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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

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(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"U"

Ubiquitarians.

    — Name given to those Lutherans who, to defend the Real Pres- ence of Jesus Christ in the Blessed Eucharist, without admitting the transubstantiation, maintain that the body of Jesus Christ is everywhere, as well as His divinity.

Ulfilas;
    — Apostle of the Goths born 310 or 311 in the northern Gothic country of the Donau, of Greek Christian parents, whom Goths had carried off from their Cappadocian home ; became Arian bishop in 341. When Athanarich (348) began a persecution of the Christians, Ulfilas, together with Arian Goths, took refuge under the East-Roman emperor, converted many pagan Ostrogoths, and died at Constantinople, in 381. Ulfilas rendered himself famous by inventing the Gothic characters of the alphabet, and by translating the Bible into the Gothic language, the greater part of this work being still extant.

Unigenitus (Bull)

    — Constitution of Pope Clement XI. given in the month of September, 1713, and which commences with the words: Unigenitus Dei Filius, and which condemns loi propositions drawn from the book of Pasquier-Quesnel, priest of the Oratory, entitled:

    "The New Testament translated into French, with moral reflections." These reflections re- duce themselves to sixty heads of doctrine which are so many errors and which had been already condemned in the writings of Bajus and of Jansenius.

Unitarians (Sectarians);

    — Unitarianism, which asserts the unity of persons in God, was first propagated in Poland, whither it had penetrated almost contemporaneously with the heresies of Luther and Calvin.

    The two most noted Unitarians were the two Italians, Laslius Socinus, who died in 1562, and his nephew Faustus Socinus, who died in 1604. They succeeded in elaborating the Unitarian doctrine respecting the Trinity into a system, and in form- ing its adherents into a community.

    Henceforth the Unitarians changed their name for that of " Socinians." Socinianism is essentially rationalistic; its fundamental principle being, that, both in the interpretation of the Scripture and in explaining and demonstrating the truths of religion, reason alone must be consulted;

    that, consequently, anything contrary to Right Reason," that is to say, to the understanding of the Socinians, must not be considered a revealed doctrine. Respecting God and the person of Christ, the Socinians hold the Father, only, to be God; the Son of God to be a mere man, who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, and therefore called the Son of God;

    the Holy Ghost to be a power and efficiency of the Deity. Christ was, before beginning His public ministry, raised into heaven where He received His commission relative to mankind. They reject the vicarious satisfaction on the part of Christ, and the imputation of His merits as pernicious to morality.

    They declare justification to be a mere judicial act of God, whereby man is acquitted and absolved from all guilt; finally, they deny original sin and the perpetuity of hell-punishment, and teach an annihilation of the damned.

    Unitarianism was introduced into the United States about the end of the eight- eenth century. In 1796 a Unitarian con- gregation was formed in Philadelphia. In 1895, there were in the United States and Canada, 455 Unitarian societies, 519 minis- ters, and a total estimate of membership, as given in the tables of the " Independent," of 68,500.

United Armenians, Copts, Greeks, etc.;
    See ( Oriental) Rites.

United Brethren in Christ.

    — A religious denomination founded in the Sus- quehanna Valley, Pennsylvania, in 1800. Its inception was due to Philip William Otterbein, a minister of the German Re- formed Church, and of Martin Boehm, a Mennonite pastor in Pennsylvania, who, in a series of "revival" meetings, drew large accessions to the churches they served. Other Protestant ministers joined Otterbein and Boehm, and with some of their followers met in formal conference at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1789. The fellowship increased until, in 1800, at a conference held in Frederick county, Maryland, it was decided to organize a separate denomination under the title of •' United Brethren in Christ." Their doc- trines were Arminian, the confession con- sisting of thirteen articles, setting forth the general faith of the Methodist Church, belief in the Trinity, the Holy Scriptures, justification and regeneration. In 1889 some changes were adopted in the disci- pline, which resulted in a split in the denomination. The two branches have since maintained a separate organization. The membership is strongest in Ohio, In- diana, and Pennsylvania.

Unity of God;
    — God is one. He can be only one; there is only one God, and there can be but one God. When Moses presents himself from the part of God before the children of Israel, he says to them : The One who has sent me to you. He does not say : Those who are, but the One who is, the one, the one whose Being is the es- sential, eternal, incommunicable name. "/ am -who am, is my name for all eternity : Ego sum qui sum; hoc nomen mihi est in eternum.^' Also the Lord said to the Jew- ish people: "Consider that I am the only God, and that there is no other God but Me." Such is, besides, the belief of the patriarchs, of the Israelites and Christians. The belief of the different peoples, although

      Unity of the Church

      696

      Urban

      altered through the superstitions of pagan- ism, is in accord, as to the unity of God, with primitive tradition. God is the one who is, the one who is through Himself, who necessarily exists, who is independ- ent, infinite, and sovereignly perfect. Now, the one who is through Himself, who neces- sarily exists, who is independent, infinite, sovereignly perfect, is one, and He can be but one. To suppose several infinites, is evidently denying the infinite ; to suppose several beings infinitely perfect, is to deny the sovereign perfection ; to suppose several gods, would, therefore, also be the denial of the Deity: Deus si non unus est, non est, says Tertullian. Finally, the wonder- ful order which reigns in the universe, of- fering to us one of the most striking proofs of the existence of God, offers to us at the same time a no less sensible proof of His unity. Everything, in both the physical and moral world, shows us the unity of thought, the unity of will, and the unity in execution. Now then, this unity necessarily supposes that there is but one supreme in- telligence, only one supreme legislator, only one Providence which governs all, which extends itself over all, and which provides for all. See Trinity.

      Unity of the Church. — It is certain that Jesus Christ speaks of His Church as One. " On this rock I will build my Church " (Matt. xvi. 18), not churches. There can, consequently, be only one society, which is His organ, and represents Him : " One body and one spirit," as ** there is but one Lord, one faith, and one baptism — there is but one God, the Father of us all " (Eph. iv. 5, 6). The unity of the Church is es- sential to its nature and to its end. The Church is the Christian religion embodied, and in action under an exterior visible form. The Christian religion is one, teaches to mankind one faith, aggregates men under Christ, and makes them mem- bers of one household, termed by the Apostles "the house of God." If a per- son is not a member of this one society, he is not in union with Christ, the Head, be- cause the head presides only over the members of the body. The doctrines, the spirit, the virtues of Jesus Christ are with His Church, and cannot be claimed by mere human societies and organizations. Hence all Christendom, except such as from interest or passion were found sep- arated from the society which Christ founded, has subscribed to the declaration

      of St. Cyprian : " He who leaves the Church will not obtain the recompense of Christ. He is a stranger, a profane per- son, an enemy. No one can have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother" {De Unitate Eccles.). Only one society has inherited the promise, the graces, and the merits of Christ. That society, which was in embryo under the patriarchs, and shown to the world amid types and figures under the Jewish dispen- sation, and in fulfillment of promises and prophecies, was "purchased by the blood of Christ" on Calvary, and being organ- ized under the visible headship of St. Peter, received the Holy Ghost on the Day of Pentecost, in order to become " a city upon the mountain," for the salvation of all the nations upon the earth, is the only society that can truly claim to be the Church of Christ. It is a doctrine of faith that there is only one Church of Christ. The Church is one only, or else there is no Church of Christ, says St. Augustine : Aut una, aut nulla.

      Universalists. — Name given to those among the Protestants who maintain that God gives graces to all men to arrive at salvation. This opinion, which is, they say, that of all the Arminians, is opposed to that of the Calvinists, called by them Particularists, who claim that God by an eternal and irrevocable decree, has pre- destinated certain men to salvation and consigned the others to damnation, without regard to their future merits or demerits; that, consequently. He gives to the pre- destinated irresistible graces by which they infallibly obtain eternal happiness, whereas He refuses these graces to the reprobates, who, for want of assistance, are infallibly damned. The Universalists in the United States trace their origin to John Murray, a native of Alton, England (1741-1815), who came to America in 1770. In 1895 the Universolists in this country counted a membership of 47,986 persons.

      Universities. See Schooi-s.

      Ur. — Locality of Chaldea, country of Abraham and of Thare. They kept up there a sacred fire in honor of the sun. The site of this place is disputed ; the terms of Genesis (xii. 28) do not even per- mit us to decide whether it was a city or a country.

      Urban (name of eight Popes). — Urban I. — Pope in 230. Successor of Calixtus I.

      Urias

      697

      URSU LINES

      They attribute to him a letter and some de- crees. Urban II. — Pope from 10S8 to 1099. A most active and influential Pope. He convened no less than twelve Councils. He passed stringent laws, especially in the Council of Melfi, in 1089, against simony, clerical marriage, and lay investiture. To liberate the priesthood from the shackles of feudal servitude, in the celebrated Coun- cil of Clermont, 1095, he passed a canon which prohibited bishops and priests to take the oath of fidelity to either king or layman. He excommunicated Philip I. of France, Henry IV. of Germany, the anti- pope Guibert, and furthered the first Cru- sade. Urban III. — Pope from 1185 to 1187. When told of the taking of Jerusa- lem by Saladin, he died of grief. Urban

      IV. — Pope from 1261 to 1264. He insti- tuted the feast of the Blessed Sacrament, whose office he caused to be composed by St, Thomas Aquinas ; deposed Manfred of Sicily and published a crusade against him. Urban

      V. — Pope from 1362 to 1370. Himself a pattern of every virtue, strove to make the papal court a model of Christian life. He was a magnificent patron of learned men, and most liberal to the poor. One of his first cares was to carry on the expedition for the recovery of the Holy Land, begun by his predecessor. Innocent VI. Con- vinced that the residence of the Popes at Avignon was injurious to the interests of the Church, he returned to Rome, in 1367, and was received amid great rejoicings. The factious and turbulent spirit of the Italians induced him to retransfer the papal residence to Avignon, in 1370. Urban VI. — Pope from 1378 to 1389, was a stern re- former, and a man of great merit and in- tegrity, but his seeming harshness and severe reproaches soon alienated from him the minds of the cardinals. A number of them, under the pretext that the election of Urban was void, retired to Anagni, de- clared the Holy See vacant and chose the warlike Cardinal Robert of Geneva, who took the name of Clement VII. Thus be- gan the great schism which divided the Western Church for thirty-nine years (1378- 1417). Urban VII. — Pope in 1590, for 13 days. He was the successpr of Sixtus V. Urban VIII. — Pope from 1623 to 1644, was a man of letters, and an elegant writer and poet, and a generous patron of learning. He enlarged the powers of the Propaganda and founded the college that bears his name, Collegium Urbanum, where young men of every nationality might be

      trained and prepared for the missions among the heathens and heretics. In the Pontificate of Urban VIII., the celebrated case of Galileo occured, which hostile writers have always used to represent the Church as an enemy of science.

      Urias. — Hebrew officer. David having seduced Bethsabee, the wife of Urias, wrote to Joab, his general in chief, to ex- pose him in a battle and allow him to perish, which was executed. David then married Bethsabee. Later on, he sin- cerely bewailed his fault.

      Urim and Thummim. — Breast-plate of the Jewish high-priest and by means of which he gave oracular responses. The true nature of the urim and thummim (literally "lights and perfections") is not known. They seem to have been small objects inside the so-called " breast- plate," which was folded double, and many authorities believe them to have been precious stones or figures, used as lots or otherwise. There is no indication of their use, after the time of David, and after the captivity they are alluded to as lost.

      Ursula (St.). — Virgin and martyr, daughter of a prince of Great Britain, was put to death by the Huns, with a great number of other virgins, at Cologne (383). They show in the Church of St. Ursula of Cologne, not only the tomb of the saint, but also the arrow with which she was pierced, and in the same church are num- berless relics of her companions. F. Oct.

      2ISt.

      Ursulines (members of a religious com- munity). — The Ursulines were at first an association of pious ladies, formed at Brescia about the year 1537, by Angela de' Merici, a native of Desenzano, a town on Lake Garda. This angelic soul, who is better known as Angela of Brescia, found her only joy in communing with God, forgeting self and ministering to the wants of others. In this spirit of self- denial, she gathered about her a few ladies as unselfish and generous as herself, and placing the little band under the patronage of St. Ursula (Nov. 25th, 1535), began the work of reclaiming unfortunate women. The members of the Association, while tending the sick, relieving the poor, in- structing young girls, and doing other works of charity, continued to reside in the homes of their parents and relatives. After the death of the foundress, January

      Utraquists

      698

      Vatican Council

      27th, 1540, the Association soon grew to be an Order, and was approved June 9th, 1544, by Paul III., who also gave the mem- bers leave to make such changes in their rules as circumstances might require. The leading object of the Order was now the education of young ladies. The organi- zation of the Ursulines being still further perfected by St. Charles Borromeo, their special patron, was again approved by Gregory XIII. From Upper Italy the Order spread to France, where it was in- troduced by the accomplished widow Madeleine de St. Beuve. She established a mother house in Paris, to which many affiliated convents were soon attached. Their Rule, drawn up by Father Gontery, assisted by other Jesuits, and approved by

      Paul v., for the use of the Congregation Regular of Ursulines (1612), was based upon the Rule of St. Augustine, but, in its present form, embraces, besides twenty- five chapters of "Admonitions" and eleven " Legacies," so called because they were drawn from the posthumous writings of St. Ursula of Brescia. From this time forth the education of young girls of every age from childhood up was almost wholly in their hand, and their presence was hailed with joy in every country of Chris- tendom. Before 1789, the Order counted in France more than 300 houses. The Ursulines have many houses in the United States.

      Utraquists. See Hussites. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

        Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

        They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

        Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

        Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

        These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

      FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,