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LETTER "Z"

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The "Cambridge Comprehensive Bible Dictionary™"

Edited, Supplemented, Amplified

By NewtonStein;

Cambridge Theological Seminary™

(See Also The Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™)

FOR WORKS CITED/USED IN COMPILING, SEE FOOTNOTES:

"Z"
Zabulon;

    — City of the tribe of Aser, near Ptolemaid; was given, during the division of the Promised Land, to the tribe of Zabulon ; it was one of the most populated cities of Palestine.

Zabulon
    — Sixth son of Jacob and of Lia. Gave his name to one of the twelve tribes of the Old Testament. The tribe of Zabulon extended from Lake Tiberias on the east, to the Mediterranean on the west, limited on the north by the tribes of Aser and Nephtali, and on the south by that of Issachar. It formed the southern part of Galilee. Principal cities : Bethu- lia, Sephoris, Jezrael, Nazareth, Cana, and Tiberiades.

Zacharias.
    — King of Israel, succeeded his father Jeroboam II. (767 b. c.) and reigned only six months. Having done evil in the eyes of the Lord, he was killed by Selum, son of Jabes, who reigned in his place.

Zacharias.
    — Son of Joiada, high-priest of the Jews ; was stoned by the order of Joas. He is also called Azarias.

Zacharias.
    — The eleventh of the minor prophets, son of Barachias and grandson of Addo; lived in the sixth century b. c. He returned from Babylon together with Zorobabel and commenced to prophesy the second year of the reign of Darius, son of Hystaspes (520B. c). Thus like Aggeus, he encouraged the people to resume the work of the temple.

    His prophecy, which is composed of fourteen chapters, com- mences with an exhortation in which he tells the Jews to do penance, and not to imitate the hard-heartedness of their fa- thers. Then he foretells several great events, either in regard to Jerusalem, or of the four principal monarchies.

    Finally he speaks of the coming of the Messiah, the establishment and grandeur of the Christian Church, the persecutions she will have to suffer, the chastisement she will exercise against her enemies and particularly the misfortunes that will befall the Jews for having killed the Messiah. It was this Zacharias, and not the next, whom Jesus Christ reproached the Jews of having killed, between the temple and the altar.

Zacharias.
    — Priest of the family of Abia, father of St. John the Baptist. He was already advanced in years, and with- out child, when the angel Gabriel came to him to announce the birth of a son ; and as he showed some incredulity, the angel struck him with dumbness until the fulfill- ment of the prophecy. Some Fathers believed that Zacharias was high-priest, but this does not appear in the Gospel. The Proto- gospel of St. James relates sev- eral circumstances of his death ; and upon these foundations, undoubtedly, they be- lieved that he had been put to death for having announced the coming of the Mes- siah. The Greeks celebrate his feast on September 5th, the Latins on November 5th, with that of St. Elisabeth, his wife.

Zacharias (St.).
    — Pope from 741 to 752. Born in Syria, canon regular, Benedic- tine, successor of Gregory III., became the umpire of princes and sovereigns, suc- ceeded in conciliating the Lombards, and saved the Roman Duchy from their further invasions. By a visit to King Luitprand, he obtained peace for the Exarch of Ra- venna and the restoration of the captured town to the emperor. Upon Rachis, suc- cessor of Luitprand, the dignified appear- ance of the Pope made such an impression, that the king relinquished, not only his conquests, but also the world, and became a monk in the monastery of Monte Cas- sino. Pope Zacharias, appointed Boniface archbishop of Mentz and Primate of Ger- many. By order of the same Pope, the saint, in 752, crowned Pepin the Short, king of the Franks.

    Zacheus. — Chief of the publicans he had the great honor to receive our Saviour into his house. According to an ancient tradition, confirmed by the authority of Pope Martin V. (Bull of 1427) and the recent hagiographal discoveries, the Zacheus of the Gospel came into Gaul, re- tired into a solitude of Quercy (Lot), and the people gave to him the name Amator, changed later on into that of Amadour ; he is therefore regarded as the founder of Roc-Amadour.

    Zambri. — King of Israel ; usurped the throne after having assassinated Ela, in 918 B. c. He exterminated the whole family of his victim and all his followers ; thus was realized what the Lord said to Baasa,

    Zeno

    720

    Zoroaster

    father of Ela, through the Prophet Jehu. These massacres did not firmly establish his power, for he only reigned seven days. Besieged in Thersa, the place of his crime, by the army returning from the siege of Gebethon and commanded by his general Amri proclaimed king, Zambri burned himself in his palace with all his riches.

    Zeno (St.). — Bishop of Verona, his na- tive place, in 362. He is honored as a con- fessor of the faith, and, by St. Gregory the Great, is styled a martyr, on account of the persecutions he drew upon himself though the zeal he displayed in opposing Arianism and in the conversion of heathen. He died in 380. There are extant ninety -three of his Treatises, a title given in that age to familiar discourses made to the people. He is the first among the Latin Fathers, whose sermons were collected and pub- lished. F. April I2th.

    Zephyrinus (St.). — Pope, born in Rome, died in 217. Successor of Victor I. in 197. Governed the Church with as much prudence as holiness and had for successor Calixtus I. Having lived under pagan emperors he is counted among the martyrs. F. Aug. 26th.

    Zinzendorf. See Herknhutbrs.

    Ziska. See Hussites.

    Zoroaster or Zarathustra. — Prophet and legislator of the ancient Persians, lived in the seventh century b. c. He studied under the prophet Daniel and, af- ter having lived twenty years in retreat, he went forth to prophesy and give his laws under the reign of Darius. He knew certain plants whose sap had the pecul- iarity to harden the skin against the action of fire. Hence, he went to see the king and presented to him the Zend-Avesta, a book which he had composed in his retreat and in which his whole doctrine was con- tained. The king, in order to believe, asked him for miracles. Zoroaster kindled a great fire around himself and went forth from its flames, his book in hand, without the least harm. Hereupon, Darius adopted the new doctrine. But the Sages, whose influence Zoroaster came to de- stroy, united to destroy him and to accuse him of magic. They succeeded to change the king's mind in such a manner, that the latter caused Zoroaster to be im- prisoned. But Zoroaster performed other prodigies. The king convinced, embraced

    the doctrine of the Zend-Avesta and caused it to be adopted by his people. The doctrine of Zoroaster, contained in the Zend-Avesta, admits first one principle, which is eternal, invisible, spiritual, from which arose, before time, the two pri- mordial beings : Ahura-Mazda (Ormuzd), the good principle of light, and Anra- Mainyn (Ahriman), the evil principle of darkness. Ormuzd created at first the Amschaspands, that is, the immortal saints, his co-operators, in the number of six; then the Izeds, that is, the adored, who are at the head of the natural things, the sun, the fire, etc. ; the others, who are personifications of metaphysical ideas, like truth, purity, law, etc. The most important of the Izeds is Mithra, god of the sun, and as the setting sun divides the world be- tween the light and darkness, and conse- quently between Ormuzd and Ahriman, he is called mediator. Finally, Ormuzd cre- ated the fervors, the tutelary genii of men. Ahriman created the devas or evil spirits, to whom especially belongs the kingdom of the dead, and upon whom depends all kinds of magic and sorcery. Ormuzd reigned alone 3,000 years ; during this time he created the material world ; he con- cealed the seed of life in an ox; but the time had arrived ; Ahriman introduced himself into the world and killed the ox. The Izeds saved a great part of the seed of life, which they spread in the world, but Ahriman infected the whole with his poison. And from that time, the good and evil, light and darkness, became mingled and are in perpetual warfare. When maij has faithfully served Ormuzd, he enters after his death, into eternal happiness, while the servants of Ahriman are cast into hell. The war between the two prin- ciples is fixed for 12,000 years. The su- preme victory is reserved to Ormuzd. The wicked, if once purified, will be delivered from their sufferings. The fire will purify all ; Ahriman himself and his devas will enter the kingdom of light. From these two principles quite a moral code proceeds ; man must combat the evil and keep himself pure in thought, word, and action. The doctrine of the Parsees has never been dualistic, at least in the sense of the two equal deities opposed to one another. Ormuzd alone is adored as the supreme god. The moral doctrine of Zoroaster is conformable to his metaphysics: the moral good is truth, whose expression is the sincerity of the words and the purity

    ZOSIMUS

    721

    ZWINGLE

    of the actions. Hence the respect of the Parsees for truth, sincerity, and purity, pictures of the visible light, and of the in- visible light, which they adore under the symbol of fire and which will disperse, at the end of time, the darkness and the lie, as the day disperses the night. We find, in the religion of Zoroaster, among the errors, certain truths borrowed from primi- tive revelation.

    Zosimus (St.). — Pope, Greek by birth, died in Rome in 418. Successor of Inno- cent I. in 417. Pelagius and CcElestius, condemned by Synod of Carthage, had succeeded by imposing upon him ; but soon he recognized their errors and an- nounced them to the Christian world. That Pope Zosimus taught a doctrine dif- ferent from that of his predecessors in the Pelagian controversy, as is asserted by the opponents of papal infallibility, is utterly false and distinctly denied by St. Augus- tine. His controversy with the African bishops regarded not the doctrine, but solely the personal orthodoxy of Coelestius.

    Z^ckau {Prophets of). — "Visionary prophets " at Zwickau, Saxony, so called from the visions which they claimed to receive from heaven, after the manner of the ancient prophets. Thomas Miinzer, a priest, and Nicholas Storch, a weaver, were their leaders. Gathering around them twelve apostles and seventy disci- ples, Miinzer and Storch organized a new society, which developed into the sect of Anabaptists, or rebaptizers. They re- jected infant baptism, as contrary to Scrip- ture; believed in the millennium, and c&mmenced the establishment of a new Kingdom of Christ on earth. Expelled from Zwickau, they proceeded to Witten- berg, where Carlstadt, Didymus, and others joined them. Boasting of interior teaching by the Divinity, the new prophets rejected all human science. Didymus ad- vised parents to withdraw their sons from studies, and Carlstadt required the candi- dates of theology to apply themselves to manual labor, rather than to studies in order not to impede the inward inspira- tions of the Holy Ghost. He was seen visiting workshops, with the Bible in his hands, to be instructed by simple artisans in the true sense of Holy Writ. Many of the clergy at Wittenberg being opposed to the new doctrines, Carlstadt and Didy- mus, raising a mob, attacked churches and monasteries and destroyed altars and im- 46

    ages of Christ and the saints. Similar scenes were enacted elsewhere. The troublesome prophets, including Carlstadt, were compelled to leave the city. Carl- stadt, especially, aroused the wrath of Lu- ther, by attacking his teaching on the real presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar. From that time the two "Re- formers" remained unrelenting enemies, and Luther did not cease to pursue his former teacher, till he was banished from the country. Carlstadt, after leading for several years, an unsteady nomadic life, betook himself to Switzerland, where he was received and assisted by Zwingle. He was appointed preacher and professor of theology in Basle, where he died in 1541.

    Zwingle and Zwinglians. — U 1 r i c h Zwingle (1484-1531), was born at Wilde- hausen, Switzerland. Named, in 1502, regent at Basle, then curate of Glarus (1506), he delivered himself to the study of languages. In 1516, he was appointed pastor of Notre Dame at Einsiedeln ; and lastly, he became preacher in the cathe- dral at Ziirich. Twice he went to Rome, in 151 1 and 1515, accompanying, as chap- lain, the Swiss troops in the Italian wars. In his sermons, he expounded the various books of the Bible, chapter by chapter. Zwingle would not acknowledge himself a disciple of Luther; he boasted that he had preached the true doctrine of Christ, which he had learned from God's word, even before Luther, and that, while the name of the Saxon " Reformer" was still unknown in Switzerland, he had " relied upon the Bible, and the Bible alone." Already in Einsiedeln, Zwingle had given great oflFense both by his immoral conduct and his preaching against the priesthood, invocation of the saints, monastic vows, and other Catholic institutions and prac- tices. Like Luther, he assailed the preach- ing of the indulgences granted by Leo X., which he caused to be interdicted by the bishop of Constance. In 1520, Zwingle obtained a decree from the Council of Zurich, forbidding anything to be preached except what could be proved from Holy Writ. Two years later he pre- sented a petition, signed by himself and several other priests, to the bishop, re- questing that the law of clerical celibacy be abolished. Without waiting for an answer from the bishop, who sent the question to Rome, Zwingle, severing his connection with the Church, openly

    ZWINGLE

    722

    ZWINGLE

    rejected the authority of the Popes and Ecumenical Councils in matters of faith, as tyrannical, and stigmatized the celib- acy of the clergy as an invention of the devil. The paternal remonstrances of Pope Adrian VI. failed to make any impression on the erring priest. In 1523, Zwingle pre- vailed on the Council of Ziirich to appoint a religious conference, in which also, the bishop of Constance was invited to take part. The theses, sixty-five in number, which Zwingle presented for discussion at the conference, were substantially the same as those defended by Luther. The Coun- cil of Zurich, favoring the " reformed doctrines," declared Zwingle victorious, notwithstanding the latter's pointed con- futation by John Faber, vicar general of Constance. Encouraged by the Council, Zwingle now completed his separation from the Catholic Church by marrying Anna Reinhard, a widow, with whom for some years, he had entertained criminal relations. His example was followed by other ill famed priests. Zwingle named rector of the gymnasium, he reorganized the studies of this city. The heresy rap- idly established itself at Ziirich. They successively abolished all the religious practices condemned by Zwingle. Mass was the last suppressed. On Holy Thurs-

    day (1524) they celebrated for the first time the Last Supper according to the doctrine of Zwingle, that is, as a simple act of commemoration of the death of Jesus Christ. Then the heresiarch pro- posed to put the clergy under the common law and place the goods of the Church at the disposition of the State. However, the Diet of I^ucerne showed itself opposed to the pretended reform and a conference held at Basle condemned it. But the Great Council of Berne approved of the doctrine of Zwingle and proclaimed the adoption of the reform (1528). Zwingle expected that it would spread over Swit- zerland, but the Catholic cantons were opposed to it, and war broke out between the Catholics and the reformers ; this war, smothered by a peace (1529), broke out anew. Zwingle lost his life in the battle of Cappel, where his party was beaten (1531). He addressed, at the Diet of Augsburg and to Francis I. his confession, in which he places Hercules and Thereus among the saints. Shortly after his death, his follow- ers joined the Calvinists. Alteration, the weakening of both the religious and Chris- tian sense, the crushing of the unity of the Helvetic Confederation, behold what Zwingle bequeathed to his country. This alone, must render his name odious. FOOTNOTE-1: General info:

      Mixed Theology answers especially to the wants of our time. It consists of articles whose characteristics are philosophical, scientific, artistic, and literary. This class of articles has for object to urge our contemporary adversaries, with the help of demonstrative resources that are offered by philosophy, the sciences, arts, and belles-lettres, to admit the great truths, continually attacked by them.

      They address themselves to all kinds of readers, and, by studying them carefully, may they put into practice the declared proposition of Pope Pius IX., before it was taken up again and embodied into the decrees of the Vatican Council: "The use of reason precedes faith and leads man to it with the help of revelation and grace"; Rationis usus jidem prcecedit, et ad earn kominem ape revelationis et gratice conducit. If some of the articles appear to have been given too much space, then the importance of the subjects makes up for this.

      Historical Theology has for its object, as the name implies, Theologico- Historic Generalities and Varieties. It comprises Popes, Councils, Particular Churches, Religious Orders, Famous Schools, Biographies and Bibliographies, Religious Sects, Ecclesiastical Dignities, etc.

      Finally, Pure Theology consists of Theological and Exegetical Genralities and Varieties ; God and the Creation ; Christ and all that is directly connected with Our Lord ; the Church and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; Grace and the Sacraments ; Ecclesiastical Morals and Precepts, etc.

      These are, in great outlines, the subjects treated in the Ecclesiastical Dictionary. We shall be judged in the future. For to-day, our only ambition is to be appreciated in the simple exposition of the subjects contained in our work; and we trust that the book will find many readers, who are solely animated by the love of truth.

    FOOTNOTE-2: WORKS USED IN COMPILING THE CAMBRIDGE COMBINED DICTIONARY of CHRISTIANITY,