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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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By NewtonStein;

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"T"
Tabernacle;

    (Hebrew a "booth of branches", or "tent-like structure of animal skins, or any TEMPORARY dwelling. The "booths for the Feast of Tabernacles were the forerunner of American Revival "Brush Arbors", and "tent meetings").

    The major Taberbacle of Moses used, in Jewish history a tent, constructed to serve as the portable sanctuary of the nation before the final settlement in Palestine. This " Tabernacle of the Congregation " is fully described in Ex. xxv.-xxvii. and xxxvi.-xxxviii. It comprised besides the tent, an inclosure or yard, in which were the altar of burnt offerings and the laver. The tabernacle proper was a tent divided into two chambers by a veil — the inner chamber, or Holy of Holies, containing the Ark of the Covenant and the Seat of Mercy ; the outer department contained the altar of incense, the table of the showbreads, the golden candlestick. The tabernacle was of a rectangular figure 45 feet by 15, and 15 feet in height. The court or yard was 150 feet in length by 75 feet, and sur- rounded by screens 7)^ feet high. The people pitched their tents around the taber- nacle by tribes in a fixed order during the wanderings, and the pillar or cloud of fire, denoting Jehovah's presence, rested upon it, or was lifted from it according as they were to remain stationary or were to go for- ward. After the arrival into the Promised Land it was set up in various places, espe- cially at Siloe, but gradually lost its ex- clusive character as the center of national worship by the building of Solomon's Tem- ple, in which its contents were eventually placed.

Tabernacle {Eucharistic)
    is the name given to a species of small tower erected on the central part of the high altar, to preserve therein the Blessed Eucharist, not only for the use of the sick, but also, to be occasionally exposed to the adoration of the people and to be perpetually present to excite their devotion and to draw the Faithful to the house of God.

Tabor
    — A mountain of northern Palestine, rising solitarily in the northeastern part of the plain of Esdraelon, to about the height of one thousand feet, and commanding the most extending view in the Holy Land.

Taborites
    See Hussites.

Tach
    (Alexandre Antonine). — Canadian prelate ; a son of the Canadian statesman. Sir Etienne Paschal Tach^; born in Riviere-du-Loup, Canada, July 23d, 1823. After graduating at the college of St. Hyacinth, and studying theology in the Seminary of Montreal, he became professor of mathematics at his old college. Remaining at St. Hyacinth but a few months, he went to Montreal, and there became monk of the Oblate Order. He at once began laboring as a missionary among the Indians of the Red river. Suffering privations of every kind, cold, hunger, and fatigue, he reached St. Boniface on Aug. 25th, 1845. Here he was raised to the priesthood, and was the first priest or- dained on the banks of the Red river. He spent but a few months at this mission, and then went seeking other fields of labor. His piety and zeal attracted attention, and later he was summoned to France by the superior of the Oblate Fathers, and conse- crated bishop of Arath in the cathedral of Viviers, on Nov. 23d, 1851. He made a visit to Rome, and then returned to Can- ada to his missionary work. He founded new missions, and through him many chapels and schools were built. About this time the Metis had some grievances, which Bishop Tache laid before the Canadian government, but to them no attention was paid.

    He was obliged to go to Italy to take part in the Council of the Vatican at Rome, and during his absence the troubles came to a crisis. He at once re- turned and quieted the Insurrection. On Sept. 22d, 1871, St. Boniface was erected into a see and Bishop Tachewas appointed archbishop. He died at Winnipeg, June 22d, 1894.

Tadmor
    — Ancient name of Palmyra, a city situated on the oasis, in the desert east of Syria, said to have been built by Solomon.

Tanchelinn
    — A heretic of Antwerp, an illiterate and fanatical demagogue, became the founder of a sect in the Netherlands. He proclaimed himself the Son of God and the spouse of the Blessed Virgin. He rejected the priesthood of the Church, and the Sacraments, especially the Holy Eucha- rist, as unnecessary for salvation ; and was guilty of all sorts of blasphemy and the grf all the political constitutions among the chief na- tions of antiquity. It obtained its apogee in the revealed law of God, promulgated by Moses and realized by the people of Israel, and essentially distinguishes itself from all the pagan theocracies. It has for peculiarity, that it identifies both the re- ligious sphere and the political sphere; every law, every religious obligation is at the same time a law, a political obligation, and vice versa, so that every violation or omission of any prescription, even a most superficial one, is a direct infraction of the divine will, and, consequently, a sin. All the laws emanate from God and His holy will; God is the supreme end of all ordinances. Theocracy, besides its immediate object concerning Israel, had a universal object, which determines the place and indicates the peculiar nature of the chosen people, in the history of Re- demption. Israel chosen, receives the Law and its institutions. God is its king, its master, and legislator; theocracy is founded in order that, in its bosom and through it, the salvation of mankind may be prepared ; the Law is to be the peda- gogue of mankind in view of the Christ ; it becomes this by pointing towards sin, the fall of man, the need of a redemption, and the desire of the Messias promised to sinful mankind.

Theodicy
    — An exposition of the theory of divine Providence with the view to the vindication of the attributes, particularly, of the holiness and justice of God, in establishing the present order of things, in which civil, moral, as well as physical order, largely exists.

    Theodicy has for object to justify God's providence by refuting the objections drawn from the existence of evil, both physical and moral.

    Leibnitz is the first that made use of the term Theodicy. But the idea which it represents is very ancient. It generally signifies justification or apology of God; there is question of reconciling the exist- ence, especially God's unity, with the ex- istence of evil. The most important texts, in regard to this subject, are found in the Book of Job, in St. Paul, and in the City of God of St. Augustine. Already the ancient philosophers had posed the ques- tion of the origin of evil. From the more general point of view of God's existence, the Eleatic School places God on top of the beings to govern them : timis est Deus deorum hominumque summus. On the top of the world, said the Pythagoreans, is the unity, the pure monade; and below it the beings are arranged according to grada- tion. Empedocles of Agrigentum admits above the sensible world, inferior genii and deities, and above these a superior God, a pure, holy, perfect, and unchangeable spirit, whose rapid thought overlooks all things. This philosopher teaches "that there is in nature, as in the animals, an in- telligent cause of the arrangement and of the order of the universe." Socrates goes a step farther: "There exists an eternal and immense God, regulator and governor of the world"; and the proof for this, he draws from the efficient and final causes. Plato perfected the science of the Theodicy. He said: "He who knows God, is really wise; he who does not know Him is evi- dently ignorant and wicked." Again he says : " We must hold the existence of God above all demonstration." Plato had already a correct notion of Providence. Aristotle arrives at formulating the prin- ciples of Theodicy. The principal argu- ment he brings forward in favor of God's existence is the proof drawn from the movement.

    Both the middle and the scholastic ages embraced about this subject the ideas of Plato and of Aristotle. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the question was debated more lively than ever. The con- troversies of Jansenism, says V. Cousin, caused a debate on the highest philoso- phical questions, liberty, and grace, the reason for the good and evil, the nature of God, the end of creation, etc. Spinoza believed to solve the question by admitting

    one sole substance. Bayle, resuscitating Manicheism, maintained that, in the face 1 of the evil, reason is in some sort forced to admit two principles, the one good the other evil ; that a blind faith alone could adhere to the Christian idea of the Deity. The most remarkable work on this subject was the Essay on the Theodicy, by Leib- nitz, a work which had for its object the solving of the great problem of the origin of evil, a book, says V. Cousin, which is the twelfth book of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and the seventh of the Republic of Plato. The fundamental thought we can draw from it, is that God has per- mitted sin, because it had been involved in the best plan of the universe. The ob- ject of this book was to justify God's jus- tice and man's liberty, and to show that evil is compatible with both of these at- tributes. There is no antinomy between the human liberty and the divine attributes. The evil, according to Leibnitz, is derived from the very nature of the created beings, which cannot be perfect without confound- ing themselves with the Creator and with- out becoming indiscernible. Perfection cannot realize itself ex abrupto. Nothing is done at once ; the end supposes the means, which, evil in themselves, may be- come good to arrive at a perfect end.

    This explanation is insufficient*, it ends by placing the origin of evil in the eternal laws of the intelligence to which God would be forced to subject Himself as to a kind of destiny. There are always two great problems that await an explanation and a definitive solution : How does the evil, even the provisory evil, reconcile it- self with God's power and goodness ? How does God's prescience reconcile itself with human liberty? These truths are mys- teries, and, consequently, only an object of faith. Leibnitz does not, properly speak- iug, give the proof of the truth of God's existence ; he supposes it a priori, on the ground of the existence of the contingent beings.

    Theodore (name of two Popes). — Theo- dore I. — Pope from 642 to 649; born at Jerusalem, but Greek by nation. Suc- cessor of John IV. ; vigorously combated Monothelism. Theodore II. — Pope in 898; Roman by birth ; reigned only twenty days.

    Theodore (Ascidas). — At first head of a monastery in Palestine, came to Con- stantinople (535) to propagate there the

    Theodore of Canterbury 6^6

    Theodotus

    heresy of the Origenists. Upheld by the Empress Theodora, who named him bishop of Caesarea, he came in conflict with Pope Vigilius. In 563, the Council of Con- stantinople solemnly condemned him. Abandoned by Theodora, he lived from that time in retreat.

    Theodore of Canterbury (St.) (602- 690). — Archbishop of Canterbury, and a Greek monk of Tarsus in Cilicia. Named by Pope Vitalian to the see of Canter- bury, and primate of Great Britain (668). Created schools, propagated the arts and sciences, introduced the Gregorian chant into his diocese and presided over the Council of Hetfield (680). Has left a Penttentiale, a collection of canons regu- lating the time of public penances. F. Sept. 19th.

    Theodore of Heraclea. — Greek prel- ate, born at Heraclea, died about 355. Named by Constantine bishop of his na- tive city, he became one of the chiefs of the Arian party, was charged to oppose St. Athanasius (336), presented to Con- stantius the constitution of Antioch (342) and, although deposed by the Council of Sardica (347), kept his episcopal see and continued to spread Arianism.

    Theodore of Mopsuestia (350-429). — Greek ecclesiastical writer, born at Anti- och. Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia. St. Chrysostom, his schoolfellow, induced him to embrace the monastic and clerical state. As interpreter of the Holy Scrip- tures, he gained great renown. Nes- torius, the heresiarch, was among his pupils. In his writings On the Incar- nation against the ApoUinarian heresy, Theodore laid the seeds of Nestorianism. He is likewise accused of having favored Pelagianism. Of his numerous writings, which were condemned by the Fifth Gen- eral Council (553), only fragments have been preserved . He died, it is said, in communion with the Church.

    Theodore of Pharan. — Bishop of Pharan in Arabia, in 626. He is looked upon as the author of Monothelism, heresy which attributes to Jesus Christ two n^ures, but only one will and one sole operation. His writings were condemned in the Lateran Council (649), and this sentence was con- firmed by the Sixth General Council in 680.

    Theodore the Reader. — Historian of the sixth century. Was reader of the

    Church of Constantinople. Has left a Church History which extends from the twentieth year of Constantine to Julian the Apostate.

    Theodoret of Cyrus (386-457). — Bishop of Cyrus in Syria, was born at Antioch. He was one of the most learned men of his age. His friendship for Nestorius em- broiled him with St. Cyril of Alexandria. When the Ecumenical Council of Ephesus met in 431, he refused to enter it and took part in the schismatical conventicle which pretended to excommunicate the Fathers of the lawful Council. After a prolonged controversy with St. Cyril, he finally sub- mitted and, at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, subscribed to the condemnation of Nestorius. Theodoret is esteemed as a profound exegetist and eminent historian. He wrote, besides various exegetical works, an Ecclesiastical History from A. d. 320 to 328, an Epitome of Heretical Fables, and a Religious History containing the lives of thirty-three hermits. In addition to these there are extant 179 letters. His writings against St. Cyril and the Council of Ephesus, together with those of his master, Theodore, were condemned at Constanti- nople, in 553.

    Theodosius the Great (346-395). — Born at Cauca, in northern Spain, died at Milan. Roman Emperor, son of Flavius Theodosius, a general (chiefly noted for his campaigns in Britain) of Valentinianl. He commanded in Moesia in 374; was made joint emperor by Gratian and ruler over the East in 379. From him the ex- piring paganism received the heaviest blows. Apostates from Christianity were disqualified either to make or receive tes- tamentary bequests, divination by the entrails of victims were forbidden, and numbers of heathen temples destroyed. At last, in 392, pagan worship was formally proscribed and declared high treason. He also took the churches from the Arians, restoring them to the Catholics, and pro- hibited the assemblies of heretics, Theo- dosius I. subjected himself to a humiliating penance imposed upon him by St. Am- brose, for the indiscriminate massacre of about 7,000 persons, which, in a moment of irritation, he had ordered at Thessalonica, in 390, for having killed the governor and several imperial officers.

    Theodotus (name of two heretics of the third century). — Theodotus the Elder was

    Theology

    e-jy

    Theology

    a tanner of Byzantium. Having denied Christ in time of persecution, in order to extenuate his guilt, maintained that he had denied only a man and not God. He claimed Jesus to have been mere man until at his baptism, Christ descended upon Him. He was excommunicated by Pope Victor. His disciples were Asclepiades and the younger Theodotus, surnamed the Banker, who was the author of the Mel- chisedechian heresy, teaching that Mel- chisedech was greater than Christ. Natalis, a confessor of the faith, was won over by these sectaries and made bishop of their party, but returned to the communion of the Church, under Pope Zephyrinus.

    Theology (science which has for its ob- ject divine things, the dogmas, and reli- gious precepts). — Science which, founded upon the principles furnished to us by faith, draws consequences on the super- natural truths and the divine things, that is, on all that has relation to God, as the effect to its cause : for instance the crea- tures ; as the means to their end : the human acts ; as the way to the end : Jesus Christ, through whom we go to God ; as instru- ment of grace : the sacraments ; these are so many branches that enter the plan and frame of theology. The material object of theology is God Himself, and all that has reference to God ; the formal object is the divinity, the divine Being considered in His attributes and proprieties, that is, theology considers its object in so far as it is essentially or relatively divine. Its first foundation is revelation, which is, at the same time, its principal criterion of certitude. We say that theology is a sci- ence, for, to use the terms of the School, although it has not the evidence conse- quent, it has, however, the evidence of consequence, that is, it is evident that the conclusions which it draws from the prin- ciples of faith are necessary consequences thereof, although its truths are not evident in themselves. Theology has, therefore, all that is necessary to constitute a science whose principles are not of the natural or- der; but this does not hinder us from say- ing that it is, also, a science of the natural order, because the order in which it is a science, is not taken from the quality of the principles which it employs, but from the manner it proceeds. Now, theology proceeds by way of argumentation, a pro- ceeding which belongs to a purely natural order.

    Division. — Theology in regard to its principal object, God, is a speculative sci- ence ; in regard to its second object, it is a practical science, for by the rules of morals which it prescribes, it directs the will of man towards God, as his final end. From the standpoint of doctrinal teaching, it is posi- tive or scholastic ; the first is a simple ex- position of the truths which naturally flow from the principles of faith ; this was the method of the Fathers ; the second gives rules, draws consequences and, by a series of reasonings, proves the truths that flow from the premises ; the latter, although it is not absolutely necessary like the other, is, however, of great usefulness to refute the sophisms of error. The model far excel- lence of this method is St. Thomas.

    Historical. — The word theology has a much more extensive sense than its etymol- ogy indicates. The Greeks called theo- logians the ancient poets, who had identified the development of nature with that of the gods; cosmogony with theogony: such were Orpheus, Hesiod, Homer, to whom they opposed, later on, the philosophers and the physiological naturalists. Then they designated as theology that part of phi- losophy which occupies itself, especially, with the absolute. Aristotle calls philosoph- ical theology, the metaphysics or science of the principles in opposition to the mathe- matical or physical philosophy. However, the name theology remained, especially, consecrated to ancient mythology. In the first centuries of the Christian era, they gave the name philosophy to the science of faith; but since it might be confounded with Greek philosophy, the term was abandoned, and in St. Irenseus, Tertullian, Clement, and Origen, the Christian science soon became the antithesis of philosophy; it did not yet take the name theology. At first they reserved this name to that branch of Christian science which treats exclu- sively of God ; thus for St. Athanasius the doctrine on the Trinity belongs to theology. The doctrine on the creation and gcTvernment of the world they called economy. About the end of the patristic period, the word theology commences to be employed in a more extensive sense ; it is not only the doctrine on God, but in general, every doctrine having relation to God. As far back as St. Augustine, the word theology is taken as a synonym of Christian doctrine, and in the same sense as we understand it to-day. During the Middle Ages this denomination was

    Theology

    678

    Theology

    reserved to that part of doctrine which treats especially of God. About the end of the Middle Ages they applied that name to the whole sacra doctrina, preserving, for a long time, the latter expression. The idea itself being profoundly modified, a new classification of the sacred science made itself felt. Scholasticism embraced both dogmatic and moral theology, and yet these two parts were then not very dis- tinct; they comprise several branches, such as cannon law, liturgy, pastoral the- ology, etc. They had not yet arrived at an understanding whether theology was a speculative or practical science. Later on, the heresies attacking several points of Catholic doctrine, determined the devel- opment of other branches of the sacred science. Thus arose apologetic, exegesis, biblical criticism. Church history, and later on, hermeneutic, the science of the rubrics, homiletic, etc. In the course of time it was found that all these sciences were constituitive parts of one and the same doctrinal body which they called Theology. We distinguish natural theology, which is founded upon the lights of reason, from revealed theology, which supports itself upon the belief in revelation. Theology, concerning reason and faith, owes to each its share. It is evident, that if each one remains in its proper sphere, there can be no conflict between faith and reason. (See Science and Faith.) This has always been the belief of the Church. Only in our days did reason proclaim its au- tonomy. Not only the Rationalists reject revelation, but also the Naturalists, Posi- tivists. Freethinkers, Critics, Progress- ists, Deists, and Spiritualists ; then there are others who, on the contrary, maintain the opposite thesis, namely, that reason cannot, by its own powers, acquire any certitude of the natural truths, but that it must receive this from tradition, that is, from divine revelation or from a social transmission : these are the Traditionalists or Fideists. The first sacrifice, faith to reason, the second, reason to faith. The Council of the Vatican has condemned the doctrine of those who pretend that reason is completely independent and that faith can- not be imposed upon it by God (C. vat. de fide, c. iii.). Since created reason is naturally and necessarily subject to uncre- ated reason, we are bound to give the as- sent of our intelligence to God who reveals. This assent is, besides, so rea- sonable that it appears surprising that

    Rationalists, who proclaim that our rea- son has a right a friore to reject the act of faith. Is it not reason itself which, adds Leo XIII. (Encyclc. yEterni Pa- tris, Aug. 4th, 1884), declares to us that the evangelical doctrine was confirmed from the beginning by miracles, sure ar- guments of a sure truth .? Moreover, the Church, on account of her wonderful prop- agation, eminent holiness, and inex- haustible fruitfulness for every good, on account of her Catholic unity and invinci- ble stability, constitutes herself a great and perpetual argument of credibility. To believe in the word of another, there must be reasons ; now these reasons are none other than the motives of credibility; whence it results that the exercise of rea- son must precede faith, as both the Church and theology teaches. Therefore, the act of faith is rational, and if it is ra- tional, God can propose it to reason. If we consider the manifold condemna- tions fulminated by Leo. XIII. against modern errors, the same conclusion must impose itself. The Roman Pontiffs in condemning rationalism, have condemned, at the same time, the doctrines akin to it, like Lamennesianism, which pretended that reason, having for criterion of certitude the universal and traditional belief of man- kind, is the only rule by which we can have knowledge of the truths necessary for salvation; Hermesianism or semi- rationalism of Germany which placed the methodic doubt as basis of theological science and posed as principle, that rea- son is the sovereign rule and only means to acquire the knowledge of the super- natural truths; the Progressists, who make of the Catholic religion a purely human work or a purely philosophical discovery, which one can perfect by human means.

    Conclusion. — Catholic theology is a science which has for its end a knowledge of the Catholic religion and to show that it is founded upon reason. In the Catho- lic religion we can distinguish : i. Faith which is the foundation thereof. 2. The manifestation of this faith in the Church. 3. The confirmation of this faith in life and in all the free and moral acts of man. These three parts constitute the theoret- ical, ecclesiastical and practical part of re- ligion. Whence it results that Catholic theology has one sole object under a triple form, namely: the science of faith as such ; the science of ecclesiastical life ; and the science of Christian life.

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    Theophanes (Isaurus) (758-818). — Byz- antine historian, abbot of the monastery Ager, in Mysia, Asia Minor; defended the veneration of images in the Council of Nice (787), was imprisoned by order of the Iconoclast Emperor Leo V., banished on the island of Samothracia, where he died. He continued the Chronology of George Syncellus.

    Theophilus (St.). — Bishop of Antioch and one of the Fathers of the Church, born and raised in paganism, embraced the Christian faith by reading the Scriptures ; became bishop of Antioch about 168, and combated the errors of the Gnostics ; died in 181. Of his works which he wrote in defense of the Christian faith, we have en- tire, his Three Books of Antolycus, which contain an apology for the Christian reli- gion and which appeared during the reign of Commodus. He composed also, a com- mentary on Holy Scripture.

    Theophilus of Alexandria. — Patriarch of Alexandria in 385. His zeal against the Origenists animated him against St. John Chrysostom, whom he believed to be an adherent to them. He died in 412, after having reconciled himself with the Saint.

    Theosophy. — Doctrine of certain mys- tics who pretend to enter into communica- tion with God, and to receive from Him particular lights and special gifts. The theosophists, without following the method of philosophers and theologians, claim to arrive directly at the knowledge of God ; to believe them, God manifests Himself to them immediately, that is, without any in- termediary. Theosophy forms a part of mysticism, but only of non-Christian mys- ticism. For Christian mysticism does not cease to adhere to the belief of the Church, as the fundamental basis of all divine science, while the non-Christian mysti- cism, as soon as it occupies itself with God, becomes theosophic. It was Aristo- bulus, an Alexandrian Jew (in the first cen- tury), who founded theosophy. Philo, following in his footsteps, explained the Old Testament by allegories or in a mys- tical manner. It was his desire to recon- cile philosophy with the dogmas of Scrip- ture; there exists, according to him, two worlds: one only intelligible, and which is of the domain of pure intelligence ; and the other sensible, formed after an ideal type, unchangeable, coeternal like God Himself. Philo personified these ideas

    under the name of log-os or -word, and con- sidered this word as an emanation of God and son of God. He was the precursor of Neoplatonism. The best known chiefs of this school were Plotinus, Jamblicus, and Proclus. Later we see these ideas re- newed in a number of visionaries gone forth from Protestantism, as the disciples and followers of Paracelsus, who, however, died a Catholic; Valentin, Weigel and his followers. We can count among the theos- ophists the Illuminati of all kinds. Spir- itism has its direct filiation in theosophy. Theosophy rests upon principles, whose application annihilates human reason by submitting it entirely to the passion of a delirious imagination, profanes the Sacred Scriptures by delivering them to the cab- ala, which seeks secrets therein which they do not contain. Reason regulates the limits which separate religion from philosophy, but at the same time it calls upon faith as an indispensable auxiliary ; it understands that we must receive through the Church the real sense of the Sacred Books, under pain of finding therein a source of ridiculous and sometimes crim- inal inspiration.

    Theotokos (G r . God-bearing) . — The mother of God; a title of the Blessed Vir- gin Mary.

    Therapeutae. — Jewish monks, who de- livered themselves to a contemplative and mortified life. The Therapeutae were spread in diverse places ; but most of them lived in Egypt, near Alexandria. They led a more solitary and contemplative life than the Essenes, occupying themselves only with prayer, reading and meditating upon the law. Ordinarily, they ate noth- ing else but bread, and this only in the evening. They assembled on the day of the Sabbath and on Pentecost, to pray and eat together.

    Theresa (St.) (1515-1582). — One of the most remarkable of the female saints of the modern Roman calendar, born at Avila, in Old Castile; was the daughter of Alphonso, of the noble house of Sanchez de Ceyeda. In her eighteenth year she entered a convent of the Carmelite Order in her native city, where she continued to reside for nearly thirty years. The most noble fruit of the enthusiastic spirituality of Theresa, is the reform of the Carmelite Order, of which she became the instru- ment. Theresa was canonized in 1621.

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    She left a number of works which have at all times maintained a high reputation. F. Oct. 15th.

    Thessalonians {Epistles to the). — St. Paul, having been obliged to leave Thes- salonica, a city of Macedonia, learned at Corinth, through Silas and Timothy, of the state of the Church in that city. They told him that several were not sufficiently detached from the world, nor instructed enough about the coming of the Lord and and the last judgment. They also notified him that there were some idle, curious and restless. These advices gave occasion to the Apostle to write to them two Epis- tles. We can regard as certain that the first was written from Corinth in the year 52 or 53. The Apostle in this letter wished to excite the Thessalonians to persevere ■with courage in the faith and not to per- mit themselves to be discouraged by obstacles and tribulations, to instruct of certain truths those who still doubted, to chide, but with mildness, those that erred in evil ways. The second Epistle was also written from Corinth, shortly after the first. The end and subject have great re- lation to those of the first.

    Thomas (St.) (also called Didymus). — One of the twelve Apostles. He is rarely mentioned in the New Testament. Ac- cording to Origen and Sophronius, he preached in Parthia, Media, Persia, Car- mania, Hyrcania, and Bactria, extending his missionary labors as far as India. The Persian Magi, who adored Christ our Lord in Bethlehem, are also numbered among those who were baptized by this Apostle. The Roman martyrology represents him as suffering martyrdom by a lance at Calamina, near Madras, in India. The *' Christians of St. Thomas" in East India claim the Apostle St. Thomas for their founder. Apocryphal Acts and a Gospel were published at Leipsic, in 1823. F. Dec. 2ist.

    Thomas Aquinas (St.) (1225-1274). — The angel of the school, Doctor Angelicus , born at Aquino, a town near Naples. His family was connected by marriage with the Hohenstaufen. His early education was entrusted to the care of the Benedictines of Monte Cassino. After completing his studies at the University of Naples, he en- tered the Dominican Order, and became the scholar of Albertus Magnus. He taught with universal admiration at Co-

    logne, Paris, Bologna, Naples, and other places ; he was equally famous as a preacher. He persistently refused any ecclesiastical dignity. Called by Gregory X. to assist at the Ecumenical Council of Lyons, in 1274, he fell sick on the journey and died in the Cistercian monastery of Fossanova, before he had completed his fiftieth year. He was solemnly canonized by John XXII., in 1323, and ranked among the great Doc- tors of the Church, by Pius V., in 1567. His most renowned work is the Summa Theologice. He composed many touching prayers, such as the Office of Corpus Christi, and hymns : Pange Lingua, Sacris Solemnis, Verbiim Supernum, Adoro Te Devote, l^auda Sion Salvatorem. See Thomism.

    Thomas i Becket (St.) (1118-1170). — An English prelate, born at London, The son of a wealthy merchant, he was early introduced into the household of Archbishop Theobald, whose favorite he soon became. To improve himself in every knowledge, especially in civil and ecclesiastical law, Thomas, with the per- mission of his patron, frequented the University of Paris, and then went to Bologna, where he attended the lectures of the celebrated Gratian. On his return to England, he was employed in some im- portant negotiations, and gradually rose to the archdeaconry of Canterbury. When Theobald died, in 1161, King Henry II. resolved to raise his esteemed chancellor to the vacant see. Only at the instance of the legate, Cardinal Henry of Pisa, Thomas at last yielded in accepting the dignity and was consecrated in 1162. From that time he became a strong advo- cate of the Church's rights, defending her against the king, who aimed at the com- plete subjection of the hierarchy to the Crown. He refused to consent to the constitutions of the Council of Clarendon, which restrained the jurisdiction of the bishops and attempted to bring the clergy under secular jurisdiction. After a fruit- less resistance, Thomas was persuaded to sign the constitutions. Soon after, how- ever, he repented of his condescension and withdrew his assent. Henry cited him before a Council at Northampton to an- swer for the charge of high treason. In this struggle for the liberties of the Church, Thomas stood alone ; he was de- serted even by his brother bishops. See- ing that the king was determined to crush

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    him, he appealed to the Pope, and then, secretly leaving the kingdom, fled to France for shelter. Henry confiscated the property, and banished all the kindred of the fugitive archbishop. From France, Thomas went to Rome, where Pope Alex- ander III. received the saint with every mark of respect and veneration. Anxious to end the quarrel. Pope Alexander made every possible effort to accomplish a rec- onciliation between the English King and the Primate. King Louis of France did the same. Finding all efforts fruitless, the Pope, at last, gave permission to em- ploy the weapon of ecclesiastical censures against his persecutors. Accordingly, at Vezelay, in 1166, the Primate solemnly condemned the constitutions of Claren- don, and excommunicated all advisers and supporters thereof, and all invaders of Church property. Fearing that the Pri- mate would lay the kingdom under an in- terdict, Henry began, at last, to show a sudden desire for peace. Thomas returned to England, where he was greeted by the people with transports of joy. He had received letters from the Pope, suspend- ing and excommunicating three prelates. The conduct of these bishops obliged the Primate to carry out the Pope's inten- tions. When Henry heard of this, he broke out into one of his usual fits, say- ing: "Is there no one to rid me of that troublesome priest ? " Four knights, act- ing on these words, immediately set out for England, and murdered the holy arch- bishop, Dec. 29th, 1 170. Thomas was canonized in 1172, and in 1220 his remains were removed to Trinity Chapel, where they were for several centuries, the object of pilgrimages. Henry VIII. destroyed the Chapel, and burned and scattered his bones.

    Thomas k Kempis. See A Kempis.

    Thomas of Celano. — A native of Celano, southern Italy, and, about 1221, general of the Franciscan Order in Germany, is gen- erally recognized as the author of the oldest biography of St. Francis of Assisi, and of the celebrated hymn or Sequence Dies tree, dies ilia.

    Thomas of Villanova (St.) (1488-1555). — Prelate, born at Fuenlana (Leon), Spain, died at Valencia. Professor in the Uni- versities of Alcala and Salamanca ; Augus- tinian religious, preacher at the court of Charles V., Archbishop of Valencia, in

    1545, merited the glorious surname of " Father of the Poor."

    Thomism. — Doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas. Theological and philosophical, it comprises the method, the theodicy, metaphysic, psychology, and moral. I. Ordinary Thomistic Method. — i. St. Thomas always starts by metaphysical questions and only finally arrives at the point of fact and detail. Proceeding he naturally draws the conclusion from the method he has followed ; he employs the syllogistic and deductive method, a method whose model and type we find in his Sum of Theology. II. Theodicy. — Existence of God ; divine attributes ; relations to God and the world, i. Existence of God. St. Thomas proves the existence of God by the movement, existence, gradation, and order of the contingent beings, by the traces of intelligence found even in the unreasonable beings. He does not separate the will from the other divine perfections ; reject- ing the error of those who attribute the creation to an arbitrary decree, he con- siders the world and the laws that govern it, as a manifestation of the wisdom and goodness of the First Cause. He puts the question what God is, or rather what He is not. 2. Divine attributes. As to the essential nature of God, St. Thomas, like Plato, subordinates the will to the intelli- gence; the philosophy of St. Thomas was the philosophy of intelligence and of rea- son, while Duns Scotus founded his upon the will. Man, it is true, cannot know the divine essence; however, he can, even by his sole natural powers, know the attributes essential to the Deity, understanding, will, science, activity, and liberty. God know- ing Himself, knows at the same time with- in Himself the beings that are not Him. For us, we know in time; but God per- ceives all things all at once, from all eter- nity; for Him there is neither past nor future. The first object of the will in God is His own essence. This will, in so far as it exercises itself outside of Him, is essen- tially free. God was not under the neces- sity to will His creatures. He wills them only on account of their relations in so far as they contribute to the general good of the universe ; this will is not arbitrary, but always exercises itself according to the order of His wisdom ; the same holds good in regard to His power, which implies no contradiction. 3. Relations of God with the world. God is the creator and preserver

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    of the world. God is present in the world and distinct from the world. God has cre- ated the world willingly and ex nihilo. This nothingness is neither the matter, nor the cause of the creation, it is only the simple relation of time : the being succeeded nothingness, like day succeeds the dawn. God creating the world had to create it per- fect, in its whole and in its parts. Thus, concludes St Thomas, a natural justice pre- sides at the creation and propagation of the beings. Here the question of the eternal creation presents itself. Creation is not a question of science, for human reason, which can destroy the arguments contrary to the dogma, cannot, however, establish its dogma directly. Creation is an object of faith. God, absolutely speaking, could have created from all eternity. In regard to the preservation of the world, St. Thomas arises against the system, accord- ing to which the creatures would be de- spoiled of all real activity. In regard to the question of the will and its relations with the action of the almighty power. St. Thomas wished, in his theory of the phys- ical premotion or natural predetermination, to reconcile the liberty with a sort of de- terminism. This theory consists in main- taining that the sovereign and irresistible impulse of the Divine will, may obtain from the human will acts which neverthe- less remain free, for " God moves all the beings conformable to their nature " ; and since, if He moves the natural causes. He does not hinder the acts to be unnatural ; so also if He acts on the voluntary causes. He does not hinder their actions to be voluntary : thus I am naturally moved be- forehand, as the word premotion indicates, I am predetermined, but predetermined to act freely. Always the questions remain : How our acts can be at once necessary and free? What constitutes the proper and distinct existence of each being ? Since St. Thomas, philosophy has made great prog- ress in the study of the will ; having only an imperfect knowledge of this faculty, St. Thomas could not have an adequate idea of the principle of individuality. Duns Scotus was the first who preoccupied him- self with this principle. The solution of this problem was the consequence of the dispute between the Realists and Nomi- nalists. To discover the nature of the universal ideas, they had to inquire at the same time about the nature of the indi- vidual existences. According to Duns Scotus, the individuality is the principle

    of the action, and, consequently, the will is the foundation of the being and not reason, chained to its unchangeable forms and sub- ject to determination and necessity, as the Thomists maintain. According to St. Thomas, on the contrary, the form of the beings, considered independently from all matter, is universal. What, therefore, constitutes the distinction of the indi- viduals.? It is matter where the form manifests itself, that is to say, the limita- tion, the relations in space and time. In the solution which he gives of the problem of evil, St. Thomas shows himself an opti- mist, but not according to the manner of Malebranche and Leibnitz. God's good- ness is not tied to the production of the actual world ; but the actual world, such as it is, is the most faithful expression of the designs of the Creator; no hand could add to the perfection of one single being with- out troubling the harmony of the whole. III. Metaphysic. — Metaphysic has for ob- ject the being in so far as being. There are two kinds of beings: the beings really existing, that is, objectively {esse in re), and the beings which are only abstractions of the mind, like poverty, blindness, the defect in general, which are entta but not essentice. The essences are simple or com- posed ; there is only one simple essence or pure form without mixture of matter, this is God. All the rest is composed of form and matter, both of beings {eniia). The form is in actu and matter in potentia. It is the form that gives the being ; it is sub- stantial or accidental. The union of mat- ter and form is the substantial or acci- dental generation; the diversity of the forms constitutes the kinds, the species and the individuals. IV. Thomistic Psy- chology. — St. Thomas, like Descartes, ad- mits only one principle for thought and life. He is inclined to derive all our knowledge from sensible experience ; he admits, however, the first notions, which are the basis of reasoning ; he forcibly de- fends, against Averroism, the personality, the activity, and liberty of the thinking subject. The starting point of knowledge is the sensible perception by the means of the five faculties ; the exterior senses, the common sense, judgment, imagination, and memory. Above the sensible perception is the understanding, which is peculiar to man. The Thomistic psychology does not behold any difference of nature between passion and will ; both enter the appetitive faculty; thus will and liberty are one and

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    the same power diversely applied. The will attaches itself to the general good, liberty to the particular good. V. Thomistic Moral. — The moral, in St. Thomas, is equally connected with the intellectual and rational principles. He acknowledges an eternal law which has its foundation in divine reason, a law which is the origin and basis of all others. The civil law "is an order of reason imposed for the com- mon good." The essential attribute of the sovereignty is the power to make laws (Sum. 1-2, 90, 4), and this power belongs to the people or to its representatives. If the power be unjust, the subjects have the right to reject it. The tyrannical govern- ment is not just, because it is not ordained for the common good, but for the good of the one who governs (Sum. 1-2, 105, i, 2-2, 42, 3). St. Thomas upheld a correct medium between the principle of authority and liberty, by leaving the predominant role to the first. His system is a learned organization which expresses, even in philosophy, the Catholic organization and discipline.

    Thomism, they also called the school founded by Banez, Dominican (died, 1604). It claims to rest on the authority of St. Thomas; represents that there are two species of grace, the one which is given more abundantly than the other. To the first the much-abused name of sufficient grace is given : this makes it possible for a man to do the salutary act, but if no more be given, he will not use the grace offered. But so often as, in virtue of a Divine de- cree of premotion, the act is to be done, then the second kind of grace is given, and the act is done under its influence, for which reason it is said to be efficacious. Billuart was the leading supporter of this view.

    Three Chapter Controversy. See Chap- ters.

    Thummim. See Urim.

    Thurible. See Censer

    Thurificati, they called those Christians, in the early Church, who, during persecu- tion, had offered incense to pagan deities.

    Thursday (//o/y) . — The Thursday before Easter. On this day only one Mass can be said in the same church, and that Mass must be a public one. The Mass is cele- brated in white vestments, because the in- stitution of the Eucharist is joyfully

    commemorated, but at the same time there are certain signs of the mourning proper to Holy Week. The bells, which are rung at the Gloria, do not sound again till the Gloria of Holy Saturday, and the Church returns to her ancient use of summoning the Faithful or arousing their attention by a wooden clapper. Nor is the embrace of peace given. The celebrant consecrates an additional host, which is placed in a chalice and borne in procession, after the Mass, to a place prepared for it. The "Pange Lingua^^ is sung during the pro- cession, and the place to which the Blessed Sacrament is removed — often called the sepulchre, but properly the re- pository — is decked with flowers and lights. Afterwards the altars are stripped, to remind the Christians of the way in which their Master was stripped of His garments. In some churches, the priest or prelate, assisted by deacon and subdeacon, washes the feet of twelve poor men, in imitation of our Saviour who washed the feet of His Apostles. Since the seventh century the holy oils, formerly consecrated at any time, have been blessed by the bishop in the Mass of this day. See Holy Week.

    Thyatira. — Ancient city of Lydia, in Asia Minor, near the river Lycus, between Sardis and Pergamos, founded bySeleucus Nicator. Dyeing was an important branch of its business. Here the Christians estab- lished one of their first churches.

    Tiara. — 'The triple crown of the Pope, which is considered to be symbolical of his temporal, as the keys are of his spirit- ual authority. It is composed of a high cap of gold cloth, encircled by three coronets, with a mound and cross of gold on the top. From the cap hang two pendants, embroidered and fringed at the end. The original Papal crown consisted of the cap alone, and was first used by Pope Damasus II., in 1048. Pope Boniface VIII. added the second crown and Bene- dict XII. the third. Hence it was only in the fourteenth century that the Tiara ob- tained its actual form.

    Tiberias. — An ancient town in Pales- tine, situated on the western shore of the sea of Galilee, in the tribe of Zabulon, seventeen miles east-northeast of Nazareth, the modern Tabariya. It was founded by Herod Antipas in the first half of the first century a. d. Population 3,000.

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    Tiberias (Sea of). See Genesarkth.

    Timothy (St.). — Disciple of St. Paul, bishop of Ephesus and martyr, died in 97. Born at Lystra, Lycaonia; attached him- self about the year 51 to St. Paul, who as- sociated him in all his apostolic labors; became the first bishop of Ephesus in 65, where, being opposed to the celebration of a feast in honor of Diana, he was stoned. We have two Epistles of St. Paul to Timothy. F. Jan. 24th.

    Tithes (from the Lat. decimus, tenth). — The Israelites were subject to three kinds of Tithes : the lit/ie of the Levites, which had to be paid under pain of death ; the tithe of all revenues, payable at Jeru- salem and applicable to the expenses while stopping in the city ; the tithe of the poor, payable every third year, even by the Levites, but which fell into disuse. Among the first Christians it was a duty of con- science to support the priests, and this duty soon became a canonical law and during the time of Charlemagne it became a State law, under the form of tithe. Limited at first to the crops, it was soon extended to cattle, products of labor and commerce (Council of Aries, 813), then the soldier and artisan became subject to it (Council of Trosly, 909). The obligation of the tithe was absolute ; only the Crusaders were excepted. In England and Ireland, the tithes still constitute the salary of the clergy, but are no longer paid in natural products. Their value was fixed in 1835, after an estimation of the crops, figured on an average of seven years and amounting to about forty million dollars.

    Title {Catholic). — According to the or- der of precedence to which dignitaries in the Church are entitled, the following are the ecclesiastical titles in use and the forms of address proper to the several dignitaries : The Pope is called "His Holiness," and addressed " Your Holiness," or '* Holy Father." A Cardinal is entitled "His Eminence, " and addressed in letters, " Most Eminent and Most Reverend Sir." If a Cardinal is also a bishop of some resi- dential see, the address may be, "To His

    Eminence, Cardinal , Bishop of

    ." A Patriarch is entitled "His

    Excellency, the Most Reverend A

    B , Patriarch of ." The Vice- Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, the Auditor of the Camera and the Major- Domo of His Holiness have the same title

    and address. Custom has sanctioned a similar form for Papal Nuncios and Delegates Apostolic, though in practice of the Roman court they are addressed like an archbishop or bishop, the words used being Amplitudo Ttia, " Your Gran- deur," " Your Lordship," " Your Grace." A letter to them is begun " Most Illustri- ous and Most Reverend Sir," or " Your Excellency." An Archbishop, or Bishop, is entitled " His Grandeur," " His Lord- ship," " His Grace," in Latin Amplitudo, and, in this coutry, the archbishop is ad- dressed "The Most Reverend A

    B , Archbishop of ." A bishop

    "The Right Reverend -

    — , Bishop of

    ." However, P. A. Baart claims

    that it is an abuse to call a bishop " Right Reverend," and he wants both a bishop and archbishop to be addressed " The Most Reverend." So, also, this same author claims that the letters D. D. (Doctor of Divinity) to a bishop's name, is not only against Roman practice and condemned by the best authorities, but is, moreover, redundant, for the reason that a bishop is ex officio a teacher of divinity. A Vicar General is entitled " The Very Rever- end " ; Abbots or inferior Prelates are called " Most Reverend Father Abbot." The Latin is Reverendissimus, which word by custom has been rendered " Right Rev- erend " in English. Roman Prelates, con- sisting of pronotaries apostolic, domestic prelates of the Pope, private chamberlains of the Pope, are entitled " Monsignor." Diocesan Dignitaries and other inferior dignitaries are entitled " Very Reverend,'* and addressed "Very Reverend Father" or " Very Reverend Sir." A Prtest is entitled "Father" or "His Reverence" and addressed " Reverend Sir "or" Rever- end Father." A Doctor's degree "D. D " ;■ "LL. D."; "Ph.D."; etc., entitles the holder to be addressed as "Doctor."

    Titular Bishop. — His Holiness Leo XIII., by a decision given several years ago substituted the phrase " titular bishop" for " bishop in partibus,'' which applies to such bishops that have jurisdiction over certain countries where no longer any, or very few Catholics are found, partes in- fdelium.

    Titus (St.). — Titus was a Greek by birth and the son of gentile father and a Jewish mother. He accompanied St. Paul to Jerusalem to the Council, and on his various extensive journeys, and was finally

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    Toleration

    established hy him, Bishop of Crete, about the year 62. He died about 105, at the ad- vanced age of 94 years. St. Paul wrote an Epistle to him, which contains instructions for his disciple. F. Jan 4th.

    Tobias. — Name of two Jews, the father and the son, of the city of Cades, in the tribe of Nephtali. Both led away into captivity to Ninive by Salmanasar, re- mained there faithful to the law of Moses. The father, attached to the house of Sal- manasar, out of favor by Sennacherib, on account of his attachment to the faith of his Fathers and his zeal in relieving his compatriots, assisting the one, consoling the others, burying the dead, he was obliged to hide himself to save his life. He reob- tained his goods at the death of Sennacherib (712 B. c), but lost his eyesight. Believ- ing his death to be near, he charged his son to go to Rages, Media, to claim from his relative Gabelus ten talents of silver. Led by the angel Raphael, who had as- sumed the figure of a young man, the younger Tobias happily accomplished his voyage. At Ecbatana he married his cousin Sara, daughter of Raguel, who was delivered from a demon, thanks to the counsels of Raphael. On his return, fol- lowing the advice of the angel, he restored his father's eyesight, by rubbing the eyes with the gall of an enormous fish, which he had captured in the Tigris. The elder Tobias died at Ninive, at an age of 102 years; his son retired to his father-in- law at Ecbatana, and died there at the age of 99 years.

    Tobias {Book of). — One of the Deu- terocanonical Books of the Old Testament. The Jews did not accept it among the canonical books, because it was not writ- ten in Hebrew. It was translated into Latin by St. Jerome after a Chaldaic ver- sion. According to the general opinion, the two Tobias wrote the book which car- ries their name until the account of the death of Tobias the Younger, an account which very probably, was added by one of his relatives.

    Toleration {Religious). — Very often our Protestant brethren tell us that the Catholic Church is and was, at all times, very intolerant. But we may ask, what was the teaching of the Reformers on this head.? Did not they follow the very maxim that Protestants of to-day censure so severely.? Did not Luther find his chief delight in cursing the Pope? Did

    he not call upon Christians '* to seize the Pope, and all the popish entourage of idolatry .? to tear out the tongues of the ac- cursed crew by the roots?" To pitch into the sea " all the hateful scoundrels, bag and baggage — Pope, and Cardinals, and the whole papal rabble?" Kohler cooly remarks : *' Luther, as well as the whole age of Reformation, had not dis- covered the golden means between the principle of liberty of conscience and the moral duty of rulers to protect religion ; hence it is not to be wondered at, if he has strongly contradicted himself on this point." Luther, Brenz, Bucer, Capito, teach that all heretics should be extirpated, and the " meek and gentle " Melanchton seeks to defend this doctrine. Dollinger, an unprejudiced witness, thus writes : " The Protestant theory of the absolute authority of the State in ecqlesiastical matters made it impossible for the civil power to be tolerant. Historically, noth- ing can be less true than the assertion that the Reformation was a movement in favor of liberty of conscience. The precise con- trary is the truth. Lutherans and Calvin- ists, indeed, like all men in every age, claimed liberty of conscience for them- selves, but it never occurred to them, when they had the upper hand, to extend it to others. The complete suppression and extirpation of the Catholic Church was the goal of all the Reformers. From the very first they called upon princes and magistrates to abolish by force the ritual of the ancient Church. In England, Ire- land, Scotland, and Sweden, they pro- ceeded to such extremes as to punish every exercise of the Catholic religion with death." Were authentic statistics forthcoming as to the number of those who suflFered for the Catholic faith in these countries, the number of victims, would at the very least, be as great as those who suffered, often on purely secu- lar grounds, at the hands of the Inquisi- tion. (See this word.)

    Did not something similar take place in our country? Maryland was to be some- thing more than a Catholic colony. It was to be *' a free soil for Christianity." Lord Baltimore purposed to make all creeds equal in his province. To this '* Land of the Sanctuary," therefore came the Puritans who were whipped and op- pressed in Anglican Virginia, and the Quakers and Prelatists who fled from Puri- tan New England. The Maryland Catholics,

    Toleration

    686

    Toleration

    however, were ill requited for their magna- nimity by their Protestant guests. Allying themselves to Clay borne, the sworn enemy of Baltimore, the ungrateful Puritans, in 1645, raised an insurrection against the Catholics and their governor, and made themselves masters of the province. The Jesuit missionaries were sent in chains to England, and many Catholics were de- prived of their possessions and banished. "The Puritans," says Bancroft, ''had neither the gratitude to respect the rights of the government by which they had been received and fostered, nor magnanimity to continue the toleration to which alone they were indebted for their residence in the colony." After the execution of Charles I., the Puritan faction hastened to espouse the fortunes of Cromwell. They rose against and deposed the governor ap- pointed by Lord Baltimore, and estab- lished a government of their own liking, one of whose first acts was to revoke the Toleration Act. The Provincial Assembly, called together in 1654, from which Cath- olics were rigidly excluded, passed an act concerning religion which declared that " none who professed and exercised the Popish (commonly called the Roman Catholic) religion, could be protected in the province, but to be restrained from the exercise thereof." On the restora- tion of the monarchy in England (1660), Lord Baltimore regained his rights as proprietor, and the Toleration Act was re- vived to its fullest extent. Peace and tranquillity once more reigned in Mary- land, and remained undisturbed until the accession of William and Mary (1688), when the Puritans, under Coode, for the third time rose in arms, formed an "As- sociation for the defense of the Protestant religion," and abolished the authority of Lord Baltimore. Maryland became and remained a royal province for a quarter of a century. The Maryland Catholics now entered on a period of great trial. Reli- gious liberty and political equality of all Christians were abolished. In 1692, the colonial Legislature declared the Church of England to be the established religion of Maryland ; disfranchised Catholics and compelled them to pay tithes for the sup- port of the Anglican Establishment. By a law passed in 1702, all Protestant dissenters ■were entitled to the full benefit of the acts of toleration passed under William by the English parliament. But this grace was strictly withdrawn from Catholics, who

    had been the first to grant toleration to other people. In 1704, an "Act to prevent the increase of Popery in the Province," forbade all bishops and priests to say Mass or exercise any functions of their ministry in public, and enacted that any Catholic priest attempting to convert a Protestant, or undertaking upon himself the education of youth, should be transported to Eng- land, that he might there undergo the penalties which English Statutes inflicted on such actions. Catholics could hear Mass only in their own houses, and it was only under this restriction that Catholic worship could be practiced in Maryland for a period of seventy years. Another law declared Catholics incompetent to pur- chase lands, or to take lands by inheritance, and, moreover, provided that a Catholic child, by becoming a Protestant, could ex- act his share of property from his parents "as though they were dead." Catholics were taxed twice as much as Protestants. A law passed, in 1615, placed " Irish Pa- pists " on a footing with negro-slaves and imposed a tax on the importation of serv- ants from Ireland "to prevent importing too great a number of Irish Papists into the Province."

    Anti-Catholic legislation was not con- fined to Maryland ; the penal laws of the other colonies against the Catholics were equally, if not more, severe. In Virginia the original settlers, who professed the reli- gion of the English Episcopal Church, embodied in their code all the ferocious laws of the mother country against the Catholics. Attendance at the Anglican ser- vice was compulsory ; nonconformists, in- cluding Protestants of other denominations, were fined or expelled. Lord Baltimore, who, in 1629, visited Virginia on a tour of observation, was promptly ordered to leave because he was a Catholic. A Catholic was not permitted to hold office, to vote or to keep arms; he could not even own a horse worth over £5. An act of 1705, un- paralled in history, declared Catholics in- competent as witnesses, and this fearful law was, in 1753, extended to all cases whatever. The Dutch, who settled in " New Netherland," now the State of New York, were zealous Calvinists, and Calvin- ism was the acknowledged religion of the colony. Yet no special intolerance was evinced towards other creeds. In 16S3, after the country had passed into the hands of the English, a Catholic, Colonel Dun- gan, was appointed governor by the Duke

    Toleration

    687

    Toleration

    of York — afterwards James II. — from whom it received its name. Under him the first New York Legislature convened and enacted a "Charter of Liberties," securing freedom of conscience and reli- gion to all peaceable persons who profess faith in God by Jesus Christ. Thus, in New York, also, religious liberty was first proclaimed by Catholics. But the acces- sion of William and Mary to the throne blasted all hopes of the true faith in New York. In 1691, the General Assembly en- acted a law, the so-called •' Bill of Rights," annulling the " Charter of Liberties " of 1683, and denying " liberty to any person of the Romish religion to exercise their manner of worship, contrary to the laws of England." By a law passed in 1700 for the purpose of checking the Catholic mis- sions among the Indians, it was enacted that every Jesuit or Popish priest, coming into the province, should be subjected to personal imprisonment, and in case of es- cape and recapture, to the punishment of death. Another law excluded Catholics from office and deprived them of the right to vote. As late as 1778, Father de la Motte was cast into prison in New York for saying Mass.

    The laws of the New England colonies against Catholics were equally severe. By a statute of Massachusetts, passed in 1647, " Jesuits and Popish priests," were subjected to banishment, and in case of their return, to death. In Rhode Island, Catholics were excluded from the rights of citizenship. Among the Blue Laws of Connecticut we find enacting that " no priest shall abide in the dominion; he shall be banished and suffer death on his return. Priests may be seized by anyone without a warrant." Although the Puri- tans had fled from England on account of religious persecutions, they refused to grant to others the liberty of conscience which they claimed for themselves. The only approved churches in the New Eng- land colonies were those organized on the congregational system; all others, the English Episcopal Church included, were illegal. None but members of the ap- proved Church could be admitted free- men. To be a freeman one had to be a Puritan. Every year Guy Fawkes Day (5th of November) was celebrated through- out New England by burning the Pope in effigy. George Washington in the begin- ning of the War of Independence, checked *' the ridiculous and childish custom " as

    it was called by him. Religious intoler- ance was carried to such an extent by the New England Puritans, that they actually tormented and even put to death persons holding dissenting doctrines. By a law of Massachusetts, passed in 1657, " Quakers and other blasphemous heretics " were prohibited from emigrating into the colony; if they did, they were to have one of their ears cut off; and for a third offense, they were to have their tongue bored through with a hot iron. In 1629 four Quakers were executed on Boston Common. Persons who conformed to the Anglican Church, or who disapproved of infant baptism, were banished from the colonies. Roger Williams, the first of American Baptists, was obliged to flee from Puritan intolerance in Massachusetts on account of his theological views, especially for denying the authority of the magistrates in matters of religion. But New Plymouth disgraced itself es- pecially by the many judicial murders attending the witchcraft frenzy. Four persons were put to death for *' crime of witchcraft," in Massachusetts, in 1645, and three in Connecticut, in 1662. In 1692, nineteen of twenty-eight supposed witches, who had been capitally convicted, were hanged in Salem, and one, who re- fused to plead, was pressed to death, while 150 persons were in prison on the same charge, and complaints against 200 others had been presented to the magistrates. Most disgraceful, and truly worthy of bar- barians, was the policy that guided the Protestant colonists in their dealings with the aboriginal inhabitants of our country. Populous Indian tribes, who might have been easily won to Christianity and civili- zation, were literally exterminated. In Rhode Island the poor savages were sold like cattle, while in Massachusetts it was the same to shoot a wolf, as an Indian. It is calculated that upwards of 180,000 of the poor savages were slaughtered in Massachusetts and Connecticut alone. While the tribes evangelized by the French and Spanish subsist to this day, except where brought in contact with the English colonists, all the Indian tribes which formerly inhabited the territory of New England have wholly disappeared and exist only in memory. Cf. J. Grahame, History of the United States of North America, Book II. ch. v. Bancroft, II. 564. With regard to the intolerant spirit in other countries see the various articles,

    Tonsure

    688

    Tradition

    V. g.. Reformation in England, Scot- land, Germany, Sweden, etc.

    Tonsure. — The candidate for the priest- hood is initiated into the ranks of the clergy by a ceremony, which is called Tonsure. It is thus named, because the hair is cut in the form of a crown, sol- emnly made by the bishop. With it the bishop gives to the candidate the surplice or ecclesiastical dress, to indicate " the putting off of the old, and the clothing with the new man," but imparts no spirit- ual powers. It is a sort of preparation and noviceship for orders, in which per- sons are to strive to render themselves worthy to be elevated to the rank of sa- cred ministers. Hence, it ought to be conferred only on such as have this inten- tion. Whatever was the time and manner of its origin, it is customary in the Church for all who aspire to orders, to commence by receiving the Tonsure. The Second General Council of Nice speaks of it as a thing received in the Church, and some writers date its origin to the time of the Apostles.

    Tractarians(English tract, treatise, little works in which a doctrine is exposed). — Name given to Anglo-Catholics, a new sect which admits the Catholic unity with- out acknowledging the supremacy of the Pope, and which repudiates the alliance of Church and State such as it exists in England.

    Tractus. — In all Masses from Septua- gesima till Holy Saturday, on week days in Advent, and on all vigils, observed as feasts, the Alleluia is omitted, and re- placed by a portion of a Psalm, called Tract (Lat. Tractus), that is, without break or interruption of other voices.

    Tradition (action by which one delivers something to another). — In the theological sense it is a testimony attesting to the truth of a fact, of a dogma, or of a custom. Tertullian (7L»3. de Cor., iv.) defines it: "A doctrine received by living voice and deriving, by way of succession, from the holy Fathers to us " ; according to him, it carries a triple testimony: it is as the in- ventory of Holy Scripture, and at the same time its most authorized commentary, the perpetual custom of the Church confirms it; faith always made use of it as a funda- mental basis. Besides oral tradition, which is tradition, properly speaking, we admit

    also the written tradition. We distinguish again the doctrinal tradition or faith, which disposes in favor of truths that form a part of the dogmas : tradition of dis- cipline and tradition of rites. There are also the divine traditions, the apostolic traditions, and the ecclesiastical traditions. Tradition is, together with Holy Scripture and the decisions of the Church, the basis of the Catholic religion. The great ques- tion between Catholics and Protestants, is to know whether tradition must be consid- ered as rule of faith. From the Catholic point of view, tradition is the constant and perpetual teaching of the universal Church, known through the uniform voice of its pastors which she calls the Fathers; through the decisions of the councils, the practices of public worship, the prayers and ceremonies of liturgy, and even through the testimony of profane and heretical authors. It is tradition, whose deposit has been intrusted to the Church, which makes us accept the canon of the Scriptures and their interpretation. Hence, the Church always protested against hav- ing departed from the sense of the holy Fathers, and never promulgated any dogma which is not conformable with tra- dition. Jesus Christ, having written noth- ing, has established His doctrine solely on preaching. The Apostles founded the first Church, and during a long time it sup- ported itself solely on tradition. Both the Jews and pagans become converted, and it is the unwritten word, that is, tradition, "which has rendered them Christians. Tra- dition has, therefore, been, in the order of time, the first rule of faith of the Chris- tian Church ; it made known to them, in a certain manner, the doctrine of Jesus Christ, His miracles, the miracles of the Apostles and, in general, all the facts that have reference to the establishment of Christianity. Since the beginning of the Church, error was often mingled with truth ; then the Apostles, either by living voice, or by writing, each one individually or united in council, cleared up the facts, refuted the doctrinal errors and always prescribed to the Faithful to keep faith- fully the traditions (II. Thess. ii. 14). Such was the origin of the books of the New Testament; they were the work of tradition. They were originally, according to St. Justin, simple memoirs, addressed to some particular churches, to relate and explain the facts collected by tra- dition. These writings, once admitted

    Traditionalism

    689

    Traditionalism

    by the universal Church, became a new rule of faith. Tertullian refutes the erroneous interpretations of the heretics, by simply opposing to them tradition ; it is constant, he answers them, that what is the most ancient is the most true and that what is the most ancient is that what is since the beginning. The Church has always followed this rule : thus when she wishes to solve doctrinal questions, she consults the writings of the holy Fathers and of the holy Doctors, who, in their en- semble, form a chain whose first ring goes back to the apostolic times. The Church also professes that she teaches nothing of herself and that she invents nothing new in the doctrine. The Council of Trent (4th Sess.), has defined, against the Prot- estants, that we must receive and revere the apostolic traditions just like the Sacred Scriptures. The authenticity of the his- torical books can be established only by the authority of tradition, to which we ought to apply the rules of historical criticism. Why, therefore, when there is question of the Sacred Books, ought we to refuse the testimony of the same tradition ? I would not believe in the Gospel, said St. Augustine, if I were not determined to this by the authority of the Christian so- ciety. The Protestants themselves, if they are sincere, are they not forced to avow that when they possess Holy Scripture, they owe this to tradition faithfully pre- served in the Catholic Church.? Vincent of Lerins said that tradition must be pro- gressive, not that the Church can increase the number of truths transmitted by tradi- tion, but, in the sense, that these truths develop themselves successively and, in a given moment, formulate themselves more clearly. We must remark, in fact, that the dogmas of faith have been defined only according to the measure they were attacked by the heresiarchs, and that, in order to define them, the Church acts just the contrary to heresy : Nestorius had maintained that Mary was not the Mother of God, the Church proclaimed in the Council of Ephesus that, henceforth, Mary should be called the Mother of God. At the commencement of the Reformation, when the Protestants had yet preserved most of the fundamental truths of the reli- gion of Jesus Christ, they accepted tradi- tion, at least that of the first five centuries ; but, since that time, they have rejected it entirely and, thereby, have put into ques- tion all the dogmas of faith, and thus

    44

    opened the gate to rationalism. To-day, in face of increasing infidelity, the doctors of the Anglican Church, returning to their first steps, behold only one dam to oppose to the rising flood of impiety, namely, that of tradition ; hence the University of Ox- ford teaches that tradition, in harmony with Scripture, must be considered a rule of faith.

    Traditionalism (attachment to the tradi- tions, to the ancient customs). — Tradition- alism teaches the original dependence of reason and the necessity of a primitive revelation, even before the fall. This doc- trine, without having been condemned by the Church, not even censured like Fide- ism, has been blamed and its principal authors received warnings. Both faith and reason, says St. Thomas, having God for authors, cannot contradict themselves. Reason must demonstrate the truth of faith, uphold and defend it; faith, for its part, must present itself to reason to free it from all error, and to perfect it, through the knowledge of divine things. Thus, by the sole light of reason, philosophy may dis- cover the truths of the natural order and take hold of the testimonies which demon- strate the existence of a supernatural order. But the existence of a supernatural order once established, it cannot, without impiety, maintain that the purely philosophical and natural doctrine gives to men the last word about their destiny, and place hu- man science above revelation. Man has been created good and perfect, in his or- der, but, to use the terms of the school, in fotentia, sed non in actu, as the spiritualists pretend, who say that man has been cre- ated in a state of natural and continued perfection. He has been created, not in a state of absolute perfection, in the best of the worlds possible, as the optimists claim, but in a relative and progressive per- fection (which the traditionalists deny). The system of traditionalism is connected with the question of the supernatural ori- gin of language, propagated by M. de Bonald. Traditionalism destroys the na- ture of man, for it runs counter to the state of primitive perfection. The tradi- tionalists suppose a primordial revelation, in the earthly Paradise. The Church teaches, it is true, that man has never been in a state of pure nature and that at his creation, he was raised to a supernatural order, but this is far from the doctrine of Bonald and Condillac, who deny the

    Traditores

    690

    Transubstantiation

    innate ideas and who pretend tliat God did directly transmit to man both thought and language. God had created man per- fect, in his order; according to St. Thomas, he comprises in himself the most perfect degree of life, and when, in the garden of Eden, He communicates with man, it is as with a being already in full possession of the intelligence and word. Thus God does not outline His work, there is no mutilated creation. When ra- tionalism grants too much to reason, we can say that traditionalism does not grant enough to it. There is a certain relation- ship between fatalism which denies the fall, and traditionalism which denies the power of reason. Both derive the ideas from the outside and lead to sensual- ism ; in placing, at the beginning, on the one side, ignorance, and on the other, misery, they destroy or darken the idea of creation and thereby run counter to the true traditions of mankind.

    Traditores. — Name given to those who, in time of persecution, gave up to the offi- cers of the law the Scriptures, or any of the sacred vessels, or the names of their breth- ren.

    Transubstantiation (change of one sub- stance into another). — Before consecra- tion, there is upon the altar only bread and wine. But, through consecration, the word of the Lord made itself heard ; God has spoken through the mouth of His min- ister, and the effect has been produced ; the Lord has ordained, and the prodigy has been operated. After consecration, Jesus Christ is upon the altar. We call this change Transubstantiation, that is, change of one substance into another. The Body of Jesus Christ, present in the Eucharist (see Real Presence), is not present with the substance of the bread, which would be called " Consubstantia- tion"; nor in the bread, which might be named '* Impanation." Consecration re- places the substance of the bread, which is destroyed and changed into the body of our Lord, as the substance of the wine is changed into His blood ; this is what we call Transubstantiation. This truth is proved from the words of the institution of the Eucharist. In fact, Jesus Christ said to His Apostles : This is My Body, •which shall be delivered for you; this is My Blood, the Blood of the New Testa- ment, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. Now then, in the body

    which Jesus Christ went to deliver for his Apostles, there was no mixture of bread ; and in the blood which was to be shed, there was no mixture of wine.

    Transubstantiation is a mystery, and per- haps the most astonishing of mysteries ; but, to operate this miracle, an infinite power, the power of God intervenes ; therefore, rea- son can allege nothing against it. Hence, after consecration there is no longer any bread and wine upon the altar; only the species or appearances remain, that is, what appears to our senses, like the color, figure, and taste. The exterior qualities of the bread and wine, that we call species or appear- ances, like the form or figure, the odor and taste, still remain after the consecra- tion. What we see upon the altar has the resemblance of bread and wine, has the taste of bread and wine ; the host is round, is white, like before consecration, but, in reality, there is neither bread nor wine, since through the power of the words pro- nounced by the priest, at the moment of consecration, these two substances have been changed into the body and blood of Jesus Christ. As long as the species or appearances of bread and wine remain in their integrity, the sacrament continues to exist and Jesus Christ is really present : hence the custom of the Church has always been to preserve the Blessed Sacrament for the wants, consolation and happiness of the Faithful. Jesus Christ, being alive in the Eucharist, is whole and entire under the appearance of bread and whole and entire under the appearance of wine. Jesus Christ, in the Eucharist, is alive as He was when He said to His Apostles: This is My Body. Now then, when He pro- nounced these words, His body was united with His soul ; it was also united with His divinity; thus the sacrament of the Eucharist contains not only the body of Jesus Christ, but also His soul and divinity. The body of Jesus Christ is, under the Eucharistic species, a living body; but, that a body may be alive, both the blood and the soul must be united therein ; thus, wherever there is the body of Christ, there are also His soul and His blood ; and, in vir- tue of the ineffable union of the divine na- ture, with the human nature, wherever there is the body, the blood and soul of Jesus Christ, there is also His divinity. When the priest divides the host, he does not divide the body of Jesus Christ, but only the appearances, and Christ remains whole and entire in each particle of the host

    Trappists

    691

    Trent

    divided. Jesus Christ raised from among the dead, can die no more; His body, con- sequently, cannot be divided, separated into several parts. Therefore, when the priest divides the host, not the body of Christ is divided, but solely the species or appearances. When the species are di- vided, each particle occupies a less extent, but they are always Eucharistic species ; thus, they still contain the body and blood of Jesus Christ, who is whole and entire under each particle of each species.

    Trappists. — Members of a monastic body, a branch of the Cistercian order. Its name is derived from the village of Soligny-la-Trappe, in the department of Orne, France, where the abbey of La Trappe was founded in 1140 by Rotrou, Count of Perche. The abbey soon fell into decay, and was governed for many years by titular or commendatory abbots. De Ranee (died, 1700), who had been commendatory abbot of La Trappe from his boyhood, became its actual abbot in 1664, and thoroughly reformed and reor- ganized the order. The rules of this order are noted for their extreme aus- terity, and inculcate extended fasts, se- vere manual labor, almost perpetual silence, abstinence from flesh, fish, etc., and rigorous asceticism in general. The order was suppressed in France during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic pe- riods. At the fall of Napoleon, Don Au- gustin. Abbot at Val-Sainte, bought La Trappe, and gradually the ancient monas- teries were restored and new ones founded. There are branch monasteries in France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, etc., and two in the United States (Abbey of Geth- semane, Kentucky, and Mellery, Iowa).

    Trent {Council of) (1545-1563). — Nineteenth Ecumenical Council, held against Protestantism. At first it had been provoked by the demands of the Prot- estants, who, later on, according to the ordinary proceeding of heretics, refused to submit to it. The Church, by ordain- ing to reform itself in her head and mem- bers, not in denying itself in her essence, but by returning to the primitive spirit, distinguished herself from the so-called Reformation, which, in defiance of all tradition, wished to do away with all the Christian institutions. For some time the need of a General Council had made itself felt, and, already. Pope Clement VII. had projected its holding, from 1530; but the

    wars of Charles V., emperor of Ger- many, and of Francis I., king of France, as well as the invasion of the Turks, de- layed its reunion. After negotiations which lasted ten years, between the Pope and the Emperor, they finally agreed upon an Ecumenical Council to be held at Trent, on Nov. ist, 1542. New difficulties having supervened, this project was pro- rogued until March 15th, 1545. In view of the small number of bishops who indi- cated their presence, the Council could not be opened on the date appointed in the Bull of Pope Paul III. The project of convoking a General Council was assented to by the Catholics, but obstinately op- posed by the Protestants. Assembling at Smdlkald, in 1537, the Lutheran princes drew up the pretexts upon which they re- jected the proposed Council. They were upheld in their opposition by Henry VIII. of England, who refused to acknowledge any synod summoned by the Pope, claim- ing that to princes alone pertained the right of summoning such an assembly. The Peace of Crespy, which put an end to the bloody war between Charles V. and Francis I., at length rendered the Council possible, which Paul had summoned to meet at Trent, a city on the confines of Germany and Italy. The Holy Ecumen- ical Council of Trent opened Dec. 13th, 1545. Its 1st Session was devoted to the solemn opening of the assembly and to the formation of the different committees. In the 2d Session (Jan., 1546), a discourse in Latin was held, exhorting the Fathers to sanctify themselves ; decided on the or- der of the questions to be treated by each of the particular or general committees, and passed a decree on the conduct of the Fathers and Faithful during the Council. In the 3d Session (Feb., 1546), the Fathers made a profession of the faith. They also read therein the decree which ordained to inscribe at the head of the acts of the Council the Symbol of Nice and of Con- stantinople. In the 4th Session (April 8th, 1546), they treated on the sources of faith. The important decree on Scripture and tradition was adopted. The Council de- clared that it received both the Written Word of God and the unwritten traditions "with an equal affection of piety and rev- erence," and ordained that the Vulgate version should everywhere be accepted as authentic, and that no one should " pre- sume to interpret the Sacred Scriptures contrary to the declared sentiment of the

    Trinitarians

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    Church, or the unanimous consent of the Fathers." In the 5th session, the doctrine of Original Sin was defined. In the 6th Session, the synod promulgated the cele- brated decree on justification, giving in clear and precise terms the teaching of the Church on that important subject. The Lutheran errors on free-will, grace and justification were condemned in thirty- three canons. The decrees of the 7th Session (March 3d, 1547) defined the Catholic doctrine on the Sacraments in general, and on Baptism and Con- firmation in particular. An epidemic which broke out at Trent, necessitated the removal of the Council to Bologna. But as the imperial bishops refused to leave Trent, the Pope, who had some apprehen- sions of a schism, would not allow the Fathers at Bologna to publish any decrees, and, at length, in Sept., 1547, suspended the Council. Two Sessions, the 9th and 10th had been held at Bologna. Pope Paul III. died in Nov., 1549. His successor Julius III. (1550-1555), reopened the Coun- cil at Trent on May ist, 1551. During this second period of the Council, extending from the nth to the i6th Session, the doc- trines of the Sacraments of the Altar, Pen- ance and Extreme Unction were defined, and two reformatory decrees on the jurisdic- tion of bishops and the reformation of the clergy were passed. The war which had broken out between the Protestant princes and the emperor caused the Pope, in April, 1552, to suspend the Council for two years. But the time of suspension had to be ex- tended and lasted six years. Pope Pius IV. (1559-1565) again convoked the Coun- cil of Trent, which was reopened, at the 17th Session, in January, 1562. The de- crees adopted, during this period of the Council, ordered an " Index of Prohibited Books" to be made, and defined the doc- trines of the Sacrifice of the Mass, of Christian Marriage, of Purgatory, of the Invocation and Veneration of Saints and Holy Images, and of Indulgences. With the 25th Session, the Fathers of Trent con- cluded their labors. The decrees of the Council were signed by 255 Fathers, that is : 4 legates of the Pope ; 2 cardinals ; 3 patriarchs ; 25 archbishops ; 168 bishops ; 39 representatives of bishops absent ; 7 abbots and 7 generals of religious Orders. Its de- crees were confirmed by Pope Pius IV., in his Bull, "Benedictus Deus,'' Jan. 26th, 1564, and were accepted by all Catholic na- tions without restriction. France objected

    to some of the decrees on discipline as being opposed to the liberties of the Galilean Church or to the rights of the Crown. It was only after protracted delays that the disciplinary enactments of Trent were in- troduced in France.

    The Council of Trent must ever be re- garded as one of the most important ever held in the Church. No former synod treated so many important and difficult subjects with such marked ability, and de- fined so many doctrines with such precision and clearness. By its dogmatical defini- tions, it confirmed the Faithful in their adherence and loyalty to the Church, and instructed them in the clearest manner con- cerning many articles of faith. By its disci- plinary enactments, it inaugurated a gen- uine reformation of all classes and awoke new life and zeal in the Church. And though its eflForts to reunite those who were separated from the Church were vain, yet it stamped the new heresies with the seal of condemnation, and thus opposed a power- ful barrier to their further progress. Before the Council, entire nations abandoned the faith of their fathers ; after the Council, no single instance can be adduced of any ex- tensive revolt from the authority of the Church.

    Trinitarians. — Members of a religious order who had for end the redeeming of Christian captives from the hands of infi- dels. This order, founded (1198) by two Frenchmen, St. John of Matha and St. Felix of Valois, had for cradle Cerfroid. Was approved by Innocent III., and counted in the fifteenth century more than 800 houses spread all over Christendom. The religious wore a white habit with a red and blue cross on the breast. After having established themselves in Paris, in 1228, in an ancient Benedictine Abbey dedicated to St. Mathurin, they took the name Mathu- rins. The order was driven from Ger- many by the Reformation and counted 94 houses in France when it was suppressed in 1789.

    Trinity (one God in three Persons : The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost). — We unite here, at least as enunciations, the principal dogmatic truths on God. God is the infinitely perfect Being, Creator and Sovereign of all things. God is one, and can be only one ; there is only one God and there can be but one God. God is simple, be- cause He is one ; He is simple because He is not composed ; He is simple, because He

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    is indivisible ; He is simple, because He is unchangeable; in one word, He is abso- lutely simple in His essence. God, being simple by nature, is thereby also neces- sarily incorporal, immaterial. He is a pure spirit; has no body and does not form part of any body. God is eternal. He is, always has been, and always will be. He had no beginning and will have no end. He is of Himself; He could not give ex- istence to Himself, nor receive it from another. As necessary Being, He is neces- sarily what He is ; whatever we might sup- pose, we cannot conceive Him as not existing. God is eternal, because He is in- finite; He is immense, because His nature is without limits. His immensity com- prises eminently all the existing and pos- sible places, without being circumscribed by space. God is everywhere, He is present to all. He substantially fills every- thing. He penetrates all, without ceasing to be simple, without dividing Himself with the creatures. God is unchangeable; He is the One who is ; He is of Himself ; He is necessarily all that He is, necessarily all ihat can be ; He is independent, of an abso- lute independence, independent from time which He has created and from space which He has formed, independent from all things that are outside of Him, depending Him- self only upon His nature, which is sover- eignly simple, sovereignly indivisible. God is all powerful. Almighty, that is. He can will everything that is not contrary to His nature. God is intelligent and sovereignly intelligent ; having the plenitude of the Be- ing, as necessary Being, He has necessarily the plenitude of intelligence ; all that is God, all that is in God, all that belongs to God, is infinite like God Himself. Hence, God knows all, absolutely all. He knows Him- self; He knows all that exists and all that may exist, all that is and all that may be: the past, the present and the future ; the future things, absolute or conditional. God is sovereignly free. He has the faculty to will or not to will, to act, to do such or such a thing or not to do it, without necessity or restraint. It is a Catho- lic dogma that God is free in regard to the creation and to the government of the universe. God is infinitely wise and infinitely holy. God is sovereignly just, sovereignly good, and sovereignly merci- ful. It is a Catholic dogma that God is the Creator of the universe ; every Christian believes in one sole almighty God, Creator of heaven and earth, of all the visible and

    invisible things. Every Catholic pro- fesses, with the Fathers of the Fourth Gen- eral Council of Lateran, that there is only one God, principle of all things, Creator of the visible and the invisible things, who, by His almighty power, has, at the beginning of time, made from nothing both substances, the spiritual substance and the corporal substance, the angelic substance and the material substance. God has created the angels and man. He created the latter composed of a body and of a soul, after His own image and likeness, spiritual, free, immortal. He created man in the state of original justice and holiness. God occupies Himself with His creatures, and governs the world. Notwithstanding the fall of man, God de- sires to save all men. He punishes those who die impenitent. He rewards the just in another life. The just who have not en- tirely satisfied divine justice, will complete their salvation in purgatory. Finally, in order that man in his entirety may be punished or rewarded, the bodies will rise again and God will judge all men.

    The Mystery of the Blessed Trinity is one sole God in three Persons : the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God ; and nevertheless they are not three Gods. The three di- vine Persons are only one and the same God, having all three one and the same nature, only one and the same di- vinity. There is only one God ; this truth is the foundation of the Christian faith. But this same faith also teaches us that the unity of God is a fruitful one ; that the divine nature, without ceasing to be nu- merically one, communicates itself by the Father to the Son, and by the Father and the Son to the Holy Ghost. These three Persons are really distinct : the Father is not the Son nor the Holy Ghost; the Son is not the Father nor the Holy Ghost; the Holy Ghost is not the Father nor the Son; but the Person of the Father, and the Per- son of the Son, and the Person of the Holy Ghost, exist in the divine nature, which is one sole and same nature in the three Per- sons.

    Among the ancient heretics, who sepa- rated themselves from the Catholic dogma in regard to the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, we remark in the second and third century, Praxeas of Phrygia, Noe- tus of Ephesus or of Smyrna, Sabellius of Lybia, and Paul of Samosata, bishop of

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    Antioch ; they rejected the distinction be- tween the three divine Persons. The fourth century saw arise successively, Arius, priest of Alexandria, who attacked the dogma of the Trinity, in attacking the divinity of the Son ; and Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, who in denying the divinity of the Holy Ghost, denied equally the dogma of the Trinity. These errors were renewed in the sixteenth cen- tury, by the Socinians; and, in modern times, by the Deists and Rationalists who, accepting only reason for guide in matters of religion, absolutely reject all the mys- teries of Christianity. We establish the mystery of the Blessed Trinity by Holy Scripture, the Ancient Fathers, the Coun- cils, and the universal and perpetual belief of the Church.

    Trinity Sunday we call the first Sunday after Pentecost.

    Trisag^on (Gr. thrice holy ^ name given to the hymn Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, called also Cherub Hymn). — This hymn is chanted in the Latin Church on Good Friday, dur- ing the adoration of the cross. It was first introduced, as a public prayer, at Constan- tinople, in the reign of Theodosius the Younger, during the supplications made to God by the whole city to avert the horrors of an earthquake.

    Troas. — A city of Lesser Mysia. It was visited twice by St. Paul and possessed a bishopric from the first century of Christianity.

    Truce of God. — Agreement which the Church established in the eleventh cen- tury, among the fuedal lords, and in virtue of which all hostilities should cease among them, beginning with the eve of Thursday, until Monday morning, through respect of the days on which were accomplished the last mysteries of the life of Christ.

    Trullan Synods. — By the Trullan Syn- ods we understand : i. The Sixth Ecu- menical Council held in the imperial palace in Constantinople, Nov. 7th, 680 to Sept. i6th, 681, so named from the place of meeting, which was a vaulted hall. In this Council the Dogmatic Epistle of Pope Agatho, defining the Catholic doctrine of the two Wills in Christ, were received by the assembled fathers with acclamations as "the voice of Peter." In conformity with the papal letter, the Council con- demned the Monothelite heresy, and ex- communicated the dissenters, with their chiefs. Pope Honorius was also con- demned, not, however, for heresy, but for conniving with heretics ; by his untimely silence, he emboldened the Monothelites. See (HoxoRius II.). 2. The Second Trullan Synod took place in 692, and had been summoned by the Emperor Justinian II. It made celibacy obligatory, only, on monks and bishops. Pope Sergius I. re- fused to sanction this synod.

    Tunic. — The Tunic is a vestment as- signed to the subdeacon in his ministry about the altar. Were the regulations of the Church followed in all their precision, this garment would be longer than, but not so ample as the dalmatic of the deacon. According, however, to a custom which prevails almost everywhere, both these vestments are exactly alike. The Tunic, denominated "Tunicella" by liturgical writers, was also known by the term " Sub- tile."

    Turibius (St.) — Third archbishop of Lima. Died in 1606, and is regarded as the Apostle of Peru. With unwearied zeal he traversed his extensive diocese, to re- vive or propagate religion. The glorious St. Rose of Lima, a Dominican Tertiary, the first canonized saint of America, flour- ished under his episcopate. F. April 27th. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,