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Waldenses (a sect of the twelfth century, and possibly the First).

    — The Waldenses derive their name from their founder, Peter Waldo, a rich merchant of Lyons. Peter Waldo preceded John Wycliffe, first translator of whole Bible into English 1382.

    From the Italian-France border, many claim when Paul wrote that he had preached the Gospel as far northwest as Illyrium, he was actually in the Land of the Waldenses, who in the first century, inhabited the region on both sides of the France-Italian border.

    Remember St. Ignatius, in the first century, was Bishop at Lyons and a great leader in the early church, and Lyons is in France today, and is actually further north and west than Illyricum and the land of the Waldenses.

    Thus many claim unbroken Christian ministry from Apostle Paul to this present hour!

    The sudden death of a near relative caused him to retire from the world and to dedicate himself to a life of poverty and to the instruction of the people. He conceived the design of bringing back the Church, which, in his opinion, by its wealth and temporal possessions, had become corrupt, to primitive and apostolical simplicity.

    He gathered disciples around him and sent them two by two into the neighboring villages to preach the Gospel. They were known as the " Poor Men of Lyons," while they styled themselves the " Humble Ones" from their affected humility.

    The earlier Waldenses probably contemplated no secession from the universal Church, and were treated at first as Schismatics, for usurping the functions of the priesthood and refusing obedience to the ecclesiastical authorities. Although mere laymen they presumed to preach, notwithstanding they had been interdicted by their ordinary, and by Pope Alexander III.

    Pope Lncias III., in 1184, formerly excommunicated them together with other heretics.

    But they refused to submit, and persisted in preaching, claiming that they had a divine mission therefor, and that, consequuently, they must obey God rather than man. Their rebellion against the Church naturally led the Waldenses into heresy.

    The Church of Rome, they asserted, ceased to be the true Church, from the time it possessed temporalities. They repudiated the priesthood and the entire ritual system, except communion and preaching, rejected prayers for the dead, purgatory, festivals, and the invocation of the saints; they claimed the right to preach and administer the sacraments for laymen, and even for women.

    They devoted much of their time to the reading of the Bible, of which they admitted only a literal interpretation. Peter Waldo is said to have died in Bohemia. His sect spread throughout Southern France, Upper Italy, Bohemia, and even Spain. The Waldenses have maintained themselves in the mountains of Dauphine and the Piedmontese Alps, down to the present day. They count about 20,000 members.

    In the sixteenth century, they united in Bohemia with the Hussites, and in France with the Calvinists.

Walsh (William J.).
    — A Roman Catholic prelate and Primate of Ireland ; born in Dublin, 1841; educated at St. Lawrence, O'Toole's Seminary in Dublin, at the Catholic University of Ireland, at Maynooth College, and at the Dunboyne Establishment. In 1867 he was professor of theology at Maynooth; in 1878 vice-presi- dent of the college, and in 1880 its presi- dent.

    In 1885 he was appointed archbishop of Dublin. He interested himself in the political and industrial condition of Ire- land; advocated some system of arbitration for the settlement of disputes between landlords and tenants; urged an equality between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland in educational privileges;

    and actively intervened in the settlement of strikes in Dublin and on the Great Southern and Western railway in 1890. His work in the cause of sobriety resulted in temperance organizations in all the dioceses of his official province. He contributed to the Contemporary Revie, the Dublin Revie, and to the Irish Ecclesiastical Record. Among his published works are : Human Acts; Harmony of the Gospel Narrative of the Passion; Plai?i Exposition of the Land Act of 1881; A Statement of the Chief Grievances of the Catholics of Ireland in the Matter of Education, Primary, Intermediate, and University; Bimetallism and Monometallism (1894).

Washing of Feet
    — The magnificent office of Holy Thursday concludes, in some churches, with the washing of feet. This ceremony is founded on the action of our Saviour, washing the feet of His Apostles (John xiii. 13). The early Christians practiced it, not only to renew the memory of what the Saviour had done, but also to perform an act of humility and charity.

    Hence, among them, the universal and sacred custom of washing the feet of guests. In the course of time, when people of the world had ceased to wash the feet of their guests, the Church, not wishing to part with a custom so pious and instructive, made it a regular practice, intended to perpetuate the memory of our Lord's act from generation to generation. She wished that her principal ministers should wash the feet of the clergy, representing the Apostles, or of the poor, as subjects towards whom it was proper to exercise that humility which the Saviour so much recommended by His abasement.

    And behold! for so many ages the world, on Holy Thursday every year, sees Popes, bishops, emperors, kings, and queens, humbly prostrate before some poor people, washing their feet and kissing them respectfully, and considering themselves highly honored in being allowed to walk thus in the footsteps of the Man — God.

Washing of Hands.
    — Before he robes himself in the eucharistic vestments, the priest, clad in his cassock, washes the tips of his fingers. It has been invariably the custom, at all times, and in every nation, for the ministers of the altar to wash their hands previous to offering the sacrifice. The old Law expressly commanded this observance (Ex. xxx. 18-20). Though re- spect alone for the decorum of religion, would inspire such a practice, however, the Church attaches a spiritual meaning to it, and studies to convey to her ministers, by the symbol of exterior ablution, in- structions to cleanse the heart by an in- terior piety, which she teaches them to solicit in prayer particularly adapted to the purpose.

    Water {Holy). — The use of holy water is an act of piety instituted by the Church, common among the Faithful, and em- ployed in all religious ceremonies. Holy water is used to drive away all that is evil and impure, and to draw down divine aid upon us, whether for the good of our soul or body. That holy water is productive of these effects we know from the prayers of the Church while blessing it, which asks of God all that is beneficial to the bodies and souls of those who make use of it, and the banishment of what is foul and corrupt. These prayers are efficacious from the promises made in favor of faith, and the power given to the Church. We also know that holy water avails to pro- cure the remission of sins, if those who employ it are rightly disposed. It is a customary practice to make the sign of the cross with holy water on entering or quitting a church ; and at home in illness, temptation, or danger; a practice we should ever keep up in a spirit of faith and penitence, that we may derive, there- from, all the salutary effects it meant to produce. Holy water is also used by the priest in the sprinkling of the altar, and the Faithful, whether living or dead, and of any object of piety blessed by the Church.

    Both the Jews and pagans made use of water in the ceremonies of worship, by giving to it the symbolical meaning of cleansing the soul. The pagans sprinkled themselves with lustral water in entering the temple or, sometimes, the priests made this aspersion by using a green branch. The Jews employed the hyssop. In the temple, between the tabernacle and

    Weights and Measures



    altar, there was a brazen basin for the purification of the priests. The Greek, like the Latin Church, blesses holy water and sprinkles it around the church and upon the congregation, just as we do. Once a year, on the feast of Epiphany, the Greeks, Armenians, and other Oriental Christians perform a more solemn bless- ing of the holy water in commemoration of the Baptism of Christ in the river Jor- dan.

    Vases containing holy water are placed on the right side of all entrances to churches and chapels. Into these the Faithful dip the tips of the fingers of their right hand, and afterwards make the sign of the cross. It is in this manner that the Church en- deavors to address her children at the very threshold of the tabernacle, and to exhort them to understand, bj' the water which she holds out to them, that they must bring purity and cleanness of heart to the sanctuary, and thus comply with the exhortations of St. Paul, and " lift up pure hands " to the throne of Him whose cross they have just figured on their foreheads, and through the merit of whose death and suflFering they can alone expect to receive the pardon of their sins and obtain eternal life.

    Weights and Measures. — The ancient Hebrews weighed all the gold and silver used in trade. The shekel, the mineh, the talent, were all original names of weights. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Ex. xxx. 13) was the standard weight, preserved in some apartment of the sanctuary. The weights of the Jews were the shekel (Amos viii. 5), half an ounce avoirdupois; the mineh or mina (Ezech. xlv. 12), 100 shekels or 50 ounces = 3 pounds, 2 ounces avoir- dupois; and the talent (II. Ki. xii. 30), 3,000 shekels, 30 maneh, 1,500 ounces = 93 pounds, 12 ounces avoirdupois. The Ro- man money mentioned in the New Testa- ment is thus valued in the U. S. coinage mite = $1.87 ; 2 mites = i farthing = $3.75 ; 4 farthings =1 penny ^15 cts. ; 100 pence = i pound = $15.00.

    Measures of Length were derived from the human body, «. e., from the finger, hand, and arm, not the foot or pace. The hand-breadth (III. Ki. vii. 26) was the breadth of four fingers, from 3 to 3)^ inches. The span (Lam. ii. 20) was the distance from the extremity of the thumb to that of the little finger, stretched as far apart as possible, say 9 to 10 inches. The

    i cubit, the distance from the elbow to the ! end of the middle finger, about 18 inches. The cubit, however, varied somewhat. The fathom (Acts xxvii. 28) was from 6 to 6)^ feet. The measuring reed (Ezech. xlii. 16) was 6 cubits, or from 10 to ir feet. The y"«r/o«^ (Luke xxiv. 13) was a Greek measure = one-eighth of a mile or 40 rods. The mile, mentioned only once (Matt. V. 41), was the Roman miliarium, which contained 1,000 paces = 1618 yards; but the Jewish mile was longer or shorter ac- cording to the pace in use in the various parts of the country. The Sabbath Day's journey (Acts i. 12) was the distance tra- dition said one might travel on the rest- day without breaking the law, about seven- eighths of a mile. ' A day's journey (Num. xi. 31 ; Luke ii. 44) indicated the distance which a person ordinarily accomplishes on foot or on a camel, about 20 miles.

    Measures of Capacity. — The dry meas- ures were the cab or kab {hollow) (IV. Ki. vi. 25), one-third of an omer or 2 pints; the omer (a sheaf), the tenth of an ephah or 6 pints (Ex. xvi. 36); the seah {measure), one-third of an ephah or 20 pints (Gen. xviii. 6; Matt. xiii. 33; Luke xiii. 21), the ordinary measure for household pur- poses; the homer or cor (Is. v. 10), the largest dry measure of the Hebrews, 100 omers or 600 pints, about 8 of our bushels. The Roman modius, translated " bushel " (Matt. v. 15), was nearly the same as the English peck.

    The liquid measures were the log {basin), which was the smallest, and contained one- twelfth of a hin or about five-sixths of a pint (Lev. xiv. 10); the hin, one-sixth of a bath, the largest, and containing one-tenth of a homer, 7)^ gallons or 60 pints (III. Ki. vii. 26). The firkin (John ii. 6) was a Greek measure containing 7^ gallons.

    Wesel (John). — German theologian, died in 1481. Vice rector of the Univer- sity of Erfurt. He is regarded as one of the precursors of Reformation. He in- veighed against the hierarchy, rejected transubstantiation and indulgences, and denied the right of the Church to expound the Scriptures, which he asserted belonged to Christ. He was sentenced to confine- ment in the Augustinian monastery at Mentz, in 1479, where he died two years later.

    Wesley (John). See Methodists.

    Westphalia (Peace of). See Peace.



    William of Tyre

    Whitefield (Gborgk). See Metho- dists.

    Whitsunday. — The common English name for Pentecost.

    Wilfrid (St.) (634-709). — English Pre- late, born in Northumberland. Of noble origin, monk of Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery of Stamford (661) of that of Ripon, of which he became abbot. Arch- bishop of York in 669, he was banished on account of his zeal for the defense of ecclesiastical laws against the powerful of that time (677-686, 689). He was cast, the first time, on the shores of Friesland; evangelized that country and thus prepared the ground for St. Wilibrord, and on the return to his country, •died in the mon- astery of Oundla. F. Oct. 12th.

    Wilibrord (St.) (658 (?)-738). — Apostle of the Frisians. He was a native of North- umbria and was educated in the monas- tery of Ripon. To prepare himself for his mission, he went to Ireland, where he had as masters the monks Egbert and Wig- bert, who had spent two years preaching the Gospel in Friesland. In 691, with eleven associates, Wilibrord entered upon his mission and labored with wonderful success in that part of Friesland which had been conquered by the Franks. In 696, he repaired to Rome and was made bishop by Pope Sergius I. over all the converted Frisians. He fixed his see at Utrecht and extended his mission as far as Denmark. F. Nov. 7th.

    Will ( Free) and Grace. See Grace.

    Wills in Christ. — Our Lord had two wills : the human will and the divine will. His human will was free like our own, but had not, as in our case, to contend against sin, nor was it exposed, as ours, to prefer evil to good. The perfection of His soul, especially through its union with the God- head, made evil repugnant to Him. Our Saviour Himself spoke of His human will when saying: "Father, if Thou wilt, re- move this chalice from Me : but yet not My will, but Thine be done" (Luke xxii. 42; Matt. xxvi. 29). Thus the human will was entirely subordinate to the divine will ; nevertheless, it was a human will by nature and essence, so that Jesus Christ did not perform the divine actions only as being God, nor the human actions only as being man, but performed both, as being God and man together. Hence, these opera-

    tions are called by theologians " theandric operations." The distinction of the two wills in Jesus Christ is an article of faith supported by Holy Scripture and on the constant doctrine of the universal Church. Thus the Council of Constantinople, Sixth General Council, condemned the error of the Monothelites, that is, those who ad- mitted only one will in Jesus Christ.

    William of Champeaux. — Scholastic philosopher, born in the village of Cham- peaux, France, about the end of the eleventh century. Disciple of Anselm of Laon, he taught theology in the school of Notre Dame of Paris, had for disciple and adver- sary the famous Abelard. Founded in 1113 the celebrated abbey of St. Victor. Bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne in 11 16; en- tered (in 1 1 19) the Order of Citeaux, where he died. His principal works are : Moralia abreviata and De origine animae.

    William of Malmesbury (1066 ?-i 1 50 ?) . — Anglo-Norman chronicler and Benedictine. Wrote: Historia regum Anglorum (His- tory of the English Kings), a continuation of De Gestis, bringing the history down to 1 142 (these books have been the foundation of all the more recent histories of Eng- land) ; De Gestis Pontificum Angelorum ( History of the Prelates of England) ; De Antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecelesice (His- tory of the Church of Glastonbury) ; lives of St. Patrick, St. Dunstan, St. Wulfstan (from the Anglo-Saxon) ; several books on miracles ; and the Itinerary of John, Ab- bot, of Malmesbury, to Rome.

    William of Orange. See Nether- lands.

    William of St. Amour. — French canon, born at St. Amour, died in 1272. Doctor of theology, canon of Beauvais. The Paris University, which felt offended by the privileges granted to the mendicant religious orders, sent him to Rome ; here he fulfilled his mission with fanaticism. His book De fericulis novissimorum tern- forum, composed on this occasion, is a violent diatribe against the Dominicans. Alexander IV. deprived him of all his benefices, forbidding him, in spite of skill- ful defense, to return to France, to teach or preach.

    William of Tyre (1127-1190). — Arch- bishop of Tyre, born at Jerusalem. He made his studies in Paris. On his return to his country, he became archdeacon of




    the Church of Tyre ( 1 167) , then chancellor of the king (1173), finally archbishop of Tyre. Charged with several missions at Rome and Constantinople, William fulfilled them all with success. He as- sisted at the Lateran Council of ii79i drew up its acts, and died of poison, it is believed, by order of Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem. He has left: History of the Arabs, which is lost, and History of the Crusades, remarkable for its exacti- tude, equity of judgment, real erudition, and sufficient geographical knowledge.

    Williams (David) (1738-I816). — An- glican ecclesiastic and publisher. Founder of a religious sect which had many rela- tions with that founded later on at Paris by Abbe Chatel ; it was a new worship, the •' Worship of the Priests of Nature," conformable to Deism and to the princi- ples of education of J. J. Rousseau, to the ideas of Helvetius, Voltaire, and Fred- erick, king of Prussia,

    Windthorst (Ludwig). — A German statesman; born at Kaldenhof, Hanover, Jan. 17th, 1812; educated at the Carolinum Gymnasium and in law at Gottingen and Heidelberg; was attorney for Catholic so- cieties, and in 1848 was appointed chief judge of the Court of Appeals at Celle. In 1849 he entered the Second Chamber of Hanover as leader of the Ministerial party, became president of that house in 1851, and was Minister of Justice in the cabinet from 1851 to 1853. As leader of the Cath- olic or Center party he was prominent in the North German Parliament and the Prussian House of Deputies from 1867 un- til the opening of the German Reichstag in 1871, Windthorst was Bismarck's most powerful opponent, fighting against the es- tablishment of the so-called May Laws, the expulsion of the Jesuits and other religious, dictatorial rule in Alsace-Lorraine, the is- sue of the anti-socialist laws and other propositions of the prince, though he sus- pended his opposition upon the com- promise between the German government and the Holy See, but renewed his resist- ance upon the refusal of the government to grant certain concessions. He died in Ber- lin, March 14th, 1891,

    Winebrenner(JoHN) (1797-1860). — Born in Frederick county, Maryland ; died at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. An American clergyman, pastor of a German Reformed Church in Harrisburg. He separated from

    that denomination and organized, in 1830, the new sect called ** The Church of God," or Winebrennarians. The organization met with remarkable success, especially in the Central Eastern and Middle Western States, in 1889 having 522 ministers, 479 organizations, 22,511 communicants, and 338 church edifices valued at $643,185, be- sides a domestic and foreign missionary so- ciety, a book repository, and a printing establishment at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. " The Church of God " maintains three positive ordinances : Baptism by immer- sion, the washing of feet, and the Lord's Supper,

    Wiafrid. See Bonifacb.

    Wisdom {Book of). — Canonical book of the Old Testament. In this work, by striking examples taken from early Jewish history, kings and others in power, are urged to study wisdom and the fear of God. It is styled the Wisdom of Solomon, but St. Jerome and St. Augustine think it was the work of some other person, now unknown.

    Wiseman (Nicholas Patrick). — Eng- lish Catholic prelate, offspring of an Irish family, born at Seville in 1802 ; died at London in 1865. Educated in England in the Catholic college of St. Guthbert, studied theology in Rome, where he re- ceived holy orders and became professor of theology. In 1827, he occupied the chair of oriental literature in the college of St, Guthbert, and was named its vice rector. Under the Pontificate of Gregory XVI., he suggested to the Holy See, to increase the number of prelates in Eng- land. He, himself, was appointed coad- jutor to Bishop Walsh. In 1847, he took new steps to obtain the complete restora- tion of the hierarchy in England, which was realized by Pius IX. in 1850, after it had been suppressed for nearly three hun- dred years. Then Wiseman was desig- nated as archbishop of Westminster and raised to the dignity of cardinal. He proceeded with the greatest prudence, in order not to hurt or prejudice, and to per- mit public opinion to get over its emotion, if not hostility. His public conferences, books, moderation, and his qualities as a man of the world, reconciled the spirits and caused him to be greatly admired.

    Witchcraft (the belief in a compact with the devil to do harm). — The belief in witchcraft became general only in the




    fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. We find it more firmly established and deeply rooted in Germany than elsewhere, and it accompanies the moral decay caused, chiefly, by the forerunners of Reforma- tion in this country. But witchcraft did not limit itself to Germany, and it has been the belief of serious minds that the suits of w^itchcraft contributed a good deal to the propagation of the belief in witches. Those who deny the reality of witchcraft, seeing therein nothing else but a very dan- gerous and much spread illusion, treat the facts according to their manner of see- ing. The formal and absolutely positive avowals of a large number accused of witchcraft, would be solely due to the tor- ments they had to endure. Leibnitz quotes Father Spec, a Jesuit, who had accom- panied to the place of execution, a great number of condemned as witches, and these unfortunates, justly punished for many crimes, he still remained convinced that none of them were really sorcerers. For others, the belief in sorcerers was a real state of disease, both a mental and phys- ical epidemic, peculiar to men at an ap- pointed time. In every case, not only the Church pursued and condemned the sor- cerers ; the civil power, bound to main- tain order in society, did not show itself less zealous, not less persevering in the same direction.

    Wolsey (Thomas) (1471-1530). — Eng- lish prelate and statesman. Born at Ips- wich ; young Wolsey was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he ob- tained his degree when hardly fifteen. Wolsey soon secured the notice of Henry VII., who made him dean of London. His advancement, under Henry VIII., was rapid and brilliant. He became almoner to the king, and in quick succession was promoted to the bishopric of Lincoln, the arch- bishopric of York, and the office of Lord Chancellor, which dignities were crowned in 15 1 5, by the reception of a cardinal's hat from Pope Leo X. and the appointment to be Legatus a latere for England. He was devoted to the interest of the king, more so, perhaps, than to those of the Church, and was bent upon exalting the royal au- thority. But Wolsey fell into disgrace; Henry VIII. accused him of having be- trayed him in his cause of divorce with Catharine of Aragon, and of having squan- dered the finances of the kingdom. Pros- ecuted in 1529, under the " Statute of

    Praemunire," Wolsey was deprived of the Great Seal, and all his personal property, which was declared forfeited to the Crown. Parliament declared Wolsey not guilty. Hereupon, the cardinal withdrew into his archbishopric and delivered himself en- tirely to the administration of his Church. One year after, Wolsey was again arrested, because he refused to recognize Henry as head of the Church. On his way to Lon- don, the fallen minister died at Leicester, uttering, a little before his death, these re- markable words: "Had I but served my God as faithfully as I have served my king, He would not have thus abandoned me in my grey hairs. But this is my just reward for my pains and study, not regarding my service to God, but only my duty to my prince."

    Wood (James Frederick). — An American Catholic prelate ; born in Phila- delphia, Pennsylvania, April 27th, 1813; in 1836 was a bank cashier in Cincinnati, Ohio, and that year was admitted to the Roman Catholic Church, and went to Rome to prepare himself for the priest- hood. He was ordained in 1844; assistant rector of the Cincinnati cathedral from 1844 to 1854; appointed bishop of Gra- tianopolis in 1857, and sent to Philadelphia as coadjutor to Bishop Newman ; and in i860 became bishop of Philadelphia. He was made an archbishop in 1875. To him are due many of the Church institutions in Philadelphia, and to his energy the strength of the Church in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia, June 20th, 1883.

    Works ( Necessity of Good) . See Merit.

    Works of Supererogation. See Super- erogation.

    Works (Satisfactory) . — Works by which we satisfy God for our sins, like prayer, alms, and fasting, especially desig- nated in Scripture, and recommended by the holy Fathers. We understand here by prayer, all the exercises of piety and of religion, like Mass, the divine office, medi- tation, pilgrimages, etc. Fasting em- braces all kinds of corporal and spiritual punishments, such as abstinence, poverty, labor, mortifications, etc. Alms comprise all the good deeds rendered to our neigh- bor in his corporal or spiritual needs. But, we have to remark, in order that these works may be meritorious and satis- factory to God, it is not necessary that they are performed in the state of grace, because




    they formerly imposed them, and still im- pose them quite often upon the penitents, long before reconciling them with God by absolution, which they would not have done, and which they would not do, if they judged them entirely useless and without value. They must be done, if not in the state of habitual grace, at least without afJection to mortal sin ; or, which is the same thing, in a state of commenced justice and with an actual love of God, produced by an impulse of the Holy Ghost, who, not yet dwelling in the soul, but exciting it, makes it seek the friendship of God above everything, even before it is reconciled with Him.

    Works {Servile). — On Sundays and holy days, servile works are forbidden. By servile works are understood such as are performed chiefly by physical strength, and have for their object bodily comfort, such as are performed by servants, trades- men and laborers in general. From serv- ile works are to be distinguished the so- called liberal pursuits, which occupy the mind more than the body and have for their chief object the benefit of the mind (writing, teaching, etc.). These latter as also physical exercises (walking, riding, etc.), are not prohibited. A servile work does not cease to be such by the fact, that it is performed for the sake of recrea- tion ; but the exercise of a liberal pursuit, though it may be undertaken for pay, does not therefore become servile and forbid- den. The obligation to abstain from serv- ile works extends only to those who are baptized and have attained the years of discretion ; for the baptized, only, are sub- ject to the authority of the Church ; and those, only, who have the use of reason are capable of obligation. The obligation may cease in certain cases by dispensation, necessity, or charity. Certain secular transactions and occupations are also for- bidden on Sundays and holy days, because they obstruct the religious celebration of Sundays and holy days. Such are, for in- stance, legal and judicial proceedings, public negotiations, political deliberations, etc. Sinful and dangerous amusements, though not formally opposed to the com- mandment to keep holy Sundays and holy days, are contrary to its purpose, which is the honor of God and our own sanctifica- tion. Recreation and lawful amusements, however, are not of themselves opposed to the object of the Sunday observance, pro-

    vided they are not carried on at the time of divine service and divert the Faithful from their religious duties.

    Worms ( Concordat of) . — Agreement (1 122) between Pope Calixtus II. and Henry v., emperor of Germany, which put an end, after a period of more than fifty years, to the contest of ecclesiastical investitures. By this compact the emperor resigned for- ever all pretense to invest bishops by ring and crosier, and recognized the liberty of ecclesiastical election. In return, the Pope conceded that elections should be made in the presence of imperial officers, without violence or simony, and that the new bishop should receive investiture of their fiefs from the emperor by the sceptre.

    Worship. — The word worship is used in various senses. Often it refers to honor rendered by one man to another on purely civil or personal grounds, having no con- nection with religion ; often it means the honor due from a creature to his Creator. Both these are legitimate uses ; but we contend that there is a third true sense, where worship is rendered to creature, out of a motive of religion. That this may be understood, we must make an analysis of the idea of worship.

    All worship is based on a conviction of the worthiness of the object of the wor- ship : that from some point of view he is worthy that we should judge him superior to ourselves. Again, there must be the will to assume the position in regard to him which our intellect has shown us to be suitable. Thirdly, there must be some external act signifying the presence of this interior conviction and will. The worship oflFered will vary in kind according to the ground of the conviction from which it starts. When the ground is some superior- ity in personal qualities or in some office held in the society to which we belong, the word respect is more usual than worship, but the meaning is the same; wefiavehere civil worship. If the ground is the sense of the infinite superiority of the Creator over the creature, this worship is of the highest possible nature, and receives the special name of Latria, a Greek word equivalent to the Latin Culfus, or worship, but re- stricted by usage to the worship due to God alone. But the conviction may depend upon our sense that some person is far su- perior to us in holiness and union with God, and we are willing to honor God by outward signs of our regard for this person ;

    Worship and


    Its Development

    this worship is a religious act, and yet is totally different from Latria; it is called Dulia, which also is a Greek word mean- ing service, but appropriated to mean the worship given to the saints. In the case of the Blessed Virgin, her dignity and closeness to God are so transcendently higher and closer than what any other creature will ever enjoy, that the worship rendered to her is of a higher kind than that rendered to the saints, and is distin- guished as Hyperdulia, for it is something beyond Dulia, though still infinitely short of Latria.

    Worship (^Ancestor). — Ancestor wor- ship is a form of worship of the dead, still existing in uncivilized countries and is- lands of Africa and Oceanica. Among the Amazulus, for instance, a hierarchy has established itself in the category of their ancestors ; they distinguish between those they have seen live and die, as their immediate ancestors, and those, whose memory is still preserved in the family, tribe, or nation ; one of these ancestors, Unkulukulu, has become the national god of the race. The same worship of ances- tors has existed among the aborigines of South America. The Peruvians distin- guished the immediate ancestors, gods of the family home, and the remote ances- tors, gods of the village and nation. Then, above all local protectors stood the Inas, the first civilizers and supreme an- cestors. Among the Chinese, the an- cestors have not ceased to have their temples and offerings.

    The worship of the dead existed also among the Chaldeans, Assyrians, ancient Arabs, Egyptians, and diverse branches of the Aryan race. The deified ancestors were to their adorers, perfectly material, who nourished themselves and made use of the meats, animals, arms, captives of- fered or immolated on their tombs, who dwelled for a more or less time in their sepulchres, and continually came to claim the honors and nourishment that were due to them. The belief in their returning is perhaps a remainder of these antique be- liefs. M. Fustel of Coulanges, in his beautiful book The Antique City, draws from this primitive worship of the an- cestors, every organization of the antique family and city of the Greeks and Ro- mans. From this work we get a summary of the author's opinion; from this com- mon belief in the Aryan race, that the

    soul after death, remained near the men and continued to live under the earth, de- rived the necessity of the burial ; the soul which had no tomb, had no dwelling. Un- fortunately she became malicious. The dead passed as sacred beings (demons or heroes at the Greeks, lares, manes, genii at the Latins), whose tombs were the temples. The house of a Greek or of a Roman contained an altar, whose fire was kept up day and night. The fire of the hearthwastheprovidenceofthefamily; fam- ily extinguished and hearth extinguished were synonymous expressions. It is prob- able that the dead were anciently buried in the house and that the worship of the hearth was at the beginning only the symbol of the worship of the dead. These beliefs formed the domestic religions, anterior to the na- tional religions, when each god could be adored only by a family, for the offering to the dead should be made only by his descendants. This religion of the hearth and of the ancestors has constituted the antique family which is before all a re- ligious association. — We have to remark that this worship of the ancestors is far from resting on the same ideas as the ven- eration of the saints in theCatholic Church, and also that the prayers which we address to God for the repose of the souls of the dead, are based upon different grounds.

    Worship and Its Development. — By

    worship we understand the honor we ren- der to God by both internal and external acts of worship. Worship or Cultus and liturgy of the Church furnish an instance of doctrinal development, not indeed di- rectly, but only indirectly, because of their connection with the doctrines they sym- bolize. Nevertheless, as is easily under- stood, development in this sphere is natu- rally greater and more notable than in the domain of faith and doctrine, because be- sides being the worship of God, liturgy is intended to raise man up to God, by bring- ing into play the elements of sense and reason, and thus stirring up the spiritual influences lying dormant within him. Christian liturgy has its foundations laid deep down in Scripture and tradition. Our Lord Himself taught the disciples how to pray; He Himself instituted the sacrifice of the new and eternal Testament, and commanded His Apostles to do it in memory of Him; He Himself instituted the sacraments, some of which Baptism and Confirmation, for examplej used to be

    Worship and


    Its Development

    administered with the holy Eucharist. Again, Christ's words : " Give not that which is hoi J to dogs ; neither cast ye your pearls before swine" (Matt. vii. 6), be- sides prompting the disciples to withdraw sacred things from the profane, also taught them to treat these sacred things with the greatest reverence.

    The Faithful in Jerusalem, we learn from the Acts, assembled together to break bread. This breaking of bread became to them a solemn divine service, in other words, a liturgical action. St. Paul's di- rections about the celebration of the Lord's Supper point to a regular divine ser\\nce. Furthermore, from his Epistles it would seem that hymns and edifying discourses added to the solemnity. . . . " Be ye filled," he says, "with the holy spirit. Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns, and spiritual canticles, singing and making melody in your hearts to the Lord : Giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God and the Father" (Eph. v. 18-20; Col. iii. 16). Do not the following words also sound like part of a liturgical hymn ? "And evidently great is the mystery of godli- ness which was manifested in the flesh, was justified in the spirit, appeared unto angels, hath been preached unto the gentiles, is be- lieved in the world, is taken up in glory" (I. Tim. iii. 16).

    From these indications we may fairly in- fer that, even in Apostolic times, the lit- urgy had been considerably developed not only in the communities of Jewish Chris- tians, who retained their own usages and forms of prayer, but also among gentile Christians. In the post-apostolic churches these ordinances of the Apostles continued in force, and received still further devel- opment, as we learn from several historical documents and from the old liturgies, which emanated in substance from the Apostles whose names they bear. Pliny the Younger, in his letter to Trajan, dis- tinctly asserts that the Christians met on a certain day before sunrise and sang hymns to Christ their God. Eusebius also states that, in his time, the Faithful were still wont to sing canticles, handed down from the early Christians, in which they honored Christ as God (H. E. v. 28, 32, 5).

    From the writings of Justin, and the re- cently discovered Didache, we gather that divine worship centered in the reading of Scripture and celebration of the holy Eucharist. The liturgical prayer of thanks

    {eucharistia) contained the Apostolic rule of faith, and hence was called the Canon. Speaking of the liturgy of his time, Ter- tullian invokes tradition on its behalf, say- ing that what originated in tradition, was obser^•ed in faith, and was ratified by con- stant use. The Fathers by affirming that usages in the Church, not historically traceable to positive institution, have come down from the Apostles, recognize tradi- tion as their leading principle. Not that they were unaware that cultus and liturgy had undergone development since Apos- tolic times. But they knew that they were a natural growth from the seeds sown by the Apostles. From the fundamental Christian mysteries, as it were from a root, have sprung up the many branches and fragrant flowers of the liturgy, as these mj-steries bear chiefly on our Lord's life, they naturally issued in a corona of feasts, which as the year runs its course, call to mind Christ and the redemption that He accomplished. In this way arose feasts in honor of our Lord and the martyrs, to which were added others in honor of the Apostles and of the Blessed Virgin, which gave new life and solemnity to the liturgy. And here we may be allowed to point out how the Catholic Church differs from other communions in this matter. The first great liturgical dispute, that, namely, concerning the celebration of Easter, seems to show that the Eastern Church began to regard tradition as a dead principle. No- where had the liturgy developed so rapidly and so richly as in the Greek Church. But the vigorous life that at first pulsated in her liturgical veins soon ceased to flow, and then she became listless and shrivelled up into a skeleton of antique forms. What avails her boast of having preserved the most ancient traditions, if life and energy have gone out of them ? The conservative principle, as understood or rather nxisun- derstood by her, has dammed the stream of progress in theology, worship, and dis- cipline. What a different sight meets our eyes in the Catholic Church. How beauti- fully the old blends with the new in her worship ! Like an evergreen planted by the side of the running waters, the living Church is ever sending forth new offshoots. But, however varied its manifestations, however new at first blush they often seem, they have all grown out of the tree planted by the Apostles, and have derived their nourishment from the life-force that has animated Catholic worship for centuries.




    Of a truth, in comparing modern worship with the worship of the first two centuries, or in tracing modern liturgy to its rise and early growth, we cannot fail to notice a manifold diversity side by side with re- semblance in the main outline. But in this, even more than in doctrinal development, we must beware of cutting down to the roots the great tree that, in the course of centuries, has overspread the whole earth. If the Holy Spirit abides in the Church, her whole life must expand under His guidance.

    Writers {Ecclesiastical). — In a general sense, the name of " Ecclesiastical Writer," as distinguished from inspired writer, may be given to all those who, ever since the days of the Apostles, have written in ex- planation or defense of the Christian doc- trine. But in the narrower or specific sense, ecclesiastical writers differ from those who are called Fathers or Doctors of the Church. The difference derives from the character of their lives and writings. Ecclesiastical writers are called those men who, though living in the communion of the Church, have yet not always in their lives and writings expressed her pure and genuine traditional doctrine, as, for in- stance, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Lactantius, Eusebius, Rufinus, Cassian, Thodoret of Cyrus, and others. If St. Irenaeus, in spite of his chiliastic opinions, and St. Gregory of Nyssa, in spite of his Origenistic ideas, are counted among the Fathers, it is because they did not propound their opinions apodictically as the teaching of the Church. Those Christians who have left behind writings on matters of faith, but did not live in the communion of the Church, as, for instance, Novatian, are called Christian -writers.

    Wulfram (St.) (647-720). — French Pre- late, born at Milly, France, died in the mon- astery at Fontenelle, whither he had retired. Counselor of Clotaire III. and of Thierry III. Archbishop of Sens (693), resigned his see (695), in order to become one of the apostles of the Frieslanders. F. March 20th.

    Wycliffe (John) (1324-1387). — Heresi- arch, born at Hipswell (Yorkshire). Rector of the College of Baliol at Oxford (1361), then of the College of Canterbury (1365); but deposed by the archbishop of Canterbury (1367), he commenced to at- tack the mendicant monks and the funda- mental institutions of the Church. He gained to his party the princess of Wales,

    mother of the young prince Richard, and grandson of the king. To give his doc- trine more authority, he wished to preach by example ; he went barefooted and poorly dressed, accompanied by young priests, his disciples, who showed an in- credible zeal and ardor to propagate his doctrine. They spread themselves all over the provinces, preaching everywhere against the riches of the clergy, the lux- ury and abuses which, according to Wy- cliffe, had introduced themselves into the Church since the time of Pope Sylvester. Pope Gregory XI. wrote to the king and to the bishops, in order to put an end to the revolt. The number of his adherents was so great at the University of Oxford, that they had difficulty to receive the Brief of the Pope. Finally the University accepted the Bulls, but decided to annul their effect by delays. The archbishop of London and the bishop of Canterbury pressed the chancellor and cited Wycliffe before their tribunal (1378). He pre- sented himself with boldness, feeling him- self supported by the people and powerful protectors. The bishops did not dare to condemn him and contented themselves by imposing silence upon him. But he, nevertheless, continued to dogmatize. Meanwhile^he wrote to Pope Urban VI., lately elected, in order to belabor him in his favor. Inlthe meantime, the schism having formed itself in the Church, by the nom- ination of Clement VII., they suspended the pursuits against Wycliffe. The heresi- arch profited by all these circumstances to propagate his heresy. Besides the eight hundred errors which some authors pretend of having drawn from his writ- ings, besides what he had written against the primacy of the Pope and authority of the Church, he abolished the religious orders, the monastic vows, the venera- tion of the saints, the ecclesiastical hier- archy, the ceremonies of the Church, and confession ; he attacked the liberty of man, tradition, the decisions of the councils, the authority of the Fathers of the Church, and the authority of the temporal princes. He established equality and independence among men. His disciples spread his doctrines among the people during the years 1379-1380 and incited the peasants, who, according to the laws of England, were then subject to a kind of slavery. An army of more than 100,000 men ravaged several provinces, advanced to London and murdered the archbishop of Canterbury.

    The king was forced to grant them the liberty they asked for. This troop of revolters was dispersed by the death of their chief, Wat Tyler, whom the mayor of London killed with his sword. The archbishop of Canterbury, in the quality of papal legate, convoked at London (1382) a national council, wherein they condemned twenty-two propositions drawn from the books of Wycliffe.

    King Richard caused the publication of a declaration to support the decisions of the council and to command the University of Oxford to expel therefrom Wycliffe, and all his followers. During this time, Wycliffe pretending that he did not favor the revolt, had retired into his parish of Luterword.

    After the death of Wycliffe, two councils held in London (1390 and 1408), condemned his doctrine. The Council of Constance (May 4th, 1415), confirmed and renewed all the anterior ondemnations.

    FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.