through Christ, and through the one Church.? The same view is urged against that section of Protestants which went under the name of " Re- formed." "If," says the Apology, " our adversaries arrogate to themselves the name Church, we know full well that the Church is theirs who teach Christ's Gos- pel, and that the Church is not with them who defend wicked doctrines in the teeth of the Gospel [ ( Confess, i. i , 3, 4 ; 22 ; Apol. c. iii., a. 6. Formul. Cone. Proem. //.)]. The Formula Concordice recognizes the ancient symbols "th't express the unan- imous consent of the Christian and Cath- olic faith, and that contain the confession of orthodox Christians and of the true

    Church, to wit, the Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds." It likewise anathe- matizes all heretics, and all propositions at variance with the faith, that have ever been broached in the Church. In connection with the Smalcaldic articles it is said : " We in nowise concede that bishops are the Church, because they are not; nor do we hearken to their voice as if they issued commands or prohibitions in the Church's name. God be thanked, any child seven years old now knows what the true Church is; namely the saints, the Faithful, and the sheep who hear the Shepherd's voice."

    Luther, in his greater Catechism, says: " Outside this Christianity, and where this Gospel has no place, there can be neither forgiveness of sins nor sanctification. Hence all are far removed from this Church who contend that they seek, and purchase, and merit sanctification by their own works, and not through the grace of the Gospel and the remission of sins." "All who are outside the Christian pale, be they heathen, Turk, Jew, false Christian or hypocrite, even if they believe in the one true God and invoke Him, but know not how He is disposed toward them, cannot promise themselves God's grace and favor. There- fore they abide in His eternal wrath, and in everlasting damnation" (Catech. ii. 47, 56. See Mb-lanchthon, De Pecc. orig. Calv. Instit. iii. 14, 4). Of course, he had his doubts and often spoke diffidently as to the truth of this doctrine, and the salvation of the Faithful outside the true Church. But despite his teaching as to the invisible Church, into which he was reluctantly driven, Luther could not shake off the idea of the necessity of a visible Church. But he made the community the Church. According to Luther, no one at- tains to faith, except by hearing God's word in the Church. And God has handed over this key of the kingdom of heaven to the community of the Faithful.

    The Calvinists were still more clamor- ous in their pretensions to be the one re- ligion, out of which there is no salvation. They were thoroughly convinced that the Pope was Anti-Christ, the man of sin, and the child of destruction, and that the Catholic Church was the Synagogue of Satan. "That all in communion with him ( the Pope) are lost, is an article of faith wherever genuine Calvinism is rampant. It stands in the Westminster Confession " ( Zokler, 11,747). Nor were the Calvin- ists less tolerant toward the Lutherans. 40

    As they still breathe the old undying hatred toward Rome, so they endeavor, where they can, " to render suspect as liars, as denying the true faith, and follow- ing a false, erring theology, all who will not be set on fire with fanatical zeal for Calvinism." The Lutherans, on their part, were not slow to show their hatred of the doctrine of Zwingli and Calvin, saying that through its instrumentality the devil was seeking to introduce heathen- ism, Talmudism, and Mohammedanism into the Church.

    Salve Regina (antiphon to the Blessed Virgin, so called from the two Latin words with which it commences). — The Salve Regina was composed, according to some, by Germann or Hermann Conrad, Bene- dictine of the eleventh century, according to others, by Preize, Bishop of Compostella, in the twelfth century, and whom some call Peter of Monsoro or of Monsocio, and, ac- cording to others, by Adhemar of Montheil, Bishop of Puy (died at Antioch in 1098) ; and for this reason, undoubtedly, it was first called "Antiphon of Puy " (Antipkona de Padio). St. Bernard, apostolic legate in Germany, having heard the singing of the Salve Regina in the Church of Spire, added to it, by a sudden inspiration, the words which end it: "(? clemens, O pia, O dulcis Virgo Maria V

    Salvianus (390 .^-484 }) . — Ecclesiastical writer, born at Cologne or at Treves. Mar- ried at Cologne, he and his wife renounced the world, and withdrew to the Monastery of Lerins (420), then to Marseilles, where he was ordained priest. He has depicted with eloquence the vices and misfortunes of his time ; was consulted by the most il- lustrious prelates of Gaul, and received the name of " Master of the Bishops." Among his writings, which have an important bearing on the history of his age, should be mentioned his treatises, Against Avarice and On the Governtnent and Providence of God. The object of the last-named work is similar to that of St. Augustine's City of God.

    Samaria (the modern Sebastiyeh). — Village of Palestine. Founded by Amri, king of Israel, in 912 B.C., it rapidly be- came a wealthy capital. Taken and laid waste in 724 b. c. by Salmanasar, king of Assyria, it lost its inhabitants, who were transported into Assyria and replaced by a colony of Cutheans. It had become re- peopled under Aassar-Haddon in 572, and

    Samaritan Pentateuch



    regained its ancient importance, when it became a prey of Antiochus the Great in 203 ; destroyed by John Hyrcanus in 128, raised from its ruins by Gabinius, it reob- tained its old splendor under Herod, who, to flatter Augustus, gave it the name of " Sebaste." It was taken for the last time and definitely destroyed by Vespasian, on the occasion of the revolt of the Jews in the first years of the Christian era. Its port was Caesarea, the modern Kaisarieh.

    Samaritan Pentateuch. — Collection of the five books of Moses in the Hebrew language, but in Samaritan characters or in ancient Hebrew characters, which were in use before the Babylonian captivity. The critics have remarked some differences between the Pentateuch of the Jews and that of the Samaritans. These differences concern principally the word Garizim, which the Samaritans have substituted for that of Hebal, to favor their pretensions ; but other variations are of little impor- tance. The Samaritan Pentateuch power- fully confirms the authenticity and veracity of the writings of Moses, but the use that can be made thereof, must be limited.

    Samaritans (inhabitants of Samaria). — The Samaritans, called at first Cutheans, were a people from beyond the Euphrates, whom the kings of Assyria sent to inhabit the kingdom of Samaria, after they had led away captive the Israelites who lived there before. At first they continued to adore only idols, and afterwards they mingled the worship of the Lord with that of false gods; but after the return from captivity. Holy Scripture, which does not conceal their jealousy of the Jews, nor the bad services which they rendered against them at the Persian court, neither the snares which they laid for them in order to hinder them from rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, nowhere reproaches them with the adoration of idols. It does not appear that this people had a common temple before the arrival of Alexander the Great into Judea ; afterwards they wished to go to Jerusalem, but the Jews being op- posed to this, they built, with the consent of Alexander, the temple of Garizim, of which Manasses, son of Jaddus, was made high-priest. The animosity of the Samar- itans for the Jews increased still more when, to punish them for their rebellion, Alexander, on his return from Egypt, drove them from Samaria and gave their province to the Jews. Also, when our

    Saviour appeared in Judea, there existed no relation between Samaria and Jerusa- lem. The greatest injury the Jews could inflict upon a man was to call him a Sa- maritan. When Alexander had driven the Samaritans from their province, they withdrew to Sichem ( the modern Na- plouse), where they are still found. Al- though reduced to about thirty families, they hold aloof from all foreign union, and marry among themselves. They be- lieve as in the time of Christ, that it is upon Mount Garizim that God wishes to be adored. They have faithfully preserved the Pentateuch, and this is the only portion of Scripture which they acknowledge. The celebration of the Pasch on Mount Garizim is for them a sacred rite, as well as circumcision, the keeping of the Sab- bath, and the other festivals prescribed by the Mosaic . legislation. They are even more exact and more superstitious observ- ers of the law than the Jews, and have a horror of idolatry. Finally, like the Jews, they expect a Messias whom they call " Hathab," that is, the Converter.

    Samos. — An island in the northeastern part of the ..•Egean sea, near the coast, 27 miles long and 10 miles wide, which St. Paul touched on his third missionary jour- ney (Acts XX. 15).

    Samosathians. See Pauliaxists.

    Samothracia. — A mountainous island of the yEgean sea which St. Paul visited on his first missionary journey. The latter half of the name was added to distinguish it from the other Samos. It is also called Samothraki and contains from one to two thousand inhabitants.

    Samson. — One of the Hebrew judges, celebrated for his great physical strength, and for the bravery and success with which he defended his country against the Phi- listines (Judg. xiii.-xvi.).

    Samuel (Hebr. God hath heard). — Last judge of Israel, born at Ramatha, in the mountains of Ephraim, about 1132 b. c. The disciple of Heli and his successor in the sovereign judicature (1092), delivered the Israelites from the yoke of the Phi- listines. But his sons whom, in his old age, he had associated in his functions, dis- satisfied the people, who asked, through the ancients, for a monarchical govern- ment. Samuel, forced to yield, chose Saul and anointed him king (1080), reserving




    for himself only the sacerdotal functions. Later on, he anointed David and died in 1048. General opinion has attributed to him the authorship of the Book of Judges, that of Ruth and the First Book of Kings up to chapter xxiv.

    Sanbenito. — A garment worn by per- sons under trial by the Inquisition when brought into public view at an auto de fe, either for recantation and subsequent par- don after penance, or for any other punish- ment. Some writers describe it as a hat or a sort of cassock or loose over garment, others again claim that, according to the name *♦ Sanbenito," it was the habit of the religious of St. Benedict.

    Sanchez (Thomas) (1550-1610). — Jesuit and casuist, born at Cordova, died at Grenada. His treatise, De Matrimonio, for the use of confessors and directors of souls, has given rise to many attacks. These attacks would have been less fre- quent and perhaps less hypocritical, if the authors had studied this treatise, where it was composed, at the foot of the crucifix.

    Sanctuary. — The part of the church around the high altar reserved for the clergy, generally inclosed by wooden rails.

    Sanctus. — A hymn which forms the conclusion of the Preface. The Greeks call it Trisagion; but this trisagion must not be confounded with that of the Latin Church, sung on Good Friday during the adoration of the Cross. The chant of the Sanctus was used in the Church at the time of Tertullian, and is contained in the Preface in the fifth Catechesis of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, who adds that when we recite the Sanctus, as the seraphim con- tinually do, we should enter into commun- ion with the heavenly militia, by this divine psalmody.

Sanhedrin, or Bethdin {W&hr. house of judgment)
    . — This was a council of seventy-two senators, among the Jews, who determined the most important affairs of the nation.

    The room in which they met, according to the rabbins, was a rotundo, half of which was built without the temple, and half within ; the latter part being that in which the judges sat.

    The nasi or president, who was generally the high-priest, sat on a throne at the end of the hall ; his deputy, or vice-president, called ab-bethdin^ at his right; and the sub-deputy, or kakatn, at his left; the other senators being ranged in order on each side.

    Most of the members of this council were priests or Levites, though men in private stations of life were not ex- cluded. The authority of the Sanhedrin was very extensive.

    It decided cases brought before it by appeal from inferior courts ; and even the king, the high- priest, and the prophets were under its jurisdiction. The general affairs of the nation were also brought before this as- sembly. The right of judging in capital cases belonged to it, until this was taken away by the Romans.

    The Sanhedrin was probably the council referred to by our Lord (Matt. v. 22).

    San Jago {Order of). — A religio-mili- tary order instituted in 1170, for the protection of Christian pilgrims to Com- postella, Spain.

    Sara ( 1986-1859 b. c. ). — Wife of Abra- ham, followed him into Egypt. Capti- vated by her beauty, the king of that country, and later on, Abimelech, king of the Philistines, wished to marry her, be- lieving that she was only the sister of Abraham ; but God protected her against all outrage. Having become the mother of Isaac, she drove away Agar and Ismael.

    Sarabites. — Wandering monks who had enfranchised themselves from the rule and the cenobitic life, and went from city to city, living at leisure.

    Sardica (the modern Sophia). — City of Lower Dacia, capital of the diocese of eastern Illyria in the fourth century. Here a Church council was held in 347 which condemned the Arians.

    Sarepta (the modern Sarfend). — An- cient town of Phoenicia between Tyre and Sidon, on the Mediterranean ; famous through the sojourn which the Prophet Elias made there, in the house of a poor widow, whose flour and oil he miraculously multiplied, and whose child he raised to life again, in gratitude for the hospitalitj he had received.

    Sargon. — King of Assyria, whom some claim to be Sennacherib, others Assar- Haddon, his son, and still others Salman- asar, his father.

    Satan (enemy). — St. Jerome has pre- served the word Satan, which signifies enemy, adversary, accuser; but elsewhere, in Job, for instance, it designates demon.




    dn>il. In the New Testament it is ac- cepted in both senses. In gathering the passages where there is mention of Satan or the devil, we find that he was cast out of heaven in punishment for his pride ; that his jealousy introduced death into the world ; that bj God's permission he exer- cises a kind of dominion over the other angels, apostates like himself; that God makes use of him to try the good and chastise the wicked ; that he is a lying spirit in the mouth of false prophets and heretics; that he or his own torment, pos- sess men and inspire them with evil de- signs ; that he causes several diseases, attacks us, especially, at the hour of death, and that he leads the souls of the damned into hell ; that his power and malice, sub- ordinate to the will of God, will have a greater dominion in the time of Anti- Christ than at present; that he is chained in hell, whose fire was prepared for him and all his followers ; finally, that he will be judged at the end of the world. See Devil.

    Satisfiaction (a penance imposed on us by the confessor, including restoration of stolen property, and reparation for scan- dal). — Although absolution wipes out the guilt of mortal sin, delivering us from eternal punishment, there usually remains a temporal punishment due for evil deeds, unless the penitent's dispositions are of such perfection that, by the divine mercy of God, even that debt is canceled. The penance imposed by the confessor is not always equal to the offense committed, which may still have to be expiated more fully by further punishment, whether in this world or in purgatory. Satisfaction is an act of atonement toward God and our neighbor, for in the sacrament of penance, the mercy of our Lord is extended to us by the remission of eternal chastisement, and justice is compassionately enforced upon us by means of temporal punishment in commutation of the everlasting penal- ties we have deserved. The Church exacts fulfillment of the satisfaction imposed, under pain of mortal sin, — the penance being more or less severe according to the gravity of the offense confessed, — except, when it is either impossible or too difficult of accomplishment, in which case it is our duty to make this known to the confessor, respectfully begging that the penance may be changed. The penance imposed should be carried out with exacti- tude as to the time, place, and manner of

    execution demanded by Christ's minister, and with devout sentiments of piety and fervor, united with the sincere repentance of the sins for which atonement is being offered.

    Satolli (Francis). — A Catholic prelate and diplomat of the Holy See ; born in the city of Perugia, Italy, in 1841. He was educated in the diocesan seminary of his native city, over which presided Joachim Pecci, Archbishop of Perugia, afterwards Pope Leo XIII. He early distinguished himself as an orator and linguist, and on the accession of Leo XIII. was chosen his chief assistant in the work of promoting theological studies. He became, succes- sively, professor in the Propaganda and Roman Seminary, president of the Acad- emy of Noble Ecclesiastics, and archbishop of Lepanto. In 1889, he was deputed by the Pope to represent him at Baltimore, Maryland, on the occasion of the centenary of the Catholic hierarchy, also, at the in- auguration of the Catholic University in Washington, District of Columbia. On Jan. 23d, 1893, he was appointed apostolic Delegate to the Roman Catholic Church in the United States, with power to exer- cise Pontifical jurisdiction, subject only to Appeal to the Pope. This has given the Church in America an autonomy and uni- formity which it did not before possess. He was created a cardinal Jan. 5th, 1896, and was succeeded in the oflSce of Delegate by Sebastian Martinelli in 1896. He has written a Course of Philosophy on the Sumtna of St. Thomas, and essays on various philosophical themes.

    Saturday {Holy) (Saturday before Eas- ter). — It is the first of all the eves as to dignity and antiquity. It has always passed as the most important and the longest, joining immediately the office of Easter with its own, esp>ecially when it commenced after the hour of None or about sunset- It then continued until Sunday, making the Faithful spend their time in church from sunset to sunrise; and this custom, which has ceased with the Latins only since they commenced the oflSces of this great eve in the morning or at the hour of Tierce of Saturday, has al- ways continued to exist with the Greeks. Holy Saturday was formerly kept entirely holy in several Churches. Then in the course of time, it was reduced to the rank of half- feast which was kept holy until noon, but to-day it is left almost every-




    where to the voluntary devotion of the Faithful. All the offices and ceremonies of Holy Saturday have reference to the baptism of the Catechumens, which was administered in the most solemn manner on the eves of Easter and Pentecost. See Holy Week.

    Saul. — First king of Israel, son of Cis, powerful man of Gaboa, of the tribe of Benjamin, died in 1040. Warrior, endowed with great strength and high stature ; he was anointed king by the Prophet Sam- uel (1080 B. c.) ; signalized the beginning of his reign by brilliant victories over the Ammonites, Amalekites, and Philistines, and introduced a severe discipline among his troops. Having usurped the functions of the priesthood, he himself oflfering the holocaust at Galgala, instead of Samuel, he was from that time abandoned by God's spirit, and delivered himself to cruelty and superstitions, and fell into a gloomy melancholy. David, secretly anointed king by Samuel, dispelled Saul's fits of madness by playing the harp before him, and became the intimate friend of his son Jonathan. Saul, jealous of David, tried repeatedly to kill him. More than ever a prey to his fits of madness, he consulted, in a last campaign against the Philistines, the pythoness of Endor ; called forth the shadow of Samuel, who foretold to him his approaching fall. On the next day, Saul, conquered at Gelboe, beheld the slaying on the battlefield of Jonathan and two of his sons, and, he being wounded, pierced himself with his own sword.

    Saviour. — A term applied to Jesus Christ, because, as the angel expressed it. He came " to save the people from their sins " (Matt. i. 2).

    Savonarola (Jerome) (1452-1498). — Fa- mous preacher and Dominican, born at Ferrara, entered at the Dominicans at Bologna in 1475. Master of the novices in the convent of St. Mark, in Florence (1382), prior (1488), he soon beheld the leading intellects grouping around his pul- pit. Two objects especially preoccupied him : the general reform of morals, and a wise and Christian ministry of the Floren- tine republic. He was not the chief in- strument in the overthrow of the Medici in 1494, but from the depth of his cell and from the height of his pulpit, he became the real chief of the new power. A power- ful league formed itself against him; the

    friends of the ancient government tried repeatedly to assassinate him. Making war upon temporal rulers, including the Pope, denouncing their corruption and ex- cesses, he was condemned to death, and executed at Florence, in 1498.

    Scapular {Confraternity of the). — In the first place, the scapular was a long narrow stripof cloth, covering the shoulders and hanging down before and behind to the knees, worn by certain religious orders. Secondly, two small pieces of cloth con- nected by strings and worn over the shoul- ders by laymen. The Confraternity of the Scapular is quite ancient. It was in- spired and revealed by the Holy Virgin to the blessed Simon Stock, sixth general of the Carmelite Order, about the beginning of the thirteenth century. This venerable religious, who had entertained from his earliest years a truly filial confidence in Mary, was one day in prayer, when the Queen of Heaven appeared to him, sur- rounded by a multitude of blessed spir- its, and holding in her hand a scapular of the Order of Carmel. She gave it to him with these words : " Receive, my dear son, this scapular of thy order, as the dis- tinctive sign of my confraternity, and the mark of the privilege that I have obtained for thee and the children of Carmel. Whosoever dies while piously wearing the scapular, shall be preserved from eternal flames. It will be a sign of salvation, a safeguard in danger, and a special pledge of peace and protection till the end of time." {Manueldu Scap, by M. de Sam- bucy, p. 28.)

    Though magnificent, this first promise was only a part of what the blessed Simon had asked. To answer him fully, the Holy Virgin made him a second promise in favor of the Carmelite religious, and members of the Scapular Confraternity. To make the matter more sure, she ap- peared to Pope John XXII., and said to him, according to the very tenor of the Bull : " John, Vicar of my Son ! it is to my solicitations with my son that you are indebted for the high dignity to which you have been raised. As I have with- drawn you from the ambushes of your enemies, I expect from you an ample and favorable confirmation of the holy Car- melite Order, which has always been sin- gularly devoted to me. ... If, among the members of the order or the confrater- nity who quit this world, there be any




    whose sins deserve purgatory, I, as a ten- der mother, will go down to them in pur- gatory on the Saturday after their death. I will deliver such as I find there, and will bring them to the holy mountain, the happy abode of eternal life" {Opus cit.).

    Here three questions present them- selves: I. What is the meaning of the Blessed Virgin's twofold promises? 2. Could the Blessed Virgin make this prom- ise? 3. Did the Blessed Virgin make this promise?

    I. What is the meaning of the Blessed Virgin's promise? Our divine Mother promises, in the first place, to save from the pains of hell those who die piously wearing the scapular. Does this mean that in whatsoever state, even in the state of mortal sin, a member of the Scapular Confraternity dies, he will not fail to be saved, provided only he dies wearing the scapular? Such an interpretation is revolt- ing, shocking. Also the Bull of John XXII., in which the promise is found, does not say that to escape hell it suffices to wear the holy scapular, without prac- ticing good works. It says quite the con- trary. The meaning of this promise is, therefore, that the Blessed Virgin will ob- tain for her clients, the grace not to be surprised by death, in the state of mortal sin, though it should be necessary on many occasions to prevent, by a miracu- lous interposition, some dreadful accident in order to save them from death, or to prolong the life of the sick and bring about a favorable moment for their con- version and salvation. This is the natural and only lawful meaning to put upon Mary's promise. To obtain its fulfillment, we must join with the duties of the confra- ternity the still more essential duties of a Christian. We must avoid sin, and not expose ourselves to the danger of being overtaken by death in the enmity of God. It is by these marks that the true servant of Mary is known.

    The Blessed Virgin promises, in the second place, that she will come and de- liver out of purgatory the wearers of the scapular on the first Saturday after their death. There is nothing repugnant in this. First, God can make the pains of purgatory more acute, and compensate for shorter duration by greater severity. Again, parents in their families, and rulers in their states have certain days for grant- ing their favors. The Church herself has many days appointed for granting a ple-

    nary indulgence, that is to say, the remis- sion of the temporal penalties due to our sins. Why should not the Blessed Virgin do likewise?

    2. Could the Blessed Virgin make this promise? Every Catholic answers: To be sure she could ! Mary is most power- ful, and is all goodness.

    3. Did the Blessed Virgin make this promise? Two voices answer. Yes, Mary made this promise. The first of these voices is that of the Church. What have not sovereign PontiflFs done, that no doubt should remain in minds regarding the truth of each part of this promise? Con- sulting on the first, which refers to the pains of hell, John XXII., in a Bull issued in 1316, declares that it has been examined with the weights of the sanctuary and found most true. As for the second, which refers to the pains of purgatory, he declares that, in an apparition, the Blessed Virgin made the promise personally to himself. To better establish these things, he published another Bull in 1322, wherein he renewed the previous one. Since the time of this Pontiff we count twenty-two Popes, his successors, who have solemnly explained themselves in the same sense on the subject of the Confraternity of the Holy Scapular. Lastly, an annual festival is celebrated in virtue of the decrees of sovereign Pontiffs, throughout the whole extent of the Catholic world, to perpetuate the memory of this glorious promise, and to glorify Our Lady of Mount Carmel or of the Holy Scapular.

    The second of these voices is that of God Himself. God never authorizes error or deceit by miracles ; it would be out of keeping with His sanctity to do so. Now, of all the practices of piety that have been inspired to honor Mary, none has been more visibly authorized by splendid miracles.

    To obtain the first privilege of the holy scapular, that is to say, the grace of a happy death, and to share in the indul- gences of the confraternity, the merits of the Carmelite Order, and the protection of the Blessed Virgin, it is necessary to be a member of the Confraternity of the Holy Scapular. For this purpose two conditions must be fulfilled: (i) To receive the blessed scapular from the hands of a priest who has the power of giving it ; and (2) To wear it around the neck day and night, in health and in sickness, in life and at death. These are the only obligations necessary



    Schism of England

    and common to all the members. The Church imposes no extraordinary prayers, abstinences, or fasts on them.

    To enjoy the second privilege, that is, to have a speedy release out of purgatory, it is also necessary for all the members to ob- serve the chastity proper to their state: virginal chastity in the state of celibacy ; conjugal fidelity in the state of marriage; and continence in the state of widowhood. Moreover, for such as can read : to recite daily the Canonical Office of the Church, or the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, according to Roman Breviary. For such as cannot read : to supply for the Office (i) by not failing in any of the fasts prescribed by the Church ; and (2) by abstaining from flesh-meat on Wednesdays, in addition to Fridays and Saturdays, except on Christ- mas when it falls on any of these days. In case of grave hindrance, the abstinence is binding; but it is proper to have recourse to one's confessor, so as to obtain a com- mutation.

    Scepticism ( doctrine, opinion of philos- ophers, whose principal dogma is to doubt, to affirm nothing, to suspend their judgment about everything.) — Scepticism has counted numerous followers at all times. The first germs thereof were spread in Greece, by the sophists, who professed not only scepticism, but also the nihilism of all things and of all truth. The most famous philosophers of scepticism were Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Anesidemus of Alexandria, and Sextus Empiricus. Herac- litus, drawing the uttermost consequences from the Ionian doctrine which was ma- terialistic at its foundation, admits the soul-world, and denies all experience by means of the senses; the last term of this idealistic pantheism was the scepticism of the Stoics, who had for most eminent ad- versaries Plato and Socrates. Pyrrho was the first to erect scepticism into a system, whence it obtained the name Pyrrhoism. Among the moderns, scepticism has taken the most diverse formsj it has inspired the easy philosophy of Montaigne and PierreCharron, the encyclopaedic erudition of Bayle, the paradoxes of Berkley about the existence of bodies, those of Hume about the notions of cause and substance ; even partly the Criticism of Pure Rea- son of Kant and the idealistic scepti- cism of JouflFroy. Contemporary scepti- cism wishes to parade as a science ; it maintains that we are reduced to purely

    subjective truths and denies all criterion which makes us to distinguish with certi- tude, the knowledge of the truth of that which has only the appearance thereof. Locke was the first who, in his book, Essay on the Understanding, sowed the germs of scepticism, by setting up as principle : " That things are true only in so far as they are conformable to our ideas." Hume, drawing the uttermost consequences Trom this principle, estab- lished the universal doubt. In his system, there are only sensations ; the phenomena and substance itself are nothing but an idle name of sense: "Sensation alone reigns above the abyss of nothingness." The consequence of this system, indeed, must be the destruction of all science and of all virtue. The practical scepticism is, therefore, the natural consequence of the Empiricism of Locke and of scientific scepticism.

    Schism (division, .separation from the body and communion of a religion) . — There have been, at all times, in the Church, whimsical, critical, and dissatisfied minds, who found abuses in the Church (for in the most perfect society there is always the human side), and have dragged in their revolt a part of the flock. Even in the time of the Apostles the Church wit- nessed similar secessions. Schism, there- fore, attacks the outward unity of the members of the Church. If it pursues its way, like in England, to the injury of faith, then this rupture of unity becomes heresy, and the separation is complete. God has permitted, in all the epochs of history, schisms in the Church. The principal ones are, in the first centuries, the schism of the Novatians, Donatists, Luciferians, which disappeared long since ; more recent are those of the Greeks and Protestants. The schism of the "Three Chapters" is that which arose in the Council of Constantinople, and which was called thus on account of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia divided into three chapters {capitula tria). This schism lasted from 550 to 699, and was, so to speak, the first germ of the great schism. Schism is always a crime, for it acts against the manifest intention of Jesus Christ, Who recommends and desires the union of all the members of His Church : ut sint unum.

    Schism of England. — A popular and culpable incident, the passion of Henry VIII. for. Anne Boleyn, became the origin

    Schism of the East


    Schism of the East

    of the schism of England. This prince on the refusal of Clement VII. to com- ply with his request to separate him from Catharine of Aragon, his sister-in- law, caused himself to be proclaimed by a servile parliament, supreme head of the Church of England in 1531. In the year following he married Anne Boleyn. Here- upon Pope Paul III. excommunicated him (1534). From that time the king overstepped all limits ; wishing to remain orthodox, he answered to the sentence of the Pope by completely separating himself from the Church. The religious orders who, in general, refused to accept the new order of things, were suppressed and their goods confiscated. Parliament published the famous Bill of October 4th, which the reformers themselves called the "Bloody Bill." Beginning with this period, an era of persecution was inaugurated which lasted for many years. Already Cardinal Fisher and the chancellor Sir Thomas More, had lost their heads on the block. A real inquisition erected, so to speak, funeral-piles all over the country; more than 72,000 capital punishments fol- lowed. Never had a revolution more bloody sources and never was a revolution established on more bloody grounds. Schismatic, but orthodox, under Henry VIII., -England became more and more heretical under Edward VI. Sommerset, the regent, proscribed the Mass and abolished the festivals. During the reign of Mary Tudor, an attempt was made to restore the Catholic religion, but this reign was of very short duration, and the " Bloody Elizabeth " came to consummate the schism. All the religious laws of Mary were annulled ; an oath implying the acknowledgment of spiritual supremacy of the Crown was imposed upon all the officials.

    The bishops, with the exception of one, refused this oath ; but the clergy of the second order in a great majority accepted it. The new religion maintained the epis- copal hierarchy, and a large portion of Catholic liturgy. The organization of the Anglican Church was resolved upon in the bill of Thirty-nine Articles (1562). See


    Schism of the Hast. — The Emperor Michael lU. had raised Photius to the see of Constantinople ; he was a man of sci- ence and genius, but of unlimited ambi- tion, who had nothing less in view than

    the object of becoming universal patri- arch. His death (891) only delayed the secession which became fatal. His suc- cessors, in spite of the protests of the Pope, continued to arrogate to themselves the title of ecumenical patriarchs, and, in 1043, under the reign of Constantin Mo- nomachus, Michael Cerularius rendered the schism definite. Pope Leo IX. re- futed the reasons or rather the pretexts which he alleged to justify- himself; the Pope remarked that diversity of customs was not a sufficient motive to break the tie of unity. It was useless for the Pope to send legates to Constantinople, in order to confer with him; the proud patriarch, in spite of the desire of the emperor to come to an understanding, did not even receive them, and the whole disagreement ended by reciprocal excommunications. Honorius III. (1222), Michael Palaeologus in the Council of Lyons (1294), and John Palaeol- ogus, in the Council of Florence (1439), made attempts for reunion, but they re- mained fruitless. Several circumstances still more aggravated the division: the establishment of a new empire in the West, the Crusades, and the foundation of a Latin empire at Constantinople, became so many causes of jealousy to the Byzan- tines against the Latins. In fact, to-day there is no Church of the East ; it has been, since the ferocious Mahomet II, (1453), captured. Constantinople, com- pletely disorganized, and divided into a multitude of sects, carries the weight of God's curse. Servility, misery, and ig- norance have become the lot of this Church, formerly so brilliant, as long as it remained united with the Chair of Peter. The Russian Church, which had received the faith from Constantinople, did not break immediately with the Church of Rome; in the time of the Council of Flor- ence, the Catholics in Russia were still as numerous as the schismatics. It was only in the fifteenth centurj- that the schism spread all over the country. The Patri- arch of Moscow was declared patriarch of all Russia by the Patriarch of Constanti- nople (1589), but the union did not last long; the Patriarch of Moscow soon separated himself from Constantinople, and, thus there was a schism in the schism. Peter the Great (1720) abolished the pa- triarchate of Moscow and declared himself the sole supreme head of the Russian Church, and caused a symbol to be drawn up which fixed the belief; this act does

    Schism of the West

    633 Schools and Universities

    not contain anything contrary to the Catholic belief. The reunion of the two Churches would be very easy. They dif- fer only on one point, namely, the primacy of the Pope. See Russian Church.

    Schism of the West (division which afflicted the Church in the fourteenth cen- tury, and of which the residence of the Popes at Avignon was the main cause). — Seven Popes, of French origin, since the death of Benedict XL, had, without inter- ruption, resided at Avignon. The Romans, divided into several factions, demanded the return of the Pope; Gregory XI. com- plied with their request. At his death (1378), the cardinals assembled in Rome to elect a new Pope. The people, by se- ditious cries, declared that they wanted an Italian Pope. The cardinals, intimidated, hastily elected the Archbishop of Bary, Urban VI. Pope. Five months afterwards having retired to Fondi (kingdom of Naples), they declared the election null and void, through defect of liberty, and proclaimed Robert, Cardinal of Geneva, under the name of Clement VII., Pope. The new Pope went to establish himself at Avignon. The consequence was that there were now two so-called obediences. This deplorable situation of the Church lasted almost half a century. The death of Urban VI. did not end the schism; the cardinals of his obedience chose after him an im- mediate successor, and they did the same thing in the opposite party. The Council of Pisa (1409) rendered the question still more perplexing by naming a third Pope, Alexander V. Finally, the Council of Constance put an end to this great schism by forcing the three Popes to renounce the office of sovereign Pontiff and by electing Martin V., Pope of the universal Church. This unfortunate schism was only the con- sequence and effect of human passions and did not hinder the great design of God for His Church ; there were saints and eminent personages in both obediences.

    Scholastica (St.). —Sister of St. Bene- dict, born at Nursia, Umbria; lived near him in the monastery of Plombariole, which she caused to be built about five miles from that of Monte Cassino. F. Feb. loth. See St. Benedict.

    Schools {Brothers of the Christian). See Brothers.

    Schools and Universities. — Among the many sources of education created by the

    Church was the parochial school system. In its first essays this system surely did not embrace the full range of primary studies, nor the gradation of them, such as it is, in many countries, in our time. There were, in those days, no primers of literature, or of history, or of science ; nothing was then printed, since printing was invented many hundreds of years later. A few scrolls of parchment, perhaps, were all the text- books of the school ; and, as paper was not manufactured until the beginning of the eleventh century, materials for writing were very scarce. To establish a system of primary schools, in spite of such difficul- ties, was an enterprise which, we venture to say, no modern state would enter upon. Nor do we hesitate to assert that many of those who now rail against the "Dark Ages," and declaim against the supposed ignorance of the clergy of those times, would not, had they lived then, have faced, much less overcome, the difficulties of teaching. But, be that as it may, the Church, as soon as she was free, began to organize primary education on the basis of Christian doctrine and morals. Under her care grew up the parochial school system of Italy, which the Council of Vaison in France, in 529, took for its model in legis- lating on the teaching of youth; and by her order, teachers and catechists, accord- ing to Thomassin, instructed the youth in the towns and villages of some of the Christian provinces of the East. That this plan of instruction, owing to the disorder resulting from the invasion of northern Barbarians, was not steadily carried out, we are ready to admit; but for all that, the plan was there and manifested the solicitude of the Church for the education of youth. During the disturbances which followed the fall of the Roman empire in the West, and the establishment of Barbarian na- tions on its ruins, learning rapidly de- clined in Europe and Southern Europe, generally. The conquests of the northern nations and the ceaseless incursions of the Saracens and Hungarians, again plunged the greatest part of Europe into the bar- barity and ignorance from which it had slowly emerged during the lapse of sev- eral centuries. In this ruthless career of destruction, nothing was spared by the Barbarian hordes. Churches and monas- teries, those sanctuaries of piety and learn- ing, were destroyed ; once flourishing schools were closed and abandoned, and their libraries consigned to the flames —

    Schools and



    an irreparable loss in those days, when we consider that obtaining and multiplying books was attended with so much labor and difficulty. It would, however, be un- fair to assert that literature in those days was utterly neglected, and that all desire for learning had died out. There were always some learned men, who exercised a beneficial influence over their age ; zealous and holy bishops, who strove ardently to promote learning and science ; and wise rulers, such as Charlemagne, and Otho the Great in Germany, and Alfred in England, who counted it among the first of their du- ties to provide for the instruction of their people. That the light of science in these ages was not wholly extinguished, was owing especially to the solicitude of the Church, and the industry of the monks, who continued to cultivate knowledge with an ardor such as religion alone can inspire. " The preservation of ancient learning," says Hallam, " must be as- scribed to the establishment of Chris- tianity. Religion alone made a bridge, as it were, across the chaos and has linked the two periods of ancient and modern civilization. . . . The sole hope for litera- ture depended on the Latin language, which three circumstances in the prevailing re- ligious system conspired to maintain : The papal supremacy, the monastic institu- tions, and the use of a Latin liturgy." A continual intercourse was kept up in con- sequence of the first, between Rome and the several nations of Europe, and made a common language necessary in the Church. The monasteries held out the best oppor- tunities for study and were the secure repositories for books. All ancient manu- scripts were preserved and multiplied in this manner, and could hardly have de- scended to us through any other channel. The Latin liturgy, and the reading and study of the Latin Vulgate, caused the Latin to be looked upon as a sacred lan- guage, and contributed not a little toward preservation of learning. But the Church not only saved science and liter- ature from universal destruction ; she also caused the Barbarian tribes, whose de- structive invasions had been so detrimen- tal to the cause of letters, gradually to imbibe and adopt the principles of true civilization.

    Notwithstanding the general decline of learning, the Popes continued to be dis- tinguished for their general attainments, as well as for their zeal in diffusing knowl-

    edge and science. The praise of having originally established schools, belongs to them and the Church in general. They came in place of the imperial schools, overthrown by the Barbarians. Monaster- ies and episcopal sees became especial nurseries of knowledge. Wherever a cathedral, church or a monastery was erected, there also a school, with a library attached, was opened for the education of the clergy and the literary improvement of the people in general. In some places, at least, for the instruction of the young, primary schools were established. Pope Eugenius II. and Leo IV. labored zeal- ously to dissipate the ignorance which then prevailed. The former, in a Roman synod, in 826, enacted that schools should be opened in cathedral and parish churches, and wherever they might be deemed neces- sary. Flourishing high schools existed in Italy, at Rome, Florence, Pavia, Turin, Ivrea, Cremona, Verona, Vicenza, Fermo, and Friuli, not to mention the monastic schools of Monte Cassino, Bobbio, and else- where. Italy was still considered the center of literature, and students flocked thither from all parts of Europe to receive an edu- cation. The monks especially distin- guished themselves by collecting and compiling books and founding schools and libraries. In every monastery a consider- able portion of time was daily allotted to the copying of books, and thus by their untiring industry, the monks preserved and transmitted to us the precious treas- ures of the ancient classics and Christian literature. Libraries and schools for the education of youth were attached to most of the monasteries, many of which were famed far and near as seminaries of learn- ing and repositories of science. Most re- nowned were many monasteries in France and Germany. Among others, Tours, Corvey, Rheims, Aniane, St. Gall, Fulda, Reichenau, and Hirsan, vied with one another in learned pursuits. Especially famous, as a center of ecclesiastical train- ing and general culture, was the Abbey of Cluny, in France. Soon after her conver- sion to the faith, Ireland became, and for three centuries continued to be, the great nursery of religion and science.

    The foundation of the universities was due to the zeal of the Popes, and to the activity and liberality of Churchmen. Almost in every instance the founder was either a Pope or one of the various Church dignitaries. The sovereign Pontiffs, both by

    Science and



    word and example encouraged the found- ing of institutions of learning; granted to the universities special charters and priv- ileges, and even provided them with chancellors and professors. Of the uni- versities, that of Paris is perhaps the old- est; it was celebrated for philosophy and theology, and was regarded as the model and rule in learning, for other universities. The other French universities were those of Montpellier, Toulouse, Lyons, Avignon, Bordeaux, Valence, Nantes, and Bourges. In Italy, Salerno was famous for medicine, while the University of Bologna became the great law school of Christendom. Be- sides the Italian youths, at times no fewer than ten thousand foreign students fre- quented the University of Bologna. In 1262, there were at this university 20,000 stud^ents. The other Italian universities at Rome, Padua, Naples, Piacenza, Ferrara, Ferugia, Pisa, Pavia, Palermo, Turin, and Florence, were all in a flourishing condi- tion. The college in Rome, called the Sapienza, founded by Innocent IV. in 1244, was richly endowed and elevated in rank by Boniface VIII., from whose time it was known as the Roman University, The oldest German university is that of Prague, which was founded by Emperor Charles IV. in 1348. Its fame attracted students even from Norway, Ireland, Spain, Naples, and Cyprus. Besides the Universities of Vienna, Heidelberg, Co- logne, and Erfurt, which arose in the fourteenth century, nine more were founded in the course of the fifteenth cen- tury. In the Scandinavian kingdoms, we find the Universities of Copenhagen and Upsala, and in Poland the University of Cracow, which in 1496, counted as many as 15,000 students. The oldest and most celebrated Spanish university was Sala- manca, founded about the middle of the thirteenth century. There were, besides in Spain and Portugal, the Universities of Valladolid, Coimbra, Valencia, Saragossa, Avila, Alcala, and Seville. In England, the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge were modeled after the University of Paris. Oxford began to be largely fre- quented in the reign of Stephen, in 1231 ; it is said to have numbered as many as 30,000 students. The first Scottish univer- sity was founded at St. Andrew's, in 141 1, by Cardinal Henry Wardlaw. This was followed by the foundation of the Uni- versity of Glasgow by Bishop Turnbull, in 1450, and by that of Aberdeen by Bishop

    Elphiston, in 1494. The establishment of the University of Dublin was begun by Archbishop Leach, wko, in 131 1, obtained of Clement V. a brief for the undertaking. During this remarkable epoch the arts and sciences were cultivated and improved with signal success throughout the Chris- tian world. No branch of literature seemed to be neglected. Theology, dogmatic, and moral ; philosophy, history, and all the sciences which belong to the respective provinces of reason, psychology, experi- ence, and observation were carried to a high degree of perfection. Many famous works on almost all the sciences, profane as well as sacred, are due to Catholic au- thors of this epoch. In philosophy, as- tronomy, physiology, geology, mechanics, and mathematics. Catholic scholars hold a pre-eminent place. Copernicus, a priest and canon, Galileo, a devout son of the Church, and in our days, Secchi, a Jesuit, are recognized as the great leaders in as- tronomy and other sciences. For Catholic schools in the United States, see article. Church {Statistics of the).

    Science and Revelation. — The attitude of Science toward Revelation. — It would be a very superficial consideration of the momentous struggle of the intellect in our time, if we failed to add : Is there any necessary antagonism between science and revelation ? In the views of some thinkers, manifestly both theologians and scientific men, theology and science are irreconci- lable enemies. Nay, in the opinion of a few prominent scientists, the battle is already ended ; for revelation, they say, "has been relegated forever to the limbo of witchcraft and astrology and phre- nology." The comfort is that some scienti- fic men can always draw the line between their hypothesis and proven theory. This, and other scientific points, manifestly er- roneous, are explained in various articles of this work and especially in the present and the next succeeding article.

    True science cannot be in conflict with revelation, because the same God of truth is manifest in nature as He is in revelation. There is unity, there is harmony, there is order in all God's works, and no part of His divine plan can conflict with the other. For let man calmly consider what revela- tion is, and what science is, and he will speedily come to see that any conflict be- tween them is the result of misunderstand- ing. There are many good and pious

    Science and



    souls who behold with dread the constant progress of scientific research, and fear it is indeed a demon that would rob them of that which they most value. We do not share this fear. No ! all the science of the world cannot destroy religion, for as long as man remains as he is to-day, the heart will ream for religion's sweet solace and the soul cry aloud for a God, within whose loving arms man may be at rest as the child in its mother's bosom.

    "Is there any conflict — any necessary conflict bet-ween theology and science ? " asks a learned Hebrew theologian. " I fail to see how there can be ; for, ridicu- lous as it may appear to some to say so, the theologian is a man of science. Every science has four characteristics. One characteristic is that it deals with facts. Another characteristic of a science is, that it strives to reach laws, principles, generalizations, doctrines, whichever name be preferred. Science cannot rest satis- fied with an unrelated series of facts ; its endeavor must always be to unify facts; from isolated facts it must ever strive to rise to general knowledge. Yet a third characteristic of science is, that for scien- tific purposes it limits its view to one class of facts. Mathematics concerns it- self with number and space, not with life; psj'chology concerns itself with mind, not with the physical forces. Science deals with all facts. A science deals with one class of facts. A fourth characteristic is that science systematizes. It adopts a cer- tain appropriate order in the investigation and exposition of its subject matter.

    " Let these four characteristics be pres- ent in any branch of knowledge and you have a science ; let any one characteristic be absent, and the name of science must be withheld. Every science must treat of facts, must treat of a distinct, a related kind, must seek to obtain generalizations from those facts, and must arrange its facts and doctrines in a due order. In- quiry which does not deal with facts is speculation, not science ; a series of facts without laws is a catalogue, not a science ; an examination of facts and laws in gen- eral is universal knowledge, and not a sci- ence; an investigation into facts and laws, which is not digested into system, is an encyclopaedia, and not a science.

    " But if these four are the characteristics of a science, one may venture with all modesty, but with extreme firmness, to ask: I. Does not theology deal with facts?

    2. Does not theology consist of a genus of facts sufficiently well defined.? 3. Does not theology diligently strive to pass from facts to laws? 4. Are not arrange- ment and system peculiarly manifest in theological results? Really, that theol- ogy is not a science, is one of the most unscientific prejudices of some scientific men. Professor Huxley, writing on this subject, says : ' If any man is able to make good the assertion that his theology rests upon valid evidence and sound reasoning, then it appears to me that such theology must take its place as a part of science.'

    " Can it be shown, then, that theology rests on valid e\idence and sound reason- ing? Is it not incontestable, that theology has to do with facts — facts as manifest and relative as the facts of number or the facts of life ? For theology, which is the science of religion, is manifestly concerned with religion, and religion is itself a fact. I mean by religion, that intuition of the di- vine, which, universal as man, is at the basis of all the religious development of man. The universality of the religious sense is now commonly conceded. An- other series of facts with which theology is concerned is the facts of revelation. By revelation I mean knowledge about God and man divinely imparted. Now, the re- ligious intuition itself is, and must be, revelation. The theory of evolution can- not explain it. All sense of the infinite must come from the infinite. In a word, the intuition of the di^•ine religion is really a divine revelation — 'that light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.' The existence of the eye argues the pre-existence of the eternal world ; self- consciousness argues the prior existence of self; the fact of the religious sense argues the prior existence of the divine."

    Does Revelation extend to scientific questions? — For every true Catholic it is an established fact, that the divine inspiration of the Bible extends itself to all which in- terests religion and all which touches faith and morals, that is, all the supernatural teachings contained therein. But there is another question forced to the front in our days : Does this inspiration also extend to scientific questions — questions which it touches incidentally?

    God did not reveal scientific truths to the sacred writers, though He could have re- vealed to Moses, the mysteries of nature in their relation to science when he penned the first chapter of Genesis. Every pas-

    Science and



    sage that has reference to science is in- spired like other passages, in the sense that God sustained the sacred writer in recording truth and avoiding error, per- mitting him to speak the common lan- guage, and use the ideas and idioms of the times and of the people, to whom the sacred record was addressed, in order, that each word and sentence should be fully and clearly understood by the learned and unlearned.

    Again, it is universally affirmed, that the Spirit of Truth, the Holy Ghost, did not reveal scientific truths, directly, but reli- gious truths, which teach us how to ob- tain heaven. As the Kingdom of God is not of this world, and as this is but a tran- sitory abiding place, why then should we ask from the Sacred Text a digest of scien- tific laws and questions, when it only con- cerns the eternal salvation of man.?

    " The intention of Holy Scripture," says Cardinal Baronius, " is to teach us how one goes to heaven, and not how heaven goes." Evidently the sacred writers spoke the common language of the people with- out any attempt at scientific accuracy. An instance of this kind is found in the famous passage of Josue, concerning the rotary motion of the sun around the earth. Though many centuries have passed since that memorable day when the sun stood still in the heavens, yet, with all our scien- tific knowledge, we often read of the rising and setting sun, and of its circling through the heavens ; lingering to bathe the hill- tops, or placid bosom of the sea, and such like expressions. "Many things are said in Holy Scripture according to the opinion of that time to which the facts have refer- ence," says St. Jerome, "and not to the real truth of the facts."

    Again, we refer to the passage in Job xxvi. 7. " He stretcheth out the north over the empty space." On this St. Thomas observes : "Because nothing appears to us of the heavenly hemisphere except space full of air, what the common people look upon as an empty space; the sacred writer speaks according to the opinion of the common people, as it is custom in Holy Scripture." This language of Sacred Writ is spoken to-day by savants. We find in popular lectures on science, expressions like the following: "Science the modern wizard, broke the fetters that bound the enchanted world, and behold, a new earth and a new heaven appeared." "At the command of science, the veil that en-

    shrouded the little earth plain of the an- cients was drawn aside." Consistency is a jewel which sparkles only on the brow of truth.

    Considering the times, peoples, and lan- guages, there is very little cause for fault- finding, and no just reason at all for wrongly interpreting passages, and then ridiculing Sacred Writ for its scientific er- rors. Where there is an apparent con- tradiction between the Bible and certain hypothesis of savants, this is a matter of little importance, because a hypothesis is not a scientific truth. God is the author of nature, of science, and of revelation, and He cannot contradict Himself. The Church is far from forbidding the savants to make the most diligent research and the most exacting inquiry in their domain, ac- cording to their methods, because she is convinced that truth will prevail, and the certain results of science will always be in harmony with revelation.

    It is needless to say there is a class of self-styled scientists ever in the search of flaws in Holy Writ who magnify every trivial diliFerence, that, if viewed in the light of reason, or subjected to the sober judgment of men familiar with the lan- guage and mode of expressing opinions of the people of the Orient in ancient times, there would be little cause for these gra- tuitous attacks on revelation. We will cite an instance of this kind. In Leviticus (xi. 6), the hare is classed with ruminating animals. Now, this of itself is of little consequence, but shows the straining of a point in natural history to cast discredit on the sacred character of the Bible. Surely, it is unreasonable to demand from Moses or other sacred writers, a scientific classi- fication of animated nature. To all ap- pearance, the hare would naturally be classed among the ruminants. However, the question involves a fine point. Grant- ing that the Hebrew word arnebeth, signi- fies hare, though it is far from being absolutely certain, we must not under- stand the expression ruminating in its physiological acceptation — an animal with four stomachs — but rather in the broad sense of an animal, which masticates with- out eating and ruminates with its snout, though really not ruminating. Moses did not wish to give us a scientific classification ; he classed the hare simply by its habits and appearance.

    Infefttton of Holy Scripture. — Theolo- gians warn us to look for no scientific

    Science and the Forma-



    ideas or theories in the Bible. After St. Augustine and St. Thomas, Pascal says : " When the Scripture presents to us some passage of which the first literal meaning finds itself contrary to what the senses or reason acknowledge with certitude, we must not undertake to disown them in order to submit them to the authority of this apparent meaning of Scripture; but we must interpret the Scripture and seek therein another meaning which agrees with the sensible truth, because the Word of God being infallible in the facts them- selves, and the report of the senses and of reason acting in their intent being also certain, these two truths must agree ; and since Scripture can be interpreted in dif- ferent manners, instead that the report of the senses is unique, we must in these matters take for the interpretation of the Scripture that which agrees with the faith- ful report of the senses.

    " We must observe two things, after St. Augustine," says St. Thomas, " the one that the Scripture has always a true mean- ing; the other, that, as it can have several meanings, when we find one of which rea- son convinces us as certainly false, we must not maintain the telling that this is the real meaning, but seek for another which agrees with reason." He explains this by exemplifying the passage of Gene- sis where it is written "that God created two great lights, the sun, the moon, and also the stars," by which the Scriptures seems to tell that the moon is greater than all the stars, though it is evident through unquestionable demonstrations that this is false. "We must not," he continues, "ob- stinately defend this literal meaning, but must seek another one conformable to the truth of the fact, saying : " That the word of great light marks only the greatness of the light in our regard and not the great- ness of its body in itself."

    In theological matters versus science, we submit some propositions on the part of theology :

    I. Religious truths are imparted to us in the Bible; they are stated decidedly, and we must believe them with the same de- gree of determination and firmness. In the Interpretation of Scripture on these points, and in matters of faith and morals, we can consent to be guided only by the authority of the Church ; in mat- ters of natural science, the Church leaves us at perfect liberty to pursue our in- quiries.

    2. It is not the object of the Bible to give us information on natural or other profane science ; it is not the purpose of inspiration to reveal to us directly scien- tific truths.

    3. The Bible speaks of events, phe- nomena, and laws of nature in the same way as would an ordinary man whose lan- guage and opinions were formed by what he saw and heard ; therefore, the Bible does not claim to speak scientifically and correctly of these things, but only to ex- press itself intelligently and to the purpose.

    Science and the Formation of the Uni- verse. — The learned of all ages have manifested much interest in the creation of the world, but inquiry regarding the composition of the chaotic elements and their primitive condition, was reserved for the savants of modern times. There is to-day both a rational and irrational science, as there is a rational and irrational theology. Infidels have discovered that their principles are untenable in the light of revelation, and now seek to defend them behind the ramparts of " liberal science." Unquestionably, " liberal sci- ence " is elastic and accommodating; overrides all logical deductions ; coins new phrases; improvises fanciful and wild theories; jumps at conclusions, and dei- fies matter as eternal, in its efforts to make a Creator superfluous.

    Science can affirm nothing as to the origin of things without violating the fun- damental laws of logic which constitute the same. It can, however, by means of powerful analogies and inductions, per- fectly legitimate and rational, ascend to the highest limit in the history of their formation. Thus, in order to explain the first e\T>lutions of matter, the cosmic ele- ments, it was forced to conceive magnifi- cent theories, or rather hypotheses, in the way of confirmation or continual rectifica- tion, which witness the power of human genius, permit it to penetrate the created immensity, and assist at the genesis of the globe — at the development of the entire universe.

    Geologists conclude from the following facts that the earth was originally in a fluid condition : i. The form of the earth, apart from the unevenness of the surface, is that of a figure resembling a ball — a spheroid flattened at the poles. 2. The poles' diameter is two and four-fifths of a geographical mile shorter than the equa-

    Science and the Forma-



    torial diameter. 3. It is believed tiiat a fluid mass revolving around its own axis, invariably assumes such a spheroidal shape ; and most all geologists are of the opinion that the earth existed originally in a state of ignus fusion. Many do not stop at this, how^ever, but think it very likely that another nebulous or gaseous condition preceded the fiery state, and not a few sup- port the hypothesis, that our whole solar system could be traced back to such a nebu- lous or gaseous vapor; indeed, "the hu- man mind itself, emotion, intellect, will, were once latent in a fiery cloud. All our philosophy, all our poetry, all our science, all our art, Plato, Shakespeare, Newton, and Raphael, are potential in the fires of the sun," if we believe Prof. Tyndall. Kant first suggested this theory ; Herschel, Laplace, and others have tried to support it scientifically.

    Theory of Laplace. — According to this theory, the matter of the solar system was originally one enormous ball of gas, " at such a temperature, as to be in the condi- tion of vapor of great tenuity." In this, through the concentration of substances, a center was formed, which later became a solid nucleus. To this, some external force imparted a motion around its own axis, and by degrees the whole of the gaseous matter surrounding it took part in this motion, so that the whole ball of gas rotated around itself. This motion, at first slow, gradually grew quicker and quicker in consequence of the increasing density of the mass and the accompanying diminu- tion of its volume ; the form of this gaseous ball became more and more spheroidal and centriform, because the centrifugal force increased with the quicker motion. In consequence of the increasing density of the whole, and greater tendency in the out- side of the gaseous body to fly off from the center, it was inevitable that at some period, the centrifugal force should prevail over the centripetal, and a ring-shaped part should be separated from the whole. Later on, this girdle or ring was broken by dis- turbances which took place on it ; it was torn in one or more places, and each seg- ment thus separated, rolled itself into an individual ball and retained its separate existence. The result of this was, either to form one new large spheroid with a double motion — a revolution around its own axis and a revolution around the origi- nal gaseous ball, or a number of small spheroids, which rolled on with the same

    double movement at about an equal dis- tance from the center. In the way first described were formed the larger planets, and in the second, the asteroids. This proc- ess by which rings were thrown off and formed into separate balls, was repeated many times, till the central body had be- come so small that it could throw off no more rings. At last the relation between the central sun and the surrounding flanets was established forever, and the solar sys- tem was, in this sense, complete. But meanwhile, the planets had gone through new stages of development ; they also showed a tendency to throw off rings, con- sequently, separate rings were formed which shaped themselves into balls and be- came the moons revolving around the planets. The smaller planets did not form rings, while the larger ones threw off many, some of which, perhaps, have not yet rolled themselves into balls, as the double ring of Saturn seems to show.

    Formation of the Earth into a Separate Body. — Now as to the history of the earth in particular, let us cast a glance at its bygone ages, before arriving at its present condition. When it had become a separate body, the numerous elementary substances of which it still consists, were mingled with each other in the form of vapor, in the same proportions as those in which they are actually the constituent elements of the earth. The heaviest metals first separated from the gaseous compound and formed a solid or fluid nucleus, which grew larger by degrees through the gradual at- traction of similar parts. In the further stages, the earth was a ball of igneous fluid surrounded by an atmosphere, which, how- ever, contained many more substances than ours ; water, chlorides, sulphur, and other substances being then only present in a vaporous or gaseous condition. The tem- perature in space is very low, and therefore had a cooling effect on the hot ball of the earth. The steam of the upper regions of the atmosphere cooled, and was precipi- tated onto the hot earth. The water which had thus become fluid was again heated with the other substances which it con- tained. At first, probably before it reached the earth, it changed into steam and again ascended. This process must have been often repeated, but at last, the surface of the ball cooled in consequence of the con- tinued diminution of heat, and the first solid crust was formed out of the molten masses of the earth's alkalies and metals.




    The nucleus of the earth cooled continu- ally, and contracted more and more. Va- cant spaces were formed in the solid crust, which had become too large for its con- tents, and the rocks that lay above these spaces sank in places and became crumbled on the surface, forming splits and cracks. The sunken masses pressed on the fiery core ; molten rocks forced their way to the surface through the cracks and fissures, they having partially raised the masses of the solid crust, and cemented those schist- ous masses together in more or less in- clined positions. In places where no dis- ruptions occurred, the schistous rocks became thicker and thicker. The masses which had forced themselves between the portions of the crust, and which had cooled there, formed with these the first moun- tains and mountain ranges, which probably were of no great height. But after many of these disruptions and cementings, the crust of the earth, which from the con- tinual cooling of the interior had become much thicker, at last obtained a certain amount of firmness, the disruptions oc- curred less often, and the surface became more solid. The precipitation from the atmosphere which continued without in- termission, remained longer and longer upon the earth. By degrees a large ocean was formed which possibly covered all, or nearly all, the surface of the earth, so that at most, only a few islands of granite ap- peared above it. It was boiling hot, and contained many substances besides water, that had chemically a dissolving, and me- chanically a destroying efTect on the crust. These particles, which were contained in the water, after having been either dis- solved or mechanically broken up, were deposited in quiet places in the shape of slate and graywacke, and were the first Neptunian formation. While these de- posits were being formed, the crust of the earth cooled so considerably that it be- came fit for the habitation of organic be- ings. The eruptions, and Neptunian deposits which were always elevated by them, increased the quantity of dry land, or rather the number of islands. At this period the earth received the first garment of vegetation and the first animals. Such is, in summary, the theory of Laplace on the evolution of the visible universe. See Atomism and Cosmogoxy.

    Scotland {Evangelization of).

    NiNlAN (.St.).


    Scotland {Protestantism in). — Protes- tantism was introduced into Scotland by John Knox, who, in 1542, began his career as a reformer by decrying Church and crown. Being expelled from Scotland, he spent some years at Geneva, where he became a thoroughgoing Calvinist. In the year 1559, he was recalled and immedi- ately began to vilify Mary of Guise, regent of Scotland. He also preached against the idolatry of the sacrifice of the Mass and the veneration of images. The inaugura- tion of the reformed religion in Scotland, as in every other country, was preceded by the sacking of churches and the entire demoli- tion of whatever pertained to the sacrifice of the Mass or the veneration of the saints. The Scottish reformers formed a congrega- tion whose leaders were called, " Lords of the Congregation." This portion of the pop- ulation, assisted by Elizabeth of England, engaged in a civil war with the adherents of the queen regent; the latter was assisted by the king of France. This war was marked by unusual severity. The queen regent having died, both parties agreed upon a truce, by the terms of which the settlement of their difficulties was left to parliament. The Protestant lords were not content with the free exercise of their religion. They demanded the suppression of "Idolatrous worship." The parlia- ment which assembled in 1560, declared the Catholic religion abolished and adopted the " Reformed," as the established reli- gion of Scotland. The Catholic faith was replaced by rigid Calvinism.

    Scotland {The Church in).— It is diffi- cult to realize the oppression under which the Catholics of Scotland labored during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During the last fifty years the Catholics of Scotland have largely increased, chiefly from the influx of Irish population. They number about 363,000. There are about 350 priests, secular and regular, having care of souls in Scotland. In 1878, Pope Leo XIII. restored the ancient hierarchy of Scotland, creating or rather restoring the two archbishoprics of St. Andrews and of Glasgow, and four suffragan sees, — Aber- deen, Argyll, Dunkeld, and Galloway.

    Scotus (John). See Johx Scotus.

    Scribe. — Doctor, who taught the law of Moses, and explained it to the people.

    Sebastian (St.) (sumamed the *' De- fender of the Church"). — Born at Nar- bonne, France; captain of the Pretorian



    Secret of Confession

    guards under Diocletian, encouraged the martyrs and was himself put to death for the faith, at Rome, in 288. He was shot by arrows, and was supposed to be slain, but recovered, and was finally beaten to death with clubs, and buried near the Cat- acombs of St. Calixtus, which later on took the name of the Cemetery of St. Se- bastian. F. Jan. 20th.

    Sebueans or Sebuseans. — Sect of Sa- maritans who changed the time prescribed by law for the celebration of the great festivals of the year. They celebrated Easter at the beginning of autumn, Pente- cost about the end of the same season, and the feast of the Tabernacles in the month of March. They were called " Sebuse- ans " because they held the Pasch in the seventh month, called, or from the word sebua (the week), because they cele- brated the second day of each week from Easter to Pentecost; or from the name of their chief, Sebaia.

    Secret Discipline. See Discipline.

    Secret of Confession. — The secret of confession, or the obligation imposed upon the priest to keep the most profound silence concerning all he knows only through the confessional, is also called " seal," to mark that all he knows through the confessional is put under seal. The obligation of keeping the secret or seal of confession is founded: i. On the natural right, which requires that the confessor should not violate the secret that has been intrusted to him, and that he should fulfill the tacit promise to keep the secret which he made to the penitent by hearing his confession. 2. On the divine right. It has always been understood that Jesus Christ, in obliging sinners to open to the priests the secrets of their conscience, has at the same time prescribed to the latter the most profound secrecy. This secret is, besides, a necessary consequence of the institution of confession, which, without this, would become impossible. 3. On the ecclesiastical right. The Church com- mands her ministers, under pain of anath- ema, degradation, and perpetual con- finement, to keep absolute silence about all they have heard in the sacred tribunal. This law is general and admits of no ex- ception. For whatever reason, in what- ever case, and under whatever pretext, a confessor is not permitted to speak of con- fession. If there should be question of


    saving his honor, his reputation, or of avoiding the most frightful torments; if there should be question of saving his life, never would he be permitted to reveal in any manner, either directly br indirectly, even the slightest fault that is known to him only through confession. The priest in the confessional holds the place of Jesus Christ; hence we do not confess to man, but to God, in the person of His delegate. Thus the confessor ought not to remember, as man, what has been intrusted to him in the tribunal of penance ; he must keep the most absolute silence about all the revela^ tions which he has heard, the same as though he did not hear them. The con- fessor knows nothing as man, hence theo- logians teach that he can answer, even un- der oath, to the judge who asks him, that he knows nothing about the crime of a man accused when he knows it only through confession. " A man," says St. Thomas, " can be called to witness only as man ; hence he can declare, without wounding his conscience, that he does not know anything, when he knows it only as God's minister." The learned Cestius, treating on this matter, remarks that if some judge were rash enough to ask a priest whether the accused did not confess to him such or such a crime, he must sim- ply say that he is not permitted to answer that sacrilegious and impious question. But if there is question of general interest to society, of a conspiracy against the chief of the State, etc., could and should a con- fessor not speak.? No, he should keep silence. The seal of confession being of divine right, and having for foundation the very institution of penance and the ob- ligation imposed upon the Faithful to con- fess their sins, no power can dispense from keeping this seal intact, not even if there is question of saving the State. It is with- out example that the secret of confession was ever violated. " It is really wonder- ful," says the author of the Souvenirs de la Marquise de Crequy, " that among all the crimes of the French Revolution, it was never heard that any apostate priest revealed anything of what he heard through the confessional." Similar facts, whose authenticity cannot be questioned, prove that there is a Providence that watches over the seal of confession and does not permit it to be broken. There have been priests, confessors, who had to choose be- tween revealing the secret of confession or death; they chose death. One word

    Secret Societies



    would have been sufficient to save them, but this word they did not pronounce, and their blood flowed. The first of these martyrs was St. John of Nepomuck.

    Secret Societies. See Societiks.

    Secular Clergy. — Name given to the priests in the world, as distinguished from the religious clergy, who lead a monastic or regular life.

    Secularization. — The act by virtue of which, a religious is rendered a secular again, a priest remanded to civil life, goods of the Church secularized to the circulation of property and to the common right regulated by civil laws. Among the best known secularizations of Church goods was that which took place in 1803, when nearly all the ecclesiastical estates, the bishoprics, abbeys, and monasteries within the empire were apportioned among the German princes, as indemnity for the losses they had sustained, in uniting the right bank of the Rhine to France.

    Sedecias. See Zbdbcias.

    Sedulius (Ccelius). — Priest and poet, of whose birth and life little is certainly known. He devoted himself for some time to the study of profane sciences, especially philosophy. Failing to find satisfaction either in these, or in the sinful pleasures of the world, he yielded to the voice of divine grace, and encouraged by Mace- donius, a virtuous priest, turned his heart toward the study of " divine science." In the course of time he became a priest, and, according to some accounts, an anfistes, or bishop, and was rendered justly famous for his beautiful religious poems. He flourished in the middle of the fifth cen- tury. Among his poems are : 0/>us fas- chale, describing the miracles wrought by God under the Old Law and by Christ in the New; Elegia sive Collect to Veteris et Noxn Testamentt, showing how the types of the Old Testament have been fulfilled in the New; Hymnus Abccedar- ius, describing the birth, life, and death of Christ. Sedulius devoted his great poetical talent exclusively to religious subjects, and is not without reason called " Poeta Cliristianissi'mus.^' His style is a clever and successful imitation of that of Virgil. The two hymns adopted in the Roman Breviary A Solis Ortus Cardine and Hostis Herodes imfie, are taken from the Abecedarius.

    Seleucia. — A fortified city of Syria on the Mediterranean, 16 miles west of An- tioch, whose seaport it was. Here St Paul and St. Barnabas embarked on their first missionary journey (Acts xii. 4). Under the Seleucidse it was a beautiful city with a fine harbor. The Arabs called it Selukiyeh. It is now in ruins and near its site is situated a small village called El-Kalusi.

    Sem. — Patriarch, son of Noe, was blessed by his father for having covered him in his tent; his sons Elam, Assur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram, peopled the most beauti- ful provinces of Asia. From Sem are de- rived the names of languages and of the Semitic peoples.

    Semi-Arians. — Name given to those Arians who denied that the Son of God was consubstantial with the Father, al- though they otherwise adhered to the opin- ions of the Arians. See Arianism.

    Seminary (ecclesiasticalinstitute wherein instruction is given to clerics destined for the Church). — The history of episcopal seminaries is divided chiefly into two pe- riods : one prior, the other subsequent, to the Council of Trent. Seminaries, i. e., houses set apart for the education of youths desiring to embrace the ecclesiastical state, are traced back, by some canonists, to the very beginning of the Church ; by others to the Council of Nice (325 ) ; and by several to St. Augustine, who, according to Phillips, had set apart a place in his episcopal resi- dence, where youths were brought up for the priesthood. That seminaries already existed in the sixth century is indisputable. Thus the Second Council of Toledo (531), in Spain, ordained that sons dedicated by their parents to the service of the Church should be brought up under the tuition of a director, in a house belonging to the cathedral and under -the eyes or supervi- sion of the bishop. Nay, it is certain that, in the sixth century, youths destined for the sacred ministry were educated for the priesthood not only in episcopal colleges or seminaries, but in every parish priest's house. This was the custom throughout almost the entire Latin Church. Episco- pal seminaries, which had, since the eighth century, been superseded by the universi- ties, were re-established and placed on a more solid footing by the Council of Trent. By seminaries we, at present, mean schools or colleges where youths destined for the




    priesthood are supported, religiously edu- cated, and trained in ecclesiastical dis- cipline. According to the enactments of the Council of Trent in regard to semina- ries, a bishop may have several semina- ries; but he is bound to have at least one, unless the poverty of the diocese renders it impossible. A common seminary should be established by the provincial council for those dioceses which, on account of pov- erty, cannot have their own. Those stu- dents only should be received into semina- ries, whose character and inclination afford the hope that they will always serve in the ecclesiastical ministry. Hence, colleges where ecclesiastical students are educated promiscuously with secular students, are not seminaries in the Tridentine sense of the term. Not only students of theology, but also of classics, should be admitted. Finally, youths to be received should be at least twelve years of age and wear the clerical dress.

    Semi-Pelagians. — Heretics of the early centuries of the Church, who held a middle course between the orthodox doc- trine and that of Pelagius. They denied : I. The necessity of " prevening grace" (^gratia frcBveniens) for the beginning of faith, which they maintained to be free from man himself. 2. The " gift of ^&r- severance^' {donumperseverantice). 3. The gratuitous predestination, maintaining that God foreordains some unto election, be- cause of the foreknowledge He has of their merits {prcBvisis mentis). The prin- cipal advocate of Semi-Palagianism was the pious abbot, John Cassianus of Mar- seilles (died, 435). From this city, where the Semi-Pelagians were most numerous, they were also called *' Massalians." See Pelagianism.

    Sennaar. — In Biblical geography t^he name of Mesopotamia ; the plain on both shores of the Euphrates ; the later Babylonia or Chaldea (Gen. xiv. i).

    Sennacherib (died in 806 b. c). — King of Assyria. Mounted the throne about 704 B. c, succeeding his father Sargon; waged war against the Chaldeans, Medes, Egyp- tians, Syrians, Phoenicians, and the Jews. Ezechias, king of Juda, was obliged to pay tribute to him, but freed himself in an- other war, when he allied himself with the Egyptians. Sennacherib was forced to abandon the siege of Jerusalem, about 200,- 000 of his men having perished under the

    strokes of the angel of the Lord. This king beautified Ninive and built, among other monuments, the palace of Koyound- jeck, whose ruins were discovered in 1851, by Layard.

    Sensualism (doctrine which places the origin of our ideas in our sensations and sets up sensation as the criterion of certi- tude). — In so far as this system admits as reality only the material bodies or matter, it is called materialism. The most famous sensualists are found among the ancients: Democritus, Leucippus, Aristippus, Epi- curus, and Lucretius ; among the moderns we have Hobbes, Gassendi, Condillac, Helvetius, Cabanis, Broussais, Hartley, and Priestley., They often class, but un- justly. Bacon and Locke among sensual- ists. The latter grant, it is true, the prin- cipal role to experience, but at the same time they acknowledge the insufficiency of sensation to explain all our ideas. Sen- sualism, having been founded by Epicurus, it seems that we might call it Epicurism ; but the latter term generally applies itself to sensualism only in so far as it is consid- ered from the moral point of view. How- ever, sensualism was reduced to a special system, under this name, only in modern times, by the philosophers of the eighteenth century. The English Deists had com- menced by questioning the object of knowledge. The sensualists examined the faculties which serve to arrive at knowl- edge, rejecting all that they claimed to be useless for knowledge, especially political and religious knowledge. After this comes Condillac and formulates the theory of sensualism. He taught: "Sensation is the principle of all human science; it is a movement of the cerebral fibers." The encyclopaedists drew the consequences from these principles. Man, they said, is nothing but an animal ; the soul, a secre- tion of the brain. It is easy to understand what grave consequences a similar system entailed. If the senses fix our intellectual horizon, we are without God and without religion ; if man is nothing but a physical being endowed only with sensuousness, he is evidently only a perfected animal ; if the sensation as well as the thought which proceeds from it is only a secretion of the brain, the soul itself is nothing but a sim- ilar secretion ; then disappears all distinc- tion between the body and the spirit, and, therefore, there is neither good nor evil, neither vice nor virtue. For the spring of




    our actions there remains only personal interest or egoism. This system attempted nothing less than to undermine the basis of society, as we shall see very soon. This doctrine was a sign of wrath, an instru- ment of war against religion, and not of progress. Besides, physiology, as well as philosophy, rises up against the absurdity of placing sensation solely in the senses. In the face of Descartes, who absorbed the whole man in the spirit and left to mat- ter no life of its own, sensualism was right; but, falling into the contrary ex- cess, it was wrong to completely absorb the spirit into the material being. When these questions have been more deeply studied, experience will prove, in the long run, the weakness of this double point of departure. Sensualism, perfectly true as concerns matter, had, like the criticism of Kant, disowned the spirit and the life that is proper to it, and, by this act, had be- come insufficient to solve the grave prob- lems which Kant himself had often raised, about the genesis of thought, on the one hand, and about the life of matter or nature, on the other. Finding itself face to face with Christianity — immense fact of history! — sensualism, not being capable of under- standing it, contented itself by denying it. But humanity does not allow itself to be served with negations, and sensualism could not maintain itself ; hence it had to return and prove the existence of what it had denied shortly before. It was the same with criticism. Kant, after having expelled the idea of God from the purely intellectual domain of reason, returned to it as to a moral exigency. They began to study the starting point of their errors, that is, the true principles which serve as basis to false notions. Anthony Giinther had already cleared up the question by acknowledging to matter what belongs to matter, and to spirit what belongs to spirit. Then he proved that the knowl- edge of the being that sustains the phe- nomena is the true intellectual proceeding, the real mode of the thought ; he proved that nature is independent from the spirit in the face of purely sensible life, as well as the reality, the independence both of the life of the senses and of nature. Thus the false and exclusive sensualism disappeared. In summary, sensualism, by the total nega- tion of ideas, falls into all kinds of errors; those which it favors the most are athe- ism, materialism, complete idealism or nihilism, empiricism and skepticism.

    Separatists. See Nonconformists.

    Sepharvaim. — A place in Assyria whence colonists were transferred to Samaria to set- tle the country of captive Israel, about 721 B. c. (IV. Ki. xvii. 24), identified with Sip- para, a town on both shores of the Euphrates (whence its dual name in Hebrew), about 20 miles north of Babylon. Sennacherib mentions Sepharvaim (IV. Ki. xix. 11, 13) as a city subdued by the Assyrians before his time. It was a chief seat of the wor- ship of the sun. It had a library which has been deciphered by George Smith and others.

    Sephora. — Wife of Moses, daughter of Jethro, of the country of Madian, whither Moses had retired after he had killed an Egyptian who ill-treated a Hebrew, and where he married and sojourned during fourteen years.

    Septuagesima Sunday (Lat septua- gesima,'\. e. dies, the seventieth). — The third Sunday before Lent, so called, like Sexagesima and ^uinquagesima , from its distance (reckoned in round numbers) be- fore Easter.

    Septuagint (Lat. septuaginta ; seventy). — Name under which we generally under- stand the seventy or seventy-two interpre- ters who, according to the common opinion, translated the books of the Old Testament, or at least the Pentateuch, from Hebrew into Greek, by order of Ptolemy Philadel- phus, king of Egypt. Their translation is called Version of Alexandria, because they made it on the island of Pharos, near Alex- andria. The Church never did express herself on the divine inspiration of the Septuagint. Though the authors of this version may not have been divinely in- spired, it is nevertheless a precious monu- ment. See Bible.

    Sequence. — In liturgy a hymn in rhythmical prose or in accentual meter sung after the Gradual (whence the name) and before the Gospel. In very early times the Alleluia, after the Gradual in Mass, was followed by a long series of jubilant notes sung to its last vowel with- out any words. This series of notes was called the Sequence, but owing to the dif- ficulty of remembering these vocaliza- tions, experienced by even the most skillful cantors, a custom arose in the North of Gaul of setting words to these notes. About the year 860 a monk of the




    Abbey of Jumieges, which had been laid waste by the Normans, sought refuge at the monastery of St. Gall in the diocese at Constance. He brought with him the Antiphoner of his monastery, which con- tained several of these Sequences with words set to them. This volume was a source of inspiration to a young monk of St. Gall named Notk6r (died, 912), who at once set to work to imitate and improve on them. Notker's work found favor, and his compositions were introduced into the use of most Churches and orders, and were called ProstE ad Scquentia, and later on Prosce. Of the many proses in use during the Middle Ages, four only were retained in the Plan Missal. The first of these is the Victimce Paschali, sung at Easter, the author of which was Wipo, chaplain of the Emperor Conrad II. and Henry III., of Germany (died, 1050) ; the second is the Veni Sancte Spiritns, for Pentecost, which, according to Duranti, is the pro- duction of Robert, king of the Franks (died, 1031) ; the third is the Lauda Sion, for the feast of Corpus Christi, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas (died, 1274); the fourth is the D/ps Tree, ascribed by some to Cardinal Latino Malabranca, a Domini- can friar who died in 1294, ^^^ with better reason to Thomas de Celano, a Francis- can who lived in the middle of the thir- teenth century. The Stabat Mater Dolorosa, attributed by some to Pope In- nocent III. (died, 1216), is derived more probably by the Franciscan, Jacopohe da Todi (died, 1306). It was restored to the Roman Missal by Benedict XIII. in 1727.

    Seraphim (plural of seraph). — Celes- tial beings in attendance upon Jehovah, mentioned by Isaias. They are similar to the cherubim, and are represented as hav- ing the human form, face, voice, two hands and two feet, but six wings, with four of which they cover their face and feet, as a sign of reverence, while with two they fly. Their office is singing the praises of Jehovah's greatness, and being the swift messengers between heaven and earth.

    Sergius (name of four Popes). — Ser- gius I. — Pope from 687 to 701. He refused to sanction the Trullan Synod, which as- sembled in 692 at the summons of the Em- peror Justinian II. Irritated by this refusal, the haughty emperor sent orders for the apprehension and transportation of the Pope to Constantinople. But the Romans,

    and even the imperial soldiery, rushed to the defense of the Pope, and only for the Pope's intervention, they would have torn Zacharias, the imperial officer, to pieces. Sergius II. — Pope from 844 to 847. Suc- cessor of Gregory IV. During his Pon- tificate the Saracens ravaged southern Italy, and even threatened Rome. It was Sergius that built the Scala Sancta {Sacred Stairway) near the Lateran Basilica. Sergius III. — Pope from 904 to 911. The moral character of this Pope is grievously assailed by Luitprand, a contemporary writer, whose testimony, however, is weak- ened by his known hostility to the counts of Tusculum, to whom Sergius was re- lated, and by his partial devotion to the imperial interests. Flodoard and Deacon John, other contemporary writers, repre- sent Sergius as a favorite with the Roman people and a kind and active Pontiff, who labored strenuously for the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline. With the excep- tion that he was an opponent of Pope For- mosus, he is guiltless of the charges brought against him by the slanderous Luitprand. Sergius IV. — Pope from 1009 to 1012. Successor of John XVIII.

    Sergius Paulus. — Proconsul of the island of Cyprus, converted by St. Paul, in spite of the efforts of the magician


    Sermon (discourse). — The sermon as- sumes, according to the form given to it, the names of homily, prose, or sermon properly speaking. The sermon properly so called is a religious discourse which ex- pounds and develops a point of moral or dogma under a synthetic form. The ser- mon has become to-day the usual form under which the word of God is an- nounced, that is, the religious truths, while in the primitive Church, the homi- letic form predominated, to which was joined the reading and explanation of the Biblical text, without stopping to make it the basis of one sole subject. The sermon starts with one proposition as its theme, and constitutes a whole whose parts are the ramifications; the good this method has is, that it presents the subject under its different aspects, that it follows a log- ical order, and that thereby the truth is easier understood. Unfortunately, often the oratorical art takes the place of evangel- ical preaching. Preaching, strictly speak- ing, is not an essential part of divine worship, but a preparation for it, and the




    Church recommends it and makes it a strict duty on her ministers to preach. Protestants have made of the sermon the essential part of worship ; with them preaching has a purely subjective charac- ter, dependent on the manner in which each orator understands the doctrine, while Catholic preaching always carries the seal of the objective doctrine of the Church, and it is the authority of the teaching of the Church that governs the orator. All Christian preaching is in Christ, and the true ministry of the Word is that which, from Christ, has been transmitted to the Apostles and their suc- cessors ; there is only one Christ and there can be only one Christian teaching. The style of preaching must be distinguished both by simplicity and elevation. Preach- ing is an art difficult to learn, for it is as much an effusion of lively faith as it is a product of acquired skill. The style, however, in a sermon as in all other dis- courses, is of great importance. The ser- mon being a peculiar branch of the oratorical art, it must have a style that is proper to it, that is, the homiletic style of which we find elements in both the Gospels and the Fathers. Preaching ought not to permit itself to be dominated by the oratorical element. The ministry of preaching, says Fl^chier, is reserved to the explanation of the mysteries, or to the persuasion of the precepts of religion, and not to pompous sermons where the imagi- nation plays a greater rdle than reason, and where the orator strives less to edify than to please. The orator should draw the first elements of his instructions from Holy Scripture. Theology and Church history should not be less familiar to him, either to distinguish what is of faith, or to establish the truths of religion by facts. He should study rhetoric only to draw from it the rules of the discourse, and so, also, should he study the ancient orators, even profane ones, only with the view to find therein the means of persuasion ; for the object of the Christian orator, like that of the profane orator, is to move and to persuade. See ELOquENCE.

    Serpent (^Brazen). — We read in the Book of Numbers that, to punish the mur- murings of the Israelites in the desert, God sent serpents among them which caused the death of many. Then, by the Lord's direction, Moses made a serpent of brass and put it on a pole, that it might be

    seen from all parts of the camp, and who- soever looked at it was healed (Num. xxi.).

    Serra ( Junipero). — A Franciscan mis- sionary; born in the island of Majorca, Nov. 24th, 1713. He entered the Francis- can Order in 1731 ; went to Mexico in 1749, where he labored among the Indians until 1767, when he was sent to California. The Jesuits had been expelled, and their mis- sions were placed in charge of the Francis- cans. Father Serra was made president of these, and the development of the Cali- fornia mission is due very largely to him. San Diego was the first mission founded by him. This was in 1769, and many oth- ers followed. He died at San Carlos mis- sion, Aug. 28th, 1784.

    Servetus (Michael) (1509-1553). — Physician and learned Protestant of the Anti-Trinitarian sect, born at Villa Nueva, Aragon. Went to Germany to be more at liberty to publish his works against the dogma of the Trinity; returned to Lyons; went to Paris to study medicine, and ob- tained the degree of doctor of medicine. He then met Calvin for the first time, with whom he entered into a theological dispute. After practicing medicine for short periods at Avignon and Charlieu, he settled, in 1541, as medical practitioner at Vienne. In 1553 he published Christian- isnti Restitutio, which caused him to be arrested by order of the inquisitor general at Lyons. He made his escape, but was apprehended at the instance of Calvin at Geneva, on his way to Naples, and at Cal- vin's instigation, was burned alive at Gen- eva, in 1553.

    Servites (religious). — The Order of the Sers'ants of the Blessed Virgin, commonly called Servites, owes its origin to the zeal and piety of seven Florentine merchants. After distributing their goods among the poor, they retired to Monte Senario, near Florence, where they dwelt in cells as hermits. This was in 1233, which is re- garded as the date of the foundation of the order. They subsequently became a mo- nastic community under the special patron- age of the Blessed Virgin. They adopted the Augustinian Rule, and for their habit wore a black tunic with a scapular and cape of the same color. Under St. Philip Beniti, the fifth general, the order spread rapidly, chiefly in Italy and Germany. St. Juliana Falconieri is regarded as the foundress of the Servite Third Order. The Servites were approved by Alexander IV., in 1255.

    Servus Servorum Dei



    Innocent VIII. declared the Servites a mendicant order, bestowing on them the privileges enjoyed by the other mendi- cants.

    $ervus Servorum Dei (Latin words, the servant of the servants of God) . is the official formula with which the Pope signs his name. It was first adopted by Gregory the Great.

    Severians. — Followers of Tatian and Severius, heretics who rejected the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St. Paul. They also maintained the corruptibility of the body of Christ.

    Severinus (St.). See Bavaria.

    Severinus (St.). — Pope, born at Rome, successor of Honorius I. Governed the Church only two months (649) and had for successor John IV.

    Sexagesima Sunday (Lat. sexagesima, i. e. dies, the sixtieth day). — The second Sunday before Lent, and roughly reckoned the sixtieth day before Easter.

    Shakers. — A Protestant sect, so called from their practice of shaking and dancing, in which their worship principally consists. Their original name was " Believers in Christ's Second Appearing." They came originally from England and settled in the state of New York, in 1774. Their leader was Anna Lee, who, they ridiculously claimed, was the " elect lady" mentioned in Revelation (xii. i), the "Bride of the Lamb," and the " Mother of all the Elect and Saints." In her it is claimed that the second coming of Christ was realized. They live in communities and do not marry, their society being recruited mostly by young men and girls. There are eight- een Shaker settlements in this country, with a membership of about seven thou- sand.

    Shalmaneser III. — King of Assyria, reigned from 878 to 869 b. c. Waged war almost continually against his revolting subjects, made several expeditions into Armenia, into Syria against the kings of Hamath and Damascus ; imposed a tribute upon Jehu, king of Juda, upon the princes of Chaldea and Phoenicia, and about the end of his life had to suppress the revolts of his son, Sardanapal. Shalmaneser V. — King of Assyria, successor of Teglath- Phalasar, reigned from 725 to 712 b. c. Attacked Ossee, the king of Israel, impris-

    oned him, and led a great number of Is- raelites into captivity on the shores of the Tigris.

    Sheol (Hebr. the place of departed spir- its). — The original is in the authorized ver- sion, and means grave, hell, or pit; in the revised version of the Old Testament the word Sheol is substituted. It corresponds to the word Hades in the Greek classic lit- erature. See Immortality.

    Shepherd {Sisters of the Good). See Sisters.

    Shrine. — A casket or receptacle for something held sacred. Sometimes small and portable, at others fixed in a suitable place. Tombs of holy people were called shrines, and the term came to be applied to that with which they were connected.

    Shrovetide (Ang.-Sax. jcr«/a«, toshrive, to confess, literally means " confession- time"). — The name given to the days im- mediately preceding Ash Wednesday, which, indeed, the whole period after Septuagesima Sunday appears to have been. They were days of preparation for the peni- tential time of Lent, the chief part of which preparation consisted in receiving the sacrament of penance, that is, in " be- ing shriven," or confessing.

    Sichem (the modern Naf louse). — An- cient city of Palestine, situated in the midst of a valley formed by mount Hebal and mount Garizim, south of Samaria. It was a Levitical city, of the tribe of Ephraim. Its inhabitants, having insulted Dina, daughter of Jacob, were massacred by her brethren. Achimelech, son of Gedeon, to punish them for revolting, de- stroyed the city, which was later on rebuilt by Jeroboam. At Sichem the assembly of the ten tribes of Israel took place and here they resolved to form a separate kingdom. Under the Persian kings, it was the center of the worship of the Samaritans. Near it was Jacob's well, where our Saviour talked with the woman of Samaria.

    Sidon (now called Saide). — Celebrated city of Phoenicia, on the Mediterranean sea, north of Tyre and Sarepta. It is one of the most ancient cities in the world, and is believed to have been founded by Sidon, the eldest son of Chanaan. In the time of Homer, the Sidonians were emi- nent for their trade and commerce, their wealth and prosperity. Upon the division of Chanaan among the tribes by Josue,



    Simon Magus

    Sidon fell to the lot of Aser ; but that tribe never succeeded in obtaining possession of it. The Sidonians continued long under their own government and kings, though sometimes tributary to the kings of Tyre. They were subdued successively by the Babylonians, Egyptians, Seleucidae and Romans, the latter of whom deprived them of their freedom. Many of the inhabitants became followers of our Saviour, and there was a Christian Church at Sichem, when St. Paul visited it on his voyage to Rome ( Acts xxvii. 3). Its present population is estimated at 15,000.

    Sidonius Apollinaris (St.) (430-488). — Latin poet, born at Lyons. Elected bishop of Clermont (472), distinguished himself by his virtues and courageously suffered per- secution from part of the Visigoth kings. His poems, panegyrics, 147 letters, etc., are full of interest for the history of his period. F. Aug. 23d.

    Sig^ of the Cross. See Cross.

    Sila or Silo. — Town of Palestine, in the tribe of Ephraim, south of Sichem and north of Bethel. Capital of the Hebrews from the time of their entrance into the Promised Land until the reign of David. In this city Josue divided the land among the twelve tribes. Here they deposited the Ark of the Covenant and the Taber- nacle. The ruins of the city are to-day known under the name of Kharbet Siloun.

    Silas or Silvanus (the former name being a contraction of the latter). — One of the chief men among the first disciples of our Saviour, which disciples have been supposed by some to have numbered seventy. On the occasion of a dispute at Antioch, on the obsersance of the legal ceremonies, St. Paul and St. Barnabas were chosen to go to Jerusalem, to ad- vise with the Apostles ; they returned with Judas and Silas. Silas joined himself to St. Paul ; and after Paul and Barnabas had separated, he accompanied St. Paul to visit the Churches of Syria and Cilicia, and the towns and provinces of Lycaonia, Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia.

    Siloe. — A fountain under the walls of Jerusalem, on the east, between the city and the brook Cedron. It formed two ponds or ptscince rendered famous by a miracle of Jesus who gave eyesight to a man born blind. The tomb of the Prophet Isaias was near by.

    Silverius (St.). — Pope from 536 to 538; born at Frosinone. Successor of St. Agapetus, refused to restore the Patriarch Anthymus to the see of Constantinople; deposed as a Eutychian heretic, was perse- cuted by the Empress Theodora, carried off by Belisarius, and banished to Patara (Lycia), then on the island Palmaria, where he died of hunger. F. June 20th.

    Simeon. — Second son of Jacob and of Lia, was retained as hostage by Joseph, when his brethren went to buy grain in Egypt ; took part with Levi in the massa- cre of the inhabitants of Sichem. He gave his name to one of the twelve tribes ; but his descendants had only a small terri- tory cut off from the tribe of Juda.

    Simeon (St.). — Aged Jew, to whom it had been revealed that he would not die before having seen the Saviour of the world. He was in the Temple when the Blessed Virgin carried thither the Child Jesus ; re- ceived the divine Child in his arms and said : "Now, O Lord, let Thy servant de- part in peace."

    Simeon (St.). — Nephew of the Blessed Virgin, became a disciple of Jesus Christ; second bishop of Jerusalem (67). After the death of St. James he was martyred by order of Atticus, governor of Palestine under Trajan, in 107.

    Simeon, (St.) (390-460) (surnamed Sty- lites). — Anchorite, born at Cisan, Cilicia. Celebrated for his fasts and austerities. He spent thirty years on the top of a pillar near Antioch, where he led a most austere life, preaching with truly apostolic power and wonderful success, to the populous nomadic tribes that flocked to him from the vast Syrian desert, Arabia, and even Persia. F. Jan. 5th.

    Simon (St.). — One of the twelve Apos- tles of Jesus Christ, surnamed the " Cha- naanite"or" Zealot," born in Galilee, per- haps at Cana, preached the faith in Egypt and in several other countries of Africa, especially in Mauritanea, then returned into the East and carried the Gospel into Persia, where he suffered martyrdom with St. Jude. F. Oct. 28th.

    Simon Magns (surnamed "the father of all heresies ") . — Was a native of Gitton, in Samaria. By his skill in magic he attained great influence among his countrymen and gained many followers. He received bap-

    Simon Stock



    tism from the deacon Philip. When St. Peter and St. John came to Samaria, Simon, seeing the miraculous gifts bestowed by these Apostles, offered money to them to obtain the power of conferring the Holy Spirit, for which he was severely rebuked. He became the founder of a sect named after him *' Simonians." He pretended to be the Messias who appeared in Samaria as the Father, in Judea as the Son, and among the Gentiles as the Holy Ghost. A certain Helen, a public prostitute from Tyre, became a follower of Simon, who called her " Ennoia," that is, "the first thought that proceeded from him." This magician is said to have met a tragic end in attempting to imitate the Ascension of our Lord. Another account has it that he perished through wishing to rival Christ in His resurrection, and he had himself buried alive. The Simonians, also called Helenians, were accused of the vilest de- bauchery, and worshiped their founder as Jupiter, and Helen as Minerva. They soon split into several parties, of which the Dositheans and Menandrians were the most notorious.

    Simon Stock. See Scapular.

    Simony (from Simoti the Magician') (il- licit agreement by which one gives or re- ceives a temporal reward, a pecuniary retribution for something sacred and spir- itual). — Simony has various forms; it al- ways constitutes a contempt of sacred things, for which it finds an equivalent in a perishable good. Often also, it would cause disturbance in the Church, by call- ing unworthy men to the functions of the hierarchy. A great number of councils and many sovereign Pontiflfs Have con- demned simony. All theologians consider it a grievous sin. Simony is one of the evils that has caused considerable struggle in the Church, as, for instance, the so- called quarrel of investiture. Kings and feudal lords claimed to have the right to sell ecclesiastical dignities, or at least to confer them at will, which, in practice, led to the same result. It was Pope Gregory VII., who showed himself the most power- ful adversary of simony. See Investi- ture.

    Simplicius (St.). — Pope from 468 to 483, born at Tivoli, successor of St. Hilary, caused the acceptation, in the East, of the authority of the Council of Chalcedon, and combated with firmness the Eutychians.

    Under his Pontificate, took place the de- struction of the empire of the West, through the deposition of Romulus Augustulus. F. March 2d.

    Sin, — Sin is a voluntary transgression of the divine or religious law. There are several kinds of sin : Original sin in which we are born ; actual sin which we commit ourselves by an act of our own free will ; sins of thought, desire, word, action, and omission ; sins of weakness and of malice ; capital and noncapital sins. Sin is imputable as an offense against God, or a real disobedience, only in so far as it unites all the conditions required for a human act. Consequently, all that de- stroys the willful or free action, exonerates from all sin, as also all that weakens these powers diminishes, proportionately, the malice of our faults. Thus, what we do through error, if the error is morally in- vincible, cannot be imputed to us. It is no sin, or as it has sometimes been defined, only a material sin. It is the same with the indeliberate movements, which scho- lasticism calls motus frimo frimi. As to the actions performed with half knowledge, such as, for instance, the acts of a man half asleep, either they are not imputable at all or are imputable only under the title of venial sins. But the deliberate acts, of which the understanding fully perceives the malice, even though confusedly, and to which the will freely consents, are cer- tainly sins, and mortal sins in grievous matters. To render ourselves guilty, it is not sufficient to know that the action we do is forbidden, or that it is morally bad; besides this knowledge, there must be ad- vertence on the part of him who acts, that is, as the word indicates, at least the virtual attention by which he remarks the moral quality of his action, its goodness or mal- ice. We can commit sin by thought, desire, word, action, and omission. It is a sin if the will stops at an evil thought, immoratur, with pleasure and deliberate purpose, and with consent. If the will goes as far as the desire, this is another sin. We commit a sin of desire, if we wish to commit the act which is the object of a bad thought. We must not wish evil to our neighbor, nor rejoice in the evil that befalls him, on ac- count of temporal advantages we may de- rive from it. We are permitted to rejoice in the inheritance we receive, provided that we do not rejoice in another's death. We are permitted to desire a temporal




    evil to our neighbor, either for his greater good, or in favor of the innocent, or for the general good of the Church and State. We sin by word in holding discourses against faith, religion, charity, and justice; by permitting, for instance, blasphemy, calumny, lying, or per- jury. The sins in words are mortal, in grievous matters, if they are committed with full advertence. We sin by action, if we perpetrate that which is forbidden ; and sin by omission, if we do not do what is commanded. We can sin by omission only, if the omission is an act of the will. Therefore, the omission must be voluntary but it can be this directly or indirectly, in itself or in its cause. If it is voluntary in its cause, it is imputable from' the moment the cause has been posed. If we trans- gress a law on account of error, ignorance which does not entirely excuse from sin, or by yielding to a strong temptation, the sin is called a sin of weakness. If, on the contrary, we incline toward evil know- ingly, of ourselves, by pure choice of the will, then the sin is a sin of malice. The sin of weakness is not always venial ; it may be mortal. Man has duties to fulfil toward God, toward his neighbor, and toward himself. Hence, the distinction of sins toward God, toward our neighbor, and toward ourselves. However, there can be no sin that is not against God, because there is no sin that is not either a trans- gression, more or less direct, of some di- vine, natural, or positive law. Sins are distinguished from one another either by the species that is proper to them, or by the number which multiplies them : hence, as the school expresses itself, the specific distinction and the numerical dis- tinction of sins. Generally, the specific distinction of sins is drawn from the nature of the morally bad act. Heresy, for in- stance, despair, blasphemy, lying, calumny, are evidently sins of different species. First, we consider whether sins differ from one another as to the species, if they are opposed to different virtues : thus, heresy, despair, blasphemy, are sins dis- tinct in their species, because they are opposed to different virtues ; namely, heresy to faith, despair to hope, blas- phemy to religion. Second, if they are opposed to different functions of the same virtue. Under this title, theft and homi- cide, although opposed to the same virtue, — to the virtue of justice, — are neverthe- less sins of a different nature. Third,

    if they are opposed to the same virtue, but in a contrary sense. Thus despair and presumption, avarice and prodigality, form different species of sins. Fourth, sins are again distinct as to species, if they are opposed to the same virtue in a different manner, although not contrary; such are, in regard to the virtue of justice, simple theft {furtu/n), and rape {rapina). It happens quite often that one and the same act is opposed to different virtues and contains several species of sins. Circum- stances change the species of sin, if they imprint upon it a new character of malice, which it has not by itself. It is certain that we must declare in confession all the cir- cumstances that change the species of sin; the Council of Trent is clear on this point. The penitent is also obliged to answer cor- rectly, and always conformably to the truth, the questions which the confessor deems necessary to put to him, in order to assure the integrity of confession. But is he obliged to make known the notably aggravating circumstances, that is, those which, without changing the species of sin, notably aggravate or increase its malice.? This is a controverted question; we must as much as possible, declare in confession the number of mortal sins, both interior and exterior, of which we have rendered ourselves guilty. Now, the nu- merical distinction is drawn from two sources, namely : from the multiplicity of the acts of the will morally interpreted, and from the diversity of the objects. Mortal sin is thus designated, because it deprives us of sanctifying grace, which is the life of our soul, and renders us worthy of death or of eternal damnation. Venial sin is that which does not destroy sanctify- ing grace, but weakens it. For a mortal sin, three things are required, namely: i. The matter must be grievous, either in itself, or on account of the circumstances, or on account of the end which the per- petrator has in view. 2. The actual or virtual, clear or confused advertence of the malice of the object, must be plain and perfect. 3. The direct or indirect consent of the will must also be plain and perfect. If one of these three conditions is wanting, the sin is only venial. Mortal sin in its kind, ex genere sua, may become venial in three ways: i. If there is light- ness of matter. 2. If there is want of a perfect consent. 3. If the advertence is im- perfect. Several slight matters may form a grave and sufficient matter for a mortal




    sin ; such is the case if they are united by themselves or morally, as are the omis- sions of the divine office, the violations of fast, repeated several times within one day. Also, it is important to remark that there are sins which admit no lightness of matter; such are, among others, idolatry, apostasy, heresy, simony, perjury, duel- ing, homicide, fornication, and adultery. Venial sin, by its nature, may become mortal in five ways: i. By the end we have in view : the one, for instance, who uses somewhat too free language, with the intention of leading his neighbor to commit a grievous fault, sins mortally. 2, If in committing a slight fault, we com- mit this fault with the actual disposition to commit a mortal sin, rather than to ab- stain from it. 3. By the formal contempt of the law or legislator considered as such. 4. On account of scandal in regard to children, domestics, or other persons. 5. On account of th(! proximate danger to fall into a grievous fault. In this case we must declare in confession the species of the sin to which we exposed ourselves, either committed or not committed.

    Sin {Original). — We read in Genesis, that Adam, our first father, was placed in an earthly paradise, a place of delights where he lived happy and free from the miseries of this life as long as he preserved innocence ; that the devil assumed the form of a serpent, and seduced Eve, the first wo- man, who ate of the forbidden fruit and en- ticed her husband to eat thereof; and that, by this disobedience, Adam drew upon himself and upon his whole posterity the disfavor of heaven. " God," says Bossuet, " regards all men as a single man in the one from whom He wishes all to go forth." Now, the memory of the innocence and happiness of man, in the earthly paradise, has preserved itself in the golden age of the poets ; as also the ages of silver, cop- per, and iron were less happy than the first, reminding us of the degradation of mankind and of the progressive depravity of men, such, as is reported in the Sacred Books. The fall of mankind, the original sin, is a dogma of religion, of primitive revelation. It is the belief of Christians; it was the belief of the Jews and Patriarchs, as can be seen in the Book of Job. We also find this belief, although greatly al- tered, among all the nations of the earth. It is of faith that, the Blessed Virgin Mary excepted, all men are born with the sin of Adam- The Council of Trent has formally

    decided, under pain of anathema : i. That Adam, the first man, having transgressed the commandment of God in the earthly paradise, immediately lost the holiness and justice in which he had been created; that he incurred, through the offense of this prevarication, God's wrath and indigna- tion, and, in consequence thereof, death, ' with which he had been threatened, and, with death, the captivity under the power of the devil, who, since that time, held the empire of death ; adding that Adam fell entirely, both as to body and soul, from the state in which he had been created. 2. That the evil has been hurtful even to his posterity; that he lost for himself and for us the justice and holiness which he had received from God; that having soiled himself through the sin of disobedience, he transmitted to all mankind, not only death and the pains of the body, but also the sin which is the death of the soul.

    In regard to the history of the tempta- tion and the fall of our first parents, as related in Genesis iii., we must not be astonished when we find therein wonderful particulars. Man, according to the orig- inal design of the Creator, was not to have that unfortunate interior inclination towards evil which is our sad inheritance. And, nevertheless, God, having created him free, wished to try his fidelity. How could He try him, since neither Adam nor Eve felt the sting of concupiscence? He could do this only by permitting a foreign agent, the devil, to tempt them. But how could the devil, a pure spirit, tempt them, except by adopting a sensible form or by making use of an animate being? And, finally, how could God try the fidelity of His reasonable and free creature in a more natural, and, so to say, more logical man- ner, than by requiring from him an ex- terior act of obedience, easy in itself, con- sisting in not eating of a forbidden fruit, which the obedience due to the Creator forbade him to taste, but for which every human passion aroused by the tempter, pride, sensuality, curiosity, the spirit of independence, prompted both the man and the woman to desire.

    Hence Catholic tradition has not been unreasonable in taking the account of Genesis in the literal sense. With right has it believed that, since what precedes and follows this account is historical and not mythological, there was good reason to believe that the account itself is no myth, but the pure and simple expression




    of truth. Ancient traditions of mankind justify tlie general interpretation of tlie Churcla in regard to the subject in question. One objects, it is true, that all the primitive remembrances, among whatever people they may be, are alle- gorical and mythological, and that the Hebrew people cannot form an exception to the general rule. But we may ask : Why not? Because all religions boast of being true, does it follow that they are all false without exception.? We expressly maintain that tlie Bible is not a book like the others, just as the Christian religion is not a religion like the others. We be- lieve that Genesis alone gives us the ex- planation of the real origin of evil upon earth, while all other explanations con- ceived with great pains by the philoso- phers or invented spontaneously by popular imagination explain nothing.

    Another reproach is made to Genesis : that of wounding the moral feeling in making us responsible for a fault which we have not committed. Certainly we have to admit that at first sight there is something mysterious, and even terrible, in this solidarity which renders us partially responsible, after so many elapsed genera- tions, for a fault which we have not com- mitted. But the enemies of the Bible do not obser\'^e, when they attack this won- derful third chapter of Genesis, which teaches us more about man and human nature than all the philosophers together — they do not observe that Moses pro- claims an incontestable truth, the law of solidarity, one of the greatest laws that govern the world.

    The heavenly bodies attract one another and move themselves reciprocally accord- ing to the laws of universal gravitation. Men are no more independent or isolated ; they naturally exercise upon one another an efficacious influence, either for good or for evil. The entire universe is like a great organism in which everything is con- nected and bound together; and just as every individual feels the pain when one of his parts is attacked, so also a local dis- order may beget a general trouble, extend- ing itself far beyond the sphere where it took rise.

    Hence it is not only in the particular case of original sin, but in a multitude of occasions and circumstances, that we are solidaries of one another and that the Creator makes us carry the weight of the sins of our fathers. We rejoice in their

    virtues, we suffer for their faults and vices. The parents transmit to their children their own health or diseases, and now and then something of their own good or evil dispositions. The past has in the history of nations and individuals a long re-echoing. Glory and honor are an inheritance in the family like goods and riches, and the in- famy of the name imprints itself like a scar of shame on the forehead of the children. In society, the prosperity of all depends upon the government of a few; good or bad laws, made by a few men or even by a single one, save or destroy the people ; the faults of the chiefs fall as calamities on the heads of those whom they lead, and entire nations groan during centuries under the weight of ancient crimes. A victory or a defeat may fix the lot of a whole country for generations. Those brilliant popula- tions of Asia Minor, who shone so glori- ously at the beginning of our era, have seen their civilization disappear, because they were wanting in strength to resist the conquest of the Crescent, and their de- graded descendants are hardly to-day a shadow of what their ancestors were in ancient times. K Charles Martel had not crushed on the fields of Poitiers the Arabs of Spain, what would have become of the European peoples .'' Would not the Moslem invasion have dried up in its source that great river of civilization which has flown since so abundantly through all Europe? Therefore, the European peoples have triumphed with the Franks of Charles, just as the present victims of the heavy yoke of Mohammed have been conquered and enslaved in the person of their an- cestors.

    Such is the law of human solidarity, a general and universal law which is limited neither by time, nor by space ; which ap- plies to the individual, to the family, and to society; which renders in a certain measure the children responsible for the faults of their fathers, the subjects re- sponsible for the faults of their kings or chiefs, both heirs of the merits and vices of their ancestors and of those whom they have governed. It partly explains both the decay and the ennobling of races, the prosperity and power of nations as well as their weaknesses and misfortunes.

    " These are facts which it is impossible to dispute. The law that governs them is justified without difficulty, because this solidarity is in itself a good and wise in- stitution. Thanks to this, mankind is not




    merely an incoherent agglomeration of in- dividuals, strangers one to another, but a family intimately united, wherein the goods of each one turn to the advantage of all. With this view God has instituted it; it is the perversion of the human will that abuses it and draws pernicious effects from it. In this regard, it is with soli- darity as with liberty, which is also an excellent thing, in spite of the lamentable abuse that is made thereof. Also, with one common accord, men accept these facts without protesting; they even freely conform their conduct accordingly. The guilty ma'n is struck by society in his goods, in his honor, and in his life, and his children are condemned to suffer from the consequences of his ruin and infamy; the whole population of a city is punished for a rebellion in which many had taken no part; a people are afflicted with the calamities of war in revenge for an injury of which its representatives alone are per- sonally guilty; and nobody decries this as an injustice. The reason is because all are deeply impressed with the sentiment of unity in the family, in the city, and in the nation.

    " Original sin explains itself with the help of these principles, it is the conse- quence of the solidarity which God, the Creator and Sovereign Master, was pleased to establish between the first man and the posterity that should arise from him. This conduct of God might offer some difficulty, if the victims of original solidarity found themselves hurt in their strict and indi- vidual right as creatures. But, no; the goods of which mankind remains deprived through the fault of its chief were not due to it. The Creator was free to refuse them purely and simply; with much more reason could He lix at will the possession thereof under such or such a condition. If therefore God had not again raised the posterity of Adam after the fall. He would have left it deprived of these excellent and gratuitous gifts, but, according to the opinion of a numerous and authorized theological school. He would not have de- prived it of anything that the divine at- tributes require of the creature exempt from sin.

    " It is true that the state to which man- kind finds itself reduced is presented by Catholic teaching as a real state of sin. But this point does not involve any diffi- culty when we consider the very peculiar kind of sin in question. There is in our

    fallen state material for sin, because the first good of which men, coming into the world, are deprived, is a superior holiness, implying the idea of moral rectitude; but this priva- tion is effectively imputed to sin only so far as it is voluntary. Now, it is not voluntary by the personal will of each one, but by the will of the whole race, morally personified in its chief. Hence, properly speaking, it is a family sin, a sin of race, and not di- rectly and properly a personal sin ; it is the sin of mankind, or, as St. Thomas says, whose doctrine we here follow, it is the sin of the nature and not of the person. When theology admits that every man is born guilty, it is only in the measure and man- ner which this explanation permits. In fact, it contains nothing at which sound rea- son can feel offended." (M. Boisbourdin.)

    Sins {Capital ). — We count seven capi- tal or deadly sins or vices. They are so called because they are, as it were, seven sources from which all other sins or vices flow. And in fact seven such fountain heads of sinful actions may be easily dis- criminated. First, we may distinguish a fourfold immoderate appetite : of spiritual goods, namely, of praise and honor {pride); oi external goods {avarice); of two distinct kinds of sensual pleasures , {intetnpcrance and lust). Moreover, we may distinguish a twofold repugnance: against the difficulties connected with the performance of good works {slotk) ; against the good or welfare of our neighbor {envy) ; and this latter repugnance, if greatly in- tensified, develops into a special vice {ang-er).

    Sinai (to-day Djebel-Tor and Djebel- Mousa). — Mountain northwest of Arabia, northeast of Mount Horeb and between the gulfs of Suez and Akabah. Here God dictated to Moses the tables of the law. Upon one of its two summits, the Emperor Justinian built a convent (height 5,400 feet), which still exists. It resembles a small fortress and is the seat of an arch- bishopric whose titulary resides at Cairo. To-day this mountain is called " Djebel- Katherin," on account of a chapel where it is believed the remains of St. Catharine reposed during sixty years, and from which place they were transported into a church which is at the foot of the moun- tain. Near this chapel flows a fountain which is claimed to be miraculous. About five or six hundred feet from the chapel is pointed out a stone, from four to five feet




    high, and about three feet thick, which is claimed to be the rock from which Moses caused water to come forth.

    Sion. — One of the mountains of Jerusa- lem, and by extension this city itself.

    Sion (Missionary Priests of Notre Dame of). — This community was canon- ically erected in Paris, June 20th, 1855, and received a first laudatory letter from the Holy See, Dec. 14th, 1852. The mission which distinguishes it, is that which our Lord has especially recommended to His Apostles: " Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel " (Matt. x. 6).

    Sion (Notre Dame of). — The Institute of Notre Dame of Sion was founded in 1842. Its rule and constitutions received the approbation of the Holy See, Sept. 8th, 1863. This congregation took rise in consequence of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin in the Church of St. An- drew delle Fratte, at Rome. The Israelite, converted by a miracle, Alphonse Ratis- bonne, and his eldest brother, the Abb^ Theodore Ratisbonne, laid the foundation of the work, destined to second the con- version of the Jews and to procure Chris- tian education for the young neophytes. Such was the first and principal object of this institute, which soon achieved consid- erable growth. For the members, becom- ing every day more numerous, the congre- gation founded, besides Jthe establishments for Catechumens, several academies for young Christian girls, as well as homes for orphans and industrial establishments for the poor. The mother house of the Daughters of Sion is at Paris. The con- gregation possesses houses in the Holy Land, in Turkey, in Moldavia, and in Eng- land. But the most remarkable of these colonies is that of Jerusalem, where it oc- cupies the Monastery of Ecce Homo, built on the site of the palace of Pontius Pilate. Not far from the holy city, the religious direct a large orphan asylum, known under the name of Saint-Jean-in-Montana.

    Siricius (St.). — Pope from 384 to 398, born at Rome; successor of St. Damasus. Combated the different sects which deso- lated the Church during his Pontificate, the Manicheans, Priscillianists, Novatians, etc. He was the first Bishop of Rome who assumed the title of Pope. F. Nov. 26th.

    Sirmium (Councils of). — Sirmium, in ancient geography, was an important city

    of Lower Pannonia, situated on the Save. Here four ecclesiastical councils were held, from 349 to 359. The second, composed of Arian bishops, published a formula of faith which was accepted by many Cath- olics ; but the third drew up a distinctly heretical formula.

    Sisara. — General of Jaban, king of Asor. He was conquered by Barac, near Mount Thabor, and, troubled in his mind on account of the defeat of his troops, jumped from his chariot to flee on foot. He took refuge in the tent of Haber the Cinite, and, while asleep, Jahel, the wife of Haber, drove a nail into his head and killed him.

    Sisinnius. — Pope, born in Syria, succes- sor of John VII., in 708; reigned only a few days.

    Sisterhood. — Sisters collectively, or as a society of sisters, in religious usage an association of women who are bound by monastic vows or are otherwise de- voted to religious work as a vocation. The members of a sisterhood may be bound by irrevocable vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and are then called " nuns," or may be merely under a rule and bound by revocable vows. Among the more impor- tant of these religious communities, be- sides those described throughout this work, are :

    Sisters of Charity (of Cincinnati, Ohio). — They are a branch of the com- munity founded by Mother Seton at Em- mittsburg, Maryland. In 1850, when the Emmittsburg Sisters affiliated with France, the community in Cincinnati, not wishing to adopt the French dress and customs, became independent. Mother house at Mt. St. Joseph, Ohio.

    Sisters of Notre Dame de Bon Secours, established in 1882 by sisters from Troyes, France, where the mother house was be- gun by Rev. Sebastian Millet, who was the founder of this religious order in 1840. The sisters of this order devote themselves to the care of the sick in their own homes. They undertake any kind of nursing for physical or mental diseases, without dis- tinction of creed. The community has no fixed terms of remuneration for the sis- ters' services; however, the families re- ceiving such services are expected to do what they can toward supporting the institution, the poor being attended free of charge ; consequently, the community




    has no other support than that which the sisters receive from private nursing. Gen- eral mother house at Troyes, France ; con- vent at 1 195 Lexington Avenue, New York city.

    Sisters of Charity of the United States. — This sisterhood was founded by the saintly Mother Eliza A. Seton. This de- voted lady was the daughter of Protestant parents, in whose faith she was educated. She received the gift of faith in 1805 at Rome, Italy, and on June 2d, 1809, she es- tablished at Emmittsburg, Maryland, a community which she called " St. Joseph's Sisterhood." Her first companions were Misses Cecilia O'Conway and Mary Murphy, both of Philadelphia. Mother Seton and her ecclesiastical superiors hav- ing determined to found the community on the plan of the Daughters of St. Vincent de Paul, she applied to France for sisters to aid the undertaking. The mother gen- eral consented, and four sisters were deputed to come to America and take charge of the work; but their journey was prevented by the government of Bona- parte, which refused to permit the sisters to leave France. A copy of the French rule was, however, obtained, and the sis- ters began to observe it with certain modi- fications suited to the circumstances of the country. The saintly Mother Seton passed to her reward Jan. 4th, 1821. In 1850 a union was effected between St. Joseph's Sisterhood at Emmittsburg, and the Daughters of Charity in Paris, and Dec. 3d, 1850, the Community of Emmitts- burg assumed the habit worn by the sisters in France. Mother house at St. Joseph's Academy, Emmittsburg, Maryland.

    Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and colored people. This congre- gation was founded in 1889. The object of the institute is the elevation and Chris- tianizing of the Indians and colored races. The work of the institute embraces the nursing and visitation of the sick, the charge of schools, and orphanages, and the instruction of adults in the princi- ples of Christian doctrine. Mother house and novitiate at Cornwells, Maud P. O., Pennsylvania

    School Sisters of Notre Dame. — These sisters came from Europe in 1847, and es- tablished their first convent at Baltimore, Maryland. In 1850 they went to Milwau- kee and founded the mother house in that city; in 1876 two provinces were formed and the first convent at Baltimore became

    the mother house of the Eastern province ; in 1897, the Golden Jubilee Year of the Sisters in America, a third province was formed of the southern missions. Sancta Maria in Ripa, the mother house of the new province, is situated on the Missis- sippi near the southern suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri.

    Sisters of Providence. — The Order of Sisters of Providence from Ruille, France, opened the first institute of their order in America, Oct. 22d, 1840, at St. Mary's, near Terre Haute, Indiana. Their object is the higher education of young ladies. Mother house at Brightside, Holyoke, Massachusetts.

    Ladies of the Sacred Heart. — The So- ciety of the Sacred Heart was founded at Amiens in the year 1800, under the direc- tion of Father Joseph Varin, S. J., by Mademoiselle Madeleine Sophie Barat. It was approved by Pope Pius VII. in 1826. The community is semi-cloistered, and follows the Rule of the Society of Jesus. The members of this society devote their lives to the Christian education of youth by conducting boarding schools and paro- chial schools, as well as taking charge of the orphan asylums for girls. The society was introduced in the United States in the year 1818. General mother house at Paris, France.

    Visitation Nuns. — The Order of the Visitation was founded at Annecy, Savoy, in 1610, by St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, and St. Jane Frances Fremiot de Chantal, for the purpose of opening a re- treat to persons desirous of the religious life, but too infirm to enter an austere or- der, and in which they might sanctify themselves by prayer and good works, and help in the salvation of souls. The Visi- tation was introduced in America in 1799 when the first monastery was established at Georgetown, District of Columbia. In this country the members make the educa- tion of young girls the principal object of their order.

    Sisters of Charity of Nazareth. — A sis- terhood whose object is similar to that of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent of Paul. Its mother house and novitiate is near Bardstown, Kentucky, where the sis- terhood was founded in 1812, by Father John B. David, afterwards Bishop of Bards- town.

    Sisters of Christian Charity. — A com- munity established in 1849 at Paderborn, Germany, by Paulina Mallinkrot. Their




    first house in the United States was opened in 1873 ill New Orleans, by Mother Pau- lina herself, who the same year, established the mother house of the North-American province at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. At present they have many houses in the United States, and are engaged in the care of hospitals and orphanages, or in the work of parish and boarding schools.

    Sisters of the Holy Cross, whose Amer- ican mother house is at Notre Dame, In- diana. This community arose in France in 1834, ^"^ ^^^ introduced into the United States in 1843. They are engaged in teach- ing in parish and boarding schools.

    Sisters of the Institute of the B. V. M. or Loretto Nuns. — This community orig- inated with some pious English ladies, exiles from their country on account of their religion, who formed themselves into a community at Munich, Bavaria, about the year 1631. The "English Virgins," as they were popularly called, were not approved by the Holy See until 1703. In 1669, a colony of these sisters returned to England and opened a convent in London, but on account of persecutions removed to York. The community has convents in most of the British colonies and are prin- cipally devoted to the care of boarding schools.

    Sisters of Loretto. — A sisterhood founded in Kentucky by Father Charles Nerinks. The object of the community, which now numbers more than five hun- dred members, is the instruction of girls in parish and boarding schools.

    Sisters of the Most Precious Blood. — This congregation was founded in Italy, in 1814, by Father Gaspar del Bufalo, and was approved by the Holy See in 1820. In 1844, a colony arrived in the United States and the mother house of the American province is at Maria Stein, Mercer county, Ohio.

    Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary. — A congregation founded in 1848, at Be- ziers, France, and was soon after intro- duced into the United States. Its first establishment, now its mother house, was in Fordham, New York city. This com- munity mostly has charge of orphans and parish schools.

    Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of Re- fuge, called Good Shepherd. — This com- munity has for its chief object the reforma- tion of fallen women. It was founded in France, in 1646, by Father Eudes and Marguerite L' Amy. The habit consists

    of a robe, scapular, and mantle, all of a white color, with a black veil and silver heart on the breast. Pope Alexander VII. erected the Congregation as a religious Order by a Bull of January 2, 1666. Their first house was at Caen, France. It has more than a hundred houses scattered throughout the Catholic world.

    Sisters of Our Lady of the Good Shep- herd. — Mother Mary of St. Euphrasia Pelletier, the first Superior-General of this Congregation, entered the community of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of Refuge at Tours, France, in 1815. She was so well adapted for the work among the penitents, that before she had com- pleted her twenty-first year, she was put in charge of them. A few years later she was elected prioress of the Monastery, the Pope granting the required dispensation, as she had not attained the canonical age. In 1827 she was invited by the clergy of Angers to take charge of a Refuge, which they were foiuiding on the bequest of a pious widow, and having obtained due au- thorization from the ecclesiastical authori- ties, she accepted the call. The House being successfully established, she under- took the reorganization of the Order to further its missionary development. Orig- inally each house was an independent institution. There was no center for con- sultation, no source whence weak and struggling foundations might claim aid and sympathy, no way of distributing and interchanging the religious so as to place each sister in the position where the Insti- tute would obtain from her the best service. Mother Mary of St. Euphrasia's plan was the centralization of the Order, Angers should be made the Motherhouse, and the general government of all houses which should be founded from Angers, should be intrusted to the Superior of said house. She won for her plan the approval and approbation of the Bishop of Angers and other churchmen, also the substantial aid of several noblemen, as the means which she proposed to realize her plan were emi- nently practical and her disinterestedness and rectitude of intention evident. In 1835 the Pope approved of the change in the government of the Order, and also the new title. Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd of Angers, and declared that the religious were to continue to enjoy all the rights and privileges granted to the ancient Order of the Refuge. The growth of the Order of Our Lady of Charity of the Good

    Sisters of the Free Spirit 657 Slavery and the Church

    Shepherd of Angers was so rapid and ex- tensive that in 1857 Pope Pius IX. issued a decree dividing the Order into Provinces, The Provincial Superiors, as well as the Local Superiors, to be appointed by the Superioress-General, residing at Angers. In the United States there are eight Prov- inces, viz.: Louisville, St. Louis, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Baltimore, New Orleans, and St. Paul.

    Little Sisters of the Poor. — This most charitable institute was founded in 1840 by the Abb^ of St. Servan, ( M. le Pailleur) aided by four ladies of humble birth, for the support, relief, and nursing of aged or in- firm persons. He soon organized them into a community. In 1883 the sisterhood counted 3,500 members and maintained 25,000 old people, in 223 houses, or "Homes." Their first house in the United States was opened in 1868 in Brook- lyn, and now the community has a house in almost every large city of the country.

    Sisters of the Humility of Mary. — This community was founded in the diocese of Nancy, France, in the year 1855, by Rev. John Joseph Begel, parish priest of Laitre. In 1864 the founder, with the whole com- munity, immigrated to the United States, and by . order of Rt. Rev. A. Rappe, Bishop of Cleveland, settled near the vil- lage of New Bedford, Lawrence county, Pennsylvania. The convent grounds and vicinity are now known by the name of " Villa Maria." Miss Antoinette Poitiers, in religion Mother Mary Magdalene, was the foundress and first superioress, after whose death, March 7th, 1864, Mother M. Anna became superioress. The principal good works in which the sisters are en- gaged are teaching, the care of the sick, and the maintenance and education of or- phans. For Sisters of St. Joseph, see Joseph.

    Sisters of the Free Spirit. See Breth- ren.

    Sixtus (name of five Popes). — Sixtus I. — Pope from 1 17 to 127 ? Born at Rome, where he suffered martyrdom under Ha- drian. Sixtus II. — Pope from 257 to 258. Born at Athens, suffered martyrdom at Rome under Valerian. Sixtus III. — Pope from 432 to 440. Born and died at Rome. Labored together with St. Cyril at the reunion of the Churches of the Ori- ent. Sixtus IV. — Pope from 1471 to 1484. Was a patron of literature and largely increased the Vatican library. 42

    Built, besides several other churches, the celebrated Sixtine chapel, and adorned Rome with many magnificent edifices. He placed the " Seraphic Doctor," Bona- venture, on the calendar of saints, sought to put an end to the controversies be- tween the Thomists and Scotists and con- demned the errors of Peter of Osma, a professor of Salamanca. His principal efforts were directed toward uniting the Christian princes in a league against the Turks. But he met with hardly any suc- cess ; the greater powers refused to obey his call. Sixtus V. — Pope from 1585 to 1590. Was a man gifted with an extraor- dinary capacity for government; the states of the Church were governed with admirable skill and tact. He established fifteen congregations for the administra- tion of public affairs, enlarged the Vati- can library, and established new printing offices for the purpose of securing im- proved editions of the " Church Fathers." He had obelisks brought from Egypt; he completed the cupola of St. Peter's ca- thedral, constructed a superb aqueduct on the Quirinal Hill, and left an ample revenue to his successor.

    Slavery and the Church. — The Church could not have abolished slavery all at once, both in principle and practice with- out shaking society to its foundations, and inflicting untold misery on the slaves them- selves. She was bound to carry out the doctrine laid down by St. Paul. But she cleared the way for its gradual abolition, by opening her gates to those wretched be- ings, and by striving to make them spirit- ually and morally free. Heedless to the scoffs and gibes of the heathen, Christians confess *' that their aim is to train all men in the Word, although Celsus is opposed to their so doing. Accordingly we teach slaves how to awaken within themselves nobler sentiments, and thus to be made free through the Word " {Origen C. Cels., iii. 44). Thus Christianity succeeded in the work which heathenism had declared to be impossible. Many slaves were con- verted into virtuous Christians, and armed with patience and fortitude, proved them- selves worthy followers of Christ, amid all the dangers and difficulties that encom- passed them. Not a few became saints and martyrs. How many, too, of whom the world has not heard, suffered martyrdom in the houses of their masters and mis- tresses !

    Suppers and



    The Church exhorted Christian masters to treat their slaves as brothers and Chris- tians, and recommended their manumis- sion as a work most pleasing to God. For as slavery sprung from sin (Ham), redemp- tion from sin necessarily entailed the abo- lition of slavery. The sinner is the only slave ; those who are morally born again are free and noble. Hence masters, when converted, gladly gave liberty to their slaves, in order to celebrate the feasts of the Lord with pomp and splendor. Hermes, prefect of Rome, in the reign of Trajan, was converted with his wife and children and 1,250 slaves. On Easter day, when they were baptized, he gave them their civic freedom, and also the means to enable them to make use of their privilege. It is related by Salvian, that slaves were daily receiving the rights of Roman citi- zens, and that they were free to take with them what they had earned as slaves in the houses of their masters. The Church also encouraged these manumissions by allow- ing them to take place within the sacred precincts ; by practically obliterating the distinction of class or rank, and by open- ing her offices to all alike, although due regard for the existing order imposed upon her the duty of a certain amount of dis- cretion. In the Eastern empire the Greek monasteries worked particularly hard for the abolition of slavery. To keep slaves, they declared, was unworthy of man. St. Chrysostom delivered discourses to this effect. He wished Christians to be their own servants, even as Christ suffered not others to minister to Him, or at any rate to keep only such servants as were neces- sary ; but in no case to keep a number of slaves for show. Later on, slaves were to be found in the monasteries and with priests; but they were gently treated and were set free on very easy terms. In the time of St. Louis most of the episcopal sees in the Prankish empire were filled by manumitted slaves. Ebbo, Archbishop of Rheims, the first prelate in the king- dom, was a bondman by birth. To the Middle Ages belongs the honor of abolish- ing slavery proper. By the twelfth cen- tury slaves had disappeared from the Chris- tian states of Europe.

    Islam gave slavery a new lease of life. Many Christians, taken prisoners in war, were carried into slavery by the Moham- medans ; others were sold by Jewish or Christian slave dealers to heathens or Mohammedans. The Church fought against

    this evil. She strove to stir up the secular powers to undertake expeditions to liberate the Christian slaves, and sought to effect their ransom through the instrumentality of her own orders. Unfortunately, with the advent of modern times, the detesta- ble system has once more obtained a foot- ing among Christian peoples. After the discovery of America, negro slavery spread with frightful rapidity. Las Casas's well- meant advice to spare the weak and sickly Indians, and to employ for hard labor those more powerfully built, has had a fatal result. For three hundred years the slave traffic has depopulated the coast of Western Africa. As Eugenius IV., Pius II., Sixtus IV., Innocent VIII., and Leo X., had en- deavored to suppress slavery, so Paul III. (1537) took the human rights of the In- dians and other heathen under his protec- tion. Urban VIII. (1630) worked for the same end. In the Encyclical, In Plurimis, dated May 5th, 1883, Leo XIII., described the abolition of slavery in Brazil as the most welcome present he had received on the j ubilee of his priesthood. Missionaries, like the Jesuit Peter Claver, have devoted their lives to watching, with fatherly solic- itude, over these unhappy beings. Pro- vincial councils urged upon maeters the duty of treating them gently, and in par- ticular secured for those who were married the right of living together. Thus the lot of slaves in the Catholic countries of the South was far better than that of the ne- groes in Africa. In the English colonies of the North the lot of the slaves was in- comparably harsher. Nevertheless, Eng- land has rendered yeoman's service in the slave question.

    Leo XIII. took the opportunity of urg- ing upon the European powers to work for the abolition of slavery in such countries as Asia and Egypt. And, indeed, the ac- counts of the slave traffic in the Soudan are heartrending and bloodcurdling. Yet Islam has never dreamt to this day of rais- ing a finger against the plague spot of hu- man civilization.

    Slippers and Stockings. — The foot cov- ering of the ancients, especially the Ro- mans, consisted of a sole held fast by leather strings, which crossed on the upper part of the foot and passed around the leg. Under the emperors, this covering was replaced, for people of rank, especially princes and senators, by another of a richer description called campagia, adorned




    with gold and purple, and hiding the foot much better. To show by every means possible her veneration for holy things, the Church hastened to give her Pontiffs the senatorial foot covering, the most dis- tinguished then known ; it was her aim to have the august mysteries celebrated with such outward splendor as would command respect and excite sentiments of piety. When not engaged in their functions, the bishops wore the ordinary foot covering. This is the reason why, even to this day, the bishop having reached the church and ascended his throne, assumes the ancient foot covering, and lays it aside again after the holy sacrifice.

    Smet (Peter John de), — A Belgian Jesuit and missionary; born in Dender- monde, Dec. 31st, 1801. In 1821, together with five other theological students, he sailed from Amsterdam in company of Bis- hop Nerinckx. In 1828 he went to St. Louis and assisted in establishing the University of St. Louis, and in 1838 was sent to estab- lish a mission among the Flatheads, west of the Rocky Mountains, who had repeatedly asked for a missionary, and in the course of a few years established flourishing missions among them and other tribes. On different occasions he eflSciently inter- ceded to prevent strife between the United States government and the Indians ; he was also instrumental in ending the Sioux war. He wrote The Oregon Missions and Travels over the Rocky Mountains ; In- dian Letters and Sketches; Western Mis- sions and Missionaries, and New Indian Sketches. He died in St. Louis, Missouri, May 23d, 1872.

    Socialism, is the Utopian doctrine or system, according to which a community or State possesses all land and capital, and distributes to each individual his portion of the land and his occupation. This is indeed a Utopian idea. For how could the State portion out work and goods, ac- cording to the abilities and merits of each individual, without thoroughly knowing all, which is a thing impossible? Would not the most serious complaints of unjust distribution be raised, if one received fer- tile, another barren, land ; if one received an honorable, another a lowly, occupation? The consequence would be, that whenever one person achieved greater results than another, in order to maintain the equality a new distribution would have to be made yearly, or even daily, and thus grounds for

    fresh complaints would be given. More- over, how could the State arbitrarily dis- pose of the private property already existing, since the individual and family are prior to the State, have acquired their possessions independently of it, and would, therefore, be violently deprived of their lawful right? See Property.

    Societies {Secret). — We designate un- der this name the associations whose ends and means their adherents dissimilate, either entirely or partially, to both re- ligious and civil authority. These asso- ciations actually have for their type and center Freemasonry, whose danger Pope Clement XII. first pointed out in 1738. The most of his successors have imitated him, and Leo XIII., in his Encyclical, Hu- manutn Genus, has fully treated on this subject.

    According to this learned Pope, the Ma- sonic sects are, first, in opposition with nat- ural justice and honesty, by the very fact of their secret organization, their rigorous discipline, which goes so far as to impose crimes on the sectarians. How can any one pretend that there is no great danger to fear from these societies on the part of the State? Secondly, they are imbued with principles of naturalism, and try to apply them universally; they unchristian- ize the civil authority and diminish the in- fluence of the Church ; they, especially, attack the Holy See, and shake the re- ligious and spiritual belief; they brag about lay and independent morality, loosen the reins to the passions, favor civil mar- riage and divorce, secularize education, introduce revolutionary principles into the public mind, and knowingly or unknow- ingly prepare the way for communism and socialism.

    Also Leo XIII. has energetically con- firmed the measures taken against them by his predecessors, and which especially carry the decree of excommunication against " those who associate themselves to the sect of Freemasonry or Carbinari, or other sects of the same kind, who machinate, openly or secretly, against the Church or against legitimate authority." Excommunication strikes also "those who favor, in any manner, the above men- tioned sects, and those who do not denounce the coryphees or occult heads, until de- nunciation is made " {Constit. AfostoliccB Sedis, ch. ii., § 4).

    Socinianism. See Unitarians.




    Socrates . — A scholastic or lawyer of Constantinople, under Theodosius II. He wrote a Church History, a continuation of that of Eusebius in seven books, ex- tending from A. D. 305 to 450. He died about the year 400.

    Sodom. — Very ancient city of Pales- tine, capital of Pentapolis. Its crimes became so great that the Lord caused it to be destroyed by fire and brimstone, to- gether with the four neighboring cities of Gomorrha, Seboim, Adama, and Segor, accomplices in its iniquities.

    Solomon (Hebr. the peaceful) (1033-975 B. c). — King of Israel, son of David and Bethsabee, succeeded to his father in 1016. From the beginning of his reign he was compelled to struggle against the preten- sions of his brother Adonias, whom he put to death, together with his principal fol- lowers, the generals Joab and Semei, and suppressed an insurrection of the Idu- means with the help of the king of Egypt, whose daughter he married. From 1012 to 1004, he erected the magnificent temple of Jerusalem, surrounded his capital with a strong wall, adorned it with palaces, also fortified the principal cities of his king- dom, subdued the neighboring nations of Judea, and imposed a tribute on them. His kingdom extended from Egypt to the Euphrates, He was in alliance, political and commercial, with Hiram of Tyre and with other powers, and extended Israeli - tish commerce to all parts of the known world. In his old age, Solomon fell into idolatry and debauchery. Punishment closely followed his crimes: Syria with- drew itself from his obedience ; Jeroboam, one of his generals, excited the tribes, and after Solomon's death his kingdom was divided. Solomon is the author of sev- eral Sacred Books : The Canticle of Can- ticles; Ecclesiastes, and the Book of Proverbs. Some writers also attribute to him the Book of Wisdom.

    Somaschians. — Clerics Regular of the Congregation of St. Mayeul, under the Rule of St. Augustine, whose principal house is at Somasca, Italy. Founded about the year 1528, by Father Emiliani, ap- proved by Paul III., in 1540 and by Pius VI., in 1563, they were erected into a reli- gious order by Pius V., in 1568. Their principal aim is the education of orphans. They have also the direction of the Clem- entine College at Rome.

    Sophonias. — The ninth of the minor Prophets, son of Chusi and nephew of Godolias. He commenced to prophesy under Josias, king of Juda, about the year 624 B. c. His prophecies, written in He- brew, contain three chapters. Great con- formity of style may be remarked between Sophonias and Jeremias, and they foretell nearly the same things.

    Sophronius (St.). — Was born at Da- mascus, about the year 560. He was a soph- ist, or rhetorician, and the friend of John Moschus, a distinguished hermit of Pales- tine, who dedicated to him his work en- titled, Pratum Spirituale {Spiritual Meadow). After the death of his friend, Sophronius became a monk of St. Sabas, about 620. In him. Providence had pro- vided the Church with a faithful champion against the rising heresy of the Monothe- lites. Sophronius strenuously but vainly opposed the adoption of the Monothelite formula, composed by Cyrus and Sergius, the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Con- stantinople, respectively. Being soon after- wards chosen patriarch of Jerusalem (633), he held a synod and issued a synodal letter, in which he ably defends the Catholic faith against the new heresy. He also sent Bishop Stephen of Dora, to Rome, to warn the Pope and the Western bishops of the rising heresy. Besides the synodal letter, we have by this Father seven sermons, a liturgical commentary on the ceremonies of the Mass, and a collection of prayers and hymns. He died about the year 637.

    Sorbonne. — A celebrated school of the- ology, founded in Paris, about the year 1257, by Robert de Sorbon, chaplain and confessor of Louis XI. The College of the Sorbonne became one of the four con- stituent parts, and also the predominant one of the theological faculty in the Uni- versity. It exercised a great influence in ecclesiastical affairs, and on the public mind, especially in the sixteenth and sev- enteenth centuries. During the Revolu- tion it was suppressed and deprived of its endowments. At the reconstruction of the University, under Napoleon I., the build- ing erected for it by Cardinal Richelieu, and still called the Sorbonne, was given to the theological faculty in connection with the faculties of science and belles-lettres.

    Sorln (Edouard) (surnamed "Father Sorin"). — Catholic clergyman and edu- cator; born in Ahuille, near Laval, France,


    66 1

    South Africa

    Feb. 6th, 1814; came to the United States in 1841 to organize a branch of the reli- gious Congregation of the Holy Cross. He labored long among the Indians of western Indiana. The Bishop of Vincennes gave him some land in 1842, upon which to erect the first buildings of what was to become the Notre Dame University. He was its first president, and remained con- nected with it till his death. Died in Notre Dame, Indiana, Oct. 31st, 1893. See Holy Cross Congregation.

    Soter (St.). — Pope from 162 to 170; born at Fondi. Successor of St. Anicetus. He combated the heresy of the Montanists, and was martyred at Rome, under Marcus Aurelius. F. Feb. loth.

    Soul (spiritual and immortal substance, united with the human body during life, and which separates from it at the moment of death). — I am conscious in my being of two orders of distinct phenomena : the one, like those of digestion, of locomotion, are material and fall under the senses. These are p/iysio/ogt'cal iacts. The others, such as thought and its different forms, — memory, reasoning, pleasure, pain, pas- sion, deliberations, resolutions, etc., are immaterial ; they do not fall under the senses ; they are revealed to me only through consciousness ; they are psycho- logical facts. The subject which produces these immaterial phenomena, which feels itself producing them, which has the fac- ulty to produce them, is the immaterial / {Ego), it is the Soul. In connection with the subjects. Intelligence, Sensibility, Will, we treat of the faculties with which the soul is endowed, of the laws that rule them, and of the phenomena that refer to them. When our will exercises itself in a normal and regular manner, we have the power to determine and to make a choice by ourselves, without anything con- straining us, and we are conscious of this liberty. We feel that we are responsible for our free acts, and this constitutes our personality, — that which distinguishes man from the animals. Organic matter, like brute matter, is deprived of spon- taneousness ; it is not conscious of the phenomena which it presents, and it can- not present immaterial ones. That which in us, thinks, judges, wills, is conscious of its acts, of its responsibility, and therefore distinct from the body: it is a spirit. The spirituality of the soul is incontestable ; this is proved by each of the operations, of

    the manner of being, and of the faculties of the Ego. Thus I feel my personal identity; I feel that I remain the same in all the moments of my existence ; with- out this I could not reason, could not re- member and be responsible to-day for that which I did twenty years ago, for the body renews itself continually. Therefore, only a simple, non-composed being, can have personal identity. Also the consciousness of the Ego can reside only in one single, simple being, and not in the reunion of several beings composing a machine; for I feel that it is the same Ego that thinks, suffers, is the subject of numerous psycho- logical phenomena, — phenomena among which reigns a harmony, a wonderful con- nection. Distinct from one another, the soul and body are united. There reigns between them the most intimate relation; they form, so to speak, only one. In the psychological facts, the soul does not act alone; it needs, during our actual organ- ization, the concurrence of the physical organs ; and we have a proof of this fact, when the organic machine is out of order, all the psychological phenomena are greatly modified. So, also, the soul does not ap- pear to be a stranger to any of our physical functions ; it presides over both the opera- tions of our physical organs and those of the mind. It is at once vegetative, sensi- tive, and intellective. (See Animism.) The soul survives the body, "the dust re- turns to the earth out of which it was taken, and the spirit returns to God Who hath given it." For proofs of this, see Immortality.

    South Africa ( Catholicity in) . — When the Dutch Calvinists arrived in South Africa, they drove out the Catholic Portuguese, who had been in possession of the land since Vasco da Gama's discovery. Under the Dutch rule. Catholicity was proscribed, and remained so even under English rule up to 1810. The few French, German, Belgian, and Irish Catholics there, were visited off and on by missionaries from Mauritius, to which apostolic vicariate South Africa belonged. Since 1837, the Cape Colony forms a distinct mission. In 1850 we find there three vicariates : East and West Cape, and Natal. Natal was from the beginning given over to the Oblate Fathers, who had charge of what is now known as Natal, Caferaria, Zulu- land, Basutoland, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State.

    South Africa


    South Africa

    In 1886, the Orange Free State was erected into a vicariate and the Transvaal into a prefecture apostolic.

    1. The Vicariate of Natal. — In 1851 Mgr. AUard, with a feve Oblate Fathers, left Marseilles for Natal, where they found but few European Catholics, and these few soon left for Transvaal, upon the discovery of the goldfields. Twenty-five years ago there were not 800 Catholics in all Natal, to-day there are 12,000, among a million infidels. The present vicar apostolic, Mgr. Jolivet (bishop since 1874), is assisted in the pastorate of that vast district by 20 Oblate Fathers, four lay brothers, and five secular priests. Besides the Trappists and their Third Order of Sisters, there are six religious congregations doing service in the missions. The Sisters of the Holy Family (Bordeaux) have charge of houses at Pietermaritzburg and Durban. The Dominican Sisters teach in the schools at Oakford, Newcastle, and in the Zululand. The Sisterhood of the Holy Cross (Switzer- land)have founded four houses in Caferaria. The Hospital Sisters of St. Augustine have houses at Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Est- court, and Ladysmith. Of late there have arrived also seven sisters from the diocese of Vannes, called Daughters of Jesus.

    The Oblate Fathers, besides tending to eight Zulu missions, are in charge of the European and Indian population of Natal. Their principal missions are at Durban, Estcourt, Ladysmith, Newcastle, Oakford, Kokstat, and Umstata.

    The main effort of the Oblate Fathers is directed to the conversion of the blacks. But their zeal is too often frustrated by the fidgety character of the Zulus, their polygamy, and prejudices sown among them by Protestant missioners. An An- glican bishop, to reconcile the blacks with the Christian religion, publicly allowed polygamy. " Why should that be con- trary to the Christian religion, since the Patriarchs of old, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, practiced it .? "

    A splendid success is the Trappist mis- sion in Natal. They have 24 priests, 250 brothers, and an almost equal number of Sisters of the Third Order. They have taught the natives useful trades and there- fore have workmen whom they can employ in the construction of substantial buildings at small cost. Through all this. Catholic influence is on the increase in Natal.

    2. The Apostolic Prefecture of Basuto- land. — The apostolic prefect, Father

    Cenez, is assisted by 14 Oblate Fathers and 104 brothers. Some thirty Sisters of the Holy Family are teaching in the schools. There are about 6,000 Catholics in all. The main missions are at Roma, St. Michael, Thaba-Bosiho, Korokoro, St. Monica, etc. A great drawback at pres- ent (1899) is the suffering caused by the cattle pest. Of all the missions only Roma has any horned cattle left.

    3. The Vicariate of the Orange Free State. — This comprises also West Griqua- land and Bechuanaland. Mgr. Graughan, with two secular priests and 15 Oblate Fathers, takes care of the 4,500 Catholics that are scattered among the 14,000 ( ?) heretics and 1,000,000 heathen. There are eight churches and 13 schools, taught by religious and eight lay teachers. About 1,000 children frequent the Catholic schools. Kimberly, the residence of the vicar apostolic, has a population of about 40,000, of all nations, tongues, colors, and religions. The Catholics number about 2,000. At the school of the sisters are 300 pupils, and at that of the brothers, but lately opened, more than 100.

    At Bloemfontein, the capital of Orange, the Sisters of the Holy Family have an academy with more than a hundred boarders — the largest in all South Africa. Mafeking and Taunys are prosperous mis- sions. Other important missionary cen- ters are Jagersfontein, Harrismith, and Beaconsfield.

    4. The Prefecture of Transvaal, also in charge of the Oblate Fathers, comprises the whole state of that name, and contains about 6,000 Catholics. With the Oblates are working Trappists, Marist Brothers, Loretto, Holy Family, Nazareth, Domini- can, and Ursuline Sisters. Missions exist at Johannesburg, Pretoria, Barbeton, Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, and Vleesch- fontein. Johannesburg is the most im- portant mission of the prefecture. The town has 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 3,000 are Catholics. They have a church, a school for boys, and another for girls, frequented in all by 800 children. Johan- nesburg is the only place in Transvaal where Catholic sisters are in charge of the government hospital. They have an aver- age daily number of 250 patients.

    The vast influx of strangers, the example of Catholic missionaries and sisters, have gradually done away with the former hatred and bigotry of the Boers, who are learning to appreciate the Catholic schools




    and eagerly send their children to them. Thereby will be gradually extirpated a number of prejudices still existing among them. — "The Review," St. Lout's, Mis- souri.

    Sozomenus (Hermias). — Church his- torian, born about the end of the fourth cen- tury, at Gaza, Palestine, died about 443. Lawyer at Constantinople. He has left: Church History from 323 to 439, dedicated to Emperor Theodosius II. ; Abridgment of Church History from the ascension of our Lord to the death of Lucinius. It has been lost.

    Spain ( Worship in). — Catholicity is the religion of Spain. The decrees of 1835 and 1836 have suppressed the convents, corporations, military orders, etc. The number of the members of the actual clergy is about 70,000. Spain is divided into 59 dioceses, of which there are 8 arch- bishoprics and 51 bishoprics. The popula- tion consists (according to the census of 1890) of 16,603,959 Catholics ; 6,654 Protes- tants ; 402 Israelites ; 9,645 Rationalists ; 271 Mohammedans, etc.

    Spalding (Martin John) (1810-1872). — An American Catholic prelate, born in Marion county, Kentucky, died at Balti- more. He was bishop of Louisville and be- came archbishop of Baltimore, in 1864. As apostolic Delegate he, in 1866, convened the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, which was attended by seven archbishops and thirty-eight bishops. He wrote Ex>i- dences of Christianity (1847), History of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, Sivitzerland, etc. (i860), etc.

    Spener (Philip James). See Pietism.

    Spiritualists. — Sectarians who profess to hold intercourse with the spirits of the unseen world, and who are striving, in union with the spirits of darkness, to sub- stitute a " devil-begotten " superstition for the revealed truths of Christianity. " Mod- ern spiritualism is substantially, but a revival of ancient pagan practices, known many years before Christ, and condemned as abominable by Moses. Clairvoyants take the place of ancient sooth-sayers ; the alleged spirits of the departed now take the place of the ancient Pythonic spirits, and spiritualists now believe to learn facts or truths, secret to men, from the dead, as pagans did thousands of years ago " (Rev. J. Gmeiner, Spirits of Darkness, p. 226).

    Sponsors. See Baptism.

    Stabat Mater. — A celebrated Latin hymn on the Crucifixion, forming part of the service of the Catholic Church during Passion Week. Its authorship has been assigned to Jacobone, a Franciscan, who flourished in the thirteenth century. It has been set to music by many composers of eminence.

    Staff or Crosier ( pastoral staff of a bishop or of an abbot) . — The crosier has ex- isted from the earliest times of the Church. At first it was a simple staff, generally of cypress wood, ending by a head in the form of a crutch orT, the so-called St. An- thony's cross. This kind of staff existed until the seventh century in the Latin Church, but then the wood of the stem was covered with plates of gold, of silver, or gilt copper, often ornamented with col- ored stones, and the head was made of ivory or sculptured metal. At the same time there existed also the spiral staff, reminding one of the lituus of the augurs and which soon replaced the St. Anthony's cross. The spiral forms, at first little prominent, continually increased in di- mensions. The first represented serpents encircling the " Lamb^ of God " ; then others, the stems of which ornamented with flowers, presented an expanded flower on top. About the end of the twelfth century, they encased personages, religious scenes, and the stem be- came longer. In the thirteenth century, the crosiers presented architectural dec- orations: at the rise of the spiral form, the stem is surrounded with an aediculum {little temple) with miniature turrets and pinacles. The fifteenth and sixteenth cen- turies mark the apogee of the richness and luxury of ornamentation of the crosiers. The Renaissance produces the leaves of the acanthus and the pagan decorations (heads of satyrs, etc.). In the seven- teenth century, the crutch assumes the bended-back form as we see it to-day. The Eastern Church never adopted the spiral form ; it adheres to the primitive staff, surmounted by a globe or St. An- thony's cross, or terminates by serpents entwined face to face.

    Station. — In the early times of Chris- tianity it was usual for the people to as- semble in a particular church on fast days, but especially during seasons of public ca- lamity, in order, afterwards, to proceed in




    regular procession to another church, pre- viously determined upon, for the celebra- tion of what was called, in the language of the period, a "Station." The ceremony was denominated Station because it was at the second church that the procession stopped to hear Mass and to listen to the sermon. It was on occasion of these Sta- tions that Pope St. Gregory the Great preached the greater number of his '* Hom- ilies " to the Roman people.

    Stations or Way of the Cross. — The

    "Stations" or "Way of the Cross," in Latin Via Cruets, is a devotional exer- cise instituted by the Church, to which are attached abundant indulgences. The fourteen pictures or images ranged around churches, and called " Stations of the Cross," represent fourteen scenes of our Lord's Passion, from the palace of Pilate to the summit of Mount Calvary, and to the tomb. Before each of these, the Faithful kneel in prayer and pious meditation ; a practice of devotion in memory of the path trodden by our Saviour when going to His Crucifixion. The origin of this custom, as tradition tells us, is that the Blessed Virgin, after the death of Christ, frequently fol- lowed the road sanctified by His Passion and cruel death. Her example was followed by the Faithful of Palestine, and after- wards by numberless devout pilgrims from all parts of the world. To encourage this act of piety, the Church has accorded in- dulgences to such as prayed devoutly at the scenes of Christ's sufferings and death ; but as the favor did not extend to those unable to visit the Holy Land, the devo- tion known as the "Way of the Cross" was permitted, having the like indulgences annexed to this pious exercise as those ac- corded to the visiting of the actual scenes of our Lord's Passion. Persons who are sick, infirm, or otherwise incapacitated from praying at the different Stations of the Cross in churches, may gain the indul- gences of the Via Cruets by using a crucifix, to which the blessing of these indulgences is attached, for their personal use, only, by some one specially author- ized.

    The customary manner of following the Way of the Cross is to kneel at each of the fourteen Stations, and meditate upon the subject represented, saying one Our Father, Hail Mary and Glory be to the Father, etc., and after each meditation. To gain the indulgences, some inclination,

    at least, should be made towards the differ- ent Stations in turn, none of them being omitted, nor any interruption of long dura- tion allowed. At the end, five Our Fathers, Hail Marys, and Glory be to the Father, etc., may be said for the intention of his Holiness the Pope ; or six, if the person be a member of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi. These prayers are not essential, except when the Way of the Cross is said with the aid of the crucifix only. For those who are incapable of concentrating their attention sufficiently to meditate at length, a thought in an affectionate and grateful remembrance of the circumstance they are contemplating, is sufficient.

    Stephen (name of ten Popes). — Stefhen I. — Pope and martyr, born at Rome, died in 257. Stephen II. — Born at Rome, died in 752, two days after his election, which took place on March 27th. He had never been consecrated. By some he is not counted among the Popes. Stephen III. — Pope from 752 to 757. Neglected no means to induce Aistulph, king of the Lombards, to desist from his project of making him- self master of Rome; but Aistulph re- mained inexorable. Abandoned by the Greek emperor, and unable to cope with the Lombards, Stephen formed the reso- lution of visiting in person the court of Pepin to implore the assistance and pro- tection of that gallant prince. Pepin, in two expeditions (754 and 756), compelled the Lombard to surrender the Exarchate and all the cities which he had taken from the Roman Church. (See Pepin the Short.) Stephen IV. — Pope from 768 to 772. His Pontificate was much disturbed by the rivalries between the Prankish and Lombard factions, who, contending for the mastery in Rome, committed mjiny acts of violence, which the Pope was not always able to prevent. A Council held, in St. John Lateran, under his Pontificate, decided that, in future, no one should be elected Pope, without being priest or deacon. Stephen V. — Pope from 816 to 817. Successor of Leo HI. Anointed Louis the Kind. Stephen VI. — Pope from 886 to 891. Roman, raised to the Pontificate in spite of him. He crowned Guido, Duke of Spoleto, in the quality of emperor, and received from him the con- firmation of the gifts made by Pepin and Charlemagne to the Holy See. Stephen VII. — Pope from 896 to 897. He was the first Pope who grievously disgraced his




    high office. Yielding to party spirit, he had the body of Formosus unearthed, and in a council assembled for that purpose, declared his election to the papacy irregu- lar; after cutting oflf three fingers of the right hand, the body was cast into the Tiber. The ordinations which Formosus had conferred were declared invalid. The barbarity of this act, which, it is consoling to know, was committed by an intruder, aroused the indignation of the people, by whom the perpetrator of the outrage was seized and strangled in prison. Stephen VIII. — Roman, elected in 929, died in 931. Stephen IX. — Roman, elected in 939, died in 942. Stephen X. — Pope from 1057 to 1058. A man of the loftiest and most determined spirit. Continued the measures of reform adopted by his pred- ecessors against ecclesiastical abuses ; only men of merit were raised to ecclesiastical dignities, among whom Peter Damian was created by him bishop and cardinal of Ostia.

    Stephen (St.). — First deacon and first martyr. Stoned about the year 35. A young man, called Saul, who watched the garments of his executioners, was touched by grace and became the apostle St. Paul. The body of St. Stephen was found in 415, and the Church celebrates the Invention of his remains on Aug. 3d. F. Dec. 26th.

    Stephen (St.) (979-1038). — First king of Hungary. His first act, on ascending the throne (997-1038), was to unite himself to Latin Christendom. By his marriage with Gisela, the sister of Emperor Henry n., he became closely connected with Catholic Germany whose civilization he sought, by every means, to introduce among his subjects. Assisted by German and Bohemian priests, Stephen succeeded in extending the Christian religion over the whole kingdom ; throughout the land churches and monasteries rose. He sent an embassy to Pope Sylvester H., and re- ceived from him the present of a royal crown and a papal edict empowering him to regulate the ecclesiastical affairs of his realm. His religious zeal gained him the title of "Apostolic King" from Pope Sylvester H., with the right of having the cross borne before him. F. Sept. 2d.^

    Stephen Harding (St.). See Cister- cians.

    Stigmata (brands or marks upon the body). — After the vision of St. Francis of

    Assisi, the hands and feet of the saint were found to be marked as with nails, and there was a wound in his side. The wounds were seen by many persons, among whom was Pope Alexander IV., during the life- time of the saint.

    Stole. — The word stole comes from the Greek stole and was employed anciently to signify clothing in general, and especially the outer or best robe. This outer robe was usually a short-sleeved white tunic which fell in folds and reached nearly to the feet. It was adorned with two verti- cal stripes or bands, and was worn origi- nally by both men and women, but among the Romans it was thought eflfeminate for men to wear it, and it became the charac- teristic dress of the matron. It was, how- ever, worn by the early Christians of both sexes. Over the stole and around the neck was worn an oblong piece of linen called the Orarium, which served the purpose of a handkerchief, and was by females spread, in time of prayer, over the head and shoulders, falling around the body like a veil. The Orarium worn by ecclesiastics was bordered with stripes of purple, and when, in course of time, its dimensions were contracted, those ornaments were re- tained as marks of honor, while the plain linen portions were cut away in such a manner, that it was reduced to a band which surrounded the neck and fell down below the knees on both sides of the body. It afterwards exchanged the denomination of Orarium for that of stole, by which name it is now known. Before the use of the tunic called Colobium and the later privilege of wearing the Dalmatic were granted to the deacons in general, the stole was the insignia of their order. When the stole became peculiar to the ministers of the altar, it ceased to be made of linen, and was composed of the same materials as the chasuble or upper gar- ment. As in the Latin, so in the Greek and Oriental Churches, the stole is a very conspicuous ornament among the vest- ments peculiar to the higher ministers of the altar. It is mentioned in all their lit- urgies. The mystic signification which the Church attaches to this vestment is beautifully expressed in the words of the prayer which the priest is directed by her to recite when he puts it on : " Restore to me, O Lord, the robe of immortality, which was forfeited by the prevarication of our first parents ; and though unworthy




    to celebrate so august a mystery, grant that I may attain to everlasting glory."'

    Stylites. — Surname given to a class of solitary ascetics who had built their cells on ruined porticos or colonnades. The institute of the Stylites was honored in the Eastern Church, and one was admitted only with religious ceremonies. St. Sim- eon was the first of the Stylites, and he had successors who continued this kind of life in Syria until the twelfth century, we still find some traces thereof in Meso- potamia, in the fifteenth century.

    Suarez (Francis) (1548-1617). —Jesuit and theologian, born at Grenada. Taught at Segovia, Valladolid, Rome, Alcala, Salamanca, and Coimbra. Two of his works refer, more especially, to philosophy : the Metaphysical Disputes and his Treatise on Laivs. But his most famous work was his Defense of the Chtholic Faith against the Errors of A nglicanism. He wrote the work at the request of Pope Paul V.

    Subdeacon (minister of the Church who ranks next to the deacon). — "No one," says the Council of Trent, " shall for the future be promoted to the order of sub- deaconship before the twenty-second year of his age. . . . Such as have good testimonial, and have been already tried in minor orders, and are instructed in letters and in those things which belong to the exercise of their orders, shall be ordained subdeacons and deacons. They shall have a hope, with God's help, to be able to live continently" (Sess.xxiii. c. 13). The func- tions of the subdeacons may be reduced to six : I. To take care of the sacred vessels.

    2. To pour wine and water into the chalice,

    3. To sing the Epistle at high Mass. 4. To hold the book of the Gospel to the deacon and to carry it to the celebrant to kiss. 5. To carry the cross in processions. 6. Assist the deacon in all his functions and receive the offerings of the people. In the primitive Church they served as secretaries to the bishops, instructed the Catechumens, and guarded the entrance of the sanctuary. At their ordination, the subdeacons contract the obligation to ob- serve continence, to say the Breviary and to wear the ecclesiastical garment.

    Subunists. — Communicants under one kind. See Hussites.

    Suffragan. — The name given to a bishop in an ecclesiastical province, relatively, to

    the metropolitan, primate, or patriarch, in whose province he is ; also to a titular bishop, or bishop in partibus, who is ex- ercising the Pontifical functions and ordi- nations for the ordinary bishop whom he has been invited to assist; also to a titular bishop, who is under a titular patriarch or archbishop. Such are Suffragans, nomi- nally.

    Suicide (action of one killing himself). — The suicide commits : i. An attack against God whose holy laws he violates and whose power he audaciously usurps. God has said: "Thou shall not kill." The one who renders himself guilty of suicide tramples, therefore, on the laws of God. Holy Scripture tells us that " the life of man upon earth is a warfare"; the one who leaves his post without the orders of His chief, before He has relieved him, is no soldier of Jesus Christ, but a coward who flies before having combated. God hav- ing given life to us, it does not belong to us, but, properly speaking, belongs to God, like our whole being; it is a deposit which He has placed in our hands; conse- quently, we are no more permitted to dispose thereof, than a trustee is per- mitted to dispose of a trust that was com- mitted to him, than any man is permitted to dispose of a good of which he is not the proprietor. Suicide is: 2. A crime against society. After God, it is to so- ciety that we owe almost all our advan- tages. In return of what it has done for us, has society not a right that we should be useful to it, and not become injurious to it ? But the one who puts an end to his days, deprives society of all the services it has a right to expect. Suicide, so prej- udicial to civil society, has, for domestic society, still more immediate and una- voidable consequences. Suicide is : 3. A cruelty towards oneself, because to ren- der oneself guilty of this crime, is com- promising his happiness in this world and, in the other, his eternal salvation. Con- sidering the crime of suicide under such odious feature peculiar to it, can we be astonished that it was always held in ab- horrence, and that both civil and religious legislation, branded it with the most infam- ous punishment? At Athens and Thebes they pressed the seal of ignominy on the corpse of the suicide and in pagan Rome they deprived it of religious burial. The Church denies Christian burial to the one who has died by his own hand, unless in-




    sanity had rendered him irresponsible. The refusal of the burial rites is not intended as a condemnation of the individual, but to express horror of the crime, and to act as a deterrent to others. The prevalence of suicide is principally and generally to be ascribed to the lack of religion, of a firm belief in a future life, of confidence of God's willingness to aid the unfortunate, and to pardon the repentant sinner. Ex- perience teaches that as religion in a land decreases, the number of suicides in- creases. Also the godless press of the day contributes largely towards suicide by praising the self-murderer, saying : He expiated his crime with his life. Instead of expiating a crime, he adds another to it.

    Sulpicians, or " Priests of the Congre- gation of St. Sulpice." A community founded by the sainted Jacques Olier, in 1642. Their chief object is the direction of ecclesiastical seminaries and the train- ing of candidates for the priesthood. They came to the United States in 1790; have charge of St. Mary's Seminary, Bal- timore, Maryland. ; Brighton Seminary, Boston, and St. Joseph's Seminary of Dun- woodie. New York.

    Sulpicius Severus. — Ecclesiastical his- torian, born in Gaul, about the year 363. Was a famous lawyer, but, on the death of his wife, he embraced an ascetic life. He died in 406. His writings comprise : The Life of St. Martitt; Three Dialogues on the virtues and miracles of St. Martin, and on the virtuous example of the Oriental monks; A Sacred History, in two books, from the beginning of the world to the year 400, in which he furnishes much in- formation respecting the ancient Church of Gaul; and a collection of letters to St. Paulinus and others. His pure, classical style has merited for him the name of the " Christian Sallust."

    Sunday (the first day of the week, consecrated to the practice of the Christian religion). — The Jewish Christians in the early Church, after the example of our Lord, continued to keep holy the ancient or legal Sabbath, but afterwards, in its stead, the first day of the week, or Sunday was observed, as appears from the Scripture (Acts XX. 7; I. Cor. xvi. 2), by the Apostles themselves, who called it the Lord's Day (Apoc. i. 10), and was espe- cially consecrated to divine worship in honor of the Resurrection of our Lord.

    Supererogation ( Works of) (Lat. sufer- rogata, over and above things required). — A class of works, which, in the Catholic system, are described as not absolutely re- quired of each individual as conditions to his eternal salvation. A consequence of this doctrine is, that God may accept the superabundant works of one in atonement for the defective service of another; and hence, in the Catholic indulgences, along with what they regard as the infinite and inexhaustible treasure of the merits of our Lord, they also regard, although in a de- gree infinitely inferior, the superabundant merits of the saints as forming part of that "treasure of the Church" which is applied in the form of indulgences.

    Superstition (false ideas which one has of certain practices of religion, to which one attaches a too great fear or a too great confidence). — We understand sometimes by superstition the divine worship ren- dered to creatures, although it belongs to God alone. In this sense the pagan peo- ples were given up to all kinds of supersti- tion. On the other hand, the theologians apply the same denomination to the wor- ship rendered to the real God, but in a manner which He does not approve of and which constitutes a vain ceremony. It is principally in matters of worship that there is question of superstition. A false wor- ship, such as the veneration granted to false relics, is a superstition. To add to the rites of the Church ceremonies or words of which she does not make use, would be also a superstition. Or again, it is a su- perstitious practice, if one attaches in his mind, to an object, words or rites, some power which is not attached to it either by the institution of God or by the Church. Superstition being an excessive credulity, arises principally from ignorance and dis- appears with religious instruction.

    — Calvin's rigid theory on predestination encountered much opposition even in the bosom of his own sect. A very violent contest arose on that question among his followers in Holland.

    There the parties of "Supralapsarians" and "Infralapsarians" stood opposed to each other in battle array. The former asserted that, prior to the fall of Adam, the predestination to eternal felicity and damnation was already decreed; the latter, that it was subsequent to the event.

    Surplice. — The surplice is a white linen garment which is worn not only by all

    clerics, but also by those who, in the ab- sence of clerics, are allowed to assist in the choir or sanctuary during the celebra- tion of divine service. The use of white garments by the members of the sanctuary is continually referred to by the holy Fa- thers. Honorius of Autun (died, 1130) describes the surplice as a white loose vestment, that reached down to the feet ; and from several passages in the works of ecclesiastical writers, and in the canons of various provincial synods, it would appear that the surplice was a variation of the alb, from which it differed, during a long pe- riod of years, merely by being somewhat shorter and having wider sleeves. Duranti, who composed his work on the Divine Of- fices about the year 1286, traces up the etymology of the Latin suferpellicium, whence, it is obvious, our English appella- tion, surplice, is derived, to a custom of wearing tunics which anciently prevailed in the Church, made from the skins of such animals as the country furnished, over which was cast a white linen alb or vestment, denominated, from that circum- stance of its being worn over fur, sufer- fellicium. While indicating the derivation of its name, Duranti has also pointed out the spiritual meaning of the surplice, which, as he remarks, has been regarded as symbolical of that robe of innocence, purity, and righteousness that our divine Redeemer purchased for the human race by the price of His glorious atonement, and with which He arrays the soul of the regenerated or repentant sinner, and ef- faces man's iniquities, figured by the skins of animals, since it was with garments formed from such materials that fallen Adam, after being chased from Paradise, was covered.

    Susanna. — Jewish woman of the tribe of Juda, famous on account of her chastity ; wife of Joachim, whom she had followed to Babylon during the captivity ; was accused of adultery by two aged men, whose impure proposals she had rejected, and was condemned to death.

    The young Daniel proved her innocence, and the two old men, convicted of imposture, suffered capital punishment.

    Suspension is a censure inflicted on a cleric, designed for remedial purposes, and takes away for a fixed time, or until he repents and makes satisfaction, the right to exercise his sacred functions in his office or benefice. The term suspension

    is not earlier than the fourteenth century, but the discipline is far more ancient. Traces of suspension are found in the Councils of the sixth century; in some cases, V. g-., an ordination before a canonical age, suspension was a penalty inflicted on account of the fault of another. It was thus that Pope Honorius HI. sus- pended a deacon until he had attained the canonical age. There are three kinds of suspension: 1. Ab ordine, when a cleric cannot exercise his ministry. 2. Ab of- ficio, when he is forbidden to exercise it in his official charge or congregation. 3. A beneficio, when he is deprived of the revenues of his benefice. In all these cases the incumbent retains his orders, rank, and benefice in contradiction to the pen- alty of solemn deposal and degradation, by which he forfeits all rights of his or- ders and benefice. See Deposal ; Degra- dation.

    Sweden {The Church in). See Den- mark.

    Svredenborg (Emanuel Svedberg of) (1688-1772). — Famous theosophist, born at Stockholm, died in London. Son of a Lutheran bishop, he at first occupied him- self with poetry and learned inquiries, cultivated all the natural sciences, es- pecially mineralogy, was named assessor of mines (17 16), received letters of no- bility (1719), and became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Upsal (1729). His visions commenced in 1743. He pre- tended to have communications with the souls of the dead, with angels, with God Himself, and to be charged with the re- generation of Christianity. He became the founder of a new sect, " The New Church of Jerusalem," which still counts adherents in Sweden, Russia, England, in the United States, etc. A Swedenborgian society was established in London (1783). The system of this dreamer is a kind of pantheism. It was condemned as hereti- cal, even by the Protestants.

    Swithin (St.). — Anglo-Russian prelate, died in 823. Chaplain of King Egbert, chancellor under Ethelwulf, whose pre- ceptor hp had been, became bishop of Winchester in 852, F. July 2d.

    Switzerland {Christianity in). See


    Switzerland {Worship in). — According to the census of 1890 there are in Switzer- land, 1,667,109 Protestants of the so-called




    Helvetic communion; 1,160,782 Catholics; 6,373 Israelites, and 10,838 of different re- ligions.

    Syllabus (Latin word which signifies record, list, role). — It is employed in the Catholic language to designate a collec- tion or catalogue, under ten heads, of eighty current errors, or erroneous propo- sitions, condemned by Pope Pius IX. at various times — theories, which under the specious names of Liberalism, of Progress, and of modern Civilization, have been more or less extensively adopted of late in the various countries of Europe. While on the one hand the publication of the Syllabus was hailed with joy and admira- tion, its appearance excited the anger and hatred of the enemies of the Church.

    Sylvester (name of three Popes.) — Sylvester I. — Pope from 314 to 335. Gov- erned the Church in the first years of her temporal prosperity and triumph over her persecuting enemies. His long and glori- ous Pontificate is marked by the First Ecu- menical Council, that of Nice, and by the suppression of the Arian heresy. In his reign also occurred the happy discovery of the true cross and holy tomb of our Lord, by the Empress St. Helena, in 326. To the Pontificate of Sylvester is assigned the pretended donation of Constantine. Syl- vester II. — Pope from 999 to 1003. No Pope so truly great had occupied the Pa- pal Chair since the time of Nicholas I. He displayed great zeal, talent, and severity in his administration, especially in reform- ing and elevating the clergy. His un- common knowledge of the fine arts and sciences, and his rapid elevation to the highest dignities in the Church, caused him, in a barbarous age to pass for a magician. To King Stephen of Hungary and his successors he gave the title of "Apostolic Majesty," and the right to have the cross borne before him. Sylves- ter was the first Pope that conceived the idea of arming Christendom for deliver- ing the Holy Land from the hands of the Mussulmans. But this plan perished with the death of Otho III., in 1002, whom the Pope followed to the grave in the suc- ceeding year. Sylvester III. — Bishop of Sabina. Antipope, born at Rome. The Romans elected him in 1044, after having driven away Benedict IX., but three months afterwards, the latter returned to Rome, and expelled his competitor.

    Symachus. — Pope from 498 to 514, born in Sardinia. Successor of Athanasius II., he had for rival the archdeacon Lawrence, who was upheld by King Theodoric; ap- proved several Councils, zealously com- bated the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches. They attribute to him the in- troduction into Mass of the '■^Gloria in Excelsis."

    Symachus. — Greek writer, born at Sa- maria. He lived under Emperor Severus and belonged to the sect of the Ebionites. His Greek version of the Old Testament was, according to St. Jerome, excellent. Only few fragments thereof are left to us.

    Symbol. See Creed.

    — An organization of the Jews for the purpose of religious instruction and worship. Also the building where such instruction and worship are maintained.

    The synagogue came into prominence in the religious life of the Jewish people during the exile, and, since the destruction of the temple and the dispersion of the Jews, constitutes their customary place of worship.

    The organization of a synagogue consists of a board of elders presided over by a ruler of the synagogue (Luke iii. 41, 49, xiii. 14).

    The worship is conducted according to the prescribed ritual, in which the reading of the Scripture constitutes a prominent part. Formerly the officers of the synagogue exercised judicial functions, and the synagogue itself was the place of trial (Luke xii. II, xxi. 12), but this is no longer the case.

    Synaxis. — Name given to the reunions of the primitive Christians, and to holy communion.

    Syncellus( George). — Byzantine chron- icler of the ninth century. He wrote a chronicle from Adam to Diocletian.

    Synesius. — Bishop of Ptolemais in Egypt. Was born at Cyrene, in Africa, died in 414. Of his many writings there remain one hundred and fifty-five letters, besides several homilies and minor trea- tises.

    Synod {Diocesan). — Diocesan synods, we call those meetings where the bishop assembles the clergy of his diocese in or- der to treat of matters that relate to the pastoral charge or the care of souls. The enactments of diocesan synods are called statutes, decrees, constitutions. Diocesan synods are to be held in the United States

    once every year, wherever this is feasible. Bishops or administrators of dioceses, alone, have the right to convene diocesan synods. To attend diocesan synods are obliged : first, all the priests v*fho have the care of souls, whether they are seculars or regulars ; secondly, all superiors of monas- teries situated in the diocese and not gov- erned by a general chapter. In these assemblies the bishop is the sole law-giver, and therefore he alone has a decisive vote, the other members having but a consultive vote. See Council.

    Syrian Christians, or Catholics, who are converts from the Jacobite, or Monophysite Church in Syria, in 1840, were catalogued at 30,000, which number has since been con- siderably increased by wiany conversions. They have four archbishops and eight bishops under the " Syrian Patriarch of Antioch." The number of Catholics in Syria, including all rites, exceeds 800,000, while the Catholic population of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem is given at 22,- 000. For more particulars, see Oriental Rites. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.